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Sample records for general health activity

  1. Barriers, facilitators and attitudes influencing health promotion activities in general practice: an explorative pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geense Wytske W

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The number of chronically ill patients increases every year. This is partly due to an unhealthy lifestyle. However, the frequency and quality of (evidence-based health promotion activities conducted by Dutch general practitioners (GPs and practice nurses (PNs are limited. The aim of this pilot study was to explore which lifestyle interventions Dutch GPs and PNs carry out in primary care, which barriers and facilitators can be identified and what main topics are with respect to attitudes towards health promoting activities. These topic areas will be identified for a future, larger scale study. Method This qualitative study consisted of 25 semi-structured interviews with sixteen GPs and nine PNs. ATLAS.ti was used to analyse the transcripts of the interviews. Results All GPs and PNs said they discuss lifestyle with their patients. Next to this, GPs and PNs counsel patients, and/or refer them to other disciplines. Only few said they refer patients to specific lifestyle programs or interventions in their own practice or in the neighbourhood. Several barriers and facilitators were identified. The main topics as barriers are: a lack of patients’ motivation to make lifestyle changes, insufficient reimbursement, a lack of proven effectiveness of interventions and a lack of overview of health promoting programs in their neighbourhood. The most cited facilitators are availability of a PN, collaboration with other disciplines and availability of interventions in their own practice. With respect to attitudes, six different types of GPs were identified reflecting the main topics that relate to attitudes, varying from ‘ignorer’ to ‘nurturer’. The topics relating to PNs attitudes towards health promotion activities, were almost unanimously positive. Conclusion GPs and PNs all say they discuss lifestyle issues with their patients, but the health promotion activities that are organized in their practice vary. Main topics that hinder

  2. Performance of general health workers in leprosy control activities at public health facilities in Amhara and Oromia States, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeje, Tadiye; Negera, Edessa; Kebede, Eshetu; Hailu, Tsegaye; Hassen, Ismaile; Lema, Tsehainesh; Yamuah, Lawrence; Shiguti, Birru; Fenta, Melkamu; Negasa, Megersa; Beyene, Demissew; Bobosha, Kidist; Aseffa, Abraham

    2016-04-07

    Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease of public health importance and one of the leading causes of permanent physical disability. Nevertheless, the drop in prevalence following multidrug therapy has resulted in the neglect of leprosy. The annual incidence of leprosy has remained the same in Ethiopia since decades with more than 76% of the reported new cases coming from Oromia and Amhara Regional States. This study was aimed to assess the knowledge, attitude and skill of general health workers in leprosy control activities at public health facilities in Oromia and Amhara Regional States. A cross-sectional study was conducted from September 2011 to February 2012 at different public health facilities in selected eight zones in Oromia and Amhara Regional States. A multistage sampling method was used to obtain representative samples. High and low endemic zones for leprosy were included in the study in both regional states. Data were collected from general health workers through a structured self-administered questionnaire and at on-site assessment of their performance. Baseline socio-demographic data, health workers' attitude towards leprosy and their knowledge and skill in the management of leprosy were assessed. Bloom's cut off point was used to describe the knowledge and practical skills of the respondents while Likert's scale was used for attitude assessment. A total of 601 general health workers responsible for leprosy control activities at public health facilities were included in knowledge and attitude assessment and 83 of them were subjected to practical evaluation, with on-site observation of how they handle leprosy patients. These included medical doctors (4%), health officers and nurses with Bachelor degree in Science (27%), clinical nurses with diploma (66%) and health assistants (2.8%). The median age of the respondents was 26.0 years and females made up of 45%. Generally the knowledge and skills of the respondents were found to be poor while attitude

  3. Activity limitations predict health care expenditures in the general population in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Heyden, Johan; Van Oyen, Herman; Berger, Nicolas; De Bacquer, Dirk; Van Herck, Koen

    2015-03-19

    Disability and chronic conditions both have an impact on health expenditures and although they are conceptually related, they present different dimensions of ill-health. Recent concepts of disability combine a biological understanding of impairment with the social dimension of activity limitation and resulted in the development of the Global Activity Limitation Indicator (GALI). This paper reports on the predictive value of the GALI on health care expenditures in relation to the presence of chronic conditions. Data from the Belgian Health Interview Survey 2008 were linked with data from the compulsory national health insurance (n = 7,286). The effect of activity limitation on health care expenditures was assessed via cost ratios from multivariate linear regression models. To study the factors contributing to the difference in health expenditure between persons with and without activity limitations, the Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition method was used. Activity limitations are a strong determinant of health care expenditures. People with severe activity limitations (5.1%) accounted for 16.9% of the total health expenditure, whereas those without activity limitations (79.0%), were responsible for 51.5% of the total health expenditure. These observed differences in health care expenditures can to some extent be explained by chronic conditions, but activity limitations also contribute substantially to higher health care expenditures in the absence of chronic conditions (cost ratio 2.46; 95% CI 1.74-3.48 for moderate and 4.45; 95% CI 2.47-8.02 for severe activity limitations). The association between activity limitation and health care expenditures is stronger for reimbursed health care costs than for out-of-pocket payments. In the absence of chronic conditions, activity limitations appear to be an important determinant of health care expenditures. To make projections on health care expenditures, routine data on activity limitations are essential and complementary to data

  4. Linguistic validation of the US Spanish work productivity and activity impairment questionnaire, general health version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawlicki, Mary C; Reilly, Margaret C; Popielnicki, Ana; Reilly, Kate

    2006-01-01

    There are no measures of health-related absenteeism and presenteeism validated for use in the large and increasing US Spanish-speaking population. Before using a Spanish translation of an available English-language questionnaire, the linguistic validity of the Spanish version must be established to ensure its conceptual equivalence to the original and its cultural appropriateness. The objective of this study was to evaluate the linguistic validity of the US Spanish version of the Work Productivity and Activity Impairment questionnaire, General Health Version (WPAI:GH). A US Spanish translation of the US English WPAI:GH was created through a reiterative process of creating harmonized forward and back translations by independent translators. Spanish-speaking and English-speaking subjects residing in the US self-administered the WPAI:GH in their primary language and were subsequently debriefed by a bilingual (Spanish-English) interviewer. US Spanish subjects (N = 31) and English subjects (N = 35), stratified equally by educational level, with and without a high school degree participated in the study. The WPAI-GH item comprehension rate was 98.6% for Spanish and 99.6% for English. Response revision rates during debriefing were 1.6% for Spanish and 0.5% for English. Responses to hypothetical scenarios indicated that both language versions adequately differentiate sick time taken for health and non-health reasons and between absenteeism and presenteeism. Linguistic validity of the US Spanish translation of the WPAI:GH was established among a diverse US Spanish-speaking population, including those with minimal education.

  5. Physicochemical Properties, Biological Activity, Health Benefits, and General Limitations of Aged Black Garlic: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Ji Hyeon; Kang, Dawon

    2017-06-01

    Garlic (Allium sativum) has been used as a medicinal food since ancient times. However, some people are reluctant to ingest raw garlic due to its unpleasant odor and taste. Therefore, many types of garlic preparations have been developed to reduce these attributes without losing biological functions. Aged black garlic (ABG) is a garlic preparation with a sweet and sour taste and no strong odor. It has recently been introduced to Asian markets as a functional food. Extensive in vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated that ABG has a variety of biological functions such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, anti-obesity, anti-diabetic, anti-allergic, cardioprotective, and hepatoprotective effects. Recent studies have compared the biological activity and function of ABG to those of raw garlic. ABG shows lower anti-inflammatory, anti-coagulation, immunomodulatory, and anti-allergic effects compared to raw garlic. This paper reviews the physicochemical properties, biological activity, health benefits, adverse effects, and general limitations of ABG.

  6. Physicochemical Properties, Biological Activity, Health Benefits, and General Limitations of Aged Black Garlic: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Hyeon Ryu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Garlic (Allium sativum has been used as a medicinal food since ancient times. However, some people are reluctant to ingest raw garlic due to its unpleasant odor and taste. Therefore, many types of garlic preparations have been developed to reduce these attributes without losing biological functions. Aged black garlic (ABG is a garlic preparation with a sweet and sour taste and no strong odor. It has recently been introduced to Asian markets as a functional food. Extensive in vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated that ABG has a variety of biological functions such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, anti-obesity, anti-diabetic, anti-allergic, cardioprotective, and hepatoprotective effects. Recent studies have compared the biological activity and function of ABG to those of raw garlic. ABG shows lower anti-inflammatory, anti-coagulation, immunomodulatory, and anti-allergic effects compared to raw garlic. This paper reviews the physicochemical properties, biological activity, health benefits, adverse effects, and general limitations of ABG.

  7. Educational inequalities in general and mental health: differential contribution of physical activity, smoking, alcohol consumption and diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtze, Nanna; Eikemo, Terje A; Kamphuis, Carlijn B M

    2013-04-01

    Behavioural, material and psychosocial risk factors may explain educational inequalities in general health. To what extent these risk factors have similar or different contributions to educational inequalities in mental health is unknown. Data were derived from the Norwegian Survey of Level of Living from 2005, comprising 5791 respondents aged ≥ 25 years. The study objectives were addressed by means of a series of logistic regression analyses in which we examined: (i) educational inequalities in self-reported general and mental health; (ii) the associations between behavioural, material and psychosocial risk factors and general and mental health, controlled for sex, age and education; and (iii) the contribution of risk factors to the observed health gradients. The lower educated were more likely to be in poor health [odds ratio (OR): 3.46 (95% confidence interval, CI: 2.84-4.21)] and to be in poor mental health [OR: 1.41 (95% CI: 1.12-1.78)] than the highest educated. The joint contribution of behavioural, material and psychosocial risk factors explained all the variations of mental health inequalities, whereas these were able to explain ~40% of the inequalities in general health. Both behavioural and material risk factors contributed substantially to the explanation of general and mental health inequalities, whereas the psychosocial risk factor (i.e. having close persons to communicate with) only seemed to make a larger difference for the explanation of mental health inequalities. Policies and interventions to reduce health inequalities should have a broad focus. Combined strategies should be applied to improve physical activity, decrease smoking and improve material and psychosocial conditions among lower educated groups, to achieve the true potential of reducing inequalities in both general and mental health.

  8. Recess Activity and General Health Status among Iranian Elementary Schools’ Pupils

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    Abdolreza Shaghaghi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Regular and daily physical activity during childhood and at school is one of the important part of requirements of normal growth, development and well-being. To achieve physical activity promotion among school child aged population recess as outside of class time efforts is scheduled and allows students to engage in physical and social activities. The purpose of the present study was to assess recess activities as well as status of physical activities among a sample of Iranian students at the pri¬mary schools.Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed in four randomly se¬lected schools from a list of 26 elementary schools in March, 2012 in the city of Shahindej, located in North-west of Iran. Participants were 439 (10–12 years elementary schools’. Physical activity level by self-reporting, mental health using the parent-completed Child Health Questionnaire, and happiness was assessed using a Persian translated version of the Subjective Happiness Scale. Hierarchical logistic regression analysis was applied in two steps using the enter method to analyze data in the SPSS version 17.Results: Backward logistic regression analysis showed that gender of the parent who answered the study questions, father’s education, educational grade of children, BMI, physical function, physical health, health status of the children and family function were significantly related to the children’s physical activity level.Conclusion: Promoting parents’ awareness and schools’ staff about im¬portance of physical activities especially in recess times must be an impor¬tant part of school and community mental health promotion programs.

  9. Definitions of Health Terms: General Health

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    ... needs to stay healthy. You can start by learning these general health terms. Find more definitions on Fitness | General Health | Minerals | Nutrition | Vitamins Basal Body Temperature Basal body temperature is your temperature at rest ...

  10. General practitioner advice on physical activity: Analyses in a cohort of older primary health care patients (getABI

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    Thiem Ulrich

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the benefits of physical activity for health and functioning are recognized to extend throughout life, the physical activity level of most older people is insufficient with respect to current guidelines. The primary health care setting may offer an opportunity to influence and to support older people to become physically active on a regular basis. Currently, there is a lack of data concerning general practitioner (GP advice on physical activity in Germany. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the rate and characteristics of older patients receiving advice on physical activity from their GP. Methods This is a cross-sectional study using data collected at 7 years of follow-up of a prospective cohort study (German epidemiological trial on ankle brachial index, getABI. 6,880 unselected patients aged 65 years and above in the primary health care setting in Germany were followed up since October 2001. During the 7-year follow-up telephone interview, 1,937 patients were asked whether their GP had advised them to get regular physical activity within the preceding 12 months. The interview also included questions on socio-demographic and lifestyle variables, medical conditions, and physical activity. Logistic regression analysis (unadjusted and adjusted for all covariables was used to examine factors associated with receiving advice. Analyses comprised only complete cases with regard to the analysed variables. Results are expressed as odds ratios (ORs with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI. Results Of the 1,627 analysed patients (median age 77; range 72-93 years; 52.5% women, 534 (32.8% stated that they had been advised to get regular physical activity. In the adjusted model, those more likely to receive GP advice on physical activity were men (OR [95% CI] 1.34 [1.06-1.70], patients suffering from pain (1.43 [1.13-1.81], coronary heart disease and/or myocardial infarction (1.56 [1.21-2.01], diabetes mellitus (1

  11. General administrative activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silver, E.G.

    1984-01-01

    General Administrative Activities summarizes events that are related to safety but are not covered elsewhere in Nuclear Safety. Included in this issue are events reported during May and June 1984. Among the topics discussed are reports from the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) on several safety issues, the DOE plans to aid in the completion of nuclear power plants and its long-term mission plan for the disposal of high-level waste, action by New York City to delay shipment of Brookhaven waste through its streets, a federal Court ruling on emergency evacuation exercises, and changes in NRC rules on spent-fuel shipments. Also included is the report on an address by DOE Secretary Hodel, a summary of two speeches by NRC Commissioner Gilinsky, and a number of other noteworthy items with significance for nuclear safety

  12. The Brazilian Portuguese version of the Work Productivity and Activity Impairment: General Health (WPAI-GH Questionnaire

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    Rozana Mesquita Ciconelli

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: It is still difficult to measure work productivity losses caused by health problems. Despite the importance given to this issue over the last few years, most instruments for performing this task are available only in the English language. This study translated the Work Productivity and Activity Impairment _ General Health (WPAI-GH Questionnaire into Brazilian Portuguese, adapted it cross-culturally and evaluated its reliability and validity. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional survey to test scale reliability and validity, at São Paulo Hospital and the clinic of the Rheumatology division of Universidade Federal de São Paulo - Escola Paulista de Medicina (Unifesp-EPM. METHODS: Data were obtained from a survey that incorporated the WPAI-GH, short form-36 (SF-36 and some demographic questions. The questionnaires were administered by interview to 100 subjects. RESULTS: Descriptive statistics was used to characterize the subjects. The intraclass correlation coefficient and Cronbach's alpha were used to assess the reliability and internal consistency of the instrument. Intraclass correlation coefficients from 0.79 to 0.90 indicated good reliability. Cronbach's alpha of 0.74 indicated good internal consistency. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to assess validity. There were significant positive relationships between the WPAI-GH and SF-36. CONCLUSION: The Brazilian Portuguese version of the WPAI-GH is a reliable and valid measurement tool and may be useful for those who seek to measure the impact on productivity of health problems among populations of Brazilian employees.

  13. Are health benefits of physical activity in natural environments used in primary care by general practitioners in The Netherlands?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, J.; Verheij, R.A.

    2007-01-01

    There is a growing body of literature showing that physical activity and nature have a positive effect on people's health and well-being. Additionally literature indicates that there may even be a synergic benefit from being physically active whilst simultaneously being directly exposed to nature.

  14. General administrative activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cottrell, W.B.

    1982-01-01

    Significant safety-related activities reported during May and June, which are not covered elsewhere in this issue, are summarized. The Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) issued several reports on a variety of topics of current concern to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Both the ACRS and Scientists and Engineers for Secure Energy (SE 2 ) comments on safety goals are excerpted. Five speeches by various NRC Commissioners are summarized. A House Committee conducted a hearing on the pressure-vessel thermal shock question. Proposed regulations dealing with Licensee Event Reports (LERs) and mandatory property insurance are reviewed. Last is a listing of a variety of safety-related topics

  15. General administrative activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cottrell, W.B.

    1980-01-01

    Significant safety-related activities reported during September and October, which are not covered elsewhere in this issue, are summarized here. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has adopted an interim statement of policy on the licensing of nuclear power plants. Four speeches by NRC Commissioners are summarized. The Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) issued a review of the NRC Systematic Evaluation Program (SEP). The NRC also issued a policy statement on emergency planning guidance. Two Research Informantion Letters (RILs) issued during the report period are summarized. Last is a listing of developments on a variety os safety-related topics

  16. General administrative activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cottrell, W.B.

    1982-01-01

    Significant safety-related activities reported during March and April, which are not covered elsewhere in this issue, are summarized here. The Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) issued several reports on a variety of topics of current concern to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). A recent NRC draft report identifies preliminary ranking of safety issues. The NRC is establishing a new Office of Investigations. The NRC also released a list of plants now under construction which it suspects will be canceled or indefinitely deferred. Four speeches by NRC Commissioners are summarized, as is the only Research Information Letter issued during the report period. Last is a listing of a variety of safety-related topics

  17. The influence of physical activity, sedentary behavior on health-related quality of life among the general population of children and adolescents: A systematic review.

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    Xiu Yun Wu

    Full Text Available The association between physical activity, sedentary behavior and health-related quality of life in children and adolescents has been mostly investigated in those young people with chronic disease conditions. No systematic review to date has synthesized the relationship between physical activity, sedentary behavior and health-related quality of life in the general healthy population of children and adolescents. The purpose of this study was to review systematically the existing literature that evaluated the relations between physical activity, sedentary behavior and health-related quality of life in the general population of children and adolescents.We conducted a computer search for English language literature from databases of MEDLINE, EMBASE, PSYCINFO and PubMed-related articles as well as the reference lists of existing literature between 1946 and the second week of January 2017 to retrieve eligible studies. We included the studies that assessed associations between physical activity and/or sedentary behavior and health-related quality of life among the general population of children and adolescents aged between 3-18 years. The study design included cross-sectional, longitudinal and health intervention studies. We excluded the studies that examined associations between physical activity, sedentary behavior and health-related quality of life among children and adolescents with specific chronic diseases, and other studies and reports including reviews, meta-analyses, study protocols, comments, letters, case reports and guidelines. We followed up the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA statement in the reporting of this review. The risk of bias of the primary studies was assessed by the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. We synthesized the difference in health-related quality of life scores between different levels of physical activity and sedentary time.In total, 31 studies met the inclusion criteria and were

  18. Investigating Discontinuity of Age Relations in Cognitive Functioning, General Health Status, Activity Participation, and Life Satisfaction between Young-Old and Old-Old Age.

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    Ihle, Andreas; Jopp, Daniela S; Oris, Michel; Fagot, Delphine; Kliegel, Matthias

    2016-11-05

    Health research suggests that findings on young-old adults cannot be generalized to old-old adults and thus that old-old age seems not a simple continuation of young-old age due to qualitative changes that result in a discontinuity in old age. Specifically, it would be of conceptual and methodological importance to inform research regarding estimates around which chronological age the beginning of old-old age could be placed at a population level, and whether this is universal or domain-specific. To derive such criteria, we investigated potential discontinuity of age relations between young-old and old-old age in a large population-based sample considering measures in different domains (processing speed, verbal abilities, general health status, activity participation, and life satisfaction). For processing speed, verbal abilities, general health status, and life satisfaction we observed some very small indication that there might be a discontinuity of age relations at the end of individuals' eighties, and for activity participation already at the beginning of individuals' eighties. In conclusion, models conceptualizing aging as a gradual development might not suffice to adequately represent the differences between the stages of young-old and old-old age due to some very small indication that there might be discontinuity in late adulthood.

  19. Surgeon General's Family Health History Initiative

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    ... Source Code The Surgeon General's Family Health History Initiative To help focus attention on the importance of ... health campaign, called the Surgeon General's Family History Initiative, to encourage all American families to learn more ...

  20. Self-reported general health, physical distress, mental distress, and activity limitation by US county, 1995-2012

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.A. Dwyer-Lindgren (Laura); J.P. Mackenbach (Johan); F.J. van Lenthe (Frank); A.H. Mokdad (Ali H)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Metrics based on self-reports of health status have been proposed for tracking population health and making comparisons among different populations. While these metrics have been used in the US to explore disparities by sex, race/ethnicity, and socioeconomic position, less is

  1. GPs' knowledge, use, and confidence in national physical activity and health guidelines and tools: a questionnaire-based survey of general practice in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Robin; Chapman, Tim; Brannan, Mike Gt; Varney, Justin

    2017-10-01

    Physical activity (PA) brief advice in health care is effective at getting individuals active. It has been suggested that one in four people would be more active if advised by a GP or nurse, but as many as 72% of GPs do not discuss the benefits of physical activity with patients. To assess the knowledge, use, and confidence in national PA and Chief Medical Officer (CMO) health guidelines and tools among GPs in England. Online questionnaire-based survey of self-selecting GPs in England that took place over a 10-day period in March 2016. The questionnaire consisted of six multiple-choice questions and was available on the Doctors.net.uk (DNUK) homepage. Quotas were used to ensure good regional representation. The final analysis included 1013 responses. Only 20% of responders were broadly or very familiar with the national PA guidelines. In all, 70% of GPs were aware of the General Practice Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPPAQ), but 26% were not familiar with any PA assessment tools, and 55% reported that they had not undertaken any training with respect to encouraging PA. The majority of GPs in England (80%) are unfamiliar with the national PA guidelines. Awareness of the recommended tool for assessment, GPPAQ, is higher than use by GPs. This may be because it is used by other clinical staff, for example, as part of the NHS Health Check programme. Although brief advice in isolation by GPs on PA will only be a part of the behaviour change journey, it is an important prompt, especially if repeated as part of routine practice. This study highlights the need for significant improvement in knowledge, skills, and confidence to maximise the potential for PA advice in GP consultations. © British Journal of General Practice 2017.

  2. Linking oral health, general health, and quality of life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kieffer, J.M.; Hoogstraten, J.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this work was to assess the association among oral health, general health, and quality of life (QoL). The Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-49) and the RAND-36 were distributed amongst 118 psychology freshmen. Additionally, two single items self-rated general health (SRGH) and self-rated

  3. Going for gold: the health promoting general practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Michael

    2008-01-01

    The World Health Organization's Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion has been influential in guiding the development of 'settings' based health promotion. Over the past decade, settings such as schools have flourished and there has been a considerable amount of academic literature produced, including theoretical papers, descriptive studies and evaluations. However, despite its central importance, the health-promoting general practice has received little attention. This paper discusses: the significance of this setting for health promotion; how a health promoting general practice can be created; effective health promotion approaches; the nursing contribution; and some challenges that need to be resolved. In order to become a health promoting general practice, the staff must undertake a commitment to fulfil the following conditions: create a healthy working environment; integrate health promotion into practice activities; and establish alliances with other relevant institutions and groups within the community. The health promoting general practice is the gold standard for health promotion. Settings that have developed have had the support of local, national and European networks. Similar assistance and advocacy will be needed in general practice. This paper recommends that a series of rigorously evaluated, high-quality pilot sites need to be established to identify and address potential difficulties, and to ensure that this innovative approach yields tangible health benefits for local communities. It also suggests that government support is critical to the future development of health promoting general practices. This will be needed both directly and in relation to the capacity and resourcing of public health in general.

  4. Linking oral health, general health, and quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieffer, Jacobien M; Hoogstraten, Johan

    2008-10-01

    The aim of this work was to assess the association among oral health, general health, and quality of life (QoL). The Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-49) and the RAND-36 were distributed amongst 118 psychology freshmen. Additionally, two single items self-rated general health (SRGH) and self-rated oral health (SROH) - were administered. Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U-tests were used to evaluate differences between SRGH and SROH categories, regarding OHIP subscale scores and RAND subscale scores. More than 75% of the subjects rated their oral and general health as good. Mean OHIP scores and RAND scores indicated a relatively good oral- and general health-related QoL respectively. The correlation between oral and general health was weak. Significant differences were found between SRGH categories regarding RAND subscale scores, except for the 'role emotional' and 'mental health' subscales. Significant differences were also found between SROH categories regarding OHIP subscale scores, except for the 'psychological disability' subscale. However, no significant differences were found between SRGH categories regarding OHIP subscale scores, or between SROH categories regarding RAND subscale scores. The findings suggest that oral health, general health, and QoL have different determinants. Furthermore, oral health and general health appear to be mostly unrelated in this seemingly healthy population. It is proposed that if no apparent disease is present, oral and general health must be regarded as separate constructs.

  5. Efficacy of training optimism on general health

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    Mojgan Behrad

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The purpose of this study was to investigate the relation of optimism with mental health and the affectivity of optimism training on mental health and its components on Yazd University students. Materials and Methods: Fifty new students of the 2008-2009 academic years were randomly selected. The General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28 and the optimism scale were completed by them. Thirty persons of these students, who had the highest psychological problems based on the general health questionnaire, were divided into two case and control groups through random assignment. The case group was trained for one month, in two 90-minute sessions per week. Pre-tests and follow-up tests were performed in both groups.Results: The results of Pearson correlation coefficients showed that optimism had a negative and significant relationship with mental health, anxiety, social function, and depression scores (p0.005. Multivariate analysis of covariance showed that optimism training had significant impact on mental health and its components in the case group, compared with the control group (p< 0.0001.Conclusion: In general, the findings of this research suggest the relationship between optimism and mental health and the effectiveness of optimism training on mental health. This method can be used to treat and prevent mental health problems.

  6. Importance of characteristics and modalities of physical activity and exercise in defining the benefits to cardiovascular health within the general population: recommendations from the EACPR (Part I).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhees, L; De Sutter, J; GeladaS, N; Doyle, F; Prescott, E; Cornelissen, V; Kouidi, E; Dugmore, D; Vanuzzo, D; Börjesson, M; Doherty, P

    2012-08-01

    Over the last decades, more and more evidence is accumulated that physical activity (PA) and exercise interventions are essential components in primary and secondary prevention for cardiovascular disease. However, it is less clear whether and which type of PA and exercise intervention (aerobic exercise, dynamic resistive exercise, or both) or characteristic of exercise (frequency, intensity, time or duration, and volume) would yield more benefit in achieving cardiovascular health. The present paper, as the first of a series of three, will make specific recommendations on the importance of these characteristics for cardiovascular health in the population at large. The guidance offered in this series of papers is aimed at medical doctors, health practitioners, kinesiologists, physiotherapists and exercise physiologists, politicians, public health policy makers, and the individual member of the public. Based on previous and the current literature, recommendations from the European Association on Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation are formulated regarding type, volume, and intensity of PA and exercise.

  7. Environmental health program activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergtholdt, C. P.

    1969-01-01

    Activities reported include studies on toxic air contaminants, excessive noise, poor lighting, food sanitation, water pollution, and exposure to nonionizing radiation as health hazards. Formulations for a radiological health manual provide guidance to personnel in the procurement and safe handling of radiation producing equipment and Apollo mission planning. A literature search and development of a water analysis laboratory are outlined to obtain information regarding microbiological problems involving potable water, waste management, and personal hygiene.

  8. Importance of characteristics and modalities of physical activity and exercise in defining the benefits to cardiovascular health within the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vanhees, L; De Sutter, J; GeladaS, N

    2012-01-01

    Over the last decades, more and more evidence is accumulated that physical activity (PA) and exercise interventions are essential components in primary and secondary prevention for cardiovascular disease. However, it is less clear whether and which type of PA and exercise intervention (aerobic...... exercise, dynamic resistive exercise, or both) or characteristic of exercise (frequency, intensity, time or duration, and volume) would yield more benefit in achieving cardiovascular health. The present paper, as the first of a series of three, will make specific recommendations on the importance...

  9. THE MAIN GENERAL HEALTH INDICATORS OF PRETERM NEWBORNS

    OpenAIRE

    Елена Николаевна Никулина; Светлана Ивановна Елгина; Юлия Александровна Липкова; Сергей Викторович Липков

    2017-01-01

    Objective – to determine the main health indicators in preterm newborns. Materials and Methods: Premature newborns and full-term newborns (160 and 1408, respectively) were investigated with clinical, instrumental, and statistical methods. Anthropometric parameters, somatic health, vulvar anatomy were considered to be the main criteria for general health. Results: The indicators of general health (physical development, somatic health, vulvar anatomy) in premature and full-term newborns...

  10. Does general practitioner gatekeeping curb health care expenditure?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delnoij, D.; Merode, G. van; Paulus, A.; Groenewegen, P.

    2000-01-01

    Objectives: It is generally assumed that health care systems in which specialist and hospital care is only accessible after referral by a general practitioner (GP) have lower total health care costs. In this study, the following questions were addressed: do health care systems with GPs acting as

  11. Methylphenidate Actively Induces Emergence from General Anesthesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solt, Ken; Cotten, Joseph F.; Cimenser, Aylin; Wong, Kin F.K.; Chemali, Jessica J.; Brown, Emery N.

    2011-01-01

    Background Although accumulating evidence suggests that arousal pathways in the brain play important roles in emergence from general anesthesia, the roles of monoaminergic arousal circuits are unclear. In this study we tested the hypothesis that methylphenidate (an inhibitor of dopamine and norepinephrine transporters) induces emergence from isoflurane anesthesia. Methods Using adult rats we tested the effect of methylphenidate IV on time to emergence from isoflurane anesthesia. We then performed experiments to test separately for methylphenidate-induced changes in arousal and changes in minute ventilation. A dose-response study was performed to test for methylphenidate–induced restoration of righting during continuous isoflurane anesthesia. Surface electroencephalogram recordings were performed to observe neurophysiological changes. Plethysmography recordings and arterial blood gas analysis were performed to assess methylphenidate-induced changes in respiratory function. Droperidol IV was administered to test for inhibition of methylphenidate's actions. Results Methylphenidate decreased median time to emergence from 280 to 91 s. The median difference in time to emergence without compared to with methylphenidate was 200 [155, 331] s (median, [95% confidence interval]). During continuous inhalation of isoflurane, methylphenidate induced return of righting in a dose-dependent manner, induced a shift in electroencephalogram power from delta to theta, and induced an increase in minute ventilation. Administration of droperidol (0.5 mg/kg IV) prior to methylphenidate (5 mg/kg IV) largely inhibited methylphenidate-induced emergence behavior, electroencephalogram changes, and changes in minute ventilation. Conclusions Methylphenidate actively induces emergence from isoflurane anesthesia by increasing arousal and respiratory drive, possibly through activation of dopaminergic and adrenergic arousal circuits. Our findings suggest that methylphenidate may be clinically

  12. Clinical Activity in General Practice and Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjertholm, Peter

    2015-01-01

    , and to analyse how a suspicion influenced the demand for health care services and predicted a future diagnosis of serious disease - to investigate whether variation in GPs’ diagnostic activity influences cancer patients’ prognosis in relation to prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing and prostate cancer....... In the future, we need to learn to differentiate between indolent and aggressive prostate cancers. This may, again, leave room for PSA testing as a screening tool. Our findings do indicate a small positive effect of more lower endoscopies, which could be investigated in an intervention study where some GPs...... are randomised to a more liberal access to lower endoscopies. Alongside this, we need to keep on exploring alternative approaches including the use of iFOBT in symptomatic patients. Overall, this thesis indicates that the role of GPs in the diagnosis of cancer should be strengthened through easy access...

  13. Collaboration of general practitioners and exercise providers in promotion of physical activity a written survey among general practitioners.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leemrijse, C.J.; Bakker, D.H. de; Ooms, L.; Veenhof, C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: General practitioners have an ideal position to motivate inactive patients to increase their physical activity. Most patients are able to exercise in regular local facilities outside the health care setting. The purpose of this study was to get insight into general practitioners

  14. Collaboration of general practitioners and exercise providers in promotion of physical activity a written survey among general practitioners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leemrijse, C J; de Bakker, D H; Ooms, L; Veenhof, C

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: General practitioners have an ideal position to motivate inactive patients to increase their physical activity. Most patients are able to exercise in regular local facilities outside the health care setting. The purpose of this study was to get insight into general practitioners

  15. Physical activity: genes & health

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Carl Johan SUNDBERG is an Associate Professor in Physiology and Licenced Physician. His research focus is Molecular mechanisms involved in the adaptation of human skeletal muscle to physical activity.

  16. ACTIVIDAD FÍSICA, TIEMPO SENTADO Y CARACTERÍSTICASANTROPOMÉTRICAS Y DE SALUD GENERAL EN PERSONAS ADULTAS MAYORES EN PUERTO RICO PHYSICAL ACTIVITY, SITTING TIME AND ANTHROPOMETRIC AND GENERAL HEALTH CHARACTERISTICS AMONG OLDER PERSONS IN PUERTO RICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osvaldo J. Hernández Soto

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Evaluar actividad física (AF, tiempo sentado (TS y su relación con características antropométricas y de salud general en personas adultas mayores en Puerto Rico. Métodos: 291 participantes completaron un cuestionario de AF y uno sociodemográfico y de salud general. Se midió estatura, peso y circunferencia de cintura. Se utilizó la prueba t y Ji-cuadrado para determinar diferencias por sexo, y correlación Spearman para evaluar relaciones entre variables. Resultados: La edad fluctuó mayormente entre 60-70 (31% y 71-80 (39% años, la percepción de salud mayormente regular (39% o buena (31%, pocos fumaban (5%, y en promedio estaban en sobrepeso (IMC=29 kg/m2. La AF fue mayor en hombres (270±406 vs. 171±370 min/semana, P=0.03, y el TS fue mayor en mujeres (5.6±2.9 vs 4.6±2.9 horas/semana. Ambos correlacionaron con percepción de salud (rs=0.18 y -0.19, P<0.05. Conclusión: Se enfatiza la importancia de reducir el TS y aumentar AF en esta población.

  17. General health assessment in refugees claiming to have been tortured

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Draminsky Petersen, Hans; Christensen, Maria Elisabeth; Kastrup, Marianne

    1994-01-01

    General health assessment of refugees claiming to have been previously exposed to torture takes place in a psychological atmosphere affected by the difficult situation of the refugee. Thirty-one refugees, mainly from the Middle East and Africa, were assessed as regards their physical and mental...... (P general) health. Reliability was moderate with respect to clinical observation during interview....

  18. General practitioners and national health insurance results of a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To determine the attitudes of South African general practitioners (GPs) to national health insurance (NHI), social health insurance (SHI) and other related health system reforms. Design. A national survey using postal questionnaires and telephonic follow-up of non-responders. Setting. GPs throughout South Africa.

  19. Acceptability to general practitioners of national health insurance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    D. Mch1tyre. Objective. To determine general practitioners' attitudes to national health insurance (NHI) and to capitation as a ... GPs who approved the introduction of NHI varied depending ... Health Economics Unit, Department of Community Health, University .... in Table I. They were then asked a series of closed questions.

  20. Mental Health of General Practitioners in Emergency Wards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sepehrmanesh Z.1 PhD,

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims General practitioners have an essential role in patient care and are exposed to high levels of job stress. General practitioners’ mental health has effects on their functional abilities and medical managements.This study was carried out to evaluate the mental health of general practitioners in emergency wards in KashanUniversity of Medical Sciences, Iran. Materials & Methods In this cross-sectional study, all of General practitioners in emergency wards (n=87 were studied. The survey instruments includedtwo questionnaires: 1-demographic variables and 2- General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28. Data were analyzed using SPSS 16 software and Chi square, Fisher exactand Mann-Whitney statistical tests. Findings The mean age of general practitioners was 36.11±5.67 years; 89.7% of them were married; 60.3% were male. 41% of the total general practitioners had mental health problems. The mean score of GHQ was 22.56±9.24. There were significant relationships between mental health and each age, employment situation, and number of children (p0.05. Conclusion The majority of employed general practitioners in emergency rooms do not have proper mental health statuses.

  1. Physical activity and health benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Orsini, Nicola

    2008-01-01

    Physical activity (PA), due to its role in health promotion and disease prevention, is of particular interest to be investigated. The aims of this thesis were: to assess the associations between PA and different health outcomes (lower urinary tract symptoms, cancer incidence, and mortality) in the Cohort of Swedish Men (COSM); to perform a dose-response meta-analysis of published associations between walking and incidence of coronary heart disease (CHD); and to provide user-...

  2. General Practitioners' Perspective on eHealth and Lifestyle Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Carl Joakim; Søgaard, Gabrielle Isidora; Clemensen, Jane

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Wearables, fitness apps, and patient home monitoring devices are used increasingly by patients and other individuals with lifestyle challenges. All Danish general practitioners (GPs) use digital health records and electronic health (eHealth) consultations on a daily basis, but how...... they perceive the increasing demand for lifestyle advice and whether they see eHealth as part of their lifestyle support should be explored further. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to explore GPs' perspectives on eHealth devices and apps and the use of eHealth in supporting healthy lifestyle behavior...... or in partnership with 1 to 4 colleagues and all use electronic patient health records for prescription, referral, and asynchronous electronic consultations. We performed qualitative, semistructured, individual in-depth interviews with the GPs in their own office about how they used eHealth and mHealth devices...

  3. Relationship between nurses’ spiritual intelligence with hardiness and general health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Akbarizadeh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nursing is one of the stressful jobs that affect nurse's general health. The aim of this study was assessment relationship between Spiritual intelligence, Hardiness and General health among nurses in the hospital of Bushehr in 1388. Methods: Cross- sectional study designed and 125 nurses who have been working in different wards of the hospital enrolled in the study. Data was collected using Spiritual intelligence, Hardiness, General health and characteristics demographic questionnaires. Correlation, t-test, ANOVA, Tukey and regression analysis was applied using SPSS-16 soft ware. Results: The results showed there was significant relationship between spiritual intelligence and hardiness (P<0.005, spiritual intelligence and General health (P<0.005, hardiness and General health (P<0.001. Among the demographic characteristics including age, gender, working section, marital status, job experiences, and education only working section showed significantly correlated with patience (P<0.005. Conclusion: Improvement of spiritual intelligence and reinforcement of hardiness could help to increase the general health of nurses.

  4. General overview of nuclear activities in Morocco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karouani, K.

    1998-01-01

    Nuclear activities have been introduced in Morocco since the early seventies. These activities concern the utilization of nuclear techniques in medicine, food and agriculture as well as training and research in nuclear physics. In 1984, Morocco decided to undertake a technical and economic feasibility study as well as the site study of the first nuclear power plant. Two years after, he decided to create the ''Centre National de l'Energie des Sciences et des Techniques Nucleaires'' as a technical and research support for the nuclear power program and as a promoting institute of nuclear techniques. Obviously, he also decided to set up a regulatory framework. (author)

  5. Primary health eye care knowledge among general practitioners ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Primary health eye care knowledge among general practitioners working in the Cape Town metropole. M Van Zyl, N Fernandes, G Rogers, N Du Toit. Abstract. Aim: The main purpose of this study was to determine whether general practitioners (GPs) in the Cape Town metropole have sufficient knowledge to diagnose and ...

  6. General principles of neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dostal, J.; Elson, C.

    1980-01-01

    Aspects of the principles of atomic and nuclear structure and the processes of radioactivity, nuclear transformation, and the interaction of radiations with matter which are of direct relevance to neutron activation analysis and its application to geologic materials are discussed. (L.L.)

  7. The role of general dental practitioner in oral health | Nwoku ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Other diseases that affect the oral cavity include, but not limited to caries, infections of the gum and jaws, malformations, benign and malignant tumours, as well as diabetes. The general dental practitioner therefore has very important duties. These include early recognition and diagnosis of oral health problems, oral health ...

  8. 29 CFR 780.205 - Nursery activities generally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Nursery activities generally. 780.205 Section 780.205 Labor... as It Relates to Specific Situations Nursery and Landscaping Operations § 780.205 Nursery activities generally. The employees of a nursery who are engaged in the following activities are employed in...

  9. [The concept of health in the General Health Law (1986)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peral, D

    1993-01-01

    The 1986 "Le General de Sanidad" (Sanitary General Regulations) has been studied using the method of the "Topología del Discurso" in order to elucidate what are the thoughts of the lawmakers. The law protects not only the population of catastrophes as it happened with the choleric epidemic of the XIX century, but considers a new concept a sanitary wealth should be provided to the individuals. Together with this new concept there are new ones such as equality and universalization of the sanitary assistence that would be keys of the aim of the lawmakers: to coordinate all the State resources in the reform of the spanish sanity. This includes the integration of the Universities. This can help in the understanding of the dificulties in the development and aplication of the Law present reality.

  10. Promoting Mental Health and Preventing Mental Illness in General Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Steve; Jenkins, Rachel; Burch, Tony; Calamos Nasir, Laura; Fisher, Brian; Giotaki, Gina; Gnani, Shamini; Hertel, Lise; Marks, Marina; Mathers, Nigel; Millington-Sanders, Catherine; Morris, David; Ruprah-Shah, Baljeet; Stange, Kurt; Thomas, Paul; White, Robert; Wright, Fiona

    2016-01-01

    This paper calls for the routine integration of mental health promotion and prevention into UK General Practice in order to reduce the burden of mental and physical disorders and the ensuing pressure on General Practice. The proposals & the resulting document (https://ethicscharity.files.wordpress.com/2015/09/rcgp_keymsg_150925_v5.pdf) arise from an expert 'Think Tank' convened by the London Journal of Primary Care, Educational Trust for Health Improvement through Cognitive Strategies (ETHICS Foundation) and the Royal College of General Practitioners. It makes 12 recommendations for General Practice: (1) Mental health promotion and prevention are too important to wait. (2) Work with your community to map risk factors, resources and assets. (3) Good health care, medicine and best practice are biopsychosocial rather than purely physical. (4) Integrate mental health promotion and prevention into your daily work. (5) Boost resilience in your community through approaches such as community development. (6) Identify people at increased risk of mental disorder for support and screening. (7) Support early intervention for people of all ages with signs of illness. (8) Maintain your biopsychosocial skills. (9) Ensure good communication, interdisciplinary team working and inter-sectoral working with other staff, teams and agencies. (10) Lead by example, taking action to promote the resilience of the general practice workforce. (11) Ensure mental health is appropriately included in the strategic agenda for your 'cluster' of General Practices, at the Clinical Commissioning Groups, and the Health and Wellbeing Board. (12) Be aware of national mental health strategies and localise them, including action to destigmatise mental illness within the context of community development.

  11. Gender and communication style in general practice: differences between women's health care and regular health care.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brink-Muinen, A. van den; Bensing, J.M.; Kerssens, J.J.

    1998-01-01

    Objectives: differences were investigated between general practitioners providing women's health care (4 women) and general practitioners providing regular health care (8 women and 8 men). Expectations were formulated on the basis of the principles of women's health care and literature about gender

  12. Physical activity and human health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Wojciechowska

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The dynamic development of the automotive industry, transport, and the media means that human life has become much easier. At the same time, the comfortable living conditions have decreased physical activity. Biologically conditioned, the need of activity has been minimised by the ever-increasing pace of life. As a result, it may lead to the loss of physical and mental health. Active recreation is not only an excellent source of activity, but also a source of satisfaction. Youths and adults should therefore spend their free time primarily on various forms of physical activity. Aim of the research : To evaluate the physical fitness of students who regularly practice physical exercise, those who occasionally practice, and those not practicing any form of physical activity. Material and methods : In the research we used a questionnaire of the Ruffier test and an orthostatic test. The study involved a group of 15 people aged 20–25 years. Participation in the study was entirely voluntary and anonymous. The study group consisted only of women. Results obtained from the questionnaire survey were fully reflected during exercise tests performed. Results and conclusions: Only regularly practiced physical activity has an effect on our body. Regular exercise increases our body’s physical capacity. Activity is the best means of prevention of lifestyle diseases. Youths and adults should spend their free time mainly doing various forms of physical activity.

  13. Advancing public health obesity policy through state attorneys general.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomeranz, Jennifer L; Brownell, Kelly D

    2011-03-01

    Obesity in the United States exacts a heavy health and financial toll, requiring new approaches to address this public health crisis. State attorneys general have been underutilized in efforts to formulate and implement food and obesity policy solutions. Their authority lies at the intersection of law and public policy, creating unique opportunities unavailable to other officials and government entities. Attorneys general have a broad range of authority over matters specifically relevant to obesity and nutrition policy, including parens patriae (parent of the country) authority, protecting consumer interests, enacting and supporting rules and regulations, working together across states, engaging in consumer education, and drafting opinions and amicus briefs. Significant room exists for greater attorney general involvement in formulating and championing solutions to public health problems such as obesity.

  14. Benefits and harms of general health checks- lifelong learning in general practice: how to read and use scientific literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arreskov, Anne Beiter; Graungaard, Anette Hauskov; Nielsen, Kirsten Lykke

    the paper using the method of critical appraisal. Session content The didactic method used in the workshop is mostly small group activities with eight participants and two tutors in each group. The participants will receive two scientific papers: the BMJ-version of the Cochrane review about general health......Abstract title: Benefits and harms of general health checks - lifelong learning in general practice: how to read and use scientific literature Objectives After this workshop the participants will know the basics of how to read a systematic literature review and interpret a meta-analysis and be able......, assesses, and implements methods of diagnosis and treatment on the basis of the best available current research, clinical expertise, and combines this with the needs and preferences of the patient, is termed evidence-based medicine. By learning and practising the principles of evidence-based medicine, GPs...

  15. General scientific guidance for stakeholders on health claim applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjödin, Anders Mikael

    2016-01-01

    of Article 13.1 claims except for claims put on hold by the European Commission, and has evaluated additional health claim applications submitted pursuant to Articles 13.5, 14 and also 19. In addition, comments received from stakeholders indicate that general issues that are common to all health claims need...... based on the experience gained to date with the evaluation of health claims, and it may be further updated, as appropriate, when additional issues are addressed.......The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) asked the Panel on Dietetic Products Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) to update the General guidance for stakeholders on the evaluation of Article 13.1, 13.5 and 14 health claims published in March 2011. Since then, the NDA Panel has completed the evaluation...

  16. Mental health, job satisfaction, and job stress among general practitioners.

    OpenAIRE

    Cooper, C. L.; Rout, U.; Faragher, B.

    1989-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To identify sources of job stress associated with high levels of job dissatisfaction and negative mental wellbeing among general practitioners in England. DESIGN--Multivariate analysis of large database of general practitioners compiled from results of confidential questionnaire survey. Data obtained on independent variables of job stress, demographic factors, and personality. Dependent variables were mental health, job satisfaction, alcohol consumption, and smoking. SETTING--Natio...

  17. Oral health, general health, and quality of life in older people

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kandelman, Daniel; Petersen, Poul Erik; Ueda, Hiroshi

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to review the interrelationship between poor oral health conditions of older people and general health. The impact of poor oral health on quality of life (QOL) is analyzed, and the implications for public health intervention and oral health care are discussed. Findings...... from the current research may lead to the following conclusions: The available scientific evidence is particularly strong for a direct relationship between diabetes and periodontal disease; the direct relationship between periodontal disease and cardiovascular disease is less convincing. General...... and associated oral health conditions have a direct influence on elder people's QOL and lifestyle. The growing number of elderly people challenges health authorities in most countries. The evidence on oral health-general health relationships is particularly important to WHO in its effort to strengthen integrated...

  18. General budget support: has it benefited the health sector?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes Antunes, Adelio; Xu, Ke; James, Chris D; Saksena, Priyanka; Van de Maele, Nathalie; Carrin, Guy; Evans, David B

    2013-12-01

    There has been recent controversy about whether aid directed specifically to health has caused recipient governments to reallocate their own funds to non-health areas. At the same time, general budget support (GBS) has been increasing. GBS allows governments to set their own priorities, but little is known about how these additional resources are subsequently used. This paper uses cross-country panel data to assess the impact of GBS programmes on health spending in low-income and middle-income countries, using dynamic panel techniques to estimate unbiased coefficients in the presence of serial correlation. We found no clear evidence that GBS had any impact, positive or negative, on government health spending derived from domestic sources. GBS also had no observed impact on total government health spending from all sources (external as well as domestic). In contrast, health-specific aid was associated with a decline in health expenditures from domestic sources, but there was not a full substitution effect. That is, despite this observed fungibility, health-specific aid still increases total government health spending from all sources. Finally, increases in total government expenditure led to substantial increases in domestic government health expenditures. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Global recommendations on physical activity for health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... кий Español Global Strategy on Diet, Physical Activity and Health Menu Diet, Physical Activity & Health Global strategy development ... obesity Documents & publications Related links Global recommendations on physical activity for health WHO developed the "Global Recommendations on Physical Activity ...

  20. Oral and General Health Promotion for Children: A Holistic Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cinar, Ayse Basak

    Inequalities in oral and general health have been rising globally; WHO calls for adoption of an integrated approach to their promotion as both share common risk factors. However, research about this issue among children is scarce. Based on the associations of such a research found in common for a...... to adopt healthy lifestyles, both in economically developing and developed countries. This book should be especially useful to researchers, professionals in dentistry and medicine, policy makers, and anyone else involved in provision of better health to community....... Turkish and Finnish children, this book underlies that oral health is turning out to be part of the global health culture, regardless of cultural differences and different oral health care systems. The book, further, by most recent literature, provides a review of 'Significance of Oral Health, Concept......Inequalities in oral and general health have been rising globally; WHO calls for adoption of an integrated approach to their promotion as both share common risk factors. However, research about this issue among children is scarce. Based on the associations of such a research found in common for all...

  1. The Relationship between General Health and Internet Addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nastiezaie Nasser

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Internet is a neutral tool on its own. However, excessive use of internet poses the risk of being addicted to it. This study was performed to investigate the association between general health and internet addiction.Materials and Methods: In this descriptive study a total number of 375 students (189 female and 186 male were randomly selected from Sistan and Baluchestan University between 2007 to 2008. Using the internet addiction test (IAT, the students were divided into two groups: ordinary users and addicted users of internet. The general health questionnaire (GHQ was used to compare these two groups. The SPSS software and t test were used to analyze the data and P<0.01 was significant.Results: The general health of internet-addicted users in comparison with ordinary users was at a higher risk (P<0.01. But the difference between two groups in general health and disorders of social function were not statistically significant. Conclusion: Depression and anxiety were common in internet addicted users and it was correlated to the amount of time that they were allocating to it.

  2. Factor structure and psychometric properties of the General Health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: There is little information about the reliability and validity of the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) in Ghana. This study sought to examine the reliability and factor structure of the GHQ-12 in Ghanaian adolescents. Methods: High school students (N = 770) completed the GHQ-12 and the Adolescent ...

  3. Fatigue, General Health, and Ischemic Heart Disease in Older Adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekmann, Anette; Petersen, Inge; Mänty, Minna Regina

    2013-01-01

    Backgrounds.Fatigue has been shown to predict ischemic heart disease (IHD) and mortality in nonsmoking middle-aged men free of cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the predictive value of fatigue for IHD and general health in nondisabled individuals free...... of cardiovascular disease and older than 70 years. METHODS: The study population was drawn from The Longitudinal Study of Aging Danish Twins. In total, 1,696 participants were followed up for 2-10 years by questionnaires and 10-16 years through registries. Kaplan Meier, Cox Proportional Hazard and logistic.......08-2.00) compared with participants without fatigue. CONCLUSION: We concluded that fatigue in nondisabled older adults free of cardiovascular disease is an early predictor for development of subsequent poor general health and IHD....

  4. Generalized periodic EEG activity in two cases of neurosyphilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anghinah Renato

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurosyphilis is a recognized cause of epileptic seizures and cognitive impairment, but is not usually associated with the finding of generalized periodic activity in the EEG. We report two similar cases characterized by progressive cognitive impairment followed by partial complex seizures, in whom the EEG showed generalized periodic activity. Both cerebrospinal fluid and the response to penicillin therapy confirmed the diagnoses of neurosyphilis in the two cases. The finding of EEG generalized periodic activity in patients with cognitive or behavioral disorders is usually associated with Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, although there are other conditions, some of them potentially reversible, which may also present this EEG abnormality. Neurosyphilis has tended not to be included among them, and our present findings support the importance of first ruling out neurosyphilis in those patients with cognitive or behavioral disorders associated with generalized periodic epileptiform discharges.

  5. EMB history to increase health technology literacy in the general public for improved health worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leder, Ron S

    2009-01-01

    History provides common access to technology for both technical and non technical persons and for youngsters. Placed in an historical context complex health technology and health care can be more understandable and therefore more accessible to the general public; technical persons can understand past health technology advances to help propel the field. History is a reference for experts disguised as a story that anyone can understand and enjoy. This can be useful and effective at improving self advocate based health care.

  6. Radiation protection office at the general direction of health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piechowski, J.

    1996-01-01

    The radiation protection office at the general direction of health has the following functions: organisation and relations with decentralized services, legal aspects, relations with the direction of nuclear installation safety, nuclear medicine with licensing, radioactive wastes in relation with ANDRA, environment, trusteeship of OPRI in matter of measurements, dosimetry and epidemiology in relation with the Minister of work and training in radiation protection. (N.C.)

  7. 20 CFR 220.142 - General information about work activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... gainful activity. (e) Time spent in work. While the time the claimant spends in work is important, the... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false General information about work activity. 220... of whether the claimant spends more time or less time at the job than workers who are not impaired...

  8. 20 CFR 416.973 - General information about work activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... individual may show that you are able to do substantial gainful activity. (e) Time spent in work. While the time you spend in work is important, we will not decide whether or not you are doing substantial... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false General information about work activity. 416...

  9. Health profiles of overweight and obese youth attending general practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulis, Winifred D; Palmer, Millicent; Chondros, Patty; Kauer, Sylvia; van Middelkoop, Marienke; Sanci, Lena A

    2017-05-01

    Literature suggests that overweight and obese young people use healthcare services more often, but this awaits confirmation in primary care. To identify health profiles of underweight, overweight and obese young people attending general practice and compare them to normal-weight youth and also to explore the weight-related health risks of eating and exercise behaviour in the four different weight categories. This study used a cross-sectional design with baseline data from a trial including 683 young people (14-24 years of age) presenting to general practice. Through computer-assisted telephone interviews data were obtained on number and type of health complaints and consultations, emotional distress, health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and eating and exercise behaviour. General practitioners (GPs) were consulted more often by overweight (incidence rate ratio (IRR): 1.28, 95% CI (1.04 to 1.57)) and obese youth (IRR: 1.54, 95% CI (1.21 to 1.97), but not for different health problems compared with normal-weight youth. The reason for presentation was seldom a weight issue. Obese youth reported lower physical HRQoL. Obese and underweight youth were less likely to be satisfied with their eating behaviour than their normal-weight peers. Exercise levels were low in the entire cohort. Our study highlights the need for effective weight management given that overweight and obese youth consult their GP more often. Since young people do not present with weight issues, it becomes important for GPs to find ways to initiate the discussion about weight, healthy eating and exercise with youth. ISRCTN16059206. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  10. General practice and primary health care in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller Pedersen, Kjeld; Andersen, John Sahl; Søndergaard, Jens

    2012-01-01

    General practice is the corner stone of Danish primary health care. General practitioners (GPs) are similar to family physicians in the United States. On average, all Danes have 6.9 contacts per year with their GP (in-person, telephone, or E-mail consultation). General practice is characterized...... education. The contract is (re)negotiated every 2 years. General practice is embedded in a universal tax-funded health care system in which GP and hospital services are free at the point of use. The current system has evolved over the past century and has shown an ability to adapt flexibly to new challenges...... by 5 key components: (1) a list system, with an average of close to 1600 persons on the list of a typical GP; (2) the GP as gatekeeper and first-line provider in the sense that a referral from a GP is required for most office-based specialists and always for in- and outpatient hospital treatment; (3...

  11. Health Activities Project (HAP): Breathing Fitness Module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buller, Dave; And Others

    Contained within this Health Activities Project (HAP) learning packet are activities for children in grades 5-8. Design of the activities centers around the idea that students can control their own health and safety. Within this module are teacher and student folios describing four activities which involve students in learning how to measure their…

  12. Intervention pattern in crisis: mental health as a nursing care approach at a general hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Elias Barbosa; Kestenberg, Célia Caldeira Fonseca; Silva, Alexandre Vicente

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Testing and validating the application of Intervention in Crisis theory as an approach in mental health on HIV/AIDS patients care who are interned at a general hospital. Method: Help Interview has been accomplished as an activity for Mental Health subject according to an applied guide by graduation in nursing students in order to identify this illness psycho-social repercussion and draft therapeutic plan for patients under their care. The outcomes were the reports results presented...

  13. Physical Activity and Health: The Benefits of Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... State and Local Programs Related Topics Diabetes Nutrition Physical Activity and Health Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... Your Chances of Living Longer The Benefits of Physical Activity Regular physical activity is one of the most ...

  14. [General aspects of planning and care in mental health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saforcada, E

    1976-09-01

    This paper reviews some general concepts on Planning, especially in public and welfare sectors, stressing those concerning the major flaws in the argentine system of mental health. The author considers the definition of planning levels, and sets forth three: general plan, program and project. The correlative implementation is also considered. The importance of feed-back from adequate evaluation is stressed, emphasizing three aspects: a) evaluation of dynamics, rate and extent of decrease, increase or stagnation; b) assessment of efficacity of factors involved; c) control and stabilization of goals already attained. The necessity to develop a human ecology, encompassing socio-cultural and psycho-social factors is stressed, together with fostering theoretical research and the use of its results by implementation agents. Several differences among prevailing mental health actions are pointed out which allow a distinction between two typical models: clinical and sanitarist. The main differences between them lye on: standard location of working sites, nature of basic actions, field of action, hypothesis for working, including ethiological and ecological assumptions, theoretical and methodological framework. A series of criteria for evaluating sanitary techniques and strategies are set forth, among which: operative procedures, length of treatments, degree of therapeutic concentration, and general pragmatic criteria. The indicators reviewed are: degree of efficacity, covering, degree of perseverance in treatments, cultural barriers between patient and therapist, delegation of functions into special, first-rate sanitary agents, needs for the training of mental health workers. An attempt is made at developping general evaluation criteria for mental health planning, and several indicators are proposed, among which: a) cost/efficacity ratio, including in costs the use of economical, human and physical resources; b) preventive capacities of the community; c) capacities for the

  15. Health Impacts of Active Transportation in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rojas-Rueda, David; de Nazelle, Audrey; Andersen, Zorana J

    2016-01-01

    Policies that stimulate active transportation (walking and bicycling) have been related to heath benefits. This study aims to assess the potential health risks and benefits of promoting active transportation for commuting populations (age groups 16-64) in six European cities. We conducted a health...... reduce carbon dioxide emissions in the six cities by 1,139 to 26,423 (metric tonnes per year). Policies to promote active transportation may produce health benefits, but these depend of the existing characteristics of the cities. Increased collaboration between health practitioners, transport specialists...... and urban planners will help to introduce the health perspective in transport policies and promote active transportation....

