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Sample records for general food motivation

  1. Food Choice Questionnaire (FCQ) revisited: Suggestions for the development of an enhanced general food motivation typology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fotopoulos, Christos; Krystallis, Athanasios; Vassallo, Marco

    2009-01-01

    Recognising the need for a more statistically robust instrument to investigate general food selection determinants, the research validates and confirms Food Choice Questionnaire (FCQ's) factorial design, develops ad hoc a more robust FCQ version and tests its ability to discriminate between...... at the subpopulation level based on the enhanced FCQ version bring about an optimistic message for the FCQ's ability to predict food selection behaviour. The paper concludes that some of the basic components of the original FCQ can be used as a basis for a new general food motivation typology. The development...

  2. Food Choice Questionnaire (FCQ) revisited: Suggestions for the development of an enhanced general food motivation typology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fotopoulos, Christos; Krystallis, Athanasios; Vassallo, Marco

    2009-01-01

    consumer segments in terms of the importance they assign to the FCQ motivational factors. The original FCQ appears to represent a comprehensive and reliable research instrument. However, the empirical data do not support the robustness of its 9-factorial design. On the other hand, segmentation results...... at the subpopulation level based on the enhanced FCQ version bring about an optimistic message for the FCQ's ability to predict food selection behaviour. The paper concludes that some of the basic components of the original FCQ can be used as a basis for a new general food motivation typology. The development...... of such a new instrument, with fewer, of higher abstraction FCQ-based dimensions and fewer items per dimension, is a right step forward; yet such a step should be theory-driven, while a rigorous statistical testing across and within population would be necessary....

  3. Food Choice Questionnaire (FCQ) revisited. Suggestions for the development of an enhanced general food motivation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fotopoulos, Christos; Krystallis, Athanasios; Vassallo, Marco; Pagiaslis, Anastasios

    2009-02-01

    Recognising the need for a more statistically robust instrument to investigate general food selection determinants, the research validates and confirms Food Choice Questionnaire (FCQ's) factorial design, develops ad hoc a more robust FCQ version and tests its ability to discriminate between consumer segments in terms of the importance they assign to the FCQ motivational factors. The original FCQ appears to represent a comprehensive and reliable research instrument. However, the empirical data do not support the robustness of its 9-factorial design. On the other hand, segmentation results at the subpopulation level based on the enhanced FCQ version bring about an optimistic message for the FCQ's ability to predict food selection behaviour. The paper concludes that some of the basic components of the original FCQ can be used as a basis for a new general food motivation typology. The development of such a new instrument, with fewer, of higher abstraction FCQ-based dimensions and fewer items per dimension, is a right step forward; yet such a step should be theory-driven, while a rigorous statistical testing across and within population would be necessary.

  4. Russian consumers' motives for food choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Honkanen, P.; Frewer, L.J.

    2009-01-01

    Knowledge about food choice motives which have potential to influence consumer consumption decisions is important when designing food and health policies, as well as marketing strategies. Russian consumers¿ food choice motives were studied in a survey (1081 respondents across four cities), with the

  5. Russian consumers' motives for food choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Honkanen, P.; Frewer, L.J.

    2009-01-01

    Knowledge about food choice motives which have potential to influence consumer consumption decisions is important when designing food and health policies, as well as marketing strategies. Russian consumers¿ food choice motives were studied in a survey (1081 respondents across four cities), with the

  6. What motivates the consumer's food choice?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Jáuregui-Lobera

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the study was to analyse the psychometric properties of the Food Choice Questionnaire (FCQ in Spanish population (FCQ-SP, its factor structure and internal consistency. In addition, the relationships between the FCQ-SP and the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ, the Irrational Food Beliefs Scale (IFBS, and the Eating Disorders Inventory-3 (EDI-3 were analysed in order to explore the validity of the FCQSP. Possible gender differences in the food choice pattern were analysed. Methods: The sample comprised 255 women and 50 men, ranged from 25 to 64 years. In order to get a better interpretation of the results associated with changes based on the age, the participants were grouped in four age intervals (25-34, 35-44, 45-54, and 55-64. All the participants were relatives of secondary and high school students in three schools of Seville and Cordoba. Results: The factor analysis yields the seven following factors: mood, health and natural content, sensory appeal, weight control, convenience, familiarity, and price. The internal consistency was determined by means of the Cronbach's α coefficients, which ranged from 0.70 to 0.83 for the different components. With regards to the food choice profile, sensory appeal was the most motivating factor to choose food, followed by price and weight control. With respect to gender differences, women showed higher scores than men in all components except in the case of price. Discussion: The FCQ-SP has adequate psychometric properties to be applied to Spanish population, and it is useful to explore the consumers' motivation with regards to food choice.

  7. What motivates the consumer's food choice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jáuregui-Lobera, I; Bolaños Ríos, P

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analyse the psychometric properties of the Food Choice Questionnaire (FCQ) in Spanish population (FCQ-SP), its factor structure and internal consistency. In addition, the relationships between the FCQ-SP and the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ), the Irrational Food Beliefs Scale (IFBS), and the Eating Disorders Inventory-3 (EDI-3) were analysed in order to explore the validity of the FCQSP. Possible gender differences in the food choice pattern were analysed. The sample comprised 255 women and 50 men, ranged from 25 to 64 years. In order to get a better interpretation of the results associated with changes based on the age, the participants were grouped in four age intervals (25-34, 35-44, 45-54, and 55-64). All the participants were relatives of secondary and high school students in three schools of Seville and Cordoba. The factor analysis yields the seven following factors: mood, health and natural content, sensory appeal, weight control, convenience, familiarity, and price. The internal consistency was determined by means of the Cronbach's α coefficients, which ranged from 0.70 to 0.83 for the different components. With regards to the food choice profile, sensory appeal was the most motivating factor to choose food, followed by price and weight control. With respect to gender differences, women showed higher scores than men in all components except in the case of price. The FCQ-SP has adequate psychometric properties to be applied to Spanish population, and it is useful to explore the consumers' motivation with regards to food choice.

  8. Consumers’ Motivation to Interact in Virtual Food Communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Lina; Tudoran, Ana Alina; Lähteenmäki, Liisa

    2017-01-01

    Consumption-based virtual communities are nowadays a common place on the Internet where individuals share and acquire knowledge on food and specific food-related issues such as preparation and cooking. The objective of this research is to propose and test a model that illustrates the role...... of motivation to self-present to and learn from the community regarding consumers’ willingness to interact in virtual food communities. The study investigates 1) the associations between the pre-existing consumer interests in food and general online interaction, and consumers’ willingness to interact in virtual...... food communities, and 2) the mediating role of consumers’ motivation to self-present to and learn from the community in explaining these associations. An online questionnaire (n = 980) was conducted among Danish consumers. Results showed that motivation to learn and motivation to self...

  9. Russian consumers' motives for food choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honkanen, Pirjo; Frewer, Lynn

    2009-04-01

    Knowledge about food choice motives which have potential to influence consumer consumption decisions is important when designing food and health policies, as well as marketing strategies. Russian consumers' food choice motives were studied in a survey (1081 respondents across four cities), with the purpose of identifying consumer segments based on these motives. These segments were then profiled using consumption, attitudinal and demographic variables. Face-to-face interviews were used to sample the data, which were analysed with two-step cluster analysis (SPSS). Three clusters emerged, representing 21.5%, 45.8% and 32.7% of the sample. The clusters were similar in terms of the order of motivations, but differed in motivational level. Sensory factors and availability were the most important motives for food choice in all three clusters, followed by price. This may reflect the turbulence which Russia has recently experienced politically and economically. Cluster profiles differed in relation to socio-demographic factors, consumption patterns and attitudes towards health and healthy food.

  10. Measuring motivation in schizophrenia: is a general state of motivation necessary for task-specific motivation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jimmy; Choi, Kee-Hong; Felice Reddy, L; Fiszdon, Joanna M

    2014-03-01

    Despite the important role of motivation in rehabilitation and functional outcomes in schizophrenia, to date, there has been little emphasis on how motivation is assessed. This is important, since different measures may tap potentially discrete motivational constructs, which in turn may have very different associations to important outcomes. In the current study, we used baseline data from 71 schizophrenia spectrum outpatients enrolled in a rehabilitation program to examine the relationship between task-specific motivation, as measured by the Intrinsic Motivation Inventory (IMI), and a more general state of volition/initiation, as measured by the three item Quality of Life (QLS) motivation index. We also examined the relationship of these motivation measures to demographic, clinical and functional variables relevant to rehabilitation outcomes. The two motivation measures were not correlated, and participants with low general state motivation exhibited a full range of task-specific motivation. Only the QLS motivation index correlated with variables relevant to rehabilitation outcomes. The lack of associations between QLS motivation index and IMI subscales suggests that constructs tapped by these measures may be divergent in schizophrenia, and specifically that task-specific intrinsic motivation is not contingent on a general state of motivation. That is, even in individuals with a general low motivational state (i.e. amotivation), interventions aimed at increasing task-specific motivation may still be effective. Moreover, the pattern of interrelationships between the QLS motivation index and variables relevant to psychosocial rehabilitation supports its use in treatment outcome studies.

  11. Measuring motivation in schizophrenia: Is a general state of motivation necessary for task-specific motivation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jimmy; Choi, Kee-Hong; Reddy, Felice; Fiszdon, Joanna M.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the important role of motivation in rehabilitation and functional outcomes in schizophrenia, to date, there has been little emphasis on how motivation is assessed. This is important, since different measures may tap potentially discrete motivational constructs, which in turn may have very different associations to important outcomes. In the current study, we used baseline data from 71 schizophrenia spectrum outpatients enrolled in a rehabilitation program to examine the relationship between task-specific motivation, as measured by the Intrinsic Motivation Inventory (IMI), and a more general state of volition/initiation, as measured by the three item Quality of Life (QLS) motivation index. We also examined the relationship of these motivation measures to demographic, clinical and functional variables relevant to rehabilitation outcomes. The two motivation measures were not correlated, and participants with low general state motivation exhibited a full range of task-specific motivation. Only the QLS motivation index correlated with variables relevant to rehabilitation outcomes. The lack of associations between QLS motivation index and IMI subscales suggests that constructs tapped by these measures may be divergent in schizophrenia, and specifically that task-specific intrinsic motivation is not contingent on a general state of motivation. That is, even in individuals with a general low motivational state (i.e. amotivation), interventions aimed at increasing task-specific motivation may still be effective. Moreover, the pattern of interrelationships between the QLS motivation index and variables relevant to psychosocial rehabilitation supports its use in treatment outcome studies. PMID:24529609

  12. Habituation of salivation and motivated responding for food in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Leonard H; Saad, Frances G; Handley, Elizabeth A; Roemmich, James N; Hawk, Larry W; McSweeney, Frances K

    2003-12-01

    Repeated presentation of food cues results in habituation in adults, as demonstrated by a decrement in salivary responding that is reversed by presenting a new food cue in adults. Food reinforced behavior in animals shows the same pattern of responding, with a decrease in responding to obtain the food, followed by a recovery of responding when a new food is presented. The present study assessed whether children would show the same pattern of a decrement of food reinforced responding followed by recovery of responding when a new food is presented for both salivation and food reinforcement tasks. Subjects were assigned to one of two groups that differed in the trial that the new food stimulus was presented to ensure recovery was specific to the introduction of the new food stimulus. In the salivation task, subjects were provided repeated olfactory presentations of a cheeseburger with apple pie as the new food stimulus, while in the food reinforcement task subjects worked for the opportunity to consume a cheeseburger, followed by the opportunity to work for consumption of apple pie. Subjects in both groups showed a decrement in salivary and food reinforced responding to repeated food cues followed by immediate recovery of responding on the trial when a new food was presented. Subjects increased their energy intake by over 30% in the food reinforcement task when a new food was presented. These results are consistent with the general process theory of motivation that suggests that changes in food reinforced responding may be due in part to habituation.

  13. Motivations for choosing various food groups based on individual foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Uyen T X; Chambers, Edgar

    2016-10-01

    Understanding "why people eat what they eat" is important for improving the lives of people around the world by helping provide industrial and social solutions for people to have greater pleasure and health from the foods they choose. The objective of this study was to investigate the motivations behind everyday choices of different food groups using a bottom-up approach that targeted the specific choices of foods and beverages people consumed at various times of a day. This study was conducted using an online survey included questions related to demographics, the most recent meal including specific food choices, and a slightly modified Eating Motivation Surveys (2 motivations were added, and Check-All-That-Apply procedure was used), which contained 50 sub-scales to measure 17 motivations including such topics as Liking, Pleasure, Convenience, Health, Price, Variety Seeking etc. A total of 198 participants have completed the surveys. Data were analyzed by Correspondence Analysis. Liking was found to be the strongest motivation that drove people to select all sorts of foods. Need and Hunger and Convenience were the main motivations for baked products, "fast" foods, sausages and meats, and snack foods while Health and Weight Control were found to be the main driving factors for vegetables, fruits & fruit juices, nuts, seeds, dairy & egg, and poultry products. Sweets were linked to Pleasure. For beverages, people were motivated most by Heath and Weight Control to choose water and tea. Coffee was used due to Habits; soda was because of Pleasure and alcoholic was for socialization purposes. This study provided developers, marketers, health educators, etc. With a new method to understand food choice in order to promote better eating.

  14. Association between traditional food consumption and motives for food choice in six European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieniak, Zuzanna; Verbeke, Wim; Vanhonacker, Filiep; Guerrero, Luis; Hersleth, Margrethe

    2009-08-01

    This study investigates the association between traditional food consumption and motives for food choice in six European countries. Cross-sectional data were collected through the TRUEFOOD pan-European consumer survey (n = 4828) with samples representative for age, gender and region in Belgium, France, Italy, Norway, Poland and Spain. Importance attached to familiarity with a product is found to be strongly and positively associated with general attitude toward traditional food as well as traditional food consumption. The importance attached to convenience was negatively related to both general attitude toward traditional food and traditional food consumption, while the importance of weight control negatively influenced the general attitude. Natural content of food was positively associated with the attitude toward traditional food and traditional food consumption. The importance of price when purchasing food failed to be significantly related with general attitude and traditional food consumption both for the pooled sample as well as within each country except in Spain. The proposed model contributes to a better understanding of factors shaping the image and influencing the consumption of traditional foods in Europe. General attitude toward traditional foods, familiarity, and importance of food naturalness emerged as drivers for traditional food consumption. Importance attached to convenience and health acted as direct barriers to traditional food consumption, whereas importance of weight control emerged as an indirect barrier through lowering general attitude toward traditional foods.

  15. Consumer's food motives and seafood consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Thong Tien; Solgaard, Hans Stubbe

    2016-01-01

    consumption frequencies of three typical seafood products (i.e., fish, shrimp and mussels) by estimating ordered probit models. Convenience and weight control are the most important motives driving the seafood consumptions, suggesting that convenience oriented-people choose seafood as meals less regularly......, while weight control oriented-people eat seafood more regularly. People who live alone are less likely to eat any type of the seafood; elderly and high income people are more likely to eat fish. Large size families avoid buying fish and shrimp probably due to the economic reason. The implications......The role of personal factors in driving seafood choice behavior was investigated. The individual psychological factors (i.e., food motives) and socio-demographic variables were measured on a national representative sample (n=996) of French adults. The personal factors were used to predict...

  16. Varying influences of motivation factors on employees' likelihood to perform safe food handling practices because of demographic differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Jason D; Arendt, Susan W; Strohbehn, Catherine H; Meyer, Janell; Paez, Paola

    2010-11-01

    Food safety training has been the primary avenue for ensuring food workers are performing proper food handling practices and thus, serving safe food. Yet, knowledge of safe food handling practices does not necessarily result in actual performance of these practices. This research identified participating food service employees' level of agreement with four factors of motivation (internal motivations, communication, reward-punishment, and resources) and determined if respondents with different demographic characteristics reported different motivating factors. Data were collected from 311 food service employees who did not have any supervisory responsibilities. Intrinsic motivation agreement scores were consistently the highest of all four motivational factors evaluated and did not differ across any of the demographic characteristics considered. In contrast, motivation agreement scores for communication, reward-punishment, and resources did differ based on respondents' gender, age, place of employment, job status, food service experience, completion of food handler course, or possession of a food safety certification. In general, respondents agreed that these motivation factors influenced their likelihood to perform various safe food handling procedures. This research begins to illustrate how employees' demographic characteristics influence their responses to various motivators, helping to clarify the complex situation of ensuring safe food in retail establishments. Future research into why employee willingness to perform varies more for extrinsic motivation than for intrinsic motivation could assist food service managers in structuring employee development programs and the work environment, in a manner that aids in improving external motivation (communication, reward-punishment, and resources) and capitalizing on internal motivation.

  17. Modern foraging: Presence of food and energy density influence motivational processing of food advertisements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Rachel L

    2016-12-01

    More energy dense foods are preferable from an optimal foraging perspective, which suggests these foods are more motivationally relevant due to their greater capability of fulfilling biological imperatives. This increase in motivational relevance may be exacerbated in circumstances where foraging will be necessary. This study examined how food energy density and presence of food in the immediate environment interacted to influence motivational processing of food advertisements. N = 58 adults viewed advertisements for foods varying in energy density in contexts where the advertised food was actually present in the viewing room or not. Advertisements for more energy dense foods elicited greater skin conductivity level compared to ads for less energy dense foods when food was not present. All ads elicited decreases in corrugator supercilii activation indicating positive emotional response resultant from appetitive motivational activation, though the greatest activation was exhibited toward higher energy density foods when food was present. This supports an optimal foraging perspective and has implications for healthy eating interventions.

  18. Palatable food consumption in children: interplay between (food) reward motivation and the home food environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Decker, Annelies; Verbeken, Sandra; Sioen, Isabelle; Van Lippevelde, Wendy; Braet, Caroline; Eiben, Gabriele; Pala, Valeria; Reisch, Lucia A; De Henauw, Stefaan

    2017-04-01

    To understand the importance of the home food environment on unhealthy food consumption in children high in reward sensitivity, this study tested the hypothesis that the home availability of unhealthy food moderates the effect of reward sensitivity on children's fast-food consumption frequency, exerted via food cue responsiveness. Children between 7.5 and 14 years (n = 174, 50.6% boys) reported on reward sensitivity and food cue responsiveness (by means of the subscale 'external eating'). Their height and weight were measured. Parents reported on their children's fast-food consumption frequency, food cue responsiveness (by means of the subscale 'food responsiveness'), and on the home availability of unhealthy foods. Two moderated mediation models were conducted, one with the parent- and one with the child-reported food cue responsiveness as mediator. Findings suggested that with a high home availability of unhealthy foods, (a) a higher fast-food consumption frequency was found in children high in reward sensitivity and (b) the relation between reward sensitivity and the fast-food consumption frequency was mediated by external eating. The findings point at the importance of the home food environment in children high in reward sensitivity. They suggest to limit the home availability of unhealthy foods. What is Known: • Reward sensitivity (RS) is positively associated with children's palatable food consumption • In adolescents, this effect is mediated by food cue responsiveness, which determines the strength of an individual's motivation to obtain food when perceiving food cues What is New: • Children high in RS may be more vulnerable to palatable food cues in their everyday food environment because of a higher food cue responsiveness • The home food environment may be an important determining factor of the palatable food consumption of these children.

  19. A General Overview of Motivation in Linguistics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王航

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the term of motivation in linguistics study has aroused the interests of scholars. Different studies of mo -tivation have been produced by different scholars. In this paper, the writer organizes the recent studies on motivation in linguistics. the paper is divided into three parts, the introduction of the term motivation, different types of motivation, and theories of moti -vation.

  20. Parents' food choice motives and their associations with children's food preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Catherine G; Worsley, Anthony; Liem, Djin G

    2015-04-01

    The objective was to investigate parents' motives for selecting foods for their children and the associations between these motives and children's food preferences. Cross-sectional survey. A modified version of the Food Choice Questionnaire was used to assess parents' food choice motives. Parents also reported children's liking/disliking of 176 food and beverage items on 5-point Likert scales. Patterns of food choice motives were examined with exploratory principal component analysis. Associations between motives and children's food preferences were assessed with linear regression while one-way and two-way ANOVA were used to test for sociodemographic differences. Two Australian cities. Parents (n 371) of 2-5-year-old children. Health, nutrition and taste were key motivators for parents, whereas price, political concerns and advertising were among the motives considered least important. The more parents' food choice for their children was driven by what their children wanted, the less children liked vegetables (β =-0·27, Pfoods (r=0·17, Pfoods, there are gaps to be addressed in the nature of such motives (e.g. selecting foods in line with the child's desires) or the translation of health motives into healthy food choices.

  1. Motivations for Food Consumption during Specific Eating Occasions in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delores Chambers

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Several studies in different countries have been conducted to investigate factors affecting food choices. The objective of this study was to understand the motivations of specific food and beverage choices for different eating occasions in a typical diet of the Turkish people. A convenience sample of 141 respondents from seven different geographical regions in Turkey completed an online survey questionnaire that included questions about demographic information and details about their latest eating occasion. Respondents reported all of their motivations for choosing each food/beverage item reported for that specific eating occasion. Results indicated that different motivations played different roles in food choices of people in Turkey. Liking was a key characteristic for all eating occasions, but key natural concerns were even more important at breakfast, and need and hunger were more important for a mid-afternoon snack. Lunch involved additional motivations such as Sociability, Variety Seeking, and Social Norms. In addition to Liking, choices of different food groups were also driven by other motivations such as Habits, Convenience, Need and Hunger, Natural Concerns, and Health. This study helped better understand the current dietary patterns of Turkish people as well as the motives underlying their choices of foods and beverages for different meals and snacks. These findings could be useful for dietary campaigns that aim to improve eating behaviors in Turkey.

  2. Drinking motives in clinical and general populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezquita, Laura; Stewart, Sherry H; Ibáñez, Manuel I; Ruipérez, María A; Villa, Helena; Moya, Jorge; Ortet, Generós

    2011-01-01

    This paper had three aims: (1) to validate a Spanish adaptation of the Modified Drinking Motives Questionnaire-Revised (M DMQ-R), (2) to explore the relationship of each drinking motive with different patterns of alcohol use, and (3) to compare the drinking motives of moderate drinkers, heavy drinkers, and alcohol abusing/dependent individuals. Two studies were carried out. In Study 1, a sample of 488 participants completed the M DMQ-R and a self-report scale of alcohol consumption in order to study the factor structure and different indices of reliability and validity of the Spanish M DMQ-R. In Study 2, we compared the drinking motives of moderate and heavy drinkers from Study 1 and an additional sample of 59 clinical drinkers. The M DMQ-R demonstrated sound reliability and validity indices. Coping-with-anxiety, social, and enhancement motives predicted higher alcohol use on weekends, but only coping-with-anxiety and social motives were related to consumption on weekdays. Furthermore, moderate drinkers had the lowest scores for all motives, whereas alcohol-dependent participants obtained the highest scores for negative reinforcement drinking motives. The Spanish M DMQ-R is a reliable and valid measure of drinking motives and has potential for assisting with treatment planning for problem drinkers. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Health concern, food choice motives, and attitudes toward healthy eating: the mediating role of food choice motives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yu-Hua Christine

    2008-07-01

    This study addresses how various health concerns might influence not only consumers' food choice motives but also consumers' subsequent attitudes toward healthy eating. This study expects that those consumers with greater health concerns would have different food choice motives and better attitudes toward healthy eating. A self-completion questionnaire was used to gather information. Participants, a random sample of 500 undergraduate students from a national university in Taipei, Taiwan, provided a total of 456 usable questionnaires, representing a valid response rate of 91%. The average age of the respondents at the time of the survey was 21 years and 63% of respondents were females. The relationship between health concern and healthy eating attitudes was confirmed. The relationship between health concern of developing diseases and attitudes toward healthy eating was fully mediated by food choice motives. However, the relationship between calorie consumption health concern and healthy eating attitudes was only partially mediated by food choice motives. Implications of these findings are discussed.

  4. Motives underlying food consumption in the Western Balkans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mardon, Julie; Thiel, Elise; Laniau, Martine; Sijtsema, Siet; Zimmermann, Karin; Barjolle, Dominique

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: This study aims to identify subgroups of consumers based on the health motives underlying their food choice in Western Balkan Countries. Methods: The survey (n = 2943) was based on the Food Choice Questionnaire (FCQ) and elicited information on socio-demographic characteristics, consu

  5. Motives underlying food consumption in the Western Balkans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mardon, Julie; Thiel, Elise; Laniau, Martine; Sijtsema, Siet; Zimmermann, Karin; Barjolle, Dominique

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: This study aims to identify subgroups of consumers based on the health motives underlying their food choice in Western Balkan Countries. Methods: The survey (n = 2943) was based on the Food Choice Questionnaire (FCQ) and elicited information on socio-demographic characteristics,

  6. Consumer's food motives and seafood consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Thong Tien; Solgaard, Hans Stubbe

    2016-01-01

    consumption frequencies of three typical seafood products (i.e., fish, shrimp and mussels) by estimating ordered probit models. Convenience and weight control are the most important motives driving the seafood consumptions, suggesting that convenience oriented-people choose seafood as meals less regularly...

  7. Perceived motivators to home food preparation: focus group findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Sheila A; Walter, Janelle; Soliah, LuAnn; Phifer, Janna T

    2014-10-01

    Family meals are positively associated with increased consumption of fruits and vegetables and numerous nutrients, promoting good eating habits and disease prevention. Families benefiting from home-cooked meals are more likely to consume smaller portions and fewer calories, less fat, less salt, and less sugar. Some Western cultures have lost confidence in preparing meals and tend to rely on foods prepared outside the home. The ability of young adults to prepare foods at home may be impaired. The purpose of our study is to identify motivators and, consequently, barriers to preparing foods at home vs purchasing preprepared foods from a deli or eating in a restaurant. Focus groups of college students (n=239) from two universities were asked questions about motivators to preparing meals at home in two subsequent sessions. The primary motivators among the students were that they desired to save money; had a model in food preparation; were familiar with cooking techniques; and had enough time to shop, cook, and clean up after meals. Food and nutrition practitioners have opportunities to promote cost-effective, simple, and time-saving home food preparation techniques as healthful habits. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Organic food consumption in Poland: Motives and barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryła, Paweł

    2016-10-01

    This paper aims to investigate selected aspects of organic food consumption in Poland. We conducted a survey in a representative sample of 1000 consumers. Polish consumers are convinced that organic food is more expensive, healthier, more environmentally friendly, more tasty and more authentic than conventional food. They believe its arouses more trust, has a better quality, is subject to more strict controls, and is produced in a more traditional way. According to Polish consumers, the most important characteristics of organic food are healthiness and high quality. The perceived authenticity of organic food depends on its natural taste, product quality, labelling, in particular having a European quality sign, as well as the retailer type and a separate exposition place in the points of purchase (merchandising). The critical barrier to the development of the organic food market in Poland is the high price, followed by an insufficient consumer awareness, low availability of organic products, short expiry dates and low visibility in the shop. The principal motives of organic food selection in Poland include: healthiness, ecological character of the product, food safety considerations, superior taste, and quality assurance. We identified the motives for and barriers to organic food consumption in Poland.

  9. Motives for consumer choice of traditional food and European food in mainland China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ou; De Steur, Hans; Gellynck, Xavier; Verbeke, Wim

    2015-04-01

    The demand for European (-style) foods in mainland China has been increasing dramatically during the last decade. Nevertheless, European food producers often appear to be not capable to fully exploit this huge market potential, partially due to the competition with traditional (Chinese) foods. This study examines the determinants of mainland Chinese consumers' choice of traditional food and European food. A web-based survey was administered with 541 consumers from two cities: Shanghai and Xi'an. Thereby, the Food Choice Motives model, predominantly used thus far in a European or developed context, is applied to mainland China in order to address the lack of knowledge on food motives of its consumer market and to detect associations between these motives, attitudes, and purchase intentions. Factor analysis resulted in a new Food Choice Motive construct that is considered more appropriate within the context of mainland Chinese consumers, encompassing six dimensions: Health concern, Time or money saving, Sensory appeal, Availability and familiarity, Mood and Food safety concern. Path analysis demonstrated that Time or money saving was negatively associated with attitude toward traditional food on the one hand and purchase intentions toward European food on the other hand. Availability and familiarity had a positive association with attitude toward traditional food. Mood was a positive factor driving attitude toward European food. For both food types, Sensory appeal and Attitude were positively linked to purchase intentions. Furthermore, Mood was negatively linked to the purchase intention toward traditional food in Shanghai. Food safety concern was positively associated with attitudes toward traditional food in Xi'an. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Connecting Achievement Motivation to Performance in General Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrell, Brent; Phillips, Michael M.; Barbera, Jack

    2016-01-01

    Student success in chemistry is inherently tied to motivational and other affective processes. We investigated three distinct constructs tied to motivation: self-efficacy, interest, and effort beliefs. These variables were measured twice over the course of a semester in three sections of a first-semester general chemistry course (n = 170). We…

  11. Connecting Achievement Motivation to Performance in General Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrell, Brent; Phillips, Michael M.; Barbera, Jack

    2016-01-01

    Student success in chemistry is inherently tied to motivational and other affective processes. We investigated three distinct constructs tied to motivation: self-efficacy, interest, and effort beliefs. These variables were measured twice over the course of a semester in three sections of a first-semester general chemistry course (n = 170). We…

  12. Relationships among Food Label Use, Motivation, and Dietary Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa M. Soederberg Miller

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Nutrition information on packaged foods supplies information that aids consumers in meeting the recommendations put forth in the US Dietary Guidelines for Americans such as reducing intake of solid fats and added sugars. It is important to understand how food label use is related to dietary intake. However, prior work is based only on self-reported use of food labels, making it unclear if subjective assessments are biased toward motivational influences. We assessed food label use using both self-reported and objective measures, the stage of change, and dietary quality in a sample of 392 stratified by income. Self-reported food label use was assessed using a questionnaire. Objective use was assessed using a mock shopping task in which participants viewed food labels and decided which foods to purchase. Eye movements were monitored to assess attention to nutrition information on the food labels. Individuals paid attention to nutrition information when selecting foods to buy. Self-reported and objective measures of label use showed some overlap with each other (r = 0.29, p < 0.001, and both predicted dietary quality (p < 0.001 for both. The stage of change diminished the predictive power of subjective (p < 0.09, but not objective (p < 0.01, food label use. These data show both self-reported and objective measures of food label use are positively associated with dietary quality. However, self-reported measures appear to capture a greater motivational component of food label use than do more objective measures.

  13. Ghrelin increases the motivation to eat, but does not alter food palatability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overduin, Joost; Figlewicz, Dianne P; Bennett-Jay, Jennifer; Kittleson, Sepideh; Cummings, David E

    2012-08-01

    Homeostatic eating cannot explain overconsumption of food and pathological weight gain. A more likely factor promoting excessive eating is food reward and its representation in the central nervous system (CNS). The anorectic hormones leptin and insulin reduce food reward and inhibit related CNS reward pathways. Conversely, the orexigenic gastrointestinal hormone ghrelin activates both homeostatic and reward-related neurocircuits. The current studies were conducted to identify in rats the effects of intracerebroventricular ghrelin infusions on two distinct aspects of food reward: hedonic valuation (i.e., "liking") and the motivation to self-administer (i.e., "wanting") food. To assess hedonic valuation of liquid food, lick motor patterns were recorded using lickometry. Although ghrelin administration increased energy intake, it did not alter the avidity of licking (initial lick rates or lick-cluster size). Several positive-control conditions ruled out lick-rate ceiling effects. Similarly, when the liquid diet was hedonically devalued with quinine supplementation, ghrelin failed to reverse the quinine-associated reduction of energy intake and avidity of licking. The effects of ghrelin on rats' motivation to eat were assessed using lever pressing to self-administer food in a progressive-ratio paradigm. Ghrelin markedly increased motivation to eat, to levels comparable to or greater than those seen following 24 h of food deprivation. Pretreatment with the dopamine D1 receptor antagonist SCH-23390 eliminated ghrelin-induced increases in lever pressing, without compromising generalized licking motor control, indicating a role for D1 signaling in ghrelin's motivational feeding effects. These results indicate that ghrelin increases the motivation to eat via D1 receptor-dependent mechanisms, without affecting perceived food palatability.

  14. Food and value motivation: Linking consumer affinities to different types of food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boer, Joop; Schösler, Hanna

    2016-08-01

    This study uses the consumer affinity concept to examine the multiple motives that may shape consumers' relationships with food. The concept was applied in a study on four broad product types in the Netherlands, which cover a wide range of the market and may each appeal to consumers with different affinities towards foods. These product types may be denoted as 'conventional', 'efficient', 'gourmet' and 'pure'. A comparative analysis, based on Higgins' Regulatory Focus Theory, was performed to examine whether food-related value motivations could explain different consumer affinities for these product types. The affinities of consumers were measured by means of a non-verbal, visual presentation of four samples of food products in a nationwide survey (n = 742) among consumers who were all involved in food purchasing and/or cooking. The affinities found could be predicted fairly well from a number of self-descriptions relating to food and eating, which expressed different combinations of type of value motivation and involvement with food. The analysis demonstrated the contrasting role of high and low involvement as well as the potential complementarity of promotion- and prevention-focused value motivation. It is suggested that knowledge of the relationships between product types, consumer affinities and value motivation can help improve the effectiveness of interventions that seek to promote healthy and sustainable diets in developed countries.

  15. Understanding the motives for food choice in Western Balkan Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milošević, Jasna; Žeželj, Iris; Gorton, Matthew; Barjolle, Dominique

    2012-02-01

    Substantial empirical evidence exists regarding the importance of different factors underlying food choice in Western Europe. However, research results on eating habits and food choice in the Western Balkan Countries (WBCs) remain scarce. A Food Choice Questionnaire (FCQ), an instrument that measures the reported importance of nine factors underlying food choice, was administered to a representative sample of 3085 adult respondents in six WBCs. The most important factors reported are sensory appeal, purchase convenience, and health and natural content; the least important are ethical concern and familiarity. The ranking of food choice motives across WBCs was strikingly similar. Factor analysis revealed eight factors compared to nine in the original FCQ model: health and natural content scales loaded onto one factor as did familiarity and ethical concern; the convenience scale items generated two factors, one related to purchase convenience and the other to preparation convenience. Groups of consumers with similar motivational profiles were identified using cluster analysis. Each cluster has distinct food purchasing behavior and socio-economic characteristics, for which appropriate public health communication messages can be drawn. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The influence of ethical values and food choice motivations on intentions to purchase sustainably sourced foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowd, Kylie; Burke, Karena J

    2013-10-01

    This study examined a three-step adaptation of the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) applied to the intention of consumers to purchase sustainably sourced food. The sample consisted of 137 participants, of which 109 were female, who were recruited through a farmers market and an organic produce outlet in an Australian capital city. Participants completed an online questionnaire containing the TPB scales of attitude, subjective norms, perceived behavioural control and intention; measures of positive moral attitude and ethical self identity; and food choice motives. Hierarchical multiple regression was used to examine the predictive utility of the TPB in isolation (step 1) and the TPB expanded to include the constructs of moral attitude and ethical self-identity (step 2). The results indicated the expansion of the TPB to include these constructs added significantly to the predictive model measuring intention to purchase sustainably sourced food. The third step in the adaptation utilised this expanded TPB model and added a measure of retail channel (where consumers reported buying fresh produce) and 9 food choice motives, in order to assess the predictive utility of the inclusion of choice motivations in this context. Of the 8 food choice motives examined, only health and ethical values significantly predicted intention to purchase sustainably sourced food. However, with the addition of food choice motives, ethical self-identity was no longer a significant predictor of intention to purchase sustainably sourced food. Overall the adapted TPB model explained 76% of the variance in intention to purchase sustainably sourced food. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Motivations for antigravity in General Relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chardin, G.

    1997-08-01

    We present arguments showing that it is natural to interpret the negative mass part of the Kerr solution as representing the geometry experienced by antimatter. The C, P and T discrete transformations are considered for this geometry. The C and T properties of the proposed identification are found to be in agreement with the usual representation of antimatter. In addition, we conjecture a property of perfect stigmatism through Kerr wormholes which allows General Relativity to mimic antigravity. Kerr wormholes would then act as “supermirrors” reversing the C, P and T images of an object seen through it. This interpretation is subject to several experimental tests and able to provide an explanation, without any free parameter, of the “CP” violation observed in the neutral kaon system.

  18. FOOD CHOICE MOTIVES OF JUICES’ CONSUMERS – PILOT STUDIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Włodarska

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the food choice motives of consumers. Preliminary studies were carried out on a group of 96 consumers of juices based on the Food Choice Questionnaire. It is a tool, which enables the systematic measurement of the importance of diff erent food choices. The confi rmatory (CFA and exploratory factor analysis (EFA and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA methods were used for analysis of data. The results of factor analysis revealed 12 new groups of factors determining the choice of food. The most important factors infl uencing selection of food were: taste, worth the money and a positive eff ect on external appearance. Using hierarchical cluster analysis three segments of consumer were identifi ed, with diff erent attitudes towards food choices: engaged – enthusiasts of healthy nutrition, indiff erent – not attaching attention to what they eat and practical – focused on the price and availability of products. Segmentation of consumers with similar attitudes towards choice of food can help the producers in precise targeting of marketing messages to a selected group of consumers.

  19. Real-time sampling of reasons for hedonic food consumption: further validation of the Palatable Eating Motives Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boggiano, Mary M; Wenger, Lowell E; Turan, Bulent; Tatum, Mindy M; Sylvester, Maria D; Morgan, Phillip R; Morse, Kathryn E; Burgess, Emilee E

    2015-01-01

    Highly palatable foods play a salient role in obesity and binge-eating, and if habitually eaten to deal with intrinsic and extrinsic factors unrelated to metabolic need, may compromise adaptive coping and interpersonal skills. This study used event sampling methodology (ESM) to examine whether individuals who report eating palatable foods primarily to cope, to enhance reward, to be social, or to conform, as measured by the Palatable Eating Motives Scale (PEMS), actually eat these foods primarily for the motive(s) they report on the PEMS. Secondly this study examined if the previously reported ability of the PEMS Coping motive to predict BMI would replicate if the real-time (ESM-reported) coping motive was used to predict BMI. A total of 1691 palatable eating events were collected from 169 college students over 4 days. Each event included the day, time, and types of tasty foods or drinks consumed followed by a survey that included an abbreviated version of the PEMS, hunger as an additional possible motive, and a question assessing general perceived stress during the eating event. Two-levels mixed modeling confirmed that ESM-reported motives correlated most strongly with their respective PEMS motives and that all were negatively associated with eating for hunger. While stress surrounding the eating event was strongly associated with the ESM-coping motive, its inclusion in the model as a predictor of this motive did not abolish the significant association between ESM and PEMS Coping scores. Regression models confirmed that scores on the ESM-coping motive predicted BMI. These findings provide ecological validity for the PEMS to identify true-to-life motives for consuming palatable foods. This further adds to the utility of the PEMS in individualizing, and hence improving, treatment strategies for obesity, binge-eating, dietary nutrition, coping, reward acquisition, and psychosocial skills.

  20. Limbic substrates of the effects of neuropeptide Y on intake of and motivation for palatable food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pandit, R.; Luijendijk, M.C.; Vanderschuren, L.J.M.J.; la Fleur, S.E.; Adan, R.A.H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Neuropeptide Y (NPY), given centrally augments food intake and the motivation to work for palatable food. Here, the brain regions were identified through which NPY increases food intake and motivation. Methods: NPY was infused into three brain regions implicated in food intake and motivat

  1. Limbic substrates of the effects of neuropeptide Y on intake of and motivation for palatable food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pandit, R.; Luijendijk, M.C.; Vanderschuren, L.J.M.J.; la Fleur, S.E.; Adan, R.A.H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Neuropeptide Y (NPY), given centrally augments food intake and the motivation to work for palatable food. Here, the brain regions were identified through which NPY increases food intake and motivation. Methods: NPY was infused into three brain regions implicated in food intake and

  2. Nucleus accumbens core dopamine signaling tracks the need-based motivational value of food-paired cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aitken, Tara J; Greenfield, Venuz Y; Wassum, Kate M

    2016-03-01

    Environmental reward-predictive stimuli provide a major source of motivation for instrumental reward-seeking activity and this has been linked to dopamine signaling in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) core. This cue-induced incentive motivation can be quite general, not restricted to instrumental actions that earn the same unique reward, and is also typically regulated by one's current need state, such that cues only motivate actions when this is adaptive. But it remains unknown whether cue-evoked dopamine signaling is similarly regulated by need state. Here, we used fast-scan cyclic voltammetry to monitor dopamine concentration changes in the NAc core of rats during a Pavlovian-to-instrumental transfer task in which the motivating influence of two cues, each signaling a distinct food reward (sucrose or food pellets), over an action earning a third unique food reward (polycose) was assessed in a state of hunger and of satiety. Both cues elicited a robust NAc dopamine response when hungry. The magnitude of the sucrose cue-evoked dopamine response correlated with the Pavlovian-to-instrumental transfer effect that was selectively induced by this stimulus. Satiety attenuated these cue-evoked dopamine responses and behavioral responding, even though rats had never experienced the specific food rewards in this state. These data demonstrate that cue-evoked NAc core responses are sensitive to current need state, one critical variable that determines the current adaptive utility of cue-motivated behavior. Food-predictive stimuli motivate food-seeking behavior. Here, we show that food cues evoke a robust nucleus accumbens core dopamine response when hungry that correlates with the cue's ability to invigorate general food seeking. This response is attenuated when sated, demonstrating that food cue-evoked accumbens dopamine responses are sensitive to the need state information that determines the current adaptive utility of cue-motivated action. © 2015 International Society for

  3. [Memory performance and general achievement motivation in the aged].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heineken, E; Gekeler, C

    1985-01-01

    Memory achievement is generally confounded with motivational factors in memory research. Therefore, the interpretation of age specific differences in recall renders difficult. The effect of a mnemonic device (method of loci) on recall is studied in a multitrial free recall experiment with 48 seniors aged from 60 to 92. Recall, performance in "Pauli"-tasks as an indicator of general achievement motivation, and subjective organization are measured. The experiment is planned as a three-factorial randomized group design with the factors "mnemonic device", "age", and "concreteness of learning material". The mnemonic device has a strong effect on recall as well as on performance "Pauli"-tasks. Its effect on recall is attributed to the increased achievement motivation.

  4. Effects of altering motivation for food in rats trained with food reinforcement to discriminate between d-amphetamine and saline injections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotfizadeh, Amin D; Redner, Ryan; Edwards, Timothy L; Quisenberry, Amanda J; Baker, Lisa E; Poling, Alan

    2012-12-01

    Previous studies have shown that altering motivation typically affects stimulus generalization in animals trained to discriminate exteroceptive stimuli, but few studies have evaluated the effects of manipulating motivation on drug stimuli. In the few published studies, motivation levels were manipulated by arranging different feeding conditions prior to stimulus generalization tests with rats trained to discriminate morphine from vehicle and in pigeons trained to discriminate phencyclidine or pentobarbital from vehicle. In the present study, rats maintained at 80% of free-feeding weights were trained to discriminate between injections of 1.0mg/kg d-amphetamine and saline in a two-lever food-reinforced operant procedure. Generalization tests were then conducted with a range of d-amphetamine doses (0, 0.03, 0.1, and 0.3, 1.0mg/kg) when the rats were not fed before experimental sessions (high motivation) and when they were pre-fed 1g of food (moderate motivation) or their daily ration of food (low motivation) 1h before test sessions. Changing the motivation level significantly affected response rate and latency to the first response in generalizations tests, but did not significantly affect mean percentage of drug-appropriate responding (a continuous measure) or percentage of animals that selected the drug-appropriate lever (a quantal measure). The present findings indicate that manipulating motivation for food minimally impacts d-amphetamine discrimination, however, the range of conditions used to examine the effects of motivating operations on stimulus control by d-amphetamine drugs and other drugs is limited and the topic may warrant further investigation.

  5. The motivational benefits of specific versus general optimism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmitt, Antje; Gielnik, Michael M.; Zacher, Hannes; Klemann, D. Katharina

    2013-01-01

    This study addresses the question whether a specific, work-related form of optimistic thinking has motivational consequences in terms of work engagement above and beyond general optimism over time. A specific form of optimistic thinking is focus on opportunities. Focus on opportunities is a

  6. The motivational benefits of specific versus general optimism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmitt, Antje; Gielnik, Michael M.; Zacher, Hannes; Klemann, D. Katharina

    2013-01-01

    This study addresses the question whether a specific, work-related form of optimistic thinking has motivational consequences in terms of work engagement above and beyond general optimism over time. A specific form of optimistic thinking is focus on opportunities. Focus on opportunities is a future-o

  7. Food and value motivation: Linking consumer affinities to different types of food products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, de J.; Schosler, H.

    2016-01-01

    This study uses the consumer affinity concept to examine the multiple motives that may shape consumers’ relationships with food. The concept was applied in a study on four broad product types in the Netherlands, which cover a wide range of the market and may each appeal to consumers with different a

  8. Food and value motivation: Linking consumer affinities to different types of food products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, de J.; Schosler, H.

    2016-01-01

    This study uses the consumer affinity concept to examine the multiple motives that may shape consumers’ relationships with food. The concept was applied in a study on four broad product types in the Netherlands, which cover a wide range of the market and may each appeal to consumers with different

  9. Eating 'Junk-Food' Produces Rapid and Long-Lasting Increases in NAc CP-AMPA Receptors: Implications for Enhanced Cue-Induced Motivation and Food Addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oginsky, Max F; Goforth, Paulette B; Nobile, Cameron W; Lopez-Santiago, Luis F; Ferrario, Carrie R

    2016-12-01

    Urges to eat are influenced by stimuli in the environment that are associated with food (food cues). Obese people are more sensitive to food cues, reporting stronger craving and consuming larger portions after food cue exposure. The nucleus accumbens (NAc) mediates cue-triggered motivational responses, and activations in the NAc triggered by food cues are stronger in people who are susceptible to obesity. This has led to the idea that alterations in NAc function similar to those underlying drug addiction may contribute to obesity, particularly in obesity-susceptible individuals. Motivational responses are mediated in part by NAc AMPA receptor (AMPAR) transmission, and recent work shows that cue-triggered motivation is enhanced in obesity-susceptible rats after 'junk-food' diet consumption. Therefore, here we determined whether NAc AMPAR expression and function is increased by 'junk-food' diet consumption in obesity-susceptible vs -resistant populations using both outbred and selectively bred models of susceptibility. In addition, cocaine-induced locomotor activity was used as a general 'read out' of mesolimbic function after 'junk-food' consumption. We found a sensitized locomotor response to cocaine in rats that gained weight on a 'junk-food' diet, consistent with greater responsivity of mesolimbic circuits in obesity-susceptible groups. In addition, eating 'junk-food' increased NAc calcium-permeable-AMPAR (CP-AMPAR) function only in obesity-susceptible rats. This increase occurred rapidly, persisted for weeks after 'junk-food' consumption ceased, and preceded the development of obesity. These data are considered in light of enhanced cue-triggered motivation and striatal function in obesity-susceptible rats and the role of NAc CP-AMPARs in enhanced motivation and addiction.

  10. Eating ‘Junk-Food' Produces Rapid and Long-Lasting Increases in NAc CP-AMPA Receptors: Implications for Enhanced Cue-Induced Motivation and Food Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oginsky, Max F; Goforth, Paulette B; Nobile, Cameron W; Lopez-Santiago, Luis F; Ferrario, Carrie R

    2016-01-01

    Urges to eat are influenced by stimuli in the environment that are associated with food (food cues). Obese people are more sensitive to food cues, reporting stronger craving and consuming larger portions after food cue exposure. The nucleus accumbens (NAc) mediates cue-triggered motivational responses, and activations in the NAc triggered by food cues are stronger in people who are susceptible to obesity. This has led to the idea that alterations in NAc function similar to those underlying drug addiction may contribute to obesity, particularly in obesity-susceptible individuals. Motivational responses are mediated in part by NAc AMPA receptor (AMPAR) transmission, and recent work shows that cue-triggered motivation is enhanced in obesity-susceptible rats after ‘junk-food' diet consumption. Therefore, here we determined whether NAc AMPAR expression and function is increased by ‘junk-food' diet consumption in obesity-susceptible vs -resistant populations using both outbred and selectively bred models of susceptibility. In addition, cocaine-induced locomotor activity was used as a general ‘read out' of mesolimbic function after ‘junk-food' consumption. We found a sensitized locomotor response to cocaine in rats that gained weight on a ‘junk-food' diet, consistent with greater responsivity of mesolimbic circuits in obesity-susceptible groups. In addition, eating ‘junk-food' increased NAc calcium-permeable-AMPAR (CP-AMPAR) function only in obesity-susceptible rats. This increase occurred rapidly, persisted for weeks after ‘junk-food' consumption ceased, and preceded the development of obesity. These data are considered in light of enhanced cue-triggered motivation and striatal function in obesity-susceptible rats and the role of NAc CP-AMPARs in enhanced motivation and addiction. PMID:27383008

  11. The effect of REM sleep deprivation on motivation for food reward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanlon, Erin C; Andrzejewski, Matthew E; Harder, Bridgette K; Kelley, Ann E; Benca, Ruth M

    2005-08-30

    Prolonged sleep deprivation in rats produces a characteristic syndrome consisting of an increase in food intake yet a decrease in weight. Moreover, the increase in food intake generally precedes the weight loss, suggesting that sleep deprivation may affect appetitive behaviors. Using the multiple platform method to produce rapid eye movement (REM) sleep deprivation, we investigated the effect of REM sleep deprivation (REMSD) on motivation for food reward utilizing food-reinforced operant tasks. In acquisition or maintenance of an operant task, REM sleep-deprived rats, with or without simultaneous food restriction, decreased responding for sucrose pellet reward in comparison to controls, despite the fact that all REM sleep-deprived rats lost weight. Furthermore, the overall response deficit of the REM sleep-deprived rats was due to a within-session decline in responding. REM sleep-deprived rats showed evidence of understanding the contingency of the task comparable to controls throughout deprivation period, suggesting that the decrements in responding were not primarily related to deficits in learning or memory. Rather, REM sleep deprivation appears to alter systems involved in motivational processes, reward, and/or attention.

  12. Relationship between Motivation for Learning EFL and Intrinsic Motivation for Learning in General among Japanese Elementary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreira, Junko Matsuzaki

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated children's motivation for learning English as a foreign language (EFL) and intrinsic motivation for learning in general. The participants were 268 third-sixth graders in a public school in Japan. Data were collected using two questionnaires, one measuring motivation for learning EFL and the other investigating intrinsic…

  13. Relationship between Motivation for Learning EFL and Intrinsic Motivation for Learning in General among Japanese Elementary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreira, Junko Matsuzaki

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated children's motivation for learning English as a foreign language (EFL) and intrinsic motivation for learning in general. The participants were 268 third-sixth graders in a public school in Japan. Data were collected using two questionnaires, one measuring motivation for learning EFL and the other investigating intrinsic…

  14. Food and value motivation: Linking consumer affinities to different types of food products

    OpenAIRE

    Boer, de, J.H.; Schosler, H.

    2016-01-01

    This study uses the consumer affinity concept to examine the multiple motives that may shape consumers’ relationships with food. The concept was applied in a study on four broad product types in the Netherlands, which cover a wide range of the market and may each appeal to consumers with different affinities towards foods. These product types may be denoted as ‘conventional’, ‘efficient’, ‘gourmet’ and ‘pure’. A comparative analysis, based on Higgins’ Regulatory Focus Theory, was performed to...

  15. Functional Food Market Development in Serbia: Motivations and Barriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žaklina Stojanović

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present main findings obtained from the empirical analysis of the functional food market in Serbia. The analysis is based on the in-depth interviews with relevant processors and retailers present on the market. The following set of topics are considered: (1 motivations (driving forces and barriers to offer products with nutrition and health (N&H claim and (2 perception of consumer demand toward N&H claimed products. Differences between Serbia and other Western Balkan Countries (WBC are explored by using nonparametric techniques based on the independent samples. Results support overall conclusion that this market segment in Serbia is underdeveloped and rather producer than consumer driven compared to more developed WBC markets.

  16. The motivation to teach as a registrar in general practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thampy, Harish; Agius, Steven; Allery, Lynne A

    2013-07-01

    The General Medical Council (GMC) states that teaching should be an integral part of the doctor's role and the Royal College of General Practitioners (RCGP) have incorporated teaching outcomes into the GP training curriculum. However, there are suggestions that the teaching role of a GP trainee declines as they move from hospital posts to the registrar community year. Using doctors in training as near-peer tutors offers multiple advantages. Trainees themselves benefit as teaching others is a strong driver of the tutor's own learning. In addition there are also practical incentives to mobilising this under-utilised pool of primary care clinical teachers given the continuing shift of focusing medical education in the community. This study forms part of a larger body of work exploring the attitudes and perceived learning needs of GP registrars with regards to developing a teaching role. A primary area of investigation was trainees' motivation to teach. This paper describes our attempts to establish: a) how strongly motivated are GP registrars to take on teaching roles? b) in consequence how strongly motivated are they to learn more about teaching? c) what are the factors which affect motivation to teach? Three themes emerged from the data. First, teaching was felt to be of low priority in comparison to competing clinical learning needs. Secondly, the clinical dominance to both formative and summative assessment during training further compounded this situation. Thirdly, registrars identified a number of practical barriers and incentives that influenced their teaching engagement. This included potential negative views from trainers as to their trainee's ability and requirement to be involved with teaching activities.By understanding and addressing these issues, it is hoped that GP trainees' engagement with teaching activities can be better engendered with subsequent benefits for both the trainee and those they teach.

