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Sample records for general intelligence revealed

  1. What Virtual Twins Reveal About General Intelligence and Other Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, Nancy L; McGuire, Shirley A; Stohs, Joanne Hoven

    2012-09-01

    The Fullerton Virtual Twin Study has been assessing the behaviors of an unusual sibship since 1982. Virtual twins (VTs) are same-age, unrelated siblings reared together since infancy. They replicate the rearing situation of twins but without the genetic link, enabling direct assessment of shared environmental effects on behavior. An updated analysis of IQ data, based on an increased sample of 142 VT pairs (7.87 years, SD=8.22), is presented. Intraclass correlations of .28 (IQ) and .11 (subtest profile) indicated modest shared environmental influences on intelligence. Findings from the Twins, Adoptees, Peers and Siblings (TAPS) project that studies virtual twins and other kinships are described.

  2. Engineering general intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Goertzel, Ben; Geisweiller, Nil

    2014-01-01

    The work outlines a novel conceptual and theoretical framework for understanding Artificial General Intelligence and based on this framework outlines a practical roadmap for the development of AGI with capability at the human level and ultimately beyond.

  3. Engineering general intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Goertzel, Ben; Geisweiller, Nil

    2014-01-01

    The work outlines a detailed blueprint for the creation of an Artificial General Intelligence system with capability at the human level and ultimately beyond, according to the Cog Prime AGI design and the Open Cog software architecture.

  4. The evolution of general intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkart, Judith M; Schubiger, Michèle N; van Schaik, Carel P

    2016-07-28

    The presence of general intelligence poses a major evolutionary puzzle, which has led to increased interest in its presence in nonhuman animals. The aim of this review is to critically evaluate this puzzle, and to explore the implications for current theories about the evolution of cognition. We first review domain-general and domain-specific accounts of human cognition in order to situate attempts to identify general intelligence in nonhuman animals. Recent studies are consistent with the presence of general intelligence in mammals (rodents and primates). However, the interpretation of a psychometric g-factor as general intelligence needs to be validated, in particular in primates, and we propose a range of such tests. We then evaluate the implications of general intelligence in nonhuman animals for current theories about its evolution and find support for the cultural intelligence approach, which stresses the critical importance of social inputs during the ontogenetic construction of survival-relevant skills. The presence of general intelligence in nonhumans implies that modular abilities can arise in two ways, primarily through automatic development with fixed content and secondarily through learning and automatization with more variable content. The currently best-supported model, for humans and nonhuman vertebrates alike, thus construes the mind as a mix of skills based on primary and secondary modules. The relative importance of these two components is expected to vary widely among species, and we formulate tests to quantify their strength.

  5. Distributed neural system for emotional intelligence revealed by lesion mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbey, Aron K; Colom, Roberto; Grafman, Jordan

    2014-03-01

    Cognitive neuroscience has made considerable progress in understanding the neural architecture of human intelligence, identifying a broadly distributed network of frontal and parietal regions that support goal-directed, intelligent behavior. However, the contributions of this network to social and emotional aspects of intellectual function remain to be well characterized. Here we investigated the neural basis of emotional intelligence in 152 patients with focal brain injuries using voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping. Latent variable modeling was applied to obtain measures of emotional intelligence, general intelligence and personality from the Mayer, Salovey, Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT), the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale and the Neuroticism-Extroversion-Openness Inventory, respectively. Regression analyses revealed that latent scores for measures of general intelligence and personality reliably predicted latent scores for emotional intelligence. Lesion mapping results further indicated that these convergent processes depend on a shared network of frontal, temporal and parietal brain regions. The results support an integrative framework for understanding the architecture of executive, social and emotional processes and make specific recommendations for the interpretation and application of the MSCEIT to the study of emotional intelligence in health and disease.

  6. Why General Intelligence Assessment Should Be Abandoned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Clive

    1976-01-01

    The author argues that general intelligence assessment should be abandoned on moral and theoretical grounds, but that the conceptualization, testing, and identification of specific intellectual abilities is both defensible and worthwhile. (MB)

  7. Personality, Intelligence and General Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furnham, Adrian; Chamorro-Premuzic, Tomas

    2006-01-01

    Three studies, all on student populations, looked at the relationship between a recently psychometrised measure of General Knowledge [Irwing, P., Cammock, T., & Lynn, R. (2001). Some evidence for the existence of a general factor of semantic memory and its components. "Personality and Individual Differences," 30, 857-871], both long…

  8. General Intelligence as a Domain-Specific Adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanazawa, Satoshi

    2004-01-01

    General intelligence (g) poses a problem for evolutionary psychology's modular view of the human brain. The author advances a new evolutionary psychological theory of the evolution of general intelligence and argues that general intelligence evolved as a domain-specific adaptation for the originally limited sphere of evolutionary novelty in the…

  9. General intelligence and the definition of phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detterman, D K

    2000-01-01

    From Spearman's famous 1904 paper to Carroll's recent book on factor analytic results from a multitude of studies, there has been one consistent conclusion: 'g', or general intelligence, is the factor that defines the phenotype for intellectual functioning. It is no overstatement to say that g is undoubtedly the most important psychological construct discovered in this century. It predicts more and is implicated in a wider range of behaviour than any other psychological construct. The empirical support for g is extensive and overwhelming. It would seem that g is the perfect phenotypic definition of intelligence. I argue that it is not the perfect phenotype. If we are to understand intelligence, we need to define a new, more elaborate definition of intelligence taking g as the starting place. It must be remembered that g is a statistical abstraction. Current formulations of g are largely silent about the composition of g. I argue that g is actually made of further separable basic cognitive processes and does not represent a single underlying entity. These basic cognitive processes are integrated into a complex system in the brain that makes them difficult to identify. None the less, until these basic processes are identified and related to brain function there are a number of findings that cannot be explained and this will inhibit scientific progress.

  10. MRI correlates of general intelligence in neurotypical adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malpas, Charles B; Genc, Sila; Saling, Michael M; Velakoulis, Dennis; Desmond, Patricia M; O'Brien, Terence J

    2016-02-01

    There is growing interest in the neurobiological substrate of general intelligence. Psychometric estimates of general intelligence are reduced in a range of neurological disorders, leading to practical application as sensitive, but non-specific, markers of cerebral disorder. This study examined estimates of general intelligence in neurotypical adults using diffusion tensor imaging and resting-state functional connectivity analysis. General intelligence was related to white matter organisation across multiple brain regions, confirming previous work in older healthy adults. We also found that variation in general intelligence was related to a large functional sub-network involving all cortical lobes of the brain. These findings confirm that individual variance in general intelligence is related to diffusely represented brain networks.

  11. General Intelligence, Visuospatial and Verbal Abilities in Korean Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, Richard; Song, Myung Ja

    1994-01-01

    Nine-year olds completed measures of general intelligence, visuospatial ability, and verbal fluency. Subjects were 107 Korean children and 115 British children. Found that Korean children scored higher on general intelligence and visuospatial ability and lower on verbal fluency than British children. (BC)

  12. General Intelligence, Emotional Intelligence and Academic Knowledge as Predictors of Creativity Domains: A Study of Gifted Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Feyzullah

    2016-01-01

    Creativity of the individual is dependent on numerous factors, such as knowledge, general intelligence and emotional intelligence. The general purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of general intelligence, emotional intelligence and academic knowledge on the emerging of domain-specific creativity. The study was conducted on 178…

  13. Relationship between General Health with Emotional Intelligence and Spiritual Intelligence in Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hasan Hosseinpoor

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Mental health is one of the most important as psychological topics. Spiritual and emotional intelligences can lead to improving of spirituality and social relations for more perfection. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between emotional and spiritual intelligence with general health status. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 197 students in Semnan province, were selected to participate in this survey in 2013. They responded to GHQ-28, spirituality intelligence and Bar-On emotional intelligence questionnaires. The data were analyzed through using structural equation modeling (SEM and Lisrel statistical software. Results: Univariate analysis showed reverse significant correlation between health status scores and spiritual intelligence scores (r=-0.32, mental status scores and emotional intelligence scores (r=-0.26 and direct correlation between spiritual and emotional intelligence scores (r=0.33. Prediction of health status by emotional and spiritual intelligence using SEM showed a significant relation between health status and emotional intelligence. Conclusion: Findings of this study shows that the higher emotional intelligence score is a predictor of better mental health status. It seems that planning and use of educational programs for increasing emotional intelligence status can play a leading role in improving the mental health states of students.

  14. Video-Games: Do They Require General Intelligence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroga, M. A.; Herranz, M.; Gomez-Abad, M.; Kebir, M.; Ruiz, J.; Colom, Roberto

    2009-01-01

    Here we test if playing video-games require intelligence. Twenty-seven university undergraduate students were trained on three games from Big Brain Academy (Wii): Calculus, Backward Memory and Train. Participants did not have any previous experience with these games. General intelligence was measured by five ability tests before the training…

  15. The evolution of primate general and cultural intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reader, Simon M; Hager, Yfke; Laland, Kevin N

    2011-04-12

    There are consistent individual differences in human intelligence, attributable to a single 'general intelligence' factor, g. The evolutionary basis of g and its links to social learning and culture remain controversial. Conflicting hypotheses regard primate cognition as divided into specialized, independently evolving modules versus a single general process. To assess how processes underlying culture relate to one another and other cognitive capacities, we compiled ecologically relevant cognitive measures from multiple domains, namely reported incidences of behavioural innovation, social learning, tool use, extractive foraging and tactical deception, in 62 primate species. All exhibited strong positive associations in principal component and factor analyses, after statistically controlling for multiple potential confounds. This highly correlated composite of cognitive traits suggests social, technical and ecological abilities have coevolved in primates, indicative of an across-species general intelligence that includes elements of cultural intelligence. Our composite species-level measure of general intelligence, 'primate g(S)', covaried with both brain volume and captive learning performance measures. Our findings question the independence of cognitive traits and do not support 'massive modularity' in primate cognition, nor an exclusively social model of primate intelligence. High general intelligence has independently evolved at least four times, with convergent evolution in capuchins, baboons, macaques and great apes.

  16. Perceived emotional intelligence, general intelligence and early professional success: predictive and incremental validity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José-Manuel de Haro

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Although the study of factors affecting career success has shown connections between biographical and other aspects related to ability, knowledge and personality, few studies have examined the relationship between emotional intelligence and professional success at the initial career stage. When these studies were carried out, the results showed significant relationships between the dimensions of emotional intelligence (emotional self-awareness, self-regulation, social awareness or social skills and the level of professional competence. In this paper, we analyze the relationship between perceived emotional intelligence, measured by the Trait Meta-Mood Scale (TMMS-24 questionnaire, general intelligence assessed by the Cattell factor "g" test, scale 3, and extrinsic indicators of career success, in a sample of 130 graduates at the beginning of their careers. Results from hierarchical regression analysis indicate that emotional intelligence makes a specific contribution to the prediction of salary, after controlling the general intelligence effect. The perceived emotional intelligence dimensions of TMMS repair, TMMS attention and sex show a higher correlation and make a greater contribution to professional success than general intelligence. The implications of these results for the development of socio-emotional skills among University graduates are discussed.

  17. Protestant Ethic Endorsement, Personality, and General Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher, Andrew N.; Furnham, Adrian; Batey, Mark; Martin, G. Neil; Koenig, Cynthia S.; Doty, Kristin

    2010-01-01

    To learn if Protestant ethic endorsement predicted intelligence controlling for the big five personality factors, 364 college students from England and the United States completed a 65-item multifaceted work ethic endorsement measure, the 50-item Wonderlic Personnel Test, and a 60-item measure of the big five personality factors. A hierarchical…

  18. Mother's but not father's education predicts general fluid intelligence in emerging adulthood: Behavioral and neuroanatomical evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Feng; Chen, Zhencai; Xue, Song; Wang, Xu; Liu, Jia

    2015-11-01

    Lower parental education impairs cognitive abilities of their offspring such as general fluid intelligence dependent on the prefrontal cortex (PFC), but the independent contribution of mother's and father's education is unknown. We used an individual difference approach to test whether mother's and father's education independently affected general fluid intelligence in emerging adulthood at both the behavioral and neural level. Behaviorally, mother's but not father's education accounted for unique variance in general fluid intelligence in emerging adulthood (assessed by the Raven's advanced progressive matrices). Neurally, the whole-brain correlation analysis revealed that the regional gray matter volume (rGMV) in the medial PFC was related to both mother's education and general fluid intelligence but not father's education. Furthermore, after controlling for mother's education, the association between general fluid intelligence and the rGMV in medial PFC was no longer significant, indicating that mother's education plays an important role in influencing the structure of the medial PFC associated with general fluid intelligence. Taken together, our study provides the first behavioral and neural evidence that mother's education is a more important determinant of general cognitive ability in emerging adulthood than father's education.

  19. Relationship between nurses’ spiritual intelligence with hardiness and general health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Akbarizadeh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nursing is one of the stressful jobs that affect nurse's general health. The aim of this study was assessment relationship between Spiritual intelligence, Hardiness and General health among nurses in the hospital of Bushehr in 1388. Methods: Cross- sectional study designed and 125 nurses who have been working in different wards of the hospital enrolled in the study. Data was collected using Spiritual intelligence, Hardiness, General health and characteristics demographic questionnaires. Correlation, t-test, ANOVA, Tukey and regression analysis was applied using SPSS-16 soft ware. Results: The results showed there was significant relationship between spiritual intelligence and hardiness (P<0.005, spiritual intelligence and General health (P<0.005, hardiness and General health (P<0.001. Among the demographic characteristics including age, gender, working section, marital status, job experiences, and education only working section showed significantly correlated with patience (P<0.005. Conclusion: Improvement of spiritual intelligence and reinforcement of hardiness could help to increase the general health of nurses.

  20. Soar: An Architecture for General Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-09-29

    ordercring of the actions has to be mainaned and the resulting set of rules will copy all of the substructure in parallel. The second optimization is...and reasoning in problem solvng". -lrtificial Int’elligence 21 (1983), 7-30. 73. Smith . B. C. Reflection and Scmantics in a Procedural Lingauge. 1v1IT...LCS/7R-2 2, Laborator’ for Computer Science. MIT, 1982. 74. Smith . D. E. & Cenescrcth. N1. R. "Ordering Conjunccj.e Queries’. ArttJiciai Intelligence

  1. [Algorithms, machine intelligence, big data : general considerations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radermacher, F J

    2015-08-01

    We are experiencing astonishing developments in the areas of big data and artificial intelligence. They follow a pattern that we have now been observing for decades: according to Moore's Law,the performance and efficiency in the area of elementary arithmetic operations increases a thousand-fold every 20 years. Although we have not achieved the status where in the singular sense machines have become as "intelligent" as people, machines are becoming increasingly better. The Internet of Things has again helped to massively increase the efficiency of machines. Big data and suitable analytics do the same. If we let these processes simply continue, our civilization may be endangerd in many instances. If the "containment" of these processes succeeds in the context of a reasonable political global governance, a worldwide eco-social market economy, andan economy of green and inclusive markets, many desirable developments that are advantageous for our future may result. Then, at some point in time, the constant need for more and faster innovation may even stop. However, this is anything but certain. We are facing huge challenges.

  2. LINEAR LAYER AND GENERALIZED REGRESSION COMPUTATIONAL INTELLIGENCE MODELS FOR PREDICTING SHELF LIFE OF PROCESSED CHEESE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Goyal

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper highlights the significance of computational intelligence models for predicting shelf life of processed cheese stored at 7-8 g.C. Linear Layer and Generalized Regression models were developed with input parameters: Soluble nitrogen, pH, Standard plate count, Yeast & mould count, Spores, and sensory score as output parameter. Mean Square Error, Root Mean Square Error, Coefficient of Determination and Nash - Sutcliffo Coefficient were used in order to compare the prediction ability of the models. The study revealed that Generalized Regression computational intelligence models are quite effective in predicting the shelf life of processed cheese stored at 7-8 g.C.

  3. Intelligence, General Knowledge and Personality as Predictors of Creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batey, Mark; Furnham, Adrian; Safiullina, Xeniya

    2010-01-01

    This study sought to examine the contribution of fluid intelligence, general knowledge and Big Five personality traits in predicting four indices of creativity: Divergent Thinking (DT) fluency, Rated DT, Creative Achievement and Self-Rated creativity and a combined Total Creativity variable. When creativity was assessed by DT test, the consistent…

  4. Sensory Discrimination as Related to General Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acton, G. Scott; Schroeder, David H.

    2001-01-01

    Attempted to replicate the pitch discrimination findings of previous research and expand them to the modality of color discrimination in a sample of 899 teenagers and adults by correlating 2 sensory discrimination measures with the general factor from a battery of 13 cognitive ability tests. Results suggest that sensory discrimination is…

  5. Generalized trust and intelligence in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl, Noah; Billari, Francesco C

    2014-01-01

    Generalized trust refers to trust in other members of society; it may be distinguished from particularized trust, which corresponds to trust in the family and close friends. An extensive empirical literature has established that generalized trust is an important aspect of civic culture. It has been linked to a variety of positive outcomes at the individual level, such as entrepreneurship, volunteering, self-rated health, and happiness. However, two recent studies have found that it is highly correlated with intelligence, which raises the possibility that the other relationships in which it has been implicated may be spurious. Here we replicate the association between intelligence and generalized trust in a large, nationally representative sample of U.S. adults. We also show that, after adjusting for intelligence, generalized trust continues to be strongly associated with both self-rated health and happiness. In the context of substantial variation across countries, these results bolster the view that generalized trust is a valuable social resource, not only for the individual but for the wider society as well.

  6. Generalized trust and intelligence in the United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noah Carl

    Full Text Available Generalized trust refers to trust in other members of society; it may be distinguished from particularized trust, which corresponds to trust in the family and close friends. An extensive empirical literature has established that generalized trust is an important aspect of civic culture. It has been linked to a variety of positive outcomes at the individual level, such as entrepreneurship, volunteering, self-rated health, and happiness. However, two recent studies have found that it is highly correlated with intelligence, which raises the possibility that the other relationships in which it has been implicated may be spurious. Here we replicate the association between intelligence and generalized trust in a large, nationally representative sample of U.S. adults. We also show that, after adjusting for intelligence, generalized trust continues to be strongly associated with both self-rated health and happiness. In the context of substantial variation across countries, these results bolster the view that generalized trust is a valuable social resource, not only for the individual but for the wider society as well.

  7. Neural correlates of intelligence as revealed by fMRI of fluid analogies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geake, John G; Hansen, Peter C

    2005-06-01

    It has been conjectured that the cognitive basis of intelligence is the ability to make fluid or creative analogical relationships between distantly related concepts or pieces of information (Hofstadter, D.R. 1995. Fluid Concepts and Creative Analogies. Basic Books, New York., Hofstadter, D.R. 2001. Analogy as the Core of Cognition. In The Analogical Mind: Perspectives from Cognitive Science (D. Gentner, K. J. Holyoak and B. N. Kokinov, Ed.). pp. 504-537. MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass.). We hypothesised that fluid analogy-making tasks would activate specific regions of frontal cortex that were common to those of previous inferential reasoning tasks. We report here a novel self-paced event-related fMRI study employed to investigate the neural correlates of intelligence associated with undertaking fluid letter string analogy tasks. Stimuli were adapted from items of the AI program Copycat (Mitchell, M. 1993. Analogy-making as Perception: A computer model. The MIT Press, Cambridge MA.). Twelve right-handed adults chose their own "best" completions from four plausible response choices to 55 fluid letter string analogies across a range of analogical depths. An analysis using covariates determined per subject by analogical depth revealed significant bilateral neural activations in the superior, inferior, and middle frontal gyri and in the anterior cingulate/paracingulate cortex. These frontal areas have been previously associated with reasoning tasks involving inductive syllogisms, syntactic hierarchies, and linguistic creativity. A higher-order analysis covarying participants' verbal intelligence measures found correlations with individual BOLD activation strengths in two ROIs within BA 9 and BA 45/46. This is a provocative result given that verbal intelligence is conceptualised as being a measure of crystallised intelligence, while analogy making is conceptualised as requiring fluid intelligence. The results therefore support the conjecture that fluid analogising could

  8. Humor Ability Reveals Intelligence, Predicts Mating Success, and Is Higher in Males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greengross, Gil; Miller, Geoffrey

    2011-01-01

    A good sense of humor is sexually attractive, perhaps because it reveals intelligence, creativity, and other "good genes" or "good parent" traits. If so, intelligence should predict humor production ability, which in turn should predict mating success. In this study, 400 university students (200 men and 200 women) completed…

  9. Humor Ability Reveals Intelligence, Predicts Mating Success, and Is Higher in Males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greengross, Gil; Miller, Geoffrey

    2011-01-01

    A good sense of humor is sexually attractive, perhaps because it reveals intelligence, creativity, and other "good genes" or "good parent" traits. If so, intelligence should predict humor production ability, which in turn should predict mating success. In this study, 400 university students (200 men and 200 women) completed…

  10. Intelligence and Personality as Predictors of Divergent Thinking: The Role of General, Fluid and Crystallised Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batey, Mark; Chamorro-Premuzic, Tomas; Furnham, Adrian

    2009-01-01

    Two studies examined the relationships between measures of intelligence, personality and divergent thinking (DT) in student samples. Study one investigated the incremental validity of measures of IQ and fluid intelligence with the Big Five Personality Inventory with regards to DT. Significant relationships of DT to fluid intelligence, Extraversion…

  11. What Virtual Twins Reveal About General Intelligence and Other Behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The Fullerton Virtual Twin Study has been assessing the behaviors of an unusual sibship since 1982. Virtual twins (VTs) are same-age, unrelated siblings reared together since infancy. They replicate the rearing situation of twins but without the genetic link, enabling direct assessment of shared environmental effects on behavior. An updated analysis of IQ data, based on an increased sample of 142 VT pairs (7.87 years, SD=8.22), is presented. Intraclass correlations of .28 (IQ) and .11 (subtes...

  12. Human intelligence, fluctuating asymmetry and the peacock's tail - General intelligence (g) as an honest signal of fitness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luxen, Marc F.; Buunk, Bram P.; Buunk, Abraham (Bram)

    2006-01-01

    Assuming that general intelligence (g) is an honest signal of fitness, we expected g to be related to developmental quality as indexed by Fluctuating Asymmetry (i.e. non-pathological variation in the size of right and left body features). In a population sample of 44 men and 37 women, we assessed th

  13. Do depressive traits and hostility predict age-related decline in general intelligence?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Barefoot, John Calvin; Avlund, Kirsten

    2012-01-01

    on decline in general intelligence over a 30-year period. The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory was administered at a 50-year baseline exam, and from this inventory the Obvious Depression Scale and an abbreviated version of the Cook-Medley Hostility Scale were derived. At the 50-year baseline...... and at the 60-, 70-, and 80-year followups the full version of Wechsler's Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) was administered to 673, 513, 136, and 184 participants. Mixed effects statistical models were used to evaluate both the effect of the personality scores on level of intelligence and the interaction between...... the personality scores and the time since followup. Analyses were adjusted for demographic background and a wide range of lifestyle factors. Both obvious depression and hostility were negatively associated with level of intelligence, but personality scores did not influence rate of decline in general intelligence....

  14. Associations between cortical thickness and general intelligence in children, adolescents and young adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Menary (Kyle); P.F. Collins (Paul); J.N. Porter (James); R.L. Muetzel (Ryan); E.A. Olson (Elizabeth); V. Kumar (Vipin); D. Steinbach; K.O. Lim (Kelvin); M. Luciana (Monica)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractNeuroimaging research indicates that human intellectual ability is related to brain structure including the thickness of the cerebral cortex. Most studies indicate that general intelligence is positively associated with cortical thickness in areas of association cortex distributed

  15. Associations between cortical thickness and general intelligence in children, adolescents and young adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Menary (Kyle); P.F. Collins (Paul); J.N. Porter (James); R.L. Muetzel (Ryan); E.A. Olson (Elizabeth); V. Kumar (Vipin); D. Steinbach; K.O. Lim (Kelvin); M. Luciana (Monica)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractNeuroimaging research indicates that human intellectual ability is related to brain structure including the thickness of the cerebral cortex. Most studies indicate that general intelligence is positively associated with cortical thickness in areas of association cortex distributed throug

  16. Deep Blue Cannot Play Checkers: The Need for Generalized Intelligence for Mobile Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Troy D. Kelley

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Generalized intelligence is much more difficult than originally anticipated when Artificial Intelligence (AI was first introduced in the early 1960s. Deep Blue, the chess playing supercomputer, was developed to defeat the top rated human chess player and successfully did so by defeating Gary Kasporov in 1997. However, Deep Blue only played chess; it did not play checkers, or any other games. Other examples of AI programs which learned and played games were successful at specific tasks, but generalizing the learned behavior to other domains was not attempted. So the question remains: Why is generalized intelligence so difficult? If complex tasks require a significant amount of development, time and task generalization is not easily accomplished, then a significant amount of effort is going to be required to develop an intelligent system. This approach will require a system of systems approach that uses many AI techniques: neural networks, fuzzy logic, and cognitive architectures.

  17. Promising synergies of simulation model management, software engineering, artificial intelligence, and general system theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oren, T.I.

    1982-01-01

    Simulation is viewed within the model management paradigm. Major components of simulation systems as well as elements of model management are outlined. Possible synergies of simulation model management, software engineering, artificial intelligence, and general system theories are systematized. 21 references.

  18. Improving General Intelligence with a Nutrient-Based Pharmacological Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stough, Con; Camfield, David; Kure, Christina; Tarasuik, Joanne; Downey, Luke; Lloyd, Jenny; Zangara, Andrea; Scholey, Andrew; Reynolds, Josh

    2011-01-01

    Cognitive enhancing substances such as amphetamine and modafinil have become popular in recent years to improve acute cognitive performance particularly in environments in which enhanced cognition or intelligence is required. Nutraceutical nootropics, which are natural substances that have the ability to bring about acute or chronic changes in…

  19. Respiratory Dynamics and Speech Intelligibility in Speakers with Generalized Dystonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaBlance, Gary R.; Rutherford, David R.

    1991-01-01

    This study compared respiratory function during quiet breathing and monologue, in six adult dystonic subjects and a control group of four neurologically intact adults. Dystonic subjects showed a faster breathing rate, less rhythmic breathing pattern, decreased lung volume, and apnea-like periods. Decreased speech intelligibility was related to…

  20. Improving General Intelligence with a Nutrient-Based Pharmacological Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stough, Con; Camfield, David; Kure, Christina; Tarasuik, Joanne; Downey, Luke; Lloyd, Jenny; Zangara, Andrea; Scholey, Andrew; Reynolds, Josh

    2011-01-01

    Cognitive enhancing substances such as amphetamine and modafinil have become popular in recent years to improve acute cognitive performance particularly in environments in which enhanced cognition or intelligence is required. Nutraceutical nootropics, which are natural substances that have the ability to bring about acute or chronic changes in…

  1. A dynamical model of general intelligence: The positive manifold of intelligence by mutualism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Maas, H.L.J.; Dolan, C.V.; Grasman, R.P.P.P.; Wicherts, J.M.; Huizenga, H.M.; Raijmakers, M.E.J.

    2006-01-01

    Scores on cognitive tasks used in intelligence tests correlate positively with each other, that is, they display a positive manifold of correlations. The positive manifold is often explained by positing a dominant latent variable, the g factor, associated with a single quantitative cognitive or biol

  2. A Role for the X Chromosome in Sex Differences in Variability in General Intelligence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Wendy; Carothers, Andrew; Deary, Ian J

    2009-11-01

    There is substantial evidence that males are more variable than females in general intelligence. In recent years, researchers have presented this as a reason that, although there is little, if any, mean sex difference in general intelligence, males tend to be overrepresented at both ends of its overall distribution. Part of the explanation could be the presence of genes on the X chromosome related both to syndromal disorders involving mental retardation and to population variation in general intelligence occurring normally. Genes on the X chromosome appear overrepresented among genes with known involvement in mental retardation, which is consistent with a model we developed of the population distribution of general intelligence as a mixture of two normal distributions. Using this model, we explored the expected ratios of males to females at various points in the distribution and estimated the proportion of variance in general intelligence potentially due to genes on the X chromosome. These estimates provide clues to the extent to which biologically based sex differences could be manifested in the environment as sex differences in displayed intellectual abilities. We discuss these observations in the context of sex differences in specific cognitive abilities and evolutionary theories of sexual selection.

  3. Teaching emotional intelligence to intensive care unit nurses and their general health: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif, F; Rezaie, S; Keshavarzi, S; Mansoori, P; Ghadakpoor, S

    2013-07-01

    Emotion and how people manage it is an important part of personality that would immensely affect their health. Investigations showed that emotional intelligence is significantly related to and can predict psychological health. To determine the effect of teaching emotional intelligence to intensive care unit nurses on their general health. This randomized clinical trial (registered as IRCT201208022812N9) was conducted on 52 of 200 in intensive care unit nurses affiliated to Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. They were recruited through purposeful convenience sampling and then randomly categorized into two groups. The intervention group members were trained in emotional intelligence. Bar-on emotional intelligence and Goldberg's general health questionnaires were administered to each participant before, immediately after, and one month after the intervention. While the mean score of general health for the intervention group decreased from 25.4 before the intervention, to 18.1 immediately after the intervention and to 14.6 one month later, for the control group, it increased from 22.0, to 24.2 and to 26.5, respectively (pTeaching emotional intelligence improved the general health of intensive care unit nurses.

  4. Teaching Emotional Intelligence to Intensive Care Unit Nurses and their General Health: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Sharif

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Emotion and how people manage it is an important part of personality that would immensely affect their health. Investigations showed that emotional intelligence is significantly related to and can predict psychological health. Objective: To determine the effect of teaching emotional intelligence to intensive care unit nurses on their general health. Methods: This randomized clinical trial (registered as IRCT201208022812N9 was conducted on 52 of 200 in intensive care unit nurses affiliated to Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. They were recruited through purposeful convenience sampling and then randomly categorized into two groups. The intervention group members were trained in emotional intelligence. Bar-on emotional intelligence and Goldberg's general health questionnaires were administered to each participant before, immediately after, and one month after the intervention. Results: While the mean score of general health for the intervention group decreased from 25.4 before the intervention, to 18.1 immediately after the intervention and to 14.6 one month later, for the control group, it increased from 22.0, to 24.2 and to 26.5, respectively (p<0.001. Conclusion: Teaching emotional intelligence improved the general health of intensive care unit nurses.

  5. Artificial General Intelligence: Concept, State of the Art, and Future Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goertzel, Ben

    2014-12-01

    In recent years broad community of researchers has emerged, focusing on the original ambitious goals of the AI field - the creation and study of software or hardware systems with general intelligence comparable to, and ultimately perhaps greater than, that of human beings. This paper surveys this diverse community and its progress. Approaches to defining the concept of Artificial General Intelligence (AGI) are reviewed including mathematical formalisms, engineering, and biology inspired perspectives. The spectrum of designs for AGI systems includes systems with symbolic, emergentist, hybrid and universalist characteristics. Metrics for general intelligence are evaluated, with a conclusion that, although metrics for assessing the achievement of human-level AGI may be relatively straightforward (e.g. the Turing Test, or a robot that can graduate from elementary school or university), metrics for assessing partial progress remain more controversial and problematic.

  6. Simple and Multivariate Relationships Between Spiritual Intelligence with General Health and Happiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amirian, Mohammad-Elyas; Fazilat-Pour, Masoud

    2016-08-01

    The present study examined simple and multivariate relationships of spiritual intelligence with general health and happiness. The employed method was descriptive and correlational. King's Spiritual Quotient scales, GHQ-28 and Oxford Happiness Inventory, are filled out by a sample consisted of 384 students, which were selected using stratified random sampling from the students of Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman. Data are subjected to descriptive and inferential statistics including correlations and multivariate regressions. Bivariate correlations support positive and significant predictive value of spiritual intelligence toward general health and happiness. Further analysis showed that among the Spiritual Intelligence' subscales, Existential Critical Thinking Predicted General Health and Happiness, reversely. In addition, happiness was positively predicted by generation of personal meaning and transcendental awareness. The findings are discussed in line with the previous studies and the relevant theoretical background.

  7. Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, Robert J

    2012-03-01

    Intelligence is the ability to learn from experience and to adapt to, shape, and select environments. Intelligence as measured by (raw scores on) conventional standardized tests varies across the lifespan, and also across generations. Intelligence can be understood in part in terms of the biology of the brain-especially with regard to the functioning in the prefrontal cortex-and also correlates with brain size, at least within humans. Studies of the effects of genes and environment suggest that the heritability coefficient (ratio of genetic to phenotypic variation) is between .4 and .8, although heritability varies as a function of socioeconomic status and other factors. Racial differences in measured intelligence have been observed, but race is a socially constructed rather than biological variable, so such differences are difficult to interpret.

  8. The effect of alcohol binge drinking in early pregnancy on child’s general intelligence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kesmodel, Ulrik Schiøler; Eriksen, Hanne-Lise Falgreen; Underbjerg, Mette

    2012-01-01

    Please cite this paper as: Kesmodel U, Falgreen Eriksen H, Underbjerg M, Kilburn T, Støvring H, Wimberley T, Mortensen E. The effect of alcohol binge drinking in early pregnancy on general intelligence in children. BJOG 2012;119:1222-1231. Objective  To examine the effects of binge alcohol...... consumption during early pregnancy, including the number of binge episodes and the timing of binge drinking, on general intelligence in 5-year-old children. Design  Follow-up study. Setting  Neuropsychological testing in four Danish cities 2003-2008. Population  A cohort of 1617 women and their children...... sampled from the Danish National Birth Cohort. Methods  Participants were sampled on the basis of maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy. At 5 years of age the children were tested with six subtests from the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence - Revised (WPPSI-R). Parental...

  9. [Children's intelligence quotient following general anesthesia for dental care: a clinical observation by Chinese Wechsler young children scale of intelligence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, B; Wang, J H; Xiao, Y M; Liu, K Y; Yang, X D; Ge, L H

    2016-04-18

    It has been demonstrated that anesthetics exposure may lead to neurocognitive impairment in developing brain of animal models. However, for the limitation that the animal models cannot fully mimic the dose and duration in clinical settings especially for dental general anesthesia, the clinical significance of anesthetics exposure on developing central nervous system remains undetermined. Therefore, we conducted the current study in order to observe the fluctuation of intelligence quotient (IQ) after the administration of dental general anesthesia comparing to that before surgery. We conducted the current study in order to observe the fluctuation of intelligence quotient (IQ) after the administration of dental general anesthesia compared with that before surgery. Thirty two patients, ASA I, who were exposed to dental general anesthesia in Department of Pediatric Dentistry Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology, aged 4 to 6.5 years, were enrolled in this prospective study. Patients with severe learning difficulties or communication disorders were excluded. Written and informed consent was obtained from each patients' family which was fully explained of the purpose and method of study. Their intelligence quotients were evaluated with the Chinese Wechsler young children scale of intelligence (Urban version) before and 2 weeks after dental anesthesia. They were treated by experienced pediatric dentists and the sevoflurane, propofol and nitrous oxide were used for general anesthesia by anesthetist. Articaine hydrochloride and epinephrine tartrate injections were used for their pulp treatment or extraction. The examiners and scorers for IQ had technical training in the test administration. All the patients were tested by the same examiner and with standardized guide language. Each subtest was scored according to the tool review. Verbal IQ and performance IQ consisted of relevant 5 subtests and full scale IQ. Statistical analyses were performed by SPSS 18

  10. Do Depressive Traits and Hostility Predict Age-Related Decline in General Intelligence?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Lykke Mortensen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Certain personality traits are likely to be associated with stress and distress through the lifespan, and as a consequence these traits may influence the rate of age-related cognitive decline. The present study uses data from the Glostrup 1914 cohort to analyze potential effects of personality on decline in general intelligence over a 30-year period. The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory was administered at a 50-year baseline exam, and from this inventory the Obvious Depression Scale and an abbreviated version of the Cook-Medley Hostility Scale were derived. At the 50-year baseline and at the 60-, 70-, and 80-year followups the full version of Wechsler's Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS was administered to 673, 513, 136, and 184 participants. Mixed effects statistical models were used to evaluate both the effect of the personality scores on level of intelligence and the interaction between the personality scores and the time since followup. Analyses were adjusted for demographic background and a wide range of lifestyle factors. Both obvious depression and hostility were negatively associated with level of intelligence, but personality scores did not influence rate of decline in general intelligence.

  11. The Long-Term Effects of Childhood Music Instruction on Intelligence and General Cognitive Abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa-Giomi, Eugenia

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews research on the effects of music instruction on general cognitive abilities. The review of more than 75 reports shows (1) the consistency in results pertaining to the short-term effects of music instruction on cognitive abilities and the lack of clear evidence on the long-term effects on intelligence; (2) the complex nature of…

  12. 广义计算与商业智能%Generalized Computing and Business Intelligence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚敏; 刘虹

    2001-01-01

    Generalized computing is a kind of general intelligent problem solving methods which combine symbolic computing, neurocomputing, fuzzy computing and evolutionary computing in oneness,while business intelligence is a novel type of subject with strong practicability. This paper concisely discusses the fundamental principle of generalized computing, analyzes the actuality and key techniques of business intelligence, and presents a new kind of business intelligence model based on generalized computing.%广义计算是一类融符号计算、神经计算、模糊计算和演化计算于一体的智能型问题求解方法,而商业智能则是一门实用性很强的新型学科.本文简要讨论了广义计算的基本原理,分析了商业智能的发展现状与关键技术,提出了一种新的基于广义计算的商业智能模型.

  13. Personality Traits and General Intelligence as Predictors of Academic Performance: A Structural Equation Modelling Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosander, Pia; Backstrom, Martin; Stenberg, Georg

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the extent to which personality traits, after controlling for general intelligence, predict academic performance in different school subjects. Upper secondary school students in Sweden (N=315) completed the Wonderlic IQ test (Wonderlic, 1992) and the IPIP-NEO-PI test (Goldberg, 1999). A series of…

  14. Personality Traits and General Intelligence as Predictors of Academic Performance: A Structural Equation Modelling Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosander, Pia; Backstrom, Martin; Stenberg, Georg

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the extent to which personality traits, after controlling for general intelligence, predict academic performance in different school subjects. Upper secondary school students in Sweden (N=315) completed the Wonderlic IQ test (Wonderlic, 1992) and the IPIP-NEO-PI test (Goldberg, 1999). A series of…

  15. Sex Differences in Brain Volume Are Related to Specific Skills, Not to General Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgaleta, Miguel; Head, Kevin; Alvarez-Linera, Juan; Martinez, Kenia; Escorial, Sergio; Haier, Richard; Colom, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    It has been proposed that males would show higher mean scores than females in general intelligence ("g") because (1) men have, on average, larger brains than women, and (2) brain volume correlates with "g." Here we report a failure to support the conclusion derived from these premises. High resolution MRIs were acquired in a sample of one hundred…

  16. The Long-Term Effects of Childhood Music Instruction on Intelligence and General Cognitive Abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa-Giomi, Eugenia

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews research on the effects of music instruction on general cognitive abilities. The review of more than 75 reports shows (1) the consistency in results pertaining to the short-term effects of music instruction on cognitive abilities and the lack of clear evidence on the long-term effects on intelligence; (2) the complex nature of…

  17. A Latent Variable Analysis of Working Memory Capacity, Short-Term Memory Capacity, Processing Speed, and General Fluid Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Andrew R. A.; Cowan, Nelsin; Bunting, Michael F.; Therriault, David J.; Minkoff, Scott R. B.

    2002-01-01

    Studied the interrelationships among general fluid intelligence, short-term memory capacity, working memory capacity, and processing speed in 120 young adults and used structural equation modeling to determine the best predictor of general fluid intelligence. Results suggest that working memory capacity, but not short-term memory capacity or…

  18. Fluctuating Asymmetry and General Intelligence: No Genetic or Phenotypic Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Wendy; Segal, Nancy L.; Bouchard, Thomas J., Jr.

    2008-01-01

    Fluctuating asymmetry (FA) is the non-pathological left-right asymmetry of body traits that are usually left-right symmetrical, such as eye breadths and elbow to wrist lengths in humans, but which can be affected by developmental stressors. It is generally considered throughout biology to be an indicator of developmental instability and thus of…

  19. General Intelligence (g): Overview of a Complex Construct and Its Implications for Genetics Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plucker, Jonathan A; Shelton, Amy L

    2015-01-01

    Current technology has dramatically increased the prevalence of studies to establish the genetic correlates of a wide variety of human characteristics, including not only the physical attributes that determine what we look like and the risk of physiological disease but also the psychological and cognitive characteristics that often define who we are as individuals. Perhaps one of the most deeply personal and often controversial characteristics is the concept of general intelligence, known in the psychological literature as "g." As with the genetic study of any complex trait, the first step in studying the genetics of g is to carefully define the characteristic of interest. For g, this entails establishing what intelligence means and providing a clear operational definition for how it will be measured. In this paper, we provide a brief historical and theoretical overview of the construct of general intelligence, describe its relationship to the contemporary measurement of intelligence, and discuss these concepts in light of the challenges associated with defining g as a characteristic in the study of genetics.

  20. Linear and nonlinear associations between general intelligence and personality in Project TALENT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Major, Jason T; Johnson, Wendy; Deary, Ian J

    2014-04-01

    Research on the relations of personality traits to intelligence has primarily been concerned with linear associations. Yet, there are no a priori reasons why linear relations should be expected over nonlinear ones, which represent a much larger set of all possible associations. Using 2 techniques, quadratic and generalized additive models, we tested for linear and nonlinear associations of general intelligence (g) with 10 personality scales from Project TALENT (PT), a nationally representative sample of approximately 400,000 American high school students from 1960, divided into 4 grade samples (Flanagan et al., 1962). We departed from previous studies, including one with PT (Reeve, Meyer, & Bonaccio, 2006), by modeling latent quadratic effects directly, controlling the influence of the common factor in the personality scales, and assuming a direction of effect from g to personality. On the basis of the literature, we made 17 directional hypotheses for the linear and quadratic associations. Of these, 53% were supported in all 4 male grades and 58% in all 4 female grades. Quadratic associations explained substantive variance above and beyond linear effects (mean R² between 1.8% and 3.6%) for Sociability, Maturity, Vigor, and Leadership in males and Sociability, Maturity, and Tidiness in females; linear associations were predominant for other traits. We discuss how suited current theories of the personality-intelligence interface are to explain these associations, and how research on intellectually gifted samples may provide a unique way of understanding them. We conclude that nonlinear models can provide incremental detail regarding personality and intelligence associations.

  1. Associations between cortical thickness and general intelligence in children, adolescents and young adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menary, Kyle; Collins, Paul F.; Porter, James N.; Muetzel, Ryan; Olson, Elizabeth A.; Kumar, Vipin; Steinbach, Michael; Lim, Kelvin O.; Luciana, Monica

    2013-01-01

    Neuroimaging research indicates that human intellectual ability is related to brain structure including the thickness of the cerebral cortex. Most studies indicate that general intelligence is positively associated with cortical thickness in areas of association cortex distributed throughout both brain hemispheres. In this study, we performed a cortical thickness mapping analysis on data from 182 healthy typically developing males and females ages 9 to 24 years to identify correlates of general intelligence (g) scores. To determine if these correlates also mediate associations of specific cognitive abilities with cortical thickness, we regressed specific cognitive test scores on g scores and analyzed the residuals with respect to cortical thickness. The effect of age on the association between cortical thickness and intelligence was examined. We found a widely distributed pattern of positive associations between cortical thickness and g scores, as derived from the first unrotated principal factor of a factor analysis of Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI) subtest scores. After WASI specific cognitive subtest scores were regressed on g factor scores, the residual score variances did not correlate significantly with cortical thickness in the full sample with age covaried. When participants were grouped at the age median, significant positive associations of cortical thickness were obtained in the older group for g-residualized scores on Block Design (a measure of visual-motor integrative processing) while significant negative associations of cortical thickness were observed in the younger group for g-residualized Vocabulary scores. These results regarding correlates of general intelligence are concordant with the existing literature, while the findings from younger versus older subgroups have implications for future research on brain structural correlates of specific cognitive abilities, as well as the cognitive domain specificity of behavioral

  2. Associations between cortical thickness and general intelligence in children, adolescents and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menary, Kyle; Collins, Paul F; Porter, James N; Muetzel, Ryan; Olson, Elizabeth A; Kumar, Vipin; Steinbach, Michael; Lim, Kelvin O; Luciana, Monica

    2013-09-01

    Neuroimaging research indicates that human intellectual ability is related to brain structure including the thickness of the cerebral cortex. Most studies indicate that general intelligence is positively associated with cortical thickness in areas of association cortex distributed throughout both brain hemispheres. In this study, we performed a cortical thickness mapping analysis on data from 182 healthy typically developing males and females ages 9 to 24 years to identify correlates of general intelligence (g) scores. To determine if these correlates also mediate associations of specific cognitive abilities with cortical thickness, we regressed specific cognitive test scores on g scores and analyzed the residuals with respect to cortical thickness. The effect of age on the association between cortical thickness and intelligence was examined. We found a widely distributed pattern of positive associations between cortical thickness and g scores, as derived from the first unrotated principal factor of a factor analysis of Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI) subtest scores. After WASI specific cognitive subtest scores were regressed on g factor scores, the residual score variances did not correlate significantly with cortical thickness in the full sample with age covaried. When participants were grouped at the age median, significant positive associations of cortical thickness were obtained in the older group for g-residualized scores on Block Design (a measure of visual-motor integrative processing) while significant negative associations of cortical thickness were observed in the younger group for g-residualized Vocabulary scores. These results regarding correlates of general intelligence are concordant with the existing literature, while the findings from younger versus older subgroups have implications for future research on brain structural correlates of specific cognitive abilities, as well as the cognitive domain specificity of behavioral

  3. Information processing speed mediates the relationship between white matter and general intelligence in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alloza, Clara; Cox, Simon R; Duff, Barbara; Semple, Scott I; Bastin, Mark E; Whalley, Heather C; Lawrie, Stephen M

    2016-08-30

    Several authors have proposed that schizophrenia is the result of impaired connectivity between specific brain regions rather than differences in local brain activity. White matter abnormalities have been suggested as the anatomical substrate for this dysconnectivity hypothesis. Information processing speed may act as a key cognitive resource facilitating higher order cognition by allowing multiple cognitive processes to be simultaneously available. However, there is a lack of established associations between these variables in schizophrenia. We hypothesised that the relationship between white matter and general intelligence would be mediated by processing speed. White matter water diffusion parameters were studied using Tract-based Spatial Statistics and computed within 46 regions-of-interest (ROI). Principal component analysis was conducted on these white matter ROI for fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity, and on neurocognitive subtests to extract general factors of white mater structure (gFA, gMD), general intelligence (g) and processing speed (gspeed). There was a positive correlation between g and gFA (r= 0.67, p =0.001) that was partially and significantly mediated by gspeed (56.22% CI: 0.10-0.62). These findings suggest a plausible model of structure-function relations in schizophrenia, whereby white matter structure may provide a neuroanatomical substrate for general intelligence, which is partly supported by speed of information processing.

  4. A Heuristic Evaluation of the Generalized Intelligent Framework for Tutoring (GIFT) Authoring Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    reuse and interoperability through standards. These goals were considered in the heuristic analysis of the authoring experience for GIFT users. 1.2...evaluations will be needed periodically as the technical goals are achieved as delineated in the research outlines that follow. • ARL Special Report...ARL-SR-0353 ● MAR 2016 US Army Research Laboratory A Heuristic Evaluation of the Generalized Intelligent Framework for Tutoring

  5. Is there a genetic correlation between general factors of intelligence and personality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loehlin, John C; Bartels, Meike; Boomsma, Dorret I; Bratko, Denis; Martin, Nicholas G; Nichols, Robert C; Wright, Margaret J

    2015-06-01

    We tested a hypothesis that there is no genetic correlation between general factors of intelligence and personality, despite both having been selected for in human evolution. This was done using twin samples from Australia, the United States, the Netherlands, Great Britain, and Croatia, comprising altogether 1,748 monozygotic and 1,329 same-sex dizygotic twin pairs. Although parameters in the model-fitting differed among the twin samples, the genetic correlation between the two general factors could be set to zero, with a better fit if the U.S. sample was excepted.

  6. Implicit theories of intelligence and IQ test performance in adolescents with Generalized Anxiety Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Fonseca, D; Cury, F; Fakra, E; Rufo, M; Poinso, F; Bounoua, L; Huguet, P

    2008-04-01

    During the past decade, several studies have reported positive effects of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) in the treatment of children and adolescents with mental disorders. One of the most important CBT interventions is to teach children and adolescents to challenge negative thoughts that lead to maladjusted behaviors. Based on the implicit theories of intelligence framework, the main purpose of this study was to test whether an incremental theory manipulation could be used to affect IQ test performance in adolescents with Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD). Results showed that patients demonstrated enhanced IQ performance and experienced less state anxiety when they were exposed to an incremental theory of intelligence manipulation. Our findings suggest that incremental theory manipulation provides a useful cognitive strategy for addressing school-related anxiety in adolescents with mental disorders such as GAD.