  16. Health Activities Project (HAP), Trial Edition II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buller, Dave; And Others

    Contained within this Health Activities Project (HAP) trial edition (set II) are a teacher information folio and numerous student activity folios which center around the idea that students in grades 5-8 can control their own health and safety. Each student folio is organized into a Synopsis, Health Background, Materials, Setting Up, and Activities…

  17. Health Activities Project (HAP), Trial Edition III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buller, Dave; And Others

    Contained within this Health Activities Project (HAP) trial edition (set III) are a teacher information folio and numerous student activity folios which center around the idea that students in grades 5-8 can control their own health and safety. Each student folio is organized into an Overview, Health Background, Materials, Setting Up, and…

  18. Social Relationships, Leisure Activity, and Health in Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Po-Ju; Wray, Linda; Lin, Yeqiang

    2015-01-01

    Objective Although the link between enhanced social relationships and better health has generally been well established, few studies have examined the role of leisure activity in this link. This study examined how leisure influences the link between social relationships and health in older age. Methods Using data from the 2006 and 2010 waves of the nationally representative U.S. Health and Retirement Study and structural equation modelling analyses, we examined data on 2,965 older participants to determine if leisure activities mediated the link between social relationships and health in 2010, controlling for race, education level, and health in 2006. Results The results demonstrated that leisure activities mediate the link between social relationships and health in these age groups. Perceptions of positive social relationships were associated with greater involvement in leisure activities, and greater involvement in leisure activities was associated with better health in older age. Discussion & Conclusions The contribution of leisure to health in these age groups is receiving increasing attention, and the results of this study add to the literature on this topic, by identifying the mediating effect of leisure activity on the link between social relationships and health. Future studies aimed at increasing leisure activity may contribute to improved health outcomes in older adults. PMID:24884905

  19. Social relationships, leisure activity, and health in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Po-Ju; Wray, Linda; Lin, Yeqiang

    2014-06-01

    Although the link between enhanced social relationships and better health has generally been well established, few studies have examined the role of leisure activity in this link. This study examined how leisure influences the link between social relationships and health in older age. Using data from the 2006 and 2010 waves of the nationally representative U.S. Health and Retirement Study and structural equation modeling analyses, we examined data on 2,965 older participants to determine if leisure activities mediated the link between social relationships and health in 2010, controlling for race, education level, and health in 2006. The results demonstrated that leisure activities mediate the link between social relationships and health in these age groups. Perceptions of positive social relationships were associated with greater involvement in leisure activities, and greater involvement in leisure activities was associated with better health in older age. The contribution of leisure to health in these age groups is receiving increasing attention, and the results of this study add to the literature on this topic, by identifying the mediating effect of leisure activity on the link between social relationships and health. Future studies aimed at increasing leisure activity may contribute to improved health outcomes in older adults. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  20. General physical health advice for people with serious mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosh, Graeme; Clifton, Andrew V; Xia, Jun; White, Margueritte M

    2014-03-28

    There is currently much focus on provision of general physical health advice to people with serious mental illness and there has been increasing pressure for services to take responsibility for providing this. To review the effects of general physical healthcare advice for people with serious mental illness. We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group's Trials Register (last update search October 2012) which is based on regular searches of CINAHL, BIOSIS, AMED, EMBASE, PubMed, MEDLINE, PsycINFO and registries of Clinical Trials. There is no language, date, document type, or publication status limitations for inclusion of records in the register. All randomised clinical trials focusing on general physical health advice for people with serious mental illness.. We extracted data independently. For binary outcomes, we calculated risk ratio (RR) and its 95% confidence interval (CI), on an intention-to-treat basis. For continuous data, we estimated the mean difference (MD) between groups and its 95% CI. We employed a fixed-effect model for analyses. We assessed risk of bias for included studies and created 'Summary of findings' tables using GRADE. Seven studies are now included in this review. For the comparison of physical healthcare advice versus standard care we identified six studies (total n = 964) of limited quality. For measures of quality of life one trial found no difference (n = 54, 1 RCT, MD Lehman scale 0.20, CI -0.47 to 0.87, very low quality of evidence) but another two did for the Quality of Life Medical Outcomes Scale - mental component (n = 487, 2 RCTs, MD 3.70, CI 1.76 to 5.64). There was no difference between groups for the outcome of death (n = 487, 2 RCTs, RR 0.98, CI 0.27 to 3.56, low quality of evidence). For service use two studies presented favourable results for health advice, uptake of ill-health prevention services was significantly greater in the advice group (n = 363, 1 RCT, MD 36.90, CI 33.07 to 40.73) and service use: one or more primary

  1. Dental Caries and General Health in Children and Adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Twetman, Svante

    2016-01-01

    in society with caries risk due to age- and medication-induced salivary reduction. However, a general disease may not always have a negative influence on dental health. Therefore, a regular individual caries risk assessment is of utmost importance for clinical decision-making and tailoring of recall......Caries is a biofilm-mediated noncommunicable disease fueled by dietary sugar, neglected oral hygiene, and reduced saliva flow. General diseases may influence the oral environment through its pathogenesis, medication, and/or the caring of the condition. Associations between caries and chronic...... diseases are mainly derived from case–control studies with various sample sizes and quality of matching. Few observational studies are available and the majority of all research is conducted in childhood and among older adults. There is an increased caries risk for subjects with obesity, severe asthma...

  2. Clustering of health behaviours in adult survivors of childhood cancer and the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebholz, C E; Rueegg, C S; Michel, G; Ammann, R A; von der Weid, N X; Kuehni, C E; Spycher, B D

    2012-07-10

    Little is known about engagement in multiple health behaviours in childhood cancer survivors. Using latent class analysis, we identified health behaviour patterns in 835 adult survivors of childhood cancer (age 20-35 years) and 1670 age- and sex-matched controls from the general population. Behaviour groups were determined from replies to questions on smoking, drinking, cannabis use, sporting activities, diet, sun protection and skin examination. The model identified four health behaviour patterns: 'risk-avoidance', with a generally healthy behaviour; 'moderate drinking', with higher levels of sporting activities, but moderate alcohol-consumption; 'risk-taking', engaging in several risk behaviours; and 'smoking', smoking but not drinking. Similar proportions of survivors and controls fell into the 'risk-avoiding' (42% vs 44%) and the 'risk-taking' cluster (14% vs 12%), but more survivors were in the 'moderate drinking' (39% vs 28%) and fewer in the 'smoking' cluster (5% vs 16%). Determinants of health behaviour clusters were gender, migration background, income and therapy. A comparable proportion of childhood cancer survivors as in the general population engage in multiple health-compromising behaviours. Because of increased vulnerability of survivors, multiple risk behaviours should be addressed in targeted health interventions.

  3. World Trade Organization activity for health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gros, Clémence

    2012-01-01

    Since the establishment of a multilateral trading system and the increasing mobility of professionals and consumers of health services, it seems strongly necessary that the World Trade Organization (WTO) undertakes negotiations within the General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS), and that WTO's members attempt to reach commitments for health-related trade in services. How important is the GATS for health policy and how does the GATS refer to health services? What are the current negotiations and member's commitments?

  4. [Is health really the most important value? - Results of a representative survey of the German general population concerning the subjective meaning of health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinz, A; Hübscher, U; Brähler, E; Berth, H

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate which meaning is attributed to health by the general population. Furthermore, the relationship between health satisfaction and health importance was also analysed. A sample of 4,808 representatively selected subjects from the general German population judged the importance and the satisfaction with several life domains, including health, using the questions on life satisfaction FLZ (M). Moreover, sociodemographic variables (sex, age, socioeconomic status) and psychological variables (self-esteem, resilience, anxiety and depression) were collected. Health is the most important life domain. The importance of health increases with increasing age. However, there are no sex differences and SES (socio-economic status) differences concerning the importance of health. Subjective satisfaction with health and health importance are only marginally correlated (r=0.08). High degrees of self-esteem and resilience are associated with a high importance of health. Anxiety and depression show only weak relationships to the importance of health. In the German general population health has a very high subjective significance. This is not only true for handicapped or ill people, but for all subsamples of the society. Therefore, a general plea for an understanding of the importance of health is not necessary, not even for subgroups. Preventive activity can be based on the general understanding of the meaning of health, but it should pursue specific health- related goals for target groups. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. The activities of general practitioners: are they still gatekeepers?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cardol, M.; Bakker, D. de; Westert, G.

    2006-01-01

    This study shows a change in the activities of general practioners (GPs) between 1987 and 2001, to meet an increasing demand of care. The most striking changes are a drop in percentage of home visits from 17% to 9% of all contact with GPs and the fact that more work is done by telephone and

  6. How do general practitioners in Denmark promote physical activity?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Tanja K; Nordentoft, Merete; Krogh, Jesper

    2012-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to quantify the frequency of advice given on type, frequency, duration, and intensity of exercise during physical activity (PA) promoting sessions by general practitioners. Second, to find GP characteristics associated with high quality of PA counselling....

  7. Determining the Relation between General Health and Educational Progress among Paramedical Faculty’s Students of Tehran Medical University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Dargahi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Considering the fact that students studying various fields of Study will have the responsibility to create, maintain and improve society’s level of health, they should be cared for with precision so they can perform and play their role as an educated and expert work force. this is due to the fact that getting accepted in university is a very sensitive period in lives of efficient workforce and active youth in each country, therefore, present study determines the relation between general health and educational progress among paramedical faculty’s Students of Tehran Medical University. Method: present research has a descriptive-analytic nature and was executed in a time period during winter of 2016. the target society included all students of paramedical faculty and required data was gathered by an adults’ health function literacy questionnaire and general health was also gathered by means of general health questionnaire. in order to present descriptive results of percentage and median and to study and analyses quantitative data, parametric statistical tests was used for normal data and in case there were not normal, unparametric tests were applied. Findings: Results of present study showed that there is a positive significant relation between general health and educational progress (r=01 / 0 p <،28 / 0. Still, no significant relation was observed between general health and health literacy (r= 0.038, p=0.569. Conclusion: In studying general health aspects with health literacy and educational health motivation, all aspects of general health (physical aspect, anxiety aspect, social function aspect, depression aspect showed a direct and significant relation with educational progress but presented no significant relation with health literacy. Still, we could observe a positive effect on educational progress and health literacy by trying to improve any of general health factors. In other words, we could use organizational capitals to improve

  8. Telemental health technology in deaf and general mental-health services: access and use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austen, Sally; McGrath, Melissa

    2006-01-01

    Long-distance travel to provide mental health services for deaf people has implications for efficiency, safety, and equality of service. However, uptake of Telemental Health (TMH) has been slow in both deaf and general mental health services. A quantitative study was used to investigate access to TMH and whether staff confidence, experience, or demographics affect TMH use. It was concluded that staff in neither deaf mental health services nor general mental health services had adequate knowledge of or access to TMH. Staff expressed concerns over TMH's appropriateness in their work. Previous use of videoconferencing was assosciated significantly with confidence, but previous use of videophones was not. Neither staff in deaf services nor deaf staff were more experienced with or more confident about videoconferencing, whereas, within deaf services, deaf staff were significantly more confident about videophone use. Training implications are discussed.

  9. Measuring general animal health status: Development of an animal health barometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depoorter, Pieter; Van Huffel, Xavier; Diricks, Herman; Imberechts, Hein; Dewulf, Jeroen; Berkvens, Dirk; Uyttendaele, Mieke

    2015-03-01

    The development of an animal health barometer, an instrument to measure the general health of the Belgian livestock population on a yearly basis and to monitor its evolution over time, is described. The elaboration of a set of 13 animal health indicators (AHIs) as the basis for the animal health barometer is discussed. These indicators were weighted by experts - including scientists, policy makers and agro-industrial representatives - to determine their relative weight in the barometer. The result of the barometer is expressed as a comparison with a previous year. Based on the results of the 13 AHIs, it is concluded that general animal health in Belgium shows a positive evolution since 2008. The animal health barometer provides a composite view of the status of livestock health in Belgium and is a tool to communicate in an intelligible, comprehensible manner on aspects of animal health to consumers and professional stakeholders in the animal production and food chain. Together with the food safety barometer (Baert et al., 2011. Food Res. Int. 44, 940) and the plant health barometer (Wilmart et al., 2014. Eur. J. Plant Pathol. doi: 10.1007/s10658-014-0547-x), the animal health barometer is one of the three instruments to provide a holistic view on the overall status of the safety of the food chain in Belgium. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Physical Activity and Health in Preschool Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Line Brinch

    Physical activity is beneficial in relation to several life style diseases and the association between physical activity and early predictors of life style diseases seem to be present already in preschool age. Since physical activity and other health behaviours are established during childhood...... and track from childhood into adult life, it is relevant to address physical activity already in the preschool age. The research in preschool children’s physical activity is relatively new, and because of methodological inconsistencies, the associations between physical activity and health are less clear...... in this age group. The objective of this thesis was to contribute to the knowledge base regarding physical activity in preschoolers; How active are preschoolers? Are activity levels related to specific settings during a typical week? And are the activity levels related to a range of health outcomes...

  11. Physical Activity and Health: "What is Old is New Again".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hills, Andrew P; Street, Steven J; Byrne, Nuala M

    2015-01-01

    Much recent interest has focused on the relationship between physical activity and health and supported with an abundance of scientific evidence. However, the concept of Exercise is Medicine™ copromoted by the American College of Sports Medicine and American Medical Association and similar august bodies worldwide is far from new--the importance of exercise for health has been reported for centuries. Participation in regular physical activity and exercise provides numerous benefits for health with such benefits typically varying according to the volume completed as reflected by intensity, duration, and frequency. Evidence suggests a dose-response relationship such that being active, even to a modest level, is preferable to being inactive or sedentary. Greatest benefits are commonly associated with the previously sedentary individual assuming a more active lifestyle. There is an apparent linear relationship between physical activity and health status and as a general rule, increases in physical activity and fitness result in additional improvements in health status. This narrative review provides a selective appraisal of the evidence for the importance of physical activity for health, commencing with a baseline historical perspective followed by a summary of key health benefits associated with an active lifestyle. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Health Activism Targeting Corporations: A Critical Health Communication Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoller, Heather M

    2017-02-01

    Health activists and health social movements have transformed medical treatment, promoted public health policies, and extended civil rights for people with illness and disability. This essay explores health activism that targets corporate-generated illness and risk in order to understand the unique communicative challenges involved in this area of contention. Arguing for greater critical engagement with policy, the article integrates policy research with social movements, subpolitics, and issue management literature. Drawing from activist discourse and multidisciplinary research, the article describes how a wide array of groups groups build visibility for corporate health effects, create the potential for networking and collaboration, and politicize health by attributing illness to corporate behaviors. The discussion articulates the implications of this activism for health communication theory, research, and practice.

  13. Affective health bias in older adults: Considering positive and negative affect in a general health context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Brenda R; Bergeman, C S

    2016-09-01

    Because subjective health reports are a primary source of health information in a number of medical and research-based contexts, much research has been devoted to establishing the extent to which these self-reports of health correspond to health information from more objective sources. One of the key factors considered in this area is trait affect, with most studies emphasizing the impact of negative affect (negative emotions) over positive affect (positive emotions), and focusing on high-arousal affect (e.g., anger, excitement) over moderate- or low-arousal affect (e.g., relaxed, depressed). The present study examines the impact of both Positive and Negative Affect (PA/NA)-measured by items of both high and low arousal-on the correspondence between objective health information and subjective health reports. Another limitation of existing literature in the area is the focus on samples suffering from a particular diagnosis or on specific symptom reports; here, these effects are investigated in a sample of community-dwelling older adults representing a broader spectrum of health. 153 older adults (Mage = 71.2) took surveys assessing Perceived Health and Affect and underwent an objective physical health assessment. Structural equation modeling was used to investigate the extent to which the relationship between Objective Health and Perceived Health was moderated by PA or NA, which would indicate the presence of affective health bias. Results reveal a significant moderation effect for NA, but not for PA; PA appeared to serve a more mediational function, indicating that NA and PA operate on health perceptions in distinct ways. These findings provide evidence that in our high-functioning, community-dwelling sample of older adults, a) affective health bias is present within a general health context, and not only within specific symptom or diagnostic categories; and b) that both PA and NA play important roles in the process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  14. Reflections on Physical Activity and Health: What Should We Recommend?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warburton, Darren E R; Bredin, Shannon S D

    2016-04-01

    The health benefits of regular physical activity are irrefutable; virtually everyone can benefit from being active. The evidence is overwhelming with risk reductions of at least 20%-30% for more than 25 chronic medical conditions and premature mortality. Even higher risk reductions (ie, ≥ 50%) are observed when objective measures of physical fitness are taken. International physical activity guidelines generally recommend 150 minutes per week of moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity. A critical review of the literature indicates that half of this volume of physical activity might lead to marked health benefits. There is compelling evidence to support health promotion strategies that emphasize that health benefits can be accrued at a lower volume and/or intensity of physical activity. Public health policies are needed that reduce the barriers to physical activity participation such that everyone can reap the benefits of physical activity. It is also important to highlight that sedentary time (particularly sitting time) carries independent health risks. The simple message of "move more and sit less" likely is more understandable by contemporary society and is formed on the basis of a strong body of evidence. For practitioners who work directly with clients, it is recommended that an individualized prescription (dosage) that takes into consideration the unique characteristics and needs of the client is provided. Physical activity or exercise promotion should not be done in isolation; it should be part of an integrated approach to enhance healthy lifestyle behaviours. Copyright © 2016 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. General Anesthesia Inhibits the Activity of the "Glymphatic System".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gakuba, Clement; Gaberel, Thomas; Goursaud, Suzanne; Bourges, Jennifer; Di Palma, Camille; Quenault, Aurélien; de Lizarrondo, Sara Martinez; Vivien, Denis; Gauberti, Maxime

    2018-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: According to the "glymphatic system" hypothesis, brain waste clearance is mediated by a continuous replacement of the interstitial milieu by a bulk flow of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Previous reports suggested that this cerebral CSF circulation is only active during general anesthesia or sleep, an effect mediated by the dilatation of the extracellular space. Given the controversies regarding the plausibility of this phenomenon and the limitations of currently available methods to image the glymphatic system, we developed original whole-brain in vivo imaging methods to investigate the effects of general anesthesia on the brain CSF circulation. METHODS: We used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and near-infrared fluorescence imaging (NIRF) after injection of a paramagnetic contrast agent or a fluorescent dye in the cisterna magna, in order to investigate the impact of general anesthesia (isoflurane, ketamine or ketamine/xylazine) on the intracranial CSF circulation in mice. RESULTS: In vivo imaging allowed us to image CSF flow in awake and anesthetized mice and confirmed the existence of a brain-wide CSF circulation. Contrary to what was initially thought, we demonstrated that the parenchymal CSF circulation is mainly active during wakefulness and significantly impaired during general anesthesia. This effect was especially significant when high doses of anesthetic agent were used (3% isoflurane). These results were consistent across the different anesthesia regimens and imaging modalities. Moreover, we failed to detect a significant change in the brain extracellular water volume using diffusion weighted imaging in awake and anesthetized mice. CONCLUSION: The parenchymal diffusion of small molecular weight compounds from the CSF is active during wakefulness. General anesthesia has a negative impact on the intracranial CSF circulation, especially when using a high dose of anesthetic agent.

  16. Has physical activity anything to do with health promotion?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thing, Lone Friis

    2016-01-01

    Within academic discussions of health promotion related to physical activity an Eliasian perspective is seldom used. Based on a central theoretical theme within Norbert Elias’ sociology of sport (Elias and Dunning 1986), namely the quest for excitement, this article explores the health orientation...... of Danish society as an expression of a continued civilizing of the body. In national governmental health messages sports participation and general physical activity are presented as an essential health-promoting instrument that keeps illness and disease away, thereby prolong life. But the all......-pervading guide to physical activity and sport - often with a focus on quantitative dimensions like frequency, duration and intensity - as measurable effects and risks, has resulted in a rationalisation of many movement cultures for large selections of the population. Health messages are then presented using...

  17. Community health workers in Lesotho: Experiences of health promotion activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thato Seutloali

    2018-02-01

    Conclusion: This study concludes that CHWs are beneficial to health promotion and its various activities. They had a clear understanding of their roles and responsibilities, although they did not fully comprehend that what they were describing was, in fact, health promotion. When it came to advocacy, CHWs did not fully understand it, nor did they consider it as part of their roles, although they acknowledged its importance. Their role of increasing access to health care services by accompanying patients to the facilities has increased considerably because of changes in disease burden. This is affecting their ability to practise other health promotion activities which focus on disease prevention.

  18. Relationship between oral health-related quality of life, oral health, socioeconomic, and general health factors in elderly Brazilians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Andrade, Fabíola Bof; Lebrão, Maria Lúcia; Santos, Jair Lício Ferreira; da Cruz Teixeira, Doralice Severo; de Oliveira Duarte, Yeda Aparecida

    2012-09-01

    To assess the impact of oral health on quality of life in elderly Brazilians and to evaluate its association with clinical oral health measures and socioeconomic and general health factors. Cross-sectional study. Population-based cohort study on health, well-being, and aging. Eight hundred fifty-seven participants representing 588,384 community-dwelling elderly adults from the city of São Paulo, Brazil. Self-perceived impact of oral health on quality of life was measured using the Geriatric Oral Health Assessment Index (GOHAI), with scores categorized as good, moderate, or poor, indicating low, moderate, and high degrees of negative impact on quality of life, respectively. Nearly half of the individuals had good GOHAI scores (44.7% of overall sample, 45.9% of dentate participants, and 43.4% of edentulous participants). In the overall sample, those with poor self-rated general health and a need for dental prostheses were more likely to have poor and moderate GOHAI scores. Individuals with depression were significantly more likely to have poor GOHAI scores. No socioeconomic variables were related to the outcome, except self-perception of sufficient income, which was a protective factor against a poor GOHAI score in dentate participants. Moderate and high degrees of negative impact of oral health on quality of life were associated with general health and clinical oral health measures, independent of socioeconomic factors. © 2012, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2012, The American Geriatrics Society.

  19. Community health workers in Lesotho: Experiences of health promotion activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seutloali, Thato; Napoles, Lizeka; Bam, Nomonde

    2018-02-27

    Lesotho adopted primary health care in 1979, and community health workers (CHWs) were included in the programme to focus on health promotion, particularly to reach people in underserved rural areas. Although the CHW programme has been successful, the heavy burden of disease because of HIV and/or AIDS and tuberculosis shifted resources from health promotion to home-based care. The study explored the lived experience of CHWs in conducting health promotion activities in Lesotho. The study was conducted in four health centres in Berea district, Lesotho. A qualitative study was conducted using an interviewer guide translated from English into Sesotho for four CHW focus group discussions, four individual interviews of key informants and four semi-structured interviews with the health centre nurses. The roles of CHWs in health promotion ranged from offering basic first aid and home-based care to increasing access to health care services by taking patients to the facilities and promoting behaviour change through health education. Their perceived successes included increased access to health care services and reduced mortality rates. CHW challenges involved their demotivation to carry out their work because of lack of or inconsistent financial incentives and supplies, work overload which compromises quality of their work and limited community involvement. This study concludes that CHWs are beneficial to health promotion and its various activities. They had a clear understanding of their roles and responsibilities, although they did not fully comprehend that what they were describing was, in fact, health promotion. When it came to advocacy, CHWs did not fully understand it, nor did they consider it as part of their roles, although they acknowledged its importance. Their role of increasing access to health care services by accompanying patients to the facilities has increased considerably because of changes in disease burden. This is affecting their ability to practise other

  20. Physical Activity for Health and Longevity

    OpenAIRE

    Khoo, Selina; Müller, Andre Matthias

    2013-01-01

    International audience; The aging process is commonly associated with declines in health, cognitive function and well-being. However, lifestyle factors like diet, alcohol consumption, smoking and physical activity were repeatedly highlighted as predictors of a healthy aging process. However, recent research has shown that physical activity is the strongest predictor of health in older adults. Recent studies have confirmed the strong effect of physical activity on cardiovascular, metabolic, mu...

  1. Outsourcing of Primary Health Cares: Which Activities?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed Mahdi Madani

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available the primary health cares are among the individuals’ primary rights and their outsourcing can pave the way to more suitable use of resources for the field inside and outside of the organization and in this way make possible the better cares. The aim of this study was to determine the type of primary health cares that can be outsourced in Iran; this study embarked upon specifying which one, among the primary health cares, has ability of being outsourced by contractors outside the organization. This applied study has been done by a descriptive and cross-sectional method. According to the other studies at first a general framework was founded; hence the main framework with respect to the opinions of 30 experts. Thereafter a questionnaire was compiled for ensuring its correctness and gathering other experts’ opinions. The method of experts’ judgment was used for validity and for its reliability with distribution of 30 copies the method of calculating Cronbach’ salpha, which was 0.925. Then it was distributed among experts and 786 questionnaires were completed and collected; by using the method of factor of factor and confirmatory analysis as well as the descriptive statistics we embarked upon investigating and deducing the results. For statistical investigation the software SPSS21 and AMOS20 were used. In the factor of outsourcing activities one factor only covering 55.25% of variables variance was discovered. The results suggest that the item q10, “possibility of outsourcing the concrete activities”, with factor load of 0.791 and the item q6, "outsourcing and standardization", with factor load of 0.668 have respectively the highest load and the lowest one in the definition of the factor of cares of outsourcing. The more the primary health cares are more concrete, more simple, more standardized and have the further differentiability, their successful outsourcing is highly possible; in addition only those activities are able to be

  2. Epigenetics: general characteristics and implications for oral health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Yun Seo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Genetic information such as DNA sequences has been limited to fully explain mechanisms of gene regulation and disease process. Epigenetic mechanisms, which include DNA methylation, histone modification and non-coding RNAs, can regulate gene expression and affect progression of disease. Although studies focused on epigenetics are being actively investigated in the field of medicine and biology, epigenetics in dental research is at the early stages. However, studies on epigenetics in dentistry deserve attention because epigenetic mechanisms play important roles in gene expression during tooth development and may affect oral diseases. In addition, understanding of epigenetic alteration is important for developing new therapeutic methods. This review article aims to outline the general features of epigenetic mechanisms and describe its future implications in the field of dentistry.

  3. Radiogenic health effects: communicating risks to the general public

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strzelczyk, Jadwiga

    1999-01-01

    Harmful effects of prolonged radiation exposures were recognized early on following the discovery of X-rays by W.C. Roentgen in 1895. The type and severity of radiogenic effects are functions of a number of factors, radiation quality and quantity, chemical toxicity, and radiosensitivity of irradiated tissues being the most significant ones. Currently, there are several human registries for radiogenic cancers. Atomic bomb and nuclear test survivors, and populations exposed to medical irradiation constitute the largest study cohorts. Two general types of radiogenic effects have emerged from these registries: prompt and delayed. While the effects of acute exposures are very well documented, investigations of the effects of low-level exposures require the use of mathematical models. Communicating the risks of lower-level chronic radiation exposures to the general public remains a challenging task. The most effective approaches include clear interpretation and placing radiation risks in perspective: risks versus benefits, and comparisons with risks carried by common activities in which we all engage. (author)

  4. Employee Health Behaviors, Self-Reported Health Status, and Association With Absenteeism: Comparison With the General Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Young Ho; Sim, Jin Ah; Park, Eun-Gee; Park, June Dong; Noh, Dong-Young

    2016-09-01

    To perform a comparison between health behaviors and health status of employees with those of the general population, to evaluate the association between employee health behaviors, health status, and absenteeism. Cross-sectional study enrolled 2433 employees from 16 Korean companies in 2014, and recruited 1000 general population randomly in 2012. The distribution of employee health behaviors, health status, and association with absenteeism were assessed. Employees had significantly worse health status and low rates of health behaviors maintenance compared with the general population. Multiple logistic regression model revealed that regular exercise, smoking cessation, work life balance, proactive living, religious practice, and good physical health status were associated with lower absenteeism. Maintaining health behaviors and having good health status were associated with less absenteeism. This study suggests investment of multidimensional health approach in workplace health and wellness (WHW) programs.

  5. Generalized thermodynamics of phase equilibria in scalar active matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solon, Alexandre P.; Stenhammar, Joakim; Cates, Michael E.; Kafri, Yariv; Tailleur, Julien

    2018-02-01

    Motility-induced phase separation (MIPS) arises generically in fluids of self-propelled particles when interactions lead to a kinetic slowdown at high densities. Starting from a continuum description of scalar active matter akin to a generalized Cahn-Hilliard equation, we give a general prescription for the mean densities of coexisting phases in flux-free steady states that amounts, at a hydrodynamics scale, to extremizing an effective free energy. We illustrate our approach on two well-known models: self-propelled particles interacting either through a density-dependent propulsion speed or via direct pairwise forces. Our theory accounts quantitatively for their phase diagrams, providing a unified description of MIPS.

  6. Using the Statistical Indicators for the General Insurances Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Partachi

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The statistics of the general insurances activity is largely used in the actuarial calculations. The actuarial analysis are achieved exclusively on the basis of primary and derived indicators, which are drawn up by various statistical methods. The statistical indicators which are used in this respect are obtained on the basis of the factors and conditions allowing the compensation cases to occur.The actuarial analysis is performed over the time as well, by using the chronological which allow the decomposition of the phenomenon being studied by its factors of influence.In this article, after briefly presenting a number of point of view regarding the utilization of the statistical indicators in the actuarial analysis, we have analyzed, successively, a series of issues, such as: the statistical indicators as regards the general insurances fund forming, expressed in physical and value units, or as absolute, relative and average volumes; the statistical indicators of the utilization of the general insurances funds (with the same diversified form of expression and the statistical indicators of the outcomes of the general insurances activity.A particular accent went to the underlying of certain methodological aspects regarding the calculation of the above mentioned indicators, emphasizing certain particular characteristics concerning their utilization in the frame of the actuarial analysis.The article is stressing the clarification of the fact that these indicators are used in the actuarial analysis as a real system. The respective proportions are enumerated, by underlying the concrete possibilities of computation, which secure the possibility of performing the necessary analysis involved by a decisional process.

  7. Integration of Pediatric Mental Health in General Pediatrics in Eritrea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of mental health needs of America's youth, with 1 ... health services to children and adolescents in the primary ... Conclusion: The establishment of the Pediatric residency with a dedicated curriculum to address mental health ... However, there are few young patients being evaluated ... mental health care without stigma.

  8. Activities for Engaging Schools in Health Promotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardi, Mohammad; Burbank, Andrea; Choi, Wayne; Chow, Lawrence; Jang, Wesley; Roccamatisi, Dawn; Timberley-Berg, Tonia; Sanghera, Mandeep; Zhang, Margaret; Macnab, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe activities used to initiate health promotion in the school setting. Design/Methodology/Approach: Description of successful pilot Health Promoting School (HPS) initiatives in Canada and Uganda and the validated measures central to each program. Evaluation methodologies: quantitative data from the…

  9. Active Emergence from Propofol General Anesthesia is Induced by Methylphenidate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemali, Jessica J.; Van Dort, Christa J.; Brown, Emery N.; Solt, Ken

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND A recent study showed that methylphenidate induces emergence from isoflurane general anesthesia. Isoflurane and propofol are general anesthetics that may have distinct molecular mechanisms of action. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that methylphenidate actively induces emergence from propofol general anesthesia. METHODS Using adult rats, the effect of methylphenidate on time to emergence after a single bolus of propofol was determined. The ability of methylphenidate to restore righting during a continuous target controlled infusion of propofol was also tested. In a separate group of rats, a target controlled infusion of propofol was established and spectral analysis was performed on electroencephalogram recordings taken before and after methylphenidate administration. RESULTS Methylphenidate decreased median time to emergence after a single dose of propofol from 735 seconds (95% CI: 598 to 897 seconds, n=6) to 448 seconds (95% CI: 371 to 495 seconds, n=6). The difference was statistically significant (p = 0.0051). During continuous propofol anesthesia with a median final target plasma concentration of 4.0 μg/ml (95%CI: 3.2 to 4.6, n=6), none of the rats exhibited purposeful movements after injection of normal saline. After methylphenidate, however, all 6 rats promptly exhibited arousal and had restoration of righting with a median time of 82 seconds (95% CI: 30 to 166 seconds). Spectral analysis of electroencephalogram data demonstrated a shift in peak power from delta (anesthesia in rats. Further study is warranted to test the hypothesis that methylphenidate induces emergence from propofol general anesthesia in humans. PMID:22446983

  10. General practitioners’ views on the role of pedometers in health promotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patel A

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Regular pedometer use can help initiate and maintain regular walking activity that can lead to a number of health-related benefits. The primary health care setting has been found to be an ideal venue in which to counsel low-active individuals for physical activity. AIM: To examine general practitioners’ (GPs views on the role of pedometers in health promotion. METHODS: Fifteen GPs working in urban, primary care practices in Auckland, New Zealand were individually interviewed. The interview schedule focused on physical activity counselling and the Green Prescription programme. For this sub-study, the focus was on questions relating to pedometer use. An inductive thematic approach was used to analyse the data. FINDINGS: Four main themes were identified. Pedometers were viewed as motivational devices that could be used to encourage low-active patients to become more active, as they provided feedback on step counts. A pedometer was also viewed as a self-management tool, whereby the individual could set daily step count goals, which in turn could help increase their physical activity engagement. GPs who currently wore a pedometer discussed the practicalities of being able to show a patient how to use a pedometer. Also discussed was how cost could restrict pedometer access for some patients. CONCLUSIONS: Pedometers were viewed by GPs as being helpful devices that could help motivate and support low-active patients in becoming more active. Information regarding step counts was seen as important because it could make people aware how little physical activity they were engaging in.

  11. Older adults rate their mental health better than their general health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena M. Magwene

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. Self-rated health (SRH shows strong associations with measures of health and well-being. Increasingly, studies have used self-rated mental health (SRMH as a predictor of various outcomes, independently or together with SRH. Research has not firmly established if and how these two constructs differ. We sought to characterize the relationship between SRH and SRMH, and to determine how this relationship differed across subgroups defined by sociodemographic and health-related characteristics.Design and methods. We analyzed data from the 2012 CAHPS Medicare Advantage Survey. SRH and SRMH ratings were crosstabulated to determine the distribution of responses across response categories. The expected joint probability distribution was computed and compared to the observed distribution. A constructed variable indicated whether SRMH was better, the same, or worse than SRH. We analyzed the distribution of this variable across various subgroups defined by sociodemographic and health-related factors. Results. A total of 114,905 Medicare Advantage beneficiaries responded to both the SRH and SRMH questions. Both in general and within all subgroups, SRMH was usually rated as better than SRH, and rarely as worse. Conclusions. Within a large group of Medicare recipients, the overwhelming trend was for recipients to rate their mental health as at least as good as their overall health, regardless of any sociodemographic and health-related factors. This finding of a shifted distribution encourages caution in the analytic use of selfrated mental health, particularly the use of both SRH and SRMH for adjustment. Additional research is needed to help clarify the complex relationship between these variables.

  12. Attitudes ofprivate general practitioners towards health care in South

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-08-19

    Aug 19, 2017 ... sity medical school and other factors in practi- tioners' attitudes to .... grated (less fragmented) public sector health service. However ..... more in touch with the reality of underprivileged com- munities .... health as a human right.

  13. Forming health culture as part of general education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreeva Irina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper outlines methods of forming health culture in the content of education as a theoretical-methodological area aimed at fostering a positive attitude, sustained motivation for health and personal responsibility for its preservation.

  14. Clustering of diet, physical activity and smoking and a general willingness to change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Hein; Kremers, Stef; Smeets, Tamara; Reubsaet, Astrid

    2008-01-01

    Addressing multiple health behaviours are important in preventing disease and mortality. The present study investigated the clustering of health behaviours, cognitive determinants and stages of change in 2827 adults for the lifestyle factors of physical activity, fruit, vegetable and fat consumption and smoking. The results showed that only 3% of the total population met recommended guidelines for all of the five behaviours. Behaviours were found to be weakly associated. Behaviour-specific cognitions and stages of change for the behaviours clustered more strongly, however. With respect to diet and physical activity, respondents in the preparation stage for one behaviour were likely also to be preparing to change another behaviour. Possible mechanisms for the apparent general willingness to change multiple behaviours are discussed, as well as potential implications for health promotion practice.

  15. Development of Activity and Participation Norms among General Adult Populations in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Chia-Feng; Chiu, Tzu-Ying; Liou, Tsan-Hon; Chi, Wen-Chou; Liao, Hua-Fang; Liang, Chung-Chao; Escorpizo, Reuben

    2017-06-06

    Based on the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF) and the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0 (WHODAS 2.0), The Functioning Disability Evaluation Scale-Adult version (FUNDES-Adult) began development in 2011. The FUNDES-Adult was designed to assess the difficulty level of an individual's activities and participation in daily life. There is a lack of research regarding the profile of activity and participation for the general adult population. The purposes of this study were to establish activity and participation norms for the general adult population in Taiwan and to describe, discuss, and compare the activity and participation profile with other population. A population-based survey was administered in 2013 using a computer-assisted telephone interviewing system (CATI system). Using probability proportional to size (PPS) sampling and systematic sampling with random digit dialing (RDD), 1500 adults from Taiwan's general population were selected to participate in the survey. The FUNDES-Adult with six domains and two dimensions (performance and capability) was used to obtain data on activities and participation levels. A higher domain score indicated higher participation restriction. Approximately 50% of the respondents were male, and the average age of the respondents was 45.23 years. There were no significant differences in the demographic features between the sample and the population. Among the six domains, the self-care domain score was the lowest (least restriction) and the participation domain score was the highest (most restriction). Approximately 90% of the sample scored were less than 15, and only 0.1% scored more than 80. This is the first cross-national population-based survey to assess norms of activity and participation relevant to the general population of Taiwan. As such, the results of this survey can be used as a reference for comparing the activity and participation (AP) functioning of

  16. Development of Activity and Participation Norms among General Adult Populations in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Feng Yen

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Based on the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF and the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0 (WHODAS 2.0, The Functioning Disability Evaluation Scale-Adult version (FUNDES-Adult began development in 2011. The FUNDES-Adult was designed to assess the difficulty level of an individual’s activities and participation in daily life. There is a lack of research regarding the profile of activity and participation for the general adult population. The purposes of this study were to establish activity and participation norms for the general adult population in Taiwan and to describe, discuss, and compare the activity and participation profile with other population. Method: A population-based survey was administered in 2013 using a computer-assisted telephone interviewing system (CATI system. Using probability proportional to size (PPS sampling and systematic sampling with random digit dialing (RDD, 1500 adults from Taiwan’s general population were selected to participate in the survey. The FUNDES-Adult with six domains and two dimensions (performance and capability was used to obtain data on activities and participation levels. A higher domain score indicated higher participation restriction. Results: Approximately 50% of the respondents were male, and the average age of the respondents was 45.23 years. There were no significant differences in the demographic features between the sample and the population. Among the six domains, the self-care domain score was the lowest (least restriction and the participation domain score was the highest (most restriction. Approximately 90% of the sample scored were less than 15, and only 0.1% scored more than 80. This is the first cross-national population-based survey to assess norms of activity and participation relevant to the general population of Taiwan. As such, the results of this survey can be used as a reference for comparing the activity and

  17. General Introduction to Administrative/Legal Problems of Health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Management of health institutions, like many other endeavours, is regulated by law. There is therefore the need for health managers to familiarise themselves with the laws affecting their institutions. The health manager must know the functions, powers and limitations of different statutory or established organs within his ...

  18. General health checks in adults for reducing morbidity and mortality from disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogsbøll, Lasse T; Jørgensen, Karsten Juhl; Grønhøj Larsen, Christian

    2012-01-01

    General health checks are common elements of health care in some countries. These aim to detect disease and risk factors for disease with the purpose of reducing morbidity and mortality. Most of the commonly used screening tests offered in general health checks have been incompletely studied. Als......, screening leads to increased use of diagnostic and therapeutic interventions, which can be harmful as well as beneficial. It is, therefore, important to assess whether general health checks do more good than harm....

  19. A general framework for sensor-based human activity recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köping, Lukas; Shirahama, Kimiaki; Grzegorzek, Marcin

    2018-04-01

    Today's wearable devices like smartphones, smartwatches and intelligent glasses collect a large amount of data from their built-in sensors like accelerometers and gyroscopes. These data can be used to identify a person's current activity and in turn can be utilised for applications in the field of personal fitness assistants or elderly care. However, developing such systems is subject to certain restrictions: (i) since more and more new sensors will be available in the future, activity recognition systems should be able to integrate these new sensors with a small amount of manual effort and (ii) such systems should avoid high acquisition costs for computational power. We propose a general framework that achieves an effective data integration based on the following two characteristics: Firstly, a smartphone is used to gather and temporally store data from different sensors and transfer these data to a central server. Thus, various sensors can be integrated into the system as long as they have programming interfaces to communicate with the smartphone. The second characteristic is a codebook-based feature learning approach that can encode data from each sensor into an effective feature vector only by tuning a few intuitive parameters. In the experiments, the framework is realised as a real-time activity recognition system that integrates eight sensors from a smartphone, smartwatch and smartglasses, and its effectiveness is validated from different perspectives such as accuracies, sensor combinations and sampling rates. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Self-assessed dental health, oral health practices, and general health behaviors in Chinese urban adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Han; Petersen, Poul Erik; Peng, Bin

    2005-01-01

    cigarette smoking at least once, while 41% reported having tasted alcohol drinks. Multivariate regression analyses showed that perceived dental health status and needs were associated with gender, age, unhealthy lifestyles, poor school performance, and socio-economic status. The establishment of school...

  1. Physical activity measurement in older adults: relationships with mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Sarah J; Strath, Scott J; Swartz, Ann M

    2008-10-01

    This study examined the relationship between physical activity (PA) and mental health among older adults as measured by objective and subjective PA-assessment instruments. Pedometers (PED), accelerometers (ACC), and the Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly (PASE) were administered to measure 1 week of PA among 84 adults age 55-87 (mean = 71) years. General mental health was measured using the Positive and Negative Affect Scale (PANAS) and the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWL). Linear regressions revealed that PA estimated by PED significantly predicted 18.1%, 8.3%, and 12.3% of variance in SWL and positive and negative affect, respectively, whereas PA estimated by the PASE did not predict any mental health variables. Results from ACC data were mixed. Hotelling-William tests between correlation coefficients revealed that the relationship between PED and SWL was significantly stronger than the relationship between PASE and SWL. Relationships between PA and mental health might depend on the PA measure used.

  2. The role of physician counseling in improving adherence to physical activity among the general population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Ausenka Ribeiro

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The regular practice of physical activity at appropriate levels ensures various benefits for the individual over the short, medium and long terms. It is therefore important in health promotion. On the other hand, sedentary behavior has reached alarming levels among the general population, which qualifies it as a serious health problem of endemic proportions. The present review describes public health problems consequent to sedentary behavior and the importance of physician counseling for change their patients’ beha-vior and making them more physically active on a regular basis. Models and behavioral theories are presented to facilitate physicians’ understan-ding of how to approach patients during clinical practice. We also describe programs conducted in many countries based on physician counseling for reducing sedentary behavior, and we present many tools used to quantify and qualify patients’ attitudes towards becoming more physically active. Through understanding the barriers faced by patients, we suggest methodologies that will enable physicians to use physical activity promotion appropriately. We hope that this will provide support for physicians in conducting physical activity counseling, as a means for improving the health of the population.

  3. Young People's Perceptions of Mental and Physical Health in the Context of General Wellbeing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singletary, Joanne H.; Bartle, Craig L.; Svirydzenka, Nadzeya; Suter-Giorgini, Nicola M.; Cashmore, Annette M.; Dogra, Nisha

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Increased recognition of the need for health education in schools has seen advances in health literacy in recent years. Most of these have focussed on physical health, whereas education about mental health is generally lacking and focussed on tackling stigma rather than promoting good mental health. This study evaluated a pilot…

  4. Access to general health care services by a New Zealand population with serious mental illness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wheeler A

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Literature suggests that good quality health care access can have a positive impact on the health of people with serious mental illness (SMI, but literature relating to patterns of access by this group is equivocal. AIM: This study was designed to explore health care access patterns in a group of people with SMI and to compare them with a general New Zealand population group, in order for health providers to understand how they might contribute to positive health outcomes for this group. METHODS: The study surveyed 404 mental health consumers aged 18-65 years receiving care from one district health board in Auckland about their patterns of health care access. Results were compared with those from the New Zealand Health Survey of the general population. RESULTS: Findings suggest that the SMI consumer respondents had poorer physical health than the general population respondents, accessed health care services in more complex ways and were more particular about who they accessed for their care than the general population respondents. There was some concern from SMI consumers around discrimination from health care providers. The study also suggested that some proactive management with SMI consumers for conditions such as metabolic syndrome was occurring within the health care community. DISCUSSION: The first point of access for SMI consumers with general health problems is not always the family general practitioner and so other health professionals may sometimes need to consider the mental and physical health of such consumers in a wider context than their own specialism.

  5. Glutarimides: Biological activity, general synthetic methods and physicochemical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović-Đorđević Jelena B.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Glutarimides, 2,6-dioxopiperidines are compounds that rarely occur in natural sources, but so far isolated ones exert widespread pharmacological activities, which makes them valuable as potential pharmacotherapeutics. Glutarimides act as androgen receptor antagonists, anti-inflammatory, anxiolytics, antibacterials, and tumor suppressing agents. Some synthetic glutarimide derivatives are already in use as immunosuppressive and sedative (e.g., thalidomide or anxiolytics (buspirone drugs. The wide applicability of this class of compounds, justify the interest of scientists to explore new pathways for its syntheses. General methods for synthesis of six-membered imide ring, are presented in this paper. These methods include: a reaction of dicarboxylic acids with ammonia or primary amine, b reactions of cyclization: amido-acids, diamides, dinitriles, nitrilo-acids, amido-nitriles, amido-esters, amidoacyl-chlorides or diacyl-chlorides, c adition of carbon-monoxide on a,b-unsaturated amides, d oxidation reactions, e Michael adition of active methylen compounds on methacrylamide or conjugated amides. Some of the described methods are used for closing glutarimide ring in syntheses of farmacological active compounds sesbanimide and aldose reductase inhibitors (ARI. Analyses of the geometry, as well as, the spectroscopic analyses (NMR and FT-IR of some glutarimides are presented because of their broad spectrum of pharmacological activity. To elucidate structures of glutarimides, geometrical parameters of newly synthesized tert-pentyl-1-benzyl-4-methyl-glutarimide-3-carboxylate (PBMG are analyzed and compared with the experimental data from X-ray analysis for glutarimide. Moreover, molecular electrostatic potential (MEP surface which is plotted over the optimized geometry to elucidate the reactivity of PBMG molecule is analyzed. The electronic properties of glutarimide derivatives are explained on the example of thalidomide. The Frontier Molecular Orbital

  6. Sudden Cardiac Death During Sports Activities in the General Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Kumar; Bougouin, Wulfran; Sharifzadehgan, Ardalan; Waldmann, Victor; Karam, Nicole; Marijon, Eloi; Jouven, Xavier

    2017-12-01

    Regular exercise reduces cardiovascular and overall mortality. Participation in sports is an important determinant of cardiovascular health and fitness. Regular sports activity is associated with a smaller risk of sudden cardiac death (SCD). However, there is a small risk of sports-related SCD. Sports-related SCD accounts for approximately 5% of total SCD. SCD among athletes comprises only a fraction of all sports-related SCD. Sport-related SCD has a male predominance and an average age of affliction of 45 to 50 years. Survival is better than for other SCD. This review summarizes links between sports and SCD and discusses current knowledge and controversies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Recent and past musical activity predicts cognitive aging variability: direct comparison with general lifestyle activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna-Pladdy, Brenda; Gajewski, Byron

    2012-01-01

    Studies evaluating the impact of modifiable lifestyle factors on cognition offer potential insights into sources of cognitive aging variability. Recently, we reported an association between extent of musical instrumental practice throughout the life span (greater than 10 years) on preserved cognitive functioning in advanced age. These findings raise the question of whether there are training-induced brain changes in musicians that can transfer to non-musical cognitive abilities to allow for compensation of age-related cognitive declines. However, because of the relationship between engagement in general lifestyle activities and preserved cognition, it remains unclear whether these findings are specifically driven by musical training or the types of individuals likely to engage in greater activities in general. The current study controlled for general activity level in evaluating cognition between musicians and nomusicians. Also, the timing of engagement (age of acquisition, past versus recent) was assessed in predictive models of successful cognitive aging. Seventy age and education matched older musicians (>10 years) and non-musicians (ages 59-80) were evaluated on neuropsychological tests and general lifestyle activities. Musicians scored higher on tests of phonemic fluency, verbal working memory, verbal immediate recall, visuospatial judgment, and motor dexterity, but did not differ in other general leisure activities. Partition analyses were conducted on significant cognitive measures to determine aspects of musical training predictive of enhanced cognition. The first partition analysis revealed education best predicted visuospatial functions in musicians, followed by recent musical engagement which offset low education. In the second partition analysis, early age of musical acquisition (memory in musicians, while analyses for other measures were not predictive. Recent and past musical activity, but not general lifestyle activities, predicted variability

  8. [A general review on women's health education of modern China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shaoyang

    2015-07-01

    In the modern social background of strengthening the nation and its people, woman's health got the attention of Chinese and became one important part in the modernization progress of state and nation, they started the work of women's health education, publicized women's health knowledge and nursery methods through many ways and carried out midwifery education.In the name of "health", woman's body gradually be socialized and internationalized. Meanwhile, Chinese women also gradually got rid of their own discipline of the state and society, began to seek their own liberation, became one important part of China's modernization.

  9. Generalized activity equations for spiking neural network dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A Buice

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Much progress has been made in uncovering the computational capabilities of spiking neural networks. However, spiking neurons will always be more expensive to simulate compared to rate neurons because of the inherent disparity in time scales - the spike duration time is much shorter than the inter-spike time, which is much shorter than any learning time scale. In numerical analysis, this is a classic stiff problem. Spiking neurons are also much more difficult to study analytically. One possible approach to making spiking networks more tractable is to augment mean field activity models with some information about spiking correlations. For example, such a generalized activity model could carry information about spiking rates and correlations between spikes self-consistently. Here, we will show how this can be accomplished by constructing a complete formal probabilistic description of the network and then expanding around a small parameter such as the inverse of the number of neurons in the network. The mean field theory of the system gives a rate-like description. The first order terms in the perturbation expansion keep track of covariances.

  10. General health literacy assessment of Iranian women in Mashhad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarahi, Lida; Asadi, Reza; Hakimi, Hamid Reza

    2017-11-01

    In women's health, literacy determines their participation in self and family health promotion. Low health literacy is as barrier for understanding medical recommendations, disease prevention and health care. To assess women's health literacy and relative factors in Mashhad (Iran). Women referring to healthcare centers in Mashhad in 2012 and 2013, participated in this cross-sectional study by stratified sampling method. The validated Persian version of Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine-revised questionnaire was used. Vocabulary comprehension and reading scores of health literacy was assessed. Comparisons were done in demographic subgroups by ANOVA, Mann-Whitney U, Kruskal-Wallis, Pearson correlation coefficient, and Chi-Square tests. In total, 250 women with a mean age of 32.1±10.23 years and the mean education level of 10.58±3.67 years were studied. The mean reading score was 11.58±2.51 and the mean vocabulary comprehension score was 17.24±4.73. Participants' health literacy score had positive correlation with age and education, and significant difference in health literacy scores between occupational groups was seen. Housewives' health literacy scores were lower than others (pliteracy was a common problem amongst younger women, especially among women who had less education. These women are at risk of early marriage and child bearing and require more health care. Health care professionals should use effective methods for easier transfer recommendation, also, producing medical information booklets, texts, and videos for different community subgroups through public media or even in cyberspace with clear and common words consisting of essential information.

  11. Integration of pediatric mental health in general pediatrics in eritrea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Recognition of mental health problems among children continues to be a diagnostic challenge especially in resource poor countries where integration of such services within the primary health care framework has not been fully successfully. Objective: To document the prevailing mental services among ...

  12. Health Literacy Amongst Tuberculosis Patient in a General Hospital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Healthy literacy has been shown to improve health care access and adherence to Tuberculosis (TB) treatment. Still it remains largely unstudied in many high risks, underserved and low literacy African populations. This study aims to bridge the existing knowledge gap by assessing health literacy among ...

  13. Sport and physical activity for mental health

    CERN Document Server

    Carless, David

    2010-01-01

    With approximately 1 in 6 adults likely to experience a significant mental health problem at any one time (Office for National Statistics), research into effective interventions has never been more important. During the past decade there has been an increasing interest in the role that sport and physical activity can play in the treatment of mental health problems, and in mental health promotion. The benefits resulting from physiological changes during exercise are well documented, including improvement in mood and control of anxiety and depression. Research also suggests that socio-cultural a

  14. Communication and general concern criterion prior to activation of the rapid response team: a grounded theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martland, Jarrad; Chamberlain, Diane; Hutton, Alison; Smigielski, Michael

    2016-11-01

    highly and contributed to the debate. Conclusions This study highlighted that in the surveillance and management of the deteriorating patient and in the absence of effective communication there is a subsequent increase in anxiety, fear or concern that can be directly attributed to the activation of an RRT for the 'general concern' calling criteria. What is known about the topic? Deficiencies in collaboration and communication between healthcare professionals (HCPs) increase the stress and anxiety of healthcare staff and correspond to poorer outcomes for patients. The RRT can be activated as a 'general concern RRT' without observation of physiological derangements if staff are concerned about a patient's condition, allowing for assistance from a skilled critical care team at the patient's bedside. There are limited data on how poor communication affects the frequency of activation of general concern RRTs. What does this paper add? This study shows that poor communication between health professionals increases staff levels of anxiety and concern. In addition, the RRT system is being used to fill deficiencies in many other hospital processes, including end-of-life discussions. The deficiencies in hospital processes contribute to poor communication and increased levels of concern with this study demonstrating a direct link between a clinician's level of anxiety/concern and the 'general concern' activation category for the RRT system. What are the implications for practitioners? The present study highlights the importance of effective communication strategies between HCPs to improve patient safety and quality of care. The study also highlights the expanding role of the RRT in hospitals, which has implications for hospital policy makers with regard to future funding and resource allocation. Finally, many of the concerns raised in the present study by the focus groups have been addressed by recent measures introduced through the Australian Commission on Safety and Quality in

  15. Mental health law: compulsory treatment in a general medical setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linford, Steven

    2005-10-01

    Compulsory treatment of severe mental disorder can seem complicated even to psychiatrists. This article attempts to explain the current legal framework as it applies in common clinical situations in a general medical context.

  16. Health Impacts of Active Transportation in Europe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Rojas-Rueda

    Full Text Available Policies that stimulate active transportation (walking and bicycling have been related to heath benefits. This study aims to assess the potential health risks and benefits of promoting active transportation for commuting populations (age groups 16-64 in six European cities. We conducted a health impact assessment using two scenarios: increased cycling and increased walking. The primary outcome measure was all-cause mortality related to changes in physical activity level, exposure to fine particulate matter air pollution with a diameter <2.5 μm, as well as traffic fatalities in the cities of Barcelona, Basel, Copenhagen, Paris, Prague, and Warsaw. All scenarios produced health benefits in the six cities. An increase in bicycle trips to 35% of all trips (as in Copenhagen produced the highest benefits among the different scenarios analysed in Warsaw 113 (76-163 annual deaths avoided, Prague 61 (29-104, Barcelona 37 (24-56, Paris 37 (18-64 and Basel 5 (3-9. An increase in walking trips to 50% of all trips (as in Paris resulted in 19 (3-42 deaths avoided annually in Warsaw, 11(3-21 in Prague, 6 (4-9 in Basel, 3 (2-6 in Copenhagen and 3 (2-4 in Barcelona. The scenarios would also reduce carbon dioxide emissions in the six cities by 1,139 to 26,423 (metric tonnes per year. Policies to promote active transportation may produce health benefits, but these depend of the existing characteristics of the cities. Increased collaboration between health practitioners, transport specialists and urban planners will help to introduce the health perspective in transport policies and promote active transportation.

  17. Health Impacts of Active Transportation in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas-Rueda, David; de Nazelle, Audrey; Andersen, Zorana J; Braun-Fahrländer, Charlotte; Bruha, Jan; Bruhova-Foltynova, Hana; Desqueyroux, Hélène; Praznoczy, Corinne; Ragettli, Martina S; Tainio, Marko; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J

    2016-01-01

    Policies that stimulate active transportation (walking and bicycling) have been related to heath benefits. This study aims to assess the potential health risks and benefits of promoting active transportation for commuting populations (age groups 16-64) in six European cities. We conducted a health impact assessment using two scenarios: increased cycling and increased walking. The primary outcome measure was all-cause mortality related to changes in physical activity level, exposure to fine particulate matter air pollution with a diameter Paris, Prague, and Warsaw. All scenarios produced health benefits in the six cities. An increase in bicycle trips to 35% of all trips (as in Copenhagen) produced the highest benefits among the different scenarios analysed in Warsaw 113 (76-163) annual deaths avoided, Prague 61 (29-104), Barcelona 37 (24-56), Paris 37 (18-64) and Basel 5 (3-9). An increase in walking trips to 50% of all trips (as in Paris) resulted in 19 (3-42) deaths avoided annually in Warsaw, 11(3-21) in Prague, 6 (4-9) in Basel, 3 (2-6) in Copenhagen and 3 (2-4) in Barcelona. The scenarios would also reduce carbon dioxide emissions in the six cities by 1,139 to 26,423 (metric tonnes per year). Policies to promote active transportation may produce health benefits, but these depend of the existing characteristics of the cities. Increased collaboration between health practitioners, transport specialists and urban planners will help to introduce the health perspective in transport policies and promote active transportation.

