A Semantics for Modular General Logic Programs
Etalle, Sandro
1998-01-01
Modular programs are built as a combination of separate modules, which may be developed and verified separately. Therefore, in order to reason over such programs, compositionality plays a crucial role: the semantics of the whole program must be obtainable as a simple function from the semantics of
A semantics for modular general logic programs
Etalle, S.
1998-01-01
Modular programs are built as a combination of separate modules, which may be developed and verified separately. Therefore, in order to reason over such programs, compositionality plays a crucial role: the semantics of the whole program must be obtainable as a simple function from the semantics of
Logic programming extensions of Horn clause logic
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ron Sigal
1988-11-01
Full Text Available Logic programming is now firmly established as an alternative programming paradigm, distinct and arguably superior to the still dominant imperative style of, for instance, the Algol family of languages. The concept of a logic programming language is not precisely defined, but it is generally understood to be characterized buy: a declarative nature; foundation in some well understood logical system, e.g., first order logic.
Symbolic Evaluation Graphs and Term Rewriting — A General Methodology for Analyzing Logic Programs
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Giesl, J.; Ströder, T.; Schneider-Kamp, P.
2013-01-01
There exist many powerful techniques to analyze termination and complexity of term rewrite systems (TRSs). Our goal is to use these techniques for the analysis of other programming languages as well. For instance, approaches to prove termination of definite logic programs by a transformation...... to TRSs have been studied for decades. However, a challenge is to handle languages with more complex evaluation strategies (such as Prolog, where predicates like the cut influence the control flow). We present a general methodology for the analysis of such programs. Here, the logic program is first...... information on the termination or complexity of the original logic program. More information can be found in the full paper [1]. © 2013 Springer-Verlag....
1981-01-01
Rapport, Groupe Intelligence Pasero, R., Artificielle , Universite d’Aix-Marseille, Roussel, P. Luminy, France, 1973. [Kowalski 1974] Kowalski, R. A...THIS PAGZ(Whan Doee Es tMord) Item 20 (Cont’d) ------ work in the area of artificial intelligence and those used in general program development into a...logic programming with LISP for implementing intelligent data base query systems. Continued developments will allow for enhancements to be made to the
Lopez, Antonio M., Jr.
1989-01-01
Provides background material on logic programing and presents PROLOG as a high-level artificial intelligence programing language that borrows its basic constructs from logic. Suggests the language is one which will help the educator to achieve various goals, particularly the promotion of problem solving ability. (MVL)
Logic Programming for Linguistics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Christiansen, Henning
2010-01-01
This article gives a short introduction on how to get started with logic pro- gramming in Prolog that does not require any previous programming expe- rience. The presentation is aimed at students of linguistics, but it does not go deeper into linguistics than any student who has some ideas of what...
Logic Programming with Requests
De Schreye, Danny; Etalle, Sandro; van Raamsdonk, Femke
1999-01-01
We propose an extension of logic programming where the user can specify, together with the initial query, the information he is interested in by means of a request. This allows one to extract a result from an incomplete computation, such as the prefix of an infinite derivation. The classical
Semantic theory for logic programming
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Brown, F M
1981-01-01
The author axiomatizes a number of meta theoretic concepts which have been used in logic programming, including: meaning, logical truth, nonentailment, assertion and erasure, thus showing that these concepts are logical in nature and need not be defined as they have previously been defined in terms of the operations of any particular interpreter for logic programs. 10 references.
Quantum probabilistic logic programming
Balu, Radhakrishnan
2015-05-01
We describe a quantum mechanics based logic programming language that supports Horn clauses, random variables, and covariance matrices to express and solve problems in probabilistic logic. The Horn clauses of the language wrap random variables, including infinite valued, to express probability distributions and statistical correlations, a powerful feature to capture relationship between distributions that are not independent. The expressive power of the language is based on a mechanism to implement statistical ensembles and to solve the underlying SAT instances using quantum mechanical machinery. We exploit the fact that classical random variables have quantum decompositions to build the Horn clauses. We establish the semantics of the language in a rigorous fashion by considering an existing probabilistic logic language called PRISM with classical probability measures defined on the Herbrand base and extending it to the quantum context. In the classical case H-interpretations form the sample space and probability measures defined on them lead to consistent definition of probabilities for well formed formulae. In the quantum counterpart, we define probability amplitudes on Hinterpretations facilitating the model generations and verifications via quantum mechanical superpositions and entanglements. We cast the well formed formulae of the language as quantum mechanical observables thus providing an elegant interpretation for their probabilities. We discuss several examples to combine statistical ensembles and predicates of first order logic to reason with situations involving uncertainty.
Burgin, G. H.; Fogel, L. J.; Phelps, J. P.
1975-01-01
A technique for computer simulation of air combat is described. Volume 1 decribes the computer program and its development in general terms. Two versions of the program exist. Both incorporate a logic for selecting and executing air combat maneuvers with performance models of specific fighter aircraft. In the batch processing version the flight paths of two aircraft engaged in interactive aerial combat and controlled by the same logic are computed. The realtime version permits human pilots to fly air-to-air combat against the adaptive maneuvering logic (AML) in Langley Differential Maneuvering Simulator (DMS). Volume 2 consists of a detailed description of the computer programs.
General Logic-Systems and Consequence Operators
Herrmann, Robert A.
2005-01-01
In this paper, general logic-systems are investigated. It is shown that there are infinitely many finite consequence operators defined on a fixed language L that cannot be generated from a finite logic-system. It is shown that a set map is a finite consequence operator iff it is defined by a general logic-system.
Some relationships between logic programming and multiple-valued logic
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rine, D.C.
1986-01-01
There have been suggestions in the artificial intelligence literature that investigations into relationships between logic programming and multiple-valued logic may be helpful. This paper presents some of these relationships through equivalent algebraic evaluations
Logic programming and metadata specifications
Lopez, Antonio M., Jr.; Saacks, Marguerite E.
1992-01-01
Artificial intelligence (AI) ideas and techniques are critical to the development of intelligent information systems that will be used to collect, manipulate, and retrieve the vast amounts of space data produced by 'Missions to Planet Earth.' Natural language processing, inference, and expert systems are at the core of this space application of AI. This paper presents logic programming as an AI tool that can support inference (the ability to draw conclusions from a set of complicated and interrelated facts). It reports on the use of logic programming in the study of metadata specifications for a small problem domain of airborne sensors, and the dataset characteristics and pointers that are needed for data access.
Coinductive Logic Programming with Negation
Min, Richard; Gupta, Gopal
We introduce negation into coinductive logic programming (co-LP) via what we term Coinductive SLDNF (co-SLDNF) resolution. We present declarative and operational semantics of co-SLDNF resolution and present their equivalence under the restriction of rationality. Co-LP with co-SLDNF resolution provides a powerful, practical and efficient operational semantics for Fitting's Kripke-Kleene three-valued logic with restriction of rationality. Further, applications of co-SLDNF resolution are also discussed and illustrated where Co-SLDNF resolution allows one to develop elegant implementations of modal logics. Moreover it provides the capability of non-monotonic inference (e.g., predicate Answer Set Programming) that can be used to develop novel and effective first-order modal non-monotonic inference engines.
Phonotactics in inductive logic programming
Nerbonne, J.; Konstantopoulos, S.; Klopotek, M.A.; Wierzchon, S.T.; Trojanowski, K.
2004-01-01
We examine the results of applying inductive logic programming (ILP) to a relatively simple linguistic task, that of recognizing monosyllables in one language. ILP is suited to linguistic problems given linguists' preference for formulating their theories in discrete rules, and because of ILP's
Programming Games for Logical Thinking
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
H. Tsalapatas
2013-03-01
Full Text Available Analytical thinking is a transversal skill that helps learners synthesize knowledge across subject areas; from mathematics, science, and technology to critical reading, critical examination, and evaluation of lessons. While most would not doubt the importance of analytical capacity in academic settings and its growing demand for the skill in professional environments, school curricula do not comprehensively address its development. As a result, the responsibility for structuring related learning activities falls to teachers. This work examines learning paradigms that can be integrated into mathematics and science school education for developing logical thinking through game-based exercises based on programming. The proposed learning design promotes structured algorithmic mindsets, is based on inclusive universal logic present in all cultures, and promotes constructivism educational approaches encouraging learners to drive knowledge building by composing past and emerging experiences.
Enhancing programming logic thinking using analogy mapping
Sukamto, R. A.; Megasari, R.
2018-05-01
Programming logic thinking is the most important competence for computer science students. However, programming is one of the difficult subject in computer science program. This paper reports our work about enhancing students' programming logic thinking using Analogy Mapping for basic programming subject. Analogy Mapping is a computer application which converts source code into analogies images. This research used time series evaluation and the result showed that Analogy Mapping can enhance students' programming logic thinking.
Abstract Interpretation of PIC programs through Logic Programming
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Henriksen, Kim Steen; Gallagher, John Patrick
2006-01-01
, are applied to the logic based model of the machine. A small PIC microcontroller is used as a case study. An emulator for this microcontroller is written in Prolog, and standard programming transformations and analysis techniques are used to specialise this emulator with respect to a given PIC program....... The specialised emulator can now be further analysed to gain insight into the given program for the PIC microcontroller. The method describes a general framework for applying abstractions, illustrated here by linear constraints and convex hull analysis, to logic programs. Using these techniques on the specialised...
A History of Probabilistic Inductive Logic Programming
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fabrizio eRiguzzi
2014-09-01
Full Text Available The field of Probabilistic Logic Programming (PLP has seen significant advances in the last 20 years, with many proposals for languages that combine probability with logic programming. Since the start, the problem of learning probabilistic logic programs has been the focus of much attention. Learning these programs represents a whole subfield of Inductive Logic Programming (ILP. In Probabilistic ILP (PILP two problems are considered: learning the parameters of a program given the structure (the rules and learning both the structure and the parameters. Usually structure learning systems use parameter learning as a subroutine. In this article we present an overview of PILP and discuss the main results.
A Denotational Semantics for Logic Programming
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Frandsen, Gudmund Skovbjerg
A fully abstract denotational semantics for logic programming has not been constructed yet. In this paper we present a denotational semantics that is almost fully abstract. We take the meaning of a logic program to be an element in a Plotkin power domain of substitutions. In this way our result...... shows that standard domain constructions suffice, when giving a semantics for logic programming. Using the well-known fixpoint semantics of logic programming we have to consider two different fixpoints in order to obtain information about both successful and failed computations. In contrast, our...... semantics is uniform in that the (single) meaning of a logic program contains information about both successful, failed and infinite computations. Finally, based on the full abstractness result, we argue that the detail level of substitutions is needed in any denotational semantics for logic programming....
Procedural and Logic Programming: A Comparison.
Watkins, Will; And Others
1988-01-01
Examines the similarities and fundamental differences between procedural programing and logic programing by comparing LogoWriter and PROLOG. Suggests that PROLOG may be a good first programing language for students to learn. (MVL)
Abduction, ASP and Open Logic Programs
Bonatti, Piero A.
2002-01-01
Open logic programs and open entailment have been recently proposed as an abstract framework for the verification of incomplete specifications based upon normal logic programs and the stable model semantics. There are obvious analogies between open predicates and abducible predicates. However, despite superficial similarities, there are features of open programs that have no immediate counterpart in the framework of abduction and viceversa. Similarly, open programs cannot be immediately simul...
Towards automatic verification of ladder logic programs
Zoubek , Bohumir; Roussel , Jean-Marc; Kwiatkowska , Martha
2003-01-01
International audience; Control system programs are usually validated by testing prior to their deployment. Unfortunately, testing is not exhaustive and therefore it is possible that a program which passed all the required tests still contains errors. In this paper we apply techniques of automatic verification to a control program written in ladder logic. A model is constructed mechanically from the ladder logic program and subjected to automatic verification against requirements that include...
Interacting institutional logics in general dental practice.
Harris, Rebecca; Holt, Robin
2013-10-01
We investigate the organisational field of general dental practice and how agents change or maintain the institution of values associated with the everyday work of health care provision. Our dataset comprise archival literature and policy documents, interview data from field level actors, as well as service delivery level interview data and secondary data gathered (2011-12) from 16 English dental practices. Our analysis provides a typology of institutional logics (prevailing systems of value) experienced in the field of dental practice. Confirming current literature, we find two logics dominate how care is assessed: business-like health care and medical professionalism. We advance the literature by finding the business-like health care logic further distinguished by values of commercialism on the one hand and those of accountability and procedural diligence on the other. The logic of professionalism we also find is further distinguished into a commitment to clinical expertise and independence in delivering patient care on the one hand, and concerns for the autonomy and sustainability of a business enterprise on the other. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Realization of logical functions by vector programs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lapkin, L Ya
1983-03-01
Recent computing and control applications often require program realization of finite automata in general and of an important particular class of memoryless automata specified by systems of Boolean functions. Logical control and computing machines which receive sequences of discrete signals on the input and convert them into sequences of discrete output signals using finite memory may be described by a finite automation model. However, in distinction from the circuit interpretation of finite automata, the automaton algorithm represents the structure of the automaton program and not the structure of the machine itself. Therefore, the complexity of the computer realization of an automaton is the complexity of the computer program, and not the complexity of the hardware. Two classes of programs currently used to evalute boolean functions are operator programs and binary programs. However, computing machines, including microcomputers, are equipped with additional possibilities for evaluation of Boolean functions, which are not utilized in programs of these two basic classes. In this article, we consider the design of vector programs for program realization of systems of Boolean functions. 3 references.
The lazy functional side of logic programming
Etalle, Sandro; Lau, K.K.; Mountjoy, Jon
In this paper we show, among other things, that logical structures such as di erence lists have a natural counterpart in lazy functional programs; i.e. that most programs using di erence-lists are functional in nature. This shows immediately that many common non-well-moded programs are functional in
Truth and falsehood an inquiry into generalized logical values
Shramko, Yaroslav
2012-01-01
Here is a thoroughly elaborated logical theory of generalized truth-values, presenting the idea of a trilattice of truth values - a specific algebraic structure with information ordering and two distinct logical orderings, one for truth and another for falsity.
Logic-programming language enriches design processes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kitson, B.; Ow-Wing, K.
1984-03-22
With the emergence of a set of high-level CAD tools for programmable logic devices, designers can translate logic into functional custom devices simply and efficiently. The core of the package is a blockstructured hardware description language called PLPL, for ''programmable-logic programming language.'' The cheif advantage of PLPL lies in its multiple input formats, which permit different design approaches for a variety of design problems. The higher the level of the approach, the closer PLPL will come to directly specifying the desired function. Intermediate steps in the design process can be eliminated, along with the errors that might have been generated during those steps.
Molecular implementation of simple logic programs.
Ran, Tom; Kaplan, Shai; Shapiro, Ehud
2009-10-01
Autonomous programmable computing devices made of biomolecules could interact with a biological environment and be used in future biological and medical applications. Biomolecular implementations of finite automata and logic gates have already been developed. Here, we report an autonomous programmable molecular system based on the manipulation of DNA strands that is capable of performing simple logical deductions. Using molecular representations of facts such as Man(Socrates) and rules such as Mortal(X) logical deductions and delivers the result. This prototype is the first simple programming language with a molecular-scale implementation.
Fast logic modules with programmed functions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zinov, V.G.; Selikov, A.V.
1987-01-01
Modern nuclear-physical experiment procedure requires automated control and adjustment of event selection and recording systems. Nanosecond programmed-control units realizing optional set of combinational logic functions are described. Programmed permanent storage device is the basis of one unit, and on-line storage device, preliminary provided with truth tables, is in the basis of the other units. The resolution time is 40 ns. By means of auxiliary unit the programmed logic devices with sequent storage elements (digital timer and pulse generator; multiple-phase generator; sequential digital controller) are realized. The units are performed in CAMAC standard, the modules size being 1M
Mixed wasted integrated program: Logic diagram
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mayberry, J.; Stelle, S.; O'Brien, M.; Rudin, M.; Ferguson, J.; McFee, J.
1994-01-01
The Mixed Waste Integrated Program Logic Diagram was developed to provide technical alternative for mixed wastes projects for the Office of Technology Development's Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP). Technical solutions in the areas of characterization, treatment, and disposal were matched to a select number of US Department of Energy (DOE) treatability groups represented by waste streams found in the Mixed Waste Inventory Report (MWIR)
Logic integer programming models for signaling networks.
Haus, Utz-Uwe; Niermann, Kathrin; Truemper, Klaus; Weismantel, Robert
2009-05-01
We propose a static and a dynamic approach to model biological signaling networks, and show how each can be used to answer relevant biological questions. For this, we use the two different mathematical tools of Propositional Logic and Integer Programming. The power of discrete mathematics for handling qualitative as well as quantitative data has so far not been exploited in molecular biology, which is mostly driven by experimental research, relying on first-order or statistical models. The arising logic statements and integer programs are analyzed and can be solved with standard software. For a restricted class of problems the logic models reduce to a polynomial-time solvable satisfiability algorithm. Additionally, a more dynamic model enables enumeration of possible time resolutions in poly-logarithmic time. Computational experiments are included.
A Program Transformation for Backwards Analysis of Logic Programs
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gallagher, John Patrick
2003-01-01
The input to backwards analysis is a program together with properties that are required to hold at given program points. The purpose of the analysis is to derive initial goals or pre-conditions that guarantee that, when the program is executed, the given properties hold. The solution for logic...... programs presented here is based on a transformation of the input program, which makes explicit the dependencies of the given program points on the initial goals. The transformation is derived from the resultants semantics of logic programs. The transformed program is then analysed using a standard...
Mixed wasted integrated program: Logic diagram
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mayberry, J.; Stelle, S. [Science Applications International Corp., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); O`Brien, M. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Rudin, M. [Univ. of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Ferguson, J. [Lockheed Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); McFee, J. [I.T. Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States)
1994-11-30
The Mixed Waste Integrated Program Logic Diagram was developed to provide technical alternative for mixed wastes projects for the Office of Technology Development`s Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP). Technical solutions in the areas of characterization, treatment, and disposal were matched to a select number of US Department of Energy (DOE) treatability groups represented by waste streams found in the Mixed Waste Inventory Report (MWIR).
Efficient dynamic optimization of logic programs
Laird, Phil
1992-01-01
A summary is given of the dynamic optimization approach to speed up learning for logic programs. The problem is to restructure a recursive program into an equivalent program whose expected performance is optimal for an unknown but fixed population of problem instances. We define the term 'optimal' relative to the source of input instances and sketch an algorithm that can come within a logarithmic factor of optimal with high probability. Finally, we show that finding high-utility unfolding operations (such as EBG) can be reduced to clause reordering.
Automated termination proofs for logic programs by term rewriting
Schneider-Kamp, P.; Giesl, J.; Serebrenik, A.; Thiemann, R.
2009-01-01
There are two kinds of approaches for termination analysis of logic programs: "transformational" and "direct" ones. Direct approaches prove termination directly on the basis of the logic program. Transformational approaches transform a logic program into a Term Rewrite System (TRS) and then analyze
Amini, Ata; Shrimpton, Paul J; Muggleton, Stephen H; Sternberg, Michael J E
2007-12-01
Despite the increased recent use of protein-ligand and protein-protein docking in the drug discovery process due to the increases in computational power, the difficulty of accurately ranking the binding affinities of a series of ligands or a series of proteins docked to a protein receptor remains largely unsolved. This problem is of major concern in lead optimization procedures and has lead to the development of scoring functions tailored to rank the binding affinities of a series of ligands to a specific system. However, such methods can take a long time to develop and their transferability to other systems remains open to question. Here we demonstrate that given a suitable amount of background information a new approach using support vector inductive logic programming (SVILP) can be used to produce system-specific scoring functions. Inductive logic programming (ILP) learns logic-based rules for a given dataset that can be used to describe properties of each member of the set in a qualitative manner. By combining ILP with support vector machine regression, a quantitative set of rules can be obtained. SVILP has previously been used in a biological context to examine datasets containing a series of singular molecular structures and properties. Here we describe the use of SVILP to produce binding affinity predictions of a series of ligands to a particular protein. We also for the first time examine the applicability of SVILP techniques to datasets consisting of protein-ligand complexes. Our results show that SVILP performs comparably with other state-of-the-art methods on five protein-ligand systems as judged by similar cross-validated squares of their correlation coefficients. A McNemar test comparing SVILP to CoMFA and CoMSIA across the five systems indicates our method to be significantly better on one occasion. The ability to graphically display and understand the SVILP-produced rules is demonstrated and this feature of ILP can be used to derive hypothesis for
Verification of Imperative Programs by Constraint Logic Program Transformation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Emanuele De Angelis
2013-09-01
Full Text Available We present a method for verifying partial correctness properties of imperative programs that manipulate integers and arrays by using techniques based on the transformation of constraint logic programs (CLP. We use CLP as a metalanguage for representing imperative programs, their executions, and their properties. First, we encode the correctness of an imperative program, say prog, as the negation of a predicate 'incorrect' defined by a CLP program T. By construction, 'incorrect' holds in the least model of T if and only if the execution of prog from an initial configuration eventually halts in an error configuration. Then, we apply to program T a sequence of transformations that preserve its least model semantics. These transformations are based on well-known transformation rules, such as unfolding and folding, guided by suitable transformation strategies, such as specialization and generalization. The objective of the transformations is to derive a new CLP program TransfT where the predicate 'incorrect' is defined either by (i the fact 'incorrect.' (and in this case prog is not correct, or by (ii the empty set of clauses (and in this case prog is correct. In the case where we derive a CLP program such that neither (i nor (ii holds, we iterate the transformation. Since the problem is undecidable, this process may not terminate. We show through examples that our method can be applied in a rather systematic way, and is amenable to automation by transferring to the field of program verification many techniques developed in the field of program transformation.
Logic of non-interacting programs and reactive systems
Shelekhov, Vladimir; Tumurov, Erdem
2012-01-01
The notion of a program logic is introduced to denote a set of predicates which are true in different program points. The program logic can be easily constructed for different kinds of statements of an imperative or a functional language with data types except pointers. For a non-interacting program, a total correctness formula based on the program logic is defined. The rules of program correctness proof have been developed for proving the statements of various kinds. For a reactive system, t...
Permission-Based Separation Logic for Multithreaded Java Programs
Haack, Christian; Huisman, Marieke; Hurlin, C.
2011-01-01
This paper motivates and presents a program logic for reasoning about multithreaded Java-like programs with concurrency primitives such as dynamic thread creation, thread joining and reentrant object monitors. The logic is based on concurrent separation logic. It is the first detailed adaptation of
A Comparison of Fuzzy and Annotated Logic Programming
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Krajči, S.; Lencses, R.; Vojtáš, Peter
2004-01-01
Roč. 144, - (2004), s. 173-192 ISSN 0165-0114 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/00/1489 Grant - others:VEGA(SK) 1/7557/20; VEGA(SK) 1/7555/20; VEGA(SK) 1/0385/03 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1030915 Keywords : fuzzy logic programming * generalized annotated programs * declarative and procedural semantics * continuous semantics and computable fixpoint * soundness and completeness Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.734, year: 2004
LOGICAL REASONING ABILITY AND STUDENT PERFORMANCE IN GENERAL CHEMISTRY.
Bird, Lillian
2010-03-01
Logical reasoning skills of students enrolled in General Chemistry at the University of Puerto Rico in Río Piedras were measured using the Group Assessment of Logical Thinking (GALT) test. The results were used to determine the students' cognitive level (concrete, transitional, formal) as well as their level of performance by logical reasoning mode (mass/volume conservation, proportional reasoning, correlational reasoning, experimental variable control, probabilistic reasoning and combinatorial reasoning). This information was used to identify particular deficiencies and gender effects, and to determine which logical reasoning modes were the best predictors of student performance in the general chemistry course. Statistical tests to analyze the relation between (a) operational level and final grade in both semesters of the course; (b) GALT test results and performance in the ACS General Chemistry Examination; and (c) operational level and student approach (algorithmic or conceptual) towards a test question that may be answered correctly using either strategy, were also performed.
Functions and generality of logic reflections on Dedekind's and Frege's logicisms
Benis-Sinaceur, Hourya; Sandu, Gabriel
2015-01-01
This book examines three connected aspects of Frege's logicism: the differences between Dedekind's and Frege's interpretation of the term 'logic' and related terms and reflects on Frege's notion of function, comparing its understanding and the role it played in Frege's and Lagrange's foundational programs. It concludes with an examination of the notion of arbitrary function, taking into account Frege's, Ramsey's and Russell's view on the subject. Composed of three chapters, this book sheds light on important aspects of Dedekind's and Frege's logicisms. The first chapter explains how, although he shares Frege's aim at substituting logical standards of rigor to intuitive imports from spatio-temporal experience into the deductive presentation of arithmetic, Dedekind had a different goal and used or invented different tools. The chapter highlights basic dissimilarities between Dedekind's and Frege's actual ways of doing and thinking. The second chapter reflects on Frege's notion of a function, in comparison with ...
A logic road from special relativity to general relativity
Andréka, Hajnal; Madarász, Judit X.; Németi, István; Székely, Gergely
2010-01-01
We present a streamlined axiom system of special relativity in first-order logic. From this axiom system we "derive" an axiom system of general relativity in two natural steps. We will also see how the axioms of special relativity transform into those of general relativity. This way we hope to make general relativity more accessible for the non-specialist.
Improvements to the adaptive maneuvering logic program
Burgin, George H.
1986-01-01
The Adaptive Maneuvering Logic (AML) computer program simulates close-in, one-on-one air-to-air combat between two fighter aircraft. Three important improvements are described. First, the previously available versions of AML were examined for their suitability as a baseline program. The selected program was then revised to eliminate some programming bugs which were uncovered over the years. A listing of this baseline program is included. Second, the equations governing the motion of the aircraft were completely revised. This resulted in a model with substantially higher fidelity than the original equations of motion provided. It also completely eliminated the over-the-top problem, which occurred in the older versions when the AML-driven aircraft attempted a vertical or near vertical loop. Third, the requirements for a versatile generic, yet realistic, aircraft model were studied and implemented in the program. The report contains detailed tables which make the generic aircraft to be either a modern, high performance aircraft, an older high performance aircraft, or a previous generation jet fighter.
Proving termination of logic programs with delay declarations
E. Marchiori; F. Teusink (Frank)
1996-01-01
textabstractIn this paper we propose a method for proving termination of logic programs with delay declarations. The method is based on the notion of recurrent logic program, which is used to prove programs terminating wrt an arbitrary selection rule. Most importantly, we use the notion of bound
High Speed Simulation Framework for Reliable Logic Programs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, Wan-Bok; Kim, Seog-Ju
2006-01-01
This paper shows a case study of designing a PLC logic simulator that was developed to simulate and verify PLC control programs for nuclear plant systems. The nuclear control system requires strict restrictions rather than normal process control system does, since it works with nuclear power plants requiring high reliability under severe environment. One restriction is the safeness of the control programs which can be assured by exploiting severe testing. Another restriction is the simulation speed of the control programs, that should be fast enough to control multi devices concurrently in real-time. To cope with these restrictions, we devised a logic compiler which generates C-code programs from given PLC logic programs. Once the logic program was translated into C-code, the program could be analyzed by conventional software analysis tools and could be used to construct a fast logic simulator after cross-compiling, in fact, that is a kind of compiled-code simulation
The Haskell Road to Logic, Maths and Programming, Second Edition
H.C. Doets; D.J.N. van Eijck (Jan)
2012-01-01
textabstractThe purpose of this book is to teach logic and mathematical reasoning in practice, and to connect logical reasoning with computer programming. The programming language that will be our tool for this is Haskell, a member of the Lisp family. Haskell emerged in the last decade as a
Functional and Logic Programming - 14th International Symposium (FLOPS 2018)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
This volume contains the proceedings of the 14th International Symposium on Functional and Logic Programming - FLOPS 2018 - held in Nagoya, Japan, May 9 - 11, 2018......This volume contains the proceedings of the 14th International Symposium on Functional and Logic Programming - FLOPS 2018 - held in Nagoya, Japan, May 9 - 11, 2018...
A Logic Programming Testbed for Inductive Thought and Specification.
Neff, Norman D.
This paper describes applications of logic programming technology to the teaching of the inductive method in computer science and mathematics. It discusses the nature of inductive thought and its place in those fields of inquiry, arguing that a complete logic programming system for supporting inductive inference is not only feasible but necessary.…
Core TuLiP - Logic Programming for Trust Management
Czenko, M.R.; Etalle, Sandro; Dahl, V.; Niemelä, I.
2007-01-01
We propose CoreTuLiP - the core of a trust management language based on Logic Programming. CoreTuLiP is based on a subset of moded logic programming, but enjoys the features of TM languages such as RT; in particular clauses are issued by different authorities and stored in a distributed manner. We
A Fuzzy-Logic Generalization of a Data Mining Approach
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Holeňa, Martin
2001-01-01
Roč. 11, č. 6 (2001), s. 595-610 ISSN 1210-0552. [SOFSEM 2001 Workshop on Soft Computing. Piešťany, 29.11.2001-30.11.2001] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA1030004 Institutional research plan: AV0Z1030915 Keywords : data analysis * vague hypotheses * vague significante level * fuzzy prediacate calculus * basic fuzzy logic * generalized quantifiers * method GUHA Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics
Deciding Full Branching Time Logic by Program Transformation
Pettorossi, Alberto; Proietti, Maurizio; Senni, Valerio
We present a method based on logic program transformation, for verifying Computation Tree Logic (CTL*) properties of finite state reactive systems. The finite state systems and the CTL* properties we want to verify, are encoded as logic programs on infinite lists. Our verification method consists of two steps. In the first step we transform the logic program that encodes the given system and the given property, into a monadic ω -program, that is, a stratified program defining nullary or unary predicates on infinite lists. This transformation is performed by applying unfold/fold rules that preserve the perfect model of the initial program. In the second step we verify the property of interest by using a proof method for monadic ω-programs.
Testing Automation of Context-Oriented Programs Using Separation Logic
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mohamed A. El-Zawawy
2014-01-01
Full Text Available A new approach for programming that enables switching among contexts of commands during program execution is context-oriented programming (COP. This technique is more structured and modular than object-oriented and aspect-oriented programming and hence more flexible. For context-oriented programming, as implemented in COP languages such as ContextJ* and ContextL, this paper introduces accurate operational semantics. The language model of this paper uses Java concepts and is equipped with layer techniques for activation/deactivation of layer contexts. This paper also presents a logical system for COP programs. This logic is necessary for the automation of testing, developing, and validating of partial correctness specifications for COP programs and is an extension of separation logic. A mathematical soundness proof for the logical system against the proposed operational semantics is presented in the paper.
Tremblay, Marie-Claude; Brousselle, Astrid; Richard, Lucie; Beaudet, Nicole
2013-10-01
Program designers and evaluators should make a point of testing the validity of a program's intervention theory before investing either in implementation or in any type of evaluation. In this context, logic analysis can be a particularly useful option, since it can be used to test the plausibility of a program's intervention theory using scientific knowledge. Professional development in public health is one field among several that would truly benefit from logic analysis, as it appears to be generally lacking in theorization and evaluation. This article presents the application of this analysis method to an innovative public health professional development program, the Health Promotion Laboratory. More specifically, this paper aims to (1) define the logic analysis approach and differentiate it from similar evaluative methods; (2) illustrate the application of this method by a concrete example (logic analysis of a professional development program); and (3) reflect on the requirements of each phase of logic analysis, as well as on the advantages and disadvantages of such an evaluation method. Using logic analysis to evaluate the Health Promotion Laboratory showed that, generally speaking, the program's intervention theory appeared to have been well designed. By testing and critically discussing logic analysis, this article also contributes to further improving and clarifying the method. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
The Application of Logic Programming to Communication Education.
Sanford, David L.
Recommending that communication students be required to learn to use computers not merely as number crunchers, word processors, data bases, and graphics generators, but also as logical inference makers, this paper examines the recently developed technology of logical programing in computer languages. It presents two syllogisms and shows how they…
Fuzzy Logic Decoupled Lateral Control for General Aviation Airplanes
Duerksen, Noel
1997-01-01
It has been hypothesized that a human pilot uses the same set of generic skills to control a wide variety of aircraft. If this is true, then it should be possible to construct an electronic controller which embodies this generic skill set such that it can successfully control different airplanes without being matched to a specific airplane. In an attempt to create such a system, a fuzzy logic controller was devised to control aileron or roll spoiler position. This controller was used to control bank angle for both a piston powered single engine aileron equipped airplane simulation and a business jet simulation which used spoilers for primary roll control. Overspeed, stall and overbank protection were incorporated in the form of expert systems supervisors and weighted fuzzy rules. It was found that by using the artificial intelligence techniques of fuzzy logic and expert systems, a generic lateral controller could be successfully used on two general aviation aircraft types that have very different characteristics. These controllers worked for both airplanes over their entire flight envelopes. The controllers for both airplanes were identical except for airplane specific limits (maximum allowable airspeed, throttle ]ever travel, etc.). This research validated the fact that the same fuzzy logic based controller can control two very different general aviation airplanes. It also developed the basic controller architecture and specific control parameters required for such a general controller.
Logic Models for Program Design, Implementation, and Evaluation: Workshop Toolkit. REL 2015-057
Shakman, Karen; Rodriguez, Sheila M.
2015-01-01
The Logic Model Workshop Toolkit is designed to help practitioners learn the purpose of logic models, the different elements of a logic model, and the appropriate steps for developing and using a logic model for program evaluation. Topics covered in the sessions include an overview of logic models, the elements of a logic model, an introduction to…
NWTS waste package program plan. Volume II. Program logic networks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1981-10-01
This document describes the work planned for developing the technology to design, test and produce packages used for the long-term isolation of nuclear waste in deep geologic repositories. Waste forms considered include spent fuel and high-level waste. The testing and selection effort for barrier materials for radionuclide containment is described. The NWTS waste package program is a design-driven effort; waste package conceptual designs are used as input for preliminary designs, which are upgraded to a final design as materials and testing data become available. Performance assessment models are developed and validated. Milestones and a detailed schedule are given for the waste package development effort. Program logic networks defining work flow, interfaces among the NWTS Projects, and interrelationships of specific activities are presented. Detailed work elements are provided for the Waste Package Program Plan subtasks - design and development, waste form, barrier materials, and performance evaluation - for salt and basalt, host rocks for which the state of waste package knowledge and the corresponding data base are advanced
Proving deadlock freedom of logic programs with dynamic scheduling
E. Marchiori; F. Teusink (Frank)
1996-01-01
textabstractIn increasingly many logic programming systems, the Prolog left to right selection rule has been replaced with dynamic selection rules, that select an atom of a query among those satisfying suitable conditions. These conditions describe the form of the arguments of every program
Programming Programmable Logic Controller. High-Technology Training Module.
Lipsky, Kevin
This training module on programming programmable logic controllers (PLC) is part of the memory structure and programming unit used in a packaging systems equipment control course. In the course, students assemble, install, maintain, and repair industrial machinery used in industry. The module contains description, objectives, content outline,…
Modular Logic Programming for Web Data, Inheritance and Agents
Karali, Isambo
The Semantic Web provides a framework and a set of technologies enabling an effective machine processable information. However, most of the problems that are addressed in the Semantic Web were tackled by the artificial intelligence community, in the past. Within this period, Logic Programming emerged as a complete framework ranging from a sound formal theory, based on Horn clauses, to a declarative description language and an operational behavior that can be executed. Logic programming and its extensions have been already used in various approaches in the Semantic Web or the traditional Web context. In this work, we investigate the use of Modular Logic Programming, i.e. Logic Programming extended with modules, to address issues of the Semantic Web ranging from the ontology layer to reasoning and agents. These techniques provide a uniform framework ranging from the data layer to the higher layers of logic, avoiding the problem of incompatibilities of technologies related with different Semantic Web layers. What is more is that it can operate directly on top of existent World Wide Web sources.
Post optimization paradigm in maximum 3-satisfiability logic programming
Mansor, Mohd. Asyraf; Sathasivam, Saratha; Kasihmuddin, Mohd Shareduwan Mohd
2017-08-01
Maximum 3-Satisfiability (MAX-3SAT) is a counterpart of the Boolean satisfiability problem that can be treated as a constraint optimization problem. It deals with a conundrum of searching the maximum number of satisfied clauses in a particular 3-SAT formula. This paper presents the implementation of enhanced Hopfield network in hastening the Maximum 3-Satisfiability (MAX-3SAT) logic programming. Four post optimization techniques are investigated, including the Elliot symmetric activation function, Gaussian activation function, Wavelet activation function and Hyperbolic tangent activation function. The performances of these post optimization techniques in accelerating MAX-3SAT logic programming will be discussed in terms of the ratio of maximum satisfied clauses, Hamming distance and the computation time. Dev-C++ was used as the platform for training, testing and validating our proposed techniques. The results depict the Hyperbolic tangent activation function and Elliot symmetric activation function can be used in doing MAX-3SAT logic programming.
tactusLogic: programming using physical objects
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Smith, Andrew C
2011-05-01
Full Text Available We describe a new programming language that is based on physical elements and especially developed to test the hypothesis that a physical computer programming language is possible. This imperative language is deliberately limited to a few operators...
Edge detection methods based on generalized type-2 fuzzy logic
Gonzalez, Claudia I; Castro, Juan R; Castillo, Oscar
2017-01-01
In this book four new methods are proposed. In the first method the generalized type-2 fuzzy logic is combined with the morphological gra-dient technique. The second method combines the general type-2 fuzzy systems (GT2 FSs) and the Sobel operator; in the third approach the me-thodology based on Sobel operator and GT2 FSs is improved to be applied on color images. In the fourth approach, we proposed a novel edge detec-tion method where, a digital image is converted a generalized type-2 fuzzy image. In this book it is also included a comparative study of type-1, inter-val type-2 and generalized type-2 fuzzy systems as tools to enhance edge detection in digital images when used in conjunction with the morphologi-cal gradient and the Sobel operator. The proposed generalized type-2 fuzzy edge detection methods were tested with benchmark images and synthetic images, in a grayscale and color format. Another contribution in this book is that the generalized type-2 fuzzy edge detector method is applied in the preproc...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vaturi, Sylvain
1969-01-01
Computerized edition is essential for data processing exploitation. When a more or less complex edition program is required for each task, then the need for a general edition program become obvious. The aim of this study is to create a general edition program. Universal programs are capable to execute numerous and varied tasks. For a more precise processing, the execution of which is frequently required, the use of a specialized program is preferable because, contradictory to the universal program, it goes straight to the point [fr
Analysis of Logic Programs Using Regular Tree Languages
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gallagher, John Patrick
2012-01-01
The eld of nite tree automata provides fundamental notations and tools for reasoning about set of terms called regular or recognizable tree languages. We consider two kinds of analysis using regular tree languages, applied to logic programs. The rst approach is to try to discover automatically...... a tree automaton from a logic program, approximating its minimal Herbrand model. In this case the input for the analysis is a program, and the output is a tree automaton. The second approach is to expose or check properties of the program that can be expressed by a given tree automaton. The input...... to the analysis is a program and a tree automaton, and the output is an abstract model of the program. These two contrasting abstract interpretations can be used in a wide range of analysis and verication problems....
Constraint Logic Programming approach to protein structure prediction
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fogolari Federico
2004-11-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background The protein structure prediction problem is one of the most challenging problems in biological sciences. Many approaches have been proposed using database information and/or simplified protein models. The protein structure prediction problem can be cast in the form of an optimization problem. Notwithstanding its importance, the problem has very seldom been tackled by Constraint Logic Programming, a declarative programming paradigm suitable for solving combinatorial optimization problems. Results Constraint Logic Programming techniques have been applied to the protein structure prediction problem on the face-centered cube lattice model. Molecular dynamics techniques, endowed with the notion of constraint, have been also exploited. Even using a very simplified model, Constraint Logic Programming on the face-centered cube lattice model allowed us to obtain acceptable results for a few small proteins. As a test implementation their (known secondary structure and the presence of disulfide bridges are used as constraints. Simplified structures obtained in this way have been converted to all atom models with plausible structure. Results have been compared with a similar approach using a well-established technique as molecular dynamics. Conclusions The results obtained on small proteins show that Constraint Logic Programming techniques can be employed for studying protein simplified models, which can be converted into realistic all atom models. The advantage of Constraint Logic Programming over other, much more explored, methodologies, resides in the rapid software prototyping, in the easy way of encoding heuristics, and in exploiting all the advances made in this research area, e.g. in constraint propagation and its use for pruning the huge search space.