  7. Association between Level of Emotional Intelligence and Severity of Anxiety in Generalized Social Phobia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Madeline; Snow, Joseph; Geraci, Marilla; Vythilingam, Meena; Blair, R.J.R.; Charney, Dennis S.; Pine, Daniel S.; Blair, Karina S.

    2008-01-01

    Generalized Social Phobia (GSP) is characterized by a marked fear of most social situations. It is associated with an anomalous neural response to emotional stimuli, and individuals with the disorder frequently show interpretation bias in social situations. From this it might be suggested that GSP involves difficulty in accurately perceiving, using, understanding and managing emotions. Here we applied the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT) to medication-free GSP (n=28) and no pathology (n=21) individuals. Patients with GSP performed within the normal range on the measure however severity of social anxiety significantly correlated with emotional intelligence (EI). Specifically, there was a negative correlation between social anxiety severity and Experiential (basic-level emotional processing) EI. In contrast, there was no significant correlation between social anxiety severity and Strategic (higher-level conscious emotional processing) EI. These results suggest that EI may index emotional processing systems that mitigate the impact of systems causally implicated in GSP. PMID:18439799

  8. Association between level of emotional intelligence and severity of anxiety in generalized social phobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Madeline; Snow, Joseph; Geraci, Marilla; Vythilingam, Meena; Blair, R J R; Charney, Dennis S; Pine, Daniel S; Blair, Karina S

    2008-12-01

    Generalized social phobia (GSP) is characterized by a marked fear of most social situations. It is associated with an anomalous neural response to emotional stimuli, and individuals with the disorder frequently show interpretation bias in social situations. From this it might be suggested that GSP involves difficulty in accurately perceiving, using, understanding and managing emotions. Here we applied the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT) to medication-free GSP (n=28) and no pathology (n=21) individuals. Patients with GSP performed within the normal range on the measure however severity of social anxiety significantly correlated with emotional intelligence (EI). Specifically, there was a negative correlation between social anxiety severity and Experiential (basic-level emotional processing) EI. In contrast, there was no significant correlation between social anxiety severity and Strategic (higher-level conscious emotional processing) EI. These results suggest that EI may index emotional processing systems that mitigate the impact of systems causally implicated in GSP.

  9. The effect of alcohol binge drinking in early pregnancy on general intelligence in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesmodel, U S; Eriksen, H-L Falgreen; Underbjerg, M; Kilburn, T R; Støvring, H; Wimberley, T; Mortensen, E L

    2012-09-01

    To examine the effects of binge alcohol consumption during early pregnancy, including the number of binge episodes and the timing of binge drinking, on general intelligence in 5-year-old children. Follow-up study. Neuropsychological testing in four Danish cities 2003-2008. A cohort of 1617 women and their children sampled from the Danish National Birth Cohort. Participants were sampled on the basis of maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy. At 5 years of age the children were tested with six subtests from the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence - Revised (WPPSI-R). Parental education, maternal IQ, prenatal maternal smoking, the child's age at testing, the gender of the child, and tester were considered core confounding factors, whereas the full model also controlled for prenatal maternal average alcohol intake, maternal age, maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), parity, home environment, postnatal parental smoking, health status, and indicators for hearing and vision impairment. WPPSI-R. There were no systematic or significant differences in general intelligence between children of mothers reporting binge drinking and children of mothers with no binge episodes, except that binge drinking in gestational weeks 1-2 significantly reduced the risk of low, full-scale IQ (OR 0.54; 95% CI 0.31-0.96) when adjusted for core confounding factors. The results were otherwise not statistically significantly related to the number of binge episodes (with a maximum of 12) and timing of binge drinking. We found no systematic association between binge drinking during early pregnancy and child intelligence. However, binge drinking reduced the risk of low, full-scale IQ in gestational weeks 1-2. This finding may be explained by residual confounding. © 2012 The Authors BJOG An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology © 2012 RCOG.

  10. EXAMINATION OF EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE LEVEL, TEACHER'S SELF-EFFICACY BELIEFS AND GENERAL SELF-EFFICACY BELIEFS OF TEACHERS

    OpenAIRE

    Ender; Hakkı; İlhan

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine emotional intelligence level, general self-efficacy beliefs and teacher's self-efficacy beliefs of teachers. The study hypothesises which consists of emotional intelligence, general self-efficacy and teacher's self-efficacy. 278 teachers from different fields participated in the study. Collected data was analysed with Pearson Product Correlation, one-way ANOVA, and Independent t-test. The hypothesised model was analysed in AMOS (Analysis of Moment Structure...

  11. The relationship between vocational interests and intelligence: Do findings generalize across different assessment methods?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RENÉ T. PROYER

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to further explore the relationship between vocational interests and intelligence. There is some evidence in literature on the stable relationships between vocational interests and intelligence (cf. Ackerman & Heggestad, 1997. It should be noted that the majority of the previous studies have only used questionnaires for the assessment of vocational interests. Thus, it is of interest whether the results are also stable when different assessment methods are used. Therefore, a nonverbal test was used in this study together with two questionnaires. Additionally, tests for general intelligence, verbal, numeric, and spatial ability, and memory were used. A sample of N = 138 persons was tested in a computerized setting. Results indicate that there is a positive relation between Realistic and Investigative interests and spatial ability. This result was found for both the questionnaires as well as the nonverbal test. Therefore, it can be assumed that this relation is stable for different assessment methods. The data is discussed with respect to current literature.

  12. Artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Hunt, Earl B

    1975-01-01

    Artificial Intelligence provides information pertinent to the fundamental aspects of artificial intelligence. This book presents the basic mathematical and computational approaches to problems in the artificial intelligence field.Organized into four parts encompassing 16 chapters, this book begins with an overview of the various fields of artificial intelligence. This text then attempts to connect artificial intelligence problems to some of the notions of computability and abstract computing devices. Other chapters consider the general notion of computability, with focus on the interaction bet

  13. The generalized architecture of the decision support system on the basis of Business Intelligence in an equitable construction

    OpenAIRE

    Круковський, Ігор Анатолійович

    2016-01-01

    On the basis of retrospective analysis of Business Intelligence the generalized architecture of the Decision Support System, marked as DSS ВІ 2.0 (Decision Support System, Business Intelligence 2.0) has been worked out. Its differs in including of facilities from Text Mining and programmatic agents with the functions of expertmini systems; by the selection of subsystems of complex visualization; including of facilities of making videos; possibility of adaptation of module architecture in acco...

  14. Cerebral Blood Flow during Rest Associates with General Intelligence and Creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Hikaru; Taki, Yasuyuki; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Sassa, Yuko; Nagase, Tomomi; Nouchi, Rui; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2011-01-01

    Recently, much scientific attention has been focused on resting brain activity and its investigation through such methods as the analysis of functional connectivity during rest (the temporal correlation of brain activities in different regions). However, investigation of the magnitude of brain activity during rest has focused on the relative decrease of brain activity during a task, rather than on the absolute resting brain activity. It is thus necessary to investigate the association between cognitive factors and measures of absolute resting brain activity, such as cerebral blood flow (CBF), during rest (rest-CBF). In this study, we examined this association using multiple regression analyses. Rest-CBF was the dependent variable and the independent variables included two essential components of cognitive functions, psychometric general intelligence and creativity. CBF was measured using arterial spin labeling and there were three analyses for rest-CBF; namely mean gray matter rest-CBF, mean white matter rest-CBF, and regional rest-CBF. The results showed that mean gray and white matter rest-CBF were significantly and positively correlated with individual psychometric intelligence. Furthermore, mean white matter rest-CBF was significantly and positively correlated with creativity. After correcting the effect of mean gray matter rest-CBF the significant and positive correlation between regional rest-CBF in the perisylvian anatomical cluster that includes the left superior temporal gyrus and insula and individual psychometric intelligence was found. Also, regional rest-CBF in the precuneus was significantly and negatively correlated with individual creativity. Significance of these results of regional rest-CBF did not change when the effect of regional gray matter density was corrected. The findings showed mean and regional rest-CBF in healthy young subjects to be correlated with cognitive functions. The findings also suggest that, even in young cognitively intact

  15. Efficient hubs in the intelligent brain: Nodal efficiency of hub regions in the salience network is associated with general intelligence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilger, K.; Ekman, M.; Fiebach, C.J.; Basten, U.

    2017-01-01

    Intelligence-related differences in the intrinsic functional organization of the brain were studied with a graph-theoretical approach, comparing effects on nodal measures of brain network efficiency (concerning specific nodes of the network) and global measures (concerning the overall brain network)

  16. Accelerating progress in Artificial General Intelligence: Choosing a benchmark for natural world interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrer, Brandon

    2010-12-01

    Measuring progress in the field of Artificial General Intelligence (AGI) can be difficult without commonly accepted methods of evaluation. An AGI benchmark would allow evaluation and comparison of the many computational intelligence algorithms that have been developed. In this paper I propose that a benchmark for natural world interaction would possess seven key characteristics: fitness, breadth, specificity, low cost, simplicity, range, and task focus. I also outline two benchmark examples that meet most of these criteria. In the first, the direction task, a human coach directs a machine to perform a novel task in an unfamiliar environment. The direction task is extremely broad, but may be idealistic. In the second, the AGI battery, AGI candidates are evaluated based on their performance on a collection of more specific tasks. The AGI battery is designed to be appropriate to the capabilities of currently existing systems. Both the direction task and the AGI battery would require further definition before implementing. The paper concludes with a description of a task that might be included in the AGI battery: the search and retrieve task.

  17. Self Estimates of General, Crystallized, and Fluid Intelligences in an Ethnically Diverse Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, James C.

    2012-01-01

    Self-estimated intelligence is a quick way to assess people's conceptions of their own abilities. Furnham (2001) and colleagues have used this technique to make comparisons across culture and gender and different approaches to intelligence (such as "g" or Multiple Intelligences). This study seeks to build on past work in two ways. First, a large,…

  18. Null sex differences in general intelligence: evidence from the WAIS-III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colom, Roberto; García, Luis F; Juan-Espinosa, Manuel; Abad, Francisco J

    2002-05-01

    There is an increasing number of studies claiming that the sex differences in general intelligence are "real." The empirical evidence is based on the summation of the standardized sex differences in several cognitive batteries. However, the scientific construct of general ability rests on the correlations among test scores, rather than on their summation. The latter (ability in general) is an arbitrary variable, not a scientific construct. General ability is not a function of any particular cognitive test, but a source of variance evidenced by the correlation between several diverse tests, each of which reflects general ability (g) to some extent, but also group factors and test specificity. Because there are important educational, economic, and social consequences of a group difference in general ability, it is especially germane to evaluate the possibility of an average sex difference in its proxy measures, such as IQ. The Spanish standardization of the WAIS-III is analyzed in the present study. The sample was made up of 703 females and 666 males, aged 15-94, drawn as a representative sample of the population in terms of educational level and geographical location. Although a male advantage of 3.6 IQ points is observed, the difference is in "ability in general," not in "general ability" (g). Given that the main ingredient of the strong association between IQ and a broad range of social correlates is g, and given that there is no sex difference in g, then the average IQ sex-difference favoring males must be attributed to specific group factors and test specificity.

  19. [The general intelligence factor: psychometric study. Approach to the problem of mental deterioration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roccatagliata, G; Albano, C; Torres, S; Cocito, L; Ivaldi, M

    1979-01-01

    The authors have measured the correlation coefficient between W.B. and P.M. scores in 80 normal subjects, comparable for age and school. A mutual relationship between the two tests, connected by the hypothetical general intelligence factor "g", was really demonstrated. Correlation coefficient was positive and significative between W.B. total scores, excepted verbal scores, and P.M., the highest one between subtests 8, 9 and P.M. The intra-tests correlation between W.B. total scores and each subtest score was also evaluated: between sub-tests 8, 9 and W.B. total scores the highest one again. A new qualitative interpretation of mental deterioration in clinical neurology and psychiatry is suggested on the base of these results.

  20. Multiple bases of human intelligence revealed by cortical thickness and neural activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yu Yong; Shamosh, Noah A; Cho, Sun Hee; DeYoung, Colin G; Lee, Min Joo; Lee, Jong-Min; Kim, Sun I; Cho, Zang-Hee; Kim, Kyungjin; Gray, Jeremy R; Lee, Kun Ho

    2008-10-08

    We hypothesized that individual differences in intelligence (Spearman's g) are supported by multiple brain regions, and in particular that fluid (gF) and crystallized (gC) components of intelligence are related to brain function and structure with a distinct profile of association across brain regions. In 225 healthy young adults scanned with structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging sequences, regions of interest (ROIs) were defined on the basis of a correlation between g and either brain structure or brain function. In these ROIs, gC was more strongly related to structure (cortical thickness) than function, whereas gF was more strongly related to function (blood oxygenation level-dependent signal during reasoning) than structure. We further validated this finding by generating a neurometric prediction model of intelligence quotient (IQ) that explained 50% of variance in IQ in an independent sample. The data compel a nuanced view of the neurobiology of intelligence, providing the most persuasive evidence to date for theories emphasizing multiple distributed brain regions differing in function.

  1. Investigating the effect of work stress, general health quality, organizational intelligence and job satisfaction on employee performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Samadzadeh

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available During the past few years, there have been tremendous efforts on measuring the effects of different factors such as work stress, general heath quality, etc. on performance of employees. In this paper, we present an empirical investigation to study the effects of work stress, general health, organizational intelligence and job satisfaction on employee performance. The proposed study of this paper uses two questionnaires where one is associated with general heath quality (GHQ with 20 questions and the other one consists of 12 questions, which is associated with work stress. The study chooses a sample of 144 employees from 222 people who worked for one of Islamic Azad University in Iran. Cronbach alphas for work stress, general health, organizational intelligence, job satisfaction and organizational performance are 0.911, 0.895, 0.795, 0.863 and, 0.864, respectively. The results indicate that job satisfaction has the highest influence on organizational performance followed by other factors.

  2. The location of the Trait Emotional Intelligence in the Zuckerman's Personality Model space and the role of General Intelligence and social status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Eduardo; García, Luis Francisco; Aluja, Anton

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between Emotional Intelligence (EI) measured by the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (TEIQue) and personality measured by the Zuckerman-Kuhlman-Aluja Personality Questionnaire (ZKA-PQ) with the purpose of analyzing similarities and differences of both psychological constructs. Additionally, we studied the relationship among EI, personality, General Intelligence (GI) and a social position index (SPI). Results showed that the ZKA-PQ predicts the 66% (facets) and the 64% (factors) of the TEIQue. High scores in EI correlated negatively with Neuroticism (r: -0.66) and Aggressiveness (r: -0.27); and positively with Extraversion (r: 0.62). Oblique factorial analyses demonstrated that TEIQue scales were located basically in the Neuroticism and Extraversion factors. The SPI and GI no loaded in any factor. These findings showed that EI is a not a distinct construct of personality and it cannot be isolated in the ZKA-PQ personality space. GI is related with the SPI (r: 0.26), and EI correlated with GI (r: 0.18) and SPI (r: 0.16). Nevertheless, we found differences between GI high groups and the TEIQue and ZKA-PQ factors when controlling age and sex. These findings are discussed in the individual differences context.

  3. An Evaluation of the Generalized Intelligent Framework for Tutoring (GIFT) from an Author’s Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    SCHOLAR, developed in 1970 in the form of an education tutor ( Carbonell 1970). This was a very basic form of intelligent tutoring; many have been...group instruction as effective as one- to-one tutoring. Educational Researcher. 1984;13(6):4–16. Carbonell . AI in CAI: an artificial intelligence

  4. Temperature and Evolutionary Novelty as Forces behind the Evolution of General Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanazawa, Satoshi

    2008-01-01

    How did human intelligence evolve to be so high? Lynn [Lynn, R. (1991). The evolution of race differences in intelligence. Mankind Quarterly, 32, 99-173] and Rushton [Rushton, J.P. (1995). Race, evolution, and behavior: A life history perspective. New Brunswick: Transaction] suggest that the main forces behind the evolution of human intelligence…

  5. Trends in Artificial Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Patrick

    1978-01-01

    Discusses the foundations of artificial intelligence as a science and the types of answers that may be given to the question, "What is intelligence?" The paradigms of artificial intelligence and general systems theory are compared. (Author/VT)

  6. An Evaluation of the Generalized Intelligent Framework for Tutoring (GIFT) from a Researcher’s or Analyst’s Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    An Evaluation of the Generalized Intelligent Framework for Tutoring (GIFT) from a Researcher’s or Analyst’s Perspective by Robert A...Sottilare, Anne M Sinatra, Julian Watson , Zachary Davis, Stefani King, and Michael D Matthews ARL-SR-0302 December 2014...to the originator. Army Research Laboratory Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21005-5425 ARL-SR-0302 December 2014 An Evaluation of the

  7. Capacity, Control, or Both – Which Aspects of Working Memory Contribute to Children’s General Fluid Intelligence?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nęcka Edward

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Starting from the assumption that working memory capacity is an important predictor of general fluid intelligence, we asked which aspects of working memory account for this relationship. Two theoretical stances are discussed. The first one posits that the important explanatory factor is storage capacity, roughly defined as the number of chunks possible to hold in the focus of attention. The second one claims that intelligence is explained by the efficiency of executive control, for instance, by prepotent response inhibition. We investigated 96 children at the age between 10 and 13. They completed a version of the n-back task that allows assessment of both storage capacity and inhibitory control. They also completed Raven’s Progressive Matrices as the fluid intelligence test and the Test for Creative Thinking - Drawing Production, for control purposes. We found that Raven’s scores correlated negatively with the number of unnecessary responses to irrelevant stimuli but they did not correlate with the number of signal detections. We conclude that children’s fluid intelligence depends on inhibitory control, with no relationship with storage capacity.

  8. An Economical Method for the Evaluation of General Intelligence in Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodrill, Carl B.

    1981-01-01

    Evaluated the ability of the Wonderlic Personnel Test to replicate the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) with (N=120) normal persons divided into principal and cross-validation groups. Correlations between the Wonderlic IQs and the WAIS Full Scale IQs were .93 for the main group and .91 for the cross-validation group. (Author)

  9. Generalizing Automated Detection of the Robustness of Student Learning in an Intelligent Tutor for Genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Ryan S. J. d.; Corbett, Albert T.; Gowda, Sujith M.

    2013-01-01

    Recently, there has been growing emphasis on supporting robust learning within intelligent tutoring systems, assessed by measures such as transfer to related skills, preparation for future learning, and longer term retention. It has been shown that different pedagogical strategies promote robust learning to different degrees. However, the student…

  10. The Relationship between Emotional Intelligence and Students` Academic Achievements in General EFL Classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sepideh Berenji

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Emotional Intelligence, the ability to be aware of, understand, and express oneself, the ability to be aware of, understand, and relate to others, the ability to deal with strong emotions, and the ability to adapt to change and solve problems of a social or personal nature, can be considered an important factor in learning a language as it enhances the verbal fluency which is the ultimate goal in FLL. The present study intended to consider the relationship between emotional intelligence and academic performance in Osku-Iran Islamic Azad University`s EFL classes. For this purpose, 110 undergraduate EFL sophomore and junior students participated in this study. First, in the middle of the term they were required to complete Bar-On (1997 Emotional Intelligence Inventory and their EI scores were computed based on the guidelines Bar-On (1997 provided. At the end of the term the academic course final exam was administered to the students to achieve their academic mean score which was computed out of 20. After that the degree of correlation between EI and academic mean score was found. It became evident that there is no meaningful relationship between total EI score and academic mean score but there is a meaningful and positive relationship between some sub-scales of emotional intelligence and academic mean score. Therefore, material developers and syllabus designers are required to take emotional factors into account when they want to design syllabuses or make materials ready for teaching.

  11. Preservation of general intelligence following traumatic brain injury: contributions of the Met66 brain-derived neurotrophic factor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aron K Barbey

    Full Text Available Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF promotes survival and synaptic plasticity in the human brain. The Val66Met polymorphism of the BDNF gene interferes with intracellular trafficking, packaging, and regulated secretion of this neurotrophin. The human prefrontal cortex (PFC shows lifelong neuroplastic adaption implicating the Val66Met BDNF polymorphism in the recovery of higher-order executive functions after traumatic brain injury (TBI. In this study, we examined the effect of this BDNF polymorphism on the preservation of general intelligence following TBI. We genotyped a sample of male Vietnam combat veterans (n = 156 consisting of a frontal lobe lesion group with focal penetrating head injuries for the Val66Met BDNF polymorphism. Val/Met did not differ from Val/Val genotypes in general cognitive ability before TBI. However, we found substantial average differences between these groups in general intelligence (≈ half a standard deviation or 8 IQ points, verbal comprehension (6 IQ points, perceptual organization (6 IQ points, working memory (8 IQ points, and processing speed (8 IQ points after TBI. These results support the conclusion that Val/Met genotypes preserve general cognitive functioning, whereas Val/Val genotypes are largely susceptible to TBI.

  12. General intelligence in another primate: individual differences across cognitive task performance in a New World monkey (Saguinus oedipus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konika Banerjee

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Individual differences in human cognitive abilities show consistently positive correlations across diverse domains, providing the basis for the trait of "general intelligence" (g. At present, little is known about the evolution of g, in part because most comparative studies focus on rodents or on differences across higher-level taxa. What is needed, therefore, are experiments targeting nonhuman primates, focusing on individual differences within a single species, using a broad battery of tasks. To this end, we administered a large battery of tasks, representing a broad range of cognitive domains, to a population of captive cotton-top tamarin monkeys (Saguinus oedipus. METHODOLOGY AND RESULTS: Using a Bayesian latent variable model, we show that the pattern of correlations among tasks is consistent with the existence of a general factor accounting for a small but significant proportion of the variance in each task (the lower bounds of 95% Bayesian credibility intervals for correlations between g and task performance all exceed 0.12. CONCLUSION: Individual differences in cognitive abilities within at least one other primate species can be characterized by a general intelligence factor, supporting the hypothesis that important aspects of human cognitive function most likely evolved from ancient neural substrates.

  13. Intelligence: Real or artificial?

    OpenAIRE

    Schlinger, Henry D

    1992-01-01

    Throughout the history of the artificial intelligence movement, researchers have strived to create computers that could simulate general human intelligence. This paper argues that workers in artificial intelligence have failed to achieve this goal because they adopted the wrong model of human behavior and intelligence, namely a cognitive essentialist model with origins in the traditional philosophies of natural intelligence. An analysis of the word “intelligence” suggests that it originally r...

  14. Artificial intelligence (AI)-based relational matching and multimodal medical image fusion: generalized 3D approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vajdic, Stevan M.; Katz, Henry E.; Downing, Andrew R.; Brooks, Michael J.

    1994-09-01

    A 3D relational image matching/fusion algorithm is introduced. It is implemented in the domain of medical imaging and is based on Artificial Intelligence paradigms--in particular, knowledge base representation and tree search. The 2D reference and target images are selected from 3D sets and segmented into non-touching and non-overlapping regions, using iterative thresholding and/or knowledge about the anatomical shapes of human organs. Selected image region attributes are calculated. Region matches are obtained using a tree search, and the error is minimized by evaluating a `goodness' of matching function based on similarities of region attributes. Once the matched regions are found and the spline geometric transform is applied to regional centers of gravity, images are ready for fusion and visualization into a single 3D image of higher clarity.

  15. Classification of intellectual disability using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children: Full Scale IQ or General Abilities Index?

    Science.gov (United States)

    KORIAKIN, TAYLOR A; MCCURDY, MARK D; PAPAZOGLOU, AIMILIA; PRITCHARD, ALISON E; ZABEL, T ANDREW; MAHONE, E MARK; JACOBSON, LISA A

    2013-01-01

    Aim We examined the implications of using the Full Scale Intelligence Quotient (FSIQ) versus the General Abilities Index (GAI) for determination of intellectual disability using the Wechsler Intelligence Scales for Children, fourth edition (WISC-IV). Method Children referred for neuropsychological assessment (543 males, 290 females; mean age 10y 5mo, SD 2y 9mo, range 6–16y) were administered the WISC-IV and the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System, Second Edition (ABAS-II). Results GAI and FSIQ were highly correlated; however, fewer children were identified as having intellectual disability using GAI (n=159) than when using FSIQ (n=196). Although the 44 children classified as having intellectual disability based upon FSIQ (but not GAI) had significantly higher adaptive functioning scores than those meeting intellectual disability criteria based upon both FSIQ and GAI, mean adaptive scores still fell within the impaired range. FSIQ and GAI were comparable in predicting impairments in adaptive functioning. Interpretation Using GAI rather than FSIQ in intellectual disability diagnostic decision making resulted in fewer individuals being diagnosed with intellectual disability; however, the mean GAI of the disqualified individuals was at the upper end of criteria for intellectual impairment (standard score 75), and these individuals remained adaptively impaired. As GAI and FSIQ were similarly predictive of overall adaptive functioning, the use of GAI for intellectual disability diagnostic decision making may be of limited value. PMID:23859669

  16. Decline of General Intelligence in Children Exposed to Manganese from Mining Contamination in Puyango River Basin, Southern Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancourt, Óscar; Tapia, Marlene; Méndez, Ignacio

    2015-09-01

    Based on ecosystem approaches to health (Ecohealth), this study sought to identify neurobehavioral disorders in children exposed to several levels of toxic metal pollution from gold mining in the Puyango River Basin, Southern Ecuador. Ninety-three children born or living in the study area participated in the study. A neurobehavioral test battery consisting of 12 tests assessing various functions of the nervous system was applied as well as a questionnaire regarding events of exposure of children's mothers to contaminants during perinatal period. Hair samples were taken from children to determine manganese concentrations. Descriptive and inferential statistics were applied in order to examine possible relationships between exposure events, hair manganese, and neurobehavioral disorders. Having controlled co-variables such as age and educational level, it was found that children with elevated levels of hair manganese (over 2 μg/g) had poor performance in the test of general intelligence (Raven's Progressive Color Matrices Scale PCM). The Ecohealth approach helped to identify that children in the lower Puyango Basin with very elevated levels of manganese in the river water (970 µg/L) are the ones who have the highest levels of hair manganese and the worst performance in the intelligence test.

  17. Speech Intelligibility Potential of General and Specialized Deep Neural Network Based Speech Enhancement Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolbæk, Morten; Tan, Zheng-Hua; Jensen, Jesper

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we study aspects of single microphone speech enhancement (SE) based on deep neural networks (DNNs). Specifically, we explore the generalizability capabilities of state-of-the-art DNN-based SE systems with respect to the background noise type, the gender of the target speaker...... general. Finally, we compare how a DNN-based SE system trained to be noise type general, speaker general, and SNR general performs relative to a state-of-the-art short-time spectral amplitude minimum mean square error (STSA-MMSE) based SE algorithm. We show that DNN-based SE systems, when trained...... a state-of-the-art STSA-MMSE based SE method, when tested using a range of unseen speakers and noise types. Finally, a listening test using several DNN-based SE systems tested in unseen speaker conditions show that these systems can improve SI for some SNR and noise type configurations but degrade SI...

  18. General health status and intelligence scores of children of mothers with acromegaly do not differ from those of healthy mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haliloglu, Ozlem; Dogangun, Burak; Ozcabi, Bahar; Kural, Hanife Ugur; Keskin, Fatma Ela; Ozkaya, Hande Mefkure; Pamukcu, Fatma Colkesen; Bektas, Elif; Poyraz, Burc Cagri; Buber, Hakan; Evliyaoglu, Olcay; Kadioglu, Pinar

    2016-08-01

    To determine the physical status and intelligence scores of children of acromegalic mothers and to compare them with those of children from mothers without acromegaly. Six women with acromegaly who became pregnant under follow-up between 2010 and 2014 and their 16 children (group A) were assessed and compared with 16 children of healthy women (group B) and 15 children of women with prolactinoma (group C). The physical examinations of children were performed by the department of pediatric endocrinology and intelligence quotient (IQ) testing was undertaken by adult and pediatric psychiatry departments, using appropriate scales for their ages. Six of the 16 children (girls/boys: 7/9) were born after the diagnosis of acromegaly. Five of the 6 pregnancies occured when the patients were taking somatostatin analogs, none continued taking the drugs during pregnancy. The mean IQ of groups A, B, and C were 106.4 ± 12.5, 105.3 ± 12.5, and 103.2 ± 16.1 respectively (p > 0.05). The mean ages, birth percentiles, recent weight and height standard deviation scores were similar between groups (p > 0.05). Two siblings from group A and 1 child from group B were large for gestational age at birth. At recent follow-up, two children from group A were found tall for their age and one from group C was short for his age and was placed under the care of pediatric endocrinology clinic. Pregnancies in acromegaly seems to be uneventful and the general health status and IQ scores of children from women with and without acromegaly were found similar.

  19. General Management Laws and the 9/11 Commission’s Proposed Office of National Intelligence Director (NID) and National Counterterrorism Center (NCTC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-09-21

    Saturno , 7-2381 CRS-27 General Management Law (location in CRS Report RL30795) If the Office of the National Intelligence Director (NID) and National...entities’ budgets would be covered by the act in the same way as other independent entities in the executive branch.) James V. Saturno , 7-2381 CRS

  20. Intelligence Makes People Think like Economists: Evidence from the General Social Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplan, Bryan; Miller, Stephen C.

    2010-01-01

    Education is by far the strongest predictor of whether a non-economist will share the economic beliefs of the average economist. (Caplan, 2001) Is the effect of education as large as it seems? Or is education largely a proxy for cognitive ability? Using data from the General Social Survey (GSS), we show that the estimated effect of education…

  1. Sowing the Seeds of Algebraic Generalization: Designing Epistemic Affordances for an Intelligent Microworld

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavrikis, M.; Noss, R.; Hoyles, C.; Geraniou, E.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the design of a mathematical microworld to tackle the persistent difficulties that secondary school students have with the idea of algebraic generalization, which is a key stumbling block in secondary-school mathematics classrooms. Our focus is to characterize algebraic ways of thinking and to design both affordances of the…

  2. Routledge companion to intelligence studies

    CERN Document Server

    Dover, Robert; Hillebrand, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    The Routledge Companion to Intelligence Studies provides a broad overview of the growing field of intelligence studies. The recent growth of interest in intelligence and security studies has led to an increased demand for popular depictions of intelligence and reference works to explain the architecture and underpinnings of intelligence activity. Divided into five comprehensive sections, this Companion provides a strong survey of the cutting-edge research in the field of intelligence studies: Part I: The evolution of intelligence studies; Part II: Abstract approaches to intelligence; Part III: Historical approaches to intelligence; Part IV: Systems of intelligence; Part V: Contemporary challenges. With a broad focus on the origins, practices and nature of intelligence, the book not only addresses classical issues, but also examines topics of recent interest in security studies. The overarching aim is to reveal the rich tapestry of intelligence studies in both a sophisticated and accessible way. This Companion...

  3. Consumer’s revealed preferences for yogurt purchase in Catalonia: A Generalized Multinomial Logit Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Hellai, Wajdi; Kallas, Zein; Gil Roig, José María

    2015-01-01

    The revealed-preferences of yogurt consumption in Catalonia was analyzed in order to identify the attributes affecting the purchase behavior and to suggest reliable marketing strategies for the yogurt industry. The Discrete Choice Modelling was applied using the Generalized Multinomial Logit Model (G-MNL) calibrated on 52 weeks of yogurt purchases by 987 households that belongs to the home-scan database of ©Kantar World panel during 2012. Eight different yogurt categories were created w...

  4. The Frontiers of Intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Marcus Anthony

    2007-01-01

    The generally accepted theory of intelligence is developed mainly in the framework of the pragmatic critical philosophy. The discussed issues are psychometric and system theory of intelligence. However, the subject of this article are some of the more promising theories which, while remaining within the traditional scientific concepts, describe, in particular, emotional, creative, intrapersonal intelligence and wisdom. Of course, there are other ideas about intelligence. Among them, for examp...

  5. Tests of Machine Intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Legg, Shane

    2007-01-01

    Although the definition and measurement of intelligence is clearly of fundamental importance to the field of artificial intelligence, no general survey of definitions and tests of machine intelligence exists. Indeed few researchers are even aware of alternatives to the Turing test and its many derivatives. In this paper we fill this gap by providing a short survey of the many tests of machine intelligence that have been proposed.

  6. A swarm intelligence-based tuning method for the Sliding Mode Generalized Predictive Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, J B; Boaventura-Cunha, J; Moura Oliveira, P B; Freire, H

    2014-09-01

    This work presents an automatic tuning method for the discontinuous component of the Sliding Mode Generalized Predictive Controller (SMGPC) subject to constraints. The strategy employs Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) to minimize a second aggregated cost function. The continuous component is obtained by the standard procedure, by Quadratic Programming (QP), thus yielding an online dual optimization scheme. Simulations and performance indexes for common process models in industry, such as nonminimum phase and time delayed systems, result in a better performance, improving robustness and tracking accuracy.

  7. Ecological generalism and behavioural innovation in birds: technical intelligence or the simple incorporation of new foods?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducatez, Simon; Clavel, Joanne; Lefebvre, Louis

    2015-01-01

    Generalist species are more successful than specialists in anthropogenically modified environments or in environments in which they have been introduced, but the nature of the link between generalism and establishment success is unclear. A higher feeding innovation rate has previously been reported in habitat generalist birds from North America. By allowing them to exploit new resources, this higher feeding innovation rate might explain the generalists' advantage. This result might be due to generalists being more likely to find new resources because they are exposed to more diverse environmental conditions. Alternatively, they might differ from specialists in other traits, in particular cognitive skills that might allow them to innovate more complex food searching and handling techniques. To test these hypotheses, we separated avian feeding innovations into a 'technical' (novel searching and handling behaviour) and a 'food type' (incorporation of a new food in a species' diet) category. Technical innovations, but not food type innovations, have previously been shown to correlate with avian brain size, suggesting they reflect cognitive ability. We used a world-wide data base of 2339 feeding innovations recorded in the literature, covering a total of 765 avian species and assessed the correlations between brain size and feeding innovation rates on one side and habitat and diet generalism on the other. Habitat generalism was positively related with food type innovation rate, but not technical innovation rate or brain size. This suggests that habitat generalist species are more likely to incorporate new food types in their diet because of higher chances to find new food resources in their environment, or of a higher opportunism, but not enhanced cognitive skills. In contrast, diet generalist species had higher food type and technical innovation rates, as well as larger brains, suggesting that cognitive skills might help species expand their diet breadth or that an

  8. Neural networks with multiple general neuron models: a hybrid computational intelligence approach using Genetic Programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Alan J; Valdés, Julio J; Orchard, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Classical neural networks are composed of neurons whose nature is determined by a certain function (the neuron model), usually pre-specified. In this paper, a type of neural network (NN-GP) is presented in which: (i) each neuron may have its own neuron model in the form of a general function, (ii) any layout (i.e network interconnection) is possible, and (iii) no bias nodes or weights are associated to the connections, neurons or layers. The general functions associated to a neuron are learned by searching a function space. They are not provided a priori, but are rather built as part of an Evolutionary Computation process based on Genetic Programming. The resulting network solutions are evaluated based on a fitness measure, which may, for example, be based on classification or regression errors. Two real-world examples are presented to illustrate the promising behaviour on classification problems via construction of a low-dimensional representation of a high-dimensional parameter space associated to the set of all network solutions.

  9. Measuring Intelligence through Games

    CERN Document Server

    Schaul, Tom; Schmidhuber, Jürgen

    2011-01-01

    Artificial general intelligence (AGI) refers to research aimed at tackling the full problem of artificial intelligence, that is, create truly intelligent agents. This sets it apart from most AI research which aims at solving relatively narrow domains, such as character recognition, motion planning, or increasing player satisfaction in games. But how do we know when an agent is truly intelligent? A common point of reference in the AGI community is Legg and Hutter's formal definition of universal intelligence, which has the appeal of simplicity and generality but is unfortunately incomputable. Games of various kinds are commonly used as benchmarks for "narrow" AI research, as they are considered to have many important properties. We argue that many of these properties carry over to the testing of general intelligence as well. We then sketch how such testing could practically be carried out. The central part of this sketch is an extension of universal intelligence to deal with finite time, and the use of samplin...

  10. Bio-inspired Artificial Intelligence: А Generalized Net Model of the Regularization Process in MLP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanimir Surchev

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Many objects and processes inspired by the nature have been recreated by the scientists. The inspiration to create a Multilayer Neural Network came from human brain as member of the group. It possesses complicated structure and it is difficult to recreate, because of the existence of too many processes that require different solving methods. The aim of the following paper is to describe one of the methods that improve learning process of Artificial Neural Network. The proposed generalized net method presents Regularization process in Multilayer Neural Network. The purpose of verification is to protect the neural network from overfitting. The regularization is commonly used in neural network training process. Many methods of verification are present, the subject of interest is the one known as Regularization. It contains function in order to set weights and biases with smaller values to protect from overfitting.

  11. Executive functions cannot be distinguished from general intelligence: Two variations on a single theme within a symphony of latent variance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald R Royall

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The empirical foundation of executive control function (ECF remains controversial. We have employed structural equation models (SEM to explicitly distinguish domain-specific variance in ECF performance from memory (MEM and shared cognitive performance variance, i.e., Spearman’s g. ECF does not survive adjustment for both MEM and g in a well fitting model of data obtained from non-demented older persons (N = 193. Instead, the variance in putative ECF measures is attributable only to g, and related to functional status only through a fraction of that construct (i.e., dECF. dECF is a homolog of the latent variable δ, which we have previously associated specifically with the Default Mode Network (DMN. These findings undermine the validity of ECF and its putative association with the frontal lobe. ECF may have no existence independent of general intelligence, and no functionally salient association with the frontal lobe outside of that structure’s contribution to the DMN.

  12. Classification of intellectual disability using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children: Full Scale IQ or General Abilities Index?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koriakin, Taylor A; McCurdy, Mark D; Papazoglou, Aimilia; Pritchard, Alison E; Zabel, T Andrew; Mahone, E Mark; Jacobson, Lisa A

    2013-09-01

    We examined the implications of using the Full Scale IQ (FSIQ) versus the General Abilities Index (GAI) for determination of intellectual disability using the Wechsler Intelligence Scales for Children, fourth edition (WISC-IV). Children referred for neuropsychological assessment (543 males, 290 females; mean age 10y 5mo, SD 2y 9mo, range 6-16y) were administered the WISC-IV and the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System, second edition (ABAS-II). GAI and FSIQ were highly correlated; however, fewer children were identified as having intellectual disability using GAI (n=159) than when using FSIQ (n=196). Although the 44 children classified as having intellectual disability based upon FSIQ (but not GAI) had significantly higher adaptive functioning scores than those meeting intellectual disability criteria based upon both FSIQ and GAI, mean adaptive scores still fell within the impaired range. FSIQ and GAI were comparable in predicting impairments in adaptive functioning. Using GAI rather than FSIQ in intellectual disability diagnostic decision-making resulted in fewer individuals being diagnosed with intellectual disability; however, the mean GAI of the disqualified individuals was at the upper end of criteria for intellectual impairment (standard score 75), and these individuals remained adaptively impaired. As GAI and FSIQ were similarly predictive of overall adaptive functioning, the use of GAI for intellectual disability diagnostic decision-making may be of limited value. © 2013 Mac Keith Press.

  13. Sex differences in estimating multiple intelligences in self and others: a replication in Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furnham, Adrian; Shagabutdinova, Ksenia

    2012-01-01

    This was a crosscultural study that focused on sex differences in self- and other-estimates of multiple intelligences (including 10 that were specified by Gardner, 1999 and three by Sternberg, 1988) as well as in an overall general intelligence estimate. It was one of a programmatic series of studies done in over 30 countries that has demonstrated the female "humility" and male "hubris" effect in self-estimated and other-estimated intelligence. Two hundred and thirty Russian university students estimated their own and their parents' overall intelligence and "multiple intelligences." Results revealed no sex difference in estimates of overall intelligence for both self and parents, but men rated themselves higher on spatial intelligence. This contradicted many previous findings in the area which have shown that men rate their own overall intelligence and mathematical intelligence significantly higher than do women. Regressions indicated that estimates of verbal, logical, and spatial intelligences were the best predictors of estimates of overall intelligence, which is a consistent finding over many studies. Regressions also showed that participants' openness to experience and self-respect were good predictors of intelligence estimates. A comparison with a British sample showed that Russians gave higher mother estimates, and were less likely to believe that IQ tests measure intelligence. Results were discussed in relation to the influence of gender role stereotypes on lay conception of intelligence across cultures.

  14. On folivory, competition, and intelligence: generalisms, overgeneralizations, and models of primate evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayers, Ken

    2013-04-01

    Considerations of primate behavioral evolution often proceed by assuming the ecological and competitive milieus of particular taxa via their relative exploitation of gross food types, such as fruits versus leaves. Although this "fruit/leaf dichotomy" has been repeatedly criticized, it continues to be implicitly invoked in discussions of primate socioecology and female social relationships and is explicitly invoked in models of brain evolution. An expanding literature suggests that such views have severely limited our knowledge of the social and ecological complexities of primate folivory. This paper examines the behavior of primate folivore-frugivores, with particular emphasis on gray langurs (traditionally, Semnopithecus entellus) within the broader context of evolutionary ecology. Although possessing morphological characteristics that have been associated with folivory and constrained activity patterns, gray langurs are known for remarkable plasticity in ecology and behavior. Their diets are generally quite broad and can be discussed in relation to Liem's Paradox, the odd coupling of anatomical feeding specializations with a generalist foraging strategy. Gray langurs, not coincidentally, inhabit arguably the widest range of habitats for a nonhuman primate, including high elevations in the Himalayas. They provide an excellent focal point for examining the assumptions and predictions of behavioral, socioecological, and cognitive evolutionary models. Contrary to the classical descriptions of the primate folivore, Himalayan and other gray langurs-and, in actuality, many leaf-eating primates-range widely, engage in resource competition (both of which have previously been noted for primate folivores), and solve ecological problems rivaling those of more frugivorous primates (which has rarely been argued for primate folivores). It is maintained that questions of primate folivore adaptation, temperate primate adaptation, and primate evolution more generally cannot be

  15. Robotic and mathematical modeling reveal general principles of appendage control and coordination in terrestrial locomotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    McInroe, Benjamin; Astley, Henry; Gong, Chaohui; Kawano, Sandy; Schiebel, Perrin; Choset, Howie; Goldman, Daniel I.

    The transition from aquatic to terrestrial life presented new challenges to early walkers, necessitating robust locomotion on complex, flowable substrates (e.g. sand, mud). Locomotion on such substrates is sensitive to limb morphology and kinematics. Although early walker morphologies are known, principles of appendage control remain elusive. To reveal limb control strategies that facilitated the invasion of land, we study both robotic and mathematical models. Robot experiments show that an active tail is critical for robust locomotion on granular media, enabling locomotion even with poor foot placement and limited ability to lift the body. Using a granular resistive force theory model, we construct connection vector fields that reveal how appendage coordination and terrain inclination impact locomotor performance. This model replicates experimental results, showing that moving limbs/tail in phase is most effective (suggesting a locomotor template). Varying limb trajectories and contacts, we find gaits for which tail use can be neutral or harmful, suggesting limb-tail coordination to be a nontrivial aspect of locomotion. Our findings show that robot experiments coupled with geometric mechanics provide a general framework to reveal principles of robust terrestrial locomotion. This work was supported by NSF PoLS.

  16. Stroke Is Predicted by Low Visuospatial in Relation to Other Intellectual Abilities and Coronary Heart Disease by Low General Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajantie, Eero; Räikkönen, Katri; Henriksson, Markus; Leskinen, Jukka T.; Forsén, Tom; Heinonen, Kati; Pesonen, Anu-Katriina; Osmond, Clive; Barker, David J. P.; Eriksson, Johan G.

    2012-01-01

    Background Low intellectual ability is associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease and stroke. Most studies have used a general intelligence score. We studied whether three different subscores of intellectual ability predict these disorders. Methods We studied 2,786 men, born between 1934 and 1944 in Helsinki, Finland, who as conscripts at age 20 underwent an intellectual ability test comprising verbal, visuospatial (analogous to Raven's progressive matrices) and arithmetic reasoning subtests. We ascertained the later occurrence of coronary heart disease and stroke from validated national hospital discharge and death registers. Results 281 men (10.1%) had experienced a coronary heart disease event and 131 (4.7%) a stroke event. Coronary heart disease was predicted by low scores in all subtests, hazard ratios for each standard deviation (SD) lower score ranging from 1.21 to 1.30 (confidence intervals 1.08 to 1.46). Stroke was predicted by a low visuospatial reasoning score, the corresponding hazard ratio being 1.23 (95% confidence interval 1.04 to 1.46), adjusted for year and age at testing. Adjusted in addition for the two other scores, the hazard ratio was 1.40 (1.10 to 1.79). This hazard ratio was little affected by adjustment for socioeconomic status in childhood and adult life, whereas the same adjustments attenuated the associations between intellectual ability and coronary heart disease. The associations with stroke were also unchanged when adjusted for systolic blood pressure at 20 years and reimbursement for adult antihypertensive medication. Conclusions Stroke is predicted by low visuospatial reasoning scores in relation to scores in the two other subtests. This association may be mediated by common underlying causes such as impaired brain development, rather than by mechanisms associated with risk factors shared by stroke and coronary heart disease, such as socio-economic status, hypertension and atherosclerosis. PMID:23144789

  17. Stroke is predicted by low visuospatial in relation to other intellectual abilities and coronary heart disease by low general intelligence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eero Kajantie

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Low intellectual ability is associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease and stroke. Most studies have used a general intelligence score. We studied whether three different subscores of intellectual ability predict these disorders. METHODS: We studied 2,786 men, born between 1934 and 1944 in Helsinki, Finland, who as conscripts at age 20 underwent an intellectual ability test comprising verbal, visuospatial (analogous to Raven's progressive matrices and arithmetic reasoning subtests. We ascertained the later occurrence of coronary heart disease and stroke from validated national hospital discharge and death registers. RESULTS: 281 men (10.1% had experienced a coronary heart disease event and 131 (4.7% a stroke event. Coronary heart disease was predicted by low scores in all subtests, hazard ratios for each standard deviation (SD lower score ranging from 1.21 to 1.30 (confidence intervals 1.08 to 1.46. Stroke was predicted by a low visuospatial reasoning score, the corresponding hazard ratio being 1.23 (95% confidence interval 1.04 to 1.46, adjusted for year and age at testing. Adjusted in addition for the two other scores, the hazard ratio was 1.40 (1.10 to 1.79. This hazard ratio was little affected by adjustment for socioeconomic status in childhood and adult life, whereas the same adjustments attenuated the associations between intellectual ability and coronary heart disease. The associations with stroke were also unchanged when adjusted for systolic blood pressure at 20 years and reimbursement for adult antihypertensive medication. CONCLUSIONS: Stroke is predicted by low visuospatial reasoning scores in relation to scores in the two other subtests. This association may be mediated by common underlying causes such as impaired brain development, rather than by mechanisms associated with risk factors shared by stroke and coronary heart disease, such as socio-economic status, hypertension and atherosclerosis.

  18. Methodology, Birth Order, Intelligence, and Personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalski, Richard L.; Shackelford, Todd K.

    2001-01-01

    Critiques recent research on the effects of birth order on intelligence and personality, which found that the between-family design revealed that birth order negatively related to intelligence, while the within-family design revealed that birth order was unrelated to intelligence. Suggests that it may not be intelligence that co-varies with birth…

  19. Fractionating human intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampshire, Adam; Highfield, Roger R; Parkin, Beth L; Owen, Adrian M

    2012-12-20

    What makes one person more intellectually able than another? Can the entire distribution of human intelligence be accounted for by just one general factor? Is intelligence supported by a single neural system? Here, we provide a perspective on human intelligence that takes into account how general abilities or "factors" reflect the functional organization of the brain. By comparing factor models of individual differences in performance with factor models of brain functional organization, we demonstrate that different components of intelligence have their analogs in distinct brain networks. Using simulations based on neuroimaging data, we show that the higher-order factor "g" is accounted for by cognitive tasks corecruiting multiple networks. Finally, we confirm the independence of these components of intelligence by dissociating them using questionnaire variables. We propose that intelligence is an emergent property of anatomically distinct cognitive systems, each of which has its own capacity.