  17. Motivation towards extracurricular activities and motivation at school: A test of the generalization effect hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denault, Anne-Sophie; Guay, Frédéric

    2017-01-01

    Participation in extracurricular activities is a promising avenue for enhancing students' school motivation. Using self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 2000), the goal of this study was to test a serial multiple mediator model. In this model, students' perceptions of autonomy support from their extracurricular activity leader predicted their activity-based intrinsic and identified regulations. In turn, these regulations predicted their school-based intrinsic and identified regulations during the same school year. Finally, these regulations predicted their school-based intrinsic and identified regulations one year later. A total of 276 youths (54% girls) from disadvantaged neighborhoods were surveyed over two waves of data collection. The proposed mediation model was supported for both types of regulation. These results highlight the generalization effects of motivation from the extracurricular activity context to the school context. Copyright © 2016 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. How food cues can enhance and inhibit motivation to obtain and consume food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colagiuri, Ben; Lovibond, Peter F

    2015-01-01

    Learning may play an important role in over-eating. One example is Pavlovian-to-instrumental transfer (PIT), whereby reward cues facilitate responding to obtain that reward. Whilst there is increasing research indicating PIT for food in humans, these studies have exclusively tested PIT under instrumental extinction (i.e. when the food is no longer available), which may reduce their ecological validity. To address this, we conducted two experiments exploring PIT for food in humans when tested under instrumental reinforcement. Participants first underwent Pavlovian discrimination training with an auditory cue paired with a chocolate reward (CS+) and another auditory cue unpaired (CS-). In instrumental training participants learnt to press a button to receive the chocolate reward on a VR10 schedule. In the test phase, each CS was presented whilst participants maintained the opportunity to press the button to receive chocolate. In Experiment 1, the PIT test was implemented after up to 20 min of instrumental training (satiation) whereas in Experiment 2 it was implemented after only 4 min of instrumental training. In both experiments there was evidence for differential PIT, but the pattern differed according to the rate of responding at the time of the PIT test. In low baseline responders the CS+ facilitated both button press responding and consumption, whereas in high baseline responders the CS- suppressed responding. These findings suggest that both excitatory and inhibitory associations may be learnt during PIT training and that the expression of these associations depends on motivation levels at the time the cues are encountered. Particularly concerning is that a food-paired cue can elicit increased motivation to obtain and consume food even when the participant is highly satiated and no longer actively seeking food, as this may be one mechanism by which over-consumption is maintained.

  19. Development of a measure of the motives underlying the selection of food: the food choice questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steptoe, A; Pollard, T M; Wardle, J

    1995-12-01

    A number of factors are thought to influence people's dietary choices, including health, cost, convenience and taste, but there are no measures that address health-related and non-health-related factors in a systematic fashion. This paper describes the development of a multidimensional measure of motives related to food choice. The Food Choice Questionnaire (FCQ) was developed through factor analysis of responses from a sample of 358 adults ranging in age from 18 to 87 years. Nine factors emerged, and were labelled health, mood, convenience, sensory appeal, natural content, price, weight control, familiarity and ethical concern. The questionnaire structure was verified using confirmatory factor analysis in a second sample (n = 358), and test-retest reliability over a 2- to 3-week period was satisfactory. Convergent validity was investigated by testing associations between FCQ scales and measures of dietary restraint, eating style, the value of health, health locus of control and personality factors. Differences in motives for food choice associated with sex, age and income were found. The potential uses of this measure in health psychology and other areas are discussed.

  20. Roles of "Wanting" and "Liking" in Motivating Behavior: Gambling, Food, and Drug Addictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, M J F; Fischer, A M; Ahuja, A; Lesser, E N; Maniates, H

    2016-01-01

    The motivation to seek out and consume rewards has evolutionarily been driven by the urge to fulfill physiological needs. However in a modern society dominated more by plenty than scarcity, we tend to think of motivation as fueled by the search for pleasure. Here, we argue that two separate but interconnected subcortical and unconscious processes direct motivation: "wanting" and "liking." These two psychological and neuronal processes and their related brain structures typically work together, but can become dissociated, particularly in cases of addiction. In drug addiction, for example, repeated consumption of addictive drugs sensitizes the mesolimbic dopamine system, the primary component of the "wanting" system, resulting in excessive "wanting" for drugs and their cues. This sensitizing process is long-lasting and occurs independently of the "liking" system, which typically remains unchanged or may develop a blunted pleasure response to the drug. The result is excessive drug-taking despite minimal pleasure and intense cue-triggered craving that may promote relapse long after detoxification. Here, we describe the roles of "liking" and "wanting" in general motivation and review recent evidence for a dissociation of "liking" and "wanting" in drug addiction, known as the incentive sensitization theory (Robinson and Berridge 1993). We also make the case that sensitization of the "wanting" system and the resulting dissociation of "liking" and "wanting" occurs in both gambling disorder and food addiction.

  1. Motivations for the Adoption of Chronic Disease Information Systems in General Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Carbone

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to highlight the key motivational factors that lead to the successful implementation of Chronic Diseases Information Systems (CDISs in twenty eight general practices in a case study of a large general practice division network in Australia. The literature identified three major areas of CDIS motivation: patient care gap motivator, internal motivators and external motivators. Patient care emerged as the most important motivation for adopting CDIS, followed by risk management and financial incentives. However, the study also determined that the motivational forces are inter-related and suggests that the decision to adopt CDIS should consider a number of these identified factors.

  2. Influence of gender, age and motives underlying food choice on perceived healthiness and willingness to try functional foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ares, Gastón; Gámbaro, Adriana

    2007-07-01

    The aims of the present study were to study the effect of different carriers and enrichments on the perceived healthiness and willingness to try functional foods; and to evaluate the effect of age, gender and motives underlying food choice. Participants had to evaluate different functional food concepts and had to answer a food choice questionnaire. Results showed that carrier products had the largest effect on consumers' perception of healthiness and willingness to try of the evaluated functional foods concepts. The highest positive relative utilities were achieved when the enrichment was a functional ingredient inherent in the product. Furthermore, gender, age and motives underlying food choice affected the preference patterns for the evaluated functional foods concepts, but it depended on the carrier and enrichment considered, suggesting that functional foods might not be accepted by all the consumers and that they could be tailored for certain groups.

  3. Task-Based and Questionnaire Measures of Inhibitory Control Are Differentially Affected by Acute Food Restriction and by Motivationally Salient Food Stimuli in Healthy Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholdy, Savani; Cheng, Jiumu; Schmidt, Ulrike; Campbell, Iain C; O'Daly, Owen G

    2016-01-01

    Adaptive eating behaviors are dependent on an interaction between motivational states (e.g., hunger) and the ability to control one's own behavior (inhibitory control). Indeed, behavioral paradigms are emerging that seek to train inhibitory control to improve eating behavior. However, inhibitory control is a multifaceted concept, and it is not yet clear how different types (e.g., reactive motor inhibition, proactive motor inhibition, reward-related inhibition) are affected by hunger. Such knowledge will provide insight into the contexts in which behavioral training paradigms would be most effective. The present study explored the impact of promoting a "need" state (hunger) together with motivationally salient distracting stimuli (food/non-food images) on inhibitory control in 46 healthy adults. Participants attended two study sessions, once after eating breakfast as usual and once after acute food restriction on the morning of the session. In each session, participants completed questionnaires on hunger, mood and inhibitory control, and undertook task-based measures of inhibitory control, and had physiological measurements (height, weight, and blood glucose) obtained by a researcher. Acute food restriction influenced task-based assessments but not questionnaire measures of inhibitory control, suggesting that hunger affects observable behavioral control but not self-reported inhibitory control. After acute food restriction, participants showed greater temporal discounting (devaluation of future rewards), and subjective hunger and these were inversely correlated with stop accuracy on the stop signal task. Finally, participants generally responded faster when food-related distractor images were presented, compared to non-food images, independent of state. This suggests that although food stimuli motivate approach behavior, stimulus relevance does not impact inhibitory control in healthy individuals, nor interact with motivational state. These findings may provide some

  4. Task-based and questionnaire measures of inhibitory control are differentially affected by acute food restriction and by motivationally salient food stimuli in healthy adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savani Bartholdy

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive eating behaviors are dependent on an interaction between motivational states (e.g., hunger and the ability to control one’s own behavior (inhibitory control. Indeed, behavioral paradigms are emerging that seek to train inhibitory control to improve eating behavior. However, inhibitory control is a multifaceted concept, and it is not yet clear how different types (e.g., reactive motor inhibition, proactive motor inhibition, reward-related inhibition are affected by hunger. Such knowledge will provide insight into the contexts in which behavioral training paradigms would be most effective. The present study explored the impact of promoting a need state (hunger together with motivationally salient distracting stimuli (food/non-food images on inhibitory control in 46 healthy adults. Participants attended two study sessions, once after eating breakfast as usual and once after acute food restriction on the morning of the session. In each session, participants completed questionnaires on hunger, mood and inhibitory control, and undertook task-based measures of inhibitory control, and had physiological measurements (height, weight and blood glucose obtained by a researcher. Acute food restriction influenced task-based assessments but not questionnaire measures of inhibitory control, suggesting that hunger affects observable behavioral control but not self-reported inhibitory control. After acute food restriction, participants showed greater temporal discounting (devaluation of future rewards, and subjective hunger and these were inversely correlated with stop accuracy on the stop signal task. Finally, participants generally responded faster when food-related distractor images were presented, compared to non-food images, independent of state. This suggests that although food stimuli motivate approach behavior, stimulus relevance does not impact inhibitory control in healthy individuals, nor interact with motivational state. These findings may

  5. Determination Motive through the Prism of the General Concept of the Motives of Human Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veresha, Roman V.

    2016-01-01

    This research studies the problems of defining the concept of motive of crime in terms of the psychological concept of motives of human behavior. The purpose of this research is to define the motive of crime (which is yet undefined in spite of the longstanding existence of criminology) and to improve existing scientific theories regarding the…

  6. Spatial distribution patterns of sheep following manipulation of feeding motivation and food availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire, R; Swain, D L; Friend, M A

    2012-05-01

    We hypothesised that (i) increased feeding motivation will cause sheep to move further apart as a result of individuals trying to find food and (ii) in conditions of high food availability, sheep will move less and show greater social attraction. The effects of both feeding motivation and food availability on spatial distribution was examined in eight groups of food-deprived (high feeding motivation) and satiated (low feeding motivation) sheep in good or poor food resource plots in a 2 × 2 design. Distance travelled was assessed using Global Positioning System collars, grazing time using scan sampling and social cohesion using proximity collars that record the number and duration of encounters within 4 m. Food-deprived sheep in the good-resource plots grazed the most, whereas satiated sheep in the poor-resource plots grazed the least (P = 0.004). Food deprivation had no significant effect on the number or duration of encounters and feeding motivation appeared to have little effect on spatial distribution. Contrary to expectation, sheep had more encounters (P = 0.04) of a longer total duration (P = 0.02) in poor-resource plots than in good-resource plots, indicating that sheep were showing more social cohesion if food was scarce. Our findings suggest that when food is scarce, animals may come together in an attempt to share information on food availability. However, when a highly preferred food is abundant and well dispersed, they may move apart in order to maximise the intake. It is concluded that the particular details of our experiment, namely the even distribution or absence of a highly preferred food, affected spatial distribution patterns as sheep tried to find this food and maximise the intake.

  7. Pre-existing differences in motivation for food and sensitivity to cocaine-induced locomotion in obesity-prone rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollbrecht, Peter J; Nobile, Cameron W; Chadderdon, Aaron M; Jutkiewicz, Emily M; Ferrario, Carrie R

    2015-12-01

    Obesity is a significant problem in the United States, with roughly one third of adults having a body mass index (BMI) over thirty. Recent evidence from human studies suggests that pre-existing differences in the function of mesolimbic circuits that mediate motivational processes may promote obesity and hamper weight loss. However, few preclinical studies have examined pre-existing neurobehavioral differences related to the function of mesolimbic systems in models of individual susceptibility to obesity. Here, we used selectively bred obesity-prone and obesity-resistant rats to examine 1) the effect of a novel "junk-food" diet on the development of obesity and metabolic dysfunction, 2) over-consumption of "junk-food" in a free access procedure, 3) motivation for food using instrumental procedures, and 4) cocaine-induced locomotor activity as an index of general mesolimbic function. As expected, eating a sugary, fatty, "junk-food" diet exacerbated weight gain and increased fasted insulin levels only in obesity-prone rats. In addition, obesity-prone rats continued to over-consume junk-food during discrete access testing, even when this same food was freely available in the home cage. Furthermore, when asked to press a lever to obtain food in an instrumental task, rates of responding were enhanced in obesity-prone versus obesity-resistant rats. Finally, obesity-prone rats showed a stronger locomotor response to 15 mg/kg cocaine compared to obesity-resistant rats prior to any diet manipulation. This enhanced sensitivity to this dose of cocaine is indicative of basal differences in the function of mesolimbic circuits in obesity-prone rats. We speculate that pre-existing differences in motivational systems may contribute to over-consumption and enhanced motivation in susceptible individuals.

  8. Predicting intentions to consume functional foods and supplements to offset memory loss using an adaptation of protection motivation theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, D N; Koster, A; Russell, C G

    2004-08-01

    The widespread use of dietary supplements and so-called 'functional foods' is thought to be partially motivated by self-control of health. However, whilst consumers want foods associated with well-being or disease prevention, they are unlikely to be willing to compromise on taste or technology. This presents a dilemma for promoters of functional foods. Middle-aged consumers' intentions to consume functional foods or supplements that may improve memory were tested within an adaptation of Protection Motivation theory (PMT). Participants evaluated text descriptions of four products described as: having an unpleasant bitter taste (Natural-FF); having 'additives' to reduce bitterness (Sweetened-FF); being genetically modified to enhance function (GM-FF) and Supplements. Participants were recruited as being of high and low perceived vulnerability to memory failure. In total, 290 middle-aged consumers (aged 40-60 years) participated in the study. Motivations to consume the GM-FF were the lowest. There were gender differences between intention to consume the supplements, Natural-FF and Sweetened-FF and product differences within genders. Women were less favourable than men in their attitudes towards genetic modification in general. Regression analyses indicated that PM predictors of intention to consume functional foods or supplements explained 59-63% of the variance (R2). Overall, perceived 'efficacy' (of the behaviour) and self-efficacy were the most important predictors of intentions to consume.

  9. Exploring Food Waste : The Role of Health Motivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drijfhout, Marit; van Doorn, Jenny; van Ittersum, Koert; Moreau, Page; Puntoni, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    One-third of all edible food products for human consumption is wasted or lost in the supply chain, with negative social, economic and environmental consequences. Although consumers are the single largest contributors to food waste in industrialized countries, food waste has not received much

  10. Exploring food waste : the role of health motivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drijfhout, Marit; van Doorn, Jenny; van Ittersum, Koert; Moreau, Page; Puntoni, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    One-third of all edible food products for human consumption is wasted or lost in the supply chain, with negative social, economic and environmental consequences. Although consumers are the single largest contributors to food waste in industrialized countries, food waste has not received much attenti

  11. MOTIVATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    Introduction What is the difference between instrumental and integrative motivation? What kind of motivations do students have? How can our knowledge of motivation help the language learning process? Motivation can be very important in language teaching. Students can do very well when they are motivated. Teachers, with their knowledge of motivation, can make their classes more efficient and successful. Middle school teachers, in addition to learning about the English language itself, and about teaching methods, should also learn more about motivation and how this affects our students. "When we consider language teaching, motivation can be classified as either integrative or instrumental motivation" (Luxon)

  12. Food choice motives and bread liking of consumers embracing hedonistic and traditional values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohjanheimo, Terhi; Paasovaara, Rami; Luomala, Harri; Sandell, Mari

    2010-02-01

    This study addresses the effect of personal values on consumers' food choice motives and on the liking of bread. A total of 224 consumers participated in the study in three groups: traditional and hedonistic consumers, who presented opposite value types according to the Schwartz value theory, and a control group. Three different rye breads were evaluated for liking and their sensory profiles were determined. The consumer groups' values, food choice motives measured with the Food Choice Questionnaire and a Concern scale, and liking of the breads differed significantly according to the analysis of variance and a partial least squares regression analysis. For hedonistic consumers, rye bread characterized by a soft and porous texture influenced liking positively, and food choice motives "mood" and "price" correlated positively with their values. Traditional consumers were more positive toward different types of rye bread, and food choice motives "natural content", "familiarity" and "health concern" were more important to them than to hedonists. Overall, this study demonstrated that values are connected to food choice motives and, to some extent liking and, thus, values can be utilized both in product development and in advertising. 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Hedonic and motivational roles of opioids in food reward: implications for overeating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peciña, Susana; Smith, Kyle S

    2010-11-01

    Food reward can be driven by separable mechanisms of hedonic impact (food 'liking') and incentive motivation (food 'wanting'). Brain mu-opioid systems contribute crucially to both forms of food reward. Yet, opioid signals for food 'liking' and 'wanting' diverge in anatomical substrates, in pathways connecting these sites, and in the firing profiles of single neurons. Divergent neural control of hedonic and motivational processes raises the possibility for joint or separable modulation of food intake in human disorders associated with excessive eating and obesity. Early findings confirm an important role for 'liking' and 'wanting' in human appetitive behaviors, and suggest the intriguing possibility that exaggerated signals for 'wanting,' and perhaps 'liking,' may contribute to forms of overeating. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Reduced Automatic Motivational Orientation Towards Food in Restricting Anorexia Nervosa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenstra, Esther M.; de Jong, Peter J.

    2011-01-01

    A striking and characteristic feature of the restricting subtype of anorexia nervosa (AN) is that they are extremely successful in regulating their food intake in a destructive manner. A possible explanation for the persistent character of their restricted food intake could be a loss of the motivati

  15. Three perspectives on motivation and multicriteria assessment of organic food systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Læssøe, Jeppe; Ljungdalh, Anders Kruse; Alrøe, Hugo Fjelsted

    2014-01-01

    . The question is how an MCA tool should be designed to facilitate reflections, communication, and decision making in relation to organic food systems. A key issue is motivation. There are several divergent theories of motivation, and the question cannot be adequately answered by using any single theory. We...... discuss an economic, a psychosocial, and a relational perspective on motivation and MCA. Using the example of a consumer assessing and choosing products in the supermarket, the economic conception of motivation offers a focus on decision-making processes. The psychosocial approach to motivation draws...... attention to the influence of cognitive structures and experience-based emotional drivers. Finally, the relational approach stresses that motivation is situated in the relations between agents. We discuss how the three perspectives converge and diverge regarding the purpose of using an MCA tool, the scope...

  16. Food and drug interactions: a general review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ötles, Semih; Senturk, Ahmet

    2014-01-01

    Although it is well known and identified that drug-drug interactions exist, the recognition of importance of food and drug interactions to practice has been growing much slower. On the other hand, drug-food/nutrient interactions continue to grow with the common use of medications. Beside the awareness of this type of interactions, food-drug interaction studies are critical to evaluate appropriate dosing, timing, and formulation of new drug candidates. Drug-food interactions take place mechanistically due to altered intestinal transport and metabolism, or systemic distribution, metabolism and excretion. In addition, some people have greater risk of food and drug interactions who have a poor diet, have serious health problems, childrens and pregnant women. In this article, basic informations about importance, classifications, transporters and enzymes of drug and nutrient interaction are given and some specific examples of both drug and nutrients and influences on each other are included.

  17. Involvement of opioid signaling in food preference and motivation: Studies in laboratory animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, I; Font, L; Currie, P J; Pastor, R

    2016-01-01

    Motivation is a complex neurobiological process that initiates, directs, and maintains goal-oriented behavior. Although distinct components of motivated behavior are difficult to investigate, appetitive and consummatory phases of motivation are experimentally separable. Different neurotransmitter systems, particularly the mesolimbic dopaminergic system, have been associated with food motivation. Over the last two decades, however, research focusing on the role of opioid signaling has been particularly growing in this area. Opioid receptors seem to be involved, via neuroanatomically distinct mechanisms, in both appetitive and consummatory aspects of food reward. In the present chapter, we review the pharmacology and functional neuroanatomy of opioid receptors and their endogenous ligands, in the context of food reinforcement. We examine literature aimed at the development of laboratory animal techniques to better understand different components of motivated behavior. We present recent data investigating the effect of opioid receptor antagonists on food preference and effort-related decision making in rats, which indicate that opioid signaling blockade selectively affects intake of relatively preferred foods, resulting in reduced willingness to exert effort to obtain them. Finally, we elaborate on the potential role of opioid system manipulations in disorders associated with excessive eating and obesity. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Relationships among food label use, motivation, and dietary quality

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Miller, Lisa M Soederberg; Cassady, Diana L; Applegate, Elizabeth A; Beckett, Laurel A; Wilson, Machelle D; Gibson, Tanja N; Ellwood, Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    Nutrition information on packaged foods supplies information that aids consumers in meeting the recommendations put forth in the US Dietary Guidelines for Americans such as reducing intake of solid fats and added sugars...

  19. Cross-national and lifestyle differences in consumer choice criteria and motives with regard to a processed organic food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John; Bredahl, Lone

    2006-01-01

    . Choice criteria and motives behind choosing organic food differ markedly between countries and so does the use of organic as a choice criterion. The salience of specific associations to organic food is sensitive to the processing level of the food, but the core reasons and motives for choosing organic......Differences in consumer reasons and motives for choosing a processed organic food in four European countries are explored by means of a laddering study and controlled for food-related lifestyle (FRL). The main results are reported in the form of perceptual maps based on correspondence analysis...... food seem not to be....

  20. Cross-national and lifestyle differences in consumer choice criteria and motives with regard to a processed organic food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John; Bredahl, Lone

    . Choice criteria and motives behind choosing organic food differ markedly between countries and so do the use of organic as a choice criterion. The salience of specific associations to organic food is sensitive to the processing level of the food, but the core reasons and motives for choosing organic food......Differences in consumer reasons and motives for choosing a processed organic food in four European countries are explored by means of a laddering study and controlled for food-related lifestyle (FRL). The main results are reported in the form of perceptual maps based on correspondence analysis...

  1. Cross-national and lifestyle differences in consumer choice criteria and motives with regard to a processed organic food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John; Bredahl, Lone

    2006-01-01

    Differences in consumer reasons and motives for choosing a processed organic food in four European countries are explored by means of a laddering study and controlled for food-related lifestyle (FRL). The main results are reported in the form of perceptual maps based on correspondence analysis....... Choice criteria and motives behind choosing organic food differ markedly between countries and so does the use of organic as a choice criterion. The salience of specific associations to organic food is sensitive to the processing level of the food, but the core reasons and motives for choosing organic...... food seem not to be....

  2. Motivation for Palatable Food Despite Consequences in an Animal Model of Binge-Eating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oswald, Kimberly D.; Murdaugh, Donna L.; King, Vinetra L.; Boggiano, Mary M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Binge-eating involves an abnormal motivation for highly palatable food in that these foods are repeatedly consumed despite their binge-triggering effects and life-affecting consequences associated with binge-eating. We determined if rats identified as binge-eating prone (BEP) similarly display abnormal motivation for palatable food. Method Food-sated BEP and binge-eating resistant (BER) rats were given voluntary access to palatable food paired with increasing intensity of footshock. Later, they were exposed to a period of cyclic caloric restriction-refeeding. Results BEPs consumed significantly more and tolerated higher levels of footshock for palatable food than BERs. Cyclic restriction-refeeding increased BERs' tolerance of shock for palatable food. Discussion Previously observed parallels of the rat BEP model to human binge-eating can now be extended to include an abnormal motivation for palatable food. This model should prove useful in identifying specific genes that interact with the nutritional environment to mediate binge-eating and may point to novel physiological targets to treat compulsive overeating. PMID:20186718

  3. Organic food consumption in Taiwan: Motives, involvement, and purchase intention under the moderating role of uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Chih-Ching; Lu, Chi-Heng

    2016-10-01

    Despite the progressive development of the organic food sector in Taiwan, little is known about how consumers' consumption motives will influence organic food decision through various degrees of involvement and whether or not consumers with various degrees of uncertainty will vary in their intention to buy organic foods. The current study aims to examine the effect of consumption motives on behavioral intention related to organic food consumption under the mediating role of involvement as well as the moderating role of uncertainty. Research data were collected from organic food consumers in Taiwan via a questionnaire survey, eventually obtaining 457 valid questionnaires for analysis. This study tested the overall model fit and hypotheses through structural equation modeling method (SEM). The results show that consumer involvement significantly mediates the effects of health consciousness and ecological motives on organic food purchase intention, but not applied to food safety concern. Moreover, the moderating effect of uncertainty is statistical significance, indicating that the relationship between involvement and purchase intention becomes weaker in the condition of consumers with higher degree of uncertainty. Several implications and suggestions are also discussed for organic food providers and marketers.

  4. Regulatory focus and food choice motives. Prevention orientation associated with mood, convenience, and familiarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pula, Kacy; Parks, Craig D; Ross, Carolyn F

    2014-07-01

    The authors tested the robustness of the Food Choice Questionnaire (FCQ) with a U.S. sample and examined the relationship between individual differences in regulatory focus and everyday food choice motives. Although a popular measure in cross-culture research, the FCQ has seen limited use with U.S. samples, and its psychometric properties have not been tested in this population. American participants (n = 408) completed the Regulatory Focus Questionnaire and a measure of food choice motives. The data did not support the nine-factor FCQ structure. An ad hoc revised measure of food choice motives showed complete measurement invariance (loadings, intercepts, and residuals) across regulatory focus. Regarding everyday food choices, participants with a prevention focus placed greater importance on mood, convenience, and familiarity than participants with a promotion focus. There were no significant differences regarding the importance of health, environmental protection, impression management, natural content, price, and sensory appeal. Several food choice motives were positively correlated. Compared with the promotion-focused participants, the prevention-focused participants more strongly associated the importance of sensory appeal with the importance of natural content and the importance of price. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Stress, cues, and eating behavior. Using drug addiction paradigms to understand motivation for food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojek, Monika Kardacz; Fischer, Sarah; MacKillop, James

    2015-09-01

    Eating patterns that lead to overconsumption of high fat, high sugar (HFHS) foods share similar features with addictive behaviors. Application of addiction paradigms, such as stress inductions, cue reactivity and behavioral economic assessments, to the study of motivation for HFHS food consumption may be a promising means of understanding food consumption. To date, few studies have investigated the interaction of stress and environmental cues on craving, and no study leveraged the state relative reinforcing value of foods (RRVfood) under varying conditions of affective states, the foci of the current study. This study used a mixed factorial design (Mood Induction: Neutral, Stress; Cues: Neutral, Food) with repeated measures on time (Baseline, Post-Mood Induction, Post-Cue Exposure). Participants (N = 133) were community adults who endorsed liking of HFHS snacks but denied eating pathology. The primary DVs were subjective craving and RRVfood. Negative and positive affect (NA, PA), the amount of food consumed, and latency to first bite were also examined. Participants in the Stress condition reported no change in craving or RRVfood. Exposure to food cues significantly increased participants' craving and RRVfood, but an interaction of stress and cues was not present. Participants did not differ on how many calories they consumed based on exposure to stress or food cues, but participants in the food cues condition had a shorter latency to the first bite of food. This study highlights the importance of environmental cues in food motivation. It also demonstrates the utility of using RRVfood to further characterize food motivation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A general model for food web structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allesina, Stefano; Alonso, David; Pascual, Mercedes

    2008-01-01

    A central problem in ecology is determining the processes that shape the complex networks known as food webs formed by species and their feeding relationships. The topology of these networks is a major determinant of ecosystems' dynamics and is ultimately responsible for their responses to human imp

  7. Motivational Influences on Performance Maintained by Food Reinforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    North, Stephen T.; Iwata, Brian A.

    2005-01-01

    In Study 1, we examined the independent effects of reinforcer consumption during sessions and meal consumption prior to sessions on performance maintained by food reinforcement. Nine individuals with developmental disabilities participated. On alternate days, a preferred edible item was delivered during (a) seven sessions conducted before lunch…

  8. A validity generalization procedure to test relations between intrinsic and extrinsic motivation and influence tactics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbuto, John E; Moss, Jennifer A

    2006-08-01

    The relations of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation with use of consultative, legitimating, and pressure influence tactics were examined using validity generalization procedures. 5 to 7 field studies with cumulative samples exceeding 800 were used to test each relationship. Significance was found for relation between agents' intrinsic motivation and their use of consultative influence tactics and agents' extrinsic motivation and their use of legitimating influence tactics.

  9. Shedding light on food fraud: spectrophotometric and spectroscopic methods as a tool against economically motivated adulteration of food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petronijević, R. B.; Velebit, B.; Baltić, T.

    2017-09-01

    Intentional modification of food or substitution of food ingredients with the aim of gaining profit is food fraud or economically motivated adulteration (EMA). EMA appeared in the food supply chain, and following the global expansion of the food market, has become a world-scale problem for the global economy. Food frauds have involved oils, milk and meat products, infant formula, honey, juices, spices, etc. New legislation was enacted in the last decade in order to fight EMA. Effective analytical methods for food fraud detection are few and still in development. The majority of the methods in common use today for EMA detection are time consuming and inappropriate for use on the production line or out of the laboratory. The next step in the evolution of analytical techniques to combat food fraud is development of fast, accurate methods applicable using portable or handheld devices. Spectrophotometric and spectroscopic methods combined with chemometric analysis, and perhaps in combination with other rapid physico-chemical techniques, could be the answer. This review discusses some analytical techniques based on spectrophotometry and spectroscopy, which are used to reveal food fraud and EMA.

  10. Motivations for food prohibitions during pregnancy and their enforcement mechanisms in a rural Ghanaian district.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arzoaquoi, Samson K; Essuman, Edward E; Gbagbo, Fred Y; Tenkorang, Eric Y; Soyiri, Ireneous; Laar, Amos K

    2015-07-17

    Food taboos are known from virtually all human societies and pregnant women have often been targeted. We qualitatively assessed food taboos during pregnancy, its motivating factors, and enforcement mechanisms in the Upper Manya Krobo district of Ghana. This was an exploratory cross sectional study using qualitative focus group discussions (FGDs). Sixteen FGDs were conducted. Participants were purposively selected using the maximum variation sampling technique. Tape recorded FGDs were transcribed verbatim and analyzed using Malterudian systematic text condensation technique. All the participants were aware of the existence of food prohibitions and beliefs targeting pregnant women in Upper Manya Krobo. The study identified snails, rats, hot foods, and animal lungs as tabooed during pregnancy. Adherence motivators included expectation of safe and timely delivery, avoidance of "monkey babies" (deformed babies); respect for ancestors, parents, and community elders. Enforcement mechanisms identified included constant reminders by parents, family members and significant others. Stigmatization and community sanctions are deployed sparingly. Food taboos and traditional beliefs targeting pregnant women exist in Upper Manya Krobo. Pregnant women are forbidden from eating snails, rats, snakes, hot foods and animal lungs. To a large extent, socio-cultural, and to a lesser, health concerns motivate the practice.

  11. Stakeholder reactions toward iodine biofortified foods. An application of protection motivation theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Steur, Hans; Mogendi, Joseph Birundu; Wesana, Joshua; Makokha, Anselimo; Gellynck, Xavier

    2015-09-01

    To use Protection Motivation Theory (PMT) to evaluate stakeholders' intention to adopt iodine biofortified foods as an alternative means to improve children's iodine status and overall school performance. A survey was administered with 360 parents of primary school children and 40 school heads. Protection motivation is measured through matching the cognitive processes they use to evaluate iodine deficiency (threat appraisal), as well as iodine biofortified foods to reduce the threat (coping appraisal). Data were analyzed through Robust (Cluster) regression analysis. Gender had a significant effect on coping appraisal for school heads, while age, education, occupation, income, household size and knowledge were significant predictors of threat, coping appraisal and/or protection motivation intention among parents. Nevertheless, in the overall protection motivation model, only two coping factors, namely self-efficacy (parents) and response cost (school heads), influenced the intention to adopt iodine biofortified foods. School feeding programs incorporating iodine biofortification should strive to increase not only consumer knowledge about iodine but also its association to apparent deficiency disorders, boost self-efficacy and ensure that the costs incurred are not perceived as barriers of adoption. The insignificant threat appraisal effects lend support for targeting future communication on biofortification upon the strategies itself, rather than on the targeted micronutrient deficiency. PMT, and coping factors in particular, seem to be valuable in assessing intentions to adopt healthy foods. Nevertheless, research is needed to improve the impacts of threat appraisal factors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, David W

    2007-01-01

    Motivation is short-term focused energy. The oldest theories of motivation explain motivated activity as effort to overcome primary deficiencies, such as hunger or boredom. Such theories are difficult to apply because individuals learn idiosyncratic secondary motives as alternative ways of responding to these needs. Three prominent needs theories are discussed: Herzberg's theory of hygiene and motivational factors; McClelland's needs for achievement, power, and affiliation; and Maslow's hierarchy and theory of self-actualization. A second approach to motivation holds that individuals may be thought of as engaging in rational processes to maximize their self-interests. The presented examples of this approach include Vroom's expectancy theory, Adam's theory of inequality, and the Porter-Lawler model that addresses the question of whether satisfaction leads to high performance or vice versa. Finally, several theories of motivation as life orientation are developed.

  13. Motivation and job satisfaction among medical and nursing staff in a Cyprus public general hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to investigate how medical and nursing staff of the Nicosia General Hospital is affected by specific motivation factors, and the association between job satisfaction and motivation. Furthermore, to determine the motivational drive of socio-demographic and job related factors in terms of improving work performance. Methods A previously developed and validated instrument addressing four work-related motivators (job attributes, remuneration, co-workers and achievements) was used. Two categories of health care professionals, medical doctors and dentists (N = 67) and nurses (N = 219) participated and motivation and job satisfaction was compared across socio-demographic and occupational variables. Results The survey revealed that achievements was ranked first among the four main motivators, followed by remuneration, co-workers and job attributes. The factor remuneration revealed statistically significant differences according to gender, and hospital sector, with female doctors and nurses and accident and emergency (A+E) outpatient doctors reporting greater mean scores (p 55 years of age reported higher job satisfaction when compared to the other groups. Conclusions The results are in agreement with the literature which focuses attention to management approaches employing both monetary and non-monetary incentives to motivate health care professionals. Health care professionals tend to be motivated more by intrinsic factors, implying that this should be a target for effective employee motivation. Strategies based on the survey's results to enhance employee motivation are suggested. PMID:21080954

  14. Motivation and job satisfaction among medical and nursing staff in a Cyprus public general hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kontodimopoulos Nick

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study was to investigate how medical and nursing staff of the Nicosia General Hospital is affected by specific motivation factors, and the association between job satisfaction and motivation. Furthermore, to determine the motivational drive of socio-demographic and job related factors in terms of improving work performance. Methods A previously developed and validated instrument addressing four work-related motivators (job attributes, remuneration, co-workers and achievements was used. Two categories of health care professionals, medical doctors and dentists (N = 67 and nurses (N = 219 participated and motivation and job satisfaction was compared across socio-demographic and occupational variables. Results The survey revealed that achievements was ranked first among the four main motivators, followed by remuneration, co-workers and job attributes. The factor remuneration revealed statistically significant differences according to gender, and hospital sector, with female doctors and nurses and accident and emergency (A+E outpatient doctors reporting greater mean scores (p 55 years of age reported higher job satisfaction when compared to the other groups. Conclusions The results are in agreement with the literature which focuses attention to management approaches employing both monetary and non-monetary incentives to motivate health care professionals. Health care professionals tend to be motivated more by intrinsic factors, implying that this should be a target for effective employee motivation. Strategies based on the survey's results to enhance employee motivation are suggested.

  15. Information processing of genetically modified food messages under different motives: an adaptation of the multiple-motive heuristic-systematic model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jooyoung; Paek, Hye-Jin

    2009-12-01

    Recent risk management research has noted the importance of understanding how the lay public processes and reacts to risk-related information. Guided by the multiple-motive heuristic-systematic model, this study examines (1) how individuals process messages in the context of genetically modified foods to change their attitudes and (2) how the persuasion process varies across types of motives. In the three treatment conditions of accuracy, defense, and impression motives, the respondents changed their attitudes through either the heuristic or the systematic mode, depending on their motives. The accuracy-motive group appeared to use the systematic processing mode, while the impression-motive group seemed to employ the heuristic processing mode. The empirical findings highlight the importance of incorporating motives to improve our understanding of the process of attitude change in risk management and communication contexts.

  16. Food Web Assembly Rules for Generalized Lotka-Volterra Equations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Härter, Jan Olaf Mirko; Mitarai, Namiko; Sneppen, Kim

    2016-01-01

    In food webs, many interacting species coexist despite the restrictions imposed by the competitive exclusion principle and apparent competition. For the generalized Lotka-Volterra equations, sustainable coexistence necessitates nonzero determinant of the interaction matrix. Here we show that this......In food webs, many interacting species coexist despite the restrictions imposed by the competitive exclusion principle and apparent competition. For the generalized Lotka-Volterra equations, sustainable coexistence necessitates nonzero determinant of the interaction matrix. Here we show...

  17. Motivational processing of food cues in anorexia nervosa: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novosel, Anna; Lackner, Nina; Unterrainer, Human-Friedrich; Dunitz-Scheer, Marguerite; Scheer, Peter Jaron Zwi; Wallner-Liebmann, Sandra Johanna; Neuper, Christa

    2014-06-01

    Current literature suggests an increased attentional bias toward food stimuli in eating-disordered individuals compared to healthy controls. In line with these research efforts, the present study aims to investigate the processing of food stimuli (enriched by emotional stimuli) between patients diagnosed for anorexia nervosa (AN) and healthy controls by means of electroencephalography. Twenty-two female adolescents (eleven AN patients vs. eleven healthy controls) were investigated. Positive event-related potentials "P300" and "late positive potential" (LPP) reflecting attentional processing (caused by motivationally relevant stimuli) were investigated during passive viewing of the food cue picture stream. This method was used for the first time in a sample of individuals with AN. As a main result, AN patients exhibited a higher amount of attentional bias in P300 and LPP, while watching food stimuli. Moreover, AN patients rated food stimuli as less pleasant. For a conclusion, there is substantial evidence pointing to an abnormal attentional brain reactivity to food pictures in AN. Therefore, food stimuli seem to be more motivationally relevant for AN patients than for healthy controls. By broadening existing knowledge, these findings might bear some implications for the treatment for AN. However, further research is recommended in order to confirm the results coming from rather limited data.

  18. Comparison of Food Choice Motives between Malay Husbands and Wives in an Urban Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asma, A; Nawalyah, A G; Rokiah, M Y; Mohd Nasir, M T

    2010-04-01

    The main objective of this study was to determine the motives underlying the selection of foods between husbands and wives in an urban community. Thiscross-sectional study was carried out in Bandar Baru Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia among 150 married couples aged 20 and above, who voluntarily agreed to participate and were not on any special diet. Data were collected using the Food Choice Questionnaire (FCQ) which measured the health-related and non health related factor that influence people's food choices. It consisted of 36 items designed to assess the reported importance of nine factors: health, mood, convenience, sensory appeal, natural content, price, weight control, familiarity, and ethical concern. In this study, the FCQ was adapted and a new factor, religion (religious guidelines), was included. Demographic characteristics including age, occupation, education, household income and household size were also collected. Data were analysed using SPSS version 16. Results showed that 40.7% of husbands (mean age= 43.33 + 11.16 years) and 55.3% of wives (mean age= 41.28 + 10.93 years) perceived themselves as the main food shopper while 12.0% of the husbands and 85.3% of the wives perceived themselves as the main meal planner. Husbands rated religion as the most prominent factor in food choice motives with a mean average rating of 4.56 + 0.59 on a 5-point rating scale, followed by health and convenience factor. Meanwhile, the wives rated health as the most essential factor with mean average rating of 4.49 + 0.58, followed by religion and convenience factor. Sensory appeal, ethical concerns and familiarity were rated as the bottom three factors of food choice motives among these two groups. Price of foods was not considered as an important factor in making food choices for the subjects in this study. In conclusion, the husbands and wives of this urban community rated religion, health and convenience as the three most important food choice motives in food selection.

  19. Eating ‘Junk-Food' Produces Rapid and Long-Lasting Increases in NAc CP-AMPA Receptors: Implications for Enhanced Cue-Induced Motivation and Food Addiction

    OpenAIRE

    Oginsky, Max F; Goforth, Paulette B.; Nobile, Cameron W; Lopez-Santiago, Luis F.; Ferrario, Carrie R

    2016-01-01

    Urges to eat are influenced by stimuli in the environment that are associated with food (food cues). Obese people are more sensitive to food cues, reporting stronger craving and consuming larger portions after food cue exposure. The nucleus accumbens (NAc) mediates cue-triggered motivational responses, and activations in the NAc triggered by food cues are stronger in people who are susceptible to obesity. This has led to the idea that alterations in NAc function similar to those underlying dr...

  20. Eating ‘Junk-Food' Produces Rapid and Long-Lasting Increases in NAc CP-AMPA Receptors: Implications for Enhanced Cue-Induced Motivation and Food Addiction

    OpenAIRE

    Oginsky, Max F.; Goforth, Paulette B.; Nobile, Cameron W.; Lopez-Santiago, Luis F.; Ferrario, Carrie R.

    2016-01-01

    Urges to eat are influenced by stimuli in the environment that are associated with food (food cues). Obese people are more sensitive to food cues, reporting stronger craving and consuming larger portions after food cue exposure. The nucleus accumbens (NAc) mediates cue-triggered motivational responses, and activations in the NAc triggered by food cues are stronger in people who are susceptible to obesity. This has led to the idea that alterations in NAc function similar to those underlying dr...

  1. 21 CFR 172.5 - General provisions for direct food additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true General provisions for direct food additives. 172.5... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION General Provisions § 172.5 General provisions for direct food additives....

  2. Consumer buying motives and attitudes towards organic food in two emerging markets: China and Brazil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John; de Barcellos, Marcia Dutra; Perin, Marcelo Gattermann

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Investigate if consumer buying motives regarding organic food in emerging economies China and Brazil are culture bound or determined by key characteristics of the product. Methodology: A survey was collected in Guangzhou, China, and Porto Alegre, Brazil. Data were analyzed by means...... about its healthiness, taste and environmental friendliness. Also, consumer attitudes towards buying organic food are positively related to what Schwartz’s “Universalism” values in all studied cultures. Research limitations: Correlational (survey) data do not allow conclusions about causality...... and conclusions are limited by the covered countries and products. Practical implications: Key consumer value propositions with respect to organic food seem cross-culturally valid and universally accepted by a segment of customers that share these values. Hence, organic food can be mar-keted globally based...

  3. Comparison of motives underlying food choice and barriers to healthy eating among low medium income consumers in Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ares, Gastón; Machín, Leandro; Girona, Alejandra; Curutchet, María Rosa; Giménez, Ana

    2017-05-18

    Interventions aimed at changing dietary patterns should be designed based on the main motives underlying the food choices of specific target populations. The aim of the present study was to identify motives underlying food choice and barriers to healthy eating among consumers in two socioeconomic levels in Uruguay. Eleven focus groups were carried out with a total of 76 participants. Six of the groups involved low income participants and the others were conducted with middle income participants. Discussions were held around frequently consumed products, motives underlying food choices and barriers to healthy eating. Results confirmed the strong influence of income level on motives underlying food choice and barriers to the adoption of healthy eating. Low income participants described their choices as mainly driven by economic factors and satiety, whereas convenience was the main determinant of food selection for middle income participants. Implications for the design of public policies targeted at each group are discussed.

  4. Comparison of motives underlying food choice and barriers to healthy eating among low medium income consumers in Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gastón Ares

    Full Text Available Abstract: Interventions aimed at changing dietary patterns should be designed based on the main motives underlying the food choices of specific target populations. The aim of the present study was to identify motives underlying food choice and barriers to healthy eating among consumers in two socioeconomic levels in Uruguay. Eleven focus groups were carried out with a total of 76 participants. Six of the groups involved low income participants and the others were conducted with middle income participants. Discussions were held around frequently consumed products, motives underlying food choices and barriers to healthy eating. Results confirmed the strong influence of income level on motives underlying food choice and barriers to the adoption of healthy eating. Low income participants described their choices as mainly driven by economic factors and satiety, whereas convenience was the main determinant of food selection for middle income participants. Implications for the design of public policies targeted at each group are discussed.

  5. Regulating food law : risk analysis and the precautionary principle as general principles of EU food law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szajkowska, A.

    2012-01-01

    In food law scientific evidence occupies a central position. This study offers a legal insight into risk analysis and the precautionary principle, positioned in the EU as general principles applicable to all food safety measures, both national and EU. It develops a new method of looking at these

  6. The Motivations of Catering Companies to Deliver Food to Elderly People

    OpenAIRE

    Donkor, Edward

    2012-01-01

    Laurea University of Applied Sciences Abstract Laurea Leppävaara Bachelor’s Degree Programme in Business Management Donkor, Edward The motivations of catering Companies to Deliver Food to Elderly people Year 2012 Pages 48 The fact of the ageing population will affect almost every aspect of the lives of Europeans. For example, there will be changes in the way businesses operate and work is organized and changes in urban planning. Ageing population will also...

  7. Motivations for anti-gravity in general relativity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chardin, G. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Dept. d`Astrophysique, de la Physique des Particules, de la Physique Nucleaire et de l`Instrumentation Associee

    1996-05-01

    Arguments are presented showing that it is natural to interpret the negative mass part of the Kerr solution as representing the geometry experienced by antimatter. The C, P and T discrete transformations are considered for this geometry. The C and T properties of the proposed identification are found to be in agreement with the usual representation of antimatter. In addition, a property of perfect stigmatism through Kerr wormholes which allows general relativity to mimic anti-gravity is conjectured. Kerr wormholes would then act as `super-mirrors` reversing the C, P and T images of an object seen through it. This interpretation is subjected to several experimental tests and able to provide an explanation, without any free parameter, of the `CP`-violation observed in the neutral kaon system. (K.A.). 37 refs.

  8. Sociodemographic Factors Differentiating the Consumer and the Motivations for Functional Food Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Artur; Annunziata, Azzurra; Vecchio, Riccardo

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the (1) role of gender, age, and education in the evaluation of multidimensional criteria of the purchase of functional products, which were (a) quality and organoleptic attributes, (b) attributes of packaging and labeling, (c) healthful properties, (d) functional components, (e) base product (carrier) and (2) most important motives for the purchase and consumption of functional food among consumers of different sociodemographic profiles. The data were collected in direct interviews. The sample (n = 200) consisted of 137 women and 63 men age 18-60 years. The research tool was a questionnaire divided into 4 sections. The first one included quality attributes. The second one included healthful properties, functional components, and carriers. The third one concerned the motives for purchasing functional food and included the consequences and values. In the fourth section the participants were asked about gender, age, and education. Gender, age, and education differentiated the criteria influencing the decision to purchase functional food. Women, older people (35-60 years), and those with university education attach the greatest importance to naturalness, nutritional value, freshness, food safety, and quality guarantee. Clear differences between men and women appear in the field of functional components, which are significantly more important for women than for men. Gender, age, and education essentially differentiate the preferences for base product (carrier). Young men prefer meat products in the role of functional carriers. In turn, women and older men prefer cereal products as basic functional carriers. Young consumers are more open to high-technology food processing. Motivations are differentiated by age and gender. Young men, as opposed to women and older men, attach less importance to functional and psychological consequences: improvement of health, healthy eating, conscious choice, and health promotion. Women and older

  9. Development and application of a database of food ingredient fraud and economically motivated adulteration from 1980 to 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Jeffrey C; Spink, John; Lipp, Markus

    2012-04-01

    Food ingredient fraud and economically motivated adulteration are emerging risks, but a comprehensive compilation of information about known problematic ingredients and detection methods does not currently exist. The objectives of this research were to collect such information from publicly available articles in scholarly journals and general media, organize into a database, and review and analyze the data to identify trends. The results summarized are a database that will be published in the US Pharmacopeial Convention's Food Chemicals Codex, 8th edition, and includes 1305 records, including 1000 records with analytical methods collected from 677 references. Olive oil, milk, honey, and saffron were the most common targets for adulteration reported in scholarly journals, and potentially harmful issues identified include spices diluted with lead chromate and lead tetraoxide, substitution of Chinese star anise with toxic Japanese star anise, and melamine adulteration of high protein content foods. High-performance liquid chromatography and infrared spectroscopy were the most common analytical detection procedures, and chemometrics data analysis was used in a large number of reports. Future expansion of this database will include additional publically available articles published before 1980 and in other languages, as well as data outside the public domain. The authors recommend in-depth analyses of individual incidents. This report describes the development and application of a database of food ingredient fraud issues from publicly available references. The database provides baseline information and data useful to governments, agencies, and individual companies assessing the risks of specific products produced in specific regions as well as products distributed and sold in other regions. In addition, the report describes current analytical technologies for detecting food fraud and identifies trends and developments. © 2012 US Pharmacupia Journal of Food Science

  10. The influence of motivating operations on generalization probes of specific mands by children with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragale, Christina L; O'Reilly, Mark F; Aguilar, Jeannie; Pierce, Nigel; Lang, Russell; Sigafoos, Jeff; Lancioni, Giulio

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the influence of motivating operations on the generalization of newly taught mands across settings and communication partners for 3 children with autism. Two conditions were implemented prior to generalization probes. In the first condition, participants were given access to a preferred item until they rejected the item (i.e., abolishing operation). In the second condition, the item was not available to participants prior to generalization probes (i.e., establishing operation). The effects of these conditions on the generalization of newly taught mands were evaluated in a multielement design. Results indicated differentiated responding during generalization probes in which more manding with the target mand was observed following the presession no-access condition than in the presession access condition. These results support the consideration of motivating operations when assessing generalization of target mands to various untrained contexts.

  11. Economically motivated adulteration (EMA) of food: common characteristics of EMA incidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everstine, Karen; Spink, John; Kennedy, Shaun

    2013-04-01

    Economically motivated adulteration (EMA) of food, also known as food fraud, is the intentional adulteration of food for financial advantage. A common form of EMA, undeclared substitution with alternative ingredients, is usually a health concern because of allergen labeling requirements. As demonstrated by the nearly 300,000 illnesses in China from melamine adulteration of infant formula, EMA also has the potential to result in serious public health consequences. Furthermore, EMA incidents reveal gaps in quality assurance testing methodologies that could be exploited for intentional harm. In contrast to foodborne disease outbreaks, EMA incidents present a particular challenge to the food industry and regulators because they are deliberate acts that are intended to evade detection. Large-scale EMA incidents have been described in the scientific literature, but smaller incidents have been documented only in media sources. We reviewed journal articles and media reports of EMA since 1980. We identified 137 unique incidents in 11 food categories: fish and seafood (24 incidents), dairy products (15), fruit juices (12), oils and fats (12), grain products (11), honey and other natural sweeteners (10), spices and extracts (8), wine and other alcoholic beverages (7), infant formula (5), plant-based proteins (5), and other food products (28). We identified common characteristics among the incidents that may help us better evaluate and reduce the risk of EMA. These characteristics reflect the ways in which existing regulatory systems or testing methodologies were inadequate for detecting EMA and how novel detection methods and other deterrence strategies can be deployed. Prevention and detection of EMA cannot depend on traditional food safety strategies. Comprehensive food protection, as outlined by the Food Safety Modernization Act, will require innovative methods for detecting EMA and for targeting crucial resources toward the riskiest food products.

  12. Food Web Assembly Rules for Generalized Lotka-Volterra Equations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Härter, Jan Olaf Mirko; Mitarai, Namiko; Sneppen, Kim

    2016-01-01

    apparent competition. In agreement with data, the assembly rules predict high species numbers at intermediate levels and thinning at the top and bottom. Using comprehensive food web data, we demonstrate how omnivores or parasites with hosts at multiple trophic levels can loosen the constraints and help......In food webs, many interacting species coexist despite the restrictions imposed by the competitive exclusion principle and apparent competition. For the generalized Lotka-Volterra equations, sustainable coexistence necessitates nonzero determinant of the interaction matrix. Here we show...... that this requirement is equivalent to demanding that each species be part of a non-overlapping pairing, which substantially constrains the food web structure. We demonstrate that a stable food web can always be obtained if a non-overlapping pairing exists. If it does not, the matrix rank can be used to quantify...

  13. Associations between general parenting styles and specific food-related parenting practices and children's food consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vereecken, Carine; Legiest, Erwin; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Maes, Lea

    2009-01-01

    Explore the impact of general parenting style and specific food-related parenting practices on children's dietary habits. Cross-sectional study of sixth graders and their parents. Data were gathered (in 2003) in 69 of 100 randomly selected elementary schools in Belgium. All sixth graders (N = 1957) were invited to participate; 82.4% of their parents gave consent and completed questionnaires, resulting in 1614 parent-child pairs. Children's consumption of breakfast, fruit, vegetables, soft drinks, and sweets was assessed by self-administered food frequency questionnaires. Parents completed questionnaires on sociodemographic characteristics, general parenting styles (authoritarian, authoritative, indulgent, or neglecting) and specific food-related parenting practices (pressure, reward, encouragement through negotiation, catering on children's demands, permissiveness, avoiding negative modeling, and praise). Logistic regression analyses were performed, with general parenting style and specific food-related parenting practices as predictors and dietary habits as dependent variables, controlling for sociodemographic characteristics and children's weight status. General parenting style did not show any significant impact on dietary habits. In contrast, the food-related parenting practice "encouragement through negotiation" showed a significant positive impact, whereas "pressure," "catering on demand," and "permissiveness" were practices with an unhealthy impact. Nutrition education programs that guide parents in firm but not coercive food parenting skills are likely to have a positive impact upon children's dietary habits.