Constraint Logic Programming approach to protein structure prediction.
Dal Palù, Alessandro; Dovier, Agostino; Fogolari, Federico
2004-11-30
The protein structure prediction problem is one of the most challenging problems in biological sciences. Many approaches have been proposed using database information and/or simplified protein models. The protein structure prediction problem can be cast in the form of an optimization problem. Notwithstanding its importance, the problem has very seldom been tackled by Constraint Logic Programming, a declarative programming paradigm suitable for solving combinatorial optimization problems. Constraint Logic Programming techniques have been applied to the protein structure prediction problem on the face-centered cube lattice model. Molecular dynamics techniques, endowed with the notion of constraint, have been also exploited. Even using a very simplified model, Constraint Logic Programming on the face-centered cube lattice model allowed us to obtain acceptable results for a few small proteins. As a test implementation their (known) secondary structure and the presence of disulfide bridges are used as constraints. Simplified structures obtained in this way have been converted to all atom models with plausible structure. Results have been compared with a similar approach using a well-established technique as molecular dynamics. The results obtained on small proteins show that Constraint Logic Programming techniques can be employed for studying protein simplified models, which can be converted into realistic all atom models. The advantage of Constraint Logic Programming over other, much more explored, methodologies, resides in the rapid software prototyping, in the easy way of encoding heuristics, and in exploiting all the advances made in this research area, e.g. in constraint propagation and its use for pruning the huge search space.
Implementing Probabilistic Abductive Logic Programming with Constraint Handling Rules
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Christiansen, Henning
2008-01-01
A class of Probabilistic Abductive Logic Programs (PALPs) is introduced and an implementation is developed in CHR for solving abductive problems, providing minimal explanations with their probabilities. Both all-explanations and most-probable-explanations versions are given. Compared with other...
Probabilistic Abductive Logic Programming in Constraint Handling Rules
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Christiansen, Henning
A class of Probabilistic Abductive Logic Programs (PALPs) is introduced and an implementation is developed in CHR for solving abductive problems, providing minimal explanations with their probabilities. Both all-explanations and most-probable-explanations versions are given. % Compared with other...
Agent Programming Languages and Logics in Agent-Based Simulation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Larsen, John
2018-01-01
and social behavior, and work on verification. Agent-based simulation is an approach for simulation that also uses the notion of agents. Although agent programming languages and logics are much less used in agent-based simulation, there are successful examples with agents designed according to the BDI...
Contour tracking and corner detection in a logic programming environment
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bell, Benjamin; Pau, L. F.
1990-01-01
The added functionality such as contour tracking and corner detection which logic programming lends to standard image operators is described. An environment for implementing low-level imaging operations with Prolog predicates is considered. Within this environment, higher-level image predicates (...
Application of Logic Models in a Large Scientific Research Program
O'Keefe, Christine M.; Head, Richard J.
2011-01-01
It is the purpose of this article to discuss the development and application of a logic model in the context of a large scientific research program within the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO). CSIRO is Australia's national science agency and is a publicly funded part of Australia's innovation system. It conducts…
How Learning Logic Programming Affects Recursion Comprehension
Haberman, Bruria
2004-01-01
Recursion is a central concept in computer science, yet it is difficult for beginners to comprehend. Israeli high-school students learn recursion in the framework of a special modular program in computer science (Gal-Ezer & Harel, 1999). Some of them are introduced to the concept of recursion in two different paradigms: the procedural…
Equivalence of two Fixed-Point Semantics for Definitional Higher-Order Logic Programs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Angelos Charalambidis
2015-09-01
Full Text Available Two distinct research approaches have been proposed for assigning a purely extensional semantics to higher-order logic programming. The former approach uses classical domain theoretic tools while the latter builds on a fixed-point construction defined on a syntactic instantiation of the source program. The relationships between these two approaches had not been investigated until now. In this paper we demonstrate that for a very broad class of programs, namely the class of definitional programs introduced by W. W. Wadge, the two approaches coincide (with respect to ground atoms that involve symbols of the program. On the other hand, we argue that if existential higher-order variables are allowed to appear in the bodies of program rules, the two approaches are in general different. The results of the paper contribute to a better understanding of the semantics of higher-order logic programming.
The explanatory logic and ontological commitments of generalized Darwinism
Stoelhorst, J.W.
2008-01-01
The recent debate about the value of Darwinism as a source of ontological foundations for evolutionary economics reduces to a disagreement about whether or not the causal logic of Darwinism applies to economic evolution. However, this logic has not yet been fully specified. While the explanantia of
Generalized Majority Logic Criterion to Analyze the Statistical Strength of S-Boxes
Hussain, Iqtadar; Shah, Tariq; Gondal, Muhammad Asif; Mahmood, Hasan
2012-05-01
The majority logic criterion is applicable in the evaluation process of substitution boxes used in the advanced encryption standard (AES). The performance of modified or advanced substitution boxes is predicted by processing the results of statistical analysis by the majority logic criteria. In this paper, we use the majority logic criteria to analyze some popular and prevailing substitution boxes used in encryption processes. In particular, the majority logic criterion is applied to AES, affine power affine (APA), Gray, Lui J, residue prime, S8 AES, Skipjack, and Xyi substitution boxes. The majority logic criterion is further extended into a generalized majority logic criterion which has a broader spectrum of analyzing the effectiveness of substitution boxes in image encryption applications. The integral components of the statistical analyses used for the generalized majority logic criterion are derived from results of entropy analysis, contrast analysis, correlation analysis, homogeneity analysis, energy analysis, and mean of absolute deviation (MAD) analysis.
Mancarella, P.; Terreni, G.; Sadri, F.; Toni, F.; Endriss, U.
2009-01-01
We present the CIFF proof procedure for abductive logic programming with constraints, and we prove its correctness. CIFF is an extension of the IFF proof procedure for abductive logic programming, relaxing the original restrictions over variable quantification (allowedness conditions) and
Constraints and Logic Programming in Grammars and Language Analysis
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Christiansen, Henning
2014-01-01
Constraints are an important notion in grammars and language analysis, and constraint programming techniques have been developed concurrently for solving a variety of complex problems. In this chapter we consider the synthesis of these branches into practical and effective methods for language...... methods that combine constraints with logic grammars such as Definite Clause Grammars and CHR Grammars, and show also a direct relationship to abductive reasoning....
Verification and Planning Based on Coinductive Logic Programming
Bansal, Ajay; Min, Richard; Simon, Luke; Mallya, Ajay; Gupta, Gopal
2008-01-01
Coinduction is a powerful technique for reasoning about unfounded sets, unbounded structures, infinite automata, and interactive computations [6]. Where induction corresponds to least fixed point's semantics, coinduction corresponds to greatest fixed point semantics. Recently coinduction has been incorporated into logic programming and an elegant operational semantics developed for it [11, 12]. This operational semantics is the greatest fix point counterpart of SLD resolution (SLD resolution imparts operational semantics to least fix point based computations) and is termed co- SLD resolution. In co-SLD resolution, a predicate goal p( t) succeeds if it unifies with one of its ancestor calls. In addition, rational infinite terms are allowed as arguments of predicates. Infinite terms are represented as solutions to unification equations and the occurs check is omitted during the unification process. Coinductive Logic Programming (Co-LP) and Co-SLD resolution can be used to elegantly perform model checking and planning. A combined SLD and Co-SLD resolution based LP system forms the common basis for planning, scheduling, verification, model checking, and constraint solving [9, 4]. This is achieved by amalgamating SLD resolution, co-SLD resolution, and constraint logic programming [13] in a single logic programming system. Given that parallelism in logic programs can be implicitly exploited [8], complex, compute-intensive applications (planning, scheduling, model checking, etc.) can be executed in parallel on multi-core machines. Parallel execution can result in speed-ups as well as in larger instances of the problems being solved. In the remainder we elaborate on (i) how planning can be elegantly and efficiently performed under real-time constraints, (ii) how real-time systems can be elegantly and efficiently model- checked, as well as (iii) how hybrid systems can be verified in a combined system with both co-SLD and SLD resolution. Implementations of co-SLD resolution
Synthesizing Dynamic Programming Algorithms from Linear Temporal Logic Formulae
Rosu, Grigore; Havelund, Klaus
2001-01-01
The problem of testing a linear temporal logic (LTL) formula on a finite execution trace of events, generated by an executing program, occurs naturally in runtime analysis of software. We present an algorithm which takes an LTL formula and generates an efficient dynamic programming algorithm. The generated algorithm tests whether the LTL formula is satisfied by a finite trace of events given as input. The generated algorithm runs in linear time, its constant depending on the size of the LTL formula. The memory needed is constant, also depending on the size of the formula.
Permission-based separation logic for multi-threaded Java programs
Amighi, A.; Haack, Christian; Huisman, Marieke; Hurlin, C.
This paper presents a program logic for reasoning about multithreaded Java-like programs with concurrency primitives such as dynamic thread creation, thread joining and reentrant object monitors. The logic is based on concurrent separation logic. It is the first detailed adaptation of concurrent
Knowledge discovery from structured mammography reports using inductive logic programming.
Burnside, Elizabeth S; Davis, Jesse; Costa, Victor Santos; Dutra, Inês de Castro; Kahn, Charles E; Fine, Jason; Page, David
2005-01-01
The development of large mammography databases provides an opportunity for knowledge discovery and data mining techniques to recognize patterns not previously appreciated. Using a database from a breast imaging practice containing patient risk factors, imaging findings, and biopsy results, we tested whether inductive logic programming (ILP) could discover interesting hypotheses that could subsequently be tested and validated. The ILP algorithm discovered two hypotheses from the data that were 1) judged as interesting by a subspecialty trained mammographer and 2) validated by analysis of the data itself.
Constraint Logic Programming for Resolution of Relative Time Expressions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Christiansen, Henning
2014-01-01
Translating time expression into absolute time points or durations is a challenge for natural languages processing such as text mining and text understanding in general. We present a constraint logic language CLP(Time) tailored to text usages concerned with time and calendar. It provides a simple...... and flexible formalism to express relationships between different time expressions in a text, thereby giving a recipe for resolving them into absolute time. A constraint solver is developed which, as opposed to some earlier approaches, is independent of the order in which temporal information is introduced...
Qian, Feng; Li, Guoqiang
2001-12-01
In this paper a generalized look-ahead logic algorithm for number conversion from signed-digit to its complement representation is developed. By properly encoding the signed digits, all the operations are performed by binary logic, and unified logical expressions can be obtained for conversion from modified-signed-digit (MSD) to 2's complement, trinary signed-digit (TSD) to 3's complement, and quaternary signed-digit (QSD) to 4's complement. For optical implementation, a parallel logical array module using electron-trapping device is employed, which is suitable for realizing complex logic functions in the form of sum-of-product. The proposed algorithm and architecture are compatible with a general-purpose optoelectronic computing system.
Ostrowski, M; Paulevé, L; Schaub, T; Siegel, A; Guziolowski, C
2016-11-01
Boolean networks (and more general logic models) are useful frameworks to study signal transduction across multiple pathways. Logic models can be learned from a prior knowledge network structure and multiplex phosphoproteomics data. However, most efficient and scalable training methods focus on the comparison of two time-points and assume that the system has reached an early steady state. In this paper, we generalize such a learning procedure to take into account the time series traces of phosphoproteomics data in order to discriminate Boolean networks according to their transient dynamics. To that end, we identify a necessary condition that must be satisfied by the dynamics of a Boolean network to be consistent with a discretized time series trace. Based on this condition, we use Answer Set Programming to compute an over-approximation of the set of Boolean networks which fit best with experimental data and provide the corresponding encodings. Combined with model-checking approaches, we end up with a global learning algorithm. Our approach is able to learn logic models with a true positive rate higher than 78% in two case studies of mammalian signaling networks; for a larger case study, our method provides optimal answers after 7min of computation. We quantified the gain in our method predictions precision compared to learning approaches based on static data. Finally, as an application, our method proposes erroneous time-points in the time series data with respect to the optimal learned logic models. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Devil is in the details: Using logic models to investigate program process.
Peyton, David J; Scicchitano, Michael
2017-12-01
Theory-based logic models are commonly developed as part of requirements for grant funding. As a tool to communicate complex social programs, theory based logic models are an effective visual communication. However, after initial development, theory based logic models are often abandoned and remain in their initial form despite changes in the program process. This paper examines the potential benefits of committing time and resources to revising the initial theory driven logic model and developing detailed logic models that describe key activities to accurately reflect the program and assist in effective program management. The authors use a funded special education teacher preparation program to exemplify the utility of drill down logic models. The paper concludes with lessons learned from the iterative revision process and suggests how the process can lead to more flexible and calibrated program management. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Logic models as a tool for sexual violence prevention program development.
Hawkins, Stephanie R; Clinton-Sherrod, A Monique; Irvin, Neil; Hart, Laurie; Russell, Sarah Jane
2009-01-01
Sexual violence is a growing public health problem, and there is an urgent need to develop sexual violence prevention programs. Logic models have emerged as a vital tool in program development. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention funded an empowerment evaluation designed to work with programs focused on the prevention of first-time male perpetration of sexual violence, and it included as one of its goals, the development of program logic models. Two case studies are presented that describe how significant positive changes can be made to programs as a result of their developing logic models that accurately describe desired outcomes. The first case study describes how the logic model development process made an organization aware of the importance of a program's environmental context for program success; the second case study demonstrates how developing a program logic model can elucidate gaps in organizational programming and suggest ways to close those gaps.
Purwarupa Sistem Kontrol Elevator Berbasis Programable Logic Control
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fathahillah Fathahillah
2017-12-01
Full Text Available Various methods / types of controls developed in accordance with industry needs one of them in the field of building automation system. One of the controls in the field of building automation system is the elevator control system (elevator. Early elevator control systems that transport humans or goods as vertical transportation vehicles are still conventional using human power, then evolved using steam engines, until now the elevators use AC motors equipped with control systems. The purpose of this research is to design the prototype of elevator control system using programmable logic control (PLC. The type of PLC controller used in the study using Omron PLC. The results show the design of prototype of elevator control system using PLC successfully and can control eleveator in accordance with its function, besides its programming form can be more simple.
Knowledge discovery in variant databases using inductive logic programming.
Nguyen, Hoan; Luu, Tien-Dao; Poch, Olivier; Thompson, Julie D
2013-01-01
Understanding the effects of genetic variation on the phenotype of an individual is a major goal of biomedical research, especially for the development of diagnostics and effective therapeutic solutions. In this work, we describe the use of a recent knowledge discovery from database (KDD) approach using inductive logic programming (ILP) to automatically extract knowledge about human monogenic diseases. We extracted background knowledge from MSV3d, a database of all human missense variants mapped to 3D protein structure. In this study, we identified 8,117 mutations in 805 proteins with known three-dimensional structures that were known to be involved in human monogenic disease. Our results help to improve our understanding of the relationships between structural, functional or evolutionary features and deleterious mutations. Our inferred rules can also be applied to predict the impact of any single amino acid replacement on the function of a protein. The interpretable rules are available at http://decrypthon.igbmc.fr/kd4v/.
Representation of Concrete Logics and Concrete Generalized Orthomodular Posets
Pulmannová, S.; Riečanová, Z.; Vinceková, E.
2014-04-01
In the present paper, we deal with the question when an effect algebra, resp. a generalized effect algebra, can be represented in the projection lattice of a Hilbert space. We show that such representability is closely related to the existence of a rich set of two-valued and Jauch-Piron states, resp. generalized two-valued and Jauch-Piron states. AMS Classification: Primary 81Q10, Secondary 03G12.
A logic programming approach to medical errors in imaging.
Rodrigues, Susana; Brandão, Paulo; Nelas, Luís; Neves, José; Alves, Victor
2011-09-01
In 2000, the Institute of Medicine reported disturbing numbers on the scope it covers and the impact of medical error in the process of health delivery. Nevertheless, a solution to this problem may lie on the adoption of adverse event reporting and learning systems that can help to identify hazards and risks. It is crucial to apply models to identify the adverse events root causes, enhance the sharing of knowledge and experience. The efficiency of the efforts to improve patient safety has been frustratingly slow. Some of this insufficiency of progress may be assigned to the lack of systems that take into account the characteristic of the information about the real world. In our daily lives, we formulate most of our decisions normally based on incomplete, uncertain and even forbidden or contradictory information. One's knowledge is less based on exact facts and more on hypothesis, perceptions or indications. From the data collected on our adverse event treatment and learning system on medical imaging, and through the use of Extended Logic Programming to knowledge representation and reasoning, and the exploitation of new methodologies for problem solving, namely those based on the perception of what is an agent and/or multi-agent systems, we intend to generate reports that identify the most relevant causes of error and define improvement strategies, concluding about the impact, place of occurrence, form or type of event recorded in the healthcare institutions. The Eindhoven Classification Model was extended and adapted to the medical imaging field and used to classify adverse events root causes. Extended Logic Programming was used for knowledge representation with defective information, allowing for the modelling of the universe of discourse in terms of data and knowledge default. A systematization of the evolution of the body of knowledge about Quality of Information embedded in the Root Cause Analysis was accomplished. An adverse event reporting and learning system
Comparison of Anti-Virus Programs using Fuzzy Logic
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vaclav Bezdek
2013-07-01
Full Text Available This work follows the previous author´s paper: Possible use of Fuzzy Logic in Database. It tries to show application of Fuzzy Logic in selecting the best anti-virus software based on testing made by AV-Comparatives.
Knowledge discovery for pancreatic cancer using inductive logic programming.
Qiu, Yushan; Shimada, Kazuaki; Hiraoka, Nobuyoshi; Maeshiro, Kensei; Ching, Wai-Ki; Aoki-Kinoshita, Kiyoko F; Furuta, Koh
2014-08-01
Pancreatic cancer is a devastating disease and predicting the status of the patients becomes an important and urgent issue. The authors explore the applicability of inductive logic programming (ILP) method in the disease and show that the accumulated clinical laboratory data can be used to predict disease characteristics, and this will contribute to the selection of therapeutic modalities of pancreatic cancer. The availability of a large amount of clinical laboratory data provides clues to aid in the knowledge discovery of diseases. In predicting the differentiation of tumour and the status of lymph node metastasis in pancreatic cancer, using the ILP model, three rules are developed that are consistent with descriptions in the literature. The rules that are identified are useful to detect the differentiation of tumour and the status of lymph node metastasis in pancreatic cancer and therefore contributed significantly to the decision of therapeutic strategies. In addition, the proposed method is compared with the other typical classification techniques and the results further confirm the superiority and merit of the proposed method.
Epistemic logic and explicit knowledge in distributed programming
Witzel, A.; Zvesper, J.A.; Padgham, L.; Parkes, D.; Müller, J.; Parsons, S.
2008-01-01
In this paper we propose an explicit form of knowledge-based programming. Our initial motivation is the distributed implementation of game-theoretical algorithms, but we abstract away from the game-theoretical details and describe a general scenario, where a group of agents each have some initially
Mera, E.; Trigo, Teresa; López García, Pedro; Hermenegildo, Manuel V.
2010-01-01
Although several profiling techniques for identifying performance bottlenecks in logic programs have been developed, they are generally not automatic and in most cases they do not provide enough information for identifying the root causes of such bottlenecks. This complicates using their results for guiding performance improvement. We present a profiling method and tool that provides such explanations. Our profiler associates cost centers to certain program elements and can measure different ...
Embedding Logics into Product Logic
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Baaz, M.; Hájek, Petr; Krajíček, Jan; Švejda, David
1998-01-01
Roč. 61, č. 1 (1998), s. 35-47 ISSN 0039-3215 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA1030601 Grant - others:COST(XE) Action 15 Keywords : fuzzy logic * Lukasiewicz logic * Gödel logic * product logic * computational complexity * arithmetical hierarchy Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics
Scaffold hopping in drug discovery using inductive logic programming.
Tsunoyama, Kazuhisa; Amini, Ata; Sternberg, Michael J E; Muggleton, Stephen H
2008-05-01
In chemoinformatics, searching for compounds which are structurally diverse and share a biological activity is called scaffold hopping. Scaffold hopping is important since it can be used to obtain alternative structures when the compound under development has unexpected side-effects. Pharmaceutical companies use scaffold hopping when they wish to circumvent prior patents for targets of interest. We propose a new method for scaffold hopping using inductive logic programming (ILP). ILP uses the observed spatial relationships between pharmacophore types in pretested active and inactive compounds and learns human-readable rules describing the diverse structures of active compounds. The ILP-based scaffold hopping method is compared to two previous algorithms (chemically advanced template search, CATS, and CATS3D) on 10 data sets with diverse scaffolds. The comparison shows that the ILP-based method is significantly better than random selection while the other two algorithms are not. In addition, the ILP-based method retrieves new active scaffolds which were not found by CATS and CATS3D. The results show that the ILP-based method is at least as good as the other methods in this study. ILP produces human-readable rules, which makes it possible to identify the three-dimensional features that lead to scaffold hopping. A minor variant of a rule learnt by ILP for scaffold hopping was subsequently found to cover an inhibitor identified by an independent study. This provides a successful result in a blind trial of the effectiveness of ILP to generate rules for scaffold hopping. We conclude that ILP provides a valuable new approach for scaffold hopping.
Cannon, Edward O; Amini, Ata; Bender, Andreas; Sternberg, Michael J E; Muggleton, Stephen H; Glen, Robert C; Mitchell, John B O
2007-05-01
We investigate the classification performance of circular fingerprints in combination with the Naive Bayes Classifier (MP2D), Inductive Logic Programming (ILP) and Support Vector Inductive Logic Programming (SVILP) on a standard molecular benchmark dataset comprising 11 activity classes and about 102,000 structures. The Naive Bayes Classifier treats features independently while ILP combines structural fragments, and then creates new features with higher predictive power. SVILP is a very recently presented method which adds a support vector machine after common ILP procedures. The performance of the methods is evaluated via a number of statistical measures, namely recall, specificity, precision, F-measure, Matthews Correlation Coefficient, area under the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve and enrichment factor (EF). According to the F-measure, which takes both recall and precision into account, SVILP is for seven out of the 11 classes the superior method. The results show that the Bayes Classifier gives the best recall performance for eight of the 11 targets, but has a much lower precision, specificity and F-measure. The SVILP model on the other hand has the highest recall for only three of the 11 classes, but generally far superior specificity and precision. To evaluate the statistical significance of the SVILP superiority, we employ McNemar's test which shows that SVILP performs significantly (p < 5%) better than both other methods for six out of 11 activity classes, while being superior with less significance for three of the remaining classes. While previously the Bayes Classifier was shown to perform very well in molecular classification studies, these results suggest that SVILP is able to extract additional knowledge from the data, thus improving classification results further.
Competing and coexisting logics in the changing field of English general medical practice.
McDonald, Ruth; Cheraghi-Sohi, Sudeh; Bayes, Sara; Morriss, Richard; Kai, Joe
2013-09-01
Recent reforms, which change incentive and accountability structures in the English National Health Service, can be conceptualised as trying to shift the dominant institutional logic in the field of primary medical care (general medical practice) away from medical professionalism towards a logic of "population based medicine". This paper draws on interviews with primary care doctors, conducted during 2007-2009 and 2011-2012. It contrasts the approach of active management of populations, in line with recent reforms with responses to patients with medically unexplained symptoms. Our data suggest that rather than one logic becoming dominant, different dimensions of organisational activity reflect different logics. Although some aspects of organisational life are relatively untouched by the reforms, this is not due to 'resistance' on the part of staff within these organisations to attempts to 'control' them. We suggest that a more helpful way of understanding the data is to see these different aspects of work as governed by different institutional logics. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Jaegers, Lisa; Dale, Ann Marie; Weaver, Nancy; Buchholz, Bryan; Welch, Laura; Evanoff, Bradley
2013-01-01
Background Intervention studies in participatory ergonomics (PE) are often difficult to interpret due to limited descriptions of program planning and evaluation. Methods In an ongoing PE program with floor layers, we developed a logic model to describe our program plan, and process and summative evaluations designed to describe the efficacy of the program. Results The logic model was a useful tool for describing the program elements and subsequent modifications. The process evaluation measured how well the program was delivered as intended, and revealed the need for program modifications. The summative evaluation provided early measures of the efficacy of the program as delivered. Conclusions Inadequate information on program delivery may lead to erroneous conclusions about intervention efficacy due to Type III error. A logic model guided the delivery and evaluation of our intervention and provides useful information to aid interpretation of results. PMID:24006097
Jaegers, Lisa; Dale, Ann Marie; Weaver, Nancy; Buchholz, Bryan; Welch, Laura; Evanoff, Bradley
2014-03-01
Intervention studies in participatory ergonomics (PE) are often difficult to interpret due to limited descriptions of program planning and evaluation. In an ongoing PE program with floor layers, we developed a logic model to describe our program plan, and process and summative evaluations designed to describe the efficacy of the program. The logic model was a useful tool for describing the program elements and subsequent modifications. The process evaluation measured how well the program was delivered as intended, and revealed the need for program modifications. The summative evaluation provided early measures of the efficacy of the program as delivered. Inadequate information on program delivery may lead to erroneous conclusions about intervention efficacy due to Type III error. A logic model guided the delivery and evaluation of our intervention and provides useful information to aid interpretation of results. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
A hybrid nanomemristor/transistor logic circuit capable of self-programming.
Borghetti, Julien; Li, Zhiyong; Straznicky, Joseph; Li, Xuema; Ohlberg, Douglas A A; Wu, Wei; Stewart, Duncan R; Williams, R Stanley
2009-02-10
Memristor crossbars were fabricated at 40 nm half-pitch, using nanoimprint lithography on the same substrate with Si metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistor (MOS FET) arrays to form fully integrated hybrid memory resistor (memristor)/transistor circuits. The digitally configured memristor crossbars were used to perform logic functions, to serve as a routing fabric for interconnecting the FETs and as the target for storing information. As an illustrative demonstration, the compound Boolean logic operation (A AND B) OR (C AND D) was performed with kilohertz frequency inputs, using resistor-based logic in a memristor crossbar with FET inverter/amplifier outputs. By routing the output signal of a logic operation back onto a target memristor inside the array, the crossbar was conditionally configured by setting the state of a nonvolatile switch. Such conditional programming illuminates the way for a variety of self-programmed logic arrays, and for electronic synaptic computing.
Computing single step operators of logic programming in radial basis function neural networks
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hamadneh, Nawaf; Sathasivam, Saratha; Choon, Ong Hong [School of Mathematical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 USM, Penang (Malaysia)
2014-07-10
Logic programming is the process that leads from an original formulation of a computing problem to executable programs. A normal logic program consists of a finite set of clauses. A valuation I of logic programming is a mapping from ground atoms to false or true. The single step operator of any logic programming is defined as a function (T{sub p}:I→I). Logic programming is well-suited to building the artificial intelligence systems. In this study, we established a new technique to compute the single step operators of logic programming in the radial basis function neural networks. To do that, we proposed a new technique to generate the training data sets of single step operators. The training data sets are used to build the neural networks. We used the recurrent radial basis function neural networks to get to the steady state (the fixed point of the operators). To improve the performance of the neural networks, we used the particle swarm optimization algorithm to train the networks.
Computing single step operators of logic programming in radial basis function neural networks
Hamadneh, Nawaf; Sathasivam, Saratha; Choon, Ong Hong
2014-07-01
Logic programming is the process that leads from an original formulation of a computing problem to executable programs. A normal logic program consists of a finite set of clauses. A valuation I of logic programming is a mapping from ground atoms to false or true. The single step operator of any logic programming is defined as a function (Tp:I→I). Logic programming is well-suited to building the artificial intelligence systems. In this study, we established a new technique to compute the single step operators of logic programming in the radial basis function neural networks. To do that, we proposed a new technique to generate the training data sets of single step operators. The training data sets are used to build the neural networks. We used the recurrent radial basis function neural networks to get to the steady state (the fixed point of the operators). To improve the performance of the neural networks, we used the particle swarm optimization algorithm to train the networks.
Computing single step operators of logic programming in radial basis function neural networks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hamadneh, Nawaf; Sathasivam, Saratha; Choon, Ong Hong
2014-01-01
Logic programming is the process that leads from an original formulation of a computing problem to executable programs. A normal logic program consists of a finite set of clauses. A valuation I of logic programming is a mapping from ground atoms to false or true. The single step operator of any logic programming is defined as a function (T p :I→I). Logic programming is well-suited to building the artificial intelligence systems. In this study, we established a new technique to compute the single step operators of logic programming in the radial basis function neural networks. To do that, we proposed a new technique to generate the training data sets of single step operators. The training data sets are used to build the neural networks. We used the recurrent radial basis function neural networks to get to the steady state (the fixed point of the operators). To improve the performance of the neural networks, we used the particle swarm optimization algorithm to train the networks
Using program logic model analysis to evaluate and better deliver what works
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Megdal, Lori; Engle, Victoria; Pakenas, Larry; Albert, Scott; Peters, Jane; Jordan, Gretchen
2005-01-01
There is a rich history in using program theories and logic models (PT/LM) for evaluation, monitoring, and program refinement in a variety of fields, such as health care, social and education programs. The use of these tools to evaluate and improve energy efficiency programs has been growing over the last 5-7 years. This paper provides an overview of the state-of-the-art methods of logic model development, with analysis that significantly contributed to: Assessing the logic behind how the program expects to be able to meets its ultimate goals, including the 'who', the 'how', and through what mechanism. In doing so, gaps and questions that still need to be addressed can be identified. Identifying and prioritize the indicators that should be measured to evaluate the program and program theory. Determining key researchable questions that need to be answered by evaluation/research, to assess whether the mechanism assumed to cause the changes in actions, attitudes, behaviours, and business practices is workable and efficient. Also will assess the validity in the program logic and the likelihood that the program can accomplish its ultimate goals. Incorporating analysis of prior like programs and social science theories in a framework to identify opportunities for potential program refinements. The paper provides an overview of the tools, techniques and references, and uses as example the energy efficiency program analysis conducted for the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority's (NYSERDA) New York ENERGY $MART SM programs
HYPROLOG: A New Logic Programming Language with Assumptions and Abduction
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Christiansen, Henning; Dahl, Veronica
2005-01-01
We present HYPROLOG, a novel integration of Prolog with assumptions and abduction which is implemented in and partly borrows syntax from Constraint Handling Rules (CHR) for integrity constraints. Assumptions are a mechanism inspired by linear logic and taken over from Assumption Grammars. The lan......We present HYPROLOG, a novel integration of Prolog with assumptions and abduction which is implemented in and partly borrows syntax from Constraint Handling Rules (CHR) for integrity constraints. Assumptions are a mechanism inspired by linear logic and taken over from Assumption Grammars....... The language shows a novel flexibility in the interaction between the different paradigms, including all additional built-in predicates and constraints solvers that may be available. Assumptions and abduction are especially useful for language processing, and we can show how HYPROLOG works seamlessly together...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Andrzejewski, D; Zhu, X; Craven, M; Recht, B
2011-01-18
Topic models have been used successfully for a variety of problems, often in the form of application-specific extensions of the basic Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) model. Because deriving these new models in order to encode domain knowledge can be difficult and time-consuming, we propose the Fold-all model, which allows the user to specify general domain knowledge in First-Order Logic (FOL). However, combining topic modeling with FOL can result in inference problems beyond the capabilities of existing techniques. We have therefore developed a scalable inference technique using stochastic gradient descent which may also be useful to the Markov Logic Network (MLN) research community. Experiments demonstrate the expressive power of Fold-all, as well as the scalability of our proposed inference method.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tom Hagström
2015-09-01
Full Text Available Human development theories differ in “context sensitivity,” covering those stressing development stages and those stressing continuously progressing changes. The former theories differ in whether, how and why the stages are regarded as being generalized across domains, i.e. their generality claims. Piaget’s developmental stage theory of logical complexity of children and adolescents fulfill “strong” such claims, including fixed stage sequentiality of increasing complexity levels and higher stage structures integrating earlier ones. His theory has inspired a number of adult development stage theories with varying generality claims. These provide suggestions of stages and stage transitions reaching beyond “pure” cognition, integrating more of e.g. emotional, value and moral dimensions. From a neo-Piagetian perspective, core generality aspects seem to concern on the one hand logical reasoning and on the other hand meaning-making. This raises questions of how these aspects are related to each other in terms of stage structures and transformations. The aim of the article is to discern general features in adult development stage structures and transitions, in terms of logical reasoning and meaning making. This is carried out by a “thought experiment” interrelating two theories that differ in these respects but that are both based on Piaget’s theory, namely Robert Kegan’s constructive developmental Subject-Object Theory (SOT and Michael Common´s behaviouristic Model of Hierarchical Complexity (MHC. This comparing approach concerns the 3rd, 4th and 5th order of consciousness as well as transitions between these according to SOT, and order 9 to 12 and corresponding transitions according to MHC. The thought experiment indicates that the generality claims of both models can be argued for without one of them necessarily being subordinated to the other one. Both theories are interpreted as differing but partly overlapping structures of
Verifying object-oriented programs with higher-order separation logic in Coq
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bengtson, Jesper; Jensen, Jonas Braband; Sieczkowski, Filip
2011-01-01
We present a shallow Coq embedding of a higher-order separation logic with nested triples for an object-oriented programming language. Moreover, we develop novel specification and proof patterns for reasoning in higher-order separation logic with nested triples about programs that use interfaces...... and interface inheritance. In particular, we show how to use the higher-order features of the Coq formalisation to specify and reason modularly about programs that (1) depend on some unknown code satisfying a specification or that (2) return objects conforming to a certain specification. All of our results have...
Schultz, Leah
2011-01-01
This research investigates the implementation of the programming language Alice to teach computer programming logic to computer information systems students. Alice has been implemented in other university settings and has been reported to have many benefits including object-oriented concepts and an engaging and fun learning environment. In this…
Reasoning about Java programs in higher order logic using PVS and Isabelle
Huisman, Marieke
2001-01-01
This thesis describes the first steps of a project aimed at formal verification of Java programs. The work presented here is part of a larger project called LOOP, for Logic of Object Oriented Programming. A semantics for Java is described in type theory and it is shown how this semantics forms the
IT0: Discrete Math and Programming Logic Topics as a Hybrid Alternative to CS0
Martin, Nancy L.
2015-01-01
This paper describes the development of a hybrid introductory course for students in their first or second year of an information systems technologies degree program at a large Midwestern university. The course combines topics from discrete mathematics and programming logic and design, a unique twist on most introductory courses. The objective of…
Logic Models: A Tool for Effective Program Planning, Collaboration, and Monitoring. REL 2014-025
Kekahio, Wendy; Lawton, Brian; Cicchinelli, Louis; Brandon, Paul R.
2014-01-01
A logic model is a visual representation of the assumptions and theory of action that underlie the structure of an education program. A program can be a strategy for instruction in a classroom, a training session for a group of teachers, a grade-level curriculum, a building-level intervention, or a district-or statewide initiative. This guide, an…
Vosinakis, Spyros; Anastassakis, George; Koutsabasis, Panayiotis
2018-01-01
Logic Programming (LP) follows the declarative programming paradigm, which novice students often find hard to grasp. The limited availability of visual teaching aids for LP can lead to low motivation for learning. In this paper, we present a platform for teaching and learning Prolog in Virtual Worlds, which enables the visual interpretation and…
How Young Children Learn to Program with Sensor, Action, and Logic Blocks
Wyeth, Peta
2008-01-01
Electronic Blocks are a new programming environment designed specifically for children aged between 3 and 8 years. These physical, stackable blocks include sensor blocks, action blocks, and logic blocks. By connecting these blocks, children can program a wide variety of structures that interact with one another and the environment. Electronic…
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Scott, W.A.; Turner, R.M.; McCammon, R.B.
1981-01-01
Integrated logic circuits were described as a means of formally representing genetic-geologic models for estimating undiscovered uranium resources. The logic circuits are logical combinations of selected geologic characteristics judged to be associated with particular types of uranium deposits. Each combination takes on a value which corresponds to the combined presence, absence, or don't know states of the selected characteristic within a specified geographic cell. Within each cell, the output of the logic circuit is taken as a measure of the favorability of occurrence of an undiscovered deposit of the type being considered. In this way, geological, geochemical, and geophysical data are incorporated explicitly into potential uranium resource estimates. The present report describes how integrated logic circuits are constructed by use of a computer graphics program. A user's guide is also included
Horn逻辑程序和形式文法之间的对应关系%The Correspondence between Horn Logic Programs and Formal Grammars
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
陈文彬; 王驹
2003-01-01
The paper researches Horn logic programs with grammatical view. The correspondence between Horn logic programs and grammars is found. The method by which type-0 grammars generate the least Herbrand models of logic programs is found. The method by which Horn logic programs generate the languages of type-0 grammars is found.The characterization of Horn Logic programs that are semantically equavanent to type-2 grammars and type-3 grammars is found.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bolander, Thomas
2003-01-01
that we can keep the predicate approach if we make suitable restrictions to our set of epistemic axioms. Their results are proved by careful translations from corresponding modal formalisms. In the present paper we show that their results fit nicely into the framework of logic programming semantics......, in that we show their results to be corollaries of well-known results in this field. This does not only allow us to demonstrate a close connection between consistency problems in the syntactic treatment of propositional attitudes and problems in semantics for logic programs, but it also allows us......This paper concerns formal theories for reasoning about the knowledge and belief of agents. It has seemed attractive to researchers in artificial intelligence to formalise these propositional attitudes as predicates of first-order predicate logic. This allows the agents to express stronger...
AiGERM: A logic programming front end for GERM
Hashim, Safaa H.
1990-01-01
AiGerm (Artificially Intelligent Graphical Entity Relation Modeler) is a relational data base query and programming language front end for MCC (Mission Control Center)/STP's (Space Test Program) Germ (Graphical Entity Relational Modeling) system. It is intended as an add-on component of the Germ system to be used for navigating very large networks of information. It can also function as an expert system shell for prototyping knowledge-based systems. AiGerm provides an interface between the programming language and Germ.
A Different Kind of Language: Prolog, Programming in Logic.
Cabrol, D.
1986-01-01
Prolog is one of the most successful "very high level languages." Describes this programming language (a product of artificial intelligence research) and attempts to show how it functions by using some short examples to illustrate its essential features. (JN)
For society, state and self: juggling the logics of professionalism in general practice appraisal.
Entwistle, Tom; Matthews, Elaine
2015-11-01
Sociologists repeatedly appeal to notions of altruism, bureaucratisation and self interest in their efforts to explain the changing place of the professions in contemporary society. We treat these three readings as institutional logics that are key to understanding the way in which doctors respond to the appraisal system at the heart of the UK's approach to revalidation. Our analysis of a survey of 998 general practitioners (GPs) working in Wales finds an altruistic commitment to learning and improvement, bureaucratic demands for reporting information and self-regarding resentment of changes in the occupational package provided by general practice. But the data also demonstrate that the maintenance of the appraisal regime is dependent on the preparedness and capacity of individual GPs to do micro-level institutional work on all fronts. © 2015 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness.
Program Verification with Monadic Second-Order Logic & Languages for Web Service Development
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Møller, Anders
applications, this implementation forms the basis of a verification technique for imperative programs that perform data-type operations using pointers. To achieve this, the basic logic is extended with layers of language abstractions. Also, a language for expressing data structures and operations along...
A system at the cross-roads of functional and logic programming
Kamareddine, F.
1992-01-01
The type-free ¿-calculus is powerful enough to contain all the polymorphic and higher-order nature of functional programming and furthermore types could be constructed inside it. However, mixing the type-free ¿-calculus with logic is not very straightforward (see Aczel [1] and Scott [15]). In this
A Foundation for Flow-Based Program Matching Using Temporal Logic and Model Checking
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Brunel, Julien Pierre Manuel; Doligez, Damien; Hansen, Rene Rydhof
2008-01-01
an extension of the temporal logic CTL has been applied to the problem of specifying and verifying the transformations commonly performed by optimizing compilers. Nevertheless, in developing the Coccinelle program transformation tool for performing Linux collateral evolutions in systems code, we have found......, using a transformation rule that fixes several reference count bugs in Linux code....