  20. Ovary Transcriptome Profiling via Artificial Intelligence Reveals a Transcriptomic Fingerprint Predicting Egg Quality in Striped Bass, Morone saxatilis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Inherited gene transcripts deposited in oocytes direct early embryonic development in all vertebrates, but transcript profiles indicative of embryo developmental competence have not previously been identified. We employed artificial intelligence to model profiles of maternal ovary gene expression and their relationship to egg quality, evaluated as production of viable mid-blastula stage embryos, in the striped bass (Morone saxatilis), a farmed species with serious egg quality problems. In models developed using artificial neural networks (ANNs) and supervised machine learning, collective changes in the expression of a limited suite of genes (233) representing 90% of the eventual variance in embryo survival. Egg quality related to minor changes in gene expression (<0.2-fold), with most individual transcripts making a small contribution (<1%) to the overall prediction of egg quality. These findings indicate that the predictive power of the transcriptome as regards egg quality resides not in levels of individual genes, but rather in the collective, coordinated expression of a suite of transcripts constituting a transcriptomic “fingerprint”. Correlation analyses of the corresponding candidate genes indicated that dysfunction of the ubiquitin-26S proteasome, COP9 signalosome, and subsequent control of the cell cycle engenders embryonic developmental incompetence. The affected gene networks are centrally involved in regulation of early development in all vertebrates, including humans. By assessing collective levels of the relevant ovarian transcripts via ANNs we were able, for the first time in any vertebrate, to accurately predict the subsequent embryo developmental potential of eggs from individual females. Our results show that the transcriptomic fingerprint evidencing developmental dysfunction is highly predictive of, and therefore likely to regulate, egg quality, a biologically complex trait crucial to reproductive fitness. PMID:24820964

  1. Ovary transcriptome profiling via artificial intelligence reveals a transcriptomic fingerprint predicting egg quality in striped bass, Morone saxatilis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert W Chapman

    Full Text Available Inherited gene transcripts deposited in oocytes direct early embryonic development in all vertebrates, but transcript profiles indicative of embryo developmental competence have not previously been identified. We employed artificial intelligence to model profiles of maternal ovary gene expression and their relationship to egg quality, evaluated as production of viable mid-blastula stage embryos, in the striped bass (Morone saxatilis, a farmed species with serious egg quality problems. In models developed using artificial neural networks (ANNs and supervised machine learning, collective changes in the expression of a limited suite of genes (233 representing 90% of the eventual variance in embryo survival. Egg quality related to minor changes in gene expression (<0.2-fold, with most individual transcripts making a small contribution (<1% to the overall prediction of egg quality. These findings indicate that the predictive power of the transcriptome as regards egg quality resides not in levels of individual genes, but rather in the collective, coordinated expression of a suite of transcripts constituting a transcriptomic "fingerprint". Correlation analyses of the corresponding candidate genes indicated that dysfunction of the ubiquitin-26S proteasome, COP9 signalosome, and subsequent control of the cell cycle engenders embryonic developmental incompetence. The affected gene networks are centrally involved in regulation of early development in all vertebrates, including humans. By assessing collective levels of the relevant ovarian transcripts via ANNs we were able, for the first time in any vertebrate, to accurately predict the subsequent embryo developmental potential of eggs from individual females. Our results show that the transcriptomic fingerprint evidencing developmental dysfunction is highly predictive of, and therefore likely to regulate, egg quality, a biologically complex trait crucial to reproductive fitness.

  2. Ovary transcriptome profiling via artificial intelligence reveals a transcriptomic fingerprint predicting egg quality in striped bass, Morone saxatilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Robert W; Reading, Benjamin J; Sullivan, Craig V

    2014-01-01

    Inherited gene transcripts deposited in oocytes direct early embryonic development in all vertebrates, but transcript profiles indicative of embryo developmental competence have not previously been identified. We employed artificial intelligence to model profiles of maternal ovary gene expression and their relationship to egg quality, evaluated as production of viable mid-blastula stage embryos, in the striped bass (Morone saxatilis), a farmed species with serious egg quality problems. In models developed using artificial neural networks (ANNs) and supervised machine learning, collective changes in the expression of a limited suite of genes (233) representing 90% of the eventual variance in embryo survival. Egg quality related to minor changes in gene expression (<0.2-fold), with most individual transcripts making a small contribution (<1%) to the overall prediction of egg quality. These findings indicate that the predictive power of the transcriptome as regards egg quality resides not in levels of individual genes, but rather in the collective, coordinated expression of a suite of transcripts constituting a transcriptomic "fingerprint". Correlation analyses of the corresponding candidate genes indicated that dysfunction of the ubiquitin-26S proteasome, COP9 signalosome, and subsequent control of the cell cycle engenders embryonic developmental incompetence. The affected gene networks are centrally involved in regulation of early development in all vertebrates, including humans. By assessing collective levels of the relevant ovarian transcripts via ANNs we were able, for the first time in any vertebrate, to accurately predict the subsequent embryo developmental potential of eggs from individual females. Our results show that the transcriptomic fingerprint evidencing developmental dysfunction is highly predictive of, and therefore likely to regulate, egg quality, a biologically complex trait crucial to reproductive fitness.

  3. Principles of artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Nilsson, Nils J

    1980-01-01

    A classic introduction to artificial intelligence intended to bridge the gap between theory and practice, Principles of Artificial Intelligence describes fundamental AI ideas that underlie applications such as natural language processing, automatic programming, robotics, machine vision, automatic theorem proving, and intelligent data retrieval. Rather than focusing on the subject matter of the applications, the book is organized around general computational concepts involving the kinds of data structures used, the types of operations performed on the data structures, and the properties of th

  4. An Approximation of the Universal Intelligence Measure

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    The Universal Intelligence Measure is a recently proposed formal definition of intelligence. It is mathematically specified, extremely general, and captures the essence of many informal definitions of intelligence. It is based on Hutter's Universal Artificial Intelligence theory, an extension of Ray Solomonoff's pioneering work on universal induction. Since the Universal Intelligence Measure is only asymptotically computable, building a practical intelligence test from it is not straightforwa...

  5. Intelligence Failure in Korea: Major General Charles A. Willoughby’s Role in the United Nations Command’s Defeat in November 1950

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-12

    will make it possible for CIA to play some role in the intelligence field in General MacArthur‘s theatre .‖ 31 In his accusations against the CIA...fought on the German side during World War I.‖ 4 Nitze also recalled how he felt about Willoughby: ―He was a peculiar kind of Prussian, romantic ...of the most gifted thespians ever to play romantic leads in the dramatic club.‖ 16 This sense of drama would suit Willoughby well as he worked his

  6. Intelligence and Physical Attractiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanazawa, Satoshi

    2011-01-01

    This brief research note aims to estimate the magnitude of the association between general intelligence and physical attractiveness with large nationally representative samples from two nations. In the United Kingdom, attractive children are more intelligent by 12.4 IQ points (r=0.381), whereas in the United States, the correlation between…

  7. Intelligence and childlessness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanazawa, Satoshi

    2014-11-01

    Demographers debate why people have children in advanced industrial societies where children are net economic costs. From an evolutionary perspective, however, the important question is why some individuals choose not to have children. Recent theoretical developments in evolutionary psychology suggest that more intelligent individuals may be more likely to prefer to remain childless than less intelligent individuals. Analyses of the National Child Development Study show that more intelligent men and women express preference to remain childless early in their reproductive careers, but only more intelligent women (not more intelligent men) are more likely to remain childless by the end of their reproductive careers. Controlling for education and earnings does not at all attenuate the association between childhood general intelligence and lifetime childlessness among women. One-standard-deviation increase in childhood general intelligence (15 IQ points) decreases women's odds of parenthood by 21-25%. Because women have a greater impact on the average intelligence of future generations, the dysgenic fertility among women is predicted to lead to a decline in the average intelligence of the population in advanced industrial nations.

  8. Cerebellum abnormalities in idiopathic generalized epilepsy with generalized tonic-clonic seizures revealed by diffusion tensor imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonghui Li

    Full Text Available Although there is increasing evidence suggesting that there may be subtle abnormalities in idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE patients using modern neuroimaging techniques, most of these previous studies focused on the brain grey matter, leaving the underlying white matter abnormalities in IGE largely unknown, which baffles the treatment as well as the understanding of IGE. In this work, we adopted multiple methods from different levels based on diffusion tensor imaging (DTI to analyze the white matter abnormalities in 14 young male IGE patients with generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTCS only, comparing with 29 age-matched male healthy controls. First, we performed a voxel-based analysis (VBA of the fractional anisotropy (FA images derived from DTI. Second, we used a tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS method to explore the alterations within the white matter skeleton of the patients. Third, we adopted region-of-interest (ROI analyses based on the findings of VBA and TBSS to further confirm abnormal brain regions in the patients. At last, considering the convergent evidences we found by VBA, TBSS and ROI analyses, a subsequent probabilistic fiber tractography study was performed to investigate the abnormal white matter connectivity in the patients. Significantly decreased FA values were consistently observed in the cerebellum of patients, providing fresh evidence and new clues for the important role of cerebellum in IGE with GTCS.

  9. Philosophy Underlying Emotional Intelligence in Relation to Level of Curiosity and Academic Achievement of Rural Area Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aminuddin Hassan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Since emotional intelligence is still not wholly-accepted despite evidences of its powerful influence in general setting, this study is therefore conducted to identify the emotional intelligence level among school students in rural areas, relationships between emotional intelligence and anxiety, as well as relationships between emotional intelligence and academic achievement. Approach: It involved a sample of 223 form 1 and form 4 students. Process of data collection was administered by using a set of questionnaire which includes a self report measure of emotional intelligence adapted from Schutte Self-Report of Emotional Intelligence (SSRI and Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI. T-test analysis showed that there were no significant differences for the emotional intelligence level within all students between ages 13 and 16. However, there were significant differences for the emotional intelligence level among female students in accordance to age. Results: The results showed that there were significant differences for emotional intelligence level among all students between both genders. Mean score of emotional intelligence within female students appeared to be higher than male students. Pearson correlation analysis showed that emotional intelligence levels of all students were significant negatively in relation to anxiety level. Emotional intelligence was also significant positively in correlation with academic achievement of all variables including students’ age and gender. Conclusion: Besides emotional intelligence, the study revealed that anxiety was also significantly correlated in a negative manner with academic achievement among all students.

  10. Progress and Challenge of Artificial Intelligence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhong-Zhi Shi; Nan-Ning Zheng

    2006-01-01

    Artificial Intelligence (AI) is generally considered to be a subfield of computer science, that is concerned to attempt simulation, extension and expansion of human intelligence. Artificial intelligence has enjoyed tremendous success over the last fifty years. In this paper we only focus on visual perception, granular computing, agent computing, semantic grid. Human-level intelligence is the long-term goal of artificial intelligence. We should do joint research on basic theory and technology of intelligence by brain science, cognitive science, artificial intelligence and others. A new cross discipline intelligence science is undergoing a rapid development. Future challenges are given in final section.

  11. Intelligence and homosexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanazawa, Satoshi

    2012-09-01

    The origin of preferences and values is an unresolved theoretical problem in behavioural sciences. The Savanna-IQ Interaction Hypothesis, derived from the Savanna Principle and a theory of the evolution of general intelligence, suggests that more intelligent individuals are more likely to acquire and espouse evolutionarily novel preferences and values than less intelligent individuals, but general intelligence has no effect on the acquisition and espousal of evolutionarily familiar preferences and values. Ethnographies of traditional societies suggest that exclusively homosexual behaviour was probably rare in the ancestral environment, so the Hypothesis would predict that more intelligent individuals are more likely to identify themselves as homosexual and engage in homosexual behaviour. Analyses of three large, nationally representative samples (two of which are prospectively longitudinal) from two different nations confirm the prediction.

  12. A MULTIPLE INTELLIGENT AGENT SYSTEM FOR CREDIT RISK PREDICTION VIA AN OPTIMIZATION OF LOCALIZED GENERALIZATION ERROR WITH DIVERSITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Daniel S. YEUNG; Wing W. Y. NG; Aki P. F. CHAN; Patrick P. K. CHAN; Michael FIRTH; Eric C. C. TSANG

    2007-01-01

    Company bankruptcies cost billions of dollars in losses to banks each year. Thus credit risk prediction is a critical part of a bank's loan approval decision process. Traditional financial models for credit risk prediction are no longer adequate for describing today's complex relationship between the financial health and potential bankruptcy of a company. In this work, a multiple classifier system (embedded in a multiple intelligent agent system) is proposed to predict the financial health of a company. In our model, each individual agent (classifier) makes a prediction on the likelihood of credit risk based on only partial information of the company. Each of the agents is an expert, but has limited knowledge (represented by features) about the company. The decisions of all agents are combined together to form a final credit risk prediction. Experiments show that our model out-performs other existing methods using the benchmarking Compustat American Corporations dataset.

  13. Intelligent mechatronics; Intelligent mechatronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashimoto, H. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Institute of Industrial Science

    1995-10-01

    Intelligent mechatronics (IM) was explained as follows: a study of IM essentially targets realization of a robot namely, but in the present stage the target is a creation of new values by intellectualization of machine, that is, a combination of the information infrastructure and the intelligent machine system. IM is also thought to be constituted of computers positively used and micromechatronics. The paper next introduces examples of IM study, mainly those the author is concerned with as shown below: sensor gloves, robot hands, robot eyes, tele operation, three-dimensional object recognition, mobile robot, magnetic bearing, construction of remote controlled unmanned dam, robot network, sensitivity communication using neuro baby, etc. 27 figs.

  14. Cortical thickness correlates of specific cognitive performance accounted for by the general factor of intelligence in healthy children aged 6 to 18.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karama, Sherif; Colom, Roberto; Johnson, Wendy; Deary, Ian J; Haier, Richard; Waber, Deborah P; Lepage, Claude; Ganjavi, Hooman; Jung, Rex; Evans, Alan C

    2011-04-15

    Prevailing psychometric theories of intelligence posit that individual differences in cognitive performance are attributable to three main sources of variance: the general factor of intelligence (g), cognitive ability domains, and specific test requirements and idiosyncrasies. Cortical thickness has been previously associated with g. In the present study, we systematically analyzed associations between cortical thickness and cognitive performance with and without adjusting for the effects of g in a representative sample of children and adolescents (N=207, Mean age=11.8; SD=3.5; Range=6 to 18.3 years). Seven cognitive tests were included in a measurement model that identified three first-order factors (representing cognitive ability domains) and one second-order factor representing g. Residuals of the cognitive ability domain scores were computed to represent g-independent variance for the three domains and seven tests. Cognitive domain and individual test scores as well as residualized scores were regressed against cortical thickness, adjusting for age, gender and a proxy measure of brain volume. g and cognitive domain scores were positively correlated with cortical thickness in very similar areas across the brain. Adjusting for the effects of g eliminated associations of domain and test scores with cortical thickness. Within a psychometric framework, cortical thickness correlates of cognitive performance on complex tasks are well captured by g in this demographically representative sample.

  15. Mobile-centric ambient intelligence in health- and homecare-anticipating ethical and legal challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosta, Eleni; Pitkänen, Olli; Niemelä, Marketta; Kaasinen, Eija

    2010-06-01

    Ambient Intelligence provides the potential for vast and varied applications, bringing with it both promise and peril. The development of Ambient Intelligence applications poses a number of ethical and legal concerns. Mobile devices are increasingly evolving into tools to orientate in and interact with the environment, thus introducing a user-centric approach to Ambient Intelligence. The MINAmI (Micro-Nano integrated platform for transverse Ambient Intelligence applications) FP6 research project aims at creating core technologies for mobile device based Ambient Intelligence services. In this paper we assess five scenarios that demonstrate forthcoming MINAmI-based applications focusing on healthcare, assistive technology, homecare, and everyday life in general. A legal and ethical analysis of the scenarios is conducted, which reveals various conflicting interests. The paper concludes with some thoughts on drafting ethical guidelines for Ambient Intelligence applications.

  16. Understanding US National Intelligence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leander, Anna

    2014-01-01

    In July 2010, the Washington Post (WP) published the results of a project on “Top Secret America” on which twenty investigative journalists had been working for two years. The project drew attention to the change and growth in National Intelligence following 9/11 (Washington Post 2010a). The init......In July 2010, the Washington Post (WP) published the results of a project on “Top Secret America” on which twenty investigative journalists had been working for two years. The project drew attention to the change and growth in National Intelligence following 9/11 (Washington Post 2010a......). The initial idea had been to work on intelligence generally, but given that this proved overwhelming, the team narrowed down to focus only on intelligence qualified as “top secret.” Even so, the growth in this intelligence activity is remarkable. This public is returning, or in this case expanding...

  17. Magnetoencephalography Reveals a Widespread Increase in Network Connectivity in Idiopathic/Genetic Generalized Epilepsy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adham Elshahabi

    Full Text Available Idiopathic/genetic generalized epilepsy (IGE/GGE is characterized by seizures, which start and rapidly engage widely distributed networks, and result in symptoms such as absences, generalized myoclonic and primary generalized tonic-clonic seizures. Although routine magnetic resonance imaging is apparently normal, many studies have reported structural alterations in IGE/GGE patients using diffusion tensor imaging and voxel-based morphometry. Changes have also been reported in functional networks during generalized spike wave discharges. However, network function in the resting-state without epileptiforme discharges has been less well studied. We hypothesize that resting-state networks are more representative of the underlying pathophysiology and abnormal network synchrony. We studied functional network connectivity derived from whole-brain magnetoencephalography recordings in thirteen IGE/GGE and nineteen healthy controls. Using graph theoretical network analysis, we found a widespread increase in connectivity in patients compared to controls. These changes were most pronounced in the motor network, the mesio-frontal and temporal cortex. We did not, however, find any significant difference between the normalized clustering coefficients, indicating preserved gross network architecture. Our findings suggest that increased resting state connectivity could be an important factor for seizure spread and/or generation in IGE/GGE, and could serve as a biomarker for the disease.

  18. Magnetoencephalography Reveals a Widespread Increase in Network Connectivity in Idiopathic/Genetic Generalized Epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elshahabi, Adham; Klamer, Silke; Sahib, Ashish Kaul; Lerche, Holger; Braun, Christoph; Focke, Niels K

    2015-01-01

    Idiopathic/genetic generalized epilepsy (IGE/GGE) is characterized by seizures, which start and rapidly engage widely distributed networks, and result in symptoms such as absences, generalized myoclonic and primary generalized tonic-clonic seizures. Although routine magnetic resonance imaging is apparently normal, many studies have reported structural alterations in IGE/GGE patients using diffusion tensor imaging and voxel-based morphometry. Changes have also been reported in functional networks during generalized spike wave discharges. However, network function in the resting-state without epileptiforme discharges has been less well studied. We hypothesize that resting-state networks are more representative of the underlying pathophysiology and abnormal network synchrony. We studied functional network connectivity derived from whole-brain magnetoencephalography recordings in thirteen IGE/GGE and nineteen healthy controls. Using graph theoretical network analysis, we found a widespread increase in connectivity in patients compared to controls. These changes were most pronounced in the motor network, the mesio-frontal and temporal cortex. We did not, however, find any significant difference between the normalized clustering coefficients, indicating preserved gross network architecture. Our findings suggest that increased resting state connectivity could be an important factor for seizure spread and/or generation in IGE/GGE, and could serve as a biomarker for the disease.

  19. Striking variations in consultation rates with general practice reveal family influence.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cardol, M.; Dijk, L. van; Bosch, W.J.H.M. van den; Spreeuwenberg, P.; Bakker, D.H. de; Groenewegen, P.P.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The reasons why patients decide to consult a general practitioner vary enormously. While there may be individual reasons for this variation, the family context has a significant and unique influence upon the frequency of individuals' visits. The objective of this study was to explore

  20. Striking variations in consultation rates with general practice reveal family influence.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cardol, M.; Dijk, L. van; Bosch, W.J.H.M. van den; Spreeuwenberg, P.; Bakker, D.H. de; Groenewegen, P.P.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The reasons why patients decide to consult a general practitioner vary enormously. While there may be individual reasons for this variation, the family context has a significant and unique influence upon the frequency of individuals' visits. The objective of this study was to explore whi

  1. Striking variations in consultation rates with general practice reveal family influence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cardol, Mieke; Dijk, Liset van; Bosch, Wil J.H.M. van den; Spreeuwenberg, Peter; Bakker, Dinny H. de; Groenewegen, Peter P.

    2007-01-01

    Background: The reasons why patients decide to consult a general practitioner vary enormously. While there may be individual reasons for this variation, the family context has a significant and unique influence upon the frequency of individuals' visits. The objective of this study was to explore whi

  2. General picture revealed about origin of new genes in fruit flies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ Gene, the very basic unit of heredity in a living organism, has long held the limelight in modern biological studies. One fundamental truth revealed by scientists is the origination of new genes is a driving force behind evolutionary innovation in all organisms. However, except a few case studies, they are not very clear how the novel genes have been created in Nature. Now, with the help of molecular biology, scholars strive to understand the mechanisms underlying their origination.

  3. Sherlock Holmes and intelligent design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCuskey, Brian

    2012-09-01

    This article examines how both scientists and creationists, as they argue over intelligent design, invoke and quote the fictional character of Sherlock Holmes to support their opposed positions. Rhetorical analysis ofHolmes's repeated contributions to the debate reveals not only how the argument for design falls apart, but also how the argument for Darwin compromises itself when following the detective onto shaky logical ground. The sciences and the humanities must work together to combat the corrosive influence ofpseudoscientific reasoning on our students and the general public; this article contributes to that joint enterprise.

  4. Recruitment and retention of rural general practitioners: a marketing approach reveals new possibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemphill, Elizabeth; Dunn, Steve; Barich, Hayley; Infante, Rebecca

    2007-12-01

    This paper repositions the challenge of attracting and retaining rural GPs in a marketing context as a new focus for future research and policy development. Case study with mixed design of surveys of GPs and medical students and depth interviews with GPs, medical students, regional-division administrators and GP recruitment agents. GP recruitment and retention in the Limestone Coast region of South Australia. Twenty-seven Limestone Coast (LC) GPs; random sample of medical students from Adelaide University, Adelaide University Rural Health Society and Flinders University; snowball sampling two adjacent rural regions (20 GPs); and administrators from LC and adjacent regions and GP recruitment agencies in Adelaide. Drawing from marketing theory, creative suggestion of 'promotion of the practice and not the region' offers a means of GP recruitment and retention for structured succession planning for rural general practices. Structural attempts to broaden the GP market with overseas recruitment have done little for improving full-time equivalent GP levels. Market segmentation and market orientation offer a new emphasis on value exchange between the corporation (the practice), customer (GPs) and competition (all practices) to influence future mobility. A marketing orientation to the GP challenge emphasises individual's perceptions of value, GP expectations and practice offerings. Failure to acknowledge benefits of this marketing approach means that solutions such as those developed in the Limestone Coast region are unlikely. Research is now required to define GP satisfaction and value for long-term viability of general practices.

  5. Cognitive impairment in generalized anxiety disorder revealed by event-related potential N270

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Y

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Yingxue Yang,1,2 Xiating Zhang,1,2 Yu Zhu,1,2 Yakang Dai,3 Ting Liu,3 Yuping Wang1,2 1Department of Neurology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, 2Beijing Key Laboratory of Neuromodulation, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 3Suzhou Institute of Biomedical Engineering and Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Suzhou, People’s Republic of China Background: Cognitive function in anxiety disorders has been the subject of limited investigation, especially in generalized anxiety disorder (GAD. The purpose of this study was to investigate the cognitive function in subjects with GAD using mismatch-triggered negativity N270.Methods: Fifteen medication-free patients with a DSM-IV diagnosis of GAD, and 15 well-matched healthy controls performed a dual-feature delayed matching task while event-related potentials were recorded from their scalp.Results: The GAD group was characterized by the decreased N270 amplitude in the left hemisphere. The smaller N270 amplitude was associated with greater symptoms of anxiety and depression.Conclusion: Since N270 is thought to index cognitive function in different domains, including attention and memory, our results suggest that individuals with GAD have an impaired cognitive function, particularly in selective attention and working memory. These cognitive deficits may have clinical significance in subjects with GAD and should be considered in treatment planning. Keywords: generalized anxiety disorder, N270, cognitive function, selective attention, working memory

  6. Generalized additive models reveal the intrinsic complexity of wood formation dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuny, Henri E; Rathgeber, Cyrille B K; Kiessé, Tristan Senga; Hartmann, Felix P; Barbeito, Ignacio; Fournier, Meriem

    2013-04-01

    The intra-annual dynamics of wood formation, which involves the passage of newly produced cells through three successive differentiation phases (division, enlargement, and wall thickening) to reach the final functional mature state, has traditionally been described in conifers as three delayed bell-shaped curves followed by an S-shaped curve. Here the classical view represented by the 'Gompertz function (GF) approach' was challenged using two novel approaches based on parametric generalized linear models (GLMs) and 'data-driven' generalized additive models (GAMs). These three approaches (GFs, GLMs, and GAMs) were used to describe seasonal changes in cell numbers in each of the xylem differentiation phases and to calculate the timing of cell development in three conifer species [Picea abies (L.), Pinus sylvestris L., and Abies alba Mill.]. GAMs outperformed GFs and GLMs in describing intra-annual wood formation dynamics, showing two left-skewed bell-shaped curves for division and enlargement, and a right-skewed bimodal curve for thickening. Cell residence times progressively decreased through the season for enlargement, whilst increasing late but rapidly for thickening. These patterns match changes in cell anatomical features within a tree ring, which allows the separation of earlywood and latewood into two distinct cell populations. A novel statistical approach is presented which renews our understanding of xylogenesis, a dynamic biological process in which the rate of cell production interplays with cell residence times in each developmental phase to create complex seasonal patterns.

  7. Business intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cebotarean Elena

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Business intelligence (BI refers to computer-based techniques used in spotting, digging-out, and analyzing business data, such as sales revenue by products and/or departments, or by associated costs and incomes. BI technologies provide historical, current, and predictive views of business operations. Common functions of business intelligence technologies are reporting, online analytical processing, analytics, data mining, business performance management, benchmarking, text mining, and predictive analytics. Business intelligence aims to support better business decision-making. Thus a BI system can be called a decision support system (DSS. Though the term business intelligence is sometimes used as a synonym for competitive intelligence, because they both support decision making, BI uses technologies, processes, and applications to analyze mostly internal, structured data and business processes while competitive intelligence gathers, analyzes and disseminates information with a topical focus on company competitors. Business intelligence understood broadly can include the subset of competitive intelligence.

  8. Artificial Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waltz, David L.

    1982-01-01

    Describes kinds of results achieved by computer programs in artificial intelligence. Topics discussed include heuristic searches, artificial intelligence/psychology, planning program, backward chaining, learning (focusing on Winograd's blocks to explore learning strategies), concept learning, constraint propagation, language understanding…

  9. Genes, evolution and intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchard, Thomas J

    2014-11-01

    I argue that the g factor meets the fundamental criteria of a scientific construct more fully than any other conception of intelligence. I briefly discuss the evidence regarding the relationship of brain size to intelligence. A review of a large body of evidence demonstrates that there is a g factor in a wide range of species and that, in the species studied, it relates to brain size and is heritable. These findings suggest that many species have evolved a general-purpose mechanism (a general biological intelligence) for dealing with the environments in which they evolved. In spite of numerous studies with considerable statistical power, we know of very few genes that influence g and the effects are very small. Nevertheless, g appears to be highly polygenic. Given the complexity of the human brain, it is not surprising that that one of its primary faculties-intelligence-is best explained by the near infinitesimal model of quantitative genetics.

  10. Striking variations in consultation rates with general practice reveal family influence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spreeuwenberg Peter

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The reasons why patients decide to consult a general practitioner vary enormously. While there may be individual reasons for this variation, the family context has a significant and unique influence upon the frequency of individuals' visits. The objective of this study was to explore which family factors can explain the differences between strikingly high, and correspondingly low, family consultation rates in families with children aged up to 21. Methods Data were used from the second Dutch national survey of general practice. This survey extracted from the medical records of 96 practices in the Netherlands, information on all consultations with patients during 2001. We defined, through multilevel analysis, two groups of families. These had respectively, predominantly high, and low, contact frequencies due to a significant family influence upon the frequency of the individual's first contacts. Binomial logistic regression analyses were used to analyse which of the family factors, related to shared circumstances and socialisation conditions, can explain the differences in consultation rates between the two groups of families. Results In almost 3% of all families, individual consultation rates decrease significantly due to family influence. In 11% of the families, individual consultation rates significantly increase due to family influence. While taking into account the health status of family members, family factors can explain family consultation rates. These factors include circumstances such as their economic status and number of children, as well as socialisation conditions such as specific health knowledge and family beliefs. The chance of significant low frequencies of contact due to family influences increases significantly with factors such as, paid employment of parents in the health care sector, low expectations of general practitioners' care for minor ailments and a western cultural background. Conclusion Family

  11. Trends and current status of general thoracic surgery in Japan revealed by review of nationwide databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumura, Meinoshin

    2016-08-01

    Nationwide databases of cases treated for thoracic disease have been established by several academic associations in Japan, which contain information showing trends and current status in regard to surgical treatment. The Japanese Association of Thoracic Surgery (JATS), Japanese Association of Chest Surgery (JACS), Japan Lung Cancer Society (JLCS), Japanese Respiratory Society (JRS), and Japan Society for Respiratory Endoscopy (JSRE) have maintained databases of lung cancer cases treated in Japan. In 1986, the number of general thoracic surgery cases was 15,544, which increased to 75,306 in 2013. Furthermore, the number of lung cancer operations performed in 2013 was 37,008, occupying 49.1% of all general thoracic operations. Also, the proportions of adenocarcinoma, female patients, aged patients, stage I disease, and limited resection procedures are increasing in lung cancer surgery cases. While the 5-year overall post-operative survival rate of lung cancer patients was 47.8% in those undergoing surgery in 1989, it was 69.6% in those of 2004, which means 22% increase during 15 years. JATS, JACS, and the Japanese Association for Research of the Thymus (JART) have maintained retrospective databases of thymic epithelial tumor cases. The number of mediastinal tumors surgically treated is also increasing and was 4,780 in 2013, among which thymoma was the most prevalent. The Japanese Association for Lung and Heart-Lung Transplantation has developed a prospective nationwide database of lung transplantation cases in Japan, which contains clinical data for 466 patients who received lung transplantation or heart-lung transplantation from 1998 to 2015. Nationwide databases are currently being utilized for clinical studies and will also contribute to international projects related to the Union for International Cancer Control (UICC) tumor, node, and metastasis (TNM) classification system.

  12. Competitive Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergeron, Pierrette; Hiller, Christine A.

    2002-01-01

    Reviews the evolution of competitive intelligence since 1994, including terminology and definitions and analytical techniques. Addresses the issue of ethics; explores how information technology supports the competitive intelligence process; and discusses education and training opportunities for competitive intelligence, including core competencies…

  13. The Convergence of Intelligences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diederich, Joachim

    Minsky (1985) argued an extraterrestrial intelligence may be similar to ours despite very different origins. ``Problem- solving'' offers evolutionary advantages and individuals who are part of a technical civilisation should have this capacity. On earth, the principles of problem-solving are the same for humans, some primates and machines based on Artificial Intelligence (AI) techniques. Intelligent systems use ``goals'' and ``sub-goals'' for problem-solving, with memories and representations of ``objects'' and ``sub-objects'' as well as knowledge of relations such as ``cause'' or ``difference.'' Some of these objects are generic and cannot easily be divided into parts. We must, therefore, assume that these objects and relations are universal, and a general property of intelligence. Minsky's arguments from 1985 are extended here. The last decade has seen the development of a general learning theory (``computational learning theory'' (CLT) or ``statistical learning theory'') which equally applies to humans, animals and machines. It is argued that basic learning laws will also apply to an evolved alien intelligence, and this includes limitations of what can be learned efficiently. An example from CLT is that the general learning problem for neural networks is intractable, i.e. it cannot be solved efficiently for all instances (it is ``NP-complete''). It is the objective of this paper to show that evolved intelligences will be constrained by general learning laws and will use task-decomposition for problem-solving. Since learning and problem-solving are core features of intelligence, it can be said that intelligences converge despite very different origins.

  14. Computational integration of homolog and pathway gene module expression reveals general stemness signatures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Koeva

    Full Text Available The stemness hypothesis states that all stem cells use common mechanisms to regulate self-renewal and multi-lineage potential. However, gene expression meta-analyses at the single gene level have failed to identify a significant number of genes selectively expressed by a broad range of stem cell types. We hypothesized that stemness may be regulated by modules of homologs. While the expression of any single gene within a module may vary from one stem cell type to the next, it is possible that the expression of the module as a whole is required so that the expression of different, yet functionally-synonymous, homologs is needed in different stem cells. Thus, we developed a computational method to test for stem cell-specific gene expression patterns from a comprehensive collection of 49 murine datasets covering 12 different stem cell types. We identified 40 individual genes and 224 stemness modules with reproducible and specific up-regulation across multiple stem cell types. The stemness modules included families regulating chromatin remodeling, DNA repair, and Wnt signaling. Strikingly, the majority of modules represent evolutionarily related homologs. Moreover, a score based on the discovered modules could accurately distinguish stem cell-like populations from other cell types in both normal and cancer tissues. This scoring system revealed that both mouse and human metastatic populations exhibit higher stemness indices than non-metastatic populations, providing further evidence for a stem cell-driven component underlying the transformation to metastatic disease.

  15. Reveal, A General Reverse Engineering Algorithm for Inference of Genetic Network Architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Shoudan; Fuhrman, Stefanie; Somogyi, Roland

    1998-01-01

    Given the immanent gene expression mapping covering whole genomes during development, health and disease, we seek computational methods to maximize functional inference from such large data sets. Is it possible, in principle, to completely infer a complex regulatory network architecture from input/output patterns of its variables? We investigated this possibility using binary models of genetic networks. Trajectories, or state transition tables of Boolean nets, resemble time series of gene expression. By systematically analyzing the mutual information between input states and output states, one is able to infer the sets of input elements controlling each element or gene in the network. This process is unequivocal and exact for complete state transition tables. We implemented this REVerse Engineering ALgorithm (REVEAL) in a C program, and found the problem to be tractable within the conditions tested so far. For n = 50 (elements) and k = 3 (inputs per element), the analysis of incomplete state transition tables (100 state transition pairs out of a possible 10(exp 15)) reliably produced the original rule and wiring sets. While this study is limited to synchronous Boolean networks, the algorithm is generalizable to include multi-state models, essentially allowing direct application to realistic biological data sets. The ability to adequately solve the inverse problem may enable in-depth analysis of complex dynamic systems in biology and other fields.

  16. Intelligence Ethics:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønn, Kira Vrist

    2016-01-01

    Questions concerning what constitutes a morally justified conduct of intelligence activities have received increased attention in recent decades. However, intelligence ethics is not yet homogeneous or embedded as a solid research field. The aim of this article is to sketch the state of the art...... of intelligence ethics and point out subjects for further scrutiny in future research. The review clusters the literature on intelligence ethics into two groups: respectively, contributions on external topics (i.e., the accountability of and the public trust in intelligence agencies) and internal topics (i.......e., the search for an ideal ethical framework for intelligence actions). The article concludes that there are many holes to fill for future studies on intelligence ethics both in external and internal discussions. Thus, the article is an invitation – especially, to moral philosophers and political theorists...

  17. 18-21 Yaş Grubu Bireylerin Genel Zekâ Düzeyleri İle Psikolojik Semptom Dü- zeyleri Arasındaki İlişki (The Relation between General Intelligence Levels and Psychological Symptom Levels of Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oktay Aydın

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Researchers have stated that high intelligence might bring about psycho-logical problems. The purpose of this study was to investigate relationships be-tween general intelligence and some psychological symptoms.Method: Research participants included 73 students who were either university students in their first year or preparing for university. Their age ranged from 18 to 21 with a mean of 19,93. Female participants constituted 42,5% of the total and male participants included 57,5% of the total. The Raven’s Advanced Progressive Matrices (RAPM and the Psychological Symptoms Scanning Scale-90-R were used to collect data. The former was used to measure the participants’ general intelli-gence while the latter was used to measure their psychological symptoms. Meas-urement instruments were administered to the participants in their classrooms. Data analysis included correlational analysis between general intelligence scores and psychological symptom scores. Results: Findings showed that correlations between general intelligence scores and psychological symptom scores for the total sample ranged from -0,04 to -0,29, respectively. Anger score had the lowest correlation with general intelligence and the sensibility score had the highest correlation with general intelligence. Total psychological symptom scores had a correlation of -0,23 with general intelligence scores. Other psychological symptom scores also had negative correlations with general intelligence scores. General intelligence scores had a correlation of -,27 with obsessive compulsive disorder, -,24 with somatization, -,18 with depression, -,23 with anxiety, -,24 with phobia, -,09 with paranoid tendency, and -,16 with psikotism. Conclusions: Research findings show that in general, as general intelligence level increases, the level of psychological symptom decreases and as general intelli-gence level decreases, the level of psychological symptom increases. However, when data was

  18. Quality of dietary control in phenylketonuric patients and its relationship with general intelligence Calidad del control de la dieta en pacientes fenilcetonúricos y su relación con la inteligencia general

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Vilaseca

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Assessment of the quality of dietary treatment of phenylketonuria (PKU patients and investigation of its relationship with the general intelligence of the patients. Methods: Cross-sectional and longitudinal study of 105 PKU treated patients. The index of dietary control (IDC was calculated as the phenylalanine (Phe data reduction in half-year medians and the mean of all medians throughout the patient's life. We calculated four different IDCs related to age: IDC-A ( 18 years. To evaluate the fluctuation of Phe values we calculated the standard error of the estimate of the regression of Phe concentration over age. Development quotient was calculated with the Brunet-Lezine test (Objetivos: Evaluación de la calidad del control dietético en pacientes con fenilcetonuria (PKU e investigación de su relacióncon el nivel de inteligencia. Métodos: Estudio transversal y longitudinal de 105 pacientes PKU en tratamiento dietético. El índice de control de la dieta (IDC se ha calculado como la reducción de los valores de fenilalanina (Phe a las medianas de cada 6 meses y la media de todas las medianas a lo largo de la vida del paciente. Se han calculado cuatro diferentes IDC según la edad: IDC-A ( 18 años. Para evaluar las fluctuaciones de los valores de Phe hemos calculado el error estándar de la regresión estimada de la concentración de Phe según la edad. El índice de inteligencia se ha evaluado mediante el test de Brunet-Lezine (< 4 años y el coeficiente de inteligencia mediante Kaufman Bit Intelligence Test (K-Bit, Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R y Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale Third Edition (WAIS III. Resultados: Estudio transversal: El IDC en los diferentes grupos de edad es significativamente diferente y también lo son el número de pacientes con un IDC bueno, aceptable y malo en relación con la edad (p < 0,001. La frecuencia de controles de Phe fue buena en 72 pacientes, aceptable en 23 y mala

  19. Clinical Process Intelligence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilstrup Pedersen, Klaus

    2006-01-01

    .e. local guidelines. From a knowledge management point of view, this externalization of generalized processes, gives the opportunity to learn from, evaluate and optimize the processes. "Clinical Process Intelligence" (CPI), will denote the goal of getting generalized insight into patient centered health...

  20. The Professionalization of Intelligence Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Adam David Morgan

    "Providing an in-depth insight into the subject of intelligence cooperation (officially known as liason), this book explores the complexities of this process. Towards facilitating a general understanding of the professionalization of intelligence cooperation, Svendsen's analysis includes risk...... management and encourages the realisation of greater resilience. Svendsen discusses the controversial, mixed and uneven characterisations of the process of the professionalization of intelligence cooperation and argues for a degree of 'fashioning method out of mayhem' through greater operational...

  1. The Professionalization of Intelligence Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Adam David Morgan

    "Providing an in-depth insight into the subject of intelligence cooperation (officially known as liason), this book explores the complexities of this process. Towards facilitating a general understanding of the professionalization of intelligence cooperation, Svendsen's analysis includes risk...... management and encourages the realisation of greater resilience. Svendsen discusses the controversial, mixed and uneven characterisations of the process of the professionalization of intelligence cooperation and argues for a degree of 'fashioning method out of mayhem' through greater operational...

  2. The Relation between Fluid Intelligence and the General Factor as a Function of Cultural Background: A Test of Cattell's Investment Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvist, Ann Valentin; Gustafsson, Jan-Eric

    2008-01-01

    According to Cattell's [Cattell, R.B. (1987). "Intelligence: Its structure, growth and action." New York: North-Holland.] Investment theory individual differences in acquisition of knowledge and skills are partly the result of investment of Fluid Intelligence ("Gf") in learning situations demanding insights in complex…

  3. The Relation between Fluid Intelligence and the General Factor as a Function of Cultural Background: A Test of Cattell's Investment Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvist, Ann Valentin; Gustafsson, Jan-Eric

    2008-01-01

    According to Cattell's [Cattell, R.B. (1987). "Intelligence: Its structure, growth and action." New York: North-Holland.] Investment theory individual differences in acquisition of knowledge and skills are partly the result of investment of Fluid Intelligence ("Gf") in learning situations demanding insights in complex…

  4. The Vanderbilt Expertise Test reveals domain-general and domain-specific sex effects in object recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGugin, Rankin W; Richler, Jennifer J; Herzmann, Grit; Speegle, Magen; Gauthier, Isabel

    2012-09-15

    Individual differences in face recognition are often contrasted with differences in object recognition using a single object category. Likewise, individual differences in perceptual expertise for a given object domain have typically been measured relative to only a single category baseline. In Experiment 1, we present a new test of object recognition, the Vanderbilt Expertise Test (VET), which is comparable in methods to the Cambridge Face Memory Task (CFMT) but uses eight different object categories. Principal component analysis reveals that the underlying structure of the VET can be largely explained by two independent factors, which demonstrate good reliability and capture interesting sex differences inherent in the VET structure. In Experiment 2, we show how the VET can be used to separate domain-specific from domain-general contributions to a standard measure of perceptual expertise. While domain-specific contributions are found for car matching for both men and women and for plane matching in men, women in this sample appear to use more domain-general strategies to match planes. In Experiment 3, we use the VET to demonstrate that holistic processing of faces predicts face recognition independently of general object recognition ability, which has a sex-specific contribution to face recognition. Overall, the results suggest that the VET is a reliable and valid measure of object recognition abilities and can measure both domain-general skills and domain-specific expertise, which were both found to depend on the sex of observers.

  5. The subject to emotional intelligence training of changes of emotional intelligence research, and adolescence of Japan seen from overseas literature

    OpenAIRE

    中島, 正世; Nakajima, Masayo

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the author have revealed the transition about the concept of emotional intelligence from overseas literature, and have tried to clarify the subject to the definition of emotional intelligence, the difference from similar concepts, the measuring method of emotional intelligence, the related element of emotional intelligence, and emotional intelligence training for the man-power development to current adolescence. As a result, the base element which constitutes emotional intellig...

  6. The Relationship between Multiple Intelligences and L2 Reading Skill among Iranian EFL University Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saber Khooei Oskooei

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relationship between multiple intelligences (MI and foreign language (L2 reading skill among Iranian EFL sophomores. Multiple intelligences and L2 reading measurements of participants – 29 males and 69 females who were selected from four intact classes – were obtained through McKenzie’s (1999 Multiple Intelligences Inventory and reading part of a Preliminary English Test PET, respectively, and then Pearson’s correlation analysis was run to determine the degree of the relationship between each component of multiple intelligences and L2 reading skill. Afterwards, through a multiple regression analysis those components of multiple intelligences which acted as the predictors of L2 reading skill were identified and the power of each predictor was calculated. The results of the correlation analyses revealed that linguistic-verbal, logical-mathematical, spatial, and interpersonal intelligences were significantly correlated with reading skill. In addition, the results showed that linguistic-verbal, interpersonal, and logical-mathematical intelligences were the best predictors of L2 reading skill scores of the participants. The results of the study can help coursebook designers, educational planners, foreign language institutes, teachers, learners and their parents to provide and use different methods of teaching and learning. Keywords: multiple intelligences, general intelligence, reading comprehension, university students, EFL

  7. Statement of Glenn A. Fine, Acting Inspector General, Department of Defense on Department of Defense Office of Inspector General Report of Investigation on Allegations Related to USCENTCOM Intelligence Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-28

    Community for their assessments of USCENTCOM’s intelligence products. We did not stop there. We conducted a systematic analysis regarding the...direction of edits that were made within the CCJ2 on counter-ISIL intelligence products. In this analysis , we reviewed a statistically random sample...and we did not find, specific intelligence products that contained false – untrue – facts or analysis . We also did not find sufficient evidence to

  8. J. Piaget's theory of intelligence: operational aspect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xenia Naidenova

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available The Piaget's theory of intelligence is considered from the point of view of genesis and gradual development of human thinking operations. Attention is given to operational aspects of cognitive structures and knowledge. The significance of the Piaget's theory of intelligence is revealed for modeling conceptual reasoning in the framework of artificial intelligence.

  9. Swarm Intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Thampi, Sabu M.

    2009-01-01

    Biologically inspired computing is an area of computer science which uses the advantageous properties of biological systems. It is the amalgamation of computational intelligence and collective intelligence. Biologically inspired mechanisms have already proved successful in achieving major advances in a wide range of problems in computing and communication systems. The consortium of bio-inspired computing are artificial neural networks, evolutionary algorithms, swarm intelligence, artificial i...

  10. Some issues for discipline of intelligence science

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Zi-xing

    2006-01-01

    The general frame for the system of intelligence science was proposed, the common features of the researching objects of the intelligence science were summarized. The intelligence science consists of three portions:scientific foundation, technical methodology and application fields. The common features of intelligence science include complexity, intersection, nonlinearity, anthropomorphic property, uncertainty, incompleteness and distribution etc. The new proposed scientific branch would reflect the new height, new thought and new way for developing the control science and intelligent systems from one angle, and present a strong wish for establishing a new branch of intelligence science.

  11. Evolutionary Psychology and Intelligence Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanazawa, Satoshi

    2010-01-01

    This article seeks to unify two subfields of psychology that have hitherto stood separately: evolutionary psychology and intelligence research/differential psychology. I suggest that general intelligence may simultaneously be an evolved adaptation and an individual-difference variable. Tooby and Cosmides's (1990a) notion of random quantitative…

  12. Soft computing in artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Matson, Eric

    2014-01-01

    This book explores the concept of artificial intelligence based on knowledge-based algorithms. Given the current hardware and software technologies and artificial intelligence theories, we can think of how efficient to provide a solution, how best to implement a model and how successful to achieve it. This edition provides readers with the most recent progress and novel solutions in artificial intelligence. This book aims at presenting the research results and solutions of applications in relevance with artificial intelligence technologies. We propose to researchers and practitioners some methods to advance the intelligent systems and apply artificial intelligence to specific or general purpose. This book consists of 13 contributions that feature fuzzy (r, s)-minimal pre- and β-open sets, handling big coocurrence matrices, Xie-Beni-type fuzzy cluster validation, fuzzy c-regression models, combination of genetic algorithm and ant colony optimization, building expert system, fuzzy logic and neural network, ind...

  13. Time estimation predicts mathematical intelligence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Kramer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Performing mental subtractions affects time (duration estimates, and making time estimates disrupts mental subtractions. This interaction has been attributed to the concurrent involvement of time estimation and arithmetic with general intelligence and working memory. Given the extant evidence of a relationship between time and number, here we test the stronger hypothesis that time estimation correlates specifically with mathematical intelligence, and not with general intelligence or working-memory capacity. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Participants performed a (prospective time estimation experiment, completed several subtests of the WAIS intelligence test, and self-rated their mathematical skill. For five different durations, we found that time estimation correlated with both arithmetic ability and self-rated mathematical skill. Controlling for non-mathematical intelligence (including working memory capacity did not change the results. Conversely, correlations between time estimation and non-mathematical intelligence either were nonsignificant, or disappeared after controlling for mathematical intelligence. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We conclude that time estimation specifically predicts mathematical intelligence. On the basis of the relevant literature, we furthermore conclude that the relationship between time estimation and mathematical intelligence is likely due to a common reliance on spatial ability.

  14. Assessing Information about Intelligence and Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikulski, John J.

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss the assessment of intelligence as it relates to reading. Its primary focus is upon criteria that might be applied to the information about intelligence and how it relates to reading. The contents include: "General Considerations," which discusses the concept of intelligence, measuring instruments used to…

  15. High School Students' Beliefs about Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Brett D.; Byrd, C. Noel; Lusk, Danielle

    2009-01-01

    We implemented a sequential mixed methods design using parallel samples to answer our general research question: What are high school students' definitions of intelligence and implicit beliefs about the malleability of intelligence? We surveyed 9th and 11th grade students who responded to questions about their intelligence beliefs on open- and…

  16. Adolescents' Conceptions of Ability and Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, John G.

    Adolescents' developing sense of competence is based on two domains, ability and intelligence. Intelligence testing generally presumes a conception of ability as current capacity that limits the extent to which effort can improve performance. Conceptions of intelligence, and other skills, involve implications about the nature of different forms of…

  17. Intelligent Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Poul G.

    2005-01-01

    Forestillingen om at naturen er designet af en guddommelig 'intelligens' er et smukt filosofisk princip. Teorier om Intelligent Design som en naturvidenskabeligt baseret teori er derimod helt forfærdelig.......Forestillingen om at naturen er designet af en guddommelig 'intelligens' er et smukt filosofisk princip. Teorier om Intelligent Design som en naturvidenskabeligt baseret teori er derimod helt forfærdelig....