  14. 21 CFR 170.20 - General principles for evaluating the safety of food additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... food additives. 170.20 Section 170.20 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES Food Additive Safety § 170.20 General principles for evaluating the safety of food additives. (a) In reaching...

  15. 76 FR 59247 - Environmental Impact Considerations, Food Additives, and Generally Recognized As Safe Substances...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-26

    ... Environmental Impact Considerations, Food Additives, and Generally Recognized As Safe Substances; Technical... considerations, food additives, and generally recognized as safe (GRAS) substances to correct minor errors in the... affecting certain regulations regarding environmental impact considerations (part 25), food additives...

  16. Food Web Assembly Rules for Generalized Lotka-Volterra Equations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan O Haerter

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In food webs, many interacting species coexist despite the restrictions imposed by the competitive exclusion principle and apparent competition. For the generalized Lotka-Volterra equations, sustainable coexistence necessitates nonzero determinant of the interaction matrix. Here we show that this requirement is equivalent to demanding that each species be part of a non-overlapping pairing, which substantially constrains the food web structure. We demonstrate that a stable food web can always be obtained if a non-overlapping pairing exists. If it does not, the matrix rank can be used to quantify the lack of niches, corresponding to unpaired species. For the species richness at each trophic level, we derive the food web assembly rules, which specify sustainable combinations. In neighboring levels, these rules allow the higher level to avert competitive exclusion at the lower, thereby incorporating apparent competition. In agreement with data, the assembly rules predict high species numbers at intermediate levels and thinning at the top and bottom. Using comprehensive food web data, we demonstrate how omnivores or parasites with hosts at multiple trophic levels can loosen the constraints and help obtain coexistence in food webs. Hence, omnivory may be the glue that keeps communities intact even under extinction or ecological release of species.

  17. Food Web Assembly Rules for Generalized Lotka-Volterra Equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haerter, Jan O; Mitarai, Namiko; Sneppen, Kim

    2016-02-01

    In food webs, many interacting species coexist despite the restrictions imposed by the competitive exclusion principle and apparent competition. For the generalized Lotka-Volterra equations, sustainable coexistence necessitates nonzero determinant of the interaction matrix. Here we show that this requirement is equivalent to demanding that each species be part of a non-overlapping pairing, which substantially constrains the food web structure. We demonstrate that a stable food web can always be obtained if a non-overlapping pairing exists. If it does not, the matrix rank can be used to quantify the lack of niches, corresponding to unpaired species. For the species richness at each trophic level, we derive the food web assembly rules, which specify sustainable combinations. In neighboring levels, these rules allow the higher level to avert competitive exclusion at the lower, thereby incorporating apparent competition. In agreement with data, the assembly rules predict high species numbers at intermediate levels and thinning at the top and bottom. Using comprehensive food web data, we demonstrate how omnivores or parasites with hosts at multiple trophic levels can loosen the constraints and help obtain coexistence in food webs. Hence, omnivory may be the glue that keeps communities intact even under extinction or ecological release of species.

  18. Motivational interviewing in general dental practice: A review of the evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, E J; Vascott, D; Hocking, A; Nield, H

    2016-12-16

    Objectives The objective of this study was to systematically review the evidence regarding the use of motivational interviewing in the context of general dental practice, in order that practitioners can decide whether it might be an important skill to develop within their practices.Data sources The results reported in this study form part of a larger systematic review which sought to identify whether oral health promotion within dental practice is effective and how its effects can be optimised. Here, we focus on the papers describing motivational interviewing in dental practice published since 1994. The systematic review included searches of 20 online resources (including Ovid Medline and Embase).Data selection Papers which were not about oral health promotion and did not apply the behavioural and psychological theories, which underpin motivational interviewing, were excluded.Data synthesis This review included eight papers all of which were considered to be of robust quality, in terms of their research methods and seven of which were considered to offer externally valid findings. Five described randomised controlled trials and all of these RCTs demonstrated that interventions including motivational interviewing had a positive effect on oral health and health behaviour.Conclusions This review shows that the motivational interviewing technique, which is based on the concept of autonomy support, has potential for helping patients with poor oral health. Training in motivational interviewing for dental personnel could be a very useful addition to the skill set of practitioners and dental teams.

  19. Understanding consumer motivations for interacting in online food communities – potential for innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Lina; Sørensen, Bjarne Taulo; Tudoran, Ana Alina

    This study contributes to the understanding of online user communities as a potential source of innovation. That would require an interest from users in interacting in such communities. In order to establish interaction, users must provide as well as consume information. However, depending...... on the innovation task, one may be more important than the other. It is therefore important to understand, how companies can increase user willingness to engage in these different interaction forms. This study investigates the influence of various motivation factors and user interests on intention to provide...... or consume information in online food communities. A survey was conducted among 1009 respondents followed by analysis based on Structural Equation Modelling. Results revealed the effect of motivation factors to be stronger than basic consumer interests indicating that companies can influence the intended...

  20. Motives underlying food consumption in the Western Balkans: consumers' profiles and public health strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardon, Julie; Thiel, Elise; Laniau, Martine; Sijtsema, Siet; Zimmermann, Karin; Barjolle, Dominique

    2015-07-01

    This study aims to identify subgroups of consumers based on the health motives underlying their food choice in Western Balkan Countries. The survey (n = 2943) was based on the Food Choice Questionnaire (FCQ) and elicited information on socio-demographic characteristics, consumption frequency of healthy food products, nutrition knowledge and impulsiveness. Analysis of the FCQ data focused on items of "health and natural content" and "weight control" factors to identify clusters. The biggest group of the sample was weight control and health-concerned individuals (34 %), mainly urban women older than 50. The second group of respondents (31 %) was moderately motivated about health and weight. A third group was health concerned but paid less attention to weight control (21 %), mainly comprising men and people living with children. The last group consisted of unconcerned young men (14 %) eating less fruit and showing higher impulsiveness. Western Balkan consumers differ in the importance they attach to health and natural content and weight control. This insight is needed to target interventions.

  1. Motives and preferences of general practitioners for new collaboration models with medical specialists : a qualitative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berendsen, Annette J.; Benneker, Wim H. G. M.; Jong, Betty Meyboom-de; Klazinga, Niek S.; Schuling, Jan

    2007-01-01

    Background: Collaboration between general practitioners (GPs) and specialists has been the focus of many collaborative care projects during the past decade. Unfortunately, quite a number of these projects failed. This raises the question of what motivates GPs to initiate and continue participating w

  2. Predicting intentions to consume functional foods and supplements to offset memory loss using an adaptation of protection motivation theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cox, D.N.; Koster, A.; Russell, C.G.

    2004-01-01

    The widespread use of dietary supplements and so-called `functional foods¿ is thought to be partially motivated by self-control of health. However, whilst consumers want foods associated with well-being or disease prevention, they are unlikely to be willing to compromise on taste or technology. This

  3. Predicting intentions to consume functional foods and supplements to offset memory loss using an adaptation of protection motivation theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cox, D.N.; Koster, A.; Russell, C.G.

    2004-01-01

    The widespread use of dietary supplements and so-called `functional foods¿ is thought to be partially motivated by self-control of health. However, whilst consumers want foods associated with well-being or disease prevention, they are unlikely to be willing to compromise on taste or technology. This

  4. Cross-Cultural Differences in Taste Thresholds and Food Choice Motives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dehlholm, Christian

    2007-01-01

    Psychophysical, physiological and behavioural aspects of taste perception and food choice were examined cross-culturally between Chinese people living in China (n=25), Chinese people living in Denmark (n=16) and Danish people living in Denmark (n=28). Groups were subdivided by males (n=26...... were found on average in each group with a mean diameter at 0.66mm for the Chinese and 0.72mm for the Danish. A questionnaire including general demographic questions, food frequency questions and the Food Choice Questionnaire (Steptoe et al., 1995) were completed by all subjects (n=69). The Danish...... subjects had a higher intake of sweets, tea and coffee and Chinese subject living in China had a higher intake of spicy food. All subject groups rated Sensory Appeal, Health and Price as very important food choice factors while dissimilarities between the groups were shown in rating the factors Mood...

  5. 21 CFR 174.5 - General provisions applicable to indirect food additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... additives. 174.5 Section 174.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: GENERAL § 174.5 General provisions applicable to indirect food additives. (a) Regulations prescribing conditions...

  6. 75 FR 30844 - General Mills, Inc.; Withdrawal of Food Additive Petition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-02

    ....; Withdrawal of Food Additive Petition AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The..., of a food additive petition (FAP 7M4770) proposing that the food additive regulations be amended to... food additive petition (FAP 7M4770) had been filed by General Mills, Inc., One General Mills...

  7. 21 CFR 570.20 - General principles for evaluating the safety of food additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... food additives. 570.20 Section 570.20 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES Food Additive Safety § 570.20 General principles for evaluating the safety of food additives. (a) In reaching...

  8. [Evoked activity of the cat hypothalamus and amygdala under food motivation and in emotional stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlova, I V; Vanetsian, G L

    2004-12-01

    Amplitude-latency characteristics of auditory evoked potentials (EPs) recorded in bilateral points of the lateral hypothalamus and amygdala were studied under food motivation, in emotional stress (presentation of dogs) and tentative reactions. In the state of hunger, as compared with safety, the latencies of P1, N2 components of EP in hypothalamus, and P1, N2, N3 in amygdala were decreased and their amplitudes were changed. Changes in the left side of both structures were more pronounced. During presentation of dogs, decreases of latencies of all EP components including N1 occurred in hypothalamus and amygdala, changes in hypothalamic potentials were more pronounced on the right side, whereas in the amygdala--on the left side. During tentative responses to emotional-neutral stimuli, the latency of EP increased. It was concluded that sensory reactivity of hypothalamus and amygdala increased in motivational-emotional states. It was supposed that the side of dominance of structure may be related both to the factors of active or passive behavior during fear and the genesis of emotion (motivational or informational).

  9. Food Choice Motives When Purchasing in Organic and Conventional Consumer Clusters: Focus on Sustainable Concerns (The NutriNet-Santé Cohort Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudry, Julia; Péneau, Sandrine; Allès, Benjamin; Touvier, Mathilde; Hercberg, Serge; Galan, Pilar; Amiot, Marie-Josèphe; Lairon, Denis; Méjean, Caroline; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle

    2017-01-24

    The purpose of this study was to examine food choice motives associated with various organic and conventional dietary patterns among 22,366 participants of the NutriNet-Santé study. Dietary intakes were estimated using a food frequency questionnaire. Food choice motives were assessed using a validated 63-item-questionnaire gathered into nine food choice motive dimension scores: "absence of contaminants", "avoidance for environmental reasons", "ethics and environment", "taste", "innovation", "local and traditional production", "price", "health" and "convenience". Five consumers' clusters were identified: "standard conventional food small eaters", "unhealthy conventional food big eaters", "standard organic food small eaters", "green organic food eaters" and "hedonist moderate organic food eaters". Relationships between food choice motive dimension scores and consumers' clusters were assessed using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) models adjusted for sociodemographic factors. "Green organic food eaters" had the highest mean score for the "health" dimension, while "unhealthy conventional food big eaters" obtained the lowest mean score for the "absence of contaminants" dimension. "Standard organic food small eaters", "green organic food eaters" and "hedonist moderate organic food eaters" had comparable scores for the "taste" dimension. "Unhealthy conventional food big eaters" had the highest mean score for the "price" dimension while "green organic food eaters" had the lowest mean scores for the "innovation" and "convenience" dimensions. These results provide new insights into the food choice motives of diverse consumers' profiles including "green" and "hedonist" eaters.

  10. From adolescent to elder rats: Motivation for palatable food and cannabinoids receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Octavio, Amancio-Belmont; Antonio, Romano-López; Alejandra Evelin, Ruiz-Contreras; Mónica, Méndez-Díaz; Oscar, Prospéro-García

    2016-12-09

    To analyze motivation, food self-administration and decision-making were evaluated in adolescent, adult, and aged rats. Subjects were trained to press a lever (fixed ratio, FR1 and FR5) in an operant chamber, to obtain chocolate flavor pellets. They assessed the progressive ratio (PR), extinction, and reinstatement of the behavior. To estimate decision-making for food, rats were trained in the conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm: (a) associating one compartment with lab chow (LCh) one day and the other compartment with rice krisspies (RK), the next day. (b) Training similar to (a) but on the day RK was the reinforcer, it was delivered with a progressive delay. In addition, CB1 and CB2 receptor expression in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) and prefrontal cortex (PFC) was estimated by means of Western blot. Adolescent rats consumed higher amounts of RK/body weight than adult and aged rats during FR1, FR5, and PR. Extinction was more prolonged for adolescent rats than for adult and aged rats. First CPP condition, all three groups of rats preferred the RK-associated compartment. Second CPP condition, adolescent rats developed equal preference to both compartments, while adult and aged rats preferred the RK-associated compartment. Rats per group ate a similar amount of either reinforcer. Adolescent rats exhibited low expression of CB1R in the NAcc and low expression of both CB1R and CB2R in the PFC compared with adult and aged rats. Adolescent rats display higher motivation for palatable food and an indiscriminate seeking behavior suggesting involvement of both homeostatic and hedonic systems in their decision-making processes. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol, 2017.

  11. The Effect of Depo Medroxyprogesterone Acetate (DMPA) on Cerebral Food Motivation Centers: A Pilot Study using Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Tania; Bao, Pinglei; Lerner, Alexander; Anderson, Lindsey; Page, Kathleen; Stanczyk, Frank; Mishell, Daniel; Segall-Gutierrez, Penina

    2016-10-01

    The primary objective is to examine activation of food motivation centers in the brain before and 8 weeks after depo medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) administration. This prospective experimental pilot study examined the effects of DMPA on food motivation centers utilizing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in eight nonobese, ovulatory subjects. fMRI blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signal was measured using a 3-Tesla Scanner while participants viewed images of high-calorie foods, low-calorie foods and nonfood objects. fMRI scans were performed at baseline and 8 weeks after participants received one intramuscular dose of DMPA 150 mg. fMRI data were analyzed using the FMRIB Software Library. Changes in adiposity and circulating leptin and ghrelin levels were also measured. There was a greater BOLD signal response to food cues in brain regions associated with food motivation (anterior cingulate gyrus, orbitofrontal cortex) 8 weeks after DMPA administration compared to baseline (z>2.3, pfood motivation may guide the development of interventions to prevent weight gain in DMPA users. These data support a neural origin as one of the mechanisms underlying weight gain in DMPA users and may guide future research examining weight gain and contraception. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Making healthy food choices using nutrition facts panels. The roles of knowledge, motivation, dietary modifications goals, and age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Lisa M Soederberg; Cassady, Diana L

    2012-08-01

    Nutrition facts panels (NFPs) contain a rich assortment of nutrition information and are available on most food packages. The importance of this information is potentially even greater among older adults due to their increased risk for diet-related diseases, as well as those with goals for dietary modifications that may impact food choice. Despite past work suggesting that knowledge and motivation impact attitudes surrounding and self-reported use of NFPs, we know little about how (i.e., strategies used) and how well (i.e., level of accuracy) younger and older individuals process NFP information when evaluating healthful qualities of foods. We manipulated the content of NFPs and, using eye tracking methodology, examined strategies associated with deciding which of two NFPs, presented side-by-side, was healthier. We examined associations among strategy use and accuracy as well as age, dietary modification status, knowledge, and motivation. Results showed that, across age groups, those with dietary modification goals made relatively more comparisons between NFPs with increasing knowledge and motivation; but that strategy effectiveness (relationship to accuracy) depended on age and motivation. Results also showed that knowledge and motivation may protect against declines in accuracy in later life and that, across age and dietary modification status, knowledge mediates the relationship between motivation and decision accuracy.

  13. Theories on motivation and their implications for supporting communication, learning and decisionmaking in relation to organic food systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Læssøe, Jeppe; Ljungdahl, Anders; Kastberg, Peter

    Efforts to promote communication, learning, decision making and change of individual and/or collective practices in relation to sustainability issues require more or less explicit theories on agents and what motivate them to act. The aim of this paper is to open for an interdisciplinary discussion...... on how different approaches to motivation make sense or not when focusing on how to develop tools aiming at supporting communica¬tion, learning and decision-making related to organic food systems. We present four quite different approaches to motivation – an economic, an approach challenging conventional...... understandings of motivational change, a psychosocial, and a relational – and open for a discussion on how these approaches relate to each other and whether it is possible to apply and distinguish between different ways of using the concept of motivation when we cross disciplinary borders in order to cooperate...

  14. Theories on motivation and their implications for supporting communication, learning and decisionmaking in relation to organic food systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Læssøe, Jeppe; Ljungdahl, Anders; Kastberg, Peter

    Efforts to promote communication, learning, decision making and change of individual and/or collective practices in relation to sustainability issues require more or less explicit theories on agents and what motivate them to act. The aim of this paper is to open for an interdisciplinary discussion...... on how different approaches to motivation make sense or not when focusing on how to develop tools aiming at supporting communica¬tion, learning and decision-making related to organic food systems. We present four quite different approaches to motivation – an economic, an approach challenging conventional...

  15. Theories on motivation and their implications for supporting communication, learning and decisionmaking in relation to organic food systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Læssøe, Jeppe; Ljungdalh, Anders Kruse; Kastberg, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Efforts to promote communication, learning, decision making and change of individual and/or collective practices in relation to sustainability issues require more or less explicit theories on agents and what motivate them to act. The aim of this paper is to open for an interdisciplinary discussion...... on how different approaches to motivation make sense or not when focusing on how to develop tools aiming at supporting communica¬tion, learning and decision-making related to organic food systems. We present four quite different approaches to motivation – an economic, an approach challenging conventional...

  16. [Assessing various aspects of the motivation to eat that can affect food intake and body weight control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellisle, F

    2009-04-01

    Over the last 30 years, several questionnaires have been developed and validated in order to assess many aspects of the motivation to eat that might be susceptible to impair adequate food intake and body weight control. A few of such questionnaires are described here, in particular, the "Three Factor Eating Questionnaire" also called the "Eating Inventory", and the "Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire". Critical aspects of the motivation to eat assessed by these tools are presented, such as dietary restraint, disinhibition, hunger, vulnerability to eat in response to external cues or emotional states, etc. These questionnaires were developed for use in the general population with the aim to identify critical aspects of the motivation to eat that might predispose to weight gain. They have been widely used in many countries and have allowed an improved understanding of the individual characteristics that predispose to body weight gain or resistance to weight loss. Originally, poor body weight control was attributed to a high level of dietary "restraint", or in other words, the tendency to deliberately restrict one's food intake for body weight control purposes. Such dietary restraint was suspected to lead to a number of physical and psychological difficulties, among which poor self-esteem and a paradoxical tendency to gain weight, resulting from the incapacity to maintain strict restraint over time. More recent studies have established that a motivational trait called "Disinhibition" is a strong predictor of body weight gain over time and of poor outcome of dieting. "Disinhibition" corresponds to a tendency to lose control over one's eating behavior and ingest excessively large quantities of food substances, in response to a variety of cues and circumstances. In addition to its untoward effect on weight, disinhibition also predicts various risk factors and pathologies, such as hypertension and diabetes. Other potentially critical dimensions for adequate body weight

  17. Food and general neophobia in Swedish families: parent-child comparisons and relationships with serving specific foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koivisto, U K; Sjödén, P O

    1996-04-01

    The aims were to investigate the occurrence of food and general neophobia in Swedish families with children 2-17 years of age, parent-child correlations with respect to neophobia and the relationships between neophobia and the reported serving of specific foods in the family. A group of 370 randomly selected families from two Swedish towns (stratified, 185 from each) were invited and 57 (15%) participated. The results are based on the Food and General Neophobia Scales (Pliner & Hobden, 1992), parental ratings of child food neophobia and an ad hoc Food Frequency Questionnaire. The overall levels of neophobia were relatively low for both children and parents. There were only a few significant gender differences with respect to Food Neophobia but fathers and boys scored numerically higher than did mothers and girls on several items in the Food Neophobia Scale. The children, particularly boys, showed significantly higher Food and General Neophobia than their parents. Both Food and General Neophobia tended to decrease with increasing age among the children. Families were divided according to whether specific foods had been served or not. This classification showed virtually no relationship with the degree of food neophobia of family members. However, the higher the food neophobia in mothers and children, the fewer of the listed uncommon foods had been served in the family.

  18. Work motivation, task delegation and job satisfaction of general practice staff: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riisgaard, Helle; Søndergaard, Jens; Munch, Maria; Le, Jette V; Ledderer, Loni; Pedersen, Line B; Nexøe, Jørgen

    2017-04-01

    Recent research has shown that a high degree of task delegation is associated with the practise staff's overall job satisfaction, and this association is important to explore since job satisfaction is related to medical as well as patient-perceived quality of care. This study aimed: (1) to investigate associations between degrees of task delegation in the management of chronic disease in general practice, with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) as a case and the staff's work motivation, (2) to investigate associations between the work motivation of the staff and their job satisfaction. The study was based on a questionnaire to which 621 members of the practice staff responded. The questionnaire consisted of a part concerning degree of task delegation in the management of COPD in their respective practice and another part being about their job satisfaction and motivation to work. In the first analysis, we found that 'maximal degree' of task delegation was significantly associated with the staff perceiving themselves to have a large degree of variation in tasks, odds ratio (OR) = 4.26, confidence interval (CI) = 1.09, 16.62. In the second analysis, we found that this perceived large degree of variation in tasks was significantly associated with their overall job satisfaction, OR = 2.81, confidence interval = 1.71, 4.61. The results suggest that general practitioners could delegate highly complex tasks in the management of COPD to their staff without influencing the staff's work motivation, and thereby their job satisfaction, negatively, as long as they ensure sufficient variation in the tasks.

  19. Examining the reciprocal relation between academic motivation and substance use: effects of family relationships, self-esteem, and general deviance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, J A; Duncan, S C

    1997-12-01

    The present study examined the reciprocal relation between academic motivation and cigarette, alcohol, and marijuana use across four annual assessments during adolescence. Data were obtained from 435 adolescents, 13 to 17 years of age at the first assessment, and their mothers. The results of generalized estimating equations (GEE) analysis suggested inverse reciprocal relations across time between academic motivation and both cigarette and marijuana use. Reciprocal relations between academic motivation and alcohol use were not found, possibly due to the normative use of this substance. The examination of mediational mechanisms, including general deviance, self-esteem and family relationships, suggested that the relation between marijuana use and, for younger adolescents, cigarette use and academic motivation is not direct but is indirect, mediated through the general deviance of the adolescent. Deviance, self-esteem, and, for the youngest adolescents, family relationships mediated the relation between academic motivation and subsequent marijuana use.

  20. Increased hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal drive is associated with decreased appetite and hypoactivation of food motivation neurocircuitry in anorexia nervosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Elizabeth A.; Holsen, Laura M.; DeSanti, Rebecca; Santin, McKale; Meenaghan, Erinne; Herzog, David B.; Goldstein, Jill M.; Klibanski, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Objective Corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH)-mediated hypercortisolemia has been demonstrated in anorexia nervosa (anorexia), a psychiatric disorder characterized by food restriction despite low body weight. While CRH is anorexigenic, downstream cortisol stimulates hunger. Using a food-related fMRI paradigm, we have demonstrated hypoactivation of brain regions involved in food motivation in women with anorexia, even after weight-recovery. The relationship between hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis dysregulation and appetite, and the association with food motivation neurocircuitry hypoactivation is unknown in anorexia. We investigated the relationship between HPA activity, appetite and food motivation neurocircuitry hypoactivation in anorexia. Design Cross-sectional study of 36 women [13 anorexia (AN), 10 weight-recovered AN (ANWR), 13 healthy controls (HC)]. Methods Peripheral cortisol and ACTH levels were measured fasting and 30, 60, and 120min after a standardized mixed meal. The Visual Analogue Scale was used to assess homeostatic and hedonic appetite. fMRI was performed during visual processing of food and non-food stimuli to measure brain activation pre- and post-meal. Results In each group, serum cortisol levels decreased following the meal. Mean fasting, 120min post-meal, and nadir cortisol levels were high in AN vs. HC. Mean postprandial ACTH levels were high in ANWR compared to HC and AN. Cortisol levels were associated with lower fasting homeostatic and hedonic appetite, independent of BMI and depressive symptoms. Cortisol levels were also associated with between-group variance in activation in food-motivation brain regions (e.g., hypothalamus, amygdala, hippocampus, OFC and insula). Conclusions HPA activation may contribute to the maintenance of anorexia by suppression of appetitive drive. PMID:23946275

  1. Motives underlying healthy eating: using the Food Choice Questionnaire to explain variation in dietary intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, T M; Steptoe, A; Wardle, J

    1998-04-01

    The Food Choice Questionnaire (FCQ), which measures the reported importance to a given individual of nine factors underlying food choice, and a food frequency questionnaire, were administered to 241 participants, who were also required to classify their diet as either 'standard', 'low in red meat' or 'vegetarian'. Respondents describing their diet as low in red meat attributed greater importance to health, natural content, weight control and ethical concern in their food choice than did those who described their diets as standard, whereas vegetarians differed significantly from those with a standard diet only on the score for ethical concern. Differences between men and women and between students and non-students in the frequency of consumption of a number of foods were shown to be mediated by differences in the importance attached to FCQ factors. Thus the generally healthier diets of women compared to men appeared to be accounted for by the greater importance attributed by women to weight control, natural content and ethical concerns.

  2. Cognitive-motivational determinants of fat food consumption in overweight and obese youngsters: the implicit association between fat food and arousal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craeynest, Mietje; Crombez, Geert; Koster, Ernst H W; Haerens, Leen; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse

    2008-09-01

    Cognitive-motivational accounts of fat food intake propose an association between fat food and action dispositions, which are according to the biphasic emotion theory of Lang [(1995). The emotion probe. Studies of motivation and attention. American Psychologist, 50, 372-385; Lang, P.J., Bradley, M.M., & Cuthbert, M.M. (1997). Motivated attention: Affect, activation and action. In P.J. Lang, R.F. Simons & M.T. Balaban (Eds.). Attention and orienting: Sensory and motivational processes (pp. 97-134). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.] characterized by high levels of arousal. In two experiments, this association was investigated in lean and overweight youngsters. In the first experiment, 29 overweight and 29 lean youngsters conducted two Implicit Association Tasks (IAT; Greenwald, A.G., McGhee, D.E., & Schwartz, J.L. (1998). Measuring individual differences in implicit cognition: The implicit association test. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74, 1464-1480.). In a positive arousal IAT, implicit associations between fat vs. lean food, and high and low arousal words with a positive valence were assessed. In a negative arousal IAT, high and low arousal words with a negative valence were used. A second experiment was conducted to replicate Experiment 1 in 29 youngsters with severe obesity and 29 lean peers. The results revealed strong implicit associations between fat food and arousal in both the overweight and the control group. No differences were found between the groups, nor between the positive and the negative arousal task. These results are related to cognitive-motivational theories of fat food intake.

  3. Examination of Food Choice Motives: The Influence of an Innovative, Interdisciplinary Learning Community Related to Environmental Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billingsley, Kelly J.

    2014-01-01

    What and how much an individual eats largely defines his/her health. The most used dietary intervention models target individuals' concern for personal health, thereby undermining the interdisciplinary trajectory of the nutrition field. The purpose of this study was to compare the food choice motives of students enrolled in an interdisciplinary…

  4. Examination of Food Choice Motives: The Influence of an Innovative, Interdisciplinary Learning Community Related to Environmental Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billingsley, Kelly J.

    2014-01-01

    What and how much an individual eats largely defines his/her health. The most used dietary intervention models target individuals' concern for personal health, thereby undermining the interdisciplinary trajectory of the nutrition field. The purpose of this study was to compare the food choice motives of students enrolled in an interdisciplinary…

  5. Food choice motives including sustainability during purchasing are associated with a healthy dietary pattern in French adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allès, B; Péneau, S; Kesse-Guyot, E; Baudry, J; Hercberg, S; Méjean, C

    2017-09-18

    Sustainability has become a greater concern among consumers that may influence their dietary intake. Only a few studies investigated the relationship between sustainable food choice motives and diet and they focused on specific food groups. This cross-sectional study aimed to assess the associations between food choice motives during purchasing, with a focus on sustainability, and dietary patterns in a large sample of French adults. Food choice motives were collected in 31,842 adults from the NutriNet-Santé study, using a validated 63 items questionnaire gathered into 9 dimension scores: ethics and environment, traditional and local production, taste, price, environmental limitation (i.e. not buying a food for environmental concerns), health, convenience, innovation and absence of contaminants. Dietary intake was assessed using at least three web-based 24-h food records. Three dietary patterns were obtained through factor analysis using principal component analysis. The associations between food choice motive dimension scores and dietary patterns were assessed using linear regression models, stratifying by sex. Individuals were more likely to have a "healthy diet" when they were more concerned by not buying a food for environmental concerns (only for 3(rd) tertile versus 1(st) tertile βwomen=0.18, 95% CI=0.15-0.20, βmen=0.20 95% CI=(0.15-0.25)), ethics and environment (women only, β=0.05, 95% CI=0.02-0.08), absence of contaminants (women only, β=0.05, 95% CI=0.01-0.07), local production (women only, β=0.08, 95% CI=0.04-0.11), health (women only) and innovation (men only), and when they were less concerned by price. Individuals were also less likely to have traditional or western diets when they gave importance to food choice motive dimensions related to sustainability. Individuals, especially women, having higher concerns about food sustainability dimensions such as ethics and environment and local production, appear to have a healthier diet. Further

  6. Exploring the motives and mental health correlates of intentional food restriction prior to alcohol use in university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roosen, Kaley M; Mills, Jennifer S

    2015-06-01

    This study explored the prevalence of and motivations behind 'drunkorexia' – restricting food intake prior to drinking alcohol. For both male and female university students (N = 3409), intentionally changing eating behaviour prior to drinking alcohol was common practice (46%). Analyses performed on a targeted sample of women (n = 226) revealed that food restriction prior to alcohol use was associated with greater symptomology than eating more food. Those who restrict eating prior to drinking to avoid weight gain scored higher on measures of disordered eating, whereas those who restrict to get intoxicated faster scored higher on measures of alcohol abuse.

  7. Self-determined motivation in physical education and its links to motivation for leisure-time physical activity, physical activity, and well-being in general.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagøien, Tor Egil; Halvari, Hallgeir; Nesheim, Hallgeir

    2010-10-01

    The present study tested a trans-contextual model based on self-determination theory of the relations between motivation in physical education, motivation in leisure-time physical activity, physical activity, and psychological well-being. Participants were 329 Norwegian upper secondary school students (M age = 16.5 yr., SD = 0.7). Students' perceptions of autonomy-supportive teachers in physical education were expected to be positively associated with students' psychological needs satisfaction in physical education, which was expected to be positively related to autonomous motivation for physical education participation. In turn, autonomous motivation for physical education was expected to be positively associated with perceived competence and autonomous motivation for leisure-time physical activity, which both were expected to be positively associated with leisure-time physical activity and psychological well-being in general. Structural equation models and bootstrapping supported the hypotheses and the indirect links between variables. Sex differences indicate that more research is needed on how to motivate girls to be more physically active in leisure time.

  8. Motives for eating tasty foods associated with binge-eating. Results from a student and a weight-loss seeking population☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boggiano, M.M.; Burgess, E.E.; Turan, B.; Soleymani, T.; Daniel, S.; Vinson, L.D.; Lokken, K.L.; Wingo, B.C.; Morse, A.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to use the Palatable Eating Motives Scale (PEMS) to determine if and what motives for eating tasty foods (e.g., junk food, fast food, and desserts) are associated with binge-eating in two diverse populations. BMI and scores on the PEMS, Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS), and Binge-eating Scale (BES) were obtained from 247 undergraduates at the University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB) and 249 weight-loss seeking patients at the UAB EatRight program. Regression analyses revealed that eating tasty foods to forget worries and problems and help alleviate negative feelings (i.e., the 4-item Coping motive) was associated with binge-eating independently of any variance in BES scores due to sex, age, ethnicity, BMI, other PEMS motives, and YFAS scores in both students (R2 = .57) and patients (R2 = .55). Coping also was associated with higher BMI in students (p binge-eating. For this younger sample with a greater range of BES scores, eating for these motives, but not for Social ones, may indicate early maladaptive eating habits that could later develop into disorders characterized by binge-eating if predisposing factors are present. Thus, identifying one’s tasty food motive or motives can potentially be used to thwart the development of BED and obesity, especially if the motive is Coping. Identifying one’s PEMS motives should also help personalize conventional treatments for binge-eating and obesity toward improved outcomes. PMID:25169880

  9. Assessment of Antioxidant Capacities in Foods: A Research Experience for General Chemistry Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoch, Matthew A.; Russell, Cianan B.; Steffen, Debora M.; Weaver, Gabriela C.; Burgess, John R.

    2009-01-01

    With the booming interest in health food and nutrition, investigations of the antioxidant capacities of various foods have come to the forefront of food science. This general chemistry laboratory curriculum provides students with an opportunity to design and implement their own experiments relating to antioxidants in food. The curriculum is six…

  10. Assessment of Antioxidant Capacities in Foods: A Research Experience for General Chemistry Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoch, Matthew A.; Russell, Cianan B.; Steffen, Debora M.; Weaver, Gabriela C.; Burgess, John R.

    2009-01-01

    With the booming interest in health food and nutrition, investigations of the antioxidant capacities of various foods have come to the forefront of food science. This general chemistry laboratory curriculum provides students with an opportunity to design and implement their own experiments relating to antioxidants in food. The curriculum is six…

  11. Perceptions of teachers' general and informational feedback and intrinsic motivation in physical education: two-year effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koka, Andre; Hein, Vello

    2006-10-01

    Relative change or stability of perceived positive general feedback and perceived informational feedback and their influence on students' intrinsic motivation in physical education over two years were examined. 302 students, ages 11 to 15 years, responded to the Perception of Teacher's Feedback questionnaire. Two years later, these students filled out the questionnaire again, along with a modified version of the Sport Motivation Scale. Analysis showed that both types of perceived feedback exhibited moderate stability over the two years. Perceived positive general feedback demonstrated a significant direct effect on students' intrinsic motivation measured concurrently in physical education. Further, fixing to zero the effect of perceived positive general feedback on intrinsic motivation measured concurrently, an effect emerged over the two years.

  12. Food Choice Motives When Purchasing in Organic and Conventional Consumer Clusters: Focus on Sustainable Concerns (The NutriNet-Santé Cohort Study)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudry, Julia; Péneau, Sandrine; Allès, Benjamin; Touvier, Mathilde; Hercberg, Serge; Galan, Pilar; Amiot, Marie-Josèphe; Lairon, Denis; Méjean, Caroline; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine food choice motives associated with various organic and conventional dietary patterns among 22,366 participants of the NutriNet-Santé study. Dietary intakes were estimated using a food frequency questionnaire. Food choice motives were assessed using a validated 63-item-questionnaire gathered into nine food choice motive dimension scores: “absence of contaminants”, “avoidance for environmental reasons”, “ethics and environment”, “taste”, “innovation”, “local and traditional production”, “price”, “health” and “convenience”. Five consumers’ clusters were identified: “standard conventional food small eaters”, “unhealthy conventional food big eaters”, “standard organic food small eaters”, “green organic food eaters” and “hedonist moderate organic food eaters”. Relationships between food choice motive dimension scores and consumers’ clusters were assessed using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) models adjusted for sociodemographic factors. “Green organic food eaters” had the highest mean score for the “health” dimension, while “unhealthy conventional food big eaters” obtained the lowest mean score for the “absence of contaminants” dimension. “Standard organic food small eaters”, “green organic food eaters” and “hedonist moderate organic food eaters” had comparable scores for the “taste” dimension. “Unhealthy conventional food big eaters” had the highest mean score for the “price” dimension while “green organic food eaters” had the lowest mean scores for the “innovation” and “convenience” dimensions. These results provide new insights into the food choice motives of diverse consumers’ profiles including “green” and “hedonist” eaters. PMID:28125035

  13. Food Choice Motives When Purchasing in Organic and Conventional Consumer Clusters: Focus on Sustainable Concerns (The NutriNet-Santé Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Baudry

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine food choice motives associated with various organic and conventional dietary patterns among 22,366 participants of the NutriNet-Santé study. Dietary intakes were estimated using a food frequency questionnaire. Food choice motives were assessed using a validated 63-item-questionnaire gathered into nine food choice motive dimension scores: “absence of contaminants”, “avoidance for environmental reasons”, “ethics and environment”, “taste”, “innovation”, “local and traditional production”, “price”, “health” and “convenience”. Five consumers’ clusters were identified: “standard conventional food small eaters”, “unhealthy conventional food big eaters”, “standard organic food small eaters”, “green organic food eaters” and “hedonist moderate organic food eaters”. Relationships between food choice motive dimension scores and consumers’ clusters were assessed using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA models adjusted for sociodemographic factors. “Green organic food eaters” had the highest mean score for the “health” dimension, while “unhealthy conventional food big eaters” obtained the lowest mean score for the “absence of contaminants” dimension. “Standard organic food small eaters”, “green organic food eaters” and “hedonist moderate organic food eaters” had comparable scores for the “taste” dimension. “Unhealthy conventional food big eaters” had the highest mean score for the “price” dimension while “green organic food eaters” had the lowest mean scores for the “innovation” and “convenience” dimensions. These results provide new insights into the food choice motives of diverse consumers’ profiles including “green” and “hedonist” eaters.

  14. Motivation to obtain a food reward of pregnant ewes in negative energy balance: behavioural, metabolic and endocrine considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbeek, E; Waas, J R; Oliver, M H; McLeay, L M; Ferguson, D M; Matthews, L R

    2012-07-01

    Low food availability often coincides with pregnancy in grazing animals. This study investigated how chronic reductions in food intake affected feeding motivation, and metabolic and endocrine parameters in pregnant sheep, which might be indicative of compromised welfare. Ewes with an initial Body Condition Score of 2.7±0.3 (BCS; 0 indicates emaciation and 5 obesity) were fed to attain low (LBC 2.0±0.0,), medium (MBC 2.9±0.1) or high BCS (HBC 3.7±0.1) in the first trimester of pregnancy. A feeding motivation test in which sheep were required to walk a set distance for a palatable food reward was conducted in the second trimester. LBC and MBC ewes consumed more rewards (P=0.001) and displayed a higher expenditure (P=0.02) than HBC ewes, LBC ewes also tended to consume more rewards than MBC ewes (P=0.09). Plasma leptin and glucose concentrations were inversely correlated to expenditure (both Pnegative energy balance, with lower muscle dimensions, plasma glucose, leptin, insulin, cortisol, and insulin-like growth factor-1 concentrations and higher free fatty acids concentrations compared to HBC ewes; metabolic and endocrine parameters of the MBC ewes were intermediate. The high feeding motivation and negative energy balance of low BCS ewes suggested an increased risk of compromised welfare. Imposing even a small cost on a food reward reduced motivation substantially in high BCS ewes (despite high intake when food was freely available). Assessment of a willingness to work for rewards, combined with measures of key metabolic and endocrine parameters, may provide sensitive barometers of welfare in energetically-taxed animals.

  15. MELiSSA Food Characterization general approach and current status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weihreter, Martin; Chaerle, Laury; Secco, Benjamin; Molders, Katrien; van der Straeten, Dominique; Duliere, Eric; Pieters, Serge; Maclean, Heather; Dochain, Denis; Quinet, Muriel; Lutts, Stanley; Graham, Thomas; Stasiak, Michael; Rondeau Vuk, Theresa; Zheng, Youbin; Dixon, Mike; Laniau, Martine; Larreture, Alain; Timsit, Michel; Aronne, Giovanna; Barbieri, Giancarlo; Buonomo, Roberta; Veronica; Paradiso, Roberta; de Pascale, Stafania; Galbiati, Massimo; Troia, A. R.; Nobili, Matteo; Bucchieri, Lorenzo; Page, Valérie; Feller, Urs; Lasseur, Christophe

    Higher plants play an important role in closed ecological life support systems as oxygen pro-ducers, carbon dioxide and water recyclers, and as a food source. For an integration of higher plant chambers into the MELiSSA (Micro Ecological Life Support System Alternative) loop, a detailed characterization and optimization of the full food production and preparation chain is needed. This implies the prediction and control of the nutritional quality of the final products consumed by the crew, the prediction of the wastes quality and quantity produced along the chain for further waste treatment (MELiSSA waste treatment) and the optimization of overall efficiencies. To reach this goal several issues have to be studied in an integrated manner: the physiological responses of crops to a range of environmental parameters, crop yield efficiencies and respective ratio and composition of edible and inedible biomass, the processability and storability of the produced food and last but not least composition of wastes in view of further degradation (fiber content). Within the Food Characterization (FC) project several compar-ative plant growth bench tests were carried out to obtain preliminary data regarding these aspects. Four pre-selected cultivars of each of the four energy-rich crops with worldwide usage -wheat, durum wheat, potato and soybean -were grown under well-characterized environmental conditions. The different cultivars of each species are screened for their performance in view of a closed loop application by parameter ranking. This comprises the characterization of edi-ble/inedible biomass ratio, nutritional quality, processability and overall performance under the specific conditions of hydroponic cultivation and artificial illumination. A second closely linked goal of the FC project is to develop a mechanistic physiological plant model, which will ease the integration of higher plants compartments in the MELiSSA concept by virtue of its predictive abilities

  16. A self-determination theory approach to adults' healthy body weight motivation: A longitudinal study focussing on food choices and recreational physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Christina; Dohle, Simone; Siegrist, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This study focuses on body weight motivation based on self-determination theory. The impact of body weight motivation on longitudinal changes in food choices, recreational physical activity and body mass index was explored. A sample of adults (N = 2917, 47% men), randomly selected from the telephone book, completed a questionnaire in two consecutive years (2012, 2013), self-reporting food choices, recreational physical activity and body weight motivation. Types of body weight motivation at T1 (autonomous regulation, introjected regulation, and external regulation) were tested with regard to their predictive potential for changes in food choices, recreational physical activity and body mass index (BMI). Autonomous motivation predicted improvements in food choices and long-term adherence to vigorous recreational physical activity in both genders. Introjected motivation predicted long-term adherence to vigorous recreational physical activity only in women. External motivation predicted negative changes in food choices; however, the type of body weight motivation had no impact on BMI in overweight adults in the long term. Autonomous goal-setting regarding body weight seems to be substantial for healthy food choices and adherence to recreational physical activity.

  17. Food allergy knowledge, attitudes and beliefs: Focus groups of parents, physicians and the general public

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barnathan Julia A

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Food allergy prevalence is increasing in US children. Presently, the primary means of preventing potentially fatal reactions are avoidance of allergens, prompt recognition of food allergy reactions, and knowledge about food allergy reaction treatments. Focus groups were held as a preliminary step in the development of validated survey instruments to assess food allergy knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs of parents, physicians, and the general public. Methods Eight focus groups were conducted between January and July of 2006 in the Chicago area with parents of children with food allergy (3 groups, physicians (3 groups, and the general public (2 groups. A constant comparative method was used to identify the emerging themes which were then grouped into key domains of food allergy knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs. Results Parents of children with food allergy had solid fundamental knowledge but had concerns about primary care physicians' knowledge of food allergy, diagnostic approaches, and treatment practices. The considerable impact of children's food allergies on familial quality of life was articulated. Physicians had good basic knowledge of food allergy but differed in their approach to diagnosis and advice about starting solids and breastfeeding. The general public had wide variation in knowledge about food allergy with many misconceptions of key concepts related to prevalence, definition, and triggers of food allergy. Conclusion Appreciable food allergy knowledge gaps exist, especially among physicians and the general public. The quality of life for children with food allergy and their families is significantly affected.

  18. Cognitive-motivational model of obesity. Motivational mechanisms and cognitive biases underlying the processing of food-related images by people with excess body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawłowska, Monika; Kalka, Dorota

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is a constantly escalating problem in all age groups. In the face of ubiquitous images of food, colourful advertisements of high-calorie meals and beverages, it is necessary to examine the role of the memory and attention mechanism in the processing of these stimuli. Knowledge regarding this subject will surely significantly contribute to the improvement of prevention and management of obesity programs designed to prevent secondary psychological difficulties, including depression. This paper presents cognitive-motivational model of obesity, according to which the description of mechanisms of eating disorders occurrence should include not only motivational factors but also the cognitive ones. The paper shows theoretical perspectives on the problem of obesity irrespective of its origin, as well as the latest empirical reports in this field. The presented survey demonstrates the lack of explicit research findings related to the processing of high and low-calorie food images by persons with excess weight. It seems that the knowledge of the basic mechanisms involved in the processing of these stimuli and the exploration of this phenomenon will allow to improve programs whose objective is to prevent obesity.

  19. Cognitive-motivational model of obesity. Motivational mechanisms and cognitive biases underlying the processing of food-related images by people with excess body weight.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Pawłowska

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a constantly escalating problem in all age groups. In the face of ubiquitous images of food, colourful advertisements of high-calorie meals and beverages, it is necessary to examine the role of the memory and attention mechanism in the processing of these stimuli. Knowledge regarding this subject will surely significantly contribute to the improvement of prevention and management of obesity programs designed to prevent secondary psychological difficulties, including depression. This paper presents cognitive-motivational model of obesity, according to which the description of mechanisms of eating disorders occurrence should include not only motivational factors but also the cognitive ones. The paper shows theoretical perspectives on the problem of obesity irrespective of its origin, as well as the latest empirical reports in this field. The presented survey demonstrates the lack of explicit research findings related to the processing of high and low-calorie food images by persons with excess weight. It seems that the knowledge of the basic mechanisms involved in the processing of these stimuli and the exploration of this phenomenon will allow to improve programs whose objective is to prevent obesity.

  20. Protection motivation theory and physical activity in the general population: a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Linh; Mullan, Barbara; McCaffery, Kirsten

    2013-01-01

    An appropriate theoretical framework may be useful for guiding the development of physical activity interventions. This review investigates the effectiveness of the protection motivation theory (PMT), a model based on the cognitive mediation processes of behavioral change, in the prediction and promotion of physical activity participation. A literature search was conducted using the databases MEDLINE, PsycINFO, PubMed, and Web of Science, and a manual search was conducted on relevant reference lists. Studies were included if they tested or applied the PMT, measured physical activity, and sampled from healthy populations. A total of 20 studies were reviewed, grouped into four design categories: prediction, stage discrimination, experimental manipulation, and intervention. The results indicated that the PMT's coping appraisal construct of self-efficacy generally appears to be the most effective in predicting and promoting physical activity participation. In conclusion, the PMT shows some promise, however, there are still substantial gaps in the evidence.

  1. 21 CFR 184.1 - Substances added directly to human food affirmed as generally recognized as safe (GRAS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Substances added directly to human food affirmed as generally recognized as safe (GRAS). 184.1 Section 184.1 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... human food affirmed as generally recognized as safe (GRAS). (a) The direct human food ingredients...

  2. Regulatory focus, self-efficacy and outcome expectations as drivers of motivation to consume healthy food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tudoran, Ana Alina; Scholderer, Joachim; Brunsø, Karen

    2012-10-01

    In this paper we apply the principle of Regulatory Focus Theory to investigate the interaction between self-efficacy and outcome expectations on individuals' intentions to adopt health behaviors. The participants, 959 individuals (Survey 1) and 2400 individuals (Survey 2), reported self-efficacy beliefs and outcome expectations with regard to the consumption of omega-3 supplements and omega-3-enriched food products. We found that the relationship prevention outcome expectations-intention was significantly attenuated at low levels of self-efficacy and strengthened at high levels of self-efficacy, respectively; whereas, the relationship promotion outcome expectations-intention was unaffected by the perceived levels of self-efficacy. The implications suggest that consumers' motivation to adopt healthy food products, such as omega-3 supplements and omega-3 enriched products, should be encouraged by stimulating promotion outcome expectations. However, when a prevention frame is used, the individuals' motivation should be significantly enhanced by self-efficacy beliefs.

  3. Why and how do general practitioners teach? An exploration of the motivations and experiences of rural Australian general practitioner supervisors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingham, Gerard; Fry, Jennifer; O'Meara, Peter; Tourle, Vianne

    2015-10-29

    In medical education, a learner-centred approach is recommended. There is also a trend towards workplace-based learning outside of the hospital setting. In Australia, this has resulted in an increased need for General Practitioner (GP) supervisors who are receptive to using adult learning principles in their teaching. Little is known about what motivates Australian GP supervisors and how they currently teach. A qualitative study involving semi-structured interviews with 20 rural GP supervisors who work within one Regional Training Provider region in Australia explored their reasons for being a supervisor and how they performed their role. Data was analysed using a thematic analysis approach. GP supervisors identified both personal and professional benefits in being a supervisor, as well as some benefits for their practice. Supervision fulfilled a perceived broader responsibility to the profession and community, though they felt it had little impact on rural retention of doctors. While financial issues did not provide significant motivation to teach, the increasing financial inequity compared with providing direct patient care might impact negatively on the decision to be or to remain a supervisor in the future. The principal challenge for supervisors was finding time for teaching. Despite this, there was little evidence of supervisors adopting strategies to reduce teaching load. Teaching methods were reported in the majority to be case-based with styles extending from didactic to coach/facilitator. The two-way collegiate relationship with a registrar was valued, with supervisors taking an interest in the registrars beyond their development as a clinician. Supervisors report positively on their teaching and mentoring roles. Recruitment strategies that highlight the personal and professional benefits that supervision offers are needed. Practices need assistance to adopt models of supervision and teaching that will help supervisors productively manage the increasing

  4. Identifying Chronic Conditions and Other Selected Factors That Motivate Physical Activity in World Senior Games Participants and the General Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ray M. Merrill PhD, MPH

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study assesses chronic disease or disease-related conditions as motivators of physical activity. It also compares these and other motivators of physical activity between Senior Games participants (SGPs and the general population. Analyses are based on an anonymous cross-sectional survey conducted among 666 SGPs and 177 individuals from the general population. SGPs experienced better general health and less obesity, diabetes, and depression, as well as an average of 14.7 more years of regular physical activity (p < .0001, 130.8 more minutes per week of aerobic activity (p < .0001, and 42.7 more minutes of anaerobic activity per week (p < .0001. Among those previously told they had diabetes, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, or depression, 74.2%, 72.2%, 70.4%, and 60.6%, respectively, said that it motivated them to increase their physical activity. Percentages were similar between SGPs and the general population. SGPs were more likely motivated to be physically active to improve physical and mental health in the present, to prevent physical and cognitive decline in the future, and to increase social opportunities. The Senior Games reinforces extrinsic motivators to positively influence intrinsic promoters such as skill development, satisfaction of learning, enjoyment, and fun.

  5. Food choices, perceptions of healthiness, and eating motives of self-identified followers of a low-carbohydrate diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jallinoja, Piia; Niva, Mari; Helakorpi, Satu; Kahma, Nina

    2014-01-01

    Low-carbohydrate (LC) diets have gained substantial media coverage in many Western countries. Little is, however, known about the characteristics of their followers. The article analyses how those who report following an LC diet differ from the rest of the population in their background, food choices, weight reduction status, as well as food-related perceptions and motives. The data are a part of the Health Behaviour and Health among the Finnish Adult Population survey collected in spring 2012 (n=2,601), covering 15- to 64-year-old Finns. Seven per cent of the respondents identified themselves as followers of the LC diet. Gender and education were not associated with following an LC diet. The youngest respondents were the least likely to follow such a diet. The LC diet group preferred butter but also vegetables more commonly than the other respondents and were less likely to use vegetable bread spreads. The followers of the LC diet and the other respondents agreed about the healthiness of whole grain, vegetable oils, vegetables, and fruits and berries, and of the harmfulness of white wheat. Compared to the other respondents, the LC diet group was less likely to regard eating vegetable/low-fat products as important, more likely to regard eating healthy carbohydrates, and the health and weight-managing aspects of foods, as important and placed less value on sociability and pleasures connected to food. The results showed varying food choices among the followers of the LC diet: some even reported that they were not avoiding carbohydrates, sugars, and white wheat in their diet. Planners of nutrition policies should follow-up on new diets as they emerge and explore the food choices and motives of their followers and how these diets affect the food choices of the whole population.

  6. Food choices, perceptions of healthiness, and eating motives of self-identified followers of a low-carbohydrate diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piia Jallinoja

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Low-carbohydrate (LC diets have gained substantial media coverage in many Western countries. Little is, however, known about the characteristics of their followers. Objective: The article analyses how those who report following an LC diet differ from the rest of the population in their background, food choices, weight reduction status, as well as food-related perceptions and motives. The data are a part of the Health Behaviour and Health among the Finnish Adult Population survey collected in spring 2012 (n=2,601, covering 15- to 64-year-old Finns. Results: Seven per cent of the respondents identified themselves as followers of the LC diet. Gender and education were not associated with following an LC diet. The youngest respondents were the least likely to follow such a diet. The LC diet group preferred butter but also vegetables more commonly than the other respondents and were less likely to use vegetable bread spreads. The followers of the LC diet and the other respondents agreed about the healthiness of whole grain, vegetable oils, vegetables, and fruits and berries, and of the harmfulness of white wheat. Compared to the other respondents, the LC diet group was less likely to regard eating vegetable/low-fat products as important, more likely to regard eating healthy carbohydrates, and the health and weight-managing aspects of foods, as important and placed less value on sociability and pleasures connected to food. The results showed varying food choices among the followers of the LC diet: some even reported that they were not avoiding carbohydrates, sugars, and white wheat in their diet. Conclusions: Planners of nutrition policies should follow-up on new diets as they emerge and explore the food choices and motives of their followers and how these diets affect the food choices of the whole population.

