Koukoufilippou J; Koinis A.
Introduction: The family planning centres must be upgraded to a cornerstone of primary health care, and prevent, advise and protect the citizen's health while reducing hospitalization costs for hospitals. Aim: The purpose of this literature review is the family planning centre development in general hospital of Argolida that has a similar clinic. Material and Methods: Literature review was conducted of published English and Greek Articles from bibliographic databases Medline, Goog...
Bronstein, Janet M; Felix, Holly C; Bursac, Zoran; Stewart, M Kathryn; Foushee, H Russell; Klapow, Joshua
This study examines both provider and client perceptions of the extent to which general health concerns are addressed in the context of publicly supported family planning care. A mail survey of family planning providers (n = 459) accepting Medicaid-covered clients in Arkansas and Alabama gathered data on reported actions and resource referral availability for ten categories of non-contraceptive health concerns. A telephone survey of recent family planning clients of these providers (n = 1991) gathered data on the presence of 16 health concerns and whether and how they were addressed by the family planning provider. Data were collected in 2006-2007. More than half (56%) of clients reported having one or more general health concerns. While 43% of those concerns had been discussed with the family planning providers, only 8% had been originally identified by these providers. Women with higher trust in physicians and usual sources of general health care were more likely to discuss their concerns. Of those concerns discussed, 39% were reportedly treated by the family planning provider. Similarly, over half of responding providers reported providing treatment for acute and chronic health conditions and counseling on health behaviors during family planning visits. Lack of familiarity with referral resources for uninsured clients was identified as a significant concern in the provision of care to these clients. Greater engagement by providers in identifying client health concerns and better integration of publicly supported family planning with other sources of health care for low income women could expand the existing potential for delivering preconception or general health care in these settings.
Hamburg, M V
17 days were spent devoted to the effort of learning about China's educational approach to family planning in the hope of discovering how they are achieving their remarkable success in reducing population growth. As a member of the 1981 New York University/SIECUS Colloquim in China, it was necessary to rely on the translation provided by the excellent guides. Discussions were focused on questions prepared in advance about the topics that concerned the group. These observations, based on a short and limited exposure, cover the following areas: marriage and family planning policies; the family planning program; school programs; adult education; family planning workers; and unique aspects of the program. China has an official position on marriage and family planning that continues to undergo revisions. The new marriage law sets the minimum ages of marriage at 22 for men and 20 for women. Almost everyone marries, and an unmarried person over age 28 is a rarity. The family planning program in China is carried out by an extensive organizational network at national, provincial, and local government levels. Officials termed it a "propaganda campaign." Hospitals, clinics, and factories invariably displayed posters; a popular set of four presents the advantages of the 1 child family as follows: late marriage is best, for it allows more time to work and study; 1 child is best for the health of the mother; one gets free medical care for his/her child if a family has only 1 child; and there is more time to teach 1 child. The state operated television regularly explains the 1 child policy utilizing special films. According to 1 family planning official, "before marriage there is little sex." There are few abortions for unmarried women. Education about sex is for adults, for those persons who are about to be married. There is little if any sex education in schools. Sexual teaching is not generally acceptable, especially in the rural areas. By contrast, in Shanghai the physiology
California Natural Resource Agency — We undertook creating the first ever seamless statewide General Plan map for California. All county general plans and many city general plans were integrated into 1...
Jacobson, J L
India's goal of reducing the national birth rate by 50% by the year 2000 is destined to failure in the absence of attention to poverty, social inequality, and women's subordination--the factors that serve to perpetuate high fertility. There is a need to shift the emphasis of the population control effort from the obligation of individual women to curtail childbearing to the provision of the resources required for poor women to meet their basic needs. Female children are less likely to be educated or taken for medical care than their male counterparts and receive a lower proportion of the family's food supply. This discrimination stems, in large part, from parents' view that daughters will not be able to remunerate their families in later life for such investments. The myth of female nonproductivity that leads to the biased allocation of family resources overlooks the contribution of adult women's unpaid domestic labor and household production. Although government statistics state that women comprise 46% of India's agricultural labor force (and up to 90% of rural women participate in this sector on some basis), women have been excluded systematically from agricultural development schemes such as irrigation projects, credit, and mechanization. In the field of family planning, the Government's virtually exclusive focus on sterilization has excluded younger women who are not ready to terminate childbearing but would like methods such as condoms, diaphragms, IUDs, and oral contraceptives to space births. More general maternal-child health services are out of reach of the majority of poor rural women due to long distances that must be travelled to clinics India's birth rate could be reduced by 25% by 2000 just by filling the demand for quality voluntary family planning services. Without a sustained political commitment to improve the status of women in India, however, such gains will not be sustainable.