  18. General interaction mode of CIDE:CIDE complex revealed by a mutation study of the Drep2 CIDE domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung Mi; Park, Hyun Ho

    2013-04-02

    The CIDE domain is a well known protein-protein interaction module that is initially detected at the apoptotic DNA fragmentation factor (DFF40/45). The interaction mechanism via the CIDE domain is not well understood. To elucidate CIDE domain mediated interactions in the apoptotic DNA fragmentation system, we conducted biochemical and mutational studies and found that the surface of CIDE domains can be divided into an acidic side and a basic side. In addition, a mutagenesis study revealed that the basic surface side of Drep2 CIDE is involved in the interaction with the acidic surface side of Drep1 CIDE and Drep3 CIDE. Our research supports the idea that a charge-charge interaction might be the general interaction mode of the CIDE:CIDE interaction.

  19. Test or toy? Materiality and the measurement of infant intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Jacy L

    2015-05-01

    Adopting a material culture perspective, this article interrogates the composition of the copy of the Cattell Infant Intelligence Scale housed at the University of Toronto Scientific Instruments Collection. As a deliberately assembled collection of toys, the Cattell Scale makes clear the indefinite boundary between test and toy in 20th-century American psychology. Consideration of the current condition of some of the material constituents of this particular Cattell Scale provides valuable insight into some of the elusive practices of intelligence testers in situ and highlights the dynamic nature of the testing process. At the same time, attending to the materiality of this intelligence test reveals some of the more general assumptions about the nature of intelligence inherent in tests for young children. The scale and others like it, I argue, exposes psychologists' often-uncritical equation of childhood intelligence with appropriate play undertaken with an appropriate toy, an approach complicit in, and fostered by, midcentury efforts to cultivate particular forms of selfhood. This analysis serves as an example of the kind of work that may be done on the history of intelligence testing when the material objects that were (and are) inherently a part of the testing process are included in historical scholarship.

  20. Chemosensory processing in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster: Generalization of a feeding response reveals overlapping odour representations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sathees B C Chandra; Sandeep Singh

    2005-12-01

    Insects are capable of detecting, and discriminating between, a very large number of odours. The biological relevance of many of those odours, particularly those related to food, must first be learned. Given that the number of sensory receptors and antennal lobe (AL) glomeruli is limited relative to the number of odours that must be detectable, this ability implies that the olfactory system makes use of a combinatorial coding scheme whereby each sensory cell or AL projection neuron can participate in coding for several different odours. An important step in understanding this coding scheme is to behaviourally quantify the degree to which sets of odours are discriminable. Here we evaluate odour discriminability in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, by first conditioning individual flies to not respond to any of several odourants using a nonassociative conditioning protocol (habituation). We show that flies habituate unconditioned leg movement responses to both mechanosensory and olfactory stimulation over 25 unreinforceed trials. Habituation is retained for at least 2 h and is subject to dishabituation. Finally, we test the degree to which the conditioned response generalizes to other odourants based on molecular features of the odourants (e.g. carbon chain length and the presence of a target functional group). These tests reveal predictable generalization gradients across these molecular features. These data substantiate the claim that these features are relevant coding dimensions in the fruit fly olfactory system, as has been shown for other insect and vertebrate species.

  1. Conventional and intelligent generalized supervisory control for combined cycle generating power stations.; Control supervisiorio generalizado convencional e inteligente para centrales de generacion de ciclo combinado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez M, Miguel A; Sanchez P, Marino [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Gonzalez Rubio S, Jose L [Cento Nacional de Investigacion y Desarrollo Tecnologico (Cenidet), Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    Under the expectations of expansion of electric power generation in Mexico, this work exposes the development of a conventional and intelligent generalized supervisory control (CSG) for a combined cycle generation power plant. This one allows to obtain the optimal operation of the power plant through the automatic starting of the generating units and to obtain the maximum possible amount of electrical power in automatic and safe form. For the development of the CSG a control loop by temperature was implemented for the gas turbine system and a control loop by strangled pressure for the gas turbine and a control loop by strangled pressure for the steam turbine. The design of these supervisory systems was made with base in the critical limits on the involved variables of the process: blading average temperature, for the gas turbine (GT) and strangled pressure for the steam turbine (ST) [Spanish] Bajo estas expectativas de expansion de generacion de energia en Mexico, este trabajo expone el desarrollo de un control supervisorio generalizado (CSG) para una central generacion de ciclo combinado. Este permite lograr la operacion optima de la planta a traves del arranque automatico de las unidades generadoras y obtener la maxima cantidad posible de potencia electrica en forma automatica y segura. Para el desarrollo del CSG se implanto un lazo de control por temperatura para el sistema de turbina de gas y un lazo de control por presion estrangulada para la turbina de gas y un lazo de control por presion estrangulada para la turbina de vapor. El diseno de estos sistemas supervisorio se realizo con base en los limites criticos de las variables del proceso involucradas: temperatura promedio de empaletado para la turbina de gas (TG) y presion estrangulada para la turbina de vapor (TV)

  2. Contribuciones del factor general y de los factores específicos en la relación entre inteligencia y rendimiento escolar Contributions of the general and the specific factors for the intelligence and school achievement relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro S. Almeida

    2009-11-01

    in its three versions. Academic achievement was estimated on base of students´ classifications at Portuguese Language and Mathematics. The structural equation modelling shows a more expressive impact of general factor (inductive and fluid factor associated to all BPR tests in academic achievement prediction, even tough its importance decreases progressively when we advance on school grades. At same time, specific components in each test are present in a second model namely for the 5th and 6th grades. From 9th to 12th grades the specific contributes of tests are confined to the verbal reasoning test (numerical reasoning test appears in 9th grade too. So we can conclude for the importance of g factor to explain the academic performance, but specific cognitive components can also contribute to reinforce the relation between intelligence and school achievement.

    Key words: Intelligence, G factor, specific factors, Gf-Gc, academic achievement

  3. Intelligent playgrounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lasse Juel

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines play, gaming and learning in regard to intelligent playware developed for outdoor use. The key questions are how does these novel artefacts influence the concept of play, gaming and learning. Up until now play and game have been understood as different activities. This paper...... examines if the sharp differentiation between the two can be uphold in regard to intelligent playware for outdoor use. Play and game activities will be analysed and viewed in conjunction with learning contexts. This paper will stipulate that intelligent playware facilitates rapid shifts in contexts...

  4. Artificial Intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Warwick, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    if AI is outside your field, or you know something of the subject and would like to know more then Artificial Intelligence: The Basics is a brilliant primer.' - Nick Smith, Engineering and Technology Magazine November 2011 Artificial Intelligence: The Basics is a concise and cutting-edge introduction to the fast moving world of AI. The author Kevin Warwick, a pioneer in the field, examines issues of what it means to be man or machine and looks at advances in robotics which have blurred the boundaries. Topics covered include: how intelligence can be defined whether machines can 'think' sensory

  5. Artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Ennals, J R

    1987-01-01

    Artificial Intelligence: State of the Art Report is a two-part report consisting of the invited papers and the analysis. The editor first gives an introduction to the invited papers before presenting each paper and the analysis, and then concludes with the list of references related to the study. The invited papers explore the various aspects of artificial intelligence. The analysis part assesses the major advances in artificial intelligence and provides a balanced analysis of the state of the art in this field. The Bibliography compiles the most important published material on the subject of

  6. Artificial intelligence in cardiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonderman, Diana

    2017-10-04

    Decision-making is complex in modern medicine and should ideally be based on available data, structured knowledge and proper interpretation in the context of an individual patient. Automated algorithms, also termed artificial intelligence that are able to extract meaningful patterns from data collections and build decisions upon identified patterns may be useful assistants in clinical decision-making processes. In this article, artificial intelligence-based studies in clinical cardiology are reviewed. The text also touches on the ethical issues and speculates on the future roles of automated algorithms versus clinicians in cardiology and medicine in general.

  7. Business intelligence

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cebotarean Elena

    2011-01-01

    Business intelligence (BI) refers to computer-based techniques used in spotting, digging-out, and analyzing business data, such as sales revenue by products and/or departments, or by associated costs and incomes...

  8. Artificial intelligence in nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacha, G. M.; Varona, P.

    2013-11-01

    During the last decade there has been increasing use of artificial intelligence tools in nanotechnology research. In this paper we review some of these efforts in the context of interpreting scanning probe microscopy, the study of biological nanosystems, the classification of material properties at the nanoscale, theoretical approaches and simulations in nanoscience, and generally in the design of nanodevices. Current trends and future perspectives in the development of nanocomputing hardware that can boost artificial-intelligence-based applications are also discussed. Convergence between artificial intelligence and nanotechnology can shape the path for many technological developments in the field of information sciences that will rely on new computer architectures and data representations, hybrid technologies that use biological entities and nanotechnological devices, bioengineering, neuroscience and a large variety of related disciplines.

  9. Artificial intelligence in nanotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacha, G M; Varona, P

    2013-11-15

    During the last decade there has been increasing use of artificial intelligence tools in nanotechnology research. In this paper we review some of these efforts in the context of interpreting scanning probe microscopy, the study of biological nanosystems, the classification of material properties at the nanoscale, theoretical approaches and simulations in nanoscience, and generally in the design of nanodevices. Current trends and future perspectives in the development of nanocomputing hardware that can boost artificial-intelligence-based applications are also discussed. Convergence between artificial intelligence and nanotechnology can shape the path for many technological developments in the field of information sciences that will rely on new computer architectures and data representations, hybrid technologies that use biological entities and nanotechnological devices, bioengineering, neuroscience and a large variety of related disciplines.

  10. Relationship between Emotional Intelligence and

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Rafieyan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Language learners’ awareness of target language pragmatic features is influenced by individual difference variables, the least explored one being emotional intelligence. To investigate the relationship between emotional intelligence and pragmatic awareness, the current study was conducted over 120 Iranian senior undergraduates of English as a Foreign Language at a university in Iran. Pragmatic awareness was measured through a 12-scenario contextualized pragmatic judgment task. Emotional intelligence was also measured through the EQ-i. The results of the Pearson correlation revealed a strong positive relationship between emotional intelligence and pragmatic awareness. The pedagogical implications of the findings suggested incorporation of emotion-driven authentic materials in English language classes to invoke emotional intelligence in language learners.

  11. Social Representations of Intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Zubieta

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The article stresses the relationship between Explicit and Implicit theories of Intelligence. Following the line of common sense epistemology and the theory of Social Representations, a study was carried out in order to analyze naive’s explanations about Intelligence Definitions. Based on Mugny & Carugati (1989 research, a self-administered questionnaire was designed and filled in by 286 subjects. Results are congruent with the main hyphotesis postulated: A general overlap between explicit and implicit theories showed up. According to the results Intelligence appears as both, a social attribute related to social adaptation and as a concept defined in relation with contextual variables similar to expert’s current discourses. Nevertheless, conceptions based on “gifted ideology” still are present stressing the main axes of Intelligence debate: biological and sociological determinism. In the same sense, unfamiliarity and social identity are reaffirmed as organizing principles of social representation. The distance with the object -measured as the belief in intelligence differences as a solve/non solve problem- and the level of implication with the topic -teachers/no teachers- appear as discriminating elements at the moment of supporting specific dimensions. 

  12. Rapid dynamics of general transcription factor TFIIB binding during preinitiation complex assembly revealed by single-molecule analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhengjian; English, Brian P.; Grimm, Jonathan B.; Kazane, Stephanie A.; Hu, Wenxin; Tsai, Albert; Inouye, Carla; You, Changjiang; Piehler, Jacob; Schultz, Peter G.; Lavis, Luke D.; Revyakin, Andrey; Tjian, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Transcription of protein-encoding genes in eukaryotic cells requires the coordinated action of multiple general transcription factors (GTFs) and RNA polymerase II (Pol II). A “step-wise” preinitiation complex (PIC) assembly model has been suggested based on conventional ensemble biochemical measurements, in which protein factors bind stably to the promoter DNA sequentially to build a functional PIC. However, recent dynamic measurements in live cells suggest that transcription factors mostly interact with chromatin DNA rather transiently. To gain a clearer dynamic picture of PIC assembly, we established an integrated in vitro single-molecule transcription platform reconstituted from highly purified human transcription factors and complemented it by live-cell imaging. Here we performed real-time measurements of the hierarchal promoter-specific binding of TFIID, TFIIA, and TFIIB. Surprisingly, we found that while promoter binding of TFIID and TFIIA is stable, promoter binding by TFIIB is highly transient and dynamic (with an average residence time of 1.5 sec). Stable TFIIB–promoter association and progression beyond this apparent PIC assembly checkpoint control occurs only in the presence of Pol II–TFIIF. This transient-to-stable transition of TFIIB-binding dynamics has gone undetected previously and underscores the advantages of single-molecule assays for revealing the dynamic nature of complex biological reactions. PMID:27798851

  13. Generalized conventional and intelligent supervisory control system for combined cycle generation power plants; Sistema de control supervisorio generalizado convencional e inteligente para centrales de generacion de ciclo combinado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez Morales, Miguel Angel

    2004-12-15

    The Mexican Electricity Utility (Comision Federal de Electricidad - CFE) growing program in Power Generation for the 2004 - 2008 period is based on Combined Cycle Power Plants (CCPP). In accordance with [CFE, 2000], the expected power generation capacity developed during such period will rise by the amount of 12876 MW, 10655 MW belonging to CCPP (82.75 %). With such important program for the increasing of Power Generation in Mexico, researches have to receive new technologies for CCPP, some of them not completely tested and immature, with the compromise to make then more efficient and reliable. Under such idea and looking to increase the automation level for CCPP with better control algorithms, the Supervisory Generalized Control (SGC) for CCPP was developed in this thesis, based on PID strategies and intelligent (fuzzy) control strategies. With the SGC is possible to get the best performance for the whole CCPP through the automatic starting, synchronizing and loading of the generating units (two gas turbines and one steam turbine) with a minimum participation of operators. To get the increased efficiency, the SGC generates the reference paths for both gas turbines (GT) first, and the steam turbine (ST). The SGC accelerates each unit with a minimum effort and vibrations getting the synchronizing speed in a minimum time and wasted energy. Then the SGC synchronize each unit taking minimum load quickly and loading up to the highest electric power value. All these can be done in an automated operation. The SGC employs two critical-process variable- control strategies, based on blade path temperature average (BPT Average) for Gas Turbines (GT) and the throttle steam pressure for the Steam Turbine (ST). The control algorithms designed take both units, the GT and the ST, picking up load to the highest process value avoiding the alarms activation and shutdown. This is possible only with such an automated control strategy. Test performed showed that with the SGC

  14. Intelligent control based on intelligent characteristic model and its application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴宏鑫; 王迎春; 邢琰

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a new intelligent control method based on intelligent characteristic model for a kind of complicated plant with nonlinearities and uncertainties, whose controlled output variables cannot be measured on line continuously. The basic idea of this method is to utilize intelligent techniques to form the characteristic model of the controlled plant according to the principle of combining the char-acteristics of the plant with the control requirements, and then to present a new design method of intelli-gent controller based on this characteristic model. First, the modeling principles and expression of the intelligent characteristic model are presented. Then based on description of the intelligent characteristic model, the design principles and methods of the intelligent controller composed of several open-loops and closed-loops sub controllers with qualitative and quantitative information are given. Finally, the ap-plication of this method in alumina concentration control in the real aluminum electrolytic process is in-troduced. It is proved in practice that the above methods not only are easy to implement in engineering design but also avoid the trial-and-error of general intelligent controllers. It has taken better effect in the following application: achieving long-term stable control of low alumina concentration and increasing the controlled ratio of anode effect greatly from 60% to 80%.

  15. More Media, More People—On Social & Multimodal Media Intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Degerstedt, Lars; Pelle, Snickars

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to address some challenges facing media intelligence in general, and competitive intelligence in particular within an altered information landscape. To understand this new situation, the notion of social and multimodal media intelligence are introduced. With cases taken primarily from the Swedish media intelligence sector, we argue that data driven media intelligence today needs to pay increasing attention to new forms of (A.) crowd-oriented and (B.) multimedia-...

  16. Practical Intelligence and Tacit Knowledge: Advancements in the Measurement of Developing Expertise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cianciolo, Anna T.; Grigorenko, Elena L.; Jarvin, Linda; Gil, Guillermo; Drebot, Michael E.; Sternberg, Robert J.

    2006-01-01

    Practical intelligence as measured by tacit-knowledge inventories generally has shown a weak relation to other intelligence constructs. However, the use of assessments capturing specialized, job-related knowledge may obscure the generality of practical intelligence and its relation to general intelligence. This article presents three studies in…

  17. Open source intelligence, open social intelligence and privacy by design

    OpenAIRE

    Casanovas, Pompeu; Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology (Austràlia). Centre for Applied Social Research

    2014-01-01

    Ponència presentada a European Conference on Social Intelligence (ECSI-2014) OSINT stands for Open Source Intelligence, (O)SI for (Open) Social Intelligence, PbD for Privacy by Design. The CAPER project has built an OSINT solution oriented to the prevention of organized crime. How to balance freedom and security? This position paper describes a way to embed the legal and ethical issues raised by the General Data Reform Package (GDRP) in Europe into this kind of surveillance platforms. It f...

  18. Intelligence and Semen Quality Are Positively Correlated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arden, Rosalind; Gottfredson, Linda S.; Miller, Geoffrey; Pierce, Arand

    2009-01-01

    Human cognitive abilities inter-correlate to form a positive matrix, from which a large first factor, called "Spearman's g" or general intelligence, can be extracted. General intelligence itself is correlated with many important health outcomes including cardio-vascular function and longevity. However, the important evolutionary question of…

  19. Intelligence in the Now: Robust Intelligence in Complex Domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-26

    Sharir, “On the ‘ piano movers’ problem: II. General techniques for computing topological properties of real algebraic manifolds,” Advances in Applied...control techniques necessary to enable robots to perform robustly and intelligently in complex uncertain domains. Robots operating in complex, unknown...develop the estimation, planning, and control techniques necessary to enable robots to perform robustly and intelligently in complex uncertain

  20. Factor structure of emotional intelligence in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Chung; Wynn, Jonathan K; Hellemann, Gerhard; Green, Michael F

    2012-08-01

    Social cognition, which includes emotional intelligence, is impaired in schizophrenia. The Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT) is a widely-used assessment of emotional intelligence, with a four-factor structure in healthy individual. However, a recent factor analysis in schizophrenia patients revealed a two-factor structure of the MSCEIT. The current study aimed to replicate this finding in a larger, more diverse, schizophrenia sample (n=194). Our findings revealed an identical two-factor structure as in the previously-reported study, indicating that emotional intelligence is organized in a different manner in schizophrenia than it is in healthy controls.

  1. Power through Things: Following Traces of Collective Intelligence in Internet of Things

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Mačiulienė

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – it is becoming increasingly difficult to ignore the input Internet of Things (IoT has to offer in development of public, business and other societal structures. Therefore, paper seeks to determine the current state of knowledge in the field of IoT terms of wisdom creation and emergence of collective intelligence. First, we discuss concept of collective intelligence, then we define phenomena of IoT and identify areas of its application. Later, the author reviews how intelligent outputs of IoT are defined in scientific literature. These findings of theoretical investigation may shed some light on research field that is promising but still very vague.Design/methodology/approach – this article provides a general overview of IoT concept and its growing relation to collective intelligence. Methods of document analysis and content analysis were applied. Theoretical analysis enabled recognition of IoT phenomena in relation to wisdom creation and emergence of collective intelligence.Findings – general overview of the field revealed that new understanding of collective intelligence surfaces. Often intelligent behavior and decisions emerge from ever increasing cooperation between ‘things’ and humans. The variety of new concepts and authors trying to describe relationship of ‘things’ with each other and humans when creating intelligent outcomes revealed that this field is still in its very infancy and still needs considerable amount of industry and scientific efforts to be understood and executed.Research limitations – although the paper has successfully demonstrated that IoT provides vast amounts of data for people to process and create knowledge this could be considered only as initial phase in studying the field. IoT and its intelligent outcomes need more investigations in terms of real life case studies and industry reviews in order to create valid definitions, models and future guidelines. Practical implications – this

  2. Intelligent systems

    CERN Document Server

    Irwin, J David

    2011-01-01

    Technology has now progressed to the point that intelligent systems are replacing humans in the decision making processes as well as aiding in the solution of very complex problems. In many cases intelligent systems are already outperforming human activities. Artificial neural networks are not only capable of learning how to classify patterns, such images or sequence of events, but they can also effectively model complex nonlinear systems. Their ability to classify sequences of events is probably more popular in industrial applications where there is an inherent need to model nonlinear system

  3. Medical applications of artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Agah, Arvin

    2013-01-01

    Enhanced, more reliable, and better understood than in the past, artificial intelligence (AI) systems can make providing healthcare more accurate, affordable, accessible, consistent, and efficient. However, AI technologies have not been as well integrated into medicine as predicted. In order to succeed, medical and computational scientists must develop hybrid systems that can effectively and efficiently integrate the experience of medical care professionals with capabilities of AI systems. After providing a general overview of artificial intelligence concepts, tools, and techniques, Medical Ap

  4. Intelligent interface design and evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greitzer, Frank L.

    1988-01-01

    Intelligent interface concepts and systematic approaches to assessing their functionality are discussed. Four general features of intelligent interfaces are described: interaction efficiency, subtask automation, context sensitivity, and use of an appropriate design metaphor. Three evaluation methods are discussed: Functional Analysis, Part-Task Evaluation, and Operational Testing. Design and evaluation concepts are illustrated with examples from a prototype expert system interface for environmental control and life support systems for manned space platforms.

  5. The Ecology of Social Learning in Animals and its Link with Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Schaik, Carel; Graber, Sereina; Schuppli, Caroline; Burkart, Judith

    2017-01-09

    Classical ethology and behavioral ecology did not pay much attention to learning. However, studies of social learning in nature reviewed here reveal the near-ubiquity of reliance on social information for skill acquisition by developing birds and mammals. This conclusion strengthens the plausibility of the cultural intelligence hypothesis for the evolution of intelligence, which assumes that selection on social learning abilities automatically improves individual learning ability. Thus, intelligent species will generally be cultural species. Direct tests of the cultural intelligence hypothesis require good estimates of the amount and kind of social learning taking place in nature in a broad variety of species. These estimates are lacking so far. Here, we start the process of developing a functional classification of social learning, in the form of the social learning spectrum, which should help to predict the mechanisms of social learning involved. Once validated, the categories can be used to estimate the cognitive demands of social learning in the wild.

  6. 125 years of intelligence in the American Journal of Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deary, Ian J

    2012-01-01

    A survey is made of intelligence research in the 125 years of The American Journal of Psychology. There are some major articles of note on intelligence, especially Spearman's (1904a) article that discovered general cognitive ability (g). There are some themes within intelligence on which articles appeared over the years, such as processing speed, age, and group differences. Intelligence has not been a major theme of the journal, nor has a differential approach to psychology more generally. There are periods of time--especially the 1970s--during which almost no articles appeared on intelligence. The key articles and themes on intelligence differences are discussed in detail.

  7. A genome-wide analysis of putative functional and exonic variation associated with extremely high intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spain, S L; Pedroso, I; Kadeva, N; Miller, M B; Iacono, W G; McGue, M; Stergiakouli, E; Smith, G D; Putallaz, M; Lubinski, D; Meaburn, E L; Plomin, R; Simpson, M A

    2016-08-01

    Although individual differences in intelligence (general cognitive ability) are highly heritable, molecular genetic analyses to date have had limited success in identifying specific loci responsible for its heritability. This study is the first to investigate exome variation in individuals of extremely high intelligence. Under the quantitative genetic model, sampling from the high extreme of the distribution should provide increased power to detect associations. We therefore performed a case-control association analysis with 1409 individuals drawn from the top 0.0003 (IQ >170) of the population distribution of intelligence and 3253 unselected population-based controls. Our analysis focused on putative functional exonic variants assayed on the Illumina HumanExome BeadChip. We did not observe any individual protein-altering variants that are reproducibly associated with extremely high intelligence and within the entire distribution of intelligence. Moreover, no significant associations were found for multiple rare alleles within individual genes. However, analyses using genome-wide similarity between unrelated individuals (genome-wide complex trait analysis) indicate that the genotyped functional protein-altering variation yields a heritability estimate of 17.4% (s.e. 1.7%) based on a liability model. In addition, investigation of nominally significant associations revealed fewer rare alleles associated with extremely high intelligence than would be expected under the null hypothesis. This observation is consistent with the hypothesis that rare functional alleles are more frequently detrimental than beneficial to intelligence.

  8. Civic Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, David

    1985-01-01

    Social studies must educate students to be socially responsible, civically competent persons. In addition to encouraging civic literacy, civic values, and civic skill, teachers need to help students develop civic-mindedness. The objective of the NCSS' National Issues Forum in the Classroom Project is to develop students' civic intelligence. (RM)

  9. Speech Intelligibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Thomas

    Speech intelligibility (SI) is important for different fields of research, engineering and diagnostics in order to quantify very different phenomena like the quality of recordings, communication and playback devices, the reverberation of auditoria, characteristics of hearing impairment, benefit using hearing aids or combinations of these things.

  10. Ambient intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Sanders, David; Gegov, Alexander

    2006-01-01

    This paper considers some history and the state of the art of Ambient Intelligence and from that seeks to identify new topics and future work. Ubiquitous computing, communications, human-centric computer interaction, embedded systems, context awareness, adaptive systems and distributed device networks are considered.

  11. Intelligence Assessment: Gardner Multiple Intelligence Theory as an Alternative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Leandro S.; Prieto, Maria Dolores; Ferreira, Aristides I.; Bermejo, Maria Rosario; Ferrando, Mercedes; Ferrandiz, Carmen

    2010-01-01

    In the multiple intelligence framework, newer and more contextualized cognitive tasks are suggested as alternative to more traditional psychometric tests. The purpose of this article is to examine whether or not these two types of instruments converge into a general factor of cognitive performance. Thus, the Battery of General and Differential…

  12. Intelligent systems: A semiotic perspective. Volume I: Theoretical semiotics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albus, J.; Meystel, A.; Quintero, R.

    1996-12-31

    This report contains the papers from the Proceedings of the 1996 International Multidisciplinary Conference - Theoretical Semiotics. General topics covered are: semiotic in biology: biologically inspired complex systems; intelligence in constructed complex systems; intelligence of learning and evolution; fuzzy logic and the mechanisms of generalization; information representation for decision making; sematic foundations; syntactics of intelligent systems: the kind of logic available; intelligence of recognition: the semiotic tools; and multiresolutional methods.

  13. 18-21 Yaş Grubu Bireylerin Genel Zekâ Düzeyleri İle Psikolojik Semptom Dü- zeyleri Arasındaki İlişki (The Relation between General Intelligence Levels and Psychological Symptom Levels of Adolescents)

    OpenAIRE

    Oktay Aydın; Pınar Konyalıoğlu

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Researchers have stated that high intelligence might bring about psycho-logical problems. The purpose of this study was to investigate relationships be-tween general intelligence and some psychological symptoms.Method: Research participants included 73 students who were either university students in their first year or preparing for university. Their age ranged from 18 to 21 with a mean of 19,93. Female participants constituted 42,5% of the total and male participants included 57,5%...

  14. Implementácia Business Intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Bľanda, Lukáš

    2009-01-01

    This diploma thesis deals with the implementation of Business Intelligence solution in a travel industry company and its interconnection to Balanced Scorecard as one of the enterprise performance management tool. First part focuses on pointing out the main theoretical foundations of Balanced Scorecard and Business Intelligence. It describes Balanced Scorecard and its principles and it also defines Business Intelligence, the architecture of BI and the implementation process generally. In the s...

  15. Computational Intelligence in Information Systems Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Au, Thien-Wan; Omar, Saiful

    2017-01-01

    This book constitutes the Proceedings of the Computational Intelligence in Information Systems conference (CIIS 2016), held in Brunei, November 18–20, 2016. The CIIS conference provides a platform for researchers to exchange the latest ideas and to present new research advances in general areas related to computational intelligence and its applications. The 26 revised full papers presented in this book have been carefully selected from 62 submissions. They cover a wide range of topics and application areas in computational intelligence and informatics.

  16. Human intelligence and brain networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colom, Roberto; Karama, Sherif; Jung, Rex E; Haier, Richard J

    2010-01-01

    Intelligence can be defined as a general mental ability for reasoning, problem solving, and learning. Because of its general nature, intelligence integrates cognitive functions such as perception, attention, memory, language, or planning. On the basis of this definition, intelligence can be reliably measured by standardized tests with obtained scores predicting several broad social outcomes such as educational achievement, job performance, health, and longevity. A detailed understanding of the brain mechanisms underlying this general mental ability could provide significant individual and societal benefits. Structural and functional neuroimaging studies have generally supported a frontoparietal network relevant for intelligence. This same network has also been found to underlie cognitive functions related to perception, short-term memory storage, and language. The distributed nature of this network and its involvement in a wide range of cognitive functions fits well with the integrative nature of intelligence. A new key phase of research is beginning to investigate how functional networks relate to structural networks, with emphasis on how distributed brain areas communicate with each other.

  17. Team B Intelligence Coups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Gordon R.

    2006-01-01

    The 2003 Iraq prewar intelligence failure was not simply a case of the U.S. intelligence community providing flawed data to policy-makers. It also involved subversion of the competitive intelligence analysis process, where unofficial intelligence boutiques "stovepiped" misleading intelligence assessments directly to policy-makers and…

  18. Artificial Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, David R; Palacios-González, César; Harris, John

    2016-04-01

    It seems natural to think that the same prudential and ethical reasons for mutual respect and tolerance that one has vis-à-vis other human persons would hold toward newly encountered paradigmatic but nonhuman biological persons. One also tends to think that they would have similar reasons for treating we humans as creatures that count morally in our own right. This line of thought transcends biological boundaries-namely, with regard to artificially (super)intelligent persons-but is this a safe assumption? The issue concerns ultimate moral significance: the significance possessed by human persons, persons from other planets, and hypothetical nonorganic persons in the form of artificial intelligence (AI). This article investigates why our possible relations to AI persons could be more complicated than they first might appear, given that they might possess a radically different nature to us, to the point that civilized or peaceful coexistence in a determinate geographical space could be impossible to achieve.

  19. On Financial Intelligence Education under the Concept of General Education%通识教育理念下的财商教育

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴文前

    2012-01-01

    随着市场经济的深入发展和社会竞争的日益加剧,财商培养已经成为人们无法回避的问题。文章从中国大学生理财教育滞后的现状引申出大学理财教育的重要性,着重分析了如何有效利用国学通识课程融入理财知识教育,在提升学生道德的基础上,培养他们的财商素养,帮助他们树立德财兼备的财富观和正确的人生观。%Along with the further development of market economy and the increasing competitiveness in society, financial intelligence train- ing has become a topic that people cannot avoid. This paper analyzes the lagging of the current university finance education and draws out the importance of university financial education. Besides, the paper analyzes the importance of how to effectively apply the traditional sinology cours- es in financial intelligence education in order to cultivate students' financial accomplishments on the basis of improving student' s moral integri- ty and help them to establish the treasure value with the combination of both money and morality and correct life value.

  20. Intelligence Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-05-01

    environment (i.e., culture , class, family, educational 2 Chapter 23 Intelligence Revisited opportunities, gender) shapes our intellect, and there are no...connectivity is going to be rather problematic, to say the least. A single nano-bot cruising this Disneyland of synaptic wonderment is certainly... cultures ). Embodiment – A sense of being anchored to our physical bodies. Agency – A sense of free will, wherein we are in charge of our own

  1. Artificial intelligence in medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamet, Pavel; Tremblay, Johanne

    2017-04-01

    Artificial Intelligence (AI) is a general term that implies the use of a computer to model intelligent behavior with minimal human intervention. AI is generally accepted as having started with the invention of robots. The term derives from the Czech word robota, meaning biosynthetic machines used as forced labor. In this field, Leonardo Da Vinci's lasting heritage is today's burgeoning use of robotic-assisted surgery, named after him, for complex urologic and gynecologic procedures. Da Vinci's sketchbooks of robots helped set the stage for this innovation. AI, described as the science and engineering of making intelligent machines, was officially born in 1956. The term is applicable to a broad range of items in medicine such as robotics, medical diagnosis, medical statistics, and human biology-up to and including today's "omics". AI in medicine, which is the focus of this review, has two main branches: virtual and physical. The virtual branch includes informatics approaches from deep learning information management to control of health management systems, including electronic health records, and active guidance of physicians in their treatment decisions. The physical branch is best represented by robots used to assist the elderly patient or the attending surgeon. Also embodied in this branch are targeted nanorobots, a unique new drug delivery system. The societal and ethical complexities of these applications require further reflection, proof of their medical utility, economic value, and development of interdisciplinary strategies for their wider application.

  2. Intelligence in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín Nader

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Partial results of an investigation are presented whose primary objective is to adapt and to standardize the neurocognitive assessment battery C.A.S. of Das and Naglieri (1997 in a child sample. The test is an operationalization of a non traditional intelligence model (PASS that considers the intelligent behaviors as a group of four cognitive basic processes (planning, attention, simultaneous and successive processing. The objectives of this work are to obtain the psychometric properties of the instrument and also, to analyze if differences exist according to sex and age. The study type is crosswise - transactional. It was administered the CAS to 150 children residents in Buenos Aires among the ages of 6 to 12 years (population general non consultant and the WISC-III to a sample of 50 children. 

  3. Intelligent Sensors Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Bialas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is focused on the security issues of sensors provided with processors and software and used for high-risk applications. Common IT related threats may cause serious consequences for sensor system users. To improve their robustness, sensor systems should be developed in a restricted way that would provide them with assurance. One assurance creation methodology is Common Criteria (ISO/IEC 15408 used for IT products and systems. The paper begins with a primer on the Common Criteria, and then a general security model of the intelligent sensor as an IT product is discussed. The paper presents how the security problem of the intelligent sensor is defined and solved. The contribution of the paper is to provide Common Criteria (CC related security design patterns and to improve the effectiveness of the sensor development process.

  4. Intelligent Sensors Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialas, Andrzej

    2010-01-01

    The paper is focused on the security issues of sensors provided with processors and software and used for high-risk applications. Common IT related threats may cause serious consequences for sensor system users. To improve their robustness, sensor systems should be developed in a restricted way that would provide them with assurance. One assurance creation methodology is Common Criteria (ISO/IEC 15408) used for IT products and systems. The paper begins with a primer on the Common Criteria, and then a general security model of the intelligent sensor as an IT product is discussed. The paper presents how the security problem of the intelligent sensor is defined and solved. The contribution of the paper is to provide Common Criteria (CC) related security design patterns and to improve the effectiveness of the sensor development process. PMID:22315571

  5. Intelligent audio analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Schuller, Björn W

    2013-01-01

    This book provides the reader with the knowledge necessary for comprehension of the field of Intelligent Audio Analysis. It firstly introduces standard methods and discusses the typical Intelligent Audio Analysis chain going from audio data to audio features to audio recognition.  Further, an introduction to audio source separation, and enhancement and robustness are given. After the introductory parts, the book shows several applications for the three types of audio: speech, music, and general sound. Each task is shortly introduced, followed by a description of the specific data and methods applied, experiments and results, and a conclusion for this specific task. The books provides benchmark results and standardized test-beds for a broader range of audio analysis tasks. The main focus thereby lies on the parallel advancement of realism in audio analysis, as too often today’s results are overly optimistic owing to idealized testing conditions, and it serves to stimulate synergies arising from transfer of ...

  6. The Investigation of the effect of Emotional Intelligence and Spiritual Intelligence Components on the Organizational Culture of Ilam University Staff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seidmehdi Mehdi Veiseh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Spiritual intelligence has been defined as a framework for identifying and organizing skills and competencies necessary to use adaptive spirituality. The present study seeks to investigate the effect of the components of emotional intelligence and spiritual intelligence on the organizational culture of staff of Ilam University. The population under study was the staff of Ilam University, who was 400 people. The sample size was 110, which were randomly selected. To collect the data, Bar-on Emotional Intelligence (EQ scale and Amram and Dryer‟s Integrated Spiritual Intelligences Scale (ISIS were used. The obtained data were then analyze dusing Pearson correlation and simultaneous multiple regression analysis. The results showed that there is a significant relationship between emotional intelligence and organizational culture, also spiritual intelligence and organizational culture. The results also revealed that among the components of emotional intelligence and spiritual intelligence, intrapersonal skills, interpersonal skills, adaptability, Transcendence, dignity and Meaningful are significant predictors for organization culture, respectively.

  7. Swarm intelligence for scheduling: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Madureira, Ana Maria; Sousa, Nelson; Pereira, Ivo

    2011-01-01

    Swarm Intelligence generally refers to a problem-solving ability that emerges from the interaction of simple information-processing units. The concept of Swarm suggests multiplicity, distribution, stochasticity, randomness, and messiness. The concept of Intelligence suggests that problem-solving approach is successful considering learning, creativity, cognition capabilities. This paper introduces some of the theoretical foundations, the biological motivation and fundamental aspect...

  8. The relationship between trait emotional intelligence and interaction with ostracized others' retaliation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuki Nozaki

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Regulation of emotions in others is distinct from other activities related to trait emotional intelligence in that only such behavior can directly change other people's psychological states. Although emotional intelligence has generally been associated with prosociality, emotionally intelligent people may manipulate others' behaviors to suit their own interests using high-level capabilities to read and manage the emotions of others. This study investigated how trait emotional intelligence was related to interacting with ostracized others who attempt retaliation. METHOD: We experimentally manipulated whether two people were simultaneously ostracized or not by using an online ball-tossing game called Cyberball. Eighty university students participated in Cyberball for manipulating ostracism and a "recommendation game," a variation of the ultimatum game for assessing how to interact with others who attempt retaliation, with four participants. After the recommendation game, participants rated their intention to retaliate during the game. RESULTS: People with higher interpersonal emotional intelligence were more likely to recommend that the ostracized other should inhibit retaliation and maximize additional rewards when they have a weaker intention to retaliate. However, they were more likely to recommend that the ostracized other should retaliate against the ostracizers when they have a stronger intention to retaliate. CONCLUSION: This is the first laboratory study that empirically reveals that people with high interpersonal emotional intelligence influence others' emotions based on their own goals contrary to the general view. Trait emotional intelligence itself is neither positive nor negative, but it can facilitate interpersonal behaviors for achieving goals. Our study offers valuable contributions for the refinement of the trait emotional intelligence concept in the respect of its social function.

  9. The relationship between trait emotional intelligence and interaction with ostracized others' retaliation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozaki, Yuki; Koyasu, Masuo

    2013-01-01

    Regulation of emotions in others is distinct from other activities related to trait emotional intelligence in that only such behavior can directly change other people's psychological states. Although emotional intelligence has generally been associated with prosociality, emotionally intelligent people may manipulate others' behaviors to suit their own interests using high-level capabilities to read and manage the emotions of others. This study investigated how trait emotional intelligence was related to interacting with ostracized others who attempt retaliation. We experimentally manipulated whether two people were simultaneously ostracized or not by using an online ball-tossing game called Cyberball. Eighty university students participated in Cyberball for manipulating ostracism and a "recommendation game," a variation of the ultimatum game for assessing how to interact with others who attempt retaliation, with four participants. After the recommendation game, participants rated their intention to retaliate during the game. People with higher interpersonal emotional intelligence were more likely to recommend that the ostracized other should inhibit retaliation and maximize additional rewards when they have a weaker intention to retaliate. However, they were more likely to recommend that the ostracized other should retaliate against the ostracizers when they have a stronger intention to retaliate. This is the first laboratory study that empirically reveals that people with high interpersonal emotional intelligence influence others' emotions based on their own goals contrary to the general view. Trait emotional intelligence itself is neither positive nor negative, but it can facilitate interpersonal behaviors for achieving goals. Our study offers valuable contributions for the refinement of the trait emotional intelligence concept in the respect of its social function.

  10. A general model of distant hybridization reveals the conditions for extinction in Atlantic salmon and brown trout.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio S Quilodrán

    Full Text Available Interspecific hybridization is common in nature but can be increased in frequency or even originated by human actions, such as species introduction or habitat modification, which may threaten species persistence. When hybridization occurs between distantly related species, referred to as "distant hybridization," the resulting hybrids are generally infertile or fertile but do not undergo chromosomal recombination during gametogenesis. Here, we present a model describing this frequent but poorly studied interspecific hybridization to assess its consequences on parental species and to anticipate the conditions under which they can reach extinction. Our general model fully incorporates three important processes: density-dependent competition, dominance/recessivity inheritance of traits and assortative mating. We demonstrate its use and flexibility by assessing population extinction risk between Atlantic salmon and brown trout in Norway, whose interbreeding has recently increased due to farmed fish releases into the wild. We identified the set of conditions under which hybridization may threaten salmonid species. Thanks to the flexibility of our model, we evaluated the effect of an additional risk factor, a parasitic disease, and showed that the cumulative effects dramatically increase the extinction risk. The consequences of distant hybridization are not genetically, but demographically mediated. Our general model is useful to better comprehend the evolution of such hybrid systems and we demonstrated its importance in the field of conservation biology to set up management recommendations when this increasingly frequent type of hybridization is in action.

  11. Effect of general anesthesia for children on their intelligence and sensory integration capability%儿童行全身麻醉手术对其智力和感觉统合能力的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱明; 王璐

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study the effect of general anesthesia on children's intelligence and sensory integra-tion capability. Methods Children aged 7~9 who had gone through general anesthesia during the age from 1 to 3 but not for cardiac surgery or neurosurgery were selected as the experimental group (n=72). Children aged 7~9 who re-ceived no general anesthesia during the age from 1 to 3 were selected as the control group (n=72) based on the 1:1 principle correspondent with sex, age, and education, education levels, occupation of their parents of the experimental group. The Wechsler Intelligence Scale and Children Sensory Integration Capability Development Rating were used to assess the children's intelligence and capability of sensory integration. Results The two groups of children showed no statistically significant difference in the total index of intelligence and cognitive ability (P>0.05). In terms of the in-ternal structure of intelligence, the proportion of patients in the experimental group who were with difference between perceptual reasoning index and processing speed index was 16.7%(12/72), and that in the control group was 1.4%(1/72). Proportion of patients in the experimental group who were with difference between working memory and the verbal comprehension index was 20.8%(15/72), and that of the control group was 2.8%(2/72). Both the above com-parisons showed statistically significant differences (P0.05)。在智力内部结构方面,实验组儿童的言语理解-加工速度指数存在差异者为16.7%(12/72),而对照组为1.4%(1/72),实验组的知觉推理-加工速度指数差异者为20.8%,(15/72),对照组为2.8%(2/72),两组指数比较差异均具有统计学意义(P<0.05);实验组儿童前庭功能失衡发生率为25.0%(18/72),明显高于对照组儿童的1.4%(1/72),差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论总体来看,儿童在1~3岁期间进行全麻手术后对其后期的智力、感觉统合能力无显著影响,

  12. Human Intelligence: An Introduction to Advances in Theory and Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohman, David F.

    1989-01-01

    Recent advances in three research traditions are summarized: trait theories of intelligence, information-processing theories of intelligence, and general theories of thinking. Work on fluid and crystallized abilities by J. Horn and R. Snow, mental speed, spatial visualization, cognitive psychology, artificial intelligence, and the construct of…

  13. The Role of Information and Communication Technology in Competitive Intelligence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vriens, D.J.

    2004-01-01

    This chapter discusses the role of ICT for competitive intelligence activities. To this end, it starts with an introduction to competitive intelligence. Next, it discusses possible uses of ICT for intelligence activities. In this discussion attention is paid to the use of the Internet, to general pu

  14. Clinical Process Intelligence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilstrup Pedersen, Klaus

    2006-01-01

    .e. local guidelines. From a knowledge management point of view, this externalization of generalized processes, gives the opportunity to learn from, evaluate and optimize the processes. "Clinical Process Intelligence" (CPI), will denote the goal of getting generalized insight into patient centered health......, generalized processes de-ducted from many patient cases and clinical guidelines, are all guidelines that may be used in clinical reasoning. The differ-ence is the validity of the suggested actions and decisions. In the case of generalized processes deducted from EMRs, we have "what we usually do" practice i...... care processes by means of statistical, OLAP and data mining tech-niques, with the aim of refining clinical guidelines, develop local guidelines and facilitate outcome predictions....

  15. National Responses to Transnational Terrorism: Intelligence and Counterterrorism Provision

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Intelligence about transnational terrorist threats is generally gathered by national agencies. I set up and analyze a game theoretic model to study the implications of national intelligence gathering for the provision of domestic (defensive) counterterrorism when two countries are facing a transnational terrorist threat. It is shown that, relative to a benchmark case where all intelligence is commonly known, national intelligence gathering often leads to increased overprovision, although it c...

  16. What Makes Nations Intelligent?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Earl

    2012-05-01

    Modern society is driven by the use of cognitive artifacts: physical instruments or styles of reasoning that amplify our ability to think. The artifacts range from writing systems to computers. In everyday life, a person demonstrates intelligence by showing skill in using these artifacts. Intelligence tests and their surrogates force examinees to exhibit some of these skills but not others. This is why test scores correlate substantially but not perfectly with a variety of measures of socioeconomic success. The same thing is true at the international level. Nations can be evaluated by the extent to which their citizens score well on cognitive tests, including both avowed intelligence tests and a variety of tests of academic achievement. The resulting scores are substantially correlated with various indices of national wealth, health, environmental quality, and schooling and with a vaguer variable, social commitment to innovation. These environmental variables are suggested as causes of the differences in general cognitive skills between national populations. It is conceivable that differences in gene pools also contribute to international and, within nations, group differences in cognitive skills, but at present it is impossible to evaluate the extent of genetic influences.

  17. Haptic Visual Discrimination and Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarron, Lawrence; Horn, Paul W.

    1979-01-01

    The Haptic Visual Discrimination Test of tactual-visual information processing was administered to 39 first-graders, along with standard intelligence, academic potential, and spatial integration tests. Results revealed consistently significant associations between the importance of parieto-occipital areas for organizing sensory data as well as for…

  18. GWAS meta-analysis reveals novel loci and genetic correlates for general cognitive function: a report from the COGENT consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trampush, J W; Yang, M L Z; Yu, J; Knowles, E; Davies, G; Liewald, D C; Starr, J M; Djurovic, S; Melle, I; Sundet, K; Christoforou, A; Reinvang, I; DeRosse, P; Lundervold, A J; Steen, V M; Espeseth, T; Räikkönen, K; Widen, E; Palotie, A; Eriksson, J G; Giegling, I; Konte, B; Roussos, P; Giakoumaki, S; Burdick, K E; Payton, A; Ollier, W; Horan, M; Chiba-Falek, O; Attix, D K; Need, A C; Cirulli, E T; Voineskos, A N; Stefanis, N C; Avramopoulos, D; Hatzimanolis, A; Arking, D E; Smyrnis, N; Bilder, R M; Freimer, N A; Cannon, T D; London, E; Poldrack, R A; Sabb, F W; Congdon, E; Conley, E D; Scult, M A; Dickinson, D; Straub, R E; Donohoe, G; Morris, D; Corvin, A; Gill, M; Hariri, A R; Weinberger, D R; Pendleton, N; Bitsios, P; Rujescu, D; Lahti, J; Le Hellard, S; Keller, M C; Andreassen, O A; Deary, I J; Glahn, D C; Malhotra, A K; Lencz, T

    2017-01-01

    The complex nature of human cognition has resulted in cognitive genomics lagging behind many other fields in terms of gene discovery using genome-wide association study (GWAS) methods. In an attempt to overcome these barriers, the current study utilized GWAS meta-analysis to examine the association of common genetic variation (~8M single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) with minor allele frequency ⩾1%) to general cognitive function in a sample of 35 298 healthy individuals of European ancestry across 24 cohorts in the Cognitive Genomics Consortium (COGENT). In addition, we utilized individual SNP lookups and polygenic score analyses to identify genetic overlap with other relevant neurobehavioral phenotypes. Our primary GWAS meta-analysis identified two novel SNP loci (top SNPs: rs76114856 in the CENPO gene on chromosome 2 and rs6669072 near LOC105378853 on chromosome 1) associated with cognitive performance at the genome-wide significance level (P<5 × 10−8). Gene-based analysis identified an additional three Bonferroni-corrected significant loci at chromosomes 17q21.31, 17p13.1 and 1p13.3. Altogether, common variation across the genome resulted in a conservatively estimated SNP heritability of 21.5% (s.e.=0.01%) for general cognitive function. Integration with prior GWAS of cognitive performance and educational attainment yielded several additional significant loci. Finally, we found robust polygenic correlations between cognitive performance and educational attainment, several psychiatric disorders, birth length/weight and smoking behavior, as well as a novel genetic association to the personality trait of openness. These data provide new insight into the genetics of neurocognitive function with relevance to understanding the pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric illness. PMID:28093568

  19. Web Intelligence and Artificial Intelligence in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devedzic, Vladan

    2004-01-01

    This paper surveys important aspects of Web Intelligence (WI) in the context of Artificial Intelligence in Education (AIED) research. WI explores the fundamental roles as well as practical impacts of Artificial Intelligence (AI) and advanced Information Technology (IT) on the next generation of Web-related products, systems, services, and…

  20. Web Intelligence and Artificial Intelligence in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devedzic, Vladan

    2004-01-01

    This paper surveys important aspects of Web Intelligence (WI) in the context of Artificial Intelligence in Education (AIED) research. WI explores the fundamental roles as well as practical impacts of Artificial Intelligence (AI) and advanced Information Technology (IT) on the next generation of Web-related products, systems, services, and…

  1. Priming intelligent behavior: an elusive phenomenon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R Shanks

    Full Text Available Can behavior be unconsciously primed via the activation of attitudes, stereotypes, or other concepts? A number of studies have suggested that such priming effects can occur, and a prominent illustration is the claim that individuals' accuracy in answering general knowledge questions can be influenced by activating intelligence-related concepts such as professor or soccer hooligan. In 9 experiments with 475 participants we employed the procedures used in these studies, as well as a number of variants of those procedures, in an attempt to obtain this intelligence priming effect. None of the experiments obtained the effect, although financial incentives did boost performance. A Bayesian analysis reveals considerable evidential support for the null hypothesis. The results conform to the pattern typically obtained in word priming experiments in which priming is very narrow in its generalization and unconscious (subliminal influences, if they occur at all, are extremely short-lived. We encourage others to explore the circumstances in which this phenomenon might be obtained.