  18. NIH's National Institute of General Medical Sciences celebrates 45 years of Discovery for Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Alison Davis NIH's National Institute of General Medical Sciences celebrates 45 years of Discovery for Health The National Institute of General Medical Sciences (NIGMS) is the NIH institute that primarily supports ...

  19. Influence of physical activity on psychosomatic health in obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzyk, K; Cajdler, A; Pokorski, M

    2008-12-01

    It is unclear to what extent the known psychosomatic benefits of exercise hold true for the obese. In the present study, we investigated the hypothesis that the psychosomatic health and components of general intelligence, such as the capacity for logical-deductive tasks, would be better in regularly exercising than non-exercising obese women. We addressed the issue in a self-reported survey study, comprising two groups of middle-aged obese women (age 30-50 years, BMI >30 kg/m(2)) of 25 persons each. The criterion for the group division was regular exercise, minimum twice a week, for at least 2 months. The following psychometric tools were used: Physical Fitness and Exercise Scale, Patient Health Questionnaire-9 for depression, Life Satisfaction Scale, General Health Inventory-28, Raven's Matrices Test for intelligence, and a test for selfcontentment with one's body figure shape. The exercising obese women scored significantly better in Life Satisfaction Scale (17.1 +/- 1.2 vs.12.0 +/- 0.9), had a lower level of depression (8.1 +/- 0.6 vs. 13.4 +/- 0.7), and a better assessment of the health status (24.6 +/- 1.6 vs. 36.4 +/- 2.2) (reversed score) compared with non-exercising ones (Pexercising obese women also appreciably better assessed their bodily looks. Interestingly, if depression was present in exercising women, it had more detrimental health effects than in physically inactive ones. The study failed to substantiate appreciable changes in general intelligence between active and non-active obese women. In conclusion, physical activity is of benefit for the psychosomatic health in obese women, which should be considered in behavioral counseling.

  20. A new approach to child mental health care within general practice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhaak, P.F.M.; Dijk, M. van; Walstock, D.; Zwaanswijk, M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Child and adolescent mental health problems are frequently not identified and properly treated within general practice. Politicians in the Netherlands are promoting more primary healthcare treatment for mental health problems. The current study aims to evaluate an integrated primary

  1. Generalized internal model robust control for active front steering intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jian; Zhao, Youqun; Ji, Xuewu; Liu, Yahui; Zhang, Lipeng

    2015-03-01

    Because of the tire nonlinearity and vehicle's parameters' uncertainties, robust control methods based on the worst cases, such as H ∞, µ synthesis, have been widely used in active front steering control, however, in order to guarantee the stability of active front steering system (AFS) controller, the robust control is at the cost of performance so that the robust controller is a little conservative and has low performance for AFS control. In this paper, a generalized internal model robust control (GIMC) that can overcome the contradiction between performance and stability is used in the AFS control. In GIMC, the Youla parameterization is used in an improved way. And GIMC controller includes two sections: a high performance controller designed for the nominal vehicle model and a robust controller compensating the vehicle parameters' uncertainties and some external disturbances. Simulations of double lane change (DLC) maneuver and that of braking on split- µ road are conducted to compare the performance and stability of the GIMC control, the nominal performance PID controller and the H ∞ controller. Simulation results show that the high nominal performance PID controller will be unstable under some extreme situations because of large vehicle's parameters variations, H ∞ controller is conservative so that the performance is a little low, and only the GIMC controller overcomes the contradiction between performance and robustness, which can both ensure the stability of the AFS controller and guarantee the high performance of the AFS controller. Therefore, the GIMC method proposed for AFS can overcome some disadvantages of control methods used by current AFS system, that is, can solve the instability of PID or LQP control methods and the low performance of the standard H ∞ controller.

  2. Activity monitoring systems in health care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kröse, B.; van Oosterhout, T.; van Kasteren, T.; Salah, A.A.; Gevers, T.

    2011-01-01

    This chapter focuses on activity monitoring in a home setting for health care purposes. First the most current sensing systems are described, which consist of wearable and ambient sensors. Then several approaches for the monitoring of simple actions are discussed, like falls or therapies. After

  3. The influence of workload and health behavior on job satisfaction of general practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetz, Katja; Musselmann, Berthold; Szecsenyi, Joachim; Joos, Stefanie

    2013-02-01

    Workload, personal health behavior, and job satisfaction of the physicians are crucial aspects for the quality of care they provide. The aim of our study was to identify influencing factors on job satisfaction with regard to general practitioners' (GPs) characteristics such as age, gender, health behavior, body mass index (BMI), and workload. A cross-sectional survey with a sample of 1,027 German GPs was used. Job satisfaction was measured according to a modified version of the Warr-Cook-Wall job satisfaction scale. Further, we collected data about health behavior and BMI of GPs and demographic data. Group comparison was evaluated using ANOVA with Bonferroni correction for post-hoc tests. A linear regression analysis was performed in which each of the job satisfaction items were handled as a dependent variable. The response rate was 34.0%. GPs were rather satisfied with their job with the exception of "hours of work," "physical working condition," and "income." GPs working in cities had less working hours per week, less number of patients per day, longer consultation times, and a higher proportion of privately insured patients compared to GPs working in rural areas. Being female, a higher age, a good health behavior, a lower BMI, and a high proportion of privately insured patients were positively associated with job satisfaction. Our results suggest that job satisfaction depends on different aspects of working conditions and individual characteristics. Therefore, strategies to improve job satisfaction should target improving working conditions and activating physicians' health resources.

  4. Health Management Technology as a General Solution Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Hiroshi; Hasegawa, Yoshifumi; Tasaki, Hiroshi; Iwami, Taro; Tsuchiya, Naoki

    Health maintenance and improvement of humans, artifacts, and nature are pressing requirements considering the problems human beings have faced. In this article, the health management technology is proposed by centering cause-effect structure. The important aspect of the technology is evolvement through human-machine collaboration in response to changes of target systems. One of the reasons why the cause-effect structure is centered in the technology is its feature of transparency to humans by instinct point of view. The notion has been spreaded over wide application areas such as quality control, energy management, and healthcare. Some experiments were conducted to prove effectiveness of the technology in the article.

  5. 21 CFR 101.14 - Health claims: general requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... evidence (including evidence from well-designed studies conducted in a manner which is consistent with... sold in a restaurant or in other establishments in which food that is ready for immediate human... food for which a health claim is made in accordance with § 101.9; for restaurant foods, in accordance...

  6. Oral and general health behaviours among Chinese urban adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Poul Erik; Jiang, Han; Peng, Bin

    2008-01-01

    distributions, regression analyses and factor analyses. RESULTS: Oral health-related behaviours among adolescents were associated with socioeconomic status of parents, school performance and peer relationships. The odds of a dental visit was 0.63 in adolescents of poorly educated parents and the corresponding...

  7. 29 CFR 1926.20 - General safety and health provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... for any part of the contract work shall require any laborer or mechanic employed in the performance of the contract to work in surroundings or under working conditions which are unsanitary, hazardous, or dangerous to his health or safety. (b) Accident prevention responsibilities. (1) It shall be the...

  8. Primary health eye care knowledge among general practitioners ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-05-10

    May 10, 2010 ... A significant percentage of patients seen at the primary health care level (district ... (GPs) are forced to rely on the knowledge acquired from their limited .... accurate in screening patients for diabetic retinopathy.4. In this study ...

  9. Desire for autonomy in health care decisions: a general population survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullati, Stéphane; Courvoisier, Delphine S; Charvet-Bérard, Agathe I; Perneger, Thomas V

    2011-04-01

    To examine factors associated with desire for autonomy in health care decisions in the general population. Mailed survey of 2348 residents of Geneva, Switzerland. Participants answered questions on a scale measuring their desire for autonomy in health care decisions. The scale was scored between 0 (lowest desire for autonomy) and 100 (highest desire for autonomy). On average the respondents favoured shared or active involvement in medical decisions (mean score 62.0, SD 20.9), but attitudes varied considerably. In the multivariate model, factors associated with a higher desire for autonomy included female gender, younger age, higher education, living alone, reporting an excellent global health and - a new observation compared to previous studies - having made several medical decisions in the past 6 months. The attitudes of the general public appear to be consistent with the model of shared decision making. However, people vary considerably in their desire for autonomy. An explicit assessment of each individual's desire for autonomy may improve the decision-making process. Such an assessment should be repeated regularly, as familiarity with medical decisions may increase the desire for autonomy. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Pathways leading to self-perceived general health and overall quality of life in burned adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moi, Asgjerd L; Nilsen, Roy M

    2012-12-01

    The aim of the study was to explore pathways leading to self-perceived general health and overall quality of life in burn patients. Data on burn-specific health, generic health, overall quality of life, injury characteristics and socio-demographics were obtained from 95 adult burn patients 47.0 (23.8) [mean (SD)] months after injury. A theoretical path model was established based on the concepts of Wilson and Cleary's model on health-related quality of life [1], and the proposed model was examined by structural equation modelling. Two main paths were identified, one leading to general health perception and the other leading to overall quality of life. Together, direct and indirect paths explained 63% of the variance of perceived general health and 43% of the variance in overall quality of life. The total effects of the SF-36 domain Vitality on perceived general health and overall quality of life were 0.62 and 0.66, respectively. No statistically significant path could be revealed between general health perception and overall quality of life. The results indicate that self-perceived general health and overall quality of life are related but distinct constructs. Moreover, vitality seems to be an important factor for the perception of both general health and overall quality of life in burned adults. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  11. Case Studies of Mental Health in General practice(28)---HIV and Mood Disturbance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fiona Judd; Leon Piterman; Grant Blashki; Hui Yang

    2014-01-01

    The Journal presents the Column of Case Studies of Mental Health in General Practice;with aca-demic support from Australian eXperts in general practice,psychology and psychiatry from Monash University and the University of Mel-bourne. The Columnˊs purpose is to respond to the increasing need for the development of mental health services in China. Through study and analysis of mental health cases,we hope to improve understanding of mental illnesses in Chinese primary health settings,and to build capaci-ty amongst community health professionals in managing mental illnesses and psychological problems in general practice. A patient - centred whole - person approach in general practice is the best way to maintain and improve the physical and mental health of residents. Our hope is that these case studies will lead the new wave of general practice and mental health service development both in practice and research. A num-ber of Australian eXperts from the disciplines of general practice,mental health and psychiatry will contribute to the Column. Professor Blash-ki,Professor Judd and Professor Piterman are authors of the teXt General Practice Psychiatry;the Chinese version of the book to be published in 2014. The Journal cases are helping to prepare for the translation and publication of a Chinese version of the book in China. We believe Chi-nese mental health in primary health care will reach new heights under this international cooperation.

  12. What do health coaches do? Direct observation of health coach activities during medical and patient-health coach visits at 3 federally qualified health centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Christopher; Saba, George; Wolf, Jessica; Gardner, Heather; Thom, David H

    2018-05-01

    To examine activities of health coaches during patient medical visits and when meeting one-on-one with patients at 3 urban federally qualified health centers. Encounters were videotaped and transcribed. Data was analyzed using a matrix analysis approach that allowed a priori identification of expected categories of activity, based on the health coach training model and previously developed conceptual framework, which were modified based on activities observed. A total of 10 medical visits (patient, clinician and health coach), and 8 patient-coach visits were recorded. We identified 9 categories common to both medical and patient-coach visits and 2 categories unique to the medical visit. While observed activities were generally consistent with expected categories, some activities were observed infrequently or not at all. We also observed additional activity categories, including information gathering and personal conversation. The average amount of time spent on some categories of coaching activities differed substantially between medical visits and patient-coach visits. Health coaching activities observed differed in several respects to those expected, and differed between medical visits and coaching only visits. These results provide insights into health coaching behaviors that can be used to inform training and improve utilization of health coaches in practice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Ethical issues in electronic health records: A general overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fouzia F Ozair

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Electronic health record (EHR is increasingly being implemented in many developing countries. It is the need of the hour because it improves the quality of health care and is also cost-effective. Technologies can introduce some hazards hence safety of information in the system is a real challenge. Recent news of security breaches has put a question mark on this system. Despite its increased usefulness, and increasing enthusiasm in its adoption, not much attention is being paid to the ethical issues that might arise. Securing EHR with an encrypted password is a probable option. The purpose of this article is to discuss the various ethical issues arising in the use of the EHRs and their possible solutions.

  14. Association between overuse of mobile phones on quality of sleep and general health among occupational health and safety students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyvazlou, Meysam; Zarei, Esmaeil; Rahimi, Azin; Abazari, Malek

    2016-01-01

    Concerns about health problems due to the increasing use of mobile phones are growing. Excessive use of mobile phones can affect the quality of sleep as one of the important issues in the health literature and general health of people. Therefore, this study investigated the relationship between the excessive use of mobile phones and general health and quality of sleep on 450 Occupational Health and Safety (OH&S) students in five universities of medical sciences in the North East of Iran in 2014. To achieve this objective, special questionnaires that included Cell Phone Overuse Scale, Pittsburgh's Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) were used, respectively. In addition to descriptive statistical methods, independent t-test, Pearson correlation, analysis of variance (ANOVA) and multiple regression tests were performed. The results revealed that half of the students had a poor level of sleep quality and most of them were considered unhealthy. The Pearson correlation co-efficient indicated a significant association between the excessive use of mobile phones and the total score of general health and the quality of sleep. In addition, the results of the multiple regression showed that the excessive use of mobile phones has a significant relationship between each of the four subscales of general health and the quality of sleep. Furthermore, the results of the multivariate regression indicated that the quality of sleep has a simultaneous effect on each of the four scales of the general health. Overall, a simultaneous study of the effects of the mobile phones on the quality of sleep and the general health could be considered as a trigger to employ some intervention programs to improve their general health status, quality of sleep and consequently educational performance.

  15. Study of General health, resiliency, and defense mechanisms in patients with migraine headache

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Aghayusefi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Migraine is a neurological disease that the etiology, several factors affect its onset or its exacerbation. One of the factors affecting disease is psychological factors such as defense mechanisms, resiliency, and general health. This study assessed the relationship between general health, resiliency, and general defense mechanisms, and also predicts the general health of people with migraine headaches that have a high resiliency and use mature defense mechanisms. Material and Methods: 50 women with migraine headache in the city of Bushehr using defense mechanisms, resiliency, and general health questionnaires were studied. For statistical analysis, Pearson correlation and multiple regression tests were used by SPSS 17 software. Results: The results showed that most of the defense mechanisms of migraine sufferers are Immature and Neuroticism. There is significant negative correlation between the deterioration of general health and resiliency as well as the mature defense mechanism (p=0/003, and also there is a significant positive correlation between this deterioration with neuroticism (p=0/040 and immature defense mechanisms (p=0/041. On the other hand there is significant negative correlation between resiliencies with immature (p=0/009 and neuroticism defense mechanisms (p=0/04, and also with mature defense mechanism has a significant positive correlation (p=0/003. Also, as more people use the mature defense mechanism, their deterioration of general health will be reduced, but this relationship will be stronger with the presence of resiliency. So migraine people use the mature defense mechanisms with high resiliency will have more favorable general health (less deterioration of general health. Conclusion: This study showed that migraine patients use the mature defense mechanisms with high resiliency will have more favorable general health (less deterioration of general health.

  16. Leisure Time Activities and Mental Health in Informal Dementia Caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüz, Benjamin; Czerniawski, Alana; Davie, Nicola; Miller, Lisa; Quinn, Michael G; King, Carolyn; Carr, Andrea; Elliott, Kate-Ellen J; Robinson, Andrew; Scott, Jenn L

    2015-07-01

    Dementia prevalence and the demand for dementia care are increasing. Informal caregiving accounts for a large proportion of dementia care, but can come at high cost for caregivers. Informal dementia caregivers are at higher risk for mental health problems than the general population. This study examines whether perceived change in leisure activities is one working mechanism linking stress and burden experience in dementia caregiving to lower mental health (depressive symptoms, anxiety symptoms, and reduced satisfaction with life), and whether there are group-based leisure activities that can buffer this detrimental effect. A total of 346 informal Australian dementia caregivers (88.15% female, age 18-82 years) participated in an online study. Mediation and moderation analyses using multiple regression demonstrated that perceived changes in leisure activities linked caregiving stress and burden to lower mental health, and that membership in groups engaging in affiliation or social activities attenuates negative effects of caregiving. Informal dementia caregivers benefit from satisfying leisure activities. In particular, engaging in social activities and self-help groups buffered the negative impact of caregiving. © 2015 The International Association of Applied Psychology.

  17. The satiety signaling neuropeptide perisulfakinin inhibits the activity of central neurons promoting general activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dieter Wicher

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The metabolic state is one of the determinants of the general activity level. Satiety is related to resting or sleep whereas hunger correlates to wakefulness and activity. The counterpart to the mammalian satiety signal cholecystokinin (CCK in insects are the sulfakinins. The aim of this study was to resolve the mechanism by which the antifeedant activity of perisulfakinin (PSK in Periplaneta americana is mediated. We identified the sources of PSK which is used both as hormone and as paracrine messenger. PSK is found in the neurohemal organ of the brain and in nerve endings throughout the central nervous system. To correlate the distributions of PSK and its receptor (PSKR, we cloned the gene coding for PSKR and provide evidence for its expression within the nervous system. It occurs only in a few neurons, among them are the dorsal unpaired median (DUM neurons which release octopamine thereby regulating the general level of activity. Application of PSK to DUM neurons attenuated the spiking frequency (EC50=11pM due to reduction of a pacemaker Ca2+ current through cAMP-inhibited pTRPγ channels. PSK increased the intracellular cAMP level while decreasing the intracellular Ca2+ concentration in DUM neurons. Thus, the satiety signal conferred by PSK acts antagonistically to the hunger signal, provided by the adipokinetic hormone (AKH: PSK depresses the electrical activity of DUM neurons by inhibiting the pTRPγ channel that is activated by AKH under conditions of food shortage.

  18. Health Benefits for Vocational Rehabilitation Consumers: Comparison of Access Rates with Workers in the General Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lustig, Daniel C.; Strauser, David R.

    2010-01-01

    Access to health insurance is one of the critical aspects of securing employment for people with disabilities. This study investigated whether vocational rehabilitation consumers secured employment with an employer who offered health insurance at similar rates to workers in the general population. In general, the results show that vocational…

  19. Consultations for mental problems in general practices with and without mental health nurses.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Magnée, T.; Beurs, D. de; Verhaak, P.

    2016-01-01

    Background & Aim: It seems cost-effective to provide mental health care to patient with mild mental problems in general practices instead of in specialized care, but general practitioners (GPs) often lack time or expertise. Since 2008, Dutch GPs have been collaborating with nurses with mental health

  20. Child and adolescent mental health care in Dutch general practice: time trend analyses.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwaanswijk, M.; Dijk, C.E. van; Verheij, R.A.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Because most children and adolescents visit their general practitioner (GP) regularly, general practice is a useful setting in which child and adolescent mental health problems can be identified, treated or referred to specialised care. Measures to strengthen Dutch primary mental health

  1. Mental health care in general practice in the context of a system reform.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Magnée, T.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to monitor mental health care in Dutch general practices in recent years. In 2014, a reform of the Dutch mental health care system was introduced. Since this reform, general practitioners (GPs) are expected to only refer patients with a (suspected) psychiatric disorder or

  2. General Health status of workers among different workplaces in Qom Province, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koohpaei, Alireza; Khandan, Mohammad; Gaeeni, Mahdi; Momenyan, Somayeh

    2015-12-01

    In a healthy organization, psychological health and physical health are as important as production and productivity; and healthy workers have higher productivity. Regarding lack of information about workers' general health profile in Qom Province, this study aimed to assess and compare the staffs' general health and its components among different workplaces in 2014. In a cross-sectional study, 2,276 employees working at 46 industries and organizations completed a standardized General Health Questionnaire (GHQ 28) and a demographic questionnaire. Data were analyzed using t-test, ANOVA, and Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient by IBM SPSS version 20. The mean age of the participants was 32.22 (±7.55) years. Seventy-nine point four percent of participants were married and the rest were single. Highest and lowest scores belonged to social dysfunction and depression, respectively. Also, total score of staffs' general health was 17.87 ± 10.93. The results showed that, in spite of the non-relationship between general health score difference among married and single personnel (p > 0.05), there was a significant difference between men and women and among organizations and industries with regards to general health score (p creativity in the workplaces are at risk. Altogether, the general health score in the studied population was suitable in its entirety.

  3. Older People's Perspectives on Health, Physical Activity and Nutritional Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Alizadeh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Approaches for investigating health-promoting lifestyle generally focus on physical activ­ity and regular diet. To explore the perspectives of Iranian elders regarding health, healthy eating and physical activity (PA this study was conducted in 2012. Methods: Participants in this qualitative study were selected through purposeful sampling. Ten focus groups were conducted with 60 older adults in 3 elderly centers in Tehran. A moderator’s guideline that consisted of general and specific questions was used. Focus groups were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysis was performed using conventional content analysis. Results: Participants explained their perspectives regarding health, healthy eating and PA in the follow­ing 5 categories: meaning of health was represented based on issues such as absence of pain and disor­der, complete body wellbeing, staying away from hazards, complete individual satisfaction, experiencing positive events, effective communication, faithfulness and trust in God. The healthy eating category was featured by adequate eating, age balanced diet, refraining from under or over nutrition and sensible consumption of fruits and vegetables. The PA was described - according to the level of performing outdoor activities or household tasks. Expressions about the perceived benefits and barriers of healthy eating and PA were aligned the two remaining categories. Conclusions: Participants have referred to the association between both PA and dietary practices and health. Understanding how older people define physical activity and nutritional behavior and recognition of the most important perceived benefits and barriers that might contribute to have a healthy eating or adequate PA profile could procure insight into the type of interventions that are required to promote healthy lifestyle among Iranian older adults.

  4. Old persons' contact with general practitioners in relation to health: a Danish population study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almind, G; Holstein, B E; Holst, E

    1991-01-01

    The study describes health, social situation, and contact with general practitioners in a random sample of non-institutionalized persons 70-95 years old in Denmark. There was a strong correlation between health and contact with general practitioners. A small group, 3% of the respondents, had...... no health problems, but had been in contact with a general practitioner within the previous month. This group was characterized by a strong social network and a high degree of life satisfaction. Another small group, including 3% of the respondents, had extensive health problems, but had nevertheless...

  5. The relationship between lifestyle, occupational health, and work-related factors with presenteeism amongst general practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pit, Sabrina Winona; Hansen, Vibeke

    2016-01-01

    There is evidence that general practitioners (GPs) are more likely to exhibit sickness presenteeism than other health professional groups or other high-income earners and less likely to take sick leave. This study aims to examine the relationship between lifestyle, occupational health, and work-related factors with presenteeism amongst GPs. A cross-sectional study was conducted amongst GPs in 2011. Logistic regression was used to determine crude and adjusted odds ratios between lifestyle, occupational health, and work-related factors with presenteeism. Whilst adjusting for age and gender, exercising 1 to 3 times a week (odds ratio [OR] = 4.88), not having a good work-life balance (OR = 4.2), work-related sleep problems (OR = 2.55), moderate psychological distress (OR = 3.94), and poor or fair health (OR = 6.22) were associated with presenteeism. Increased burnout and reduced job satisfaction and workability due to the physical demands of the job were also associated with presenteeism. In conclusion, presenteeism amongst GPs can be addressed by implementing interventions in relation to physical activity, stress reduction, and sleep hygiene and improving work-life balance and the physical demands of the job.

  6. Report of Activity, 1996 - 1997. Vol. 3. General activities - Technical Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pouthas, Joel; Hutin, Christiane; Niogret Mathias

    1999-01-01

    This is the third tome of the Report of Activity of IPN - Orsay on 1996-1997. It deals with general activities and technical research. Summary reports and short communications are grouped in the following sections: 1 - Accelerators with the sub-divisions 1.1 - R and D on superconducting RF cavities; 1.2 - SPIRAL Project; 1.3 - Contribution to the LHC Project; 1.4 - Tandem; 2 - Targets, Sources and Injectors; 3 - Detectors and related instrumentation; 4 - Electronics; 5 - Data processing; 6 - Radioprotection and medical applications

  7. General practitioners' views on leadership roles and challenges in primary health care: a qualitative study

    OpenAIRE

    Spehar, Ivan; Sjøvik, Hege; Karevold, Knut Ivar; Rosvold, Elin Olaug; Frich, Jan C

    2017-01-01

    Objective To explore general practitioners? (GPs) views on leadership roles and leadership challenges in general practice and primary health care. Design We conducted focus groups (FGs) with 17 GPs. Setting Norwegian primary health care. Subjects 17 GPs who attended a 5 d course on leadership in primary health care. Results Our study suggests that the GPs experience a need for more preparation and formal training for the leadership role, and that they experienced tensions between the clinical...

  8. An assessment of the quality of sleep among health professionals of the general hospital of Karpenissi

    OpenAIRE

    Ifanti Ε.; Zagkotsi Μ.; Gketsios Ι.; Armagos P.; Ifantis Α.; Charalampopoulou Ν.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Employees in cyclic or night shifts often complain of sleep disturbances. The latter are extremely frequent among health care workers. Aim: To evaluate sleep quality in health care workers of a Greek provincial general hospital Material and Methods: Seventy seven health professionals of General Hospital of Karpenisi took part in the study( doctors, nurses and paramedicals). 49 were women and 28 were men. Athens Insomnia Scale was used to evaluate sleep quality. The scale include...

  9. The association between job satisfaction and general health among employees of Golestan Hospital in Ahvaz, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khiavi, Farzad Faraji; Dashti, Rezvan; Zergani, Nadia

    2016-04-01

    Job satisfaction is one of the most challenging organizational concepts, and it is the basis of management policies to increase productivity and efficiency of the organization. The general health rate may affect job satisfaction in several ways. This study aimed to determine the association between job satisfaction and general health among employees of Golestan Hospital in Ahvaz, Iran. The study population of this cross-sectional research included 100 employees of Golestan Hospital in Ahvaz, Iran. The data collection instruments were the General Health Questionnaire (28-GHQ) and the Job Descriptive Index (JDI) questionnaire. The data were analyzed using Pearson's product-moment correlation coefficient, independent samples t-test, and ANOVA statistical tests in SPSS software. The mean general health was calculated as 26.19 ± 11.04, which indicated a positive psychiatric condition. Job satisfaction with a mean score of 89.67 ± 23.3 was deemed to be relatively dissatisfied. A medium negative and significant association was observed between job satisfaction and general health and its subscales (physical health, anxiety, social, and depression). General health subscales and job satisfaction are associated. Some actions must be planned to cope with the negative factors in general health in order to increase employees' satisfaction in university educational hospitals.

  10. Identifying Chronic Conditions and Other Selected Factors That Motivate Physical Activity in World Senior Games Participants and the General Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Ray M; Bowen, Elise; Hager, Ron L

    2015-01-01

    This study assesses chronic disease or disease-related conditions as motivators of physical activity. It also compares these and other motivators of physical activity between Senior Games participants (SGPs) and the general population. Analyses are based on an anonymous cross-sectional survey conducted among 666 SGPs and 177 individuals from the general population. SGPs experienced better general health and less obesity, diabetes, and depression, as well as an average of 14.7 more years of regular physical activity ( p mental health in the present, to prevent physical and cognitive decline in the future, and to increase social opportunities. The Senior Games reinforces extrinsic motivators to positively influence intrinsic promoters such as skill development, satisfaction of learning, enjoyment, and fun.

  11. Obesity, periodontal and general health: Relationship and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parveen Dahiya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a multifaceted subject. It has increased at an alarming rate in recent years. Being overweight increases the likelihood of a patient having associated health and social problems which may affect dental services and dental management. A review of the literature on obesity and periodontal disease suggested that they both confound each other and obesity itself has been recognized as a major risk factor for periodontal disease. It has been found that adverse effects of obesity on the periodontium may be mediated through pro-inflammatory cytokines and various other bioactive substances. This article tries to focus on the possible role of obesity and obesity-related diseases like diabetes and coronary heart diseases (CHD, as a potential contributor to periodontal disease and vice versa. The meanings of these associations can be useful for various diagnostic and treatment planning purposes.

  12. Self-reported oral and general health in relation to socioeconomic position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakeberg, Magnus; Wide Boman, Ulla

    2017-07-26

    During the past two decades, several scientific publications from different countries have shown how oral health in the population varies with social determinants. The aim of the present study was to explore the relationship between self-reported oral and general health in relation to different measures of socioeconomic position. Data were collected from a randomly selected sample of the adult population in Sweden (n = 3500, mean age 53.4 years, 53.1% women). The response rate was 49.7%. Subjects were interviewed by telephone, using a questionnaire including items on self-reported oral and general health, socioeconomic position and lifestyle. A significant gradient was found for both oral and general health: the lower the socioeconomic position, the poorer the health. Socioeconomic position and, above all, economic measures were strongly associated with general health (OR 3.95) and with oral health (OR 1.76) if having an income below SEK 200,000 per year. Similar results were found in multivariate analyses controlling for age, gender and lifestyle variables. For adults, there are clear socioeconomic gradients in self-reported oral and general health, irrespective of different socioeconomic measures. Action is needed to ensure greater equity of oral and general health.

  13. [Rethinking how health is promoted in the Colombian general health-related social security system (Sistema General de Seguridad Social en Salud)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslava-Castañeda, Juan C

    2006-12-01

    This article takes stock of how promoting health (PH) (promoción de la salud - PS) has been understood within an international setting and gives three meanings for promotion: as general policy orientation, as a set of actions and as a special dimension of sanitary work. Interest expressed in giving it a specific basis distinguishing it from prevention, transcending educational work, has emerged from the subtle differences established from such different ways of coming to terms with PH. After recognising the challenge posed by PH in the field of health, the text succinctly describes how discourse regarding PH has been introduced in Colombia and discusses how an attempt has been made to be more precise regarding its place in the general health-related social security system. Efforts currently being made in Colombia regarding making PH become a reality within the Colombian health system are then mentioned.

  14. Associations of psychosocial working conditions with self-rated general health and mental health among municipal employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laaksonen, Mikko; Rahkonen, Ossi; Martikainen, Pekka; Lahelma, Eero

    2006-03-01

    To examine associations of job demands and job control, procedural and relational organizational fairness, and physical work load with self-rated general health and mental health. In addition, the effect of occupational class on these associations is examined. The data were derived from the Helsinki Health Study baseline surveys in 2001-2002. Respondents to cross-sectional postal surveys were middle-aged employees of the City of Helsinki (n=5.829, response rate 67%). Associations of job demands and job control, organizational fairness and physical work load with less than good self-rated health and poor GHQ-12 mental health were examined. Those with the poorest working conditions two to three times more, often reported poor general and mental health than those with the best working conditions. Adjustment for occupational class weakened the associations of low job control and physical work load with general health by one fifth, but even more strengthened that of high job demands. Adjustment for occupational class clearly strengthened the associations of job control and physical work load with mental health in men. Mutual adjustment for all working conditions notably weakened their associations with both health measures, except those of job control in men. All working conditions except relational organizational fairness remained independently associated with general and mental health. All studied working conditions were strongly associated with both general and mental health but the associations weakened after mutual adjustments. Of the two organizational fairness measures, procedural fairness remained independently associated with both health outcomes. Adjustment for occupational class had essentially different effects on the associations of different working conditions and different health outcomes.

  15. Demographic, dietary and physical activity predictors of general and abdominal obesity among university students: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Mogre, Victor; Nyaba, Rauf; Aleyira, Samuel; Sam, Napoleon B.

    2015-01-01

    Background Obesity has become a disease of global public health concern in both developing and developed countries. We investigated the influence of socio-demographic, dietary habits and physical activity levels on general and abdominal obesity among a sample of university students in Ghana. Methods This cross-sectional study was carried out among a sample of 552 students attending the University for Development Studies, School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Tamale, Ghana. Demographic chara...

  16. Use of marketing to disseminate brief alcohol intervention to general practitioners: promoting health care interventions to health promoters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lock, C A; Kaner, E F

    2000-11-01

    Health research findings are of little benefit to patients or society if they do not reach the audience they are intended to influence. Thus, a dissemination strategy is needed to target new findings at its user group and encourage a process of consideration and adoption or rejection. Social marketing techniques can be utilized to aid successful dissemination of research findings and to speed the process by which new information reaches practice. Principles of social marketing include manipulating the marketing mix of product, price, place and promotion. This paper describes the development of a marketing approach and the outcomes from a trial evaluating the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of manipulating promotional strategies to disseminate actively a screening and brief alcohol intervention (SBI) programme to general practitioners (GPs). The promotional strategies consisted of postal marketing, telemarketing and personal marketing. The study took place in general practices across the Northern and Yorkshire Regional Health Authority. Of the 614 GPs eligible for the study, one per practice, 321 (52%) took the programme and of those available to use it for 3 months (315), 128 (41%) actively considered doing so, 73 (23%) actually went on to use it. Analysis of the specific impact of the three different promotional strategies revealed that while personal marketing was the most effective overall dissemination and implementation strategy, telemarketing was more cost-effective. The findings of our work show that using a marketing approach is promising for conveying research findings to GPs and in particular a focus on promotional strategies can facilitate high levels of uptake and consideration in this target group.

  17. General Health Status Among Students of Islamic Azad University: A Cross-Sectional Study from Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Taghi Savadpour

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims of the Study: Health is one of the basic needs of human. There is a close relationship between physical and mental health. Human psyche is directly affected by his physical condition, and mutually his body and actions of human systems are influenced by psychological and mental space. Students because of their particular circumstances are vulnerable to mental health problems. The purpose of this study is to determine the general health status of students of Islamic Azad University. Materials & Methods: This descriptive analytical research was conducted on 478 students of Khalkhal Islamic Azad University. Simple random sampling method was used. General health questionnaire (GHQ-28 was used as research tool. Following data collection, data were analyzed using SPSS Software 13. Results: The results show that mean score of general health of the subjects is higher than cutoff. In this study, 21.3 percent of students were suspected of impaired health. Also, status of general health of female students was worse than male students and significant statistical relationship was observed between general health status and all its sub-scales except depression and gender (P < 0.5. Conclusions: G eneral health of students especially female students is impaired which may considerably affect their learning and performance and academic achievement.

  18. Islam, mental health and law: a general overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzeferakos, Georgios A; Douzenis, Athanasios I

    2017-01-01

    Islam is the dominant religion in about 56 countries around the globe, and has more than 1.2 billion followers. Islam represents a holistic way of life, and according to a large proportion of its followers, the Islamic law or Shari'ah should prevail over secular law and should be implemented as state law. The etymological root of the word Shari'ah can be traced back to the harsh life in the desert and it means "pathway to be followed" or "path to the water hole," since the water was the basic element and preserver of life. At the dawn of its historical course and at its moral and ethical core, Islam introduced many interesting and innovative beliefs concerning the mentally ill. Islam underlines the moral necessity for the protection and care of the vulnerable individuals, as dictated by God himself. On the other hand, beliefs about "possession" and stigmatization influence the peoples' attitude against and apprehension of mental disorders. This strange admixture is reflected upon the status of the mental health services and corresponding legislation found in the different countries of the Islamic world.

  19. Lifestyle, health and the ethics of good living. Health behaviour counselling in general practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walseth, Liv Tveit; Abildsnes, Eirik; Schei, Edvin

    2011-05-01

    To present theory that illustrates the relevance of ethics for lifestyle counselling in patient-centred general practice, and to illustrate the theory by a qualitative study exploring how doctors may obstruct or enhance the possibilities for ethical dialogue. The theoretical part is based on theory of common morality and Habermas' communication theory. The empirical study consists of 12 consultations concerning lifestyle changes, followed by interviews of doctors and patients. Identification of two contrasting consultations holding much and little ethical dialogue, "translation" into speech acts, and interpretation of speech acts and interviews guided by theory. General advice obstructed possibilities for ethical clarification and patient-centredness. Ethical clarification was asked for, and was enhanced by the doctor using communication techniques such as interpretation, summarization, and exploration of the objective, subjective and social dimensions of the patients' lifeworlds. However, to produce concrete good decisions an additional reflection over possibilities and obstacles in the patient's lifeworld is necessary. Consultations concerning lifestyle changes hold opportunities for ethical clarification and reflection which may create decisions rooted in the patient's everyday life. The study suggests that GPs should encourage active reflection and deliberation on values and norms in consultations concerning lifestyle changes. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Relationship between Abuse Experience and General Health among Older Adults in Yazd City- Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Rezaeipandari

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Elder abuse may increase the vulnerability of ageing people to disease and decrease their general health status, so addressing the issue is essential for promoting elderly quality of life. The study aimed to examine the relation between abuse experience and general health among elderly people in Yazd city- Iran. Methods: The cross-sectional study carried out on 250 community-dwelling seniors in the city of Yazd who were selected with cluster random sampling. Data collection tools included, Iranian Domestic Elder Abuse Questionnaire and Persian version of the General Health Questionnaire 28. Data were analyzed using Spearman correlation coefficient and linear regression tests. Results: Mean scores of abuse experience and general health among the elders were 11.84±12.70 (range 0-100 and 21.82±10.84 (range 0-84 respectively. General health status was more undesirable among elders who had experienced abuse than those who had not. Elder abuse subscales accounted for 17.2 % changes in general health, which had only care neglect and physical abuse subscales with significant prediction effect. Conclusion: Abuse experience has negative effects on older adults' general health. care neglect and physical abuse play a more important role.

  1. Assessment of health seeking behaviour and self-medication among general public in the state of Penang, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawood, Omar T; Hassali, Mohamed A; Saleem, Fahad; Ibrahim, Inas R; Abdulameer, Aseel H; Jasim, Hanan H

    2017-01-01

    Patients' behaviour in making decisions regarding health is currently changing from passive recipients to recipients who play an active role in taking action to control their health and taking self-care initiatives. This study was conducted to evaluate the health seeking behaviour among general public and its associated factors; and to evaluate the medicine taking behaviour in public and the practice of self-medication. A cross-sectional study was undertaken among general public in Penang Island, Malaysia. A convenience sampling of 888 participants successfully completed the survey. Self-administered questionnaires were distributed among the residents in the north east of Penang Island. This study showed that most of the participants chose to consult the physician when they experience any health problems (66.7%), followed by self-medication (20.9%). The first action for consulting the physician was significantly predicted by Malay respondents and retired people (OR 3.05, 95% CI 1.04-8.89). The prevalence of self-medication was 54%. The practice of self-medication was significantly associated with Chinese participants, educated people, people with alone living status and people with more self-care orientation. Increasing the awareness of the public about the rational choice of getting medical assistance is a very important issue to control their health. A health education program is needed to increase the awareness about the use of medicines among the general public and to enable them to make the right decisions relating to health problems.

  2. Socioeconomic gradients in general and oral health of primary school children in Shiraz, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Golkari, Ali; Sabokseir, Aira; Sheiham, Aubrey; Watt, Richard G.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Health status is largely determined by socio-economic status. The general health of individuals at higher social hierarchy is better than people in lower levels. Likewise, people with higher socio-economic status have better oral health than lower socio-economic groups. There has not been much work regarding the influence of socio-economic status on the health conditions of children in developing countries, particularly in Iran. The aim of this study was to compare the oral and ge...

  3. Active Aging: Hiking, Health, and Healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodney Steadman

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the illness and recovery experiences and perceptions of physically active middle aged and older adults participating in hiking groups. These perceptions are examined within the local milieu of their group and the larger social context of biomedical norms of healthy older bodies. Discourse on the body was viewed through the lens of medical anthropology and data were analyzed using embodied ethnography. There were 15 participants (53 percent female and all were of European descent. The hiking group provided participants with meaningful spaces and places where they could explore all aspects of their health with the support of others who had undergone similar life experiences. The physical activities they engaged in as a group were therapeutic and transformational for several members. Their group activities created a deep sense of community and aided in their healing processes. Holistic health programs such as hiking groups could provide an alternative or ancillary treatment options. However, cost, location, opportunities for socialization, and the physical abilities of potential participants should be seriously considered before adopting a hiking program for this demographic.

  4. Prayer Attendance and General Health in the Iranian Adult Urban Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotodehasl, Nemat; Ghorbani, Raheb; Mahdavi-Nejad, Gholamhosein; Haji-Aghajani, Saeed; Mehdizadeh, Jamileh

    2016-02-01

    This study was conducted to determine the relationship between prayer attendance and general health among adult urban population in Iran. A total of 470 males older than 17 years, chosen by multistage sampling, were investigated. The results showed that people who did not perform prayers compared to those who said prayers on time and performed Nafilahs (supererogatory prayers) were 2.87 (OR 2.87, 95 % CI 1.23-6.70, p = 0.015) times at risk of general health problems. In conclusion, the findings show that increasing the degree of people's belief in prayer can lead to improve general health.

  5. Identifying Chronic Conditions and Other Selected Factors That Motivate Physical Activity in World Senior Games Participants and the General Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ray M. Merrill PhD, MPH

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study assesses chronic disease or disease-related conditions as motivators of physical activity. It also compares these and other motivators of physical activity between Senior Games participants (SGPs and the general population. Analyses are based on an anonymous cross-sectional survey conducted among 666 SGPs and 177 individuals from the general population. SGPs experienced better general health and less obesity, diabetes, and depression, as well as an average of 14.7 more years of regular physical activity ( p < .0001, 130.8 more minutes per week of aerobic activity ( p < .0001, and 42.7 more minutes of anaerobic activity per week ( p < .0001. Among those previously told they had diabetes, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, or depression, 74.2%, 72.2%, 70.4%, and 60.6%, respectively, said that it motivated them to increase their physical activity. Percentages were similar between SGPs and the general population. SGPs were more likely motivated to be physically active to improve physical and mental health in the present, to prevent physical and cognitive decline in the future, and to increase social opportunities. The Senior Games reinforces extrinsic motivators to positively influence intrinsic promoters such as skill development, satisfaction of learning, enjoyment, and fun.

  6. NHS health checks through general practice: randomised trial of population cardiovascular risk reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cochrane Thomas

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The global burden of the major vascular diseases is projected to rise and to remain the dominant non-communicable disease cluster well into the twenty first century. The Department of Health in England has developed the NHS Health Check service as a policy initiative to reduce population vascular disease risk. The aims of this study were to monitor population changes in cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factors over the first year of the new service and to assess the value of tailored lifestyle support, including motivational interview with ongoing support and referral to other services. Methods Randomised trial comparing NHS Health Check service only with NHS Health Check service plus additional lifestyle support in Stoke on Trent, England. Thirty eight general practices and 601 (365 usual care, 236 additional lifestyle support patients were recruited and randomised independently between September 2009 and February 2010. Changes in population CVD risk between baseline and one year follow-up were compared, using intention-to-treat analysis. The primary outcome was the Framingham 10 year CVD risk score. Secondary outcomes included individual modifiable risk measures and prevalence of individual risk categories. Additional lifestyle support included referral to a lifestyle coach and free sessions as needed for: weight management, physical activity, cook and eat and positive thinking. Results Average population CVD risk decreased from 32.9% to 29.4% (p Conclusions The NHS Health Check service in Stoke on Trent resulted in significant reduction in estimated population CVD risk. There was no evidence of further benefit of the additional lifestyle support services in terms of absolute CVD risk reduction.

  7. General discussion about enzymes activities of radiation injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vucicevic, M.; Sukalo, I.

    1989-01-01

    Researching reliable and practical indicators of radiation injury, however, is very interesting and considerable department of scientific studies, practical and theoretical. Enzymes activities are among biochemical indicators which are changed after radiation injury. Activity of these specific proteins is important in regulation of every biochemical reaction in existing beings. Biological macromolecules can be damaged by radiation or the cell permeability can be changed. All of these influence directly on enzymes activities. In this paper we present the review of the all important enzymes, indicators of the radiation injury, which variances on reference to normal values are significant of the functional and the structural changes of essential organs (author)

  8. General discussion about enzymes activities of radiation injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vucicevic, M; Sukalo, I [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Vinca, Beograd (Serbia and Montenegro)

    1989-07-01

    Researching reliable and practical indicators of radiation injury, however, is very interesting and considerable department of scientific studies, practical and theoretical. Enzymes activities are among biochemical indicators which are changed after radiation injury. Activity of these specific proteins is important in regulation of every biochemical reaction in existing beings. Biological macromolecules can be damaged by radiation or the cell permeability can be changed. All of these influence directly on enzymes activities. In this paper we present the review of the all important enzymes, indicators of the radiation injury, which variances on reference to normal values are significant of the functional and the structural changes of essential organs (author)

  9. Sleep and Mental Health in Undergraduate Students with Generally Healthy Sleep Habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milojevich, Helen M; Lukowski, Angela F

    2016-01-01

    Whereas previous research has indicated that sleep problems tend to co-occur with increased mental health issues in university students, relatively little is known about relations between sleep quality and mental health in university students with generally healthy sleep habits. Understanding relations between sleep and mental health in individuals with generally healthy sleep habits is important because (a) student sleep habits tend to worsen over time and (b) even time-limited experience of sleep problems may have significant implications for the onset of mental health problems. In the present research, 69 university students with generally healthy sleep habits completed questionnaires about sleep quality and mental health. Although participants did not report clinically concerning mental health issues as a group, global sleep quality was associated with mental health. Regression analyses revealed that nighttime sleep duration and the frequency of nighttime sleep disruptions were differentially related to total problems and clinically-relevant symptoms of psychological distress. These results indicate that understanding relations between sleep and mental health in university students with generally healthy sleep habits is important not only due to the large number of undergraduates who experience sleep problems and mental health issues over time but also due to the potential to intervene and improve mental health outcomes before they become clinically concerning.

  10. Transgender Noninclusive Healthcare and Delaying Care Because of Fear: Connections to General Health and Mental Health Among Transgender Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seelman, Kristie L.; Colón-Diaz, Matthew J.P.; LeCroix, Rebecca H.; Xavier-Brier, Marik; Kattari, Leonardo

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: There are many barriers to reliable healthcare for transgender people that often contribute to delaying or avoiding needed medical care. Yet, few studies have examined whether noninclusive healthcare and delaying needed medical care because of fear of discrimination are associated with poorer health among transgender adults. This study aims to address these gaps in the knowledge base. Methods: This study analyzed secondary data from a statewide survey of 417 transgender adults in the Rocky Mountain region of the United States. Independent variables included noninclusive healthcare from a primary care provider (PCP) and delay of needed medical care because of fear of discrimination. Dependent variables assessed general health and mental health. Results: Transgender individuals who delayed healthcare because of fear of discrimination had worse general health in the past month than those who did not delay or delayed care for other reasons (B=−0.26, pdiscrimination, having a noninclusive PCP was not significantly associated with either general health or mental health. Conclusion: This study suggests a significant association between delaying healthcare because of fear of discrimination and worse general and mental health among transgender adults. These relationships remain significant even when controlling for provider noninclusivity, suggesting that fear of discrimination and consequent delay of care are at the forefront of health challenges for transgender adults. The lack of statistical significance for noninclusive healthcare may be related to the measurement approach used; future research is needed to develop an improved tool for measuring transgender noninclusive healthcare. PMID:28861545

  11. The relationship between lifestyle and self-reported health in a general population: the Inter99 study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pisinger, Charlotta Holm; Toft, Ulla; Aadahl, Mette

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this paper is to describe the relationship between smoking status, dietary habits, physical activity and alcohol intake, and mental and physical self-reported health in a general population. MEASURES: A large population-based study Inter99, Copenhagen, Denmark, 1999......-2006. Self-reported health-related quality of life was measured by Short Form 12 (SF-12). Mental and physical health component scores were computed. RESULTS: At baseline, SF-12 was completed by 6305 (92.3%) participants in the intervention groups, and 3017 (72.4%) persons in the control group. In cross......-sectional analyses, persons with an unhealthy lifestyle reported significantly worse physical and mental health than persons with a healthier lifestyle. In longitudinal data, using adjusted multivariate analyses (N=3,084), we found an association between increased physical activity at five-year follow...

  12. General overview of the ASSET activities in Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruday, C.G.

    1996-01-01

    Brief retrospective summary of the ASSET experience in Ukraine since first mission held in June 1992. Analysis of the positive influence of the ASSET approaches to the general safety culture status. Specific problems of the current situation. Difference in attitude to ASSET missions of plant managers and plant safety experts reveals global safety culture drawbacks on the organizational level. Analysis of the direct and root causes of the situation. Lessons learned. Ideas for corrective measures to be implemented. (author). 7 tabs

  13. General overview of the ASSET activities in Ukraine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruday, C G [Ministry for Environmental Protection and Nuclear Safety of Ukraine, Kiev (Ukraine)

    1997-12-31

    Brief retrospective summary of the ASSET experience in Ukraine since first mission held in June 1992. Analysis of the positive influence of the ASSET approaches to the general safety culture status. Specific problems of the current situation. Difference in attitude to ASSET missions of plant managers and plant safety experts reveals global safety culture drawbacks on the organizational level. Analysis of the direct and root causes of the situation. Lessons learned. Ideas for corrective measures to be implemented. (author). 7 tabs.

  14. Cultural activity participation and associations with self-perceived health, life-satisfaction and mental health: the Young HUNT Study, Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Elisabeth; Sund, Erik Reidar; Knudtsen, Margunn Skjei; Krokstad, Steinar; Holmen, Turid Lingaas

    2015-01-01

    Background: Leisure time activities and culture participation may have health effects and be important in pulic health promotion. More knowledge on how cultural activity participation may influence self-perceived health, life-satisfaction, self-esteem and mental health is needed. Methods: This article use data from the general population-based Norwegian HUNT Study, using the cross-sectional Young-HUNT3 (2006–08) Survey including 8200 adolescents. Data on cultural activity particip...

  15. Relationship between general health of older health service users and their self-esteem in Isfahan in 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Razieh Molavi; Mousa Alavi; Mahrokh Keshvari

    2015-01-01

    Background: Self-esteem is known to be one of the most important markers of successful aging. Older people's self-esteem is influenced by several factors that particularly may be health related. Therefore, this study aimed to explore some important general health-related predictors of the older people's self-esteem. Materials and Methods: In this study, 200 people, aged 65 years and older, who referred to health care centers were selected through stratified random sampling method. Data we...

  16. Physical activity coaching by Australian Exercise Physiologists is cost effective for patients referred from general practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewald, Ben; Stacey, Fiona; Johnson, Natalie; Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Holliday, Elizabeth; Brown, Wendy; James, Erica L

    2018-02-01

    Interventions to promote physical activity for sedentary patients seen in general practice may be a way to reduce the burden of chronic disease. Coaching by an exercise physiologist is publicly funded in Australia, but cost effectiveness has not been documented. In a three-arm randomised controlled trial, face-to-face coaching and telephone coaching over 12 weeks were compared with a control group using the outcome of step count for one week at baseline, three months and twelve months. Program costs and time-based costs were considered. Quality of life was measured as a secondary outcome. At 12 months, the intervention groups were more active than controls by 1,002 steps per day (95%CI 244, 1,759). This was achieved at a cost of AUD$245 per person. There was no change in reported quality of life or utility values. Coaching achieved a modest increase in activity equivalent to 10 minutes walking per day, at a cost of AUD$245 per person. Face-to-face and telephone counselling were both effective. Implication for public health: Persistence of increases nine months after the end of coaching suggests it creates long-term change and is a good value health intervention. © 2017 The Authors.

  17. Work-Family Conflict and Oral and General Health-Related Quality of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Kiran A; Spencer, A John; Roberts-Thomson, Kaye F; Brennan, David S

    2015-08-01

    The characteristics of the work environment and relationships with family roles may impact on health and be of public health significance. The aims were to investigate the cross-sectional association of work-family conflict with oral- and general health-related quality of life, and well-being. A random sample of 45-54-year olds from Adelaide, South Australia, was surveyed by self-complete questionnaire in 2004-2005 (n = 879, response rate = 43.8%). Health-related quality of life was measured with the OHIP-14 and EQ-VAS instruments, and well-being by the Satisfaction With Life Scale. In adjusted analyses controlling for sex, income, education, tooth brushing frequency and social support, the higher Family Interferes with Work (FIW) tertile and the middle tertile of Work Interferes with Family (WIF) were associated with more oral health-related impacts as measured by OHIP-14 in relation to problems with teeth, mouth or dentures (Beta = 1.64, P Work-family conflict was associated with more oral health impacts and lower general health and well-being among employed middle-aged adults. This supports the view of work-family conflict as a psychosocial risk factor for health outcomes spanning function, health perceptions and well-being, and encompassing both oral health and general health.

  18. Integrative review of research on general health status and prevalence of common physical health conditions of women after childbirth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ching-Yu; Li, Qing

    2008-01-01

    Postpartum mothers experience certain physical health conditions that may affect their quality of life, future health, and health of their children. Yet, the physical health of postpartum mothers is relatively neglected in both research and practice. The purpose of this review is to describe the general health status and prevalence of common physical health conditions of postpartum mothers. The review followed standard procedures for integrative literature reviews. Twenty-two articles were reviewed from searches in scientific databases, reference lists, and an up-to-date survey. Three tables were designed to answer review questions. In general, postpartum mothers self-rate their health as good. They experience certain physical conditions such as fatigue/physical exhaustion, sleep-related problems, pain, sex-related concerns, hemorrhoids/constipation, and breast problems. Despite a limited number of studies, the findings provide a glimpse of the presence of a number of physical health conditions experienced by women in the 2 years postpartum. In the articles reviewed, physical health conditions and postpartum period were poorly defined, no standard scales existed, and the administration of surveys varied widely in time. Those disparities prevented systematic comparisons of results and made it difficult to gain a coherent understanding of the physical health conditions of postpartum mothers. More longitudinal research is needed that focuses on the etiology, predictors, and management of the health conditions most prevalent among postpartum mothers. Instruments are needed that target a broader range of physical conditions in respect to type and severity.

  19. Operationalization of biopsychosocial case complexity in general health care : the INTERMED project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jonge, P; Huyse, FJ; Slaets, JPJ; Sollner, W; Stiefel, FC

    Objective: Lack of operationalization of the biopsychosocial model hinders its effective application to the increasingly prevalent problems of comorbidities in clinical presentations. Here, we describe the INTERMED, an instrument to assess biopsychosocial case complexity in general health care, and

  20. My Family Health Portrait, A tool from the Surgeon General | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. My Family Health Portrait, A tool from the Surgeon General ... use Why is it important to know my family medical history? Your family medical history is a ...

  1. Risk assessment - a research program aimed at health risks from air pollution in the general environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindahl-Kiessling, K.; Ahlborg, U.; Bylin, G.; Ehrenberg, L.; Hemminki, K.; Lindell, B.; Nilsson, Robert; Bostroem, C.E.; Swarn, U.

    1991-01-01

    The paper presents a new research program for assessment of health risks caused by air pollutants. It is important to develop general methods for quantitative risk assessments and to improve the scientific base materials. (KAE)

  2. Work Related Stress, Burnout, Job Satisfaction and General Health of Nurses

    OpenAIRE

    Khamisa, Natasha; Oldenburg, Brian; Peltzer, Karl; Ilic, Dragan

    2015-01-01

    Gaps in research focusing on work related stress, burnout, job satisfaction and general health of nurses is evident within developing contexts like South Africa. This study identified the relationship between work related stress, burnout, job satisfaction and general health of nurses. A total of 1200 nurses from four hospitals were invited to participate in this cross-sectional study (75% response rate). Participants completed five questionnaires and multiple linear regression analysis was us...

  3. General practice, primary care, and health service psychology: concepts, competencies, and the Combined-Integrated model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, Timothy J; Isley, Elayne; Link, Nancy; Shealy, Craig N; Winfrey, LaPearl Logan

    2004-10-01

    The profession of psychology is being impacted profoundly by broader changes within the national system of health care, as mental and behavioral health services are being recognized as essential components of a comprehensive, preventive, and cost-efficient primary care system. To fully define and embrace this role, the discipline of professional psychology must develop a shared disciplinary identity of health service psychology and a generalized competency-based model for doctoral education and training. This very framework has been adopted by Combined-Integrated (C-I) doctoral programs in professional psychology, which train across the practice areas (clinical, counseling, and school psychology) to provide a general and integrative foundation for their students. Because C-I programs produce general practitioners who are competent to function within a variety of health service settings, this innovative training approach has great potential to educate and train psychologists for a changing health care marketplace. Copyright 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. 20 CFR 404.1573 - General information about work activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... may show that you are able to do substantial gainful activity. (e) Time spent in work. While the time... gainful regardless of whether you spend more time or less time at the job than workers who are not... opportunity to work despite your impairment because of family relationship, past association with your...