  7. Body and Soul: Do Children Distinguish between Foods When Generalizing Biological and Psychological Properties?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibaut, Jean-Pierre; Nguyen, Simone P.; Murphy, Gregory L.

    2016-01-01

    Research Findings: In 2 experiments, we tested whether children generalize psychological and biological properties to novel foods. We used an induction task in which a property (either biological or psychological) was associated with a target food. Children were then asked whether a taxonomically related and a script-related food would also have…

  8. Reduced motivation in the BACHD rat model of Huntington disease is dependent on the choice of food deprivation strategy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Karl Håkan Jansson

    Full Text Available Huntington disease (HD is an inherited neurodegenerative disease characterized by motor, cognitive, psychiatric and metabolic symptoms. Animal models of HD show phenotypes that can be divided into similar categories, with the metabolic phenotype of certain models being characterized by obesity. Although interesting in terms of modeling metabolic symptoms of HD, the obesity phenotype can be problematic as it might confound the results of certain behavioral tests. This concerns the assessment of cognitive function in particular, as tests for such phenotypes are often based on food depriving the animals and having them perform tasks for food rewards. The BACHD rat is a recently established animal model of HD, and in order to ensure that behavioral characterization of these rats is done in a reliable way, a basic understanding of their physiology is needed. Here, we show that BACHD rats are obese and suffer from discrete developmental deficits. When assessing the motivation to lever push for a food reward, BACHD rats were found to be less motivated than wild type rats, although this phenotype was dependent on the food deprivation strategy. Specifically, the phenotype was present when rats of both genotypes were deprived to 85% of their respective free-feeding body weight, but not when deprivation levels were adjusted in order to match the rats' apparent hunger levels. The study emphasizes the importance of considering metabolic abnormalities as a confounding factor when performing behavioral characterization of HD animal models.

  9. Motives for eating tasty foods associated with binge-eating. Results from a student and a weight-loss seeking population☆

    OpenAIRE

    Boggiano, M.M.; Burgess, E.E.; Turan, B.; Soleymani, T.; Daniel, S.; Vinson, L.D.; Lokken, K.L.; Wingo, B.C.; Morse, A.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to use the Palatable Eating Motives Scale (PEMS) to determine if and what motives for eating tasty foods (e.g., junk food, fast food, and desserts) are associated with binge-eating in two diverse populations. BMI and scores on the PEMS, Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS), and Binge-eating Scale (BES) were obtained from 247 undergraduates at the University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB) and 249 weight-loss seeking patients at the UAB EatRight program. Regression analyse...

  10. The effect of the magnitude of the food deprivation motivating operation on free operant preference in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewon, Matthew; Hayes, Linda J

    2015-06-01

    A number of recent studies have demonstrated that organisms prefer stimuli correlated with food under high deprivation conditions over stimuli correlated with food under low deprivation conditions. The purpose of the present study was to extend the literature on this phenomenon by testing for preference under extinction conditions, testing for preference at baseline, employing a free operant preference test, and using mice as subjects. Our results appear to support the existing literature in that most subjects preferred a stimulus correlated with food under high deprivation conditions in the post-training preference test. We provide an analysis of this phenomenon based on the concept of the motivating operation (MO) and discuss how this analysis suggests a number of avenues for further research on this topic. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The creation of a healthy eating motivation score and its association with food choice and physical activity in a cross sectional sample of Irish adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naughton, Paul; McCarthy, Sinéad N; McCarthy, Mary B

    2015-06-06

    This study aimed to develop a healthy eating motivation score and to determine if dietary, lifestyle and activity behaviours vary across levels of motivation to eat a healthy diet with a view to informing health promotion interventions. A cross-sectional survey of food intake, physical activity, lifestyles and food choice attitudes was conducted in a nationally representative sample of 1262 adults in the Republic of Ireland aged 18 years and over. Increasing score for health motivation was significantly and positively related to healthy eating and exercise. Women, increasing age, normal BMI, regular exercise and increasing intakes of fruit and vegetables were associated with a higher odds ratio (OR) for having a high healthy eating motivation score. However, despite a high motivation score only 31% of consumers in the strong motivation group achieved the recommendations for daily fruit and vegetable consumption, while 57% achieved the fat recommendation. A higher intake of calorie dense foods from the top shelf of the food pyramid and increased time spent watching T.V. was associated with a decreased OR for positive motivation towards healthy eating. Healthy eating promotions directed at women and older adults should focus on supporting people's motivations to attain a healthy diet by addressing issues such as dietary self-control and self-regulation. For men and younger adults, healthy eating promotions will need to address the issues underlying their weak attitudes towards healthy eating.

  12. Differential role of hypothalamic orexin/hypocretin neurons in reward seeking motivated by cocaine versus palatable food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Fardon, Rémi; Cauvi, Gabrielle; Kerr, Tony M; Weiss, Friedbert

    2016-08-24

    Hypothalamic orexin/hypocretin (Orx/Hcrt) neurons are thought to mediate both food-reinforced behaviors and behavior motivated by drugs of abuse. However, the relative role of the Orx/Hcrt system in behavior motivated by food versus drugs of abuse remains unclear. This investigation addressed this question by contrasting hypothalamic Orx/Hcrt neuronal activation associated with reinstatement of reward seeking induced by stimuli conditioned to cocaine (COC) versus highly palatable food reward, sweetened condensed milk (SCM). Orx/Hcrt neuronal activation in the lateral hypothalamus, dorsomedial hypothalamus and perifornical area, determined by dual c-fos/orx immunocytochemistry, was quantified in rat brains, following reinstatement of reward seeking induced by a discriminative stimulus (S(+) ) conditioned to COC or SCM. The COC S(+) and SCM S(+) initially produced the same magnitude of reward seeking. However, over four subsequent tests, behavior induced by the SCM S(+) decreased to extinction levels, whereas reinstatement induced by the COC S(+) perseverated at undiminished levels. Following both the first and fourth tests, the percentage of Orx/Hcrt cells expressing Fos was significantly increased in all hypothalamic subregions in rats tested with the COC S(+) but not rats tested with the SCM S(+) . These findings point toward a role for the Orx/Hcrt system in perseverating, compulsive-like COC seeking but not behavior motivated by palatable food. Moreover, analysis of the Orx/Hcrt recruitment patterns suggests that failure of Orx/Hcrt neurons in the lateral hypothalamus to respond to inhibitory inputs from Orx/Hcrt neurons in the dorsomedial hypothalamus/perifornical area may contribute to the perseverating nature of COC seeking.

  13. "337" Lawsuit Is Our Motivation Forward——An Interview with An Lijun, General Manager of JK Sucralose Inc

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ "Right now our biggest problem is that the demand has outstripped supply; expanding production capacity is urgently needed. Now there are quite a number of venture capital companies contacting us." JK's general manager An Lijun said confidently. Comparing with his high spirits six months ago, An looked a bit tired. He said, "Now 1 feel greater pressure, but pressure is also my motivation."

  14. The Influence of Self-Efficacy and Motivational Factors on Academic Performance in General Chemistry Course: A Modeling Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alci, Bulent

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to determine the predictive and explanatory model in terms of university students' academic performance in "General Chemistry" course and their motivational features. The participants were 169 university students in the 1st grade at university. Of the participants, 132 were female and 37 were male students. Regarding…

  15. Gifted and General High School Students' Perceptions of Learning and Motivational Constructs in Korea and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Yoojung; Gentry, Marcia

    2011-01-01

    This study examined differences between Korean and US gifted and general students' perceptions constructs related to motivation and learning, using the Student Perceptions of Classroom Quality (SPOCQ) instrument. SPOCQ assesses students' perceptions of appeal, challenge, choice, meaningfulness, and academic self-efficacy. Measurement equality…

  16. The Influence of Self-Efficacy and Motivational Factors on Academic Performance in General Chemistry Course: A Modeling Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alci, Bulent

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to determine the predictive and explanatory model in terms of university students' academic performance in "General Chemistry" course and their motivational features. The participants were 169 university students in the 1st grade at university. Of the participants, 132 were female and 37 were male students. Regarding…

  17. Food items and general condition of Hyperopisus bebe occidentalis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREG

    Key words: Food items, Hyperopisus bebe occidentalis, Warri River, condition factor. INTRODUCTION ... as supplement in aquaculture (Malami et al., 2004). Sufficient ... length; hence, the formula was logarithmically transformed for the purpose of ..... River, Nigeria part 11: Seasonal trend in physiochemical limnology. Trop.

  18. Enhanced motivation for food reward induced by stress and attenuation by corticotrophin-releasing factor receptor antagonism in rats: implications for overeating and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiu

    2015-06-01

    Overeating beyond individuals' homeostatic needs critically contributes to obesity. The neurobehavioral mechanisms underlying the motivation to consume excessive foods with high calories are not fully understood. The present study examined whether a pharmacological stressor, yohimbine, enhances the motivation to procure food reward with an emphasis on comparisons between standard lab chow and high-fat foods. The effects of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) receptor blockade by a CRF1-selective antagonist NBI on the stress-enhanced motivation for food reward were also assessed. Male Sprague-Dawley rats with chow available ad libitum in their home cages were trained to press a lever under a progressive ratio schedule for deliveries of either standard or high-fat food pellets. For testing yohimbine stress effects, rats received an intraperitoneal administration of yohimbine 10 min before start of the test sessions. For testing effects of CRF1 receptor blockade on stress responses, NBI was administered 20 min prior to yohimbine challenge. The rats emitted higher levels of lever responses to procure the high-fat food pellets compared with their counterparts on standard food pellets. Yohimbine challenge facilitated lever responses for the reward in all of the rats, whereas the effect was more robust in the rats on high-fat food pellets compared with their counterparts on standard food pellets. An inhibitory effect of pretreatment with NBI was observed on the enhancing effect of yohimbine challenge but not on the responses under baseline condition without yohimbine administration. Stress challenge significantly enhanced the motivation of satiated rats to procure extra food reward, especially the high-fat food pellets. Activation of CRF1 receptors is required for the stress-enhanced motivation for food reward. These results may have implications for our better understanding of the biobehavioral mechanisms of overeating and obesity.

  19. [Summary of the Dutch College of General Practitioners' practice guideline on food hypersensitivity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luning-Koster, Marleen N; Lucassen, Peter L B J; Boukes, Froukje S; Goudswaard, A N Lex

    2011-01-01

    October 2010 the Dutch College of General Practitioners issued a revised version of their previous practice guideline of 1995 on food hypersensitivity in infants. If patients suspect either themselves or their child of having a food allergy, this is usually not demonstrated in subsequent investigation. Wrongly prescribed elimination diets may have adverse effects. Examination of serum specific IgE levels has no place in the diagnosis of food allergy in general practice. An open elimination challenge is especially suitable in order to exclude a food allergy. A sure diagnosis of food allergy can only be made by a double-blind placebo-controlled food challenge. There are no proven effective measures that can prevent food allergy.

  20. Is export orientation a major motivator for the adoption of food safety systems in the Turkish dried fig firms?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferit Cobanoglu

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Food safety management systems (FSMSs and the scrutinisation of the food safety practices that are intended for adoption on the firm level both offer strategic value to the dried fig sector. This study aims to prove the hypothesis that export orientation is a major motivating force for the adoption of food safety systems in the Turkish dried fig firms. Data were obtained from 91 dried fig firms located in Aydin, Turkey. Interviews were carried out with firms’ managers/owners using a face-to-face questionnaire designed from May to August of 2010. While 36.3 percent of the interviewed firms had adopted one or more systems, the rest had no certification. A binomial logistic econometric model was employed. The parameters that influenced this decision included contractual agreements with other firms, implementation of good practices by the dried fig farmers, export orientation and cost-benefit ratio. Interestingly, the rest of the indicators employed had no statistically significant effect on adoption behaviour. This paper focusses on the export orientation parameter directly in order to test the validity of the main research hypothesis. The estimated marginal effect suggests that when dried fig firms are export-oriented, the probability that these firms will adopt food safety systems goes up by 39.5 percent. This rate was the first range observed among all the marginal probability values obtained and thus verified the hypothesis that export orientation is a major motivator for the adoption of food safety systems in the Turkish dried fig firms.

  1. Mu Opioid Receptors in Gamma-Aminobutyric Acidergic Forebrain Neurons Moderate Motivation for Heroin and Palatable Food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charbogne, Pauline; Gardon, Olivier; Martín-García, Elena; Keyworth, Helen L; Matsui, Aya; Mechling, Anna E; Bienert, Thomas; Nasseef, Taufiq; Robé, Anne; Moquin, Luc; Darcq, Emmanuel; Ben Hamida, Sami; Robledo, Patricia; Matifas, Audrey; Befort, Katia; Gavériaux-Ruff, Claire; Harsan, Laura-Adela; von Elverfeldt, Dominik; Hennig, Jurgen; Gratton, Alain; Kitchen, Ian; Bailey, Alexis; Alvarez, Veronica A; Maldonado, Rafael; Kieffer, Brigitte L

    2017-05-01

    Mu opioid receptors (MORs) are central to pain control, drug reward, and addictive behaviors, but underlying circuit mechanisms have been poorly explored by genetic approaches. Here we investigate the contribution of MORs expressed in gamma-aminobutyric acidergic forebrain neurons to major biological effects of opiates, and also challenge the canonical disinhibition model of opiate reward. We used Dlx5/6-mediated recombination to create conditional Oprm1 mice in gamma-aminobutyric acidergic forebrain neurons. We characterized the genetic deletion by histology, electrophysiology, and microdialysis; probed neuronal activation by c-Fos immunohistochemistry and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging; and investigated main behavioral responses to opiates, including motivation to obtain heroin and palatable food. Mutant mice showed MOR transcript deletion mainly in the striatum. In the ventral tegmental area, local MOR activity was intact, and reduced activity was only observed at the level of striatonigral afferents. Heroin-induced neuronal activation was modified at both sites, and whole-brain functional networks were altered in live animals. Morphine analgesia was not altered, and neither was physical dependence to chronic morphine. In contrast, locomotor effects of heroin were abolished, and heroin-induced catalepsy was increased. Place preference to heroin was not modified, but remarkably, motivation to obtain heroin and palatable food was enhanced in operant self-administration procedures. Our study reveals dissociable MOR functions across mesocorticolimbic networks. Thus, beyond a well-established role in reward processing, operating at the level of local ventral tegmental area neurons, MORs also moderate motivation for appetitive stimuli within forebrain circuits that drive motivated behaviors. Copyright © 2017 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The modified Trait and State Food-Cravings Questionnaires: development and validation of a general index of food craving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijs, Ilse M T; Franken, Ingmar H A; Muris, Peter

    2007-07-01

    In the present study, the multidimensional Trait and State Food Cravings Questionnaires (FCQ-T and FCQ-S), as developed by Cepeda-Benito, Gleaves, Williams, and Erath, [2000. The development and validation of the State and Trait Food Cravings Questionnaires. Behavior Therapy, 31, 151-173], were modified in order to construct an index of general food craving instead of specific food craving. The factor structure, validity and reliability of the modified questionnaires, renamed as the Trait and State General Food Cravings Questionnaires (G-FCQ-T and G-FCQ-S), were investigated in three separate studies. Firstly, exploratory factor analyses were conducted, which yielded a G-FCQ-T with a four-factor structure, that was considerably shorter as compared to the original (nine-factor) FCQ-T, and a G-FCQ-S of which the factor structure was highly comparable to the original FCQ-S. Secondly, in an attempt to replicate the factor structures of the G-FCQ-T and the G-FCQ-S as found in Study 1, confirmative factor analyses were performed. Results indicated adequate fits for both questionnaires. In addition, the test-retest reliability of both versions was satisfactory and an analysis of the construct validity generally revealed the expected results. In Study 3, the validity of the state version of the G-FCQ was further investigated by relating scores on this questionnaire to indices of food deprivation and satiation. Results indicated that the G-FCQ-S indeed measures food craving as a variable state, which is influenced by situational and temporal variables. Altogether, it can be concluded that the G-FCQ-T and G-FCQ-S are both reliable and valid measures of general trait-like and state-dependent food craving.

  3. Food addiction: its prevalence and significant association with obesity in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedram, Pardis; Wadden, Danny; Amini, Peyvand; Gulliver, Wayne; Randell, Edward; Cahill, Farrell; Vasdev, Sudesh; Goodridge, Alan; Carter, Jacqueline C; Zhai, Guangju; Ji, Yunqi; Sun, Guang

    2013-01-01

    'Food addiction' shares a similar neurobiological and behavioral framework with substance addiction. However whether, and to what degree, 'food addiction' contributes to obesity in the general population is unknown. to assess 1) the prevalence of 'food addiction' in the Newfoundland population; 2) if clinical symptom counts of 'food addiction' were significantly correlated with the body composition measurements; 3) if food addicts were significantly more obese than controls, and 4) if macronutrient intakes are associated with 'food addiction'. A total of 652 adults (415 women, 237 men) recruited from the general population participated in this study. Obesity was evaluated by Body Mass Index (BMI) and Body Fat percentage measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. 'Food addiction' was assessed using the Yale Food Addiction Scale and macronutrient intake was determined from the Willet Food Frequency Questionnaire. The prevalence of 'food addiction' was 5.4% (6.7% in females and 3.0% in males) and increased with obesity status. The clinical symptom counts of 'food addiction' were positively correlated with all body composition measurements across the entire sample (pObesity measurements were significantly higher in food addicts than controls; Food addicts were 11.7 (kg) heavier, 4.6 BMI units higher, and had 8.2% more body fat and 8.5% more trunk fat. Furthermore, food addicts consumed more calories from fat and protein compared with controls. Our results demonstrated that 'food addiction' contributes to severity of obesity and body composition measurements from normal weight to obese individuals in the general population with higher rate in women as compared to men.

  4. Regulating food law : risk analysis and the precautionary principle as general principles of EU food law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szajkowska, A.

    2012-01-01

    Animal cloning, nanotechnology, and genetic modifications are all examples of recent controversies around food regulation where scientific evidence occupies a central position. This book provides a fresh perspective on EU scientific food safety governance by offering a legal insight into risk

  5. Regulating food law : risk analysis and the precautionary principle as general principles of EU food law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szajkowska, A.

    2012-01-01

    Animal cloning, nanotechnology, and genetic modifications are all examples of recent controversies around food regulation where scientific evidence occupies a central position. This book provides a fresh perspective on EU scientific food safety governance by offering a legal insight into risk analys

  6. Measuring motivation for appetitive behaviour: food-restricted broiler breeder chickens cross a water barrier to forage in an area of wood shavings without food.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura M Dixon

    Full Text Available Broiler breeders (parents of meat chickens are selected for fast growth and become obese if fed ad libitum. To avoid this and maintain good health and reproductive ability, they are feed restricted to about 1/3 of what they would eat ad libitum. As a result, they experience chronic hunger and exhibit abnormal behaviour patterns that may indicate stress and frustration. One approach to measuring hunger is to observe how much birds will work, such as pecking a key, for access to more or different types of food. However, the sight, smell, and feedback from consumption of the feed reward changes the context and may artificially raise feeding motivation. To avoid this, we tested broiler breeders in an apparatus in which they could work for access to a wooden platform covered in wood shavings by crossing a water runway which increased in length and depth in 8 successive tests. In the wood shavings area, they could perform exploratory and foraging behaviour (the appetitive phase of feeding but were never rewarded with feed. Sixty birds were divided into three feed quantity treatments: commercial restriction (R, and twice (2R or three times (3R this amount. Overall, birds fed R worked harder to reach the wood shavings area (reached it in a larger number of tests than 2R and 3R birds (P2R>3R. This indicates that restricted-fed birds were hungry and willing to work for the opportunity to forage even though food was never provided, suggesting that their motivation to perform the appetitive component of feeding behaviour (foraging/food searching was sufficient to sustain their response. Thus food restriction in broiler breeders is a welfare concern. However these methods could be used to test alternative feeding regimes to attempt to find ways of alleviating hunger while still maintaining healthy growth and reproduction in these birds.

  7. Measuring motivation for appetitive behaviour: food-restricted broiler breeder chickens cross a water barrier to forage in an area of wood shavings without food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Laura M; Brocklehurst, Sarah; Sandilands, Vicky; Bateson, Melissa; Tolkamp, Bert J; D'Eath, Rick B

    2014-01-01

    Broiler breeders (parents of meat chickens) are selected for fast growth and become obese if fed ad libitum. To avoid this and maintain good health and reproductive ability, they are feed restricted to about 1/3 of what they would eat ad libitum. As a result, they experience chronic hunger and exhibit abnormal behaviour patterns that may indicate stress and frustration. One approach to measuring hunger is to observe how much birds will work, such as pecking a key, for access to more or different types of food. However, the sight, smell, and feedback from consumption of the feed reward changes the context and may artificially raise feeding motivation. To avoid this, we tested broiler breeders in an apparatus in which they could work for access to a wooden platform covered in wood shavings by crossing a water runway which increased in length and depth in 8 successive tests. In the wood shavings area, they could perform exploratory and foraging behaviour (the appetitive phase of feeding) but were never rewarded with feed. Sixty birds were divided into three feed quantity treatments: commercial restriction (R), and twice (2R) or three times (3R) this amount. Overall, birds fed R worked harder to reach the wood shavings area (reached it in a larger number of tests) than 2R and 3R birds (P2R>3R). This indicates that restricted-fed birds were hungry and willing to work for the opportunity to forage even though food was never provided, suggesting that their motivation to perform the appetitive component of feeding behaviour (foraging/food searching) was sufficient to sustain their response. Thus food restriction in broiler breeders is a welfare concern. However these methods could be used to test alternative feeding regimes to attempt to find ways of alleviating hunger while still maintaining healthy growth and reproduction in these birds.

  8. Pleasure, pursuit of health or negotiation of identity? Personality correlates of food choice motives among young and middle-aged women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindeman, M; Stark, K

    1999-08-01

    The clustering of four food choice motives (health, weight concern, pleasure and ideological reasons) and the relationship between personality and the food choice motives were analysed among young and middle-aged women in two studies. The personality variables included personal strivings, magical beliefs about food, awareness and internalization of thinness pressures, appearance and weight dissatisfaction, depression, self-esteem and symptoms of eating disorders. Study 1 was done with 171 young and middle-aged women. In Study 2, with data provided by 118 senior high-school girls, one cluster of girls who did not regard any of the food choice motives as important was found, otherwise the food choice clusters were fairly similar in both studies. They were labelled as health fosterers, gourmets, ideological eaters, health dieters and distressed dieters. Only the second dieter group, distressed dieters, showed low psychological well-being and symptoms of disordered eating. The results also indicated that ideological food choice motives (i.e. expression of one's identity via food) were best predicted by vegetarianism, magical beliefs about food and health, and personal strivings for ecological welfare and for understanding self and the world. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  9. General and Food-Specific Inhibitory Control As Moderators of the Effects of the Impulsive Systems on Food Choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuemeng; Chen, Shuaiyu; Chen, Hong; Gu, Yan; Xu, Wenjian

    2017-01-01

    The present study aimed to extend the application of the reflective-impulsive model to restrained eating and explore the effect of automatic attention (impulsive system) on food choices. Furthermore, we examined the moderating effects of general inhibitory control (G-IC) and food-specific inhibitory control (F-IC) on successful and unsuccessful restrained eaters (US-REs). Automatic attention was measured using "the EyeLink 1000," which tracked eye movements during the process of making food choices, and G-IC and F-IC were measured using the Stop-Signal Task. The results showed that food choices were related to automatic attention and that G-IC and F-IC moderated the predictive relationship between automatic attention and food choices. Furthermore, among successful restrained eaters (S-REs), automatic attention to high caloric foods did not predict food choices, regardless of whether G-IC or F-IC was high or low. Whereas food choice was positively correlated with automatic attention among US-REs with poor F-IC, this pattern was not observed in those with poor G-IC. In conclusion, the S-REs had more effective self-management skills and their food choices were affected less by automatic attention and inhibitory control. Unsuccessful restrained eating was associated with poor F-IC (not G-IC) and greater automatic attention to high caloric foods. Thus, clinical interventions should focus on enhancing F-IC, not G-IC, and on reducing automatic attention to high caloric foods.

  10. General and Food-Specific Inhibitory Control As Moderators of the Effects of the Impulsive Systems on Food Choices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuemeng Zhang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to extend the application of the reflective-impulsive model to restrained eating and explore the effect of automatic attention (impulsive system on food choices. Furthermore, we examined the moderating effects of general inhibitory control (G-IC and food-specific inhibitory control (F-IC on successful and unsuccessful restrained eaters (US-REs. Automatic attention was measured using “the EyeLink 1000,” which tracked eye movements during the process of making food choices, and G-IC and F-IC were measured using the Stop-Signal Task. The results showed that food choices were related to automatic attention and that G-IC and F-IC moderated the predictive relationship between automatic attention and food choices. Furthermore, among successful restrained eaters (S-REs, automatic attention to high caloric foods did not predict food choices, regardless of whether G-IC or F-IC was high or low. Whereas food choice was positively correlated with automatic attention among US-REs with poor F-IC, this pattern was not observed in those with poor G-IC. In conclusion, the S-REs had more effective self-management skills and their food choices were affected less by automatic attention and inhibitory control. Unsuccessful restrained eating was associated with poor F-IC (not G-IC and greater automatic attention to high caloric foods. Thus, clinical interventions should focus on enhancing F-IC, not G-IC, and on reducing automatic attention to high caloric foods.

  11. Predictive power of task orientation, general self-efficacy and self-determined motivation on fun and boredom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Ruiz-González

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study was to test the predictive power of dispositional orientations, general self-efficacy and self-determined motivation on fun and boredom in physical education classes, with a sample of 459 adolescents between 13 and 18 with a mean age of 15 years (SD = 0.88. The adolescents responded to four Likert scales: Perceptions of Success Questionnaire, General Self-Efficacy Scale, Sport Motivation Scale and Intrinsic Satisfaction Questionnaire in Sport. The results showed the structural regression model showed that task orientation and general self-efficacy positively predicted self-determined motivation and this in turn positively predicted more fun and less boredom in physical education classes. Consequently, the promotion of an educational task-oriented environment where learners perceive their progress and make them feel more competent, will allow them to overcome the intrinsically motivated tasks, and therefore they will have more fun. Pedagogical implications for less boredom and more fun in physical education classes are discussed.

  12. The role of motivation of students career in surgery in the cycle «general surgery»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. V. Kapshytar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available At all times, a high degree of motivation for the choice of the medical profession, was a determining factor for the income and education in medical school of III-IV accreditation levels [1, 2, 5, 6, 9]. Many young people even at the pre-university stage, decided to dedicate their lives surgery [3, 4, 8, 9]. Getting practice in the surgical clinic at the famous and well-known professors is additional motivation for the students to choose surgeon path [2 - 4, 10]. Purpose: to study the motives for surgeon career choices by III year students in the cycle «General Surgery». Material and methods. The important role of the teacher in the department of General surgery and patient care ZSMU to awake and motivate student to master theoretical knowledge and practical skills in the surgery. Students who passed the theoretical departments have onlytheoretical knowledge of the basic pathological processes and they don’t have experience in working with patients. Many of them are insecure due to the necessity of mastering the wealth of knowledge and responsibility for making decision. Its dramatically reduces the desire to study. In this situation, teacher should identify motivation for the acquisition of basic knowledge in surgery on the practical sessions and lectures. Results and its discussion. To solve this problem in the surgical department of Community Hospital ‘City Clinical Hospital № 2’ in Zaporozhye survey questionnaires and it’s analysis have been taken place. It was found that over the past year, a desire to become surgeons was expressed in 26,2% of the students. The key motives for pre-selection of this profession were: presence of family medical dynasties (48,6%, positive experience of treatment by a surgeon in the past (21,1%, positive health education (12,5%. Therefore, most of the students' motivation was found before entering the ZSMU. At the end of the course ‘general surgery’ none of the students has changed his/her dream

  13. An Investigation into Food Preferences and the Neural Basis of Food-Related Incentive Motivation in Prader-Willi Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinton, E. C.; Holland, A. J.; Gellatly, M. S. N.; Soni, S.; Owen, A. M.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Research into the excessive eating behaviour associated with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) to date has focused on homeostatic and behavioural investigations. The aim of this study was to examine the role of the reward system in such eating behaviour, in terms of both the pattern of food preferences and the neural substrates of incentive…

  14. Motivational interviewing by general practitioners for Type 2 diabetes patients: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thepwongsa, Isaraporn; Muthukumar, Radhakrishnan; Kessomboon, Pattapong

    2017-08-01

    Motivational interviewing (MI) is an effective tool to help clinicians with facilitating behavioural changes in many diseases and conditions. However, different forms of MI are required in different health care settings and for different clinicians. Although general practitioners (GPs) play a major role in Type 2 diabetes management, the effects of MI delivered by GPs intended to change the behaviours of their Type 2 diabetes patients and GP outcomes, defined as GP knowledge, satisfaction and practice behaviours, have not been systematically reviewed. An electronic search was conducted through Cochrane Library, Scopus, ProQuest, Wiley Online Library, Ovid MEDLINE, PubMed, CINAHL, MEDLINE Complete and Google Scholar from the earliest date of each database to 2017. Reference lists from each article obtained were reviewed. Measured changes in GP satisfaction, knowledge, and practice behaviours, and patient outcomes were recorded. Eight out of 1882 studies met the criteria for inclusion. Six studies examined the effects of MI on Type 2 diabetes patient outcomes, only one of which examined its effects on GP outcomes. Two-thirds of the studies (4/6) found a significant improvement in at least one of the following patient outcomes: total cholesterol, low-density lipoproteins, fasting blood glucose, HbA1c, body mass index, blood pressure, waist circumference and physical activity. The effects of MI on GP outcomes yielded mixed results. Few studies have examined evidence for the effectiveness of MI delivered by GPs to Type 2 diabetes patients. Evidence to support the effectiveness of MI on GP and patient outcomes is weak. Further quality studies are needed to examine the effects of MI on GP and patient outcomes.

  15. Food Choice Motives among the Students of a Dental Institution in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Table 1: Mean scores on food choice factors in relation to student year. Scale. Mean (SD). P value. 1st year ... developing diseases and attitudes toward healthy eating is fully mediated by food .... of Support: Nil. Conflict of Interest: None declared.

  16. Characterization of attenuated food motivation in high-fat diet-induced obesity: Critical roles for time on diet and reinforcer familiarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracy, Andrea L; Wee, Colin J M; Hazeltine, Grace E; Carter, Rebecca A

    2015-03-15

    Prior work using animal models to study the effects of obesogenic diets on food motivation have generated inconsistent results, with some reporting increases and others reporting decreases in responding on food-reinforced tasks. Here, we identified two specific variables that may account for these discrepant outcomes - the length of time on the obesigenic diet and the familiarity of the food reinforcer - and examined the independent roles of these factors. Time on diet was found to be inversely related to food motivation, as rats consuming a 40% high-fat diet (HFD) for only 3weeks did not differ from chow-fed rats when responding for a sucrose reinforcer on a progressive ratio (PR) schedule, but responding was suppressed after 6weeks of ad lib HFD consumption. Explicitly manipulating experience with the sucrose reinforcer by pre-exposing half the rats prior to 10weeks of HFD consumption attenuated the motivational deficit seen in the absence of this familiarity, resulting in obese rats performing at the same level as lean rats. Finally, after 8weeks on a HFD, rats did not express a conditioned place preference for sucrose, indicating a decrement in reward value independent of motivation. These findings are consistent with prior literature showing an increase in food motivation for rats with a shorter time consuming the obesigenic diet, and for those with more prior experience with the reinforcer. This account also helps reconcile these findings with increased food motivation in obese humans due to extensive experience with palatable food and suggests that researchers engaging in non-human animal studies of obesity would better model the conditions under which human obesity develops by using a varied, cafeteria-style diet to increase the breadth of food experiences.

  17. The Role of Work Habits in the Motivation of Food Safety Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinsz, Verlin B.; Nickell, Gary S.; Park, Ernest S.

    2007-01-01

    The authors considered work habits within an integrated framework of motivated behavior. A distinction made between automatic and controlled action led to 2 measures of work habits: a habit strength measure reflecting the 4 characteristics of automaticity and a measure of work routines under conscious control. Workers at a turkey processing plant…

  18. Impact of simulated ostracism on overweight and normal-weight youths' motivation to eat and food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvy, Sarah-Jeanne; Bowker, Julie C; Nitecki, Lauren A; Kluczynski, Melissa A; Germeroth, Lisa J; Roemmich, James N

    2011-02-01

    There is growing evidence that the experience of being ostracized can impair individuals' abilities to self-regulate, which in turn, leads to negative health behaviors, such as increased unhealthy eating. Research has focused on adults, but deficits in eating regulation in response to ostracism may be particularly detrimental for overweight or obese youth. This study examines the effects of a brief episode of ostracism on the motivation to eat and food intake of overweight and normal-weight young adolescents (M age=13.6 years). A computerized ball-tossing game (Cyberball) was used to induce ostracism or inclusion. Following the inclusion/ostracism manipulation, all participants completed an operant computer task to earn points exchangeable for portions of food or for time socializing with an unfamiliar peer. Participants' responses for food and their subsequent energy intake were recorded. As hypothesized, ostracized overweight participants responded more for food and had a greater energy intake than overweight participants in the inclusion/control condition; whereas this was not the case for normal-weight participants. These results are important as studies indicate that overweight and obese youth may be at risk of social isolation and peer difficulties. Social adversity, if left unchanged, may increase the difficulty of promoting long-term changes in overweight youths' health behaviors.

  19. The Effects of Life Domains, Constraints, and Motivations on Academic Dishonesty: A Partial Test and Extension of Agnew's General Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochran, John K

    2017-08-01

    Recently, Robert Agnew introduced a new general theory of crime and delinquency in which he attempted to corral the vast array of theoretical "causes" of criminal conduct into a more parsimonious statement organized into one of five life domains: self, family, peers, school, and work as well as constraints against crime and motivation for it. These domains are depicted as the source of constraints and motivations and whose effects are, in part, mediated by these constraints and motivations. Based on self-report data on academic dishonesty from a sample of college students, the present study attempts to test this general theory. While several of the life domain variables had significant effects of cheating in the baseline model, all of these effects were fully mediated by constraints and motivations. In the final model, academic dishonesty was observed to be most significantly affected by the perceived severity of formal sanction threats, the number of credit hours enrolled, the frequency of skipping classes, and pressure from friends.

  20. [Summary of the Dutch College of General Practitioners' practice guideline on food hypersensitivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luning-Koster, M.N.; Lucassen, P.L.B.J.; Boukes, F.S.; Goudswaard, A.

    2011-01-01

    October 2010 the Dutch College of General Practitioners issued a revised version of their previous practice guideline of 1995 on food hypersensitivity in infants. If patients suspect either themselves or their child of having a food allergy, this is usually not demonstrated in subsequent investigati

  1. General Template for the FMEA Applications in Primary Food Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özilgen, Sibel; Özilgen, Mustafa

    2016-11-22

    Data on the hazards involved in the primary steps of processing cereals, fruit and vegetables, milk and milk products, meat and meat products, and fats and oils are compiled with a wide-ranging literature survey. After determining the common factors from these data, a general FMEA template is offered, and its use is explained with a case study on pasteurized milk production.

  2. Are consumers guided by selfish or unselfish motives when they buy organic food?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    for selfish reasons, i.e., because they believe organic food is healthier, taste better, or is of superior quality in other ways. This claim has been backed by survey data as well as qualitative interview data. However, I argue here that the claim is actually false and that the evidence backing it reflects...... is analyzing how the purchase of organic food relates to the individual consumer's value priorities, using a comprehensive measurement instrument for values. Following this line of reasoning, the objective of the empirical part of the paper is to answer the question whether buying organic food is related...... to selfish (self-enhancement) or unselfish (self-transcendence) values? A survey study is reported based on representative samples of 1,000 respondents from each of eight European countries. It is found that the purchase of organic food is more strongly and consistently related to self-transcendence values...

  3. Motivations for Choosing Teaching as a Career: Effects on General Pedagogical Knowledge during Initial Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konig, Johannes; Rothland, Martin

    2012-01-01

    The authors first ask to what extent future teachers in Germany endorse teaching motivations indicated by the FIT-Choice scale. This includes reporting on the confirmatory factor analysis they carried out to examine and to replicate the FIT-Choice scale structure in the specific cultural context of Germany with a sample of 1287 preservice…

  4. The Impact of Motivational Interviewing on Client Experiences of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Generalized Anxiety Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kertes, Angela; Westra, Henny A.; Angus, Lynne; Marcus, Madalyn

    2011-01-01

    Motivational Interviewing (MI) has recently been applied to the treatment of anxiety disorders in an effort to bolster engagement with and response rates to cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). In a recent randomized control trial, the addition of MI as a pretreatment compared to no pretreatment was found to significantly improve response to CBT…

  5. Basic Factors that Affect General Academic Motivation Levels of Candidate Preschool Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celikoz, Nadir

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate some personal and familial factors that affect overall academic motivation levels of candidate preschool teachers. The study group of this research consists of 285 students attending the child development and preschool education department at Selcuk University Faculty of Vocational Education in the…

  6. [Motivations and barriers of chilean children; threats or opportunities for the implementation of 2013 food based dietary guidelines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares, Sonia; Zacarías, Isabel; González, Carmen Gloria

    2014-08-01

    Implementation of the updated Food Based Dietary Guidelines (FBDG) for the Chilean population requires the design of innovative strategies and effective. To determine motivations and barriers for children and mothers of preschool-age children to follow new FBDG messages, aiming to identify challenges and opportunities for designing effective communication and implementation strategies. A qualitative study based on 12 focus groups of 9 to 13 age children and 6 focus groups of mothers of preschool-age children, living in the north, central and south regions of the country, to analyze their reaction to each one of the 2013 FBDG messages. Answers of children and mothers did not show differences by gender (in the case of the children) or region of the country. Results show the most frequent and representative comments regarding each message. Challenges to reducing the consumption of foods high in energy, fat, sugar and salt include advertisements and plentiful supply and low prices for these types of foods, both in the school environment and on the street. Opportunities identified included the advertisement of fruits, vegetables and dairy products to promote their consumption, as well as the coming implementation of Law 20.606, which is expected to be an effective way to support this initiative. The results of this study show that the design of strategies based on values, desires and needs of different groups will contribute to optimizing the implementation of the 2013 Chilean FBDG. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  7. Consumer buying motives and attitudes towards organic food in two emerging markets: China and Brazil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John; de Barcellos, Marcia Dutra; Perin, Marcelo Gattermann;

    2015-01-01

    and conclusions are limited by the covered countries and products. Practical implications: Key consumer value propositions with respect to organic food seem cross-culturally valid and universally accepted by a segment of customers that share these values. Hence, organic food can be mar-keted globally based...... on a universal set of key value propositions. The same could be true for other global prod-ucts sharing similar types of certifiable value propositions. Social implications: New insights of value for the cross-cultural marketing of “green” and ethical consumer prod-ucts. Originality/value: Fills a gap...... about its healthiness, taste and environmental friendliness. Also, consumer attitudes towards buying organic food are positively related to what Schwartz’s “Universalism” values in all studied cultures. Research limitations: Correlational (survey) data do not allow conclusions about causality...

  8. Motivation, Confidence, and Control; Unraveling Active Learning for Nutrition and Food Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paxman, Jenny R.; Nield, Kevin; Hall, Anna C.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract: Nutrition and food students at Sheffield Hallam University completed an "active learning" assessment as part of a final year module, Applied Nutrition 2. The purpose of the "active learning" assessment was to encourage and enhance learner autonomy. The assessment consisted of 5 main stages: a briefing, thought shower, oral business…

  9. General patterns of managerial approaches to work motivation: Implications for rehabilitation professionals involved in occupational rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, G C; Foreman, P

    1993-03-01

    Calls for rehabilitation counselors to learn more about the world of work have been recently repeated. The validity of these calls is suggested by a group of studies which indicate that the rehabilitation counseling literature has an established emphasis on matters of counseling and adjustment rather than on matters related to behavior in organizations. A survey of rehabilitation counsellors' beliefs about key topics in organizational behavior indicates that their beliefs are often discrepant with those of practicing managers and supervisors. A summary of dominant models of work motivation adopted by managerial workers is presented and some implications for occupational rehabilitation practice identified. Finally, some contemporary literature relevant to managerial approaches to employee motivation are identified and it is suggested that familiarity with this literature could assist rehabilitation practitioners move from a more narrow occupational rehabilitation role to a broader involvement in organizational life via the expansion of the disability management approach in work organizations.

  10. Intrinsic and extrinsic motivations in primary care: an explanatory study among French general practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicsic, Jonathan; Le Vaillant, Marc; Franc, Carine

    2012-12-01

    Like many other OECD nations, France has implemented a pay-for-performance (P4P) model in primary care. However, the benefits have been debated, particularly regarding the possibly undesirable effects of extrinsic motivation (EM) on intrinsic motivation (IM). To examine the relationship between French GPs' IM and EM based on an intrinsic motivation composite score (IMCS) developed for this purpose. If a negative relationship is found, P4P schemes could have side effects on GPs' IM that is a key determinant of quality of care. From data on 423 GPs practicing in a region of France, IM indicators are selected using a multiple correspondence analysis and aggregated from a multilevel model. Several doctors' characteristics have significant impacts on IMCS variability, especially group practice and salaried practice. Qualitative EM variables are negatively correlated with the IMCS: GPs who report not being satisfied with their income or feeling "often" constrained by patients' requests in terms of consultations length and office appointments obtain a lower mean IMCS than other GPs. Our results provide a cautionary message to regulators who should take into account the potential side effects of increasing EM through policies such as P4P. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. What motivates the consumer's food choice? ¿Qué motiva la elección de los alimentos en los consumidores?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Jáuregui-Lobera

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the study was to analyse the psychometric properties of the Food Choice Questionnaire (FCQ in Spanish population (FCQ-SP, its factor structure and internal consistency. In addition, the relationships between the FCQ-SP and the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ, the Irrational Food Beliefs Scale (IFBS, and the Eating Disorders Inventory-3 (EDI-3 were analysed in order to explore the validity of the FCQSP. Possible gender differences in the food choice pattern were analysed. Methods: The sample comprised 255 women and 50 men, ranged from 25 to 64 years. In order to get a better interpretation of the results associated with changes based on the age, the participants were grouped in four age intervals (25-34, 35-44, 45-54, and 55-64. All the participants were relatives of secondary and high school students in three schools of Seville and Cordoba. Results: The factor analysis yields the seven following factors: mood, health and natural content, sensory appeal, weight control, convenience, familiarity, and price. The internal consistency was determined by means of the Cronbach's α coefficients, which ranged from 0.70 to 0.83 for the different components. With regards to the food choice profile, sensory appeal was the most motivating factor to choose food, followed by price and weight control. With respect to gender differences, women showed higher scores than men in all components except in the case of price. Discussion: The FCQ-SP has adequate psychometric properties to be applied to Spanish population, and it is useful to explore the consumers' motivation with regards to food choice.Objetivo: Analizar las propiedades psicométricas del Cuestionario de Elección de Alimentos (FCQ en población española, su estructura factorial y consistencia interna, además de las relaciones entre el FCQ y el Cuestionario de Salud General (GHQ, la Escala de Creencias Irracionales sobre los Alimentos (IFBS y el Inventario de Trastornos

  12. Increased hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal drive is associated with decreased appetite and hypoactivation of food-motivation neurocircuitry in anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Elizabeth A; Holsen, Laura M; Desanti, Rebecca; Santin, McKale; Meenaghan, Erinne; Herzog, David B; Goldstein, Jill M; Klibanski, Anne

    2013-11-01

    Corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH)-mediated hypercortisolemia has been demonstrated in anorexia nervosa (AN), a psychiatric disorder characterized by food restriction despite low body weight. While CRH is anorexigenic, downstream cortisol stimulates hunger. Using a food-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) paradigm, we have demonstrated hypoactivation of brain regions involved in food motivation in women with AN, even after weight recovery. The relationship between hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis dysregulation and appetite and the association with food-motivation neurocircuitry hypoactivation are unknown in AN. We investigated the relationship between HPA activity, appetite, and food-motivation neurocircuitry hypoactivation in AN. Cross-sectional study of 36 women (13 AN, ten weight-recovered AN (ANWR), and 13 healthy controls (HC)). Peripheral cortisol and ACTH levels were measured in a fasting state and 30, 60, and 120 min after a standardized mixed meal. The visual analog scale was used to assess homeostatic and hedonic appetite. fMRI was performed during visual processing of food and non-food stimuli to measure the brain activation pre- and post-meal. In each group, serum cortisol levels decreased following the meal. Mean fasting, 120 min post-meal, and nadir cortisol levels were high in AN vs HC. Mean postprandial ACTH levels were high in ANWR compared with HC and AN subjects. Cortisol levels were associated with lower fasting homeostatic and hedonic appetite, independent of BMI and depressive symptoms. Cortisol levels were also associated with between-group variance in activation in the food-motivation brain regions (e.g. hypothalamus, amygdala, hippocampus, orbitofrontal cortex, and insula). HPA activation may contribute to the maintenance of AN by the suppression of appetitive drive.

  13. 75 FR 31800 - Substances Generally Recognized as Safe Added to Food for Animals; Notice of Pilot Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-04

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Substances Generally Recognized as Safe Added to Food for... in food) to be safe under the conditions of their intended use. B. Elements of the GRAS Standard... determination that a food additive is safe requires technical evidence of safety, a determination that...

  14. Dispelling myths about a new healthful food can be more motivating than promoting nutritional benefits: the case of Tofu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wansink, Brian; Shimizu, Mitsuru; Brumberg, Adam

    2014-04-01

    This study examines what factors impact the adoption of certain types of healthy foods, such as Tofu, by future nutritional gatekeepers. Information on perceived facilitators and barriers to the utilization of barriers would be obtained via interviews and surveys. In-depth laddering interviews and an online survey during 2012 were utilized. The in-depth laddering interviews were conducted with 83 young women and new mothers (non-vegetarians and non-Asians) who were enthusiastic lovers of Tofu. 502 women from the target demographic (between 20 and 35, non-Asian) were recruited from a national panel and surveyed online in 2012. Based on the interviews, 21 primary reasons for trying Tofu (facilitators) and 10 reasons that might be preventative (barriers) were identified. A key finding was that facilitators were not motivating factors for why women adopted Tofu into their diets. Instead, barriers explained more than 44% of the variance for not adopting tofu. When encouraging nutritional gatekeepers to add Tofu to their household diets, it may be more effective to focus on changing the barriers. This study suggests that nutritionists and health practitioners may be more successful in encouraging the adoption of healthy new foods by dispelling their misconceptions rather than focusing on their nutritional benefits. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Impact of perinatal exposure to high-fat diet and stress on responses to nutritional challenges, food-motivated behaviour and mesolimbic dopamine function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romaní-Pérez, M; Lépinay, A L; Alonso, L; Rincel, M; Xia, L; Fanet, H; Caillé, S; Cador, M; Layé, S; Vancassel, S; Darnaudéry, M

    2017-04-01

    Energy-dense food exposure and stress during development have been suggested to contribute to obesity and metabolic disorders later in life. Although these factors are frequently associated, the effects of their combination have not yet been investigated. In this study, using an animal model, we examined the long-term impact of maternal high-fat diet (HFD) and early-life stress (ELS) on energy homoeostasis control and food motivation. Body weight growth under HFD, adipose tissue, body weight control in response to fasting and refeeding, food-motivated behaviour and mesolimbic dopamine function were examined in adult male offspring exposed to maternal HFD (during gestation and lactation) and/or ELS (maternal separation 3 h per day from postnatal day 2 to 14). Maternal HFD or ELS alone had no significant effect on offspring body weight; however, the combination of these factors exacerbated body weight gain when animals were exposed to HFD after weaning. There are no other significant combinatory effects of these perinatal events. In contrast, independently of the maternal diet, ELS disrupted body weight control during a fasting-refeeding procedure, increased adipose tissue mass and altered lipid metabolism. Finally, maternal HFD and ELS both resulted in exacerbated food-motivated behaviour and blunted dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens during palatable food consumption. We report a synergistic effect of perinatal HFD exposure and stress on the susceptibility to gain weight under HFD. However, ELS has a stronger impact than maternal HFD exposure on energy homoeostasis and food motivation in adult offspring. Altogether, our results suggest a programming effect of stress and nutrition supporting the hypothesis of the developmental origin of health and disease.

  16. Food parenting practices and child dietary behavior. Prospective relations and the moderating role of general parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleddens, Ester F C; Kremers, Stef P J; Stafleu, Annette; Dagnelie, Pieter C; De Vries, Nanne K; Thijs, Carel

    2014-08-01

    Research on parenting practices has focused on individual behaviors while largely failing to consider the context of their use, i.e., general parenting. We examined the extent to which food parenting practices predict children's dietary behavior (classified as unhealthy: snacking, sugar-sweetened beverage; and healthy: water and fruit intake). Furthermore, we tested the moderating role of general parenting on this relationship. Within the KOALA Birth Cohort Study, in the Netherlands, questionnaire data were collected at 6 and 8 years (N = 1654). Correlations were computed to assess the association between food parenting practices and general parenting (i.e., nurturance, behavioral control, structure, coercive control, and overprotection). Linear regression models were fitted to assess whether food parenting practices predict dietary behavior. Instrumental and emotional feeding, and pressure to eat were found to have associations with undesirable child dietary behavior (increased unhealthy intake/decreased healthy intake), whereas associations were in the desirable direction for covert control, encouragement and restriction. Moderation analyses were performed by evaluating interactions with general parenting. The associations of encouragement and covert control with desirable child dietary behaviors were found to be stronger for children who were reared in a positive parenting context. Future research should assess the influence of contextual parenting factors moderating the relationships between food parenting and child dietary behavior as the basis for the development of more effective family-based interventions.

  17. Motivation in Beyond Budgeting: A Motivational Paradox?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandalgaard, Niels; Bukh, Per Nikolaj

    In this paper we discuss the role of motivation in relation to budgeting and we analyse how the Beyond Budgeting model functions compared with traditional budgeting. In the paper we focus on budget related motivation (and motivation in general) and conclude that the Beyond Budgeting model...... is a motivational paradox....

  18. Sex and type of feed effects on motivation and ability to walk for a food reward in fast growing broilers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bokkers, E.A.M.; Koene, P.

    2002-01-01

    Housing conditions, body weight, leg problems and pain influence behaviour of broilers. Apart from the physical ability, little is known about the motivation to perform behaviour. The distinction between motivation and ability is relevant as a lack of motivation has consequences for the interpretati

  19. Ecological generalism and behavioural innovation in birds: technical intelligence or the simple incorporation of new foods?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducatez, Simon; Clavel, Joanne; Lefebvre, Louis

    2015-01-01

    Generalist species are more successful than specialists in anthropogenically modified environments or in environments in which they have been introduced, but the nature of the link between generalism and establishment success is unclear. A higher feeding innovation rate has previously been reported in habitat generalist birds from North America. By allowing them to exploit new resources, this higher feeding innovation rate might explain the generalists' advantage. This result might be due to generalists being more likely to find new resources because they are exposed to more diverse environmental conditions. Alternatively, they might differ from specialists in other traits, in particular cognitive skills that might allow them to innovate more complex food searching and handling techniques. To test these hypotheses, we separated avian feeding innovations into a 'technical' (novel searching and handling behaviour) and a 'food type' (incorporation of a new food in a species' diet) category. Technical innovations, but not food type innovations, have previously been shown to correlate with avian brain size, suggesting they reflect cognitive ability. We used a world-wide data base of 2339 feeding innovations recorded in the literature, covering a total of 765 avian species and assessed the correlations between brain size and feeding innovation rates on one side and habitat and diet generalism on the other. Habitat generalism was positively related with food type innovation rate, but not technical innovation rate or brain size. This suggests that habitat generalist species are more likely to incorporate new food types in their diet because of higher chances to find new food resources in their environment, or of a higher opportunism, but not enhanced cognitive skills. In contrast, diet generalist species had higher food type and technical innovation rates, as well as larger brains, suggesting that cognitive skills might help species expand their diet breadth or that an

  20. Behavioral measures of risk tasking, sensation seeking and sensitivity to reward may reflect different motivations for spicy food liking and consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrnes, Nadia K; Hayes, John E

    2016-08-01

    Based on work a quarter century ago, it is widely accepted personality traits like sensation seeking are related to the enjoyment and intake of spicy foods; however, data supporting this belief is actually quite limited. Recently, we reported strong to moderate correlations between remembered spicy food liking and two personality traits measured with validated questionnaires. Here, participants consumed capsaicin-containing strawberry jelly to generate acute estimates of spicy food liking. Additionally, we used a laboratory-based behavioral measure of risk taking (the mobile Balloon Analogue Risk Task; mBART) to complement a range of validated self-report measures of risk-related personality traits. Present data confirm Sensation Seeking correlates with overall spicy meal liking and liking of the burn of a spicy meal, and extends prior findings by showing novel correlations with the liking of sampled stimuli. Other personality measures, including Sensitivity to Punishment (SP), Sensitivity to Reward (SR), and the Impulsivity and Risk Taking subscales of the DSM5 Personality Inventory (PID-5) did not show significant relationships with liking of spicy foods, either sampled or remembered. Our behavioral risk taking measure, the mBART, also failed to show a relationship with remembered or sampled liking. However, significant relationships were observed between reported intake of spicy foods and Sensitivity to Reward, and the Risk Taking subscale of the PID-5 (PID5-RT). Based on the observed patterns among various personality measures, and spicy food liking and intake, we propose that personality measures may exert their influence on intake of spicy food via different mechanisms. We also speculate that Sensation Seeking may reflect motivations for consuming spicy foods that are more intrinsic, while the motivations for eating spicy foods measured by SR and PID5-RT may be more extrinsic.