  2. Business Intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Strejčková, Lucie

    2006-01-01

    Cílem této bakalářské práce je seznámení s Business Intelligence a zpracování vývojového trendu, který ovlivňuje podobu řešení Business Intelligence v podniku ? Business Activity Monitoring. Pro zpracování tohoto tématu byla použita metoda studia odborných pramenů, a to jak v českém, tak v anglickém jazyce. Hlavním přínosem práce je ucelený, v českém jazyce zpracovaný materiál pojednávající o Business Activity Monitoring. Práce je rozdělena do šesti hlavních kapitol. Prvních pět je věnováno p...

  3. Business Intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Strejčková, Lucie

    2001-01-01

    Cílem této bakalářské práce je seznámení s Business Intelligence a zpracování vývojového trendu, který ovlivňuje podobu řešení Business Intelligence v podniku ? Business Activity Monitoring. Pro zpracování tohoto tématu byla použita metoda studia odborných pramenů, a to jak v českém, tak v anglickém jazyce. Hlavním přínosem práce je ucelený, v českém jazyce zpracovaný materiál pojednávající o Business Activity Monitoring. Práce je rozdělena do šesti hlavních kapitol. Prvních pět je věnováno p...

  4. Light and electron microscopy of the European beaver (Castor fiber stomach reveal unique morphological features with possible general biological significance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Ziółkowska

    Full Text Available Anatomical, histological, and ultrastructural studies of the European beaver stomach revealed several unique morphological features. The prominent attribute of its gross morphology was the cardiogastric gland (CGG, located near the oesophageal entrance. Light microscopy showed that the CGG was formed by invaginations of the mucosa into the submucosa, which contained densely packed proper gastric glands comprised primarily of parietal and chief cells. Mucous neck cells represented <0.1% of cells in the CGG gastric glands and 22-32% of cells in the proper gastric glands of the mucosa lining the stomach lumen. These data suggest that chief cells in the CGG develop from undifferentiated cells that migrate through the gastric gland neck rather than from mucous neck cells. Classical chief cell formation (i.e., arising from mucous neck cells occurred in the mucosa lining the stomach lumen, however. The muscularis around the CGG consisted primarily of skeletal muscle tissue. The cardiac region was rudimentary while the fundus/corpus and pyloric regions were equally developed. Another unusual feature of the beaver stomach was the presence of specific mucus with a thickness up to 950 µm (in frozen, unfixed sections that coated the mucosa. Our observations suggest that the formation of this mucus is complex and includes the secretory granule accumulation in the cytoplasm of pit cells, the granule aggregation inside cells, and the incorporation of degenerating cells into the mucus.

  5. Light and electron microscopy of the European beaver (Castor fiber) stomach reveal unique morphological features with possible general biological significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziółkowska, Natalia; Lewczuk, Bogdan; Petryński, Wojciech; Palkowska, Katarzyna; Prusik, Magdalena; Targońska, Krystyna; Giżejewski, Zygmunt; Przybylska-Gornowicz, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Anatomical, histological, and ultrastructural studies of the European beaver stomach revealed several unique morphological features. The prominent attribute of its gross morphology was the cardiogastric gland (CGG), located near the oesophageal entrance. Light microscopy showed that the CGG was formed by invaginations of the mucosa into the submucosa, which contained densely packed proper gastric glands comprised primarily of parietal and chief cells. Mucous neck cells represented stomach lumen. These data suggest that chief cells in the CGG develop from undifferentiated cells that migrate through the gastric gland neck rather than from mucous neck cells. Classical chief cell formation (i.e., arising from mucous neck cells) occurred in the mucosa lining the stomach lumen, however. The muscularis around the CGG consisted primarily of skeletal muscle tissue. The cardiac region was rudimentary while the fundus/corpus and pyloric regions were equally developed. Another unusual feature of the beaver stomach was the presence of specific mucus with a thickness up to 950 µm (in frozen, unfixed sections) that coated the mucosa. Our observations suggest that the formation of this mucus is complex and includes the secretory granule accumulation in the cytoplasm of pit cells, the granule aggregation inside cells, and the incorporation of degenerating cells into the mucus.

  6. 工作记忆、中央执行功能与流体智力的关系分析%Study on the relationship of working memory, central executive function and general fluid intelligence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛振林; 党瑾璇; 李静; 高晓彩; 张富昌

    2013-01-01

    The study aims at explore the relationship among the working memory capacity,the components of central executive function and general fluid intelligence.Main conclusions are as follows:(1) the separability of the central executive function in working memory is conformed by the present results; (2) the WMC is strongly related to Raven liquid test(r=0.208 **) ;(3) compared to the switching and inhibition capacity in central executive function,updating can predict and explain general fluid intelligence better.%探讨工作记忆、中央执行功能子成分与流体智力的关系.以秦巴山区18~40岁健康成人为研究对象,通过对中央执行功能子成分、工作记忆广度以及流体智力的测量,分析了各变量之间的关系,并进一步探讨了中央执行功能各子成分的可分离性.得到(1)工作记忆中的中央执行功能具有可分离性;(2)工作记忆广度与瑞文测验成绩之间的显著相关是刷新功能的作用;(3)相对于抑制功能和转换功能,刷新功能对流体智力具有更强的预测效应和解释力.

  7. Aberrant regional neural fluctuations and functional connectivity in generalized anxiety disorder revealed by resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Hou, Jingming; Qian, Shaowen; Liu, Kai; Li, Bo; Li, Min; Peng, Zhaohui; Xin, Kuolin; Sun, Gang

    2016-06-15

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the neural activity and functional connectivity in generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) during resting state, and how these alterations correlate to patients' symptoms. Twenty-eight GAD patients and 28 matched healthy controls underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance (fMRI) scans. Amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) and seed-based resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) were computed to explore regional activity and functional integration, and were compared between the two groups using the voxel-based two-sample t test. Pearson's correlation analyses were performed to examine the neural relationships with demographics and clinical symptoms scores. Compared to controls, GAD patients showed functional abnormalities: higher ALFF in the bilateral dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and left precuneus/posterior cingulate cortex; lower connectivity in prefrontal gyrus; lower in prefrontal-limbic and cingulate RSFC and higher prefrontal-hippocampus RSFC were correlated with clinical symptoms severity, but these associations were unable to withstand correction for multiple testing. These findings may help facilitate further understanding of the potential neural substrate of GAD.

  8. By their words ye shall know them: evidence of genetic selection against general intelligence and concurrent environmental enrichment in vocabulary usage since the mid 19th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Anthony Woodley of Menie

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available It has been theorized that declines in g due to negative selection stemming from the inverse association between completed fertility and IQ, and the Flynn effect co-occur, with the effects of the latter being concentrated on less-heritable non-g sources of intelligence variance. Evidence for this comes from the observation that 19th Century populations were more intellectually productive, and also exhibited faster simple reaction times than modern ones, suggesting higher g. This co-occurrence model is tested via examination of historical changes in the utilization frequencies of words from the highly g-loaded WORDSUM test across 5.9 million texts spanning 1850 to 2005. Consistent with predictions, words with higher difficulties (δ parameters from Item Response Theory and stronger negative correlations between pass-rates and completed fertility presented a steeper decline in use over time, than less difficult and less negatively selected words, which increased in use over time, suggestive of a Flynn effect. These findings persisted when explicitly controlled for word age, literacy rates and temporal autocorrelation. These trends constitute compelling evidence that both producers and consumers of text have experienced declines in g since the mid-19th Century.

  9. Intelligent nesting system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đuričić Zoran

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The economy of the process for the manufacture of parts from sheet metal plates depends on successful solution of the process of cutting various parts from sheet metal plates. Essentially, the problem is to arrange contours within a defined space so that they take up minimal surface. When taken in this way, the considered problem assumes a more general nature; it refers to the utilization of a flat surface, and it can represent a general principle of arranging 2D contours on a certain surface. The paper presents a conceptual solution and a prototypal intelligent nesting system for optimal cutting. The problem of nesting can generally be divided into two intellectual phases: recognition and classification of shapes, and arrangement of recognized shapes on a given surface. In solving these problems, methods of artificial intelligence are applied. In the paper, trained neural network is used for recognition of shapes; on the basis of raster record of a part's drawing, it recognizes the part's shape and which class it belongs to. By means of the expert system, based on rules defined on the basis of acquisition of knowledge from manufacturing sections, as well as on the basis of certain mathematical algorithms, parts are arranged on the arrangement surface. Both systems can also work independently, having been built on the modular principle. The system uses various product models as elements of integration for the entire system. .

  10. Intelligent products : A survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meyer, G.G.; Främling, K.; Holmström, J.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the field of Intelligent Products. As Intelligent Products have many facets, this paper is mainly focused on the concept behind Intelligent Products, the technical foundations, and the achievable practical goals of Intelligent Products. A novel classification of In

  11. Intelligence and Savant Syndrome: Is the Whole Greater than the Sum of the Fragments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettelbeck, Ted; Young, Robyn

    1996-01-01

    It is argued that skills displayed by savants are not intelligent and that H. Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences fails by overstating the relevance of savant skills and because it disregards research evidence for a general factor. Intelligence theory must compile a structure that accounts for savant skills and intelligence. (SLD)

  12. Legacies of stream channel modification revealed using General Land Office surveys, with implications for water temperature and aquatic life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth M. White

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Land use legacies can have a discernible influence in present-day watersheds and should be accounted for when designing conservation strategies for riverine aquatic life. We describe the environmental history of three watersheds within the Grande Ronde subbasin of the Columbia River using General Land Office survey field notes from the 19th century. In the two watersheds severely impacted by Euro-American land use, stream channel widths—a metric representing habitat simplification—increased from an average historical width of 16.8 m to an average present width of 20.8 m in large streams; 4.3 m to 5.5 m in small, confined or partly confined streams; and 3.5 m to 6.5 m in small, laterally unconfined steams. Conversely, we did not detect significant change in stream widths in an adjacent, wilderness stream with minimal human impact. Using a mechanistic water temperature model and restoration scenarios based on the historical condition, we predicted that stream restoration in the impacted watersheds could notably decrease average water temperatures—especially when channel narrowing is coupled with riparian restoration—up to a 6.6°C reduction in the upper Grande Ronde River and 3.0°C in Catherine Creek. These reductions in water temperature translated to substantial changes in the percentage of stream network habitable to salmon and steelhead migration (from 29% in the present condition to 79% in the fully restored scenario and to core juvenile rearing (from 13% in the present condition to 36% in the fully restored scenario. We conclude that land use legacies leave an important footprint on the present landscape and are critical for understanding historic habitat-forming processes as a necessary first step towards restoration.

  13. Emotional intelligence of mental health nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dusseldorp, Loes R L C; van Meijel, Berno K G; Derksen, Jan J L

    2011-02-01

    The aim of this study is to gain insight into the level of emotional intelligence of mental health nurses in the Netherlands. The focus in research on emotional intelligence to date has been on a variety of professionals. However, little is known about emotional intelligence in mental health nurses. The emotional intelligence of 98 Dutch nurses caring for psychiatric patients is reported. Data were collected with the Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory within a cross-sectional research design. The mean level of emotional intelligence of this sample of professionals is statistically significant higher than the emotional intelligence of the general population. Female nurses score significantly higher than men on the subscales Empathy, Social Responsibility, Interpersonal Relationship, Emotional Self-awareness, Self-Actualisation and Assertiveness. No correlations are found between years of experience and age on the one hand and emotional intelligence on the other hand. The results of this study show that nurses in psychiatric care indeed score above average in the emotional intelligence required to cope with the amount of emotional labour involved in daily mental health practice. The ascertained large range in emotional intelligence scores among the mental health nurses challenges us to investigate possible implications which higher or lower emotional intelligence levels may have on the quality of care. For instance, a possible relation between the level of emotional intelligence and the quality of the therapeutic nurse-patient relationship or the relation between the level of emotional intelligence and the manner of coping with situations characterised by a great amount of emotional labour (such as caring for patients who self-harm or are suicidal). © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. The Effect of Verbal Intelligence on Knowledge of Lexicon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoumeh Parsa

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of verbal intelligence on Iranian pre-intermediate students’ knowledge of lexicon. The participants comprised of 30 male and 30 female learners. A vocabulary test was administered to find out students’ vocabulary knowledge and also Wechsler intelligence test was administered for both groups of male and female to find out students’ verbal intelligence, of course the verbal part of intelligence was needed due to the topic of study. Analysis of the result revealed that the participants who had higher verbal intelligence also had higher marks in vocabulary test and the participants who had lower verbal intelligence had a lower mark in vocabulary test. Keywords: Multiple intelligences, VI (Linguistic Intelligence, Knowledge of lexicon

  15. The Scientific Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence: a Sociological Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romesberg, Daniel Ray

    1992-01-01

    This study examines the search for extraterrestrial intelligence, as it has been conducted by scientists over the past century. The following questions are explored: (1) What are the historical patterns of American scientific interest in extraterrestrial intelligence? From a sociology of science perspective, how can these patterns of interest be explained? (2) Who are the most prominent scientists involved in SETI? What are their academic backgrounds? (3) How has the rather exotic idea of extraterrestrial intelligence managed to penetrate the realm of respectable science?. In order to measure the historical fluctuations of scientific interest in extraterrestrial intelligence, a frequency distribution of relevant articles published in American scientific journals over the past century has been constructed. The core scholars of the "extraterrestrial" field have been determined via citation analysis, in a selected portion of the scientific literature. An analysis of recent scientific literature on the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI) has revealed a number of tactics of legitimation and de-legitimation used by SETI proponents, as well as opponents. This study has generated the following findings: (1) Historically, there are three factors which tend to stimulate general scientific interest in extraterrestrial intelligence: First, the strong demonstration of the plausibility of extraterrestrial intelligence, or life, especially in a tangible, and therefore studiable location. Scientific laboratories are primary agents of plausibility here. Second, the organized political activity of SETI scientists. Third, the availability of government funding for searches for extraterrestrial intelligence, or life. (2) Statistically, the leading scholars of modern SETI are Sagan, Drake and Morrison. The field itself tends to be dominated by astronomers and physicists. (3) Because SETI has no concrete data, and is easily stigmatized as an illegitimate scientific activity

  16. Intelligent Routines

    CERN Document Server

    Anastassiou, George A

    Intelligent Routines II: Solving Linear Algebra and Differential Geometry with Sage” contains numerous of examples and problems as well as many unsolved problems. This book extensively applies the successful software Sage, which can be found free online http://www.sagemath.org/. Sage is a recent and popular software for mathematical computation, available freely and simple to use. This book is useful to all applied scientists in mathematics, statistics and engineering, as well for late undergraduate and graduate students of above subjects. It is the first such book in solving symbolically with Sage problems in Linear Algebra and Differential Geometry. Plenty of SAGE applications are given at each step of the exposition.

  17. Pathogen intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinert, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Different species inhabit different sensory worlds and thus have evolved diverse means of processing information, learning and memory. In the escalated arms race with host defense, each pathogenic bacterium not only has evolved its individual cellular sensing and behavior, but also collective sensing, interbacterial communication, distributed information processing, joint decision making, dissociative behavior, and the phenotypic and genotypic heterogeneity necessary for epidemiologic success. Moreover, pathogenic populations take advantage of dormancy strategies and rapid evolutionary speed, which allow them to save co-generated intelligent traits in a collective genomic memory. This review discusses how these mechanisms add further levels of complexity to bacterial pathogenicity and transmission, and how mining for these mechanisms could help to develop new anti-infective strategies. PMID:24551600

  18. Intelligent Governmentality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willem de Lint

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Recently, within liberal democracies, the post-Westphalian consolidation of security and intelligence has ushered in the normalization not only of security in ‘securitization’ but also of intelligence in what is proposed here as ‘intelligencification.’ In outlining the features of intelligencified governance, my aim is to interrogate the view that effects or traces, and productivity rather than negation is as persuasive as commonly thought by the constructivists. After all, counter-intelligence is both about purging and reconstructing the archive for undisclosed values. In practice, what is being normalized is the authorized and legalized use of release and retention protocols of politically actionable information. The intelligencification of governmentality affords a sovereignty shell-game or the instrumentalization of sovereign power by interests that are dependent on, yet often inimical to, the power of state, national, and popular sovereignty. On voit le politique et le social comme dépendant de contingences exclusives. Récemment, au sein des démocraties libérales, la consolidation de la sécurité et des services de renseignements de sécurité qui a suivi les traités de la Westphalie a donné lieu à la normalisation non seulement de la sécurité en «sécurisation» mais aussi des services de renseignements de sécurité en ce qui est proposé ici comme «intelligencification» [terme anglais créé par l’auteur, dérivé du mot anglais «intelligence» dans le sens de renseignements des écurité]. En particulier, ce que l’on normalise dans le but de contourner des contingences exclusives est l’utilisation autorisée et légalisée de protocoles de communication et de rétention d’information qui, politiquement, pourrait mener à des poursuites. En esquissant les traits de la gouvernance «intelligencifiée», mon but est d’interroger le point de vue que les effets ou les traces, et la productivité plutôt que la

  19. Artificial intelligence: Principles and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yazdani, M.

    1986-01-01

    Following the Japanese announcement that they intend to devise, make, and market, in the 1990s, computers incorporating a level of intelligence, a vast amount of energy and expense has been diverted at the field of Artificial Intelligence. Workers for the past 25 years in this discipline have tried to reproduce human behavior on computers and this book presents their achievements and the problems. Subjects include: computer vision, speech processing, robotics, natural language processing expert systems and machine learning. The book also attempts to show the general principles behind the various applications and finally attempts to show their implications for other human endeavors such as philosophy, psychology, and the development of modern society.

  20. Artificial intelligence techniques in Prolog

    CERN Document Server

    Shoham, Yoav

    1993-01-01

    Artificial Intelligence Techniques in Prolog introduces the reader to the use of well-established algorithmic techniques in the field of artificial intelligence (AI), with Prolog as the implementation language. The techniques considered cover general areas such as search, rule-based systems, and truth maintenance, as well as constraint satisfaction and uncertainty management. Specific application domains such as temporal reasoning, machine learning, and natural language are also discussed.Comprised of 10 chapters, this book begins with an overview of Prolog, paying particular attention to Prol

  1. The C-Test: An Integrative Measure of Crystallized Intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purya Baghaei

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Crystallized intelligence is a pivotal broad ability factor in the major theories of intelligence including the Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC model, the three-stratum model, and the extended Gf-Gc (fluid intelligence-crystallized intelligence model and is usually measured by means of vocabulary tests and other verbal tasks. In this paper the C-Test, a text completion test originally proposed as a test of general proficiency in a foreign language, is introduced as an integrative measure of crystallized intelligence. Based on the existing evidence in the literature, it is argued that the construct underlying the C-Test closely matches the abilities underlying the language component of crystallized intelligence, as defined in the well-established theories of intelligence. It is also suggested that by carefully selecting texts from pertinent knowledge domains, the factual knowledge component of crystallized intelligence could also be measured by the C-Test.

  2. A Framework for Intelligent Instructional Systems: An Artificial Intelligence Machine Learning Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Lee A.

    1987-01-01

    Presents and develops a general model of the nature of a learning system and a classification for learning systems. Highlights include the relationship between artificial intelligence and cognitive psychology; computer-based instructional systems; intelligent instructional systems; and the role of the learner's knowledge base in an intelligent…

  3. Global Research on Artificial Intelligence from 1990–2014: Spatially-Explicit Bibliometric Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiqiang Niu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we conducted the evaluation of artificial intelligence research from 1990–2014 by using bibliometric analysis. We introduced spatial analysis and social network analysis as geographic information retrieval methods for spatially-explicit bibliometric analysis. This study is based on the analysis of data obtained from database of the Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-Expanded and Conference Proceedings Citation Index-Science (CPCI-S. Our results revealed scientific outputs, subject categories and main journals, author productivity and geographic distribution, international productivity and collaboration, and hot issues and research trends. The growth of article outputs in artificial intelligence research has exploded since the 1990s, along with increasing collaboration, reference, and citations. Computer science and engineering were the most frequently-used subject categories in artificial intelligence studies. The top twenty productive authors are distributed in countries with a high investment of research and development. The United States has the highest number of top research institutions in artificial intelligence, producing most single-country and collaborative articles. Although there is more and more collaboration among institutions, cooperation, especially international ones, are not highly prevalent in artificial intelligence research as expected. The keyword analysis revealed interesting research preferences, confirmed that methods, models, and application are in the central position of artificial intelligence. Further, we found interesting related keywords with high co-occurrence frequencies, which have helped identify new models and application areas in recent years. Bibliometric analysis results from our study will greatly facilitate the understanding of the progress and trends in artificial intelligence, in particular, for those researchers interested in domain-specific AI-driven problem-solving. This will be

  4. Reliability analysis in intelligent machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcinroy, John E.; Saridis, George N.

    1990-01-01

    Given an explicit task to be executed, an intelligent machine must be able to find the probability of success, or reliability, of alternative control and sensing strategies. By using concepts for information theory and reliability theory, new techniques for finding the reliability corresponding to alternative subsets of control and sensing strategies are proposed such that a desired set of specifications can be satisfied. The analysis is straightforward, provided that a set of Gaussian random state variables is available. An example problem illustrates the technique, and general reliability results are presented for visual servoing with a computed torque-control algorithm. Moreover, the example illustrates the principle of increasing precision with decreasing intelligence at the execution level of an intelligent machine.

  5. Computational aerodynamics and artificial intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, U. B.; Kutler, P.

    1984-01-01

    The general principles of artificial intelligence are reviewed and speculations are made concerning how knowledge based systems can accelerate the process of acquiring new knowledge in aerodynamics, how computational fluid dynamics may use expert systems, and how expert systems may speed the design and development process. In addition, the anatomy of an idealized expert system called AERODYNAMICIST is discussed. Resource requirements for using artificial intelligence in computational fluid dynamics and aerodynamics are examined. Three main conclusions are presented. First, there are two related aspects of computational aerodynamics: reasoning and calculating. Second, a substantial portion of reasoning can be achieved with artificial intelligence. It offers the opportunity of using computers as reasoning machines to set the stage for efficient calculating. Third, expert systems are likely to be new assets of institutions involved in aeronautics for various tasks of computational aerodynamics.

  6. [Relation between myopia and intelligence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolezalová, V; Mottlová, D

    1995-09-01

    The objective of the investigation to confirm the authors experience and data from the literature that refractory myopia is as a rule associated with a higher of intelligence. In the first part one of the authors evaluated a group of 14-year-old myopic children with hypermetropia children of the same age. For evaluation she used the intelligence quotient (IQ) and assessment by teachers before the children left elementary school. The results are clearly in flavour of the myopia children. In the second part the authors evaluated the intelligence of 15-18-year-old myopic secondary school pupils as compared with their classmates. Assuring that myopia is usually associated with higher intelligence and makes thus more profound education possible, they compared the students with apprentires trained to be cooks and waiters. The myopic students won again. Arong students there were 36.8% myopic, among appretices only 8%. The mean progress of students is 1.99, of apprentices only 2.68%. The myopic students have a general better progress and better marks in mathematics than their classmates without refractory defects (1.86:2.07 and 2.14:2.39). Based on the results of the investigation the authors assume that they were able to confirm data in the literature that myopic students are on average more intelligent that their poors of the same age.

  7. Ann Sevi Ak Tout Entelijans Elev Ayisyen Yo: Yon Seri leson matematik ak syans pou elev edikasyon jeneral ak elev edikasyon espesyal (4em-8em ane) = Tapping into Haitian Students' Multiple Intelligences: A Collection of Mathematics and Science Lessons for General and Special Education Students (Grades 4-8).

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Office of Bilingual Education.

    The materials consist of five mathematics and five science lessons for Haitian bilingual students in general and special education in grades 4-8. A thematic/interdisciplinary approach was used in designing the lesson, incorporating theory of multiple intelligences, Bloom's taxonomy of educational objectives, and other learning theories. The…

  8. Pro SharePoint 2010 Business Intelligence Solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Malik, Sahil; Wright, Steve

    2010-01-01

    What differentiates good organizations from bad? The good ones are those that take advantage of the data they already have and use the feedback that business intelligence gives them to improve their processes. SharePoint is now the delivery platform of choice for Microsoft's business intelligence products, and in this book we reveal how to get the most from developing business intelligence solutions on SharePoint 2010. To understand the various business intelligence offerings in SharePoint 2010, you need to understand the core SQL Server business intelligence concepts, and the first part of th

  9. Artificial intelligence library for html5 based games: DignityAI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berkan Uslu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Today, acceleration of internet and common use of web pages, revealed the necessity of work with any browser smoothly for each application without of requirement of any plug-in. Generally, HTML5 is a new body of standards which is formed with the combination of CSS and JavaScript. In this context, by analysing game engines developed for HTML5, their features and advantages are investigated. Although, these game engines are close to catch up with the level of popular game engines, it is seen that none of artificial intelligence library was developed for HTML5 based games up to now. In this study, DignityAI artificial intelligence library is developed to fill this deficiency. Developed library has ability to be integrated to all HTML5 games independently from game engine and to add artificial intelligence dynamics to these games.

  10. A comparative study on emotional intelligence and cognitive between successful and unsuccessful entrepreneurs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paria Karimi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available It has been a long time that researchers are trying to find out on why some people have better mental health than others do and some are more successful than the others are. There are many evidences to believe that having general intelligence does not necessarily yield prosperity and success and it could be accounted up to 20% of the success, whereas the remaining 80% is associated with other issues. The present study attempts to perform a comparative study on emotional intelligence and cognitive among successful and unsuccessful entrepreneurs. We adopt a standard test, which includes 133 questions and distribute it between two groups of successful and unsuccessful entrepreneurs in province of Sistan and Balochestan located in south west of Iran. The results of our ANOVA test when the level of significance is five percent reveal that emotional intelligence can substantially impact on the success of entrepreneurs.

  11. 应用韦氏智力量表评估全身麻醉下牙齿治疗对儿童的影响%Children’s intelligence quotient following general anesthesia for dental care:a clini-cal observation by Chinese Wechsler young children scale of intelligence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏斌; 王建红; 肖雨萌; 刘克英; 杨旭东; 葛立宏

    2016-01-01

    Objective:It has been demonstrated that anesthetics exposure may lead to neurocognitive impairment in developing brain of animal models.However,for the limitation that the animal models can-not fully mimic the dose and duration in clinical settings especially for dental general anesthesia,the cli-nical significance of anesthetics exposure on developing central nervous system remains undetermined. Therefore,we conducted the current study in order to observe the fluctuation of intelligence quotient (IQ)after the administration of dental general anesthesia comparing to that before surgery.We conducted the current study in order to observe the fluctuation of intelligence quotient (IQ)after the administration of dental general anesthesia compared with that before surgery.Methods:Thirty two patients,ASA Ⅰ, who were exposed to dental general anesthesia in Department of Pediatric Dentistry Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology,aged 4 to 6.5 years,were enrolled in this prospective study.Patients with severe learning difficulties or communication disorders were excluded.Written and informed consent was obtained from each patients’family which was fully explained of the purpose and method of study. Their intelligence quotients were evaluated with the Chinese Wechsler young children scale of intelligence (Urban version)before and 2 weeks after dental anesthesia.They were treated by experienced pediatric dentists and the sevoflurane,propofol and nitrous oxide were used for general anesthesia by anesthetist. Articaine hydrochloride and epinephrine tartrate injections were used for their pulp treatment or extrac-tion.The examiners and scorers for IQ had technical training in the test administration.All the patients were tested by the same examiner and with standardized guide language.Each subtest was scored accor-ding to the tool review.Verbal IQ and performance IQ consisted of relevant 5 subtests and full scale IQ. Statistical analyses were performed by SPSS

  12. The validation of Huffaz Intelligence Test (HIT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahim, Mohd Azrin Mohammad; Ahmad, Tahir; Awang, Siti Rahmah; Safar, Ajmain

    2017-08-01

    In general, a hafiz who can memorize the Quran has many specialties especially in respect to their academic performances. In this study, the theory of multiple intelligences introduced by Howard Gardner is embedded in a developed psychometric instrument, namely Huffaz Intelligence Test (HIT). This paper presents the validation and the reliability of HIT of some tahfiz students in Malaysia Islamic schools. A pilot study was conducted involving 87 huffaz who were randomly selected to answer the items in HIT. The analysis method used includes Partial Least Square (PLS) on reliability, convergence and discriminant validation. The study has validated nine intelligences. The findings also indicated that the composite reliabilities for the nine types of intelligences are greater than 0.8. Thus, the HIT is a valid and reliable instrument to measure the multiple intelligences among huffaz.

  13. One Decade of Universal Artificial Intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Hutter, Marcus

    2012-01-01

    The first decade of this century has seen the nascency of the first mathematical theory of general artificial intelligence. This theory of Universal Artificial Intelligence (UAI) has made significant contributions to many theoretical, philosophical, and practical AI questions. In a series of papers culminating in book (Hutter, 2005), an exciting sound and complete mathematical model for a super intelligent agent (AIXI) has been developed and rigorously analyzed. While nowadays most AI researchers avoid discussing intelligence, the award-winning PhD thesis (Legg, 2008) provided the philosophical embedding and investigated the UAI-based universal measure of rational intelligence, which is formal, objective and non-anthropocentric. Recently, effective approximations of AIXI have been derived and experimentally investigated in JAIR paper (Veness et al. 2011). This practical breakthrough has resulted in some impressive applications, finally muting earlier critique that UAI is only a theory. For the first time, wit...

  14. Intelligent computing systems emerging application areas

    CERN Document Server

    Virvou, Maria; Jain, Lakhmi

    2016-01-01

    This book at hand explores emerging scientific and technological areas in which Intelligent Computing Systems provide efficient solutions and, thus, may play a role in the years to come. It demonstrates how Intelligent Computing Systems make use of computational methodologies that mimic nature-inspired processes to address real world problems of high complexity for which exact mathematical solutions, based on physical and statistical modelling, are intractable. Common intelligent computational methodologies are presented including artificial neural networks, evolutionary computation, genetic algorithms, artificial immune systems, fuzzy logic, swarm intelligence, artificial life, virtual worlds and hybrid methodologies based on combinations of the previous. The book will be useful to researchers, practitioners and graduate students dealing with mathematically-intractable problems. It is intended for both the expert/researcher in the field of Intelligent Computing Systems, as well as for the general reader in t...

  15. Myopia and intelligence: a pleiotropic relationship?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, S J; Cohn, C M; Jensen, A R

    1988-09-01

    The well-established association between myopia and superior intelligence in the general population was investigated in a group of intellectually gifted children and their less gifted full siblings to determine whether the relationship of myopia to psychometric intelligence is consistent with the hypothesis of pleiotropy, i.e., both characteristics are affected by the same gene or set of genes. Failure to find a difference in degree of myopia, assessed as a metric variable, between intellectually gifted and nongifted siblings would contradict pleiotropy. A variety of possible causal pathways, both genetic and environmental, have been hypothesized in the literature to explain the relationship between intelligence and myopia, and these still cannot be ruled out. It is theoretically noteworthy, however, in view of the independent evidence for the considerable heritability of both intelligence and myopia, that the highly significant gifted-nongifted sibling difference in myopia found in the present study is consistent with the hypothesis that intelligence and myopia are related pleiotropically.

  16. SOCIAL MEDIA INTELLIGENCE: OPPORTUNITIES AND LIMITATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Liviu IVAN

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available An important part of the reform of the intelligence community is felt in the opening linked with the widening spectrum of methods and spaces which can be used to collect and analyse dates and information. One of these methods that produce large mutations in the system is connected to the world of social media which proves to be a huge source of information. Social Media Intelligence (SOCMINT, the newest member of the family INT's, is undoubtedly a separate domain, a practice rooted in the work of the intelligence community. This paper proposes a general characterization of the most important aspects of Social Media Intelligence, a brand new way for the intelligence community to collect and analyse information for national security purposes (but not only in the context of the current global challenges. Moreover, the work is focused in identifying the further limitations and opportunities of this practice in the upcoming decade.

  17. Emotional Intelligence Meets Traditional Standards for an Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, John D.; Caruso, David R.; Salovey, Peter

    1999-01-01

    Results of 2 studies involving 503 adults and 229 adolescents show that emotional intelligence, as measured by the Multifactor Emotional Intelligence Scale, a new ability test of emotional intelligence, meets 3 classical criteria of a standard intelligence. (SLD)

  18. The ability model of emotional intelligence: Searching for valid measures

    OpenAIRE

    Fiori, M.; Antonakis, J.

    2011-01-01

    Current measures of ability emotional intelligence (EI)--including the well-known Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT)--suffer from several limitations, including low discriminant validity and questionable construct and incremental validity. We show that the MSCEIT is largely predicted by personality dimensions, general intelligence, and demographics having multiple R's with the MSCEIT branches up to .66; for the general EI factor this relation was even stronger (Multiple...

  19. Functional brain network efficiency predicts intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, Nicolas; Pedroni, Andreas; Gianotti, Lorena R R; Hänggi, Jürgen; Knoch, Daria; Jäncke, Lutz

    2012-06-01

    The neuronal causes of individual differences in mental abilities such as intelligence are complex and profoundly important. Understanding these abilities has the potential to facilitate their enhancement. The purpose of this study was to identify the functional brain network characteristics and their relation to psychometric intelligence. In particular, we examined whether the functional network exhibits efficient small-world network attributes (high clustering and short path length) and whether these small-world network parameters are associated with intellectual performance. High-density resting state electroencephalography (EEG) was recorded in 74 healthy subjects to analyze graph-theoretical functional network characteristics at an intracortical level. Ravens advanced progressive matrices were used to assess intelligence. We found that the clustering coefficient and path length of the functional network are strongly related to intelligence. Thus, the more intelligent the subjects are the more the functional brain network resembles a small-world network. We further identified the parietal cortex as a main hub of this resting state network as indicated by increased degree centrality that is associated with higher intelligence. Taken together, this is the first study that substantiates the neural efficiency hypothesis as well as the Parieto-Frontal Integration Theory (P-FIT) of intelligence in the context of functional brain network characteristics. These theories are currently the most established intelligence theories in neuroscience. Our findings revealed robust evidence of an efficiently organized resting state functional brain network for highly productive cognitions.

  20. Ability-based emotional intelligence in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frajo-Apor, Beatrice; Hofer, Alex

    2017-05-01

    As one part of social cognition, emotional intelligence is a controversially discussed construct. Although well founded critique on the conceptualization of emotional intelligence has emerged over the last years, studies about emotional intelligence - especially the ability-based approach by Mayer and Salovey - can persistently be found in schizophrenia research. Studies published between October 2015 and October 2016 were included in this review. The majority of the studies addressed the associations between ability-based emotional intelligence and other clinical or neuropsychological features, for example symptom severity or executive functioning. One study investigated the effect of oxytocin on emotional intelligence and another dealt with the question, whether emotional intelligence could be an endophenotype for schizophrenia. The reviewed literature reveals that patients with schizophrenia exhibit impairments in ability-based emotional intelligence. In this context, non-social cognition, positive symptoms, and anomalous-self experiences seem to be of major relevance. The potential endophenotypic role of ability-based emotional intelligence in schizophrenia remains to be clarified.

  1. Intelligent Organization in a Learning Environment: an Exploration of its General Aspects La organización inteligente en un ambiente de aprendizaje: una exploración de sus aspectos generales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noé Chávez Hernández

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article provides an overview of the important aspects to be considered within learning organizations focused on continuous learning at the individual, group and organizational level, in order to develop the necessary competences and face their environment in a competitive way. This article aims to present several topics covered, from its introduction and identification of knowledge attributes and learning, until what is an intelligent organization, the structural design to be adopted as well as the skills of management to be implemented. The intention of this paper is to contribute to the stock of current theoretical information that serves as a reference for the practical research of the academics.Este artículo es un estudio de los aspectos que deben ser considerados dentro de las organizaciones inteligentes cuyo enfoque se centra en el aprendizaje constante (tanto individual como organizacional como una estrategia para desarrollar las competencias que les permitan enfrentar el entorno de una manera competitiva. Al exponer dichas temáticas, desde la presentación e identificación de las características del conocimiento y el aprendizaje dentro de una organización inteligente, hasta el diseño estructural a adoptar y las habilidades de gestión gerencial a ejecutar, nuestra intención es contribuir a la aplicación del conocimiento dentro del ámbito de la gestión empresarial.

  2. Gender nonconformity, intelligence, and sexual orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Qazi; Bhanot, Suraj; Emrith-Small, Hanna; Ghafoor, Shilan; Roberts, Steven

    2012-06-01

    The present study explored whether there were relationships among gender nonconformity, intelligence, and sexual orientation. A total of 106 heterosexual men, 115 heterosexual women, and 103 gay men completed measures of demographic variables, recalled childhood gender nonconformity (CGN), and the National Adult Reading Test (NART). NART error scores were used to estimate Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) Full-Scale IQ (FSIQ) and Verbal IQ (VIQ) scores. Gay men had significantly fewer NART errors than heterosexual men and women (controlling for years of education). In heterosexual men, correlational analysis revealed significant associations between CGN, NART, and FSIQ scores (elevated boyhood femininity correlated with higher IQ scores). In heterosexual women, the direction of the correlations between CGN and all IQ scores was reversed (elevated girlhood femininity correlating with lower IQ scores). There were no significant correlations among these variables in gay men. These data may indicate a "sexuality-specific" effect on general cognitive ability but with limitations. They also support growing evidence that quantitative measures of sex-atypicality are useful in the study of trait sexual orientation.

  3. Educational Programs for Intelligence Professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jerry P.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the need for education programs for competitive intelligence professionals. Highlights include definitions of intelligence functions, focusing on business intelligence; information utilization by decision makers; information sources; competencies for intelligence professionals; and the development of formal education programs. (38…

  4. Inverting the Army Intelligence Pyramid

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-19

    Counterinsurgency, Company Intelligence Support Team, COIST, HUMINT, SIGINT, MASINT, OSINT 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: (U) 17. LIMITATION OF...intelligence ( OSINT ), signals intelligence (SIGINT), and technical intelligence (TECHINT).14 11

  5. Sex differences in general intelligence: a psychometric investigation of group differences in mean and variability as measured by the Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices

    OpenAIRE

    Savage-McGlynn, Emily

    2011-01-01

    Approved hardbound copy has subtitle "a psychometric investigation of group differences in mean and variability as measured by the Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices Plus" Researchers and the general public alike continue to debate ‘which is the smarter sex?’ Research to date suggests that males outperform females, females outperform males, while others find no differences in mean or variance. These inconsistent results are thought to occur for two reasons. First, studies rely on opport...

  6. Analysis of intelligence quotient among adolescence students with learning disabilities In general hospitals%综合医院心理咨询门诊93例青春期学习困难学生的智商结构分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程敏锋; 温盛霖; 王厚亮; 王相兰

    2010-01-01

    目的 探讨综合医院心理咨询门诊青春期学习困难学生的智商特点,为制定针对性的治疗措施提供心理学依据.方法 用中国修订的韦氏儿童智力量表或韦氏成人智力量表对93例青春期学习困难学生进行智力测试.结果 93例学生的总智商:(97.15±13.86),|操作智商-言语智商|≥15占44.10%(P>0.05),以平常智商最多,占49.46%(46例).男孩在总智商和知觉组织智商均高于女孩(P0.05). The proportion of cases with normal intelligence quotient was 49.46%. Intelligence quotient of total and perceptual organization of boys was significantly higher than that of girls (P<0.05). Intelli-gence quotient of memory of cases in late adolescence was significantly higher than that of cases in earlier adoles-cence (P<0.05). Conclusions FIQ of children with learning problem in general hospital is normal. The develop-ment of Performances intelligence quotient (PIQ) and Verbal intelligence quotient (VIQ) are balanced. There are differences of intelligence structure development of gender in different adolescence stage. Pertinent strategy of treat-ment and education is necessary for adolescence students with learning problem in general hospitals.

  7. Collective Intelligence in Humans: A Literature Review

    CERN Document Server

    Salminen, Juho

    2012-01-01

    This literature review focuses on collective intelligence in humans. A keyword search was performed on the Web of Knowledge and selected papers were reviewed in order to reveal themes relevant to collective intelligence. Three levels of abstraction were identified in discussion about the phenomenon: the micro-level, the macro-level and the level of emergence. Recurring themes in the literature were categorized under the above-mentioned framework and directions for future research were identified.

  8. Intelligent Extruder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    AlperEker; Mark Giammattia; Paul Houpt; Aditya Kumar; Oscar Montero; Minesh Shah; Norberto Silvi; Timothy Cribbs

    2003-04-24

    ''Intelligent Extruder'' described in this report is a software system and associated support services for monitoring and control of compounding extruders to improve material quality, reduce waste and energy use, with minimal addition of new sensors or changes to the factory floor system components. Emphasis is on process improvements to the mixing, melting and de-volatilization of base resins, fillers, pigments, fire retardants and other additives in the :finishing'' stage of high value added engineering polymer materials. While GE Plastics materials were used for experimental studies throughout the program, the concepts and principles are broadly applicable to other manufacturers materials. The project involved a joint collaboration among GE Global Research, GE Industrial Systems and Coperion Werner & Pleiderer, USA, a major manufacturer of compounding equipment. Scope of the program included development of a algorithms for monitoring process material viscosity without rheological sensors or generating waste streams, a novel detection scheme for rapid detection of process upsets and an adaptive feedback control system to compensate for process upsets where at line adjustments are feasible. Software algorithms were implemented and tested on a laboratory scale extruder (50 lb/hr) at GE Global Research and data from a production scale system (2000 lb/hr) at GE Plastics was used to validate the monitoring and detection software. Although not evaluated experimentally, a new concept for extruder process monitoring through estimation of high frequency drive torque without strain gauges is developed and demonstrated in simulation. A plan to commercialize the software system is outlined, but commercialization has not been completed.

  9. Applying Computational Intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Kordon, Arthur

    2010-01-01

    Offers guidelines on creating value from the application of computational intelligence methods. This work introduces a methodology for effective real-world application of computational intelligence while minimizing development cost, and outlines the critical, underestimated technology marketing efforts required

  10. Intelligence Operations Manual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Andrade

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This Manual was an important document for the development of intelligence units in El Salvador´s police. It is a guiding document for intelligence operations where relevant aspects on overall information management are detailed.

  11. Intelligent route surveillance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoemaker, R.M.; Sandbrink, R.D.J.; Voorthuijsen, G.P. van

    2009-01-01

    Intelligence on abnormal and suspicious behaviour along roads in operational domains is extremely valuable for countering the IED (Improvised Explosive Device) threat. Local sensor networks at strategic spots can gather data for continuous monitoring of daily vehicle activity. Unattended intelligent

  12. Intelligent Computer Graphics 2012

    CERN Document Server

    Miaoulis, Georgios

    2013-01-01

    In Computer Graphics, the use of intelligent techniques started more recently than in other research areas. However, during these last two decades, the use of intelligent Computer Graphics techniques is growing up year after year and more and more interesting techniques are presented in this area.   The purpose of this volume is to present current work of the Intelligent Computer Graphics community, a community growing up year after year. This volume is a kind of continuation of the previously published Springer volumes “Artificial Intelligence Techniques for Computer Graphics” (2008), “Intelligent Computer Graphics 2009” (2009), “Intelligent Computer Graphics 2010” (2010) and “Intelligent Computer Graphics 2011” (2011).   Usually, this kind of volume contains, every year, selected extended papers from the corresponding 3IA Conference of the year. However, the current volume is made from directly reviewed and selected papers, submitted for publication in the volume “Intelligent Computer Gr...

  13. Advanced intelligent systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ryoo, Young; Jang, Moon-soo; Bae, Young-Chul

    2014-01-01

    Intelligent systems have been initiated with the attempt to imitate the human brain. People wish to let machines perform intelligent works. Many techniques of intelligent systems are based on artificial intelligence. According to changing and novel requirements, the advanced intelligent systems cover a wide spectrum: big data processing, intelligent control, advanced robotics, artificial intelligence and machine learning. This book focuses on coordinating intelligent systems with highly integrated and foundationally functional components. The book consists of 19 contributions that features social network-based recommender systems, application of fuzzy enforcement, energy visualization, ultrasonic muscular thickness measurement, regional analysis and predictive modeling, analysis of 3D polygon data, blood pressure estimation system, fuzzy human model, fuzzy ultrasonic imaging method, ultrasonic mobile smart technology, pseudo-normal image synthesis, subspace classifier, mobile object tracking, standing-up moti...

  14. Sensory discrimination and intelligence: testing Spearman's other hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deary, Ian J; Bell, P Joseph; Bell, Andrew J; Campbell, Mary L; Fazal, Nicola D

    2004-01-01

    At the centenary of Spearman's seminal 1904 article, his general intelligence hypothesis remains one of the most influential in psychology. Less well known is the article's other hypothesis that there is "a correspondence between what may provisionally be called 'General Discrimination' and 'General Intelligence' which works out with great approximation to one or absoluteness" (Spearman, 1904, p. 284). Studies that do not find high correlations between psychometric intelligence and single sensory discrimination tests do not falsify this hypothesis. This study is the first directly to address Spearman's general intelligence-general sensory discrimination hypothesis. It attempts to replicate his findings with a similar sample of schoolchildren. In a well-fitting structural equation model of the data, general intelligence and general discrimination correlated .92. In a reanalysis of data published byActon and Schroeder (2001), general intelligence and general sensory ability correlated .68 in men and women. One hundred years after its conception, Spearman's other hypothesis achieves some confirmation. The association between general intelligence and general sensory ability remains to be replicated and explained.

  15. Childhood socioeconomic status amplifies genetic effects on adult intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Timothy C; Lewis, Gary J; Weiss, Alexander

    2013-10-01

    Studies of intelligence in children reveal significantly higher heritability among groups with high socioeconomic status (SES) than among groups with low SES. These interaction effects, however, have not been examined in adults, when between-families environmental effects are reduced. Using 1,702 adult twins (aged 24-84) for whom intelligence assessment data were available, we tested for interactions between childhood SES and genetic effects, between-families environmental effects, and unique environmental effects. Higher SES was associated with higher mean intelligence scores. Moreover, the magnitude of genetic influences on intelligence was proportional to SES. By contrast, environmental influences were constant. These results suggest that rather than setting lower and upper bounds on intelligence, genes multiply environmental inputs that support intellectual growth. This mechanism implies that increasing SES may raise average intelligence but also magnifies individual differences in intelligence.

  16. Eastern Siberia terrain intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    1942-01-01

    The following folio of terrain intelligence maps, charts and explanatory tables represent an attempt to bring together available data on natural physical conditions such as will affect military operations in Eastern Siberia. The area covered is the easternmost section of the U.S.S.R.; that is the area east of the Yenisei River. Each map and accompanying table is devoted· to a specialized set of problems; together they cover such subjects as geology, construction materials, mineral fuels, terrain, water supply, rivers and climate. The data is somewhat generalized due to the scale of treatment as well as to the scarcity of basic data. Each of the maps are rated as to reliability according to the reliability scale on the following page. Considerable of the data shown is of an interpretative nature, although precise data from literature was used wherever possible. The maps and tables were compiled  by a special group from the United States Geological Survey in cooperation with the Intelligence Branch of the Office, Chief of Engineers, War Department.