  5. Factors Affecting The Adoption Of Mhealth In Maternal Health Care In Nakuru Provincial General Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Munyua

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Access to timely and quality maternal health care remains to be a major development challenge in many developing economies particularly in Kenya. The countrys system of providing maternal health care also continue to be anchored on conventional methods of physical presence of the patient and the doctor in a hospital setup. The countrys ICT and health policies also place very little emphasis on the use of these platforms. This study therefore sought to establish the factors affecting the adoption of mHealth by focusing on maternal health in Nakuru Provincial General Hospital. Objectives of the study were to determine the extent to knowledge and awareness affects the adoption of mHealth in maternal health care at Nakuru PGH to identify the government policies affecting the adoption of mHealth in maternal health care at Nakuru PGH to assess how access to technology affects the adoption of mHealth in maternal healthcare to establish the effects of ICT infrastructure on the adoption of mHealth in maternal health care and to identify the cost aspects affecting the adoption of mHealth in maternal health care at Nakuru Provincial General Hospital. It is envisaged that the study could provide useful information on the adoption of mHealth in managing maternal health care in Nakuru Provincial General Hospital. Descriptive survey research design will be used where all the medical staff and patients of Nakuru Provincial General Hospital was surveyed. The study population therefore was made up of 24 medical staff and 3460 mothers visiting the antenatal clinic selected using clustered random sampling technique. The main instrument for primary data collection was the questionnaire. Data analysis was then done using both descriptive and inferential statistics. Descriptive statistics to be used include frequency counts percentages and measures of central tendency. Inferential statistics on the other hand include t-test analysis and spearman correlation

  6. 'Just a lovely luxury?' What can public health attachments add to postgraduate general practice training?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wills, Jane; Reynolds, Joanna; Swanwick, Tim

    2009-07-01

    Changing trends in the role of general practice and general practitioners (GPs), including a focus on commissioning and practice population health needs, were reflected in the specialty training curriculum published by the Royal College of General Practitioners (RCGP) in 2007. In response to these developments the London Deanery established training attachments to the public health departments of ten primary care trusts (PCTs) across London, incorporated into three-year GP specialty training programmes. These attachments were evaluated in 2008 by London South Bank University. The aims of the evaluation were to assess the attachment's suitability for addressing areas of the RCGP curriculum; and to explore perceptions of its value for GP training and for future practice. Semi-structured interviews were carried out with two cohorts of trainees towards the end of their public health attachment, and with public health trainers and GP training programme directors from participating schemes. The training attachments were generally considered to offer good opportunities for trainees to fulfil both public health competences and to address relevant areas of the RCGP curriculum, through a variety of types of work. However, this did not necessarily influence either the level of importance attributed to public health in comparison with other clinical training posts or the perceived impact of the attachment on the trainees' future practice as GPs. The reported learning outcomes and value of the attachment for the public health trainers and programme directors reflected the changing and perceived future demands on GPs, but these views were not generally shared by trainees. Public health attachments may offer general practice training programme opportunities for the development of skills and knowledge that are relevant to the changing nature of general practice. Yet, there still appears to be a barrier for trainee GPs in acknowledging their role in non-clinical, population

  7. Relationship between multimorbidity and physical activity: Secondary analysis from the Quebec health survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soubhi Hassan

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Abundant literature supports the beneficial effects of physical activity for improving health of people with chronic diseases. The relationship between multimorbidity and physical activity levels, however, has been little evaluated. The purpose of the current exploratory study was to examine the relationship between a multimorbidity and physical activity levels, and b long-term limitations on activity, self-rated general health, psychological distress, and physical activity levels for each sex in adults, after age, education, income, and employment factors were controlled for. Methods Data from the Quebec Health Survey 1998 were used. The sample included 16,782 adults 18–69 yr of age. Independent variables were multimorbidity, long-term limitations on activity, self-rated general health, and psychological distress. The dependent variable was physical activity levels. Links between the independent and dependent variables were assessed separately for men and women with multinomial regressions while accounting for the survey sampling design and household clustering. Results About 46% of the participants were men. Multimorbidity was not associated with physical activity levels for either men or women. Men and women with long-term limitations on activity and with poor-to-average self-rated general health were less likely to be physically active. No relationship between psychological distress and physical activity was found for men. Women with high levels of psychological distress were less likely to be physically active. Conclusion Multimorbidity was not associated with physical activity levels in either sex, when age, education, income, and employment factors were controlled for. Long-term limitations on activity and poor-to-average self-rated general health seem related to a reduction in physical activity levels for both sexes, whereas psychological distress was associated with a reduction in physical activity levels only

  8. Psychological distress, optimism and general health in breast cancer survivors: a data linkage study using the Scottish Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Janni; Atherton, Iain; Kyle, Richard G; Hubbard, Gill; McLaughlin, Deirdre

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the association between optimism and psychological distress in women with breast cancer after taking into account their self-rated general health. Data were aggregated from the Scottish Health Survey (2008 to 2011) to derive a nationally representative sample of 12,255 women (11,960 cancer-free controls, and 295 breast cancer cases identified from linked cancer registry data). The explanatory variables were optimism and general health, and the outcome variable was symptoms of psychological distress. Logistic regression analyses were conducted, with optimism entered in step 1 and general health entered in step 2. In an unadjusted model, higher levels of optimism were associated with lower odds of psychological distress in both the control group (OR = 0. 57, 95 % CI = 0.51-0.60) and breast cancer group (OR = 0. 64, 95 % CI = 0.47-0.88). However, in a model adjusting for general health, optimism was associated with lower odds of psychological distress only in the control group (OR = 0.50, 95 % CI = 0.44-0.57), but not significantly in the breast cancer group (OR = 1.15, 95 % CI = 0.32-4.11). In the breast cancer group, poor general health was a stronger associate of psychological distress (OR = 4. 98, 95 % CI = 1.32-18.75). Results were consistent after adjusting for age, years since breast cancer diagnosis, survey year, socioeconomic status, education, marital status, body mass index, smoking status, and alcohol consumption. This research confirms the value of multicomponent supportive care interventions for women with breast cancer. Specifically, it suggests that following breast cancer diagnosis, health care professionals need to provide advice and signpost to services that assist women to maintain or improve both their psychological and general health.

  9. Recommended level of physical activity and health-related quality of life among Japanese adults

    OpenAIRE

    Nakamura Yoshio; Oka Koichiro; Shibata Ai; Muraoka Isao

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background The benefits of a recommended level of physical activity on physiological health indicators such as morbidity and mortality are well-accepted, but less research has addressed whether or not the association between the recommended level of physical activity and a health-related quality of life (HRQOL) exists in the Japanese population. Thus, the present study examined whether the recommended physical activity would be associated with HRQOL in the general Japanese middle-age...

  10. Accounting for medical variation: the case of prescribing activity in a New Zealand general practice sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, P B; Yee, R L; Millar, J

    1994-08-01

    Medical practice variation is extensive and well documented, particularly for surgical interventions, and raises important questions for health policy. To date, however, little work has been carried out on interpractitioner variation in prescribing activity in the primary care setting. An analytical model of medical variation is derived from the literature and relevant indicators are identified from a study of New Zealand general practice. The data are based on nearly 9,500 completed patient encounter records drawn from over a hundred practitioners in the Waikato region of the North Island, New Zealand. The data set represents a 1% sample of all weekday general practice office encounters in the Hamilton Health District recorded over a 12-month period. Overall levels of prescribing, and the distribution of drug mentions across diagnostic groupings, are broadly comparable to results drawn from international benchmark data. A multivariate analysis is carried out on seven measures of activity in the areas of prescribing volume, script detail, and therapeutic choice. The analysis indicates that patient, practitioner and practice attributes exert little systematic influence on the prescribing task. The principal influences are diagnosis, followed by practitioner identity. The pattern of findings suggests also that the prescribing task cannot be viewed as an undifferentiated activity. It is more usefully considered as a process of decision-making in which 'core' judgements--such as the decision to prescribe and the choice of drug--are highly predictable and strongly influenced by diagnosis, while 'peripheral' features of the task--such as choosing a combination drug or prescribing generically--are less determinate and more subject to the exercise of clinical discretion.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. The influence of resilience on mental health: The role of general well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Tingting; Ding, Xinna; Chai, Jingxin; Zhang, Zhao; Zhang, Han; Kong, Yixi; Mei, Songli

    2017-06-01

    Nurses are suffering from increasing stress, and nursing is recognized as one of the most stressful job. Their mental health problems are serious and worthy of attention. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between resilience and mental health and general well-being among nurses. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2014, using a self-reported questionnaire. Participants were asked to complete the measure of resilience, mental health, and general well-being. The method of randomly cluster sampling was used to select nurses as participants. A survey of 365 nurses was conducted to test the hypothesized model. This study showed that resilience, mental health, and general well-being correlated with each other. General well-being was an effective predictor of resilience and mental health, whereas it both can moderate and mediate the relationship. Strategies to increase nurses' general well-being could enhance their resilience and reduce mental health problems. It is important to improve the mental health of nurses and maintain the professional values that ensure career sustainability. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  12. General Satisfaction Among Healthcare Workers: Differences Between Employees in Medical and Mental Health Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papathanasiou, Ioanna V.; Kleisiaris, Christos F.; Tsaras, Konstantinos; Fradelos, Evangelos C.; Kourkouta, Lambrini

    2015-01-01

    Background: General satisfaction is a personal experience and sources of satisfaction or dissatisfaction vary between professional groups. General satisfaction is usually related with work settings, work performance and mental health status. Aim: The purpose of this research study was to investigate the level of general satisfaction of health care workers and to examine whether there were any differences among employees of medical and mental health sector. Methods: The sample consisted of employees from the medical and mental health sector, who were all randomly selected. A two-part questionnaire was used to collect data. The first section involved demographic information and the second part was a General Satisfaction Questionnaire (GSQ). The statistical analysis of data was performed using the software package 19.0 for Windows. Descriptive statistics were initially generated for sample characteristics. All data exhibited normal distributions and thus the parametric t-test was used to compare mean scores between the two health sectors. P values satisfaction for the employees in medical sector was 4.5 (5=very satisfied) and for the employees in mental health sector is 4.8. T-test showed that these results are statistical different (t=4.55, psatisfaction. Conclusions: Mental health employees appear to experience higher levels of general satisfaction and mainly they experience higher satisfaction from family roles, life and sexual life, emotional state and relations with patients. PMID:26543410

  13. General Satisfaction Among Healthcare Workers: Differences Between Employees in Medical and Mental Health Sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papathanasiou, Ioanna V; Kleisiaris, Christos F; Tsaras, Konstantinos; Fradelos, Evangelos C; Kourkouta, Lambrini

    2015-08-01

    General satisfaction is a personal experience and sources of satisfaction or dissatisfaction vary between professional groups. General satisfaction is usually related with work settings, work performance and mental health status. The purpose of this research study was to investigate the level of general satisfaction of health care workers and to examine whether there were any differences among employees of medical and mental health sector. The sample consisted of employees from the medical and mental health sector, who were all randomly selected. A two-part questionnaire was used to collect data. The first section involved demographic information and the second part was a General Satisfaction Questionnaire (GSQ). The statistical analysis of data was performed using the software package 19.0 for Windows. Descriptive statistics were initially generated for sample characteristics. All data exhibited normal distributions and thus the parametric t-test was used to compare mean scores between the two health sectors. P values satisfaction for the employees in medical sector was 4.5 (5=very satisfied) and for the employees in mental health sector is 4.8. T-test showed that these results are statistical different (t=4.55, psatisfaction. Mental health employees appear to experience higher levels of general satisfaction and mainly they experience higher satisfaction from family roles, life and sexual life, emotional state and relations with patients.

  14. General health and religious coping strategies in patients suffering from asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Hassan Adeli

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Asthma is a chronic respiratory disease characterized by reversible contraction of airways. Coping strategies can reduce the negative impact of the disease in individuals or cause incompatible behaviors by negative effect. This study aimed to evaluate the religious coping strategies in asthma patients and the relationship of religious coping and general health. Methods: The study included 102 asthmatic patients referred to the pulmonary clinic of Shahid Beheshti hospital of Qom. Brief religious coping strategy questionnaire and the general health questionnaire were used in this study. Results: The mean positive religious coping strategy was 26.24±9.89 and 60% of the patients had higher than average scores. The mean negative religious coping strategy was 10.56±3.99 and 35% of patients had a mean score higher than average scores. The mean total general health score was 23.91±11.9. Conclusion: The study results showed that asthmatic patients are at greater risk of depression and a negative correlation exists between positive religious coping and general health scores. It can be concluded that in asthmatic patients, depression should be suspected sooner. Also, during the course of treatment and in cases of resistant to treatment, this issue should be considered. It can be concluded that the patients who use more positive coping strategies and have a strong spiritual beliefs may have higher mental health that leads to higher physical health and a better response to treatment. Religious coping strategies; general health; depression.

  15. Active Learning in a Large General Physics Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trousil, Rebecca

    2008-04-01

    In 2004, we launched a new calculus-based, introductory physics sequence at Washington University. Designed as an alternative to our traditional lecture-based sequence, the primary objectives for this new course were to actively engage students in the learning process, to significantly strengthen students' conceptual reasoning skills, to help students develop higher level quantitative problem solving skills necessary for analyzing ``real world'' problems, and to integrate modern physics into the curriculum. This talk will describe our approach, using The Six Ideas That Shaped Physics text by Thomas Moore, to creating an active learning environment in large classes as well as share our perspective on key elements for success and challenges that we face in the large class environment.

  16. General Public Views on Uses and Users of Administrative Health Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Alison Paprica

    2017-04-01

    Members of general public were generally supportive of research based on linked administrative health data but with conditions, particularly when the possibility of private sector research was discussed. Notably, and citing security concerns, focus group participants preferred models that had a limited number of individuals or organizations accessing data.

  17. Theoretical investigation of the upper and lower bounds of a generalized dimensionless bearing health indicator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dong; Tsui, Kwok-Leung

    2018-01-01

    Bearing-supported shafts are widely used in various machines. Due to harsh working environments, bearing performance degrades over time. To prevent unexpected bearing failures and accidents, bearing performance degradation assessment becomes an emerging topic in recent years. Bearing performance degradation assessment aims to evaluate the current health condition of a bearing through a bearing health indicator. In the past years, many signal processing and data mining based methods were proposed to construct bearing health indicators. However, the upper and lower bounds of these bearing health indicators were not theoretically calculated and they strongly depended on historical bearing data including normal and failure data. Besides, most health indicators are dimensional, which connotes that these health indicators are prone to be affected by varying operating conditions, such as varying speeds and loads. In this paper, based on the principle of squared envelope analysis, we focus on theoretical investigation of bearing performance degradation assessment in the case of additive Gaussian noises, including distribution establishment of squared envelope, construction of a generalized dimensionless bearing health indicator, and mathematical calculation of the upper and lower bounds of the generalized dimensionless bearing health indicator. Then, analyses of simulated and real bearing run to failure data are used as two case studies to illustrate how the generalized dimensionless health indicator works and demonstrate its effectiveness in bearing performance degradation assessment. Results show that squared envelope follows a noncentral chi-square distribution and the upper and lower bounds of the generalized dimensionless health indicator can be mathematically established. Moreover, the generalized dimensionless health indicator is sensitive to an incipient bearing defect in the process of bearing performance degradation.

  18. PHP4 - Patient references toward health services provided by the general practioner

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pezij, J.W.; Bredenhoff, E.; Bredenhoff, E.; Bridges, J.; Vrenken, R.; IJzerman, Maarten Joost

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: In the Dutch health care system, like many other countries, the general practitioner (GP) plays a key role in securing equity and effectiveness in delivering health care. Nowadays, GPs are often part of primary care centers and it is foreseen that these centers will play an even more

  19. Activation Analysis and Public Health. Survey Paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lenihan, I. M.A. [Western Regional Hospital Board, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Smith, H. [University of Glasgow, Glasgow (United Kingdom)

    1967-10-15

    The technique of activation analysis has useful and distinctive applications, not yet fully recognized or exploited, in public health. Three areas of usefulness may be recognized. 1. Industrial hygiene. Activation analysis offers a simple and efficient method for assessing and controlling occupational hazards associated with the handling of toxic materials, such as compounds of arsenic and of mercury. Examination of hair and nail samples, taken at six-monthly intervals, will yield a surprising amount of information regarding the influence on occupational exposure of individual variation in working habits, and inadequacy or non-observance of hygienic rules and other prescribed safety measures. 2. Epidemiology. The advantage conferred by activation analysis lies in the possibility of rapid and accurate estimation of trace element concentrations in small samples of tissue or other materials, such as can readily be obtained from population groups large enough to be statistically significant. Surveys of this kind have interesting potentialities in relation to dental caries, cancer, cirrhosis of the liver and heart disease. 3. Recognition of essential trace elements. Surveys of trace element concentrations suggest that the variability of tissue levels among members of a population is smaller for essential trace elements than for non-essential elements. It is possible also that tissue levels show a normal distribution for essential elements and a log-normal distribution for non-essential elements. (author)

  20. GENERAL ASPECTS REGARDING THE MANAGEMENT ACTIVITY IN INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Loredana LĂPĂDUŞI

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The strategy of penetrating and developing the external markets is an important objective of the international enterprises management. This involves a specific analysis of the business environment for illustrating the opportunities of business and risks and the business potential of a particular enterprise in order to establish the internalisation objectives and types. The international management is individualised by the environment where the enterprises develop their economical activity, supposing that the world market of international business involves the access to new markets and the enterprises must adapt to the specific needs and opportunities.

  1. Health Effects of Job Insecurity among Employees in Swiss General Population

    OpenAIRE

    Gianfranco DOMENIGHETTI; Barbara D'AVANZO; Brigitte BISIG

    1999-01-01

    Objectives. To investigate at national level the association between health and the social distress in which the whole employed population is plunged as a consequence of job insecurity. Design. Cross-sectional study. Setting. Switzerland. Subjects. Individuals working full or part time as employees drawn from a random sample (N=2024) of the Swiss general population interviewed by phone. Main outcome measures. Prevalence rates of ten self reported health and health related behaviour indicators...

  2. Protecting and improving health through the radiological sciences. A report to the Surgeon General

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1966-04-01

    This is the third in a series of reports prepared by the-National Advisory Committee on Radiation for the Surgeon General of the Public Health Service. The first two were directed to the broad responsibilities of the Service in the field of radiation control and to problems concerned with the protection of the public against undue radiation exposure from contamination of the environment with radioactive materials. In this report the Committee traces the remarkable growth that has taken place in the uses of ionizing radiation in the health professions, in industry, and in other walks of life. It also notes a number of emerging problems which not only are of importance from the point of view of radiation protection, but also, if not alleviated, threaten the quality of medical care in the United States and the translation of the advances of atomic research into needed benefits for the people. These problems include (a) serious weaknesses in academic departments of radiology which have restricted efforts to provide adequate instruction of medical and post-doctoral students in the clinical applications of ionizing radiation, including radiation protection; and (b) an increasingly severe shortage of manpower in all branches of the radiological sciences. The magnitude and complexity of these problems are sufficiently great that a concerted effort is needed by the Public Health Service to correct them. The alleviation of the problems just cited is but a part of a more comprehensive series of responsibilities faced by the Service in the radiological sciences. The Service must play an important role in the prevention of undue exposure of the population from medical, occupational, and environmental sources of ionizing radiation; at the same time, it must actively support the development and application of radiological methods in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases. In order that the Service may effectively meet its enlarging responsibilities in the radiological sciences

  3. Protecting and improving health through the radiological sciences. A report to the Surgeon General

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1966-04-01

    This is the third in a series of reports prepared by the-National Advisory Committee on Radiation for the Surgeon General of the Public Health Service. The first two were directed to the broad responsibilities of the Service in the field of radiation control and to problems concerned with the protection of the public against undue radiation exposure from contamination of the environment with radioactive materials. In this report the Committee traces the remarkable growth that has taken place in the uses of ionizing radiation in the health professions, in industry, and in other walks of life. It also notes a number of emerging problems which not only are of importance from the point of view of radiation protection, but also, if not alleviated, threaten the quality of medical care in the United States and the translation of the advances of atomic research into needed benefits for the people. These problems include (a) serious weaknesses in academic departments of radiology which have restricted efforts to provide adequate instruction of medical and post-doctoral students in the clinical applications of ionizing radiation, including radiation protection; and (b) an increasingly severe shortage of manpower in all branches of the radiological sciences. The magnitude and complexity of these problems are sufficiently great that a concerted effort is needed by the Public Health Service to correct them. The alleviation of the problems just cited is but a part of a more comprehensive series of responsibilities faced by the Service in the radiological sciences. The Service must play an important role in the prevention of undue exposure of the population from medical, occupational, and environmental sources of ionizing radiation; at the same time, it must actively support the development and application of radiological methods in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases. In order that the Service may effectively meet its enlarging responsibilities in the radiological sciences

  4. Internet Activities During Leisure: A Comparison Between Adolescents With ADHD and Adolescents From the General Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolic Baric, Vedrana; Hellberg, Kristina; Kjellberg, Anette; Hemmingsson, Helena

    2015-11-25

    Adolescents' leisure activities are increasingly focusing on Internet activities, and today, these coexist with traditional leisure activities such as sport and meeting friends. The purpose of the present study was to investigate leisure activities, particularly Internet activities, among boys and girls with ADHD, and compare these with boys and girls from the general population. The objective was also to explore how traditional leisure activities and Internet activities interrelate among adolescents with ADHD. Adolescents with ADHD (n = 102) were compared with adolescents from the general population on leisure activities and Internet use. Leisure activities among adolescents with ADHD tended to focus on Internet activities, particularly online games. Internet activities were broadening leisure activities among adolescents with ADHD, rather than being a substitute for traditional leisure activities. Internet activities may provide adolescents with ADHD accessible means of social interaction. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. General practice vocational training and public health medicine: a novel collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, H; Money, P; Quinn, R

    1994-06-01

    The incorporation of a module of public health teaching into a general practice vocational training programme is described. This programme is itself innovative in that in addition to the 2 years of hospital-based training, it provides 2 years of community-based training. While the curriculum of the public health module is evolving with time, the objectives have remained the same, and are being met. The module has been appraised by external observers, and has been evaluated by participating trainees. The public health module is now an established feature of the Sligo general practice training programme.

  6. What do general practitioners think about an online self-regulation programme for health promotion? Focus group interviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaete, Jolien; Crombez, Geert; DeSmet, Ann; Deveugele, Myriam; Verloigne, Maïté; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse

    2015-01-22

    Chronic diseases may be prevented through programmes that promote physical activity and healthy nutrition. Computer-tailoring programmes are effective in changing behaviour in the short- and long-term. An important issue is the implementation of these programmes in general practice. However, there are several barriers that hinder the adoption of eHealth programmes in general practice. This study explored the feasibility of an eHealth programme that was designed, using self-regulation principles. Seven focus group interviews (a total of 62 GPs) were organized to explore GPs' opinions about the feasibility of the eHealth programme for prevention in general practice. At the beginning of each focus group, GPs were informed about the principles of the self-regulation programme 'My Plan'. Open-ended questions were used to assess the opinion of GPs about the content and the use of the programme. The focus groups discussions were audio-taped, transcribed and thematically analysed via NVivo software. The majority of the GPs was positive about the use of self-regulation strategies and about the use of computer-tailored programmes in general practice. There were contradictory results about the delivery mode of the programme. GPs also indicated that the programme might be less suited for patients with a low educational level or for old patients. Overall, GPs are positive about the adoption of self-regulation techniques for health promotion in their practice. However, they raised doubts about the adoption in general practice. This barrier may be addressed (1) by offering various ways to deliver the programme, and (2) by allowing flexibility to match different work flow systems. GPs also believed that the acceptability and usability of the programme was low for patients who are old or with low education. The issues raised by GPs will need to be taken into account when developing and implementing an eHealth programme in general practice.

  7. Work related stress, burnout, job satisfaction and general health of nurses: A follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khamisa, Natasha; Peltzer, Karl; Ilic, Dragan; Oldenburg, Brian

    2016-12-01

    Nurses experience high levels of work related stress and burnout as well as low job satisfaction and poor general health owing to the nature of their work. This paper seeks to provide a better understanding of the nature of relationships between work related stress, burnout, job satisfaction and general health of nurses over one year. This study involved a longitudinal design. Two hundred and seventy seven nurses from four hospitals completed a follow up survey consisting of five questionnaires. Data were collected between 2013 and 2014. The data were analysed using generalized estimation equation analysis. Lack of support was associated with burnout, patient care was associated with job satisfaction and staff issues were associated with general health of nurses. Burnout is more strongly related to job satisfaction than general health. The findings of this study could inform evidence based policy and practice through interventions aimed at improving job satisfaction and reducing the impact of burnout on general health of nurses. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  8. Mental Health Concerns: Veterans & Active Duty

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... dialing 1-800-273-8255 and pressing 1. Mental Health Concerns There are three primary mental health concerns ... care or call 911. How Will Asking for Mental Health Treatment Affect My Career? Military personnel have always ...

  9. EFFECT OF RECOMBINANT TISSUE-PLASMINOGEN ACTIVATOR ON INTRAABDOMINAL ABSCESS FORMATION IN RATS WITH GENERALIZED PERITONITIS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Goor, Harry; de Graaf, JS; Kooi, K; Sluiter, WJ; Bom, VJJ; van der Meer, J; Bleichrodt, RP

    1994-01-01

    BACKGROUND: During generalized peritonitis, intraabdominal fibrin deposition is stimulated whereas fibrinolytic activity is reduced, which predisposes intra-abdominal abscess formation. We investigated the effects of increasing the intra-abdominal fibrinolytic activity on abscess formation by

  10. Cortico-thalamic activation in generalized status epilepticus, a PET study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, B. M.; van de Hoeven, J. H.; Pruim, J.; van der Naalt, J.; Meertens, John H. J. M.

    In a patient with a refractory generalized convulsive status epilepticus, the ictal distribution of regional cerebral glucose was assessed with positron emission tomography (PET). Synchronized seizure activity in the EEG was associated with bilateral metabolic activation of medial sensorimotor

  11. Health Activities Project (HAP): Sight and Sound Module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buller, Dave; And Others

    Contained within this Health Activities Project (HAP) learning packet are activities for children in grades 5-8. Design of the activities centers around the idea that students can control their own health and safety. Within this module are teacher and student folios describing six activities which involve students in restricting their vision by…

  12. Health Activities Project (HAP): Action/Reaction Module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buller, Dave; And Others

    Contained within this Health Activities Project (HAP) learning packet are activities for children in grades 5-8. Design of the activities centers around the idea that students can control their own health and safety. Within this module are teacher and student folios describing activities in timing, improving, and practicing to improve reaction…

  13. Health Activities Project (HAP): Heart Fitness and Action Module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buller, Dave; And Others

    Contained within this Health Activities Project (HAP) learning packet are activities for children in grades 5-8. Design of the activities centers around the idea that students can control their own health and safety. Within the Heart Fitness and Action Module are teacher and student folios describing five activities which involve students in…

  14. Debt Collection: More Aggressive Action Needed To Collect Debts Owed by Health Professionals. United States General Accounting Office Report to the Honorable John R. Kasich, House of Representatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC.

    The General Accounting Office (GAO) reviewed and evaluated debt collection activities of five programs of the Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) that provide financial assistance to health professions students and medical facilities. The principal findings include: (1) HRSA changes have improved delinquency rates; however, large…

  15. Active Learning by Design: An Undergraduate Introductory Public Health Course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin eYeatts

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Principles of active learning were used to design and implement an introductory public health course. Students were introduced to the breadth and practice of public health through team and individual-based activities. Team assignments covered topics in epidemiology, biostatistics, health behavior, nutrition, maternal and child health, environment, and health policy. Students developed an appreciation of the population perspective through an experience trip and related intervention project in a public health area of their choice. Students experienced several key critical component elements of a public health undergraduate major; they cover key public health domains, experience public health practice, and integrated concepts with their assignments. In this paper, course assignments, lessons learned, and student successes are described. Given the increased growth in the undergraduate public health major, these active learning assignments may be of interest to undergraduate public health programs at both liberal arts colleges and research universities.

  16. Self-reported confidence and skills of general practitioners in management of mental health disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakley Browne, Mark; Lee, Adeline; Prabhu, Radha

    2007-10-01

    To identify the predictors of self-reported confidence and skills of GPs in management of patients with mental health problems. Cross-sectional survey, with questionnaire presented to 246 GPs working in 62 practices throughout Gippsland. Rural general practices in Gippsland. One hundred and thirty-four GPs across Gippsland. GPs completed a questionnaire assessing self-perception of knowledge and skills in recognition and management of common mental health problems. Of 134 GPs, 45% reported that they have a specific interest in mental health, and 39% of GPs reported that they had previous mental health training. Only 22% of GPs describe having both an interest and prior training in mental health care. Age and years since graduation are not significantly related to self-reported confidence and skills. The results of this study highlight that self-professed interest and prior training in mental health are associated. Self-professed interest in mental health care predicts confidence and self-perceived skills in recognition, assessment and management of common mental health disorders. Similarly, prior training in mental health care predicts confidence and self-perceived skills in recognition, assessment and management of common mental health problems. Self-professed interest in mental health issues is also associated with hours of participation in continuing medical education related to mental health care. Unfortunately, only a minority described having both interest and prior training in mental health care.

  17. Care for overweight children attending the 5-year preventive child health examination in general practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Merethe Kousgaard; Christensen, Bo; Søndergaard, Jens

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyse general practitioners' (GPs) care for children with a weight-for-height above normal based on the GPs' clinical evaluation, that is, 'GP-assessed overweight'. This study is a cross-sectional survey targeting GPs' care for children with GP-assessed overweight at the 5-year preventive child health examination (PCHE). Out of 1135 children attending the 5-year PCHE, 171 were assessed overweight by the GP. According to the Danish body mass index (kg/m(2)) growth charts, 147 children were overweight. The GPs addressed their concern about the child's weight to the parents in 58% of the 171 cases with GP-assessed overweight. The national guideline was reported consulted in 6% of the cases. Diet, physical activity and dispositions were evaluated by the GPs in 68%, 57% and 34% of cases, respectively. An appointment for a follow-up was made in 12% of cases. Various care activities were carried out for most children with GP-assessed overweight at the 5-year PCHE. However, the GP did not raise concern about the child's weight with the parents in almost one third of the children. It seems that there is a potential for improving the overweight care at the 5-year PCHE beginning with the involvement of the parents.

  18. Consumer Health-Related Activities on Social Media: Exploratory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benetoli, Arcelio; Chen, Timothy F; Aslani, Parisa

    2017-10-13

    Although a number of studies have investigated how consumers use social media for health-related purposes, there is a paucity of studies in the Australian context. This study aimed to explore how Australian consumers used social media for health-related purposes, specifically how they identified social media platforms, which were used, and which health-related activities commonly took place. A total of 5 focus groups (n=36 participants), each lasting 60 to 90 minutes, were conducted in the Sydney metropolitan area. The group discussions were audiorecorded and transcribed verbatim. The transcripts were coded line-by-line and thematically analyzed. Participants used general search engines to locate health-related social media platforms. They accessed a wide range of social media on a daily basis, using several electronic devices (in particular, mobile phones). Although privacy was a concern, it did not prevent consumers from fully engaging in social media for health-related purposes. Blogs were used to learn from other people's experiences with the same condition. Facebook allowed consumers to follow health-related pages and to participate in disease-specific group discussions. Wikipedia was used for factual information about diseases and treatments. YouTube was accessed to learn about medical procedures such as surgery. No participant reported editing or contributing to Wikipedia or posting YouTube videos related to health topics. Twitter was rarely used for health-related purposes. Social media allowed consumers to obtain and provide disease and treatment-related information and social and emotional support for those living with the same condition. Most considered their participation as observational, but some also contributed (eg, responded to people's questions). Participants used a wide range of social media for health-related purposes. Medical information exchange (eg, disease and treatment) and social and emotional support were the cornerstones of their online

  19. Diversity and ambivalence in general practitioners' attitudes towards preventive health checks - a qualitative study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Anne; Christensen, Bo; Maindal, Helle Terkildsen

    2012-01-01

    .The purpose of our study is to describe GPs' attitudes towards and concerns about providing preventive health checks and to describe their experiences with the health checks that they provide in daily practice. METHODS: A qualitative descriptive study was conducted based on three semi-structured focus group...... practice. CONCLUSIONS: Our study revealed that health checks are performed differently. Their quality differs, and the GPs perform the health check based on their personal attitude towards this service and prevention in general. Our analysis suggests that the doctors are basically uncertain about the best...... that there was great diversity in the content. The GPs were somewhat ambivalent towards health checks. Many GPs found the service beneficial for the patients. Concurrently, they had reservations about promoting ill-health, they questioned whether the health checks were a core mission of primary care, and they were...

  20. 77 FR 54917 - Public Availability of General Services Administration FY 2012 Federal Activities Inventory...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-06

    ... GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION [Notice-MV-2012-02; Docket No. 2012-0002; Sequence 14] Public Availability of General Services Administration FY 2012 Federal Activities Inventory Reform (FAIR) Act Inventory AGENCY: General Services Administration (GSA). ACTION: Notice of Public Availability of Fiscal...

  1. Relationship between general health of older health service users and their self-esteem in Isfahan in 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razieh Molavi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Self-esteem is known to be one of the most important markers of successful aging. Older people's self-esteem is influenced by several factors that particularly may be health related. Therefore, this study aimed to explore some important general health-related predictors of the older people's self-esteem. Materials and Methods: In this study, 200 people, aged 65 years and older, who referred to health care centers were selected through stratified random sampling method. Data were collected by using Rosenberg's self-esteem scale and the 28-item Goldberg's general health questionnaire. Data were analyzed by Pearson's coefficient tests and multiple regression analysis. Results: Findings showed that the entered predictor variables accounted for 49% of the total variance (R2 of self-esteem in the model (P < 0.001, F4,195 = 46.717. Three out of the four predictor variables including somatic signs, anxiety/insomnia, and depression, significantly predicted the self-esteem. The results emphasized on the determinant role of both physical (somatic signs and mental (anxiety/insomnia and depression aspects of health in older patients' self-esteem. Conclusions: The significant general health-related predictors found in the present study emphasize on some of the significant points that should be considered in planning for improving older patients' self-esteem.

  2. Relationship between general health of older health service users and their self-esteem in Isfahan in 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molavi, Razieh; Alavi, Mousa; Keshvari, Mahrokh

    2015-01-01

    Self-esteem is known to be one of the most important markers of successful aging. Older people's self-esteem is influenced by several factors that particularly may be health related. Therefore, this study aimed to explore some important general health-related predictors of the older people's self-esteem. In this study, 200 people, aged 65 years and older, who referred to health care centers were selected through stratified random sampling method. Data were collected by using Rosenberg's self-esteem scale and the 28-item Goldberg's general health questionnaire. Data were analyzed by Pearson's coefficient tests and multiple regression analysis. Findings showed that the entered predictor variables accounted for 49% of the total variance (R(2)) of self-esteem in the model (P self-esteem. The results emphasized on the determinant role of both physical (somatic signs) and mental (anxiety/insomnia and depression) aspects of health in older patients' self-esteem. The significant general health-related predictors found in the present study emphasize on some of the significant points that should be considered in planning for improving older patients' self-esteem.

  3. Comparison of general health status in mothers of hearing and hearing-impaired children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Movallali

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: The birth of a hearing-impaired child and raising him/her often brings special psychological feelings for parents, especially mothers who spend more time with the child. This study aimed to compare the general health status in mothers of hearing-impaired and hearing children. Methods: This was a descriptive-analytic study. General Health Questionnaire was used to identify general health status; and data were analyzed with independent-t test. Results: The general health level of mothers of hearing-impaired children was lower than mothers of normal hearing children (p=0.01 . The average scores of anxiety (p=0.01, depression (p= 0.01 and physical (p=0.02 symptoms and social function (p=0.01 of mothers of hearing-impaired children was higher than mothers of normal hearing ones (p=0.01. Conclusion: Having a child with hearing impairment affects mothers’ general health status. Our findings show that it’s necessary to provide psychological and social support for mothers of hearing-impaired children.

  4. 29 CFR 780.216 - Nursery activities generally and Christmas tree production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Nursery activities generally and Christmas tree production... Nursery activities generally and Christmas tree production. (a) The employees of a nursery who are engaged... horticultural commodities such as the following are employed in agriculture: (1) Planting seedlings in a nursery...

  5. Sex Differences in Brain Activity Related to General and Emotional Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jausovec, Norbert; Jausovec, Ksenija

    2005-01-01

    The study investigated gender differences in resting EEG (in three individually determined narrow [alpha] frequency bands) related to the level of general and emotional intelligence. Brain activity of males decreased with the level of general intelligence, whereas an opposite pattern of brain activity was observed in females. This difference was…

  6. General Practitioners' Perspective on eHealth and Lifestyle Change: Qualitative Interview Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Carl Joakim; Søgaard, Gabrielle Isidora; Clemensen, Jane; Sndergaard, Jens; Nielsen, Jesper Bo

    2018-04-17

    Wearables, fitness apps, and patient home monitoring devices are used increasingly by patients and other individuals with lifestyle challenges. All Danish general practitioners (GPs) use digital health records and electronic health (eHealth) consultations on a daily basis, but how they perceive the increasing demand for lifestyle advice and whether they see eHealth as part of their lifestyle support should be explored further. This study aimed to explore GPs' perspectives on eHealth devices and apps and the use of eHealth in supporting healthy lifestyle behavior for their patients and themselves. A total of 10 (5 female and 5 male) GPs were recruited by purposive sampling, aged 38 to 69 years (mean 51 years), of which 4 had an urban uptake of patients and 6 a rural uptake. All of them worked in the region of Southern Denmark where GPs typically work alone or in partnership with 1 to 4 colleagues and all use electronic patient health records for prescription, referral, and asynchronous electronic consultations. We performed qualitative, semistructured, individual in-depth interviews with the GPs in their own office about how they used eHealth and mHealth devices to help patients challenged with lifestyle issues and themselves. We also interviewed how they treated lifestyle-challenged patients in general and how they imagined eHealth could be used in the future. All GPs had smartphones or tablets, and everyone communicated on a daily basis with patients about disease and medicine via their electronic health record and the internet. We identified 3 themes concerning the use of eHealth: (1) how eHealth is used for patients; (2) general practitioners' own experience with improving lifestyle and eHealth support; and (3) relevant coaching techniques for transformation into eHealth. GPs used eHealth frequently for themselves but only infrequently for their patients. GPs are familiar with behavioral change techniques and are ready to use them in eHealth if they are used to

  7. Health sciences libraries' subscriptions to journals: expectations of general practice departments and collection-based analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreau, David; Bouton, Céline; Renard, Vincent; Fournier, Jean-Pascal

    2018-04-01

    The aims of this study were to (i) assess the expectations of general practice departments regarding health sciences libraries' subscriptions to journals and (ii) describe the current general practice journal collections of health sciences libraries. A cross-sectional survey was distributed electronically to the thirty-five university general practice departments in France. General practice departments were asked to list ten journals to which they expected access via the subscriptions of their health sciences libraries. A ranked reference list of journals was then developed. Access to these journals was assessed through a survey sent to all health sciences libraries in France. Adequacy ratios (access/need) were calculated for each journal. All general practice departments completed the survey. The total reference list included 44 journals. This list was heterogeneous in terms of indexation/impact factor, language of publication, and scope (e.g., patient care, research, or medical education). Among the first 10 journals listed, La Revue Prescrire (96.6%), La Revue du Praticien-Médecine Générale (90.9%), the British Medical Journal (85.0%), Pédagogie Médicale (70.0%), Exercer (69.7%), and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (62.5%) had the highest adequacy ratios, whereas Family Practice (4.2%), the British Journal of General Practice (16.7%), Médecine (29.4%), and the European Journal of General Practice (33.3%) had the lowest adequacy ratios. General practice departments have heterogeneous expectations in terms of health sciences libraries' subscriptions to journals. It is important for librarians to understand the heterogeneity of these expectations, as well as local priorities, so that journal access meets users' needs.

  8. Teaching Emotional Intelligence to Intensive Care Unit Nurses and their General Health: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Sharif

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Emotion and how people manage it is an important part of personality that would immensely affect their health. Investigations showed that emotional intelligence is significantly related to and can predict psychological health. Objective: To determine the effect of teaching emotional intelligence to intensive care unit nurses on their general health. Methods: This randomized clinical trial (registered as IRCT201208022812N9 was conducted on 52 of 200 in intensive care unit nurses affiliated to Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. They were recruited through purposeful convenience sampling and then randomly categorized into two groups. The intervention group members were trained in emotional intelligence. Bar-on emotional intelligence and Goldberg's general health questionnaires were administered to each participant before, immediately after, and one month after the intervention. Results: While the mean score of general health for the intervention group decreased from 25.4 before the intervention, to 18.1 immediately after the intervention and to 14.6 one month later, for the control group, it increased from 22.0, to 24.2 and to 26.5, respectively (p<0.001. Conclusion: Teaching emotional intelligence improved the general health of intensive care unit nurses.

  9. Consumer-Involved Participatory Research to Address General Medical Health and Wellness in a Community Mental Health Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Sharat P; Pancake, Laura S; Dandino, Elizabeth S; Wells, Kenneth B

    2015-12-01

    Barriers to sustainably implementing general medical interventions in community mental health (CMH) settings include role uncertainty, consumer engagement, workforce limitations, and sustainable reimbursement. To address these barriers, this project used a community-partnered participatory research framework to create a stakeholder-based general medical and wellness intervention in a large CMH organization, with consumers involved in all decision-making processes. Consumers faced practical barriers to participating in organizational decision making, but their narratives were critical in establishing priorities and ensuring sustainability. Addressing baseline knowledge and readiness of stakeholders and functional challenges to consumer involvement can aid stakeholder-based approaches to implementing general medical interventions in CMH settings.

  10. General health workers' description of mental health problems and treatment approaches used in Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koka, Betty E; Deane, Frank P; Lyons, Geoffrey Cb; Lambert, Gordon

    2014-11-01

    Papua New Guinea is a developing country with limited resources for specialist mental health services. Little is known about the mental health and treatment services of Papua New Guinea. The aim of this study was to clarify the presenting mental health problems encountered by Papua New Guinean health workers and the common treatment approaches used. A total of 203 Papua New Guinean health workers completed a retrospective quantitative survey about their three most recent mental health patients. The survey asked about presenting symptomatology, diagnoses (including culture-bound diagnoses) and treatment approaches. The major presenting mental health problems for males included schizophrenia, substance use disorder, sorcery and spirit possession. Depression was the most common diagnoses for women, followed by sorcery and somatisation. Over 65% of patients were prescribed psychotropic medication, over 50% received some form of psychological intervention and 28% were receiving traditional treatments. Somatic symptoms are common among both male and female Papua New Guineans; however, males may be more likely to present with psychotic symptoms and females with mood-related problems. Schizophrenia and depression are commonly identified with substance use disorder more problematic among males. Culture-specific explanations and treatment are commonly used. © The Author(s) 2013.

  11. Healthy life styles and perceived health status in the general population of a Northern Italian health district: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edoardo Colzani

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: Evidence should drive public health initiatives to better address the most important health issues. Chronic diseases represent the main burden of healthcare expenditure in Western countries and are determined by risk factors related to behaviour. Population-based surveys should lead to well informed decision making in this field.

    Methods: A cross-sectional survey was carried out among the general population aged between 18 and 69 in the district of Monza-Brianza in Northern Italy through phone interviews. A validated questionnaire investigating health-related lifestyles and behaviours was used. The questionnaire was divided into the following parts: general health status, physical activity, smoking habit, nutrition, alcohol consumption, driving safety, cardiovascular risk, cancer screening, mental health, domestic safety and socio-economic status.

    Results: In total, 308 interviews were carried out (response rate=76%. Almost 40% reported a body mass index >25, 64.9% had high school or university degrees, 60.4% worked full-time, 26.2% were assessed as physically inactive, and 13.3% were on a weight –loss diet. In addition, 19.7% had an “at risk” alcohol consumption , especially among younger age groups. Symptoms of depression were identified in 4.9% of the study subjects, particularly in women.

    Conclusions: Age, body mass index, education, and occupation were significantly associated with the likelihood of reporting poor health status. Young subjects were more likely to be smokers and drinkers at risk. Psychological health and appropriate prescription of anti-cholesterol and anti-hypertensive drugs areì areas deserving further investigations. Nutrition, physical activity, driving safety and youth health, especially concerning drinking

  12. Health-Related Quality of Life among Artisanal Fisherwomen/Shellfish Gatherers: Lower than the General Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana dos Santos Müller

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Quality of life is an indicator of how well one perceives that he/she is functioning physically and mentally. The aim of this paper is to determine the health-related quality of life (HRQOL of artisanal fisherwomen/shellfish gatherers from the Saubara municipality in Bahia, Brazil in comparison to the general population. A structured questionnaire was administered to a sample of 209 artisanal fisherwomen selected at random. The HRQOL questionnaire, known as the 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey version 1 (SF-36v01, was also used, having been translated and verified cross-culturally for the Brazilian population. Sociodemographic, lifestyle and comorbidity information was also collected. Chronic diseases and indicators of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs were self-reported. The study population consisted primarily of individuals between 30 and 45 years of age (78%, of self-classified races black or brown (96.2%, with no more than an elementary school education (77% and married (64.6%. In all the SF-36v01 dimensions, the values in the sample were lower than in the general population of Brazil, which was used as the reference population. In the “Physical Health” domain (Physical Functioning; Physical Role Limitations; Bodily Pain; General Health Perception a tendency toward a lower health-related quality of life was observed among those who were older, had a lower education level, and had a prevalence of MSDs, hypertension or arthritis. The interference of health conditions linked to the fisherwomen’s work activities may contribute to lower HRQOL in all analyzed aspects, in comparison to the general population. In light of these findings, public health policies must consider these informal workers who contribute greatly to Brazil’s economy and food system.

  13. Investigation of General Health in Female Care givers of Elderly People With Alzheimer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farideh Bastani

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this study was to explore the general health status in women as care givers of the elderly people with Alzheimer who attending to the Iranian Association of Alzheimer’s Disease. Methods & Materials: In this descriptive –cross sectional study as a introductory stage of a randomized controlled field trial, 150 women were recruited with a consecutive sampling method. The study population of this study included the women as family care givers attending to the Iranian Association of Alzheimer Disease. In this study, the inclusion criteria was consisted of women who had 18-60 years old, be a close relative to elderly patients with Alzheimer disease, as well as they have had direct caring with the duration of at least six months. Data collection regarding assessment of general health of the women was a questionnaire including 28 items of Persian version of the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ. For data analysis, descriptive statistics and chi square were used in the study. Results: The study findings showed that only 24% of the subjects had a good level of general health, but 58.7% and 17.3% of them had a moderate and weak general health respectively. There were significant relations between general health of the women as care givers and the variables such as age (P=0.016, occupation (P=0.008, type of relative (P=0.013, and economic status (P=0.049. However, there were not any significant relation between general health and the other variables of marriage situation (P=0.5, education (P=0.07, and duration of caring the elderly patients with Alzheimer (P=0.205. Conclusion: According to the findings, the considerable percentage of the female care givers of elders with Alzheimer disease did not pose optimum level of general health. As Care givers’ gender centered studies have seldom conducted in Iran, future researches should focus on different dimensions of health promotion among both male and female care givers.

  14. The Contributions of Physical Activity and Fitness to Optimal Health and Wellness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohuruogu, Ben

    2016-01-01

    The paper examined the role of physical activity and fitness more especially in the area of disease prevention and control by looking at the major ways by which regular physical activity and fitness contributes to optimal health and wellness. The Surgeor General's Report (1996), stressed that physical inactivity is a national problem which…

  15. General health and well-being in outpatients with depressive and bipolar disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Vedel; Hansen, Hanne Vibe; Bech, Per

    2006-01-01

    -VAS) and well-being (WHO (Five) well-being index) and more depressive and anxiety symptoms compared with bipolar disorder. Similarly, more psychiatric admissions were associated with poorer general health and well-being and more depressive and anxiety symptoms. However, when adjusting for the effect...... of depressive symptoms, the associations between number of admissions and general health, and between numbers of admissions and well-being, lost significance. Thus, depressive symptoms seem to be the strongest predictor of general health and well-being in both disorders. As the response rate......Prior studies have found contradictory results regarding the association between course of illness and quality of life among patients with depressive disorder or bipolar disorder. Questionnaires about quality of life and affective symptoms (the EQ-5D, EQ-5D-VAS, WHO (Five) well-being index...

  16. Simple and Multivariate Relationships Between Spiritual Intelligence with General Health and Happiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amirian, Mohammad-Elyas; Fazilat-Pour, Masoud

    2016-08-01

    The present study examined simple and multivariate relationships of spiritual intelligence with general health and happiness. The employed method was descriptive and correlational. King's Spiritual Quotient scales, GHQ-28 and Oxford Happiness Inventory, are filled out by a sample consisted of 384 students, which were selected using stratified random sampling from the students of Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman. Data are subjected to descriptive and inferential statistics including correlations and multivariate regressions. Bivariate correlations support positive and significant predictive value of spiritual intelligence toward general health and happiness. Further analysis showed that among the Spiritual Intelligence' subscales, Existential Critical Thinking Predicted General Health and Happiness, reversely. In addition, happiness was positively predicted by generation of personal meaning and transcendental awareness. The findings are discussed in line with the previous studies and the relevant theoretical background.

  17. The actual role of general practice in the Dutch health-care system: results of the Second Dutch National Survey of General Practice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schellevis, F.G.; Westert, G.P.; Bakker, D.H. de

    2005-01-01

    A second Dutch National Survey of General Practice was carried out in 2001 with the aim of providing actual information about the role of general practice in the Dutch health-care system for researchers and policy makers. Data were collected on different levels (patients, general practitioners,

  18. Health effects of the Chernobyl disaster: illness or illness behavior? A comparative general health survey in two former Soviet regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havenaar, J.; Rumyantzeva, G.; Kasyanenko, A.; Kaasjager, K.; Westermann, Anneke; van den Brink, W.; van den Bout, J.; Savelkoul, J.

    1997-01-01

    Results are described of a general health survey (n = 3044) that was conducted 6.5 years after the Chernobyl accident in 1986 in a seriously contaminated region in Belarus and a socioeconomically comparable, but unaffected, region in the Russian Federation. The purpose of the study was to

  19. Providing health information to the general public: a survey of current practices in academic health sciences libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollander, S M

    2000-01-01

    A questionnaire was mailed to 148 publicly and privately supported academic health sciences libraries affiliated with Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC-accredited medical schools in the United States and Canada to determine level of access and services provided to the general public. For purposes of this study, "general public" was defined as nonaffiliated students or health care professionals, attorneys and other nonhealth-related professionals, patients from affiliated or other hospitals or clinics, and general consumers. One hundred five (71%) libraries responded. Results showed 98% of publicly supported libraries and 88% of privately supported libraries provided access to some or all of the general public. Publicly supported libraries saw greater numbers of public patrons, often provided more services, and were more likely to circulate materials from their collections than were privately supported libraries. A significant number of academic health sciences libraries housed a collection of consumer-oriented materials and many provided some level of document delivery service, usually for a fee. Most allowed the public to use some or all library computers. Results of this study indicated that academic health sciences libraries played a significant role in serving the information-seeking public and suggested a need to develop written policies or guidelines covering the services that will be provided to minimize the impact of this service on primary clientele.

  20. Providing health information to the general public: a survey of current practices in academic health sciences libraries*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollander, Sue M.

    2000-01-01

    A questionnaire was mailed to 148 publicly and privately supported academic health sciences libraries affiliated with Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC)–accredited medical schools in the United States and Canada to determine level of access and services provided to the general public. For purposes of this study, “general public” was defined as nonaffiliated students or health care professionals, attorneys and other nonhealth-related professionals, patients from affiliated or other hospitals or clinics, and general consumers. One hundred five (71%) libraries responded. Results showed 98% of publicly supported libraries and 88% of privately supported libraries provided access to some or all of the general public. Publicly supported libraries saw greater numbers of public patrons, often provided more services, and were more likely to circulate materials from their collections than were privately supported libraries. A significant number of academic health sciences libraries housed a collection of consumer-oriented materials and many provided some level of document delivery service, usually for a fee. Most allowed the public to use some or all library computers. Results of this study indicated that academic health sciences libraries played a significant role in serving the information-seeking public and suggested a need to develop written policies or guidelines covering the services that will be provided to minimize the impact of this service on primary clientele. PMID:10658965

  1. Annual activity report of the Public Health Authority of the Slovak Republic for 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    A brief account of activities carried out by the Public Health Authority of the Slovak Republic (UVZ SR) in 2008 is presented. These activities are reported under the headings: (1) General section; (2) Department of legislation and law; (3) Department of control, surveillance and complaints; (4) Department of environmental health; (5) Department of preventive occupational medicine; (6) Department of food hygiene, food safety and cosmetic products; (7) Department of hygiene of children and youth; (8) Department of objectification factors welfare; (9) Department of medical microbiology; (10) Department of epidemiology; (11) Department of health protection against radiation; (12) Department of health promotion; (13) Department of alcohol and tobacco control.

  2. Annual activity report of the Public Health Authority of the Slovak Republic for 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    A brief account of activities carried out by the Public Health Authority of the Slovak Republic (UVZ SR) in 2006 is presented. These activities are reported under the headings: (1) General section; (2) Department of legislation and law; (3) Department of control, surveillance and complaints; (4) Department of environmental health; (5) Department of preventive occupational medicine; (6) Department of food hygiene, food safety and cosmetic products; (7) Department of hygiene of children and youth; (8) Department of objectification factors welfare; (9) Department of medical microbiology; (10) Department of epidemiology; (11) Department of health protection against radiation; (12) Department of health promotion; (13) Center of tobacco control; (14) Crisis management unit.

  3. Annual activity report of the Public Health Authority of the Slovak Republic for 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    A brief account of activities carried out by the Public Health Authority of the Slovak Republic (UVZ SR) in 2009 is presented. These activities are reported under the headings: (1) General section; (2) Department of legislation and law; (3) Department of control, surveillance and complaints; (4) Department of environmental health; (5) Department of preventive occupational medicine; (6) Department of food hygiene, food safety and cosmetic products; (7) Department of hygiene of children and youth; (8) Department of objectification factors welfare; (9) Department of medical microbiology; (10) Department of epidemiology; (11) Department of health protection against radiation; (12) Department of health promotion; (13) Department of alcohol and tobacco control.

  4. Assessment of health seeking behaviour and self-medication among general public in the state of Penang, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawood OT

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patients’ behaviour in making decisions regarding health is currently changing from passive recipients to recipients who play an active role in taking action to control their health and taking self-care initiatives. Objectives: This study was conducted to evaluate the health seeking behaviour among general public and its associated factors; and to evaluate the medicine taking behaviour in public and the practice of self-medication. Methods: A cross-sectional study was undertaken among general public in Penang Island, Malaysia. A convenience sampling of 888 participants successfully completed the survey. Self-administered questionnaires were distributed among the residents in the north east of Penang Island. Results: This study showed that most of the participants chose to consult the physician when they experience any health problems (66.7%, followed by self-medication (20.9%. The first action for consulting the physician was significantly predicted by Malay respondents and retired people (OR 3.05, 95% CI 1.04-8.89. The prevalence of self-medication was 54%. The practice of self-medication was significantly associated with Chinese participants, educated people, people with alone living status and people with more self-care orientation. Conclusion: Increasing the awareness of the public about the rational choice of getting medical assistance is a very important issue to control their health. A health education program is needed to increase the awareness about the use of medicines among the general public and to enable them to make the right decisions relating to health problems.

  5. Academic impact of a public electronic health database: bibliometric analysis of studies using the general practice research database.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Chun Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Studies that use electronic health databases as research material are getting popular but the influence of a single electronic health database had not been well investigated yet. The United Kingdom's General Practice Research Database (GPRD is one of the few electronic health databases publicly available to academic researchers. This study analyzed studies that used GPRD to demonstrate the scientific production and academic impact by a single public health database. METHODOLOGY AND FINDINGS: A total of 749 studies published between 1995 and 2009 with 'General Practice Research Database' as their topics, defined as GPRD studies, were extracted from Web of Science. By the end of 2009, the GPRD had attracted 1251 authors from 22 countries and been used extensively in 749 studies published in 193 journals across 58 study fields. Each GPRD study was cited 2.7 times by successive studies. Moreover, the total number of GPRD studies increased rapidly, and it is expected to reach 1500 by 2015, twice the number accumulated till the end of 2009. Since 17 of the most prolific authors (1.4% of all authors contributed nearly half (47.9% of GPRD studies, success in conducting GPRD studies may accumulate. The GPRD was used mainly in, but not limited to, the three study fields of "Pharmacology and Pharmacy", "General and Internal Medicine", and "Public, Environmental and Occupational Health". The UK and United States were the two most active regions of GPRD studies. One-third of GRPD studies were internationally co-authored. CONCLUSIONS: A public electronic health database such as the GPRD will promote scientific production in many ways. Data owners of electronic health databases at a national level should consider how to reduce access barriers and to make data more available for research.

  6. [General practice has to contribute to the continuous improvement of quality of care and integrate health promotion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanmeerbeek, Marc

    2009-09-01

    Quality of care in general practice is mainly based on effectiveness of clinical and inter-personal care, and access to care. Assessment has to focus on structures and processes, more than on outcomes. The sets of clinical indicators used in some european countries, though good starting points are still incomplete to encompass the complexity of activity. Assessment of care quality by the public authorities must be acceptable to the doctors who are the object of this assessment; otherwise its conclusions will be rejected. Continuous quality improvement can maintain quality of care at a high level and maintain costs under control. Health has to be managed, and doctors have a collective responsibility towards their patients. The procedures of the quality cycle are applicable in general practice for the development of community-based projects of health promotion, within the network of care. The discipline can find in it a new lease of life and perhaps curb the loss of interest among young doctors.

  7. Socioeconomic gradients in general and oral health of primary school children in Shiraz, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golkari, Ali; Sabokseir, Aira; Sheiham, Aubrey; Watt, Richard G

    2016-01-01

    Health status is largely determined by socio-economic status. The general health of individuals at higher social hierarchy is better than people in lower levels. Likewise, people with higher socio-economic status have better oral health than lower socio-economic groups. There has not been much work regarding the influence of socio-economic status on the health conditions of children in developing countries, particularly in Iran. The aim of this study was to compare the oral and general health conditions of primary school children of three different socio-economic areas in the city of Shiraz, Iran. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 335, 8- to 11-year-old primary schoolchildren in Shiraz. The children were selected by a three-stage cluster sampling method from three socio-economically different areas. Tools and methods used by the United Kingdom's Medical Research Council were used to obtain anthropometric variables as indicators of general health. The Decay, Missing, Filled Teeth (DMFT) Index for permanent teeth, dmft Index for primary teeth, the Modified Developmental Defects of Enamel (DDE) Index, the Gingival Index (GI) and the Debris Index-Simplified (DI-S) were used for oral health assessment.  Height (Poral health status of the primary schoolchildren of Shiraz. The influence of socio-economic status on health condition means children have different life chances based on their socio-economic conditions. These findings emphasize the significance of interventions for tackling socio-economic inequalities in order to improve the health status of children in lower socio-economic areas.