Ragonis, Noa; Shilo, Gila
2014-01-01
The paper presents a theoretical investigational study of the potential advantages that secondary school learners may gain from learning two different subjects, namely, logic programming within computer science studies and argumentation texts within linguistics studies. The study suggests drawing an analogy between the two subjects since they both…
Normative multi-agent programs and their logics
Dastani, M.; Grossi, D.; Meyer, J.-J.C.; Tinnemeier, N.
2009-01-01
Multi-agent systems are viewed as consisting of individual agents whose behaviors are regulated by an organization artefact. This paper presents a simplified version of a programming language that is designed to implement norm-based artefacts. Such artefacts are specified in terms of norms being
Martin, Ian; Carey, John
2014-01-01
A logic model was developed based on an analysis of the 2012 American School Counselor Association (ASCA) National Model in order to provide direction for program evaluation initiatives. The logic model identified three outcomes (increased student achievement/gap reduction, increased school counseling program resources, and systemic change and…
Fundamentals of the fuzzy logic-based generalized theory of decisions
Aliev, Rafik Aziz
2013-01-01
Every day decision making and decision making in complex human-centric systems are characterized by imperfect decision-relevant information. Main drawback of the existing decision theories is namely incapability to deal with imperfect information and modeling vague preferences. Actually, a paradigm of non-numerical probabilities in decision making has a long history and arose also in Keynes’s analysis of uncertainty. There is a need for further generalization – a move to decision theories with perception-based imperfect information described in NL. The languages of new decision models for human-centric systems should be not languages based on binary logic but human-centric computational schemes able to operate on NL-described information. Development of new theories is now possible due to an increased computational power of information processing systems which allows for computations with imperfect information, particularly, imprecise and partially true information, which are much more complex than comput...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Song, Mingzhou (Joe) [New Mexico State University, Las Cruces; Lewis, Chris K. [New Mexico State University, Las Cruces; Lance, Eric [New Mexico State University, Las Cruces; Chesler, Elissa J [ORNL; Kirova, Roumyana [Bristol-Myers Squibb Pharmaceutical Research & Development, NJ; Langston, Michael A [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Bergeson, Susan [Texas Tech University, Lubbock
2009-01-01
The problem of reconstructing generalized logical networks to account for temporal dependencies among genes and environmental stimuli from high-throughput transcriptomic data is addressed. A network reconstruction algorithm was developed that uses the statistical significance as a criterion for network selection to avoid false-positive interactions arising from pure chance. Using temporal gene expression data collected from the brains of alcohol-treated mice in an analysis of the molecular response to alcohol, this algorithm identified genes from a major neuronal pathway as putative components of the alcohol response mechanism. Three of these genes have known associations with alcohol in the literature. Several other potentially relevant genes, highlighted and agreeing with independent results from literature mining, may play a role in the response to alcohol. Additional, previously-unknown gene interactions were discovered that, subject to biological verification, may offer new clues in the search for the elusive molecular mechanisms of alcoholism.
Discovering rules for protein-ligand specificity using support vector inductive logic programming.
Kelley, Lawrence A; Shrimpton, Paul J; Muggleton, Stephen H; Sternberg, Michael J E
2009-09-01
Structural genomics initiatives are rapidly generating vast numbers of protein structures. Comparative modelling is also capable of producing accurate structural models for many protein sequences. However, for many of the known structures, functions are not yet determined, and in many modelling tasks, an accurate structural model does not necessarily tell us about function. Thus, there is a pressing need for high-throughput methods for determining function from structure. The spatial arrangement of key amino acids in a folded protein, on the surface or buried in clefts, is often the determinants of its biological function. A central aim of molecular biology is to understand the relationship between such substructures or surfaces and biological function, leading both to function prediction and to function design. We present a new general method for discovering the features of binding pockets that confer specificity for particular ligands. Using a recently developed machine-learning technique which couples the rule-discovery approach of inductive logic programming with the statistical learning power of support vector machines, we are able to discriminate, with high precision (90%) and recall (86%) between pockets that bind FAD and those that bind NAD on a large benchmark set given only the geometry and composition of the backbone of the binding pocket without the use of docking. In addition, we learn rules governing this specificity which can feed into protein functional design protocols. An analysis of the rules found suggests that key features of the binding pocket may be tied to conformational freedom in the ligand. The representation is sufficiently general to be applicable to any discriminatory binding problem. All programs and data sets are freely available to non-commercial users at http://www.sbg.bio.ic.ac.uk/svilp_ligand/.
Carrault, G; Cordier, M-O; Quiniou, R; Wang, F
2003-07-01
This paper proposes a novel approach to cardiac arrhythmia recognition from electrocardiograms (ECGs). ECGs record the electrical activity of the heart and are used to diagnose many heart disorders. The numerical ECG is first temporally abstracted into series of time-stamped events. Temporal abstraction makes use of artificial neural networks to extract interesting waves and their features from the input signals. A temporal reasoner called a chronicle recogniser processes such series in order to discover temporal patterns called chronicles which can be related to cardiac arrhythmias. Generally, it is difficult to elicit an accurate set of chronicles from a doctor. Thus, we propose to learn automatically from symbolic ECG examples the chronicles discriminating the arrhythmias belonging to some specific subset. Since temporal relationships are of major importance, inductive logic programming (ILP) is the tool of choice as it enables first-order relational learning. The approach has been evaluated on real ECGs taken from the MIT-BIH database. The performance of the different modules as well as the efficiency of the whole system is presented. The results are rather good and demonstrate that integrating numerical techniques for low level perception and symbolic techniques for high level classification is very valuable.
A Logic Programming Based Approach to Applying Abstract Interpretation to Embedded Software
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Henriksen, Kim Steen
anvendt til at analysere programmer udviklet til indlejrede systemer. Et givet indlejret system modelleres som en emulator skrevet i en variant af logikprogrammering kaldet constraint logic programming (CLP). Emulatoren specialiseres med hensyn til et givet program, hvilket resulterer i et nyt program i...... programmeringsparadigme der har et solidt matematisk fundament. Et af dets karakteristika er adskillelsen af logik (betydningen af et program) og kontrol (hvordan programmet udføres), hvilket gør logikprogrammering til et meget anvendeligt sprog hvad angår programanalyse. I denne afhandling bliver logikprogrammering...... skrevet i sproget CLP der samtidig er isomorft med programmet skrevet til det indlejrede system. Anvendes abstract interpretation baserede analysatorer på det specialiserede program, kan resultater fra denne analyse direkte overføres til den indlejrede program, da dette program og den specialiserede...
The SITE Program funded a field demonstration to evaluate the Eco Logic Gas-Phase Chemical Reduction Process developed by ELI Eco Logic International Inc. (ELI), Ontario, Canada. The Demonstration took place at the Middleground Landfill in Bay City, Michigan using landfill wa...
Evaluating bacterial gene-finding HMM structures as probabilistic logic programs.
Mørk, Søren; Holmes, Ian
2012-03-01
Probabilistic logic programming offers a powerful way to describe and evaluate structured statistical models. To investigate the practicality of probabilistic logic programming for structure learning in bioinformatics, we undertook a simplified bacterial gene-finding benchmark in PRISM, a probabilistic dialect of Prolog. We evaluate Hidden Markov Model structures for bacterial protein-coding gene potential, including a simple null model structure, three structures based on existing bacterial gene finders and two novel model structures. We test standard versions as well as ADPH length modeling and three-state versions of the five model structures. The models are all represented as probabilistic logic programs and evaluated using the PRISM machine learning system in terms of statistical information criteria and gene-finding prediction accuracy, in two bacterial genomes. Neither of our implementations of the two currently most used model structures are best performing in terms of statistical information criteria or prediction performances, suggesting that better-fitting models might be achievable. The source code of all PRISM models, data and additional scripts are freely available for download at: http://github.com/somork/codonhmm. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.
Standardising the Lay: Logics of Change in Programs of Disease Self-management
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Annegrete Juul Nielsen
2012-11-01
Full Text Available The health political discourse on self-care is dominated by the view that the selfmanaging patient represents a more democratic and patient-centric perspective, as he or she is believed to renegotiate the terms on which patient participation in health care has hitherto taken place. The self-managing patient is intended as a challenge to traditional medical authority by introducing lay methods of knowing disease. Rather than a meeting between authoritative professionals and vulnerable patients, the self-managing patient seeks to open up new spaces for a meeting between experts. The present paper questions these assumptions through an ethnographic exploration of a patient-led self-management program called the Chronic Disease Self-Management Program. The program is concerned with what its developers call the social and mental aspects of living with a chronic disease and uses trained patients as role models and program leaders. Drawing inspiration from Annemarie Mol’s term ‘logic’, we explore the rationale of ‘situations of selfmanagement’ and identify what we call a ‘logic of change’, which involves very specific ideas on how life with a chronic condition should be dealt with and directs attention towards particular manageable aspects of life with a chronic condition. This logic of change entails, we argue, a clash not between ‘medical’ and ‘lay’ forms of knowledge but between different logics or perceptions of how transformation can be achieved: through open-ended and ongoing reflection and experimentation in social settings or through standardised trajectories of change. Returning to the literature on lay forms of knowledge and illness perspectives, we question whether programs such as the Chronic Disease Self-Management Program – despite its apparent patient-centric perspective – reproduces classical hierarchical relations between lay and expert knowledge, albeit in new forms.
Gervais, Christine; de Montigny, Francine; Lacharité, Carl; Dubeau, Diane
2015-10-01
The transition to fatherhood, with its numerous challenges, has been well documented. Likewise, fathers' relationships with health and social services have also begun to be explored. Yet despite the problems fathers experience in interactions with healthcare services, few programs have been developed for them. To explain this, some authors point to the difficulty practitioners encounter in developing and structuring the theory of programs they are trying to create to promote and support father involvement (Savaya, R., & Waysman, M. (2005). Administration in Social Work, 29(2), 85), even when such theory is key to a program's effectiveness (Chen, H.-T. (2005). Practical program evaluation. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications). The objective of the present paper is to present a tool, the logic model, to bridge this gap and to equip practitioners for structuring program theory. This paper addresses two questions: (1) What would be a useful instrument for structuring the development of program theory in interventions for fathers? (2) How would the concepts of a father involvement program best be organized? The case of the Father Friendly Initiative within Families (FFIF) program is used to present and illustrate six simple steps for developing a logic model that are based on program theory and demonstrate its relevance. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bhowmik, Panchatapa; Roy, Jitendra Nath; Chattopadhyay, Tanay
2014-11-01
This paper presents a generalized all optical circuit of two-input logical operation (both binary and multi-valued), using an optical nonlinear material (OPNLM) based switch. The inputs of the logic gates are represented by different polarization states of light. This model is simple, practical and very much useful for future all optical information processing. Proposed scheme can work for different wavelengths and for different materials. The simulation result with the nonlinear material gold nanoparticle embedded in optically transparent matrices alumina (Al2O3) is also presented in the paper.
Logic programming to infer complex RNA expression patterns from RNA-seq data.
Weirick, Tyler; Militello, Giuseppe; Ponomareva, Yuliya; John, David; Döring, Claudia; Dimmeler, Stefanie; Uchida, Shizuka
2018-03-01
To meet the increasing demand in the field, numerous long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) databases are available. Given many lncRNAs are specifically expressed in certain cell types and/or time-dependent manners, most lncRNA databases fall short of providing such profiles. We developed a strategy using logic programming to handle the complex organization of organs, their tissues and cell types as well as gender and developmental time points. To showcase this strategy, we introduce 'RenalDB' (http://renaldb.uni-frankfurt.de), a database providing expression profiles of RNAs in major organs focusing on kidney tissues and cells. RenalDB uses logic programming to describe complex anatomy, sample metadata and logical relationships defining expression, enrichment or specificity. We validated the content of RenalDB with biological experiments and functionally characterized two long intergenic noncoding RNAs: LOC440173 is important for cell growth or cell survival, whereas PAXIP1-AS1 is a regulator of cell death. We anticipate RenalDB will be used as a first step toward functional studies of lncRNAs in the kidney.
Möbus, Claus
1987-01-01
We propose the use of logic programs when designing intelligent tutoring systems. With their help we specified the small-step semantics of the learning curriculum, designed the graphical user interface, derived instructions and modelled students' knowledge.
Satisfiability of logic programming based on radial basis function neural networks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hamadneh, Nawaf; Sathasivam, Saratha; Tilahun, Surafel Luleseged; Choon, Ong Hong
2014-01-01
In this paper, we propose a new technique to test the Satisfiability of propositional logic programming and quantified Boolean formula problem in radial basis function neural networks. For this purpose, we built radial basis function neural networks to represent the proportional logic which has exactly three variables in each clause. We used the Prey-predator algorithm to calculate the output weights of the neural networks, while the K-means clustering algorithm is used to determine the hidden parameters (the centers and the widths). Mean of the sum squared error function is used to measure the activity of the two algorithms. We applied the developed technique with the recurrent radial basis function neural networks to represent the quantified Boolean formulas. The new technique can be applied to solve many applications such as electronic circuits and NP-complete problems
Satisfiability of logic programming based on radial basis function neural networks
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hamadneh, Nawaf; Sathasivam, Saratha; Tilahun, Surafel Luleseged; Choon, Ong Hong [School of Mathematical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 USM, Penang (Malaysia)
2014-07-10
In this paper, we propose a new technique to test the Satisfiability of propositional logic programming and quantified Boolean formula problem in radial basis function neural networks. For this purpose, we built radial basis function neural networks to represent the proportional logic which has exactly three variables in each clause. We used the Prey-predator algorithm to calculate the output weights of the neural networks, while the K-means clustering algorithm is used to determine the hidden parameters (the centers and the widths). Mean of the sum squared error function is used to measure the activity of the two algorithms. We applied the developed technique with the recurrent radial basis function neural networks to represent the quantified Boolean formulas. The new technique can be applied to solve many applications such as electronic circuits and NP-complete problems.
Programming Cell Adhesion for On-Chip Sequential Boolean Logic Functions.
Qu, Xiangmeng; Wang, Shaopeng; Ge, Zhilei; Wang, Jianbang; Yao, Guangbao; Li, Jiang; Zuo, Xiaolei; Shi, Jiye; Song, Shiping; Wang, Lihua; Li, Li; Pei, Hao; Fan, Chunhai
2017-08-02
Programmable remodelling of cell surfaces enables high-precision regulation of cell behavior. In this work, we developed in vitro constructed DNA-based chemical reaction networks (CRNs) to program on-chip cell adhesion. We found that the RGD-functionalized DNA CRNs are entirely noninvasive when interfaced with the fluidic mosaic membrane of living cells. DNA toehold with different lengths could tunably alter the release kinetics of cells, which shows rapid release in minutes with the use of a 6-base toehold. We further demonstrated the realization of Boolean logic functions by using DNA strand displacement reactions, which include multi-input and sequential cell logic gates (AND, OR, XOR, and AND-OR). This study provides a highly generic tool for self-organization of biological systems.
Guziolowski, Carito; Videla, Santiago; Eduati, Federica; Thiele, Sven; Cokelaer, Thomas; Siegel, Anne; Saez-Rodriguez, Julio
2013-09-15
Logic modeling is a useful tool to study signal transduction across multiple pathways. Logic models can be generated by training a network containing the prior knowledge to phospho-proteomics data. The training can be performed using stochastic optimization procedures, but these are unable to guarantee a global optima or to report the complete family of feasible models. This, however, is essential to provide precise insight in the mechanisms underlaying signal transduction and generate reliable predictions. We propose the use of Answer Set Programming to explore exhaustively the space of feasible logic models. Toward this end, we have developed caspo, an open-source Python package that provides a powerful platform to learn and characterize logic models by leveraging the rich modeling language and solving technologies of Answer Set Programming. We illustrate the usefulness of caspo by revisiting a model of pro-growth and inflammatory pathways in liver cells. We show that, if experimental error is taken into account, there are thousands (11 700) of models compatible with the data. Despite the large number, we can extract structural features from the models, such as links that are always (or never) present or modules that appear in a mutual exclusive fashion. To further characterize this family of models, we investigate the input-output behavior of the models. We find 91 behaviors across the 11 700 models and we suggest new experiments to discriminate among them. Our results underscore the importance of characterizing in a global and exhaustive manner the family of feasible models, with important implications for experimental design. caspo is freely available for download (license GPLv3) and as a web service at http://caspo.genouest.org/. Supplementary materials are available at Bioinformatics online. santiago.videla@irisa.fr.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A Santos Jose C
2012-07-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a need for automated methods to learn general features of the interactions of a ligand class with its diverse set of protein receptors. An appropriate machine learning approach is Inductive Logic Programming (ILP, which automatically generates comprehensible rules in addition to prediction. The development of ILP systems which can learn rules of the complexity required for studies on protein structure remains a challenge. In this work we use a new ILP system, ProGolem, and demonstrate its performance on learning features of hexose-protein interactions. Results The rules induced by ProGolem detect interactions mediated by aromatics and by planar-polar residues, in addition to less common features such as the aromatic sandwich. The rules also reveal a previously unreported dependency for residues cys and leu. They also specify interactions involving aromatic and hydrogen bonding residues. This paper shows that Inductive Logic Programming implemented in ProGolem can derive rules giving structural features of protein/ligand interactions. Several of these rules are consistent with descriptions in the literature. Conclusions In addition to confirming literature results, ProGolem’s model has a 10-fold cross-validated predictive accuracy that is superior, at the 95% confidence level, to another ILP system previously used to study protein/hexose interactions and is comparable with state-of-the-art statistical learners.
A Santos, Jose C; Nassif, Houssam; Page, David; Muggleton, Stephen H; E Sternberg, Michael J
2012-07-11
There is a need for automated methods to learn general features of the interactions of a ligand class with its diverse set of protein receptors. An appropriate machine learning approach is Inductive Logic Programming (ILP), which automatically generates comprehensible rules in addition to prediction. The development of ILP systems which can learn rules of the complexity required for studies on protein structure remains a challenge. In this work we use a new ILP system, ProGolem, and demonstrate its performance on learning features of hexose-protein interactions. The rules induced by ProGolem detect interactions mediated by aromatics and by planar-polar residues, in addition to less common features such as the aromatic sandwich. The rules also reveal a previously unreported dependency for residues cys and leu. They also specify interactions involving aromatic and hydrogen bonding residues. This paper shows that Inductive Logic Programming implemented in ProGolem can derive rules giving structural features of protein/ligand interactions. Several of these rules are consistent with descriptions in the literature. In addition to confirming literature results, ProGolem's model has a 10-fold cross-validated predictive accuracy that is superior, at the 95% confidence level, to another ILP system previously used to study protein/hexose interactions and is comparable with state-of-the-art statistical learners.
Rowland, Paula; McMillan, Sarah; McGillicuddy, Patti; Richards, Joy
2017-01-01
Public and patient involvement (PPI) in health care may refer to many different processes, ranging from participating in decision-making about one's own care to participating in health services research, health policy development, or organizational reforms. Across these many forms of public and patient involvement, the conceptual and theoretical underpinnings remain poorly articulated. Instead, most public and patient involvement programs rely on policy initiatives as their conceptual frameworks. This lack of conceptual clarity participates in dilemmas of program design, implementation, and evaluation. This study contributes to the development of theoretical understandings of public and patient involvement. In particular, we focus on the deployment of patient engagement programs within health service organizations. To develop a deeper understanding of the conceptual underpinnings of these programs, we examined the concept of "the patient perspective" as used by patient engagement practitioners and participants. Specifically, we focused on the way this phrase was used in the singular: "the" patient perspective or "the" patient voice. From qualitative analysis of interviews with 20 patient advisers and 6 staff members within a large urban health network in Canada, we argue that "the patient perspective" is referred to as a particular kind of situated knowledge, specifically an embodied knowledge of vulnerability. We draw parallels between this logic of patient perspective and the logic of early feminist theory, including the concepts of standpoint theory and strong objectivity. We suggest that champions of patient engagement may learn much from the way feminist theorists have constructed their arguments and addressed critique.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anon.
1992-01-01
This volume contains the proceedings of a portion of the Instrument Society of America's 1992 General Meeting. Topics covered include: diesel fuels, wastewater treatment, the environment, advancements in measurement and control, improved control systems and construction and design
Wilk, Szymon; Michalowski, Wojtek; Michalowski, Martin; Farion, Ken; Hing, Marisela Mainegra; Mohapatra, Subhra
2013-04-01
We propose a new method to mitigate (identify and address) adverse interactions (drug-drug or drug-disease) that occur when a patient with comorbid diseases is managed according to two concurrently applied clinical practice guidelines (CPGs). A lack of methods to facilitate the concurrent application of CPGs severely limits their use in clinical practice and the development of such methods is one of the grand challenges for clinical decision support. The proposed method responds to this challenge. We introduce and formally define logical models of CPGs and other related concepts, and develop the mitigation algorithm that operates on these concepts. In the algorithm we combine domain knowledge encoded as interaction and revision operators using the constraint logic programming (CLP) paradigm. The operators characterize adverse interactions and describe revisions to logical models required to address these interactions, while CLP allows us to efficiently solve the logical models - a solution represents a feasible therapy that may be safely applied to a patient. The mitigation algorithm accepts two CPGs and available (likely incomplete) patient information. It reports whether mitigation has been successful or not, and on success it gives a feasible therapy and points at identified interactions (if any) together with the revisions that address them. Thus, we consider the mitigation algorithm as an alerting tool to support a physician in the concurrent application of CPGs that can be implemented as a component of a clinical decision support system. We illustrate our method in the context of two clinical scenarios involving a patient with duodenal ulcer who experiences an episode of transient ischemic attack. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Reynolds, John C.
2002-01-01
In joint work with Peter O'Hearn and others, based on early ideas of Burstall, we have developed an extension of Hoare logic that permits reasoning about low-level imperative programs that use shared mutable data structure. The simple imperative programming language is extended with commands (not...... with the inductive definition of predicates on abstract data structures, this extension permits the concise and flexible description of structures with controlled sharing. In this paper, we will survey the current development of this program logic, including extensions that permit unrestricted address arithmetic...
Heunen, Chris
2008-01-01
We consider categorical logic on the category of Hilbert spaces. More generally, in fact, any pre-Hilbert category suffices. We characterise closed subobjects, and prove that they form orthomodular lattices. This shows that quantum logic is just an incarnation of categorical logic, enabling us to establish an existential quantifier for quantum logic, and conclude that there cannot be a universal quantifier.
Inference of Well-Typings for Logic Programs with Application to Termination Analysis
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bruynooghe, M.; Gallagher, John Patrick; Humbeeck, W. Van
2005-01-01
A method is developed to infer a polymorphic well-typing for a logic program. Our motivation is to improve the automation of termination analysis by deriving types from which norms can automatically be constructed. Previous work on type-based termination analysis used either types declared...... by the user, or automatically generated monomorphic types describing the success set of predicates. The latter types are less precise and result in weaker termination conditions than those obtained from declared types. Our type inference procedure involves solving set constraints generated from the program...... and derives a well-typing in contrast to a success-set approximation. Experiments so far show that our automatically inferred well-typings are close to the declared types and result in termination conditions that are as strong as those obtained with declared types. We describe the method, its implementation...
Cooper, Jeff
2009-01-01
This dissertation addresses theory and practice of evaluation and assessment in university student affairs, by applying logic modeling/program theory to a case study. I intend to add knowledge to ongoing dialogue among evaluation scholars and practitioners on student affairs program planning and improvement as integral considerations that serve…
THRESHOLD LOGIC IN ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE
COMPUTER LOGIC, ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE , BIONICS, GEOMETRY, INPUT OUTPUT DEVICES, LINEAR PROGRAMMING, MATHEMATICAL LOGIC, MATHEMATICAL PREDICTION, NETWORKS, PATTERN RECOGNITION, PROBABILITY, SWITCHING CIRCUITS, SYNTHESIS
Buttingsrud, Bård; Ryeng, Einar; King, Ross D; Alsberg, Bjørn K
2006-06-01
The requirement of aligning each individual molecule in a data set severely limits the type of molecules which can be analysed with traditional structure activity relationship (SAR) methods. A method which solves this problem by using relations between objects is inductive logic programming (ILP). Another advantage of this methodology is its ability to include background knowledge as 1st-order logic. However, previous molecular ILP representations have not been effective in describing the electronic structure of molecules. We present a more unified and comprehensive representation based on Richard Bader's quantum topological atoms in molecules (AIM) theory where critical points in the electron density are connected through a network. AIM theory provides a wealth of chemical information about individual atoms and their bond connections enabling a more flexible and chemically relevant representation. To obtain even more relevant rules with higher coverage, we apply manual postprocessing and interpretation of ILP rules. We have tested the usefulness of the new representation in SAR modelling on classifying compounds of low/high mutagenicity and on a set of factor Xa inhibitors of high and low affinity.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kody M. Powell
2016-03-01
Full Text Available This work presents a methodology to represent logical decisions in differential algebraic equation simulation and constrained optimization problems using a set of continuous algebraic equations. The formulations may be used when state variables trigger a change in process dynamics, and introduces a pseudo-binary decision variable, which is continuous, but should only have valid solutions at values of either zero or one within a finite time horizon. This formulation enables dynamic optimization problems with logical disjunctions to be solved by simultaneous solution methods without using methods such as mixed integer programming. Several case studies are given to illustrate the value of this methodology including nonlinear model predictive control of a chemical reactor using a surge tank with overflow to buffer disturbances in feed flow rate. Although this work contains novel methodologies for solving dynamic algebraic equation (DAE constrained problems where the system may experience an abrupt change in dynamics that may otherwise require a conditional statement, there remain substantial limitations to this methodology, including a limited domain where problems may converge and the possibility for ill-conditioning. Although the problems presented use only continuous algebraic equations, the formulation has inherent non-smoothness. Hence, these problems must be solved with care and only in select circumstances, such as in simulation or situations when the solution is expected to be near the solver’s initial point.
A generalized perturbation program for CANDU reactor
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kim, Do Heon; Kim, Jong Kyung [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Hang Bok; Roh, Gyu Hong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Won Sik [Chosun University, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of)
1999-12-31
A generalized perturbation program has been developed for the purpose of estimating zonal power variation of a CANDU reactor upon refueling operation. The forward and adjoint calculation modules of RFSP code were used to construct the generalized perturbation program. The numerical algorithm for the generalized adjoint flux calculation was verified by comparing the zone power estimates upon refueling with those of forward calculation. It was, however, noticed that the truncation error from the iteration process of the generalized adjoint flux is not negligible. 2 refs., 1 figs., 1 tab. (Author)
A generalized perturbation program for CANDU reactor
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kim, Do Heon; Kim, Jong Kyung [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Hang Bok; Roh, Gyu Hong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Won Sik [Chosun University, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of)
1998-12-31
A generalized perturbation program has been developed for the purpose of estimating zonal power variation of a CANDU reactor upon refueling operation. The forward and adjoint calculation modules of RFSP code were used to construct the generalized perturbation program. The numerical algorithm for the generalized adjoint flux calculation was verified by comparing the zone power estimates upon refueling with those of forward calculation. It was, however, noticed that the truncation error from the iteration process of the generalized adjoint flux is not negligible. 2 refs., 1 figs., 1 tab. (Author)
Anticoincidence logic using PALs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bolanos, L.; Arista Romeu, E.
1997-01-01
This paper describes the functioning principle of an anticoincidence logic and a design of this based on programing logic. The circuit was included in a discriminator of an equipment for single-photon absorptiometry
New Impetus for Several General Assistance Programs.
Reeder, Rick
1999-01-01
Describes 1999 federal funding to large general-assistance programs affecting small towns and rural areas (including Housing and Urban Development, federal disaster relief, rural extension activities, and Bureau of Indian Affairs assistance programs); increased funding for Empowerment Zones/Enterprise Communities; reauthorization of the Economic…
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Abdullah Alper Efe
2018-01-01
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to design and develop aProgramming Logic Controller Training Set according to vocational high school students’ educational needs. In this regard, by using the properties of distance education the proposed system supported “hands-on” PLC programming laboratory exercises in industrial automation area. The system allowed students to access and control the PLC training set remotely. For this purpose, researcher designed a web site to facilitate students’ interactivity and support PLC programming. In the training set, Induction Motor, Frequency Converter and Encoder tripart controlled by Siemens Simatic S7-200 PLC controller by the help of SIMATIC Step 7 Programming Software were used to make the system more effective and efficient. Moreover, training set included an IP camera system allowing to monitor devices and pilot application. By working with this novel remote accessible training set, students and researchers recieved a chance to inhere self paced learning experiences. Also, The PLC training set offered an effective learning enviroenment for distance education, which is based on presenting the content on the web and opening it to the online users and provided a safe and economical solution for multiple users in a workplace to enhance the quality of education with less overall cost.
A Practical Study of Control in Objected-Oriented–Functional–Logic Programming with Paisley
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Baltasar Trancón y Widemann
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Paisley is an extensible lightweight embedded domain-specific language for nondeterministic pattern matching in Java. Using simple APIs and programming idioms, it brings the power of functional-logic processing of arbitrary data objects to the Java platform, without constraining the underlying object-oriented semantics. Here we present an extension to the Paisley framework that adds pattern-based control flow. It exploits recent additions to the Java language, namely functional interfaces and lambda expressions, for an explicit and transparent continuation-passing style approach to control. We evaluate the practical impact of the novel features on a real-world case study that reengineers a third-party open-source project to use Paisley in place of conventional object-oriented data query idioms. We find the approach viable for incremental refactoring of legacy code, with significant qualitative improvements regarding separation of concerns, clarity and intentionality, thus making for easier code understanding, testing and debugging.
Identification of tumor evolution patterns by means of inductive logic programming.
Bevilacqua, Vitoantonio; Chiarappa, Patrizia; Mastronardi, Giuseppe; Menolascina, Filippo; Paradiso, Angelo; Tommasi, Stefania
2008-06-01
In considering key events of genomic disorders in the development and progression of cancer, the correlation between genomic instability and carcinogenesis is currently under investigation. In this work, we propose an inductive logic programming approach to the problem of modeling evolution patterns for breast cancer. Using this approach, it is possible to extract fingerprints of stages of the disease that can be used in order to develop and deliver the most adequate therapies to patients. Furthermore, such a model can help physicians and biologists in the elucidation of molecular dynamics underlying the aberrations-waterfall model behind carcinogenesis. By showing results obtained on a real-world dataset, we try to give some hints about further approach to the knowledge-driven validations of such hypotheses.
Wilk, Szymon; Michalowski, Martin; Michalowski, Wojtek; Hing, Marisela Mainegra; Farion, Ken
2011-01-01
This paper describes a new methodological approach to reconciling adverse and contradictory activities (called points of contention) occurring when a patient is managed according to two or more concurrently used clinical practice guidelines (CPGs). The need to address these inconsistencies occurs when a patient with more than one disease, each of which is a comorbid condition, has to be managed according to different treatment regimens. We propose an automatic procedure that constructs a mathematical guideline model using the Constraint Logic Programming (CLP) methodology, uses this model to identify and mitigate encountered points of contention, and revises the considered CPGs accordingly. The proposed procedure is used as an alerting mechanism and coupled with a guideline execution engine warns the physician about potential problems with the concurrent application of two or more guidelines. We illustrate the operation of our procedure in a clinical scenario describing simultaneous use of CPGs for duodenal ulcer and transient ischemic attack.
An Inductive Logic Programming Approach to Validate Hexose Binding Biochemical Knowledge.
Nassif, Houssam; Al-Ali, Hassan; Khuri, Sawsan; Keirouz, Walid; Page, David
2010-01-01
Hexoses are simple sugars that play a key role in many cellular pathways, and in the regulation of development and disease mechanisms. Current protein-sugar computational models are based, at least partially, on prior biochemical findings and knowledge. They incorporate different parts of these findings in predictive black-box models. We investigate the empirical support for biochemical findings by comparing Inductive Logic Programming (ILP) induced rules to actual biochemical results. We mine the Protein Data Bank for a representative data set of hexose binding sites, non-hexose binding sites and surface grooves. We build an ILP model of hexose-binding sites and evaluate our results against several baseline machine learning classifiers. Our method achieves an accuracy similar to that of other black-box classifiers while providing insight into the discriminating process. In addition, it confirms wet-lab findings and reveals a previously unreported Trp-Glu amino acids dependency.
A new algorithm for generalized fractional programs
J.B.G. Frenk (Hans); A.I. Barros (Ana); S. Schaible; S. Zhang (Shuzhong)
1996-01-01
textabstractA new dual problem for convex generalized fractional programs with no duality gap is presented and it is shown how this dual problem can be efficiently solved using a parametric approach. The resulting algorithm can be seen as “dual” to the Dinkelbach-type algorithm for generalized
Sherman, Paul David
2016-04-01
This article presents a framework to identify key mechanisms for developing a logic model blueprint that can be used for an impending comprehensive evaluation of an undergraduate degree program in a Canadian university. The evaluation is a requirement of a comprehensive quality assurance process mandated by the university. A modified RUFDATA (Saunders, 2000) evaluation model is applied as an initiating framework to assist in decision making to provide a guide for conceptualizing a logic model for the quality assurance process. This article will show how an educational evaluation is strengthened by employing a RUFDATA reflective process in exploring key elements of the evaluation process, and then translating this information into a logic model format that could serve to offer a more focussed pathway for the quality assurance activities. Using preliminary program evaluation data from two key stakeholders of the undergraduate program as well as an audit of the curriculum's course syllabi, a case is made for, (1) the importance of inclusivity of key stakeholders participation in the design of the evaluation process to enrich the authenticity and accuracy of program participants' feedback, and (2) the diversification of data collection methods to ensure that stakeholders' narrative feedback is given ample exposure. It is suggested that the modified RUFDATA/logic model framework be applied to all academic programs at the university undergoing the quality assurance process at the same time so that economies of scale may be realized. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Rodríguez, Daniela C; Peterson, Lauren A
2016-05-06
Factors that influence performance of community health workers (CHWs) delivering health services are not well understood. A recent logic model proposed categories of support from both health sector and communities that influence CHW performance and program outcomes. This logic model has been used to review a growth monitoring program delivered by CHWs in Honduras, known as Atención Integral a la Niñez en la Comunidad (AIN-C). A retrospective review of AIN-C was conducted through a document desk review and supplemented with in-depth interviews. Documents were systematically coded using the categories from the logic model, and gaps were addressed through interviews. Authors reviewed coded data for each category to analyze program details and outcomes as well as identify potential issues and gaps in the logic model. Categories from the logic model were inconsistently represented, with more information available for health sector than community. Context and input activities were not well documented. Information on health sector systems-level activities was available for governance but limited for other categories, while not much was found for community systems-level activities. Most available information focused on program-level activities with substantial data on technical support. Output, outcome, and impact data were drawn from various resources and suggest mixed results of AIN-C on indicators of interest. Assessing CHW performance through a desk review left gaps that could not be addressed about the relationship of activities and performance. There were critical characteristics of program design that made it contextually appropriate; however, it was difficult to identify clear links between AIN-C and malnutrition indicators. Regarding the logic model, several categories were too broad (e.g., technical support, context) and some aspects of AIN-C did not fit neatly in logic model categories (e.g., political commitment, equity, flexibility in implementation). The
A Case Study on Cyber-security Program for the Programmable Logic Controller of Modern NPPs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Song, S. H.; Lee, M. S.; Kim, T. H.; Park, C. H.; Park, S. P.; Kim, H. S.
2014-01-01
As instrumentation and control (I and C) systems for modern Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) have been digitalized to cope with their growing complexity, the cyber-security has become an important issue. To protect the I and C systems adequately from cyber threats, such as Stuxnet that attacked Iran's nuclear facilities, regulations of many countries require a cyber-security program covering all the life cycle phases of the system development, from the concept to the retirement. This paper presents a case study of cyber-security program that has been performed during the development of the programmable logic controller (PLC) for modern NPPs of Korea. In the case study, a cyber-security plan, including technical, management, and operational controls, was established through a security risk assessment. Cyber-security activities, such as development of security functions and periodic inspections, were conducted according to the plan: the security functions were applied to the PLC as the technical controls, and periodic inspections and audits were held to check the security of the development environment, as the management and operational controls. A final penetration test was conducted to inspect all the security problems that had been issued during the development. The case study has shown that the systematic cyber-security program detected and removed the vulnerabilities of the target system, which could not be found otherwise, enhancing the cyber-security of the system
A Case Study on Cyber-security Program for the Programmable Logic Controller of Modern NPPs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Song, S. H. [Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, M. S.; Kim, T. H. [Formal Work Inc., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, C. H. [LINE Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Park, S. P. [Ahnlab Inc., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, H. S. [Sejong University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
2014-08-15
As instrumentation and control (I and C) systems for modern Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) have been digitalized to cope with their growing complexity, the cyber-security has become an important issue. To protect the I and C systems adequately from cyber threats, such as Stuxnet that attacked Iran's nuclear facilities, regulations of many countries require a cyber-security program covering all the life cycle phases of the system development, from the concept to the retirement. This paper presents a case study of cyber-security program that has been performed during the development of the programmable logic controller (PLC) for modern NPPs of Korea. In the case study, a cyber-security plan, including technical, management, and operational controls, was established through a security risk assessment. Cyber-security activities, such as development of security functions and periodic inspections, were conducted according to the plan: the security functions were applied to the PLC as the technical controls, and periodic inspections and audits were held to check the security of the development environment, as the management and operational controls. A final penetration test was conducted to inspect all the security problems that had been issued during the development. The case study has shown that the systematic cyber-security program detected and removed the vulnerabilities of the target system, which could not be found otherwise, enhancing the cyber-security of the system.
A backtracking algorithm for the stream AND-parallel execution of logic programs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Somogyi, Z.; Ramamohanarao, K.; Vaghani, J. (Univ. of Melbourne, Parkville (Australia))
1988-06-01
The authors present the first backtracking algorithm for stream AND-parallel logic programs. It relies on compile-time knowledge of the data flow graph of each clause to let it figure out efficiently which goals to kill or restart when a goal fails. This crucial information, which they derive from mode declarations, was not available at compile-time in any previous stream AND-parallel system. They show that modes can increase the precision of the backtracking algorithm, though their algorithm allows this precision to be traded off against overhead on a procedure-by-procedure and call-by-call basis. The modes also allow their algorithm to handle efficiently programs that manipulate partially instantiated data structures and an important class of programs with circular dependency graphs. On code that does not need backtracking, the efficiency of their algorithm approaches that of the committed-choice languages; on code that does need backtracking its overhead is comparable to that of the independent AND-parallel backtracking algorithms.
General-purpose RFQ design program
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wadlinger, E.A.
1984-01-01
We have written a general-purpose, radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) design program that allows maximum flexibility in picking design algorithms. This program optimizes the RFQ on any combination of design parameters while simultaneously satisfying mutually compatible, physically required constraint equations. It can be very useful for deriving various scaling laws for RFQs. This program has a friendly user interface in addition to checking the consistency of the user-defined requirements and is written to minimize the effort needed to incorporate additional constraint equations. We describe the program and present some examples
Smets, P
1995-01-01
We start by describing the nature of imperfect data, and giving an overview of the various models that have been proposed. Fuzzy sets theory is shown to be an extension of classical set theory, and as such has a proeminent role or modelling imperfect data. The mathematic of fuzzy sets theory is detailled, in particular the role of the triangular norms. The use of fuzzy sets theory in fuzzy logic and possibility theory,the nature of the generalized modus ponens and of the implication operator for approximate reasoning are analysed. The use of fuzzy logic is detailled for application oriented towards process control and database problems.