  17. Genetics and intelligence differences: five special findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plomin, R; Deary, I J

    2015-02-01

    Intelligence is a core construct in differential psychology and behavioural genetics, and should be so in cognitive neuroscience. It is one of the best predictors of important life outcomes such as education, occupation, mental and physical health and illness, and mortality. Intelligence is one of the most heritable behavioural traits. Here, we highlight five genetic findings that are special to intelligence differences and that have important implications for its genetic architecture and for gene-hunting expeditions. (i) The heritability of intelligence increases from about 20% in infancy to perhaps 80% in later adulthood. (ii) Intelligence captures genetic effects on diverse cognitive and learning abilities, which correlate phenotypically about 0.30 on average but correlate genetically about 0.60 or higher. (iii) Assortative mating is greater for intelligence (spouse correlations ~0.40) than for other behavioural traits such as personality and psychopathology (~0.10) or physical traits such as height and weight (~0.20). Assortative mating pumps additive genetic variance into the population every generation, contributing to the high narrow heritability (additive genetic variance) of intelligence. (iv) Unlike psychiatric disorders, intelligence is normally distributed with a positive end of exceptional performance that is a model for 'positive genetics'. (v) Intelligence is associated with education and social class and broadens the causal perspectives on how these three inter-correlated variables contribute to social mobility, and health, illness and mortality differences. These five findings arose primarily from twin studies. They are being confirmed by the first new quantitative genetic technique in a century-Genome-wide Complex Trait Analysis (GCTA)-which estimates genetic influence using genome-wide genotypes in large samples of unrelated individuals. Comparing GCTA results to the results of twin studies reveals important insights into the genetic architecture

  18. Construct of emotional intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Sonja Pečjak in Andreja Avsec

    2003-01-01

    The article highlights the construct of emotional intelligence, that has appeared about then years ago. We present the popular and scientific comprehension of emotional intelligence, briefly describe the development of the concept and than in detail we propose the existing comprehension of emotional intelligence: through the models of Goleman (1995) and Bar-On (1997) we present the comprehension of emotional intelligence as a non-cognitive (personality) traits.

  19. Construct of emotional intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Pečjak in Andreja Avsec

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available The article highlights the construct of emotional intelligence, that has appeared about then years ago. We present the popular and scientific comprehension of emotional intelligence, briefly describe the development of the concept and than in detail we propose the existing comprehension of emotional intelligence: through the models of Goleman (1995 and Bar-On (1997 we present the comprehension of emotional intelligence as a non-cognitive (personality traits.

  20. Computational intelligence in optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Tenne, Yoel

    2010-01-01

    This volume presents a collection of recent studies covering the spectrum of computational intelligence applications with emphasis on their application to challenging real-world problems. Topics covered include: Intelligent agent-based algorithms, Hybrid intelligent systems, Cognitive and evolutionary robotics, Knowledge-Based Engineering, fuzzy sets and systems, Bioinformatics and Bioengineering, Computational finance and Computational economics, Data mining, Machine learning, and Expert systems. ""Computational Intelligence in Optimization"" is a comprehensive reference for researchers, prac

  1. Strong genetic overlap between executive functions and intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelhardt, Laura E; Mann, Frank D; Briley, Daniel A; Church, Jessica A; Harden, K Paige; Tucker-Drob, Elliot M

    2016-09-01

    Executive functions (EFs) are cognitive processes that control, monitor, and coordinate more basic cognitive processes. EFs play instrumental roles in models of complex reasoning, learning, and decision making, and individual differences in EFs have been consistently linked with individual differences in intelligence. By middle childhood, genetic factors account for a moderate proportion of the variance in intelligence, and these effects increase in magnitude through adolescence. Genetic influences on EFs are very high, even in middle childhood, but the extent to which these genetic influences overlap with those on intelligence is unclear. We examined genetic and environmental overlap between EFs and intelligence in a racially and socioeconomically diverse sample of 811 twins ages 7 to 15 years (M = 10.91, SD = 1.74) from the Texas Twin Project. A general EF factor representing variance common to inhibition, switching, working memory, and updating domains accounted for substantial proportions of variance in intelligence, primarily via a genetic pathway. General EF continued to have a strong, genetically mediated association with intelligence even after controlling for processing speed. Residual variation in general intelligence was influenced only by shared and nonshared environmental factors, and there remained no genetic variance in general intelligence that was unique of EF. Genetic variance independent of EF did remain, however, in a more specific perceptual reasoning ability. These results provide evidence that genetic influences on general intelligence are highly overlapping with those on EF. (PsycINFO Database Record

  2. Orchestrating Multiple Intelligences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Seana; Kornhaber, Mindy; Gardner, Howard

    2006-01-01

    Education policymakers often go astray when they attempt to integrate multiple intelligences theory into schools, according to the originator of the theory, Howard Gardner, and his colleagues. The greatest potential of a multiple intelligences approach to education grows from the concept of a profile of intelligences. Each learner's intelligence…

  3. Designing with computational intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Lopes, Heitor; Mourelle, Luiza

    2017-01-01

    This book discusses a number of real-world applications of computational intelligence approaches. Using various examples, it demonstrates that computational intelligence has become a consolidated methodology for automatically creating new competitive solutions to complex real-world problems. It also presents a concise and efficient synthesis of different systems using computationally intelligent techniques.

  4. Artificial Intelligence A New Synthesis

    CERN Document Server

    Nilsson, Nils J

    1998-01-01

    Intelligent agents are employed as the central characters in this new introductory text. Beginning with elementary reactive agents, Nilsson gradually increases their cognitive horsepower to illustrate the most important and lasting ideas in AI. Neural networks, genetic programming, computer vision, heuristic search, knowledge representation and reasoning, Bayes networks, planning, and language understanding are each revealed through the growing capabilities of these agents. The book provides a refreshing and motivating new synthesis of the field by one of AI's master expositors and leading re

  5. Working memory and intelligence: the same or different constructs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Phillip L; Beier, Margaret E; Boyle, Mary O

    2005-01-01

    Several investigators have claimed over the past decade that working memory (WM) and general intelligence (g) are identical, or nearly identical, constructs, from an individual-differences perspective. Although memory measures are commonly included in intelligence tests, and memory abilities are included in theories of intelligence, the identity between WM and intelligence has not been evaluated comprehensively. The authors conducted a meta-analysis of 86 samples that relate WM to intelligence. The average correlation between true-score estimates of WM and g is substantially less than unity (p=.479). The authors also focus on the distinction between short-term memory and WM with respect to intelligence with a supplemental meta-analysis. The authors discuss how consideration of psychometric and theoretical perspectives better informs the discussion of WM-intelligence relations.

  6. Computational Intelligence and Decision Making Trends and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Madureira, Ana; Marques, Viriato

    2013-01-01

    This book provides a general overview and original analysis of new developments and applications in several areas of Computational Intelligence and Information Systems. Computational Intelligence has become an important tool for engineers to develop and analyze novel techniques to solve problems in basic sciences such as physics, chemistry, biology, engineering, environment and social sciences.   The material contained in this book addresses the foundations and applications of Artificial Intelligence and Decision Support Systems, Complex and Biological Inspired Systems, Simulation and Evolution of Real and Artificial Life Forms, Intelligent Models and Control Systems, Knowledge and Learning Technologies, Web Semantics and Ontologies, Intelligent Tutoring Systems, Intelligent Power Systems, Self-Organized and Distributed Systems, Intelligent Manufacturing Systems and Affective Computing. The contributions have all been written by international experts, who provide current views on the topics discussed and pr...

  7. Childhood intelligence is heritable, highly polygenic and associated with FNBP1L

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benyamin, B.; St Pourcain, B.; Davis, O. S.

    2014-01-01

    Intelligence in childhood, as measured by psychometric cognitive tests, is a strong predictor of many important life outcomes, including educational attainment, income, health and lifespan. Results from twin, family and adoption studies are consistent with general intelligence being highly herita...

  8. Intelligence and culture: how culture shapes what intelligence means, and the implications for a science of well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, Robert J; Grigorenko, Elena L

    2004-09-29

    This paper discusses the relationship between culture and intelligence. The main message of the paper is that intelligence cannot fully or even meaningfully be understood outside its cultural context. Behaviour that is considered intelligent in one culture may be considered unintelligent in another culture, and vice versa. Moreover, people in different cultures have different implicit (folk) theories of intelligence, so may not even mean the same thing by the word. The relationships between different aspects of intelligence can vary across cultures, with correlations that are positive in one setting proving to be negative in another. The paper opens with a general discussion of issues regarding the relationship between the two concepts. It then describes the theory of successful intelligence, which motivates our work on the interface between culture and intelligence. Finally, the article draws some conclusions.

  9. Ion mobility-mass spectrometry of charge-reduced protein complexes reveals general trends in the collisional ejection of compact subunits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornschein, Russell E; Ruotolo, Brandon T

    2015-10-21

    Multiprotein complexes have been shown to play critical roles across a wide range of cellular functions, but most probes of protein quaternary structure are limited in their ability to analyze complex mixtures and polydisperse structures using small amounts of total protein. Ion mobility-mass spectrometry offers a solution to many of these challenges, but relies upon gas-phase measurements of intact multiprotein complexes, subcomplexes, and subunits that correlate well with solution structures. The greatest bottleneck in such workflows is the generation of representative subcomplexes and subunits. Collisional activation of complexes can act to produce product ions reflective of protein complex composition, but such product ions are typically challenging to interpret in terms of their relationship to solution structure due to their typically string-like conformations following activation and subsequent dissociation. Here, we used ion-ion chemistry to perform a broad survey of the gas-phase dissociation of charge-reduced protein complex ions, revealing general trends associated with the collisional ejection of compact, rather than unfolded, protein subunits. Furthermore, we also discover peptide and co-factor dissociation channels that dominate the product ion populations generated for such charge reduced complexes. We assess both sets of observations and discuss general principles that can be extended to the analysis of protein complex ions having unknown structures.

  10. Speech intelligibility in hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryherd, Erica E; Moeller, Michael; Hsu, Timothy

    2013-07-01

    Effective communication between staff members is key to patient safety in hospitals. A variety of patient care activities including admittance, evaluation, and treatment rely on oral communication. Surprisingly, published information on speech intelligibility in hospitals is extremely limited. In this study, speech intelligibility measurements and occupant evaluations were conducted in 20 units of five different U.S. hospitals. A variety of unit types and locations were studied. Results show that overall, no unit had "good" intelligibility based on the speech intelligibility index (SII > 0.75) and several locations found to have "poor" intelligibility (SII speech intelligibility across a variety of hospitals and unit types, offers some evidence of the positive impact of absorption on intelligibility, and identifies areas for future research.

  11. Thinking positively: The genetics of high intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakeshaft, Nicholas G; Trzaskowski, Maciej; McMillan, Andrew; Krapohl, Eva; Simpson, Michael A; Reichenberg, Avi; Cederlöf, Martin; Larsson, Henrik; Lichtenstein, Paul; Plomin, Robert

    2015-01-01

    High intelligence (general cognitive ability) is fundamental to the human capital that drives societies in the information age. Understanding the origins of this intellectual capital is important for government policy, for neuroscience, and for genetics. For genetics, a key question is whether the genetic causes of high intelligence are qualitatively or quantitatively different from the normal distribution of intelligence. We report results from a sibling and twin study of high intelligence and its links with the normal distribution. We identified 360,000 sibling pairs and 9000 twin pairs from 3 million 18-year-old males with cognitive assessments administered as part of conscription to military service in Sweden between 1968 and 2010. We found that high intelligence is familial, heritable, and caused by the same genetic and environmental factors responsible for the normal distribution of intelligence. High intelligence is a good candidate for "positive genetics" - going beyond the negative effects of DNA sequence variation on disease and disorders to consider the positive end of the distribution of genetic effects.

  12. INTELLIGENT MANAGEMENT OF THE QUALITY OF SYSTEMS BY SOLVING A GENERALIZED ASSIGNMENT PROBLEM WITH THE USE OF ASC-ANALYSIS AND "EIDOS-X++" SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutsenko Y. V.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The quality of a system is seen as an emergent property of systems, due to their composition and structure, and it reflects their functionality, reliability and cost. Therefore, when we speak about quality management, the purpose of management is the formation of pre-defined system properties of the object of management. The stronger the object of the control expresses its system properties, the stronger the nonlinearity manifests of the object: both the dependence of the management factors from each other, and the dependence of the results of the action of some factors from the actions of others. Therefore, the problem of quality management is that in the management process the management object itself changes qualitatively, i.e. it changes its level of consistency, the degree of determinism and the transfer function itself. This problem can be viewed as several tasks: First is the system identification of the condition of the object of management, 2nd – making decisions about controlling influence that changes the composition of the control object in a way its quality maximally increases at minimum costs. To solve the 2nd problem we have proposed an application of the component selection of the object by functions based on the resources allocated for the implementation of different functions; costs associated with the choice of the components and the degree of compliance of various components to their functional purpose. In fact, we have proposed a formulation and a solution of the new generalization of a variant of the assignment problem: "multi backpack", which differs from the known with the fact that the selection has been based not only on the resources and costs, but also with taking into account the degree of compliance of the components to their functional purpose. A mathematical model, which provides a solution to the 1st problem, and reflecting the degree of compliance of the components to their functionality, as well as the entire

  13. Assessment of intelligence in the preschool period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Ida Sue; Leonberger, Katherine Ann

    2012-12-01

    Intelligence testing has a long and revered history in psychological measurement in childhood. Yet, the years between infancy and early childhood have been understudied with respect to emergent intellectual and cognitive functioning. Factor analytic models of intelligence that have demonstrated applicability when testing older children and adults often appear inadequate in the preschool period. As more is learned about brain development in typically developing children during these crucial years the distinctive relationships between neural system development and intellectual functioning are being revealed more completely. The aim of this paper was to provide a brief historical background as a foundation for discussion of intelligence testing, review what is known about the dynamic course of brain development during the preschool years, acknowledge limitations specific to intelligence testing in young children, and provide support for maintaining a comprehensive neuropsychological perspective that considers the wider range of variables that influence intellectual functioning in the preschool period.

  14. Darwin's perplexing paradox: intelligent design in nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorvaldsen, Steinar; Øhrstrøm, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Today, many would assume that Charles Darwin absolutely rejected any claim of intelligent design in nature. However, review of his initial writings reveals that Darwin accepted some aspects of this view. His conceptualization of design was founded on both the cosmological and the teleological ideas from classical natural theology. When Darwin discovered the dynamic process of natural selection, he rejected the old teleological argument as formulated by William Paley. However, he was never able to ignore the powerful experience of the beauty and complexity of an intelligently designed universe, as a whole. He corresponded with Asa Gray on religious themes, particularly touching the problem of pain and intelligent design in nature. The term "intelligent design" was probably introduced by William Whewell. Principally for theological and philosophical reasons, Darwin could only accept the concept for the universe as a whole, not with respect to individual elements of the living world.

  15. Executive function and fluid intelligence after frontal lobe lesions

    OpenAIRE

    Roca, María; Parr, Alice; Thompson, Russell; Woolgar, Alexandra; Torralva, Teresa; Antoun, Nagui; Manes, Facundo; Duncan, John

    2009-01-01

    Many tests of specific ‘executive functions’ show deficits after frontal lobe lesions. These deficits appear on a background of reduced fluid intelligence, best measured with tests of novel problem solving. For a range of specific executive tests, we ask how far frontal deficits can be explained by a general fluid intelligence loss. For some widely used tests, e.g. Wisconsin Card Sorting, we find that fluid intelligence entirely explains frontal deficits. When patients and controls are matche...

  16. Decomposing self-estimates of intelligence: structure and sex differences across 12 nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Stumm, Sophie; Chamorro-Premuzic, Tomas; Furnham, Adrian

    2009-05-01

    This study examines the structure of self-estimates of intelligence (SEI) across 12 nations (Australia, Austria, Brazil, France, Iran, Israel, Malaysia, South Africa, Spain, Turkey, UK and US). Participants rated themselves on general and specific abilities from three popular models of intelligence: Gardner's multiple intelligences, Sternberg's triarchic theory of intelligence, and Goleman's emotional intelligence. The results showed that (a) laypeople across nations have similar and invariant concepts of intelligence, (b) concepts of intelligence are cross-culturally closely related to academic notions of intellectual ability and (c) sex differences in general and specific SEI favouring men are consistent across countries. Male hubris and female humility in SEI seem independent of sex differences in actual cognitive ability and national levels of masculinity-femininity. Furthermore, international mean differences in general SEI could not be attributed to discrepancies in national intelligence quotient (IQ) levels or to cultural variations.

  17. TIE: an ability test of emotional intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Śmieja, Magdalena; Orzechowski, Jarosław; Stolarski, Maciej S

    2014-01-01

    The Test of Emotional Intelligence (TIE) is a new ability scale based on a theoretical model that defines emotional intelligence as a set of skills responsible for the processing of emotion-relevant information. Participants are provided with descriptions of emotional problems, and asked to indicate which emotion is most probable in a given situation, or to suggest the most appropriate action. Scoring is based on the judgments of experts: professional psychotherapists, trainers, and HR specialists. The validation study showed that the TIE is a reliable and valid test, suitable for both scientific research and individual assessment. Its internal consistency measures were as high as .88. In line with theoretical model of emotional intelligence, the results of the TIE shared about 10% of common variance with a general intelligence test, and were independent of major personality dimensions.

  18. Intelligence, birth order, and family size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanazawa, Satoshi

    2012-09-01

    The analysis of the National Child Development Study in the United Kingdom (n = 17,419) replicates some earlier findings and shows that genuine within-family data are not necessary to make the apparent birth-order effect on intelligence disappear. Birth order is not associated with intelligence in between-family data once the number of siblings is statistically controlled. The analyses support the admixture hypothesis, which avers that the apparent birth-order effect on intelligence is an artifact of family size, and cast doubt on the confluence and resource dilution models, both of which claim that birth order has a causal influence on children's cognitive development. The analyses suggest that birth order has no genuine causal effect on general intelligence.

  19. Management Intelligent Systems : First International Symposium

    CERN Document Server

    Martínez-López, Francisco; Rodríguez, Juan

    2012-01-01

    The 2012 International Symposium on Management Intelligent Systems is believed to be the first international forum to present and discuss original, rigorous and significant contributions on Artificial Intelligence-based (AI) solutions—with a strong, practical logic and, preferably, with empirical applications—developed to aid the management of organizations in multiple areas, activities, processes and problem-solving; i.e., what we propose to be named as Management Intelligent Systems (MiS). The three-day event aimed to bring together researchers interested in this promising interdisciplinary field who came from areas as varied as management, marketing, and business in general, computer science, artificial intelligence, statistics, etc. This volume presents the proceedings of these activities in a collection of contributions with many original approaches. They address diverse Management and Business areas of application such as decision support, segmentation of markets, CRM, product design, service person...

  20. TIE: an ability test of emotional intelligence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Śmieja

    Full Text Available The Test of Emotional Intelligence (TIE is a new ability scale based on a theoretical model that defines emotional intelligence as a set of skills responsible for the processing of emotion-relevant information. Participants are provided with descriptions of emotional problems, and asked to indicate which emotion is most probable in a given situation, or to suggest the most appropriate action. Scoring is based on the judgments of experts: professional psychotherapists, trainers, and HR specialists. The validation study showed that the TIE is a reliable and valid test, suitable for both scientific research and individual assessment. Its internal consistency measures were as high as .88. In line with theoretical model of emotional intelligence, the results of the TIE shared about 10% of common variance with a general intelligence test, and were independent of major personality dimensions.

  1. TIE: An Ability Test of Emotional Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Śmieja, Magdalena; Orzechowski, Jarosław; Stolarski, Maciej S.

    2014-01-01

    The Test of Emotional Intelligence (TIE) is a new ability scale based on a theoretical model that defines emotional intelligence as a set of skills responsible for the processing of emotion-relevant information. Participants are provided with descriptions of emotional problems, and asked to indicate which emotion is most probable in a given situation, or to suggest the most appropriate action. Scoring is based on the judgments of experts: professional psychotherapists, trainers, and HR specialists. The validation study showed that the TIE is a reliable and valid test, suitable for both scientific research and individual assessment. Its internal consistency measures were as high as .88. In line with theoretical model of emotional intelligence, the results of the TIE shared about 10% of common variance with a general intelligence test, and were independent of major personality dimensions. PMID:25072656

  2. Social Intelligence: Next Generation Business Intelligence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troy Hiltbrand

    2010-09-01

    In order for Business Intelligence to truly move beyond where it is today, a shift in approach must occur. Currently, much of what is accomplished in the realm of Business Intelligence relies on reports and dashboards to summarize and deliver information to end users. As we move into the future, we need to get beyond these reports and dashboards to a point where we break out the individual metrics that are embedded in these reports and interact with these components independently. Breaking these pieces of information out of the confines of reports and dashboards will allow them to be dynamically assembled for delivery in the way that makes most sense to each consumer. With this change in ideology, Business Intelligence will move from the concept of collections of objects, or reports and dashboards, to individual objects, or information components. The Next Generation Business Intelligence suite will translate concepts popularized in Facebook, Flickr, and Digg into enterprise worthy communication vehicles.

  3. Optimizing Classification in Intelligence Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    ACC Classification Accuracy AUC Area Under the ROC Curve CI Competitive Intelligence COMINT Communications Intelligence DoD Department of...indispensible tool to support a national leader’s decision making process, competitive intelligence (CI) has emerged in recent decades as an environment meant...effectiveness for the intelligence product in competitive intelligence environment: accuracy, objectivity, usability, relevance, readiness, and timeliness

  4. The Anatomy of Moral Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boss, Judith A.

    1994-01-01

    Argues that moral intelligence is one of the separate, autonomous multiple intelligences. The essay discusses moral development as a function of cognitive/analytical development, the relationship between moral reasoning and moral conduct, the biological basis of moral intelligence, moral intelligence as a function of social intelligence, and…

  5. Intelligence analysis – the royal discipline of Competitive Intelligence

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bartes, František

    ... cycle’s specific area, in the so-called “Intelligence Analysis”. Intelligence Analysis is one of the stages of the Intelligence Cycle in which data from both the primary and secondary research are analyzed...

  6. Strengthening Intelligence Education with Information-Processing and Knowledge- Organization Competencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yejun Wu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the weaknesses of intelligence-education curriculum in the United States from a Library and Information Science perspective. Intelligence information processing is a separate step in the traditional intelligence cycle; however, information-processing competencies are often included in the intelligence collection and analysis competencies in the Intelligence Community. A study of the websites of the intelligence-education programs in the major 27 intelligence-education institutions in the United States reveals that information processing is often implicitly included in an intelligence analysis or collection course; and only three universities offer such courses that include information-processing components. Only one university has been found to offer courses that implicitly include components of the knowledge-organization competency. This paper recommends strengthening intelligence-education curriculum with information-processing and knowledge-organization competencies.

  7. Can Intelligence Explode?

    CERN Document Server

    Hutter, Marcus

    2013-01-01

    The technological singularity refers to a hypothetical scenario in which technological advances virtually explode. The most popular scenario is the creation of super-intelligent algorithms that recursively create ever higher intelligences. It took many decades for these ideas to spread from science fiction to popular science magazines and finally to attract the attention of serious philosophers. David Chalmers' (JCS 2010) article is the first comprehensive philosophical analysis of the singularity in a respected philosophy journal. The motivation of my article is to augment Chalmers' and to discuss some issues not addressed by him, in particular what it could mean for intelligence to explode. In this course, I will (have to) provide a more careful treatment of what intelligence actually is, separate speed from intelligence explosion, compare what super-intelligent participants and classical human observers might experience and do, discuss immediate implications for the diversity and value of life, consider po...

  8. A general method for constructing atomic-resolution RNA ensembles using NMR residual dipolar couplings: the basis for interhelical motions revealed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, Loïc; Bascom, Gavin; Andricioaei, Ioan; Al-Hashimi, Hashim M

    2013-04-10

    The ability to modulate alignment and measure multiple independent sets of NMR residual dipolar couplings (RDCs) has made it possible to characterize internal motions in proteins at atomic resolution and with time scale sensitivity ranging from picoseconds up to milliseconds. The application of such methods to the study of RNA dynamics, however, remains fundamentally limited by the inability to modulate alignment and by strong couplings between internal and overall motions that complicate the quantitative interpretation of RDCs. Here, we address this problem by showing that RNA alignment can be generally modulated, in a controlled manner, by variable elongation of A-form helices and that the information contained within the measured RDCs can be extracted even in the presence of strong couplings between motions and overall alignment via structure-based prediction of alignment. Using this approach, four RDC data sets, and a broad conformational pool obtained from a 8.2 μs molecular dynamics simulation, we successfully construct and validate an atomic resolution ensemble of human immunodeficiency virus type I transactivation response element RNA. This ensemble reveals local motions in and around the bulge involving changes in stacking and hydrogen-bonding interactions, which are undetectable by traditional spin relaxation and drive global changes in interhelical orientation. This new approach broadens the scope of using RDCs in characterizing the dynamics of nucleic acids.

  9. Crystal Structures of the Scaffolding Protein LGN Reveal the General Mechanism by Which GoLoco Binding Motifs Inhibit the Release of GDP from Gαi *

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Min; Li, Jianchao; Zhu, Jinwei; Wen, Wenyu; Zhang, Mingjie; Wang, Wenning

    2012-01-01

    GoLoco (GL) motif-containing proteins regulate G protein signaling by binding to Gα subunit and acting as guanine nucleotide dissociation inhibitors. GLs of LGN are also known to bind the GDP form of Gαi/o during asymmetric cell division. Here, we show that the C-terminal GL domain of LGN binds four molecules of Gαi·GDP. The crystal structures of Gαi·GDP in complex with LGN GL3 and GL4, respectively, reveal distinct GL/Gαi interaction features when compared with the only high resolution structure known with GL/Gαi interaction between RGS14 and Gαi1. Only a few residues C-terminal to the conserved GL sequence are required for LGN GLs to bind to Gαi·GDP. A highly conserved “double Arg finger” sequence (RΨ(D/E)(D/E)QR) is responsible for LGN GL to bind to GDP bound to Gαi. Together with the sequence alignment, we suggest that the LGN GL/Gαi interaction represents a general binding mode between GL motifs and Gαi. We also show that LGN GLs are potent guanine nucleotide dissociation inhibitors. PMID:22952234

  10. Emotional intelligence and tactics of self-presentation at students of the ”Psychology” direction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana Semenovskih

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the study of the phenomenon of emotional intelligence and the ability to self-presentation students directions of training "Psychology". The authors examined the various approaches to the definition of emotional intelligence, revealed the influence of components of emotional intelligence on the tactics of self-presentation among students.

  11. Intelligence analysis – the royal discipline of Competitive Intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    František Bartes

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this article is to propose work methodology for Competitive Intelligence teams in one of the intelligence cycle’s specific area, in the so-called “Intelligence Analysis”. Intelligence Analysis is one of the stages of the Intelligence Cycle in which data from both the primary and secondary research are analyzed. The main result of the effort is the creation of added value for the information collected. Company Competiitve Intelligence, correctly understood and implemented in busines...

  12. Knowledge Intelligence: A New Field in Business Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Guangli; Li, Xiuting; Zhang, Lingling; Zhang, Yuejin; Shi, Yong

    This paper discussed the development of business intelligence considering the development of data mining. Business intelligence plays an important role in producing up-to-data information for operative and strategic decision-making. We proposed a new kind of knowledge named intelligent knowledge gotten from data. We illustrated a way to combine the business intelligence and intelligent knowledge and proposed a way of the management of intelligent knowledge which is more structural than the traditional knowledge.

  13. Intelligence Essentials for Everyone

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-06-01

    Larry Kahaner, Competitive Intelligence : From Black Ops to Boardrooms — How Businesses Gather, Analyze and Use Infor- mation to Succeed in the Global...32744.fm Page 2 Tuesday, June 22, 1999 9:42 AMauthorities. The Society of Competitive Intelligence Professionals...SCIP, Competitive Intelligence Review, 8, No. 3 (Fall 1997), unnumbered 8th page. 5 SCIP, 1995 SCIP Membership Directory (Alexandria, VA: SCIP, 1995

  14. Intelligence Analysis: Once Again

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-02-01

    least touch on the subject of intelligence analysis. However, while still a large body of work, it is a considerably smaller set that specifically...meaning is influenced by the analyst’s mindset, mental model, or frame of mind . Kent (1949, p. 199) indicated “…an intelligence staff which must...or a top-down process are not unique to the intelligence literature. In the scientific literature, arguments date back to Descartes (1596- 1650

  15. Intelligent Optics Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Intelligent Optics Laboratory supports sophisticated investigations on adaptive and nonlinear optics; advancedimaging and image processing; ground-to-ground and...

  16. The search for intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffey, E. J.

    1980-12-01

    Implications of current understandings of the nature of human intelligence for the possibility of extraterrestrial intelligence are discussed. The perceptual theory of intelligence as the manipulation of perceptual images rather than language is introduced, and conditions leading to the ascendancy of man over other hominids with similar conceptual abilities are discussed, including the liberation of the hands from a locomotive function and the evolution of neoteny. It is argued that the specificity of the environmental, behavioral and physiological conditions which lead to the emergence of technologically oriented, and communicative intelligent creatures suggests that any SETI would most likely be fruitless.

  17. A Study on Intelligence of High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, M. Usha; Prakash, Srinivasan

    2015-01-01

    Intelligence involves the ability to think, solve problems, analyze situations, and understand social values, customs, and norms. Intelligence is a general mental capability that involves the ability to reason, plan, think abstractly, comprehend ideas and language, and learn. Intellectual ability involves comprehension, understanding, and learning…

  18. Governance and Intelligence: Empirical Analysis from African Data

    OpenAIRE

    Kodila-Tedika, Oasis

    2014-01-01

    This study aims at testing the relationship between intelligence and governance. It is based on African data. This study find s that countries with high-IQ populations generally enjoy good governance. Governance and Intelligence are found to mutually reinforce each other in a robust relationship however the study does not suggest the direction of causality between them.

  19. Arithmetic and algebraic problem solving and resource allocation: the distinct impact of fluid and numerical intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dix, Annika; van der Meer, Elke

    2015-04-01

    This study investigates cognitive resource allocation dependent on fluid and numerical intelligence in arithmetic/algebraic tasks varying in difficulty. Sixty-six 11th grade students participated in a mathematical verification paradigm, while pupil dilation as a measure of resource allocation was collected. Students with high fluid intelligence solved the tasks faster and more accurately than those with average fluid intelligence, as did students with high compared to average numerical intelligence. However, fluid intelligence sped up response times only in students with average but not high numerical intelligence. Further, high fluid but not numerical intelligence led to greater task-related pupil dilation. We assume that fluid intelligence serves as a domain-general resource that helps to tackle problems for which domain-specific knowledge (numerical intelligence) is missing. The allocation of this resource can be measured by pupil dilation.

  20. 77 FR 32952 - Defense Intelligence Agency National Intelligence University Board of Visitors Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-04

    ... of the Secretary Defense Intelligence Agency National Intelligence University Board of Visitors Closed Meeting AGENCY: Department of Defense, Defense Intelligence Agency, National Intelligence... a closed meeting of the Defense Intelligence Agency National Intelligence University Board...

  1. 75 FR 76423 - Defense Intelligence Agency National Defense Intelligence College Board of Visitors Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-08

    ... of the Secretary Defense Intelligence Agency National Defense Intelligence College Board of Visitors Closed Meeting AGENCY: National Defense Intelligence College, Defense Intelligence Agency, Department of... a closed meeting of the Defense Intelligence Agency National Defense Intelligence College Board...

  2. 76 FR 28960 - Defense Intelligence Agency National Defense Intelligence College Board of Visitors Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-19

    ... of the Secretary Defense Intelligence Agency National Defense Intelligence College Board of Visitors Closed Meeting AGENCY: National Defense Intelligence College, Defense Intelligence Agency, Department of... a closed meeting of the Defense Intelligence Agency National Defense Intelligence College Board...

  3. 2015 Chinese Intelligent Systems Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Du, Junping; Li, Hongbo; Zhang, Weicun; CISC’15

    2016-01-01

    This book presents selected research papers from the 2015 Chinese Intelligent Systems Conference (CISC’15), held in Yangzhou, China. The topics covered include multi-agent systems, evolutionary computation, artificial intelligence, complex systems, computation intelligence and soft computing, intelligent control, advanced control technology, robotics and applications, intelligent information processing, iterative learning control, and machine learning. Engineers and researchers from academia, industry and the government can gain valuable insights into solutions combining ideas from multiple disciplines in the field of intelligent systems.

  4. A Study of Two English Language Coursebooks in Turkey: Focus on Multiple Intelligences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arikan, Arda; Soydan, Elif; Isler, Özlem

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to analyze two coursebooks, namely, "Texture of English 4" and "My English 5" on the basis of to what extent the activities and tasks included reflect the intelligent types proposed by multiple intelligences theory. Taking the general characteristics of the intelligences into account, a checklist has been…

  5. General game playing

    CERN Document Server

    Genesereth, Michael

    2014-01-01

    General game players are computer systems able to play strategy games based solely on formal game descriptions supplied at ""runtime"" (n other words, they don't know the rules until the game starts). Unlike specialized game players, such as Deep Blue, general game players cannot rely on algorithms designed in advance for specific games; they must discover such algorithms themselves. General game playing expertise depends on intelligence on the part of the game player and not just intelligence of the programmer of the game player.GGP is an interesting application in its own right. It is intell

  6. Spiritual Intelligence: The Tenth Intelligence that Integrates All Other Intelligences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisk, Dorothy

    2002-01-01

    This article discusses seven ways to develop spiritual intelligence, including: think about goals and identify values; access inner processes and use visualization to see goals fulfilled; integrate personal and universal vision; take responsibility for goals; develop a sense of community; focus on love and compassion; and take advantages of…

  7. Heidegger and artificial intelligence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz, G.

    1987-01-01

    The discipline of Artificial Intelligence, in its quest for machine intelligence, showed great promise as long as its areas of application were limited to problems of a scientific and situation neutral nature. The attempts to move beyond these problems to a full simulation of man's intelligence has faltered and slowed it progress, largely because of the inability of Artificial Intelligence to deal with human characteristic, such as feelings, goals, and desires. This dissertation takes the position that an impasse has resulted because Artificial Intelligence has never been properly defined as a science: its objects and methods have never been identified. The following study undertakes to provide such a definition, i.e., the required ground for Artificial Intelligence. The procedure and methods employed in this study are based on Heidegger's philosophy and techniques of analysis as developed in Being and Time. Results of this study show that both the discipline of Artificial Intelligence and the concerns of Heidegger in Being and Time have the same object; fundamental ontology. The application of Heidegger's conclusions concerning fundamental ontology unites the various aspects of Artificial Intelligence and provides the articulation which shows the parts of this discipline and how they are related.

  8. Applying Multiple Intelligences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christodoulou, Joanna A.

    2009-01-01

    The ideas of multiple intelligences introduced by Howard Gardner of Harvard University more than 25 years ago have taken form in many ways, both in schools and in other sometimes-surprising settings. The silver anniversary of Gardner's learning theory provides an opportunity to reflect on the ways multiple intelligences theory has taken form and…

  9. Humanoid Intelligent Management System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Jun-ping; TU Xu-yan

    2004-01-01

    This paper proposes a concept and design strategy for the humanoid intelligent management system (HIMS) based on artificial life. Various topics are discussed including the design method and implementation techniques for the dual management scheme (DMS), humanoid intelligent management model (HIMM), central-decentralized management pattern, and multi-grade coordination function.

  10. Intelligence, Race, and Genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, Robert J.; Grigorenko, Elena L.; Kidd, Kenneth K.

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the authors argue that the overwhelming portion of the literature on intelligence, race, and genetics is based on folk taxonomies rather than scientific analysis. They suggest that because theorists of intelligence disagree as to what it is, any consideration of its relationships to other constructs must be tentative at best. They…

  11. Intelligence Issues for Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-02-27

    and Prosecution Act of 2006, both by Elizabeth B. Bazan . authorization and defense appropriations acts, they include a substantial portion of the...Expands Rumsfeld’s Domain,” Washington Post, Jan . 23, 2005, p. A1. strategically analyze intelligence, and for failing to share intelligence with other

  12. Intelligent design som videnskab?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klausen, Søren Harnow

    2007-01-01

    Diskuterer hvorvidt intelligent design kan betegnes som videnskab; argumenterer for at dette grundet fraværet af klare demarkationskriterier næppe kan afvises.......Diskuterer hvorvidt intelligent design kan betegnes som videnskab; argumenterer for at dette grundet fraværet af klare demarkationskriterier næppe kan afvises....

  13. Emotional Intelligence and Giftedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, John D.; Perkins, Donna M.; Caruso, David R.; Salovey, Peter

    2001-01-01

    Emotional intelligence and social behavior were explored in a study with 11 adolescents. Results found that those with higher emotional intelligence were better able to identify their own and others' emotions in situations, use that information to guide their actions, and resist peer pressure than others. (Contains references.) (Author/CR)

  14. Intelligent Tutoring Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, John R.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Cognitive psychology, artificial intelligence, and computer technology have advanced so much that it is feasible to build computer systems that are as effective as intelligent human tutors. Computer tutors have been developed for teaching students to do proofs in geometry and to write computer programs in the LISP language. (JN)

  15. Emotional intelligence as a standard intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, J D; Salovey, P; Caruso, D R; Sitarenios, G

    2001-09-01

    The authors have claimed that emotional intelligence (EI) meets traditional standards for an intelligence (J. D. Mayer, D. R. Caruso, & P. Salovey, 1999). R. D. Roberts, M. Zeidner, and G. Matthews (2001) questioned whether that claim was warranted. The central issue raised by Roberts et al. concerning Mayer et al. (1999) is whether there are correct answers to questions on tests purporting to measure EI as a set of abilities. To address this issue (and others), the present authors briefly restate their view of intelligence, emotion, and EI. They then present arguments for the reasonableness of measuring EI as an ability, indicate that correct answers exist, and summarize recent data suggesting that such measures are, indeed, reliable.

  16. Computational Intelligence in Intelligent Data Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Nürnberger, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Complex systems and their phenomena are ubiquitous as they can be found in biology, finance, the humanities, management sciences, medicine, physics and similar fields. For many problems in these fields, there are no conventional ways to mathematically or analytically solve them completely at low cost. On the other hand, nature already solved many optimization problems efficiently. Computational intelligence attempts to mimic nature-inspired problem-solving strategies and methods. These strategies can be used to study, model and analyze complex systems such that it becomes feasible to handle them. Key areas of computational intelligence are artificial neural networks, evolutionary computation and fuzzy systems. As only a few researchers in that field, Rudolf Kruse has contributed in many important ways to the understanding, modeling and application of computational intelligence methods. On occasion of his 60th birthday, a collection of original papers of leading researchers in the field of computational intell...

  17. COMPETITIVE INTELLIGENCE ANALYSIS - SCENARIOS METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Valeriu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Keeping a company in the top performing players in the relevant market depends not only on its ability to develop continually, sustainably and balanced, to the standards set by the customer and competition, but also on the ability to protect its strategic information and to know in advance the strategic information of the competition. In addition, given that economic markets, regardless of their profile, enable interconnection not only among domestic companies, but also between domestic companies and foreign companies, the issue of economic competition moves from the national economies to the field of interest of regional and international economic organizations. The stakes for each economic player is to keep ahead of the competition and to be always prepared to face market challenges. Therefore, it needs to know as early as possible, how to react to others’ strategy in terms of research, production and sales. If a competitor is planning to produce more and cheaper, then it must be prepared to counteract quickly this movement. Competitive intelligence helps to evaluate the capabilities of competitors in the market, legally and ethically, and to develop response strategies. One of the main goals of the competitive intelligence is to acknowledge the role of early warning and prevention of surprises that could have a major impact on the market share, reputation, turnover and profitability in the medium and long term of a company. This paper presents some aspects of competitive intelligence, mainly in terms of information analysis and intelligence generation. Presentation is theoretical and addresses a structured method of information analysis - scenarios method – in a version that combines several types of analysis in order to reveal some interconnecting aspects of the factors governing the activity of a company.

  18. Intelligence and Prosocial Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Han, Ru; Shi, Jiannong; Yong, W.

    2012-01-01

    One and Two, we reexamined the relationship between prosocial behav ior and intelligence by employ ing a costly signaling theory with f our games. The results rev ealed that the prosocial lev el of smarter children is higher than that of other children in more complicated tasks but not so in simple......Results of prev ious studies of the relationship between prosocial behav ior and intelligence hav e been inconsistent. This study attempts to distinguish the dif f erences between sev eral prosocial tasks, and explores the way s in which cognitiv e ability inf luences prosocial behav ior. In Study...... tasks. In Study Three, we tested the moderation ef f ect of the av erage intelligence across classes, and the results did not show any group intelligence ef f ect on the relationship between intelligence and prosocial behav ior....

  19. Logical Foundations Of Artificial Intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel Garrido

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The procedures of searching solutions to problems, in Artificial Intelligence, can be brought about, in many occasions, without knowledge of the Domain, and in other situations, with knowledge of it. This last procedure is usually called Heuristic Search. In such methods the matrix techniques reveal themselves as essential. Their introduction can give us an easy and precise way in the search of solution. Our paper explains how the matrix theory appears and fruitfully participates in A I, with feasible applications to Game Theory.

  20. The role of mindfulness and spiritual intelligence in students' mental health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Nemati

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Studies show that mental disorders are highly prevalent among students. Therefore, the present study aimed to examine the role of mindfulness and spiritual intelligence in the students’ mental health studying at university of medical sciences. The study population included all undergraduate and medicine students. A total of 393 female and male students (193 medical and 200 non-medical students were selected through randomly. General Health Questionnaire (GHQ and spiritual intelligence and mindfulness questionnaire were used to evaluate the participants. The results revealed the negative correlation of mental health with mindfulness and spiritual intelligence and a positive correlation between mindfulness and dimensions of spiritual intelligence. Also, the dimension of spiritual life (43.1% and mindfulness (31% had a significant negative effect on the explained variance of the students’ mental health. Analysis of variance showed that the scales of mindfulness, perception of existence, somatic symptoms, and anxiety were higher among women. Therefore, the students can be more capable of coping with existing traumas and pressures by boosting their spirituality, consciousness, and mindfulness.

  1. Epistasis analysis using artificial intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Jason H; Hill, Doug P

    2015-01-01

    Here we introduce artificial intelligence (AI) methodology for detecting and characterizing epistasis in genetic association studies. The ultimate goal of our AI strategy is to analyze genome-wide genetics data as a human would using sources of expert knowledge as a guide. The methodology presented here is based on computational evolution, which is a type of genetic programming. The ability to generate interesting solutions while at the same time learning how to solve the problem at hand distinguishes computational evolution from other genetic programming approaches. We provide a general overview of this approach and then present a few examples of its application to real data.

  2. On the Job With Emotional Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    as language, mathematics, and music . Whether these are true intelligences, or the application of general intel- ligence in different domains (i.e...looking for sources of your moods and feelings. Is your mood the same at a day’s beginning and end? Before and after lunch or a long meeting

  3. China Builds Its "Intelligent" Modern Customs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    China General Administration of Customs (CAAC) has started to fully implement the second step of building the modem customs system. Relying on risk management system, it has realized an "intelligent" customs supervision system in practice.It is known that the annual number of import and export deals in China is over 100 mil-

  4. When are intelligent sensor environments successful?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pennings, L.J.; Veugen, P.J.M.; Korte, J.J. de

    2010-01-01

    The success of an intelligent sensor environment is mainly determined by the extent to which it is adopted by users. In order to understand how the adoption process works and when it is likely to be successful, we developed a general adoption model and applied it to the four main categories. Based o

  5. Intelligent Support for Solving Classification Differences in Statistical Information Integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, C.M.; Verwaart, D.

    2003-01-01

    Integration of heterogeneous statistics is essential for political decision making on all levels. Like in intelligent information integration in general, the problem is to combine information from different autonomous sources, using different ontologies. However, in statistical information integrati

  6. Polymer Composites for Intelligent Food Packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jiating; Yap, Ray Chin Chong; Wong, Siew Yee; Li, Xu

    2015-09-01

    Over the last 50 years, remarkable improvements in mechanical and barrier properties of polymer composites have been realized. Their improved properties have been widely studied and employed for food packaging to keep food fresh, clean and suitable for consumption over sufficiently long storage period. In this paper, the current progress of science and technology development of polymer composites for intelligent food packaging will be highlighted. Future directions and perspectives for exploring polymer composites for intelligent food packaging to reveal freshness and quality of food packaged will also be put forward.

  7. The Epistemic Status of Intelligence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønn, Kira Vrist; Høffding, Simon

    2012-01-01

    We argue that the majority of intelligence definitions fail to recognize that the normative epistemic status of intelligence is knowledge and not an inferior alternative. We refute the counter-arguments that intelligence ought not to be seen as knowledge because of 1) its action-oriented scope...... and robustness of claims to intelligence-knowledge can be assessed....

  8. Moral Intelligence in the Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarken, Rodney H.

    2009-01-01

    Moral intelligence is newer and less studied than the more established cognitive, emotional and social intelligences, but has great potential to improve our understanding of learning and behavior. Moral intelligence refers to the ability to apply ethical principles to personal goals, values and actions. The construct of moral intelligence consists…

  9. Emotional Intelligence and Nurse Recruitment: Rasch and confirmatory factor analysis of the trait emotional intelligence questionnaire short form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snowden, Austyn; Watson, Roger; Stenhouse, Rosie; Hale, Claire

    2015-12-01

    To examine the construct validity of the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire Short form. Emotional intelligence involves the identification and regulation of our own emotions and the emotions of others. It is therefore a potentially useful construct in the investigation of recruitment and retention in nursing and many questionnaires have been constructed to measure it. Secondary analysis of existing dataset of responses to Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire Short form using concurrent application of Rasch analysis and confirmatory factor analysis. First year undergraduate nursing and computing students completed Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire-Short Form in September 2013. Responses were analysed by synthesising results of Rasch analysis and confirmatory factor analysis. Participants (N = 938) completed Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire Short form. Rasch analysis showed the majority of the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire-Short Form items made a unique contribution to the latent trait of emotional intelligence. Five items did not fit the model and differential item functioning (gender) accounted for this misfit. Confirmatory factor analysis revealed a four-factor structure consisting of: self-confidence, empathy, uncertainty and social connection. All five misfitting items from the Rasch analysis belonged to the 'social connection' factor. The concurrent use of Rasch and factor analysis allowed for novel interpretation of Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire Short form. Much of the response variation in Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire Short form can be accounted for by the social connection factor. Implications for practice are discussed. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Artificial intelligence in medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, A. N.; Kambhampati, C.; Monson, J. R. T.; Drew, P. J.

    2004-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Artificial intelligence is a branch of computer science capable of analysing complex medical data. Their potential to exploit meaningful relationship with in a data set can be used in the diagnosis, treatment and predicting outcome in many clinical scenarios. METHODS: Medline and internet searches were carried out using the keywords 'artificial intelligence' and 'neural networks (computer)'. Further references were obtained by cross-referencing from key articles. An overview of different artificial intelligent techniques is presented in this paper along with the review of important clinical applications. RESULTS: The proficiency of artificial intelligent techniques has been explored in almost every field of medicine. Artificial neural network was the most commonly used analytical tool whilst other artificial intelligent techniques such as fuzzy expert systems, evolutionary computation and hybrid intelligent systems have all been used in different clinical settings. DISCUSSION: Artificial intelligence techniques have the potential to be applied in almost every field of medicine. There is need for further clinical trials which are appropriately designed before these emergent techniques find application in the real clinical setting. PMID:15333167

  11. Distributive justice and cognitive enhancement in lower, normal intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlop, Mikael; Savulescu, Julian

    2014-01-01

    There exists a significant disparity within society between individuals in terms of intelligence. While intelligence varies naturally throughout society, the extent to which this impacts on the life opportunities it affords to each individual is greatly undervalued. Intelligence appears to have a prominent effect over a broad range of social and economic life outcomes. Many key determinants of well-being correlate highly with the results of IQ tests, and other measures of intelligence, and an IQ of 75 is generally accepted as the most important threshold in modern life. The ability to enhance our cognitive capacities offers an exciting opportunity to correct disabling natural variation and inequality in intelligence. Pharmaceutical cognitive enhancers, such as modafinil and methylphenidate, have been shown to have the capacity to enhance cognition in normal, healthy individuals. Perhaps of most relevance is the presence of an 'inverted U effect' for most pharmaceutical cognitive enhancers, whereby the degree of enhancement increases as intelligence levels deviate further below the mean. Although enhancement, including cognitive enhancement, has been much debated recently, we argue that there are egalitarian reasons to enhance individuals with low but normal intelligence. Under egalitarianism, cognitive enhancement has the potential to reduce opportunity inequality and contribute to relative income and welfare equality in the lower, normal intelligence subgroup. Cognitive enhancement use is justifiable under prioritarianism through various means of distribution; selective access to the lower, normal intelligence subgroup, universal access, or paradoxically through access primarily to the average and above average intelligence subgroups. Similarly, an aggregate increase in social well-being is achieved through similar means of distribution under utilitarianism. In addition, the use of cognitive enhancement within the lower, normal intelligence subgroup negates, or at

  12. Problem Solving with General Semantics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewson, David

    1996-01-01

    Discusses how to use general semantics formulations to improve problem solving at home or at work--methods come from the areas of artificial intelligence/computer science, engineering, operations research, and psychology. (PA)

  13. Advanced intelligence and mechanism approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHONG Yixin

    2007-01-01

    Advanced intelligence will feature the intelligence research in next 50 years.An understanding of the concept of advanced intelligence as well as its importance will be provided first,and detailed analysis on an approach,the mechanism approach.suitable to the advanced intelligence research will then be flolowed.And the mutual relationship among mechanism approach,traditional approaches existed in artificial intelligence research,and the cognitive informatics will be discussed.It is interesting to discover that mechanism approach is a good one to the Advanced Intelligence research and a tmified form of the existed approaches to artificial intelligence.