Pinter, Bojana; Hakim, Marwan; Seidman, Daniel S; Kubba, Ali; Kishen, Meera; Di Carlo, Costantino
Religion is embedded in the culture of all societies. It influences matters of morality, ideology and decision making, which concern every human being at some point in their life. Although the different religions often lack a united view on matters such contraception and abortion, there is sometimes some dogmatic overlap when general religious principles are subject to the influence of local customs. Immigration and population flow add further complexities to societal views on reproductive issues. For example, present day Europe has recently faced a dramatic increase in refugee influx, which raises questions about the health care of immigrants and the effects of cultural and religious differences on reproductive health. Religious beliefs on family planning in, for example, Christianity, Judaism, Islam and Hinduism have grown from different backgrounds and perspectives. Understanding these differences may result in more culturally competent delivery of care by health care providers. This paper presents the teachings of the most widespread religions in Europe with regard to contraception and reproduction.
Many of the 135 countries participating in the 1974 UN World Population Conference were far from accepting the basic human right to decide freely and responsibly the number and spacing of their children and to have the information, education, and means to do so. Considerable progress has been made since then, and the number of developing countries that provide direct government support for family planning has increased to over 60%. Many have liberalized laws and regulations which restricted access to modern contraceptive methods, and a growing number provide family planning services within their health care programs. A few have recognized the practice of family planning as a constitutional right. In late 1983 at the Second African Population Conference, recognition of family as a human right was strongly contested by several governments, particularly those of West Africa. in developed countries most of the women at risk of unwanted pregnancy are using contraceptives. Of the major developing regions the highest use level is in Latin America, wherein most countries 1/3 to 1/2 of married women are users. Levels in Asian countries range from up to 10% in Afghanistan, Nepal, and Pakistan to up to 40% in the southeastern countries. China, a special case, now probably exceeds an overall use level of 2/3 of married women. Contraceptive use is lowest in Africa. There is room for improvement even among many of the successful family planning programs, as access to contraceptives usually is not sufficient to overcome limiting factors. To ensure the individual's free choice and strengthen the acceptability and practice of family planning, all available methods should be provided in service programs and inluded in information and education activities. Family planning programs should engage local community groups, including voluntary organizations, in all aspects of planning, management, and allocation of resources. At the government level a clear political commitment to family
A $4 million Agency for International Development (AID) agreement was signed in Cairo September 30 which will help the Egyptian government increase family planning services. The project is in response to a request for up to $17 million of AID funds for family planning programs during the next 3 years. The funds will pay for: contract advisors to provide short-term in-country training of physicians, architectural and engineering services to renovate a hospital for family planning and obstetrics/gynecology training, and a field training site for family planning service providers. Some Egyptians will receive training in specialized areas in the U.S. and other countries. More than $1.5 million of the $4 million will finance local costs of goods and services required. In addition, it is anticipated that U.S.-owned local currencies will be obligated for direct support of U.S. technical personnel. Over the 3-year life of the project the $17 million from AID plus $664,000 of U.S.-owned local currency will cover 44% of the total costs of selected Egyptian family planning activities. The Egyptian government will contribute at least $18.4 million and the U.N. Fund for Population Activities and the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development will contribute $4.3 million.
Imanieh, Mohammad Hadi; Mirahmadizadeh, Alireza; Imani, Bahareh
Understanding the level of public satisfaction with a family physician plan as well as the relevant factors in this respect, can be employed as valuable tools in identifying quality of services. To determine the factors affecting public dissatisfaction with an urban family physician plan in Iran. This cross-sectional study was conducted from January 2014 through June 2015 on Fars Province residents in Iran, selected based on cluster sampling method. The data collection instrument was comprised of a two-part checklist including demographic information and items related to dissatisfaction with the family physician plan, specialists, para-clinic services, pharmacy, physicians on shift work, emergency services, and family physician assistants. Data were described by SPSS 20. In this study, 1,020 individuals (524 males, 496 females) were investigated. Based on the results, the most frequent factor affecting dissatisfaction with physicians was their single work shifts and unavailability (53%). In terms of dissatisfaction with family physicians' specialist colleagues and para-clinic services, the most common factors were related to difficulty in obtaining a referral form (41.5%) and making appointments (21.6%), respectively. Given the level of dissatisfaction with pharmacies, the significant factor was reported to be excessive delay in medication delivery (31.6%); and in terms of physicians on shift work and emergency services, the most important factor was lower work hours for family physicians (9.2%). It seems that, the most common causes of dissatisfaction with the urban family physician plan are due to the short duration of services, obtaining a referral form and making appointments, and providing prescribed medications.