Le, Nguyen-Thinh; Menzel, Wolfgang
2009-01-01
In this paper, we introduce logic programming as a domain that exhibits some characteristics of being ill-defined. In order to diagnose student errors in such a domain, we need a means to hypothesise the student's intention, that is the strategy underlying her solution. This is achieved by weighting constraints, so that hypotheses about solution…
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Carbone, Marco; Montesi, Fabrizio; Schürmann, Carsten
2014-01-01
In Choreographic Programming, a distributed system is programmed by giving a choreography, a global description of its interactions, instead of separately specifying the behaviour of each of its processes. Process implementations in terms of a distributed language can then be automatically...... projected from a choreography. We present Linear Compositional Choreographies (LCC), a proof theory for reasoning about programs that modularly combine choreographies with processes. Using LCC, we logically reconstruct a semantics and a projection procedure for programs. For the first time, we also obtain...... a procedure for extracting choreographies from process terms....
Connections among quantum logics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lock, P.F.; Hardegree, G.M.
1985-01-01
In this paper, a theory of quantum logics is proposed which is general enough to enable us to reexamine a previous work on quantum logics in the context of this theory. It is then easy to assess the differences between the different systems studied. The quantum logical systems which are incorporated are divided into two groups which we call ''quantum propositional logics'' and ''quantum event logics''. The work of Kochen and Specker (partial Boolean algebras) is included and so is that of Greechie and Gudder (orthomodular partially ordered sets), Domotar (quantum mechanical systems), and Foulis and Randall (operational logics) in quantum propositional logics; and Abbott (semi-Boolean algebras) and Foulis and Randall (manuals) in quantum event logics, In this part of the paper, an axiom system for quantum propositional logics is developed and the above structures in the context of this system examined. (author)
Relational Parametricity and Separation Logic
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Birkedal, Lars; Yang, Hongseok
2008-01-01
Separation logic is a recent extension of Hoare logic for reasoning about programs with references to shared mutable data structures. In this paper, we provide a new interpretation of the logic for a programming language with higher types. Our interpretation is based on Reynolds's relational...... parametricity, and it provides a formal connection between separation logic and data abstraction. Udgivelsesdato: 2008...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Levy, G.C.; Dudewicz, E.J.; Harner, T.J.
1989-01-01
The main research goal has been to evalute significant factors affecting the in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) parameters R 1 , T 2 , and 1 H density. This approach differs significantly from other such projects in that the experimental data analysis is being performed while concurrently developing automated, computer-aided analysis software for such MRI tissue parameters. In the experimental portion of the project, statistical analyses, and a heuristic minimum/maximum discriminant analysis algorithm have been explored. Both methods have been used to classify tissue types from 1.5 Tesla transaxial MR images of the human brain. The developing program, written in the logic programming language Prolog, similar in a number of ways to many existing expert systems now in use for other medical applications; inclusion of the underlying statistical data base and advanced statistical analyses is the main differentiating feature of the current approach. First results indicate promising classification accuracy of various brain tissues such as gray and white matter, as well as differentiation of different types of gray matter and white matter (e.g.: caudate-nucleus vs. thalamus, both representatives of gray matter; and, cortical white matter vs. internal capsule as representative of white matter). Taking all four tissue types together, the percentage of correct classifications ranges from 73 to 87%. (author)
[Resident evaluation of general surgery training programs].
Espinoza G, Ricardo; Danilla E, Stefan; Valdés G, Fabio; San Francisco R, Ignacio; Llanos L, Osvaldo
2009-07-01
The profile of the general surgeon has changed, aiming to incorporate new skills and to develop new specialties. To assess the quality of postgraduate General Surgery training programs given by Chilean universities, the satisfaction of students and their preferences after finishing the training period. A survey with multiple choice and Likert type questions was designed and applied to 77 surgery residents, corresponding to 59% of all residents of general surgery specialization programs of Chilean universities. Fifty five per cent of residents financed with their own resources the specialization program. Thirty nine percent disagreed partially or totally with the objectives and rotations of programs. The opportunity to perform surgical interventions and the support by teachers was well evaluated. However, 23% revealed teacher maltreatment. Fifty six percent performed research activities, 73% expected to continue training in a derived specialty and 69% was satisfied with the training program. Residents considered that the quality and dedication of professors and financing of programs are issues that must be improved. The opportunity to perform surgical interventions, obtaining a salary for their work and teacher support is considered of utmost importance.
Das, Bhibha M.; Petruzzello, Steven J.; Ryan, Katherine E.
2014-01-01
Transportation workers, who constitute a large sector of the workforce, have worksite factors that harm their health. Worksite wellness programs must target this at-risk population. Although physical activity is often a component of worksite wellness logic models, we consider it the cornerstone for improving the health of mass transit employees. Program theory was based on in-person interviews and focus groups of employees. We identified 4 short-term outcome categories, which provided a chain...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nilsson, Jørgen Fischer
A Gentle introduction to logical languages, logical modeling, formal reasoning and computational logic for computer science and software engineering students......A Gentle introduction to logical languages, logical modeling, formal reasoning and computational logic for computer science and software engineering students...
General versus program-specific welfare chauvinism
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Larsen, Christian Albrekt
2018-01-01
similarity across programs. The Danish welfare chauvinist attitudes are in general fuelled by lack of shared identity with migrants and sociotropic concerns about the economic burden of migration. The article finds little evidence of narrow self-interest effects; with a notable exception of disability...
West, Joseph F
2014-02-01
Diabetes remains a growing epidemic with widening health inequity gaps in disease management, self-management knowledge, access to care and outcomes. Yet there is a paucity of evaluation tools for community engaged interventions aimed at closing the gaps and improving health. The Guide to Community Preventive Services (the Community Guide) developed by the Task Force on Community Preventive Services (the Task Force) at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends two healthcare system level interventions, case management interventions and disease management programs, to improve glycemic control. However, as a public health resource guide for diabetes interventions a model for community engagement is a glaringly absent component of the Community Guide recommendations. In large part there are few evidence-based interventions featuring community engagement as a practice and system-level focus of chronic disease and Type 2 diabetes management. The central argument presented in this paper is that the absence of these types of interventions is due to the lack of tools for modeling and evaluating such interventions, especially among disparate and poor populations. A conceptual model emphasizing action-oriented micro-level community engagement is needed to complement the Community Guide and serve as the basis for testing and evaluation of these kinds of interventions. A unique logic model advancing the Community Guide diabetes recommendations toward measureable and sustainable community engagement for improved Type 2 diabetes outcomes is presented. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Discovering H-bonding rules in crystals with inductive logic programming.
Ando, Howard Y; Dehaspe, Luc; Luyten, Walter; Van Craenenbroeck, Elke; Vandecasteele, Henk; Van Meervelt, Luc
2006-01-01
In the domain of crystal engineering, various schemes have been proposed for the classification of hydrogen bonding (H-bonding) patterns observed in 3D crystal structures. In this study, the aim is to complement these schemes with rules that predict H-bonding in crystals from 2D structural information only. Modern computational power and the advances in inductive logic programming (ILP) can now provide computational chemistry with the opportunity for extracting structure-specific rules from large databases that can be incorporated into expert systems. ILP technology is here applied to H-bonding in crystals to develop a self-extracting expert system utilizing data in the Cambridge Structural Database of small molecule crystal structures. A clear increase in performance was observed when the ILP system DMax was allowed to refer to the local structural environment of the possible H-bond donor/acceptor pairs. This ability distinguishes ILP from more traditional approaches that build rules on the basis of global molecular properties.
Logic programming to predict cell fate patterns and retrodict genotypes in organogenesis.
Hall, Benjamin A; Jackson, Ethan; Hajnal, Alex; Fisher, Jasmin
2014-09-06
Caenorhabditis elegans vulval development is a paradigm system for understanding cell differentiation in the process of organogenesis. Through temporal and spatial controls, the fate pattern of six cells is determined by the competition of the LET-23 and the Notch signalling pathways. Modelling cell fate determination in vulval development using state-based models, coupled with formal analysis techniques, has been established as a powerful approach in predicting the outcome of combinations of mutations. However, computing the outcomes of complex and highly concurrent models can become prohibitive. Here, we show how logic programs derived from state machines describing the differentiation of C. elegans vulval precursor cells can increase the speed of prediction by four orders of magnitude relative to previous approaches. Moreover, this increase in speed allows us to infer, or 'retrodict', compatible genomes from cell fate patterns. We exploit this technique to predict highly variable cell fate patterns resulting from dig-1 reduced-function mutations and let-23 mosaics. In addition to the new insights offered, we propose our technique as a platform for aiding the design and analysis of experimental data. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.
D0 General Support: The Use of Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs) at D0
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hance, R.
2000-01-01
With the exception of control of heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) ventilation fans, and their shutdown in the case of smoke in the ducts, all implementations of Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs) in Dzero have been made within the fundamental premise that no uncertified PLC apparatus shall be entrusted with the safety of equipment or personnel. Thus although PLCs are used to control and monitor all manner of intricate equipment, simple hardware interlocks and relief devices provide basic protection against component failure, control failure, or inappropriate control operation. Nevertheless, this report includes two observations as follows: (1) It may be prudent to reconfigure the link between the Pyrotronics system and the HVAC system such that the Pyrotronics system provides interlocks to the ventilation fans instead of control inputs to the uncertified HVAC PLCs. Although the Pyrotronics system is certified and maintained to life safety standards, the HVAC system is not. A hardware or software failure of the HVAC system probably should not be allowed to result in the situation where the ventilation fans in a smoke filled duct continue to operate. Dan Markley is investigating this matter. (2) It may also be prudent to examine the network security of those systems connected to the Fermilab WAN (HVAC, Cryo, and Solenoid Controls). Even though the impact of a successful hack might only be to operations, it might nevertheless be disruptive and could be expensive. The risks should perhaps be analyzed. One of the most attractive features of these systems, from a user's viewpoint, is their unlimited networking. The unlimited networking that makes the systems so convenient to legitimate access also makes them vulnerable to illegitimate access.
General Electric's training program for BWR chemists
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Osborn, R.N.; Lim, W.
1981-01-01
This paper describes the development and implementation of the General Electric boiling water reactor chemistry training program from 1959 to the present. The original intention of this program was to provide practical hands on type training in radiochemistry to BWR chemistry supervisors with fossil station experience. This emphasis on radiochemistry has not changed through the years, but the training has expanded to include the high purity water chemistry of the BWR and has been modified to include new commission requirements, engineering developments and advanced instrumentation. Student and instructor qualifications are discussed and a description of the spin off courses for chemistry technicians and refresher training is presented
Fuzzy Logic vs. Neutrosophic Logic: Operations Logic
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Salah Bouzina
2016-12-01
Full Text Available The goal of this research is first to show how different, thorough, widespread and effective are the operations logic of the neutrosophic logic compared to the fuzzy logic’s operations logical. The second aim is to observe how a fully new logic, the neutrosophic logic, is established starting by changing the previous logical perspective fuzzy logic, and by changing that, we mean changing changing the truth values from the truth and falsity degrees membership in fuzzy logic, to the truth, falsity and indeterminacy degrees membership in neutrosophic logic; and thirdly, to observe that there is no limit to the logical discoveries - we only change the principle, then the system changes completely.
Bernardes, Juliana S; Carbone, Alessandra; Zaverucha, Gerson
2011-03-23
Remote homology detection is a hard computational problem. Most approaches have trained computational models by using either full protein sequences or multiple sequence alignments (MSA), including all positions. However, when we deal with proteins in the "twilight zone" we can observe that only some segments of sequences (motifs) are conserved. We introduce a novel logical representation that allows us to represent physico-chemical properties of sequences, conserved amino acid positions and conserved physico-chemical positions in the MSA. From this, Inductive Logic Programming (ILP) finds the most frequent patterns (motifs) and uses them to train propositional models, such as decision trees and support vector machines (SVM). We use the SCOP database to perform our experiments by evaluating protein recognition within the same superfamily. Our results show that our methodology when using SVM performs significantly better than some of the state of the art methods, and comparable to other. However, our method provides a comprehensible set of logical rules that can help to understand what determines a protein function. The strategy of selecting only the most frequent patterns is effective for the remote homology detection. This is possible through a suitable first-order logical representation of homologous properties, and through a set of frequent patterns, found by an ILP system, that summarizes essential features of protein functions.
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Horčík, Rostislav; Cintula, Petr
2004-01-01
Roč. 43, - (2004), s. 477-503 ISSN 1432-0665 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA1030004; GA ČR GA201/02/1540 Grant - others:GA CTU(CZ) project 0208613; net CEEPUS(SK) SK-042 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1030915 Keywords : fuzzy logic * many-valued logic * Lukasiewicz logic * Lpi logic * Takeuti-Titani logic * MV-algebras * product MV-algebras Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.295, year: 2004
General Tokamak Circuit Simulation Program-GTCSP
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Matsukawa, Makoto; Miura, Yushi; Aoyagi, Tetsuo.
1997-05-01
General Tokamak Circuit Simulation Program (GTCSP) was originally developed for the design work of JT-60 Power Supply System in JAERI. Therefore the prepared models (components) to be analyzed are generator, thyristor converter and coils. This is one of the unique points of GTCSP in comparison with other conventional electric circuit analysis program, because they make a circuit from the small devices such as resister, coil, condenser, transistor and so on. However, GTCSP is also clearly conventional because it is possible to construct an electric circuit freely with the prepared components. Moreover, a similar function could be realized by addition a new component to GTCSP. This report is assumed to be used as an User Manual of the GTCSP, not only to present the development and the analytical functions. Then some useful examples are described, and how to get graphic outputs are also mentioned. (author)
Nashiroh, Putri Khoirin; Kamdi, Waras; Elmunsyah, Hakkun
2017-09-01
Web programming is a basic subject in Computer and Informatics Engineering, a program study in a vocational high school. It requires logical thinking ability in its learning activities. The purposes of this research were (1) to develop a web programming module that implement scientific approach that can improve logical thinking ability for students in vocational high school; and (2) to test the effectiveness of web programming module based on scientific approach to train students' logical thinking ability. The results of this research was a web-programming module that apply scientific approach for learning activities to improve logical thinking ability of students in the vocational high school. The results of the effectiveness test of web-programming module give conclusion that it was very effective to train logical thinking ability and to improve learning result, this conclusion was supported by: (1) the average of posttest result of students exceeds the minimum criterion value, it was 79.91; (2) the average percentage of students' logical thinking score is 82,98; and (3) the average percentage of students' responses to the web programming module was 81.86%.
General purpose programmable accelerator board
Robertson, Perry J.; Witzke, Edward L.
2001-01-01
A general purpose accelerator board and acceleration method comprising use of: one or more programmable logic devices; a plurality of memory blocks; bus interface for communicating data between the memory blocks and devices external to the board; and dynamic programming capabilities for providing logic to the programmable logic device to be executed on data in the memory blocks.
Clapham, Kathleen; Manning, Claire; Williams, Kathryn; O'Brien, Ginger; Sutherland, Margaret
2017-04-01
Despite clear evidence that learning and social opportunities for children with disabilities and special needs are more effective in inclusive not segregated settings, there are few known effective inclusion programs available to children with disabilities, their families or teachers in the early years within Australia. The Kids Together program was developed to support children with disabilities/additional needs aged 0-8 years attending mainstream early learning environments. Using a key worker transdisciplinary team model, the program aligns with the individualised package approach of the National Disability Insurance Scheme (NDIS). This paper reports on the use of a logic model to underpin the process, outcomes and impact evaluation of the Kids Together program. The research team worked across 15 Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC) centres and in home and community settings. A realist evaluation using mixed methods was undertaken to understand what works, for whom and in what contexts. The development of a logic model provided a structured way to explore how the program was implemented and achieved short, medium and long term outcomes within a complex community setting. Kids Together was shown to be a highly effective and innovative model for supporting the inclusion of children with disabilities/additional needs in a range of environments central for early childhood learning and development. The use of a logic model provided a visual representation of the Kids Together model and its component parts and enabled a theory of change to be inferred, showing how a coordinated and collaborative approached can work across multiple environments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Runway Scheduling Using Generalized Dynamic Programming
Montoya, Justin; Wood, Zachary; Rathinam, Sivakumar
2011-01-01
A generalized dynamic programming method for finding a set of pareto optimal solutions for a runway scheduling problem is introduced. The algorithm generates a set of runway fight sequences that are optimal for both runway throughput and delay. Realistic time-based operational constraints are considered, including miles-in-trail separation, runway crossings, and wake vortex separation. The authors also model divergent runway takeoff operations to allow for reduced wake vortex separation. A modeled Dallas/Fort Worth International airport and three baseline heuristics are used to illustrate preliminary benefits of using the generalized dynamic programming method. Simulated traffic levels ranged from 10 aircraft to 30 aircraft with each test case spanning 15 minutes. The optimal solution shows a 40-70 percent decrease in the expected delay per aircraft over the baseline schedulers. Computational results suggest that the algorithm is promising for real-time application with an average computation time of 4.5 seconds. For even faster computation times, two heuristics are developed. As compared to the optimal, the heuristics are within 5% of the expected delay per aircraft and 1% of the expected number of runway operations per hour ad can be 100x faster.
Coping with Logical Fallacies: A Developmental Training Program for Learning to Reason
Christoforides, Michael; Spanoudis, George; Demetriou, Andreas
2016-01-01
This study trained children to master logical fallacies and examined how learning is related to processing efficiency and fluid intelligence (gf). A total of one hundred and eighty 8- and 11-year-old children living in Cyprus were allocated to a control, a limited (LI), and a full instruction (FI) group. The LI group learned the notion of logical…
A DNAzyme-mediated logic gate for programming molecular capture and release on DNA origami.
Li, Feiran; Chen, Haorong; Pan, Jing; Cha, Tae-Gon; Medintz, Igor L; Choi, Jong Hyun
2016-06-28
Here we design a DNA origami-based site-specific molecular capture and release platform operated by a DNAzyme-mediated logic gate process. We show the programmability and versatility of this platform with small molecules, proteins, and nanoparticles, which may also be controlled by external light signals.
Perréard, S
1993-01-01
Many processes are controlled by experts using some kind of mental model to decide actions and make conclusions. This model, based on heuristic knowledge, can often be conveniently represented in rules and has not to be particularly accurate. This is the case for the problem of conditioning high voltage radio-frequency cavities: the expert has to decide, by observing some criteria, if he can increase or if he has to decrease the voltage and by how much. A program has been implemented which can be applied to a class of similar problems. The kernel of the program is a small rule base, which is independent of the kind of cavity. To model a specific cavity, we use fuzzy logic which is implemented as a separate routine called by the rule base. We use fuzzy logic to translate from numeric to symbolic information. The example we chose for applying this kind of technique can be implemented by sequential programming. The two versions exist for comparison. However, we believe that this kind of programming can be powerf...
Logical Characterisation of Ontology Construction using Fuzzy Description Logics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Badie, Farshad; Götzsche, Hans
had the extension of ontologies with Fuzzy Logic capabilities which plan to make proper backgrounds for ontology driven reasoning and argumentation on vague and imprecise domains. This presentation conceptualises learning from fuzzy classes using the Inductive Logic Programming framework. Then......, employs Description Logics in characterising and analysing fuzzy statements. And finally, provides a conceptual framework describing fuzzy concept learning in ontologies using the Inductive Logic Programming....
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wall, M.J.W.
1992-01-01
The notion of open-quotes probabilityclose quotes is generalized to that of open-quotes likelihood,close quotes and a natural logical structure is shown to exist for any physical theory which predicts likelihoods. Two physically based axioms are given for this logical structure to form an orthomodular poset, with an order-determining set of states. The results strengthen the basis of the quantum logic approach to axiomatic quantum theory. 25 refs
Pereyra, Nicolas A.
2018-06-01
This book gives a rigorous yet 'physics-focused' introduction to mathematical logic that is geared towards natural science majors. We present the science major with a robust introduction to logic, focusing on the specific knowledge and skills that will unavoidably be needed in calculus topics and natural science topics in general (rather than taking a philosophical-math-fundamental oriented approach that is commonly found in mathematical logic textbooks).
Quantum Logic and Quantum Reconstruction
Stairs, Allen
2015-01-01
Quantum logic understood as a reconstruction program had real successes and genuine limitations. This paper offers a synopsis of both and suggests a way of seeing quantum logic in a larger, still thriving context.
General Atomics Sciences Education Foundation Outreach Programs
Winter, Patricia S.
1997-11-01
Scientific literacy for all students is a national goal. The General Atomics (GA) Foundation Outreach Program is committed to playing a major role in enhancing pre-college education in science, engineering and new technologies. GA has received wide recognition for its Sciences Education Program, a volunteer effort of GA employees and San Diego science teachers. GA teacher/scientist teams have developed inquiry-based education modules and associated workshops based on areas of core competency at GA: Fusion -- Energy of the Stars; Explorations in Materials Science; Portrait of an Atom; DNA Technology. [http://www.sci-ed-ga.org]. Workshops [teachers receive printed materials and laboratory kits for ``hands-on" modules] have been presented for 700+ teachers from 200+ area schools. Additional workshops include: University of Denver for Denver Public Schools; National Educators Workshop; Standard Experiments in Engineering Materials; Update '96 in Los Alamos; Newspapers in Education Workshop (LA Times); American Chemical Society Regional/National meetings, and California Science Teachers Association Conference. Other outreach includes High School Science Day, school partnerships, teacher and student mentoring and the San Diego Science Alliance [http://www.sdsa.org].
Answer Sets in a Fuzzy Equilibrium Logic
Schockaert, Steven; Janssen, Jeroen; Vermeir, Dirk; de Cock, Martine
Since its introduction, answer set programming has been generalized in many directions, to cater to the needs of real-world applications. As one of the most general “classical” approaches, answer sets of arbitrary propositional theories can be defined as models in the equilibrium logic of Pearce. Fuzzy answer set programming, on the other hand, extends answer set programming with the capability of modeling continuous systems. In this paper, we combine the expressiveness of both approaches, and define answer sets of arbitrary fuzzy propositional theories as models in a fuzzification of equilibrium logic. We show that the resulting notion of answer set is compatible with existing definitions, when the syntactic restrictions of the corresponding approaches are met. We furthermore locate the complexity of the main reasoning tasks at the second level of the polynomial hierarchy. Finally, as an illustration of its modeling power, we show how fuzzy equilibrium logic can be used to find strong Nash equilibria.
Dal Palù, Alessandro; Pontelli, Enrico; He, Jing; Lu, Yonggang
2007-01-01
The paper describes a novel framework, constructed using Constraint Logic Programming (CLP) and parallelism, to determine the association between parts of the primary sequence of a protein and alpha-helices extracted from 3D low-resolution descriptions of large protein complexes. The association is determined by extracting constraints from the 3D information, regarding length, relative position and connectivity of helices, and solving these constraints with the guidance of a secondary structure prediction algorithm. Parallelism is employed to enhance performance on large proteins. The framework provides a fast, inexpensive alternative to determine the exact tertiary structure of unknown proteins.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mittelstaedt, P.
1979-01-01
The subspaces of Hilbert space constitute an orthocomplemented quasimodular lattice Lsub(q) for which neither a two-valued function nor generalized truth function exist. A generalisation of the dialogic method can be used as an interpretation of a lattice Lsub(qi), which may be considered as the intuitionistic part of Lsub(q). Some obvious modifications of the dialogic method are introduced which come from the possible incommensurability of propositions about quantum mechanical systems. With the aid of this generalized dialogic method a propositional calculus Qsub(eff) is derived which is similar to the calculus of effective (intuitionistic) logic, but contains a few restrictions which are based on the incommensurability of quantum mechanical propositions. It can be shown within the framework of the calculus Qsub(eff) that the value-definiteness of the elementary propositions which are proved by quantum mechanical propositions is inherited by all finite compund propositions. In this way one arrives at the calculus Q of full quantum logic which incorporates the principle of excluded middle for all propositions and which is a model for the lattice Lsub(q). (Auth.)
Smullyan, Raymond
2008-01-01
This book features a unique approach to the teaching of mathematical logic by putting it in the context of the puzzles and paradoxes of common language and rational thought. It serves as a bridge from the author's puzzle books to his technical writing in the fascinating field of mathematical logic. Using the logic of lying and truth-telling, the author introduces the readers to informal reasoning preparing them for the formal study of symbolic logic, from propositional logic to first-order logic, a subject that has many important applications to philosophy, mathematics, and computer science. T
Fuzzy Logic and Arithmetical Hierarchy III
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Hájek, Petr
2001-01-01
Roč. 68, č. 1 (2001), s. 129-142 ISSN 0039-3215 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA1030004 Institutional research plan: AV0Z1030915 Keywords : fuzzy logic * basic fuzzy logic * Lukasiewicz logic * Godel logic * product logic * arithmetical hierarchy Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics
75 FR 34093 - Information Collection; General Program Administration
2010-06-16
... Administration AGENCY: Farm Service Agency, USDA. ACTION: Notice; request for comments. SUMMARY: In accordance... supports Farm Loan Programs (FLP) for the General Program Administration. DATES: We will consider comments.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Farm Loan Programs--General Program Administration (7 CFR part 761). OMB...
40 CFR 76.3 - General Acid Rain Program provisions.
2010-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General Acid Rain Program provisions. 76.3 Section 76.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) ACID RAIN NITROGEN OXIDES EMISSION REDUCTION PROGRAM § 76.3 General Acid Rain Program provisions...
Nuno David; Jaime Simão Sichman; Helder Coelho
2005-01-01
WOS:000235217900009 (Nº de Acesso Web of Science) The classical theory of computation does not represent an adequate model of reality for simulation in the social sciences. The aim of this paper is to construct a methodological perspective that is able to conciliate the formal and empirical logic of program verification in computer science, with the interpretative and multiparadigmatic logic of the social sciences. We attempt to evaluate whether social simulation implies an additional pers...
Gutmann, Bernd
2011-01-01
In the last decade remarkable progress has been made on combining statistical machine learning techniques, reasoning under uncertainty, and relational representations. The branch of Artificial Intelligence working on the synthesis of these three areas is known as statistical relational learning or probabilistic logic learning.ProbLog, one of the probabilistic frameworks developed, is an extension of the logic programming language Prolog with independent random variables that are defined by an...
General programmed system for physiological signal processing
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tournier, E; Monge, J; Magnet, C; Sonrel, C
1975-01-01
Improvements made to the general programmed signal acquisition and processing system, Plurimat S, are described, the aim being to obtain a less specialized system adapted to the biological and medical field. In this modified system the acquisition will be simplified. The standard processings offered will be integrated to a real advanced language which will enable the user to create his own processings, the loss of speed being compensated by a greater flexibility and universality. The observation screen will be large and the quality of the recording very good so that a large signal fraction may be displayed. The data will be easily indexed and filed for subsequent display and processing. This system will be used for two kinds of task: it can either be specialized, as an integral part of measurement and diagnostic preparation equipment used routinely in clinical work (e.g. vectocardiographic examination), or its versatility can be used for studies of limited duration to gain information in a given field or to study new diagnosis or treatment methods.
Allied-General operator training program
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ayers, A.L.; Ebel, P.E.
1975-01-01
All operators at Allied-General Nuclear Services are initially trained in the basic concepts of radiation and radiation protection, they are drilled in the basic technical tools needed for further training, they are instructed in the design and operation of the Barnwell Nuclear Fuel Plant, and they are introduced to the actual operations via operating procedures. This all occurs during the Before-the-Baseline training phase and then the operators move on Beyond-the-Baseline. There they physically learn how to do their job at their own pace using checklists as a guide. All operators are then internally certified. Progression is based on demonstrated ability and those that qualify go on to jobs requiring NRC licenses. Upon internal certification, retraining commences immediately and will continue in its four month, one year, and two year cycles. Current feedback from the various classes that have completed the courses and are now in the retraining program indicates that this combination of initial technical training, on-the-job training, and retraining will produce and maintain effective, safe, and efficient operators
Program for generating tests for the detection of failures in combinatorial logic systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mansour, Mounir
1972-01-01
A method for generating test sequences for detecting failures in combinatorial logic systems, is described. It relies on: the splitting of these systems into elements of NOR and NAND circuits, the propagation of the failure state from the input to the output. Test sequences generation is achieved in two steps: a first one called chaining during which are investigated the propagation paths of an input state able to show off failures, a second one called consistency during which the global state of the circuit related to this input configuration is held to the wanted state so that the propagation takes place. (author) [fr
Kleene, Stephen Cole
1967-01-01
Undergraduate students with no prior instruction in mathematical logic will benefit from this multi-part text. Part I offers an elementary but thorough overview of mathematical logic of 1st order. Part II introduces some of the newer ideas and the more profound results of logical research in the 20th century. 1967 edition.
Meyer, J.J.Ch.; Broersen, J.M.; Herzig, A.
2015-01-01
This paper presents an overview of so-called BDI logics, logics where the notion of Beliefs, Desires and Intentions play a central role. Starting out from the basic ideas about BDI by Bratman, we consider various formalizations in logic, such as the approach of Cohen and Levesque, slightly
GOAL Agents Instantiate Intention Logic
Hindriks, Koen; van der Hoek, Wiebe
2008-01-01
It is commonly believed there is a big gap between agent logics and computational agent frameworks. In this paper, we show that this gap is not as big as believed by showing that GOAL agents instantiate Intention Logic of Cohen and Levesque. That is, we show that GOAL agent programs can be formally related to Intention Logic.We do so by proving that the GOAL Verification Logic can be embedded into Intention Logic. It follows that (a fragment of) Intention Logic can be used t...
Korkmaz, Özgen
2016-01-01
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the Scratch and Lego Mindstorms Ev3 programming activities on academic achievement with respect to computer programming, and on the problem-solving and logical-mathematical thinking skills of students. This study was a semi-experimental, pretest-posttest study with two experimental groups and…
An Embedded Reconfigurable Logic Module
Tucker, Jerry H.; Klenke, Robert H.; Shams, Qamar A. (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
A Miniature Embedded Reconfigurable Computer and Logic (MERCAL) module has been developed and verified. MERCAL was designed to be a general-purpose, universal module that that can provide significant hardware and software resources to meet the requirements of many of today's complex embedded applications. This is accomplished in the MERCAL module by combining a sub credit card size PC in a DIMM form factor with a XILINX Spartan I1 FPGA. The PC has the ability to download program files to the FPGA to configure it for different hardware functions and to transfer data to and from the FPGA via the PC's ISA bus during run time. The MERCAL module combines, in a compact package, the computational power of a 133 MHz PC with up to 150,000 gate equivalents of digital logic that can be reconfigured by software. The general architecture and functionality of the MERCAL hardware and system software are described.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Widasari Edita Rosana
2018-01-01
Full Text Available Sidoarjo mudflow or known as Lapindo mudflow erupted since 2006. The Sidoarjo mudflow is located in Sidoarjo City, East Java, Indonesia. The mudflow-affected area has high air pollution level and high health risk. Therefore, in this paper was implemented a system that can categorize the level of air pollution into several categories. The air quality index can be categorized using fuzzy logic algorithm based on the concentration of air pollutant parameters in the mudflow-affected area. Furthermore, Dataflow programming is used to process the fuzzy logic algorithm. Based on the result, the measurement accuracy of the air quality index in the mudflow-affected area has an accuracy rate of 93.92% in Siring Barat, 93.34% in Mindi, and 95.96% in Jatirejo. The methane concentration is passes the standard quality even though the air quality index is safe. Hence, the area is indicated into Hazardous level. In addition, Mindi has highest and stable methane concentration. It means that Mindi has high-risk air pollution.
Hygiene and Industrial Security Program: General aspects
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1988-01-01
This Venezuelan standard establishes the aspects that must be included in the elaboration and monitoring of an Hygiene and Industrial Security Program (Prevention of Accidents and Occupational Diseases Program). It is applicable to any type of exploitation company, or any kind of task (in nature or importance) where people work, no matter the number workers [es
Neighborhood semantics for modal many-valued logics
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Cintula, Petr; Noguera, Carles
online 18 October 2017 (2018) ISSN 0165-0114 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GF15-34650L EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 689176 - SYSMICS Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) JSPS-16-08; Austrian Science Fund(AT) I1897-N25 Program:Bilaterální spolupráce Institutional support: RVO:67985807 ; RVO:67985556 Keywords : mathematical fuzzy logic * modal fuzzy logics * neighborhood frames * Kripke semantics * many-valued logics Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics; BA - General Mathematics (UTIA-B) Impact factor: 2.718, year: 2016
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Piriou, Pierre-Yves; Faure, Jean-Marc; Lesage, Jean-Jacques
2017-01-01
This paper presents a modeling framework that permits to describe in an integrated manner the structure of the critical system to analyze, by using an enriched fault tree, the dysfunctional behavior of its components, by means of Markov processes, and the reconfiguration strategies that have been planned to ensure safety and availability, with Moore machines. This framework has been developed from BDMP (Boolean logic Driven Markov Processes), a previous framework for dynamic repairable systems. First, the contribution is motivated by pinpointing the limitations of BDMP to model complex reconfiguration strategies and the failures of the control of these strategies. The syntax and semantics of GBDMP (Generalized Boolean logic Driven Markov Processes) are then formally defined; in particular, an algorithm to analyze the dynamic behavior of a GBDMP model is developed. The modeling capabilities of this framework are illustrated on three representative examples. Last, qualitative and quantitative analysis of GDBMP models highlight the benefits of the approach.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kato, A.; Tsuji, H.; Okamoto, Y.
1984-01-01
A plant diagnostic method using Cause Consequence Tree (CCT) has been recognized as a powerful means to identify and analyze plant fault events. The off-line support program called the 'CCT diagram editor' was developed and it could generate the computer object program by inputting the CCT diagram itself using the CRT display, tablet and key-board just as the computer aided design (CAD). The CCT diagram editor has improved the problems of the programming error, difficulty of correction or modification and productivity of the program. The system can be used also for safety analysis of nuclear power plants. (author)
Logic programming reveals alteration of key transcription factors in multiple myeloma.
Miannay, Bertrand; Minvielle, Stéphane; Roux, Olivier; Drouin, Pierre; Avet-Loiseau, Hervé; Guérin-Charbonnel, Catherine; Gouraud, Wilfried; Attal, Michel; Facon, Thierry; Munshi, Nikhil C; Moreau, Philippe; Campion, Loïc; Magrangeas, Florence; Guziolowski, Carito
2017-08-23
Innovative approaches combining regulatory networks (RN) and genomic data are needed to extract biological information for a better understanding of diseases, such as cancer, by improving the identification of entities and thereby leading to potential new therapeutic avenues. In this study, we confronted an automatically generated RN with gene expression profiles (GEP) from a cohort of multiple myeloma (MM) patients and normal individuals using global reasoning on the RN causality to identify key-nodes. We modeled each patient by his or her GEP, the RN and the possible automatically detected repairs needed to establish a coherent flow of the information that explains the logic of the GEP. These repairs could represent cancer mutations leading to GEP variability. With this reasoning, unmeasured protein states can be inferred, and we can simulate the impact of a protein perturbation on the RN behavior to identify therapeutic targets. We showed that JUN/FOS and FOXM1 activities are altered in almost all MM patients and identified two survival markers for MM patients. Our results suggest that JUN/FOS-activation has a strong impact on the RN in view of the whole GEP, whereas FOXM1-activation could be an interesting way to perturb an MM subgroup identified by our method.
Le Balleur, J. C.
1988-01-01
The applicability of conventional mathematical analysis (based on the combination of two-valued logic and probability theory) to problems in which human judgment, perception, or emotions play significant roles is considered theoretically. It is shown that dispositional logic, a branch of fuzzy logic, has particular relevance to the common-sense reasoning typical of human decision-making. The concepts of dispositionality and usuality are defined analytically, and a dispositional conjunctive rule and dispositional modus ponens are derived.
Scheduler-specific Confidentiality for Multi-Threaded Programs and Its Logic-Based Verification
Huisman, Marieke; Ngo, Minh Tri
2011-01-01
Observational determinism has been proposed in the literature as a way to ensure confidentiality for multi-threaded programs. Intuitively, a program is observationally deterministic if the behavior of the public variables is deterministic, i.e., independent of the private variables and the
Scheduler-Specific Confidentiality for Multi-Threaded Programs and Its Logic-Based Verification
Huisman, Marieke; Ngo, Minh Tri; Beckert, B.; Damiani, F.; Gurov, D.
2012-01-01
Observational determinism has been proposed in the literature as a way to ensure condentiality for multi-threaded programs. Intuitively, a program is observationally deterministic if the behavior of the public variables is deterministic, i.e., independent of the private variables and the scheduling
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Braüner, Torben
2011-01-01
Hybrid logic is an extension of modal logic which allows us to refer explicitly to points of the model in the syntax of formulas. It is easy to justify interest in hybrid logic on applied grounds, with the usefulness of the additional expressive power. For example, when reasoning about time one...... often wants to build up a series of assertions about what happens at a particular instant, and standard modal formalisms do not allow this. What is less obvious is that the route hybrid logic takes to overcome this problem often actually improves the behaviour of the underlying modal formalism....... For example, it becomes far simpler to formulate proof-systems for hybrid logic, and completeness results can be proved of a generality that is simply not available in modal logic. That is, hybridization is a systematic way of remedying a number of known deficiencies of modal logic. First-order hybrid logic...
A logical approach to determine a waste segregation/volume reduction program
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shriner, G.D.; Carmel, P.G.; Shimmura, H.
1986-01-01
This paper discusses advantages and disadvantages of hand sorting versus use of automated radioactive waste segregation monitors and makes an analysis of costs/versus benefits based on volume with time. Many programs to be employed to prevent unnecessary waste generation with little or no additional cost to the power plant. Parameters needed to perform a cost analysis and methods used to obtain them are discussed. Recommendations on use of vendor-supplied services for segregation, volume reduction, and decontamination are given. The data provided will enable the selection of a program(s) to benefit the individual user's requirements
Logical inference and evaluation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Perey, F.G.
1981-01-01
Most methodologies of evaluation currently used are based upon the theory of statistical inference. It is generally perceived that this theory is not capable of dealing satisfactorily with what are called systematic errors. Theories of logical inference should be capable of treating all of the information available, including that not involving frequency data. A theory of logical inference is presented as an extension of deductive logic via the concept of plausibility and the application of group theory. Some conclusions, based upon the application of this theory to evaluation of data, are also given
Tugué, Tosiyuki; Slaman, Theodore
1989-01-01
These proceedings include the papers presented at the logic meeting held at the Research Institute for Mathematical Sciences, Kyoto University, in the summer of 1987. The meeting mainly covered the current research in various areas of mathematical logic and its applications in Japan. Several lectures were also presented by logicians from other countries, who visited Japan in the summer of 1987.
Engineering a General Education Program: Designing Mechanical Engineering General Education Courses
Fagette, Paul; Chen, Shih-Jiun; Baran, George R.; Samuel, Solomon P.; Kiani, Mohammad F.
2013-01-01
The Department of Mechanical Engineering at our institution created two engineering courses for the General Education Program that count towards second level general science credit (traditional science courses are first level). The courses were designed for the general student population based upon the requirements of our General Education Program…
22 CFR 62.8 - General program requirements.
2010-04-01
... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false General program requirements. 62.8 Section 62.8 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PUBLIC DIPLOMACY AND EXCHANGES EXCHANGE VISITOR PROGRAM General... purpose of sharing the language, culture, or history of their home country with Americans, provided such...
78 FR 54862 - Information Collection; General Program Administration
2013-09-06
... Administration AGENCY: Farm Service Agency, USDA. ACTION: Notice; request for comments. SUMMARY: In accordance... associated with FSA's Farm Loan Programs (FLP) General Program Administration. The information collected is... Program Administration. OMB Control Number: 0560-0238. Expiration Date of Approval: 02/28/2014. Type of...
Teaching an Introductory Programming Language in a General Education Course
Ali, Azad; Smith, David
2014-01-01
A department of computer science (CS) has faced a peculiar situation regarding their selection of introductory programming course. This course is a required course for the students enrolled in the CS program and is a prerequisite to their other advanced programming courses. At the same time, the course can be considered a general education course…
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Willie, Randall R.; Rabien, U.