  14. The role of decision speed in the construct of intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin Bucik

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available A theory of general intelligence in Spearman's sense has been frequently verified via two complementary approaches, the one using psychometric and the other using experimental methodology. The results led to the conclusion that both, psychometric tests and elementary cognitive tasks in different experimental paradigms measure the same thing in substantial extent. The rapid, error free information processing, reflecting the efficiency of a nervous system with limited capacity, was supposed to be the essential component of the intellect. This view is often criticised by the authors who claim that high correlation between speed of information processing and psychometric intelligence is simply the consequence of the fact that some intelligence tests themselves are "speeded" and that mental speed is merely a marginal variable in both psychometric tests and elementary cognitive tasks. In our study we tested 88 subjects with three psychometric tests, measuring general intelligence in Spearman's sense. Parallel versions of those tests were created by splitting each of them into two equivalent halves by "odd-even" principle. One version was applied under strict time constraints and the other one without time pressure. In addition five speed-of-information-processing paradigms were applied. The relationship between the mental speed and general intelligence measured in timed and untimed conditions was examined. Results suggest that the role of speed of information processing is significant in determining general intelligence. Mental speed also seems to be relatively independent with regarding to time limitations in testing intelligence. The results are discussed in terms of the neural efficiency presumptions.

  15. Intelligent Car System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qasim Siddique

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In modern life the road safety has becomes the core issue. One single move of a driver can cause horrifying accident. The main goal of intelligent car system is to make communication with other cars on the road. The system is able to control to speed, direction and the distance between the cars the intelligent car system is able to recognize traffic light and is able to take decision according to it. This paper presents a framework of the intelligent car system. I validate several aspect of our system using simulation.

  16. Intelligent Car System

    CERN Document Server

    Siddique, Qasim

    2012-01-01

    In modern life the road safety has becomes the core issue. One single move of a driver can cause horrifying accident. The main goal of intelligent car system is to make communication with other cars on the road. The system is able to control to speed, direction and the distance between the cars the intelligent car system is able to recognize traffic light and is able to take decision according to it. This paper presents a framework of the intelligent car system. I validate several aspect of our system using simulation.

  17. Artificial intelligence: Human effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yazdani, M.; Narayanan, A.

    1984-01-01

    This book presents an up-to-date study of the interaction between the fast-growing discipline of artificial intelligence and other human endeavors. The volume explores the scope and limitations of computing, and presents a history of the debate on the possibility of machines achieving intelligence. The authors offer a state-of-the-art survey of Al, concentrating on the ''mind'' (language understanding) and the ''body'' (robotics) of intelligent computing systems.

  18. Intelligent environmental sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Mukhopadhyay, Subhas

    2015-01-01

    Developing environmental sensing and monitoring technologies become essential especially for industries that may cause severe contamination. Intelligent environmental sensing uses novel sensor techniques, intelligent signal and data processing algorithms, and wireless sensor networks to enhance environmental sensing and monitoring. It finds applications in many environmental problems such as oil and gas, water quality, and agriculture. This book addresses issues related to three main approaches to intelligent environmental sensing and discusses their latest technological developments. Key contents of the book include:   Agricultural monitoring Classification, detection, and estimation Data fusion Geological monitoring Motor monitoring Multi-sensor systems Oil reservoirs monitoring Sensor motes Water quality monitoring Wireless sensor network protocol  

  19. Dividing Up Intelligence Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Robert Clark

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available At this year's annual conference of the International Association for Intelligence Education (IAFIE in Monterey, CA, the keynote speaker posed the question, "How much do you need intelligence education outside the beltway?" Which led to a second question discussed during the conference: "What should such education look like?" In short, what should we be teaching in universities? What should we leave to the intelligence community as training? And what could be done in either or both settings? The first question of any educational effort is:What are we preparing students for?

  20. What We Don't Test: What an Analysis of Unreleased ACS Exam Items Reveals about Content Coverage in General Chemistry Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Jessica J.; Villafan~e, Sachel M.; Raker, Jeffrey R.; Holme, Thomas A.; Murphy, Kristen L.

    2017-01-01

    General chemistry courses are often the foundation for the study of other science disciplines and upper-level chemistry concepts. Students who take introductory chemistry courses are more often from health and science-related fields than chemistry. As such, the content taught and assessed in general chemistry courses is envisioned as building…

  1. Multiple Intelligences and quotient spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Malatesta, Mike; Quintana, Yamilet

    2006-01-01

    The Multiple Intelligence Theory (MI) is one of the models that study and describe the cognitive abilities of an individual. In [7] is presented a referential system which allows to identify the Multiple Intelligences of the students of a course and to classify the level of development of such Intelligences. Following this tendency, the purpose of this paper is to describe the model of Multiple Intelligences as a quotient space, and also to study the Multiple Intelligences of an individual in...

  2. Business Intelligence using Software Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Ana-Ramona BOLOGA; Razvan BOLOGA

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents some ideas about business intelligence today and the importance of developing real time business solutions. The authors make an exploration of links between business intelligence and artificial intelligence and focuses specifically on the implementation of software agents-based systems in business intelligence. There are briefly presented some of the few solutions proposed so far that use software agents properties for the benefit of business intelligence. The authors then...

  3. Business Intelligence using Software Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Ana-Ramona BOLOGA; Razvan BOLOGA

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents some ideas about business intelligence today and the importance of developing real time business solutions. The authors make an exploration of links between business intelligence and artificial intelligence and focuses specifically on the implementation of software agents-based systems in business intelligence. There are briefly presented some of the few solutions proposed so far that use software agents properties for the benefit of business intelligence. The authors then...

  4. Strategic Alignment of Business Intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Cederberg, Niclas

    2010-01-01

    This thesis is about the concept of strategic alignment of business intelligence. It is based on a theoretical foundation that is used to define and explain business intelligence, data warehousing and strategic alignment. By combining a number of different methods for strategic alignment a framework for alignment of business intelligence is suggested. This framework addresses all different aspects of business intelligence identified as relevant for strategic alignment of business intelligence...

  5. Emotional Intelligence: Requiring Attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Tudor

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to highlight the need for emotional intelligence. Two methods of measurementare presented in this research, in order to better understand the necessity of a correct result. Theresults of research can lead to recommendations for improving levels of emotional intelligence andare useful for obtaining data to better compare past and present result. The papers presented inthis research are significant for future study of this subject. The first paper presents the evolutionof emotional intelligence in the past two years, more specifically its decrease concerning certaincharacteristics. The second one presents a research on the differences between generations. Thethird one shows a difference in emotional intelligence levels of children from rural versus urbanenvironments and the obstacles that they encounter in their own development.

  6. Introduction to artificial intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheeseman, P.; Gevarter, W.

    1986-01-01

    This paper presents an introductory view of Artificial Intelligence (AI). In addition to defining AI, it discusses the foundations on which it rests, research in the field, and current and potential applications.

  7. Intelligent Freigth Transport Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overø, Helene Martine; Larsen, Allan; Røpke, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    The Danish innovation project entitled “Intelligent Freight Transport Systems” aims at developing prototype systems integrating public intelligent transport systems (ITS) with the technology in vehicles and equipment as well as the IT-systems at various transport companies. The objective is to en......The Danish innovation project entitled “Intelligent Freight Transport Systems” aims at developing prototype systems integrating public intelligent transport systems (ITS) with the technology in vehicles and equipment as well as the IT-systems at various transport companies. The objective...... is to enhance the efficiency and lower the environmental impact in freight transport. In this paper, a pilot project involving real-time waste collection at a Danish waste collection company is described, and a solution approach is proposed. The problem corresponds to the dynamic version of the waste collection...... problem which can be formulated as a dynamic version of the vehicle routing problem with time windows (VRPTW)....

  8. Towards Intelligent Supply Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siurdyban, Artur; Møller, Charles

    2012-01-01

    applied to the context of organizational processes can increase the success rate of business operations. The framework is created using a set of theoretical based constructs grounded in a discussion across several streams of research including psychology, pedagogy, artificial intelligence, learning...... of deploying inapt operations leading to deterioration of profits. To address this problem, we propose a unified business process design framework based on the paradigm of intelligence. Intelligence allows humans and human-designed systems cope with environmental volatility, and we argue that its principles......, business process management and supply chain management. It outlines a number of system tasks combined in four integrated management perspectives: build, execute, grow and innovate, put forward as business process design propositions for Intelligent Supply Chains....

  9. Creativity, Personality and Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakefield, James A., Jr.; Goad, Nancy A.

    1981-01-01

    Creativity is discussed in terms of H. Eysenck's personality theory. Creative persons are characterized by introversion, neuroticism, psychoticism, and moderate to high intelligence. The literature is reviewed on similarities and differences between creativity and pathology. (Author/DB)

  10. Intelligent energy demand forecasting

    CERN Document Server

    Hong, Wei-Chiang

    2013-01-01

    This book offers approaches and methods to calculate optimal electric energy allocation, using evolutionary algorithms and intelligent analytical tools to improve the accuracy of demand forecasting. Focuses on improving the drawbacks of existing algorithms.

  11. Towards Intelligent Supply Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siurdyban, Artur; Møller, Charles

    2012-01-01

    of deploying inapt operations leading to deterioration of profits. To address this problem, we propose a unified business process design framework based on the paradigm of intelligence. Intelligence allows humans and human-designed systems cope with environmental volatility, and we argue that its principles...... applied to the context of organizational processes can increase the success rate of business operations. The framework is created using a set of theoretical based constructs grounded in a discussion across several streams of research including psychology, pedagogy, artificial intelligence, learning......, business process management and supply chain management. It outlines a number of system tasks combined in four integrated management perspectives: build, execute, grow and innovate, put forward as business process design propositions for Intelligent Supply Chains....

  12. Creativity, Personality and Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakefield, James A., Jr.; Goad, Nancy A.

    1981-01-01

    Creativity is discussed in terms of H. Eysenck's personality theory. Creative persons are characterized by introversion, neuroticism, psychoticism, and moderate to high intelligence. The literature is reviewed on similarities and differences between creativity and pathology. (Author/DB)

  13. Quo vadis, Intelligent Machine?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemarie Velik

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Artificial Intelligence (AI is a branch of computer science concerned with making computers behave like humans. At least this was the original idea. However, it turned out that this is no task easy to be solved. This article aims to give a comprehensible review on the last 60 years of artificial intelligence taking a philosophical viewpoint. It is outlined what happened so far in AI, what is currently going on in this research area, and what can be expected in future. The goal is to mediate an understanding for the developments and changes in thinking in course of time about how to achieve machine intelligence. The clear message is that AI has to join forces with neuroscience and other brain disciplines in order to make a step towards the development of truly intelligent machines.

  14. Handbook of Intelligent Vehicles

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    The Handbook of Intelligent Vehicles provides a complete coverage of the fundamentals, new technologies, and sub-areas essential to the development of intelligent vehicles; it also includes advances made to date, challenges, and future trends. Significant strides in the field have been made to date; however, so far there has been no single book or volume which captures these advances in a comprehensive format, addressing all essential components and subspecialties of intelligent vehicles, as this book does. Since the intended users are engineering practitioners, as well as researchers and graduate students, the book chapters do not only cover fundamentals, methods, and algorithms but also include how software/hardware are implemented, and demonstrate the advances along with their present challenges. Research at both component and systems levels are required to advance the functionality of intelligent vehicles. This volume covers both of these aspects in addition to the fundamentals listed above.

  15. Emergency Operations Intelligence Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    first responder with an internet access to become a sensor and provide additional intelligence to enhance relief efforts. The result is better resource management, faster decision cycles, and more importantly a reduction in loss of life due to delay or

  16. A comprehensive review on intelligent surveillance systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutrisno Warsono Ibrahim

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Intelligent surveillance system (ISS has received growing attention due to the increasing demand on security and safety. ISS is able to automatically analyze image, video, audio or other type of surveillance data without or with limited human intervention. The recent developments in sensor devices, computer vision, and machine learning have an important role in enabling such intelligent system. This paper aims to provide general overview of intelligent surveillance system and discuss some possible sensor modalities and their fusion scenarios such as visible camera (CCTV, infrared camera, thermal camera and radar. This paper also discusses main processing steps in ISS: background-foreground segmentation, object detection and classification, tracking, and behavioral analysis.

  17. Intelligent Complex Evolutionary Agent-Based Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iantovics, Barna; Enǎchescu, Cǎlin

    2009-04-01

    In this paper, we investigate the possibility to develop intelligent agent-based complex systems that use evolutionary learning techniques in order to adapt for the efficient solving of the problems by reorganizing their structure. For this investigation is proposed a complex multiagent system called EAMS (Evolutionary Adaptive Multiagent System), which using an evolutionary learning technique can learn different patterns of reorganization. The realized study proves that evolutionary techniques successfully can be used to create complex multiagent systems capable to intelligently reorganize their structure during their life cycle. The practical establishment of the intelligence of a computational system in generally, an agent-based system in particularly consists in how efficiently and flexibly the system can solve difficult problems.

  18. Intelligent Elements for ISHM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmalzel, John L.; Morris, Jon; Turowski, Mark; Figueroa, Fernando; Oostdyk, Rebecca

    2008-01-01

    There are a number of architecture models for implementing Integrated Systems Health Management (ISHM) capabilities. For example, approaches based on the OSA-CBM and OSA-EAI models, or specific architectures developed in response to local needs. NASA s John C. Stennis Space Center (SSC) has developed one such version of an extensible architecture in support of rocket engine testing that integrates a palette of functions in order to achieve an ISHM capability. Among the functional capabilities that are supported by the framework are: prognostic models, anomaly detection, a data base of supporting health information, root cause analysis, intelligent elements, and integrated awareness. This paper focuses on the role that intelligent elements can play in ISHM architectures. We define an intelligent element as a smart element with sufficient computing capacity to support anomaly detection or other algorithms in support of ISHM functions. A smart element has the capabilities of supporting networked implementations of IEEE 1451.x smart sensor and actuator protocols. The ISHM group at SSC has been actively developing intelligent elements in conjunction with several partners at other Centers, universities, and companies as part of our ISHM approach for better supporting rocket engine testing. We have developed several implementations. Among the key features for these intelligent sensors is support for IEEE 1451.1 and incorporation of a suite of algorithms for determination of sensor health. Regardless of the potential advantages that can be achieved using intelligent sensors, existing large-scale systems are still based on conventional sensors and data acquisition systems. In order to bring the benefits of intelligent sensors to these environments, we have also developed virtual implementations of intelligent sensors.

  19. Intelligence. Indochina Monographs,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    literary pieces such as proverbs, folk songs, lyrical poems cad ritual chants. The composition of these songs and poems is simple, -•% the language...governing the composition of folk songs, lyrical poems and ritual chants helped sharpen the Communist propaganda technique to the point that every...Vietnam—United States—Free World intelligence community were great and constant. During this long war the entire intelligence program improved each

  20. Intelligent distributed computing

    CERN Document Server

    Thampi, Sabu

    2015-01-01

    This book contains a selection of refereed and revised papers of the Intelligent Distributed Computing Track originally presented at the third International Symposium on Intelligent Informatics (ISI-2014), September 24-27, 2014, Delhi, India.  The papers selected for this Track cover several Distributed Computing and related topics including Peer-to-Peer Networks, Cloud Computing, Mobile Clouds, Wireless Sensor Networks, and their applications.

  1. Intelligent tutoring systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, J.R.; Boyle, C.F.; Reiser, B.J.

    1985-04-26

    Cognitive psychology, artificial intelligence, and computer technology have advanced to the point where it is feasible to build computer systems that are as effective as intelligent human tutors. Computer tutors based on a set of pedagogical principles derived from the ACT theory of cognition have been developed for teaching students to do proofs in geometry and to write computer programs in the language LISP. 19 references, 2 figures.

  2. Binary Masking & Speech Intelligibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boldt, Jesper

    The purpose of this thesis is to examine how binary masking can be used to increase intelligibility in situations where hearing impaired listeners have difficulties understanding what is being said. The major part of the experiments carried out in this thesis can be categorized as either experime...... mask using a directional system and a method for correcting errors in the target binary mask. The last part of the thesis, proposes a new method for objective evaluation of speech intelligibility....

  3. Coping Intelligence: Efficient Life Stress Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libin, Elena

    2017-01-01

    Coping Intelligence is defined as efficient individual ways of managing life stress. This paper presents a new assessment instrument named Coping IQ (CIQ; Coping Intelligence Questionnaire). A measure is based on the Multidimensional Positive Coping Model, which includes three cross-cutting parameters that characterize coping strategy as efficient or inefficient, emotional, cognitive or behavioral, and active or passive. Results of the factor analysis verified a basic two-factor structure of the Coping Intelligence with the alternative solutions for efficient and inefficient coping strategies characterized via three basic modalities. The validity of the Coping IQ instrument showed an internal consistency ranging from 0.72 to 0.81. The unified methodology that underlies the new concept of Coping Intelligence, as well as Coping IQ assessment, is applicable for studying both clinical and general populations. CIQ parameters might serve as useful feedback while assessing changes in individual coping repertoire, for CIQ measures strategies that can be modified as a result of life experiences or educational training. Based on the study findings, Coping Intelligence is further defined by a broad repertoire of life skills required to solve successfully everyday stress and life adversities in order to achieve desired goals and maintain physical, mental, and social well-being.

  4. Employing Artificial Intelligence To Minimise Internet Fraud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Wong Sek Khin

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Internet fraud is increasing on a daily basis with new methods for extracting funds from government, corporations, businesses in general, and persons appearing almost hourly. The increases in on-line purchasing and the constant vigilance of both seller and buyer have meant that the criminal seems to be one-step ahead at all times. To pre-empt or to stop fraud before it can happen occurs in the non-computer based daily transactions of today because of the natural intelligence of the players, both seller and buyer. Currently, even with advances in computing techniques, intelligence is not the current strength of any computing system of today, yet techniques are available which may reduce the occurrences of fraud, and are usually referred to as artificial intelligence systems.This paper provides an overview of the use of current artificial intelligence (AI techniques as a means of combating fraud.Initially the paper describes how artificial intelligence techniques are employed in systems for detecting credit card fraud (online and offline fraud and insider trading.Following this, an attempt is made to propose the using of MonITARS (Monitoring Insider Trading and Regulatory Surveillance Systems framework which use a combination of genetic algorithms, neural nets and statistical analysis in detecting insider dealing. Finally, the paper discusses future research agenda to the role of using MonITARS system.

  5. On modeling and controlling intelligent systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dress, W.B.

    1993-11-01

    The aim of this paper is to show how certain diverse and advanced techniques of information processing and system theory might be integrated into a model of an intelligent, complex entity capable of materially enhancing an advanced information management system. To this end, we first examine the notion of intelligence and ask whether a semblance thereof can arise in a system consisting of ensembles of finite-state automata. Our goal is to find a functional model of intelligence in an information-management setting that can be used as a tool. The purpose of this tool is to allow us to create systems of increasing complexity and utility, eventually reaching the goal of an intelligent information management system that provides and anticipates needed data and information. We base our attempt on the ideas of general system theory where the four topics of system identification, modeling, optimization, and control provide the theoretical framework for constructing a complex system that will be capable of interacting with complex systems in the real world. These four key topics are discussed within the purview of cellular automata, neural networks, and evolutionary programming. This is a report of ongoing work, and not yet a success story of a synthetic intelligent system.

  6. On modeling and controlling intelligent systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dress, W.B.

    1993-11-01

    The aim of this paper is to show how certain diverse and advanced techniques of information processing and system theory might be integrated into a model of an intelligent, complex entity capable of materially enhancing an advanced information management system. To this end, we first examine the notion of intelligence and ask whether a semblance thereof can arise in a system consisting of ensembles of finite-state automata. Our goal is to find a functional model of intelligence in an information-management setting that can be used as a tool. The purpose of this tool is to allow us to create systems of increasing complexity and utility, eventually reaching the goal of an intelligent information management system that provides and anticipates needed data and information. We base our attempt on the ideas of general system theory where the four topics of system identification, modeling, optimization, and control provide the theoretical framework for constructing a complex system that will be capable of interacting with complex systems in the real world. These four key topics are discussed within the purview of cellular automata, neural networks, and evolutionary programming. This is a report of ongoing work, and not yet a success story of a synthetic intelligent system.

  7. Gender and gender role differences in self- and other-estimates of multiple intelligences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymanowicz, Agata; Furnham, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    This study examined participant gender and gender role differences in estimates of multiple intelligences for self, partner, and various hypothetical, stereotypical, and counter-stereotypical target persons. A general population sample of 261 British participants completed one of four questionnaires that required them to estimate their own and others' multiple intelligences and personality traits. Males estimated their general IQ slightly, but mathematic IQ significantly higher than females, who rated their social and emotional intelligence higher than males. Masculine individuals awarded themselves somewhat higher verbal and practical IQ scores than did female participants. Both participant gender and gender role differences in IQ estimates were found, with gender effects stronger in cognitive and gender role than in "personal" ability estimates. There was a significant effect of gender role on hypothetical persons' intelligence evaluations, with masculine targets receiving significantly higher intelligence estimates compared to feminine targets. More intelligent hypothetical figures were judged as more masculine and less feminine than less intelligent ones.

  8. 78 FR 90 - Defense Intelligence Agency National Intelligence University Board of Visitors Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-02

    ... of the Secretary Defense Intelligence Agency National Intelligence University Board of Visitors Closed Meeting AGENCY: National Intelligence University, Defense Intelligence Agency, Department of... a closed meeting of the National Intelligence University Board of Visitors has been scheduled...

  9. 78 FR 32241 - Defense Intelligence Agency National Intelligence University Board of Visitors; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-29

    ... of the Secretary Defense Intelligence Agency National Intelligence University Board of Visitors; Notice of Closed Meeting AGENCY: National Intelligence University, Defense Intelligence Agency... given that a closed meeting of the National Intelligence University Board of Visitors has been...

  10. Professionalizing Intelligence Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James B. Bruce

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the current state of professionalism in national security intelligence analysis in the U.S. Government. Since the introduction of major intelligence reforms directed by the Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act (IRTPA in December, 2004, we have seen notable strides in many aspects of intelligence professionalization, including in analysis. But progress is halting, uneven, and by no means permanent. To consolidate its gains, and if it is to continue improving, the U.S. intelligence community (IC should commit itself to accomplishing a new program of further professionalization of analysis to ensure that it will develop an analytic cadre that is fully prepared to deal with the complexities of an emerging multipolar and highly dynamic world that the IC itself is forecasting. Some recent reforms in intelligence analysis can be assessed against established standards of more fully developed professions; these may well fall short of moving the IC closer to the more fully professionalized analytical capability required for producing the kind of analysis needed now by the United States.

  11. The brain triuno and the ethical intelligence: fundamental counterfoil of the multifocal intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Seijo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study has for aim offer an analysis as for the brain triuno and the ethical intelligence: fundamental Counterfoil of the multifocal intelligence, taking in tells one of the theories that it sustains her like they are the different types of multiple intelligences established by Beauport and Cury (2004. The theoretical sustenance, it is based on the contents of Martin (2005, Belohlavek (2007, Galicians (2002, Beauport and Cury (2004, between others, being realized under a symbolic interpretive approach, across a qualitative methodology, type descriptive and not experimental design, by means of a documentary analysis. In this regard, it is found that the ethical intelligence is a mental mechanism that constructs the structural preconceptos and the rules of game with which an individual approaches the reality, that is to say, it is the capacity of the general formation, predicting the behavior for the achievement of aims organizacionales. As for the final considerations they focused in obtaining the most wide knowledge inside the organizations, allowing to reflect before the weaknesses that they present thinking about the brain triuno applying the multifocal intelligence, fundamental counterfoil of the ethical intelligence and of what way the rationing visualizes the strengths, nevertheless of the weaknesses that they present. 

  12. EI Competencies as a Related but Different Characteristic than Intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Eleftherios Boyatzis

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Amid the swarm of debate about emotional intelligence (EI among academics are claims that cognitive intelligence, or general mental ability (g, is a stronger predictor of life and work outcomes as well as the counter claims that EI is the stronger predictor of life and work outcomes. Nested within the tempest in a teapot are scientific questions as to what the relationship is between g and EI. Using a behavioral approach to EI, we examined the relationship of a parametric measure of g as the person’s GMAT scores and collected observations from others who live and work with the person as to the frequency of his or her EI behavior, as well as the person’s self-assessment. The results show that EI, as seen by others, is slightly related to g, especially for males with assessment from professional relations. Further, we found that cognitive competencies are more strongly related to GMAT than EI competencies. For observations from personal relationships or self-assessment, there is no relationship between EI and GMAT. Observations from professional relations reveal a positive relationship between cognitive competencies and GMAT and EI and GMAT for males, but a negative relationship between EI and GMAT for females.

  13. EI competencies as a related but different characteristic than intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyatzis, Richard E; Batista-Foguet, Joan M; Fernández-I-Marín, Xavier; Truninger, Margarida

    2015-01-01

    Amid the swarm of debate about emotional intelligence (EI) among academics are claims that cognitive intelligence, or general mental ability (g), is a stronger predictor of life and work outcomes as well as the counter claims that EI is their strongest predictor. Nested within the tempest in a teapot are scientific questions as to what the relationship is between g and EI. Using a behavioral approach to EI, we examined the relationship of a parametric measure of g as the person's GMAT scores and collected observations from others who live and work with the person as to the frequency of his or her EI behavior, as well as the person's self-assessment. The results show that EI, as seen by others, is slightly related to g, especially for males with assessment from professional relations. Further, we found that cognitive competencies are more strongly related to GMAT than EI competencies. For observations from personal relationships or self-assessment, there is no relationship between EI and GMAT. Observations from professional relations reveal a positive relationship between cognitive competencies and GMAT and EI and GMAT for males, but a negative relationship between EI and GMAT for females.

  14. Mobile Intelligent Autonomous Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitendra R. Raol

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Mobile intelligent autonomous systems (MIAS is a fast emerging research area. Although it can be regarded as a general R&D area, it is mainly directed towards robotics. Several important subtopics within MIAS research are:(i perception and reasoning, (ii mobility and navigation,(iii haptics and teleoperation, (iv image fusion/computervision, (v modelling of manipulators, (vi hardware/software architectures for planning and behaviour learning leadingto robotic architecture, (vii vehicle-robot path and motionplanning/control, (viii human-machine interfaces for interaction between humans and robots, and (ix application of artificial neural networks (ANNs, fuzzy logic/systems (FLS,probabilistic/approximate reasoning (PAR, Bayesian networks(BN and genetic algorithms (GA to the above-mentioned problems. Also, multi-sensor data fusion (MSDF playsvery crucial role at many levels of the data fusion process:(i kinematic fusion (position/bearing tracking, (ii imagefusion (for scene recognition, (iii information fusion (forbuilding world models, and (iv decision fusion (for tracking,control actions. The MIAS as a technology is useful for automation of complex tasks, surveillance in a hazardousand hostile environment, human-assistance in very difficultmanual works, medical robotics, hospital systems, autodiagnosticsystems, and many other related civil and military systems. Also, other important research areas for MIAScomprise sensor/actuator modelling, failure management/reconfiguration, scene understanding, knowledge representation, learning and decision-making. Examples ofdynamic systems considered within the MIAS would be:autonomous systems (unmanned ground vehicles, unmannedaerial vehicles, micro/mini air vehicles, and autonomousunder water vehicles, mobile/fixed robotic systems, dexterousmanipulator robots, mining robots, surveillance systems,and networked/multi-robot systems, to name a few.Defence Science Journal, 2010, 60(1, pp.3-4,

  15. Business Intelligence using Software Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana-Ramona BOLOGA

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents some ideas about business intelligence today and the importance of developing real time business solutions. The authors make an exploration of links between business intelligence and artificial intelligence and focuses specifically on the implementation of software agents-based systems in business intelligence. There are briefly presented some of the few solutions proposed so far that use software agents properties for the benefit of business intelligence. The authors then propose some basic ideas for developing real-time agent-based software system for business intelligence in supply chain management, using Case Base Reasoning Agents.

  16. Emotional intelligence in incarcerated men with psychopathic traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermer, Elsa; Kahn, Rachel E.; Salovey, Peter; Kiehl, Kent A.

    2012-01-01

    The expression, recognition, and communication of emotional states are ubiquitous features of the human social world. Emotional intelligence (EI) is defined as the ability to perceive, manage, and reason about emotions, in oneself and others. Individuals with psychopathy have numerous difficulties in social interaction and show impairment on some emotional tasks. Here we investigate the relation between emotional intelligence and psychopathy in a sample of incarcerated men (n=374), using the Psychopathy Checklist—Revised (PCL-R; Hare, 2003) and the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT; Mayer, Salovey, & Caruso, 2002). The MSCEIT is a well-validated ability-based emotional intelligence measure that does not rely on self-report judgments of emotional skills. The Hare PCL-R is the gold-standard for the assessment of psychopathy in clinical populations. Controlling for general intelligence, psychopathy was associated with lower emotional intelligence. These findings suggest individuals with psychopathy are impaired on a range of emotional intelligence abilities and that emotional intelligence is an important area for understanding deficits in psychopathy. PMID:22329657

  17. Evaluating airborne sound insulation in terms of speech intelligibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, H K; Bradley, J S; Gover, B N

    2008-03-01

    This paper reports on an evaluation of ratings of the sound insulation of simulated walls in terms of the intelligibility of speech transmitted through the walls. Subjects listened to speech modified to simulate transmission through 20 different walls with a wide range of sound insulation ratings, with constant ambient noise. The subjects' mean speech intelligibility scores were compared with various physical measures to test the success of the measures as sound insulation ratings. The standard Sound Transmission Class (STC) and Weighted Sound Reduction Index ratings were only moderately successful predictors of intelligibility scores, and eliminating the 8 dB rule from STC led to very modest improvements. Various previously established speech intelligibility measures (e.g., Articulation Index or Speech Intelligibility Index) and measures derived from them, such as the Articulation Class, were all relatively strongly related to speech intelligibility scores. In general, measures that involved arithmetic averages or summations of decibel values over frequency bands important for speech were most strongly related to intelligibility scores. The two most accurate predictors of the intelligibility of transmitted speech were an arithmetic average transmission loss over the frequencies from 200 to 2.5 kHz and the addition of a new spectrum weighting term to R(w) that included frequencies from 400 to 2.5 kHz.

  18. SYSTEM FOR AUTOMATIC GENERALIZATION OF TOPOGRAPHIC MAPS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Hao-wen; LI Zhi-lin; AI Ting-hua

    2006-01-01

    With the construction of spatial data infrastructure, automated topographic map generalization becomes an indispensable component in the community of cartography and geographic information science. This paper describes a topographic map generalization system recently developed by the authors. The system has the following characteristics: 1) taking advantage of three levels of automation, i.e. fully automated generalization, batch generalization,and interactive generalization, to undertake two types of processes, i.e. intelligent inference process and repetitive operation process in generalization; 2) making use of two kinds of sources for generalizing rule library, i.e. written specifications and cartographers' experiences, to define a six-element structure to describe the rules; 3) employing a hierarchical structure for map databases, logically and physically; 4) employing a grid indexing technique and undo/redo operation to improve database retrieval and object generalization efficiency. Two examples of topographic map generalization are given to demonstrate the system. It reveals that the system works well. In fact, this system has been used for a number of projects and it has been found that a great improvement in efficiency compared with traditional map generalization process can be achieved.

  19. 太原市三级甲等综合医院护士长情绪智力的调查研究%Investigation on Emotional Intelligence of Head Nurses in the 3A-level General Hospital of Taiyuan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    时毅娜; 杨辉

    2013-01-01

      目的:调查太原市三级甲等综合医院护士长群体的情绪智力现状及其影响因素,为下一步的干预研究提供依据和方向.方法:本研究采用情绪智力量表(EIS)对235名护士长进行调查.结果:护士长情绪智力得分为(3.94±0.36)分,不同年龄、婚姻、工作年龄、任职年限和最后学历等作为情绪智力的影响因素,比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05、0.01).结论:护士长情绪智力处于中等以上水平,其中感知情绪的能力水平最低,在干预研究中应设置相应的课程.%Objective:To investigate the emotional intelligence of head nurse in the 3A-level general hospital of Taiyuan and its influencing factors,and to provide basis and direction,for the intervention of the next step research.Method:A total of 235 head nurses were investigated for emotional intelligence sale(EIS).Result:The EI score of head nurses was(3.94±0.36),age,marriage,time in post,office term and the last degree were seen as influencing factors of emotional intelligence,their difference was statistically significant(P<0.05,P<0.01).Conclusion:The head nurse emotional intelligence is above average,including perception emotional ability level minimum,a intervention study shall set up further corresponding courses. [Key words] Head nurse; Emotional Intelligence; Intervention

  20. Trends in ambient intelligent systems the role of computational intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Khan, Mohammad; Abraham, Ajith

    2016-01-01

    This book demonstrates the success of Ambient Intelligence in providing possible solutions for the daily needs of humans. The book addresses implications of ambient intelligence in areas of domestic living, elderly care, robotics, communication, philosophy and others. The objective of this edited volume is to show that Ambient Intelligence is a boon to humanity with conceptual, philosophical, methodical and applicative understanding. The book also aims to schematically demonstrate developments in the direction of augmented sensors, embedded systems and behavioral intelligence towards Ambient Intelligent Networks or Smart Living Technology. It contains chapters in the field of Ambient Intelligent Networks, which received highly positive feedback during the review process. The book contains research work, with in-depth state of the art from augmented sensors, embedded technology and artificial intelligence along with cutting-edge research and development of technologies and applications of Ambient Intelligent N...

  1. Selective attention, working memory, and animal intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matzel, Louis D; Kolata, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that the storage and processing capabilities of the human working memory system co-vary with individuals' performance on a wide range of cognitive tasks. The ubiquitous nature of this relationship suggests that variations in these processes may underlie individual differences in intelligence. Here we briefly review relevant data which supports this view. Furthermore, we emphasize an emerging literature describing a trait in genetically heterogeneous mice that is quantitatively and qualitatively analogous to general intelligence (g) in humans. As in humans, this animal analog of g co-varies with individual differences in both storage and processing components of the working memory system. Absent some of the complications associated with work with human subjects (e.g., phonological processing), this work with laboratory animals has provided an opportunity to assess otherwise intractable hypotheses. For instance, it has been possible in animals to manipulate individual aspects of the working memory system (e.g., selective attention), and to observe causal relationships between these variables and the expression of general cognitive abilities. This work with laboratory animals has coincided with human imaging studies (briefly reviewed here) which suggest that common brain structures (e.g., prefrontal cortex) mediate the efficacy of selective attention and the performance of individuals on intelligence test batteries. In total, this evidence suggests an evolutionary conservation of the processes that co-vary with and/or regulate "intelligence" and provides a framework for promoting these abilities in both young and old animals.

  2. Searching for the biological basis of human mental abilitites. The relationship between attention and intelligence studied with P3

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wronka, E.A.

    2013-01-01

    There is consensus that general intelligence is closely related to the efficiency of brain functioning. This idea has roots in Spearman’s theory of intelligence, and is later expanded by Cattell and Horn. Modern psychologists commonly believe that brain activity plays a central role in intelligence,

  3. Emotional Intelligence, Self-Efficacy, and Coping among Chinese Prospective and In-Service Teachers in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, David W.

    2008-01-01

    Emotional intelligence (intrapersonal and interpersonal) and general teacher self-efficacy were assessed to represent personal resources facilitating active and passive coping in a sample of 273 Chinese prospective and in-service teachers in Hong Kong. Intrapersonal emotional intelligence and interpersonal emotional intelligence were found to…

  4. Synthetic collective intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solé, Ricard; Amor, Daniel R; Duran-Nebreda, Salva; Conde-Pueyo, Núria; Carbonell-Ballestero, Max; Montañez, Raúl

    2016-10-01

    Intelligent systems have emerged in our biosphere in different contexts and achieving different levels of complexity. The requirement of communication in a social context has been in all cases a determinant. The human brain, probably co-evolving with language, is an exceedingly successful example. Similarly, social insects complex collective decisions emerge from information exchanges between many agents. The difference is that such processing is obtained out of a limited individual cognitive power. Computational models and embodied versions using non-living systems, particularly involving robot swarms, have been used to explore the potentiality of collective intelligence. Here we suggest a novel approach to the problem grounded in the genetic engineering of unicellular systems, which can be modified in order to interact, store memories or adapt to external stimuli in collective ways. What we label as Synthetic Swarm Intelligence defines a parallel approach to the evolution of computation and swarm intelligence and allows to explore potential embodied scenarios for decision making at the microscale. Here, we consider several relevant examples of collective intelligence and their synthetic organism counterparts.

  5. Intelligent life in cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipler, Frank J.

    2003-04-01

    I shall present three arguments for the proposition that intelligent life is very rare in the universe. First, I shall summarize the consensus opinion of the founders of the modern synthesis (Simpson, Dobzhanski and Mayr) that the evolution of intelligent life is exceedingly improbable. Secondly, I shall develop the Fermi paradox: if they existed, they would be here. Thirdly, I shall show that if intelligent life were too common, it would use up all available resources and die out. But I shall show that the quantum mechanical principle of unitarity (actually a form of teleology!) requires intelligent life to survive to the end of time. Finally, I shall argue that, if the universe is indeed accelerating, then survival to the end of time requires that intelligent life, though rare, to have evolved several times in the visible universe. I shall argue that the acceleration is a consequence of the excess of matter over antimatter in the universe. I shall suggest experiments to test these claims.

  6. Intelligent Life in Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Tipler, Frank J

    2003-01-01

    I shall present three arguments for the proposition that intelligent life is very rare in the universe. First, I shall summarize the consensus opinion of the founders of the Modern Synthesis (Simpson, Dobzhanski, and Mayr) that the evolution of intelligent life is exceedingly improbable. Second, I shall develop the Fermi Paradox: if they existed they'd be here. Third, I shall show that if intelligent life were too common, it would use up all available resources and die out. But I shall show that the quantum mechanical principle of unitarity (actually a form of teleology!) requires intelligent life to survive to the end of time. Finally, I shall argue that, if the universe is indeed accelerating, then survival to the end of time requires that intelligent life, though rare, to have evolved several times in the visible universe. I shall argue that the acceleration is a consequence of the excess of matter over antimatter in the universe. I shall suggest experiments to test these claims.

  7. Intelligent Potroom Operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jan Berkow; Larry Banta

    2003-07-29

    The Intelligent Potroom Operation project focuses on maximizing the performance of an aluminum smelter by innovating components for an intelligent manufacturing system. The Intelligent Potroom Advisor (IPA) monitors process data to identify reduction cells exhibiting behaviors that require immediate attention. It then advises operational personnel on those heuristic-based actions to bring the cell back to an optimal operating state in order to reduce the duration and frequency of substandard reduction cell performance referred to as ''Off-Peak Modes'' (OPMs). Techniques developed to identify cells exhibiting OPMs include the use of a finite element model-based cell state estimator for defining the cell's current operating state via advanced cell noise analyses. In addition, rule induction was also employed to identify statistically significant complex behaviors that occur prior to OPMs. The intelligent manufacturing system design, concepts and formalisms developed in this project w ere used as a basis for an intelligent manufacturing system design. Future research will incorporate an adaptive component to automate continuous process improvement, a technology platform with the potential to improve process performance in many of the other Industries of the Future applications as well.

  8. On the influence of intelligence in (social) intelligence testing environments

    CERN Document Server

    Insa-Cabrera, Javier; Hernandez-Orallo, Jose

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyses the influence of including agents of different degrees of intelligence in a multiagent system. The goal is to better understand how we can develop intelligence tests that can evaluate social intelligence. We analyse several reinforcement algorithms in several contexts of cooperation and competition. Our experimental setting is inspired by the recently developed Darwin-Wallace distribution.

  9. The INTELLIGENT RuleTutor: A Structured Approach to Intelligent Tutoring. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scandura, Alice B.

    This final report describes a general purpose system for developing intelligent tutors based on the Structural Learning Theory. The report opens with a discussion of the rules and related constructs that underlie cognitive constructs in all structural learning theories. The remainder of the text provides: (1) an introduction to the Structural…

  10. Study of intelligence quotient and influencing factors on the children with idiopathic generalized tonic-clonic seizure%特发性全身强直-阵挛发作患儿智商及影响因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄会芝; 胡晓峰; 温晓红; 唐章龙; 李晓燕; 金岚; 吴晓燕; 储微; 唐久来

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study the intelligence quotient(IQ) profile of the children with idiopathic generalized tonic-clonic seizure (GTCS) and the factors influencing IQ of them.Methods All 28 children with GTCS were selected who were aged 9 ~ 16 years in 20 GTCS families in a mountain area of the south of Anhui Province,all available healthy siblings of the children included in the epilepsy group,did not have epilepsy,and were nearest in age to the children with GTCS ( control group 1 ),and thirty children aged 9 ~ 16 years old who had lived in the same village ( control group 2) entered into our study.The IQ was studied of the three groups of children and the factors influencing IQ of children with GTCS at the same time.The data were input SPSS12.0 and analyzed.Results The IQ of children with GTCS(85.64 ±20.57)was lower than that control group 1( 103.39 ± 11.17)and the control group 2 ( 106.17 ± 11.67).The difference between children with GTCS and the two control groups were significant for almost all the subtest quotients except completion of drawing and picture arrangement.No significant differences were found between the control group 1 and the control group 2 on the IQ and the subtest quotients.IQ scores of children with GTCS showed significant linear correlation with father's education( r=0.453,P<0.01 ),age at onset of epilepsy( r=0.506,P<0.01 ),duration of seizure disorder( r=-0.533,P<0.0l ),status epilepticus( r=-0.732,P<0.01),total number of seizures( r=-0.761,P<0.01) and seizure frequency ( r=-0.708,P < 0.01 ).Conclusion The IQ scores of the children with idiopathic GTCS are lower significantly than general children population.Epilepsy-related variables affecting IQ scores of the children with idiopathic GTCS are duration of seizure disorder,status epilepticus,age at onset of epilepsy,total number of seizures,seizure frequency.%目的 研究特发性全身强直-阵挛发作(GTCS)患儿智商(IQ)及影响因素.方法 选择皖南区20

  11. Executive intelligence the leader's edge

    CERN Document Server

    Buchen, Irving H

    2011-01-01

    Executive Intelligence zeros in on leadership smarts and notes that in all lists compiled by leadership experts, head hunters, and boards of directors the one and only trait that appears in all is intelligence.

  12. The Literature of Competitive Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Thomas D.

    1994-01-01

    Describes competitive intelligence (CI) literature in terms of its location, quantity, authorship, length, and problems of bibliographic access. Highlights include subject access; competitive intelligence research; espionage and security; monographs; and journals. (21 references) (LRW)

  13. Evolution of the brain and intelligence in primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Gerhard; Dicke, Ursula

    2012-01-01

    Primates are, on average, more intelligent than other mammals, with great apes and finally humans on top. They generally have larger brains and cortices, and because of higher relative cortex volume and neuron packing density (NPD), they have much more cortical neurons than other mammalian taxa with the same brain size. Likewise, information processing capacity is generally higher in primates due to short interneuronal distance and high axonal conduction velocity. Across primate taxa, differences in intelligence correlate best with differences in number of cortical neurons and synapses plus information processing speed. The human brain stands out by having a large cortical volume with relatively high NPD, high conduction velocity, and high cortical parcellation. All aspects of human intelligence are present at least in rudimentary form in nonhuman primates or some mammals or vertebrates except syntactical language. The latter can be regarded as a very potent "intelligence amplifier." Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The level and nature of autistic intelligence III: Inspection time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbeau, Elise B; Soulières, Isabelle; Dawson, Michelle; Zeffiro, Thomas A; Mottron, Laurent

    2013-02-01

    Across the autism spectrum, level of intelligence is highly dependent on the psychometric instrument used for assessment, and there are conflicting views concerning which measures best estimate autistic cognitive abilities. Inspection time is a processing speed measure associated with general intelligence in typical individuals. We therefore investigated autism spectrum performance on inspection time in relation to two different general intelligence tests. Autism spectrum individuals were divided into autistic and Asperger subgroups according to speech development history. Compared to a typical control group, mean inspection time for the autistic subgroup but not the Asperger subgroup was significantly shorter (by 31%). However, the shorter mean autistic inspection time was evident only when groups were matched on Wechsler IQ and disappeared when they were matched using Raven's Progressive Matrices. When autism spectrum abilities are compared to typical abilities, results may be influenced by speech development history as well as by the instrument used for intelligence matching.

  15. Instrumenting the Intelligence Analysis Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hampson, Ernest; Cowley, Paula J.

    2005-05-02

    The Advanced Research and Development Activity initiated the Novel Intelligence from Massive Data (NIMD) program to develop advanced analytic technologies and methodologies. In order to support this objective, researchers and developers need to understand what analysts do and how they do it. In the past, this knowledge generally was acquired through subjective feedback from analysts. NIMD established the innovative Glass Box Analysis (GBA) Project to instrument a live intelligence mission and unobtrusively capture and objectively study the analysis process. Instrumenting the analysis process requires tailor-made software hooks that grab data from a myriad of disparate application operations and feed into a complex relational database and hierarchical file store to collect, store, retrieve, and distribute analytic data in a manner that maximizes researchers’ understanding. A key to success is determining the correct data to collect and aggregate low-level data into meaningful analytic events. This paper will examine how the GBA team solved some of these challenges, continues to address others, and supports a growing user community in establishing their own GBA environments and/or studying the data generated by GBA analysts working in the Glass Box.

  16. Taking Business Intelligence to Business Education Curriculum: Graduate Students’ Concerns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Kissi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Business intelligence systems are widely employed in industries. However, students concerns about Business Intelligence course are largely missed in the business education curriculum. To take a proper decision on Business intelligence integration in business education, it is important to understand students’ concerns. This study employed a survey questionnaire to investigate 142 graduate students concerns about integrating business intelligence into business education curriculum. The survey questionnaire was adopted from previous studies to measure students’ concerns on a Business Intelligence job opportunity, interest and relevance in the Business intelligence education. The survey items have a reliability scales of Cronbach’s alpha (α = 0.818, factor loading > 0.5, and Average Variance Extracted (AVE ≥ 0.5, and Composite Reliability (CR ≥ 0.6. Descriptive statistics and Independent sample t-test and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA test were performed on the survey data. Students revealed that Business intelligence knowledge is relevant (mean = 4.29, SD = 0.710, has several job opportunities (mean = 4.16, SD = 0.675, and should be integrated into business education curriculum (mean = 3.95.08, SD = 0.79. In addition, there was no statistically significant difference (t (140 = –0.027, p > 0.05 between the concerns of students with Business Intelligence lecture experience and those without. Further, perceived importance and job opportunity significantly, F = 24.601 and p = .000(< .05 relates to the Business intelligence integration in Business Education. The findings draw implications for university management and business institutions in updating curriculum so as to equip business students with the essential Business Intelligence knowledge and skills for the betterment of the business organizations.

  17. Understanding the Globalization of Intelligence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Adam David Morgan

    "This book provides an introduction to the complexities of contemporary Western Intelligence and its dynamics during an era of globalization. Towards an understanding of the globalization of intelligence process, Svendsen focuses on the secretive phenomenon of international or foreign intelligence...... cooperation ('liaison'), as it occurs in both theory and practice. Reflecting a complex coexistence plurality of several different and overlapping concepts in action, the challenging process of the globalization of intelligence emerges as essential for complex issue management purposes during a globalized era...

  18. Market Intelligence : Building Strategic Insight

    OpenAIRE

    Søilen, Klaus Solberg; Jenster, Per

    2009-01-01

    Market Intelligence provides managers with helpful concepts, tools and ideas on market intelligence and analysis. Additionally, it gives the reader some of the analytical tools used to analyze both micro and macro factors in the organization’s environment to better predict future outcomes and help decision making. The field of competitive intelligence is studied by a diverse research community. Contributions are made to aid states on a national, regional and local level (Public Intelligence),...