  1. From the general to the specific: How social trust motivates relational trust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Blaine G

    2016-01-01

    When people form beliefs about the trustworthiness of others with respect to particular matters (i.e., when individuals trust), theory suggests that they rely on preexistent cognitive schemas regarding the general cooperativeness of individuals and organizations (i.e., social trust). In spite of prior work, the impact of social trust on relational trust-or what Russell Hardin (2002) calls trust as a three-part relation where actor A trusts actor B with reference to matter Y-is not well established. Four vignette experiments were administered to Amazon.com Mechanical Turk workers (N = 1388 and N = 1419) and to public university undergraduate students (N = 995 and N = 956) in order to investigate the relationship between social trust and relational trust. Measures of general social trust and particular social trust produced statistically equivalent effects that were positively associated with relational trust. Political trust, however, was statistically unrelated to relational trust. These results support the idea that people rely on schemas and stereotypes concerned with the general cooperativeness and helpfulness of others when forming beliefs about another person's trustworthiness with respect to a particular matter at hand. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Client Retrospective Accounts of Corrective Experiences in Motivational Interviewing Integrated With Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Generalized Anxiety Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macaulay, Christianne; Angus, Lynne; Khattra, Jasmine; Westra, Henny; Ip, Jennifer

    2017-02-01

    A corrective experience (CE) is one "in which a person comes to understand or experience affectively an event or relationship in a different and unexpected way" (Castonguay & Hill, 2012, p. 5). CEs disconfirm clients' expectations based on past problematic experiences, and can be emotional, relational, behavioral, and/or cognitive. This qualitative study explored corrective shifts among recovered participants (N = 8) who had received motivational interviewing (MI) integrated with cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) in a randomized controlled trial comparing CBT alone to MI-CBT for generalized anxiety disorder (Westra, Constantino, & Antony, 2016). We administered a posttherapy interview querying their experience of, and explanations for, any shifts in therapy. Grounded theory analysis yielded three core themes: in command of the worry train, experiencing myself in new ways in therapy, and oriented toward change. Findings are discussed in terms of MI theory, and clinical implications for therapists are provided.

  3. Perception Gaps on Food Additives among Various Groups in Korea: Food Experts, Teachers, Nutrition Teachers, Nongovernmental Organization Members, and General Consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hee-Jin; Kim, Suna; Lee, Gunyoung; Lim, Ho Soo; Yun, Sang Soon; Kim, Jeong-Weon

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the perceptions and information needs of food experts, teachers, nutrition teachers, members of nongovernmental organizations, and general consumers concerning food additives. Questions in a survey format included perceptions, information needs, and preferred communication channels. The survey was conducted both off-line and on-line via e-mail and Google Drive in March 2015. The results indicated that most Korean consumers are concerned about the safety of using food additives in processed foods and do not recognize these additives as safe and useful materials as part of a modern diet. We also identified perception gaps among different groups regarding food additives. Nutrition teachers and members of nongovernmental organizations in Korea appeared to have a biased perception of food additives, which may cause general consumers to have a negative perception of food additives. The group of food experts did not have this bias. Governmental institutions must overcome the low confidence levels of various groups as an information provider about food additives. Based on the findings in this study, it will be possible to develop a strategy for risk communication about food additives for each group.

  4. Set Matrix Theory as a Physically Motivated Generalization of Zermelo-Fraenkel Set Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Cabbolet, Marcoen J T F

    2012-01-01

    Recently, the Elementary Process Theory (EPT) has been developed as a set of fundamental principles that might underlie a gravitational repulsion of matter and antimatter. This paper presents set matrix theory (SMT) as the foundation of the mathematical-logical framework in which the EPT has been formalized: Zermelo-Fraenkel set theory (ZF), namely, cannot be used as such. SMT is a generalization of ZF: whereas ZF uses only sets as primitive objects, in the framework of SMT finite matrices with set-valued entries are objects sui generis, with a 1\\times1 set matrix [x] being identical to the set x. It is proved that every set that can be constructed in ZF can also be constructed in SMT: as a mathematical foundation, SMT is thus not weaker than ZF. In addition, it is shown that SMT is more suitable han ZF for the intended application to physics. The conclusion is that SMT, contrary to ZF, is acceptable as the mathematical-logical foundation of the framework for physics that is determined by the EPT.

  5. Motivation for the choice of a general practitioner--attitudes of practitioners and patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budak, A; Tiljak, H; Katić, M

    1994-01-01

    The aim of this study was to find out if any significant changes occurred after introducing, the free choice of a general practitioner (GP) into primary health care. The determinants of patients' choice and GP's attitudes regarding this matter were tested. A survey was conducted in 1992 by distributing questionnaires to 71 GP's and 292 patients who chose these GPs. The questionnaires were composed selectively for GPs and patients, and they all answered them anonymously. The group of GPs consisted of 37 (52.1%) GPs with vocational training and of 31 (43.7%) GPs without vocational training. The patients evaluated the GPs' characteristics as very important in choosing a particular GP. Of medium importance were the surgery characteristics (where it was situated, work organization, equipment), and recommendations were the least important. Most frequently, the patients chose a particular GP because he was already the GP of one of the family members. The GPs assessed the family to be the most important determinant for a patient to choose a particular GP. Surgery characteristics (distance and work organization) were evaluated as being of medium importance. The recommendations of a friend were of medium importance, and the recommendations of medical staff were not important, according to the opinion of the surveyed GPs. The only occurrence detected in the survey was that of a "return" phenomenon, in which patients returned to their old GPs, which was a direct consequence of the implementation of the free choice principle into health care practice. The results of this study match the results of similar studies already published, and they are argumented theoretically.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  6. Cross-domain generality of achievement motivation across sport and the classroom: the case of Spanish adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Isabel; Duda, Joan L; Balaguer, Isabel; Tomás, Inés

    2009-01-01

    Drawing from contemporary social cognitive theories of achievement motivation, the relationship of personal theories of achievement (ego and task theory) with perceived ability and reported satisfaction with school and sport was examined. The cross-domain generality of these relationships in these contexts, in the case of a representative sample of adolescents between 11 and 15 years of age (N = 967, M age = 13.5, SD = 1.80; 492 girls and 475 boys) from the Valencian Community (Spain) also was examined. According to previous research in the United States (Duda & Nicholls, 1992), the findings of this study indicate a cross-domain consistency with regard to how adolescents tend to define success and their views of how achievement activities operate across sport and the classroom. However, little cross-domain generality was found for perceptions of ability and reported satisfaction. In the sport and classroom domains, a task theory was related to greater satisfaction, while an ego theory was related to greater reported boredom and low interest in the activity.

  7. Enhanced defensiveness and increased food motivation each contribute to aggression and success in food competition by rats with medial hypothalamic lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, D J; Petrovic, D M; Jonik, R H; Walsh, M L

    1991-01-01

    Castrated male rats (N = 27) with medial hypothalamic lesions or sham lesions were placed on a 23-h food-deprivation schedule and adapted to a highly palatable liquid food. They were also given two tests of defensiveness toward an experimenter. All animals were then housed in medial hypothalamic lesion/sham lesion pairs and subjected to a series of 6 competition tests (1 per day). Following the competition tests, all animals were given individual food consumption tests and a third test of defensiveness toward an experimenter. Correlational analysis showed that postcompetition defensiveness scores but not precompetition defensiveness scores or individual food consumption were related to aggression during the food competition. Analysis by criterion groups indicated that animals high in precompetition defensiveness and with food consumption in the normal range were not more successful in the competition but were slightly more aggressive than their sham-lesioned competitors. Animals with high postcompetition defensiveness scores and with individual food consumption in the normal range were more successful than their sham-lesioned competitors and the most aggressive of the lesioned animals during the food competition. Animals that were high in food consumption and only moderately defensive were also more successful but only slightly more aggressive in the food competition than their sham-lesioned competitors. These results suggest that a high and stable level of defensiveness, and excessive food intake, each contribute to the success and aggressiveness of rats with medial hypothalamic lesions in a food competition situation.

  8. Time Frame and Justice Motive: Future Perspective Moderates the Adaptive Function of General Belief in a Just World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Michael Shengtao; Sutton, Robbie M.; Yan, Xiaodan; Zhou, Chan; Chen, Yiwen; Zhu, Zhuohong; Han, Buxin

    2013-01-01

    Background The human ability to envision the future, that is, to take a future perspective (FP), plays a key role in the justice motive and its function in transcending disadvantages and misfortunes. The present research investigated whether individual (Study 1) and situational (Study 2) differences in FP moderated the association of general belief in a just world (GBJW) with psychological resilience. Methodology/Principal Findings We investigated FP, GBJW, and resilience in sample of adolescents (n = 223) and disaster survivors (n = 218) in China. In Study 1, adolescents revealed stronger GBJW than PBJW, and GBJW uniquely predicted resilience in the daily lives of those with high FP (but not those with low FP). In Study 2, natural priming of FP (vs. no FP) facilitated the association of GBJW with resilience after disaster. Conclusions/Significance Supporting predictions, participants endorsed GBJW more strongly than PBJW. Further, GBJW interacted with FP in both studies, such that there was an association between GBJW and resilience at high but not low levels of FP. The results corroborate recent findings suggesting that GBJW may be more psychologically adaptive than PBJW among some populations. They also confirm that focusing on the future is an important aspect of the adaptive function of just-world beliefs. PMID:24312235

  9. The effects of initial participation motivations on learning engagement in transition training for future general practitioners in rural China: perceived deterrents as mediator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guan-yu Cui

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: For the shortage of high-quality general practitioners (GPs in China's rural areas, Chinese government has taken steps to encourage rural specialists to participate in transition training for future GPs. Specialists’ initial participation motivations and their perceived deterrents during training may play important roles for their learning engagement in the transition training. This study aimed at revealing the relationships among the variables of initial participation motivations, perceived deterrents in training, and learning engagement. Methods: A questionnaire survey was used in this study. A total of 156 rural specialists who participated in transition training for future GPs filled out the questionnaire, which consisted of the measurements of initial participation motivations, perceived deterrents, and learning engagement in training. The data about specialists’ demographic variables were collected at the same time. Results: The variance of initial escape/stimulations motivation significantly predicted the variance of learning engagement through the full mediating role of perceived deterrents in training. In addition, initial educational preparation motivations predicted the variance of learning engagement directly. Conclusions: Specialists’ initial participation motivations and perceived deterrents in training played important roles for learning engagement in the transition training.

  10. Health-related quality of life of food allergic patients : comparison with the general population and other diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flokstra-de Blok, B. M. J.; Dubois, A. E. J.; Vlieg - Boerstra, B. J.; Oude Elberink, J. N. G.; Raat, H.; DunnGalvin, A.; Hourihane, J. O'B.; Duiverman, E. J.

    2010-01-01

    P>Background: To date no studies have compared generic health-related quality of life (HRQL) of food allergic patients from childhood to adulthood with that of the general population or patients with other chronic diseases. The aim of this study was to compare generic HRQL of food allergic patients

  11. Motives Underlying Food Choice for Children and Perception of Nutritional Information Among Low-Income Mothers in a Latin American Country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machín, Leandro; Giménez, Ana; Curutchet, María Rosa; Martínez, Joseline; Ares, Gastón

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of nutritional information on how low-income mothers select food for their children. Five focus groups, each consisting of 5-10 participants, were conducted. Women, older than 18 years, mothers of young children who were beneficiaries of one of the national food stamps programs in Uruguay. Focus group discussions were held around motives underlying food choices for children and perception of labeling systems. Transcripts of the focus group discussions were analyzed using inductive coding. Forty-two women, aged between 18 and 40 years, participated in 5 focus groups. Results showed that low-income mothers do not consider nutritional information when selecting food their children. Traditional nutritional labeling was perceived as complex, difficult to find, and difficult to understand. Participants stressed that they relied on the nutrition claims included on labels for assessing the healthfulness of food products. Semi-directive and directive front-of-pack labels were positively evaluated in terms of ease of interpretation. Participants preferred the traffic light system over other alternatives. Results suggest the need to implement simplified nutritional labeling and to regulate the use of nutrition claims on products targeted at children. Copyright © 2016 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Economics of food safety in chains: a review of general principles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valeeva, N.I.; Meuwissen, M.P.M.; Huirne, R.B.M.

    2004-01-01

    The increased demand for safer food has resulted in the development and introduction of new food safety standards and regulations to reach a higher level of food safety. An integrated approach of controlling food safety throughout the entire food chain (`farm to table`) has become an important issue

  13. Economics of food safety in chains: a review of general principles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valeeva, N.I.; Meuwissen, M.P.M.; Huirne, R.B.M.

    2004-01-01

    The increased demand for safer food has resulted in the development and introduction of new food safety standards and regulations to reach a higher level of food safety. An integrated approach of controlling food safety throughout the entire food chain (`farm to table`) has become an important issue

  14. Selective serotonin receptor stimulation of the medial nucleus accumbens differentially affects appetitive motivation for food on a progressive ratio schedule of reinforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Wayne E; Schall, Megan A; Choi, Eugene

    2012-03-09

    Previously, we reported that stimulation of selective serotonin (5-HT) receptor subtypes in the nucleus accumbens shell differentially affected consumption of freely available food. Specifically, activation of 5-HT(6) receptors caused a dose-dependent increase in food intake, while the stimulation of 5-HT(1/7) receptor subtypes decreased feeding [34]. The current experiments tested whether similar pharmacological activation of nucleus accumbens serotonin receptors would also affect appetitive motivation, as measured by the amount of effort non-deprived rats exerted to earn sugar reinforcement. Rats were trained to lever press for sugar pellets on a progressive ratio 2 schedule of reinforcement. Across multiple treatment days, three separate groups (N=8-10) received bilateral infusions of the 5-HT(6) agonist EMD 386088 (at 0.0, 1.0 and 4.0 μg/0.5 μl/side), the 5-HT(1/7) agonist 5-CT (at 0, 0.5, 1.0, or 4.0 μg/0.5 μl/side), or the 5-HT(2C) agonist RO 60-0175 fumarate (at 0, 2.0, or 5.0 μg/0.5 μl/side) into the anterior medial nucleus accumbens prior to a 1-h progressive ratio session. Stimulation of 5-HT(6) receptors caused a dose-dependent increase in motivation as assessed by break point, reinforcers earned, and total active lever presses. Stimulation of 5-HT(1/7) receptors increased lever pressing at the 0.5 μg dose of 5-CT, but inhibited lever presses and break point at 4.0 μg/side. Injection of the 5-HT(2C) agonist had no effect on motivation within the task. Collectively, these experiments suggest that, in addition to their role in modulating food consumption, nucleus accumbens 5-HT(6) and 5-HT(1/7) receptors also differentially regulate the appetitive components of food-directed motivation.

  15. Motives of former interns in general practice for speciality-choice − Results of a cross-sectional study among graduates 2007 to 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abendroth, Jens; Schnell, Ute; Lichte, Thomas; Oemler, Matthias; Klement, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Background: The influence of a final-year elective internship in general practice (IGP) on motives affecting graduates’ choice of specialty is the object of great public interest, yet still insufficiently evaluated. Longitudinal studies show the influence of numerous motives (e.g. work-life balance), but not following the IGP experience itself. Thus, we performed a cross-sectional questionnaire study of all graduates who completed the IGP in Saxony-Anhalt during 2007-2012 regarding their motives for choosing a speciality. Method: A standardized questionnaire was sent to 109 former interns in general practice. The questionnaire contained 29 items addressing three topics (personal attitudes, concept of personal and professional life, motives for speciality choice) and used single-choice and multiple-choice answers, as well as Likert scales. Correlation analysis was carried out by means of Kendall's tau. Results: The questionnaire reached 97 former interns, of which 45 (46%) responded. In the overall ranking of motives for speciality choice, family (71%), leisure time (66%) and job opportunities (48%) rated as more important than income (36%), mentoring (20%), status or scientific work (20%). Only 29% of the respondents stated that their speciality choice was changed by the IGP. If the speciality choice was already established before the IGP, the influence of the IGP on speciality choice was significantly low (r=-.5; pIGP had an influence on speciality choice, it was correlated with a new perception of general practice (r=.36; pIGP. Conclusion: The final-year IGP is an opportunity to change the perception of general practice in students who are still undecided. This can lead to different speciality choices in a subgroup. Personal attitudes and concepts of personal life and career were also important factors affecting speciality choice. The aspects of the positive influence exerted by medical teachers on those students who are still undecided during the IGP should be

  16. Motives of former interns in general practice for speciality-choice--results of a cross-sectional study among graduates 2007 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abendroth, Jens; Schnell, Ute; Lichte, Thomas; Oemler, Matthias; Klement, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    The influence of a final-year elective internship in general practice (IGP) on motives affecting graduates' choice of specialty is the object of great public interest, yet still insufficiently evaluated. Longitudinal studies show the influence of numerous motives (e.g., work-life balance), but not following the IGP experience itself. Thus, we performed a cross-sectional questionnaire study of all graduates who completed the IGP in Saxony-Anhalt during 2007-2012 regarding their motives for choosing a speciality. A standardized questionnaire was sent to 109 former interns in general practice. The questionnaire contained 29 items addressing three topics (personal attitudes, concept of personal and professional life, motives for speciality choice) and used single-choice and multiple-choice answers, as well as Likert scales. Correlation analysis was carried out by means of Kendall's tau. The questionnaire reached 97 former interns, of which 45 (46%) responded. In the overall ranking of motives for speciality choice, family (71%), leisure time (66%) and job opportunities (48%) rated as more important than income (36%), mentoring (20%), status or scientific work (20%). Only 29% of the respondents stated that their speciality choice was changed by the IGP. If the speciality choice was already established before the IGP, the influence of the IGP on speciality choice was significantly low (r = -.5; p IGP had an influence on speciality choice, it was correlated with a new perception of general practice (r = .36; pIGP. The final-year IGP is an opportunity to change the perception of general practice in students who are still undecided. This can lead to different speciality choices in a subgroup. Personal attitudes and concepts of personal life and career were also important factors affecting speciality choice. The aspects of the positive influence exerted by medical teachers on those students who are still undecided during the IGP should be carefully evaluated.

  17. Economy-wide Impacts of Food Waste Reduction: A General Equilibrium Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Britz, Wolfgang; DUDU HASAN; FERRARI EMANUELE

    2014-01-01

    Food waste is increasingly recognized as an important factor threatening not only food security, but as well several dimensions of sustainability of the food system. However most of the studies in the literature focus on technological aspects and ignore the costs of options to reduce food waste. In this study we develop a framework to analyse the effects of food waste reduction in a CGE model to reflect associated costs across sectors and agents. Our results suggest that enforced food waste r...

  18. How trust in institutions and organizations builds general consumer confidence in the safety of food: a decomposition of effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jonge, J; van Trijp, J C M; van der Lans, I A; Renes, R J; Frewer, L J

    2008-09-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between general consumer confidence in the safety of food and consumer trust in institutions and organizations. More specifically, using a decompositional regression analysis approach, the extent to which the strength of the relationship between trust and general confidence is dependent upon a particular food chain actor (for example, food manufacturers) is assessed. In addition, the impact of specific subdimensions of trust, such as openness, on consumer confidence are analyzed, as well as interaction effects of actors and subdimensions of trust. The results confirm previous findings, which indicate that a higher level of trust is associated with a higher level of confidence. However, the results from the current study extend on previous findings by disentangling the effects that determine the strength of this relationship into specific components associated with the different actors, the different trust dimensions, and specific combinations of actors and trust dimensions. The results show that trust in food manufacturers influences general confidence more than trust in other food chain actors, and that care is the most important trust dimension. However, the contribution of a particular trust dimension in enhancing general confidence is actor-specific, suggesting that different actors should focus on different trust dimensions when the purpose is to enhance consumer confidence in food safety. Implications for the development of communication strategies that are designed to regain or maintain consumer confidence in the safety of food are discussed.

  19. A sipometer for measuring motivation to consume and reward value of foods and beverages in humans: Description and proof of principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogenkamp, P S; Shechter, A; St-Onge, M-P; Sclafani, A; Kissileff, H R

    2017-03-15

    New methods, derived from animal work, for measuring food reward value (i.e. reinforcing value of food), and motivation (i.e. strength of desire) to consume, in humans are described and validated. A sipping device (sipometer) was developed that permits access to a liquid food or beverage on two reward schedules: continuous reinforcement (CR) and progressively increasing time spent exerting pressure on a straw (PR-schedule). In addition, a pictorial scale showing a cup, from which the 'amount wanted' could be marked was used to pre-test potential consumption. Intake, time spent sipping, breakpoint, and pressure exerted were the main dependent variables measured. Three pilot experiments were conducted. In Experiment 1, participants (n=8) consumed yogurt shakes after a 1-h or 21-h food deprivation period on both schedules. In Experiment 2, participants (n=8) sham-consumed (i.e. spit out) sweet and non-sweet beverages, utilizing both schedules. In Experiment 3, sham-consuming sweet and non-sweet beverages on both schedules and working for shake on the PR schedule were repeated, after three nights of either habitual sleep or short sleep duration (n=7) in a crossover design. In Experiment 1, participants sipped longer after 21-h vs. 1-h of food deprivation (13±3.0 vs. 8.0±2.1s; p=0.04), on the PR schedule. In Experiment 2, sham-intake (p=0.01) and sipping time (p=0.04) were greater for sweet than non-sweet beverages on the PR schedule and a similar, though not conventionally significant, effect was observed for exerted pressure (p=0.09). In both Experiment 2 and Experiment 3 after habitual sleep, on the PR schedule, cumulative pressure difference between sweet and non-sweet beverage increased with difference in amount wanted in the taste test. In contrast, after short sleep participants were less willing to work for sweet taste as their wanting increased, suggesting that sleep deprivation raises desire, but lowers behavioral output. Taken together these results

  20. Risk modelling of food fraud motivation:'NSF fraud protection model' intelligent risk model scoping project FS 246004: final report

    OpenAIRE

    Jack, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Following the detection of horse meat in beef products, the project considered food fraud risk with a focus on anti-fraud tools and intelligence gathering from both the food and financial sector. It developed a framework that was tested by evaluation by stakeholders.

  1. Characteristics of Traditional and Novel Food Consumers

    OpenAIRE

    Stojanovic, Zaklina; Barjolle, Dominique

    2012-01-01

    Consumer quantitative survey is performed on general population 18+ in Serbia at the end of September – begging of October 2010. The instrument used in this survey was a structured questionnaire consisting of several separate sections, including motivation toward food in general (Food Choice Questionnaire - FCQ), the specific questions about traditional and functional food and consumer socio-economic and demographic characteristics. The stratified three-staged random representative sample is ...

  2. Characteristics of Traditional and Novel Food Consumers

    OpenAIRE

    Stojanovic, Zaklina; Barjolle, Dominique

    2012-01-01

    Consumer quantitative survey is performed on general population 18+ in Serbia at the end of September – begging of October 2010. The instrument used in this survey was a structured questionnaire consisting of several separate sections, including motivation toward food in general (Food Choice Questionnaire - FCQ), the specific questions about traditional and functional food and consumer socio-economic and demographic characteristics. The stratified three-staged random representative sample is ...

  3. Food motivation circuitry hypoactivation related to hedonic and nonhedonic aspects of hunger and satiety in women with active anorexia nervosa and weight-restored women with anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holsen, Laura M; Lawson, Elizabeth A; Blum, Justine; Ko, Eunice; Makris, Nikos; Fazeli, Pouneh K; Klibanski, Anne; Goldstein, Jill M

    2012-09-01

    Previous studies have provided evidence of food motivation circuitry dysfunction in individuals with anorexia nervosa. However, methodological limitations present challenges to the development of a cohesive neurobiological model of anorexia nervosa. Our goal was to investigate the neural circuitry of appetite dysregulation across states of hunger and satiety in active and weight-restored phases of anorexia nervosa using robust methodology to advance our understanding of potential neural circuitry abnormalities related to hedonic and nonhedonic state and trait. We scanned women with active anorexia nervosa, weight-restored women with anorexia nervosa and healthy-weight controls on a 3-T Siemens magnetic resonance scanner while they viewed images of high- and low-calorie foods and objects before (premeal) and after (postmeal) eating a 400 kcal meal. We enrolled 12 women with active disease, 10 weight-restored women with anorexia nervosa and 11 controls in our study. Compared with controls, both weight-restored women and those with active disease demonstrated hypoactivity premeal in the hypothalamus, amygdala and anterior insula in response to high-calorie foods (v. objects). Postmeal, hypoactivation in the anterior insula persisted in women with active disease. Percent signal change in the anterior insula was positively correlated with food stimuli ratings and hedonic and nonhedonic appetite ratings in controls, but not women with active disease. Our findings are limited by a relatively small sample size, which prevented the use of an analysis of variance model and exploration of interaction effects, although our substantial effect sizes of between-group differences suggest adequate power for our statistical analysis approach. Participants taking psychotropic medications were included. Our data provide evidence of potential state and trait hypoactivations in food motivation regions involved in the assessment of food's reward value and integration of these with

  4. Pre-existing differences in motivation for food and sensitivity to cocaine-induced locomotion in obesity-prone rats

    OpenAIRE

    Vollbrecht, Peter J.; Nobile, Cameron W; Chadderdon, Aaron M.; Jutkiewicz, Emily M.; Ferrario, Carrie R

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is a significant problem in the United States, with roughly one third of adults having a body mass index (BMI) over thirty. Recent evidence from human studies suggests that pre-existing differences in the function of mesolimbic circuits that mediate motivational processes may promote obesity and hamper weight loss. However, few preclinical studies have examined pre-existing neurobehavioral differences related to the function of mesolimbic systems in models of individual susceptibility...

  5. Pre-existing differences in motivation for food and sensitivity to cocaine-induced locomotion in obesity-prone rats

    OpenAIRE

    Vollbrecht, Peter J.; Nobile, Cameron W.; Chadderdon, Aaron M.; Jutkiewicz, Emily M.; Ferrario, Carrie R.

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is a significant problem in the United States, with roughly one third of adults having a body mass index (BMI) over thirty. Recent evidence from human studies suggests that pre-existing differences in the function of mesolimbic circuits that mediate motivational processes may promote obesity and hamper weight loss. However, few preclinical studies have examined pre-existing neurobehavioral differences related to the function of mesolimbic systems in models of individual susceptibility...

  6. How changes in subjective general health predict future time perspective, and development and generativity motives over the lifespan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooij, D.T.A.M.; Voorde, F.C. van de

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we used the lifespan theories of selection optimization and compensation (SOC) and the socio-emotional selectivity theory (SST) to integrate the disengagement and activity perspectives on aging and to explain intra-individual changes in work motivation. A two-wave longitudinal survey

  7. The roles of human values and generalized trust on stated preferences when food is labeled with environmental footprints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grebitus, Carola; Steiner, Bodo; Veeman, Michele

    2015-01-01

    This study explores stated preferences for food labeled with environmental footprints, concentrating on human values (Rokeach 1973) and trust attitudes (Uslaner 2002). An online survey, conducted in Germany during 2011 (n = 1579), collected data on human values using the Rokeach Value Survey (Rok...... that accounting for consumers’ value system and generalized trust attitudes – as well as traditional socio-demographics – adds value when trying to understand choices and identify new target markets for footprint-labeled food products....

  8. Exploring General and Sports Nutrition and Food Knowledge in Elite Male Australian Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devlin, Brooke L; Belski, Regina

    2015-06-01

    Nutrition knowledge is believed to influence nutritional intake, which in turn influences performance in elite athletes. There is currently no published data on the nutrition knowledge of elite Australian Football (AF) players. The purpose of this study was to gain insight into the current level of general and sports nutrition knowledge in elite male AF athletes. Forty six elite male AF players (23.5 ± 2.8 years) answered 123 questions relating to five areas of nutrition knowledge: dietary recommendations, sources of nutrients, choosing everyday foods, alcohol and sports nutrition. Demographic details and perceptions of nutrition knowledge were collected for all participants. The mean nutrition knowledge score was 74.4 ± 10.9 (60.5%). The highest score was obtained in sports nutrition section (17.9 ± 3.0, 61.7%). The dietitian was selected as the first source of information by 98% of athletes, with club trainer and teammates as second choice for 45.7% and 23.9% of athletes, respectively. The majority of athletes correctly answered questions regarding recommendations to increase fruit and vegetable intake and decrease fat intake (95.6%, 91.1% and 93.3% correct respectively). While 80% of the athletes were aware fat intake should predominately be made up of unsaturated fat, they were less able to identify food sources of unsaturated fats (35.6% and 24.4% correct for statements regarding monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats, respectively). Broad nutrition messages and recommendations appear to be well understood; however, gaps in nutrition knowledge are evident. A better understanding of nutrition knowledge in athletes will allow nutrition education interventions to target areas in need of improvement.

  9. 76 FR 75799 - General Administrative Regulations; Mutual Consent Cancellation; Food Security Act of 1985...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-05

    ... Consent Cancellation; Food Security Act of 1985, Implementation; Denial of Benefits; and Ineligibility for... Crop Insurance Act. (1) Section 1764 of the Food Security Act of 1985 (Pub. L. 99-198); (2) 21 U.S.C...-- 3. Remove and Reserve subpart F, Food Security Act of 1985, Implementation; Denial of Benefits. 4...

  10. Regulatory focus, self-efficacy and outcome expectations as drivers of motivation to consume healthy food products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tudoran, Ana Alina; Scholderer, Joachim; Brunsø, Karen

    2012-01-01

    -efficacy, respectively; whereas, the relationship promotion outcomeexpectations-intention was unaffected by the perceived levels of self-efficacy. The implications suggest that consumers’ motivation to adopt healthyfoodproducts, such as omega-3 supplements and omega-3 enriched products, should be encouraged......-efficacy beliefs and outcomeexpectations with regard to the consumption of omega-3 supplements and omega-3-enriched foodproducts. We found that the relationship prevention outcomeexpectations-intention was significantly attenuated at low levels of self-efficacy and strengthened at high levels of self...

  11. Development of the Chicago Food Allergy Research Surveys: assessing knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs of parents, physicians, and the general public

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pongracic Jacqueline A

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parents of children with food allergy, primary care physicians, and members of the general public play a critical role in the health and well-being of food-allergic children, though little is known about their knowledge and perceptions of food allergy. The purpose of this paper is to detail the development of the Chicago Food Allergy Research Surveys to assess food allergy knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs among these three populations. Methods From 2006–2008, parents of food-allergic children, pediatricians, family physicians, and adult members of the general public were recruited to assist in survey development. Preliminary analysis included literature review, creation of initial content domains, expert panel review, and focus groups. Survey validation included creation of initial survey items, expert panel ratings, cognitive interviews, reliability testing, item reduction, and final validation. National administration of the surveys is ongoing. Results Nine experts were assembled to oversee survey development. Six focus groups were held: 2/survey population, 4–9 participants/group; transcripts were reviewed via constant comparative methods to identify emerging themes and inform item creation. At least 220 participants per population were recruited to assess the relevance, reliability, and utility of each survey item as follows: cognitive interviews, 10 participants; reliability testing ≥ 10; item reduction ≥ 50; and final validation, 150 respondents. Conclusion The Chicago Food Allergy Research surveys offer validated tools to assess food allergy knowledge and perceptions among three distinct populations: a 42 item parent tool, a 50 item physician tool, and a 35 item general public tool. No such tools were previously available.

  12. Effectiveness of Motivational Interviewing in improving lipid level in patients with dyslipidemia assisted by general practitioners: Dislip-EM study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pérula Luis A

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The non-pharmacological approach to cholesterol control in patients with hyperlipidemia is based on the promotion of a healthy diet and physical activity. Thus, to help patients change their habits, it is essential to identify the most effective approach. Many efforts have been devoted to explain changes in or adherence to specific health behaviors. Such efforts have resulted in the development of theories that have been applied in prevention campaigns, and that include brief advice and counseling services. Within this context, Motivational Interviewing has proven to be effective in changing health behaviors in specific cases. However, more robust evidence is needed on the effectiveness of Motivational Interviewing in treating chronic pathologies -such as dyslipidemia- in patients assisted by general practitioners. This article describes a protocol to assess the effectiveness of MI as compared with general practice (brief advice, with the aim of improving lipid level control in patients with dyslipidemia assisted by a general practitioner. Methods/Design An open, two-arm parallel, multicentre, cluster, controlled, randomized, clinical trial will be performed. A total of 48-50 general practitioners from 35 public primary care centers in Spain will be randomized and will recruit 436 patients with dyslipidemia. They will perform an intervention based either on Motivational Interviewing or on the usual brief advice. After an initial assessment, follow-ups will be performed at 2, 4, 8 and 12 months. Primary outcomes are lipid levels (total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, triglycerides and cardiovascular risk. The study will assess the degree of dietary and physical activity improvement, weight loss in overweight patients, and adherence to treatment guidelines. Discussion Motivational interview skills constitute the primary strategies GPs use to treat their patients. Having economical, simple, effective and

  13. Effectiveness of Motivational Interviewing in improving lipid level in patients with dyslipidemia assisted by general practitioners: Dislip-EM study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérula, Luis A; Bosch, Josep M; Bóveda, Julia; Campiñez, Manuel; Barragán, Nieves; Arboniés, Juan C; Prados, Jose A; Martín, Enrique; Martín, Remedios; Massons, Josep; Criado, Margarita; Ruiz, Roger; Fernández, José A; Buitrago, Francisco; Olaya, Inmaculada; Pérez, Modesto; Ruiz, Joaquin

    2011-11-05

    The non-pharmacological approach to cholesterol control in patients with hyperlipidemia is based on the promotion of a healthy diet and physical activity. Thus, to help patients change their habits, it is essential to identify the most effective approach. Many efforts have been devoted to explain changes in or adherence to specific health behaviors. Such efforts have resulted in the development of theories that have been applied in prevention campaigns, and that include brief advice and counseling services. Within this context, Motivational Interviewing has proven to be effective in changing health behaviors in specific cases. However, more robust evidence is needed on the effectiveness of Motivational Interviewing in treating chronic pathologies -such as dyslipidemia- in patients assisted by general practitioners. This article describes a protocol to assess the effectiveness of MI as compared with general practice (brief advice), with the aim of improving lipid level control in patients with dyslipidemia assisted by a general practitioner. An open, two-arm parallel, multicentre, cluster, controlled, randomized, clinical trial will be performed. A total of 48-50 general practitioners from 35 public primary care centers in Spain will be randomized and will recruit 436 patients with dyslipidemia. They will perform an intervention based either on Motivational Interviewing or on the usual brief advice. After an initial assessment, follow-ups will be performed at 2, 4, 8 and 12 months. Primary outcomes are lipid levels (total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, triglycerides) and cardiovascular risk. The study will assess the degree of dietary and physical activity improvement, weight loss in overweight patients, and adherence to treatment guidelines. Motivational interview skills constitute the primary strategies GPs use to treat their patients. Having economical, simple, effective and applicable techniques is essential for primary care professionals to help

  14. Zolfino landrace (Phaseolus vulgaris L. from Pratomagno: general and specific features of a functional food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Balestri

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Zolfino bean is a variety of Phaseolus vulgaris, which is cultivated in a limited area of Tuscany, Italy, and is widely appreciated for its flavor and culinary uses. Objectives: A yellow Zolfino landrace cultivated in the Leccio-Reggello area was characterized and compared with three other varieties of Phaseolus vulgaris (i.e. the Borlotto, Cannellino, and Corona beans in terms of its general features and potential as an antioxidant/anti-inflammatory agent. Design: The length, width, thickness, equatorial section surface, weight, volume, and seed coat section were measured in all the beans. The seed surface area was also estimated by an original empirical method. The ability of the different beans to interfere with the enzymes of the polyol pathway (that is, aldose reductase (AR and sorbitol dehydrogenase was tested using the supernatant after soaking the beans at room temperature and after thermal treatment, which simulated the bean-cooking process in a controlled fashion. Results: Concerning the general features, Zolfino was comparable with other beans, except Corona, in terms of surface–volume ratio, which possesses the lowest tegument thickness. Moreover, Zolfino appears the most effective in inhibiting AR activity. The inhibitory ability is unaffected by thermal treatment and appears to be associated with compound(s present in the coat of the bean. Conclusions: The ability of Zolfino to inhibit AR, thus reducing the flux of glucose through the polyol pathway, highlights the features of Zolfino as a functional food, potentially useful in treating the dysfunctions linked to the hyperactivity of AR, such as diabetic complications or inflammatory responses.

  15. Zolfino landrace (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) from Pratomagno: general and specific features of a functional food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balestri, Francesco; Rotondo, Rossella; Moschini, Roberta; Pellegrino, Mario; Cappiello, Mario; Barracco, Vito; Misuri, Livia; Sorce, Carlo; Andreucci, Andrea; Del-Corso, Antonella; Mura, Umberto

    2016-01-01

    Background The Zolfino bean is a variety of Phaseolus vulgaris, which is cultivated in a limited area of Tuscany, Italy, and is widely appreciated for its flavor and culinary uses. Objectives A yellow Zolfino landrace cultivated in the Leccio-Reggello area was characterized and compared with three other varieties of Phaseolus vulgaris (i.e. the Borlotto, Cannellino, and Corona beans) in terms of its general features and potential as an antioxidant/anti-inflammatory agent. Design The length, width, thickness, equatorial section surface, weight, volume, and seed coat section were measured in all the beans. The seed surface area was also estimated by an original empirical method. The ability of the different beans to interfere with the enzymes of the polyol pathway (that is, aldose reductase (AR) and sorbitol dehydrogenase) was tested using the supernatant after soaking the beans at room temperature and after thermal treatment, which simulated the bean-cooking process in a controlled fashion. Results Concerning the general features, Zolfino was comparable with other beans, except Corona, in terms of surface–volume ratio, which possesses the lowest tegument thickness. Moreover, Zolfino appears the most effective in inhibiting AR activity. The inhibitory ability is unaffected by thermal treatment and appears to be associated with compound(s) present in the coat of the bean. Conclusions The ability of Zolfino to inhibit AR, thus reducing the flux of glucose through the polyol pathway, highlights the features of Zolfino as a functional food, potentially useful in treating the dysfunctions linked to the hyperactivity of AR, such as diabetic complications or inflammatory responses. PMID:27415159

  16. The effect of adding ready-to-use supplementary food to a general food distribution on child nutritional status and morbidity: a cluster-randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lieven Huybregts

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recently, operational organizations active in child nutrition in developing countries have suggested that blanket feeding strategies be adopted to enable the prevention of child wasting. A new range of nutritional supplements is now available, with claims that they can prevent wasting in populations at risk of periodic food shortages. Evidence is lacking as to the effectiveness of such preventive interventions. This study examined the effect of a ready-to-use supplementary food (RUSF on the prevention of wasting in 6- to 36-mo-old children within the framework of a general food distribution program. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a two-arm cluster-randomized controlled pragmatic intervention study in a sample of 1,038 children aged 6 to 36 mo in the city of Abeche, Chad. Both arms were included in a general food distribution program providing staple foods. The intervention group was given a daily 46 g of RUSF for 4 mo. Anthropometric measurements and morbidity were recorded monthly. Adding RUSF to a package of monthly household food rations for households containing a child assigned to the intervention group did not result in a reduction in cumulative incidence of wasting (incidence risk ratio: 0.86; 95% CI: 0.67, 1.11; p = 0.25. However, the intervention group had a modestly higher gain in height-for-age (+0.03 Z-score/mo; 95% CI: 0.01, 0.04; p<0.001. In addition, children in the intervention group had a significantly higher hemoglobin concentration at the end of the study than children in the control group (+3.8 g/l; 95% CI: 0.6, 7.0; p = 0.02, thereby reducing the odds of anemia (odds ratio: 0.52; 95% CI: 0.34, 0.82; p = 0.004. Adding RUSF also resulted in a significantly lower risk of self-reported diarrhea (-29.3%; 95% CI: 20.5, 37.2; p<0.001 and fever episodes (-22.5%; 95% CI: 14.0, 30.2; p<0.001. Limitations of this study include that the projected sample size was not fully attained and that significantly fewer

  17. Two Methods of Determining Total Phenolic Content of Foods and Juices in a General, Organic, and Biological (GOB) Chemistry Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaver, Lee Alan; Leung, Sam H.; Puderbaugh, Amy; Angel, Stephen A.

    2011-01-01

    The determination of total phenolics in foods and fruit juices was used successfully as a laboratory experiment in our undergraduate general, organic, and biological (GOB) chemistry course. Two different colorimetric methods were used over three years and comparative student results indicate that a ferrous ammonium sulfate (FAS) indicator…

  18. Two Methods of Determining Total Phenolic Content of Foods and Juices in a General, Organic, and Biological (GOB) Chemistry Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaver, Lee Alan; Leung, Sam H.; Puderbaugh, Amy; Angel, Stephen A.

    2011-01-01

    The determination of total phenolics in foods and fruit juices was used successfully as a laboratory experiment in our undergraduate general, organic, and biological (GOB) chemistry course. Two different colorimetric methods were used over three years and comparative student results indicate that a ferrous ammonium sulfate (FAS) indicator…

  19. Patients' Obligation, Embodiment, Motives, and Self in Hypertension - a Qualitative Study from General Practice (PhD thesis)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sångren, Henrik

    Resume: Afhandlingen besk‘ftiger sig med hvordan patienter oplever at blive diagnosticeret med forh›jet blodtryk (hypertension). Unders›gelsen unders›ger hvilke motiver der bev‘ger patienter til at acceptere medicinsk behandling af deres forh›jede blodtryk, og hvorledes de oplever livet med...... hypertension efter diagnosen. Studiet anl‘gger et patient-centret sociokulturelt syn p† risiko hvorved forskellige vinkler p† hverdagslivet med en medicinsk risikofaktor bliver synligt. Patienternes kropslige fornemmelser og biografiske erfaringer med forh›jet blodtryk bliver i afhandlingen koblet sammen med...

  20. EXPLORING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN LOCAL FOOD CONSUMPTION AND INTENTIONAL LOYALTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamoon ALLAN

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In the pertinent literature on tourism supply, the relative importance of local food tourism has been subject to considerable discussion. Despite the breadth of such literature, there is a general lack of research on role of local food in tourism in the Middle East, in general and Jordan, in particular. Therefore, the aim of this study is to explore the local food consumption motivations  and their relationship with intentional loyalty for international tourists. The study indicated that the cultural experience is the central motivation for respondents to experience local food. In addition, it showed that the excitement motivation was the high significant predictor of the behavioural intention (loyalty. On the basis of the findings, tourism management in Jordan should add local food to its tourism discourse and improve the nature and scope of the current marketing and promotion strategies of local food.

  1. 77 FR 5171 - Further Amendments to General Regulations of the Food and Drug Administration to Incorporate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-02

    ... importance. II. Legal Authority FDA is issuing this final rule under provisions of the Federal Food, Drug... response (22 hours for recordkeeping) \\3\\ from previously reported estimates relating to drugs and medical... notifications and records required for human drug, biological product, device, animal drug, food, cosmetic, and...

  2. Nucleus accumbens neurotransmission and effort-related choice behavior in food motivation: effects of drugs acting on dopamine, adenosine, and muscarinic acetylcholine receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Eric J; Randall, Patrick A; Podurgiel, Samantha; Correa, Mercè; Salamone, John D

    2013-11-01

    Mesolimbic dopamine (DA) is a critical component of the brain circuitry regulating behavioral activation and effort-related processes. Although nucleus accumbens (NAc) DA depletions or antagonism leave aspects of appetite and primary food motivation intact, rats with impaired DA transmission reallocate their instrumental behavior away from food-reinforced tasks with high response requirements, and instead select less effortful food-seeking behaviors. Previous work showed that adenosine A2A antagonists can reverse the effects of DA D2 antagonists on effort-related choice, and that stimulation of adenosine A2A receptors produces behavioral effects that are similar to those induced by DA antagonism. The present review summarizes the literature on the role of NAc DA and adenosine in effort-related processes, and also presents original data on the effects of local stimulation of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in NAc core. Local injections of the muscarinic agonist pilocarpine directly into NAc core produces shifts in effort-related choice behavior similar to those induced by DA antagonism or A2A receptor stimulation, decreasing lever pressing but increasing chow intake in rats responding on a concurrent fixed ratio/chow feeding choice task. In contrast, injections into a neostriatal control site dorsal to the NAc were ineffective. The actions of pilocarpine on this task were attenuated by co-administration of the muscarinic antagonist scopolamine. Thus, drugs that act on DA, adenosine A2A, and muscarinic receptors regulate effort-related choice behavior, which may have implications for the treatment of psychiatric symptoms such as psychomotor slowing, fatigue or anergia that can be observed in depression and other disorders. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. General introduction to the importance of genomics in food biotechnology and nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verrips, C T; Warmoeskerken, M M; Post, J A

    2001-10-01

    Knowledge of the human genome and other genomes, the selection of health-beneficial components, information and communication technology (ICT)-driven plant cultivation and small-scale processes will together change the agrofoods business from a rather low-tech to a high-tech (functional) foods business. ICT will provide consumers with information that in combination with their private genetic passport may be used to select those functional foods that are most beneficial for them.

  4. The roles of human values and generalized trust on stated preferences when food is labeled with environmental footprints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grebitus, Carola; Steiner, Bodo; Veeman, Michele

    2015-01-01

    This study explores stated preferences for food labeled with environmental footprints, concentrating on human values (Rokeach 1973) and trust attitudes (Uslaner 2002). An online survey, conducted in Germany during 2011 (n = 1579), collected data on human values using the Rokeach Value Survey (Rok...... that accounting for consumers’ value system and generalized trust attitudes – as well as traditional socio-demographics – adds value when trying to understand choices and identify new target markets for footprint-labeled food products.......This study explores stated preferences for food labeled with environmental footprints, concentrating on human values (Rokeach 1973) and trust attitudes (Uslaner 2002). An online survey, conducted in Germany during 2011 (n = 1579), collected data on human values using the Rokeach Value Survey...

  5. [Assessment of functional food of general version of diet in cardiac hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nepovinnykh, N V; Lyamina, N P; Ptichkina, N M

    2015-01-01

    The efficacy of functional food was evaluated in general embodiment diet of cardiological hospital in patients receiving oxygen-containing products (oxygen smoothies) based on protein-carbohydrate raw materials (dairy whey) with dietary fiber. 60 patients were included in local open, prospective, parallel-group study; among them 36 men and 24 women aged 60-75 years, meeting the following criteria: patients with chronic heart failure I-IV functional class, are hospitalized in the cardiology department, have no contraindications to enteral oxygen therapy and sign an informed consent form. The main group comprised 30 patients, which along with standard therapy received enteral oxygen therapy. 30 patients from the control group received standard therapy and aerated non-oxygen mixture (placebo). Standard therapy included cardioprotective drugs, diuretics and concomitant therapy (enzyme preparations) depended upon the clinical status of the patient. Patients received 500 ml of a cocktail within 10-15 minutes daily for 10 days for 1-1,5 hours before the main meal. The studies revealed the most pronounced clinical effect of enteral oxygen therapy in relation to clinical symptoms and side effects caused by drug administrations. After 3-4 procedures patients with chronic heart failure treated with enteral oxygen therapy had a decrease in fatigue, increase physical performance, improve appetite, emotional lability. By the end the positive dynamics of oxygen therapy on the above grounds was detected in 90% of patients. Monitoring pulse oximetry showed a significant increase of oxygen saturation as a result of the course of enteral oxygen therapy: oxygen saturation increased from 98.13 ± 0.13 to 99.17 ± 0.13% (p < 0.001) while in the control group from 98.12 ± 0.20 to 98.19 ± 0.19% (p < 0.01). Physical activity increased from 318 ± 15 to 389 ± 13 m (p < 0.001), in the control group--from 331 ± 17 to 362 ± 15 m (p < 0.05) in the main group on the test results with the 6

  6. Occupational safety motivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Louise; Kines, Pete

    2010-01-01

    . At the same time many motivation questionnaire items are seldom founded on theory and/or do not account for the theories’ ontological and epistemological differences, e.g. of how knowledge, attitude and action are related. Present questionnaire items tap into occupational safety motivation in asking whether...... or not respondents ‘are’ motivated and whether they feel that safety is important or worthwhile. Another important aspect is ‘what’ motivates workers to comply to and participate in safety. The aim of this article is to introduce a new theory-based occupational safety motivation scale which is validated......Background: Motivation is one of the most important factors for safety behaviour and for implementing change in general. However, theoretical and psychometric studies of safety performance have traditionally treated safety motivation, safety compliance and safety participation unidimensionally...

  7. Occupational safety motivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Louise; Kines, Pete

    2010-01-01

    . At the same time many motivation questionnaire items are seldom founded on theory and/or do not account for the theories’ ontological and epistemological differences, e.g. of how knowledge, attitude and action are related. Present questionnaire items tap into occupational safety motivation in asking whether...... or not respondents ‘are’ motivated and whether they feel that safety is important or worthwhile. Another important aspect is ‘what’ motivates workers to comply to and participate in safety. The aim of this article is to introduce a new theory-based occupational safety motivation scale which is validated......Background: Motivation is one of the most important factors for safety behaviour and for implementing change in general. However, theoretical and psychometric studies of safety performance have traditionally treated safety motivation, safety compliance and safety participation unidimensionally...

  8. Public Service Motivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca-Marilena Mihalcioiu

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Public Service Motivation concept was developed in North America and focuses on specific motivations of public servants, such as employee satisfaction, organizational commitment, reward preferences, organizational and individual performance. Other types of motivation, as financial consideration, are relevant but have less important influences with regard to this kind of work outcomes. This strengthen the assertion for a diversified motivational strategy, which affect various types of motivation, while not losing sight of the public value that one organization shows and therefore valuing public service motivation as a specific contribution to work outcomes. The concept has been increasingly applied in European public administration. This paper presents Status Quo of international Public Service Motivation research and locates in them empirical evidences from contries that are already working with this concept, like Austria. It also analyses implications for central questions of public management. The main focus of this article is general appropriateness and possible applications for Romanian public management research.

  9. Can tDCS enhance item-specific effects and generalization after linguistically motivated aphasia therapy for verbs?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Aguiar, Vania; Bastiaanse, Roelien; Capasso, Rita; Gandolfi, Marialuisa; Smania, Nicola; Rossi, Giorgio; Miceli, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    Background: Aphasia therapy focusing on abstract properties of language promotes both item-specific effects and generalization to untreated materials. Neuromodulation with transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) has been shown to enhance item-specific improvement, but its potential to enhance

  10. Presentation of a general algorithm for effect-assessment on secondary poisoning. II Terrestrial food chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romijn CAFM; Luttik R; Slooff W; Canton JH

    1991-01-01

    In an earlier report, a simple algorithm for effect-assessment on secondary poisoning of birds and mammals was presented. This algorithm (MAR = NOEC/BCF) was drawn up by analyzing an aquatic food chain. In the present study it was tested whether this algorithm can be used equally well for effect-a

  11. The right to secure food in the perspective of the general improvement of the fundamental rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodotà, Stefano

    2010-01-01

    The 9th International Congress of the European Society EurSafe (European Society of Agricultural and Food Ethics) was held on September 15-18, 2010, in Bilbao, Spain, gathering 150 experts from more than 20 countries, with the purpose of reflecting on ethical-social and legal issues posed by bio-scientific advances and the challenges of agriculture and food in the Third Millennium. Under the motto "Global Food Security: Ethical and Legal Challenges", the Congress was organized by the Inter-University Chair in Law and the Human Genome and particular attention was paid to the need to improve access to sufficient, nutritionally adequate and safe food for all humankind, and to the socio-economic and political obstacles which, from day to day, impede this access, given that twenty years after taking on the Millennium Objectives, poverty and hunger have not only failed to decline, but continue to reach record figures. Professor Stefano Rodotà, member of the European Group on Ethics in Science and New Technologies, deserves a special mention. That Group, independent and multidisciplinary, was created for the purpose of advising the European Commission on ethical aspects of science and new technologies in connection with the preparation and implementation of Community legislation and policy. Below we reproduce the speech given by Professor Stefano Rodotà during the EurSafe 2010 Congress's Plenary Session hold in Bilbao, 17th September 2010.