1997-01-01
1 - Description of problem or function: FTAP is a general-purpose program for deriving minimal reliability cut and path set families from the fault tree for a complex system. The program has a number of useful features that make it well-suited to nearly all fault tree applications. An input fault tree may specify the system state as any logical function of subsystem or component state variables or complements of these variables; thus, for instance, 'exclusive-or' type relations may be formed. When fault tree logical relations involve complements of state variables, the analyst may instruct FTAP to produce a family of prime implicants, a generalization of the minimal cut set concept. The program offers the flexibility of several distinct methods of generating cut set families. FTAP can also identify certain subsystems as system modules and provide a collection of minimal cut set families that essentially expresses the system state as a function of these module state variables. Another feature allows a useful subfamily to be obtained when the family of minimal cut sets or prime implicants is too large to be found in its entirety; this subfamily may consist of only those sets not containing more than some fixed number of elements or only those sets 'interesting' to the analyst in some special sense. Finally, the analyst can modify the input fault tree in various ways by declaring state variables identically true or false. 2 - Method of solution: Fault tree methods are based on the observation that the system state, either working or failed, can usually be expressed as a Boolean relation between states of several large, readily identifiable subsystems. The state of each subsystem in turn depends on states of simpler subsystems and components which compose it, so that the state of the system itself is determined by a hierarchy of logical relationships between states of subsystems. A fault tree is a graphical representation of these relationships. 3 - Restrictions on the
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nadson Santana Reis
2015-05-01
Full Text Available This study is an initial attempt to assess the "Sports Training Program at School - Athlete at School" and is structured according to its wide three "lines of action", namely: encouragement and democratization of sports practices at school; development and dissemination of the Olympic and Paralympic values among students of basic education; and identification and guidance of young talents. In the case of the first two lines, the results show weaknesses, mismatches, and inaccuracies between the theoretical conceptual framework and the technical operational design. On the other hand, the last line confers identity and compliancy to the program, (redirecting the school and physical education to the old "game" of sports massification, and identification and selection of talents. Therefore, the considerations indicate the need to counteract the renewed risk of using the school, physical education, and educational sports policies in accordance with the desires and prerogatives of the sports sector stricto sensu.
Choi, Jeeyae; Bakken, Suzanne; Lussier, Yves A; Mendonça, Eneida A
2006-01-01
Medical logic modules are a procedural representation for sharing task-specific knowledge for decision support systems. Based on the premise that clinicians may perceive object-oriented expressions as easier to read than procedural rules in Arden Syntax-based medical logic modules, we developed a method for improving the readability of medical logic modules. Two approaches were applied: exploiting the concept-oriented features of the Medical Entities Dictionary and building an executable Java program to replace Arden Syntax procedural expressions. The usability evaluation showed that 66% of participants successfully mapped all Arden Syntax rules to Java methods. These findings suggest that these approaches can play an essential role in the creation of human readable medical logic modules and can potentially increase the number of clinical experts who are able to participate in the creation of medical logic modules. Although our approaches are broadly applicable, we specifically discuss the relevance to concept-oriented nursing terminologies and automated processing of task-specific nursing knowledge.
General multi-configuration Hartree--Fock program: MCHF77
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fischer, C.F.
1977-11-01
This technical report contains a listing of a general program for multi-configuration Hartree--Fock (MCHF) calculations, including its documentation. Several examples are given showing how the program may be used. Typical output for several cases is also presented. This program has been tested over an extended period of time for a large variety of cases. This program is written for the IBM 360 or 370 in double-precision arithmetic
Fisher, Michael; Gabbay, Dov; Gough, Graham
2000-01-01
Time is a fascinating subject that has captured mankind's imagination from ancient times to the present. It has been, and continues to be studied across a wide range of disciplines, from the natural sciences to philosophy and logic. More than two decades ago, Pnueli in a seminal work showed the value of temporal logic in the specification and verification of computer programs. Today, a strong, vibrant international research community exists in the broad community of computer science and AI. This volume presents a number of articles from leading researchers containing state-of-the-art results in such areas as pure temporal/modal logic, specification and verification, temporal databases, temporal aspects in AI, tense and aspect in natural language, and temporal theorem proving. Earlier versions of some of the articles were given at the most recent International Conference on Temporal Logic, University of Manchester, UK. Readership: Any student of the area - postgraduate, postdoctoral or even research professor ...
PROBABILISTIC COST ANALYSIS OF LOGIC PROGRAMS ANÁLISIS DE COSTO PROBABILÍSTICO DE PROGRAMAS LÓGICOS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Héctor Juan Soza Pollman
2009-08-01
Full Text Available Cost analyses of logic programs have been developed which make it possible to obtain automatically lower and upper bounds of runtime cost of computations. This information is very useful for a variety of purposes, including granularity control, query optimization in databases, and program transformation and synthesis. However, current techniques suffer a loss of accuracy in some cases which are quite representative (i.e., some divide-and-conquer programs as QuickSort. This paper describes an alternative probabilistic approach which makes it possible to figure out an estimate of the execution cost. One of its advantages is that it needs only a few changes over previously proposed schemes.Se han desarrollado análisis de costos de programas lógicos para obtener automáticamente cotas superiores e inferiores del costo del tiempo de ejecución de dicho tipo de programas. Esta información es muy útil para una variedad de propósitos, incluyendo control de granularidad, optimización de consultas en bases de datos, y transformación de programas y síntesis. Sin embargo, las técnicas actuales carecen de exactitud en algunos casos que son bastante representativos (por ejemplo, algunos programas de dividir para reinar como Quicksort. Este artículo describe un enfoque probabilístico alternativo que hace posible obtener una estimación más precisa del costo de ejecución. Una de sus ventajas es que plantea sólo unos pocos cambios sobre los esquemas propuestos previamente.
Automated discovery of functional generality of human gene expression programs.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Georg K Gerber
2007-08-01
Full Text Available An important research problem in computational biology is the identification of expression programs, sets of co-expressed genes orchestrating normal or pathological processes, and the characterization of the functional breadth of these programs. The use of human expression data compendia for discovery of such programs presents several challenges including cellular inhomogeneity within samples, genetic and environmental variation across samples, uncertainty in the numbers of programs and sample populations, and temporal behavior. We developed GeneProgram, a new unsupervised computational framework based on Hierarchical Dirichlet Processes that addresses each of the above challenges. GeneProgram uses expression data to simultaneously organize tissues into groups and genes into overlapping programs with consistent temporal behavior, to produce maps of expression programs, which are sorted by generality scores that exploit the automatically learned groupings. Using synthetic and real gene expression data, we showed that GeneProgram outperformed several popular expression analysis methods. We applied GeneProgram to a compendium of 62 short time-series gene expression datasets exploring the responses of human cells to infectious agents and immune-modulating molecules. GeneProgram produced a map of 104 expression programs, a substantial number of which were significantly enriched for genes involved in key signaling pathways and/or bound by NF-kappaB transcription factors in genome-wide experiments. Further, GeneProgram discovered expression programs that appear to implicate surprising signaling pathways or receptor types in the response to infection, including Wnt signaling and neurotransmitter receptors. We believe the discovered map of expression programs involved in the response to infection will be useful for guiding future biological experiments; genes from programs with low generality scores might serve as new drug targets that exhibit minimal
Genefer: Programs for Finding Large Probable Generalized Fermat Primes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Iain Arthur Bethune
2015-11-01
Full Text Available Genefer is a suite of programs for performing Probable Primality (PRP tests of Generalised Fermat numbers 'b'2'n'+1 (GFNs using a Fermat test. Optimised implementations are available for modern CPUs using single instruction, multiple data (SIMD instructions, as well as for GPUs using CUDA or OpenCL. Genefer has been extensively used by PrimeGrid – a volunteer computing project searching for large prime numbers of various kinds, including GFNs. Genefer’s architecture separates the high level logic such as checkpointing and user interface from the architecture-specific performance-critical parts of the implementation, which are suitable for re-use. Genefer is released under the MIT license. Source and binaries are available from www.assembla.com/spaces/genefer.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khitun, Alexander; Bao Mingqiang; Wang, Kang L
2010-01-01
We describe and analyse possible approaches to magnonic logic circuits and basic elements required for circuit construction. A distinctive feature of the magnonic circuitry is that information is transmitted by spin waves propagating in the magnetic waveguides without the use of electric current. The latter makes it possible to exploit spin wave phenomena for more efficient data transfer and enhanced logic functionality. We describe possible schemes for general computing and special task data processing. The functional throughput of the magnonic logic gates is estimated and compared with the conventional transistor-based approach. Magnonic logic circuits allow scaling down to the deep submicrometre range and THz frequency operation. The scaling is in favour of the magnonic circuits offering a significant functional advantage over the traditional approach. The disadvantages and problems of the spin wave devices are also discussed.
Claude Ziad Bayeh
2015-01-01
The “Manual Logic Controller” also called MLC, is an electronic circuit invented and designed by the author in 2008, in order to replace the well known PLC (Programmable Logic Controller) in many applications for its advantages and its low cost of fabrication. The function of the MLC is somewhat similar to the well known PLC, but instead of doing it by inserting a written program into the PLC using a computer or specific software inside the PLC, it will be manually programmed in a manner to h...
Mentorship Programs for Faculty Development in Academic General Pediatric Divisions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jennifer Takagishi
2011-01-01
Discussion. General pediatric division chiefs acknowledge the benefits of mentoring relationships, and some have programs in place. Many need tools to create them. Pediatric societies could facilitate this critical area of professional development.
Position Paper: Dental General Practice Residency Programs: Financing and Operations.
Hanson, Paul W.
1983-01-01
A discussion of changeable economic issues that can affect dental general practice residency program planning includes costs and resource allocation, maximizing efficiency and productivity, ambulatory and inpatient revenue sources, management functions, faculty as practitioners, faculty appointments, and marketing. (MSE)
Govaerts, Paul J; Vaerenberg, Bart; De Ceulaer, Geert; Daemers, Kristin; De Beukelaer, Carina; Schauwers, Karen
2010-08-01
An intelligent agent, Fitting to Outcomes eXpert, was developed to optimize and automate Cochlear implant (CI) programming. The current article describes the rationale, development, and features of this tool. Cochlear implant fitting is a time-consuming procedure to define the value of a subset of the available electric parameters based primarily on behavioral responses. It is comfort-driven with high intraindividual and interindividual variability both with respect to the patient and to the clinician. Its validity in terms of process control can be questioned. Good clinical practice would require an outcome-driven approach. An intelligent agent may help solve the complexity of addressing more electric parameters based on a range of outcome measures. A software application was developed that consists of deterministic rules that analyze the map settings in the processor together with psychoacoustic test results (audiogram, A(section sign)E phoneme discrimination, A(section sign)E loudness scaling, speech audiogram) obtained with that map. The rules were based on the daily clinical practice and the expertise of the CI programmers. The data transfer to and from this agent is either manual or through seamless digital communication with the CI fitting database and the psychoacoustic test suite. It recommends and executes modifications to the map settings to improve the outcome. Fitting to Outcomes eXpert is an operational intelligent agent, the principles of which are described. Its development and modes of operation are outlined, and a case example is given. Fitting to Outcomes eXpert is in use for more than a year now and seems to be capable to improve the measured outcome. It is argued that this novel tool allows a systematic approach focusing on outcome, reducing the fitting time, and improving the quality of fitting. It introduces principles of artificial intelligence in the process of CI fitting.
Propositional Logics of Dependence
Yang, F.; Väänänen, J.
2016-01-01
In this paper, we study logics of dependence on the propositional level. We prove that several interesting propositional logics of dependence, including propositional dependence logic, propositional intuitionistic dependence logic as well as propositional inquisitive logic, are expressively complete
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Braüner, Torben
2011-01-01
Intuitionistic hybrid logic is hybrid modal logic over an intuitionistic logic basis instead of a classical logical basis. In this short paper we introduce intuitionistic hybrid logic and we give a survey of work in the area.......Intuitionistic hybrid logic is hybrid modal logic over an intuitionistic logic basis instead of a classical logical basis. In this short paper we introduce intuitionistic hybrid logic and we give a survey of work in the area....
The Efficiency of Linda for General Purpose Scientific Programming
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Timothy G. Mattson
1994-01-01
Full Text Available Linda (Linda is a registered trademark of Scientific Computing Associates, Inc. is a programming language for coordinating the execution and interaction of processes. When combined with a language for computation (such as C or Fortran, the resulting hybrid language can be used to write portable programs for parallel and distributed multiple instruction multiple data (MIMD computers. The Linda programming model is based on operations that read, write, and erase a virtual shared memory. It is easy to use, and lets the programmer code in a very expressive, uncoupled programming style. These benefits, however, are of little value unless Linda programs execute efficiently. The goal of this article is to demonstrate that Linda programs are efficient making Linda an effective general purpose tool for programming MIMD parallel computers. Two arguments for Linda's efficiency are given; the first is based on Linda's implementation and the second on a range of case studies spanning a complete set of parallel algorithm classes.
Flow Logic for Process Calculi
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielson, Hanne Riis; Nielson, Flemming; Pilegaard, Henrik
2012-01-01
Flow Logic is an approach to statically determining the behavior of programs and processes. It borrows methods and techniques from Abstract Interpretation, Data Flow Analysis and Constraint Based Analysis while presenting the analysis in a style more reminiscent of Type Systems. Traditionally...... developed for programming languages, this article provides a tutorial development of the approach of Flow Logic for process calculi based on a decade of research. We first develop a simple analysis for the π-calculus; this consists of the specification, semantic soundness (in the form of subject reduction......, and finally, we extend it to a relational analysis. A Flow Logic is a program logic---in the same sense that a Hoare’s logic is. We conclude with an executive summary presenting the highlights of the approach from this perspective including a discussion of theoretical properties as well as implementation...
Learning Probabilistic Logic Models from Probabilistic Examples.
Chen, Jianzhong; Muggleton, Stephen; Santos, José
2008-10-01
We revisit an application developed originally using abductive Inductive Logic Programming (ILP) for modeling inhibition in metabolic networks. The example data was derived from studies of the effects of toxins on rats using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) time-trace analysis of their biofluids together with background knowledge representing a subset of the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG). We now apply two Probabilistic ILP (PILP) approaches - abductive Stochastic Logic Programs (SLPs) and PRogramming In Statistical modeling (PRISM) to the application. Both approaches support abductive learning and probability predictions. Abductive SLPs are a PILP framework that provides possible worlds semantics to SLPs through abduction. Instead of learning logic models from non-probabilistic examples as done in ILP, the PILP approach applied in this paper is based on a general technique for introducing probability labels within a standard scientific experimental setting involving control and treated data. Our results demonstrate that the PILP approach provides a way of learning probabilistic logic models from probabilistic examples, and the PILP models learned from probabilistic examples lead to a significant decrease in error accompanied by improved insight from the learned results compared with the PILP models learned from non-probabilistic examples.
A Verification Logic for GOAL Agents
Hindriks, K. V.
Although there has been a growing body of literature on verification of agents programs, it has been difficult to design a verification logic for agent programs that fully characterizes such programs and to connect agent programs to agent theory. The challenge is to define an agent programming language that defines a computational framework but also allows for a logical characterization useful for verification. The agent programming language GOAL has been originally designed to connect agent programming to agent theory and we present additional results here that GOAL agents can be fully represented by a logical theory. GOAL agents can thus be said to execute the corresponding logical theory.
Implicational (semilinear) logics III: completeness properties
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Cintula, Petr; Noguera, Carles
2018-01-01
Roč. 57, 3-4 (2018), s. 391-420 ISSN 0933-5846 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-14654S EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 689176 - SYSMICS Institutional support: RVO:67985807 ; RVO:67985556 Keywords : abstract algebraic logic * protoalgebraic logics * implicational logics * disjunctional logics * semilinear logics * non-classical logics * completeness theorems * rational completeness Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics; BA - General Mathematics (UTIA-B) OBOR OECD: Computer science s, information science , bioinformathics (hardware development to be 2.2, social aspect to be 5.8) Impact factor: 0.394, year: 2016
Implicational (semilinear) logics III: completeness properties
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Cintula, Petr; Noguera, Carles
2018-01-01
Roč. 57, 3-4 (2018), s. 391-420 ISSN 0933-5846 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-14654S EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 689176 - SYSMICS Institutional support: RVO:67985807 ; RVO:67985556 Keywords : abstract algebraic logic * protoalgebraic logics * implicational logics * disjunctional logics * semilinear logics * non-classical logics * completeness theorems * rational completeness Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics; BA - General Mathematics (UTIA-B) OBOR OECD: Computer sciences, information science, bioinformathics (hardware development to be 2.2, social aspect to be 5.8) Impact factor: 0.394, year: 2016
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Klose, Karl; Ostermann, Klaus
2010-01-01
In logic metaprogramming, programs are not stored as plain textfiles but rather derived from a deductive database. While the benefits of this approach for metaprogramming are obvious, its incompatibility with separate checking limits its applicability to large-scale projects. We analyze the probl...
Bergstra, J.A.; Ponse, A.
2010-01-01
Short-circuit evaluation denotes the semantics of propositional connectives in which the second argument is only evaluated if the first argument does not suffice to determine the value of the expression. In programming, short-circuit evaluation is widely used. A short-circuit logic is a variant of
Logical and mathematical structures of quantum mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Beltrametti, E.G.; Cassinelli, G.
1976-01-01
The logic associated with a physical system is first analysed, and the general properties of observable and states are discussed. The logic of the Hilbert-space formulation of quantum mechanics and of pure, ideal measurements is described
2013-07-29
..., et al. Student Assistance General Provisions, Federal Perkins Loan Program, Federal Family Education... General Provisions, Federal Perkins Loan Program, Federal Family Education Loan Program, and William D... General Provisions, Federal Perkins Loan (Perkins Loan) Program, Federal Family Education Loan (FFEL...
First-order modal logic theorem proving and standard PROLOG
Nonnengart, A.
1992-01-01
Many attempts have been started to combine logic programming and modal logics. Most of them however, do not use classical PROLOG, but extend the PROLOG idea in order to cope with modal logic formulae directly. These approaches have the disadvantage that for each logic new logic programming systems are to be developed and the knowledge and experience gathered from PROLOG can hardly be utilized. Modal logics based on Kripke-style relational semantics, however, allow a direct translation from mo...
Mentorship programs for faculty development in academic general pediatric divisions.
Takagishi, Jennifer; Dabrow, Sharon
2011-01-01
Introduction. Mentoring relationships have been shown to support academicians in areas of research, work/life balance, and promotion. Methods. General pediatric division chiefs accessed an electronic survey asking about mentorship relationships, their ability to create a mentorship program, and resources needed. Results. Dyadic mentorship programs were available at 53% of divisions. Peer mentorship programs were available at 27% of divisions. Overall, 84% of chiefs believed that dyadic mentorship would benefit their faculty. 91% of chiefs believed that peer mentorship would benefit their faculty. Chiefs were interested in starting peer (57%) or dyadic (55%) mentorship programs. Few divisions had a peer mentorship program available, whereas 24% already had a dyadic program. 43% of chiefs felt that they had the tools to start a program. Many tools are needed to create a program. Discussion. General pediatric division chiefs acknowledge the benefits of mentoring relationships, and some have programs in place. Many need tools to create them. Pediatric societies could facilitate this critical area of professional development.
Majumdar, Alok; Leclair, Andre; Moore, Ric; Schallhorn, Paul
2011-01-01
GFSSP stands for Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program. It is a general-purpose computer program to compute pressure, temperature and flow distribution in a flow network. GFSSP calculates pressure, temperature, and concentrations at nodes and calculates flow rates through branches. It was primarily developed to analyze Internal Flow Analysis of a Turbopump Transient Flow Analysis of a Propulsion System. GFSSP development started in 1994 with an objective to provide a generalized and easy to use flow analysis tool for thermo-fluid systems.
Structural Completeness in Fuzzy Logics
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Cintula, Petr; Metcalfe, G.
2009-01-01
Roč. 50, č. 2 (2009), s. 153-183 ISSN 0029-4527 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0545 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : structral logics * fuzzy logics * structural completeness * admissible rules * primitive variety * residuated lattices Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics
Programmable Array Logic Design
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Demon Handoyo; Djen Djen Djainal
2007-01-01
Good digital circuit design that part of a complex system, often becoming a separate problem. To produce finishing design according to wanted performance is often given on to considerations which each other confuse, hence thereby analyse optimization become important in this case. To realization is made design logic program, the first are determined global diagram block, then are decided contents of these block diagram, and then determined its interconnection in the form of logic expression, continued with election of component. These steps are done to be obtained the design with low price, easy in its interconnection, minimal volume, low power and certainty god work. (author)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Jonas Buhrkal; Birkedal, Lars
2012-01-01
, separation means physical separation. In this paper, we introduce \\emph{fictional separation logic}, which includes more general forms of fictional separating conjunctions P * Q, where "*" does not require physical separation, but may also be used in situations where the memory resources described by P and Q...
General program for the advancement of the radionuclide technology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1979-12-01
The 'General Program for the Advancement of the Radionuclide Technology' was elaborated in 1978 by the 'Arbeitsgemeinschaft zur Foerderung der Radionuklidtechnik' (AFR) (Association for the Promotion of Radionuclide Technology). In addition to an inventory of the major applications of radionuclide technology, this General Program includes a comprehensive description of tasks relating to the central topics of raw materials, environment, technology and materials, health and nutrition, scientific developments of radionuclide technology. The 'General Program for the Advancement of the Radionuclide Technology' serves inter alia as a basis of evaluation in opinions on funding applications filed with the Federal Ministry for Research and Technology (BMFT) with respect to the provision of advanced techniques involving radionuclides for industrial application. (orig.) [de
Macian-Sorribes, Hector; Pulido-Velazquez, Manuel
2016-04-01
This contribution presents a methodology for defining optimal seasonal operating rules in multireservoir systems coupling expert criteria and stochastic optimization. Both sources of information are combined using fuzzy logic. The structure of the operating rules is defined based on expert criteria, via a joint expert-technician framework consisting in a series of meetings, workshops and surveys carried out between reservoir managers and modelers. As a result, the decision-making process used by managers can be assessed and expressed using fuzzy logic: fuzzy rule-based systems are employed to represent the operating rules and fuzzy regression procedures are used for forecasting future inflows. Once done that, a stochastic optimization algorithm can be used to define optimal decisions and transform them into fuzzy rules. Finally, the optimal fuzzy rules and the inflow prediction scheme are combined into a Decision Support System for making seasonal forecasts and simulate the effect of different alternatives in response to the initial system state and the foreseen inflows. The approach presented has been applied to the Jucar River Basin (Spain). Reservoir managers explained how the system is operated, taking into account the reservoirs' states at the beginning of the irrigation season and the inflows previewed during that season. According to the information given by them, the Jucar River Basin operating policies were expressed via two fuzzy rule-based (FRB) systems that estimate the amount of water to be allocated to the users and how the reservoir storages should be balanced to guarantee those deliveries. A stochastic optimization model using Stochastic Dual Dynamic Programming (SDDP) was developed to define optimal decisions, which are transformed into optimal operating rules embedding them into the two FRBs previously created. As a benchmark, historical records are used to develop alternative operating rules. A fuzzy linear regression procedure was employed to
48 CFR 3019.705-1 - General support for the program.
2010-10-01
... SECURITY, HOMELAND SECURITY ACQUISITION REGULATION (HSAR) SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS The Small Business Subcontracting Program 3019.705-1 General support for the program. In any...
Diagnosable structured logic array
Whitaker, Sterling (Inventor); Miles, Lowell (Inventor); Gambles, Jody (Inventor); Maki, Gary K. (Inventor)
2009-01-01
A diagnosable structured logic array and associated process is provided. A base cell structure is provided comprising a logic unit comprising a plurality of input nodes, a plurality of selection nodes, and an output node, a plurality of switches coupled to the selection nodes, where the switches comprises a plurality of input lines, a selection line and an output line, a memory cell coupled to the output node, and a test address bus and a program control bus coupled to the plurality of input lines and the selection line of the plurality of switches. A state on each of the plurality of input nodes is verifiably loaded and read from the memory cell. A trusted memory block is provided. The associated process is provided for testing and verifying a plurality of truth table inputs of the logic unit.
Generalized Minimax Programming with Nondifferentiable (G, β-Invexity
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
D. H. Yuan
2013-01-01
Full Text Available We consider the generalized minimax programming problem (P in which functions are locally Lipschitz (G, β-invex. Not only G-sufficient but also G-necessary optimality conditions are established for problem (P. With G-necessary optimality conditions and (G, β-invexity on hand, we construct dual problem (DI for the primal one (P and prove duality results between problems (P and (DI. These results extend several known results to a wider class of programs.
Mississippi Research and Curriculum Unit for Vocational and Technical Education, State College.
This document, which reflects Mississippi's statutory requirement that instructional programs be based on core curricula and performance-based assessment, contains outlines of the instructional units required in local instructional management plans and daily lesson plans for two secondary-level courses in drafting: drafting I and II. Presented…
A general numerical analysis program for the superconducting quasiparticle mixer
Hicks, R. G.; Feldman, M. J.; Kerr, A. R.
1986-01-01
A user-oriented computer program SISCAP (SIS Computer Analysis Program) for analyzing SIS mixers is described. The program allows arbitrary impedance terminations to be specified at all LO harmonics and sideband frequencies. It is therefore able to treat a much more general class of SIS mixers than the widely used three-frequency analysis, for which the harmonics are assumed to be short-circuited. An additional program, GETCHI, provides the necessary input data to program SISCAP. The SISCAP program performs a nonlinear analysis to determine the SIS junction voltage waveform produced by the local oscillator. The quantum theory of mixing is used in its most general form, treating the large signal properties of the mixer in the time domain. A small signal linear analysis is then used to find the conversion loss and port impedances. The noise analysis includes thermal noise from the termination resistances and shot noise from the periodic LO current. Quantum noise is not considered. Many aspects of the program have been adequately verified and found accurate.
An Algebraic View of Super-Belnap Logics
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Albuquerque, H.; Přenosil, Adam; Rivieccio, U.
2017-01-01
Roč. 105, č. 6 (2017), s. 1051-1086 ISSN 0039-3215 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP202/12/G061 Grant - others:EU(XE) PIRSES- GA-2012-31898 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : Super-Belnap logics * Four-valued logic * Paraconsistent logic * Belnap–Dunn logic * FDE * Logic of Paradox * Kleene logic * Exactly True logic * De Morgan algebras * Abstract Algebraic Logic * Leibniz filters * Strong versions of logics Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Computer sciences, information science, bioinformathics (hardware development to be 2.2, social aspect to be 5.8) Impact factor: 0.589, year: 2016
Rethinking logic logic in relation to mathematics, evolution, and method
Cellucci, Carlo
2014-01-01
This book examines the limitations of mathematical logic and proposes a new approach intended to overcome them. Formulates new rules of discovery, such as induction, analogy, generalization, specialization, metaphor, metonymy, definition and diagrams.
Hu, Yidan; Yang, Yun; Katz, Evgeny; Song, Hao
2015-03-11
An AND logic gate based on a synthetic quorum-sensing (QS) module was constructed in a Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 mtrA knockout mutant. The presence of two input signals activated the expression of a periplasmic decaheme cytochrome MtrA to regenerate the extracellular electron transfer conduit, enabling the construction of AND-gated microbial fuel cells.
General aviation crash safety program at Langley Research Center
Thomson, R. G.
1976-01-01
The purpose of the crash safety program is to support development of the technology to define and demonstrate new structural concepts for improved crash safety and occupant survivability in general aviation aircraft. The program involves three basic areas of research: full-scale crash simulation testing, nonlinear structural analyses necessary to predict failure modes and collapse mechanisms of the vehicle, and evaluation of energy absorption concepts for specific component design. Both analytical and experimental methods are being used to develop expertise in these areas. Analyses include both simplified procedures for estimating energy absorption capabilities and more complex computer programs for analysis of general airframe response. Full-scale tests of typical structures as well as tests on structural components are being used to verify the analyses and to demonstrate improved design concepts.
Hanford general employee training - A million dollar cost beneficial program
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gardner, P.R.
1991-02-01
In January 1990, Westinghouse Hanford Company implemented an interactive videodisc training program entitled Hanford General Employee Training. Covering all Institute of Nuclear Power Operations general employee training objectives, training mandated by US Department of Energy orders, and training prescribed by internal Westinghouse Hanford Company policies, Hanford General Employee Training presents and manages engaging training programs individually tailored to each of the 9,000 employees. Development costs for a sophisticated program such as Hanford General Employee Training were high compared to similar costs for developing ''equivalent'' traditional training. Hardware ($500,000) and labor costs ($400,000) totaled $900,000. Annual maintenance costs, equipment plus labor, are totalling about $200,000. On the benefit side, by consolidating some 17 previous Westinghouse Hanford Company courses and more effectively managing the instructional process, Hanford General Employee Training reduced the average student training time from over 11 hours to just under 4 hours. For 9,000 employees, the computed net annual savings exceeds $1.3 million. 2 refs
Mathematical Fuzzy Logic - State of Art 2001
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Hájek, Petr
2003-01-01
Roč. 24, - (2003), s. 71-89 ISSN 0103-9059. [WOLLIC'2001. Brasília, 31.07.2001-03.08.2001] R&D Projects: GA MŠk LN00A056 Keywords : fuzzy logic * many valued logic * basic fuzzy logic BL Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics http://www.mat.unb.br/~matcont/24_4.pdf
Formalized Epistemology, Logic, and Grammar
Bitbol, Michel
The task of a formal epistemology is defined. It appears that a formal epistemology must be a generalization of "logic" in the sense of Wittgenstein's Tractatus. The generalization is required because, whereas logic presupposes a strict relation between activity and language, this relation may be broken in some domains of experimental enquiry (e.g., in microscopic physics). However, a formal epistemology should also retain a major feature of Wittgenstein's "logic": It must not be a discourse about scientific knowledge, but rather a way of making manifest the structures usually implicit in knowledge-gaining activity. This strategy is applied to the formalism of quantum mechanics.
Towards an arithmetical logic the arithmetical foundations of logic
Gauthier, Yvon
2015-01-01
This book offers an original contribution to the foundations of logic and mathematics, and focuses on the internal logic of mathematical theories, from arithmetic or number theory to algebraic geometry. Arithmetical logic is the term used to refer to the internal logic of classical arithmetic, here called Fermat-Kronecker arithmetic, and combines Fermat’s method of infinite descent with Kronecker’s general arithmetic of homogeneous polynomials. The book also includes a treatment of theories in physics and mathematical physics to underscore the role of arithmetic from a constructivist viewpoint. The scope of the work intertwines historical, mathematical, logical and philosophical dimensions in a unified critical perspective; as such, it will appeal to a broad readership from mathematicians to logicians, to philosophers interested in foundational questions. Researchers and graduate students in the fields of philosophy and mathematics will benefit from the author’s critical approach to the foundations of l...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
X. Zhao
2012-01-01
Full Text Available A combined interior point homotopy continuation method is proposed for solving general multiobjective programming problem. We prove the existence and convergence of a smooth homotopy path from almost any interior initial interior point to a solution of the KKT system under some basic assumptions.
A Logical Characterisation of Static Equivalence
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hüttel, Hans; Pedersen, Michael D.
2007-01-01
-order logic for frames with quantification over environment knowledge which, under certain general conditions, characterizes static equivalence and is amenable to construction of characteristic formulae. The logic can be used to reason about environment knowledge and can be adapted to a particular application...... by defining a suitable signature and associated equational theory. The logic can furthermore be extended with modalities to yield a modal logic for e.g. the Applied Pi calculus....
Optical programmable Boolean logic unit.
Chattopadhyay, Tanay
2011-11-10
Logic units are the building blocks of many important computational operations likes arithmetic, multiplexer-demultiplexer, radix conversion, parity checker cum generator, etc. Multifunctional logic operation is very much essential in this respect. Here a programmable Boolean logic unit is proposed that can perform 16 Boolean logical operations from a single optical input according to the programming input without changing the circuit design. This circuit has two outputs. One output is complementary to the other. Hence no loss of data can occur. The circuit is basically designed by a 2×2 polarization independent optical cross bar switch. Performance of the proposed circuit has been achieved by doing numerical simulations. The binary logical states (0,1) are represented by the absence of light (null) and presence of light, respectively.
On the Automatic Evolution of an OS Kernel Using Temporal Logic and AOP
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Åberg, Rickard; Lawall, Julia Laetitia; Sudholt, Mario
2003-01-01
aspect-oriented programing, temporal logic, process scheduling, Linux, domain-specific languages......aspect-oriented programing, temporal logic, process scheduling, Linux, domain-specific languages...
MONK - a general purpose Monte Carlo neutronics program
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sherriffs, V.S.W.
1978-01-01
MONK is a Monte Carlo neutronics code written principally for criticality calculations relevant to the transport, storage, and processing of fissile material. The code exploits the ability of the Monte Carlo method to represent complex shapes with very great accuracy. The nuclear data used is derived from the UK Nuclear Data File processed to the required format by a subsidiary program POND. A general description is given of the MONK code together with the subsidiary program SCAN which produces diagrams of the system specified. Details of the data input required by MONK and SCAN are also given. (author)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Friche, Nanna; Normann Andersen, Vibeke
unintended consequences. Theoretically, we draw on different management and governance theories, e.g. performance management. Empirically, the study is based on surveys to teachers and students at all Danish vocational colleges and interviews with school leaders, teachers and students at six colleges (cases...... and well-being of students enrolled in the VETs must be strengthened. We focus on target 1, 2 and 4. The reform is being implemented in a field of VET that can be characterized by four logics of governance. Firstly, a governance logic characterized by institutional independence of vocational colleges......For the last fifteen years completion rates in Danish vocational education and training (VET) has stayed on a rather low level. In 2014, only half of the students enrolled in a vocational program on upper secondary level, graduated from the program (Flarup et al 2016). In Denmark, like in other...
Polymorphic Uncertain Linear Programming for Generalized Production Planning Problems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xinbo Zhang
2014-01-01
Full Text Available A polymorphic uncertain linear programming (PULP model is constructed to formulate a class of generalized production planning problems. In accordance with the practical environment, some factors such as the consumption of raw material, the limitation of resource and the demand of product are incorporated into the model as parameters of interval and fuzzy subsets, respectively. Based on the theory of fuzzy interval program and the modified possibility degree for the order of interval numbers, a deterministic equivalent formulation for this model is derived such that a robust solution for the uncertain optimization problem is obtained. Case study indicates that the constructed model and the proposed solution are useful to search for an optimal production plan for the polymorphic uncertain generalized production planning problems.
A general purpose tomographic program with combined inversions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xu Wenbin; Dong Jiafu; Li Fanzhu
1996-01-01
A general tomographic program has been developed by combining the Bessel expansion with the Zernicke expansion. It is useful for studying of the magnetic island structure of the tearing mode and in reconstructing the density profiles of impurities in tokamak plasmas. This combined method have the advantages of both expansions, i.e. there will be no spurious images in the edge and it will be of high inverse precision in the center of plasma
Efficiency and Generalized Convex Duality for Nondifferentiable Multiobjective Programs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bae KwanDeok
2010-01-01
Full Text Available We introduce nondifferentiable multiobjective programming problems involving the support function of a compact convex set and linear functions. The concept of (properly efficient solutions are presented. We formulate Mond-Weir-type and Wolfe-type dual problems and establish weak and strong duality theorems for efficient solutions by using suitable generalized convexity conditions. Some special cases of our duality results are given.
Stereotypical Reasoning: Logical Properties
Lehmann, Daniel
2002-01-01
Stereotypical reasoning assumes that the situation at hand is one of a kind and that it enjoys the properties generally associated with that kind of situation. It is one of the most basic forms of nonmonotonic reasoning. A formal model for stereotypical reasoning is proposed and the logical properties of this form of reasoning are studied. Stereotypical reasoning is shown to be cumulative under weak assumptions.
Extension of Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program's Fluid Property Database
Patel, Kishan
2011-01-01
This internship focused on the development of additional capabilities for the General Fluid Systems Simulation Program (GFSSP). GFSSP is a thermo-fluid code used to evaluate system performance by a finite volume-based network analysis method. The program was developed primarily to analyze the complex internal flow of propulsion systems and is capable of solving many problems related to thermodynamics and fluid mechanics. GFSSP is integrated with thermodynamic programs that provide fluid properties for sub-cooled, superheated, and saturation states. For fluids that are not included in the thermodynamic property program, look-up property tables can be provided. The look-up property tables of the current release version can only handle sub-cooled and superheated states. The primary purpose of the internship was to extend the look-up tables to handle saturated states. This involves a) generation of a property table using REFPROP, a thermodynamic property program that is widely used, and b) modifications of the Fortran source code to read in an additional property table containing saturation data for both saturated liquid and saturated vapor states. Also, a method was implemented to calculate the thermodynamic properties of user-fluids within the saturation region, given values of pressure and enthalpy. These additions required new code to be written, and older code had to be adjusted to accommodate the new capabilities. Ultimately, the changes will lead to the incorporation of this new capability in future versions of GFSSP. This paper describes the development and validation of the new capability.
A general, three-dimensional Monte Carlo program: TRIPOLI-01
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Katz, Shlomo; Nimal, J.-C.
1976-09-01
TRIPOLI 01 is a general, three-dimensional Monte-Carlo program, which treats the slowing down and diffusion of neutrons in source problems. This version is essentially devoted to reactor shielding studies. The geometry is described as a combination of volumes, bounded by portions of first or second degree surfaces. The space orientation of these volumes is quite arbitrary. Geometries repeated by translation, symmetry, or rotation can be treated. The program can itself control the consistency of geometry data. The nuclear constants are presently represented in a multigroup mode, with a number of groups as large as necessary. Multigroup data are derived from a library tape (LINDA) containing point wise data taken from the UKNDL (73) library and completed by certain data from UNC (GENDA). The neutron energy is followed in a continuous way; the program takes into account: elastic collision with any anisotropy order, (n,n') and (n,2n) reactions, and absorption; in this version, thermal neutrons are treated as a single energy group. The program can solve deep penetration problems by utilizing variance reduction techniques based on exponential transform, and biasing of angular scattering laws. The distribution of sources can be any arbitrary function of space, energy and direction. The program calculates spectra and activities averaged in specified volumes or areas. Further exploitation of results is possible by using the FORTRI routine [fr
Logic regression and its extensions.
Schwender, Holger; Ruczinski, Ingo
2010-01-01
Logic regression is an adaptive classification and regression procedure, initially developed to reveal interacting single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genetic association studies. In general, this approach can be used in any setting with binary predictors, when the interaction of these covariates is of primary interest. Logic regression searches for Boolean (logic) combinations of binary variables that best explain the variability in the outcome variable, and thus, reveals variables and interactions that are associated with the response and/or have predictive capabilities. The logic expressions are embedded in a generalized linear regression framework, and thus, logic regression can handle a variety of outcome types, such as binary responses in case-control studies, numeric responses, and time-to-event data. In this chapter, we provide an introduction to the logic regression methodology, list some applications in public health and medicine, and summarize some of the direct extensions and modifications of logic regression that have been proposed in the literature. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Carlton, David Bryan
The exponential improvements in speed, energy efficiency, and cost that the computer industry has relied on for growth during the last 50 years are in danger of ending within the decade. These improvements all have relied on scaling the size of the silicon-based transistor that is at the heart of every modern CPU down to smaller and smaller length scales. However, as the size of the transistor reaches scales that are measured in the number of atoms that make it up, it is clear that this scaling cannot continue forever. As a result of this, there has been a great deal of research effort directed at the search for the next device that will continue to power the growth of the computer industry. However, due to the billions of dollars of investment that conventional silicon transistors have received over the years, it is unlikely that a technology will emerge that will be able to beat it outright in every performance category. More likely, different devices will possess advantages over conventional transistors for certain applications and uses. One of these emerging computing platforms is nanomagnetic logic (NML). NML-based circuits process information by manipulating the magnetization states of single-domain nanomagnets coupled to their nearest neighbors through magnetic dipole interactions. The state variable is magnetization direction and computations can take place without passing an electric current. This makes them extremely attractive as a replacement for conventional transistor-based computing architectures for certain ultra-low power applications. In most work to date, nanomagnetic logic circuits have used an external magnetic clocking field to reset the system between computations. The clocking field is then subsequently removed very slowly relative to the magnetization dynamics, guiding the nanomagnetic logic circuit adiabatically into its magnetic ground state. In this dissertation, I will discuss the dynamics behind this process and show that it is greatly
SRS environmental air surveillance program 1954-2015: General trends
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Abbott, K. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Jannik, T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)
2016-06-02
The radiological monitoring program at SRS was established under the DuPont Company in June 1951 and was used as a measurement of the effectiveness of plant controls and as an authoritative record of environmental conditions surrounding the plant. It also served as a method of demonstrating compliance with applicable federal regulations and guidance. This document serves as a general summary of changes made specifically to the environmental air monitoring program since its inception, and a discussion of the general trends seen in the air monitoring program at SRS from 1954 to 2015. Initially, the environmental air surveillance program focused not only on releases from SRS but also on fallout from various weapons testing performed through the end of 1978. Flypaper was used to measure the amount of fallout in the atmosphere during this period, and was present at each of the 10 monitoring stations. By 1959, all site stacks were included in the air monitoring program to determine their contribution to the airborne radioactivity onsite, and the number of air surveillance samplers rose to 18. This trend of an increased number of sampling locations continued to a peak of 35 sampling locations before shifting to a downward trend in the mid-1990s. In 1962, 4 outer-range samplers were placed in Savannah and Macon, GA, and in Greenville and Columbia, SC. Until 1976, air samplers were simply placed around the perimeter of the various operation locations (after 1959, this included stacks to determine their contribution to the airborne radioactivity), with the intent of creating as representative a distribution as possible of the air surrounding operations.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Modal logic is a subject with ancient roots in the western logical tradition. Up until the last few generations, it was pursued mainly as a branch of philosophy. But in recent years, the subject has taken new directions with connections to topics in computer science and mathematics. This volume...... is the proceedings of the conference of record in its fi eld, Advances in Modal Logic. Its contributions are state-of-the-art papers. The topics include decidability and complexity results for specifi c modal logics, proof theory of modal logic, logics for reasoning about time and space, provability logic, dynamic...... epistemic logic, and the logic of evidence....