  8. Work Related Stress, Burnout, Job Satisfaction and General Health of Nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha Khamisa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Gaps in research focusing on work related stress, burnout, job satisfaction and general health of nurses is evident within developing contexts like South Africa. This study identified the relationship between work related stress, burnout, job satisfaction and general health of nurses. A total of 1200 nurses from four hospitals were invited to participate in this cross-sectional study (75% response rate. Participants completed five questionnaires and multiple linear regression analysis was used to determine significant relationships between variables. Staff issues are best associated with burnout as well as job satisfaction. Burnout explained the highest amount of variance in mental health of nurses. These are known to compromise productivity and performance, as well as affect the quality of patient care. Issues, such as security risks in the workplace, affect job satisfaction and health of nurses. Although this is more salient to developing contexts it is important in developing strategies and intervention programs towards improving nurse and patient related outcomes.

  9. Work Related Stress, Burnout, Job Satisfaction and General Health of Nurses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khamisa, Natasha; Oldenburg, Brian; Peltzer, Karl; Ilic, Dragan

    2015-01-01

    Gaps in research focusing on work related stress, burnout, job satisfaction and general health of nurses is evident within developing contexts like South Africa. This study identified the relationship between work related stress, burnout, job satisfaction and general health of nurses. A total of 1200 nurses from four hospitals were invited to participate in this cross-sectional study (75% response rate). Participants completed five questionnaires and multiple linear regression analysis was used to determine significant relationships between variables. Staff issues are best associated with burnout as well as job satisfaction. Burnout explained the highest amount of variance in mental health of nurses. These are known to compromise productivity and performance, as well as affect the quality of patient care. Issues, such as security risks in the workplace, affect job satisfaction and health of nurses. Although this is more salient to developing contexts it is important in developing strategies and intervention programs towards improving nurse and patient related outcomes. PMID:25588157

  10. Prediction of Periodontitis Occurrence: Influence of Classification and Sociodemographic and General Health Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manzolli Leite, Fabio Renato; Peres, Karen Glazer; Do, Loc Giang

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Prediction of periodontitis development is challenging. Use of oral health-related data alone, especially in a young population, might underestimate disease risk. This study investigates accuracy of oral, systemic, and socioeconomic data on estimating periodontitis development...... in a population-based prospective cohort. METHODS: General health history and sociodemographic information were collected throughout the life-course of individuals. Oral examinations were performed at ages 24 and 31 years in the Pelotas 1982 birth cohort. Periodontitis at age 31 years according to six...... classifications was used as the gold standard to compute area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). Multivariable binomial regression models were used to evaluate the effects of oral health, general health, and socioeconomic characteristics on accuracy of periodontitis development prediction...

  11. Work related stress, burnout, job satisfaction and general health of nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khamisa, Natasha; Oldenburg, Brian; Peltzer, Karl; Ilic, Dragan

    2015-01-12

    Gaps in research focusing on work related stress, burnout, job satisfaction and general health of nurses is evident within developing contexts like South Africa. This study identified the relationship between work related stress, burnout, job satisfaction and general health of nurses. A total of 1200 nurses from four hospitals were invited to participate in this cross-sectional study (75% response rate). Participants completed five questionnaires and multiple linear regression analysis was used to determine significant relationships between variables. Staff issues are best associated with burnout as well as job satisfaction. Burnout explained the highest amount of variance in mental health of nurses. These are known to compromise productivity and performance, as well as affect the quality of patient care. Issues, such as security risks in the workplace, affect job satisfaction and health of nurses. Although this is more salient to developing contexts it is important in developing strategies and intervention programs towards improving nurse and patient related outcomes.

  12. For which health problems do cancer survivors visit their General Practitioner?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heins, M.J.; Korevaar, J.C.; Rijken, P.M.; Schellevis, F.G.

    2013-01-01

    Primary health care use of cancer patients is increased, even years after active treatment. Insight into the reasons for this could help in developing and improving guidelines and planning of health care, which is important given the expected increase in cancer survivors. Using data from the

  13. Volunteering and health benefits in general adults: cumulative effects and forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Jerf W K; Zhang, Zhuoni; Kim, Tae Yeun

    2017-07-11

    Although the health benefits of volunteering have been well documented, no research has examined its cumulative effects according to other-oriented and self-oriented volunteering on multiple health outcomes in the general adult public. This study examined other-oriented and self-oriented volunteering in cumulative contribution to health outcomes (mental and physical health, life satisfaction, social well-being and depression). Data were drawn from the Survey of Texas Adults 2004, which contains a statewide population-based sample of adults (n = 1504). Multivariate linear regression and Wald test of parameters equivalence constraint were used to test the relationships. Both forms of volunteering were significantly related to better health outcomes (odds ratios = 3.66% to 11.11%), except the effect of self-oriented volunteering on depression. Other-oriented volunteering was found to have better health benefits than did self-volunteering. Volunteering should be promoted by public health, education and policy practitioners as a kind of healthy lifestyle, especially for the social subgroups of elders, ethnic minorities, those with little education, single people, and unemployed people, who generally have poorer health and less participation in volunteering.

  14. Effect of electromagnetic radiations from mobile phone base stations on general health and salivary function

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Kushpal; Nagaraj, Anup; Yousuf, Asif; Ganta, Shravani; Pareek, Sonia; Vishnani, Preeti

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Cell phones use electromagnetic, nonionizing radiations in the microwave range, which some believe may be harmful to human health. The present study aimed to determine the effect of electromagnetic radiations (EMRs) on unstimulated/stimulated salivary flow rate and other health-related problems between the general populations residing in proximity to and far away from mobile phone base stations. Materials and Methods: A total of four mobile base stations were randomly selected from...

  15. Positive mental health in outpatients with affective disorders: Associations with life satisfaction and general functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seow, Lee Seng Esmond; Vaingankar, Janhavi Ajit; Abdin, Edimansyah; Sambasivam, Rajeswari; Jeyagurunathan, Anitha; Pang, Shirlene; Chong, Siow Ann; Subramaniam, Mythily

    2016-01-15

    Positive mental health (PMH) is an integral and essential component of health that encompasses emotional, psychological and social well-being. The Keyes' two continua model of mental health and illness posits that mental health status is not merely the absence of mental health problems, and it can be enhanced regardless of a diagnosis of mental illness. The present study hypothesized that mentally ill patients with higher levels of PMH would be associated with better life satisfaction and general functioning. 218 outpatients with affective disorders at a tertiary psychiatric hospital were recruited and administered the multidimensional Positive Mental Health instrument, which was validated and developed in Singapore to measure PMH. Depression and anxiety severity were also assessed. Associations of positive mental health with life satisfaction and general functioning were investigated in linear regression models. PMH scores varied largely within patients with depressive and anxiety disorders but did not differ statistically across the two diagnoses, except for emotional support. PMH was associated with both life satisfaction and general functioning with little evidence of confounding by sociodemographic and clinical status. The cross-sectional design of the study could not examine causal relationships. Findings may be restrictive to treatment-seeking population with specific affective disorders. Our study provides evidence to support the notion that a good mental health state is not simply the absence of a mental disorder. Mentally ill patients can also have high levels of PMH that possibly have a moderating or mediating effect on the relationship between patients' clinical symptoms and life satisfaction or general functioning. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Non-participation in preventive child health examinations at the general practitioner in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Grethe; Biering-Sørensen, Sofie; Michelsen, Susan Ishøy

    2008-01-01

    Objective. To examine demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of parents and children in families not participating in preventive child health examinations at the general practitioner in a society with free and easy access to healthcare. Design. Population-covering register linkage study...... free and easy access to the GP, the utilization of preventive child health examinations is lower among the more deprived part of the population....

  17. African Journal for Physical Activity and Health Sciences - Vol 20 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal for Physical, Health Education, Recreation and Dance. ... Exercise Improves Blood Glucose Level in Pregnant Women with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus ... Physical activity and health in children: How much do we know?

  18. African Journal for Physical Activity and Health Sciences - Vol 21 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal for Physical Activity and Health Sciences - Vol 21, No 3 (2015) ... Factors Influencing the Health of Men in Polygynous Relationship · EMAIL FULL ... Views of HIV Positive Pregnant Women on Accessibility of the Prevention of ...

  19. Physical Activity: A Tool for Improving Health (Part 3--Recommended Amounts of Physical Activity for Optimal Health)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallaway, Patrick J.; Hongu, Nobuko

    2016-01-01

    By promoting physical activities and incorporating them into their community-based programs, Extension professionals are improving the health of individuals, particularly those with limited resources. This article is the third in a three-part series describing the benefits of physical activity for human health: (1) biological health benefits of…

  20. Changes in disability in older adults with generalized radiographic osteoarthritis: A complex relationship with physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tak, E C P M; van Meurs, J B; Bierma-Zeinstra, S M A; Hofman, A; Hopman-Rock, M

    2017-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to report on factors associated with changes in disability after 5 years, with a focus on physical activity (PA) in community-dwelling older adults with generalized radiographic osteoarthritis (GROA). Assessment of GROA (hand, knee, hip) and disability (Health Assessment Questionnaire) in the Rotterdam Study (cohort RS-1, N = 7,983; with GROA, n = 821). A good outcome at follow-up was defined as improved or mild disability, and a poor outcome as worsened or severe disability. Factors potentially associated with outcome were demographics, joint complaints, other chronic health problems or limitations (body mass index, number of chronic conditions, cognition), and level of different types of PA. Some of these assessments were repeated in between 1997 and 1999 (RS-3), and between 2002 and 2004 (RS-4). A total of 309 older adults with GROA and valid measures on RS-3 and RS-4 showed mild to moderate disability, with minor increases over 5 years (follow-up N = 287 RS-3 to RS-4). PA levels decreased with increasing disability, especially in sport and walking. PA was univariately associated with a better outcome at follow-up but when adjusted for other factors (higher age, having knee pain and stiffness, and having more than two other chronic conditions) was associated with negative changes in general and lower limb disability, although not with upper limb disability. This was the first study to report that community-dwelling older adults with GROA show moderate levels of disability, and that reduced levels of disability are associated with higher levels of PA, but when adjusted for other confounders this association is lost. Further research is needed to study the complex relationships between PA and other determinants of disability. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Are Health State Valuations from the General Public Biased? A Test of Health State Reference Dependency Using Self-assessed Health and an Efficient Discrete Choice Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonker, Marcel F; Attema, Arthur E; Donkers, Bas; Stolk, Elly A; Versteegh, Matthijs M

    2017-12-01

    Health state valuations of patients and non-patients are not the same, whereas health state values obtained from general population samples are a weighted average of both. The latter constitutes an often-overlooked source of bias. This study investigates the resulting bias and tests for the impact of reference dependency on health state valuations using an efficient discrete choice experiment administered to a Dutch nationally representative sample of 788 respondents. A Bayesian discrete choice experiment design consisting of eight sets of 24 (matched pairwise) choice tasks was developed, with each set providing full identification of the included parameters. Mixed logit models were used to estimate health state preferences with respondents' own health included as an additional predictor. Our results indicate that respondents with impaired health worse than or equal to the health state levels under evaluation have approximately 30% smaller health state decrements. This confirms that reference dependency can be observed in general population samples and affirms the relevance of prospect theory in health state valuations. At the same time, the limited number of respondents with severe health impairments does not appear to bias social tariffs as obtained from general population samples. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Health services research evaluation principles. Broadening a general framework for evaluating health information technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sockolow, P S; Crawford, P R; Lehmann, H P

    2012-01-01

    Our forthcoming national experiment in increased health information technology (HIT) adoption funded by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 will require a comprehensive approach to evaluating HIT. The quality of evaluation studies of HIT to date reveals a need for broader evaluation frameworks that limits the generalizability of findings and the depth of lessons learned. Develop an informatics evaluation framework for health information technology (HIT) integrating components of health services research (HSR) evaluation and informatics evaluation to address identified shortcomings in available HIT evaluation frameworks. A systematic literature review updated and expanded the exhaustive review by Ammenwerth and deKeizer (AdK). From retained studies, criteria were elicited and organized into classes within a framework. The resulting Health Information Technology Research-based Evaluation Framework (HITREF) was used to guide clinician satisfaction survey construction, multi-dimensional analysis of data, and interpretation of findings in an evaluation of a vanguard community health care EHR. The updated review identified 128 electronic health record (EHR) evaluation studies and seven evaluation criteria not in AdK: EHR Selection/Development/Training; Patient Privacy Concerns; Unintended Consequences/ Benefits; Functionality; Patient Satisfaction with EHR; Barriers/Facilitators to Adoption; and Patient Satisfaction with Care. HITREF was used productively and was a complete evaluation framework which included all themes that emerged. We can recommend to future EHR evaluators that they consider adding a complete, research-based HIT evaluation framework, such as HITREF, to their evaluation tools suite to monitor HIT challenges as the federal government strives to increase HIT adoption.

  3. Linguistic Adaptation and Psychometric Properties of Tamil Version of General Oral Health Assessment Index-Tml.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appukuttan, D P; Vinayagavel, M; Balasundaram, A; Damodaran, L K; Shivaraman, P; Gunasshegaran, K

    2015-01-01

    Oral health has an impact on quality of life hence for research purpose validation of a Tamil version of General Oral Health Assessment Index would enable it to be used as a valuable tool among Tamil speaking population. In this study, we aimed to assess the psychometric properties of translated Tamil version of General Oral Health Assessment Index (GOHAI-Tml). Linguistic adaptation involved forward and backward blind translation process. Reliability was analyzed using test-retest, Cronbach alpha, and split half reliability. Inter-item and item-total correlation were evaluated using Spearman rank correlation. Convenience sampling was done, and 265 consecutive patients aged 20-70 years attending the outpatient department were recruited. Subjects were requested to fill a self-reporting questionnaire along with Tamil GOHAI version. Clinical examination was done on the same visit. Concurrent validity was measured by assessing the relationship between GOHAI scores and self-perceived oral health and general health status, satisfaction with oral health, need for dental treatment and esthetic satisfaction. Discriminant validity was evaluated by comparing the GOHAI scores with the objectively assessed clinical parameters. Exploratory factor analysis was done to examine the factor structure. Mean GOHAI-Tml was 52.7 (6.8, range 22-60, median 54). The mean number of negative impacts was 2 (2.4, range 0-11, median 1). The Spearman rank correlation for test-retest ranged from 0.8 to 0.9 (P Tamil speaking population.

  4. Effect of electromagnetic radiations from mobile phone base stations on general health and salivary function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Kushpal; Nagaraj, Anup; Yousuf, Asif; Ganta, Shravani; Pareek, Sonia; Vishnani, Preeti

    2016-01-01

    Cell phones use electromagnetic, nonionizing radiations in the microwave range, which some believe may be harmful to human health. The present study aimed to determine the effect of electromagnetic radiations (EMRs) on unstimulated/stimulated salivary flow rate and other health-related problems between the general populations residing in proximity to and far away from mobile phone base stations. A total of four mobile base stations were randomly selected from four zones of Jaipur, Rajasthan, India. Twenty individuals who were residing in proximity to the selected mobile phone towers were taken as the case group and the other 20 individuals (control group) who were living nearly 1 km away in the periphery were selected for salivary analysis. Questions related to sleep disturbances were measured using Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and other health problems were included in the questionnaire. Chi-square test was used for statistical analysis. It was unveiled that a majority of the subjects who were residing near the mobile base station complained of sleep disturbances, headache, dizziness, irritability, concentration difficulties, and hypertension. A majority of the study subjects had significantly lesser stimulated salivary secretion (P base stations on the health and well-being of the general population cannot be ruled out. Further studies are warranted to evaluate the effect of electromagnetic fields (EMFs) on general health and more specifically on oral health.

  5. Analysis of College Students' Personal Health Information Activities: Online Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sujin; Sinn, Donghee; Syn, Sue Yeon

    2018-04-20

    With abundant personal health information at hand, individuals are faced with a critical challenge in evaluating the informational value of health care records to keep useful information and discard that which is determined useless. Young, healthy college students who were previously dependents of adult parents or caregivers are less likely to be concerned with disease management. Personal health information management (PHIM) is a special case of personal information management (PIM) that is associated with multiple interactions among varying stakeholders and systems. However, there has been limited evidence to understand informational or behavioral underpinning of the college students' PHIM activities, which can influence their health in general throughout their lifetime. This study aimed to investigate demographic and academic profiles of college students with relevance to PHIM activities. Next, we sought to construct major PHIM-related activity components and perceptions among college students. Finally, we sought to discover major factors predicting core PHIM activities among college students we sampled. A Web survey was administered to collect responses about PHIM behaviors and perceptions among college students from the University of Kentucky from January through March 2017. A total of 1408 college students were included in the analysis. PHIM perceptions, demographics, and academic variations were used as independent variables to predict diverse PHIM activities using a principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical regression analyses (SPSS v.24, IBM Corp, Armonk, NY, USA). Majority of the participants were female (956/1408, 67.90%), and the age distribution of this population included an adequate representation of college students of all ages. The most preferred health information resources were family (612/1408, 43.47%), health care professionals (366/1408, 26.00%), friends (27/1408, 1.91%), and the internet (157/1408, 11.15%). Organizational or

  6. IPN - Orsay Report of activity 1998-1999. General activities. Technical Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pouthas, Joel; Hutin, Christiane; Rivenez, Jean-Philippe

    2000-01-01

    spectrometer and for HADES experiment. Also the progress in developing the equipment for G0 experiment, VAMOS spectrometer, the large surface annular telescope and EUROBALL 4 detector is described. Finally in the chapter four there are reported works on developing a peak sensing ADC, a VXI D size card for EXOGAM,and data acquisition systems. The first volume begins with short reports of activity from the technical and general servicing departments. The second volume of the IPNO Report presents the results of the Research Division

  7. A Measure of the Potential Impact of Hospital Community Health Activities on Population Health and Equity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begun, James W; Kahn, Linda M; Cunningham, Brooke A; Malcolm, Jan K; Potthoff, Sandra

    2017-12-13

    Many hospitals in the United States are exploring greater investment in community health activities that address upstream causes of poor health. Develop and apply a measure to categorize and estimate the potential impact of hospitals' community health activities on population health and equity. We propose a scale of potential impact on population health and equity, based on the cliff analogy developed by Jones and colleagues. The scale is applied to the 317 activities reported in the community health needs assessment implementation plan reports of 23 health care organizations in the Minneapolis-St Paul, Minnesota metropolitan area in 2015. Using a 5-point ordinal scale, we assigned a score of potential impact on population health and equity to each community health activity. A majority (50.2%) of health care organizations' community health activities are classified as addressing social determinants of health (level 4 on the 5-point scale), though very few (5.4%) address structural causes of health equity (level 5 on the 5-point scale). Activities that score highest on potential impact fall into the topic categories of "community health and connectedness" and "healthy lifestyles and wellness." Lower-scoring activities focus on sick or at-risk individuals, such as the topic category of "chronic disease prevention, management, and screening." Health care organizations in the Minneapolis-St Paul metropolitan area vary substantially in the potential impact of their aggregated community health activities. Hospitals can be significant contributors to investment in upstream community health programs. This article provides a scale that can be used not only by hospitals but by other health care and public health organizations to better align their community health strategies, investments, and partnerships with programming and policies that address the foundational causes of population health and equity within the communities they serve.

  8. Predictors of positive mental health among refugees: Results from Canada's General Social Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beiser, Morton; Hou, Feng

    2017-01-01

    Do refugees have lower levels of positive mental health than other migrants? If so, to what extent is this attributable to post-migration experiences, including discrimination? How does gender affect the relationships between post-migration experience and positive mental health? To address these questions, the current study uses data from Statistics Canada's 2013 General Social Survey (GSS), a nationally representative household study that included 27,695 Canadians 15 years of age and older. The study compares self-reported positive mental health among 651 refugees, 309 economic immigrants, and 448 family class immigrants from 50 source countries. Immigration-related predictors of mental health were examined including sociodemographic characteristics, discrimination, acculturation variables, and experiences of reception. Separate analyses were carried out for women and men. Refugees had lower levels of positive mental health than other migrants. Affiliative feelings towards the source country jeopardized refugee, but not immigrant mental health. A sense of belonging to Canada was a significant predictor of mental health. Perceived discrimination explained refugee mental health disadvantage among men, but not women. Bridging social networks were a mental health asset, particularly for women. The implications of anti-refugee discrimination net of the effects of anti-immigrant and anti-visible minority antipathies are discussed, as well as possible reasons for gender differences in the salience of mental health predictors.

  9. Valuation of scleroderma and psoriatic arthritis health states by the general public

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hays Ron D

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective Psoriatic arthritis (PsA and scleroderma (SSc are chronic rheumatic disorders with detrimental effects on health-related quality of life. Our objective was to assess health values (utilities from the general public for health states common to people with PsA and SSc for economic evaluations. Methods Adult subjects from the general population in a Midwestern city (N = 218 completed the SF-12 Health Survey and computer-assisted 0-100 rating scale (RS, time trade-off (TTO, range: 0.0-1.0 and standard gamble (SG, range: 0.0-1.0 utility assessments for several hypothetical PsA and SSc health states. Results Subjects included 135 (62% females, 143 (66% Caucasians, and 62 (28% African-Americans. The mean (SD scores for the SF-12 Physical Component Summary scale were 52.9 (8.3 and for the SF-12 Mental Component Summary scale were 49.0 (9.1, close to population norms. The mean RS, TTO, and SG scores for PsA health states varied with severity, ranging from 20.2 to 63.7 (14.4-20.3 for the RS 0.29 to 0.78 (0.24-0.31 for the TTO, and 0.48 to 0.82 (0.24-0.34 for the SG. The mean RS, TTO, and SG scores for SSc health states were 25.3-69.7 (15.2-16.3 for the RS, 0.36-0.80 (0.25-0.31 for the TTO, and 0.50-0.81 (0.26-0.32 for the SG, depending on disease severity. Conclusion Health utilities for PsA and SSc health states as assessed from the general public reflect the severity of the diseases. These descriptive findings could have implications regarding comparative effectiveness research for tests and treatments for PsA and SSc.

  10. Adverse Effects of Prolonged Sitting Behavior on the General Health of Office Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daneshmandi, Hadi; Choobineh, Alireza; Ghaem, Haleh; Karimi, Mehran

    2017-07-01

    Excessive sitting behavior is a risk factor for many adverse health outcomes. This study aimed to survey the prevalence of sitting behavior and its adverse effects among Iranian office workers. This cross-sectional study included 447 Iranian office workers. A two-part questionnaire was used as the data collection tool. The first part surveyed the demographic characteristics and general health of the respondents, while the second part contained the Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire (NMQ) to assess symptoms. Statistical analyses were performed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software using Mann-Whitney U and Chi-square tests and multiple logistic regression analysis. The respondents spent an average of 6.29 hours of an 8-hour working shift in a sitting position. The results showed that 48.8% of the participants did not feel comfortable with their workstations and 73.6% felt exhausted during the workday. Additionally, 6.3% suffered from hypertension, and 11.2% of them reported hyperlipidemia. The results of the NMQ showed that neck (53.5%), lower back (53.2%) and shoulder (51.6%) symptoms were the most prevalent problem among office workers. Based upon a multiple logistic regression, only sex had a significant association with prolonged sitting behavior (odds ratio = 3.084). Our results indicated that long sitting times were associated with exhaustion during the working day, decreased job satisfaction, hypertension, and musculoskeletal disorder symptoms in the shoulders, lower back, thighs, and knees of office workers. Sitting behavior had adverse effects on office workers. Active workstations are therefore recommended to improve working conditions.

  11. The actual role of general practice in the Dutch health-care system: results of the Second Dutch National Survey of General Practice.

    OpenAIRE

    Schellevis, F.G.; Westert, G.P.; Bakker, D.H. de

    2005-01-01

    A second Dutch National Survey of General Practice was carried out in 2001 with the aim of providing actual information about the role of general practice in the Dutch health-care system for researchers and policy makers. Data were collected on different levels (patients, general practitioners, practices) and included morbidity (self-report and presented to general practitioners), diagnostic and therapeutic interventions, doctor-patient communication, and background characteristics. Compared ...

  12. Collaboration between general practitioners and mental health care professionals: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredheim, Terje; Danbolt, Lars J; Haavet, Ole R; Kjønsberg, Kari; Lien, Lars

    2011-05-23

    Collaboration between general practice and mental health care has been recognised as necessary to provide good quality healthcare services to people with mental health problems. Several studies indicate that collaboration often is poor, with the result that patient' needs for coordinated services are not sufficiently met, and that resources are inefficiently used. An increasing number of mental health care workers should improve mental health services, but may complicate collaboration and coordination between mental health workers and other professionals in the treatment chain. The aim of this qualitative study is to investigate strengths and weaknesses in today's collaboration, and to suggest improvements in the interaction between General Practitioners (GPs) and specialised mental health service. This paper presents a qualitative focus group study with data drawn from six groups and eight group sessions with 28 health professionals (10 GPs, 12 nurses, and 6 physicians doing post-doctoral training in psychiatry), all working in the same region and assumed to make professional contact with each other. GPs and mental health professionals shared each others expressions of strengths, weaknesses and suggestions for improvement in today's collaboration. Strengths in today's collaboration were related to common consultations between GPs and mental health professionals, and when GPs were able to receive advice about diagnostic treatment dilemmas. Weaknesses were related to the GPs' possibility to meet mental health professionals, and lack of mutual knowledge in mental health services. The results describe experiences and importance of interpersonal knowledge, mutual accessibility and familiarity with existing systems and resources. There is an agreement between GPs and mental health professionals that services will improve with shared knowledge about patients through systematic collaborative services, direct cell-phone lines to mental health professionals and allocated

  13. Collaboration between general practitioners and mental health care professionals: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haavet Ole R

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Collaboration between general practice and mental health care has been recognised as necessary to provide good quality healthcare services to people with mental health problems. Several studies indicate that collaboration often is poor, with the result that patient' needs for coordinated services are not sufficiently met, and that resources are inefficiently used. An increasing number of mental health care workers should improve mental health services, but may complicate collaboration and coordination between mental health workers and other professionals in the treatment chain. The aim of this qualitative study is to investigate strengths and weaknesses in today's collaboration, and to suggest improvements in the interaction between General Practitioners (GPs and specialised mental health service. Methods This paper presents a qualitative focus group study with data drawn from six groups and eight group sessions with 28 health professionals (10 GPs, 12 nurses, and 6 physicians doing post-doctoral training in psychiatry, all working in the same region and assumed to make professional contact with each other. Results GPs and mental health professionals shared each others expressions of strengths, weaknesses and suggestions for improvement in today's collaboration. Strengths in today's collaboration were related to common consultations between GPs and mental health professionals, and when GPs were able to receive advice about diagnostic treatment dilemmas. Weaknesses were related to the GPs' possibility to meet mental health professionals, and lack of mutual knowledge in mental health services. The results describe experiences and importance of interpersonal knowledge, mutual accessibility and familiarity with existing systems and resources. There is an agreement between GPs and mental health professionals that services will improve with shared knowledge about patients through systematic collaborative services, direct cell

  14. Changes in children′s oral health related quality of life following dental treatment under general anesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Ebrahim Jabarifar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Children′s oral health related quality of life (OHRQoL evaluates the impacts of oral daily activities of children and family on quality of life. Oral health related quality of life as outcome can be used to evaluate the dental health services. This study aimed to assess the extent to which den-tal treatment under general anesthesia affects quality of life of children and their families. Methods: One hundred parents of 3-10 year-old children who needed dental treatment under general anesthesia completed a parent-children perception questionnaire (P-CPQ and family impact scale (FIS before, and 4 weeks after dental treatment under general anesthesia. The questionnaire had statements related to oral health, functional limitation, emotional state and well being social well-being and family issues. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 11.5. Results: The mean scores and standard deviations of oral health quality of life of the children before and after dental treatment were 43.3 ± 7.14 and 39.24 ± 5.47 respectively. The mean scores of FIS before and after dental treatment were 8.00 ± 3.21 and 3.66 ± 2.62, respectively. The effect size of mean differences in P-CPQ and FIS scores were 1.84 ± 1.64 and 1.35 ± 4.34, respectively. Conclusion: Provision of dental treatment under general anesthesia for uncooperative, young chil-dren with extensive dental problems had significant effects on quality of life of both children and their families.

  15. Acute mental health care according to recent mental health legislation Part II. Activity-based costing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janse van Rensburg, A B; Jassat, W

    2011-03-01

    This is the second of three reports on the follow-up review of mental health care at Helen Joseph Hospital (HJH). Objectives for the review were to provide realistic estimates of cost for unit activities and to establish a quality assurance cycle that may facilitate cost centre management. The study described and used activity-based costing (ABC) as an approach to analyse the recurrent cost of acute in-patient care for the financial year 2007-08. Fixed (e.g. goods and services, staff salaries) and variable recurrent costs (including laboratory' 'pharmacy') were calculated. Cost per day, per user and per diagnostic group was calculated. While the unit accounted for 4.6% of the hospital's total clinical activity (patient days), the cost of R8.12 million incurred represented only 2.4% of the total hospital expenditure (R341.36 million). Fixed costs constituted 90% of the total cost. For the total number of 520 users that stayed on average 15.4 days, the average cost was R1,023.00 per day and R15748.00 per user. Users with schizophrenia accounted for the most (35%) of the cost, while the care of users with dementia was the most expensive (R23,360.68 per user). Costing of the application of World Health Organization norms for acute care staffing for the unit, projected an average increase of 103% in recurrent costs (R5.1 million), with the bulk (a 267% increase) for nursing. In the absence of other guidelines, aligning clinical activity with the proportion of the hospital's total budget may be an approach to determine what amount should be afforded to acute mental health in-patient care activities in a general regional hospital such as HJH. Despite the potential benefits of ABC, its continued application will require time, infrastructure and staff investment to establish the capacity to maintain routine annual cost analyses for different cost centres.

  16. Association of physical activity with future mental health in older, mid-life and younger women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Amanda; Kouvonen, Anne; Pentti, Jaana; Oksanen, Tuula; Virtanen, Marianna; Salo, Paula; Väänänen, Ari; Kivimäki, Mika; Vahtera, Jussi

    2014-10-01

    Mental ill-health, particularly depression and anxiety, is a leading and increasing cause of disability worldwide, especially for women. We examined the prospective association between physical activity and symptoms of mental ill-health in younger, mid-life and older working women. Participants were 26 913 women from the ongoing cohort Finnish Public Sector Study with complete data at two phases, excluding those who screened positive for mental ill-health at baseline. Mental health was assessed using the 12-item General Health Questionnaire. Self-reported physical activity was expressed in metabolic equivalent task (MET) hours per week. Logistic regression models were used to analyse associations between physical activity levels and subsequent mental health. There was an inverse dose-response relationship between physical activity and future symptoms of mental ill-health. This association is consistent with a protective effect of physical activity and remained after adjustments for socio-demographic, work-related and lifestyle factors, health and body mass index. Furthermore, those mid-life and older women who reported increased physical activity by more than 2 MET hours per week demonstrated a reduced risk of later mental ill-health in comparison with those who did not increase physical activity. This protective effect of increased physical activity did not hold for younger women. This study adds to the evidence for the protective effect of physical activity for later mental health in women. It also suggests that increasing physical activity levels may be beneficial in terms of mental health among mid-life and older women. The alleviation of menopausal symptoms may partly explain age effects but further research is required. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association.

  17. Social and productive activities and health among partnered older adults: A couple-level analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Jack; Bolano, Danilo

    2018-04-16

    We theorize and test the health of older adults as a result of their activity engagement, as well as a product of their spouse's engagement. We draw on 15 waves of couple-level data from the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia (HILDA) Survey. Using responses of time engaged in nine different activities, we estimate Latent Class Models to describe activity profiles of partnered older adults. Given potential health selections into activity engagement, we lag older adults' activity engagement by one wave to examine its association with subsequent health. We then investigate associations between the lag of the spouse's activities with respondents' health, controlling for their own activity engagement at the previous wave. We find four activity profiles for men, and three for women. Respondents who were predominantly engaged in community activities generally report better subsequent health. Beyond their own activity engagement, for both older men and women, having a partner who was also community engaged associate with better subsequent health, though for older women, there were little differences between having a husband who was community engaged or inactive. Our findings highlight the value of considering activities of partnered older adults at the couple level. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Mental Health in Multiple Sclerosis Patients without Limitation of Physical Function: The Role of Physical Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Tallner

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis (MS patients, in general, show reduced physical function, physical activity, and quality of life. Positive associations between physical activity and quality of life have been reported. In particular, we were interested in the relation between physical activity and mental health in MS patients without limitation of physical function, since limitations of physical function may influence both physical activity and quality of life. Assessment comprised the Baecke questionnaire on physical activity, the Short Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36, and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI. We ranked our sample according to physical activity into four groups and performed an ANOVA to analyze the relationship between levels of physical activity and health-related quality of life (HRQoL. Then we performed a subgroup analysis and included patients with unlimited walking distance and a score of less than 18 in the BDI. Most active vs. inactive patients were compared for the mental subscales of the SF-36 and depression scores. From 632 patients, 265 met inclusion criteria and hence quartiles were filled with 67 patients each. Active and inactive patients did not differ considerably in physical function. In contrast, mental subscales of the SF-36 were higher in active patients. Remarkable and significant differences were found regarding vitality, general health perception, social functioning and mental health, all in favor of physically active patients. Our study showed that higher physical activity is still associated with higher mental health scores even if limitations of physical function are accounted for. Therefore, we believe that physical activity and exercise have considerable health benefits for MS patients.

  19. Health state evaluation of an item: A general framework and graphical representation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, R.; Jardine, A.K.S.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a general theoretical framework to evaluate the health state of an item based on condition monitoring information. The item's health state is defined in terms of its relative health level and overall health level. The former is evaluated based on the relative magnitude of the composite covariate and the latter is evaluated using a fractile life of the residual life distribution at the decision instant. In addition, a method is developed to graphically represent the degradation model, failure threshold model, and the observation history of the composite covariate. As a result, the health state of the monitored item can be intuitively presented and the evaluated result can be subsequently used in a condition-based maintenance optimization decision model, which is amenable to computer modeling. A numerical example is included to illustrate the proposed approach and its appropriateness

  20. Academic Impact of a Public Electronic Health Database: Bibliometric Analysis of Studies Using the General Practice Research Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Chun; Wu, Jau-Ching; Haschler, Ingo; Majeed, Azeem; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Wetter, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Background Studies that use electronic health databases as research material are getting popular but the influence of a single electronic health database had not been well investigated yet. The United Kingdom's General Practice Research Database (GPRD) is one of the few electronic health databases publicly available to academic researchers. This study analyzed studies that used GPRD to demonstrate the scientific production and academic impact by a single public health database. Methodology and Findings A total of 749 studies published between 1995 and 2009 with ‘General Practice Research Database’ as their topics, defined as GPRD studies, were extracted from Web of Science. By the end of 2009, the GPRD had attracted 1251 authors from 22 countries and been used extensively in 749 studies published in 193 journals across 58 study fields. Each GPRD study was cited 2.7 times by successive studies. Moreover, the total number of GPRD studies increased rapidly, and it is expected to reach 1500 by 2015, twice the number accumulated till the end of 2009. Since 17 of the most prolific authors (1.4% of all authors) contributed nearly half (47.9%) of GPRD studies, success in conducting GPRD studies may accumulate. The GPRD was used mainly in, but not limited to, the three study fields of “Pharmacology and Pharmacy”, “General and Internal Medicine”, and “Public, Environmental and Occupational Health”. The UK and United States were the two most active regions of GPRD studies. One-third of GRPD studies were internationally co-authored. Conclusions A public electronic health database such as the GPRD will promote scientific production in many ways. Data owners of electronic health databases at a national level should consider how to reduce access barriers and to make data more available for research. PMID:21731733

  1. Physical activity and health promotion strategies among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: The findings revealed that 64% of the participants were physically active both within the work and recreation domains and 65% of the participants had good physical activity promoting practices. Discussing physical activity and giving out information regarding physical activity were most common methods used in ...

  2. Physical activity and health promotion strategies among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EB

    out information regarding physical activity were most common methods used in promotion of physical activity. Policies on ... highlighted. Conclusion: Although physiotherapists experience barriers to promoting physical activity, they have good physical activity .... workplace tended to vary from lack of books or articles on.

  3. Determinants related to gender differences in general practice utilization: Danish Diet, Cancer and Health Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørgensen, Jeanette Therming; Andersen, John Sahl; Tjønneland, Anne; Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic

    2016-09-01

    This study aims to describe the determinants related to gender differences in the GP utilization in Danish population aged 50-65 years. Cohort-based cross-sectional study. Danish general practice. Totally, 54,849 participants of the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health cohort (50-65 years). The sum of cohort members' face-to-face consultations with general practitioner (GP) at the cohort baseline year (1993-1997). We obtained data on GP visits from the Danish National Health Service Register at the cohort baseline (1993-1997), when information on lifestyle (smoking, body mass index (BMI), alcohol use, physical activity), medical conditions (somatic and mental), employment, education, gravidity, and hormone therapy (HT) use was collected by questionnaire. Women had on average 4.1 and men 2.8 consultations per year. In a crude model, women had 47% higher rate of GP visits than men (incidence rate ratio: 1.47; 95% Confidence Interval: 1.45-1.50), which remained unchanged after adjustment for lifestyle, socio-demographic and medical factors, but attenuated to 18% (1.18; 1.13-1.24) after adjustment for female factors (gravidity and post-menopausal HT. In a fully adjusted model, subjects with hypertension (1.63; 1.59-1.67), mental illness (1.63; 1.61-1.66), diabetes (1.56; 1.47-1.65), angina pectoris (1.28; 1.21-1.34), and unemployed persons (1.19; 1.18-1.21) had highest rates of GP visits. Gravidity and HT use explain a large proportion, but not all of the gender difference in GP utilization. Medical conditions (somatic and mental) and unemployment are the main determinants of GP utilization in men and women, while lifestyle has minor effect. Key points Female gender remained a dominant determinant of GP utilization, after adjustment for lifestyle, socio-demography, medical and gender specific factors, with females consulting their GP 18% more often than males. Female reproductive factors (use of postmenopausal hormone therapy and gravidity) explained a large proportion of

  4. Psychometrical Assessment and Item Analysis of the General Health Questionnaire in Victims of Terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Gomez, David; Lopez-Castroman, Jorge; de Leon-Martinez, Victoria; Baca-Garcia, Enrique; Cabanas-Arrate, Maria Luisa; Sanchez-Gonzalez, Antonio; Aguado, David

    2013-01-01

    There is a need to assess the psychiatric morbidity that appears as a consequence of terrorist attacks. The General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) has been used to this end, but its psychometric properties have never been evaluated in a population affected by terrorism. A sample of 891 participants included 162 direct victims of terrorist attacks and…

  5. How do life style factors relate to general health and overweight?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strien, T. van; Koenders, P.G.

    2012-01-01

    In this study we examined the associations between on the one hand the life style factors: Sports, Alcohol, Nutrition, Overweight and Smoking (SANOS), the eating styles of dietary restraint, external- and emotional eating and on the other hand overweight, energy at work and perceived general health.

  6. Religious Coping Styles, General Health, and Psychological Well-Being Among Mothers of Mentally Disabled Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Nikmanesh

    2018-03-01

    Discussion: The results of the current study suggest that the religious coping styles affect the general health among the mothers of mentally disabled children. This study also indicated that paying attention to the type of religious coping used by these mothers is essential.

  7. Nurse-led case management for ambulatory complex patients in general health care: A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Latour-Delfgaauw, C.H.M.; van der Windt, D.A.W.M.; de Jonge, P.; Riphagen, II; Vos, R.; Huyse, F.J.; Stalman, W.A.B.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to summarize the available literature on the effectiveness of ambulatory nurse-led case management for complex patients in general health care. Method: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, and Cinahl. We included randomized

  8. [The association between the presence of occupational health nurses at Japanese worksites and health promotion activities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanamori, Satoru; Kai, Yuko; Kawamata, Kayo; Kusumoto, Mari; Takamiya, Tomoko; Ohya, Yumiko; Odagiri, Yuko; Fukushima, Noritoshi; Inoue, Shigeru

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the association between the presence of occupational health nurses and health promotion activities, relative to the number of employees, and the health promotion policies of the companies. We investigated 3,266 companies with at least 50 employees listed on the Tokyo Stock Exchange. Questionnaires were sent by mail, and employees in charge of health management or promotion were asked about health promotion activities at their own worksites. Logistic regression analysis was performed with each type of health promotion activity (nutrition, exercise, sleep, mental health, smoking cessation, alcohol consumption reduction, and oral health) as dependent variables, and the presence of an occupational health nurse as the independent variable. The results were adjusted for the type of industry, total number of company employees, presence of company health promotion policies, and the presence of an occupational health physician. Responses were received from 415 companies (response rate: 12.7%). Occupational health nurses were present at 172 companies (41.4%). Health promotion activities such as (in order of frequency) mental health (295 companies, 71.1%), smoking cessation (133, 32.0%), exercise (99, 23.9%), nutrition (75, 18.1%), oral health (49, 11.8%), sleep (39, 9.4%), and alcohol consumption reduction (26, 6.3%) were being conducted. Setting worksites with no occupational health nurse as a reference, the odds ratios of each health promotion activity of a worksite with one or more occupational health nurses were calculated. The odds ratios of mental health (2.43, 95% confidence interval: 1.32-4.48), smoking cessation (3.70, 2.14-6.38), exercise (4.98, 2.65-9.35), nutrition (8.34, 3.86-18.03), oral health (4.25, 1.87-9.62), and alcohol consumption reduction (8.96, 2.24-35.92) were significant. Stratified analysis using the number of worksite employees, 499 or fewer and 500 or more, also showed significantly higher odds ratios of

  9. Models and Theories of Health Education and Health Promotion in Physical Activity Interventions for Women: a Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mohammad Mehdi Hazavehei

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The present study as a systematic review investigated and analyzed interventions based on models and theories of health education and promotion in the field of physical activity in women. Materials and Methods: Three electronic databases, including Springer, Biomed Central and Science Direct were searched systematically. Only studies were selected that were quantitative, interventional and in English language as well as those that used at least one of the models and theories of health education and health promotion. Finally, 13 studies were reviewed that met the inclusion criteria and published from 2000 to 2013. Results: Of 13 studies reviewed, 10 studies measured levels of physical activity before and after the intervention, which nine interventions increased physical activity in the intervention group compared to the control group. Studies were conducted in different settings of health promotion including health care centers, community setting and workplace. The most widely used model was the Transtheoretical Model applied in eight of investigations. Conclusion: It is suggested to focus more on physical activity and duration of interventions to increase the efficacy of interventions. It is suggested to measure changes of physical activity habits in experimental and control groups in interventions based on the transtheoretical model to prepare a complementary scale to assess the efficacy of interventions. According to the results, no study had focused on changes in institutional policies or general health or providing changes in environment related to physical activity.

  10. The Subjective Well-Being Method of Valuation: An Application to General Health Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Timothy T

    2015-12-01

    To introduce the subjective well-being (SWB) method of valuation and provide an example by valuing health status. The SWB method allows monetary valuations to be performed in the absence of market relationships. Data are from the 1975-2010 General Social Survey. The value of health status is determined via the estimation of an implicit derivative based on a happiness equation. Two-stage least-squares was used to estimate happiness as a function of poor-to-fair health status, annual household income adjusted for household size, age, sex, race, marital status, education, year, and season. Poor-to-fair health status and annual household income are instrumented using a proxy for intelligence, a temporal version of the classic distance instrument, and the average health status of individuals who are demographically similar but geographically separated. Instrument validity is evaluated. Moving from good/excellent health to poor/fair health (1 year of lower health status) is equivalent to the loss of $41,654 of equivalized household income (2010 constant dollars) per annum, which is larger than median equivalized household income. The SWB method may be useful in making monetary valuations where fundamental market relationships are not present. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  11. Crosstalk between oral and general health status in e-smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatullo, Marco; Gentile, Stefano; Paduano, Francesco; Santacroce, Luigi; Marrelli, Massimo

    2016-12-01

    Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) simulates the act of tobacco smoking by vaporizing a mixture of propylene glycol, nicotine, and flavoring agents. e-cigarette has been proposed as a product able to aid to stop smoking. The aim of the study is to verify the clinical variations of periodontal health induced by e-cigarettes use and, moreover, to investigate about the awareness of the e-smokers about their health variations and about their hypothetical need to turn back to smoke combustible cigarettes.This clinical observational pilot study involved 110 out of 350 smokers, who switched to e-cigarette. Patients were subjected to oral examinations. A questionnaire to self-assess the variations of some parameters of general health, and to self-assess the need to smoke combustible cigarettes, was distributed to such subjects involved in the study.At the end of the study, we registered a progressive improvement in the periodontal indexes, as well as in the general health perception. Finally, many patients reported an interesting reduction in the need to smoke.In the light of this pilot study, the e-cigarette can be considered as a valuable alternative to tobacco cigarettes, but with a positive impact on periodontal and general health status.

  12. General practitioners’ views on leadership roles and challenges in primary health care: a qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spehar, Ivan; Sjøvik, Hege; Karevold, Knut Ivar; Rosvold, Elin Olaug; Frich, Jan C.

    2017-01-01

    Objective To explore general practitioners’ (GPs) views on leadership roles and leadership challenges in general practice and primary health care. Design We conducted focus groups (FGs) with 17 GPs. Setting Norwegian primary health care. Subjects 17 GPs who attended a 5 d course on leadership in primary health care. Results Our study suggests that the GPs experience a need for more preparation and formal training for the leadership role, and that they experienced tensions between the clinical and leadership role. GPs recognized the need to take on leadership roles in primary care, but their lack of leadership training and credentials, and the way in which their practices were organized and financed were barriers towards their involvement. Conclusions GPs experience tensions between the clinical and leadership role and note a lack of leadership training and awareness. There is a need for a more structured educational and career path for GPs, in which doctors are offered training and preparation in advance. Key points Little is known about doctors’ experiences and views about leadership in general practice and primary health care. Our study suggests that: There is a lack of preparation and formal training for the leadership role. GPs experience tensions between the clinical and leadership role. GPs recognize leadership challenges at a system level and that doctors should take on leadership roles in primary health care. PMID:28277051

  13. General practitioners' views on leadership roles and challenges in primary health care: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spehar, Ivan; Sjøvik, Hege; Karevold, Knut Ivar; Rosvold, Elin Olaug; Frich, Jan C

    2017-03-01

    To explore general practitioners' (GPs) views on leadership roles and leadership challenges in general practice and primary health care. We conducted focus groups (FGs) with 17 GPs. Norwegian primary health care. 17 GPs who attended a 5 d course on leadership in primary health care. Our study suggests that the GPs experience a need for more preparation and formal training for the leadership role, and that they experienced tensions between the clinical and leadership role. GPs recognized the need to take on leadership roles in primary care, but their lack of leadership training and credentials, and the way in which their practices were organized and financed were barriers towards their involvement. GPs experience tensions between the clinical and leadership role and note a lack of leadership training and awareness. There is a need for a more structured educational and career path for GPs, in which doctors are offered training and preparation in advance. KEY POINTS Little is known about doctors' experiences and views about leadership in general practice and primary health care. Our study suggests that: There is a lack of preparation and formal training for the leadership role. GPs experience tensions between the clinical and leadership role. GPs recognize leadership challenges at a system level and that doctors should take on leadership roles in primary health care.

  14. African Journal for Physical Activity and Health Sciences - Vol 18 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal for Physical, Health Education, Recreation and Dance. ... Association between physical activity level and demographic variables in patients with ... activity participation among university students and variation in terms of gender ...

  15. A cross-sectional study of self-reported general health, lifestyle factors, and disease: the Hordaland Health Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randi Jepsen

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background. Information on self-reported health is important for health professionals, and the aim of this study was to examine associations between lifestyle factors and self-reported health and the mediating effect of disease in a Norwegian population.Methods and Materials. The data collection was conducted as part of the Hordaland Health Study (HUSK 1997–99, which was a cross-sectional epidemiological study. All individuals in Hordaland county born in 1953–1957 were invited to participate (aged 40–44 years. Complete information for the present study was obtained from 12,883 individuals (44% response rate. Height and weight were measured at a physical examination. Information on lifestyle factors, self-reported health, disease (heart attack, apoplexy, angina pectoris, and diabetes, and socio-demographic variables was obtained from a self-administered questionnaire. Self-reported health was measured with a one-item question. Odds ratios for fair or poor self-reported health were calculated using multiple logistic regression analyses adjusted for disease and socio-demographic variables.Results. Respondents reporting adverse lifestyle behaviours (obesity (odds ratio (OR 1.7, p < 0.001, smoking (OR 1.2, p < 0.001, or excessive intake of alcohol (OR 3.3, p < 0.001 showed an increased risk of poor self-reported health. Furthermore, a moderate intake of wine (OR 0.6, p < 0.001 or strenuous physical activity (OR 0.5, p < 0.001 decreased the risk of poor health. Disease did not mediate the effect.Conclusion. A one-item question measuring self-reported health may be a suitable measure for health professionals to identify levels of subjective health and reveal a need to target lifestyle factors in relatively young individuals with or without disease.

  16. Patient Activation and Mental Health Care Experiences Among Women Veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimerling, Rachel; Pavao, Joanne; Wong, Ava

    2016-07-01

    We utilized a nationally representative survey of women veteran primary care users to examine associations between patient activation and mental health care experiences. A dose-response relationship was observed, with odds of high quality ratings significantly greater at each successive level of patient activation. Higher activation levels were also significantly associated with preference concordant care for gender-related preferences (use of female providers, women-only settings, and women-only groups as often as desired). Results add to the growing literature documenting better health care experiences among more activated patients, and suggest that patient activation may play an important role in promoting engagement with mental health care.

  17. The intersection of gender and place in online health activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldner, Melinda; Hale, Timothy M; Cotten, Shelia R; Stern, Michael J; Drentea, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    This study examines how rurality and gender are related to online health activities. Rural women face greater health risks and yet have access to a weaker health system infrastructure, which has resulted in a health disadvantage. New health information technologies may ameliorate some of these disparities; thus, the authors examine the relevance of gender and place in going online to search for health information, buy medicines, participate in health-related support groups, communicate with physicians, or maintain a personal health record. Analyzing data from the National Cancer Institute's 2007 Health Information National Trends Survey, the authors found that the relations between rurality and gender vary, depending on the specific type of online health activity, and that gender may be a more salient factor than rurality in determining whether individuals engage in particular types of online health activities. This study contributes to the literature by examining how gender and place are related to online health activities, a combined area neglected in past research, and advancing research on gender and technology. This research highlights the importance of expanding high-speed access in rural locations, increasing technological and health literacy, and tailoring the Internet to specific populations.

  18. General practice integration in Australia. Primary health services provider and consumer perceptions of barriers and solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleby, N J; Dunt, D; Southern, D M; Young, D

    1999-08-01

    To identify practical examples of barriers and possible solutions to improve general practice integration with other health service providers. Twelve focus groups, including one conducted by teleconference, were held across Australia with GPs and non GP primary health service providers between May and September, 1996. Focus groups were embedded within concept mapping sessions, which were used to conceptually explore the meaning of integration in general practice. Data coding, organising and analysis were based on the techniques documented by Huberman and Miles. Barriers to integration were perceived to be principally due to the role and territory disputes between the different levels of government and their services, the manner in which the GP's role is currently defined, and the system of GP remuneration. Suggestions on ways to improve integration involved two types of strategies. The first involves initiatives implemented 'top down' through major government reform to service structures, including the expansion of the role of divisions of general practice, and structural changes to the GP remuneration systems. The second type of strategy suggested involves initiatives implemented from the 'bottom up' involving services such as hospitals (e.g. additional GP liaison positions) and the use of information technology to link services and share appropriate patient data. The findings support the need for further research and evaluation of initiatives aimed at achieving general practice integration at a systems level. There is little evidence to suggest which types of initiatives improve integration. However, general practice has been placed in the centre of the health care debate and is likely to remain central to the success of such initiatives. Clarification of the future role and authority of general practice will therefore be required if such integrative strategies are to be successful at a wider health system level.

  19. Perceived health status and daily activity participation of older Malaysians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Sor Tho; Tengku-Aizan, Hamid; Tey, Nai Peng

    2011-07-01

    This article investigates the influence of perceived health status on the daily activity participation of older Malaysians. Data from the Survey on Perceptions of Needs and Problems of the Elderly, which was conducted in 1999, were used. The negative binomial regression results show that older persons with good perceived health status reported more varieties of daily activity participation, especially among the uneducated and those with below-average self-esteem. The multinomial logistic regression model suggests that older persons with good perceived health status tended to engage daily in paid work only or with leisure activities, whereas those perceived to have poor health were more likely to engage in leisure activities only or leisure and family role activities. Promotion of a healthy lifestyle at a younger age encourages every person to monitor and take responsibility for their own health, which is a necessary strategy to ensure active participation at an older age, and thus improve their well-being.

  20. The Effect of Electromagnetic Waves on the General Health of Zahedan Gas Power Plant Personnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fereydoon Laal

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: With ever improving technology and increasing the use of high voltage power in industrial environments, concerns about the destructive effects of electromagnetic waves on human health have increased. Thus the present study aims to evaluate the effects of electromagnetic waves on the general health of Zahedan gas power plant personnel. Materials & Method: The present case-control study investigated the health of people at one point of time and their amount of exposure to electromagnetic waves at the same time. The data collection tool in this study was 28-item general health questionnaire (GHQ-28. After measuring the electromagnetic waves at distances of 1, 1.5 and 3 meters at high voltage power substations and data extraction, the data were entered to SPSS software and analyzed by descriptive statistics, t-test and chi-square. Results: In this study, the age and experience variables were not significantly different in two groups (p> 0.05. The highest magnetic fields in high voltage power substations was at a distance of 1 meter in the substation 607 (28/1 mG and in precision tool work units (7.03 mG. The results showed that the depressive and general health symptoms were significantly different between the exposed and unexposed groups (p = 0.04, however the difference was not significant in terms of physical performance, anxiety and social performance (p> 0.05. Conclusion: although the level of exposure was lower than standard level determined in Iran, the significant difference of the general health and depression between the two groups, explains the necessity of conducting more studies in this regard. Also by reducing the exposure time and increasing people’s awareness it is possible to take important steps to reduce exposure and complications.

  1. IMPROVEMENT OF ECONOMIC COMPETENCE OF HEADS OF SECONDARY EDUCATION FOR EFFECTIVE ACTIVITY OF GENERAL SCHOOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymyr V. Dyvak

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In the article the actual problem of improvement of economic competence of professional work of directors of schools for more efficient control of activity of general schools is considered.

  2. Detection of sequential activation of left atrium and coronary sinus musculature in the general population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaki Ota, MD

    2016-12-01

    Conclusions: Far-field LA potentials are often recorded in the CS during sequential LA and CSM activation in the general population. The timing of LA potentials in CS recordings reflected the direction of conduction across the CSM.

  3. A general approach toward enhancement of pseudocapacitive performance of conducting polymers by redox-active electrolytes

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Wei; Xia, Chuan; Baby, Rakhi Raghavan; Alshareef, Husam N.

    2014-01-01

    A general approach is demonstrated where the pseudocapacitive performance of different conducting polymers is enhanced in redox-active electrolytes. The concept is demonstrated using several electroactive conducting polymers, including polyaniline

  4. Health literacy in elderly in Northern Norway- association with socioeconomic status and general health/oral health

    OpenAIRE

    Thoresen, Therese

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate whether oral health and health literacy are associated which diseases, medication, self- reported health/oral health and socioeconomic factors in a group of people ranging from 50 to 80 years of age. Materials and methods: The study consisted of 61 patients, 27 men (52-78 years; M=61.6 years) and 34 women (51-80 years; M=61.0 years). They had oral examination including dentition status by DMFT (decayed, missed, filled teeth), plaque index...

  5. [Differences in risk factors for disease and health problems between monks and the general population in The Netherlands].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Meel, D; de Vrij, J H; Kunst, A E; Mackenbach, J P

    1992-08-08

    The aim of this study was to determine whether the austerely living Trappist and Benedictine monks have a lower prevalence of a number of risk factors and health problems than the general Dutch population. A written questionnaire was submitted to monks of 7 monasteries. The response was 67 per cent (134 monks). The data were compared with data from the national Health Interview Survey of 1989, which used an almost identical questionnaire. Adjustment was made for differences in age and education. Monks consume less alcohol and tobacco and have a more austere diet. Their average Quetelet index is lower. The prevalence of cardiovascular disease is lower. On the other hand, monks more often report a number of other chronic diseases, physical complaints, and problems with activities of daily life. They more often have contact with general practitioners and with consultants. The lower prevalence of a number of risk factors among monks reflects their austere way of life. It is not certain whether the lower prevalence of cardiovascular diseases can be attributed to this way of life. The fact that, in general, health problems are more prevalent among monks suggests that changes in lifestyle do not necessarily lead to compression of morbidity.

  6. Quality of life and impact of physical activity time in the health of elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lícia Ludendorff Queiroz

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the quality of life, through the “Medical Outcomes Study 36 - Item Short - Form Health Survey” (SF-36 questionnaire, of a group of elderly involved in physical activities scheduled and the impact of physical activity time. Methods: We assessed 143 elderly engaged in physical activity programmed by Universidade Federal de Uberlândia. As a data collection tool, we used the SF-36 and a sociodemographic questionnaire, applied at the time of the interview. Statistical analysis was performed using Kruskal-Wallis, for analysis between domains, and Mann-Whitney test, to verify the relationship between health status and physical activity level. Results: The average age was 70.5 years. The mean score for the SF-36 of the elderly people who participated in the research was 73.3. The best result was in the Social Aspects domain (81.7, followed by Mental Health (78.9. Approximately 76% had at least 150 minutes of physical activity per week, being classified as a more active population. Most (70.6% of the elderly had a good perception of their general health. There was statistical difference in the General Health domain among groups that performed physical activity for a period of less than one year and those who have been engaging in regular physical activity for over 10 years. Conclusions: The Social Function and Mental Health domains had the highest scores, with significant documentation of a better general health in the group that have practiced consecutive physical activity for over ten years.