  12. When it pays to cheat: Examining how generalized food deception increases male and female fitness in a terrestrial orchid

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Background Experimental manipulations of floral nectar in food deceptive species can reveal insights into the evolutionary consequences of the deceptive strategy. When coupled to pollen tracking, the effects of the deceptive pollination syndrome on both male and female reproductive success may be quantified. Attraction of pollinators in deceit-pollinated species often relies on producing a conspicuous floral display which may increase visibility to pollinators, but in-turn may increase within plant selfing. Methodology To understand the role of deception in Orchidaceae reproduction we studied Cypripedium candidum. All species of the Cypripedium genus employ a generalized food deceptive pollination strategy and have been suggested as a model system for the study of pollinator deception. We conducted a nectar addition experiment that randomly assigned the four plants closest to a transect point to receive one of four histochemical dyes. Two individuals selected for nectar addition in each of altogether 25 blocks received 2μl of 25% sucrose solution in the labellum of each flower, while two others received no artificial nectar. Number of fruits produced, fruit mass and fruit abortion were scored at the end of the four-month experiment. Results Nectar addition increased (ppollen discounting by nearly 3x, while plants not receiving nectar had greater (ppollen discounting. There was a non-significant (p = 0.0645) trend for deceptive plants to set more fruit, while presence of nectar did not affect pollen export. Conclusions This study demonstrates the adaptive advantages of food deception by showing a concurrent reduction in particular male and female functions when a food reward is restored to a deceptive flower. We found generalized food deception to not only decrease inbreeding depression in the system, but concurrently have no effect on pollinator attraction and fruit set when compared with rewarding flowers. PMID:28141838

  13. Motivation in medical students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kusurkar, R.A.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The importance of motivation in learning behaviour and education is well-researched and proven in general education, but much less in medical education. There is sometimes focus on increasing the quantity of motivation, but the how and why need more evidence. The aims of this thesis wer

  14. Motivation in medical students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kusurkar, R.A.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The importance of motivation in learning behaviour and education is well-researched and proven in general education, but much less in medical education. There is sometimes focus on increasing the quantity of motivation, but the how and why need more evidence. The aims of this thesis

  15. Sustainability labels on food products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G; Hieke, Sophie; Wills, Josephine

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between consumer motivation, understanding and use of sustainability labels on food products (both environmental and ethical labels), which are increasingly appearing on food products. Data was collected by means of an online survey implemented in the UK......, human values as measured by the Schwartz value domains, and country differences. The results imply that sustainability labels currently do not play a major role in consumers’ food choices, and future use of these labels will depend on the extent to which consumers’ general concern about sustainability...

  16. ASSESSING THE ECONOMIC IMPACTS OF INCORPORATING ROMANIAN'S AGRICULTURAL AND FOOD SECTORS INTO EU'S CUSTOMS UNION: AN APPLIED GENERAL EQUILIBRIUM APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silviu S. Scrieciu

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Joining the European Union club implies, among many other policy changes, full integration of Romania’s economy into EU’s customs union. This is expected to have significant implications for domestic farmers and food processors. The paper constructs a single-country Applied General Equilibrium (AGE model to investigate the impact of tariff border adjustments on changes in relative prices, production and trade patterns associated with fifteen local agro-food activities. Moreover, the modelling work identifies those agro-food sectors that have the potential to benefit the most from EU enlargement in terms of output effects given that Romanian producers are capable of fully responding to the incentives provided with integration. These mainly include (bovine live animals and meat products, sugar, and cereal grains. Agro-food trade with EU intensifies in particular for those commodities for which trade restrictions are still substantial prior to accession. However, the magnitude of changes is relatively small due to the weak integration of domestic agro-food sectors into international trade structures. The AGE model also predicts static welfare gains of 0.65 percent of GDP equivalent variation. These seem to be more associated with better access to EU markets and increased export prices, and less with the preferential unilateral elimination of tariffs or their adjustment to EU’s external levels. The model assumptions are highly theoretical and the model structure does not reflect with fidelity the workings of an economy in transition. Nonetheless, it does represent a solid base upon which further improvements could be added and structural transitional issues could be attached to more accurately predict potential outcomes.

  17. Work Hard to Ensure Food,Drugs Safety for the People——An interview with Shao Mingli,director-general of the State Food and Drug Administration (SFDA)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ EDITOR'S NOTE:Following is an interview given by Shao Mingli,director-general of China's State Food and Drug Administration to our reporter on what is being done to ensure food and drug safety in China.As everybody knows,food and drug safety is vital to people's lives.Question:To start with,would you give us an account of your agency's official functions?

  18. Dopamine receptor blockade attenuates the general incentive motivational effects of noncontingently delivered rewards and reward-paired cues without affecting their ability to bias action selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostlund, Sean B; Maidment, Nigel T

    2012-01-01

    Environmental cues affect our behavior in a variety of ways. Despite playing an invaluable role in guiding our daily activities, such cues also appear to trigger the harmful, compulsive behaviors that characterize addiction and other disorders of behavioral control. In instrumental conditioning, rewards and reward-paired cues bias action selection and invigorate reward-seeking behaviors, and appear to do so through distinct neurobehavioral processes. Although reward-paired cues are known to invigorate performance through a dopamine-dependent incentive motivational process, it is not known if dopamine also mediates the influence of rewards and reward-paired cues over action selection. The current study contrasted the effects of systemic administration of the nonspecific dopamine receptor antagonist flupentixol on response invigoration and action bias in Pavlovian-instrumental transfer, a test of cue-elicited responding, and in instrumental reinstatement, a test of noncontingent reward-elicited responding. Hungry rats were trained on two different stimulus-outcome relationships (eg, tone-grain pellets and noise-sucrose solution) and two different action-outcome relationships (eg, left press-grain and right press-sucrose). At test, we found that flupentixol pretreatment blocked the response invigoration generated by the cues but spared their ability to bias action selection to favor the action whose outcome was signaled by the cue being presented. The response-biasing influence of noncontingent reward deliveries was also unaffected by flupentixol. Interestingly, although flupentixol had a modest effect on the immediate response invigoration produced by those rewards, it was particularly potent in countering the lingering enhancement of responding produced by multiple reward deliveries. These findings indicate that dopamine mediates the general incentive motivational effects of noncontingent rewards and reward-paired cues but does not support their ability to bias

  19. Food and water security issues in Russia I: food security in the general population of the Russian Arctic, Siberia and the Far East, 2000-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudarev, Alexey A; Alloyarov, Pavel R; Chupakhin, Valery S; Dushkina, Eugenia V; Sladkova, Yuliya N; Dorofeyev, Vitaliy M; Kolesnikova, Tatijana A; Fridman, Kirill B; Nilsson, Lena Maria; Evengård, Birgitta

    2013-01-01

    Problems related to food security in Russian Arctic (dietary imbalance, predominance of carbohydrates, shortage of milk products, vegetables and fruits, deficit of vitamins and microelements, chemical, infectious and parasitic food contamination) have been defined in the literature. But no standard protocol of food security assessment has been used in the majority of studies. Our aim was to obtain food security indicators, identified within an Arctic collaboration, for selected regions of the Russian Arctic, Siberia and the Far East, and to compare food safety in these territories. In 18 regions of the Russian Arctic, Siberia and the Far East, the following indicators of food security were analyzed: food costs, food consumption, and chemical and biological food contamination for the period 2000-2011. Food costs in the regions are high, comprising 23-43% of household income. Only 4 out of 10 food groups (fish products, cereals, sugar, plant oil) are consumed in sufficient amounts. The consumption of milk products, eggs, vegetables, potatoes, fruits (and berries) is severely low in a majority of the selected regions. There are high levels of biological contamination of food in many regions. The biological and chemical contamination situation is alarming, especially in Chukotka. Only 7 food pollutants are under regular control; among pesticides, only DDT. Evenki AO and Magadan Oblast have reached peak values in food contaminants compared with other regions. Mercury in local fish has not been analyzed in the majority of the regions. In 3 regions, no monitoring of DDT occurs. Aflatoxins have not been analyzed in 5 regions. Nitrates had the highest percentage in excess of the hygienic threshold in all regions. Excesses of other pollutants in different regions were episodic and as a rule not high. Improvement of the food supply and food accessibility in the regions of the Russian Arctic, Siberia and the Far East is of utmost importance. Both quantitative and qualitative

  20. 75 FR 73951 - Amendments to General Regulations of the Food and Drug Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-30

    ... Procedure Act (APA) (5 U.S.C. 553). Comments that are frivolous, insubstantial, or outside the scope of the... APA. If we receive no significant adverse comment during the specified comment period, we intend to...: PART 1--GENERAL ENFORCEMENT REGULATIONS 0 The authority citation for part 1 is revised to read...

  1. Food production and wastage in relation to nutritional intake in a general district hospital - wastage is not reduced by training the staff

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almdal, T.; Viggers, L.; Beck, Anne Marie

    2003-01-01

    Background and Aims: To assess the amount of food produced in a hospital kitchen and the amount wasted. To assess the amount of food eaten by patients in relation to their energy needs. To assess whether the food production and wastage could be reduced by training members of the staff. Methods......: The study was carried out in a general district hospital in Denmark. The amount of food produced in the hospital kitchen and returned uneaten (wasted) was determined. In a representative sample of patients, the energy expenditure was calculated and in the same patients, the energy and protein intake....... Following training of the hospital staff, a new investigation showed no significant changes in the amount of food ordered and wasted. Conclusion: Despite a supply of food, which was much higher than the patients' needs, the patients have only approx. 60% of their energy need covered. We suggest...

  2. Data on motivational factors of the medical and nursing staff of a Greek Public Regional General Hospital during the economic crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianna Charalambous

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we present the data related to motivational factors given by the medical (n=118 and nursing (n=217 staff, of a Greek Public General Hospital during a period of financial austerity. The data collection has been based on a structured self-administrable questionnaire which was used in a previous survey in Cyprus (Chatzicharalambous, 2015 [1]. The incentives-rewards included amount in a total to 11 (both financial and non-financial. The data contains 4 parts: (1 demographics, (2 assessment of the degree to which this hospital provided such incentives-rewards, (3 personal assessment of the participants about the significance of these incentive-rewards and (4 to what extent these incentives-rewards have increased or decreased over the last five years due to the economic crisis. The sample was analyzed as a whole on demographics and by a professional subgroup (doctors and nurses for the other three parts. The data include quantitative tables for all parts. Finally include three tables contain multilevel models.

  3. Beyond Cognition: Reading Motivation and Reading Comprehension

    OpenAIRE

    Wigfield, Allan; Gladstone, Jessica; Turci, Lara

    2016-01-01

    The authors review research on children’s reading motivation and its relation to their reading comprehension. They begin by discussing work on the development of school motivation in general and reading motivation in particular, reviewing work showing that many children’s reading motivation declines over the school years. Girls tend to have more positive motivation for reading than do boys, and there are ethnic differences in children’s reading motivation. Over the last 15 years researchers h...

  4. Periods and Nori motives

    CERN Document Server

    Huber, Annette

    2017-01-01

    This book casts the theory of periods of algebraic varieties in the natural setting of Madhav Nori’s abelian category of mixed motives. It develops Nori’s approach to mixed motives from scratch, thereby filling an important gap in the literature, and then explains the connection of mixed motives to periods, including a detailed account of the theory of period numbers in the sense of Kontsevich-Zagier and their structural properties. Period numbers are central to number theory and algebraic geometry, and also play an important role in other fields such as mathematical physics. There are long-standing conjectures about their transcendence properties, best understood in the language of cohomology of algebraic varieties or, more generally, motives. Readers of this book will discover that Nori’s unconditional construction of an abelian category of motives (over fields embeddable into the complex numbers) is particularly well suited for this purpose. Notably, Kontsevich's formal period algebra represents a to...

  5. Food and water security issues in Russia I: food security in the general population of the Russian Arctic, Siberia and the Far East, 2000–2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudarev, Alexey A.; Alloyarov, Pavel R.; Chupakhin, Valery S.; Dushkina, Eugenia V.; Sladkova, Yuliya N.; Dorofeyev, Vitaliy M.; Kolesnikova, Tatijana A.; Fridman, Kirill B.; Nilsson, Lena Maria; Evengård, Birgitta

    2013-01-01

    Background Problems related to food security in Russian Arctic (dietary imbalance, predominance of carbohydrates, shortage of milk products, vegetables and fruits, deficit of vitamins and microelements, chemical, infectious and parasitic food contamination) have been defined in the literature. But no standard protocol of food security assessment has been used in the majority of studies. Objectives Our aim was to obtain food security indicators, identified within an Arctic collaboration, for selected regions of the Russian Arctic, Siberia and the Far East, and to compare food safety in these territories. Study design and methods In 18 regions of the Russian Arctic, Siberia and the Far East, the following indicators of food security were analyzed: food costs, food consumption, and chemical and biological food contamination for the period 2000–2011. Results Food costs in the regions are high, comprising 23–43% of household income. Only 4 out of 10 food groups (fish products, cereals, sugar, plant oil) are consumed in sufficient amounts. The consumption of milk products, eggs, vegetables, potatoes, fruits (and berries) is severely low in a majority of the selected regions. There are high levels of biological contamination of food in many regions. The biological and chemical contamination situation is alarming, especially in Chukotka. Only 7 food pollutants are under regular control; among pesticides, only DDT. Evenki AO and Magadan Oblast have reached peak values in food contaminants compared with other regions. Mercury in local fish has not been analyzed in the majority of the regions. In 3 regions, no monitoring of DDT occurs. Aflatoxins have not been analyzed in 5 regions. Nitrates had the highest percentage in excess of the hygienic threshold in all regions. Excesses of other pollutants in different regions were episodic and as a rule not high. Conclusion Improvement of the food supply and food accessibility in the regions of the Russian Arctic, Siberia and the

  6. Motivated explanation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Richard; Operskalski, Joachim T.; Barbey, Aron K.

    2015-01-01

    Although motivation is a well-established field of study in its own right, and has been fruitfully studied in connection with attribution theory and belief formation under the heading of “motivated thinking,” its powerful and pervasive influence on specifically explanatory processes is less well explored. Where one has a strong motivation to understand some event correctly, one is thereby motivated to adhere as best one can to normative or “epistemic” criteria for correct or accurate explanation, even if one does not consciously formulate or apply such criteria. By contrast, many of our motivations to explain introduce bias into the processes involved in generating, evaluating, or giving explanations. Non-epistemic explanatory motivations, or following Kunda's usage, “directional” motivations, include self-justification, resolution of cognitive dissonance, deliberate deception, teaching, and many more. Some of these motivations lead to the relaxation or violation of epistemic norms; others enhance epistemic motivation, so that one engages in more careful and thorough generational and evaluative processes. We propose that “real life” explanatory processes are often constrained by multiple goals, epistemic and directional, where these goals may mutually reinforce one another or may conflict, and where our explanations emerge as a matter of weighing and satisfying those goals. We review emerging evidence from psychology and neuroscience to support this framework and to elucidate the central role of motivation in human thought and explanation. PMID:26528166

  7. When it pays to cheat: Examining how generalized food deception increases male and female fitness in a terrestrial orchid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Ryan P; Michaels, Helen J

    2017-01-01

    Experimental manipulations of floral nectar in food deceptive species can reveal insights into the evolutionary consequences of the deceptive strategy. When coupled to pollen tracking, the effects of the deceptive pollination syndrome on both male and female reproductive success may be quantified. Attraction of pollinators in deceit-pollinated species often relies on producing a conspicuous floral display which may increase visibility to pollinators, but in-turn may increase within plant selfing. To understand the role of deception in Orchidaceae reproduction we studied Cypripedium candidum. All species of the Cypripedium genus employ a generalized food deceptive pollination strategy and have been suggested as a model system for the study of pollinator deception. We conducted a nectar addition experiment that randomly assigned the four plants closest to a transect point to receive one of four histochemical dyes. Two individuals selected for nectar addition in each of altogether 25 blocks received 2μl of 25% sucrose solution in the labellum of each flower, while two others received no artificial nectar. Number of fruits produced, fruit mass and fruit abortion were scored at the end of the four-month experiment. Nectar addition increased (pattraction and fruit set when compared with rewarding flowers.

  8. Food-induced acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis in a pregnant woman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valkova, Sonya

    2006-01-01

    A 21-year-old woman of Romany origin, in the third trimester of her fourth pregnancy, was admitted to the hospital because of a generalized erythematous and pustular eruption and desquamation involving her face, neck, trunk, and extremities. The skin changes were accompanied by fever (100.4 degrees F [38 degrees C]) and malaise. The patient was convinced that the dermatitis was induced by the consumption of "spoilt" pork sausage (bad smell, changed taste) approximately 24 hours earlier. Clinical examination revealed a woman with phototype III skin, black eyes, and black hair, in good general health. Widespread, symmetrical, moderately intense erythema and isolated or coalescing targetoid lesions studded with discrete, pinhead-sized, nonfollicular pustules in the center or at the periphery were distributed over her face, trunk, groins, and upper and lower extremities (Figures 1). On the neck and abdomen, lamellar desquamation was observed (Figure 2). Palms, soles, scalp, mucous membranes, hair, and nails were not affected. Nikolsky's sign was negative. The patient complained of very slight skin burning and itching. The pregnancy was proceeding without any complications and her obstetric status was normal. The woman had neither any accompanying diseases, nor previous personal or family history of psoriasis, nor any known allergies. She had taken no systemic medication (not even vitamins). She had three pregnancies; two ended with the delivery of healthy babies and one of them was aborted at her will. Laboratory studies revealed leukocytosis (13.2 x 109/L), neutrophilia (8 x 109/L), anemia (hemoglobin, 108 g/L), and an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate (68-110 mm/h). The results from the following investigations were normal: urinalysis, renal and hepatic function, serum albumin, Ca, Na, K, aspartate aminotransferase titer, cryoprotein, hepatitis B surface antigen, and serum markers for syphilis. Bacterial and fungal cultures of pustular content were sterile. A

  9. Estimated Daily Intake and Cumulative Risk Assessment of Phthalates in the General Taiwanese after the 2011 DEHP Food Scandal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jung-Wei; Lee, Ching-Chang; Pan, Wen-Harn; Chou, Wei-Chun; Huang, Han-Bin; Chiang, Hung-Che; Huang, Po-Chin

    2017-03-01

    A food scandal occurred in Taiwan in 2011 because the DEHP (di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate) had been intentionally used in food products. We assessed the daily intakes (DIs) and cumulative risk of phthalates in Taiwan’s general population after the scandal. The DIs of 6 phthalates, including di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), di-iso-butyl phthalate (DiBP), and DEHP, were evaluated using urinary phthalate metabolites. Hazard quotients of phthalates classified as affecting the reproductive (HQrep) and hepatic (HQhep) systems were assessed using cumulative approach. The creatinine-based model showed that the highest DI values in children 7-to 12- years-old were for DEHP (males: median: 4.79 μg/kg bw/d; females: median: 2.62 μg/kg bw/d). The 95th percentile (P95) of HQrep values were all >1 in the 7- to 12-year-old and 18- to 40-year-old male groups. The P95 of HQhep values were all >1 in the 7- to 18- year-old male groups. Most of the HQrep was attributable to the HQs of DnBP and DiBP (53.9–84.7%), and DEHP contributed most to HQhep (83.1–98.6%), which reveals that DnBP, DiBP and DEHP were the main risk of phthalate exposure for Taiwanese. Taiwan’s general population is widely exposed to DnBP, DiBP and DEHP, especially for young children.

  10. Food Assistance: Efforts To Control Fraud and Abuse in the Child and Adult Care Food Program Should Be Strengthened. United States General Accounting Office Report to Congressional Committees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Robert E.

    The Child and Adult Care Food Program provides over $1.5 billion in benefits annually to children and adults in day care. In order to address the longstanding problems of fraud and abuse present in the program, state agencies have been charged with the responsibility for implementing Food and Nutrition Service's (FNS) regulations to prevent and…

  11. Best practices for single-laboratory validation of chemical methods for trace elements in foods. Part I--background and general considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Cory J; MacNeil, James D; Capar, Stephen G

    2013-01-01

    The metals subgroup of AOAC INTERNATIONAL's Community on Chemical Contaminants and Residues in Food has been engaged for the past several years in discussions concerning the requirements for the single-laboratory validation (SLV) of methods for the determination of trace elements in foods. This paper reviews the general guidance currently available related to validation of chemical analytical methods and current typical validation practices found in publications on the analysis of elements in food and other matrixes, such as environmental and clinical samples. Based on the available guidance on SLV requirements and a review of current practices in elemental analysis, a general approach based on best practices is proposed for SLV of a method for elements in food to demonstrate the method as "fit-for-purpose."

  12. Researching Motivation in Context: Rethinking Methodologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltman, Susan

    Recent theory and research on motivation has shifted in its focus from a study of more general characteristics of individuals such as personal motivational goals, to an examination of the motivation of individuals within specific domains or contexts. This change in focus has led to a broadening of the methodologies used to examine motivation. Many…

  13. Motivated Explanation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard ePatterson

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Although motivation is a well-established field of study in its own right, and has been fruitfully studied in connection with attribution theory and belief formation under the heading of motivated thinking, its powerful and pervasive influence on explanatory processes is less well explored. Where one has a strong motivation to understand some event correctly, one is thereby motivated to adhere as best one can to normative or epistemic criteria for correct or accurate explanation, even if one does not consciously formulate or apply such criteria. By contrast, many of our motivations to explain introduce bias into the processes involved in generating, evaluating, or giving of explanations. Non-epistemic explanatory motivations, or (following Kunda’s usage, directional motivations, include self-justification, resolution of cognitive dissonance, deliberate deception, teaching, and many more. Some of these motivations lead to the relaxation or violation of epistemic norms, combined with an effort to preserve the appearance of accuracy; others enhance epistemic motivation, so that one engages in more careful and thorough generational and evaluative processes. In short, real life explanatory processes are often constrained by multiple goals, epistemic and directional, where these goals may mutually reinforce one another or may conflict, and where our explanations emerge as a matter of weighing and satisfying those goals. Our proposals are largely programmatic, although we do review a good deal of relevant behavioral and neurological evidence. Specifically, we recognize five generative processes, some of which cover further sub-processes, and six evaluative processes. All of these are potential points of entry for the influence of motivation. We then suggest in some detail how specific sorts of explanatory motivation interact with specific explanatory processes.

  14. Keeping Food Alive: Surplus Food Management

    OpenAIRE

    Sedef Sert; Paola Garrone; Marco Melacini

    2014-01-01

    This paper is motivated by the paradoxical reality of food waste in a world of food insecurity, which is an important issue even for developed countries. Today, in Europe,nearly 43.6 million people are estimated to be food insecure, while European countries are reported to generate 179 kg per capita of food waste every year. Previous empirical studies highlight the potential of surplus food management, i.e. managerial processes and practices that strike a balance between social, environmental...

  15. Situating Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolen, Susan Bobbitt; Horn, Ilana Seidel; Ward, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    This article describes a situative approach to studying motivation to learn in social contexts. We begin by contrasting this perspective to more prevalent psychological approaches to the study of motivation, describing epistemological and methodological differences that have constrained conversation between theoretical groups. We elaborate on…

  16. Motivational interviewing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsen, Kamilla; Humaidan, Peter; Sørensen, Lise H;

    2013-01-01

    This is a retrospective study to investigate whether motivational interviewing increases weight loss among obese or overweight women prior to fertility treatment. Women with body mass index (BMI) > 30 kg/m(2) approaching the Fertility Clinic, Regional Hospital Skive, were given advice about diet...... and physical activity with the purpose of weight loss. In addition, they were asked if they wanted to receive motivational interviewing. Among other data, age, height and weight were obtained. Main outcomes were weight loss measured in kg and decrease in BMI. We studied 187 women: 110 received sessions...... of motivational interviewing (intervention group, n = 110), 64 received motivational support by phone or e-mail only and 13 women did not wish any motivational support (control group, n = 77). The mean weight loss and decrease in BMI was greater in the intervention group compared with the control group (9.3 kg...

  17. Heterogeneity in barriers regarding the motivation, the opportunity and the ability to choose low-calorie snack foods and beverages: associations with real-life choices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, C.; Lans, van der I.A.; Rijnsoever, F.J.; Trijp, van J.C.M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Employing Rothschild’s Motivation–Opportunity–Ability framework, the present study examines the extent to which heterogeneity in barriers regarding the motivation, the perceived opportunity and the perceived ability to choose low-calorie over high-calorie snacks is associated with the pro

  18. Heterogeneity in barriers regarding the motivation, the opportunity and the ability to choose low-calorie snack foods and beverages: associations with real-life choices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, C.; Lans, van der I.A.; Rijnsoever, F.J.; Trijp, van J.C.M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Employing Rothschild’s Motivation–Opportunity–Ability framework, the present study examines the extent to which heterogeneity in barriers regarding the motivation, the perceived opportunity and the perceived ability to choose low-calorie over high-calorie snacks is associated with the pro

  19. Heterogeneity in barriers regarding the motivation, the opportunity and the ability to choose low-calorie snack foods and beverages: associations with real-life choices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, C.; Lans, van der I.A.; Rijnsoever, F.J.; Trijp, van J.C.M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Employing Rothschild’s Motivation–Opportunity–Ability framework, the present study examines the extent to which heterogeneity in barriers regarding the motivation, the perceived opportunity and the perceived ability to choose low-calorie over high-calorie snacks is associated with the

  20. Sandwich or sweets? An assessment of two novel implicit association tasks to capture dynamic motivational tendencies and stable evaluations towards foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraus, A.A.; Piqueras-Fiszman, B.

    2016-01-01

    Desire, purchase, and consumption of fast-moving consumer goods often follow actual motivational states instead of habitual preferences. This has led to an increasing interest within health sciences to investigate the causes for irrational eating behaviours among consumers, particularly with the

  1. [The role of motivation in the performance of a conditioned switching-over of the maze habit in ants Myrmica rubra after a change in the quality of the food reinforcement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udalova, G P; Karas', A Ia

    2005-01-01

    Active foragers Myrmica rubra were trained in a maze under conditions of different levels of colony need in food with carbohydrate (sugar syrup) or protein (ants Lasius niger pupae) reinforcement. Acquisition of the maze habit was better under conditions of reinforcement with pupae, especially by its time indices. Ants were able to modify the acquired habit when the reinforcement quality was changed. It was shown that learning was possible only when the colony and after a change pupae for the syrup was "hungry". Under these conditions, after a change of the syrup for pupae or visa versa the previously acquired optimum habit was transferred. Several hours later, with satiation of the colony, food reactions learned with protein reinforcement switched-over to "stochastic" non-optimized behavior with the dominance of exploratory reactions. Thus, it was shown that higher social insects ants were capable for conditioned switching-over. Different forms of this phenomenon depended on the level of the colony need in food and, consequently, on the level of the social food motivation of foragers ants.

  2. Motivations, Media Use, and Electoral Decision Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Lee B.; Demers, David K.

    Most of the research on motivations and media use has assumed that there is some general motivation that directs habitual media behavior. Recent work on motivations, however, suggests that it may be valuable to distinguish between general needs and more specific needs, both of which may direct media behavior. For example, regular media use might…

  3. Designing motivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    are grappling with how to create motivating products, and as a primer for students who want a brief introduction to some of the relevant theories, findings and design interventions in these fields. The editor's introduction raises a number of issues encountered when we try to apply behavioural research......How can products be designed to change our habits for the better? What is some of the leading research that designers can draw on to create new systems that motivate people towards healthier behaviour? Designing Motivation is an edited collection of ‘industrialist cheat sheets’: 22 single......-page summaries of research articles relating to technology design, motivation, and behaviour change. Ranging across the fields of economics, sociology, design research and behavioural science, each summary draws out the design implications of the research. It is intended as a resource for designers who...

  4. Motivating pharmacists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donehew, G R

    1979-01-01

    Although pharmacists are developing interest in many types of pharmacy practice, they are still spending the bulk of their time in the prescription dispensing process. Any effort to provide motivation must consider the prescription dispensing process. The pharmacy literature includes only a few studies that dealt with pharmacists as people. The studies usually showed that pharmacists basically were unhappy with their jobs. In developing a motivational climate for pharmacists, pharmacy supervisors have several concepts to consider: the hierarchy of needs by Maslow; the expectancy theory by Hampton; the gygiene-motivator theory by Herzberg; and the Theory Y management approach by McGregor. Because pharmacists must be induced to enter and remain in an organization, supervisors should be aware of the need to use any technique available in developing a motivational climate.

  5. Designing motivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    are grappling with how to create motivating products, and as a primer for students who want a brief introduction to some of the relevant theories, findings and design interventions in these fields. The editor's introduction raises a number of issues encountered when we try to apply behavioural research......How can products be designed to change our habits for the better? What is some of the leading research that designers can draw on to create new systems that motivate people towards healthier behaviour? Designing Motivation is an edited collection of ‘industrialist cheat sheets’: 22 single......-page summaries of research articles relating to technology design, motivation, and behaviour change. Ranging across the fields of economics, sociology, design research and behavioural science, each summary draws out the design implications of the research. It is intended as a resource for designers who...

  6. Drinking Motives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G; Rosendahl, Jacob; Andronikidis, Andreas I.

    2013-01-01

    , and quenching one’s thirst. The non-alcoholic products scoring low on functionality are coffee, tea, soft drinks, and energy drinks. Analysis of socio-demographic differences resulted in only a few effects. Men, lower education groups, and lower income groups are more likely to drink alcohol for reasons other......This chapter presents an analysis of what consumer in Europe drink and why they drink what they drink. The concept of drinking motives is developed and defined, and analysis of data on drinking motives shows that these can be grouped into two major classes: self-expressive and functional....... This distinction is universal and henceapplies across Europe. However, the importance of self-expressive as compared to functional motives, as well as the way in which these relate to different beverages, does differ across Europe. Both dimensions are relevant for the motives for drinking non-alcoholic drinks...

  7. Food Engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boom, R.M.; Janssen, A.E.M.

    2014-01-01

    Food engineering is a rapidly changing discipline. Traditionally, the main focus was on food preservation and stabilization, whereas trends now are on diversity, health, taste, and sustainable production. Next to a general introduction of the definition of food engineering, this article gives a

  8. Food allergies.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Leary, Paula F G

    2012-02-03

    Adverse reactions to foods are commonly implicated in the causation of ill health. However, foreign antigens, including food proteins and commensal microbes encountered in the gastrointestinal tract, are usually well tolerated. True food allergies, implying immune-mediated adverse responses to food antigens, do exist, however, and are especially common in infants and young children. Allergic reactions to food manifest clinically in a variety of presentations involving the gastrointestinal, cutaneous, and respiratory systems and in generalized reactions such as anaphylaxis. Both IgE-mediated and non-IgE-mediated immune mechanisms are recognized. Important advances in the clinical features underlying specific food hypersensitivity disorders are reviewed.

  9. The motivation to express prejudice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forscher, Patrick S.; Cox, William T. L.; Graetz, Nicholas; Devine, Patricia G.

    2015-01-01

    Contemporary prejudice research focuses primarily on people who are motivated to respond without prejudice and the ways in which unintentional bias can cause these people to act inconsistent with this motivation. However, some real-world phenomena (e.g., hate speech, hate crimes) and experimental findings (e.g., Plant & Devine, 2001; 2009) suggest that some expressions of prejudice are intentional. These phenomena and findings are difficult to explain solely from the motivations to respond without prejudice. We argue that some people are motivated to express prejudice, and we develop the motivation to express prejudice (MP) scale to measure this motivation. In seven studies involving more than 6,000 participants, we demonstrate that, across scale versions targeted at Black people and gay men, the MP scale has good reliability and convergent, discriminant, and predictive validity. In normative climates that prohibit prejudice, the internal and external motivations to express prejudice are functionally non-independent, but they become more independent when normative climates permit more prejudice toward a target group. People high in the motivation to express prejudice are relatively likely to resist pressure to support programs promoting intergroup contact and vote for political candidates who support oppressive policies. The motivation to express prejudice predicted these outcomes even when controlling for attitudes and the motivations to respond without prejudice. This work encourages contemporary prejudice researchers to broaden the range of samples, target groups, and phenomena that they study, and more generally to consider the intentional aspects of negative intergroup behavior. PMID:26479365

  10. Effects of a Cannabinoid1 receptor antagonist and Serotonin2C receptor agonist alone and in combination on motivation for palatable food: a dose-addition analysis study in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Sara Jane; Lefever, Timothy W; Jackson, Cavario; Tallarida, Ronald J; Walker, Ellen A

    2008-05-01

    The cannabinoid and serotonin systems modulate feeding behavior in humans and laboratory animals. The present study assessed whether a cannabinoid (CB)(1) receptor antagonist and a serotonin (5-HT)(2C) receptor agonist alone and in combination attenuate motivation for the liquid nutritional drink Ensure as measured by a progressive ratio (PR) schedule of reinforcement in male C57BL/6 mice. Pretreatment (15 min i.p.) with either the CB(1) receptor antagonist N-(piperidin-1-yl)-5-(4-chlorophenyl)-1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-4-methyl-1H-pyrazole-3-carboximide hydrochloride (SR141716) (SR; Rimonabant or Acomplia) or the 5-HT(2C) receptor agonist m-chlorophenylpiperazine (mCPP) dose-dependently decreased the maximum ratio completed under the PR schedule (break point) in mice. ED(25) values for SR and mCPP to decrease break point were determined, and the relative potency of each drug alone was quantified. Fixed dose-ratio pairs of SR/mCPP based on their relative potency were then administered. Dose-addition analysis comparing the experimentally determined potency for SR/mCPP combinations with their predicted additive potency revealed that SR/mCPP combinations in 1:1 and 2:1 ratios based on relative potency produced significant synergistic attenuation of break point for Ensure. The ED(25) values for decreasing break point were consistently lower than ED(25) values for decreasing response rate, and synergistic effects of SR/mCPP combinations on break point were seen independent of synergistic effects on response rate. These results indicate that cannabinoid CB(1) and serotonin 5-HT(2C) receptors are involved in motivated feeding behavior in mice and that these compounds can synergistically modulate motivation for palatable food with the synergy dependent upon the ratio of SR/mCPP in the combination.

  11. Motivation of Online Buyer Behavior

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Veronika Svatosová

    2013-01-01

    .... The subject matter of this article is an analysis of the features of online buyer behavior compared to the general regularities of buyer behavior, definition of the main motives of online shopping...

  12. [Food consumption and the nutritional status of schoolchildren of the Community of Madrid (CAENPE): general methodology and overall food consumption. Consumo de alimentos y estado nutricional de la población escolar].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez, C; de Cos, A I; Martínez, P; Jaunsolo, M A; Román, E; Gómez, C; López, T; Hernáez, I; Seijas, V; Ramos, V

    1995-01-01

    The CAENPE study (Food Consumption and Nutritional State of the School Population) was a transversal observational study funded and promoted by the Directorate-General of Food Hygiene in the Ministry of Health, implemented in 1991-93, with the main aim of quantifying food consumption in the school population (6-14 years of age) in the Regional Community of Madrid, together with an anthropometric study and nutritional analysis of that population. This project sets our the General Methodology for the study, paying particular attention to the sampling design, to ensure that the sample is representative of the community, and the results of the overall consumption of food and its comparison with recommended diet and other population studies. Quantification shows a high and rising consumption of meat, meat products, sweets, snacks and prepared dishes, suitable consumption of eggs, legumes and fruit and a notable lack of greens, vegetables and potatoes. The basic results underline the need to introduce educational measures with practical effect on home and school menus.

  13. General and food-selection specific parenting style in relation to the healthfulness of parent-child choices while grocery shopping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas-Thompson, Rachel G; Graham, Dan J; Ullrich, Emily; MacPhee, David

    2017-01-01

    Past research has demonstrated that parenting style is related to children's health and eating patterns, and that parenting can vary across time and context. However, there is little evidence about similarities and differences between general, self-reported parenting style and observed parenting during grocery shopping. The goals of this study were to investigate links between general parenting style, parental warmth and limit setting (important dimensions of parenting style) during grocery shopping, and the healthfulness of foods chosen. Participants were 153 parent (88 mothers) - child (6-9 years old) dyads. Dyads were brought to a laboratory set up like a grocery store aisle and asked to choose two items from each of three categories (cookies/crackers, cereals, chips/snacks). Parents were observed in terms of warmth, responsiveness, autonomy granting, and limit setting; children were observed in terms of resistance and negotiation. Parents reported behaviors related to general parenting. Regression analyses were used to test study hypotheses. Observed parental limit setting was related to general parenting style; observed warmth was not. Observed limit setting (but not observed warmth or self-reported parenting style) was related to the healthfulness of food choices. Limit setting appears to be the dimension of parenting style that is expressed during grocery shopping, and that promotes healthier food choices. Implications are discussed regarding consistencies in parenting style across situations as well as contributions of parenting style to the development of children's healthy eating.

  14. Automated Motivic Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lartillot, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    of the successive notes and intervals, various sets of musical parameters may be invoked. In this chapter, a method is presented that allows for these heterogeneous patterns to be discovered. Motivic repetition with local ornamentation is detected by reconstructing, on top of “surface-level” monodic voices, longer...... for lossless compression. The structural complexity resulting from successive repetitions of patterns can be controlled through a simple modelling of cycles. Generally, motivic patterns cannot always be defined solely as sequences of descriptions in a fixed set of dimensions: throughout the descriptions......-term relations between non-adjacent notes related to deeper structures, and by tracking motives on the resulting syntagmatic network. These principles are integrated into a computational framework, the MiningSuite, developed in Matlab....

  15. Employee Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Charles H.

    1971-01-01

    Motivation is an area which has received some systematic psychological study only in the past seventy years. It is the purpose of this article to explore and examine some of the knowledge that has been acquired and to see how this knowledge may be applied. (24 references) (Author/NH)

  16. Associations of dietary glycaemic index and glycaemic load with food and nutrient intake and general and central obesity in British adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Kentaro; McCaffrey, Tracy A; Livingstone, M Barbara E

    2013-12-14

    Inconsistent associations between dietary glycaemic index (GI) and glycaemic load (GL) and body fatness may be partly due to differences in the underlying dietary patterns or energy under-reporting. In the present study, we examined the cross-sectional associations of dietary GI and GL with food and nutrient intake and general and central obesity, accounting for energy under-reporting. The subjects were 1487 British adults aged 19-64 years. Dietary intake was assessed using a 7 d weighed dietary record. Breads and potatoes were the positive predictive foods for dietary GI, while fruit, other cereals and dairy products were the negative predictors. These foods were similarly identified in the analysis of only acceptable reporters (AR; ratio of reported energy intake:estimated energy requirement within 0·665-1·335) and under-reporters (UR; ratio intake. Multiple linear regression analyses showed that dietary GI was independently associated with a higher risk of general obesity (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m²) and central obesity (waist circumference ≥ 102 cm in men and ≥ 88 cm in women). Dietary GL was also associated with general (only women) and central obesity. Similarly, in the analysis of AR, the GI showed positive associations with general and central obesity, and, only in women, the GL showed positive associations with general and central obesity. Conversely, in the analysis of UR, the associations were generally weaker and many of them failed to reach statistical significance. In conclusion, we found independent positive associations of dietary GI and GL with general and central obesity in British adults.

  17. A Review of Factors Influencing Athletes' Food Choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkenhead, Karen L; Slater, Gary

    2015-11-01

    Athletes make food choices on a daily basis that can affect both health and performance. A well planned nutrition strategy that includes the careful timing and selection of appropriate foods and fluids helps to maximize training adaptations and, thus, should be an integral part of the athlete's training programme. Factors that motivate food selection include taste, convenience, nutrition knowledge and beliefs. Food choice is also influenced by physiological, social, psychological and economic factors and varies both within and between individuals and populations. This review highlights the multidimensional nature of food choice and the depth of previous research investigating eating behaviours. Despite numerous studies with general populations, little exploration has been carried out with athletes, yet the energy demands of sport typically require individuals to make more frequent and/or appropriate food choices. While factors that are important to general populations also apply to athletes, it seems likely, given the competitive demands of sport, that performance would be an important factor influencing food choice. It is unclear if athletes place the same degree of importance on these factors or how food choice is influenced by involvement in sport. There is a clear need for further research exploring the food choice motives of athletes, preferably in conjunction with research investigating dietary intake to establish if intent translates into practice.

  18. LEARNER MOTIVATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Zheng Min(Maggie):Initiation of the discus-sion topicDear Mr.Ma,I’m very sorry for this late initia-tion of discussion topics.Just come from one countyof Inner Mongolia near the city of Chi Feng.There isreally a lack of competent teachers of English in ruralareas,and in astonishment I saw many who barelyspeak English teaches English in middle schools.Asfor the topic of discussion,I’d like to focus on learn-er’s motivation,which is a vital factor in successfullearning.It is well known that motivation is classi-fied by Gardner & Lambert(1972)into"integrative"and"instrumental"ones.Other categorization in-

  19. Food Assistance: Financial Information on WIC Nutrition Services and Administrative Costs. United States General Accounting Office Report to Congressional Committees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Robert E.

    The Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) is a federally funded nutrition assistance program administered by the Department of Agriculture's (USDA) Food and Nutrition Service (FNS). Responding to Congressional requests for information regarding program costs, this report provides information on: (1) funding…

  20. Food Habits, Lifestyle Factors, and Risk of Prostate Cancer in Central Argentina: A Case Control Study Involving Self-Motivated Health Behavior Modifications after Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco, Sandaly O S; Pacheco, Fabio J; Zapata, Gimena M J; Garcia, Julieta M E; Previale, Carlos A; Cura, Héctor E; Craig, Winston J

    2016-07-09

    Cancer is the second most important non-communicable disease worldwide and disproportionately impacts low- to middle-income countries. Diet in combination with other lifestyle habits seems to modify the risk for some cancers but little is known about South Americans. Food habits of Argentinean men pre- and post-diagnosis of prostate cancer (n = 326) were assessed along with other lifestyle factors. We studied whether any of the behaviors and risk factors for prostate cancer were found in men with other cancers (n = 394), compared with control subjects (n = 629). Before diagnosis, both cases reported a greater mean consumption of meats and fats and lower intakes of fruits, green vegetables, cruciferous vegetables, legumes, nuts, seeds, and whole grains than the controls (all p cancer), cruciferous vegetables, legumes, nuts, and black tea (all p cancer diagnosis.

  1. Motives of consumers following a vegan diet and their attitudes towards animal agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Meike; Busch, Claudia; Rödiger, Manika; Hamm, Ulrich

    2016-10-01

    The number of consumers following a vegan diet has notably increased in many industrialised countries and it is likely that their influence on the food sector will continue to grow. The aim of the present study was to identify different segments of consumers according to their motivation for following a vegan diet. Another objective was to analyse the attitudes of these consumers towards animal agriculture. The main focus was to determine whether all consumers following a vegan diet oppose animal agriculture in general or if some of these consumers accept certain forms of animal agriculture. The 2014 study, conducted at seven vegan supermarkets in Germany, was based on face-to-face interviews with 329 consumers following a vegan diet. The open question on consumer motivations for adopting a vegan diet revealed three main motives: Animal-related motives (mentioned by 89.7% of the respondents), motives related to personal well-being and/or health (69.3%), and environment-related motives (46.8%). The two-step cluster analysis identified five consumer segments with different motivations for following a vegan diet. The vast majority of respondents (81.8%) mentioned more than one motive. We conclude that making a dichotomous segmentation into ethical versus self-oriented consumers, as previous authors have done, disregards the fact that many consumers following a vegan diet are driven by more than one motive. The consumer segments had significantly different attitudes towards animal agriculture. We identified consumers following a vegan diet (about one third of the sample) who might be open to forms of animal agriculture guaranteeing animal welfare standards going beyond current practices. The present study has interesting implications for the food sector and the agricultural sector.

  2. Atitudes e motivações em relação ao consumo de alimentos orgânicos em Belo Horizonte - MG Attitudes and motivations towards organic foods consumption in Belo Horizonte, MG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luísa Mol Senna Andrade

    2012-05-01

    ânicos, fatores como preço elevado e baixa qualidade limitaram o consumo destes produtos em Belo Horizonte.The aim of this study was to characterize the consumer market of organic foods in Belo Horizonte, M.G., including the socioeconomic profile and consumer's behavior, their perception and knowledge regarding organic food, and also the main motivations and limitations towards the consumption of these products. A direct descriptive and structured research (survey was carried out with 400 consumers, by using semi-structured questionnaires. Most consumers were female (76.0%, aged over 30 years (90.3%, in a stable relationship (81.3%, degree holders (81.5%, with high household income (over 12 M.S.⁄month (78.7%. The majority defined organic food as foods without pesticide residues (69.7%. Organic foods were mentioned to contain higher levels of nutrients than conventional foods (82.0%, no genetically modified organisms (75.0% and no synthetic chemical products (86.0%. The majority was worried about healthy life habits, since 80.5% regularly exercised and 49.2% had already gone on a diet or followed nutritional orientation. All believed in health benefits from consumption of these foods and almost all (98.8% had already noticed health improvements derived from consumption. Only 16.3% consumed organic food other than fruits and vegetables. Heath concern as well as the higher content of nutrients and more pronounced taste than conventional food were the major motivations for consumption of organic fruit and vegetables. A great part of consumers showed superficial knowledge regarding the issue, evidencing the need for better elucidation about the subject. A repressed demand for these products was observed, since, despite of high interest in organic foods, the high price and low quality limited the consumption of these products in Belo Horizonte.

  3. Food Habits, Lifestyle Factors, and Risk of Prostate Cancer in Central Argentina: A Case Control Study Involving Self-Motivated Health Behavior Modifications after Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandaly O. S. Pacheco

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is the second most important non-communicable disease worldwide and disproportionately impacts low- to middle-income countries. Diet in combination with other lifestyle habits seems to modify the risk for some cancers but little is known about South Americans. Food habits of Argentinean men pre- and post-diagnosis of prostate cancer (n = 326 were assessed along with other lifestyle factors. We studied whether any of the behaviors and risk factors for prostate cancer were found in men with other cancers (n = 394, compared with control subjects (n = 629. Before diagnosis, both cases reported a greater mean consumption of meats and fats and lower intakes of fruits, green vegetables, cruciferous vegetables, legumes, nuts, seeds, and whole grains than the controls (all p < 0.001. After diagnosis, cases significantly reduced the intake of meats and fats, and reported other dietary modifications with increased consumption of fish, fruits (including red fruits in prostate cancer, cruciferous vegetables, legumes, nuts, and black tea (all p < 0.001. Additional lifestyle aspects significantly predominant in cases included a reduced quality of sleep, emotional stress, low physical activity, tobacco smoking, alcohol consumption, living in rural areas, and being exposed to environmental contaminants. Argentinian men were predisposed to modify their unhealthy dietary habits and other lifestyle factors after cancer diagnosis.

  4. Food Habits, Lifestyle Factors, and Risk of Prostate Cancer in Central Argentina: A Case Control Study Involving Self-Motivated Health Behavior Modifications after Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco, Sandaly O. S.; Pacheco, Fabio J.; Zapata, Gimena M. J.; Garcia, Julieta M. E.; Previale, Carlos A.; Cura, Héctor E.; Craig, Winston J.

    2016-01-01

    Cancer is the second most important non-communicable disease worldwide and disproportionately impacts low- to middle-income countries. Diet in combination with other lifestyle habits seems to modify the risk for some cancers but little is known about South Americans. Food habits of Argentinean men pre- and post-diagnosis of prostate cancer (n = 326) were assessed along with other lifestyle factors. We studied whether any of the behaviors and risk factors for prostate cancer were found in men with other cancers (n = 394), compared with control subjects (n = 629). Before diagnosis, both cases reported a greater mean consumption of meats and fats and lower intakes of fruits, green vegetables, cruciferous vegetables, legumes, nuts, seeds, and whole grains than the controls (all p < 0.001). After diagnosis, cases significantly reduced the intake of meats and fats, and reported other dietary modifications with increased consumption of fish, fruits (including red fruits in prostate cancer), cruciferous vegetables, legumes, nuts, and black tea (all p < 0.001). Additional lifestyle aspects significantly predominant in cases included a reduced quality of sleep, emotional stress, low physical activity, tobacco smoking, alcohol consumption, living in rural areas, and being exposed to environmental contaminants. Argentinian men were predisposed to modify their unhealthy dietary habits and other lifestyle factors after cancer diagnosis. PMID:27409631

  5. Local food:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundbo, Donna Isabella Caroline

    2013-01-01

    Recently there has been more focus on food in general and local food in particular. But what is local food? And what are the perceptions of this concept according to theory and to providers and consumers of local food? This article first summarises and compares three different theoretical...... as expressed by a group of Danish providers and consumers is empirically investigated through interviews, observation and surveys. From this, qualitative and quantitative data are generated, the analysis of which shows how varied perceptions of local food are. The elements of which the perceptions consist...... are identified and then categorised according to whether they pertain to the food product itself or the production methods and facilities and whether they describe physical or social properties of local food. From this a model with four categories is developed. It is found that properties of the product are more...

  6. Beyond Cognition: Reading Motivation and Reading Comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigfield, Allan; Gladstone, Jessica; Turci, Lara

    2016-09-01

    The authors review research on children's reading motivation and its relation to their reading comprehension. They begin by discussing work on the development of school motivation in general and reading motivation in particular, reviewing work showing that many children's reading motivation declines over the school years. Girls tend to have more positive motivation for reading than do boys, and there are ethnic differences in children's reading motivation. Over the last 15 years researchers have identified in both laboratory and classroom-based research instructional practices that positively impact students' reading motivation and ultimately their reading comprehension. There is a strong need for researchers to build on this work and develop and study in different age groups of children effective classroom-based reading motivation instructional programs for a variety of narrative and informational materials.

  7. 21 CFR 170.10 - Food additives in standardized foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Food additives in standardized foods. 170.10... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 170.10 Food additives... the Act, which proposes the inclusion of a food additive in such definition and standard of...

  8. Feasibility of a network of excellence postharvest food losses : combining knowledge and competences to reduce food losses in developing and emerging economies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gogh, van J.B.; Aramyan, L.H.; Sluis, van der A.A.; Soethoudt, J.M.; Scheer, F.P.

    2013-01-01

    Motivation: food security & postharvest losses Fruits and vegetables supply chains in developing countries are characterised by relatively high losses between harvest and consumption. In general, the postharvest system includes all stages in the chain where the activity/service is intended to ad

  9. Motivation's Influence on English Learning and Strategies for Improving

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈玢; 张亚铃

    2009-01-01

    The article mainly focuses on the relationship between motivation and English learning,the influence of motivation on English learning(That is,English learning motive may be simply viewed as the reason of learning English;different motives will lead to different learning methods;generally speaking,surface motive does not endure longer than deep motive.;strong motivation can lead to final Success.)and six strategies of improving English learning(That is,developing proper attitudes towards English learning and letting students know the pressure of it;goal and feedback;praise and criticism;contest and cooperation;expectation and appraisement;achievement motive.).

  10. European food law handbook

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulen, van der B.M.J.; Velde, van der M.; Szajkowska, A.; Verbruggen, R.

    2008-01-01

    This handbook analyses and explains the institutional, substantive and procedural elements of EU food law, taking the General Food Law as a focus point. Principles are discussed as well as specific rules addressing food as a product, the processes related to food and communication about food through

  11. Fast food tips (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... challenge to eat healthy when going to a fast food place. In general, avoiding items that are deep ... challenge to eat healthy when going to a fast food place. In general, avoiding items that are deep ...

  12. Fast Foods, Organic Foods, Fad Diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is no standard definition of fast food. Generally, fast food is eaten without cutlery, and fast-food restaurants have no wait staff. Failure to have a standardized definition makes it difficult to compare studies. Foods available outside the home tend to be high in energy and fat compared w...

  13. Motivations of female Black Hills deer hunters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gigliotti, Larry M.; Covelli Metcalf, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    State fish and wildlife agencies are particularly interested in attracting female participation because of the potential to offset declining participation in hunting. Understanding female hunters’ motivations will be critical for designing effective recruitment and retention programs for women hunters. Although female participation in hunting is increasing, males still outnumber females by about tenfold. Gender differences in deer hunters were explored by comparing ratings of eight motivations (social, nature, excitement, meat, challenge, trophy, extra hunting opportunity, and solitude). Hunter types were defined by hunters’ selection of the most important motivation for why they like Black Hills deer hunting. Overall, females and males were relatively similar in their ratings of the eight motivations, and we found 85% gender similarity in the selection of the most important motivation. Women were slightly more motivated by the food aspect of the hunt while men placed slightly more value on the hunt as a sporting activity.

  14. A generalized matching law analysis of cocaine vs. food choice in rhesus monkeys: effects of candidate 'agonist-based' medications on sensitivity to reinforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutsell, Blake A; Negus, S Stevens; Banks, Matthew L

    2015-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated reductions in cocaine choice produced by either continuous 14-day phendimetrazine and d-amphetamine treatment or removing cocaine availability under a cocaine vs. food choice procedure in rhesus monkeys. The aim of the present investigation was to apply the concatenated generalized matching law (GML) to cocaine vs. food choice dose-effect functions incorporating sensitivity to both the relative magnitude and price of each reinforcer. Our goal was to determine potential behavioral mechanisms underlying pharmacological treatment efficacy to decrease cocaine choice. A multi-model comparison approach was used to characterize dose- and time-course effects of both pharmacological and environmental manipulations on sensitivity to reinforcement. GML models provided an excellent fit of the cocaine choice dose-effect functions in individual monkeys. Reductions in cocaine choice by both pharmacological and environmental manipulations were principally produced by systematic decreases in sensitivity to reinforcer price and non-systematic changes in sensitivity to reinforcer magnitude. The modeling approach used provides a theoretical link between the experimental analysis of choice and pharmacological treatments being evaluated as candidate 'agonist-based' medications for cocaine addiction. The analysis suggests that monoamine releaser treatment efficacy to decrease cocaine choice was mediated by selectively increasing the relative price of cocaine. Overall, the net behavioral effect of these pharmacological treatments was to increase substitutability of food pellets, a nondrug reinforcer, for cocaine. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Knowledge, attitude, and practices concerning presence of molds in foods among members of the general public in Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matumba, Limbikani; Monjerezi, Maurice; Kankwamba, Henry; Njoroge, Samuel M C; Ndilowe, Peter; Kabuli, Hilda; Kambewa, Daimon; Njapau, Henry

    2016-02-01

    This study assessed knowledge, attitude, and practices (KAP) of the public in Malawi on issues related to molds in foodstuffs. A survey involving structured questionnaire was conducted with 805 respondents from seven districts of Malawi. Descriptive statistics, t tests, and analyses of variance were calculated. A majority of respondents recognized that molds were dangerous to human health (88%); however, about 50% of respondents were not informed that mold toxins are thermally stable and that they are not destroyable by normal cooking processes. About 33% of the respondents asserted that they buy moldy maize, while approximately 20% of respondents reported that they consume moldy fruits having discarded moldy fraction. There were significant differences in knowledge scores among different demographic groups. Females had significantly (p public's knowledge about health risks associated with spoilage molds in food and prevention and management options.