Flow Logics and Operational Semantics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis
1998-01-01
Flow logic is a “fast prototyping” approach to program analysis that shows great promise of being able to deal with a wide variety of languages and calculi for computation. However, seemingly innocent choices in the flow logic as well as in the operational semantics may inhibit proving the analys...... correct. Our main conclusion is that environment based semantics is more flexible than either substitution based semantics or semantics making use of structural congruences (like alpha-renaming)....
Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program (GFSSP) - Version 6
Majumdar, Alok; LeClair, Andre; Moore, Ric; Schallhorn, Paul
2015-01-01
The Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program (GFSSP) is a finite-volume based general-purpose computer program for analyzing steady state and time-dependent flow rates, pressures, temperatures, and concentrations in a complex flow network. The program is capable of modeling real fluids with phase changes, compressibility, mixture thermodynamics, conjugate heat transfer between solid and fluid, fluid transients, pumps, compressors, flow control valves and external body forces such as gravity and centrifugal. The thermo-fluid system to be analyzed is discretized into nodes, branches, and conductors. The scalar properties such as pressure, temperature, and concentrations are calculated at nodes. Mass flow rates and heat transfer rates are computed in branches and conductors. The graphical user interface allows users to build their models using the 'point, drag, and click' method; the users can also run their models and post-process the results in the same environment. The integrated fluid library supplies thermodynamic and thermo-physical properties of 36 fluids, and 24 different resistance/source options are provided for modeling momentum sources or sinks in the branches. Users can introduce new physics, non-linear and time-dependent boundary conditions through user-subroutine.
Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program, Version 5.0-Educational
Majumdar, A. K.
2011-01-01
The Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program (GFSSP) is a finite-volume based general-purpose computer program for analyzing steady state and time-dependent flow rates, pressures, temperatures, and concentrations in a complex flow network. The program is capable of modeling real fluids with phase changes, compressibility, mixture thermodynamics, conjugate heat transfer between solid and fluid, fluid transients, pumps, compressors and external body forces such as gravity and centrifugal. The thermofluid system to be analyzed is discretized into nodes, branches, and conductors. The scalar properties such as pressure, temperature, and concentrations are calculated at nodes. Mass flow rates and heat transfer rates are computed in branches and conductors. The graphical user interface allows users to build their models using the point, drag and click method; the users can also run their models and post-process the results in the same environment. The integrated fluid library supplies thermodynamic and thermo-physical properties of 36 fluids and 21 different resistance/source options are provided for modeling momentum sources or sinks in the branches. This Technical Memorandum illustrates the application and verification of the code through 12 demonstrated example problems.
PDL as a multi-agent strategy logic
D.J.N. van Eijck (Jan); B.C. Schipper
2013-01-01
textabstractPropositional Dynamic Logic or PDL was invented as a logic for reasoning about regular programming constructs. We propose a new perspective on PDL as a multi-agent strategic logic (MASL). This logic for strategic reasoning has group strategies as first class citizens, and
Empirical logic and quantum mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Foulis, D.J.; Randall, C.H.
1976-01-01
This article discusses some of the basic notions of quantum physics within the more general framework of operational statistics and empirical logic (as developed in Foulis and Randall, 1972, and Randall and Foulis, 1973). Empirical logic is a formal mathematical system in which the notion of an operation is primitive and undefined; all other concepts are rigorously defined in terms of such operations (which are presumed to correspond to actual physical procedures). (Auth.)
Modern Logical Frameworks Design
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Murawska, Agata Anna
2017-01-01
lack support for reasoning about, or programming with, the mechanised systems. Our main motivation is to eventually make it possible to model and reason about complex concurrent systems and protocols. No matter the application, be it the development of a logic for multiparty session types...... or a cryptographic protocol used in a voting system, we need the ability to model and reason about both the building blocks of these systems and the intricate connections between them. To this end, this dissertation is an investigation into LF-based formalisms that might help address the aforementioned issues. We...... design and provide the meta-theory of two new frameworks, HyLF and Lincx. The former aims to extend the expressiveness of LF to include proof irrelevance and some user-defined behaviours, using ideas from hybrid logics. The latter is a showcase for an easier to implement framework, while also allowing...
Stochastic programming problems with generalized integrated chance constraints
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Branda, Martin
2012-01-01
Roč. 61, č. 8 (2012), s. 949-968 ISSN 0233-1934 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP402/10/1610 Grant - others:SVV(CZ) 261315/2010 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : chance constraints * integrated chance constraints * penalty functions * sample approximations * blending problem Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 0.707, year: 2012 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2012/E/branda-stochastic programming problems with generalized integrated.pdf
Paraconsistent Computational Logic
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Andreas Schmidt; Villadsen, Jørgen
2012-01-01
In classical logic everything follows from inconsistency and this makes classical logic problematic in areas of computer science where contradictions seem unavoidable. We describe a many-valued paraconsistent logic, discuss the truth tables and include a small case study....
Microelectromechanical reprogrammable logic device
Hafiz, Md Abdullah Al; Kosuru, Lakshmoji; Younis, Mohammad I.
2016-01-01
on the electrothermal frequency modulation scheme of a single microelectromechanical resonator, capable of performing all the fundamental 2-bit logic functions as well as n-bit logic operations. Logic functions are performed by actively tuning the linear resonance
Doberkat, Ernst-Erich
2009-01-01
Combining coalgebraic reasoning, stochastic systems and logic, this volume presents the principles of coalgebraic logic from a categorical perspective. Modal logics are also discussed, including probabilistic interpretations and an analysis of Kripke models.
Observations on the Monoidal t-norm Logic
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Hájek, Petr
2002-01-01
Roč. 132, č. 1 (2002), s. 107-112 ISSN 0165-0114 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA1030004 Institutional research plan: AV0Z1030915 Keywords : non-classical logics * basic fuzzy logic * monoidal t-norm logic * product logic Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.550, year: 2002
Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program, Version 6.0
Majumdar, A. K.; LeClair, A. C.; Moore, R.; Schallhorn, P. A.
2016-01-01
The Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program (GFSSP) is a general purpose computer program for analyzing steady state and time-dependent flow rates, pressures, temperatures, and concentrations in a complex flow network. The program is capable of modeling real fluids with phase changes, compressibility, mixture thermodynamics, conjugate heat transfer between solid and fluid, fluid transients, pumps, compressors, and external body forces such as gravity and centrifugal. The thermofluid system to be analyzed is discretized into nodes, branches, and conductors. The scalar properties such as pressure, temperature, and concentrations are calculated at nodes. Mass flow rates and heat transfer rates are computed in branches and conductors. The graphical user interface allows users to build their models using the 'point, drag, and click' method; the users can also run their models and post-process the results in the same environment. Two thermodynamic property programs (GASP/WASP and GASPAK) provide required thermodynamic and thermophysical properties for 36 fluids: helium, methane, neon, nitrogen, carbon monoxide, oxygen, argon, carbon dioxide, fluorine, hydrogen, parahydrogen, water, kerosene (RP-1), isobutene, butane, deuterium, ethane, ethylene, hydrogen sulfide, krypton, propane, xenon, R-11, R-12, R-22, R-32, R-123, R-124, R-125, R-134A, R-152A, nitrogen trifluoride, ammonia, hydrogen peroxide, and air. The program also provides the options of using any incompressible fluid with constant density and viscosity or ideal gas. The users can also supply property tables for fluids that are not in the library. Twenty-four different resistance/source options are provided for modeling momentum sources or sinks in the branches. These options include pipe flow, flow through a restriction, noncircular duct, pipe flow with entrance and/or exit losses, thin sharp orifice, thick orifice, square edge reduction, square edge expansion, rotating annular duct, rotating radial duct
Classical logic and logicism in human thought
Elqayam, Shira
2012-01-01
This chapter explores the role of classical logic as a theory of human reasoning. I distinguish between classical logic as a normative, computational and algorithmic system, and review its role is theories of human reasoning since the 1960s. The thesis I defend is that psychological theories have been moving further and further away from classical logic on all three levels. I examine some prominent example of logicist theories, which incorporate logic in their psychological account, includin...
Three-valued logics in modal logic
Kooi, Barteld; Tamminga, Allard
2013-01-01
Every truth-functional three-valued propositional logic can be conservatively translated into the modal logic S5. We prove this claim constructively in two steps. First, we define a Translation Manual that converts any propositional formula of any three-valued logic into a modal formula. Second, we
Generalized fish life-cycle poplulation model and computer program
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
DeAngelis, D.L.; Van Winkle, W.; Christensen, S.W.; Blum, S.R.; Kirk, B.L.; Rust, B.W.; Ross, C.
1978-03-01
A generalized fish life-cycle population model and computer program have been prepared to evaluate the long-term effect of changes in mortality in age class 0. The general question concerns what happens to a fishery when density-independent sources of mortality are introduced that act on age class 0, particularly entrainment and impingement at power plants. This paper discusses the model formulation and computer program, including sample results. The population model consists of a system of difference equations involving age-dependent fecundity and survival. The fecundity for each age class is assumed to be a function of both the fraction of females sexually mature and the weight of females as they enter each age class. Natural mortality for age classes 1 and older is assumed to be independent of population size. Fishing mortality is assumed to vary with the number and weight of fish available to the fishery. Age class 0 is divided into six life stages. The probability of survival for age class 0 is estimated considering both density-independent mortality (natural and power plant) and density-dependent mortality for each life stage. Two types of density-dependent mortality are included. These are cannibalism of each life stage by older age classes and intra-life-stage competition
Presentation Stations of the General Atomics Fusion Educational Program
Lee, R. L.; Fusion Group Education Outreach Team
1996-11-01
The General Atomics Fusion Group's Educational Program has been actively promoting fusion science and applications throughout San Diego County's secondary school systems for over three years. The educational program allows many students to learn more about nuclear fusion science, its applications, and what it takes to become an active participant in an important field of study. It also helps educators to better understand how to teach fusion science in their classroom. Tours of the DIII--D facility are a centerpiece of the program. Over 1000 students visited the DIII--D research facility during the 1995--1996 school year for a half-day of presentations, discussions, and hands-on learning. Interactive presentations are provided at six different stations by GA scientists and engineers to small groups of students during the tours. Stations include topics on energy, plasma science, the electromagnetic spectrum, radiation and risk assessment, and data acquisition. Included also is a tour of the DIII--D machine hall and model where students can see and discuss many aspects of the tokamak. Portions of each station will be presented and discussed.
Introduction to fuzzy logic using Matlab
Sivanandam, SN; Deepa, S N
2006-01-01
Fuzzy Logic, at present is a hot topic, among academicians as well various programmers. This book is provided to give a broad, in-depth overview of the field of Fuzzy Logic. The basic principles of Fuzzy Logic are discussed in detail with various solved examples. The different approaches and solutions to the problems given in the book are well balanced and pertinent to the Fuzzy Logic research projects. The applications of Fuzzy Logic are also dealt to make the readers understand the concept of Fuzzy Logic. The solutions to the problems are programmed using MATLAB 6.0 and the simulated results are given. The MATLAB Fuzzy Logic toolbox is provided for easy reference.
From Interpreter to Logic Engine by Defunctionalization
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Biernacki, Dariusz; Danvy, Olivier
2003-01-01
Starting from a continuation-based interpreter for a simple logic programming language, propositional Prolog with cut, we derive the corresponding logic engine in the form of an abstract machine. The derivation originates in previous work (our article at PPDP 2003) where it was applied to the lam......Starting from a continuation-based interpreter for a simple logic programming language, propositional Prolog with cut, we derive the corresponding logic engine in the form of an abstract machine. The derivation originates in previous work (our article at PPDP 2003) where it was applied...
From Interpreter to Logic Engine by Defunctionalization
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Biernacki, Dariusz; Danvy, Olivier
2004-01-01
Starting from a continuation-based interpreter for a simple logic programming language, propositional Prolog with cut, we derive the corresponding logic engine in the form of an abstract machine. The derivation originates in previous work (our article at PPDP 2003) where it was applied to the lam......Starting from a continuation-based interpreter for a simple logic programming language, propositional Prolog with cut, we derive the corresponding logic engine in the form of an abstract machine. The derivation originates in previous work (our article at PPDP 2003) where it was applied...
From Interpreter to logic Engine by Defunctionalization
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Biernacki, Dariusz; Danvy, Olivier
2003-01-01
Starting from a continuation-based interpreter for a simple logic programming language, propositional Prolog with cut, we derive the corresponding logic engine in the form of an abstract machine. The derivation originates in previous work (our article at PPDP 2003) where it was applied to the lam......Starting from a continuation-based interpreter for a simple logic programming language, propositional Prolog with cut, we derive the corresponding logic engine in the form of an abstract machine. The derivation originates in previous work (our article at PPDP 2003) where it was applied...
General Rotorcraft Aeromechanical Stability Program (GRASP): Theory manual
Hodges, Dewey H.; Hopkins, A. Stewart; Kunz, Donald L.; Hinnant, Howard E.
1990-01-01
The general rotorcraft aeromechanical stability program (GRASP) was developed to calculate aeroelastic stability for rotorcraft in hovering flight, vertical flight, and ground contact conditions. GRASP is described in terms of its capabilities and its philosophy of modeling. The equations of motion that govern the physical system are described, as well as the analytical approximations used to derive them. The equations include the kinematical equation, the element equations, and the constraint equations. In addition, the solution procedures used by GRASP are described. GRASP is capable of treating the nonlinear static and linearized dynamic behavior of structures represented by arbitrary collections of rigid-body and beam elements. These elements may be connected in an arbitrary fashion, and are permitted to have large relative motions. The main limitation of this analysis is that periodic coefficient effects are not treated, restricting rotorcraft flight conditions to hover, axial flight, and ground contact. Instead of following the methods employed in other rotorcraft programs. GRASP is designed to be a hybrid of the finite-element method and the multibody methods used in spacecraft analysis. GRASP differs from traditional finite-element programs by allowing multiple levels of substructure in which the substructures can move and/or rotate relative to others with no small-angle approximations. This capability facilitates the modeling of rotorcraft structures, including the rotating/nonrotating interface and the details of the blade/root kinematics for various types. GRASP differs from traditional multibody programs by considering aeroelastic effects, including inflow dynamics (simple unsteady aerodynamics) and nonlinear aerodynamic coefficients.
Classical Limit and Quantum Logic
Losada, Marcelo; Fortin, Sebastian; Holik, Federico
2018-02-01
The analysis of the classical limit of quantum mechanics usually focuses on the state of the system. The general idea is to explain the disappearance of the interference terms of quantum states appealing to the decoherence process induced by the environment. However, in these approaches it is not explained how the structure of quantum properties becomes classical. In this paper, we consider the classical limit from a different perspective. We consider the set of properties of a quantum system and we study the quantum-to-classical transition of its logical structure. The aim is to open the door to a new study based on dynamical logics, that is, logics that change over time. In particular, we appeal to the notion of hybrid logics to describe semiclassical systems. Moreover, we consider systems with many characteristic decoherence times, whose sublattices of properties become distributive at different times.
Logical Theories for Agent Introspection
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bolander, Thomas
2004-01-01
Artificial intelligence systems (agents) generally have models of the environments they inhabit which they use for representing facts, for reasoning about these facts and for planning actions. Much intelligent behaviour seems to involve an ability to model not only one's external environment...... by self-reference. In the standard approach taken in artificial intelligence, the model that an agent has of its environment is represented as a set of beliefs. These beliefs are expressed as logical formulas within a formal, logical theory. When the logical theory is expressive enough to allow...... introspective reasoning, the presence of self-reference causes the theory to be prone to inconsistency. The challenge therefore becomes to construct logical theories supporting introspective reasoning while at the same time ensuring that consistency is retained. In the thesis, we meet this challenge by devising...
42 CFR 432.30 - Training programs: General requirements.
2010-10-01
... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS STATE PERSONNEL ADMINISTRATION Training Programs... of the program; (2) Be related to job duties performed or to be performed by the persons trained; and (3) Be consistent with the program objectives of the agency. ...
Enabling Concise and Modular Specifications in Separation Logic
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Jonas Buhrkal
2014-01-01
logics and examples of using these logics to verify challenging programs. The article Modular Verification of Linked Lists with Views via Separation Logic reports on verification of a practical data structure with separation logic. The challenges identified in this work has served as motivation for later...... unstructured control flow and the lack of basic facilities in the language such as memory allocation and procedure calls. Finally, the chapter Techniques for Model Construction in Separation Logic surveys the mathematical techniques used to develop the previous separation logics and many other logics...
Generalized Nash equilibrium problems, bilevel programming and mpec
Lalitha, CS
2017-01-01
The book discusses three classes of problems: the generalized Nash equilibrium problems, the bilevel problems and the mathematical programming with equilibrium constraints (MPEC). These problems interact through their mathematical analysis as well as their applications. The primary aim of the book is to present the modern tool of variational analysis and optimization, which are used to analyze these three classes of problems. All contributing authors are respected academicians, scientists and researchers from around the globe. These contributions are based on the lectures delivered by experts at CIMPA School, held at the University of Delhi, India, from 25 November–6 December 2013, and peer-reviewed by international experts. The book contains five chapters. Chapter 1 deals with nonsmooth, nonconvex bilevel optimization problems whose feasible set is described by using the graph of the solution set mapping of a parametric optimization problem. Chapter 2 describes a constraint qualification to MPECs considere...
A new hierarchy of infinitary logics in abstract algebraic logic
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Lávička, Tomáš; Noguera, Carles
2017-01-01
Roč. 105, č. 3 (2017), s. 521-551 ISSN 0039-3215 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-14654S EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 689176 - SYSMICS Institutional support: RVO:67985556 ; RVO:67985807 Keywords : Abstract algebraic logic * consequence relations * infinitary logics * completeness properties Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics; BA - General Mathematics (UIVT-O) OBOR OECD: Pure mathematics; Computer sciences, information science, bioinformathics (hardware development to be 2.2, social aspect to be 5.8) (UIVT-O) Impact factor: 0.589, year: 2016 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2017/MTR/noguera-0469118.pdf
Gnimpieba, Etienne Z; Eveillard, Damien; Guéant, Jean-Louis; Chango, Abalo
2011-08-01
Dynamical modeling is an accurate tool for describing the dynamic regulation of one-carbon metabolism (1CM) with emphasis on the alteration of DNA methylation and/or dUMP methylation into dTMP. Using logic programming we present a comprehensive and adaptative mathematical model to study the impact of folate deficiency, including folate transport and enzymes activities. 5-Methyltetrahydrofolate (5mTHF) uptake and DNA and dUMP methylation were studied by simulating nutritional 5mTHF deficiency and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene defects. Both conditions had distinct effects on 1CM metabolite synthesis. Simulating severe 5mTHF deficiency (25% of normal levels) modulated 11 metabolites. However, simulating a severe decrease in MTHFR activity (25% of normal activity) modulated another set of metabolites. Two oscillations of varying amplitude were observed at the steady state for DNA methylation with severe 5mTHF deficiency, and the dUMP/dTMP ratio reached a steady state after 2 h, compared to 2.5 h for 100% 5mTHF. MTHFR activity with 25% of V(max) resulted in an increased methylated DNA pool after half an hour. We observed a deviation earlier in the profile compared to 50% and 100% V(max). For dUMP methylation, the highest level was observed with 25%, suggesting a low rate of dUMP methylation into dTMP with 25% of MTHFR activity. In conclusion, using logic programming we were able to construct the 1CM for analyzing the dynamic system behavior. This model may be used to refine biological interpretations of data or as a tool that can provide new hypotheses for pathogenesis.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Adam, J.; Tsupko-Sitnikov, V.M.
1996-01-01
A new, rigorously substantiated approach to construction of decay schemes on the basis of γ-γ coincidence data is described. Complete decay modes (concrete cascades of transitions from excited to the ground-state of a nucleus excited in a decay or a reaction) and continuity regions in complete modes (regions of successive transitions) are isolated by logical operations with rows (columns) of a symmetrical coincidence matrix where rows (columns) correspond to energies of coinciding transitions and matrix elements are unities and zeros, depending on the presence or absence of the given coincidence. To reject false complete modes and continuity regions arising from incompleteness of the coincidence data and errors in them, energy selection is introduced for complete modes and continuity regions, which demands that total energy of their constituent transitions should be equal to total energy of some other complete modes and continuity regions and to the energies of singles. With the continuity regions found, it is possible to order transitions in the selected complete modes and to algorithmize matching of complete modes into a decay scheme. 10 refs., 3 figs
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Birkedal, Lars; Sieczkowski, Filip; Thamsborg, Jacob Junker
2012-01-01
We present a logical relation for showing the correctness of program transformations based on a new type-and-eﬀect system for a concurrent extension of an ML-like language with higher-order functions, higher-order store and dynamic memory allocation. We show how to use our model to verify a number....... To the best of our knowledge, this is the ﬁrst such result for a concurrent higher-order language with higher-order store and dynamic memory allocation....
Logics and falsifications a new perspective on constructivist semantics
Kapsner, Andreas
2014-01-01
This volume examines the concept of falsification as a central notion of semantic theories and its effects on logical laws. The point of departure is the general constructivist line of argument that Michael Dummett has offered over the last decades. From there, the author examines the ways in which falsifications can enter into a constructivist semantics, displays the full spectrum of options, and discusses the logical systems most suitable to each one of them. While the idea of introducing falsifications into the semantic account is Dummett's own, the many ways in which falsificationism departs quite radically from verificationism are here spelled out in detail for the first time. The volume is divided into three large parts. The first part provides important background information about Dummett’s program, intuitionism and logics with gaps and gluts. The second part is devoted to the introduction of falsifications into the constructive account, and shows that there is more than one way in which one can do ...
A Logic Model for Evaluating the Academic Health Department.
Erwin, Paul Campbell; McNeely, Clea S; Grubaugh, Julie H; Valentine, Jennifer; Miller, Mark D; Buchanan, Martha
2016-01-01
Academic Health Departments (AHDs) are collaborative partnerships between academic programs and practice settings. While case studies have informed our understanding of the development and activities of AHDs, there has been no formal published evaluation of AHDs, either singularly or collectively. Developing a framework for evaluating AHDs has potential to further aid our understanding of how these relationships may matter. In this article, we present a general theory of change, in the form of a logic model, for how AHDs impact public health at the community level. We then present a specific example of how the logic model has been customized for a specific AHD. Finally, we end with potential research questions on the AHD based on these concepts. We conclude that logic models are valuable tools, which can be used to assess the value and ultimate impact of the AHD.
Implicational (Semilinear) Logics II: Additional Connectives and Characterizations of Semilinearity
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Cintula, Petr; Noguera, Carles
2016-01-01
Roč. 55, č. 3 (2016), s. 353-372 ISSN 0933-5846 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-14654S EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 247584 - MATOMUVI Institutional support: RVO:67985807 ; RVO:67985556 Keywords : abstract algebraic logic * implicational logics * disjunctional logics * semilinear logics * non-classical logics * transfer theorems Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.394, year: 2016
FATAL, General Experiment Fitting Program by Nonlinear Regression Method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Salmon, L.; Budd, T.; Marshall, M.
1982-01-01
1 - Description of problem or function: A generalized fitting program with a free-format keyword interface to the user. It permits experimental data to be fitted by non-linear regression methods to any function describable by the user. The user requires the minimum of computer experience but needs to provide a subroutine to define his function. Some statistical output is included as well as 'best' estimates of the function's parameters. 2 - Method of solution: The regression method used is based on a minimization technique devised by Powell (Harwell Subroutine Library VA05A, 1972) which does not require the use of analytical derivatives. The method employs a quasi-Newton procedure balanced with a steepest descent correction. Experience shows this to be efficient for a very wide range of application. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: The current version of the program permits functions to be defined with up to 20 parameters. The function may be fitted to a maximum of 400 points, preferably with estimated values of weight given
Vascular Trauma Operative Experience is Inadequate in General Surgery Programs.
Yan, Huan; Maximus, Steven; Koopmann, Matthew; Keeley, Jessica; Smith, Brian; Virgilio, Christian de; Kim, Dennis Y
2016-05-01
Vascular injuries may be challenging, particularly for surgeons who have not received formal vascular surgery fellowship training. Lack of experience and improper technique can result in significant complications. The objective of this study was to examine changes in resident experience with operative vascular trauma over time. A retrospective review was performed using Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) case logs of general surgery residents graduating between 2004 and 2014 at 2 academic, university-affiliated institutions associated with level 1 trauma centers. The primary outcome was number of reported vascular trauma operations, stratified by year of graduation and institution. A total of 112 residents graduated in the study period with a median 7 (interquartile range 4.5-13.5) vascular trauma cases per resident. Fasciotomy and exposure and/or repair of peripheral vessels constituted the bulk of the operative volume. Linear regression showed no significant trend in cases with respect to year of graduation (P = 0.266). Residents from program A (n = 53) reported a significantly higher number of vascular trauma cases when compared with program B (n = 59): 12.0 vs. 5.0 cases, respectively (P < 0.001). Level 1 trauma center verification does not guarantee sufficient exposure to vascular trauma. The operative exposure in program B is reflective of the national average of 4.0 cases per resident as reported by the ACGME, and this trend is unlikely to change in the near future. Fellowship training may be critical for surgeons who plan to work in a trauma setting, particularly in areas lacking vascular surgeons. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kats, L.C.; Visser, E.
2010-01-01
Software platforms such as the Java Virtual Machine or the CLR .NET virtual machine have their own ecosystem of a core programming language or instruction set, libraries, and developer community. Programming languages can target multiple software platforms to increase interoperability or to boost
Bright, Liam Kofi
2017-10-01
The logical empiricists expressed a consistent attitude to racial categorisation in both the ethical and scientific spheres. Their attitude may be captured in the following slogan: human racial taxonomy is an empirically meaningful mode of classifying persons that we should refrain from deploying. I offer an interpretation of their position that would render coherent their remarks on race with positions they adopted on the scientific status of taxonomy in general, together with their potential moral or political motivations for adopting that position. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Metamathematics of fuzzy logic
Hájek, Petr
1998-01-01
This book presents a systematic treatment of deductive aspects and structures of fuzzy logic understood as many valued logic sui generis. Some important systems of real-valued propositional and predicate calculus are defined and investigated. The aim is to show that fuzzy logic as a logic of imprecise (vague) propositions does have well-developed formal foundations and that most things usually named `fuzzy inference' can be naturally understood as logical deduction.
Berg Johansen, Christina; Bock Waldorff, Susanne
2015-01-01
This study presents new insights into the explanatory power of the institutional logics perspective. With outset in a discussion of seminal theory texts, we identify two fundamental topics that frame institutional logics: overarching institutional orders guided by institutional logics, as well as change and agency generated by friction between logics. We use these topics as basis for an analysis of selected empirical papers, with the aim of understanding how institutional logics contribute to...
Logic Learning in Hopfield Networks
Sathasivam, Saratha; Abdullah, Wan Ahmad Tajuddin Wan
2008-01-01
Synaptic weights for neurons in logic programming can be calculated either by using Hebbian learning or by Wan Abdullah's method. In other words, Hebbian learning for governing events corresponding to some respective program clauses is equivalent with learning using Wan Abdullah's method for the same respective program clauses. In this paper we will evaluate experimentally the equivalence between these two types of learning through computer simulations.
General RMP Guidance - Chapter 8: Emergency Response Program
If you have a Program 2 or 3 process at your facility, 40 CFR Part 68 (risk management program) requires an emergency response program in place if employees respond to some releases involving regulated toxic or flammable substances.
[New horizons in medicine. The application of "fuzzy logic" in clinical and experimental medicine].
Guarini, G
1994-06-01
In medicine, the study of physiological and physiopathological problems is generally programmed by elaborating models which respond to the principals of formal logic. This gives the advantage of favouring the transformation of the formal model into a mathematical model of reference which responds to the principles of the set theories. All this is in the utopian wish to obtain as a result of each research, a net answer whether positive or negative, according to the Aristotelian principal of tertium non datur. Taking this into consideration, the A. briefly traces the principles of modal logic and, in particular, those of fuzzy logic, proposing that the latter substitute the actual definition of "logic with more truth values", with that perhaps more pertinent of "logic of conditioned possibilities". After a brief synthesis on the state of the art on the application of fuzzy logic, the A. reports an example of graphic expression of fuzzy logic by demonstrating how the basic glycemic data (expressed by the vectors magnitude) revealed in a sample of healthy individuals, constituted on the whole an unbroken continuous stream of set partials. The A. calls attention to fuzzy logic as a useful instrument to elaborate in a new way the analysis of scenario qualified to acquire the necessary information to single out the critical points which characterize the potential development of any biological phenomenon.
Formalization of Many-Valued Logics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Villadsen, Jørgen; Schlichtkrull, Anders
2017-01-01
Partiality is a key challenge for computational approaches to artificial intelligence in general and natural language in particular. Various extensions of classical two-valued logic to many-valued logics have been investigated in order to meet this challenge. We use the proof assistant Isabelle...... to formalize the syntax and semantics of many-valued logics with determinate as well as indeterminate truth values. The formalization allows for a concise presentation and makes automated verification possible....
Ontology learning from interpretations in lightweight description logics
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Klarman, S
2015-08-01
Full Text Available International Conference on Inductive Logic programming (ILP), Kyoto, Japan, 20-22 August 2015 Ontology Learning from Interpretations in Lightweight Description Logics Szymon Klarman1 and Katarina Britz2 1 Department of Computer Science, Brunel...
DESIGN AND LICENSING TRENDS OF THE GENERAL EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMS IN LATVIA
Mihailovs, Ivans Jānis; Krūmiņa, Aira Aija
2016-01-01
The general education program designing and licensing trends in Latvia in the period from 2010 to 2014 are analyzed in the article. Based on the general education program licensing data, it found that there isn’t a trend to license author’s program in primary education, while the secondary level of education author's programs are designed and licensed more often. The fact that primary education is more licensed programs in mathematics, science and technology, but in general secondary educatio...
Interfacing a General Purpose Fluid Network Flow Program with the SINDA/G Thermal Analysis Program
Schallhorn, Paul; Popok, Daniel
1999-01-01
A general purpose, one dimensional fluid flow code is currently being interfaced with the thermal analysis program Systems Improved Numerical Differencing Analyzer/Gaski (SINDA/G). The flow code, Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program (GFSSP), is capable of analyzing steady state and transient flow in a complex network. The flow code is capable of modeling several physical phenomena including compressibility effects, phase changes, body forces (such as gravity and centrifugal) and mixture thermodynamics for multiple species. The addition of GFSSP to SINDA/G provides a significant improvement in convective heat transfer modeling for SINDA/G. The interface development is conducted in multiple phases. This paper describes the first phase of the interface which allows for steady and quasi-steady (unsteady solid, steady fluid) conjugate heat transfer modeling.
From Interpreter to Logic Engine by Defunctionalization
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Biernacki, Dariusz; Danvy, Olivier
2004-01-01
Starting from a continuation-based interpreter for a simple logic programming language, propositional Prolog with cut, we derive the corresponding logic engine in the form of an abstract machine. The derivation originates in previous work (our article at PPDP 2003) where it was applied...
From Interpreter to Logic Engine by Defunctionalization
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Biernacki, Dariusz; Danvy, Olivier
2003-01-01
Starting from a continuation-based interpreter for a simple logic programming language, propositional Prolog with cut, we derive the corresponding logic engine in the form of an abstract machine. The derivation originates in previous work (our article at PPDP 2003) where it was applied...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Schürmann, Carsten; Sarnat, Jeffrey
2008-01-01
Tait's method (a.k.a. proof by logical relations) is a powerful proof technique frequently used for showing foundational properties of languages based on typed lambda-calculi. Historically, these proofs have been extremely difficult to formalize in proof assistants with weak meta-logics......, such as Twelf, and yet they are often straightforward in proof assistants with stronger meta-logics. In this paper, we propose structural logical relations as a technique for conducting these proofs in systems with limited meta-logical strength by explicitly representing and reasoning about an auxiliary logic...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Berg Johansen, Christina; Waldorff, Susanne Boch
This study presents new insights into the explanatory power of the institutional logics perspective. With outset in a discussion of seminal theory texts, we identify two fundamental topics that frame institutional logics: overarching institutional orders guides by institutional logics, as well...... as change and agency generated by friction between logics. We use these topics as basis for an analysis of selected empirical papers, with the aim of understanding how institutional logics contribute to institutional theory at large, and which social matters institutional logics can and cannot explore...
Indeterministic Temporal Logic
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Trzęsicki Kazimierz
2015-09-01
Full Text Available The questions od determinism, causality, and freedom have been the main philosophical problems debated since the beginning of temporal logic. The issue of the logical value of sentences about the future was stated by Aristotle in the famous tomorrow sea-battle passage. The question has inspired Łukasiewicz’s idea of many-valued logics and was a motive of A. N. Prior’s considerations about the logic of tenses. In the scheme of temporal logic there are different solutions to the problem. In the paper we consider indeterministic temporal logic based on the idea of temporal worlds and the relation of accessibility between them.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baron, E.; Hauschildt, Peter H.
1998-01-01
We describe an important addition to the parallel implementation of our generalized nonlocal thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) stellar atmosphere and radiative transfer computer program PHOENIX. In a previous paper in this series we described data and task parallel algorithms we have developed for radiative transfer, spectral line opacity, and NLTE opacity and rate calculations. These algorithms divided the work spatially or by spectral lines, that is, distributing the radial zones, individual spectral lines, or characteristic rays among different processors and employ, in addition, task parallelism for logically independent functions (such as atomic and molecular line opacities). For finite, monotonic velocity fields, the radiative transfer equation is an initial value problem in wavelength, and hence each wavelength point depends upon the previous one. However, for sophisticated NLTE models of both static and moving atmospheres needed to accurately describe, e.g., novae and supernovae, the number of wavelength points is very large (200,000 - 300,000) and hence parallelization over wavelength can lead both to considerable speedup in calculation time and the ability to make use of the aggregate memory available on massively parallel supercomputers. Here, we describe an implementation of a pipelined design for the wavelength parallelization of PHOENIX, where the necessary data from the processor working on a previous wavelength point is sent to the processor working on the succeeding wavelength point as soon as it is known. Our implementation uses a MIMD design based on a relatively small number of standard message passing interface (MPI) library calls and is fully portable between serial and parallel computers. copyright 1998 The American Astronomical Society
Quantum Logic as a Dynamic Logic
Baltag, A.; Smets, S.
We address the old question whether a logical understanding of Quantum Mechanics requires abandoning some of the principles of classical logic. Against Putnam and others (Among whom we may count or not E. W. Beth, depending on how we interpret some of his statements), our answer is a clear “no”.
Quantum logic as a dynamic logic
Baltag, Alexandru; Smets, Sonja
We address the old question whether a logical understanding of Quantum Mechanics requires abandoning some of the principles of classical logic. Against Putnam and others (Among whom we may count or not E. W. Beth, depending on how we interpret some of his statements), our answer is a clear "no".
Transforming equality logic to propositional logic
Zantema, H.; Groote, J.F.
2003-01-01
Abstract We investigate and compare various ways of transforming equality formulas to propositional formulas, in order to be able to solve satisfiability in equality logic by means of satisfiability in propositional logic. We propose equality substitution as a new approach combining desirable
Permissive Subsorted Partial Logic in CASL
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Cerioli, Maura; Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth; Krieg-Brückner, Bernd
1997-01-01
This paper presents a permissive subsorted partial logic used in the CoFI Algebraic Specification Language. In contrast to other order-sorted logics, subsorting is not modeled by set inclusions, but by injective embeddings allowing for more general models in which subtypes can have different data...
Fuzzy Logic in Medicine and Bioinformatics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Angela Torres
2006-01-01
Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to present a general view of the current applications of fuzzy logic in medicine and bioinformatics. We particularly review the medical literature using fuzzy logic. We then recall the geometrical interpretation of fuzzy sets as points in a fuzzy hypercube and present two concrete illustrations in medicine (drug addictions and in bioinformatics (comparison of genomes.
Bohrification of operator algebras and quantum logic
Heunen, C.; Landsman, N.P.; Spitters, B.A.W.
2012-01-01
Following Birkhoff and von Neumann, quantum logic has traditionally been based on the lattice of closed linear subspaces of some Hilbert space, or, more generally, on the lattice of projections in a von Neumann algebra A. Unfortunately, the logical interpretation of these lattices is impaired by
Bohrification of operator algebras and quantum logic
Heunen, C.; Landsman, N.P.; Spitters, B.A.W.
2009-01-01
Following Birkhoff and von Neumann, quantum logic has traditionally been based on the lattice of closed linear subspaces of some Hilbert space, or, more generally, on the lattice of projections in a von Neumann algebra A. Unfortunately, the logical interpretation of these lattices is impaired by
Classical Syllogisms in Logic Teaching
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Øhrstrøm, Peter; Sandborg-Petersen, Ulrik; Thorvaldsen, Steinar
2013-01-01
This paper focuses on the challenges of introducing classical syllogisms in university courses in elementary logic and human reasoning. Using a program written in Prolog+CG, some empirical studies have been carried out involving three groups of students in Denmark; one group of philosophy students...... have a tendency correctly to assess valid syllogisms as such more often than correctly assessing invalid syllogisms as such. It is also investigated to what extent the students have improved their skills in practical reasoning by attending the logic courses. Finally, some open questions regarding...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Brown, Kirk
2000-09-30
Green-E Program support from the Dept. of Energy augmented the costs of implementing the objectives of the Green-E Renewable Electricity Project; general program implementation; regional adaptation; developing strategic partnerships; and public information/education/outreach.
Haluck, R S; Marshall, R L; Krummel, T M; Melkonian, M G
2001-12-01
The use of advanced technology, such as virtual environments and computer-based simulators (VR/CBS), in training has been well established by both industry and the military. In contrast the medical profession, including surgery, has been slow to incorporate such technology in its training. In an attempt to identify factors limiting the regular incorporation of this technology into surgical training programs, a survey was developed and distributed to all general surgery program directors in the United States. A 22-question survey was sent to 254 general surgery program directors. The survey was designed to reflect attitudes of the program directors regarding the use of computer-based simulation in surgical training. Questions were scaled from 1 to 5 with 1 = strongly disagree and 5 = strongly agree. A total of 139 responses (55%) were returned. The majority of respondents (58%) had seen VR/CBS, but only 19% had "hands-on" experience with these systems. Respondents strongly agreed that there is a need for learning opportunities outside of the operating room and a role for VR/CBS in surgical training. Respondents believed both staff and residents would support this type of training. Concerns included VR/CBS' lack of validation and potential requirements for frequent system upgrades. Virtual environments and computer-based simulators, although well established training tools in other fields, have not been widely incorporated into surgical education. Our results suggest that program directors believe this type of technology would be beneficial in surgical education, but they lack adequate information regarding VR/CBS. Developers of this technology may need to focus on educating potential users and addressing their concerns.