Family planning (FP) has been promoted in China through improvements in maternal and child health (MCH) which have affected people's attitude toward childbearing. A case study of FP in Taicang County of Jiangsu Province, China is given. Total population is 446,620; natural increase is 10/1000. 99% of births have been planned in recent years. Contraceptive prevalence has reached 92.71%. Contraceptive awareness has opened people up to health education in general. The community participates in management of human wastes, improvement of water supplies, and parasite control in rural areas. MCH was begun in the early 1980s with premarital examinations, prenatal examinations, postnatal visits, and physical checkups. A systematic program has established in 1983. A pilot program integrating FP, MCH, and parasite control operated between 1984 and 1986, in 7 townships was established and MCH was institutionalized. Increases occurred in comprehensive care for women from 49.1% in 1984 to 78.3% in 1986. Children's coverage rose from 78.2% to 85.9%. Perinatal mortality dropped from 30.2/1000 to 20.8/1000. Neonatal mortality declined from 21.3/1000 to 17.3/1000. Infant mortality also decreased from 31.6/1000 to 21.5/1000. Integration of programs throughout the county was achieved after 1987. 99% of women used the MCH handbook. Between 1987 and 1990, the perinatal, neonatal, and infant mortality rate dropped to 12.9/1000, 9.5/1000, and 14.7/1000, respectively. MCH achievements are attributed to a strengthening of the MCH network to improve access and improve MCH workers' level of professional skill, to the availability of premarriage and couples of reproductive age services and child care, and to the contribution of research. Careful monitoring during pregnancy helped reduce the incidence of difficult labors for high risk women from 17.55 in 1984 to 11-15% in recent years. 99.9% deliver in hospitals. There were no maternal deaths in 1989 or 1990. Neonatal tetanus has been
India's family planning programs target rural women because they do not have political power. Interviews with those in Maharashtra show their lack of choice and low access to resources and their need for safe contraception. In 2 rural villages, for every dead child, a woman bears, on average, 2 more children. When a child dies, villagers first suspect the mother of having performed voodoo or witchcraft. Other suspected women are deserted women, widows, and menstruating women. Health and family planning services are not based on people's perceptions of body, anatomy, illness, and cure. People are not informed about interventions, particularly contraception. Women are not comfortable with contraceptives, and when physician ignore genuine symptoms and sequelae, it reinforces women's suspicions about contraceptives. Sterilizations performed in camps result in more side effects than individually performed sterilizations. During 1975-1977, women were kidnapped and sterilized under very unhygienic conditions. Common complaints after sterilization are menstrual disturbances and lower back pain. Many private physicians treat these complaints by performing hysterectomy. Women rarely are involved in the decision-making process determining whether or not they should undergo sterilization. They are often given false promises, if they accept sterilization. Indian women have little choice in contraceptives. The low biodegradability of condoms poses a disposal problem. Health workers often dispose of IUDs, pills, and condoms which they claim have been accepted. Auxiliary nurse midwives are pressured to meet family planning targets, so they harass women to accept contraception. Village women do not trust them. Health workers often steal cases from each other. Many complain that minorities are responsible for the population explosion, but the minority's family size is basically the same as that of the majority. Low access to general health services and harassment to fulfill family
The Nigerian Family Health services project teamed up with the Johns Hopkins University's Population Communication Services to produce songs called "Choices" and "Wait for Me." The songs, which were about sexual responsibility, were performed by popular music stars King Sunny Ade and Onyeka Onwenu and appeared under King Sonny Ade's long playing albums in 1989. Teaching sexual responsibility through song was suggested in focus group discussions. Findings indicated that young people were responsive to messages about sexual responsibility, postponing sex or saying "no," male sexual responsibility, and children by informed choice and not chance among married couples. An impact assessment of the songs was conducted in February, 1991. Survey findings revealed that 64% of urban and 22% of rural respondents recalled having heard the songs and seen the videos. 48% of urban youth discussed the songs with friends, and 27% discussed the songs with sexual partners. 90% of respondents reported agreement with the message that couples should have only the number of children that they can care for, and that couples should practice family planning. The target population that was affected most by the songs was aged less than 35 years. The strategy of using songs to teach youth responsible parenting appears to be a reliable strategy for mass education and mobilization. There is mass support from among members of the National Council for Women's Societies, the Planned Parenthood Federation of Nigeria, and Coca Cola Corporation, as well as the public at large.
... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Family planning services. 441.20 Section 441.20... General Provisions § 441.20 Family planning services. For recipients eligible under the plan for family... free to choose the method of family planning to be used. ...
Large numbers of children typified the Catholic family until the 60s when there was a general societal change towards smaller families. This change, which even affected Catholics, is thought to derive from 3 sources. The population explosion and its complimentary disadvantages, a change towards more egocentric values, and an increase in the importance of material values. The Western world is aging fast and fertility rates are falling to the point that an overall effect of population reduction is occurring. Children have become only an optional, instead of necessary as in previous generations, part of most couples' lifestyles in West. Careers, social status, gadgets, vacations, ease, and comfort are now commonly seen as more self- fulfilling than children. The Catholic church believes that the only reasons for family planning are natural methods used out of necessity. Vatican II clearly states that the purpose of marriage is the raising of children. It has become the opinion of many that marriage and children are only accidentally connected and that the 2 are not bound inseparably. It is the authors contention that this dualistic view of marriage and children is false. The author feels that through a marriage people can draw each other out of themselves and towards their children. Sacrificing oneself for one's children is the natural end to marriage. The author admits that family planning has been a great good to the world for the couples that need it to survive, but that couples that can have children should do so.
Brown, J B; Blackwell, L F; Billings, J J; Conway, B; Cox, R I; Garrett, G; Holmes, J; Smith, M A
It is now well accepted that a woman can conceive from an act of intercourse for a maximum of only about 7 days of her menstrual cycle. The reliability of natural family planning depends on identifying this window of fertility without ambiguity. Several symptomatic markers, cervical mucus and basal body temperature, have been used extensively and with considerable success in most women but failures occur. Ovarian and pituitary hormone production show characteristic patterns during the cycle. Urinary estrogen and pregnanediol measurements yield reliable information concerning the beginning, peak, and end of the fertile period, provided that the assays are accurate and performed on timed specimens of urine. We have developed such enzyme immunoassays for urinary estrogen and pregnanediol glucuronides that can be performed at home. In the early versions of the assays, enzyme reaction rates were measured by eye, but more recently, a simple photoelectronic rate meter has been used. The final problem to be solved is not technologic but whether women are sufficiently motivated to expend the same time and effort each day for 10 days a month, with less cost, on fertility awareness as they spend on making a cup of tea.
Cleland, John; Bernstein, Stan; Ezeh, Alex; Faundes, Anibal; Glasier, Anna; Innis, Jolene
Promotion of family planning in countries with high birth rates has the potential to reduce poverty and hunger and avert 32% of all maternal deaths and nearly 10% of childhood deaths. It would also contribute substantially to women's empowerment, achievement of universal primary schooling, and long-term environmental sustainability. In the past 40 years, family-planning programmes have played a major part in raising the prevalence of contraceptive practice from less than 10% to 60% and reducing fertility in developing countries from six to about three births per woman. However, in half the 75 larger low-income and lower-middle income countries (mainly in Africa), contraceptive practice remains low and fertility, population growth, and unmet need for family planning are high. The cross-cutting contribution to the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals makes greater investment in family planning in these countries compelling. Despite the size of this unfinished agenda, international funding and promotion of family planning has waned in the past decade. A revitalisation of the agenda is urgently needed. Historically, the USA has taken the lead but other governments or agencies are now needed as champions. Based on the sizeable experience of past decades, the key features of effective programmes are clearly established. Most governments of poor countries already have appropriate population and family-planning policies but are receiving too little international encouragement and funding to implement them with vigour. What is currently missing is political willingness to incorporate family planning into the development arena.
... women in a year Effectiveness of Family Planning Methods Implant Reversible Intrauterine Device (IUD) Permanent Male Sterilization ... 0.5 % Diaphragm 12 % How to make your method most effective After procedure, little or nothing to ...