  16. GRAS Flavoring Substances 25. The 25th publication by the Expert Panel of the Flavor and Extract Manufacturers Association provides an update on reent progress in the consideration of flavoring ingredients generally recognized as safe under the Food Additives Amendment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith, R.L.; Waddell, W.J.; Cohen, S.M.; Fukushima, S.; Gooderham, N.J.; Hecht, S.S.; Marnett, L.J.; Porthogese, P.S.; Rietjens, I.; Adams, T.B.; Gavin, C.L.; McGowen, M.M.; Taylor, S.V.

    2011-01-01

    The 25th publication by the Expert Panel of the Flavor and Extract Manufacturers Association provides an update on recent progress in the consideration of flavoring ingredients generally recognized as safe under the Food Additives Amendment.

  17. Food labels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selsøe Sørensen, Henrik; Clement, Jesper; Gabrielsen, Gorm

    2012-01-01

    The food industry develops tasty and healthy food but fails to deliver the message to all consumers. The consumers’ background knowledge is essential for how they find and decode relevant elements in the cocktail of signs which fight for attention on food labels. In this exploratory study, we find...... evidence for dividing consumers into two profiles: one relying on general food knowledge and another using knowledge related to signpost labels. In a combined eyetracking and questionnaire survey we analyse the influence of background knowledge and identify different patterns of visual attention...... for the two consumer profiles. This underlines the complexity in choosing and designing the ‘right’ elements for a food package that consumers actually look at and are able to make rational use of. In spite of any regulation of food information provided by authorities, consumers will still be confronted...

  18. Motivating the Knowledge Worker

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Herzberg . The Two - factor Theory asserts that motivators and de-motivators are mutually exclusive sets of factors . This research supports...various theories of motivation and the data collected from this effort, the author developed a two -dimensional model of the factors that motivate... Theory X/ Theory Y Two - factor Theory Cognitive Evaluation Theory Operant Conditioning Protection Motivation Theory

  19. The endocannabinoid system and appetite: relevance for food reward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jager, Gerry; Witkamp, Renger F

    2014-06-01

    Mounting evidence substantiates the central role of the endocannabinoid system (ECS) in the modulation of both homeostatic and hedonic elements of appetite and food intake. Conversely, feeding status and dietary patterns directly influence activity of the ECS. Following a general introduction on the functioning of the ECS, the present review specifically addresses its role in the modulation of hedonic eating. Humans possess strong motivational systems triggered by rewarding aspects of food. Food reward is comprised of two components: one appetitive (orienting towards food); the other consummatory (hedonic evaluation), also referred to as 'wanting' and 'liking', respectively. Endocannabinoid tone seems to influence both the motivation to feed and the hedonic value of foods, probably by modifying palatability. Human physiology underlying hedonic eating is still not fully understood. A better understanding of the role of the ECS in the rewarding value of specific foods or diets could offer new possibilities to optimise the balance between energy and nutrient intake for different target groups. These groups include the obese and overweight, and potentially individuals suffering from malnutrition. Examples for the latter group are patients with disease-related anorexia, as well as the growing population of frail elderly suffering from persistent loss of food enjoyment and appetite resulting in malnutrition and involuntary weight loss. It has become clear that the psychobiology of food hedonics is extremely complex and the clinical failure of CB1 inverse agonists including rimonabant (Accomplia®) has shown that 'quick wins' in this field are unlikely.

  20. Cooperation Models, Motivation and Objectives behind Farm–School Collaboration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyg, Pernille Malberg; Mikkelsen, Bent Egberg

    2016-01-01

    and teachers. Findings show distinct differences in motivation. Farmers want to create transparency in their production, ensure support for the agricultural profession or promote food and agricultural literacy. The idealistic motivation of teaching children about food and agriculture weighs higher than...... economic incentives. Teachers display academic motives for engaging in farm visits, but also a broader focus on shaping children’s world views, connectedness to food and nature and fostering life skills. The farm can be an important setting for promoting food, agricultural and ecological literacy. We...... people and their ability to understand the food system. Thus, efforts are made to promote food literacy through strengthening of farm–school links. The case-study research from Denmark investigates existing cooperation arrangements in farm–school collaboration and the underlying motivation of the farmers...

  1. Estimated general population control limits for unitary agents in drinking water, milk, soil, and unprocessed food items

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, A.P.; Adams, J.D.; Cerar, R.J.; Hess, T.L.; Kistner, S.L.; Leffingwell, S.S.; MacIntosh, R.G.; Ward, J.R.

    1992-01-01

    In the event of an unplanned release of chemical agent during any stage of the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program (CSDP), the potential exists for contamination of drinking water, forage crops, grains, garden produce, and livestock. Persistent agents such as VX or sulfur mustard pose the greatest human health concern for reentry. This White Paper has been prepared to provide technical bases for these decisions by developing working estimates of agent control limits in selected environmental media considered principal sources of potential human exposure. To date, control limits for public exposure to unitary agents have been established for atmospheric concentrations only. The current analysis builds on previous work to calculate working estimates of control limits for ingestion and dermal exposure to potentially contaminated drinking water, milk, soil, and unprocessed food items such as garden produce. Information characterizing agent desorption from, and detection on or in, contaminated porous media are presently too developed to permit reasonable estimation of dermal exposure from this source. Thus, dermal contact with potentially contaminated porous surfaces is not considered in this document.

  2. Individual variation in the motivational and neurobiological effects of an opioid cue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yager, Lindsay M; Pitchers, Kyle K; Flagel, Shelly B; Robinson, Terry E

    2015-03-13

    A discrete cue associated with intravenous injections of cocaine acquires greater control over motivated behavior in some rats ('sign-trackers', STs) than others ('goal-trackers', GTs). It is not known, however, if such variation generalizes to cues associated with other drugs. We asked, therefore, whether a discrete cue (a light) associated with the intravenous administration of an opioid drug (the short-acting mu receptor agonist, remifentanil) acquires incentive motivational properties differently in STs and GTs, as indicated by tests of Pavlovian conditioned approach and conditioned reinforcement. Consistent with studies using cocaine, STs approached a classically conditioned opioid cue more readily than GTs, and in a test of conditioned reinforcement worked more avidly to get it. Interestingly, STs and GTs did not differ in the acquisition of a conditioned orienting response. In addition, the performance of conditioned approach behavior, but not conditioned orientation, was attenuated by pretreatment with the dopamine receptor antagonist, flupenthixol, into the core of the nucleus accumbens. Lastly, food and opioid cues engaged similar amygdalo-striatal-thalamic circuitry to a much greater extent in STs than GTs, as indicated by Fos expression. Taken together, these data demonstrate that, similar to food and cocaine cues: (1) a discrete opioid cue attains greater incentive motivational value in STs than GTs; (2) the attribution of incentive motivational properties to an opioid cue is dopamine dependent; and (3) an opioid cue engages the so-called 'motive circuit' only if it is imbued with incentive salience.

  3. Understanding consumers of food products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frewer, L.J.; Trijp, van J.C.M.

    2007-01-01

    In order for food businesses, scientists and policy makers to develop successful products, services and policies, it is essential that they understand food consumers and how they decide which products to buy. Food consumer behaviour is the result of various factors, including the motivations of diff

  4. Using non-food information to identify food-choice segment membership

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kornelis, M.; Herpen, van E.; Lans, van der I.A.; Aramyan, L.H.

    2010-01-01

    Food companies, governments, and societal organizations use an increasing number of food-choice motives to persuade consumers to buy food products, and the question which combinations of motives matter for which type of consumer has become of central relevance. In this study, we use a concomitant

  5. Motivations for Healthy Lifestyle in Railroad Employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iztok Ostan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to present the results of a survey of railroad employees’ motivation for a healthy lifestyle. For this purpose a specific questionnaire was developed. The study was performed on 245 Slovene railroad workers (168 of them blue-collar ones. The great majority (66.9% were found to be overweight or obese (BMI 25 or more, with no significant difference between blue- and white-collar workers. The great majority of them were in general aware of having unhealthy nutrition and an unhealthy lifestyle. Most of the employees felt the need to improve (at least in part their nutrition (74.7% and lifestyle (78.0%; the majority (67.8% also declared that they could adopt a healthier lifestyle despite the constraints of everyday life and work conditions; however, 57.6% said that they had been already putting considerable effort into a healthier nutrition and lifestyle. Thus the effort needed to overcome constraints toward a healthier lifestyle seems to be the key problem: the majority (54.3% would rather choose walking than running or other intensive forms of exercise; they are not ready to do it for more than one hour per day (60%, and they are not ready to give up permanently food that they like and that is considered unhealthy. The differences in motivations for a healthy lifestyle between blue- and white-collar workers were not significant at the 0.05 level. Further research in this field is needed; however, it seems that the methods of efficient marginal modifications of lifestyle are required. KEYWORDS human resources management, railroad, blue-collar workers, white-collar workers, healthy lifestyle, motivations

  6. DETERMINING TRAVEL MOTIVATIONS OF WELLNESS TOURISM

    OpenAIRE

    Težak Damijanić, Ana; Šergo, Zdravko

    2013-01-01

    Wellness tourism is a relatively new form of tourism based on special interest of consumers. In order to create appropriate marketing strategy it is necessary to better understand travel motivation for this segment. The purpose of this paper is to explore travel motives in the context of wellness tourism. The aim of this paper is twofold: 1) to determine how well the general proposed structure of push and pull motivating factors applies to tourists who consider wellness services an important ...

  7. Motivations and the Second Language Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ya-qin

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores a general theory of Second Language Learning. In this paper, the author tries to illustrate some-thing about motivations which help us develop more effective approaches to learn a second Language. Self-confidence, experi-ence of success and satisfaction, good relationships among Learners and relationships among teacher and students are believed to have a solid connection with motivation. They are also correlated with each other in the process of motivation development.

  8. Use of lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS) to improve the nutrient adequacy of general food distribution rations for vulnerable sub-groups in emergency settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaparro, Camila M; Dewey, Kathryn G

    2010-01-01

    The term 'lipid-based nutrient supplements' (LNS) refers generically to a range of fortified, lipid-based products, including products like Ready-to-Use Therapeutic Foods (RUTF) (a large daily ration with relatively low micronutrient concentration) as well as highly concentrated supplements (1-4 teaspoons/day, providing groups [e.g. infants and children between 6 and 24 months of age, and pregnant and lactating women (PLW)]. Currently, the main food and nutrition interventions in emergency settings include general food distribution (GFD) rations, which are provided to the affected population as a whole, and selective (or supplementary) feeding programs (SFP), which are to be provided to nutritionally vulnerable or malnourished individuals. In addition to logistical and operational challenges that may limit the intended effect of these programs, the nutritional quality of the food commodities provided may be insufficient to meet the needs of infants and young children and PLW. Because these subgroups have particularly high nutrient needs for growth and development, meeting these needs is challenging in settings where the ration is limited to a few food commodities, with little access to a diverse diet and bioavailable sources of micronutrients. In recent years, there has been increased attention to adding micronutrient interventions, on top of the other food-based interventions (such as GFDs and SFPs), to fill micronutrient gaps in diets in emergency settings. The focus of this document is the potential role of LNS in meeting the nutritional needs of these vulnerable subgroups, with the goal of preventing malnutrition in emergency-affected populations. The document addresses the desired nutritional formulation of LNS for these target groups, taking into account the expected bioavailability of relevant nutrients and toxicity concerns. It also discusses the recommended chemical forms of the fortificants in LNS; stability and shelf-life considerations; production

  9. Functional food acceptance in the food chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krutulyte, Rasa

    This thesis analyses consumer acceptance of functional foods and food manufacturers' decision to develop functional foods. The thesis sets up four key research questions: (1) How consumers accept functional foods enriched with omega-3? (2) How the intention of purchasing carrier ingredient...... combinations is explained by general attitudes to functional foods, consumers' health concerns, and the perceived fit of a particular carrier ingredient combination? (3) How food manufacturers decide to develop functional foods? (4) What are the determinants and drivers of food manufacturers' decision...... to develop functional foods? Research question 1 The health benefit of a functional food product is in fact limited if it is not eaten regularly and thus is not part of the healthy diet. For that reason it is highly relevant to look at the dietary change research when studying functional food acceptance...

  10. Motivation: What have we learned and what is still missing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studer, B; Knecht, S

    2016-01-01

    This final chapter deliberates three overarching topics and conclusions of the research presented in this volume: the endurance of the concept of extrinsic vs intrinsic motivation, the importance of considering subjective costs of activities when aiming to understand and enhance motivation, and current knowledge of the neurobiological underpinnings of motivation. Furthermore, three topics for future motivation research are outlined, namely the assessment and determinants of intrinsic benefits, the reconciliation of activity-specific motivation models with generalized motivation impairments in clinical populations, and the motivational dynamics of groups.

  11. How Do Self-Attributed and Implicit Motives Differ?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, David C.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Implicit motives generally sustain behavior over time because of the pleasure derived from the activities; self-attributed motives predict immediate responses because of social incentives in a structured situation. Implications of these distinctions are discussed. (SLD)

  12. How Do Self-Attributed and Implicit Motives Differ?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, David C.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Implicit motives generally sustain behavior over time because of the pleasure derived from the activities; self-attributed motives predict immediate responses because of social incentives in a structured situation. Implications of these distinctions are discussed. (SLD)

  13. Cooperation Models, Motivation and Objectives behind Farm–School Collaboration:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyg, Pernille Malberg

    2016-01-01

    economic incentives. Teachers display academic motives for engaging in farm visits, but also a broader focus on shaping children’s world views, connectedness to food and nature and fostering life skills. The farm can be an important setting for promoting food, agricultural and ecological literacy. We......Abstract Children lack an understanding of and connectedness to food and agriculture, while policies are calling for more emphasis on food and nutrition at school. As a result, foodscapes at school are increasingly the focus of public policy. More initiatives are targeting food literacy of young...... and teachers. Findings show distinct differences in motivation. Farmers want to create transparency in their production, ensure support for the agricultural profession or promote food and agricultural literacy. The idealistic motivation of teaching children about food and agriculture weighs higher than...

  14. Comparison of food habits, iron intake and iron status in adolescents before and after the withdrawal of the general iron fortification in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjöberg, A; Hulthén, L

    2015-04-01

    Sifted flour was fortified with carbonyl iron for 50 years in Sweden. This study evaluates changes in food habits, intake of iron, factors affecting iron absorption and iron status after the discontinuation of the general iron fortification in adolescents with the highest requirements. A total of 2285 15- to 16-year-old students in 1994 (634 girls and 611 boys) and in 2000 (534 girls and 486 boys) in 13 schools in Gothenburg, Sweden, were included in two cross-sectional surveys assessing food habits with diet history interviews and iron deficiency defined with serum ferritin stores ⩽ 15 μg/l and no preceding infection. In girls, iron deficiency increased from 37 to 45%, while in boys, it was stable at 23%. Total iron intake decreased from 15.7 to 9.5 mg/day and 22.5 to 13.9 mg/day in girls and boys, respectively. Cereals were the main iron source. Among girls, the increase of fish and decrease of calcium intake may not counteract the effect of decreased intake of fortification iron. Among boys, more meat, less calcium and more vitamin C may have favoured the bioavailability of iron. The discontinuation of the general iron fortification resulted in a 39% decrease in total iron intake and iron deficiency increased substantially in girls. However, in boys no change in iron deficiency was observed. Whether this was a result of changed bioavailability of dietary iron or simultaneous changes of non-dietary factors remains to be explored.

  15. Can implicit motivation be measured?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraus, Alexandra; Scholderer, Joachim

    of evaluation could be applied. However, no comparable procedures have been developed for the motivational wanting component; generally accepted “low-tech” measures are therefore still lacking! Thus, the aim of this study was to develop and test implicit measures of wanting that can be used as dependent...

  16. Motivating Learners at South Korean Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederhauser, Janet S.

    2012-01-01

    Students at many universities often fail to reach their full potential as English language learners due to low motivation. Some of the factors that affect their motivation relate to the country's education system in general. Others reflect institutional and cultural views of language learning in particular. Using a problem-solution format, this…

  17. [Food irradiation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migdał, W

    1995-01-01

    A worldwide standard on food irradiation was adopted in 1983 by Codex Alimentarius Commission of the Joint Food Standard Programme of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations and the World Health Organization (WHO). As a result, 41 countries have approved the use of irradiation for treating one or more food items and the number is increasing. Generally, irradiation is used to: food loses, food spoilage, disinfestation, safety and hygiene. The number of countries which use irradiation for processing food for commercial purposes has been increasing steadily from 19 in 1987 to 33 today. In the frames of the national programme on the application of irradiation for food preservation and hygienization an experimental plant for electron beam processing has been established in Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology. The plant is equipped with a small research accelerator Pilot (19MeV, 1 kW) and an industrial unit Elektronika (10MeV, 10 kW). On the basis of the research there were performed at different scientific institutions in Poland, health authorities have issued permission for irradiation for: spices, garlic, onions, mushrooms, potatoes, dry mushrooms and vegetables.

  18. Motivation programmes of organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Pízová, Tereza

    2008-01-01

    The Bachelor Thesis "'Motivation Programmes of Organizations" focuses on an extremely important area within personnel management. Employee motivation is crucial to the effective operation of businesses. Motivation programmes assist in increasing and maintaining employee motivation and demonstrate an organization's interest in its employees. This piece is on one hand concerned with theoretical foundations of motivation, describing theories and concepts important to the area of human behaviour ...

  19. Are K-12 Learners Motivated in Physical Education? A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Senlin; Chen, Ang; Zhu, Xihe

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies devoted to K-12 learner motivation in physical education share a general assumption that students may lack motivation. This meta-analytic study examined published original studies (n = 79) to determine students' motivation level and the association between motivation and outcomes. Original means of motivation measures were…

  20. Improving temporal cognition by enhancing motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avlar, Billur; Kahn, Julia B; Jensen, Greg; Kandel, Eric R; Simpson, Eleanor H; Balsam, Peter D

    2015-10-01

    Increasing motivation can positively impact cognitive performance. Here we employed a cognitive timing task that allows us to detect changes in cognitive performance that are not influenced by general activity or arousal factors such as the speed or persistence of responding. This approach allowed us to manipulate motivation using three different methods; molecular/genetic, behavioral and pharmacological. Increased striatal D2Rs resulted in deficits in temporal discrimination. Switching off the transgene improved motivation in earlier studies, and here partially rescued the temporal discrimination deficit. To manipulate motivation behaviorally, we altered reward magnitude and found that increasing reward magnitude improved timing in control mice and partially rescued timing in the transgenic mice. Lastly, we manipulated motivation pharmacologically using a functionally selective 5-HT2C receptor ligand, SB242084, which we previously found to increase incentive motivation. SB242084 improved temporal discrimination in both control and transgenic mice. Thus, while there is a general intuitive belief that motivation can affect cognition, we here provide a direct demonstration that enhancing motivation, in a variety of ways, can be an effective strategy for enhancing temporal cognition. Understanding the interaction of motivation and cognition is of clinical significance since many psychiatric disorders are characterized by deficits in both domains.

  1. On The Motive of G-bundles

    CERN Document Server

    Habibi, Somayeh

    2011-01-01

    Let $G$ be a reductive algebraic group over a perfect field $k$ and $\\mathcal{G}$ a $G$-bundle over a scheme $X/k$. The main aim of this article is to study the motive associated with $\\mathcal{G}$, inside the Veovodsky Motivic categories. We consider the case that $\\charakt k=0$ (resp. $\\charakt k\\geq 0$), the motive associated to $X$ is geometrically mixed Tate (resp. geometrically cellular) and $\\mathcal{G}$ is locally trivial for the Zariski (resp. \\'etale) topology on $X$ and show that the motive of $\\mathcal{G}$ is a geometrically mixed Tate motive. Moreover for a general $X$ we construct a filtration on the motive associated to $\\mathcal{G}$ in terms of weight polytopes. Along the way we give some applications and examples.

  2. Implicit markers of food choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Laan, L.N.

    2013-01-01

    Because of the health risks associated with unhealthy eating and overweight, it is important to better understand the motives underlying (un)healthy food choice. Explicit measures, such as questionnaires and focus groups, are suboptimal because they only tap into that specific part of the motive

  3. Implicit markers of food choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Laan, L.N.

    2013-01-01

    Because of the health risks associated with unhealthy eating and overweight, it is important to better understand the motives underlying (un)healthy food choice. Explicit measures, such as questionnaires and focus groups, are suboptimal because they only tap into that specific part of the motive tha

  4. Command and motivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Christian Bøtcher; Hvidtved, Johan; Andersen, Lotte Bøgh

    2014-01-01

    Motivated employees are crucial to organizations, but external interventions such as command systems and financial incentives may decrease motivation. If these external interventions are perceived to be controlling, they are expected to crowd out intrinsic motivation, and this may also apply...... to other types of autonomous motivation such as public service motivation. The perception of external interventions is thus expected to be vital. This article investigates how the perception of a specific command system (obligatory student plans) is associated with intrinsic motivation and public service...... motivation. Using a dataset with 3,230 school teachers in Denmark, a structural equation model shows that the perception of obligatory student plans as controlling is negatively associated with all of the investigated types of employee motivation, supporting that motivation crowding can occur....

  5. Figuring Out Food Labels

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a close look — beyond the promises — at the nutritional values, ingredients, and calorie counts in the food you ... generally eat. All of the information about the nutritional value of the food that is listed on the ...

  6. Motivational factors for consuming omega-3 PUFAs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krutulyte, Rasa; Grunert, Klaus G.; Scholderer, Joachim

    2008-01-01

    foods. This paper presents the results of a qualitative pilot study that aimed to explore Danish consumers' motives for choosing omega-3/fish oil enriched products. The Health Action Process Approach (HAPA) was applied as a theoretical framework to understand the process by which people choose healthy...... to the choice of omega-3/fish oil, whereas perception of omega-3 as an ingredient in selected foods does indeed influence consumers' choice of carrier-ingredient combinations....

  7. Motivational factors for consuming omega-3 PUFAs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krutulyte, Rasa; Grunert, Klaus G.; Scholderer, Joachim

    2008-01-01

    foods. This paper presents the results of a qualitative pilot study that aimed to explore Danish consumers' motives for choosing omega-3/fish oil enriched products. The Health Action Process Approach (HAPA) was applied as a theoretical framework to understand the process by which people choose healthy...... to the choice of omega-3/fish oil, whereas perception of omega-3 as an ingredient in selected foods does indeed influence consumers' choice of carrier-ingredient combinations....

  8. MOTIVATIONAL PROFILE OF SOCIALLY CREATIVE STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. K. Shchepkina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article touches upon the problem of activity motivation of socially creative students. It reveals the meaning of social creativity as an individual social integrative capacity. The paper describes the component fullness of the person’s social creativity, which includes the following components: cognitive, motivational, communicative individual. It analyses in details the structure of the motivational component of social creativity, confirmed by factorial study. The study reveals the essence of the motivational component of social creativity in the unity of the internal and external motives, namely the desire for self-actualization and selfdevelopment, focusing on communication and interaction. It analyses the concept of "motivational profile of an individual". The article depicts the procedure of the empirical study organization which was held in two stages, on the basis of the Amur State University, The first step is the selection of students with the upperintermediate level of social creativity. As a result, after the selection of the respondents with an appropriate level of social creativity 62 subjects were taken into account for further study. During the second phase of the study it was carried out an analysis of ordinary (everyday and educational profiles in the "ideal" and "real" state of the social motives of creative students on the basis of Milman V.E. methods. The results of the profiles comparative analysis in the "ideal" and "real" state of motives let us talk about the dominating motive of communication in ordinary (everyday and educational spheres. Differentiation of motivational factors is characteristic for socially creative personality: supporting and consuming motives are shown in everyday sphere and developing motives dominate in educational sphere. The generalization of the empirical research results has revealed an impulsive type of a profile, which is characteristic for the motivational structure of a socially

  9. Cognitive processing of food rewards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgs, Suzanne

    2016-09-01

    Cues associated with tasty foods, such as their smell or taste, are strong motivators of eating, but the power of food cues on behaviour varies from moment to moment and from person to person. Variation in the rewarding value of a food with metabolic state explains why food cues are more attractive when hungry. However, cognitive processes are also important determinants of our responses to food cues. An urge to consume a tempting food may be resisted if, for example, a person has a longer term goal of weight loss. There is also evidence that responses to food cues can be facilitated or inhibited by memory processes. The aim of this review is to add to the literature on cognitive control of eating by reviewing recent evidence on the influence of working memory and episodic memory processes on responses to food cues. It is argued that processing of food information in working memory affects how much attention is paid to food cues in the environment and promotes the motivation to seek out food in the absence of direct contact with food cues. It is further argued that memories of specific recent eating episodes play an important role in directing food choices and influencing when and how much we eat. However, these memory processes are prone to disruption. When this happens, eating behaviour may become more cue-driven and less flexible. In the modern food environment, disruption of cognitive processing of food reward cues may lead to overconsumption and obesity.

  10. Motivational profile quality players handball

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Martínez Moreno

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In the sport context, elite category, it is necessary to know all the factors, which in one way or another, affect the athletes throughout the different competitions. The object of study is to know the motivational profile of elite handball players. The sample consisted of 495 players, of whom 47.8% were boys and 52.2% girls, their ages ranged from 12 to 16 years, with an average of 13.8 years (dt = 1.0. Descriptive statistical analyzes of the sample, absolute and relative frequencies were performed for the qualitative variables and for the quantitative values minimum, maximum, mean, standard deviation, Cronbach's alpha. Correlation between variables, with the Pearson correlation coefficient. The MANCOVA test was performed to determine if there were differences between the dimensions of the questionnaire, according to age and years of practice. The results reveal that handball players elite category of the sample object of study have mainly intrinsic motivation, achieving high scores on general motivation, motivation achievement and motivation stimulation. In addition to moderately high values in introjected regulation and very low values in demotivation.

  11. MODIFIED FOODS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tious and tasty, Critics of crop biotechnology are of the opinion that potential ecological and food safety disasters ... general public and invite other opinions on the topic and suggestions for the Way Forward in a developing .... similar projects) to be in introns and part is in ... ies have shown that fields of Bt crops have more.

  12. Multivariate Relationships between Statistics Anxiety and Motivational Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baloglu, Mustafa; Abbassi, Amir; Kesici, Sahin

    2017-01-01

    In general, anxiety has been found to be associated with motivational beliefs and the current study investigated multivariate relationships between statistics anxiety and motivational beliefs among 305 college students (60.0% women). The Statistical Anxiety Rating Scale, the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire, and a set of demographic…

  13. Motivation and Interlanguage Pragmatics in Iranian English Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khorshidi, Hassan Rasouli; Nimchahi, Abdolreza Bagherzadeh

    2013-01-01

    It is generally believed that interlanguage pragmatics and motivation play important roles in learning. Motivation is important because it determines the extent of the learner's active involvement and attitude toward learning. The major purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of integrative and instrumental motivation on the…

  14. The prevention access and risk taking in young people (PARTY project protocol: A cluster randomised controlled trial of health risk screening and motivational interviewing for young people presenting to general practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanci Lena

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are growing worldwide concerns about the ability of primary health care systems to manage the major burden of illness in young people. Over two thirds of premature adult deaths result from risks that manifest in adolescence, including injury, neuropsychiatric problems and consequences of risky behaviours. One policy response is to better reorientate primary health services towards prevention and early intervention. Currently, however, there is insufficient evidence to support this recommendation for young people. This paper describes the design and implementation of a trial testing an intervention to promote psychosocial risk screening of all young people attending general practice and to respond to identified risks using motivational interviewing. Main outcomes: clinicians’ detection of risk-taking and emotional distress, young people’s intention to change and reduction of risk taking. Secondary outcomes: pathways to care, trust in the clinician and likelihood of returning for future visits. The design of the economic and process evaluation are not detailed in this protocol. Methods PARTY is a cluster randomised trial recruiting 42 general practices in Victoria, Australia. Baseline measures include: youth friendly practice characteristics; practice staff’s self-perceived competency in young people’s care and clinicians’ detection and response to risk taking behaviours and emotional distress in 14–24 year olds, attending the practice. Practices are then stratified by a social disadvantage index and billing methods and randomised. Intervention practices receive: nine hours of training and tools; feedback of their baseline data and two practice visits over six weeks. Comparison practices receive a three hour seminar in youth friendly practice only. Six weeks post-intervention, 30 consecutive young people are interviewed post-consultation from each practice and followed-up for self-reported risk taking

  15. The prevention access and risk taking in young people (PARTY) project protocol: a cluster randomised controlled trial of health risk screening and motivational interviewing for young people presenting to general practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanci, Lena; Grabsch, Brenda; Chondros, Patty; Shiell, Alan; Pirkis, Jane; Sawyer, Susan; Hegarty, Kelsey; Patterson, Elizabeth; Cahill, Helen; Ozer, Elizabeth; Seymour, Janelle; Patton, George

    2012-06-06

    There are growing worldwide concerns about the ability of primary health care systems to manage the major burden of illness in young people. Over two thirds of premature adult deaths result from risks that manifest in adolescence, including injury, neuropsychiatric problems and consequences of risky behaviours. One policy response is to better reorientate primary health services towards prevention and early intervention. Currently, however, there is insufficient evidence to support this recommendation for young people. This paper describes the design and implementation of a trial testing an intervention to promote psychosocial risk screening of all young people attending general practice and to respond to identified risks using motivational interviewing. clinicians' detection of risk-taking and emotional distress, young people's intention to change and reduction of risk taking. pathways to care, trust in the clinician and likelihood of returning for future visits. The design of the economic and process evaluation are not detailed in this protocol. PARTY is a cluster randomised trial recruiting 42 general practices in Victoria, Australia. Baseline measures include: youth friendly practice characteristics; practice staff's self-perceived competency in young people's care and clinicians' detection and response to risk taking behaviours and emotional distress in 14-24 year olds, attending the practice. Practices are then stratified by a social disadvantage index and billing methods and randomised. Intervention practices receive: nine hours of training and tools; feedback of their baseline data and two practice visits over six weeks. Comparison practices receive a three hour seminar in youth friendly practice only. Six weeks post-intervention, 30 consecutive young people are interviewed post-consultation from each practice and followed-up for self-reported risk taking behaviour and emotional distress three and 12 months post consultation. The PARTY trial is the

  16. Motivating pharmacy employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, S J; Generali, J A

    1984-07-01

    Concepts from theories of motivation are used to suggest methods for improving the motivational environment of hospital pharmacy departments. Motivation--the state of being stimulated to take action to achieve a goal or to satisfy a need--comes from within individuals, but hospital pharmacy managers can facilitate motivation by structuring the work environment so that it satisfies employees' needs. Concepts from several theories of motivation are discussed, including McGregor's theory X and theory Y assumptions, Maslow's hierarchy of needs theory, Herzberg's motivation hygiene theory, and Massey's value system theory. Concepts from the Japanese style of management that can be used to facilitate motivation, such as quality circles, also are described. The autocratic, participative, and laissez faire styles of leadership are discussed in the context of the motivation theories, and suggested applications of theoretical concepts to practice are presented.

  17. Understanding Employee Motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindner, James R.

    1998-01-01

    Extension employees (n=23) ranked the following as the most important motivational factors: interesting work, good wages, appreciation, job security, and good working conditions. The findings were related to theories of motivation formulated by Herzberg, Adams, and Vroom. (SK)

  18. Understanding Employee Motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindner, James R.

    1998-01-01

    Extension employees (n=23) ranked the following as the most important motivational factors: interesting work, good wages, appreciation, job security, and good working conditions. The findings were related to theories of motivation formulated by Herzberg, Adams, and Vroom. (SK)

  19. What Motivates Trainees?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Debra J.

    1990-01-01

    A study of five organizations examined employee motivation regarding the pretraining environment. Findings support the assumption that employees will be more motivated of supervisors are supportive and if they view attendance as voluntary. (JOW)

  20. Motivational Profiles of Gambling Behavior: Self-determination Theory, Gambling Motives, and Gambling Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Lindsey M; Neighbors, Clayton; Rinker, Dipali V; Tackett, Jennifer L

    2015-12-01

    Gambling among young adults occurs at a higher rate than in the general population and is associated with a host of negative consequences. Self-determination theory (SDT) posits that individuals develop general motivational orientations which predict a range of behavioral outcomes. An autonomy orientation portrays a choiceful perspective facilitating personal growth, whereas a controlled orientation represents a chronic proclivity toward external pressures and a general lack of choice. Further, an impersonal orientation is characterized by alack of intention and feeling despondent and ineffective. Controlled orientation has previously been associated with more frequent and problematic gambling. This research was designed to examine gambling motives as mediators of associations between motivational orientations and gambling behaviors. Undergraduates (N = 252) who met 2+ criteria on the South Oaks Gambling Screen participated in a laboratory survey assessing their motivational orientations, gambling motives, and gambling behavior (quantity, frequency, and problems). Mediation analyses suggested that autonomy was negatively associated with gambling problems through lower levels of chasing and escape motives. Further, controlled orientation was associated with more problems through higher levels of chasing and interest motives. Finally, impersonal orientation was negatively associated with amount won through escape motives. Overall, results support exploring gambling behavior and motives using a SDT framework.

  1. Generalized holomorphic structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yicao

    2014-12-01

    We define the notion of generalized holomorphic principal bundles and establish that their associated vector bundles of holomorphic representations are generalized holomorphic vector bundles defined by M. Gualtieri. Motivated by our definition, several examples of generalized holomorphic structures are constructed. A reduction theorem of generalized holomorphic structures is also included.

  2. Unges motivation i udskolingen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pless, Mette; Katznelson, Noemi; Hjort-Madsen, Peder

    Om hvordan de unge i udskolingen skaber lyst og motivation for læring. Med afsnit om hvad motivation er, hvordan den fremmes hos unge og kombineres med et liv udenfor skolen......Om hvordan de unge i udskolingen skaber lyst og motivation for læring. Med afsnit om hvad motivation er, hvordan den fremmes hos unge og kombineres med et liv udenfor skolen...

  3. [Motivational interview: supporting change].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fond, Guillaume; Ducasse, Déborah

    2015-01-01

    The motivational interview aims to help patients to resolve their ambivalence regarding problematic behaviors and to guide them into change. It differs from other therapeutic approaches mainly through the attitude of the therapist. In motivational interviewing, the therapist defends the statu quo. By reactance, the patient defends the change and enhance her/his motivation. This article provides a summary of the other concepts of motivational interviewing and its applications in the psychiatric daily practice.

  4. Learner motivation and interest

    OpenAIRE

    Daskalovska, Nina; Koleva Gudeva, Liljana; Ivanovska, Biljana

    2012-01-01

    There are a lot of factors which influence success in learning. However, one of the most important factors is the learner’s motivation to reach the desired goals. Research and experience show that learners with strong motivation can achieve a lot regardless of circumstances. Studies of motivation in second language learning have led to several distinctions, one of which is the distinction between integrative and instrumental motivation. According to this distinction, some learners are motivat...

  5. Learner motivation and interest

    OpenAIRE

    Daskalovska, Nina; Koleva Gudeva, Liljana; Ivanovska, Biljana

    2012-01-01

    There are a lot of factors which influence success in learning. However, one of the most important factors is the learner’s motivation to reach the desired goals. Research and experience show that learners with strong motivation can achieve a lot regardless of circumstances. Studies of motivation in second language learning have led to several distinctions, one of which is the distinction between integrative and instrumental motivation. According to this distinction, some learners are motivat...

  6. Context-Specific Motivations to Read for Adolescent Struggling Readers: Does the Motivation for Reading Questionnaire Tell the Full Story?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neugebauer, Sabina Rak

    2014-01-01

    Commonly used literacy motivation assessments do not specifically explore literacy motivation in school. These context-general assessments may be problematic for struggling adolescent readers, as qualitative research documents that these adolescents exhibit different levels of cross-context motivation. The present study explores whether an…

  7. Personlighed og motivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Jan Brødslev

    2017-01-01

    ses som forskelle i deres personlighed og i deres motivation. Kapitlet er opbygget således, at ganske kort præciseres først de to begreber, personlighed og motivation, hvorefter udvalgte teoretiske perspektiver på personlighed og motivation tages op. Til sammen vil disse bidrage til at besvare...

  8. Motivation, Management, and Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmstead, Joseph A.

    There is an increasing interest today in the ways in which human motivation contributes to the productivity and performance of personnel. This early study of motivation management emphasizes that the organizational environment is a principal determinant of the quality of employee motivation. Concrete considerations in the management of motivation…

  9. Understanding Student Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifert, Timothy

    2004-01-01

    Contemporary theories of academic motivation seek to explain students' behaviours in academic settings. While each theory seems to possess its own constructs and unique explanations, these theories are actually closely tied together. In this theoretical study of motivation, several theories of motivation were described and an underlying theme of…

  10. Assessing motivation orientations in schizophrenia: Scale development and validation

    OpenAIRE

    Cooper, Shanna; Lavaysse, Lindsey M.; Gard, David E.

    2014-01-01

    Motivation deficits are common in several disorders including schizophrenia, and are an important factor in both functioning and treatment adherence. Self-Determination Theory (SDT), a leading macro-theory of motivation, has contributed a number of insights into how motivation is impaired in schizophrenia. Nonetheless, self-report measures of motivation appropriate for people with severe mental illness (including those that emphasize SDT) are generally lacking in literature. To fill this gap,...

  11. Optogenetic excitation of central amygdala amplifies and narrows incentive motivation to pursue one reward above another.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Mike J F; Warlow, Shelley M; Berridge, Kent C

    2014-12-10

    Choosing one reward above another is important for achieving adaptive life goals. Yet hijacked into excessive intensity in disorders such as addiction, single-minded pursuit becomes maladaptive. Here, we report that optogenetic channelrhodopsin stimulation of neurons in central nucleus of amygdala (CeA), paired with earning a particular sucrose reward in rats, amplified and narrowed incentive motivation to that single reward target. Therefore, CeA rats chose and intensely pursued only the laser-paired sucrose reward while ignoring an equally good sucrose alternative. In contrast, reward-paired stimulation of basolateral amygdala did not hijack choice. In a separate measure of incentive motivation, CeA stimulation also increased the progressive ratio breakpoint or level of effort exerted to obtain sucrose reward. However, CeA stimulation by itself failed to support behavioral self-stimulation in the absence of any paired external food reward, suggesting that CeA photo-excitation specifically transformed the value of its external reward (rather than adding an internal reinforcement state). Nor did CeA stimulation by itself induce any aversive state that motivated escape. Finally, CeA stimulation also failed to enhance 'liking' reactions elicited by sucrose taste and did not simply increase the general motivation to eat. This pattern suggests that CeA photo-excitation specifically enhances and narrows incentive motivation to pursue an associated external reward at the expense of another comparable reward. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/3416567-14$15.00/0.

  12. The acceptance of functional foods in Denmark, Finland and the United States: A study of consumers' conjoint evaluations of the qualities of functional foods and perceptions of general health factors and cultural values

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech-Larsen, Tino; Grunert, Klaus G.; Poulsen, Jacob

    2001-01-01

    , without them having to change their eating habits fundamentally. 2. Health is one of the most important choice criteria, when consumers purchase food products. The fact that most health consequences of food are long term and therefore inaccessible at the time of purchase, the evaluation has to be based...

  13. Motivator-manager.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Angelic P

    2009-01-01

    The radiologic career field has undergone radical changes in technology, regulatory compliance, and customer expectation.These changes often require dramatic alterations to processes,which can break down communication, create stress, and have a negative effect on department productivity. Motivation itself is a frequently analyzed and reported topic in professional publications. For this purpose, this literature review specifically researches motivation as identified by radiology administrators through Radiology Management. Three key elements surfaced as those with the most impact: (1) motivation is an intrinsic factor which can be influenced but not created, (2) clear attainable goals are an essential component of motivation,and (3) motivation begins with identification of employee needs.

  14. Maintaining Learners’Motivation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SI Zi-han

    2015-01-01

    Foreign language learning is a complex process and its success is determined by a variety of factors. The prime one of them is motivation ,which, as everyone knows, could be controlled by external forces so as to be taken advantage of. Motivation could prompt the learner to have his own learning goals and let him finish his learning task autonomously. All of that shows the im⁃portance of maintaining learners’motivation. This paper will demonstrate not only the definition and the types of motivation, but al⁃so the methods that could be used to stimulate and maintain the motivation.

  15. Narcissism as motive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meissner, W W

    2008-07-01

    This essay proposes replacing the traditional concept of narcissism as derived from the theory of drives with a concept of narcissism that is concerned with motives and their correlative meanings-specifically, motives connected to self-organization, self-preservation, self-cohesion, self-valuation, and self-esteem. The reasons for and the metapsychological underpinnings of a motivationally based theory are discussed. This revised motivational view proposes that narcissistic dynamics can be preserved and articulated in exclusively motivational terms. Developmental aspects are explored, including formation and functioning of the ego ideal and self-esteem regulation. Implications for psychoanalytic technique are suggested in discussions of case material.

  16. Food risk management quality: Consumer evaluations of past and emerging food safety incidents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleef, van E.; Ueland, O.; Theodoridis, G.; Rowe, G.; Pfenning, U.; Houghton, J.R.; Dijk, van H.; Chryssochoidis, G.; Frewer, L.J.

    2009-01-01

    In European countries, there has been growing consumer distrust regarding the motives of food safety regulators and other actors in the food chain, partly as a result of recent food safety incidents. If consumer confidence in food safety is to be improved, a systematic understanding of what

  17. Motivating Workers in Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason E. Barg

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of the motivation of construction workers is limited to a relatively small body of knowledge. Although there is considerable research available regarding motivation and productivity, few researchers have provided a comprehensive analysis on the motivation of construction workers. The research stated that productivity in construction has not improved compared to other industry sectors such as manufacturing. This trend has been echoed in publications throughout the past five decades, and suggested that motivation is one of the key factors impacting productivity. This paper offers a comprehensive review of the published work that directly links the key words—construction and motivation. The findings have been presented in five themes, that is, motivation models, environment and culture, incentives and empowerment, and worker management. This paper concludes with two methods suggested by previous researchers to improve motivation of construction workers: (1 relevant worker incentives (intrinsic or extrinsic and (2 improved management practices, specifically regarding communication with workers.

  18. General Relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Canuto, V

    2015-01-01

    This is an English translation of the Italian version of an encyclopedia chapter that appeared in the Italian Encyclopedia of the Physical Sciences, edited by Bruno Bertotti (1994). Following requests from colleagues we have decided to make it available to a more general readership. We present the motivation for constructing General Relativity, provide a short discussion of tensor algebra, and follow the set up of Einstein equations. We discuss briefly the initial value problem, the linear approximation and how should non gravitational physics be described in curved spacetime.

  19. RESEARCH ON HUMAN RESOURCES MOTIVATION AND SATISFACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoltan-Bela FARKAS

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Many research studies on the human resources performance of the educational system have proved that pupils/students’ educational success depends, to a high degree, on the level of human resource motivation, as well as on their degree of professional satisfaction. Teachers’ who show a high level of motivation, both intrinsic and extrinsic, invest more into their activity, are more creative and more efficient in problem solving. The paper debates the results of an empirical study regarding the influence of pre-university teachers’ motivation and satisfaction regarding the general work conditions on their work performance by measuring the present motivation and satisfaction level. Furthermore, the determinant factors of their satisfaction with the work place are determined and analyzed. Finally, based on the statistical data process we will conclude and debate on the research hypothesis validation and the empirical model related to motivation – satisfaction – performance interdependences.

  20. Central melanocortins regulate the motivation for sucrose reward.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Pandit

    Full Text Available The role of the melanocortin (MC system in feeding behavior is well established. Food intake is potently suppressed by central infusion of the MC 3/4 receptor agonist α-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH, whereas the MC 3/4 receptor inverse-agonist Agouti Related Peptide (AGRP has the opposite effect. MC receptors are widely expressed in both hypothalamic and extra-hypothalamic brain regions, including nuclei involved in food reward and motivation, such as the nucleus accumbens (NAc and the ventral tegmental area. This suggests that MCs modulate motivational aspects of food intake. To test this hypothesis, rats were injected intracerebroventricularly with α-MSH or AGRP and their motivation for sucrose was tested under a progressive ratio schedule of reinforcement. Food motivated behavior was dose-dependently decreased by α-MSH. Conversely, AGRP increased responding for sucrose, an effect that was blocked by pretreatment with the dopamine receptor antagonist α-flupenthixol. In contrast to progressive ratio responding, free intake of sucrose remained unaltered upon α-MSH or AGRP infusion. In addition, we investigated whether the effects of α-MSH and AGRP on food motivation were mediated by the NAc shell. In situ hybridization of MC3 and MC4 receptor expression confirmed that the MC4 receptor was expressed throughout the NAc, and injection of α-MSH and AGRP into the NAc shell caused a decrease and an increase in motivation for sucrose, respectively. These data show that the motivation for palatable food is modulated by MC4 receptors in the NAc shell, and demonstrate cross-talk between the MC and dopamine system in the modulation of food motivation.

  1. Motivation of Online Buyer Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svatošová Veronika

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Buyer behavior of consumers plays one of the key roles in fulfillment of the main goals of a company. It is influenced by many external and internal factors but the company can also influence the final process of buyer decision-making process significantly by its activities. The subject matter of this article is an analysis of the features of online buyer behavior compared to the general regularities of buyer behavior, definition of the main motives of online shopping, and description of the current trends. The article uses the basic terminology of this subject and current bibliography as well as other resources. Theoretical knowledge is based on historic directions of Maslow’s theory of motivation where it is possible to find the basis for a buyer behavior analysis. The article is also based on the formerly carried out questionnaire survey which examines the motives and experience of the respondents with online shopping. By means of the independence test it is verified whether there is a relation between the age of respondents and motivation for online shopping. Subsequently, the survey carried out in person is compared with other relevant research solutions.

  2. The motivation behind extended suicide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Kuruc

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The investigation of motivation of suicidal behaviour in cases of so-called extended suicide is of great importance from a forensic-psychological viewpoint. The initiator of such action is often a person suffering from endogenous depression. The motives behind successful suicide are generally not known. This paper aims to demonstrate the motives behind the successful suicide, less frequent in our conditions, of two family members – a father and a son. The case has been thoroughly analysed by morphological methods with the help of additional laboratory tests. At the centre was a suicide letter which was hidden in a very unusual way and which was elucidated only thanks to autopsy of both persons. The manner of realisation – hanging – was among the most frequent in the region and in the state too. The men were not under the influence of any toxic substances. The motivation behind the suicide was an escape from hard living conditions.

  3. How to Motivate Employees?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreja Kušar

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Research Question (RQ: How to motivate employees and keep them motivated? Purpose: The purpose of this study is to find out what motivates employees and what motivates employees for work. Method: The results of the questionnaire are graphically presented and described. Random sampling was utilized that included participants from various professional areas and demographic characteristics. The results showed a relationship between individual motivational factors related to education, age and type of employment. All of the questions were closed - type questions except for the last question, which was an open question, in which the respondents answered in their own words. Questions were analyzed using frequency analysis of individual responses. Pearson's Chi - squared test, Spearman's rank correlation and Fisher’s Exact test was made using R Commander. Results: The research findings showed which motivational factors motivate employees the most. These are especially non - material motivational factors, such as good relationships, jobs with challenges, advancement opportunities, clear instructions, good work conditions, company reputation, etc. Organization: The study will help managers understand their role in motivating employees as well as the types of motivational factors. Society: The research shows how individuals are motivated. Originality: Certain motivators in the study are ranked differently than was found in previous literature. Most probably the reason is that the respondents in this study favored intangible motivators (good relations with leadership and their colleagues, good working conditions, etc.. Limitations/Future Research: The limitation of this study was that the sample included employees of different ages, gender and years of service in various organizations. To enhance the study and to find similar results as in previous literature, more questions should have been asked as well as increasing the sample size.

  4. Hospital nurses' work motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toode, Kristi; Routasalo, Pirkko; Helminen, Mika; Suominen, Tarja

    2015-06-01

    The knowledge surrounding nurses' work motivation is currently insufficient, and previous studies have rarely taken into account the role of many influential background factors. This study investigates the motivation of Estonian nurses in hospitals, and how individual and organisational background factors influence their motivation to work. The study is quantitative and cross-sectional. An electronically self-reported questionnaire was used for data collection. The sample comprised of 201 Registered Nurses working in various hospital settings in Estonia. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics, two-sample Wilcoxon rank-sum (Mann-Whitney) test, Kruskal-Wallis equality-of-populations rank test and Spearman's correlation. Both extrinsic and intrinsic motivations were noted among hospital nurses. Nurses were moderately externally motivated (M = 3.63, SD = 0.89) and intrinsically strongly motivated (M = 4.98, SD = 1.03). A nurses' age and the duration of service were positively correlated with one particular area of extrinsic work motivation, namely introjected regulation (p extrinsic motivation (p = 0.016) and intrinsic work motivation (p = 0.004). The findings expand current knowledge of nurses' work motivation by describing the amount and orientation of work motivation among hospital nurses and highlighting background factors which should be taken into account in order to sustain and increase their intrinsic work motivation. The instrument used in the study can be an effective tool for nurse managers to determine a nurse's reasons to work and to choose a proper motivational strategy. Further research and testing of the instrument in different countries and in different contexts of nursing is however required. © 2014 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  5. Sustainability in the food sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G

    2011-01-01

    Consumers have, through their food choices, a major role in bringing about more sustainable food production. However, this presupposes that differences in sustainability are communicated to consumers. Even if food products are eco-labelled and consumers are motivated to support sustainability......, a number of potential barriers may prevent consumers from using the information to make sustainable choices. Six such barriers are discussed in this paper....

  6. Sustainability in the food sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G

    2011-01-01

    Consumers have, through their food choices, a major role in bringing about more sustainable food production. However, this presupposes that differences in sustainability are communicated to consumers. Even if food products are eco-labelled and consumers are motivated to support sustainability......, a number of potential barriers may prevent consumers from using the information to make sustainable choices. Six such barriers are discussed in this paper....

  7. General practitioners trained in motivational interviewing can positively affect the attitude to behaviour change in people with type 2 diabetes. One year follow-up of an RCT, ADDITION Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rubak, S.; Sandbaek, A.; Lauritzen, T.;

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine whether training GPs in motivational interviewing (MI) can improve type 2 diabetic patients' (1) understanding of diabetes, (2) beliefs regarding prevention and treatment, and (3) motivation for behaviour change. METHODS: A randomized controlled trial including 65 GPs and 265...... type 2 diabetic patients. The GPs were randomized in two groups, one with and one without MI training. Both groups received training in target-driven intensive treatment of type 2 diabetic patients. The intervention was a 1(1/2)-day residential course in MI with (1/2)-day follow-up twice during......%. Patients in the intervention group were significantly more autonomous and motivated in their inclination to change behaviour after one year compared with the patients from the control group. Patients in the intervention group were also significantly more conscious of the importance of controlling...

  8. Different drinking motives, different adverse consequences?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wicki, Matthias; Kuntsche, Emmanuel; Eichenberger, Yvonne

    2017-01-01

    , differences across countries were tested in a multigroup analysis. RESULTS: The indirect effect (via alcohol use) was greater for injuries and academic problems than for more general outcomes such as life dissatisfaction and negative body image. For social, enhancement and coping motives, we found positive...... negative consequences, such as injuries and negative body image, were also found among those who drink for conformity motives. The pattern of association was largely comparable across countries. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: While the actual mean level of drinking motives, alcohol use and adverse consequence...

  9. Galaxy Zoo: Motivations of Citizen Scientists

    CERN Document Server

    Raddick, M Jordan; Gay, Pamela L; Lintott, Chris J; Cardamone, Carie; Murray, Phil; Schawinski, Kevin; Szalay, Alexander S; Vandenberg, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Citizen science, in which volunteers work with professional scientists to conduct research, is expanding due to large online datasets. To plan projects, it is important to understand volunteers' motivations for participating. This paper analyzes results from an online survey of nearly 11,000 volunteers in Galaxy Zoo, an astronomy citizen science project. Results show that volunteers' primary motivation is a desire to contribute to scientific research. We encourage other citizen science projects to study the motivations of their volunteers, to see whether and how these results may be generalized to inform the field of citizen science.

  10. [Psychological theories of motivation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quoniam, Nolwenn; Bungener, Catherine

    2004-03-01

    The comprehension of the principles guiding the human actions has always been an important aspect of philosophy. The development of experimental psychology first completely rejected all mental explanations such as will, intentions or motives. Behavior should then only be understood as determined by conditioning and learning. However, different theories denied that human behavior could be considered as purely reactive to the environment and stressed the active role of the organism on the environment. Theories from the humanist psychology and the social psychology described two kinds of motivation. The extrinsic motivation results from external stimuli and the intrinsic motivation from the organism himself. Our behavior is therefore determined by an interaction between our beliefs, expectations, needs and the environment. Actually, the concept of motivation is not well specified. It refers either to a global dynamic structure responsible for action either to a specific tendency toward some specific actions. Anyway, motivation is a concept infered from behavior. Therefore, its evaluation could only be secondary.