  7. Special Education in General Education Classrooms: Cooperative Teaching Using Supportive Learning Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Robin R.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Supportive learning activities were implemented in a multiple-baseline time series design across four fifth-grade classrooms to evaluate the effects of a cooperative teaching alternative (supportive learning) on teaching behavior, the behavior and grades of general and special education students, and the opinions of general education teachers.…

  8. Physical Activity: A Tool for Improving Health (Part 1--Biological Health Benefits)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallaway, Patrick J.; Hongu, Nobuko

    2015-01-01

    Extension educators have been promoting and incorporating physical activities into their community-based programs and improving the health of individuals, particularly those with limited resources. This article is the first of a three-part series describing the benefits of physical activity for human health: 1) biological health benefits of…

  9. Physical Activity: A Tool for Improving Health (Part 2-Mental Health Benefits)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallaway, Patrick J.; Hongu, Nobuko

    2016-01-01

    By promoting physical activities and incorporating them into their community-based programs, Extension professionals are improving the health of individuals, particularly those with limited resources. This article is the second in a three-part series describing the benefits of physical activity for human health: (1) biological health benefits of…

  10. The waiting room: vector for health education? The general practitioner's point of view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gignon, Maxine; Idris, Hadjila; Manaouil, Cecile; Ganry, Oliver

    2012-09-18

    General practitioners (GPs) play a central role in disseminating information and most health policies are tending to develop this pivotal role of GPs in dissemination of health-related information to the public. The objective of this study was to evaluate use of the waiting room by GPs as a vector for health promotion. A cross-sectional study was conducted on a representative sample of GPs using semi-structured, face-to-face interviews. A structured grid was used to describe the documents. Quantitative and qualitative analysis was performed. Sixty GPs participated in the study. They stated that a waiting room had to be pleasant, but agreed that it was a useful vector for providing health information. The GPs stated that they distributed documents designed to improve patient care by encouraging screening, providing health education information and addressing delicate subjects more easily. However, some physicians believed that this information can sometimes make patients more anxious. A large number of documents were often available, covering a variety of topics. General practitioners intentionally use their waiting rooms to disseminate a broad range of health-related information, but without developing a clearly defined strategy. It would be interesting to correlate the topics addressed by waiting room documents with prevention practices introduced during the visit.

  11. Social capital and self-reported general and mental health in nine Former Soviet Union countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goryakin, Yevgeniy; Suhrcke, Marc; Rocco, Lorenzo; Roberts, Bayard; McKee, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Social capital has been proposed as a potentially important contributor to health, yet most of the existing research tends to ignore the challenge of assessing causality in this relationship. We deal with this issue by employing various instrumental variable estimation techniques. We apply the analysis to a set of nine former Soviet countries, using a unique multi-country household survey specifically designed for this region. Our results confirm that there appears to be a causal association running from several dimensions of individual social capital to general and mental health. Individual trust appears to be more strongly related to general health, while social isolation- to mental health. In addition, social support and trust seem to be more important determinants of health than the social capital dimensions that facilitate solidarity and collective action. Our findings are remarkably robust to a range of different specifications, including the use of instrumental variables. Certain interaction effects are also found: for instance, untrusting people who live in communities with higher aggregate level of trust are even less likely to experience good health than untrusting people living in the reference communities.

  12. Implementing the Mental Health Act 2007 in British general practice: Lessons from Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabbar, Faraz; Doherty, Anne M; Aziz, Muniba; Kelly, Brendan D

    2011-01-01

    Changes in mental health legislation (e.g. Mental Health Act 2007 in England and Wales, Mental Health Act 2001 in Ireland) have generally improved adherence to international human rights standards, but also present challenges to primary care providers. When mental health legislation was substantially reformed in Ireland, 62.9% of general practitioners (GPs) felt the new legislation was not user-friendly. Majorities of GPs who felt the legislation affected their practice reported increased workloads (85%) and various other difficulties (53%). GPs who had received training about the legislation were more likely to find it user-friendly (43% versus 30.9%), and informal training (e.g. from colleagues) was just as likely as formal training to be associated with a GP finding it user-friendly. With similar changes to mental health legislation being introduced in England and Wales, it is significant that informal training is just as good as formal training in helping GPs work with new mental health legislation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Internet and Social Media For Health-Related Information and Communication in Health Care: Preferences of the Dutch General Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelen, Lucien JLPG; Berben, Sivera AA; Teerenstra, Steven; Samsom, Melvin; Schoonhoven, Lisette

    2013-01-01

    Background Health care is increasingly featured by the use of Web 2.0 communication and collaborative technologies that are reshaping the way patients and professionals interact. These technologies or tools can be used for a variety of purposes: to instantly debate issues, discover news, analyze research, network with peers, crowd-source information, seek support, and provide advice. Not all tools are implemented successfully; in many cases, the nonusage attrition rates are high. Little is known about the preferences of the Dutch general population regarding the use of the Internet and social media in health care. Objective To determine the preferences of the general population in the Netherlands regarding the use of the Internet and social media in health care. Methods A cross-sectional survey was disseminated via a popular Dutch online social network. Respondents were asked where they searched for health-related information, how they qualified the value of different sources, and their preferences regarding online communication with health care providers. Results were weighed for the Dutch population based on gender, age, and level of education using official statistics. Numbers and percentages or means and standard deviations were presented for different subgroups. One-way ANOVA was used to test for statistical differences. Results The survey was completed by 635 respondents. The Internet was found to be the number one source for health-related information (82.7%), closely followed by information provided by health care professionals (71.1%). Approximately one-third (32.3%) of the Dutch population search for ratings of health care providers. The most popular information topics were side effects of medication (62.5%) and symptoms (59.7%). Approximately one-quarter of the Dutch population prefer to communicate with a health care provider via social media (25.4%), and 21.2% would like to communicate via a webcam. Conclusions The Internet is the main source of health

  14. Internet and social media for health-related information and communication in health care: preferences of the Dutch general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van de Belt, Tom H; Engelen, Lucien J L P G; Berben, Sivera A A; Teerenstra, Steven; Samsom, Melvin; Schoonhoven, Lisette

    2013-10-02

    Health care is increasingly featured by the use of Web 2.0 communication and collaborative technologies that are reshaping the way patients and professionals interact. These technologies or tools can be used for a variety of purposes: to instantly debate issues, discover news, analyze research, network with peers, crowd-source information, seek support, and provide advice. Not all tools are implemented successfully; in many cases, the nonusage attrition rates are high. Little is known about the preferences of the Dutch general population regarding the use of the Internet and social media in health care. To determine the preferences of the general population in the Netherlands regarding the use of the Internet and social media in health care. A cross-sectional survey was disseminated via a popular Dutch online social network. Respondents were asked where they searched for health-related information, how they qualified the value of different sources, and their preferences regarding online communication with health care providers. Results were weighed for the Dutch population based on gender, age, and level of education using official statistics. Numbers and percentages or means and standard deviations were presented for different subgroups. One-way ANOVA was used to test for statistical differences. The survey was completed by 635 respondents. The Internet was found to be the number one source for health-related information (82.7%), closely followed by information provided by health care professionals (71.1%). Approximately one-third (32.3%) of the Dutch population search for ratings of health care providers. The most popular information topics were side effects of medication (62.5%) and symptoms (59.7%). Approximately one-quarter of the Dutch population prefer to communicate with a health care provider via social media (25.4%), and 21.2% would like to communicate via a webcam. The Internet is the main source of health-related information for the Dutch population

  15. Personal stigma and use of mental health services among people with depression in a general population in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuulari Jyrki

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A minority of people suffering from depression seek professional help for themselves. Stigmatizing attitudes are assumed to be one of the major barriers to help seeking but there is only limited evidence of this in large general population data sets. The aim of this study was to analyze the associations between mental health attitude statements and depression and their links to actual use of mental health services among those with depression. Methods We used a large cross-sectional data set from a Finnish population survey (N = 5160. Attitudes were measured by scales which measured the belief that people with depression are responsible for their illness and their recovery and attitudes towards antidepressants. Desire for social distance was measured by a scale and depression with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview Short Form (CIDI-SF instrument. Use of mental health services was measured by self-report. Results On the social discrimination scale, people with depression showed more social tolerance towards people with mental problems. They also carried more positive views about antidepressants. Among those with depression, users of mental health services, as compared to non-users, carried less desire for social distance to people with mental health problems and more positive views about the effects of antidepressants. More severe depression predicted more active use of services. Conclusions Although stronger discriminative intentions can reduce the use of mental health services, this does not necessarily prevent professional service use if depression is serious and views about antidepressant medication are realistic.

  16. [Psychological benefits of physical activity for optimal mental health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poirel, Emmanuel

    Mental health is a worldwide public health concern, as can be seen from the WHO's comprehensive mental health action plan 2013-2020 which was adopted by the 66th World Health Assembly. According to the Mental health commission of Canada (2012), one in five Canadians will personally experience a mental illness in their lifetime, and the WHO shows that mental illness represents the second most prevalent risk of morbidity after heart disease. Physical activity certainly provides an answer to this problem. Physical activity has been shown to improve physical health but it is also one of the most natural and accessible means to improve mental health. The aim of the present article is to propose a biopsychosocial model on the basis of a literature review on the psychological benefits of physical activity. In view of the findings we assume that physical activity increases mental well-being and optimal mental health as opposed to poor mental health. Hence, physical activity provides a state of well-being that enables individuals to realize their own potential, and that helps to cope with the normal stresses of life or adversity. The model certainly opens the way for research and new hypothesis, but it also aims at the promotion of the benefits of physical activity on psychological well-being for optimal mental health.

  17. Public health genetic counselors: activities, skills, and sources of learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWalter, Kirsty M; Sdano, Mallory R; Dave, Gaurav; Powell, Karen P; Callanan, Nancy

    2015-06-01

    Specialization within genetic counseling is apparent, with 29 primary specialties listed in the National Society of Genetic Counselors' 2012 Professional Status Survey (PSS). PSS results show a steady proportion of genetic counselors primarily involved in public health, yet do not identify all those performing public health activities. Little is known about the skills needed to perform activities outside of "traditional" genetic counselor roles and the expertise needed to execute those skills. This study aimed to identify genetic counselors engaging in public health activities, the skills used, and the most influential sources of learning for those skills. Participants (N = 155) reported involvement in several public health categories: (a) Education of Public and/or Health Care Providers (n = 80, 52 %), (b) Population-Based Screening Programs (n = 70, 45 %), (c) Lobbying/Public Policy (n = 62, 40 %), (d) Public Health Related Research (n = 47, 30 %), and (e) State Chronic Disease Programs (n = 12, 8 %). Regardless of category, "on the job" was the most common primary source of learning. Genetic counseling training program was the most common secondary source of learning. Results indicate that the number of genetic counselors performing public health activities is likely higher than PSS reports, and that those who may not consider themselves "public health genetic counselors" do participate in public health activities. Genetic counselors learn a diverse skill set in their training programs; some skills are directly applicable to public health genetics, while other public health skills require additional training and/or knowledge.

  18. For a General Theory of Health: preliminary epistemological and anthropological notes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almeida Filho Naomar de

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to conduct a preliminary evaluation of the conditions allowing for a General Theory of Health, the author explores two important structural dimensions of the scientific health field: the socio-anthropological dimension and the epistemological dimension. As a preliminary semantic framework, he adopts the following definitions in English and Portuguese for two series of meanings: disease = patologia, disorder = transtorno, illness = enfermidade, sickness = doença, and malady = moléstia. He begins by discussing some sociological theories and biomedical concepts of health-disease, which, despite their limitations, can be used as a point of departure for this undertaking, given the dialectical and multidimensional nature of the disease-illness-sickness complex (DIS. Second, he presents and evaluates some underlying socio-anthropological theories of disease, taking advantage of the opportunity to highlight the semeiologic treatment of health-disease through the theory of "signs, meanings, and health practices". Third, he analyzes several epistemological issues relating to the Health theme, seeking to justify its status as a scientific object. Finally, the author focuses the discussion on a proposal to systematize various health concepts as an initial stage for the theoretical construction of the Collective Health field.

  19. For a General Theory of Health: preliminary epistemological and anthropological notes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomar de Almeida Filho

    Full Text Available In order to conduct a preliminary evaluation of the conditions allowing for a General Theory of Health, the author explores two important structural dimensions of the scientific health field: the socio-anthropological dimension and the epistemological dimension. As a preliminary semantic framework, he adopts the following definitions in English and Portuguese for two series of meanings: disease = patologia, disorder = transtorno, illness = enfermidade, sickness = doença, and malady = moléstia. He begins by discussing some sociological theories and biomedical concepts of health-disease, which, despite their limitations, can be used as a point of departure for this undertaking, given the dialectical and multidimensional nature of the disease-illness-sickness complex (DIS. Second, he presents and evaluates some underlying socio-anthropological theories of disease, taking advantage of the opportunity to highlight the semeiologic treatment of health-disease through the theory of "signs, meanings, and health practices". Third, he analyzes several epistemological issues relating to the Health theme, seeking to justify its status as a scientific object. Finally, the author focuses the discussion on a proposal to systematize various health concepts as an initial stage for the theoretical construction of the Collective Health field.

  20. Active Ways to Teach Health Concepts in the Elementary Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Julie

    2015-01-01

    This article provides three movement-based activities for teaching health concepts to elementary school students. Two activities focus on nutrition concepts and the other focuses on teaching body systems. Diagrams are provided to show the setup of activities, as well as links for accessing materials to help implement the activities.

  1. The radiation protection programme activities of the World Health Organization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komarov, E.; Suess, M.J.

    1980-01-01

    The radiation protection activities of the World Health Organization are reviewed. They include studies of radiation protection standards and guidelines, and public health aspects of nuclear power. WHO also provides member states with world data on radioactivity in air, water and food, and assessments of population exposure and health effects. (H.K.)

  2. A manual for promoting health activity at work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wynne, R.; Clarkin, N.; Urlings, I.; Gründemann, R.W.M.; Jorda, C.; Moncada, S.; Lundberg, B.

    1996-01-01

    This methodology has been developed to help organisations increase their level of health activity in a planned and systematic way. There are many good reasons for undertaking health improvement actions in the workplace, not all of them related to the benefits of improved health. Research undertaken

  3. Physical activity in relation to selected physical health components ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to determine the relation between physical activity and selected physical health components. A total of 9860 employees of a financial institution in South Africa, between the ages 18 and 64 (x̄ =35.3 ± 18.6 years), voluntary participated in the study. Health risk factors and physical activity was ...

  4. The Validation of the Active Learning in Health Professions Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammer, Rebecca; Schreiner, Laurie; Kim, Young K.; Denial, Aurora

    2015-01-01

    There is a need for an assessment tool for evaluating the effectiveness of active learning strategies such as problem-based learning in promoting deep learning and clinical reasoning skills within the dual environments of didactic and clinical settings in health professions education. The Active Learning in Health Professions Scale (ALPHS)…

  5. Engaging Students in Large Health Classes with Active Learning Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Steven; Combs, Sue; Huelskamp, Amelia; Hritz, Nancy

    2017-01-01

    Creative K-12 health teachers can engage students in large classes by utilizing active learning strategies. Active learning involves engaging students in higher-order tasks, such as analysis and synthesis, which is a crucial element of the movement toward what is commonly called "learner-centered" teaching. Health education teachers who…

  6. [Mental Health in the General Hospital: Results of the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ) in Four Hospital Services].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Camacho, Leonidas; Escobar, Juan Manuel; Sáenz-Moncaleano, Camilo; Delgado-Barrera, Lucía; Aparicio-Turbay, Soraya; Molano, Juan Carlos; Noguera, Efraín

    2012-03-01

    Few individuals have access to mental health services due in part to underdetection. As it is more likely to consult for medical conditions, primary care may be a useful gateway for early detection of mental health problems. Detection of the frequency of mental health problems in four hospital services at the Fundación Santa Fe de Bogotá: Outpatient unit, hospitalization, emergency department, and primary care through a brief detection questionnaire, the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ). Cross-sectional study of patients seen at the four services who answered a Demographic Data Questionnaire and the PHQ together with information gathered about current medical diagnosis, history of visits, and hospitalizations during the last year. 1094 patients seen at the four hospital services between September 2010 and May 2011 were selected at random. A mental health problem was detected in 36.7% of the total sample. Major depressive disorder (7.3%), alcohol abuse (14.4%), and any anxiety disorder (7.7%) showed the highest prevalence with the emergency department showing the highest frequency of detection. The usefulness of a brief detection questionnaire such as the PHQ in hospital settings is demonstrated and implications in the design of mental health programs in the general hospital are discussed. The need to replicate this study in other settings and to undertake further research is outlined. Copyright © 2012 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  7. The clinical features of EDNOS: relationship to mood, health status and general functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Hannah; Bryant-Waugh, Rachel; Peveler, Robert

    2010-04-01

    Eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS) remains poorly evaluated in terms of eating disorder features and relationship to mood, health status and general functioning. This study investigated the clinical profiles of a sample of EDNOS patients, and how they compared to patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN). The sample consisted of 178 patients. All completed the Eating Disorder Examination, Beck Depression Inventory, Work and Social Adjustment Scale and Sf-36. ANOVAs were conducted to explore group differences. No differences were found for depression. No differences were found between BN and EDNOS on measures of health status and general functioning. AN patients reported greater role limitations due to physical health and experienced greater physical pain compared with BN or EDNOS patients, and reported poorer social functioning, lower vitality and higher functional impairment compared with EDNOS patients. EDNOS patients are generally no less clinically impaired than those with BN. However AN patients may be more impaired in some aspects of general functioning compared with BN or EDNOS patients. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Practice nurse and health visitor management of acute minor illness in a general practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard, A; Kendrick, D

    2001-11-01

    To evaluate practice nurse (PN) and health visitor (HV) management of patients with acute minor illnesses, monitor the effect on general practitioner (GP) workload, and describe the range of conditions seen by nurses. Patients requesting 'urgent' appointments (within 24 hours) were offered consultations with a PN or HV trained in the management of acute minor illness. Comparative data were collected before and after the establishment of the acute minor illness service. A general practice in Nottingham, England. Patient satisfaction, consultation rate, prescriptions, investigations, referrals and urgent re-consultations for the same condition within 2 weeks. About 2056 urgent consultations were recorded in the study period, of which 332 (16.1%) were seen by PNs and 46 (2.2%) by a HV. High levels of patient satisfaction were reported for all health professionals. Patients seeing the HV reported higher levels of satisfaction than those consulting GPs (P=0.033) and PNs (P=0.010). There was no difference by health professional for prescription rates (P=0.76), re-consultations (P=0.14), or referrals to secondary care (P=0.07). General practitioners were more likely to initiate further investigations than the PNs or HV (P manage patients with a range of conditions. General practitioner workload can be reduced while maintaining high patient satisfaction levels.

  9. Report of Activity, 1996 - 1997. Vol. 3. General activities - Technical Research; Rapport d`activite 1996 - 1997. Tome 3. Activites generales - Recherches techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pouthas, Joel; Hutin, Christiane; Niogret Mathias [eds.] [Inst. de Physique Nucleaire, Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France)

    1999-11-01

    This is the third tome of the Report of Activity of IPN - Orsay on 1996-1997. It deals with general activities and technical research. Summary reports and short communications are grouped in the following sections: 1 - Accelerators with the sub-divisions 1.1 - R and D on superconducting RF cavities; 1.2 - SPIRAL Project; 1.3 - Contribution to the LHC Project; 1.4 - Tandem; 2 - Targets, Sources and Injectors; 3 - Detectors and related instrumentation; 4 - Electronics; 5 - Data processing; 6 - Radioprotection and medical applications

  10. Sexual violence associated with poor mental health in women attending Australian general practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarzia, Laura; Maxwell, Sarah; Valpied, Jodie; Novy, Kitty; Quake, Rebecca; Hegarty, Kelsey

    2017-10-01

    Sexual violence (SV) against adult women is prevalent and associated with a range of mental health issues. General practitioners could potentially have a role in responding, however, there is little information to help guide them. Data around prevalence of all forms of adult SV (not just rape) is inconsistent, particularly in clinical samples, and the links between other forms of SV and mental health issues are not well supported. This study aimed to address these gaps in the knowledge base. A descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted in Australian general practice clinics. Two hundred and thirty adult women completed an anonymous iPad survey while waiting to see the doctor. More than half the sample had experienced at least one incident of adult SV. Most commonly, women reported public harassment or flashing, unwanted groping and being coerced into sex. Women who had experienced adult SV were more likely to experience anxiety than women who had not, even after controlling for other factors. Women who had experienced adult SV were more likely to feel down, depressed or hopeless than women who had not; however, this association disappeared after controlling for childhood sexual abuse. The findings support the association between SV and poor mental health, even when 'lesser' incidents have occurred. Implications for public health: General practitioners should consider an experience of SV as a possible factor in otherwise unexplained anxiety and depressive symptoms in female patients. © 2017 The Authors.

  11. Self-reported musculoskeletal pain predicts long-term increase in general health care use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartvigsen, Jan; Davidsen, Michael; Søgaard, Karen

    2014-01-01

    reported during the past two weeks from the Danish National Cohort Study were merged with data from the Danish National Health Insurance Registry and the National Patient Registry containing information on consultations in the Danish primary and secondary care sector. Absolute and relative rates for all......Aims: Musculoskeletal pain and disability is a modern epidemic and a major reason for seeking health care. The aim of this study is to determine absolute and relative rates of care seeking over 20 years for adults reporting musculoskeletal complaints. Methods: Interview data on musculoskeletal pain...... to any of the outcomes. CONCLUSIONS SELF-REPORT OF MUSCULOSKELETAL PAIN REPORTED WITHIN THE PAST TWO WEEKS PREDICTS A STATISTICALLY SIGNIFICANT LONG-TERM INCREASE IN GENERAL USE OF HEALTH CARE SERVICES IN BOTH THE PRIMARY AND THE SECONDARY HEALTH CARE SECTOR:...

  12. General practitioners’ attitudes towards and experiences with referrals due to supplemental health insurance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Merethe K; Pedersen, Line B; Dupont, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Background.: Supplemental health insurances (SHI) cover 38% of the Danish population. SHI can give faster access to, and additional treatment from, private health providers. However, this is contingent on a referral from the general practitioner (GP), further complicating clinical decision...... to 3321 GPs focusing on three issues: (i) Attitudes towards the public health care system. (ii) Perceptions of the impact of SHI. (iii) Experiences with patients holding SHIs. Results.: The response rate was 64%. Overall, GPs found that SHIs contribute to inequality (83%) and overtreatment (90%). However...... a majority of GPs associate SHI with overtreatment and inequality in health, many GPs feel under pressure to refer patients holding SHI for treatments or examinations that are not medically warranted. Some GPs even refer these patients without further examination or questioning. Insistent SHI patients may...

  13. [General background and practical implementation of the health management service institution in Korea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okahara, Shintaro; Lee, Byeong-Woo; Ogasawara, Takayuki; Mori, Koji

    2014-09-01

    The Korean Occupational Safety and Health Act requires an employer with more than 50 employees to assign a health manager or an occupational physician. However, there are many cases where it is difficult for medium-scale enterprises to perform occupational health practices autonomously because their financial base is weaker than that of large-scale enterprises. The Korean Occupational Safety and Health Act was amended in 1990 so that medium-scale enterprises could entrust a health management service institution with their health management tasks. This system is similar to the outsourcing of medical examinations, occupational physicians, or the measurement of the working environment in Japan, but its legal background and actual activities are korea-specific, and it has some different points. In particular, the quality control of health management service institutions by legal and administrative regulations, and the multidisciplinary provision of services contribute to the development of occupational health in medium-scale enterprises. This will be a good reference for occupational health services in small- and medium-scale enterprises in the future in Japan.

  14. Investigation of marital satisfaction and its relationship with job stress and general health of nurses in Qazvin, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Azimian, Jalil; Piran, Pegah; Jahanihashemi, Hassan; Dehghankar, Leila

    2017-01-01

    Background Pressures in nursing can affect family life and marital problems, disrupt common social problems, increase work-family conflicts and endanger people?s general health. Aim To determine marital satisfaction and its relationship with job stress and general health of nurses. Methods This descriptive and cross-sectional study was done in 2015 in medical educational centers of Qazvin by using an ENRICH marital satisfaction scale and General Health and Job Stress questionnaires completed ...

  15. Self-reported mood, general health, wellbeing and employment status in adults with suspected DCD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Amanda; Williams, Natalie; Thomas, Marie; Hill, Elisabeth L

    2013-04-01

    Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) affects around 2-6% of the population and is diagnosed on the basis of poor motor coordination in the absence of other neurological disorders. Its psychosocial impact has been delineated in childhood but until recently there has been little understanding of the implications of the disorder beyond this. This study aims to focus on the longer term impact of having DCD in adulthood and, in particular, considers the effect of employment on this group in relation to psychosocial health and wellbeing. Self-reported levels of life satisfaction, general health and symptoms of anxiety and depression were investigated in a group of adults with a diagnosis of DCD and those with suspected DCD using a number of published self-report questionnaire measures. A comparison between those in and out of employment was undertaken. As a group, the unemployed adults with DCD reported significantly lower levels of life satisfaction. Whilst there was no significant difference between those who were employed and unemployed on General Health Questionnaire scores; both groups reported numbers of health related issues reflective of general health problems in DCD irrespective of employment status. While both groups reported high levels of depressive symptoms and rated their satisfaction with life quite poorly, the unemployed group reported significantly more depressive symptoms and less satisfaction. Additionally, the results identified high levels of self-reported anxiety in both groups, with the majority sitting outside of the normal range using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. These findings add to the small but increasing body of literature on physical and mental health and wellbeing in adults with DCD. Furthermore, they are the first to provide insight into the possible mediating effects of employment status in adults with DCD. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. General practitioners' and district nurses' conceptions of the encounter with obese patients in primary health care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasmussen Finn

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Primary health care specialists have a key role in the management of obesity. Through understanding how they conceive the encounter with patients with obesity, treatment may be improved. The aim of this study was thus to explore general practitioners' and district nurses' conceptions of encountering patients with obesity in primary health care. Method Data were collected through semi-structured interviews, and analysed using a phenomenographic approach. The participants were 10 general practitioners (6 women, 4 men and 10 district nurses (7 women, 3 men from 19 primary health care centres within a well-defined area of Sweden. Results Five descriptive categories were identified: Adequate primary health care, Promoting lifestyle change, Need for competency, Adherence to new habits and Understanding patient attitudes. All participants, independent of gender and profession, were represented in the descriptive categories. Some profession and gender differences were, however, found in the underlying conceptions. The general staff view was that obesity had to be prioritised. However, there was also the contradictory view that obesity is not a disease and therefore not the responsibility of primary health care. Despite this, staff conceived it as important that patients were met with respect and that individual solutions were provided which could be adhered to step-by-step by the patient. Patient attitudes, such as motivation to change, evasive behaviour, too much trust in care and lack of self-confidence, were, however, conceived as major barriers to a fruitful encounter. Conclusions Findings from this study indicate that there is a need for development and organisation of weight management in primary health care. Raising awareness of staff's negative views of patient attitudes is important since it is likely that it affects the patient-staff relationship and staff's treatment efforts. More research is also needed on gender and

  17. Determinants of Dutch general practitioners’ nutrition and physical activity guidance practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiddink, G.J.; Woerkum, van C.M.J.; Dillen, van S.M.E.

    2013-01-01

    Objective General practitioners (GP) are uniquely placed to guide their patients on nutrition and physical activity. The aims of the present study were to assess: (i) the extent to which GP guide on nutrition and physical activity; (ii) the determinants that cause GP to give guidance on nutrition

  18. Self-reported oral and general health in relation to socioeconomic position

    OpenAIRE

    Hakeberg, Magnus; Wide Boman, Ulla

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background During the past two decades, several scientific publications from different countries have shown how oral health in the population varies with social determinants. The aim of the present study was to explore the relationship between self-reported oral and general health in relation to different measures of socioeconomic position. Methods Data were collected from a randomly selected sample of the adult population in Sweden (n = 3500, mean age 53.4 years, 53.1% women). The r...

  19. Activity of the anterior cingulate cortex and ventral hippocampus underlie increases in contextual fear generalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, Patrick K; Gilman, T Lee; Winiecki, Patrick; Riccio, David C; Jasnow, Aaron M

    2015-10-01

    Memories for context become less specific with time resulting in animals generalizing fear from training contexts to novel contexts. Though much attention has been given to the neural structures that underlie the long-term consolidation of a context fear memory, very little is known about the mechanisms responsible for the increase in fear generalization that occurs as the memory ages. Here, we examine the neural pattern of activation underlying the expression of a generalized context fear memory in male C57BL/6J mice. Animals were context fear conditioned and tested for fear in either the training context or a novel context at recent and remote time points. Animals were sacrificed and fluorescent in situ hybridization was performed to assay neural activation. Our results demonstrate activity of the prelimbic, infralimbic, and anterior cingulate (ACC) cortices as well as the ventral hippocampus (vHPC) underlie expression of a generalized fear memory. To verify the involvement of the ACC and vHPC in the expression of a generalized fear memory, animals were context fear conditioned and infused with 4% lidocaine into the ACC, dHPC, or vHPC prior to retrieval to temporarily inactivate these structures. The results demonstrate that activity of the ACC and vHPC is required for the expression of a generalized fear memory, as inactivation of these regions returned the memory to a contextually precise form. Current theories of time-dependent generalization of contextual memories do not predict involvement of the vHPC. Our data suggest a novel role of this region in generalized memory, which should be incorporated into current theories of time-dependent memory generalization. We also show that the dorsal hippocampus plays a prolonged role in contextually precise memories. Our findings suggest a possible interaction between the ACC and vHPC controls the expression of fear generalization. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Air pollution-induced health impacts on the national economy of China: demonstration of a computable general equilibrium approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Yue; Yang, Hongwei; Masui, Toshihiko

    2005-01-01

    At the present time, ambient air pollution is a serious public health problem in China. Based on the concentration-response relationship provided by international and domestic epidemiologic studies, the authors estimated the mortality and morbidity induced by the ambient air pollution of 2000. To address the mechanism of the health impact on the national economy, the authors applied a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model, named AIM/Material China, containing 39 production sectors and 32 commodities. AIM/Material analyzes changes of the gross domestic product (GDP), final demand, and production activity originating from health damages. If ambient air quality met Grade II of China's air quality standard in 2000, then the avoidable GDP loss would be 0.38%o of the national total, of which 95% was led by labor loss. Comparatively, medical expenditure had less impact on national economy, which is explained from the aspect of the final demand by commodities and the production activities by sectors. The authors conclude that the CGE model is a suitable tool for assessing health impacts from a point of view of national economy through the discussion about its applicability.

  1. A cross-cultural study of the structure of comorbidity among common psychopathological syndromes in the general health care setting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krueger, RF; Chentsova-Dutton, YE; Markon, KE; Goldberg, D; Ormel, J

    This study presents analyses of 7 common psychopathological syndromes in the World Health Organization (WHO) Collaborative Study of Psychological Problems in General Health Care (T. B. Ustun & N. Sartorius, 1995). Data on depression, somatization, hypochondriasis, neurasthenia, anxious worry,

  2. ACTIVITY OF HEALTH EDUCATION AIMED AT PREVENTING WORK ACCIDENTS WITH NEEDLESTICK MATERIALS: EXPERIENCE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prince Vangeris Silva Fernandes de Lima

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Health services are composed of complex work environments. For this reason, they present several risks to the health of workers and also of people being treated at these places. Among these risks, one that is peculiar to health services is the risk of occupational accidents with biological material involving sharps. Objective: This study aimed to describe a health education activity conducted in a Health Center of the Federal District, Brazil. Methods: This is an experience report that discusses the final paper of the discipline “Administration Applied to Nursing and Internship”, offered by the Department of Nursing, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Brasilia. A lecture was prepared, aimed at health workers and support staff, on general aspects of occupational accidents involving sharps, as well as preventive aspects. Results: In each clinical room of the Health Center were fixed two posters: the first discussing the proper disposal of sharps and the second, in turn, was a message of reflection. 31 professionals attended the lecture as listeners. Conclusion: We understand the validity of the lecture delivered, based on scientific studies that highlight the need and shortage of health education activities that address the prevention of occupational accidents involving sharps among Health Professionals. Additionally, it is important mentioning that such activity demand was estimated by the workers of the Health Center in study.

  3. Neutron activation analysis with k{sub 0}-standardisation : general formalism and procedure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pomme, S.; Hardeman, F. [Centre de l`Etude de l`Energie Nucleaire, Mol (Belgium); Robouch, P.; Etxebarria, N.; Arana, G. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements, Geel (Belgium)

    1997-09-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) with k{sub 0}-standardisation is a powerful tool for multi-element analysis at a broad range of trace element concentrations. An overview is given of the basic principles, fundamental equations, and general procedure of this method. Different aspects of the description of the neutron activation reaction rate are discussed, applying the Hogdahl convention. A general activation-decay formula is derived and its application to INAA is demonstrated. Relevant k{sub 0}-definitions for different activation decay schemes are summarised and upgraded to cases of extremely high fluxes. The main standardisation techniques for INAA are discussed, emphasizing the k{sub 0}-standardisation. Some general aspects of the basic equipment and its calibration are discussed, such as the characterisation of the neutron field and the tuning of the spectrometry part. A method for the prediction and optimisation of the analytical performance of INAA is presented.

  4. Neutron activation analysis with k0-standardisation : general formalism and procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pomme, S.; Hardeman, F.; Robouch, P.; Etxebarria, N.; Arana, G.

    1997-09-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) with k 0 -standardisation is a powerful tool for multi-element analysis at a broad range of trace element concentrations. An overview is given of the basic principles, fundamental equations, and general procedure of this method. Different aspects of the description of the neutron activation reaction rate are discussed, applying the Hogdahl convention. A general activation-decay formula is derived and its application to INAA is demonstrated. Relevant k 0 -definitions for different activation decay schemes are summarised and upgraded to cases of extremely high fluxes. The main standardisation techniques for INAA are discussed, emphasizing the k 0 -standardisation. Some general aspects of the basic equipment and its calibration are discussed, such as the characterisation of the neutron field and the tuning of the spectrometry part. A method for the prediction and optimisation of the analytical performance of INAA is presented

  5. Human Rights in the World Health Organization: Views of the Director-General Candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Benjamin Mason

    2017-06-01

    Before the 2017 election of the Director-General of WHO, and given the importance of human rights to global health governance through WHO, Health and Human Rights asked the three final candidates for their views on human rights, WHO's human rights mandate, and the role of human rights in WHO programming. These questions were developed by the author in collaboration with Audrey Chapman, Lisa Forman, Paul Hunt, Dainius Pūras, Javier Vasquez and Carmel Williams. Based on responses to these questions from each of the three candidates, this Perspective was originally published online on April 26, 2017. On May 23, 2017, Dr Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus was elected Director-General and will begin his five-year term on July 1, 2017.

  6. Perceptions of physical activity, activity preferences and health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    "Weight loss," "health concerns" and "increased energy," were top motivators for PA. "Can't find the time," "work/family obligations," and "don't have a facility" were top barriers. Presence of hypertension, hypercholesterolemia and prior weight loss correlated with the slimming motivator (adjusted odds ratio 2.59, p=0.008; ...

  7. What is the gap in activity and participation between people with disability and the general population in Taiwan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Tzu-Ying; Yen, Chia-Feng; Escorpizo, Reuben; Chi, Wen-Chou; Liou, Tsan-Hon; Liao, Hua-Fang; Chou, Cheng-Hsiu; Fang, Wen-Hui

    2017-08-01

    In 2010, the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0 (WHODAS 2.0) was developed, based on the concept of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). The ICF provides a common language and framework for health and health-related status and attempts to integrate the biopsychosocial model as a multidimensional perspective in understanding functioning. Activities and participation (AP) is one salient component of the ICF refers to the execution of a task by an individual, and how such tasks are involved in their daily life. It is essential to examine the gap between the general adult population and adults with disabilities. This gap may be attributed to health status, personal factors, and natural and social environments, which include social and health services and policies. The purposes: (1) To develop a normative activity and participation (AP) value for the adult population and people with disabilities; and (2) to compare the gap in AP normative values between the two groups in Taiwan. We use the WHODAS 2.0 to survey and develop a normative AP value for the general adult population, and used secondary data from National Disability Eligibility Determination System (NDEDS) of Taiwan to describe the AP functioning distribution of adult with disability. There were 1100 participants, selected by stratified proportional sampling from two cities. There were also 144,850 participants who were adults with disability, selected from the secondary database in Taiwan. The AP curve for the disabled population increased rapidly at the beginning. The summary score was 13.21 in the performance at 90 percentile for the general population and 82.61 score for disabled adults that the similar gap in every domain, its means that there are significant functioning difference and health equality in general adults population and adults with disabilities. This presents a substantial challenge for both the government and the whole

  8. Skill set or mind set? Associations between health literacy, patient activation and health.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel G Smith

    Full Text Available There is ongoing debate on whether health literacy represents a skill-based construct for health self-management, or if it also more broadly captures personal 'activation' or motivation to manage health. This research examines 1 the association between patient activation and health literacy as they are most commonly measured and 2 the independent and combined associations of patient activation and health literacy skills with physical and mental health.A secondary analysis of baseline cross-sectional data from the LitCog cohort of older adults was used. Participants (n = 697 were recruited from multiple US-based health centers. During structured face-to-face interviews, participants completed the Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults (TOFHLA, the Patient Activation Measure (PAM, the SF-36 physical health summary subscale, and Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information Service (PROMIS short form subscales for depression and anxiety.The relationship between health literacy and patient activation was weak, but significant (r = 0.11, p<0.01. In models adjusted for participant characteristics, lower health literacy was associated with worse physical health (β = 0.13, p<0.001 and depression (β = -0.16, p<0.001. Lower patient activation was associated with worse physical health (β = 0.19, p<0.001, depression (β = -0.27, p<0.001 and anxiety (β-0.24, p<0.001.The most common measures of health literacy and patient activation are weakly correlated with each other, but also independently correlated with health outcomes. This suggests health literacy represents a distinct skill-based construct, supporting the Institute of Medicine's definition. Deficits in either construct could be useful targets for behavioral intervention.

  9. Application of Structural Equations Modeling to assess relationship among Emotional Intelligence, General Health and Occupational Accidents

    OpenAIRE

    MOAMMAD KHANDAN; AMIR KAVOUSI; ALIREZA KOOHPAEI

    2015-01-01

    ORIGINAL ARTICLEEmotional intelligence (EI) has been subject of significant amounts of literature over the past two decades. However, little has been contributed to how emotional intelligence may be practically applied to enhance both accident prevention program and general health in workplaces. Purpose of this paper is to survey relationship among these variables in working society of Iran in 2014. As well as identify practical approaches to application of emotional intelligence skills to ma...

  10. Leadership in Diversity Organizations, and Immigrants' Organizational Commitment and Subjective General Health

    OpenAIRE

    Huynh, Victoria Tran

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine leadership styles in managing cultural diversity from the LIDO-model at workplaces in Norway, and investigate the relationships between perceived leadership styles with immigrants’ organizational commitment and subjective general health through online survey. The leadership styles from the LIDO-model are diversity leadership, assimilation leadership, separation leadership, and laissez-faire leadership. The relationships were measured by t...

  11. Main Educational Stressors and theirs Relationship with General Health of Medical Residents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahid Khajehmougahi

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: In the age of information and technology application, troublesome regulations and traditional  procedures for medical education may cause serious stresses and be a threat to the general health (GH of the students of medicine.Purpose: To determine the relationship between educational stressors and the general health of residents studying at the Ahwaz Jundishapour  University of Medical Sciences (Alums.Method: In this cross sectional study, the study group was consisted  of  ll4 cooperative residents (69% of all residents in the hospital, who were being trained in a variety of different specialties.  The instruments used were the Educational Stressors Questionnaire, including 45 four-choice items and a General  Health Questionnaire. When the questionnaires were completed, the results were analyzed through Pierson Correlation Coefficient using the SPSS.Results: The residents mentioned their educational stressors as follows: lack of an arranged curriculum, troublesome educational regulations, deficient educational instruments, and inadequate clinical instruction. of all the subjects, 43 ( 37.6% appeared to have problems in GH,and significantly positive correlation (pgeneral health, medical residents, medical  education

  12. Factors associated with the rejection of active euthanasia: a survey among the general public in Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background In recent decades, the general public has become increasingly receptive toward a legislation that allows active voluntary euthanasia (AVE). The purpose of this study was to survey the current attitude towards AVE within the Austrian population and to identify explanatory factors in the areas of socio-demographics, personal experiences with care, and ideological orientation. A further objective was to examine differences depending on the type of problem formulation (abstract vs. situational) for the purpose of measuring attitude. Methods A representative cross-sectional study was conducted across the Austrian population. Data were acquired from 1,000 individuals aged 16 years and over based on telephone interviews (CATI). For the purpose of measuring attitude toward AVE, two different problem formulations (abstract vs. situational) were juxtaposed. Results The abstract question about active voluntary euthanasia was answered negatively by 28.8%, while 71.2% opted in favour of AVE or were undecided. Regression analyses showed rejection of AVE was positively correlated with number of adults and children in the household, experience with care of seriously ill persons, a conservative worldview, and level of education. Mean or high family income was associated with lower levels of rejection. No independent correlations were found for variables such as sex, age, political orientation, self-rated health, and experiences with care of terminally ill patients. Correlation for the situational problem formulation was weaker and included fewer predictors than for the abstract question. Conclusions Our results suggest that factors relating to an individual’s interpersonal living situation and his/her cognitive convictions might be important determinants of the attitude toward AVE. If and to the extent that personal care experience plays a role, it is rather associated with rejection than with acceptance of AVE. PMID:23826902

  13. Relevance of gender-sensitive policies and general health indicators to compare the status of South Asian women's health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Roopan; Stewart, Donna E

    2011-01-01

    despite goals for gender equity in South Asia, the relationship between gender-sensitive policies and the empowerment of women is complex and requires an analysis of how policies align with a broad set of social, cultural, political, and economic indicators that relate to women's health. through a review of four documents under the umbrella of the World Health Organization and the United Nations, a list of 17 gender-sensitive policy and 17 general health indicators was generated with a focus on health, education, economic, and political empowerment and violence against women. A series of policy documents and international and national databases that are accessible in the public domain were the major tools used to find supporting documentation to address women's health outcomes in Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka. all five South Asian countries had several gender-sensitive policies that were measurable by indicators that contribute to health. Examination of political and economic status, birth sex ratios, human trafficking, illiteracy rates, maternal mortality rates, contraception prevalence, fertility rates, knowledge of HIV/AIDS prevention, access to skilled birth attendants, and microfinance show that large gender inequities still prevail despite the presence of gender-sensitive policies. in many cases, the presence of gender-sensitive policies did not reflect the realization of gender equity over a wide range of indicators. Although the economic, political, social, and cultural climates of the five countries may differ, the integration of women's needs into the formulation, implementation, and monitoring of policies is a universal necessity to achieve positive outcomes. 2011 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Developmental coordination disorder, generalized self-efficacy toward physical activity, and participation in organized and free play activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairney, John; Hay, John A; Faught, Brent E; Wade, Terrance J; Corna, Laurie; Flouris, Andreas

    2005-10-01

    To test a theoretical model linking developmental coordination disorder (DCD) to reduced physical activity (PA) through the mediating influence of generalized self-efficacy regarding PA. This was a cross-sectional investigation of students in grades 4 through 8 from 5 elementary schools in the Niagara region of Ontario, Canada (n=590). Motor proficiency was evaluated using the short-form Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency. Generalized self-efficacy was assessed using the Children's Self-Perceptions of Adequacy in and Predilection for Physical Activity scale, and PA levels were evaluated using a 61-item Participation Questionnaire. Structural equation modeling was used to test the influence of generalized self-efficacy on the relationship between DCD and PA. In this sample, 7.5% (n=44) of the children met the requirements for probable DCD. The effect of DCD on PA was mediated by generalized self-efficacy. In this model, 28% of the variance in children's PA was predicted by generalized self-efficacy and DCD. Our results suggest that children with DCD are less likely to be physically active and that generalized self-efficacy can account for a considerable proportion of this relationship. The implications for appropriate interventions to increase PA among children with DCD are discussed.

  15. Continuing Medical Education Needs Assessment of General Physicians Working at Tabriz Health Centers in 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parisa Golanbar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this study was to identify the educational needs of General Physicians working in the health centers of Tabriz in 2014. Methods: The study method was descriptive. The statistical population was 2,024. Of the population of the study, 322 physicians were randomly selected. In order to gather the data, the Delphi method and a researcher-made questionnaire were used in 14 domains of medicine, including: Communicable and Infectious Diseases, Non-communicable Diseases, Health Education, Mental and Social Health, Dental and Oral Health, Medical Procedures, Population and Family, Nutritional Health, Occupational Health, Environmental Health, Complementary Procedures, Health Crisis and Disasters, Laboratory and Drugs, and Alternative Medicine. The validity of the study was confirmed with the viewpoint of the Delphi team and the reliability was confirmed with the Alpha Cronbach (r = 0.84. For data analysis, we used descriptive statistic methods like frequency, percentage and mean, and the Friedman ranking test (calculated using SPSS v. 21. Results: The results showed that the first-ranked educational needs of every domain were the following (in order of domain listed above: respiratory infection, hypertension, healthy lifestyle, stress management, dental growth and care in children, raising hope and pleasure, weight and nutritional control, occupational health and safety, water hygiene, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, therapeutic exercises, natural disasters’ primary cares, rational use of drugs and traditional medicine.Conclusion: The first domain receiving the first rank of educational needs was non-communicable diseases, and the conformity range of implemented plans in continuing medical education with need assessment results was 53.84%.

  16. Association of oral breathing with dental malocclusions and general health in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Emilio L; Barrios, Rocío; Calvo, Juan C; de la Rosa, Maria T; Campillo, José S; Bayona, José C; Bravo, Manuel

    2017-06-01

    The aims of this study were to analyze the association of oral breathing with dental malocclusions and aspects of general health such as acute illnesses, oxygen saturation in blood and its possible implication in the process of nutrition. A prevalence analytic study was carried out. Five dentists explored to children between 6 and 12 years and measured their oxygen saturation. Parents completed a questionnaire of 11 items about general health (colds, ear infections, tonsillitis and taking antibiotics) and the food preferences of their children. At the end, children were classified in oral breathing group (prevalence cases) or nasal breathing group (controls). There were statistical differences between cases (452 children) and controls (752 children) in the facial morphometric measurements. Oral breathing children had statistically less percentage of oxygen saturation than controls (92.3±3.3% versus 96.5±2.3%), took less time to have lunch and preferred less consistent and sugary food. Cases had had more prevalence of pathologies in the last year and of taking the antibiotics. This group also had higher prevalence of allergies compared with controls group (POral breathing is significantly associated with specific dental malocclusions and important aspects of general health such as oxygen saturation and the nutrition. On the same line, oral breathing is related to a significantly higher prevalence of allergies and a significantly more likely getting sick and taking medication.

  17. VIEWS OF GENERAL PRACTITIONERS ON INDOOR ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH RISKSIN THE PERINATAL PERIOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gladys eIbanez

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionThe aim of this study was to determine the views of general practitioners (GP on pollution in infant's home.MethodsFour semi-structured focus group with 31 general practitioners (GP were conducted in two french departments in November 2009, February, March and April 2010. The focus group meetings were analysed using a general thematic analysis.ResultsPerinatal care is a special health issue and a time of privileged sensitisation. The attitude of health risks are well known in the case of traditionally toxic substances. In the case of emerging environmental exposure, these attitudes depend on the knowledge, beliefs and experience specific to each practitioner. GPs were acquiring a new role in the field of environmental health, whilst at the same time coming to grips with their own strengths and limitations. The implementation of prevention depends on factors which are specific to the practitioner, but also related to the parents and the organisation of the medical practice.DiscussionThe sensitisation of GPs to environmental medicine, promotion of eco-citizen education, development of research, and the distribution of information, are some of the means which need to be implemented to prevent harmful exposure of the infant.

  18. Health-related Quality of Life and Mental Health in the Process of Active and Passive Ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dajak, Lidija; Mastilica, Miroslav; Orešković, Stjepan; Vuletić, Gorka

    2016-12-01

    To analyse the differences in the self-estimate of life quality depending on the ageing type - passive, active. Life-quality linked to health was measured with an SF-36 survey, which gives multi-dimensional criteria of health and life-quality. SF-36 survey represents a theoretically based and empirically proven operationalization of two overal health concepts, which are body and mental health, and its two general manifestations, functioning, and welfare. 200 examinees in total, aged from 55 to 92, were included in the research. Divided by sex, in the research participated 148 women and 52 men. Depending on the ageing way, the examinees were divided into 2 categories: passive ageing (n=100), active ageing (n=100), and for these groups a detailed result analysis was done. Statistical analysis includes descriptive statistics, Hi-square test, Spearman's correlation coefficient, and Mann-Whitney U test. In all dimensions of health, examinees from the category Active ageing achieve higher scores, which indicates better health and better functioning. Between the groups, a statistically significant difference was determined, on the following dimensions: Overall health, Pains, Energy and vitality, Social operations, and Limits due to emotional difficulties. With the Hi-square test, it was determined that there are differences between the groups. The biggest difference can be seen in the reply categories related to health deterioration (χ 2 =10.391; df=4; p=0.034). Examinees from the Active ageing group mention significantly less that their health has gotten worse compared to the previous year (26% of the active ones state that their health is somewhat worse, and only 2% that their health is significantly worse, compared to the passive ones where 36% state that their health is worse, and 9% that it's much worse compared to the year before). Tested was the difference between arithmetic middles on the issue of mental health based on the ageing type (p>0.05), and the results

  19. Online sharing of physical activity: does it accelerate the impact of a health promotion program?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manzoor, A.; Mollee, J.S.; Fernandes de Mello Araujo, E.; Klein, M.C.A.; van Halteren, A.T.; Cai, Zhipeng; Angryk, Rafal; Song, Wenzhan; Li, Yingshu; Cao, Xiaojun; Bourgeois, Anu; Luo, Guangchun; Cheng, Liang; Krishnamachari, Bhaskar

    2016-01-01

    Influence on health behavior from peers is well known and it has been shown that participants in an online physical activity promotion program are generally more successful when they share their achievements through an online community. However, more detailed insights are needed into the mechanisms

  20. Physical Activity and Nutrition Health Promotion Interventions: What Is Working for People with Intellectual Disabilities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Tamar; McCubbin, Jeffrey A.; Drum, Charles; Peterson, Jana

    2011-01-01

    A scoping review of studies on physical activity and nutrition health promotion interventions for individuals with intellectual disabilities was conducted. Searches included MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and CINAHL databases from 1986 through July 2006. The final number included 11 articles comprising 12 studies. Generally, this review indicated some…

  1. [The importance of physical activity and fitness for human health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandes, M

    2012-01-01

    The decline of physical activity is considered to play an important role in the deterioration of health predictors, such as overweight, and the associated increase of cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. Therefore, most interventional strategies aim for increasing physical activity. Instead of physical activity, some studies use physical fitness as a key variable. Though physical fitness is influenced by genetic factors, physical fitness has to be developed by physical activity. As recent reports demonstrate the prospective associations between physical fitness and health and mortality, these associations are not reported for physical activity. Due to the fact that physical fitness-in contrast to physical activity-is evaluated with standardized laboratory measurements, it appears advisable to assess physical fitness for prospective health perspectives. Although physical fitness is determined by genetics, physical activity is the primary modifiable determinant for increasing physical fitness and should be aimed for to improve physical fitness in interventional strategies.

  2. Quality of Health Care Activity in Educational Institutions: Conceptual Aspect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Tretyakova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with one of the priority tasks of Russian educational system – developing the health responsibility. The recent health deterioration trend among children and adolescents calls for the complex health care measures, equally affecting the learning outcomes. The authors argue that there is a need for proper definition and specification of the key term of health care quality. However, the analysis of the available scientific and documentary recourses demonstrates the absence of such unified definition. The authors describe the existing approaches to defining the health care quality, and examine structural components of the health care activity, their interrelations and interdependence. In authors’ opinion, the synthesis of the available research materials provides the basis for further studies in the theory and practice of quality management activities regarding the health protection of children, adolescents and young adults in educational institutions. 

  3. Commercial activities and the promotion of health in schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raine, Gary

    2013-11-01

    Many companies nowadays consider schools to be an important setting for marketing to children. However, important concerns can be raised from a health promotion perspective about the potential negative impact of commercial activities on the health and well-being of pupils. As this discussion paper will demonstrate, some commercial activities raise concerns in relation to physical health and obesity, not only by potentially undermining formal curriculum messages, but also through the active promotion of specific products, particularly those high in fat, sugar or salt. Nonetheless, the issues raised by commercial activities are not solely limited to effects on physical health. By allowing commercial activities, schools risk instilling in pupils consumer-orientated values. This is significant as such values have been linked to the development of poor health and well-being. Furthermore, the presence in schools of commercial activities will also militate against informed decision-making and be disempowering. There is also evidence that business-sponsored teaching materials can contain biased and misleading information. The potential negative impacts of commercial activities are inconsistent with goals in relation to the promotion of health and the principles of health-promoting schools.

  4. [Hardy personality, self-efficacy, and general health in nursing professionals of intensive and emergency services].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ríos Rísquez, María Isabel; Sánchez Meca, Julio; Godoy Fernández, Carmen

    2010-11-01

    In this study, the predictive power of hardy personality and generalized self-efficacy on general health perception was investigated in a sample of nursing personnel working in emergency and intensive care services. A cross-sectional retrospective design was used, and the following measurement instruments were applied: a sociodemographic and work questionnaire, Goldberg's GHQ-28 Health Questionnaire, the Baessler and Schwarzer General Self-efficacy Questionnaire, and the Hardy Personality Subscale of Moreno's Nursing Burnout Questionnaire (CDPE). The results revealed a positive and statistically significant relationship between the individual variables of generalized self-efficacy and hardy personality. A canonical correlation analysis carried out on the psychological distress symptoms with self-efficacy and hardy personality as predictor variables, led us to emphasize the relevance of the construct total hardy personality as a predictor and, consequently, as a protective factor against the onset of psychological distress symptoms in the sample of professionals studied. Lastly, the implications of the results for clinical practice are discussed.

  5. General Purpose Data-Driven Online System Health Monitoring with Applications to Space Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iverson, David L.; Spirkovska, Lilly; Schwabacher, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Modern space transportation and ground support system designs are becoming increasingly sophisticated and complex. Determining the health state of these systems using traditional parameter limit checking, or model-based or rule-based methods is becoming more difficult as the number of sensors and component interactions grows. Data-driven monitoring techniques have been developed to address these issues by analyzing system operations data to automatically characterize normal system behavior. System health can be monitored by comparing real-time operating data with these nominal characterizations, providing detection of anomalous data signatures indicative of system faults, failures, or precursors of significant failures. The Inductive Monitoring System (IMS) is a general purpose, data-driven system health monitoring software tool that has been successfully applied to several aerospace applications and is under evaluation for anomaly detection in vehicle and ground equipment for next generation launch systems. After an introduction to IMS application development, we discuss these NASA online monitoring applications, including the integration of IMS with complementary model-based and rule-based methods. Although the examples presented in this paper are from space operations applications, IMS is a general-purpose health-monitoring tool that is also applicable to power generation and transmission system monitoring.

  6. Attitudes toward strategies to increase organ donation: views of the general public and health professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnieh, Lianne; Klarenbach, Scott; Gill, John S; Caulfield, Tim; Manns, Braden

    2012-12-01

    The acceptability of financial incentives for organ donation is contentious. This study sought to determine (1) the acceptability of expense reimbursement or financial incentives by the general public, health professionals involved with organ donation and transplantation, and those with or affected by kidney disease and (2) for the public, whether financial incentives would alter their willingness to consider donation. Web-based survey administered to members of the Canadian public, health professionals, and people with or affected by kidney disease asking questions regarding acceptability of strategies to increase living and deceased kidney donation and willingness to donate a kidney under various financial incentives. Responses were collected from 2004 members of the Canadian public October 11-18, 2011; responses from health professionals (n=339) and people with or affected by kidney disease (n=268) were collected during a 4-week period commencing October 11, 2011. Acceptability of one or more financial incentives to increase deceased and living donation was noted in >70% and 40% of all groups, respectively. Support for monetary payment for living donors was 45%, 14%, and 27% for the public, health professionals, and people with or affected by kidney disease, respectively. Overall, reimbursement of funeral expenses for deceased donors and a tax break for living donors were the most acceptable. The general public views regulated financial incentives for living and deceased donation to be acceptable. Future research needs to examine the impact of financial incentives on rates of deceased and living donors.

  7. Sexual harassment and generalized workplace abuse among university employees: prevalence and mental health correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richman, J A; Rospenda, K M; Nawyn, S J; Flaherty, J A; Fendrich, M; Drum, M L; Johnson, T P

    1999-03-01

    This study hypothesized that interpersonal workplace stressors involving sexual harassment and generalized workplace abuse are highly prevalent and significantly linked with mental health outcomes including symptomatic distress, the use and abuse of alcohol, and other drug use. Employees in 4 university occupational groups (faculty, student, clerical, and service workers; n = 2492) were surveyed by means of a mailed self-report instrument. Cross-tabular and ordinary least squares and logistic regression analyses examined the prevalence of harassment and abuse and their association with mental health status. The data show high rates of harassment and abuse. Among faculty, females were subjected to higher rates; among clerical and service workers, males were subjected to higher rates. Male and female clerical and service workers experienced higher levels of particularly severe mistreatment. Generalized abuse was more prevalent than harassment for all groups. Both harassment and abuse were significantly linked to most mental health outcomes for men and women. Interpersonally abusive workplace dynamics constitute a significant public health problem that merits increased intervention and prevention strategies.

  8. Aging of Holocaust Survivors: Discrepancies Between Subjective and General Health in the greater Tel Aviv Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohana, Irit; Golander, Hava; Barak, Yoram

    2018-04-01

    Aging has been associated with perceived lowering of health, especially in post-traumatic individuals. The effects may be more complex or even different for Holocaust survivors as they age due to their inherited resilience and life perspective. A cross-sectional study was conducted of Holocaust survivors and a matched comparison group recruited from the general Israeli population. All participants underwent a personal interview and completed the Cumulative Illness Rating Scale and a survey of subjective Likert-scale questions about perceived health. The study comprised 214 older adults: 107 Holocaust survivors and 107 comparison participants; 101 women and 113 men. The mean age for the participants was 80.7 ± 4.7 years (range 68-93). Holocaust survivors did not differ from comparison subjects in general health measures (mean 51.50 ± 3.06 vs. 52.27 ± 3.24, respectively). However, the Holocaust survivors' subjective health was significantly lower, F (2,211) = 4.18, P Holocaust survivors to achieve successful aging.