Alternative Strategies for Funding a General Dentistry Residency Program.
Kralewski, John E.; Wiggins, Carla
1987-01-01
Three alternative program funding approaches used in other professions are examined: (1) the reorientation of selected dental schools toward graduate education, (2) emphasizing and marketing the service aspects of the programs, and (3) developing education programs as in-house training for large organizations. (MSE)
General guidelines solution for linear programming with fuzzy coefficients
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sergio Gerardo de los Cobos Silva
2013-08-01
Full Text Available This work introduce to the Possibilistic Programming and the Fuzzy Programming as paradigms that allow to resolve problems of linear programming when the coefficients of the model or the restrictions on the same are presented as fuzzy numbers, rather than exact numbers (crisp. This work presents some examples based on [1].
2016-01-01
NIOSH, 2009. As of July 21, 2015: http://www.rand.org/pubs/monographs/MG809.html W. K. Kellogg Foundation, Logic Model Development Guide, Battle...RAND Corporation, MG-809-NIOSH, 2009. As of July 21, 2015: http://www.rand.org/pubs/monographs/MG809.html W. K. Kellogg Foundation, Logic Model
Bolc, Leonard
1992-01-01
Many-valued logics were developed as an attempt to handle philosophical doubts about the "law of excluded middle" in classical logic. The first many-valued formal systems were developed by J. Lukasiewicz in Poland and E.Post in the U.S.A. in the 1920s, and since then the field has expanded dramatically as the applicability of the systems to other philosophical and semantic problems was recognized. Intuitionisticlogic, for example, arose from deep problems in the foundations of mathematics. Fuzzy logics, approximation logics, and probability logics all address questions that classical logic alone cannot answer. All these interpretations of many-valued calculi motivate specific formal systems thatallow detailed mathematical treatment. In this volume, the authors are concerned with finite-valued logics, and especially with three-valued logical calculi. Matrix constructions, axiomatizations of propositional and predicate calculi, syntax, semantic structures, and methodology are discussed. Separate chapters deal w...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
P N Johnson-Laird
2010-10-01
Full Text Available An old view in logic going back to Aristotle is that an inference is valid in virtue of its logical form. Many psychologists have adopted the same point of view about human reasoning: the first step is to recover the logical form of an inference, and the second step is to apply rules of inference that match these forms in order to prove that the conclusion follows from the premises. The present paper argues against this idea. The logical form of an inference transcends the grammatical forms of the sentences used to express it, because logical form also depends on context. Context is not readily expressed in additional premises. And the recovery of logical form leads ineluctably to the need for infinitely many axioms to capture the logical properties of relations. An alternative theory is that reasoning depends on mental models, and this theory obviates the need to recover logical form.
Newton-Smith, WH
2003-01-01
A complete introduction to logic for first-year university students with no background in logic, philosophy or mathematics. In easily understood steps it shows the mechanics of the formal analysis of arguments.
Contribution of Warsaw Logicians to Computational Logic
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Damian Niwiński
2016-06-01
Full Text Available The newly emerging branch of research of Computer Science received encouragement from the successors of the Warsaw mathematical school: Kuratowski, Mazur, Mostowski, Grzegorczyk, and Rasiowa. Rasiowa realized very early that the spectrum of computer programs should be incorporated into the realm of mathematical logic in order to make a rigorous treatment of program correctness. This gave rise to the concept of algorithmic logic developed since the 1970s by Rasiowa, Salwicki, Mirkowska, and their followers. Together with Pratt’s dynamic logic, algorithmic logic evolved into a mainstream branch of research: logic of programs. In the late 1980s, Warsaw logicians Tiuryn and Urzyczyn categorized various logics of programs, depending on the class of programs involved. Quite unexpectedly, they discovered that some persistent open questions about the expressive power of logics are equivalent to famous open problems in complexity theory. This, along with parallel discoveries by Harel, Immerman and Vardi, contributed to the creation of an important area of theoretical computer science: descriptive complexity. By that time, the modal μ-calculus was recognized as a sort of a universal logic of programs. The mid 1990s saw a landmark result by Walukiewicz, who showed completeness of a natural axiomatization for the μ-calculus proposed by Kozen. The difficult proof of this result, based on automata theory, opened a path to further investigations. Later, Bojanczyk opened a new chapter by introducing an unboundedness quantifier, which allowed for expressing some quantitative properties of programs. Yet another topic, linking the past with the future, is the subject of automata founded in the Fraenkel-Mostowski set theory. The studies on intuitionism found their continuation in the studies of Curry-Howard isomorphism. ukasiewicz’s landmark idea of many-valued logic found its continuation in various approaches to incompleteness and uncertainty.
Shen, Peiping; Zhang, Tongli; Wang, Chunfeng
2017-01-01
This article presents a new approximation algorithm for globally solving a class of generalized fractional programming problems (P) whose objective functions are defined as an appropriate composition of ratios of affine functions. To solve this problem, the algorithm solves an equivalent optimization problem (Q) via an exploration of a suitably defined nonuniform grid. The main work of the algorithm involves checking the feasibility of linear programs associated with the interesting grid points. It is proved that the proposed algorithm is a fully polynomial time approximation scheme as the ratio terms are fixed in the objective function to problem (P), based on the computational complexity result. In contrast to existing results in literature, the algorithm does not require the assumptions on quasi-concavity or low-rank of the objective function to problem (P). Numerical results are given to illustrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.
Connections among quantum logics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lock, P.F.; Hardegree, G.M.
1985-01-01
This paper gives a brief introduction to the major areas of work in quantum event logics: manuals (Foulis and Randall) and semi-Boolean algebras (Abbott). The two theories are compared, and the connection between quantum event logics and quantum propositional logics is made explicit. In addition, the work on manuals provides us with many examples of results stated in Part I. (author)
Manca, V.; Salibra, A.; Scollo, Giuseppe
1990-01-01
Equational type logic is an extension of (conditional) equational logic, that enables one to deal in a single, unified framework with diverse phenomena such as partiality, type polymorphism and dependent types. In this logic, terms may denote types as well as elements, and atomic formulae are either
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Xue, Bingtian; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Mardare, Radu Iulian
2015-01-01
We introduce Concurrent Weighted Logic (CWL), a multimodal logic for concurrent labeled weighted transition systems (LWSs). The synchronization of LWSs is described using dedicated functions that, in various concurrency paradigms, allow us to encode the compositionality of LWSs. To reflect these......-completeness results for this logic. To complete these proofs we involve advanced topological techniques from Model Theory....
Bergstra, J.A.
2011-01-01
Four options for assigning a meaning to Islamic Logic are surveyed including a new proposal for an option named "Real Islamic Logic" (RIL). That approach to Islamic Logic should serve modern Islamic objectives in a way comparable to the functionality of Islamic Finance. The prospective role of RIL
Logical foundation of quantum mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stachow, E.W.
1980-01-01
The subject of this article is the reconstruction of quantum mechanics on the basis of a formal language of quantum mechanical propositions. During recent years, research in the foundations of the language of science has given rise to a dialogic semantics that is adequate in the case of a formal language for quantum physics. The system of sequential logic which is comprised by the language is more general than classical logic; it includes the classical system as a special case. Although the system of sequential logic can be founded without reference to the empirical content of quantum physical propositions, it establishes an essential part of the structure of the mathematical formalism used in quantum mechanics. It is the purpose of this paper to demonstrate the connection between the formal language of quantum physics and its representation by mathematical structures in a self-contained way. (author)
Geal: A general program for the analysis of alpha spectra
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Garcia-Torano, E.; Acena Barrenechea, M.L.
1978-01-01
A computing program for analysis and representation of alpha spectra obtained with surface barrier detectors is described. Several methods for fitting spectra are studied. A monoenergetic line or a doublet previously fitted has been used as a standard for the analyses of all kind of spectra. Some examples of application as well as a list of the program are shown. The program has been written in Fortran V language. (author)
Dal Palú, Alessandro; Spyrakis, Francesca; Cozzini, Pietro
2012-03-01
We describe the potential of a novel method, based on Constraint Logic Programming (CLP), developed for an exhaustive sampling of protein conformational space. The CLP framework proposed here has been tested and applied to the estrogen receptor, whose activity and function is strictly related to its intrinsic, and well known, dynamics. We have investigated in particular the flexibility of H12, focusing on the pathways followed by the helix when moving from one stable crystallographic conformation to the others. Millions of geometrically feasible conformations were generated, selected and the traces connecting the different forms were determined by using a shortest path algorithm. The preliminary analyses showed a marked agreement between the crystallographic agonist-like, antagonist-like and hypothetical apo forms, and the corresponding conformations identified by the CLP framework. These promising results, together with the short computational time required to perform the analyses, make this constraint-based approach a valuable tool for the study of protein folding prediction. The CLP framework enables one to consider various structural and energetic scenarious, without changing the core algorithm. To show the feasibility of the method, we intentionally choose a pure geometric setting, neglecting the energetic evaluation of the poses, in order to be independent from a specific force field and to provide the possibility of comparing different behaviours associated with various energy models. Copyright Â© 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
SYNCOM: A general syntax conversion language and computer program
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bindon, D.C.
1972-09-01
The problems of syntax conversion are discussed and the reasons given for the choice of the Interpretive method. A full description is given of the SYNCON language and computer program together with brief details of some programs written in the language. (author)
Quantum design rules for single molecule logic gates.
Renaud, N; Hliwa, M; Joachim, C
2011-08-28
Recent publications have demonstrated how to implement a NOR logic gate with a single molecule using its interaction with two surface atoms as logical inputs [W. Soe et al., ACS Nano, 2011, 5, 1436]. We demonstrate here how this NOR logic gate belongs to the general family of quantum logic gates where the Boolean truth table results from a full control of the quantum trajectory of the electron transfer process through the molecule by very local and classical inputs practiced on the molecule. A new molecule OR gate is proposed for the logical inputs to be also single metal atoms, one per logical input.
Reconfigurable Magnetic Logic Combined with Nonvolatile Memory Writing
Luo, Zhaochu
2016-11-16
In the magnetic logic, four basic Boolean logic operations can be programmed by a magnetic bit at room temperature with a high output ratio (>103%). In the same clock cycle, benefiting from the built-in spin Hall effect, logic results can be directly written into magnetic bits using an all-electric method.
Reconfigurable Magnetic Logic Combined with Nonvolatile Memory Writing
Luo, Zhaochu; Lu, Ziyao; Xiong, Chengyue; Zhu, Tao; Wu, Wei; Zhang, Qiang; Wu, Huaqiang; Zhang, Xixiang; Zhang, Xiaozhong
2016-01-01
In the magnetic logic, four basic Boolean logic operations can be programmed by a magnetic bit at room temperature with a high output ratio (>103%). In the same clock cycle, benefiting from the built-in spin Hall effect, logic results can be directly written into magnetic bits using an all-electric method.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Christiansen, Henning; Dahl, Veronica
2009-01-01
By extending logic grammars with constraint logic, we give them the ability to create knowledge bases that represent the meaning of an input string. Semantic information is thus defined through extra-grammatical means, and a sentence's meaning logically follows as a by-product of string rewriting....... We formalize these ideas, and exemplify them both within and outside first-order logic, and for both fixed and dynamic knowledge bases. Within the latter variety, we consider the usual left-to-right derivations that are traditional in logic grammars, but also -- in a significant departure from...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bentzen, Martin Mose
2014-01-01
A new deontic logic, Action Type Deontic Logic, is presented. To motivate this logic, a number of benchmark cases are shown, representing inferences a deontic logic should validate. Some of the benchmark cases are singled out for further comments and some formal approaches to deontic reasoning...... are evaluated with respect to the benchmark cases. After that follows an informal introduction to the ideas behind the formal semantics, focussing on the distinction between action types and action tokens. Then the syntax and semantics of Action Type Deontic Logic is presented and it is shown to meet...
A Logical Analysis of Quantum Voting Protocols
Rad, Soroush Rafiee; Shirinkalam, Elahe; Smets, Sonja
2017-12-01
In this paper we provide a logical analysis of the Quantum Voting Protocol for Anonymous Surveying as developed by Horoshko and Kilin in (Phys. Lett. A 375, 1172-1175 2011). In particular we make use of the probabilistic logic of quantum programs as developed in (Int. J. Theor. Phys. 53, 3628-3647 2014) to provide a formal specification of the protocol and to derive its correctness. Our analysis is part of a wider program on the application of quantum logics to the formal verification of protocols in quantum communication and quantum computation.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lallement, Dominique.
1979-01-01
Nuclear reactors are monitored by several systems combined. The hydraulic and mechanical limitations on the equipment and the heat transfer requirements in the core set a reliable working range for the boiler defined with certain safety margins. The control system tends to keep the power plant within this working range. The protection system covers all the electrical and mechanical equipment needed to safeguard the boiler in the event of abnormal transients or accidents accounted for in the design of the plant. On units in service protection is handled by cabled automatic systems. For better reliability and safety operation, greater flexibility of use (modularity, adaptability) and improved start-up criteria by data processing the tendency is to use digital programmed systems. Computers are already present in control systems but their introduction into protection systems meets with some reticence on the part of the nuclear safety authorities. A study on the replacement of conventional by digital protection systems is presented. From choices partly made on the principles which should govern the hardware and software of a protection system the reliability of different structures and elements was examined and an experimental model built with its simulator and test facilities. A prototype based on these options and studies is being built and is to be set up on one of the CEN-G reactors for tests [fr
Symbolic logic and mechanical theorem proving
Chang, Chin-Liang
1969-01-01
This book contains an introduction to symbolic logic and a thorough discussion of mechanical theorem proving and its applications. The book consists of three major parts. Chapters 2 and 3 constitute an introduction to symbolic logic. Chapters 4-9 introduce several techniques in mechanical theorem proving, and Chapters 10 an 11 show how theorem proving can be applied to various areas such as question answering, problem solving, program analysis, and program synthesis.
Oak Ridge National Laboratory Technology Logic Diagram
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1993-09-01
The Oak Ridge National Laboratory Technology Logic Diagram (TLD) was developed to provide a decision-support tool that relates environmental restoration (ER) and waste management (WM) problems at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to potential technologies that can remediate these problems. The TLD identifies the research, development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation needed to develop these technologies to a state that allows technology transfer and application to decontamination and decommissioning (D ampersand D), remedial action (RA), and WM activities. The TLD consists of three fundamentally separate volumes: Vol. 1 (Technology Evaluation), Vol. 2 (Technology Logic Diagram), and Vol. 3 (Technology Evaluation Data Sheets). Part A of Vols. 1 and 2 focuses on D ampersand D. Part B of Vols. 1 and 2 focuses on RA of contaminated facilities. Part C of Vols. 1 and 2 focuses on WM. Each part of Vol. 1 contains an overview of the TLD, an explanation of the program-specific responsibilities, a review of identified technologies, and the ranking os remedial technologies. Volume 2 (Pts. A, B, and C) contains the logic linkages among EM goals, environmental problems, and the various technologies that have the potential to solve these problems. Volume 3 (Pts. A, B, and C) contains the TLD data sheets. The focus of Vol. 1, Pt. B, is RA, and it has been divided into six chapters. The first chapter is an introduction, which defines problems specific to the ER Program for ORNL. Chapter 2 provides a general overview of the TLD. Chapters 3 through 5 are organized into necessary subelement categories: RA, characterization, and robotics and automation. The final chapter contains regulatory compliance information concerning RA
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Blackburn, Patrick Rowan; Huertas, Antonia; Manzano, Maria
2014-01-01
Leon Henkin was not a modal logician, but there is a branch of modal logic that has been deeply influenced by his work. That branch is hybrid logic, a family of logics that extend orthodox modal logic with special proposition symbols (called nominals) that name worlds. This paper explains why...... Henkin’s techniques are so important in hybrid logic. We do so by proving a completeness result for a hybrid type theory called HTT, probably the strongest hybrid logic that has yet been explored. Our completeness result builds on earlier work with a system called BHTT, or basic hybrid type theory...... is due to the first-order perspective, which lies at the heart of Henin’s best known work and hybrid logic....
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Newton C. A. da Costa
2002-12-01
Full Text Available In view of the present state of development of non classical logic, especially of paraconsistent logic, a new stand regarding the relations between logic and ontology is defended In a parody of a dictum of Quine, my stand May be summarized as follows. To be is to be the value of a variable a specific language with a given underlying logic Yet my stand differs from Quine’s, because, among other reasons, I accept some first order heterodox logics as genuine alternatives to classical logic I also discuss some questions of non classical logic to substantiate my argument, and suggest that may position complements and extends some ideas advanced by L Apostel.
Institutional Logics in Action
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lounsbury, Michael; Boxenbaum, Eva
2013-01-01
This double volume presents state-of-the-art research and thinking on the dynamics of actors and institutional logics. In the introduction, we briefly sketch the roots and branches of institutional logics scholarship before turning to the new buds of research on the topic of how actors engage...... institutional logics in the course of their organizational practice. We introduce an exciting line of new works on the meta-theoretical foundations of logics, institutional logic processes, and institutional complexity and organizational responses. Collectively, the papers in this volume advance the very...... prolific stream of research on institutional logics by deepening our insight into the active use of institutional logics in organizational action and interaction, including the institutional effects of such (inter)actions....
A logical correspondence between natural semantics and abstract machines
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Simmons, Robert J.; Zerny, Ian
2013-01-01
We present a logical correspondence between natural semantics and abstract machines. This correspondence enables the mechanical and fully-correct construction of an abstract machine from a natural semantics. Our logical correspondence mirrors the Reynolds functional correspondence, but we...... manipulate semantic specifications encoded in a logical framework instead of manipulating functional programs. Natural semantics and abstract machines are instances of substructural operational semantics. As a byproduct, using a substructural logical framework, we bring concurrent and stateful models...
Generalized Aliasing as a Basis for Program Analysis Tools
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
O'Callahan, Robert
2000-01-01
.... This dissertation describes the design of a system, Ajax, that addresses this problem by using semantics-based program analysis as the basis for a number of different tools to aid Java programmers...
General atomics low speed Maglev technology development program (Supplemental #3)
2005-05-01
This report details accomplishments of the Low Speed Maglev Technology Development Program, Supplemental #3. The 4 major tasks included: guideway foundation construction, fabrication and installation of 7 guideway modules, system integration and test...
The General Atomics low speed urban Maglev technology development program
2003-01-01
The overall objective of this program is to develop magnetic levitation technology that is a cost effective, reliable, : and environmentally friendly option for urban mass transportation in the United States. Maglev is a revolutionary : approach in w...
Cleaveland, Rance; Luettgen, Gerald; Bushnell, Dennis M. (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
This paper presents the Logical Process Calculus (LPC), a formalism that supports heterogeneous system specifications containing both operational and declarative subspecifications. Syntactically, LPC extends Milner's Calculus of Communicating Systems with operators from the alternation-free linear-time mu-calculus (LT(mu)). Semantically, LPC is equipped with a behavioral preorder that generalizes Hennessy's and DeNicola's must-testing preorder as well as LT(mu's) satisfaction relation, while being compositional for all LPC operators. From a technical point of view, the new calculus is distinguished by the inclusion of: (1) both minimal and maximal fixed-point operators and (2) an unimple-mentability predicate on process terms, which tags inconsistent specifications. The utility of LPC is demonstrated by means of an example highlighting the benefits of heterogeneous system specification.
The LPi and LPi/2 Propositional and Predicate Logics
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Cintula, Petr
2001-01-01
Roč. 124, č. 3 (2001), s. 289-302 ISSN 0165-0114 Institutional research plan: AV0Z1030915 Keywords : fuzzy logic * product logic * Lukasiewicz logic Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.470, year: 2001
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Hájek, Petr; Harmancová, Dagmar
2000-01-01
Roč. 8, č. 4 (2000), s. 495-498 ISSN 0218-4885 Grant - others:COST(XE) Action 15 Institutional research plan: AV0Z1030915 Keywords : fuzzy logic * Gödel logic * intuitionistic logic * hedges Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.145, year: 2000
Advances in the LPi and LPi1/2 Logics
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Cintula, Petr
2003-01-01
Roč. 42, č. 5 (2003), s. 449-468 ISSN 0933-5846 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA1030004 Institutional research plan: AV0Z1030915 Keywords : fuzzy logic * Lukasiewicz logic * product logic Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.523, year: 2003
Extension Properties and Subdirect Representation in Abstract Algebraic Logic
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Lávička, Tomáš; Noguera, Carles
(2018) ISSN 0039-3215 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA17-04630S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Abstract algebraic logic * Infinitary logics * Natural extensions * Natural expansions * Semilinear logics * Subdirect representation Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.589, year: 2016
2013-11-01
... Assistance General Provisions, Federal Perkins Loan Program, Federal Family Education Loan Program, and... Provisions, Federal Perkins Loan (Perkins Loan) Program, Federal Family Education Loan (FFEL) Program, and... Vol. 78 Friday, No. 212 November 1, 2013 Part II Department of Education 34 CFR Parts 668, 674...
28 CFR 544.82 - General program characteristics.
2010-07-01
... Section 544.82 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT..., state departments of education, or other recognized accrediting educational organizations; (2... through a sponsoring accredited educational institution; (3) General Educational Development tests...
77 FR 47922 - Publication of General Licenses Related to the Burma Sanctions Program
2012-08-10
... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Office of Foreign Assets Control Publication of General Licenses Related to the Burma Sanctions Program AGENCY: Office of Foreign Assets Control, Treasury. ACTION: Notice, publication of general licenses. [[Page 47923
Assessment of Generalization and Maintenance in a Multicomponent Parent Training Program.
Cordisco, Linda K.; Strain, Phillip S.
1986-01-01
A parent training program emphasizing acquisition of general (as opposed to task-specific) techniques facilitated spontaneous generalization of parenting skills from the school to the home for one parent, but not for a second parent. (Author/CL)
Paraconsistency properties in degree-preserving fuzzy logics
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Ertola, R.; Esteva, F.; Flaminio, T.; Godo, L.; Noguera, Carles
2015-01-01
Roč. 19, č. 3 (2015), s. 531-546 ISSN 1432-7643 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP202/10/1826 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Mathematical fuzzy logic * degree-preserving fuzzy logics * paraconsistent logics * logics of formal inconsistency Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.630, year: 2015 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2016/MTR/noguera-0469166.pdf
Manipulating potential wells in Logical Stochastic Resonance to obtain XOR logic
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Storni, Remo; Ando, Hiroyasu; Aihara, Kazuyuki; Murali, K.; Sinha, Sudeshna
2012-01-01
Logical Stochastic Resonance (LSR) is the application of Stochastic Resonance to logic computation, namely the phenomenon where a nonlinear system driven by weak signals representing logic inputs, under optimal noise, can yield logic outputs. We extend the existing results, obtained in the context of bistable systems, to multi-stable dynamical systems, allowing us to obtain XOR logic, in addition to the AND (NAND) and OR (NOR) logic observed in earlier studies. This strategy widens the scope of LSR from the application point of view, as XOR forms the basis of ubiquitous bit-by-bit addition, and conceptually, showing the ability to yield non-monotonic input–output logic associations. -- Highlights: ► We generalize Logical Stochastic Resonance from bistable to multi-stable systems. ► We propose a tristable dynamical system formed of piecewise linear functions. ► The system can correctly reproduce XOR logic behavior using the LSR principle. ► The system yields different logic behavior without the need to change the dynamics.
Bioassay guideline 1: general guidlines for bioassay programs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1980-01-01
This guideline is the first of a series of documents which elaborate criteria for bioassay programs, to be presented as recommendations to the Atomic Energy Control Board. It specifies which workers require routine bioassays, the accuracy and frequency of measurements, the dose levels at which specific actions must be taken, and the documentation required
Television and Violence: Implications of the Surgeon General's Research Program
Murray, John P.
1973-01-01
Reports studies concerning: (a) the characteristics of television program content; (b) the characteristics of the audience--Who watches what? For how long? and, (c) the potential impact of televised violence on the attitudes, values, and behavior of the viewer. (Author/JM)
Integer programming for the generalized high school timetabling problem
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kristiansen, Simon; Sørensen, Matias; Stidsen, Thomas Riis
2015-01-01
, the XHSTT format serves as a common ground for researchers within this area. This paper describes the first exact method capable of handling an arbitrary instance of the XHSTT format. The method is based on a mixed-integer linear programming (MIP) model, which is solved in two steps with a commercial...
Interpreting Quantum Logic as a Pragmatic Structure
Garola, Claudio
2017-12-01
Many scholars maintain that the language of quantum mechanics introduces a quantum notion of truth which is formalized by (standard, sharp) quantum logic and is incompatible with the classical (Tarskian) notion of truth. We show that quantum logic can be identified (up to an equivalence relation) with a fragment of a pragmatic language LGP of assertive formulas, that are justified or unjustified rather than trueor false. Quantum logic can then be interpreted as an algebraic structure that formalizes properties of the notion of empirical justification according to quantum mechanics rather than properties of a quantum notion of truth. This conclusion agrees with a general integrationist perspective that interprets nonstandard logics as theories of metalinguistic notions different from truth, thus avoiding incompatibility with classical notions and preserving the globality of logic.
Dalen, Dirk
1983-01-01
A book which efficiently presents the basics of propositional and predicate logic, van Dalen’s popular textbook contains a complete treatment of elementary classical logic, using Gentzen’s Natural Deduction. Propositional and predicate logic are treated in separate chapters in a leisured but precise way. Chapter Three presents the basic facts of model theory, e.g. compactness, Skolem-Löwenheim, elementary equivalence, non-standard models, quantifier elimination, and Skolem functions. The discussion of classical logic is rounded off with a concise exposition of second-order logic. In view of the growing recognition of constructive methods and principles, one chapter is devoted to intuitionistic logic. Completeness is established for Kripke semantics. A number of specific constructive features, such as apartness and equality, the Gödel translation, the disjunction and existence property have been incorporated. The power and elegance of natural deduction is demonstrated best in the part of proof theory cal...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Schang Fabien
2017-03-01
Full Text Available An analogy is made between two rather different domains, namely: logic, and football (or soccer. Starting from a comparative table between the two activities, an alternative explanation of logic is given in terms of players, ball, goal, and the like. Our main thesis is that, just as the task of logic is preserving truth from premises to the conclusion, footballers strive to keep the ball as far as possible until the opposite goal. Assuming this analogy may help think about logic in the same way as in dialogical logic, but it should also present truth-values in an alternative sense of speech-acts occurring in a dialogue. The relativity of truth-values is focused by this way, thereby leading to an additional way of logical pluralism.
On Witnessed Models in Fuzzy Logic III - Witnessed Gödel Logics
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Hájek, Petr
2010-01-01
Roč. 56, č. 2 (2010), s. 171-174 ISSN 0942-5616 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0545 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : mathematical fuzzy logic * Gödel logic * witnessed models * arithmetical complexity Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.361, year: 2010
Infusing technology into general studies program: The Nnamdi ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
This paper is intended to give a summary of the efforts of school of general studies, Nnamdi Azikiwe University at moving in specified dimensions to realise her present status in blended procedures. It is hoped that the measure will be introductory enough to encourage and motivate other tertiary institutions to get in step.
Session Types in Abelian Logic
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yoichi Hirai
2013-12-01
Full Text Available There was a PhD student who says "I found a pair of wooden shoes. I put a coin in the left and a key in the right. Next morning, I found those objects in the opposite shoes." We do not claim existence of such shoes, but propose a similar programming abstraction in the context of typed lambda calculi. The result, which we call the Amida calculus, extends Abramsky's linear lambda calculus LF and characterizes Abelian logic.
Logical database design principles
Garmany, John; Clark, Terry
2005-01-01
INTRODUCTION TO LOGICAL DATABASE DESIGNUnderstanding a Database Database Architectures Relational Databases Creating the Database System Development Life Cycle (SDLC)Systems Planning: Assessment and Feasibility System Analysis: RequirementsSystem Analysis: Requirements Checklist Models Tracking and Schedules Design Modeling Functional Decomposition DiagramData Flow Diagrams Data Dictionary Logical Structures and Decision Trees System Design: LogicalSYSTEM DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION The ER ApproachEntities and Entity Types Attribute Domains AttributesSet-Valued AttributesWeak Entities Constraint
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Peliš, Michal
2017-01-01
Roč. 26, č. 3 (2017), s. 357-381 ISSN 1425-3305 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GC16-07954J Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : epistemic logic * erotetic implication * erotetic logic * logic of questions Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion OBOR OECD: Philosophy, History and Philosophy of science and technology http://apcz.umk.pl/czasopisma/index.php/LLP/article/view/LLP.2017.007
Tools to improve Angra 1/2 general training program
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barroso, Haroldo Jr.
2003-01-01
Since Brazil restarted Angra 2 construction in 1995, as a result of the studies of future energy consumption, the Training Department of Eletronuclear developed the training program for site personnel. This new situation has demanded additional efforts and new routines. In the following paragraphs there is a description of significant aspects in this concern. Most of them are now under discussion in the Training Department and some alternative solutions are being adopted in order to face the new challenges. (author)
Conceptual Modeling via Logic Programming
1990-01-01
is routed through several for popup windows callable from the form. processes before reaching its destination. We identified three solutions to the...confuse atacking forms and to Description: Sensor Type: increase survivability. The type of sensor rders to the bond of the electro- mag- Instance
Crossley, J N; Brickhill, CJ; Stillwell, JC
2010-01-01
Although mathematical logic can be a formidably abstruse topic, even for mathematicians, this concise book presents the subject in a lively and approachable fashion. It deals with the very important ideas in modern mathematical logic without the detailed mathematical work required of those with a professional interest in logic.The book begins with a historical survey of the development of mathematical logic from two parallel streams: formal deduction, which originated with Aristotle, Euclid, and others; and mathematical analysis, which dates back to Archimedes in the same era. The streams beg
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Blackburn, Patrick Rowan; Jørgensen, Klaus Frovin
2012-01-01
In this paper we explore the logic of now, yesterday, today and tomorrow by combining the semantic approach to indexicality pioneered by Hans Kamp [9] and refined by David Kaplan [10] with hybrid tense logic. We first introduce a special now nominal (our @now corresponds to Kamp’s original now...... operator N) and prove completeness results for both logical and contextual validity. We then add propositional constants to handle yesterday, today and tomorrow; our system correctly treats sentences like “Niels will die yesterday” as contextually unsatisfiable. Building on our completeness results for now......, we prove completeness for the richer language, again for both logical and contextual validity....
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lopez, Hugo Andres; Carbone, Marco; Hildebrandt, Thomas
2010-01-01
We explore logical reasoning for the global calculus, a coordination model based on the notion of choreography, with the aim to provide a methodology for speciﬁcation and veriﬁcation of structured communications. Starting with an extension of Hennessy-Milner logic, we present the global logic (GL...... ), a modal logic describing possible interactions among participants in a choreography. We illustrate its use by giving examples of properties on service speciﬁcations. Finally, we show that, despite GL is undecidable, there is a signiﬁcant decidable fragment which we provide with a sound and complete proof...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Andronov, A.A.; Kurin, V.V.; Levichev, M.Yu.; Ryndyk, D.A.; Vostokov, V.I.
1993-01-01
In recent years there has been much interest in superconductor logical devices. Our paper is devoted to the analysis of some new possibilities in this field. The main problems here are: minimization of time of logical operations and reducing of device scale. Josephson systems are quite appropriate for this purpose because of small size, short characteristic time and also small energy losses. Two different types of Josephson logic have been investigated during last years. The first type is based on hysteretic V-A characteristic of a single Josephson junction. Superconducting and resistive (with nonzero voltage) states are considered as logical zero and logical unit. The second one - rapid single flux quantum logic, has been developed recently and is based on SQUID-like bistability. Different logical states are the states with different number of magnetic flux quanta inside closed superconducting contour. Information is represented by voltage pulses with fixed ''area'' (∫ V(t)/dt). This pulses are generated when logical state of SQUID-like elementary cell changes. The fundamental role of magnetic flux quantization in this type of logic leads to the necessity of large enough self-inductance of superconductor contour and thus to limitations on minimal device dimensions. (orig.)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marco Carbone
2011-10-01
Full Text Available We explore logical reasoning for the global calculus, a coordination model based on the notion of choreography, with the aim to provide a methodology for specification and verification of structured communications. Starting with an extension of Hennessy-Milner logic, we present the global logic (GL, a modal logic describing possible interactions among participants in a choreography. We illustrate its use by giving examples of properties on service specifications. Finally, we show that, despite GL is undecidable, there is a significant decidable fragment which we provide with a sound and complete proof system for checking validity of formulae.
Introduction to mathematical logic
Mendelson, Elliott
2015-01-01
The new edition of this classic textbook, Introduction to Mathematical Logic, Sixth Edition explores the principal topics of mathematical logic. It covers propositional logic, first-order logic, first-order number theory, axiomatic set theory, and the theory of computability. The text also discusses the major results of Gödel, Church, Kleene, Rosser, and Turing.The sixth edition incorporates recent work on Gödel's second incompleteness theorem as well as restoring an appendix on consistency proofs for first-order arithmetic. This appendix last appeared in the first edition. It is offered in th
40 CFR 60.4120 - General Hg budget trading program permit requirements.
2010-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General Hg budget trading program... and Compliance Times for Coal-Fired Electric Steam Generating Units Permits § 60.4120 General Hg budget trading program permit requirements. (a) For each Hg Budget source required to have a title V...
Shields, Shawn P.; Hogrebe, Mark C.; Spees, William M.; Handlin, Larry B.; Noelken, Greg P.; Riley, Julie M.; Frey, Regina F.
2012-01-01
We developed an online exam to diagnose students who are underprepared for college-level general chemistry and implemented a program to support them during the general chemistry sequence. This transition program consists of extended-length recitations, peer-led team-learning (PLTL) study groups, and peer-mentoring groups. We evaluated this…
Admissible Rules of Lukasiewicz Logic
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Jeřábek, Emil
2010-01-01
Roč. 20, č. 2 (2010), s. 425-447 ISSN 0955-792X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA900090703; GA AV ČR IAA100190902; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0545 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : linear temporal logic * unification * consecutions Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.586, year: 2010 http://logcom.oxfordjournals.org/content/20/2/425
Mapping Modular SOS to Rewriting Logic
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Braga, Christiano de Oliveira; Haeusler, Edward Hermann; Meseguer, José
2003-01-01
and verification of MSOS specifications, we have defined a mapping, named , from MSOS to rewriting logic (RWL), a logic which has been proposed as a logical and semantic framework. We have proven the correctness of and implemented it as a prototype, the MSOS-SL Interpreter, in the Maude system, a high......Modular SOS (MSOS) is a framework created to improve the modularity of structural operational semantics specifications, a formalism frequently used in the fields of programming languages semantics and process algebras. With the objective of defining formal tools to support the execution...
Abductive Inference using Array-Based Logic
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Frisvad, Jeppe Revall; Falster, Peter; Møller, Gert L.
The notion of abduction has found its usage within a wide variety of AI fields. Computing abductive solutions has, however, shown to be highly intractable in logic programming. To avoid this intractability we present a new approach to logicbased abduction; through the geometrical view of data...... employed in array-based logic we embrace abduction in a simple structural operation. We argue that a theory of abduction on this form allows for an implementation which, at runtime, can perform abductive inference quite efficiently on arbitrary rules of logic representing knowledge of finite domains....
Philosophical, logical and scientific perspectives in engineering
Sen, Zekâi
2013-01-01
This book highlights and explains the significance of philosophical, logical, and scientific principles for engineering education/training and engineering works. In so doing, it aims to help to rectify the neglect of philosophy and logic in current education and training programs, which emphasize analytical and numerical methods at the expense of the innovative practical and creative abilities so important for engineering in the past. Individual chapters examine the relation of philosophy, logic, and science to engineering, drawing attention to, for example, the significance of ethics, the rel
Understanding Social Media Logic
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
José van Dijck
2013-08-01
Full Text Available Over the past decade, social media platforms have penetrated deeply into the mechanics of everyday life, affecting people's informal interactions, as well as institutional structures and professional routines. Far from being neutral platforms for everyone, social media have changed the conditions and rules of social interaction. In this article, we examine the intricate dynamic between social media platforms, mass media, users, and social institutions by calling attention to social media logic—the norms, strategies, mechanisms, and economies—underpinning its dynamics. This logic will be considered in light of what has been identified as mass media logic, which has helped spread the media's powerful discourse outside its institutional boundaries. Theorizing social media logic, we identify four grounding principles—programmability, popularity, connectivity, and datafication—and argue that these principles become increasingly entangled with mass media logic. The logic of social media, rooted in these grounding principles and strategies, is gradually invading all areas of public life. Besides print news and broadcasting, it also affects law and order, social activism, politics, and so forth. Therefore, its sustaining logic and widespread dissemination deserve to be scrutinized in detail in order to better understand its impact in various domains. Concentrating on the tactics and strategies at work in social media logic, we reassess the constellation of power relationships in which social practices unfold, raising questions such as: How does social media logic modify or enhance existing mass media logic? And how is this new media logic exported beyond the boundaries of (social or mass media proper? The underlying principles, tactics, and strategies may be relatively simple to identify, but it is much harder to map the complex connections between platforms that distribute this logic: users that employ them, technologies that
Students’ logical-mathematical intelligence profile
Arum, D. P.; Kusmayadi, T. A.; Pramudya, I.
2018-04-01
One of students’ characteristics which play an important role in learning mathematics is logical-mathematical intelligence. This present study aims to identify profile of students’ logical-mathematical intelligence in general and specifically in each indicator. It is also analyzed and described based on students’ sex. This research used qualitative method with case study strategy. The subjects involve 29 students of 9th grade that were selected by purposive sampling. Data in this research involve students’ logical-mathematical intelligence result and interview. The results show that students’ logical-mathematical intelligence was identified in the moderate level with the average score is 11.17 and 51.7% students in the range of the level. In addition, the level of both male and female students are also mostly in the moderate level. On the other hand, both male and female students’ logical-mathematical intelligence is strongly influenced by the indicator of ability to classify and understand patterns and relationships. Furthermore, the ability of comparison is the weakest indicator. It seems that students’ logical-mathematical intelligence is still not optimal because more than 50% students are identified in moderate and low level. Therefore, teachers need to design a lesson that can improve students’ logical-mathematical intelligence level, both in general and on each indicator.
THE GENERAL ATOMICS FUSION THEORY PROGRAM ANNUAL REPORT FOR FISCAL YEAR 2002
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
PROJECT STAFF
2002-01-01
OAK B202 THE GENERAL ATOMICS FUSION THEORY PROGRAM ANNUAL REPORT FOR FISCAL YEAR 2002. The dual objective of the fusion theory program at General Atomics (GA) is to significantly advance the scientific understanding of the physics of fusion plasmas and to support the DIII-D and other tokamak experiments. The program plan is aimed at contributing significantly to the Fusion Energy Science and the Tokamak Concept Improvement goals of the Office of Fusion Energy Sciences (OFES)
The generalized algebraic modal combination (GAC) rule validation program
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mertens, P.G.; Culot, M.V.; Sahgal, S.; Tinic, S.