  11. Solutions of the motivic ADHM recursion formula

    CERN Document Server

    Mozgovoy, Sergey

    2011-01-01

    We give an explicit solution of the ADHM recursion formula conjectured by Chuang, Diaconescu, and Pan. This solution is closely related to the formula for the Hodge polynomials of Higgs moduli spaces conjectured by Hausel and Rodriguez-Villegas. We solve also the twisted motivic ADHM recursion formula. As a byproduct we obtain a conjectural formula for the motives of twisted Higgs moduli spaces, which generalizes the conjecture of Hausel and Rodriguez-Villegas.

  12. Food irradiation makes progress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kooij, J. van (Joint FAO/IAEA Div. of Isotope and Radiation Applications of Atomic Energy for Food and Agricultural Development, Vienna (Austria))

    1984-06-01

    In the past fifteen years, food irradiation processing policies and programmes have been developed both by a number of individual countries, and through projects supported by FAO, IAEA and WHO. These aim at achieving general acceptance and practical implementation of food irradiation through rigorous investigations of its wholesomeness, technological and economic feasibility, and efforts to achieve the unimpeded movement of irradiated foods in international trade. Food irradiation processing has many uses.

  13. Managing Joint Production Motivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindenberg, Siegwart; Foss, Nicolai Juul

    2011-01-01

    We contribute to the microfoundations of organizational performance by proffering the construct of joint production motivation. Under such motivational conditions individuals see themselves as part of a joint endeavor, each with his or her own roles and responsibilities; generate shared represent...... representations of actions and tasks; cognitively coordinate cooperation; and choose their own behaviors in terms of joint goals. Using goal-framing theory, we explain how motivation for joint production can be managed by cognitive/symbolic management and organizational design....

  14. Employee motivation and performance

    OpenAIRE

    Obiekwe, Nduka

    2010-01-01

    The subject matter of this research; employee motivation and performance seeks to look at how best employees can be motivated in order to achieve high performance within a company or organization. Managers and entrepreneurs must ensure that companies or organizations have a competent personnel that is capable to handle this task. This takes us to the problem question of this research “why is not a sufficient motivation for high performance?” This therefore establishes the fact that money is f...

  15. Employee Motivation and Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Obiekwe, Nduka

    2010-01-01

    The subject matter of this research; employee motivation and performance seeks to look at how best employees can be motivated in order to achieve high performance within a company or organization. Managers and entrepreneurs must ensure that companies or organizations have a competent personnel that is capable to handle this task. This takes us to the problem question of this research “why is not a sufficient motivation for high performance?” This therefore establishes the fact that money is f...

  16. Food Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Want to Know About Puberty Train Your Temper Food Poisoning KidsHealth > For Kids > Food Poisoning Print A ... find out how to avoid it. What Is Food Poisoning? Food poisoning comes from eating foods that ...

  17. Personality and Motivation in Positive Subjective Well-being

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Martin Hammershøj

    Autonomous general causality orientation is a unique motivational concept, that mediates the relationship between Extraversion and positive subjective well-being (SWB).......Autonomous general causality orientation is a unique motivational concept, that mediates the relationship between Extraversion and positive subjective well-being (SWB)....

  18. Interlanguage Pragmatic Motivation: Its Construct and Impact on Speech Act Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajeddin, Zia; Moghadam, Amir Zand

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this pioneering study was to define and describe motivation for the acquisition of interlanguage pragmatic competence. Interlanguage pragmatic motivation was investigated from two perspectives: (1) general pragmatic motivation, displaying L2 learners' motivation to acquire pragmatic strategies, pragmatic routines, politeness strategies,…

  19. Interlanguage Pragmatic Motivation: Its Construct and Impact on Speech Act Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajeddin, Zia; Moghadam, Amir Zand

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this pioneering study was to define and describe motivation for the acquisition of interlanguage pragmatic competence. Interlanguage pragmatic motivation was investigated from two perspectives: (1) general pragmatic motivation, displaying L2 learners' motivation to acquire pragmatic strategies, pragmatic routines, politeness strategies,…

  20. Motivating crowding theory - opening the black box of intrinsic motivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Christian Bøtcher

    2010-01-01

    employees. Motivation crowding theory claims that this may be at the expense of intrinsic motivation, if the extrinsic motivation factor is perceived to be controlling. On the other hand, intrinsic motivation will be enhanced (crowded in), if the extrinsic motivation factor is perceived to be supportive......Public employees work for many other reasons than because they are paid for it. In other words, intrinsic motivation is an important determinant for their performance. Nonetheless, public sector organizations increasingly rely on extrinsic motivation factors such as monetary incentives to motivate....... Studies have found support for the motivation crowding claim, but have neglected intrinsic motivation. This study opens the black box of intrinsic motivation and finds a meaningful distinction between task motivation and public service motivation. Among 2,772 physiotherapists in the Danish public sector...

  1. Motivating crowding theory - opening the black box of intrinsic motivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Christian Bøtcher

    2010-01-01

    Public employees work for many other reasons than because they are paid for it. In other words, intrinsic motivation is an important determinant for their performance. Nonetheless, public sector organizations increasingly rely on extrinsic motivation factors such as monetary incentives to motivate...... employees. Motivation crowding theory claims that this may be at the expense of intrinsic motivation, if the extrinsic motivation factor is perceived to be controlling. On the other hand, intrinsic motivation will be enhanced (crowded in), if the extrinsic motivation factor is perceived to be supportive....... Studies have found support for the motivation crowding claim, but have neglected intrinsic motivation. This study opens the black box of intrinsic motivation and finds a meaningful distinction between task motivation and public service motivation. Among 2,772 physiotherapists in the Danish public sector...

  2. Tourist Motivation 2.0

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munar, Ana Maria; Jacobsen, Jens Kr. Steen

    Electronic social media is increasingly relevant as tourism practises affecting destination development and branding. However, there is still a deficiency of empirical research on the motivational factors that lie behind the creation and sharing of online content by tourists. This study explores...... the motivation of tourists who contribute to social media sites. It examines the relationship between tourists’ use of information sources and their willingness to share online content on different types of social media (e.g. social networks, review sites, etc.), based on a summer season survey in the mature...... and well-known destination of Mallorca, Spain. Findings contribute to the understanding of tourists’ social media adoption in technologically advanced markets with high levels of ICT adoption and use, in relation to a mainstream holiday location that is generally well-known in Western Europe. Empirical...

  3. The nature of motive force

    CERN Document Server

    Pramanick, Achintya Kumar

    2014-01-01

    In this monograph Prof. Pramanick explicates the law of motive force, a fundamental law of nature that can be observed and appreciated as an addition to the existing laws of thermodynamics. This unmistakable and remarkable tendency of nature is equally applicable to all other branches of studies. He first conceptualized the law of motive force in 1989, when he was an undergraduate student. Here he reports various applications of the law in the area of  thermodynamics, heat transfer, fluid mechanics and solid mechanics, and shows how it is possible to solve analytically century-old unsolved problems through its application. This book offers a comprehensive account of the law and its relation to other laws and principles, such as the generalized conservation principle, variational formulation, Fermat’s principle, Bejan’s constructal law, entropy generation minimization, Bejan’s method of intersecting asymptotes and equipartition principle. Furthermore, the author addresses some interrelated fundamental p...

  4. Self-monitored smoking motives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klitzke, M; Irwin, R; Lombardo, T W; Christoff, K A

    1990-01-01

    The motives for smoking in 73 low, medium, and high rate smokers were surveyed and were evaluated the validity of the Reasons for Smoking scale (RFS) by correlating RFS scores with self-monitored reasons for smoking. Combined sample correlations were significant for 5 of the 6 RFS reasons. However, all correlations were modest, the number of correlations varied with smoking rate, and the RFS was not a valid measure of pleasurable relaxation, the reason most frequently reported during self-monitoring. The unexpected finding that pleasurable relaxation, not reduction of negative affect, was the most frequently endorsed reason conflicts with previous surveys, almost all of which sampled older smokers. Smoking behavior of younger smokers may differ from older smokers in ways important to the study of smoking motivation. These differences may explain why experimental studies with undergraduates generally find no relationship between smoking and negative affect while studies with older subjects do.

  5. [work motivation -- assessment instruments and their relevance for medical care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiedler, Rolf G; Ranft, Andreas; Greitemann, Bernhard; Heuft, Gereon

    2005-11-01

    The relevance of work motivation for medical research and healthcare, in particular rehabilitation, is described. Four diagnostic instruments in the German language are introduced which can assess work motivation using a scale system: AVEM, JDS, LMI and FBTM. Their possible application and potential usage for the clinical area are discussed. Apart from the FBTM, none of these instruments can be directly used as a general instrument in a normal medical clinical setting. Finally, a current model for work motivation (compensatory model of work motivation and volition) is presented that contains basis concepts, which are judged as important for future research questions concerning the development of motivation diagnostic instruments.

  6. THE IMPORTANCE OF PERSONNEL MOTIVATION IN THE MANAGEMENT PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NĂSTASIE MIHAELA – ANDREEA

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available General research area of this article is the motivation of personnel, essential tool in the management process, and also a component derived from human resource management. In economic activity, personnel motivation should be regarded as an internal process, not as an imperative that can be imposed from outside the economic entity. Managers of economic entities must, first, understand personnel motivation strategies, how they influence positively or negatively the internal motivations of employees. Personnel motivation by itself attracts an end, just as profitable and moral, individual and social welfare making.

  7. Public Service Motivation and Monetary Incentives: Substitutes or Motivation Crowding?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Christian Bøtcher

    2011-01-01

    motivation is the most important type of motivation in the delivery of public service, because it substitutes for egoistic motivation. Organizations whose members have high levels of PSM are therefore expected to be less dependent on utilitarian motivators such as monetary incentives. Motivation crowding...

  8. Consumer-Related Food Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica; Hooge, Ilona de; Normann, Anne

    2016-01-01

    food marketing and the role and responsibility of retail. Food marketing and retailing contribute to consumer-related food waste via decisions on date labeling, packaging sizes and design elements, and pricing strategies encouraging overpurchase, as well as communication shifting consumer priorities......Food waste has received increasing attention in recent years. As part of their corporate social responsibility strategies, food supply chain actors have started to act towards avoiding and reducing food waste. Based on a literature review, an expert interview study, and example cases, we discuss...... to the disadvantage of food waste avoidance. Potential actions to tackle food waste relate to improved packaging and information, altering pricing strategies, and cooperation with other actors across the supply chain. Three cases highlight the extent to which moral and strategic motives are interlinked...

  9. Food reinforcement, energy intake, and macronutrient choice123

    OpenAIRE

    Epstein, Leonard H.; Carr, Katelyn A; Lin, Henry; Fletcher, Kelly D.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Food is a powerful reinforcer that motivates people to eat. The relative reinforcing value of food (RRVfood) is associated with obesity and energy intake and interacts with impulsivity to predict energy intake.

  10. Motivated Reinforcement Learning

    CERN Document Server

    Maher, Mary Lou

    2009-01-01

    Motivated learning is a research field in artificial intelligence and cognitive modelling. This book describes how motivated reinforcement learning agents can be used in computer games for the design of non-player characters that can adapt their behaviour in response to unexpected changes in their environment

  11. From motivation to acceptability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordfalk, Francisca; Olejaz, Maria; Jensen, Anja M. B.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Over the past three decades, public attitudes to organ donation have been a subject of numerous studies focusing on donor motivation. Here, we present a fresh approach. We suggest focusing on public acceptability instead of motivation. The point is to understand public attitudes well...

  12. Mange unge mangler motivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hutters, Camilla; Katznelson, Noemi

    2012-01-01

    Motivation er altafgørende for unges uddannelseschancer. Nyt forskningsprojekt skal gøre os klogere på, hvad der fremmer unges lyst til læring.......Motivation er altafgørende for unges uddannelseschancer. Nyt forskningsprojekt skal gøre os klogere på, hvad der fremmer unges lyst til læring....

  13. Motivation techniques for supervision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, N. D.

    1974-01-01

    Guide has been published which deals with various aspects of employee motivation. Training methods are designed to improve communication between supervisors and subordinates, to create feeling of achievement and recognition for every employee, and to retain personnel confidence in spite of some negative motivators. End result of training is reduction or prevention of errors.

  14. What is this Motivation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, T. R.

    1971-01-01

    Maslow's Hierarchial Theory, Mcgregor's X & Y Theory, and Hertsberg's Hygiene Theory all based on motivation, are examined as to their effectiveness to increase worker production. The author feels management should not concentrate on motivation and offers his own theory, Spiral Web Theory, to help increase employee productiveness. (RB)

  15. Motivation in language learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王骊

    2008-01-01

    Motivation is one of the key affective factors in language learning, which has been highly regarded and widely researched by both linguists and language teachers. It is very necessary for language teachers and learners to be aware of the influence of the motivation.

  16. Student Motivational Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaslin, Mary; Burross, Heidi Legg

    2008-01-01

    Background/Context: Student motivation typically has been studied as it relates to extrinsic (e.g., reinforcement) or intrinsic (e.g., personal choice) sources of influence, with scant attention to sociocultural context. This article builds on a previous article in this special issue that (1) addresses the role of opportunity in the motivation of…

  17. Children's Theories of Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurland, Suzanne T.; Glowacky, Victoria C.

    2011-01-01

    To investigate children's theories of motivation, we asked 166 children (8-12 years of age) to rate the effect of various motivational strategies on task interest, over the short and long terms, in activities described as appealing or unappealing. Children viewed the rewards strategy as resulting in greatest interest except when implemented over…

  18. Driver Behavior and Motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Patricia

    School bus driver behavior and motivation are continuing concerns for leaders/administrators in the field of transportation. Motivation begins with selection of a potential new driver. Drivers must like children and be patient, loyal, and punctual. The applicant's background must be verified, in view of the national concern for child safety.…

  19. Children's Theories of Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurland, Suzanne T.; Glowacky, Victoria C.

    2011-01-01

    To investigate children's theories of motivation, we asked 166 children (8-12 years of age) to rate the effect of various motivational strategies on task interest, over the short and long terms, in activities described as appealing or unappealing. Children viewed the rewards strategy as resulting in greatest interest except when implemented over…

  20. Mange unge mangler motivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hutters, Camilla; Katznelson, Noemi

    2012-01-01

    Motivation er altafgørende for unges uddannelseschancer. Nyt forskningsprojekt skal gøre os klogere på, hvad der fremmer unges lyst til læring.......Motivation er altafgørende for unges uddannelseschancer. Nyt forskningsprojekt skal gøre os klogere på, hvad der fremmer unges lyst til læring....

  1. Motives for SMS Use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, O.; Almekinders, Johan; van Buren, Ruud; Snippers, Roy; Wessels, Jacqueline

    This study was designed to identify, from a uses-and-gratifications point of view, the motives that young people in the age of 12 to 25 have for using SMS. The study also aimed to assess whether these SMS motives are related to age, gender, current education, mobile phone experience, SMS experience

  2. Measuring Adolescent Science Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumm, Maximiliane F.; Bogner, Franz X.

    2016-01-01

    To monitor science motivation, 232 tenth graders of the college preparatory level ("Gymnasium") completed the Science Motivation Questionnaire II (SMQ-II). Additionally, personality data were collected using a 10-item version of the Big Five Inventory. A subsequent exploratory factor analysis based on the eigenvalue-greater-than-one…

  3. Motivation and Language Teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spithill, Alma C.

    1980-01-01

    Discusses the importance of student motivation in the foreign language classroom. Suggests that although most foreign language teachers are well trained in methods and materials, the psychological principles related to motivation and reinforcement are more elusive than those related to learning activities. (NCR)

  4. Safe foods for allergic people

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørhede, Pia; Madsen, Charlotte Bernhard; Bennett, L.

    food companies avoid being a part of such a tragic story? The EuroPrevall project has developed a new website on the management of food allergens, www.foodallergens.info, which is aimed at the food industry. Content on the new website about food allergy: • Basal knowledge about food allergy such as how...... big the problem is, possible causes, prevention, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment. • The European law. The labelling law is the only law specifically mentioning food allergy. But both the general food law and the hygiene law require food companies to provide safe foods. • Guidance to the food...... industry on how to handle food allergens in the food production including how to minimise the risk of unintentional presence of allergens in a product. • Access to the InformAll database that contains detailed information about almost 100 foods, which may cause allergy. The database covers both...

  5. Enkele perspektiewe op Motivering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Van Wyk

    1984-11-01

    Full Text Available Different motivational theories in the literature seem to claim unique explanations of motivational behaviour. When these theories are evaluated against basic concepts and the process of motivation, it becomes clear that theory building in motivational terms really focuses on the same basic phenomenon. The implications and practical applications of the more job related contemporary theories of motivation are discussed. OpsommingDie indruk wat verskillende motiveringsteorieë in die literatuur skep, is dat elke teorie 'n unieke verklaring gee van gemotiveerde gedrag. Indien die basisbegrippe en die motiveringsproses egter as ankers gebruik word om teorieë te ontleed is dit moontlik om aan te toon dat teoriebou in die motiveringsliteratuur, niks anders is as beligtingsaspekte van dieselfde fenomeen nie. Die beligtingskant van kontemporêre teorieë is weliswaar meer werksverwant en die implikasies en toepassing daarvan word aangetoon.

  6. Motivational Goal Bracketing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nafziger, Julia; Koch, Alexander

    It is a puzzle why people often evaluate consequences of choices separately (narrow bracketing) rather than jointly (broad bracketing). We study the hypothesis that a present-biased individual, who faces two tasks, may bracket his goals narrowly for motivational reasons. Goals motivate because th...... of the tasks. Narrow goals have a stronger motivational force and thus can be optimal. In particular, if one task outcome becomes known before working on the second task, narrow bracketing is always optimal.......It is a puzzle why people often evaluate consequences of choices separately (narrow bracketing) rather than jointly (broad bracketing). We study the hypothesis that a present-biased individual, who faces two tasks, may bracket his goals narrowly for motivational reasons. Goals motivate because...

  7. EU Food Health Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edinger, Wieke Willemijn Huizing

    and rational dietary choices on the basis of the food information provided on food labels or generally available in society. In recent years, the EU legislative has shown increased commitment to further empower consumers in pace with the advancement of modern manufacturing and advertising techniques......This thesis shows that the distinction between food safety and non-safety issues in Regulation (EC) No 178/2002, the General Food Law (GFL), results in a grey area of regulation. This grey area comprises foods that do not pose a food safety risk in a legal sense, but that could pose a threat...... to human health because of other factors, such as their nutritional composition. The growing prevalence of obesity and non-communicable diseases are examples of contemporary health challenges that are difficult to fit into the rather narrow concept of food safety risks in the GFL. The conclusion is that EU...

  8. Surgeon compensation and motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitch, K K; Walker, P M

    2000-06-01

    Financial incentives are the only form of compensation that will motivate surgeons at an academic health sciences center to perform the tasks outlined in the hospital's mission statement. A questionnaire divided into 5 sections: demographics, compensation, time allocation, benefits and incentives, and motivational factors. The Department of Surgery, The Toronto Hospital, Toronto, Ontario. All academic surgeons (N=64) practicing at The Toronto Hospital in July 1997. Of the 64 eligible mailed surveys, there were responses for 59. Of these 59 surgeons, 48 (81%) receive compensation through a fee-for-service method. However, only 32 (54%) of the surgeons prefer the fee-for-service method, while 18 (31%) prefer salary and 9 (15%) prefer an alternative system. On average, these academic surgeons spend 44% of their time teaching or performing research, for which they receive 14% of their total income. Of the motivational factors assessed, financial bonuses are a positive motivational factor for all "surgeon tasks." In addition, task-specific motivational factors were established for research, teaching, and operating, including research facilities, mentorship and prestige, and interesting case types, respectively. Surgeons are not appropriately renumerated for time spent on academic activities, and many would prefer an alternative form of compensation to the fee-for-service method. Knowledge that surgeons are receptive to tasks supporting the hospital's mission statement leads us to conclude that appropriate motivation can shape the activity of academic surgeons. Financial rewards ranked the highest as a motivational factor for all surgeon tasks; however, task-specific motivational factors were identified. Overall, multiple factors, specifically targeted to the individual, will serve to motivate. Thus, compensation packages based on individual preferences and personal motivational factors will be the most successful.

  9. Generalized Probability Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Souto Martinez

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available From the integration of nonsymmetrical hyperboles, a one-parameter generalization of the logarithmic function is obtained. Inverting this function, one obtains the generalized exponential function. Motivated by the mathematical curiosity, we show that these generalized functions are suitable to generalize some probability density functions (pdfs. A very reliable rank distribution can be conveniently described by the generalized exponential function. Finally, we turn the attention to the generalization of one- and two-tail stretched exponential functions. We obtain, as particular cases, the generalized error function, the Zipf-Mandelbrot pdf, the generalized Gaussian and Laplace pdf. Their cumulative functions and moments were also obtained analytically.

  10. Motivational interviewing to prevent childhood obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Döring, Nora; Ghaderi, Ata; Bohman, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective was to evaluate a manualized theory-driven primary preventive intervention aimed at early childhood obesity. The intervention was embedded in Swedish child health services, starting when eligible children were 9 to 10 months of age and continuing until the children reached...... in motivational interviewing, focusing on healthy food habits and physical activity. Families in the control group received care as usual. Primary outcomes were children's BMI, overweight prevalence, and waist circumference at age 4. Secondary outcomes were children's and mothers' food and physical activity...

  11. Splitting motivation: unilateral effects of subliminal incentives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Liane; Palminteri, Stefano; Lafargue, Gilles; Pessiglione, Mathias

    2010-07-01

    Motivation is generally understood to denote the strength of a person's desire to attain a goal. Here we challenge this view of motivation as a person-level concept, in a study that targeted subliminal incentives to only one half of the human brain. Participants in the study squeezed a handgrip to win the greatest fraction possible of each subliminal incentive, which materialized as a coin image flashed in one visual hemifield. Motivation effects (i.e., more force exerted when the incentive was higher) were observed only for the hand controlled by the stimulated brain hemisphere. These results show that in the absence of conscious control, one brain hemisphere, and hence one side of the body, can be motivated independently of the other.

  12. Sustainability labels on food products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G; Hieke, Sophie; Wills, Josephine

    2014-01-01

    of sustainability was limited, but understanding of four selected labels (Fair Trade, Rainforest Alliance, Carbon Footprint, and Animal Welfare) was better, as some of them seem to be self-explanatory. The results indicated a low level of use, no matter whether use was measured as self-reported use of different......This study investigates the relationship between consumer motivation, understanding and use of sustainability labels on food products (both environmental and ethical labels), which are increasingly appearing on food products. Data was collected by means of an online survey implemented in the UK...... types of information available on food labels or as use inferred from the results of a choice-based conjoint analysis. Hierarchical regression indicated that use is related to both motivation and understanding, and that both motivation, understanding and use are affected by demographic characteristics...

  13. Analyzing EFL Teachers’ Initial Job Motivation and Factors Effecting Their Motivation in Fezalar Educational Institutions in Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selcuk Koran

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Teacher motivation is one of the primary variables of students’ high performance. It is experienced that students whose teachers are highly motivated are more engaged in the learning process. Therefore, it’s mostly the teacher who determines the level of success or failure in achieving institution’s goal in the educational process. Thus, teachers are expected to demonstrate a high job motivation performance by administrations. However, some teachers seem naturally enthusiastic about teaching while others need to be stimulated, inspired and challenged. There are several factors that provide teachers with necessary motivation driven by which they can work effectively. These factors can be emotional, financial, physical or academic. This study is an attempt to find out what motivates teachers to enter this profession, since the reasons of entering this job has significant influence on their commitment to the job, investigate factors which are responsible for high or low motivation of language teachers in Fezalar Educational Institutions (FEI, which is a Turkish private institution that operates in Iraq, and ascertain the degree to which intrinsic and extrinsic motivational factors impact teachers in their work situation. Based on the review of the recent researches of motivation, in general, and of language teacher motivation, in particular, and relying on the qualitative and quantitative study of the issue, a detailed analysis of some aspects of foreign language teacher motivation is presented in the article. Keywords: teacher motivation, job satisfaction, foreign language teaching, L2 teacher motivation

  14. An Exploration of Foreign Language Anxiety and English Learning Motivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meihua Liu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Perceived to be two important affective variables, anxiety and motivation have been found to be highly correlated to second/foreign language acquisition. In order to examine the relationship between foreign language anxiety, English learning motivation, and performance in English, the present study investigated 980 undergraduate students from three universities in China who answered a 76-item survey. Analyses of the data revealed that (1 the respondents generally did not feel anxious in English and were moderately motivated to learn English, (2 foreign language anxiety and English learning motivation were significantly negatively correlated with each other, and (3 both foreign language anxiety and English learning motivation were significantly correlated with students' performance in English. Among the scales, foreign language classroom anxiety (FLCAS, intrinsic motivation (IntrinM, instrumental motivation (InstruM, fear of being negatively evaluated (FLCAS1, and interest in foreign languages and cultures (IFLC proved to be powerful predictors for the latter.

  15. Simulating motivated cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gevarter, William B.

    1991-01-01

    A research effort to develop a sophisticated computer model of human behavior is described. A computer framework of motivated cognition was developed. Motivated cognition focuses on the motivations or affects that provide the context and drive in human cognition and decision making. A conceptual architecture of the human decision-making approach from the perspective of information processing in the human brain is developed in diagrammatic form. A preliminary version of such a diagram is presented. This architecture is then used as a vehicle for successfully constructing a computer program simulation Dweck and Leggett's findings that relate how an individual's implicit theories orient them toward particular goals, with resultant cognitions, affects, and behavior.

  16. Lessons in Student Motivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Errol Craig Sull

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The tools students have at their ready to do well are really amazing: engaging, thorough, and colorful textbooks; the Internet, of course; faculty who know how to teach and offer a plethora of information; and seemingly endless possibilities for optimal learning environments. Yet with all these improved “mousetraps” there is one factor that, if missing, will keep each of these silent – and the student will learn little or naught: motivation. Indeed, if the student is not motivated to learn, and his or her motivation is not kept up throughout a course, there is little the student will take away from the course.

  17. Delegation and Motivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borowiecki, Karol Jan; Angst, Lukas

    2014-01-01

    In this article we study the determinants of decision rights transfer and its effects on the motivation of an agent. The study is based on a laboratory experiment conducted on 130 subjects playing an innovative principal-agent game. Interestingly, the results show that agents do not favour...... a delegation and a decision is considered rather burdensome. Although the experiment could not give support for the behavioural hypothesis of higher effort provided by participants who receive choice subsequently, the survey illuminates the interaction between delegation motives, effort motivators, goals...

  18. Motivation, cognition and pseudoscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindeman, M

    1998-12-01

    The article proposes a framework that views pseudoscientific beliefs as a joint function of the basic social motives and the default way of processing everyday information. The interplay between the basic motives and experiential thinking is illustrated with three examples. The first concerns comprehension of self via astrology and graphology, and the second involves the comprehension of unexpected events (one domain of the motive to comprehend the world). The last example describes health control by alternative medicine, as a modern way of controlling future outcomes.

  19. Food Allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Want to Know About Puberty Train Your Temper Food Allergies KidsHealth > For Kids > Food Allergies Print A ... cow's milk eggs soy wheat What Is a Food Allergy? Food allergies happen when the immune system ...

  20. Food Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Food allergy is an abnormal response to a food triggered by your body's immune system. In adults, the foods ... a severe reaction called anaphylaxis. Symptoms of food allergy include Itching or swelling in your mouth Vomiting, ...

  1. Food Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... digest foods, such as soda crackers, toast, gelatin, bananas and rice. Stop eating if your nausea returns. ... food-safety-education/get-answers/food-safety-fact-sheets/safe-food-handling/the-big-thaw-safe-defrosting- ...

  2. 21 CFR 130.20 - Food additives proposed for use in foods for which definitions and standards of identity are...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Food additives proposed for use in foods for which...: GENERAL Food Additives in Standardized Foods § 130.20 Food additives proposed for use in foods for which... the act, which proposes the inclusion of a food additive in such definition and standard of......

  3. Food, publics, science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blue, Gwendolyn

    2010-03-01

    This paper draws attention to food as a site around which a historically particular form of public engagement has emerged. In the past decade, some of the most lively debates and policy actions for science and publics have focused on food related issues: first with BSE and subsequently with genetically modified organisms. Even though much of the literature surrounding publics and science acknowledges that the very definition of "publics" is shifting, little attention has been paid to food as a significant arena in which publics are engaging in politically motivated challenges to techno-scientific practices, policies and institutions. Taking food seriously means contextualizing publics as well as extending discursive models of democratic engagement to embrace consumer practices.

  4. The relationship of trait to state motivation: the role of self-competency beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kee-Hong; Saperstein, Alice M; Medalia, Alice

    2012-08-01

    Even when people with schizophrenia describe themselves as generally motivated and eager to engage in activities, they may not actually be motivated in the present moment. In order to better understand the relationship between trait and state motivation, we aimed to assess trait motivation and state intrinsic motivation, and investigate their relations to each other and to criterion-related variables including cognition, negative symptoms, and beliefs about one's own competency-also known as perceived competency (PC). Further, we investigated whether PC mediates the relationships between state intrinsic motivation (IM) and trait motivation dimensions. Forty individuals with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorders were administered two self-report measures of motivation, the Motivational Trait Questionnaire (Kanfer, R., Ackerman, P., 2000. Individual differences in work motivation: further explorations of a trait framework. Appl. Psychol. 49 (3), 470-482) and the Intrinsic Motivation Inventory for Schizophrenia Research (Choi, J., Medalia, A., 2010. Intrinsic motivation and learning in a schizophrenia spectrum sample. Schizophr. Res. 118, 12-19), as well as measures of PC, cognition and symptoms. The results showed that in people with schizophrenia, trait approach motivation, but not trait avoidance motivation, is positively correlated with state intrinsic motivation and PC. There was evidence that PC partially mediates the relationship between trait approach motivation and state intrinsic motivation to do the task. These results support the role of therapies that directly address self-competency beliefs and set the groundwork for future investigations on the impact of such treatments on motivation.

  5. Comfort Food: Nourishing Our Collective Stomachs and Our Collective Minds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troisi, Jordan D.; Wright, Julian W. C.

    2017-01-01

    Food is a powerful motivator in human functioning--it serves a biological need, as emotional support, and as a cultural symbol. Until recently, the term "comfort food" has been inadequately and unscientifically defined. In addition, the popular media have oversimplified the concept of comfort food as purely unhealthy food, often consumed…

  6. Comfort Food: Nourishing Our Collective Stomachs and Our Collective Minds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troisi, Jordan D.; Wright, Julian W. C.

    2017-01-01

    Food is a powerful motivator in human functioning--it serves a biological need, as emotional support, and as a cultural symbol. Until recently, the term "comfort food" has been inadequately and unscientifically defined. In addition, the popular media have oversimplified the concept of comfort food as purely unhealthy food, often consumed…

  7. Management styles and motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearer, Dana Ann

    2012-01-01

    According to a review of the current literature, common managerial styles are transformational, transactional, and laissez-faire. When managers expand their leadership skills to improve the staff's morale, they must use a combination of transformational leadership behaviors and transactional contingent rewards to maximize their effectiveness on employees. A motivation theory such as Herzberg and Maslow enhances employees' motivation, morale, and satisfaction. Being able to motivate, empower, and influence staff improves satisfaction and retention levels among the team. A manager's leadership style influences motivation, morale, and retention in staff. Leaders are influenced by their educational development and the organizational culture. Organizational culture has an impact on a manager's style, which is forwarded to their followers.

  8. Children's theories of motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurland, Suzanne T; Glowacky, Victoria C

    2011-09-01

    To investigate children's theories of motivation, we asked 166 children (8-12 years of age) to rate the effect of various motivational strategies on task interest, over the short and long terms, in activities described as appealing or unappealing. Children viewed the rewards strategy as resulting in greatest interest except when implemented over the long term for appealing activities. Individual difference analyses revealed that some children held operant theories of motivation, in which rewards were central, and others held hybrid theories, in which rewards were key, but some allowance was made for interest to be self-sustaining in the absence of inducements. Children's theories predicted their academic self-regulation. Their theories are discussed relative to an expert theory of motivation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Handling motivation the Kindergarten

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Ole

    2016-01-01

    In this paper I will investigate the construction of motivation in interactions between educators and pre-school children. Hitherto research on this subject has typically been preoccupied with the minds and motives of children at the expense of their sensuous and bodily presence. On the basis...... of field work observations in a Danish Kindergarten, and interpretations drawing on theorizations of embodiment I intend to show how children’s motivation to engage can be developed from the ways the educators apply themselves bodily in the educational environment, and act upon and manipulate the bodily...... presence of the children, rather than explaining the intellectual or instrumental reasons behind the activities. Furthermore I will argue that the prerequisites for motivation is developed when educators hold on to activities; that is making the children repeat activities and over time making them capable...

  10. Measuring adolescent science motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumm, Maximiliane F.; Bogner, Franz X.

    2016-02-01

    To monitor science motivation, 232 tenth graders of the college preparatory level ('Gymnasium') completed the Science Motivation Questionnaire II (SMQ-II). Additionally, personality data were collected using a 10-item version of the Big Five Inventory. A subsequent exploratory factor analysis based on the eigenvalue-greater-than-one criterion, extracted a loading pattern, which in principle, followed the SMQ-II frame. Two items were dropped due to inappropriate loadings. The remaining SMQ-II seems to provide a consistent scale matching the findings in literature. Nevertheless, also possible shortcomings of the scale are discussed. Data showed a higher perceived self-determination in girls which seems compensated by their lower self-efficacy beliefs leading to equality of females and males in overall science motivation scores. Additionally, the Big Five personality traits and science motivation components show little relationship.

  11. Motivation and library management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjana Likar

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The present article deals with motivation, its relation to management and its role and use in librarianship in our country and abroad. The countries where librarianship is well developed started to deal with library management and questions of motivation of library workers decades ago, whereas elsewhere the subject is at its start. The prerequisite for modern policy making is attention to the elements of modern library management. Librarians, library managers and directors of libraries should create a work environment providing long term satisfaction with work by means of certain knowledge and tools. The level of motivation of the staff is influenced by the so called higher factors deriving from the work process itself and related to work contents: achieve¬ment, recognition, trust and work itself. Extrinsic factors (income, interpersonal relations, technology of administration, company policy, working conditions, work con¬trol, personal security, job security and position... should exercise lesser impact on the level of motivation.

  12. Motivation and Adult Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, J. Rodney

    1982-01-01

    The author reviews theories of human motivation: Lewin's force field analysis, Skinner's operant reinforcement theory, and Maslow's hierarchy of needs. He then extracts the implications of these theories for adult learning. SK)

  13. From appraisal to motivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudkovsky V. N.

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Some aspects related to identifying the level of the necessary personnel competence and motivation on introdusing the quality managament system in research and production enterprises are quoted.

  14. Motivation and Adult Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, J. Rodney

    1982-01-01

    The author reviews theories of human motivation: Lewin's force field analysis, Skinner's operant reinforcement theory, and Maslow's hierarchy of needs. He then extracts the implications of these theories for adult learning. SK)

  15. Impaired cross-talk between mesolimbic food reward processing and metabolic signaling predicts body mass index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joe J Simon

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The anticipation of the pleasure derived from food intake drives the motivation to eat, and hence facilitate overconsumption of food which ultimately results in obesity. Brain imaging studies provide evidence that mesolimbic brain regions underlie both general as well as food related anticipatory reward processing. In light of this knowledge, the present study examined the neural responsiveness of the ventral striatum in participants with a broad BMI spectrum. The study differentiated between general (i.e. monetary and food related anticipatory reward processing. We recruited a sample of volunteers with greatly varying body weights, ranging from a low BMI (below 20 kg/m² over a normal (20 to 25 kg/m² and overweight (25 to 30 kg/m² BMI, to class I (30 to 35 kg/m² and class II (35 to 40 kg/m² obesity. A total of 24 participants underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging whilst performing both a food and monetary incentive delay task, which allows to measure neural activation during the anticipation of rewards. After the presentation of a cue indicating the amount of food or money to be won, participants had to react correctly in order to earn snack points or money coins which could then be exchanged for real food or money, respectively, at the end of the experiment. During the anticipation of both types of rewards, participants displayed activity in the ventral striatum, a region that plays a pivotal role in the anticipation of rewards. Additionally, we observed that specifically anticipatory food reward processing predicted the individual BMI (current and maximum lifetime. This relation was found to be mediated by impaired hormonal satiety signaling, i.e. increased leptin levels and insulin resistance. These findings suggest that heightened food reward motivation contributes to obesity through impaired metabolic signaling.

  16. THE IMPORTANCE OF PERSONNEL MOTIVATION IN THE MANAGEMENT PROCESS

    OpenAIRE

    NĂSTASIE MIHAELA – ANDREEA

    2015-01-01

    General research area of this article is the motivation of personnel, essential tool in the management process, and also a component derived from human resource management. In economic activity, personnel motivation should be regarded as an internal process, not as an imperative that can be imposed from outside the economic entity. Managers of economic entities must, first, understand personnel motivation strategies, how they influence positively or negatively the internal motivat...

  17. Lessons in Student Motivation

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    The tools students have at their ready to do well are really amazing: engaging, thorough, and colorful textbooks; the Internet, of course; faculty who know how to teach and offer a plethora of information; and seemingly endless possibilities for optimal learning environments. Yet with all these improved “mousetraps” there is one factor that, if missing, will keep each of these silent – and the student will learn little or naught: motivation. Indeed, if the student is not motivated to learn, a...

  18. Adaptive Motivation Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-06-01

    in behavior left to explain. Kleinginna and Kleinginna (1981) have gathered no fewer than 140 definitions of motivation that have appeared in the...34 ( Kleinginna 4 - . .o. . Z. and Kleinginna , 1981). As a result, if you are inclined to accept Maslow’s notions, you are less interested in the choice aspect of...Snyderman, B. (1959). The motivation to work. New York: Wiley. Jaques, E. (1961). Equitable payment. New York: Wiley, 1961. 45 Kleinginna , P. R. and

  19. Qualitative research of motives, barriers and stereotypes in fruit consumption in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ognjanov Galjina

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The study presented in this paper makes a constituent part of another study dedicated to the development of food consumer science in the Western Balkans. The paper presents a part of the most relevant findings that the authors have obtained and analyzed from thirty in-depth interviews conducted with fruit consumers in Serbia. Main motives and barriers for consumption of fruit among urban and rural as well as male and female respondents are explored and elaborated. Additionally, existence of particular stereotypes of fruit consumers and non-consumers revealed through implemented projective technique is also discussed in this paper. The findings presented support general theoretical knowledge obtained from various food consumer studies previously conducted in more developed economies.

  20. [A NEW APPROACH FOR FOOD PREFERENCE TESTING IN ANIMAL EXPERIMENTATION].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albertin, S V

    2015-10-01

    An article describes the original method allowing to study a mechanism of food preference related to the sensory properties of foods in animals. The method gives a good possibility to select the role of visual and orosensory signaling in food preference as well as to model the processes of physiological and pathological food and drug dependence in animal experiments. The role of discrete food presentation in the formation of the current motivations and food preferences was discussed.

  1. 常用生化技术在食品检测分析中的应用%General Applications of Commonly Used Biochemical Technology in Food

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周妍蕾

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, biotechnology has been continuously used in the development of food and safety monitoring and control system to solve the nutrition and food security issues, this article introduced the application of spectral analysis techniques, chromatography, electrophoresis, immunological techniques, and membrane separation technology in foods test analysis.It pointed out those technologies still have some defects,which need luther research and development.%近年来,生化技术被不断地用于食品开发与安全监测控制体系来解决食品的营养和安全问题,笔者分别介绍了光谱分析技术、层析技术、电泳技术、免疫学技术及膜分离技术在食品检测分析中的应用概况,并指出了这些技术还存在的缺陷,还有待进行深入研究和开发。

  2. Fatty acid dietary intake in the general French population: are the French Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Health & Safety (ANSES) national recommendations met?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tressou, Jessica; Moulin, Philippe; Vergès, Bruno; Le Guillou, Céline; Simon, Noémie; Pasteau, Stéphane

    2016-12-01

    Quantity and quality of fatty acids (FA) in diet influence CVD risk. Consequently, health authorities promote recommended dietary intakes for FA, looking for optimal intakes in a primary prevention of CVD perspective. In parallel, a few data are available detailing intakes in national populations. The objective of the present study was to perform a large analysis combining the data of the French National Survey INCA 2 on food consumption performed in 2006 and 2007, and the nutritional content of food consumed in France updated in 2013 by the French Information Centre on Food Quality, to explore in details the FA intakes in French adults using the most recent available data. To compare the discrepancies in the observed intake levels with the French recommended levels, a weighted fat adherence score was built combining intakes of the different FA. Individual scores were computed in relation to official recommendations, and potential explanatory factors were identified. These data show that SFA intakes are persistently higher than national recommendations, combined with low intakes of MUFA and PUFA, particularly long-chain n-3 FA. Only 14·6 % of the French population met DHA intake recommendation, 7·8 % for EPA and 21·6 % for SFA. This situation remains unfavourable in terms of primary prevention of CVD. Consuming fish and other sources of n-3 FA, living in the south of France, being female, having a higher education level, and low alcohol consumption were associated with a healthier fat adherence score.

  3. Does Motivation for Exercise Influence Post-Exercise Snacking Behavior?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimmock, James A; Guelfi, Kym J; West, Jessica S; Masih, Tasmiah; Jackson, Ben

    2015-06-01

    It is well established that regular exercise plays an important role in achieving a number of health and wellbeing outcomes. However, certain post-exercise behaviors, including the consumption of unhealthy high-calorie foods, can counteract some of the benefits of physical activity. There are at least three overlapping pathways through which exercise may increase the likelihood of consuming pleasurable but unhealthy foods: through impulsive cognitive processes, reflective cognitive processes, and/or physiological responses. It is argued in this paper that motivation toward exercise can influence each of these pathways. Drawing from literature from various domains, we postulate that controlled exercise motivation, as opposed to autonomous exercise motivation, is more likely to influence each of these pathways in a manner that leaves individuals susceptible to the post-exercise consumption of pleasurable but unhealthy foods.

  4. From Readiness to Action: How Motivation Works

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kruglanski Arie W.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We present a new theoretical construct labeled motivational readiness. It is defined as the inclination, whether or not ultimately implemented, to satisfy a desire. A general model of readiness is described which builds on the work of prior theories, including animal learning models and personality approaches, and which aims to integrate a variety of research findings across different domains of motivational research. Components of this model include the Want state (that is, an individual’s currently active desire, and the Expectancy of being able to satisfy that Want. We maintain that the Want concept is the critical ingredient in motivational readiness: without it, readiness cannot exist. In contrast, some motivational readiness can exist without Expectancy. We also discuss the role of incentive in motivational readiness. Incentive is presently conceived of in terms of a Match between a Want and a Perceived Situational Affordance. Whereas in classic models incentive was portrayed as a first order determinant of motivational readiness, here we describe it as a second order factor which affects readiness by influencing Want, Expectancy, or both. The new model’s relation to its theoretical predecessors, and its implications for future research, also are discussed.

  5. Interactional Motivation in Artificial Systems: Between Extrinsic and Intrinsic Motivation

    OpenAIRE

    Georgeon, Olivier; Marshall, James; Gay, Simon

    2012-01-01

    International audience; This paper introduces Interactional Motivation (IM) as a way to implement self-motivation in artificial systems. An interactionally motivated agent selects behaviors for the sake of enacting the behavior itself rather than for the value of the behavior’s outcome. IM contrasts with extrinsic motivation by the fact that it defines the agent’s motivation independently from the environment’s state. Because IM does not refer to the environment’s states, we argue that IM is ...

  6. EU Food Health Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edinger, Wieke Willemijn Huizing

    the assumption that consumers are capable of protecting their own health and well-being, provided they have access to a minimum amount of food information. The EU Treaty does not provide an explicit legal basis for establishing food health legislation, but there appears to be ample room for the adoption......This thesis shows that the distinction between food safety and non-safety issues in Regulation (EC) No 178/2002, the General Food Law (GFL), results in a grey area of regulation. This grey area comprises foods that do not pose a food safety risk in a legal sense, but that could pose a threat...... to human health because of other factors, such as their nutritional composition. The growing prevalence of obesity and non-communicable diseases are examples of contemporary health challenges that are difficult to fit into the rather narrow concept of food safety risks in the GFL. The conclusion is that EU...

  7. Food Process Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Alan; Jensen, Bo Boye Busk; Risum, Jørgen

    to calculate the requirements of heat processing. Our goal is to put food engineering into a production context. Other courses teach food chemistry, food microbiology and food technology. Topics of great importance and all have to be seen in a broader context of producing good and safe food in a large scale....... The content of this textbook constitutes a foundation for more in-depth teaching in the field unit operations and food technology in general. The textbook is supplied along with a set of cases and assignments which should be solved concurrently. The textbook is constructed in a way that makes it possible......This textbook is made for you to use as a study book and as a source of reference and inspiration to work with problems related to food production. Most textbooks are focused on the separate unit operations used in a production. We have tried to put a few of these operations into the broader...

  8. The impact of interventions to promote healthier ready‐to‐eat meals (to eat in, to take away or to be delivered) sold by specific food outlets open to the general public: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summerbell, C. D.; Moore, H. J.; Routen, A.; Lake, A. A.; Adams, J.; White, M.; Araujo‐Soares, V.; Abraham, C.; Adamson, A. J.; Brown, T. J.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Introduction Ready‐to‐eat meals sold by food outlets that are accessible to the general public are an important target for public health intervention. We conducted a systematic review to assess the impact of such interventions. Methods Studies of any design and duration that included any consumer‐level or food‐outlet‐level before‐and‐after data were included. Results Thirty studies describing 34 interventions were categorized by type and coded against the Nuffield intervention ladder: restrict choice = trans fat law (n = 1), changing pre‐packed children's meal content (n = 1) and food outlet award schemes (n = 2); guide choice = price increases for unhealthier choices (n = 1), incentive (contingent reward) (n = 1) and price decreases for healthier choices (n = 2); enable choice = signposting (highlighting healthier/unhealthier options) (n = 10) and telemarketing (offering support for the provision of healthier options to businesses via telephone) (n = 2); and provide information = calorie labelling law (n = 12), voluntary nutrient labelling (n = 1) and personalized receipts (n = 1). Most interventions were aimed at adults in US fast food chains and assessed customer‐level outcomes. More ‘intrusive’ interventions that restricted or guided choice generally showed a positive impact on food‐outlet‐level and customer‐level outcomes. However, interventions that simply provided information or enabled choice had a negligible impact. Conclusion Interventions to promote healthier ready‐to‐eat meals sold by food outlets should restrict choice or guide choice through incentives/disincentives. Public health policies and practice that simply involve providing information are unlikely to be effective. PMID:27899007

  9. Motivation and attention following hemispheric stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olgiati, E; Russell, C; Soto, D; Malhotra, P

    2016-01-01

    Spatial neglect (SN) is an extremely common disorder of attention; it is most frequently a consequence of stroke, especially to the right cerebral hemisphere. The current view of SN is that it is not a unitary deficit but a multicomponent syndrome. Crucially, it has been repeatedly shown that it has a considerable negative impact on rehabilitation outcome. Although a number of behavioral and pharmacological therapies have been developed, none of these appears to be applicable to all patients with SN or has proved unequivocally successful in clinical trials. One potential avenue for therapeutic intervention in neglect relates to the interaction between motivation and attention. A number of investigators, including ourselves, have observed a possible motivational component to the syndrome and showed that motivational stimulation can temporarily improve attention in patients with SN. In this chapter we review previous work looking at how motivation can modulate attention in healthy individuals and how it may be affected by neurological disease before discussing how motivational impairments may contribute to neglect, and how motivation has been used to modulate neglect. In the final section, we present recent experimental work examining how reward interacts with attentional biases in patients with SN. In this study, we adapted the classic Landmark task to explore the mechanisms behind the effect of reward in SN, and found that centrally located stimuli that were explicitly associated with reward appeared to improve neglect and reduce rightward bias. Our results suggest that positive motivation, in the form of anticipated monetary reward, may influence attentional bias via more general mechanisms, such as alerting and task engagement, rather than directly increasing salience of items in contralesional space. We conclude by discussing how motivation might be practically integrated into the rehabilitation of patients with this debilitating disorder. © 2016 Elsevier B

  10. FUTURE ENGINEER TRAINING: MOTIVATING TECHNIQUES

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    The motivating techniques for training future engineer are proposed. Intrinsic and extrinsic motivations in professional training have been analyzed. The peculiarities of the formation process of students’ motivation in learning language at non-language universities have been systematized. Heuristic training technology based on students’ motivation to cognitive research has been implemented.

  11. Multidimensional structure of employee motivation - Clustering approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gąsior, Marcin; Skowron, Łukasz; Sak-Skowron, Monika

    2014-12-01

    Employees' motivation along with their satisfaction with work is one of the most significant factors determining functioning and the success of an organization on the market. The purpose of this article is to demonstrate that motivation to work is a phenomenon whose nature is different among subsequent employees not only in terms of its general level, but also internal structure, and checking whether among various possible structures of motivation there is repeatability which could prove the existence of specific regularities and enabling possible classification of employees. Reasoning with regard to internal structure of motivation was conducted on the basis of the designated 14 variables expressing it, which included both internal factors (feelings) and external (actions), both positive and negative in its meaning. The conducted research consisted in segmentation of the surveyed employees using the generalized method of k-means, in order to separate groups with the same subsequent intensity profiles, so designated variables. By way of research, five various groups of employees were found. Each has a unique, different profile of motivation, at the same time, in each of them a different satisfaction level of the employed was observed. The analysis leads to a conclusion that the motivation profile itself is not completely connected with the perceived satisfaction with work. While signs of motivation positive in nature are usually stronger among satisfied employees, and the weaker - among dissatisfied ones, we cannot speak about a similar regularity when it comes to factors of negative nature. Furthermore, the presented research shows that within negative factors, larger intensification can be observed among ones of internal nature, while among these of external nature - it is smaller.

  12. Traps and pitfalls in research on healthy food choices: On selective accessibility, assimilation and contrast, and the look-in-the-fridge heuristic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholderer, Joachim

    Consumer research on healthy food choices often suffers from context effects and low predictive validity. Adopting a social cognition perspective, the paper proposes that consumers hold elaborate belief systems about food and health issues, but that these are only selectively accessed in different...... as a motivating factor. Situational factors dominated consumers' food choice considerations, often in patterns developing coherence over time. It is concluded that consumers hold elaborate health belief systems, but that a lack of situational accessibility generally prevents them from gaining influence on actual...

  13. Relationships among Projective and Direct Verbal Measures of Achievement Motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Satvir

    1979-01-01

    The ways in which projective and nonprojective verbal measures of achievement motivation elicit comparable and dissimilar responses in a "Third World" sample of entrepreneurs and farmers were explored as a test of McClelland's theory of economic growth. Results were generally consistent with the theory of achievement motivation.…

  14. The motivational interviewing skill code : Reliability and a critical appraisal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jonge, JM; Schippers, GM; Schaap, CPDR

    2005-01-01

    The Motivational Interviewing Skill Code (MISC) is a coding system developed to measure adherence to motivational interviewing (MI). MI is an effective clinical style used in different treatment situations. Counsellors practising MI have to follow general principles and avoid certain traps. In the p

  15. Differences in problems of motivation in different special groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kunnen, E.S.; Steenbeek, H.W.

    1999-01-01

    In general, children with a range of special needs have below-average motivation and perceived control. We have investigated whether differences exist between the types of problem in different special groups. Theory distinguishes between two types: low motivation and perceived control can be based e

  16. Development of an RDECOM Workforce Motivational Survey Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    compensation and workplace environment structure to motivate the target generational workforce demographic to improve productivity. The deliverables from this...factors. We developed a closed-loop survey instrument and analysis methodology to identify distinct generational workforce motivational factors. Nine...United States Army Research Development and Engineering Command (RDECOM) supervisory engineers, General Schedule (GS) 14 and 15, reviewed the survey

  17. Relationships among Projective and Direct Verbal Measures of Achievement Motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Satvir

    1979-01-01

    The ways in which projective and nonprojective verbal measures of achievement motivation elicit comparable and dissimilar responses in a "Third World" sample of entrepreneurs and farmers were explored as a test of McClelland's theory of economic growth. Results were generally consistent with the theory of achievement motivation. (Author/JKS)

  18. Food Stamps: A Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Colin; And Others

    A voluminous body of literature exists on the topic of food stamps including the administration of the federal and state programs and the question of abuses and fraud. This bibliography describes a portion of that material in print. An introduction provides general information and a chronology of the food stamp program and comments on the place of…

  19. Sensitization and Habituation of Motivated Behavior in Overweight and Non-Overweight Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Leonard H.; Robinson, Jodie L.; Temple, Jennifer L.; Roemmich, James N.; Marusewski, Angela; Nadbrzuch, Rachel

    2008-01-01

    The rate of habituation to food is inversely related to energy intake, and overweight children may habituate slower to food and consume more energy. This study compared patterns of sensitization, as defined by an initial increase in operant or motivated responding for food, and habituation, defined by gradual reduction in responding, for macaroni…

  20. Sensitization and Habituation of Motivated Behavior in Overweight and Non-Overweight Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Leonard H.; Robinson, Jodie L.; Temple, Jennifer L.; Roemmich, James N.; Marusewski, Angela; Nadbrzuch, Rachel

    2008-01-01

    The rate of habituation to food is inversely related to energy intake, and overweight children may habituate slower to food and consume more energy. This study compared patterns of sensitization, as defined by an initial increase in operant or motivated responding for food, and habituation, defined by gradual reduction in responding, for macaroni…