  9. Activate Your Body (A Cup of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    As people age, it gets tougher to be physically active. While cutting back on certain activities is inevitable, finding ways to exercise on a regular basis is important for maintaining good health. In this podcast, Dr. Kathy Watson discusses the importance of older adults maintaining an active lifestyle.

  10. School-Based Health Promotion Initiative Increases Children's Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cluss, Patricia; Lorigan, Devin; Kinsky, Suzanne; Nikolajski, Cara; McDermott, Anne; Bhat, Kiran B.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Childhood obesity increases health risk, and modest physical activity can impact that risk. Schools have an opportunity to help children become more active. Purpose: This study implemented a program offering extra school-day activity opportunities in a rural school district where 37% of students were obese or overweight in 2005 and…

  11. Nutrition care by general practitioners: Enhancing women's health during and after pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Lauren; Wilkinson, Shelley

    2016-08-01

    The importance of healthy dietary behaviours during pregnancy and after birth is well recognised given the short-term and long-term effects on the health of mothers and infants. Pregnancy is an ideal time to implement health behaviour changes, as women are receptive to health messages at this time. The majority of pregnant women have regular, ongoing contact with general practitioners (GPs), particularly during early pregnancy. This paper provides an overview of the latest evidence regarding the nutrition requirements of women during and after birth, and describes simple ways that GPs can incorporate brief, effective nutrition care into standard consultations. Two approaches for enhancing the nutrition care provided by GPs are presented. These approaches are for GPs to feel confident in raising the topic of nutrition in standard consultations and being equipped with effective, evidence-based messages that can be incorporated into consultations. Collectively, these approaches promote healthy dietary behaviours for intergenerational benefits.

  12. A generalized right truncated bivariate Poisson regression model with applications to health data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, M Ataharul; Chowdhury, Rafiqul I

    2017-01-01

    A generalized right truncated bivariate Poisson regression model is proposed in this paper. Estimation and tests for goodness of fit and over or under dispersion are illustrated for both untruncated and right truncated bivariate Poisson regression models using marginal-conditional approach. Estimation and test procedures are illustrated for bivariate Poisson regression models with applications to Health and Retirement Study data on number of health conditions and the number of health care services utilized. The proposed test statistics are easy to compute and it is evident from the results that the models fit the data very well. A comparison between the right truncated and untruncated bivariate Poisson regression models using the test for nonnested models clearly shows that the truncated model performs significantly better than the untruncated model.

  13. Associations between physical activity and physical and mental health--a HUNT 3 study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertheussen, Gro F; Romundstad, Pål R; Landmark, Tormod; Kaasa, Stein; Dale, Ola; Helbostad, Jorunn L

    2011-07-01

    Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) has been characterized as the ultimate goal for health interventions such as physical activity (PA). We assessed how frequency, duration, and intensity of PA were related to HRQoL in younger (physical and mental health. HRQoL was measured by SF-8 Health Survey. Frequency and duration were assessed by items validated in a previous HUNT study, and intensity was assessed by Borg RPE scale. Associations between PA and physical and mental health were estimated using general linear modeling. A total of 4500 participants (56% females), age 19-91 yr, with mean age of 53±15 yr, were included. Of these, 40% were less active than recommended by international guidelines. In general, mean physical health (PCS-8) in females and males was 47.4±9.7 and 48.8±8.9, and mental health (MCS-8) was 50.5±8.0 and 51.9±7.3, respectively. Age-adjusted association between PA and HRQoL was stronger for physical than mental health in both genders and age groups. The largest differences were between no exercise and exercise groups at any level for frequency, duration, and intensity of PA. We found no substantial gender differences in association between PA and HRQoL, but association was stronger in older (≥65 yr) than younger (physical and mental health in both genders compared with no exercise, particularly among the older individuals.

  14. Physical activity in young adults: a signal detection analysis of Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS) 2007 data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle, Carmina G; Tate, Deborah F; Mayer, Deborah K; Allicock, Marlyn; Cai, Jianwen; Campbell, Marci K

    2015-01-01

    Many young adults are insufficiently active to achieve the health benefits of regular physical activity. Using signal detection analysis of data from the 2007 Health Information National Trends Survey, the authors examined distinct subgroups of 18-39 year-old adults who vary in their likelihood of not meeting physical activity recommendations. We randomly split the sample and conducted signal detection analysis on the exploratory half to identify subgroups and interactions among sociodemographic and health communication variables that predicted engaging in less than 150 minutes per week of moderate-intensity physical activity (low physical activity). We compared rates of low physical activity among subgroups with similarly defined subgroups in the validation sample. Overall, 62% of participants did not meet physical activity recommendations. Among 8 subgroups identified, low physical activity rates ranged from 31% to 90%. Predictors of low physical activity were general health, body mass index (BMI), perceived cancer risk, health-related Internet use, and trust in information sources. The least active subgroup (90% low physical activity) included young adults in poor to good health with a BMI of 30.8 or more (obese). The most active subgroup (31% low physical activity) comprised those in very good to excellent health, who used a website to help with diet, weight, or physical activity, and had little to no trust in health information on television. Findings suggest potential intervention communication channels and can inform targeted physical activity interventions for young adults.

  15. Beyond greenspace: an ecological study of population general health and indicators of natural environment type and quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Benedict W; Lovell, Rebecca; Higgins, Sahran L; White, Mathew P; Alcock, Ian; Osborne, Nicholas J; Husk, Kerryn; Sabel, Clive E; Depledge, Michael H

    2015-04-30

    Many studies suggest that exposure to natural environments ('greenspace') enhances human health and wellbeing. Benefits potentially arise via several mechanisms including stress reduction, opportunity and motivation for physical activity, and reduced air pollution exposure. However, the evidence is mixed and sometimes inconclusive. One explanation may be that "greenspace" is typically treated as a homogenous environment type. However, recent research has revealed that different types and qualities of natural environments may influence health and wellbeing to different extents. This ecological study explores this issue further using data on land cover type, bird species richness, water quality and protected or designated status to create small-area environmental indicators across Great Britain. Associations between these indicators and age/sex standardised prevalence of both good and bad health from the 2011 Census were assessed using linear regression models. Models were adjusted for indicators of socio-economic deprivation and rurality, and also investigated effect modification by these contextual characteristics. Positive associations were observed between good health prevalence and the density of the greenspace types, "broadleaf woodland", "arable and horticulture", "improved grassland", "saltwater" and "coastal", after adjusting for potential confounders. Inverse associations with bad health prevalence were observed for the same greenspace types, with the exception of "saltwater". Land cover diversity and density of protected/designated areas were also associated with good and bad health in the predicted manner. Bird species richness (an indicator of local biodiversity) was only associated with good health prevalence. Surface water quality, an indicator of general local environmental condition, was associated with good and bad health prevalence contrary to the manner expected, with poorer water quality associated with better population health. Effect

  16. Religious attitude associated with general health and smoking in Iranian students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divsalar, Kouros; Nejadnaderi, Samira; Nakhaee, Nowzar; Rouhani, Saed

    2010-01-01

    Given the university students' model role in the society and the importance of period of university education in selecting behavioral methods and lifestyles in the future have made it necessary to study the smoking pattern and its associated factors and complications among students. The aim of this study was to compare religious attitude and mental health between smoking and non-smoking students. In this research, religious attitude and mental health was studied in 1065 smoking and non-smoking students of Kerman University of Medical Sciences. In this study, three questionnaires were used (Demographic Questionnaire, General Health Questionnaire and Religious Attitude Scale Questionnaire) which were completed by the students voluntarily. The data were analyzed by descriptive statistic methods, multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA), t-test, Pearson correlation, and regression coefficient. The mean age of smokers was 20 years and most of the smokers were male (78.9%), single (86.5%) and in BS or BA degree (52.5%). Most of them smoked a cigarette or more in the past month. The average age of start of smoking was 18 years. There was no significant difference between religious attitude and mental health in smoking students in terms of gender but in non-smoking students there was a significant difference in this regard. Smoking students had lower mental health status and religious attitude in comparison with non-smoking students. Between religious attitude and general health in smoking and non-smoking students was also a direct association. Due to psychological and physiological consequences of cigarette smoking, promoting smoking prevention by religious missionaries and university professors, and helping the students to quit smoking by counselors, psychologists and psychiatrics are necessary.

  17. An exercise in nostalgia: Nostalgia promotes health optimism and physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersten, Mike; Cox, Cathy R; Van Enkevort, Erin A

    2016-10-01

    Previous research has shown that nostalgia, a sentimental longing for the past, leads to greater feelings of optimism, with other work demonstrating that optimistic thinking (general & health-orientated) is associated with better physical and psychological health. Integrating these two lines of research, the current studies examined whether nostalgia-induced health optimism promotes attitudes and behaviours associated with better physical well-being. Participants, in three experiments, were randomly assigned to write about either a nostalgic or ordinary event. Following this, everyone completed a measure of health optimism (Studies 1-3), measures of health attitudes (Study 2) and had their physical activity monitored over the course of 2 weeks (Study 3). The results revealed that, in comparison to control conditions, nostalgic reverie led to greater health optimism (Studies 1-3). Further, heightened health optimism following nostalgic reflection led to more positive health attitudes (Study 2), and increased physical activity over a two-week period (i.e. Fitbit activity trackers; Study 3). These findings highlight the importance of nostalgia on health attitudes and behaviours. Specifically, this work suggests that nostalgia can be used as a mechanism to increase the importance, perceived efficacy and behaviour associated with better physical health.

  18. Healthy hearts--and the universal benefits of being physically active: physical activity and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Steven N; Morris, Jeremy N

    2009-04-01

    Although ancient thinkers suggested that physical activity is good for health, systematic research on the topic did not begin until the middle of the 20th century. Early reports showed that individuals in active occupations had lower rates of heart disease than individuals in sedentary occupations. Investigators then began to evaluate leisure-time physical activity and health and found similar results. Later research used objective measures of cardiorespiratory fitness as the exposure, and found even stronger associations with health outcomes. Recent research has extended the earlier findings on activity or fitness and heart disease to a wide variety of health outcomes. We now know that regular physical activity of 150 minutes/week of moderate intensity physical activity reduces the risk of numerous chronic diseases, preserves health and function (both physical and mental) into old age, and extends longevity. The current challenge is to develop programs and interventions to promote physical activity for all in our increasingly sedentary societies.

  19. What are the health benefits of active travel? A systematic review of trials and cohort studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucinda E Saunders

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Increasing active travel (primarily walking and cycling has been widely advocated for reducing obesity levels and achieving other population health benefits. However, the strength of evidence underpinning this strategy is unclear. This study aimed to assess the evidence that active travel has significant health benefits. METHODS: The study design was a systematic review of (i non-randomised and randomised controlled trials, and (ii prospective observational studies examining either (a the effects of interventions to promote active travel or (b the association between active travel and health outcomes. Reports of studies were identified by searching 11 electronic databases, websites, reference lists and papers identified by experts in the field. Prospective observational and intervention studies measuring any health outcome of active travel in the general population were included. Studies of patient groups were excluded. RESULTS: Twenty-four studies from 12 countries were included, of which six were studies conducted with children. Five studies evaluated active travel interventions. Nineteen were prospective cohort studies which did not evaluate the impact of a specific intervention. No studies were identified with obesity as an outcome in adults; one of five prospective cohort studies in children found an association between obesity and active travel. Small positive effects on other health outcomes were found in five intervention studies, but these were all at risk of selection bias. Modest benefits for other health outcomes were identified in five prospective studies. There is suggestive evidence that active travel may have a positive effect on diabetes prevention, which may be an important area for future research. CONCLUSIONS: Active travel may have positive effects on health outcomes, but there is little robust evidence to date of the effectiveness of active transport interventions for reducing obesity. Future evaluations of such

  20. Factors influencing attitudes of nurses in general health care toward patients with comorbid mental illness: an integrative literature review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kluit, M.J. van der; Goossens, P.J.J.

    2011-01-01

    An estimated 40% of patients in general health care settings suffer from a comorbid mental illness. A literature review was conducted to elucidate the factors underlying the different attitudes of nurses in general health care toward the nursing care of these patients. Although lack of knowledge,

  1. Personalized Strategies to Activate and Empower Patients in Health Care and Reduce Health Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jie; Mullins, C. Daniel; Novak, Priscilla; Thomas, Stephen B.

    2016-01-01

    Designing culturally sensitive personalized interventions is essential to sustain patients' involvement in their treatment and encourage patients to take an active role in their own health and health care. We consider patient activation and empowerment as a cyclical process defined through patient accumulation of knowledge, confidence, and…

  2. Testing a user-driven approach in health promotion activities targeting users of psychiatric services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Folmann Hempler, Nana; Saurbrey Pals, Regitze; Oest, Lone

    2017-01-01

    Compared to the general population, users of psychiatric services (users) are at higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes, which is associated with lifestyle behaviours. The aim of this study was to pilot test a new collaborative approach in health promotion targeting users. The approach is based...... with course participants and users. Professionals had to test at least one tool in a health promoting activity such as health checks, exercise etc. Data were collected through observations of health promoting activities (n=15) and questionnaires (n=54). Data were analysed using systematic text condensation...... and descriptive statistics. The majority of professionals found that the new approach to a moderate/high degree had improved their collaborative skills (89.3%) and Research Center of Health Promotionwas well-suited for their practice (93.5%). Observations showed that professionals successfully integrated...

  3. The general practitioner's role in promoting physical activity to older adults: a review based on program theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinrichs, Timo; Brach, Michael

    2012-02-01

    Positive influences of physical activity both on many chronic diseases and on preservation of mobility are well documented. But chronically ill or mobility restricted elderly living in their own homes are difficult to reach for interventions. The general practitioner's (GP) surgery offers one of the few opportunities to give advice for physical activity to those people. We used program theory to sound out knowledge on GP-centered physical activity counseling. The "conceptual theory" (evidence for training effects in old age) and the "implementation theory" (unique position of the GP) were reviewed narratively. The "action theory" (effects of GP counseling) was reviewed systematically. According to program theory, appropriate MeSH (Medical subject headings) concepts were Aged OR Aged, 80 and over (Target group), Physicians, Family OR Primary Health Care (Implementation/Setting), Counseling OR Patient Education as Topic OR Disease Management OR Health promotion (Intervention), Exercise OR Motor Activity OR Physical Fitness OR Sports (Determinants). The resulting six review papers (Pubmed, 2000-2009) were presented using the STARLITE mnemonic. Authors agree, that the GP plays a central role in the promotion of physical activity to elderly people, but there is conflicting evidence concerning counseling effectiveness. Utilizing behavioral change strategies and the collaboration between GPs and specialised professions are recommended and currently under research.

  4. Comparing the Effects of Group and Home-based Physical Activity on Mental Health in the Elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortazavi, Seyede Salehe; Shati, Mohsen; Ardebili, Hassan Eftekhar; Mohammad, Kazem; Beni, Reza Dorali; Keshteli, A H

    2013-11-01

    The present study focuses on comparing the effects of home-based (HB) and group-based (GB) physical activity on mental health in a sample of older adults in Shahr-e-kord. In this quasi-experimental study, a twice-weekly physical activity program for 2 months was provided either individually at home or in a group format for 181 people who were divided into two groups (HB and GB). The outcome, mental health, was measured with the 28-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28). Mental health status improved after participation in the physical activity program. The decrease in GHQ-28 total score in GB group, 3 months after intervention, was 3.61 ± 2.28 (P effects of GB physical activity on mental health compared with HB physical activity, adjusted for related baseline variables, were significant. These findings reveal the probable effects of GB rather than HB physical activity on mental health among the elderly.

  5. “Skill of Generalized Additive Model to Detect PM2.5 Health ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summary. Measures of health outcomes are collinear with meteorology and air quality, making analysis of connections between human health and air quality difficult. The purpose of this analysis was to determine time scales and periods shared by the variables of interest (and by implication scales and periods that are not shared). Hospital admissions, meteorology (temperature and relative humidity), and air quality (PM2.5 and daily maximum ozone) for New York City during the period 2000-2006 were decomposed into temporal scales ranging from 2 days to greater than two years using a complex wavelet transform. Health effects were modeled as functions of the wavelet components of meteorology and air quality using the generalized additive model (GAM) framework. This simulation study showed that GAM is extremely successful at extracting and estimating a health effect embedded in a dataset. It also shows that, if the objective in mind is to estimate the health signal but not to fully explain this signal, a simple GAM model with a single confounder (calendar time) whose smooth representation includes a sufficient number of constraints is as good as a more complex model.Introduction. In the context of wavelet regression, confounding occurs when two or more independent variables interact with the dependent variable at the same frequency. Confounding also acts on a variety of time scales, changing the PM2.5 coefficient (magnitude and sign) and its significance ac

  6. The positive effect on determinants of physical activity of a tailored, general practice-based physical activity intervention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Sluijs, E.M.F.; van Poppel-Bruinvels, M.N.M.; Twisk, J.W.R.; Brug, J.; van Mechelen, W.

    2005-01-01

    PACE (Physician-based Assessment and Counseling for Exercise) is an individualized theory-based minimal intervention strategy aimed at the enhancement of regular physical activity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a PACE intervention applied by general practitioners (GPs)

  7. Health benefits of physical activity: the evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Warburton, Darren E.R.; Nicol, Crystal Whitney; Bredin, Shannon S.D.

    2006-01-01

    The primary purpose of this narrative review was to evaluate the current literature and to provide further insight into the role physical inactivity plays in the development of chronic disease and premature death. We confirm that there is irrefutable evidence of the effectiveness of regular physical activity in the primary and secondary prevention of several chronic diseases (e.g., cardiovascular disease, diabetes, cancer, hypertension, obesity, depression and osteoporosis) and premature deat...

  8. Health literacy and participation in sports club activities among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paakkari, Leena; Kokko, Sami; Villberg, Jari; Paakkari, Olli; Tynjälä, Jorma

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this research was to compare the levels of perceived health literacy among adolescents who do or do not participate in sports club activities. Organized sport club activities reach a high proportion of adolescents, and have the potential to contribute to the development of their health literacy. The cross-sectional data on health literacy among school children in Finland (aged 13 and 15, n=3852) were measured, as a part of the Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children (HBSC) study, using the Health Literacy for School-aged Children (HLSAC) instrument. Sports club participation and its association with health literacy were examined in relation to age, gender, family affluence, school achievement, and physical activity. The statistical analyses included cross-tabulation and the multilevel mixed-effects logistic regression analyses. Perceived health literacy was higher among adolescents who participated in sports club activities. This conclusion was valid for boys and girls, for both age groups, among those who were physically active 6-7 days a week, had at least moderate school achievement, and those who belonged to the middle or high affluence families. From the health literacy perspective, participation in sports club activities was especially beneficial for those having low or moderate school achievement level. The sports club setting may work towards equalizing health literacy differences related to school achievement. However, the clubs should ensure that access is available to as many adolescents as possible; by this means they may spread beneficial influences, supporting the development of health literacy among broader population groups.

  9. Young and Active (A Minute of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-06-16

    Regular physical activity is essential to good health. This podcast discusses the importance of young people developing good exercise habits early.  Created: 6/16/2016 by MMWR.   Date Released: 6/16/2016.

  10. African Journal for Physical Activity and Health Sciences - Vol 13 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal for Physical, Health Education, Recreation and Dance. ... From pioneer pastime to international status: Jukskei as South Africa's only white ... Comparison of physical activities among Beninese adolescents attending schools in ...

  11. African Journal for Physical Activity and Health Sciences - Vol 19 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal for Physical, Health Education, Recreation and Dance. ... Adiposity and physical activity among children in countries at different stages of the physical ... The world in turmoil: Promotion of peace and international understanding ...

  12. The psychology of the heart: Implications for health, physical activity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... for health, physical activity and sport of psychophysiological resonance, coherence and heart rate variability feedback applications involving respiration and facilitation of positive emotion. Keywords: Heart psychology, psychophysiology, resonance, coherence, transcultural context, heart rate variability, biofeedback.

  13. Adolescent physical activity and health: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallal, Pedro C; Victora, Cesar G; Azevedo, Mario R; Wells, Jonathan C K

    2006-01-01

    Physical activity in adolescence may contribute to the development of healthy adult lifestyles, helping reduce chronic disease incidence. However, definition of the optimal amount of physical activity in adolescence requires addressing a number of scientific challenges. This article reviews the evidence on short- and long-term health effects of adolescent physical activity. Systematic reviews of the literature were undertaken using a reference period between 2000 and 2004, based primarily on the MEDLINE/PubMed database. Relevant studies were identified by examination of titles, abstracts and full papers, according to inclusion criteria defined a priori. A conceptual framework is proposed to outline how adolescent physical activity may contribute to adult health, including the following pathways: (i) pathway A--tracking of physical activity from adolescence to adulthood; (ii) pathway B--direct influence of adolescent physical activity on adult morbidity; (iii) pathway C--role of physical activity in treating adolescent morbidity; and (iv) pathway D - short-term benefits of physical activity in adolescence on health. The literature reviews showed consistent evidence supporting pathway 'A', although the magnitude of the association appears to be moderate. Thus, there is an indirect effect on all health benefits resulting from adult physical activity. Regarding pathway 'B', adolescent physical activity seems to provide long-term benefits on bone health, breast cancer and sedentary behaviours. In terms of pathway 'C', water physical activities in adolescence are effective in the treatment of asthma, and exercise is recommended in the treatment of cystic fibrosis. Self-esteem is also positively affected by adolescent physical activity. Regarding pathway 'D', adolescent physical activity provides short-term benefits; the strongest evidence refers to bone and mental health. Appreciation of different mechanisms through which adolescent physical activity may influence adult

  14. Physical activities to improve the aged people’s health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raydelin Hernández-Porraspita

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The physical activities have as main function the establishment of ways, forms and means that facilitate a stable health and a high capacity of physical yield in the practitioners, so that they can satisfactorily carry out their activities in all the spheres of their lives serving as base for their development as active citizens of the society. The imperious necessity to increase daily realization of physicalrecreational activities to improve the state of our adults' health is one of the highpriority tasks of the Revolution, besides the mediator role that professionals of physical culture and sport carry out when favouring the benefit of a healthier elderly.

  15. Risky music listening, permanent tinnitus and depression, anxiety, thoughts about suicide and adverse general health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Ineke; van de Looij-Jansen, Petra M; Mieloo, Cathelijne L; Burdorf, Alex; de Waart, Frouwkje

    2014-01-01

    To estimate the extent to which exposure to music through earphones or headphones with MP3 players or at discotheques and pop/rock concerts exceeded current occupational safety standards for noise exposure, to examine the extent to which temporary and permanent hearing-related symptoms were reported, and to examine whether the experience of permanent symptoms was associated with adverse perceived general and mental health, symptoms of depression, and thoughts about suicide. A total of 943 students in Dutch inner-city senior-secondary vocational schools completed questionnaires about their sociodemographics, music listening behaviors and health. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to examine associations. About 60% exceeded safety standards for occupational noise exposure; about one third as a result of listening to MP3 players. About 10% of the participants experienced permanent hearing-related symptoms. Temporary hearing symptoms that occurred after using an MP3 player or going to a discotheque or pop/rock concert were associated with exposure to high-volume music. However, compared to participants not experiencing permanent hearing-related symptoms, those experiencing permanent symptoms were less often exposed to high volume music. Furthermore, they reported at least two times more often symptoms of depression, thoughts about suicide and adverse self-assessed general and mental health. Risky music-listening behaviors continue up to at least the age of 25 years. Permanent hearing-related symptoms are associated with people's health and wellbeing. Participants experiencing such symptoms appeared to have changed their behavior to be less risky. In order to induce behavior change before permanent and irreversible hearing-related symptoms occur, preventive measurements concerning hearing health are needed.

  16. Risky music listening, permanent tinnitus and depression, anxiety, thoughts about suicide and adverse general health.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ineke Vogel

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To estimate the extent to which exposure to music through earphones or headphones with MP3 players or at discotheques and pop/rock concerts exceeded current occupational safety standards for noise exposure, to examine the extent to which temporary and permanent hearing-related symptoms were reported, and to examine whether the experience of permanent symptoms was associated with adverse perceived general and mental health, symptoms of depression, and thoughts about suicide. METHODS: A total of 943 students in Dutch inner-city senior-secondary vocational schools completed questionnaires about their sociodemographics, music listening behaviors and health. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to examine associations. RESULTS: About 60% exceeded safety standards for occupational noise exposure; about one third as a result of listening to MP3 players. About 10% of the participants experienced permanent hearing-related symptoms. Temporary hearing symptoms that occurred after using an MP3 player or going to a discotheque or pop/rock concert were associated with exposure to high-volume music. However, compared to participants not experiencing permanent hearing-related symptoms, those experiencing permanent symptoms were less often exposed to high volume music. Furthermore, they reported at least two times more often symptoms of depression, thoughts about suicide and adverse self-assessed general and mental health. CONCLUSIONS: Risky music-listening behaviors continue up to at least the age of 25 years. Permanent hearing-related symptoms are associated with people's health and wellbeing. Participants experiencing such symptoms appeared to have changed their behavior to be less risky. In order to induce behavior change before permanent and irreversible hearing-related symptoms occur, preventive measurements concerning hearing health are needed.

  17. The use of a running wheel to measure activity in rodents: Relationship to energy balance, general activity, and reward

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, James A.

    2015-01-01

    Running wheels are commonly employed to measure rodent physical activity in a variety of contexts, including studies of energy balance and obesity. There is no consensus on the nature of wheel-running activity or its underlying causes, however. Here, we will begin by systematically reviewing how running wheel availability affects physical activity and other aspects of energy balance in laboratory rodents. While wheel running and physical activity in the absence of a wheel commonly correlate in a general sense, in many specific aspects the two do not correspond. In fact, the presence of running wheels alters several aspects of energy balance, including body weight and composition, food intake, and energy expenditure of activity. We contend that wheel-running activity should be considered a behavior in and of itself, reflecting several underlying behavioral processes in addition to a rodent's general, spontaneous activity. These behavioral processes include defensive behavior, predatory aggression, and depression- and anxiety-like behaviors. As it relates to energy balance, wheel running engages several brain systems—including those related to the stress response, mood, and reward, and those responsive to growth factors—that influence energy balance indirectly. We contend that wheel-running behavior represents factors in addition to rodents' tendency to be physically active, engaging additional neural and physiological mechanisms which can then independently alter energy balance and behavior. Given the impact of wheel-running behavior on numerous overlapping systems that influence behavior and physiology, this review outlines the need for careful design and interpretation of studies that utilize running wheels as a means for exercise or as a measurement of general physical activity. PMID:22230703

  18. The use of a running wheel to measure activity in rodents: relationship to energy balance, general activity, and reward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Colleen M; Burghardt, Paul R; Levine, James A

    2012-03-01

    Running wheels are commonly employed to measure rodent physical activity in a variety of contexts, including studies of energy balance and obesity. There is no consensus on the nature of wheel-running activity or its underlying causes, however. Here, we will begin by systematically reviewing how running wheel availability affects physical activity and other aspects of energy balance in laboratory rodents. While wheel running and physical activity in the absence of a wheel commonly correlate in a general sense, in many specific aspects the two do not correspond. In fact, the presence of running wheels alters several aspects of energy balance, including body weight and composition, food intake, and energy expenditure of activity. We contend that wheel-running activity should be considered a behavior in and of itself, reflecting several underlying behavioral processes in addition to a rodent's general, spontaneous activity. These behavioral processes include defensive behavior, predatory aggression, and depression- and anxiety-like behaviors. As it relates to energy balance, wheel running engages several brain systems-including those related to the stress response, mood, and reward, and those responsive to growth factors-that influence energy balance indirectly. We contend that wheel-running behavior represents factors in addition to rodents' tendency to be physically active, engaging additional neural and physiological mechanisms which can then independently alter energy balance and behavior. Given the impact of wheel-running behavior on numerous overlapping systems that influence behavior and physiology, this review outlines the need for careful design and interpretation of studies that utilize running wheels as a means for exercise or as a measurement of general physical activity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Recreational football as a health promoting activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krustrup, Peter; Aagaard, Per; Nybo, L

    2010-01-01

    The present review addresses the physiological demands during recreational football training and the effects on central health variables that influence the risk of life-style diseases of young and middle-aged men. Recent studies have established that recreational football, carried out as small......-sided games can be characterized as having a high aerobic component with mean heart rates of 80-85% of maximum heart rate, which is similar to values observed for elite football players. In addition, the training includes multiple high-speed runs, sprints, turns, jumps and tackles, which provide a high impact...... on muscles and bones. Recreational football training in untrained men results in marked improvements in maximum aerobic power, blood pressure, muscle capillarization and intermittent exercise performance, and those effects are similar to interval training and more pronounced than moderate...

  20. Relationship Between Job Stress Among Nurses with Their General Health Status in Kamali Hospital in 1392

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Mashak

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: In jobs where human contact is like nursing, more tension there. This destructive and multidimensional phenomenon can be increased absenteeism, reduced work efficiency and create energy and physical and mental illnesses lead to a decline in the quality of patient care. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between stress and general health and help reduce the stress they are. Methods: This cross-sectional study on 78 public health nurses and Grft.prsshOsipow questionnaire included demographic information, job stress indicators (6 Stress workload involved, incompetence of duality role, scope, roles, responsibilities and physical environment and public health have been classified. Results: The findings show different aspects of occupational stress on 2/49% of the variation in the role and functions of stress, mild confusion, the burden of duties (45%, responsibility and physical environment (62%, stress higher. The aspects of public health, 48% of nurses in the physical symptoms (moderate and (63% of anxiety in the top 40 percent in the social dysfunction in Hdpayyn and 40% of the depression at the bottom were evaluated. Conclusion: The results of this study were determined and compared with previous studies in the same field  Create occupational stress can adversely affect the performance of nurses and public health they have.Implementing ways to reduce stress and burnout can promote mental health nurses to help improve the quality of nursing care.The results will help health systems to create a quiet working conditions largely reduce occupational stress.

  1. Diagnostic health risk assessment of electronic waste on the general population in developing countries' scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frazzoli, Chiara; Orisakwe, Orish Ebere; Dragone, Roberto; Mantovani, Alberto

    2010-01-01

    E-waste is the generic name for technological waste. Even though aspects related to e-waste environmental pollution and human exposure are known, scientific assessments are missing so far on the actual risks for health sustainability of the general population exposed to e-waste scenarios, such as illicit dumping, crude recycling and improper treatment and disposal. In fact, further to occupational and direct local exposure, e-waste scenarios may impact on the environment-to-food chain, thus eliciting a widespread and repeated exposure of the general population to mixtures of toxicants, mainly toxic chemical elements, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and persistent organic pollutants. In the absence of any clear policy on e-waste flow management, the situation in the e-waste receiver countries may become quite scary; accordingly, here we address a diagnostic risk assessment of health issues potentially elicited by e-waste related mixtures of toxicants. Scientific evidence available so far (mainly from China) is discussed with special attention to the concept of health sustainability, i.e. the poor health burden heritage perpetuated through the mother-to-child dyad. Endocrine disruption and neurotoxicity are specifically considered as examples of main health burden issues relevant to perpetuation through life cycle and across generations; toxicological information are considered along with available data on environmental and food contamination and human internal exposure. The risk from exposure to e-waste related mixtures of toxicants of vulnerable subpopulation like breast-fed infants is given special attention. The diagnostic risk assessment demonstrates how e-waste exposure poses an actual public health emergency, as it may entrain significant health risks also for generations to come. Exposure scenarios as well as specific chemicals of major concern may vary in different contexts; for instance, only limited information is available on e-waste related exposures in

  2. Are coaches' health promotion activities beneficial for sport participants? A multilevel analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hoye, Aurélie; Heuzé, Jean-Philippe; Van den Broucke, Stephan; Sarrazin, Philippe

    2016-12-01

    As major actors in sports activities, sports coaches can play a significant role in health education and contribute to the psychological well-being of young people. However, not all participants in sports activities experience sports positively, which reduces the potential benefits for health. The present study investigates if coaches' efforts to promote health increase young athletes' enjoyment, self-esteem and perceived health in daily life and decrease sport dropout. To control for the variability between teams and between clubs, multilevel modeling was applied. A sample of 342 young football players completed questionnaires assessing their perceptions of coaches' Health Promotion (HP) activities, enjoyment of sports, dropout intentions, self-esteem and perceived health in daily life. HP general score was positively related to enjoyment and perceived health as well as negatively dropout intentions. Players perceiving their coaches as promoting fair and play (Respect for oneself and others) scored higher on their perceptions of enjoyment in sport, self-esteem and self-reported health, and lower on dropout intentions. Moreover, players recognizing their coaches as encouraging their healthy lifestyle also reported higher perceptions of sport enjoyment, whereas player's perceived coaches' activities on substance use were associated with lower participants' enjoyment. These results support the importance of developing HP in sports clubs. Especially, promoting respect of oneself and others seems to be the more beneficial to sport participants. Copyright © 2016 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Healthy and Active Ageing: Social Capital in Health Promotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutsogeorgou, Eleni; Davies, John Kenneth; Aranda, Kay; Zissi, Anastasia; Chatzikou, Maria; Cerniauskaite, Milda; Quintas, Rui; Raggi, Alberto; Leonardi, Matilde

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: This paper examines the context of health promotion actions that are focused on/contributing to strengthening social capital by increasing community participation, reciprocal trust and support as the means to achieve better health and more active ageing. Method: The methodology employed was a literature review/research synthesis, and a…

  4. A Comparison of Religious Orientation and General Health in Runaway Girls and Normal Ones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolfazl Mohammadbeigi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Due to the negative consequence of girls’ escape, this study was conducted to compare personality, demographic, and religious characteristics of runaway girls and normal ones in Qom city. Methods: In a case control study, 66 single runaway girls and 66 normal girls were selected as experimental group and control group, respectively. Data was culled using interview method, demographic information questionnaire, Allport religious orientation, and general health questionnaires (GHQ. Chi square and independent t-test were applied to analyze final data. Results: Average general health scores were calculated to be 13.9±11 and 9±6.2 in runaway and normal girls, respectively. The score of religious orientation is significantly lower in runaway girls than normal girls (p0.05. Conclusion: Religious orientation was found to be lower in runaway girls than in normal ones. Since runaway girls are subject to physical and sexual abuse, their psychological health is highly vulnerable—the fact which might pave the way for other social abnormalities.

  5. Sensorimotor control and neuromuscular activity of the shoulder in adolescent competitive swimmers with generalized joint hypermobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frydendal, Thomas; Eshøj, Henrik; Liaghat, Behnam

    2018-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Shoulder pain is highly prevalent in competitive swimmers, and generalized joint hypermobility (GJH) is considered a risk factor. Sensorimotor control deficiencies and altered neuromuscular activation of the shoulder may represent underlying factors. RESEARCH QUESTION: To investigate...... whether competitive swimmers with GJH including shoulder hypermobility (GJHS) differ in shoulder sensorimotor control and muscle activity from those without GJH and no shoulder hypermobility (NGJH). METHODS: Competitive swimmers (aged 13-17) were recruited. GJHS or NGJH status was determined using...... (29%) pectoralis major activity during BL-EO compared to NGJH (5.35 ± 1.77%MVE vs. 7.51 ± 1.96%MVE; p = 0.043). SIGNIFICANCE: Adolescent competitive swimmers with GJHS displayed no shoulder sensorimotor control deficiencies and no generally altered shoulder muscle activity pattern, except...

  6. Educational Level, Underachievement, and General Mental Health Problems in 10,866 Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tempelaar, Wanda M; de Vos, Nelleke; Plevier, Carolien M; van Gastel, Willemijn A; Termorshuizen, Fabian; MacCabe, James H; Boks, Marco P M

    2017-08-01

    Previous research suggests that cognitive functioning is associated with the risk of several adult psychiatric disorders. In this study we investigated whether adolescents who perform worse than expected at secondary school are at a higher risk for general mental health problems. In a cross-sectional survey comprising 10,866 Dutch adolescents aged 13 to 16 years, underachievement at secondary school was defined as the discrepancy between predicted school grade and actual grade 1 or 3 years later. Mental health problems were assessed using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. We investigated the association of underachievement with mental health problems using logistic regression, adjusting for potential confounders. Underachievement was associated with general psychopathology in pupils aged 13 to 14 years (odds ratio [OR], 1.86; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.47-2.37) and in pupils aged 15 to 16 years (OR, 2.05; 95% CI, 1.67-2.52) in a multivariate analysis including sociodemographic factors. The association between underachievement and mental health problems was attenuated when school factors such as teacher advice and interaction between underachievement and teacher advice were added, but underachievement remained significantly associated with mental health problems in adolescents in the higher educational tracks (pupils aged 13-14 years: OR, 2.22; 95% CI, 1.07-4.60 and OR, 2.41; 95% CI, 1.10-5.30, age 15-16 years: OR, 2.63; 95% CI, 1.38-5.03). In the multivariate analysis including the interaction between underachievement and teacher advice, a significant interaction effect occurs between underachievement and teacher advice in the higher tracks. Values of OR and CI are given for each significant interaction term. In the younger age group (pupils aged 13-14 years) this results in 2 sets of OR and CI. This association was most pronounced for the hyperactivity subscale of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Underachievement at secondary school

  7. General practitioners' views and experiences of counselling for physical activity through the New Zealand Green Prescription program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patel Asmita

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Regular physical activity is beneficial in both the prevention and management of chronic health conditions. A large proportion of adult New Zealanders, however, are insufficiently active. To help increase population levels of physical activity in New Zealand the Green Prescription, a primary care physical activity scripting program, was developed. The primary aim of this study was to identify why general practitioners (GPs counsel for physical activity and administer Green Prescriptions. A secondary aim was to examine GPs' views and experiences of Green Prescription counselling for the management of depression. Methods Individual face-to-face interviews were conducted with 15 GPs. All interviews were audio-taped and transcribed. Data were analysed using an inductive thematic approach. Results Several themes and sub-themes emerged from the data. Notably, GPs counselled for physical activity and prescribed Green Prescriptions for both primary preventive (e.g., weight control and secondary management (e.g., diabetes management purposes. GPs reported the benefits of the Green Prescription centred around two main themes: (i a non-medication approach to a healthier lifestyle and (ii the support benefits of physical activity. Time constraints within the consultation was the only main theme that emerged regarding the barriers GPs perceived to Green Prescription use. Physical activity in general, and physical activity prescribed through the Green Prescription, were also viewed by GPs as beneficial for the management of depression. Conclusions The results of this study suggest that New Zealand GPs view the Green Prescription program as beneficial for their patients with pre-existing conditions and/or weight problems. While this is encouraging, the Green Prescription may also be used to promote physical activity in currently healthy but low-active and sedentary individuals. Such individuals are currently disease free, but are at risk

  8. Generalized query-based active learning to identify differentially methylated regions in DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, Md Muksitul; Holder, Lawrence B; Skinner, Michael K; Cook, Diane J

    2013-01-01

    Active learning is a supervised learning technique that reduces the number of examples required for building a successful classifier, because it can choose the data it learns from. This technique holds promise for many biological domains in which classified examples are expensive and time-consuming to obtain. Most traditional active learning methods ask very specific queries to the Oracle (e.g., a human expert) to label an unlabeled example. The example may consist of numerous features, many of which are irrelevant. Removing such features will create a shorter query with only relevant features, and it will be easier for the Oracle to answer. We propose a generalized query-based active learning (GQAL) approach that constructs generalized queries based on multiple instances. By constructing appropriately generalized queries, we can achieve higher accuracy compared to traditional active learning methods. We apply our active learning method to find differentially DNA methylated regions (DMRs). DMRs are DNA locations in the genome that are known to be involved in tissue differentiation, epigenetic regulation, and disease. We also apply our method on 13 other data sets and show that our method is better than another popular active learning technique.

  9. Brief communication: Self-reported health and activity habits and attitudes in saturation divers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolan, Eimear; Deb, Sanjoy; Stephen, Graeme; Swinton, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to the confined hyperbaric, hyperoxic environment of the saturation chamber poses a number of unique physiological challenges to divers. Appropriately tailored training, nutrition and health programs may help support the body to cope with and overcome these challenges. To describe the self-reported habits and attitudes of saturation divers toward issues related to health, lifestyle, nutrition and physical activity. A questionnaire was developed to elicit information related to four key areas: 1) respondent demographics; 2) physical activity habits and attitudes; 3) nutritional attitudes; and 4) general lifestyle and health information. Respondents (n = 89/45%) reported a generally healthy lifestyle, including high physical activity levels while onshore, low tobacco use and alcohol intakes within U.K.-recommended guidelines. Responses to in-chamber items demonstrated reduced physical activity, disrupted sleep and distorted taste and smell perception. In addition, lethargy, headaches and musculoskeletal stiffness/soreness were reported as frequent symptoms following a period of time spent in saturation. Results of this study provide an in-sight into the self-reported practices and attitudes of saturation divers and appear to indicate a generally healthy lifestyle in the respondents. Some themes emerged which may impact on diver health and performance while in saturation. The results of this report may help provide a platform to generate hypotheses for further research and facilitate development of appropriately tailored nutrition and training-based strategies for saturation divers.

  10. Cultural activity participation and associations with self-perceived health, life-satisfaction and mental health: the Young HUNT Study, Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Elisabeth; Sund, Erik; Skjei Knudtsen, Margunn; Krokstad, Steinar; Holmen, Turid Lingaas

    2015-06-10

    Leisure time activities and culture participation may have health effects and be important in pulic health promotion. More knowledge on how cultural activity participation may influence self-perceived health, life-satisfaction, self-esteem and mental health is needed. This article use data from the general population-based Norwegian HUNT Study, using the cross-sectional Young-HUNT3 (2006-08) Survey including 8200 adolescents. Data on cultural activity participation, self-perceived health, life-satisfaction, self-esteem, anxiety and depression were collected by self-reported questionnaires. Both attending meetings or training in an organisation or club, and attending sports events were positively associated with each of the health parameters good self-percieved health, good life-satisfaction, good self-esteem, and low anxiety and depression symptoms. We found differences according to gender and age (13-15 years versus 16-19 years old) for several culture activities, where girls aged 16-19 years seemed to benefit most from being culturally active. The extent of participation seemed to matter. Those who had frequent participation in cultural activities reported better health outcomes compared to inactive adolecents. The results from this study indicate that participation in cultural activities may be positively associated with health, life-satisfaction and self-esteem in adolescents and thus important in public health promotion. Possible sex and age differences should be taken into account.

  11. Actively cooled plasma facing components qualification, commissioning and health monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escourbiac, F.; Durocher, A.; Grosman, A.; Courtois, X.; Farjon, J.-L.; Schlosser, J.; Merola, M.; Tivey, R.

    2006-01-01

    In modern steady state magnetic fusion devices, actively cooled plasma facing components (PFC) have to handle heat fluxes in the range of 10-20 MW/m 2 . This generates a number of engineering constraints: the armour materials must be refractory and compatible with plasma wall interaction requirements (low sputtering and/or low atomic number); the heat sink must offer high thermal conductivity, high mechanical resistance and sufficient ductility; the component cooling system -which is generally based on the circulation of pressurized water in the PFC's heat sink - must offer high thermal heat transfer efficiency. Furthermore, the assembling of the refractory armour material onto the metallic heat sink causes generic difficulties strongly depending on thermo-mechanical properties of materials and design requirements. Life time of the PFC during plasma operation are linked to their manufacturing quality, in particular they are reduced by the possible presence of flaw assembling. The fabrication of PFC in an industrial frame including their qualification and their commissioning - which consists in checking the manufacturing quality during and at the end of manufacture - is a real challenge. From experience gained at Tore Supra on carbon fibre composite flat tiles technology components, it was assessed that a set of qualifications activities must be operated during R(and)D and manufacturing phases. Dedicated Non Destructive Technique (NDT) based on advanced active infrared thermography was developed for this purpose, afterwards, correlations between NDT, high heat flux testing and thermomechanical modelling were performed to analyse damage detection and propagation, and define an acceptance criteria valuable for industrial application. Health monitoring using lock-in technique was also recently operated in-situ of the Tore Supra tokamak for detection of possible defect propagation during operations, presence of acoustic precursor for critical heat flux detection induced

  12. Getting Australia more active: challenges and opportunities for health promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hills, A P; Street, S J; Harris, N

    2014-04-01

    A growing body of evidence demonstrates that regular physical activity promotes health and assists in the prevention of non-communicable diseases but this is presently curtailed by low and unhealthy participation rates in Australia and comparable industrialised countries. Compounding the problem is knowledge that physical inactivity is independently associated with poor health outcomes. Despite physical activity being described as public health's 'best bet' or 'best buy', motivating individuals and groups to adopt and maintain physical activity continues to be a major challenge for health professionals. Global advocacy for prevention efforts must be operationalised through national to local strategies to promote and support physical activity in multiple settings including the home, schools and workplace. The Australian health promotion community has and continues to play a leadership role in physical activity promotion. However, there is an urgent need to continue to promote the importance of physical activity, along with its pivotal role in the prevention of non-communicable diseases, alongside related agendas including healthy diets, tobacco control and environmental sustainability. This commentary overviews the contemporary status of physical activity promotion in Australia and identifies key challenges and opportunities moving forward.

  13. Health communication, information technology and the public’s attitude toward periodic general health examinations [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quan-Hoang Vuong

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Periodic general health examinations (GHEs are gradually becoming more popular as they employ subclinical screenings, as a means of early detection. This study considers the effect of information technology (IT, health communications and the public’s attitude towards GHEs in Vietnam. Methods: A total of 2,068 valid observations were obtained from a survey in Hanoi and its surrounding areas. Results: In total, 42.12% of participants stated that they were willing to use IT applications to recognise illness symptoms, and nearly 2/3 of them rated the healthcare quality at average level or below. Discussion: The data, which was processed by the BCL model, showed that IT applications (apps reduce hesitation toward GHEs; however, older people seem to have less confidence in using these apps. Health communications and government’s subsidy also increased the likelihood of people attending periodic GHEs. The probability of early check-ups where there is a cash subsidy could reach approximately 80%.

  14. Meeting Recommended Levels of Physical Activity in Relation to Preventive Health Behavior and Health Status Among Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter D. Hart

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of meeting the recommended levels of physical activity (PA with health status and preventive health behavior in adults. Methods A total of 5630 adults 18 years of age or older were included in this study. PA was assessed using a series of questions that categorized activities based on their metabolic equivalent values and then categorized individuals based on the reported frequency and duration of such activities. Participants reporting 150 minutes or more of moderate-intensity PA per week were considered to have met the PA guidelines. Multiple logistic regression was used to model the relationships between meeting PA guidelines and health status and preventive health behavior, while controlling for confounding variables. Results Overall, 53.9% (95% confidence interval [CI], 51.9 to 55.9% of adults reported meeting the recommended levels of PA. Among adults with good general health, 56.9% (95% CI, 54.7 to 59.1% reported meeting the recommended levels of PA versus 43.1% (95% CI, 40.9 to 45.3% who did not. Adults who met the PA guidelines were significantly more likely not to report high cholesterol, diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, arthritis, asthma, depression, or overweight. Furthermore, adults meeting the PA guidelines were significantly more likely to report having health insurance, consuming fruits daily, consuming vegetables daily, and not being a current cigarette smoker. Conclusions In this study, we found meeting the current guidelines for PA to have a protective relationship with both health status and health behavior in adults. Health promotion programs should focus on strategies that help individuals meet the current guidelines of at least 150 minutes per week of moderate-intensity PA.

  15. Comparing Sleep Quality and General Health Among the Elderly Living at Home and at Nursing Home

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansour Beyrami

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Survey about the issues and problems related to elderly in order to improve their quality of life of this increasing population has become a universal concern.This study was performed by the purpose of comparing the sleep quality and general health among the Elderly Residing at Home and Old People's Homes. Methods & Materials: This study is descriptive-analytic type. Population of this investigation consisted of elderly men and women (upper than 60 years old living at personal home and at nursing home in Tabriz. Sample group composed of 100 elderly (50 men and 50 women 50 living at home and 50 living at nursing home who were selected through available sampling method. For collecting data, Goldberg General Health Questionnaire and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index were used. Data were analyzed by Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA. Results: Findings showed that In terms of general health and its components (Physical symptoms, anxiety, social dysfunction and depression and Sleep quality and its components (Subjective quality of sleep, time for sleep, total sleep time, sleep efficiency, routine, sleep disorders, sleep medications and daily dysfunction there were significant differences between nursing home residents and elderly residents in nursing homes (P=0.001. Conclusion: Findings indicated that elderly residents in nursing home are experiencing more symptoms of anxiety, depression, physical symptoms and social dysfunction Compared with the elderly whom resident at home. Also the results showed that the elderly residents of nursing homes have poor sleep quality than ones whom residents at home. On the other hand Future development of elderly care institution is inevitable. Therefore, more attention to the living conditions of elderly residents of institutions seems necessary.

  16. An Evaluation of Classroom Activities and Exercises in ELT Classroom for General Purposes Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zohrabi, Mohammad

    2011-01-01

    It is through effective implementation of activities and exercises which students can be motivated and consequently lead to language learning. However, as an insider, the experience of teaching English for General Purposes (EGP) course indicates that it has some problems which need to be modified. In order to evaluate the EGP course,…

  17. Effectiveness of highly active antiretroviral therapy administered by general practitioners in rural South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barth, R. E.; van der Meer, J. T. M.; Hoepelman, A. I. M.; Schrooders, P. A.; van de Vijver, D. A.; Geelen, S. P. M.; Tempelman, H. A.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the one-year efficacy of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) administered by general practitioners in a primary care community clinic in rural South Africa. We performed an observational cohort study of 675 treatment-naive human immunodeficiency virus

  18. Using Computational Chemistry Activities to Promote Learning and Retention in a Secondary School General Chemistry Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochterski, Joseph W.

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the results of using state-of-the-art, research-quality software as a learning tool in a general chemistry secondary school classroom setting. I present three activities designed to introduce fundamental chemical concepts regarding molecular shape and atomic orbitals to students with little background in chemistry, such as…

  19. Generalization of the Activated Complex Theory of Reaction Rates. II. Classical Mechanical Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, R. A.

    1964-01-01

    In its usual classical form activated complex theory assumes a particular expression for the kinetic energy of the reacting system -- one associated with a rectilinear motion along the reaction coordinate. The derivation of the rate expression given in the present paper is based on the general kinetic energy expression.

  20. General relativistic model for the gravitational field of active galactic nuclei surrounded by a disk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogt, D.; Letelier, P.S.

    2005-01-01

    An exact but simple general relativistic model for the gravitational field of active galactic nuclei is constructed, based on the superposition in Weyl coordinates of a black hole, a Chazy-Curzon disk and two rods, which represent matter jets. The influence of the rods on the matter properties of

  1. Changes in disability in older adults with generalized radiographic osteoarthritis: A complex relationship with physical activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tak, E.C.; Meurs, J.B. van; Bierma-Zeinstra, S.M.; Hofman, A.; Hopman-Rock, M.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to report on factors associated with changes in disability after 5 years, with a focus on physical activity (PA) in community-dwelling older adults with generalized radiographic osteoarthritis (GROA). METHODS: Assessment of GROA (hand, knee, hip) and

  2. [Current Research Activities on Person-Centered Medicine in Academic Institutes of General Practice in Germany and Austria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Annemarie; Schelling, Jörg; Kohls, Niko; van Dyck, Marcus; Poggenburg, Stephanie; Vajda, Christian; Hirsch, Jameson; Sirois, Fuschia; Toussaint, Loren; Offenbächer, Martin

    2017-10-11

    Aim of study Person-centered medicine (PCM) with its focus on humanistic-biographical-oriented medicine and integrated, positive-salutogenic health is a central aspect in the patient-physician relationship in general practice. The objective of this analysis is to assess the prevalence and type of research project in academic institutions of general practice in Germany (Ger) and Austria (At) and the thematic priorities of the projects in the areas PCM, health promotion (HP), prevention (PRE) and conventional medicine (CM). Methods A search was conducted (September-December 2015) on the websites of 30 institutes and divisions of general medicine for their current research projects. The retrieved projects were assigned to five categories: PCM, HP, PRE, CM and others. Subsequently, we identified the targeted patient groups of the projects as well as the thematic focus in the categories PCM, HP, PRE and CM with focus on PCM and HP. Results 541 research projects were identified, 452 in Germany and 89 in Austria. Research projects were only included if they were explicitly indicated as research-oriented. Seventy projects addressed PCM aspects, 15 projects HP aspects, 32 projects PRE aspects and 396 projects CM aspects. The most frequently target groups in the categories PCM (24 of 70) and HP (7 of 15) were chronically ill patients. The most common thematic focus in PCM was communication (13 of 70) and in HP, physical activity (6 of 15). Conclusion The vast majority of research projects investigated conventional medical topics. The percentage of research activities in the field of PCM (13%) or PCM including HP (16%) in Ger and At is below the European average of 20%. From our point of view, PCM and HP need to be implemented to a greater extent in general practice. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  3. Psychometrics Matter in Health Behavior: A Long-term Reliability Generalization Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickett, Andrew C; Valdez, Danny; Barry, Adam E

    2017-09-01

    Despite numerous calls for increased understanding and reporting of reliability estimates, social science research, including the field of health behavior, has been slow to respond and adopt such practices. Therefore, we offer a brief overview of reliability and common reporting errors; we then perform analyses to examine and demonstrate the variability of reliability estimates by sample and over time. Using meta-analytic reliability generalization, we examined the variability of coefficient alpha scores for a well-designed, consistent, nationwide health study, covering a span of nearly 40 years. For each year and sample, reliability varied. Furthermore, reliability was predicted by a sample characteristic that differed among age groups within each administration. We demonstrated that reliability is influenced by the methods and individuals from which a given sample is drawn. Our work echoes previous calls that psychometric properties, particularly reliability of scores, are important and must be considered and reported before drawing statistical conclusions.

  4. A general method for decomposing the causes of socioeconomic inequality in health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckley, Gawain; Gerdtham, Ulf-G; Kjellsson, Gustav

    2016-07-01

    We introduce a general decomposition method applicable to all forms of bivariate rank dependent indices of socioeconomic inequality in health, including the concentration index. The technique is based on recentered influence function regression and requires only the application of OLS to a transformed variable with similar interpretation. Our method requires few identifying assumptions to yield valid estimates in most common empirical applications, unlike current methods favoured in the literature. Using the Swedish Twin Registry and a within twin pair fixed effects identification strategy, our new method finds no evidence of a causal effect of education on income-related health inequality. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. [Contribution of Perioperative Oral Health Care and Management for Patients who Underwent General Thoracic Surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Hajime; Minamiya, Yoshihiro

    2016-01-01

    Due to the recent advances in radiological diagnostic technology, the role of video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery in thoracic disease has expanded, surgical indication extended to the elderly patients. Cancer patients receiving surgery, radiation therapy and/or chemotherapy may encounter complications in conjunction with the oral cavity such as aspiration pneumonia, surgical site infection and various type of infection. Recently, it is recognized that oral health care management is effective to prevent the postoperative infectious complications, especially pneumonia. Therefore, oral management should be scheduled before start of therapy to prevent these complications as supportive therapy of the cancer treatment. In this background, perioperative oral function management is highlighted in the remuneration for dental treatment revision of 2012,and the importance of oral care has been recognized in generally. In this manuscript, we introduce the several opinions and evidence based on the recent previous reports about the perioperative oral health care and management on thoracic surgery.

  6. Change in self-rated general health is associated with perceived illness burden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anni Brit Sternhagen; Jensen, Per; Gannik, Dorte Effersøe

    2015-01-01

    Background: iabetic patients’ lifestyle adaptations to improve glycaemic control are not always followed by improvements in self-rated general health (SRH). The perceived impact of diabetes on patients’ daily lives may influence changes in their SRH. This paper examines the association of illness...... diabetes-related symptoms, and cardiovascular disease were related to lower SRH ratings. On average SRH improved by 0.46 (95% CI: 0.37; 0.55) during the first year after diagnosis without inclusion of covariates. Mental and practical illness burden was the only factor associated with change in SRH...

  7. ELEMENTAL MUSIC-MAKING AS A HEALTH SAVING PHENOMENON IN THE SYSTEM OF GENERAL EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Golubeva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims at drawing the attention of teaching community to the health promoting potential of music making disregarded nowadays by educational establishments. The traditional musical education focused mainly on musicology leads to artificial intellectualization, and leaves no room for chil-dren's imagination, intuition, creativity, joyful feelings and activities.The author discusses the specificity of the music teaching concept, developed by Carl Orff and his followers, and based on the complex understanding of human nature, history, living conditions, and corresponding with genetic laws. On the one hand, the music-making involves consideration of the learners' psychological features and individual propensities, and on the other hand, it has a syncretic effect on the main psychological and physiological functions including communication, speech, motion, etc. As the result, it resists the hypodynamia and fatigue, and promotes health.The paper reveals the experience of the Music Education Department in the Institute of Psychology and Pedagogy of Tumen State University, providing specializations in the Elemental Music-Making in Educational Process and Health Saving Potential of Music Teaching. The outcomes of the practical seminars and experimental teaching in the Primary School № 3 in Pytyah Town of Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Region confirm the author’s theory of the positive emotional impact of music-making on the learning and health saving activities

  8. [The incidence and distribution of accidents with biological fluids among health personnel and the general population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imaz Iglesia, I; Gómez López, L I; Fernández Martínez, J A; Mareca Doñate, R; Sangrador Arenas, L A

    1996-01-01

    To assess the informative usefulness of the Registry, to calculate the incidence rates of accident with biological fluids among health care workers and in the community, to know about the postaccident rate of seroconversion to HIV and to identify risk groups. A descriptive study of the HIV records file of the Registry of Accidental Contacts to Biological Fluids in the Clinic Hospital of Zaragoza was conducted, between January 1987 and September 1993. The registry includes the reports of health care workers and the general population of Health Area III in Aragón (Spain), except for the Calatayud's Hospital. Incidence rates, rate ratios and their 95% confidence intervals were calculated. A total number of 595 accidents were reported, in none of them and HIV infection occurred subsequently. The incidence rate in health care workers was of 1.7 reports per 100 workers per year, while in the community it was of 8.1 per 100,000 people. The housekeeping staff was the group with a higher incidence (rate = 6.7; 95% IC: 3-14.8) and the type of accident more frequently described was needlestick injury. The incidence of reported accidents has increased in the community and in health care workers, which may be due to the increase in the reporting. In health care workers, the incidence in 1993 was within the range reported from other countries. The perception of risk is universal after accidents with unknown biological fluids. The correct disposal of material with biological contamination should be the more important preventive action.