1991-01-01
With R.G. 1.92 the NRC imposes to use the absolute values of the modal responses when performing Response Spectra modal combination with coupling factors derived from the current heuristic, stationary or pseudo-stationary random vibration models. This results in overly conservative calculations in the case of closely spaced modes of opposite signs, a case frequently encountered in dynamic analyses in particular when systems with close modal frequencies have a small mass ratio. A new generalised algebraic combination (GAC) formula and its associated coupling factor have been theoretically derived by the first author. It is based on a non-stationary, non-white noise random vibration model which fully accounts for all the time and frequency dependent aspects of the time histories. This should allow the conservative use of algebraic signs in the modal combination over the whole frequency range, and allow a derogation to the current NRC R.G. 1.92 practice to use absolute signs. The use of the industry wide accepted RS method with the GAC rule will result in more economical and safer NPPs through the reduction of an excessive and unrealistic number of seismic restraints and avoidance of prematurely fatigued plants. It is envisaged to use the GAC seismic response combination method for the evaluation of the seismic response of auxiliary class one lines attached to the primary coolant loop piping of the Beznau 1 and 2 nuclear power plants. Since the plant is in operation, it is imperative to use a methodology which is conservative but still as realistic as possible. The paper presents an introduction to the GAC rule and some aspects of the validation program, which will jointly be undertaken by WESI and NOK for obtaining acceptance by the Swiss Safety Authorities for a seismic qualification program. (author)
Weakly Intuitionistic Quantum Logic
Hermens, Ronnie
2013-01-01
In this article von Neumann's proposal that in quantum mechanics projections can be seen as propositions is followed. However, the quantum logic derived by Birkhoff and von Neumann is rejected due to the failure of the law of distributivity. The options for constructing a distributive logic while
Kuusisto, Antti
2013-01-01
In recent years, research into the mathematical foundations of modal logic has become increasingly popular. One of the main reasons for this is the fact that modal logic seems to adapt well to the requirements of a wide range of different fields of application. This paper is a summary of some of the author’s contributions to the understanding of modal definability theory.
Cirstea, C.; Kurz, A.; Pattinson, D.; Schröder, L.; Venema, Y.
2011-01-01
Applications of modal logics are abundant in computer science, and a large number of structurally different modal logics have been successfully employed in a diverse spectrum of application contexts. Coalgebraic semantics, on the other hand, provides a uniform and encompassing view on the large
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Klarman, S
2013-05-01
Full Text Available We introduce Description Logics of Context (DLCs) - an extension of Description Logics (DLs) for context-based reasoning. Our approach descends from J. McCarthy's tradition of treating contexts as formal objects over which one can quantify...
Criteria for logical formalization
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Peregrin, Jaroslav; Svoboda, Vladimír
2013-01-01
Roč. 190, č. 14 (2013), s. 2897-2924 ISSN 0039-7857 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP401/10/1279 Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : logic * logical form * formalization * reflective equilibrium Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion Impact factor: 0.637, year: 2013
NEVEN, Frank
2002-01-01
We survey some recent developments in the broad area of automata and logic which are motivated by the advent of XML. In particular, we consider unranked tree automata, tree-walking automata, and automata over infinite alphabets. We focus on their connection with logic and on questions imposed by XML.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Evandro Agazzi
2011-06-01
Full Text Available Humans have used arguments for defending or refuting statements long before the creation of logic as a specialized discipline. This can be interpreted as the fact that an intuitive notion of "logical consequence" or a psychic disposition to articulate reasoning according to this pattern is present in common sense, and logic simply aims at describing and codifying the features of this spontaneous capacity of human reason. It is well known, however, that several arguments easily accepted by common sense are actually "logical fallacies", and this indicates that logic is not just a descriptive, but also a prescriptive or normative enterprise, in which the notion of logical consequence is defined in a precise way and then certain rules are established in order to maintain the discourse in keeping with this notion. Yet in the justification of the correctness and adequacy of these rules commonsense reasoning must necessarily be used, and in such a way its foundational role is recognized. Moreover, it remains also true that several branches and forms of logic have been elaborated precisely in order to reflect the structural features of correct argument used in different fields of human reasoning and yet insufficiently mirrored by the most familiar logical formalisms.
A. Ponse (Alban); M.B. van der Zwaag
2002-01-01
textabstractWe distinguish two interpretations for the truth value `undefined' in Kleene's three-valued logic. Combining these two interpretations leads to a four-valued propositional logic that characterizes two particular ingredients of process algebra: ``choice' and ``inaction'. We study two
Uckelman, S.L.
2009-01-01
The origins of treating agency as a modal concept go back at least to the 11th century when Anselm, Archbishop of Canterbury, provided a modal explication of the Latin facere ‘to do’, which can be formalized within the context of modern modal logic and neighborhood semantics. The agentive logic
Temporalized Epistemic Default Logic
van der Hoek, W.; Meyer, J.J.; Treur, J.; Gabbay, D.
2001-01-01
The nonmonotonic logic Epistemic Default Logic (EDL) [Meyer and van der Hoek, 1993] is based on the metaphore of a meta-level architecture. It has already been established [Meyer and van der Hoek, 1993] how upward reflection can be formalized by a nonmonotonic entailment based on epistemic states,
W. van der Hoek (Wiebe); J.O.M. Jaspars; E. Thijsse
1995-01-01
textabstractWe propose an epistemic logic in which knowledge is fully introspective and implies truth, although truth need not imply epistemic possibility. The logic is presented in sequential format and is interpreted in a natural class of partial models, called balloon models. We examine the
Logical provenance in data-oriented workflows?
Ikeda, R.
2013-04-01
We consider the problem of defining, generating, and tracing provenance in data-oriented workflows, in which input data sets are processed by a graph of transformations to produce output results. We first give a new general definition of provenance for general transformations, introducing the notions of correctness, precision, and minimality. We then determine when properties such as correctness and minimality carry over from the individual transformations\\' provenance to the workflow provenance. We describe a simple logical-provenance specification language consisting of attribute mappings and filters. We provide an algorithm for provenance tracing in workflows where logical provenance for each transformation is specified using our language. We consider logical provenance in the relational setting, observing that for a class of Select-Project-Join (SPJ) transformations, logical provenance specifications encode minimal provenance. We have built a prototype system supporting the features and algorithms presented in the paper, and we report a few preliminary experimental results. © 2013 IEEE.
Results of the General Atomic deposition loop program
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hanson, D.L.
1976-01-01
The transport behavior of fission products in flowing helium streams has been studied to determine their deposition and re-entrainment characteristics. Such information is required for the design and safety analysis of high-temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGRs). A small high-pressure, high-temperature loop was constructed for deposition studies at near-HTGR conditions. Five loop experiments were performed to determine the plateout distribution of iodine, strontium, and cesium. In general, the plateout activity showed an exponential decrease with distance from the source with enhanced plateout at flow disturber locations (contractions, bends, etc.) and especially in a chill section where the surface was cooled. Blowdown tests were performed on selected loop specimens to determine the amount of re-entrainment caused by abnormally high wall shear stresses. The liftoff fraction (fractional amount removed) was shown to vary approximately linearly with the shear ratio (defined as the ratio of the steady state wall shear stress under blowdown conditions to that under normal operating conditions). Blowdown results are also reported for pipe sections taken from the GAIL-IV in-pile loop. Attempts were made to correlate these plateout data with the PAD code (Plateout Activity Distribution) which was developed for prediction of plateout distribution in an HTGR primary circuit. Because of inadequate modeling of the effects of the chill section, the agreement was generally poor. Consequently, to test further the PAD code, a review of the available plateout literature was made. Plateout distributions in the Peach Bottom and Dragon HTGRs and the Battelle Memorial Institute out-of-pile loop were successfully modeled
Microelectromechanical reprogrammable logic device
Hafiz, M. A. A.; Kosuru, L.; Younis, M. I.
2016-01-01
In modern computing, the Boolean logic operations are set by interconnect schemes between the transistors. As the miniaturization in the component level to enhance the computational power is rapidly approaching physical limits, alternative computing methods are vigorously pursued. One of the desired aspects in the future computing approaches is the provision for hardware reconfigurability at run time to allow enhanced functionality. Here we demonstrate a reprogrammable logic device based on the electrothermal frequency modulation scheme of a single microelectromechanical resonator, capable of performing all the fundamental 2-bit logic functions as well as n-bit logic operations. Logic functions are performed by actively tuning the linear resonance frequency of the resonator operated at room temperature and under modest vacuum conditions, reprogrammable by the a.c.-driving frequency. The device is fabricated using complementary metal oxide semiconductor compatible mass fabrication process, suitable for on-chip integration, and promises an alternative electromechanical computing scheme. PMID:27021295
Amplifying genetic logic gates.
Bonnet, Jerome; Yin, Peter; Ortiz, Monica E; Subsoontorn, Pakpoom; Endy, Drew
2013-05-03
Organisms must process information encoded via developmental and environmental signals to survive and reproduce. Researchers have also engineered synthetic genetic logic to realize simpler, independent control of biological processes. We developed a three-terminal device architecture, termed the transcriptor, that uses bacteriophage serine integrases to control the flow of RNA polymerase along DNA. Integrase-mediated inversion or deletion of DNA encoding transcription terminators or a promoter modulates transcription rates. We realized permanent amplifying AND, NAND, OR, XOR, NOR, and XNOR gates actuated across common control signal ranges and sequential logic supporting autonomous cell-cell communication of DNA encoding distinct logic-gate states. The single-layer digital logic architecture developed here enables engineering of amplifying logic gates to control transcription rates within and across diverse organisms.
Heterogeneous logics of competition
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mossin, Christiane
2015-01-01
of competition are only realized as particular forms of social organization by virtue of interplaying with other kinds of logics, like legal logics. (2) Competition logics enjoy a peculiar status in-between constructedness and givenness; although competition depends on laws and mechanisms of socialization, we...... still experience competition as an expression of spontaneous human activities. On the basis of these perspectives, a study of fundamental rights of EU law, springing from the principle of ‘free movement of people’, is conducted. The first part of the empirical analysis seeks to detect the presence...... of a presumed logic of competition within EU law, whereas the second part focuses on particular legal logics. In this respect, the so-called ‘real link criterion’ (determining the access to transnational social rights for certain groups of unemployed people) is given special attention. What is particularly...
Microelectromechanical reprogrammable logic device
Hafiz, Md Abdullah Al
2016-03-29
In modern computing, the Boolean logic operations are set by interconnect schemes between the transistors. As the miniaturization in the component level to enhance the computational power is rapidly approaching physical limits, alternative computing methods are vigorously pursued. One of the desired aspects in the future computing approaches is the provision for hardware reconfigurability at run time to allow enhanced functionality. Here we demonstrate a reprogrammable logic device based on the electrothermal frequency modulation scheme of a single microelectromechanical resonator, capable of performing all the fundamental 2-bit logic functions as well as n-bit logic operations. Logic functions are performed by actively tuning the linear resonance frequency of the resonator operated at room temperature and under modest vacuum conditions, reprogrammable by the a.c.-driving frequency. The device is fabricated using complementary metal oxide semiconductor compatible mass fabrication process, suitable for on-chip integration, and promises an alternative electromechanical computing scheme.
Program summary for the Civilian Reactor Development Program
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1982-07-01
This Civilian Reactor Development Program document has the prime purpose of summarizing the technical programs supported by the FY 1983 budget request. This section provides a statement of the overall program objectives and a general program overview. Section II presents the technical programs in a format intended to show logical technical interrelationships, and does not necessarily follow the structure of the formal budget presentation. Section III presents the technical organization and management structure of the program
Logic in the curricula of Computer Science
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Margareth Quindeless
2014-12-01
Full Text Available The aim of the programs in Computer Science is to educate and train students to understand the problems and build systems that solve them. This process involves applying a special reasoning to model interactions, capabilities, and limitations of the components involved. A good curriculum must involve the use of tools to assist in these tasks, and one that could be considered as a fundamental is the logic, because with it students develop the necessary reasoning. Besides, software developers analyze the behavior of the program during the designed, the depuration, and testing; hardware designers perform minimization and equivalence verification of circuits; designers of operating systems validate routing protocols, programing, and synchronization; and formal logic underlying all these activities. Therefore, a strong background in applied logic would help students to develop or potentiate their ability to reason about complex systems. Unfortunately, few curricula formed and properly trained in logic. Most includes only one or two courses of Discrete Mathematics, which in a few weeks covered truth tables and the propositional calculus, and nothing more. This is not enough, and higher level courses in which they are applied and many other logical concepts are needed. In addition, students will not see the importance of logic in their careers and need to modify the curriculum committees or adapt the curriculum to reverse this situation.
Concrete quantum logics with covering properties
Müller, Vladimir; Pták, Pavel; Tkadlec, Josef
1992-05-01
Let L be a concrete (=set-representable) quantum logic. Let n be a natural number (or, more generally, a cardinal). We say that L admits intrinsic coverings of the order n, and write L∈ C n , if for any pair A, B∈L we can find a collection { C i ∶ i∈ I}, where card IJauch-Piron states). We then consider conditions on which a class of concrete logics reduce to Boolean algebras. We conclude with some open questions.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Thornton, G.; Rothstein, A.J.
1962-06-28
This is one of twenty-one volumes sumarizing the Aircraft Nuclear Propulsion Program of the General Electric Company. This volume discusses the background to the General Electric program, and summarizes the various direct-air-cycle nuclear test assemblies and power plants that were developed. Because of the requirements of high performance, low weight, and small size, vast improvements in existing technology were required to meet the flight objectives. The technological progress achieved during the program is also summarized. The last appendix contains a compilation of the abstracts, tables of contents, and reference lists of the other twenty volumes.
Generalized extracellular molecule sensor platform for programming cellular behavior.
Scheller, Leo; Strittmatter, Tobias; Fuchs, David; Bojar, Daniel; Fussenegger, Martin
2018-04-23
Strategies for expanding the sensor space of designer receptors are urgently needed to tailor cell-based therapies to respond to any type of medically relevant molecules. Here, we describe a universal approach to designing receptor scaffolds that enables antibody-specific molecular input to activate JAK/STAT, MAPK, PLCG or PI3K/Akt signaling rewired to transgene expression driven by synthetic promoters. To demonstrate its scope, we equipped the GEMS (generalized extracellular molecule sensor) platform with antibody fragments targeting a synthetic azo dye, nicotine, a peptide tag and the PSA (prostate-specific antigen) biomarker, thereby covering inputs ranging from small molecules to proteins. These four GEMS devices provided robust signaling and transgene expression with high signal-to-noise ratios in response to their specific ligands. The sensitivity of the nicotine- and PSA-specific GEMS devices matched the clinically relevant concentration ranges, and PSA-specific GEMS were able to detect pathological PSA levels in the serum of patients diagnosed with prostate cancer.
General programs of specialized education of radiological physicists in the Czech Republic
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dvorak, P.; Judas, L.; Richter, V.; Novak, L.
2005-01-01
Specialized Education of Czech radiological physicists in diagnostic radiology (DR), nuclear medicine (NM) or radiotherapy (RT) follows-up to regulated university master program. A form and content of Specialized Education which will be defined by General Programs must therefore reflect previous step. Graduates from Specialized Education will be fully competent clinical radiological physicists for DR, NM or RT according to their branch. Therefore, we strongly recommend that General Programs are made very carefully reflecting requirements of Specialized Education and current status of the field in the Czech Republic. Currently, CAMP works on its own version of General Program for each branch. CAMP is ready to collaborate closely with all other bodies included in preparation of General Programs and with the Czech Ministry of Health. (authors)
Logical operations realized on the Ising chain of N qubits
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Asano, Masanari; Tateda, Norihiro; Ishii, Chikara
2004-01-01
Multiqubit logical gates are proposed as implementations of logical operations on N qubits realized physically by the local manipulation of qubits before and after the one-time evolution of an Ising chain. This construction avoids complicated tuning of the interactions between qubits. The general rules of the action of multiqubit logical gates are derived by decomposing the process into the product of two-qubit logical operations. The formalism is demonstrated by the construction of a special type of multiqubit logical gate that is simulated by a quantum circuit composed of controlled-NOT gates
The Burden of the Fellowship Interview Process on General Surgery Residents and Programs.
Watson, Shawna L; Hollis, Robert H; Oladeji, Lasun; Xu, Shin; Porterfield, John R; Ponce, Brent A
This study evaluated the effect of the fellowship interview process in a cohort of general surgery residents. We hypothesized that the interview process would be associated with significant clinical time lost, monetary expenses, and increased need for shift coverage. An online anonymous survey link was sent via e-mail to general surgery program directors in June 2014. Program directors distributed an additional survey link to current residents in their program who had completed the fellowship interview process. United States allopathic general surgery programs. Overall, 50 general surgery program directors; 72 general surgery residents. Program directors reported a fellowship application rate of 74.4%. Residents most frequently attended 8 to 12 interviews (35.2%). Most (57.7%) of residents reported missing 7 or more days of clinical training to attend interviews; these shifts were largely covered by other residents. Most residents (62.3%) spent over $4000 on the interview process. Program directors rated fellowship burden as an average of 6.7 on a 1 to 10 scale of disruption, with 10 being a significant disruption. Most of the residents (57.3%) were in favor of change in the interview process. We identified potential areas for improvement including options for coordinated interviews and improved content on program websites. The surgical fellowship match is relatively burdensome to residents and programs alike, and merits critical assessment for potential improvement. Published by Elsevier Inc.
A Note on Axiomatizations of Pavelka-style Complete Fuzzy Logics
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Cintula, Petr
2016-01-01
Roč. 292, 1 June (2016), s. 160-174 ISSN 0165-0114 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP202/10/1826 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : mathematical fuzzy logic * Pavelka-style completeness * MTL logic * Lukasiewicz logics * Product Logic * truth constants * Monteiro–Baaz delta Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 2.718, year: 2016
Decision logics in radiotherapy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gauwerky, F.
1979-01-01
Decisions in planning procedures can generally, at least for beam therapy to deep seated tumors, be based on a self-consistent system of criteria of optimization, namely: 1. The absorbed dose to the target volume must be applied as uniformly as possible. 2. Absorbed doses to organs (volumes) at risk must be as low as possible, at least below an accepted limit. 3. Radiation effects to outside volumes must be kept as low as possible. Whereas these criteria, as being reduced to the simplest possible requirements, have to be regarded as the stable elements, the radiotherapy parameters, such as geometric arrangements, special techniques, absorbed dose contributions to reference points or systems, have to be taken as the variables within decision processes. The properties of the criteria which have widely proved to be valuable in routine clinical practice, have been investigated in relation to the theoretical system of axioms as it is e.g. offered by Karl Popper's general logics of scientific research. An axiomatic system, as it is demanded (after Popper) must be a) free of discrepancies, i.e. self-consistent (not any sentence can be derived), b) independent, that is, one axiom cannot be derived from another one within the system, c) sufficient for deduction of statements needed, d) necessary, that is complete. All these requirements are fitting also to the offered system of radiotherapy optimization criteria. It has been demonstrated, that Popper's axiomatic system can be regarded as to be the general case for all scientific fields of application, the set of optimization criteria being a special system for radiation therapy, which would have been derivable from Popper's theory. Also practical use could be demonstrated. (orig./ORU) [de
Empirical logic and tensor products
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Foulis, D.J.; Randall, C.H.
1981-01-01
In our work we are developing a formalism called empirical logic to support a generalization of conventional statistics; the resulting generalization is called operational statistics. We are not attempting to develop or advocate any particular physical theory; rather we are formulating a precision 'language' in which such theories can be expressed, compared, evaluated, and related to laboratory experiments. We believe that only in such a language can the connections between real physical procedures (operations) and physical theories be made explicit and perspicuous. (orig./HSI)
Model Checking Is Static Analysis of Modal Logic
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis
2010-01-01
Flow Logic is an approach to the static analysis of programs that has been developed for functional, imperative and object-oriented programming languages and for concurrent, distributed, mobile and cryptographic process calculi. In this paper we extend it; to deal with modal logics and prove...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mittelstaedt, P.
1983-01-01
on the basis of the well-known quantum logic and quantum probability a formal language of relativistic quantum physics is developed. This language incorporates quantum logical as well as relativistic restrictions. It is shown that relativity imposes serious restrictions on the validity regions of propositions in space-time. By an additional postulate this relativistic quantum logic can be made consistent. The results of this paper are derived exclusively within the formal quantum language; they are, however, in accordance with well-known facts of relativistic quantum physics in Hilbert space. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Finkelstein, D.
1987-01-01
The von Neumann quantum logic lacks two basic symmetries of classical logic, that between sets and classes, and that between lower and higher order predicates. Similarly, the structural parallel between the set algebra and linear algebra of Grassmann and Peano was left incomplete by them in two respects. In this work a linear algebra is constructed that completes this correspondence and is interpreted as a new quantum logic that restores these invariances, and as a quantum set theory. It applies to experiments with coherent quantum phase relations between the quantum and the apparatus. The quantum set theory is applied to model a Lorentz-invariant quantum time-space complex
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Filipiuk, Piotr; Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis
2012-01-01
We present a logic for the specification of static analysis problems that goes beyond the logics traditionally used. Its most prominent feature is the direct support for both inductive computations of behaviors as well as co-inductive specifications of properties. Two main theoretical contributions...... are a Moore Family result and a parametrized worst case time complexity result. We show that the logic and the associated solver can be used for rapid prototyping of analyses and illustrate a wide variety of applications within Static Analysis, Constraint Satisfaction Problems and Model Checking. In all cases...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bialkowski, J.; Moszynski, M.; Zagorski, A.
1981-01-01
The logic diagram principle of operation and some details of the design of the multiplicity logic unit are presented. This unit was specially designed to fulfil the requirements of a multidetector arrangement for gamma-ray multiplicity measurements. The unit is equipped with 16 inputs controlled by a common coincidence gate. It delivers a linear output pulse with the height proportional to the multiplicity of coincidences and logic pulses corresponding to 0, 1, ... up to >= 5-fold coincidences. These last outputs are used to steer the routing unit working with the multichannel analyser. (orig.)
A logical treatment of secondary storage
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Foster, I.T.; Kusalik, A.J.
1986-01-01
Existing logic programming environments usually rely on highly imperative primitives and side-effects to achieve I/O with peripheral devices such as disks. This paper describes an alternate approach where the concepts of information input and output are described declarativley. Using a model of a logic-based open system, independent logic systems communicate their beliefs by means of ground logic clauses. The interface to a physical disk is defined as a node in such a system. The contents of the disk are treated as a knowledge base. The model provides the disk with a simple inference mechanism that allows it to assimilate (or reject) assertions made to it by other nodes of the logic system. This disk can also process queries about its contents. An executable specification for such a storage model is given in the parallel logic programming language PARLOG, as well as an actual implementation that uses very low-level term I/O primitives. It is also shown how this model can be extended so that the disk records entity histories, rather than simple clauses. This enables file systems to be constructed very naturally, and allows garbage collection of ''old'' knowledge
Optical reversible programmable Boolean logic unit.
Chattopadhyay, Tanay
2012-07-20
Computing with reversibility is the only way to avoid dissipation of energy associated with bit erase. So, a reversible microprocessor is required for future computing. In this paper, a design of a simple all-optical reversible programmable processor is proposed using a polarizing beam splitter, liquid crystal-phase spatial light modulators, a half-wave plate, and plane mirrors. This circuit can perform 16 logical operations according to three programming inputs. Also, inputs can be easily recovered from the outputs. It is named the "reversible programmable Boolean logic unit (RPBLU)." The logic unit is the basic building block of many complex computational operations. Hence the design is important in sense. Two orthogonally polarized lights are defined here as two logical states, respectively.
Characteristics of a Circular Logic and Its Treatment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lim, Ho-Gon; Han, Sang-Hoon; Yang, Joon Eon
2007-01-01
A circular logic or a logical loop is defined as the infinite circulation of supporting relations due to their mutual dependencies among the systems in the Fault Tree Analysis (FTA). While many methods to break the circular logic have been developed and used in the fault tree quantification codes, the general solution for a circular logic and its breaking methods are not generally known as yet. This paper presents an analytic solution for circular logics in which the systems are linearly interrelated with each other. Then, a general treatment of circular logics is discussed. To formulate the analytic solution, the relations among systems in the fault tree structure are described by the Boolean equations. The solution is, then, obtained from the successive substitutions of the Boolean equations, which is equivalent to the attaching processes of interrelated system's fault tree to a given fault tree. The solution for three interrelated systems and their independent fault tree structures are given as an example
Evaluation of the League General Insurance Company child safety seat distribution program
1982-05-01
This report presents an evaluation of the child safety seat distribution initiated by the League General Insurance Company in June 1979. The program provides child safety seats as a benefit under the company's auto insurance policies to policy-holder...
Earth Science Principles Pertinent to the General Education Programs in Junior High Schools
Henson, Kenneth Tyrone
1970-01-01
Presents the procedures, and findings of a study designed to identify principles in astronomy, geology, meterology, oceanography and physical geography pertinent to general education programs in junior high schools. (LC)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lindahl-Kiessling, K.; Ahlborg, U.; Bylin, G.; Ehrenberg, L.; Hemminki, K.; Lindell, B.; Nilsson, Robert; Bostroem, C.E.; Swarn, U.
1991-01-01
The paper presents a new research program for assessment of health risks caused by air pollutants. It is important to develop general methods for quantitative risk assessments and to improve the scientific base materials. (KAE)
A functorial semantics for quantum logic
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Holdsworth, D.G.
1979-09-01
The author uses category theory to examine a quantum logical interpretation of quantum theory. The central thesis is that logical structure is an objective feature of reality, not merely a feature of representation of reality inherent in particular theories. A non-classical foundation for mathematics is adopted, one that uses morphisms as its primitives. The author argues that all propositions in a physical theory are theoretical and that observation statements constitute a subclass of theoretical statements. Inferences to micro- and macro-objects are on the same pragmatic and logical level, and defending realism for quantum theory involves providing a new criterion of objectivity that coheres with the general constraints of the theory. The criterion proposed has the consequence that certain structural features of reality are to be considered theoretically determined or objective. These features are closely related to logical structure
CONCEPT OF SUSTAINABILITY – A LOGICAL APPROACH
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
EMIL DINGA
2011-04-01
Full Text Available The paper aims to achieve a definition of the concept of sustainability and of sustainable system from a logical perspective. In this respect, it introduces and defines (through the sufficiency predicates the concept of logically vivid system and, on this basis, are discussed a logical concept of sustainability, respectively of a sustainable system in general are discussed and built up. Sustainability is considered in light of identity preservation of the systems, as a static anchor, on one hand, and of the concept of automatic stabilizers as a dynamic anchor on the other side. Finally, the two sufficiency conditions for a logically vivid system be sustainable are identified: the presence of hyper-cycles, respectively the absence of positive feed-back.
Wave Pipelining Using Self Reset Logic
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Miguel E. Litvin
2008-01-01
Full Text Available This study presents a novel design approach combining wave pipelining and self reset logic, which provides an elegant solution at high-speed data throughput with significant savings in power and area as compared with other dynamic CMOS logic implementations. To overcome some limitations in SRL art, we employ a new SRL family, namely, dual-rail self reset logic with input disable (DRSRL-ID. These gates depict fairly constant timing parameters, specially the width of the output pulse, for varying fan-out and logic depth, helping accommodate process, supply voltage, and temperature variations (PVT. These properties simplify the implementation of wave pipelined circuits. General timing analysis is provided and compared with previous implementations. Results of circuit implementation are presented together with conclusions and future work.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hendricks, Vincent Fella; Gierasimczuk, Nina; de Jong, Dick
2014-01-01
Learning and learnability have been long standing topics of interests within the linguistic, computational, and epistemological accounts of inductive in- ference. Johan van Benthem’s vision of the “dynamic turn” has not only brought renewed life to research agendas in logic as the study of inform......Learning and learnability have been long standing topics of interests within the linguistic, computational, and epistemological accounts of inductive in- ference. Johan van Benthem’s vision of the “dynamic turn” has not only brought renewed life to research agendas in logic as the study...... of information processing, but likewise helped bring logic and learning in close proximity. This proximity relation is examined with respect to learning and belief revision, updating and efficiency, and with respect to how learnability fits in the greater scheme of dynamic epistemic logic and scientific method....
Characterization of quantum logics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lahti, P.J.
1980-01-01
The quantum logic approach to axiomatic quantum mechanics is used to analyze the conceptual foundations of the traditional quantum theory. The universal quantum of action h>0 is incorporated into the theory by introducing the uncertainty principle, the complementarity principle, and the superposition principle into the framework. A characterization of those quantum logics (L,S) which may provide quantum descriptions is then given. (author)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nilsson, Jørgen Fischer
1999-01-01
Conceptual spaces have been proposed as topological or geometric means for establishing conceptual structures and models. This paper, after briey reviewing conceptual spaces, focusses on the relationship between conceptual spaces and logical concept languages with operations for combining concepts...... to form concepts. Speci cally is introduced an algebraic concept logic, for which conceptual spaces are installed as semantic domain as replacement for, or enrichment of, the traditional....
Interval logic. Proof theory and theorem proving
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rasmussen, Thomas Marthedal
2002-01-01
of a direction of an interval, and present a sound and complete Hilbert proof system for it. Because of its generality, SIL can conveniently act as a general formalism in which other interval logics can be encoded. We develop proof theory for SIL including both a sequent calculus system and a labelled natural...
Researching Student Learning in a Two-Tiered General Education Program
Csomay, Eniko; Pollard, Elizabeth; Bordelon, Suzanne; Beck, Audrey
2015-01-01
Despite the desire of employers to hire those with the critical-thinking and communication skills a general education (GE) program can offer, the value of GE programs is often questioned due to concerns about four-year graduation rates, perceived low immediate economic payoff, and a dearth of evidence to support their efficacy. This article…
Damkaci, Fehmi; Braun, Timothy F.; Gublo, Kristin
2017-01-01
We describe the design and implementation of an undergraduate peer mentor program that can overlay an existing general chemistry laboratory and is designed to improve STEM student retention. For the first four freshman cohorts going through the program, year-to-year retention improved by a four-year average of 20% for students in peer-mentored…
Wensing, M.; Szecsenyi, J.; Stock, C.; Kolle, P.K.; Laux, G.
2017-01-01
BACKGROUND: A program to strengthen general practice care for patients with chronic disease was offered in Germany. Enrollment was a free individual choice for both patients and physicians. This study aimed to examine the long-term impact of this program. METHODS: Two comparative evaluations were
THE GENERAL ATOMICS FUSION THEORY PROGRAM ANNUAL REPORT FOR GRANT YEAR 2004
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
PROJECT STAFF
2004-01-01
The dual objective of the fusion theory program at General Atomics (GA) is to significantly advance our scientific understanding of the physics of fusion plasmas and to support the DIII-D and other tokamak experiments. The program plan is aimed at contributing significantly to the Fusion Energy Science and the Tokamak Concept Improvement goals of the Office of Fusion Energy Sciences (OFES)
Sugiyama, Keimei; Cavanagh, Kevin V.; van Esch, Chantal; Bilimoria, Diana; Brown, Cara
2016-01-01
Trends in extant literature suggest that more relational and identity-based leadership approaches are necessary for leadership that can harness the benefits of the diverse and globalized workforces of today and the future. In this study, we compared general leadership development programs (GLDPs) and women's leadership development programs (WLDPs)…
Extending Value Logic Thinking to Value Logic Portfolios
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, Poul Houman; Ritter, Thomas
2014-01-01
Based on value creation logic theory (Stabell & Fjeldstad, 1998), this paper suggests an extension of the original Stabell & Fjeldstad model by an additional fourth value logic, the value system logic. Furthermore, instead of only allowing one dominant value creation logic for a given firm...... or transaction, an understanding of firms and transactions as a portfolio of value logics (i.e. an interconnected coexistence of different value creation logics) is proposed. These additions to the original value creation logic theory imply interesting avenues for both, strategic decision making in firms...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cha, K. H.; Lee, D. Y.
2010-01-01
Programmable Logic Device (PLD), especially Complex PLD (CPLD) or Field Programmable Logic Array (FPGA), has been growing in interest in nuclear Instrumentation and Control (I and C) applications. PLD has been applied to replace an obsolete analog device or old-fashioned microprocessor, or to develop digital controller, subsystem or overall system on hardware aspects. This is the main reason why the PLD-based I and C design provides higher flexibility than the analog-based one, and the PLD-based I and C systems shows better real-time performance than the processor-based I and C systems. Due to the development of the PLD-based I and C systems, their nuclear qualification has been issued in the nuclear industry. Verification and Validation (V and V) is one of necessary qualification activities when a Hardware Description Language (HDL) is used to implement functions of the PLD-based I and C systems. The life cycle V and V process, described in this paper, has been defined as satisfying the nuclear V and V requirements, and it has been applied to verify Correctness, Completeness, and Consistency (3C) among design outputs in a safety-grade programmable logic controller and a safety-critical data communication system. Especially, software engineering techniques such as the Fagan Inspection, formal verification, simulated verification and automated testing have been defined for the life cycle V and V tasks of behavioral, structural, and physical design in VHDL
Towards a Formal Occurrence Logic based on Predicate Logic
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Badie, Farshad; Götzsche, Hans
2015-01-01
In this discussion we will concentrate on the main characteristics of an alternative kind of logic invented by Hans Götzsche: Occurrence Logic, which is not based on truth functionality. Our approach is based on temporal logic developed and elaborated by A. N. Prior. We will focus on characterising...... argumentation based on formal Occurrence Logic concerning events and occurrences, and illustrate the relations between Predicate Logic and Occurrence Logic. The relationships (and dependencies) is conducive to an approach that can analyse the occurrences of ”logical statements based on different logical...... principles” in different moments. We will also conclude that the elaborated Götzsche’s Occurrence Logic could be able to direct us to a truth-functional independent computer-based logic for analysing argumentation based on events and occurrences....
78 FR 38097 - Publication of General License Related to the Syria Sanctions Program
2013-06-25
... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Office of Foreign Assets Control Publication of General License Related to the Syria Sanctions Program AGENCY: Office of Foreign Assets Control, Treasury. ACTION: Notice, publication of general license. SUMMARY: The Department of the Treasury's Office of Foreign Assets Control...
78 FR 41192 - Publication of General License Related to the Zimbabwe Sanctions Program
2013-07-09
... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Office of Foreign Assets Control Publication of General License Related to the Zimbabwe Sanctions Program AGENCY: Office of Foreign Assets Control, Treasury. ACTION: Notice, publication of general license. SUMMARY: The U.S. Department of the Treasury's Office of Foreign Assets...
Including a Programming Course in General Education: Are We Doing Enough?
Ferguson, Roger C.; Leidig, Paul M.; Reynolds, John H.
2015-01-01
General education is more than a list of required courses a student must take to complete their degree. For most universities, general education is the groundwork for the student's university experience. These courses span multiple disciplines and allow students to experience a wide range of topics on their path to graduation. Programming classes,…
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
1993-09-01
The Oak Ridge National Laboratory Technology Logic Diagram (TLD) was developed to provide a decision support tool that relates environmental restoration (ER) and waste management (WM) problems at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to potential technologies that can remediate these problems. The TLD identifies the research, development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation needed to develop these technologies to a state that allows technology transfer and application to decontamination and decommissioning (D&D), remedial action (RA), and WM activities. The TLD consists of three fundamentally separate volumes: Vol. 1 (Technology Evaluation), Vol. 2 (Technology Logic Diagram), and Vol. 3 (Technology Evaluation Data Sheets). Part A of Vols. 1. and 2 focuses on D&D. Part B of Vols. 1 and 2 focuses on the RA of contaminated facilities. Part C of Vols. 1 and 2 focuses on WM. Each part of Vol. 1 contains an overview of the TLD, an explanation of the program-specific responsibilities, a review of identified technologies, and the rankings of remedial technologies. Volume 2 (Pts. A, B, and C) contains the logic linkages among EM goals, environmental problems, and the various technologies that have the potential to solve these problems. Volume 3 (Pts. A, B, and C) contains the TLD data sheets. Remedial action is the focus of Vol. 2, Pt. B, which has been divided into the three necessary subelements of the RA: characterization, RA, and robotics and automation. Each of these sections address general ORNL problems, which are then broken down by problem area/constituents and linked to potential remedial technologies. The diagrams also contain summary information about a technology`s status, its science and technology needs, and its implementation needs.
International Workshop on “Generalized Concavity, Fractional Programming and Economic Applications”
Castagnoli, Erio; Martein, Laura; Mazzoleni, Piera; Schaible, Siegfried
1990-01-01
Generalizations of convex functions have been used in a variety of fields such as economics. business administration. engineering. statistics and applied sciences.· In 1949 de Finetti introduced one of the fundamental of generalized convex functions characterized by convex level sets which are now known as quasiconvex functions. Since then numerous types of generalized convex functions have been defined in accordance with the need of particular applications.· In each case such functions preserve soine of the valuable properties of a convex function. In addition to generalized convex functions this volume deals with fractional programs. These are constrained optimization problems which in the objective function involve one or several ratios. Such functions are often generalized convex. Fractional programs arise in management science. economics and numerical mathematics for example. In order to promote the circulation and development of research in this field. an international workshop on "Generalized Concavi...
Modern logic and quantum mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Garden, R.W.
1984-01-01
The book applies the methods of modern logic and probabilities to ''interpreting'' quantum mechanics. The subject is described and discussed under the chapter headings: classical and quantum mechanics, modern logic, the propositional logic of mechanics, states and measurement in mechanics, the traditional analysis of probabilities, the probabilities of mechanics and the model logic of predictions. (U.K.)
Design and validation of general biology learning program based on scientific inquiry skills
Cahyani, R.; Mardiana, D.; Noviantoro, N.
2018-03-01
Scientific inquiry is highly recommended to teach science. The reality in the schools and colleges is that many educators still have not implemented inquiry learning because of their lack of understanding. The study aims to1) analyze students’ difficulties in learning General Biology, 2) design General Biology learning program based on multimedia-assisted scientific inquiry learning, and 3) validate the proposed design. The method used was Research and Development. The subjects of the study were 27 pre-service students of general elementary school/Islamic elementary schools. The workflow of program design includes identifying learning difficulties of General Biology, designing course programs, and designing instruments and assessment rubrics. The program design is made for four lecture sessions. Validation of all learning tools were performed by expert judge. The results showed that: 1) there are some problems identified in General Biology lectures; 2) the designed products include learning programs, multimedia characteristics, worksheet characteristics, and, scientific attitudes; and 3) expert validation shows that all program designs are valid and can be used with minor revisions. The first section in your paper.
General Employee Radiological Training and Radiological Worker Training: Program management manual
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1992-10-01
This manual defines and describes the DOE General Employee Radiological Training (GERT) and Radiological Worker I and II (RW I and II) Training programs. It includes material development requirements, standards and policies, and program administration. This manual applies to General Employee Radiological Training and Radiological Worker Training at all DOE contractor sites. The training materials of both GERT and RW I and II training reflect the requirements identified in the DOE Radiological Control Manual and DOE Order 5480.11. The training programs represent the minimum requirement for the standardized core materials. Each contractor shall implement the program in its entirety and may augment the standardized core materials to increase the general employee and radiological worker level of competency
The Quantum Logical Challenge: Peter Mittelstaedt's Contributions to Logic and Philosophy of Science
Beltrametti, E.; Dalla Chiara, M. L.; Giuntini, R.
2017-12-01
Peter Mittelstaedt's contributions to quantum logic and to the foundational problems of quantum theory have significantly realized the most authentic spirit of the International Quantum Structures Association: an original research about hard technical problems, which are often "entangled" with the emergence of important changes in our general world-conceptions. During a time where both the logical and the physical community often showed a skeptical attitude towards Birkhoff and von Neumann's quantum logic, Mittelstaedt brought into light the deeply innovating features of a quantum logical thinking that allows us to overcome some strong and unrealistic assumptions of classical logical arguments. Later on his intense research on the unsharp approach to quantum theory and to the measurement problem stimulated the increasing interest for unsharp forms of quantum logic, creating a fruitful interaction between the work of quantum logicians and of many-valued logicians. Mittelstaedt's general views about quantum logic and quantum theory seem to be inspired by a conjecture that is today more and more confirmed: there is something universal in the quantum theoretic formalism that goes beyond the limits of microphysics, giving rise to interesting applications to a number of different fields.
Non-logic devices in logic processes
Ma, Yanjun
2017-01-01
This book shows readers how to design semiconductor devices using the most common and lowest cost logic CMOS processes. Readers will benefit from the author’s extensive, industrial experience and the practical approach he describes for designing efficiently semiconductor devices that typically have to be implemented using specialized processes that are expensive, time-consuming, and low-yield. The author presents an integrated picture of semiconductor device physics and manufacturing techniques, as well as numerous practical examples of device designs that are tried and true.