  19. Sleep spindles and intelligence in early childhood-developmental and trait-dependent aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ujma, Péter P; Sándor, Piroska; Szakadát, Sára; Gombos, Ferenc; Bódizs, Róbert

    2016-12-01

    Sleep spindles act as a powerful marker of individual differences in cognitive ability. Sleep spindle parameters correlate with both age-related changes in cognitive abilities and with the age-independent concept of IQ. While some studies have specifically demonstrated the relationship between sleep spindles and intelligence in young children, our previous work in older subjects revealed sex differences in the sleep spindle correlates of IQ, which was never investigated in small children before. We investigated the relationship between age, Raven Colored Progressive Matrices (CPM) scores and sleep spindles in 28 young children (age 4-8 years, 15 girls). We specifically investigated sex differences in the psychometric correlates of sleep spindles. We also aimed to separate the correlates of sleep spindles that are because of age-related maturation from other effects that reflect an age-independent relationship between sleep spindles and general intelligence. Our results revealed a modest positive correlation between fast spindle amplitude and age. Raven CPM scores positively correlated with both slow and fast spindle amplitude, but this effect remained a tendency in males and vanished after correcting for the effects of age. Age-corrected correlations between Raven CPM scores and both slow and fast spindle amplitude were only significant in females. Overall, our results show that in male children sleep spindles are a maturational marker, but in female children they indicate trait-like intelligence, in line with previous studies in adolescent and adult subjects. Thalamocortical white matter connectivity may be the underlying mechanism behind both higher spindle amplitude and higher intelligence in female, but not male subjects. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Dental ethics and emotional intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblum, Alvin B; Wolf, Steve

    2014-01-01

    Dental ethics is often taught, viewed, and conducted as an intell enterprise, uninformed by other noncognitive factors. Emotional intelligence (EQ) is defined distinguished from the cognitive intelligence measured by Intelligence Quotient (IQ). This essay recommends more inclusion of emotional, noncognitive input to the ethical decision process in dental education and dental practice.

  1. Instructional Applications of Artificial Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halff, Henry M.

    1986-01-01

    Surveys artificial intelligence and the development of computer-based tutors and speculates on the future of artificial intelligence in education. Includes discussion of the definitions of knowledge, expert systems (computer systems that solve tough technical problems), intelligent tutoring systems (ITS), and specific ITSs such as GUIDON, MYCIN,…

  2. Competitive Intelligence and Social Advantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, Elisabeth; Cronin, Blaise

    1994-01-01

    Presents an overview of issues concerning civilian competitive intelligence (CI). Topics discussed include competitive advantage in academic and research environments; public domain information and libraries; covert and overt competitive intelligence; data diversity; use of the Internet; cooperative intelligence; and implications for library and…

  3. Studies in Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    Soviet Bloc Intelligence and its AIDS Disinformation Campaign, 1982–,” Studies 53, no. 4, by Thomas Boghardt. “Fiasco in Nairobi: Greek Intelligence and...Japanese 50509 1.15 Korean 47113 1.07 Albanian 40898 0.93 Italian 39060 0.89 Urdu 31705 0.72 Ukrainian 31608 0.72 Indonesian 29359 0.67 Greek 28564...aged, of uncertain parentage, had spent years in the circus and London theater, and was openly homosexual at a time when that was not accepted

  4. Bayesian artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Korb, Kevin B

    2003-01-01

    As the power of Bayesian techniques has become more fully realized, the field of artificial intelligence has embraced Bayesian methodology and integrated it to the point where an introduction to Bayesian techniques is now a core course in many computer science programs. Unlike other books on the subject, Bayesian Artificial Intelligence keeps mathematical detail to a minimum and covers a broad range of topics. The authors integrate all of Bayesian net technology and learning Bayesian net technology and apply them both to knowledge engineering. They emphasize understanding and intuition but also provide the algorithms and technical background needed for applications. Software, exercises, and solutions are available on the authors' website.

  5. Algorithmic Randomness as Foundation of Inductive Reasoning and Artificial Intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Hutter, Marcus

    2011-01-01

    This article is a brief personal account of the past, present, and future of algorithmic randomness, emphasizing its role in inductive inference and artificial intelligence. It is written for a general audience interested in science and philosophy. Intuitively, randomness is a lack of order or predictability. If randomness is the opposite of determinism, then algorithmic randomness is the opposite of computability. Besides many other things, these concepts have been used to quantify Ockham's razor, solve the induction problem, and define intelligence.

  6. Content Analysis and the Organization of Combat Intelligence Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-02-01

    Rtstarck M«aor»4»B 78-7 CO o < CONTENT ANALYSIS AND THE ORGANIZATION OF COMBAT INTELLIGENCE DATA Murray S. Miron and Samuel W. Patten Syracuse...the Army Research Institute. y > /N u A A J^ 4 CONTENT ANALYSIS AND THE ORGANIZATION OF COMBAT INTELLIGENCE DATA \\ INTRODUCTION In order to...1966, p. 68). In content analysis , the General Inquirer functions as a well-trained clerk who assigns particular categories (specified by the

  7. Estimates of Self, Parental and Partner Multiple Intelligences in Iran: A replication and extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furnham, Adrian; Kosari, Afrooz; Swami, Viren

    2012-01-01

    Two hundred and fifty-eight Iranian university students estimated their own, parents', and partners' overall (general) intelligence, and also estimated 13 'multiple intelligences' on a simple, two-page questionnaire which was previously used in many similar studies. In accordance with previous research, men rated themselves higher than women on logical-mathematical, spatial and musical intelligence. There were, however, no sex differences in ratings of parental and partner multiple intelligences, which is inconsistent with the extant literature. Participants also believed that they were more intelligent than their parents and partners, and that their fathers were more intelligent than their mothers. Multiple regressions indicated that participants' Big Five personality typologies and test experience were significant predictors of self-estimated intelligence. These results are discussed in terms of the cross-cultural literature in the field. Implications of the results are also considered.

  8. The Relationship between Emotional Intelligence and Marital Satisfaction: 10-Year Outcome of Partners from Three Different Economic Levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohre Nasiri Zarch

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Emotional communication and economic factors play an important role in having a satisfying relationship and a more successful marriage. In this regard, we investigated the 10-year outcome of partners from three different economic levels regarding the relationship between emotional intelligence (EI and marital satisfaction.The research was designed as a descriptive-correlative survey and data were analyzed using Pearson correlation test and stepwise regression.Participants were 159 couples (N = 318 who were randomly selected through clustered sampling. The questionnaires included: Bar-on Emotional Intelligence (1997 and Enrich Marital satisfaction (1989.The findings revealed that the average values of emotional intelligence (m = 333.1 and marital satisfaction (m = 300.77 were high in the under-rich region (p<0.05. Moreover, there was no significant relationship between interpersonal and marital satisfaction within the under-rich region. On average, emotional intelligence accounted for 40.8% of marital satisfaction within those three regions (p<0.01.The results of the regression analysis showed that general mood is the most effective factor changing marital satisfaction in the three studied regions (R2= 0.34, rich (R2= 0.42 and semi-rich (R2= 0.52 regions (p<0.01. The most influential factor changing marital satisfaction in the under-rich (R2= 0.28 region was found to be stress management (p<0.01.

  9. Where Artificial Intelligence and Neuroscience Meet: The Search for Grounded Architectures of Cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank van der Velde

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The collaboration between artificial intelligence and neuroscience can produce an understanding of the mechanisms in the brain that generate human cognition. This article reviews multidisciplinary research lines that could achieve this understanding. Artificial intelligence has an important role to play in research, because artificial intelligence focuses on the mechanisms that generate intelligence and cognition. Artificial intelligence can also benefit from studying the neural mechanisms of cognition, because this research can reveal important information about the nature of intelligence and cognition itself. I will illustrate this aspect by discussing the grounded nature of human cognition. Human cognition is perhaps unique because it combines grounded representations with computational productivity. I will illustrate that this combination requires specific neural architectures. Investigating and simulating these architectures can reveal how they are instantiated in the brain. The way these architectures implement cognitive processes could also provide answers to fundamental problems facing the study of cognition.

  10. Towards a universal competitive intelligence process model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rene Pellissier

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Competitive intelligence (CI provides actionable intelligence, which provides a competitive edge in enterprises. However, without proper process, it is difficult to develop actionable intelligence. There are disagreements about how the CI process should be structured. For CI professionals to focus on producing actionable intelligence, and to do so with simplicity, they need a common CI process model.Objectives: The purpose of this research is to review the current literature on CI, to look at the aims of identifying and analysing CI process models, and finally to propose a universal CI process model.Method: The study was qualitative in nature and content analysis was conducted on all identified sources establishing and analysing CI process models. To identify relevant literature, academic databases and search engines were used. Moreover, a review of references in related studies led to more relevant sources, the references of which were further reviewed and analysed. To ensure reliability, only peer-reviewed articles were used.Results: The findings reveal that the majority of scholars view the CI process as a cycle of interrelated phases. The output of one phase is the input of the next phase.Conclusion: The CI process is a cycle of interrelated phases. The output of one phase is the input of the next phase. These phases are influenced by the following factors: decision makers, process and structure, organisational awareness and culture, and feedback.

  11. Towards a universal competitive intelligence process model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rene Pellissier

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Competitive intelligence (CI provides actionable intelligence, which provides a competitive edge in enterprises. However, without proper process, it is difficult to develop actionable intelligence. There are disagreements about how the CI process should be structured. For CI professionals to focus on producing actionable intelligence, and to do so with simplicity, they need a common CI process model.Objectives: The purpose of this research is to review the current literature on CI, to look at the aims of identifying and analysing CI process models, and finally to propose a universal CI process model.Method: The study was qualitative in nature and content analysis was conducted on all identified sources establishing and analysing CI process models. To identify relevant literature, academic databases and search engines were used. Moreover, a review of references in related studies led to more relevant sources, the references of which were further reviewed and analysed. To ensure reliability, only peer-reviewed articles were used.Results: The findings reveal that the majority of scholars view the CI process as a cycle of interrelated phases. The output of one phase is the input of the next phase.Conclusion: The CI process is a cycle of interrelated phases. The output of one phase is the input of the next phase. These phases are influenced by the following factors: decision makers, process and structure, organisational awareness and culture, and feedback.

  12. Intelligence, Cognition, and Language of Green Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trewavas, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    A summary definition of some 70 descriptions of intelligence provides a definition for all other organisms including plants that stresses fitness. Barbara McClintock, a plant biologist, posed the notion of the 'thoughtful cell' in her Nobel prize address. The systems structure necessary for a thoughtful cell is revealed by comparison of the interactome and connectome. The plant root cap, a group of some 200 cells that act holistically in responding to numerous signals, likely possesses a similar systems structure agreeing with Darwin's description of acting like the brain of a lower organism. Intelligent behavior requires assessment of different choices and taking the beneficial one. Decisions are constantly required to optimize the plant phenotype to a dynamic environment and the cambium is the assessing tissue diverting more or removing resources from different shoot and root branches through manipulation of vascular elements. Environmental awareness likely indicates consciousness. Spontaneity in plant behavior, ability to count to five and error correction indicate intention. Volatile organic compounds are used as signals in plant interactions and being complex in composition may be the equivalent of language accounting for self and alien recognition by individual plants. Game theory describes competitive interactions. Interactive and intelligent outcomes emerge from application of various games between plants themselves and interactions with microbes. Behavior profiting from experience, another simple definition of intelligence, requires both learning and memory and is indicated in the priming of herbivory, disease and abiotic stresses.

  13. INTELLIGENCE, COGNITION AND LANGUAGE OF GREEN PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony eTrewavas

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A summary definition of some 70 descriptions of intelligence provides a definition for all other organisms including plants that stresses fitness. Barbara McClintock, a plant biologist, posed the notion of the ‘ thoughtful cell’ in her Nobel prize address. The systems structure necessary for a thoughtful cell is revealed by comparison of the interactome and connectome. The plant root cap, a group of some 200 cells that act holistically in responding to numerous signals, likely possesses a similar systems structure agreeing with Darwin’s description of acting like the brain of a lower organism. Intelligent behaviour requires assessment of different choices and taking the beneficial one. Decisions are constantly required to optimise the plant phenotype to a dynamic environment and the cambium is the assessing tissue diverting more or removing resources from different shoot and root branches through manipulation of vascular elements. Environmental awareness likely indicates consciousness. Spontaneity in plant behaviour, ability to count to five and error correction indicate intention. Volatile organic compounds are used as signals in plant interactions and being complex in composition may be the equivalent of language accounting for self and alien recognition by individual plants. Game theory describes competitive interactions. Interactive and intelligent outcomes emerge from application of various games between plants themselves and interactions with microbes. Behaviour profiting from experience, another simple definition of intelligence, requires both learning and memory and is indicated in the priming of herbivory, disease and abiotic stresses.

  14. Estimates of self, parental, and partner multiple intelligence and their relationship with personality, values, and demographic variables: a study in Britain and France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swami, Viren; Furnham, Adrian; Zilkha, Susan

    2009-11-01

    In the present study, 151 British and 151 French participants estimated their own, their parents' and their partner's overall intelligence and 13 'multiple intelligences.' In accordance with previous studies, men rated themselves as higher on almost all measures of intelligence, but there were few cross-national differences. There were also important sex differences in ratings of parental and partner intelligence. Participants generally believed they were more intelligent than their parents but not their partners. Regressions indicated that participants believed verbal, logical-mathematical, and spatial intelligence to be the main predictors of intelligence. Regressions also showed that participants' Big Five personality scores (in particular, Extraversion and Openness), but not values or beliefs about intelligence and intelligences tests, were good predictors of intelligence. Results were discussed in terms of the influence of gender-role stereotypes.

  15. Can only intelligent children do mind reading: The relationship between intelligence and theory of mind in 8 to 11 years old

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raveendran Anoop L

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mind reading ability of children has evoked wide interest, but its relationship with general cognitive abilities remains obscure. Methods We studied the relationship between the mind reading ability and general intelligence. Children (N = 105 between 8 to 11 years from educational institutions were assessed for the mind reading ability using Picture Sequencing Task and Unexpected Contents Theory of Mind task. We used Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire to rule out psychiatric morbidity. An independent investigator quantified intelligence and adaptive behavior with Binet- Kamat Test of intelligence and Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale respectively. We employed bivariate and multivariate statistical tests. Results We demonstrated that mind reading ability was not significantly related to general intelligence or its domains except for the social intelligence after controlling the confounders methodologically and statistically. Conclusion These findings argue that mind reading skill exists as an independent cognitive domain and has clinical, research as well as educational implications.

  16. Un Marco Abierto: Un Manual de Matematicas y Ciencas Utilizando Inteligencias Multiples Disenado para Estudiantes Bilingues de Educacion General y Especial (An Open Framework: A Math and Science Manual Utilizing Multiple Intelligences Designed for Bilingual Students in General and Special Education).

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Office of Bilingual Education.

    This manual incorporates a Multiple Intelligences perspective into its presentation of themes and lesson ideas for Spanish-English bilingual elementary school students in grades 4-8 and is designed for both gifted and special education uses. Each unit includes practice activities, semantic maps to illustrate and help organize ideas as well as…

  17. Knowledge formalization of intelligent building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Žáček, Martin

    2016-06-01

    This article aim is understanding the basic knowledge about an intelligent building. The notion of the intelligent building can be called any building equipped with computer and communication technology, which can automatically respond to internal or external stimuli. The result of the intelligent building is an automated and foreseeing of activities that enable to reduce operating costs and increase comfort. The best way to use the intelligent building is for a low-energy building, a passive building, or for building with high savings. The output of this article is the formalization of basic knowledge of the intelligent building by RDF graph.

  18. Are Emotionally Intelligent EFL Teachers More Satisfied Professionally?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hossein Hekmatzadeh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite the fact that Intelligence Quotient (IQ is an important factor in one’s success in terms of working environment, it is believed that emotional quotient or EQ plays a more important role. With that in mind, this study investigated the relationship between emotional intelligence and job satisfaction of English as Foreign Language (EFL teachers who work at private language institutes in Iran/Shiraz. Furthermore, this study tried to answer whether there is a significant difference between emotional intelligence and job satisfaction of Iranian’s EFL teachers in terms of gender.  A 90-item Bar-On questionnaire was used to measure the teachers’ emotional intelligence; also, a modified version of Karavas’s (2010 job satisfaction scale was used to see how satisfied our teachers are with their teaching career. To answer the research question, Pearson Product-Moment Correlation Coefficient statistical test was run. The results showed that there was a positive and significant correlation between emotional intelligence and job satisfaction of EFL teachers in Iran/Shiraz. Furthermore, the results revealed that there was a statistically significant difference in emotional intelligence between EFL male and female teachers, but there was no statistically significant relationship between Iranian EFL teachers’ job satisfaction in terms of gender. Based on our findings, it is suggested that some preparatory courses aiming at enhancing the important psychological traits such as emotional intelligence should be incorporated in educational programs designed for novice teachers so that it will contribute to pedagogical improvement.

  19. Intelligent holographic databases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbastathis, George

    Memory is a key component of intelligence. In the human brain, physical structure and functionality jointly provide diverse memory modalities at multiple time scales. How could we engineer artificial memories with similar faculties? In this thesis, we attack both hardware and algorithmic aspects of this problem. A good part is devoted to holographic memory architectures, because they meet high capacity and parallelism requirements. We develop and fully characterize shift multiplexing, a novel storage method that simplifies disk head design for holographic disks. We develop and optimize the design of compact refreshable holographic random access memories, showing several ways that 1 Tbit can be stored holographically in volume less than 1 m3, with surface density more than 20 times higher than conventional silicon DRAM integrated circuits. To address the issue of photorefractive volatility, we further develop the two-lambda (dual wavelength) method for shift multiplexing, and combine electrical fixing with angle multiplexing to demonstrate 1,000 multiplexed fixed holograms. Finally, we propose a noise model and an information theoretic metric to optimize the imaging system of a holographic memory, in terms of storage density and error rate. Motivated by the problem of interfacing sensors and memories to a complex system with limited computational resources, we construct a computer game of Desert Survival, built as a high-dimensional non-stationary virtual environment in a competitive setting. The efficacy of episodic learning, implemented as a reinforced Nearest Neighbor scheme, and the probability of winning against a control opponent improve significantly by concentrating the algorithmic effort to the virtual desert neighborhood that emerges as most significant at any time. The generalized computational model combines the autonomous neural network and von Neumann paradigms through a compact, dynamic central representation, which contains the most salient features

  20. Projective simulation for artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Briegel, Hans J

    2011-01-01

    We propose a notion of a learning agent whose interaction with the environment is governed by a simulation-based projection, which allows the agent to project itself into future situations before it takes real action. Projective simulation is based on a random walk through a network of clips, which are elementary patches of episodic memory. The network of clips changes dynamically, both due to new perceptual input and due to certain compositional principles of the simulation process. During simulation, the clips are screened for specific features which trigger factual action of the agent. The scheme is different from other, computational, notions of simulation, and it provides a new element in an embodied-cognitive-science approach to intelligent action and learning. While the scheme works entirely classically, it also provides a natural route for generalization to quantum-mechanical operation.

  1. Projective simulation for artificial intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briegel, Hans J.; De las Cuevas, Gemma

    2012-01-01

    We propose a model of a learning agent whose interaction with the environment is governed by a simulation-based projection, which allows the agent to project itself into future situations before it takes real action. Projective simulation is based on a random walk through a network of clips, which are elementary patches of episodic memory. The network of clips changes dynamically, both due to new perceptual input and due to certain compositional principles of the simulation process. During simulation, the clips are screened for specific features which trigger factual action of the agent. The scheme is different from other, computational, notions of simulation, and it provides a new element in an embodied cognitive science approach to intelligent action and learning. Our model provides a natural route for generalization to quantum-mechanical operation and connects the fields of reinforcement learning and quantum computation. PMID:22590690

  2. Recent contributions in intelligent systems

    CERN Document Server

    Yager, Ronald; Kacprzyk, Janusz; Atanassov, Krassimir

    2017-01-01

    This volume is a brief, yet comprehensive account of new development, tools, techniques and solutions in the broadly perceived “intelligent systems”. New concepts and ideas concern the development of effective and efficient models which would make it possible to effectively and efficiently describe and solve processes in various areas of science and technology. Special emphasis is on the dealing with uncertainty and imprecision that permeates virtually all real world processes and phenomena, and has to properly be modeled by formal and algorithmic tools and techniques so that they be adequate and useful. The papers in this volume concern a wide array of possible techniques exemplified by, on the one hand, logic, probabilistic, fuzzy, intuitionistic fuzzy, neuro-fuzzy, etc. approaches. On the other hand, they represent the use of such systems modeling tools as generalized nets, optimization and control models, systems analytic models, etc. They concerns a variety of approaches, from pattern recognition, im...

  3. Healthcare Industry Improvement with Business Intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela-Laura IVAN

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The current paper highlights the advantages of big data analytics and business intelligence in the healthcare industry. In the paper are reviewed the Real-Time Healthcare Analytics Solutions for Preventative Medicine provided by SAP and the different ideas realized by possible customers for new applications in Healthcare industry in order to demonstrate that the healthcare system can and should benefit from the new opportunities provided by ITC in general and big data analytics in particular.

  4. Artificial Intelligence: Engineering, Science, or Slogan?

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsson, Nils J.

    1982-01-01

    This paper presents the view that artificial intelligence (AI) is primarily concerned with propositional languages for representing knowledge and with techniques for manipulating these representations. In this respect, AI is analogous to applied in a variety of other subject areas. Typically, AI research (or should be) more concerned with the general form and properties of representational languages and methods than it is with the context being described by these languages. Notable exceptions...

  5. Priming Ability Emotional Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutte, Nicola S.; Malouff, John M.

    2012-01-01

    Two studies examined whether priming self-schemas relating to successful emotional competency results in better emotional intelligence performance. In the first study participants were randomly assigned to a successful emotional competency self-schema prime condition or a control condition and then completed an ability measure of emotional…

  6. Intelligent Agents: A Primer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Edmund; Feldman, Susan

    1999-01-01

    Provides an in-depth introduction to the various technologies that are bringing intelligent agents into the forefront of information technology, explaining how such agents work, the standards involved, and how agent-based applications can be developed. (Author/AEF)

  7. Artificial intelligence and psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servan-Schreiber, D

    1986-04-01

    This paper provides a brief historical introduction to the new field of artificial intelligence and describes some applications to psychiatry. It focuses on two successful programs: a model of paranoid processes and an expert system for the pharmacological management of depressive disorders. Finally, it reviews evidence in favor of computerized psychotherapy and offers speculations on the future development of research in this area.

  8. Priming Ability Emotional Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutte, Nicola S.; Malouff, John M.

    2012-01-01

    Two studies examined whether priming self-schemas relating to successful emotional competency results in better emotional intelligence performance. In the first study participants were randomly assigned to a successful emotional competency self-schema prime condition or a control condition and then completed an ability measure of emotional…

  9. Hybrid intelligent engineering systems

    CERN Document Server

    Jain, L C; Adelaide, Australia University of

    1997-01-01

    This book on hybrid intelligent engineering systems is unique, in the sense that it presents the integration of expert systems, neural networks, fuzzy systems, genetic algorithms, and chaos engineering. It shows that these new techniques enhance the capabilities of one another. A number of hybrid systems for solving engineering problems are presented.

  10. Intelligent test integration system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sztipanovits, J.; Padalkar, S.; Rodriguez-Moscoso, J.; Kawamura, K.; Purves, B.; Williams, R.; Biglari, H.

    1988-01-01

    A new test technology is described which was developed for space system integration. The ultimate purpose of the system is to support the automatic generation of test systems in real time, distributed computing environments. The Intelligent Test Integration System (ITIS) is a knowledge based layer above the traditional test system components which can generate complex test configurations from the specification of test scenarios.

  11. Attention and Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Michael; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    1981-01-01

    The authors discuss methodological and theoretical issues in psychological investigations of infant attention, fixation times, habituation, and intelligence. A consensus on how to measure individual differences in habituation has not been reached. The relation between IQ and attention is discussed. (RD)

  12. Splunk operational intelligence cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Diakun, Josh; Mock, Derek

    2014-01-01

    This book is intended for users of all levels who are looking to leverage the Splunk Enterprise platform as a valuable operational intelligence tool. The recipes provided in this book will appeal to individuals from all facets of a business - IT, Security, Product, Marketing, and many more!

  13. Artificial intelligence within AFSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gersh, Mark A.

    1990-01-01

    Information on artificial intelligence research in the Air Force Systems Command is given in viewgraph form. Specific research that is being conducted at the Rome Air Development Center, the Space Technology Center, the Human Resources Laboratory, the Armstrong Aerospace Medical Research Laboratory, the Armamant Laboratory, and the Wright Research and Development Center is noted.

  14. Intelligent Metering for Urban Water: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodney Stewart

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the drivers, development and global deployment of intelligent water metering in the urban context. Recognising that intelligent metering (or smart metering has the potential to revolutionise customer engagement and management of urban water by utilities, this paper provides a summary of the knowledge-base for researchers and industry practitioners to ensure that the technology fosters sustainable urban water management. To date, roll-outs of intelligent metering have been driven by the desire for increased data regarding time of use and end-use (such as use by shower, toilet, garden, etc. as well as by the ability of the technology to reduce labour costs for meter reading. Technology development in the water sector generally lags that seen in the electricity sector. In the coming decade, the deployment of intelligent water metering will transition from being predominantly “pilot or demonstration scale” with the occasional city-wide roll-out, to broader mainstream implementation. This means that issues which have hitherto received little focus must now be addressed, namely: the role of real-time data in customer engagement and demand management; data ownership, sharing and privacy; technical data management and infrastructure security, utility workforce skills; and costs and benefits of implementation.

  15. A Profound Survey on Swarm Intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish Mahant

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Swarm Intelligence (SI is the collective behavior of decentralized, self-organized systems, natural or artificial. The concept is employed in work on artificial intelligence. The inspiration often comes from nature, especially biological systems. The expression was introduced by Gerardo Beni and Jing Wang in 1989, in the context of cellular robotic systems. SI systems are typically made up of a population of simple agents or boids interacting locally with one another and their environment. The agents follow very simple rules, and although there is no centralized control structure dictating how individual agents should behave, local, and to a certain degree random, interaction between such agents lead to the emergence of “intelligent” global behavior, unknown to the individual agents. Swarm Intelligence is a relatively new paradigm being applied in a host of research settings to improve the management and control of large numbers of interacting entities such as communications, computer and sensor networks, satellite constellations and more. Attempts to take advantage of this paradigm and mimic the behavior of insect swarms however often lead to many different implementations of SI. Natural examples of SI include ant colonies, bird flocking, animal herding, bacterial growth and fish schooling. This article provides a set of general principle of Swarm Intelligence.

  16. INTELLIGENT USER INTERFACE IN FUZZY ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Khayut

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Human-Computer Interaction with the traditional User Interface is done using a specified in advance script dialog “menu”, mainly based on human intellect and unproductive use of navigation. This approach doesn’t lead to making qualitative decision in control systems, where the situations and processes cannot be structured in advance. Any dynamic changes in the controlled business process (as example, in organizational unit of the information fuzzy control system make it necessary to modify the script dialogue in User Interface. This circumstance leads to a redesign of the components of the User Interface and of the entire control system. In the Intelligent User Interface, where the dialog situations are unknown in advance, fuzzy structured and artificial intelligence is crucial, the redesign described above is impossible. To solve this and other problems, we propose the data, information and knowledge based technology of Smart/ Intelligent User Interface (IUI design, which interacts with users and systems in natural and other languages, utilizing the principles of Situational Control and Fuzzy Logic theories, Artificial Intelligence, Linguistics, Knowledge Base technologies and others. The proposed technology of IUI design is defined by multi-agents of a Situational Control and of data, information and knowledge, b modelling of Fuzzy Logic Inference, c Generalization, Representation and Explanation of knowledge, c Planning and Decisionmaking, d Dialog Control, e Reasoning and Systems Thinking, f Fuzzy Control of organizational unit in real-time, fuzzy conditions, heterogeneous domains, and g multi-lingual communication under uncertainty and in Fuzzy Environment.

  17. Development of the Distinct Multiple Intelligences in Primary Students Through Interest Centers

    OpenAIRE

    Fredy Alonso Dueñas Macías

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on an action research study that focused on developing the distinct multiple intelligences of an English class of fifth graders through interest centers at a Colombian school. A multiple intelligences questionnaire, an open-ended observation form, and a student mini-report sheet were used to collect data. Findings revealed that through the interest centers, students maximized some of their intelligences. The implementation phase showed how careful planning, considering th...

  18. The relation between intelligence and religiosity: a meta-analysis and some proposed explanations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuckerman, Miron; Silberman, Jordan; Hall, Judith A

    2013-11-01

    A meta-analysis of 63 studies showed a significant negative association between intelligence and religiosity. The association was stronger for college students and the general population than for participants younger than college age; it was also stronger for religious beliefs than religious behavior. For college students and the general population, means of weighted and unweighted correlations between intelligence and the strength of religious beliefs ranged from -.20 to -.25 (mean r = -.24). Three possible interpretations were discussed. First, intelligent people are less likely to conform and, thus, are more likely to resist religious dogma. Second, intelligent people tend to adopt an analytic (as opposed to intuitive) thinking style, which has been shown to undermine religious beliefs. Third, several functions of religiosity, including compensatory control, self-regulation, self-enhancement, and secure attachment, are also conferred by intelligence. Intelligent people may therefore have less need for religious beliefs and practices.

  19. Intelligence Community Programs, Management, and Enduring Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-08

    Code and Executive Order (E.O.) 12333. 2 They fund intelligence and intelligence -related activities such as the collection, analysis and... Intelligence and Analysis (OIA) 5. U.S. Coast Guard Intelligence (USCG/IN) Department of Justice (DOJ) intelligence elements: 6. Drug Enforcement Agency’s... Intelligence and Analysis (OIA) Source: 50 U.S.C. §3003 While intelligence -related organizations span the federal, state and local governments

  20. Theoretical concepts about "Intelligence" - practices and standards in democratic societies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr.Sc. Bahri Gashi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available My thesis consists of theoretical analysis on the need for recognition of academic concepts to shape and design research field intelligence community activity, careful analysis of the terms and concepts that are strongly linked to intelligence work methodology, theoretical aspects description given practice best to regulate this specific area in our academic studies, has made the study to take proper shape with bold shades of comparative empirical analysis. My study aims to summarize, to analyze existing approaches and break the "taboo theories," floats mysteriously present new knowledge, summed up in this multidisciplinary field study, now theories only considering the nature of scientific thought for recognition theoretical concepts and legal regulation best practice intelligence services in democratic societies. emocratic societies. Treatment of this complex matter such as "intelligent services submission principle" of democracy is very difficult. Is between the concept of democracy is to be open and transparent, and intelligent service logic in the concept is to be closed and secret. Generally in "strategic studies and Peace” security for the creation of "security system" argued by the authors Buzan and Herring. Concept Intelligent based on the theory: "The essence of intelligence is the adequate response to a stimulus." Is the essence of this analysis?

  1. Strategic Intelligence in a globalized world in Latin America: Challenges in the XXI century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Saavedra

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In general, intelligence has been classified as something mysterious due to the historical experiences in Latin America and the general ignorance about the true essence of intelligence as a primary activity of the State. This paper focuses on the analysis of the role of strategic intelligence as a fundamental element of public security and defense policy of a nation in Latin America. The changes occurring at the dawn of this century for the collection and analysis of intelligence are critical. The analysis of power, internet, digital technology, robotics and intelligent computers is responsible for the rapid changes of our history. Strategic Intelligence requires a comprehensive operational reform in five points: 1 Distinction as far as competition of intelligence agencies is concerned. 2 The dependence of the intelligence agencies. 3 Limiting the allocation of responsibility for domestic intelligence. 4 Establishing a coordinating body at the highest level of the State and 5 Effective external controls. These aspects are essential for a strategic intelligence system in line with present and future demands.

  2. Estimates of lay views about reversal multiple intelligences for self and others: Sex and cross-cultural comparisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neto, Félix; da Conceição Pinto, Maria; Mullet, Etienne; Furnham, Adrian

    2015-12-08

    This study focuses on lay conceptions of intelligence. It examined sex and cross-cultural similarities and differences in estimated intelligences and beliefs about intelligence in two countries, Angola and East Timor, within the reversal theory framework. A total of 209 Angolan (109 women and 100 men) and 183 Timorese (89 women and 94 men) students were participated in this study. Participants completed a questionnaire in order to estimate their parents', partners' and own overall intelligence and the 8 reversal multiple intelligences (telic, paratelic, conformist, negativistic, autic mastery, autic sympathy, alloic mastery and alloic sympathy intelligence). Respondents also rated 6 questions about intelligence. Men rated their overall, conformist and autic mastery higher than women. Angolans rated their overall, telic, paratelic, conformist, negativistic, autic mastery, autic sympathy, alloic mastery and alloic sympathy intelligence higher than Timorese. In both countries, fathers have been perceived as more intelligent than mothers, and telic intelligence emerged as a significant predictor of overall intelligence. Principal component analysis of the 8 reversal multiple intelligences yielded one factor. Angolan participants revealed more IQ test experience than Timorese participants. Most of respondents in both countries did not believe in sex differences in intelligence. These findings are discussed by means of cross-cultural literature.

  3. Multiple Intelligences in Online, Hybrid, and Traditional Business Statistics Courses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador Lopez

    Full Text Available According to Howard Garner, Professor of Cognition and Education at Harvard University, intelligence of humans cannot be measured with a single factor such as the IQ level. Instead, he and others have suggested that humans have different types of intelligence. This paper examines whether students registered in online or mostly online courses have a different type of intelligence from students registered in traditional face-to-face courses. At the beginning of the fall semester of 2011, a group of 128 students from four different courses in Business Statistics completed a survey to determine their types of intelligence. Our findings reveal surprising results with important consequences in terms of teaching styles that better fit our students.

  4. The development of an intelligent interface to a computational fluid dynamics flow-solver code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Anthony D.

    1988-01-01

    Researchers at NASA Lewis are currently developing an 'intelligent' interface to aid in the development and use of large, computational fluid dynamics flow-solver codes for studying the internal fluid behavior of aerospace propulsion systems. This paper discusses the requirements, design, and implementation of an intelligent interface to Proteus, a general purpose, three-dimensional, Navier-Stokes flow solver. The interface is called PROTAIS to denote its introduction of artificial intelligence (AI) concepts to the Proteus code.

  5. Common neural correlates of intertemporal choices and intelligence in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripke, Stephan; Hübner, Thomas; Mennigen, Eva; Müller, Kathrin U; Li, Shu-Chen; Smolka, Michael N

    2015-02-01

    Converging behavioral evidence indicates that temporal discounting, measured by intertemporal choice tasks, is inversely related to intelligence. At the neural level, the parieto-frontal network is pivotal for complex, higher-order cognitive processes. Relatedly, underrecruitment of the pFC during a working memory task has been found to be associated with steeper temporal discounting. Furthermore, this network has also been shown to be related to the consistency of intertemporal choices. Here we report an fMRI study that directly investigated the association of neural correlates of intertemporal choice behavior with intelligence in an adolescent sample (n = 206; age 13.7-15.5 years). After identifying brain regions where the BOLD response during intertemporal choice was correlated with individual differences in intelligence, we further tested whether BOLD responses in these areas would mediate the associations between intelligence, the discounting rate, and choice consistency. We found positive correlations between BOLD response in a value-independent decision network (i.e., dorsolateral pFC, precuneus, and occipital areas) and intelligence. Furthermore, BOLD response in a value-dependent decision network (i.e., perigenual ACC, inferior frontal gyrus, ventromedial pFC, ventral striatum) was positively correlated with intelligence. The mediation analysis revealed that BOLD responses in the value-independent network mediated the association between intelligence and choice consistency, whereas BOLD responses in the value-dependent network mediated the association between intelligence and the discounting rate. In summary, our findings provide evidence for common neural correlates of intertemporal choice and intelligence, possibly linked by valuation as well as executive functions.

  6. Emotional Intelligence as a Predictor of Resident Well-Being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Dana T; Liebert, Cara A; Tran, Jennifer; Lau, James N; Salles, Arghavan

    2016-08-01

    There is increasing recognition that physician wellness is critical; it not only benefits the provider, but also influences quality and patient care outcomes. Despite this, resident physicians suffer from a high rate of burnout and personal distress. Individuals with higher emotional intelligence (EI) are thought to perceive, process, and regulate emotions more effectively, which can lead to enhanced well-being and less emotional disturbance. This study sought to understand the relationship between EI and wellness among surgical residents. Residents in a single general surgery residency program were surveyed on a voluntary basis. Emotional intelligence was measured using the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire-Short Form. Resident wellness was assessed with the Dupuy Psychological General Well-Being Index, Maslach Burnout Inventory, and Beck Depression Inventory-Short Form. Emotional intelligence and wellness parameters were correlated using Pearson coefficients. Multivariate analysis was performed to identify factors predictive of well-being. Seventy-three residents participated in the survey (response rate 63%). Emotional intelligence scores correlated positively with psychological well-being (r = 0.74; p emotional exhaustion (r = -0.69; p emotional exhaustion (β = -0.63; p Emotional intelligence is a strong predictor of resident well-being. Prospectively measuring EI can identify those who are most likely to thrive in surgical residency. Interventions to increase EI can be effective at optimizing the wellness of residents. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Neuroanatomical correlates of intelligence in healthy young adults: the role of basal ganglia volume.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cosima Rhein

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In neuropsychiatric diseases with basal ganglia involvement, higher cognitive functions are often impaired. In this exploratory study, we examined healthy young adults to gain detailed insight into the relationship between basal ganglia volume and cognitive abilities under non-pathological conditions. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We investigated 137 healthy adults that were between the ages of 21 and 35 years with similar educational backgrounds. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI was performed, and volumes of basal ganglia nuclei in both hemispheres were calculated using FreeSurfer software. The cognitive assessment consisted of verbal, numeric and figural aspects of intelligence for either the fluid or the crystallised intelligence factor using the intelligence test Intelligenz-Struktur-Test (I-S-T 2000 R. Our data revealed significant correlations of the caudate nucleus and pallidum volumes with figural and numeric aspects of intelligence, but not with verbal intelligence. Interestingly, figural intelligence associations were dependent on sex and intelligence factor; in females, the pallidum volumes were correlated with crystallised figural intelligence (r = 0.372, p = 0.01, whereas in males, the caudate volumes were correlated with fluid figural intelligence (r = 0.507, p = 0.01. Numeric intelligence was correlated with right-lateralised caudate nucleus volumes for both females and males, but only for crystallised intelligence (r = 0.306, p = 0.04 and r = 0.459, p = 0.04, respectively. The associations were not mediated by prefrontal cortical subfield volumes when controlling with partial correlation analyses. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The findings of our exploratory analysis indicate that figural and numeric intelligence aspects, but not verbal aspects, are strongly associated with basal ganglia volumes. Unlike numeric intelligence, the type of figural intelligence appears to be related to distinct basal ganglia nuclei in a sex

  8. Genetic contributions to human brain morphology and intelligence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hulshoff Pol, HE; Schnack, HG; Posthuma, D

    2006-01-01

    Variation in gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) volume of the adult human brain is primarily genetically determined. Moreover, total brain volume is positively correlated with general intelligence, and both share a common genetic origin. However, although genetic effects on morphology...... of specific GM areas in the brain have been studied, the heritability of focal WM is unknown. Similarly, it is unresolved whether there is a common genetic origin of focal GM and WM structures with intelligence. We explored the genetic influence on focal GM and WM densities in magnetic resonance brain images.......55). Intelligence shared a common genetic origin with superior occipitofrontal, callosal, and left optical radiation WM and frontal, occipital, and parahippocampal GM (phenotypic correlations up to 0.35). These findings point to a neural network that shares a common genetic origin with human intelligence...

  9. On Providing Intelligibility-Aware Preservation Services for Digital Objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yannis Tzitzikas

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Preserving digital objects requires preservation of not only their bit-level representation but also their intelligibility. To this end a digital object should be associated with metadata appropriate for interpreting that object; such metadata are often referred as representation information. Even such metadata may not be intelligible, however, so we may have to associate them with extra metadata, and so on. This paper approaches this problem by introducing an abstract model comprising modules and dependencies. Community knowledge is formalized over the same model by introducing the notion of profile. This notion is then exploited for deciding representation information adequacy (during input and intelligibility (during output. Subsequently some general dependency management services for identifying and filling intelligibility gaps during input and output are described and analysed. Finally a prototype system based on these ideas is described.

  10. Performance evaluation of artificial intelligence classifiers for the medical domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, A E; Nugent, C D; McClean, S I

    2002-01-01

    The application of artificial intelligence systems is still not widespread in the medical field, however there is an increasing necessity for these to handle the surfeit of information available. One drawback to their implementation is the lack of criteria or guidelines for the evaluation of these systems. This is the primary issue in their acceptability to clinicians, who require them for decision support and therefore need evidence that these systems meet the special safety-critical requirements of the domain. This paper shows evidence that the most prevalent form of intelligent system, neural networks, is generally not being evaluated rigorously regarding classification precision. A taxonomy of the types of evaluation tests that can be carried out, to gauge inherent performance of the outputs of intelligent systems has been assembled, and the results of this presented in a clear and concise form, which should be applicable to all intelligent classifiers for medicine.

  11. Factors, other than Intelligence, in Learning English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周龙芹

    2012-01-01

    Teaching, in general, seems to have changed considerably in China. Classroom methods,traditionally teacher-centered, are becoming student-centered. Teaching English is no exception. However, change is a slow process. For a long time, the roll the native intelligence of an individual plays in teaching and learning activities has been considered superlative, while factors, other than intelligence, are always been ignored.Since learning English is a very complicated process and involves a series of actions, it should be realized that though the native intelligence of an individual plays an important part, factors, other than intelligence, are also important in acquiring knowledge. This paper will focus on motivation and attitude and will suggest teaching methods for motivating and stimulating students to develop positive attitudes. Only when the factors in English learning are well understood, can teaching methods and creative learning settings that engage students in active and interactive activities be developed. The importance of these factors and suggested teaching strategies for motivating and stimulating students to develop positive attitudes will also be discussed. Though native intelligence may determine the ability with which each student copes with a variety of situations and problems in learning English, the necessary role of the factors discussed in this paper, cannot be ignored. They are essential elements for studying persistently and successfully. This paper will define the factors deemed necessary for learning in order to explain their importance in transforming intentions into learning behaviors. Realizing the importance of factors in learning supports the shift in classroom teaching styles-from one of teacher performance to one of student performance. Hopefully, it will generate a change in the teacher's role from one of dominating, proficient master to a supporting, encouraging guide who creatively designs learning tasks to meet the intellectual

  12. Multiple Intelligences: Current Trends in Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harman, Marsha J.; Kordinak, S. Thomas; Bruce, A. Jerry

    2009-01-01

    With his theory of multiple intelligences, Howard Gardner challenged the presumption that intelligence is a single innate entity. He maintained that multiple intelligences exist and are related to specific brain areas and symbol systems. Each of the intelligences has its merits and limits, but by using a multiple intelligences approach, more…

  13. Gratitude mediates the effect of emotional intelligence on subjective well-being: A structural equation modeling analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Yuan

    2016-11-03

    This study investigated the relationship among emotional intelligence, gratitude, and subjective well-being in a sample of university students. A total of 365 undergraduates completed the emotional intelligence scale, the gratitude questionnaire, and the subjective well-being measures. The results of the structural equation model showed that emotional intelligence is positively associated with gratitude and subjective well-being, that gratitude is positively associated with subjective well-being, and that gratitude partially mediates the positive relationship between emotional intelligence and subjective well-being. Bootstrap test results also revealed that emotional intelligence has a significant indirect effect on subjective well-being through gratitude.

  14. Personality-intelligence interface : the relationship between conscientiousness and intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Grant, Sarah

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between conscientiousness and intelligence. Specifically, this study intended to replicate a previous study by Moutafi et. al. (2004) that found conscientiousness to be negatively correlated with intelligence (Moutafi, Furnham, & Paltiel, 2004). It was proposed that this negative relationship could be explained by the theory of compensation, which hypothesized that individuals low on fluid intelligence could compensate for ...

  15. Semantic Business Intelligence - a New Generation of Business Intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinu AIRINEI

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Business Intelligence Solutions represents applications used by companies to manage process and analyze data to provide substantiated decision. In the context of Semantic Web develop-ment trend is to integrate semantic unstructured data, making business intelligence solutions to be redesigned in such a manner that can analyze, process and synthesize, in addition to traditional data and data integrated with semantic another form and structure. This invariably leads appearance of new BI solution, called Semantic Business Intelligence.

  16. Fish intelligence, sentience and ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Culum

    2015-01-01

    Fish are one of the most highly utilised vertebrate taxa by humans; they are harvested from wild stocks as part of global fishing industries, grown under intensive aquaculture conditions, are the most common pet and are widely used for scientific research. But fish are seldom afforded the same level of compassion or welfare as warm-blooded vertebrates. Part of the problem is the large gap between people's perception of fish intelligence and the scientific reality. This is an important issue because public perception guides government policy. The perception of an animal's intelligence often drives our decision whether or not to include them in our moral circle. From a welfare perspective, most researchers would suggest that if an animal is sentient, then it can most likely suffer and should therefore be offered some form of formal protection. There has been a debate about fish welfare for decades which centres on the question of whether they are sentient or conscious. The implications for affording the same level of protection to fish as other vertebrates are great, not least because of fishing-related industries. Here, I review the current state of knowledge of fish cognition starting with their sensory perception and moving on to cognition. The review reveals that fish perception and cognitive abilities often match or exceed other vertebrates. A review of the evidence for pain perception strongly suggests that fish experience pain in a manner similar to the rest of the vertebrates. Although scientists cannot provide a definitive answer on the level of consciousness for any non-human vertebrate, the extensive evidence of fish behavioural and cognitive sophistication and pain perception suggests that best practice would be to lend fish the same level of protection as any other vertebrate.

  17. What can autism and dyslexia tell us about intelligence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Mike

    2008-01-01

    This paper argues that understanding developmental disorders requires developing theories and models that explicitly represent the role of general intelligence in the cognitive phenotype of the disorder. In the case of autism it is argued that the low-IQ scores of people with autism are not likely to be due to a deficit in the cognitive process that is arguably the major cause of mental retardation - namely, speed of processing - but rather low IQ reflects the pervasive and cascading effects of the deficit in the information-processing module that causes autism. In the case of dyslexia, two radically different models of reading disorder (ability = disability and a modular deficit model) are likely to be influenced by the effect of general intelligence on reading performance in ways that will remain unclear without an explicit model of how general intelligence influences reading.

  18. Psycholinguistics and the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidija Krotenko

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The author of the article reveals the possibilities of psycholinguistics in the identifi cation and interpretation of languages and texts of Alien Civilizations. The author combines modern interdisciplinary research in psycholinguistics with the theory “Evolving Matter” proposed by Oleg Bazaluk and concludes that the identifi cation of languages and texts of Alien Civilizations, as well as the communication of terrestrial civilization with Extraterrestrial Intelligence, is in principle possible. To that end, it is necessary to achieve the required level of the modeling of neurophilosophy and to include these achievements of modern psycholinguistics studies: а language acquisition; b language comprehension; c language production; d second language acquisition. On the one hand, the possibilities of neurophilosophy to accumulate and model advanced neuroscience research; on the other hand, highly specialized psycholinguistic studies in language evolution are able to provide the communication of terrestrial civilization with Extraterrestrial Intelligence.

  19. Gender differences on tests of crystallized intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solange Muglia Wechsler

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine whether performance on tests of crystallized intelligence is affected by gender and to ascertain whether differential item parameters could account for the gender disparities. The sample comprised 1.191 individuals (55% women between the ages of 16 and 77 years old (M=22; SD=9.5. The participants were primarily college students (58.3% living in four Brazilian states. Four verbal tests measuring crystallized intelligence (vocabulary, synonyms, antonyms and verbal analogies were constructed and administered in a group setting. An analysis of variance revealed no significant differences in the overall performance between men and women. However, a differential item functioning analysis indicated significant differences on 8.7% of the items, which indicates the existence of gender bias. Because bias can limit women’s access to social opportunities, the results obtained indicate the importance of reducing item bias in cognitive measures to ensure the accuracy of test results

  20. Emotional Intelligence and Empathy: Their Relation to Multicultural Counseling Knowledge and Awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantine, Madonna G.; Gainor, Kathy A.

    2001-01-01

    Study examines the relationship among school counselors' emotional intelligence, empathy, and self-reported multicultural counseling knowledge and awareness. Findings revealed that school counselors' previous multicultural education, emotional intelligence scores, and personal distress empathy scores accounted for significant variance in their…