  9. Violence Affects Physical and Mental Health Differently: The General Population Based Tromsø Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oddgeir Friborg

    Full Text Available This general population-based study examined associations between violence and mental health, musculoskeletal pain, and early disability pension. The prevalence and consequences of good vs. poor adjustment (resilience vs. vulnerability following encounters with violence were also examined. Data were based on the sixth wave of the "Tromsø Study" (N = 12,981; 65.7% response rate, 53.4% women, M-age = 57.5 years, SD-age = 12.7 years. Self-reported data on psychological (threats and physical violence (beaten/kicked, mental health (anxiety/depression, musculoskeletal pain (MSP, and granting of disability pension (DP were collected. Men suffered more violent events during childhood than women did, and vice versa during adulthood. Psychological violence implied poorer mental health and slightly more MSP than physical violence. The risk of MSP was highest for violence occurring during childhood in women and during the last year for men. A dose-response relationship between an increasing number of violent encounters and poorer health was observed. About 58% of individuals reported no negative impact of violence (hence, resilience group, whereas 42% considered themselves as more vulnerable following encounters with violence. Regression analyses indicated comparable mental health but slightly more MSP in the resilience group compared to the unexposed group, whereas the vulnerable group had significantly worse health overall and a higher risk of early granting of DP. Resilience is not an all-or-nothing matter, as physical ailments may characterize individuals adapting well following encounters with violence.

  10. Generalized cost-effectiveness analysis for national-level priority-setting in the health sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edejer Tessa

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA is potentially an important aid to public health decision-making but, with some notable exceptions, its use and impact at the level of individual countries is limited. A number of potential reasons may account for this, among them technical shortcomings associated with the generation of current economic evidence, political expediency, social preferences and systemic barriers to implementation. As a form of sectoral CEA, Generalized CEA sets out to overcome a number of these barriers to the appropriate use of cost-effectiveness information at the regional and country level. Its application via WHO-CHOICE provides a new economic evidence base, as well as underlying methodological developments, concerning the cost-effectiveness of a range of health interventions for leading causes of, and risk factors for, disease. The estimated sub-regional costs and effects of different interventions provided by WHO-CHOICE can readily be tailored to the specific context of individual countries, for example by adjustment to the quantity and unit prices of intervention inputs (costs or the coverage, efficacy and adherence rates of interventions (effectiveness. The potential usefulness of this information for health policy and planning is in assessing if current intervention strategies represent an efficient use of scarce resources, and which of the potential additional interventions that are not yet implemented, or not implemented fully, should be given priority on the grounds of cost-effectiveness. Health policy-makers and programme managers can use results from WHO-CHOICE as a valuable input into the planning and prioritization of services at national level, as well as a starting point for additional analyses of the trade-off between the efficiency of interventions in producing health and their impact on other key outcomes such as reducing inequalities and improving the health of the poor.

  11. Physical activity and cognitive-health content in top-circulating magazines, 2006-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Anna E; Corwin, Sara J; Friedman, Daniela B; Laditka, Sarah B; Colabianchi, Natalie; Montgomery, Kara M

    2011-04-01

    Physical activity may promote cognitive health in older adults. Popular media play an important role in preventive health communication. This study examined articles discussing associations between physical activity and cognitive health in top-circulating magazines targeting older adults. 42,753 pages of magazines published from 2006 to 2008 were reviewed; 26 articles met inclusion criteria. Explanations regarding the link between physical activity and cognitive health were provided in 57.7% of articles. These explanations were generally consistent with empirical evidence; however, few articles included empirical evidence. Physical activity recommendations were presented in 80.8% of articles; a wide range was recommended (90-300 min of physical activity per wk). Socioeconomic status and education level were not mentioned in the text. Results suggest an opportunity for greater coverage regarding the role of physical activity in promoting cognitive health in popular media. Magazine content would benefit from including more empirical evidence, culturally sensitive content, and physical activity recommendations that are consistent with U.S. guidelines.

  12. A Decoupling Control Method for Shunt Hybrid Active Power Filter Based on Generalized Inverse System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel decoupling control method based on generalized inverse system is presented to solve the problem of SHAPF (Shunt Hybrid Active Power Filter possessing the characteristics of 2-input-2-output nonlinearity and strong coupling. Based on the analysis of operation principle, the mathematical model of SHAPF is firstly built, which is verified to be invertible using interactor algorithm; then the generalized inverse system of SHAPF is obtained to connect in series with the original system so that the composite system is decoupled under the generalized inverse system theory. The PI additional controller is finally designed to control the decoupled 1-order pseudolinear system to make it possible to adjust the performance of the subsystem. The simulation results demonstrated by MATLAB show that the presented generalized inverse system strategy can realise the dynamic decoupling of SHAPF. And the control system has fine dynamic and static performance.

  13. Health activism: the way forward to improve health in difficult times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laverack, Glenn

    2013-09-01

    Health activism is an action on behalf of a cause, action that goes beyond what is conventional or routine in society. It involves a challenge to the existing order whenever it is perceived to lead to a social injustice or inequality. Today social injustice is killing people on a grand scale and it is timely for health activism to be used as a way forward to improve health during difficult economic and political times. Health activism is essential because it can create the necessary conditions for people to take control over their own lives when others cannot or will not act on their behalf. Health promotion agencies and the practitioners that they employ, professional organisations and researchers can also play an important role. What is clear is that if greedy corporations and complacent governments are not challenged, we will continue to have limited success in improving health.

  14. Physical activity and its importance for the health of elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Sztandera

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and aim of the study. World society is aging. In Poland, in 2015 the proportion of older people is almost 23%, and the world is 12%. Forecasts show that by 2050 this proportion will reach 32.7%, the world 22%, and 1 in 5 people will be 60+. The purpose of the study was to analyze the literature of physical activity and its benefits to elderly people’ health. Actual knowledge. The health condition worsens with age, the number of long-term health problems and chronic diseases rising with age. These problems are mainly related to cardiological problems, joint problem and diabetes. The World Health Organization has pointed out that physical activity has measurable effects on the health of the elderly. Summary.From the available literature, there is clearly a positive effect of physical activity on the health of people in the third period of life. Physical activity started in any age will have beneficial health effects associated with improved functional status, improved quality of life and mood.

  15. Predicting Child Physical Activity and Screen Time: Parental Support for Physical Activity and General Parenting Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crain, A. Lauren; Senso, Meghan M.; Levy, Rona L.; Sherwood, Nancy E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To examine relationships between parenting styles and practices and child moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and screen time. Methods: Participants were children (6.9 ± 1.8 years) with a body mass index in the 70–95th percentile and their parents (421 dyads). Parent-completed questionnaires assessed parental support for child physical activity (PA), parenting styles and child screen time. Children wore accelerometers to assess MVPA. Results: Parenting style did not predict MVPA, but support for PA did (positive association). The association between support and MVPA, moreover, varied as a function of permissive parenting. For parents high in permissiveness, the association was positive (greater support was related to greater MVPA and therefore protective). For parents low in permissiveness, the association was neutral; support did not matter. Authoritarian and permissive parenting styles were both associated with greater screen time. Conclusions: Parenting practices and styles should be considered jointly, offering implications for tailored interventions. PMID:24812256

  16. Predicting child physical activity and screen time: parental support for physical activity and general parenting styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, Shelby L; Crain, A Lauren; Senso, Meghan M; Levy, Rona L; Sherwood, Nancy E

    2014-07-01

    To examine relationships between parenting styles and practices and child moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and screen time. Participants were children (6.9 ± 1.8 years) with a body mass index in the 70-95th percentile and their parents (421 dyads). Parent-completed questionnaires assessed parental support for child physical activity (PA), parenting styles and child screen time. Children wore accelerometers to assess MVPA. Parenting style did not predict MVPA, but support for PA did (positive association). The association between support and MVPA, moreover, varied as a function of permissive parenting. For parents high in permissiveness, the association was positive (greater support was related to greater MVPA and therefore protective). For parents low in permissiveness, the association was neutral; support did not matter. Authoritarian and permissive parenting styles were both associated with greater screen time. Parenting practices and styles should be considered jointly, offering implications for tailored interventions. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Health discourses, slimness ideals and attitudes to physical activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pfister, Gertrud Ursula; With-Nielsen, Ninna; Lenneis, Verena

    2017-01-01

    Studies conducted in Denmark reveal that many young women drop out of sport and exercise in their teenage years even though they possess good knowledge about health recommendations and the benefits of physical activity. This raises the question as to how they interpret and make use of the current...... messages about a healthy and active lifestyle. Based on five focus-group interviews and a survey among 784 female students aged 16-20, we explored their attitudes and practices with regard to physical activity and health. The analysis of the material is theoretically informed by the work of Foucauldian...... scholars who have used the concepts of governmentality and disciplinary power to explore current public health policies and young people’s health-related attitudes and practices. We found that for the participants in our study ‘health’ was inextricably intertwined with slimness and fitness, to which...

  18. International programme on the health effects of the Chernobyl accident. Report by the Director-General. Executive Board 95. session, provisional agenda item 12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-10-01

    The International Programme on the Health Effects of the Chernobyl Accident (IPHECA) have been initiated in mid-1991 following its endorsement by the Forty-fourth World Health Assembly in resolution WHA44.36. This report by the Director General outlines the progress made in the implementation of the Programme, and summarises the scientific information obtained to date on the health effects and planned future activities. The major projects under the programme include Thyroid project, Hematology project, Dosimetry and Communication Support Services, Brain Damage in utero project and Epidemiological Registry project

  19. Physical activity recommendations for health: what should Europe do?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fogelholm Mikael

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accumulating scientific evidence shows physical activity to have profound health benefits amenable to substantial public health gains. Accordingly, recommendations on how much and what kind of physical activity enhances health have been issued. The 1995 recommendation from the U.S. Centres for Disease Control and Prevention and the American College of Sports Medicine has been adapted worldwide, including Europe. Recently an extensive review of new evidence was undertaken and refined recommendations were issued by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. We summarise the development of physical activity recommendations and consider the need and possible ways to update the current European situation. Discussion The new recommendations include several new elements when compared to the 1995 recommendation, the most notable being the greater emphasis on the contribution of vigorous-intensity activities, and the inclusion of activities for muscle strength and bone health. They also include specific recommendations for young people, middle-aged adults, older adults and some special groups. The existing Pan-European and national physical activity recommendations in Europe are mostly based on the 1995 recommendation and primarily target adults and young people. Thus the degree to which they are compatible with the new recommendations varies. In view of the growing public health importance of physical activity, we discuss the need to review the existing physical activity recommendations at the European level and assess their consistency with the new evidence and the new recommendations. Summary We argue that a review of the current physical activity recommendations in Europe should be undertaken in view of the most recent research evidence. We recommend that such a task should be taken on by WHO Europe in parallel with the ongoing work by WHO global Headquarters. Following this, each country should develop communication

  20. JAXA's activities for environmental health monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Hiroshi

    2014-11-01

    In the first ten years after establishment of the Japan Aerospace eXploration Agency (JAXA) in 2003, our focuses were mainly on technical development (hardware and software) and accumulation of application research. In the next decade, we focus more on solution on social issues using innovative space science technology. Currently, JAXA is operating and developing several earth observation satellites and sensors: Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT) "IBUKI", Global Change Observation Mission - Water "SHIZUKU" (GCOM-W), Global Precipitation Measurement/Dual- frequency Precipitation Radar (GPM/DPR), Advanced Land Observing Satellite-2 "DAICHI-2" (ALOS-2), Global Change Observation Mission - Climate (GCOM-C), Earth Cloud, Aerosol and Radiation Explorer (EarthCARE), and GOSAT-2. They will provide essential environmental parameters, such as aerosols, clouds, land vegetation, ocean color, GHGs, and so on. In addition to the above missions, we are studying new instruments (altimeter, LIDAR, detectors, optical components) to obtain new parameters. Our activities will advance to provide essential inputs for diagnosis, prediction, and management of climate change, environmental assessment, and disaster monitoring.

  1. Eating, drinking and physical activity in Faculty of Health Science ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: Students studying towards a qualification in Health Sciences should have more knowledge of a healthy lifestyle than other university students. However, it has been questioned whether or not these students apply such knowledge. While studies have been conducted on the lifestyle habits of students in general, ...

  2. A general approach toward enhancement of pseudocapacitive performance of conducting polymers by redox-active electrolytes

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Wei

    2014-12-01

    A general approach is demonstrated where the pseudocapacitive performance of different conducting polymers is enhanced in redox-active electrolytes. The concept is demonstrated using several electroactive conducting polymers, including polyaniline, polypyrrole, and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene). As compared to conventional electrolytes, the redox-active electrolytes, prepared by simply adding a redox mediator to the conventional electrolyte, can significantly improve the energy storage capacity of pseudocapacitors with different conducting polymers. The results show that the specific capacitance of conducting polymer based pseudocapacitors can be increased by a factor of two by utilization of the redox-active electrolytes. In fact, this approach gives some of the highest reported specific capacitance values for electroactive conducting polymers. Moreover, our findings present a general and effective approach for the enhancement of energy storage performance of pseudocapacitors using a variety of polymeric electrode materials. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Integrating health education and physical activity programming for cardiovascular health promotion among female inmates: A proof of concept study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Uma S; Jordan, Jeremy S; Funk, Daniel; Gavin, Kristin; Tibbetts, Erica; Collins, Bradley N

    2016-05-01

    Female inmate populations in the United States tend to be overweight, physically inactive, experience high stress, and have a history of nicotine and other drug dependence. Thus, they bear an elevated risk of cardiovascular (CV) disease than the general population. However, few evidence-based health interventions exist for this population. This study will test proof of concept, feasibility, and potential efficacy of a multiple health behavior change intervention that integrates CV-health promotion education delivered during a physical activity (PA) program (indoor cycling) tailored to this population. This study uses a quasi-experimental 2-group design with two measurement time-points: baseline and 8-week end of treatment. N=120 incarcerated women (18-59years of age) who are medically cleared for participation in PA will be enrolled. Indoor cycling instructors will be trained to deliver five health education topics over an 8-week period during twice-weekly cycling classes. Topics match the American Heart Association recommendations for CV health: (a) nutrition, (b) PA promotion, (c) weight management, (d) stress management, and (e) smoking cessation and relapse prevention. Modes of intervention include instructor advice, written materials and audio/video clips reviewed during class. CV-related and mental health measures will be assessed at both time-points. Results will guide a full scale efficacy study. Future research in this area has potential to impact the health of female inmates, a high-risk population. Moreover, this multiple health behavior change intervention model represents a community approach to health promotion that could generalize to other underserved populations who may benefit most from similar intervention efforts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Health improvement and prevention study (HIPS - evaluation of an intervention to prevent vascular disease in general practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davies Gawaine

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Health Improvement and Prevention Study (HIPS study aims to evaluate the capacity of general practice to identify patients at high risk for developing vascular disease and to reduce their risk of vascular disease and diabetes through behavioural interventions delivered in general practice and by the local primary care organization. Methods/Design HIPS is a stratified randomized controlled trial involving 30 general practices in NSW, Australia. Practices are randomly allocated to an 'intervention' or 'control' group. General practitioners (GPs and practice nurses (PNs are offered training in lifestyle counselling and motivational interviewing as well as practice visits and patient educational resources. Patients enrolled in the trial present for a health check in which the GP and PN provide brief lifestyle counselling based on the 5As model (ask, assess, advise, assist, and arrange and refer high risk patients to a diet education and physical activity program. The program consists of two individual visits with a dietician or exercise physiologist and four group sessions, after which patients are followed up by the GP or PN. In each practice 160 eligible patients aged between 40 and 64 years are invited to participate in the study, with the expectation that 40 will be eligible and willing to participate. Evaluation data collection consists of (1 a practice questionnaire, (2 GP and PN questionnaires to assess preventive care attitudes and practices, (3 patient questionnaire to assess self-reported lifestyle behaviours and readiness to change, (4 physical assessment including weight, height, body mass index (BMI, waist circumference and blood pressure, (5 a fasting blood test for glucose and lipids, (6 a clinical record audit, and (7 qualitative data collection. All measures are collected at baseline and 12 months except the patient questionnaire which is also collected at 6 months. Study outcomes before and after the

  5. Relationship of sexual assault with self-concept and general health in victims referred to forensic Center in Ahvaz city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alboebadi, F; Afshari, P; Jamshidi, F; Poor, Rm; Cheraghi, M

    We aimed to study the relationship of sexual assault with self-concept and the general health of the victims referred to forensics in Ahvaz city (Iran). It was a cross-sectional descriptive and analytical study that was designed by two groups as case and control which has done on 128 subjects. Sixty-four rape victims who were referred to the forensic center, considered as case group and in control group, 64 people who were being referred to health clinics in Ahvaz city. The data were collected through Rogers's standard self-concept and general health questionnaires. Questionnaires were filled in self-completion way. Data had entered and analyzed by using SPSS software (version 22). A level of significance was less than 0.05. The average score of self-concept in the case group was 14.97 ±4.78 and in control group was 6.08 ±2.9. Average score of general health of the case and control groups, respectively, were 51.09 ±18.07 and 16.92 ±12.79. A significant statistical difference between the average score of self-concept, social functioning, physical and general health components in the groups was observed. More negative self-concept and vulnerable general health was observed in the rape victims group than in the control group. Providing counseling and health services and family and social support of these victims can be effective in their general health promotion.

  6. Effects of Individual Health Topic Familiarity on Activity Patterns During Health Information Searches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriyama, Koichi; Fukui, Ken–ichi; Numao, Masayuki

    2015-01-01

    Background Non-medical professionals (consumers) are increasingly using the Internet to support their health information needs. However, the cognitive effort required to perform health information searches is affected by the consumer’s familiarity with health topics. Consumers may have different levels of familiarity with individual health topics. This variation in familiarity may cause misunderstandings because the information presented by search engines may not be understood correctly by the consumers. Objective As a first step toward the improvement of the health information search process, we aimed to examine the effects of health topic familiarity on health information search behaviors by identifying the common search activity patterns exhibited by groups of consumers with different levels of familiarity. Methods Each participant completed a health terminology familiarity questionnaire and health information search tasks. The responses to the familiarity questionnaire were used to grade the familiarity of participants with predefined health topics. The search task data were transcribed into a sequence of search activities using a coding scheme. A computational model was constructed from the sequence data using a Markov chain model to identify the common search patterns in each familiarity group. Results Forty participants were classified into L1 (not familiar), L2 (somewhat familiar), and L3 (familiar) groups based on their questionnaire responses. They had different levels of familiarity with four health topics. The video data obtained from all of the participants were transcribed into 4595 search activities (mean 28.7, SD 23.27 per session). The most frequent search activities and transitions in all the familiarity groups were related to evaluations of the relevancy of selected web pages in the retrieval results. However, the next most frequent transitions differed in each group and a chi-squared test confirmed this finding (Pinformation search patterns

  7. 'Oral health is not my department'. Perceptions of elderly patients' oral health by general medical practitioners in primary health care centres: a qualitative interview study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Kerstin; Furhoff, Anna-Karin; Nordenram, Gunilla; Wårdh, Inger

    2007-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore general medical practitioners' (GPs) perceptions of the oral health of their elderly patients. The design was a qualitative study based on individual in-depth interviews with GPs. The criterion for inclusion in the study was that the GP was a specialist in family medicine working in a primary health care centre (PHCC:s) in the county of Stockholm. The participants took part in the study after informed consent. Eleven GPs were interviewed. The interview started with semi-structured questions about the respondents' clinical presentation of their elderly patients', e.g. medication, medical treatment and socioeconomic status. The interview concluded with questions about the respondents' experiences of and perceptions of the oral health of their patients. This process started with the first interview and proceeded with successive interviews until no new relevant information was forthcoming. The initial semi-structured part of the interview guide was analysed for content with special reference to descriptive answers. The final open questions were analysed by a method inspired by grounded theory (GT) and comprised three stages: open coding, axial coding and selective coding. In the GT influenced analysis process, three categories, health perspective, working conditions and cultural differences, each in turn containing subcategories, were identified and labelled. The most significant category, cultural differences, was identified as the core category, explaining the central meaning of the respondents' perceptions of the oral health of their elderly patients. The GPs in this study showed little or no awareness of the oral health of their elderly patients. The interviews disclosed several contributing factors. Barriers to closer integration of oral and general health in the elderly were identified. There existed a cultural gap between the disciplines of dentistry and medicine, which does not enhance and may be detrimental to the

  8. Activate Your Body (A Cup of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-09-15

    As people age, it gets tougher to be physically active. While cutting back on certain activities is inevitable, finding ways to exercise on a regular basis is important for maintaining good health. In this podcast, Dr. Kathy Watson discusses the importance of older adults maintaining an active lifestyle.  Created: 9/15/2016 by MMWR.   Date Released: 9/15/2016.

  9. Effect of General Health Status on Chronicity of Low Back Pain in Industrial Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mohammad Seyedmehdi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Recognizing patients at a higher risk of developing chronic low back pain (LBP is important in industrial medicine. This study aimed to assess the power and quality of General Health Questionnaire (GHQ for prediction of the odds of chronicity of acute LBP. This study was conducted on industrial workers. All subjects with acute LBP who met the inclusion criteria were enrolled. Demographic characteristics, occupational, physical, and mental parameters and the general health status of subjects were evaluated;  they were followed up for developing chronic LBP for one year. Cigarette smoking, high body mass index, job stress, physical load and high GHQ scores were found to be the risk factors for the progression of acute LBP to chronic LBP (P<0.05. Standing position while working, age, work experience, exercise, level of education, weekly work hours and shift work were not the risk factors for chronic LBP (P>0.05.High GHQ score can be a risk factor for progression of acute LBP to chronic LBP. The GHQ in combination with the Job Content Questionnaire can be used as a quick and simple screening tool for detection of subjects at high risk of chronic LBP when evaluating acute LBP in an occupational setting.

  10. Comparing Locus of Control, Assertiveness and General Health among Young Drug Addicts in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahriar Shahidi

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available "n "nObjective:The aim of this research was to compare the characteristics of assertiveness, locus of control and general health among young drug dependent patients in Iran. "n "nMethods: Three groups of Iranians: were choosed. The first group included drug dependent patients who had volunteered for treatment and had registered in the local Welfare Organization; the second group included dependent patients who were in the prison; and the third group held nondependent patients. All the participants were male and were matched for age and educational level . The following instruments were used in the present study: locus of control  uestionnaire , Assertiveness Scale and the General Health Questionnaire, GHQ. "n "nResults: The results of the present research showed that there were significant differences among the three groups in ssertiveness, locus of control and GHQ scores. It was found that participants in the non addictive group were more assertive and more internal in their locus of control and had higher GHQ scores than the other two groups. The participants in the prison group reported less assertiveness and lower GHQ scores than the non addictive group ; and their locus of control was more external. Conclusion: "n The results this study may be useful in terms of possible strategies for changing an attributive style in young adults in the framework of psychotherapy

  11. A hierarchy of distress and invariant item ordering in the General Health Questionnaire-12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, F; Watson, R; Morgan, K; McBride, O

    2012-06-01

    Invariant item ordering (IIO) is defined as the extent to which items have the same ordering (in terms of item difficulty/severity - i.e. demonstrating whether items are difficult [rare] or less difficult [common]) for each respondent who completes a scale. IIO is therefore crucial for establishing a scale hierarchy that is replicable across samples, but no research has demonstrated IIO in scales of psychological distress. We aimed to determine if a hierarchy of distress with IIO exists in a large general population sample who completed a scale measuring distress. Data from 4107 participants who completed the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) from the Northern Ireland Health and Social Wellbeing Survey 2005-6 were analysed. Mokken scaling was used to determine the dimensionality and hierarchy of the GHQ-12, and items were investigated for IIO. All items of the GHQ-12 formed a single, strong unidimensional scale (H=0.58). IIO was found for six of the 12 items (H-trans=0.55), and these symptoms reflected the following hierarchy: anhedonia, concentration, participation, coping, decision-making and worthlessness. The cross-sectional analysis needs replication. The GHQ-12 showed a hierarchy of distress, but IIO is only demonstrated for six of the items, and the scale could therefore be shortened. Adopting brief, hierarchical scales with IIO may be beneficial in both clinical and research contexts. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Integrative Relationship Between Retirement Syndromes Components With General Health Symptoms Among Retired Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Golparvar

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This research was administered with the aim of studying the relationship between retirement syndrome components with general health symptoms in retired adults in Esfahan city. Methods & Materials: This research carried out in descriptive and correlational method. Research statistical population was the retired adults in Esfahan city, among them, 461 persons for participating to research were selected using stratified random sampling, and then retirement syndrome questionnaire (helplessness and failure, older and idleness, trying and new direction and conflict and confusion and general health questionnaire (somatization, anxiety and insomnia, social dysfunction, and depression administered to them. Results: 1 Three components have predictive power for prediction of somatization, consisted of: helplessness and failure, older and idleness, trying and new directions, 2 for prediction of anxiety and insomnia, helplessness and failure, trying and new direction, older and idleness have significant predictive power, 3 For prediction of social dysfunction, helplessness and failure, and trying and new directions have significant predictive power, 4 For prediction of depression also, helplessness and failure and trying and new directions have significant predictive power. Conclusion: The finding of this research revealed that, helplessness and failure along with trying and new direction are the two components which must be considered in retired adults. Therefore, it is essential for this two dimensions established counseling centers related to retirement centers for helping retired adults.

  13. EFFECTS OF DYNAMIC AND STATIC STRETCHING WITHIN GENERAL AND ACTIVITY SPECIFIC WARM-UP PROTOCOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Samson

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to determine the effects of static and dynamic stretching protocols within general and activity specific warm-ups. Nine male and ten female subjects were tested under four warm-up conditions including a 1 general aerobic warm-up with static stretching, 2 general aerobic warm-up with dynamic stretching, 3 general and specific warm-up with static stretching and 4 general and specific warm-up with dynamic stretching. Following all conditions, subjects were tested for movement time (kicking movement of leg over 0.5 m distance, countermovement jump height, sit and reach flexibility and 6 repetitions of 20 metre sprints. Results indicated that when a sport specific warm-up was included, there was an 0.94% improvement (p = 0.0013 in 20 meter sprint time with both the dynamic and static stretch groups. No such difference in sprint performance between dynamic and static stretch groups existed in the absence of the sport specific warm-up. The static stretch condition increased sit and reach range of motion (ROM by 2.8% more (p = 0.0083 than the dynamic condition. These results would support the use of static stretching within an activity specific warm-up to ensure maximal ROM along with an enhancement in sprint performance

  14. Influences of general self-efficacy and weight bias internalization on physical activity in bariatric surgery candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hübner, Claudia; Baldofski, Sabrina; Zenger, Markus; Tigges, Wolfgang; Herbig, Beate; Jurowich, Christian; Kaiser, Stefan; Dietrich, Arne; Hilbert, Anja

    2015-01-01

    Physical activity (PA) seems to be important for long-term weight loss after bariatric surgery; however, studies provide evidence for insufficient PA levels in bariatric patients. Research found self-efficacy to be associated with PA and weight bias internalization, for which an influence on mental and physical health has been shown in recent studies. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the influence of general self-efficacy on PA, mediated by weight bias internalization. In 179 bariatric surgery candidates, general self-efficacy, weight bias internalization, and different intensities of PA were assessed by self-report questionnaires. Structural equation modeling was used to analyze the assumed mediational relationship. After controlling for sociodemographic variables, weight bias internalization fully mediated the association between general self-efficacy and moderate-intense as well as vigorous-intense PA. Lower general self-efficacy predicted greater weight bias internalization, which in turn predicted lower levels of moderate-intense and vigorous-intense PA. The results suggest an influence of weight bias internalization on preoperative PA in bariatric surgery candidates. Subsequently, implementation of interventions addressing weight bias internalization in the usual treatment of bariatric surgery candidates might enhance patients' preoperative PA, while longitudinal analyses are needed to further examine its predictive value on PA after bariatric surgery. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Association between Municipal Health Promotion Volunteers' Health Literacy and Their Level of Outreach Activities in Japan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsuko Taguchi

    Full Text Available To explore the association between health literacy and levels of three types of core activities among health promotion volunteers (developing a healthy lifestyle, outreach to family, and outreach to community members.A cross-sectional, anonymous, self-administered postal survey of registered health promotion volunteers in the Konan area in Shiga Prefecture in Japan, conducted in January 2010. The study sample was 575 registered health promotion volunteers.The survey collected data on health literacy, gender, age, education, self-rated health, perceptions about the volunteer organization, and perceptions of recognition in the community. The level of engagement in health promotion activities was measured by the extent to which the participants engaged in seven healthy behaviors and promoted them to family members and the community. The authors compared the health literacy level and other characteristics of the participants by core health promotion activities, using a chi-squared test, to examine the associations between demographic and other variables and the three core activities (healthy lifestyle, outreach to family, and outreach to community.Logistic regression analysis was conducted to examine the association between the degree to which the volunteers engaged in core activities ("healthy lifestyle," "outreach to family," "outreach to community" and the levels of health literacy (low, medium, high among health promotion volunteers, controlling for the effects of age, gender, health condition, education which may also have an impact on volunteers' outreach activities.Four hundred and fifty-four questionnaires were returned, a 79.0% response rate. Excluding 16 cases with missing values on health literacy or the degree of health promotion activities, 438 research subjects were included in the analysis (valid response rate: 76.2%. Health literacy and a few demographic and other characteristics of the volunteers were associated with the three core

  16. Transforming the blood glucose meter into a general healthcare meter for in vitro diagnostics in mobile health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Tian; Zhang, Jingjing; Lu, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in mobile network and smartphones have provided an enormous opportunity for transforming in vitro diagnostics (IVD) from central labs to home or other points of care (POC). A major challenge to achieving the goal is a long time and high costs associated with developing POC IVD devices in mobile Health (mHealth). Instead of developing a new POC device for every new IVD target, we and others are taking advantage of decades of research, development, engineering and continuous improvement of the blood glucose meter (BGM), including those already integrated with smartphones, and transforming the BGM into a general healthcare meter for POC IVDs of a wide range of biomarkers, therapeutic drugs and other analytical targets. In this review, we summarize methods to transduce and amplify selective binding of targets by antibodies, DNA/RNA aptamers, DNAzyme/ribozymes and protein enzymes into signals such as glucose or NADH that can be measured by commercially available BGM, making it possible to adapt many clinical assays performed in central labs, such as immunoassays, aptamer/DNAzyme assays, molecular diagnostic assays, and enzymatic activity assays onto BGM platform for quantification of non-glucose targets for a wide variety of IVDs in mHealth. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Validity and psychometric properties of the General Health Questionnaire-12 in young Australian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tait, Robert J; French, Davina J; Hulse, Gary K

    2003-06-01

    The General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) is a measure of current mental wellbeing that has been extensively validated with adults. The instrument has also been used with adolescents. (i) To assess the psychometric properties of the GHQ-12 among school students in grades 7-10; (ii) to validate it against other psychological tests; and (iii) to suggest a threshold score. The survey was conducted in single sex and mixed schools from the state and private system in Perth, Western Australia. The survey contained the GHQ-12 and measures of anxiety, depression, self-esteem, stress, generalized self-efficacy, social desirability and negative affectivity. There were 336 students (female 55%) with an age range of 11-15 years (median 13). The GHQ showed good internal consistency (alpha 0.88). Girls had higher mean GHQ-12 scores than boys (F (1,326) 15.0, p school grade (F (3,326) 4.2, p < 0.01). Multiple linear regression showed that depression, anxiety, self-esteem and stress were significant independent predictors of GHQ scores. The model accounted for 68% of the variance (adjusted R 2). Screening indices were calculated by comparison with a combined depression and/or anxiety category. Threshold scores of 13/14 for males and 18/19 for females appeared optimal. General Health Questionnaire scores were compared with two criterion groups: adolescents in hospital with alcohol or drug (AOD) related problems and those with problems not related to AOD use. Only the former group had significantly higher total scores. The GHQ-12 showed good structural characteristics and was appropriately correlated with other measures of related traits. Overall, the GHQ-12 appears to be a valid index of psychological wellbeing in this population and was considerably shorter than some of the other instruments.

  18. Mouthwash Use in General Population: Results from Adult Dental Health Survey in Grampian, Scotland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirstin Rhodes

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine the pattern of mouthwash use and to investigate the associated factors in general population.Material and Methods: An Adult Dental Health Survey was conducted on 3,022 residents of Grampian region of Scotland (adjusted participation rate 58.2%. Participants received a questionnaire consisting of questions on oral health and behavioural factors.Results: The majority of participants (38.1% have never used mouthwash, 17.5% used mouthwash less than once a month, 19.4% used mouthwash once every few days and 25.1% used mouthwash daily.Prevalence of use decreased with age (P < 0.001. Woman were more likely to use mouthwash than men (P = 0.004. Mouthwash use decreased with decrease in the level of deprivation (P < 0.001. Never-smokers were less likely to use mouthwash (40.3% compared to smokers (53.1% or those who stopped smoking (46.5% (P < 0.001. Mouthwash was used by smaller proportion of people drinking alcohol on daily basis (36.6%, than by abstainers (42.2% (P = 0.012.There was a positive relationship between flossing or brushing pattern and mouthwash use (P < 0.001. There was statistically significant relationship between mouthwash use and reasons for the last dental visit (P = 0.009.When compared to healthy individuals, mouthwash was used by higher proportion of people reporting that they had gum disease (P = 0.001, ulcers (P = 0.001, oral infections or swelling (P = 0.002 or other problems (P = 0.025.Conclusions: Mouthwash use in general population is associated with socio-demographic, health and behavioural factors.

  19. Should general practitioners purchase health care for their patients? The total purchasing experiment in Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyke, Sally; Mays, Nicholas; Street, Andrew; Bevan, Gwyn; McLeod, Hugh; Goodwin, Nick

    2003-09-01

    Until relatively recently, general practitioners (GPs) have been allowed to work independently, with no requirement to consider the resource implications of their referral and prescribing decisions. In order to align the interests of GPs with the overall objectives of health systems a number of countries have introduced primary care based capitation, funds pooling and budget holding either as experiments or as an overall policy. Are these experiments and policies likely to work? This paper presents evidence from the UK total purchasing experiment, which was the first major quasi-market development in the NHS to be independently evaluated from the outset. Total purchasing gave volunteer groups of practices freedom to purchase all hospital and community health services for their patients. The evidence suggests that whilst GPs have great potential as purchasers, they also have considerable limitations. The expectation that they will be able to improve the quality of patient experience of care, or to alter the use of resources, may not be generally realised. GP-based purchasing may be more appropriate where the task is to alter the balance or location of care between hospital and extramural settings. However, budgetary incentives are not 'magic potions' which have similar effects on behaviour wherever they are introduced. Holding budgets and having independent contracts, while important pre-requisites for being taken seriously in a quasi-market, were not sufficient for effective total purchasing. The paper concludes that health systems should not only value innovation and experimentation and encourage learning from evaluative research; they should also recognise the importance of supportive circumstances for any innovation to effect real and sustained change.

  20. The relative health benefits of different sexual activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Stuart

    2010-04-01

    Although many studies examine purported risks associated with sexual activities, few examine potential physical and mental health benefits, and even fewer incorporate the scientifically essential differentiation of specific sexual behaviors. This review provides an overview of studies examining potential health benefits of various sexual activities, with a focus on the effects of different sexual activities. Review of peer-reviewed literature. Findings on the associations between distinct sexual activities and various indices of psychological and physical function. A wide range of better psychological and physiological health indices are associated specifically with penile-vaginal intercourse. Other sexual activities have weaker, no, or (in the cases of masturbation and anal intercourse) inverse associations with health indices. Condom use appears to impair some benefits of penile-vaginal intercourse. Only a few of the research designs allow for causal inferences. The health benefits associated with specifically penile-vaginal intercourse should inform a new evidence-based approach to sexual medicine, sex education, and a broad range of medical and psychological consultations.

  1. The Generalized Hill Model: A Kinematic Approach Towards Active Muscle Contraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzel, Andreas; Kuhl, Ellen

    2014-01-01

    Excitation-contraction coupling is the physiological process of converting an electrical stimulus into a mechanical response. In muscle, the electrical stimulus is an action potential and the mechanical response is active contraction. The classical Hill model characterizes muscle contraction though one contractile element, activated by electrical excitation, and two non-linear springs, one in series and one in parallel. This rheology translates into an additive decomposition of the total stress into a passive and an active part. Here we supplement this additive decomposition of the stress by a multiplicative decomposition of the deformation gradient into a passive and an active part. We generalize the one-dimensional Hill model to the three-dimensional setting and constitutively define the passive stress as a function of the total deformation gradient and the active stress as a function of both the total deformation gradient and its active part. We show that this novel approach combines the features of both the classical stress-based Hill model and the recent active-strain models. While the notion of active stress is rather phenomenological in nature, active strain is micro-structurally motivated, physically measurable, and straightforward to calibrate. We demonstrate that our model is capable of simulating excitation-contraction coupling in cardiac muscle with its characteristic features of wall thickening, apical lift, and ventricular torsion. PMID:25221354

  2. Morphinofobia: the situation among the general population and health care professionals in North-Eastern Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rapin Charles-Henri

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Morphinofobia among the general population (GP and among health care professionals (HP is not without danger for the patients: it may lead to the inappropriate management of debilitating pain. The aim of our study was to explore among GP and HP the representation and attitudes concerning the use of morphine in health care. Methods A cross-sectional study was done among 412 HP (physicians and nurses of the 4 hospitals and 10 community health centers of Beira Interior (Portugaland among 193 persons of the GP randomly selected in public places. Opinions were collected through a translated self-administered questionnaire. Results A significant difference of opinion exists among GP and HP about the use of morphine. The word morphine first suggests drug to GP (36,2% and analgesia to HP (32,9%.. The reasons for not using morphine most frequently cited are: for GP morphine use means advanced disease (56%, risk of addiction (50%, legal requirements (49,7%; for HP it means legal risks (56,3% and adverse side effects of morphine such as somnolence - sedation (30,5% The socio-demographic situation was correlated with the opinions about the use of morphine. Conclusions False beliefs about the use of morphine exist among the studied groups. There seems to be a need for developing information campaigns on pain management and the use of morphine targeting. Better training and more information of HP might also be needed.

  3. The cultural fairness of the 12-item General Health Questionnaire among diverse adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowe, Anica

    2017-01-01

    The 12-item general health questionnaire (GHQ-12) was used in the Longitudinal Study of Young People in England (LSYPE; N = 15,770) to collect measures on adolescent mental health. Given the debate in current literature regarding the dimensionality of the GHQ-12, this study examined the cultural sensitivity of the instrument at the item level for each of the 7 major ethnic groups within the database. This study used a hybrid approach of ordinal logistic regression and item response theory (IRT) to examine the presence of differential item functioning (DIF) on the questionnaire. Results demonstrated that uniform, nonuniform, and overall DIF were present on items between White and Asian adolescents (7 items), White and Black Caribbean adolescents (1 item), and White and Black African adolescents (7 items), however all McFadden's pseudo R² effect size estimates indicated that the DIF was negligible. Overall, there were cumulative small scale level effects for the Mixed/Biracial, Asian, and Black African groups, but in each case the bias was only marginal. Findings demonstrate that the GHQ-12 can be considered culturally sensitive for adolescents from diverse ethnic groups in England, but follow-up studies are necessary. Implications for future education and health policies as well as the use of IR-based approaches for psychological instruments are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Mental health in young adults and adolescents - supporting general physicians to provide holistic care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurewicz, Izabela

    2015-04-01

    In the era of an ageing population, young adults on medical wards are quite rare, as only 12% of young adults report a long-term illness or disability. However, mental health problems remain prevalent in the younger population. In a recent report, mental health and obesity were listed as the most common problems in young adults. Teams set up specifically for the needs of younger adults, such as early intervention in psychosis services are shown to work better than traditional care and have also proven to be cost effective. On the medical wards, younger patients may elicit strong emotions in staff, who often feel protective and may identify strongly with the young patient's suffering. In order to provide holistic care for young adults, general physicians need to recognise common presentations of mental illness in young adults such as depression, deliberate self-harm, eating disorders and substance misuse. Apart from treating illness, health promotion is particularly important for young adults. © 2015 Royal College of Physicians.

  5. Being active supports client control over health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiveash, Barb; Nay, Rhonda

    2004-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify how healthcare clients achieve and maintain a sense of control over their health. The literature review conducted refers to: (i) key definitions of control, (ii) locus of control, and (iii) control and wellbeing. Participants with a range of acute and chronic health conditions and who had been hospitalised at some point were selected for the study. Symbolic interactionism (Blumer, 1969) and modified grounded theory of Strauss & Corbin (1998) provided the frameworks for this study. During the six month study period, data were collected from sixty participants and included interviews, participant observation, reviewing participants' records (nursing care plans, nursing notes and case histories), the nursing units' philosophy, organisational charts, policies and procedures, annual reports, consumer brochures and any other relevant information sources. Findings from the study indicated that participants moved from feeling vulnerable to having a sense of control through to being purposefully active. Vulnerability was associated with: (i) having limited choices in respect to their health, (ii) lacking adequate health information to make choices, (iii) being ignored by health providers with respect to their needs, and (iv) lacking friend/family supports. Purposefully activating was associated with three major categories: (i) reflecting, (ii) being self-determiningly involved and (iii) normalising. Findings from this study could be used by health care clients who want a sense of control over their health care, and also by health care providers who wish to support clients in the healthcare process.

  6. Leisure Activities and Mental Health among Aging People in Tehran, Iran

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    Akram Ghanbari

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Leisure activities are common among the elderly, however the effect of such activities on their mental health is poorly defined and not underpinned by strong evidence. This study aims to determine the prevalence of leisure activities and its relation to mental health in the elderly. Methods: A cross- sectional study was conducted and 400 community dwelling older adults 60 years and more with appropriate cognitive function (Abbreviated Mental Test score 7 and more, were recruited through multi-stage stratified cluster sampling in Tehran, Iran . Data was gathered by demographic questionnaire and General Health Questionnaire (GHQ. The primary outcomes to measure were the prevalence of leisure activities, and GHQ score in subgroups. Data were analyzed by Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, ANOVA, independent t-test and multiple linear regressions. Results: Of participants 62% were in their 7th decade (60-74 years, 56% (224 were female with mean age of 66.98±8.22 , and 44% (176 male with mean age of 66.98±8.22. GHQ scores showed 65% of participants had good mental health (0-23 and 35% had mental health problems(24 and more.Mean of GHQ score in participants (n=377 was 21.8± 11.37 (0-28. watching TV(77%, reading books( 40.3%, walking (31.5% and taking trip(36% were more interesting leisure activities among older adults .Women, single, unemployed, alone and illiterate older adults had statistically significant(P&le0.05 upper  GHQ scores. Participating in active leisure activities such as taking trip and cultural classes, participating in NGO activities, going to parks and gym and walking had significant relationships with good mental health (P&le0.05.  Conclusion: Encouraging older adults to participation in active leisure activities would be an effective intervention in mental health improvement. On the other hand understanding of relationship between type of leisure activities and mental health, provides evidence for policy makers and health

  7. Health disparities between lesbian, gay, and bisexual adults and the general population in South Korea: Rainbow Connection Project I

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    Horim Yi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES This study aims to investigate health disparities between lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB adults and the general population in Korea, where there is low public acceptance of sexual minorities and a lack of research on the health of sexual minorities. METHODS The research team conducted a nationwide survey of 2,335 Korean LGB adults in 2016. Using the dataset, we estimated the age-standardized prevalence ratios (SPRs for poor self-rated health, musculoskeletal pain, depressive symptoms, suicidal behaviors, smoking, and hazardous drinking. We then compared the SPRs of the LGB adults and the general population which participated in three different nationally representative surveys in Korea. SPRs were estimated for each of the four groups (i.e., gay men, bisexual men, lesbians, and bisexual women. RESULTS Korean LGB adults exhibited a statistically significantly higher prevalence of depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation and attempts, and musculoskeletal pain than the general population. Lesbian and bisexual women had a higher risk of poor self-rated health and smoking than the general women population, whereas gay and bisexual men showed no differences with the general men population. Higher prevalence of hazardous drinking was observed among lesbians, gay men, and bisexual women compared to the general population, but was not observed in bisexual men. CONCLUSIONS The findings suggest that LGB adults have poorer health conditions compared to the general population in Korea. These results suggest that interventions are needed to address the health disparities of Korean LGB adults.

  8. Health disparities between lesbian, gay, and bisexual adults and the general population in South Korea: Rainbow Connection Project I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Horim; Lee, Hyemin; Park, Jooyoung; Choi, Bokyoung; Kim, Seung-Sup

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to investigate health disparities between lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) adults and the general population in Korea, where there is low public acceptance of sexual minorities and a lack of research on the health of sexual minorities. The research team conducted a nationwide survey of 2,335 Korean LGB adults in 2016. Using the dataset, we estimated the age-standardized prevalence ratios (SPRs) for poor self-rated health, musculoskeletal pain, depressive symptoms, suicidal behaviors, smoking, and hazardous drinking. We then compared the SPRs of the LGB adults and the general population which participated in three different nationally representative surveys in Korea. SPRs were estimated for each of the four groups (i.e., gay men, bisexual men, lesbians, and bisexual women). Korean LGB adults exhibited a statistically significantly higher prevalence of depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation and attempts, and musculoskeletal pain than the general population. Lesbian and bisexual women had a higher risk of poor self-rated health and smoking than the general women population, whereas gay and bisexual men showed no differences with the general men population. Higher prevalence of hazardous drinking was observed among lesbians, gay men, and bisexual women compared to the general population, but was not observed in bisexual men. The findings suggest that LGB adults have poorer health conditions compared to the general population in Korea. These results suggest that interventions are needed to address the health disparities of Korean LGB adults.

  9. Towards the effective introduction of physical activity interventions in primary health care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijg, Johanna Maria

    2014-01-01

    Despite the promising findings related to the efficacy of primary health care-based physical activity interventions and recommendations for primary health care professionals to promote physical activity, the introduction of physical activity interventions in routine daily primary health care

  10. Potential Moderators of Physical Activity on Brain Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina L. Leckie

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Age-related cognitive decline is linked to numerous molecular, structural, and functional changes in the brain. However, physical activity is a promising method of reducing unfavorable age-related changes. Physical activity exerts its effects on the brain through many molecular pathways, some of which are regulated by genetic variants in humans. In this paper, we highlight genes including apolipoprotein E (APOE, brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, and catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT along with dietary omega-3 fatty acid, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, as potential moderators of the effect of physical activity on brain health. There are a growing number of studies indicating that physical activity might mitigate the genetic risks for disease and brain dysfunction and that the combination of greater amounts of DHA intake with physical activity might promote better brain function than either treatment alone. Understanding whether genes or other lifestyles moderate the effects of physical activity on neurocognitive health is necessary for delineating the pathways by which brain health can be enhanced and for grasping the individual variation in the effectiveness of physical activity interventions on the brain and cognition. There is a need for future research to continue to assess the factors that moderate the effects of physical activity on neurocognitive function.

  11. Sexual activity and psychological health as mediators of the relationship between physical health and marital quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galinsky, Adena M; Waite, Linda J

    2014-05-01

    The pathways linking spousal health to marital quality in later life have been little examined at the population level. We develop a conceptual model that links married older adults' physical health and that of their spouse to positive and negative dimensions of marital quality via psychological well-being of both partners and their sexual activity. We use data from 1,464 older adults in 732 marital dyads in the 2010-2011 wave of the National Social Life Health and Aging Project. We find that own fair or poor physical health is linked to lower positive and higher negative marital quality, spouse's health to positive quality, and that own and spouse's mental health and more frequent sex are associated with higher positive and lower negative marital quality. Further, we find that (a) sexual activity mediates the association between own and partner's physical health and positive marital quality, (b) own mental health mediates the association between one's own physical health and both positive and negative marital quality, and (c) partner's mental health mediates the associations of spouse's physical health with positive marital quality. These results are robust to alternative specifications of the model. The results suggest ways to protect marital quality among older adults who are struggling with physical illness in themselves or their partners.

  12. Associations of Health Club Membership with Physical Activity and Cardiovascular Health.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth C Schroeder

    Full Text Available This study evaluates whether a health club membership is associated with meeting the US physical activity (PA guidelines and/or favorable cardiovascular health.Using cross-sectional data of health club members (n = 204 and non-members (n = 201 from April to August 2013, this is the first study to our knowledge to examine a health club membership in relation to objectively measured cardiovascular health indicators including resting blood pressure, resting heart rate, body mass index, waist circumference, and cardiorespiratory fitness based on a non-exercise test algorithm. To determine the total PA and sedentary time, this study used a comprehensive PA questionnaire about both aerobic and resistance activities at the health club, as well as lifestyle activities in other settings, which was developed based on the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ.The odds ratios (95% confidence interval of meeting either the aerobic, resistance, or both aerobic and resistance PA guidelines for members compared to non-members were 16.5 (9.8-27.6, 10.1 (6.2-16.3, and 13.8 (8.5-22.4, respectively. Significant associations of health club membership with more favorable cardiovascular health outcomes and sedentary behavior were observed for resting heart rate (B: -4.8 b/min, p1 year had more favorable health outcomes, with a smaller waist circumference (men, B: -4.0 cm, p = 0.04; women, B: -3.4 cm, p = 0.06, compared to non-members.Health club membership is associated with significantly increased aerobic and resistance physical activity levels and more favorable cardiovascular health outcomes compared to non-members. However, longitudinal, randomized controlled trials would be clearly warranted as cross-sectional data prohibits causal inferences.

  13. Health and quality of life vs. occupational activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Kowalska

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The level of quality of life and health status of the population largely depends on the determinants related to occupational activity. The results of reviewed bibliography indicate a significant and growing importance of employment conditions on the quality of life and population health status in most countries of the world, especially in those with market economy. Of the evaluated determinants the following factors should be listed in particular: sources and the amount of income, stability of the income and employment, the nature of work and the degree of job satisfaction, as well as autonomy and career prospects. Moreover, they proved that the situation of persisting and long-term unemployment and precarious employment leads to a significant deterioration in the quality of life and health, especially among young people. In conclusion, the study of quality of life and population health status should take into consideration factors related to occupational activity. Med Pr 2016;67(5:663–671

  14. Health Departments’ Engagement in Emergency Preparedness Activities: The Influence of Health Informatics Capacity

    OpenAIRE

    Gulzar H. Shah; Bobbie Newell; Ruth E. Whitworth

    2016-01-01

    Background: Local health departments (LHDs) operate in a complex and dynamic public health landscape, with changing demands on their emergency response capacities. Informatics capacities might play an instrumental role in aiding LHDs emergency preparedness. This study aimed to explore the extent to which LHDs’ informatics capacities are associated with their activity level in emergency preparedness and to identify which health informatics capacities are associated with improved em...

  15. Mental health and physical activity levels of school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabrielle Cerqueira da Silva

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The regular practice of physical activity is fundamental to the health of children, it has been cited as factor of protection for mental disorders in school age. Objective: To verify the relation between mental health and physical activity levels in schoolchildren of the city Jacobina, Bahia. Method: Sample composed of 55 students between the ages 08 to 10 and their parents, who participated as secondary informants in this study. The Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL was used for evaluation of mental health problems of the schoolchildren, Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children (PAQ-C, for evaluation of the physical activity levels of the subject, and a social-demographic questionnaire. Results: Most children were classified as sedentary (80% and only 7.3% of the sample showed positive for trace of mental disorder. No significant association was found between mental disorders and physical activity levels among the group, or between these variables and socio-demographic characteristics of children. It was observed that the girls were more sedentary than boys, with significant difference (p < 0.01. Conclusion: Despite the low prevalence of mental health problems among schoolchildren and the non-association with physical activity levels, special attention is necessary with this audience, aiming to strengthen physical activity as a protective factor for children’s mental health, with investments in actions aimed at the encouragement of regular practice of physical activity, combining family and school. Studies with a larger number of samples need to be conducted and its findings must be thoroughly analyzed.

  16. Longitudinal analysis of relationships between social support and general health in an Australian population cohort of young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Libby; Lee, Christina; Hockey, Richard; Ware, Robert S; Dobson, Annette J

    2015-02-01

    The influence of social support on health and quality of life has been well documented. There is less evidence on whether health status affects social support, and little is known about longitudinal relationships between social support and health in early adulthood. This study investigates these associations using both concurrent and time-lagged measures at 5 time-points over 12 years during early adulthood. A population-based cohort of 9,758 young women from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health was used. Women were aged 22-27 in 2000 and 35-39 in 2012. The General Health subscale of the SF-36 and the MOS Social Support Survey 6-item Scale were used, with scores standardised to a range of 0-100. Longitudinal tobit models were used, because both social support and general health data were left skewed, with marked ceiling effects. All models were adjusted for status of the outcome of interest at the immediately previous survey. With both concurrent and time-lagged measures, there was a statistically significant difference in mean general health scores across social support quintiles after adjusting for demographic and behavioural covariates: lower general health was associated with lower social support. In reverse, social support mean scores were also significantly different across general health quintiles in both concurrent and time-lagged fully adjusted models. Social support is significantly associated with both current and subsequent general health in early adulthood. The significance of the reverse associations indicates that the two mutually influence each other. This study highlights the importance of social support as a health-related quality of life issue.

  17. Health Inequalities and Active Aging: What Can Social Workers Do?

    OpenAIRE

    Won Min, Jong

    2013-01-01

    The ongoing Eurozone crisis brought Spain harsh austerity measures of higher tax and cuts in medical care and social services. The growing economic hardship may lead to greater economic inequality. Income inequality, in turn, could cause inequitable health differences in population, called “health inequalities.” All of the events pose great challenges and risk to older adults, and threatens their efforts toward achieving healthy and active aging in Spain. This paper provides an ov...

  18. Mobile Health Applications to Promote Active and Healthy Ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helbostad, Jorunn L; Vereijken, Beatrix; Becker, Clemens; Todd, Chris; Taraldsen, Kristin; Pijnappels, Mirjam; Aminian, Kamiar; Mellone, Sabato

    2017-03-18

    The European population is ageing, and there is a need for health solutions that keep older adults independent longer. With increasing access to mobile technology, such as smartphones and smartwatches, the development and use of mobile health applications is rapidly growing. To meet the societal challenge of changing demography, mobile health solutions are warranted that support older adults to stay healthy and active and that can prevent or delay functional decline. This paper reviews the literature on mobile technology, in particular wearable technology, such as smartphones, smartwatches, and wristbands, presenting new ideas on how this technology can be used to encourage an active lifestyle, and discusses the way forward in order further to advance development and practice in the field of mobile technology for active, healthy ageing.

  19. Diet and physical activity--interactions for health; public health nutrition in the European perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjöström, M; Yngve, A; Poortvliet, E; Warm, D; Ekelund, U

    1999-09-01

    For the majority of European adults, who neither smoke nor drink excessively, the most significant controllable risk factors affecting their long-term health are what they eat, and how physically active they are. Scientists are supposed to clarify to policy makers and health professionals the usefulness of their health messages. However, to be able to do that, a more detailed understanding is needed of the basic mechanisms behind the effects on health of diet and physical activity and, especially, the two in combination. Further, better methods for assessment of nutrition and physical activity in the population have to be developed, and more and better baseline data have to be collected. Increased and more efficient interventions are then needed. People trained and competent in the new discipline of Public Health Nutrition are required. Through the stimulating support that the European Commission, as well as other national and international partners, are presently giving to the development of Public Health Nutrition across Europe, we can hope for an increased mobility, networking and understanding between European nutrition and physical activity professionals. This will most likely result in greater and better policy making, strategy development, implementation and evaluation. We now have a great possibility to develop the integrated field of preventive nutrition and health enhancing physical activity.

  20. General Anesthesia Inhibits the Activity of the “Glymphatic System”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gakuba, Clement; Gaberel, Thomas; Goursaud, Suzanne; Bourges, Jennifer; Di Palma, Camille; Quenault, Aurélien; Martinez de Lizarrondo, Sara; Vivien, Denis; Gauberti, Maxime

    2018-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: According to the “glymphatic system” hypothesis, brain waste clearance is mediated by a continuous replacement of the interstitial milieu by a bulk flow of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Previous reports suggested that this cerebral CSF circulation is only active during general anesthesia or sleep, an effect mediated by the dilatation of the extracellular space. Given the controversies regarding the plausibility of this phenomenon and the limitations of currently available methods to image the glymphatic system, we developed original whole-brain in vivo imaging methods to investigate the effects of general anesthesia on the brain CSF circulation. METHODS: We used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and near-infrared fluorescence imaging (NIRF) after injection of a paramagnetic contrast agent or a fluorescent dye in the cisterna magna, in order to investigate the impact of general anesthesia (isoflurane, ketamine or ketamine/xylazine) on the intracranial CSF circulation in mice. RESULTS: In vivo imaging allowed us to image CSF flow in awake and anesthetized mice and confirmed the existence of a brain-wide CSF circulation. Contrary to what was initially thought, we demonstrated that the parenchymal CSF circulation is mainly active during wakefulness and significantly impaired during general anesthesia. This effect was especially significant when high doses of anesthetic agent were used (3% isoflurane). These results were consistent across the different anesthesia regimens and imaging modalities. Moreover, we failed to detect a significant change in the brain extracellular water volume using diffusion weighted imaging in awake and anesthetized mice. CONCLUSION: The parenchymal diffusion of small molecular weight compounds from the CSF is active during wakefulness. General anesthesia has a negative impact on the intracranial CSF circulation, especially when using a high dose of anesthetic agent. PMID:29344300