This thesis reports on a study on lesbian families in which the children were born to the lesbian relationship (planned lesbian families). How strong is the desire of lesbian mothers to have a child, and what are their motivations? How do lesbian mothers experience parenthood? What do they strive
Medical Journal of Zambia, Vol. 37, No. 4 (2010) ... Methods: A cross sectional study was done in five health posts of ... Data was collected using a structured interview schedule ... This means they did not know what impact large families will ...
Government sponsored family planning programs have had major success in declining birth rates in Barbados, China, Cuba, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Korea, Mexico, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, and Thailand. Non- government programs have had similar success in Brazil and Colombia. These programs have been estimated as preventing over 100 million births in China and 80 million in India. Research indicates that family planning programs can produce a 30-50% drop in fertility. Family planning information and some contraceptives can be best distributed through community organizations. Research also indicates male opposition has been a major factor in wider acceptance of family planning. Surveys indicate that 50% of the woman who want no additional children are not using any birth control. Many governments do not have the resource and money to implement programs. In the developing countries if those who were able to prevent the unwanted births had birth control, the population increases in those countries would have been 1.3% versus 2.2%. In earlier family planning programs foreign assistance paid over 80% of the cost, and national governments 20%; today this is reversed. The World Bank estimates that for major improvements in population growth and women's health, $7 billion will be needed yearly by the year 2000. The countries that have had the similar goals in development of human resources, social services, health, and education. They have attended to the status of women, female employment, and maternal and child health. Estimates are that 1.3 billion couples and individuals will need family planning services by the year 2000, and this will be a formidable task. This key elements of successful family planning programs are community participation, decentralization, and training.
This paper, published by The Population Council, reviews 29 proposals dealing with population controls beyond the current efforts of national programs of voluntary family planning. The proposals are subsumed under eight descriptive categories which are: (1) Extensions of voluntary fertility control; (2) Establishment of involuntary fertility…
Heil, Sarah H; Gaalema, Diann E; Herrmann, Evan S
Over the past 60 years, population control has become an increasingly urgent issue worldwide as a growing population strains already limited resources. The use of financial incentives to promote family planning is an innovative approach that has potential to make a contribution to efforts to better manage population growth. This report reviews eight studies that examined the effect of incentives on family planning. Published studies that tested the impact of incentives to promote some aspect of family planning and included an appropriate control or comparison condition were reviewed. Incentives have been used to promote attendance at contraceptive education sessions, adoption and continuation of contraceptive methods, sterilization, and to limit family size. All but one of the eight studies reviewed reported positive outcomes, but weaknesses in study design and execution limit the strength of the conclusions that can be drawn. Review of this literature suggests that family planning behaviors, like other behaviors, are sensitive to incentives. Given the tremendous need for efficacious interventions in global efforts to manage population growth, further research on this topic using more rigorous experimental methods is warranted. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Chowdhury, S M
The Rakhaines are a small, tightly knit community of 15,000 people who occupy parts of the coastal and hilly districts of southern Bangladesh. It is a closed community with different ethnic origins and religion from other Bangladeshis. As such, they have been largely unreached by government health and family planning services. In response to the need to bring services to these people, contact was established between the Family Planning Association of Bangladesh (FPAB) and the Rakhaine in 1987 in the interest of improving family health and well-being among the Rakhaine people through the introduction of maternal and child health care and family planning. The Family Planning Services for the Rakhaine Community project of the FPAB began in Cox's Bazar and Harbang in late 1987, and spread gradually over the hilly terrain inhabited by the Rakhaine to now serve 2000 couples. Although family planning was the focal point, the project also incorporated schemes for income generation, maternal and child health care, and sanitation. At baseline, less than 25% of reproductive age couples were using contraception, but this proportion grew to 69% by 1993, higher than the national contraceptive prevalence rate of approximately 40%. Used by 41% of married women of reproductive age, the pill is the most preferred contraceptive method, followed by sterilization among 10% of women. The efforts of fieldworkers were crucial to program success. The author notes that current users have been using contraception on average for just over two years. Moreover, the level of tetanus toxoid immunization rose to 60% of pregnant women, while 75% of children are now immunized against major life-threatening diseases. Some costs are recovered, but not enough to finance the project.
Bannister, Lisa; Macve, Joanna; Pinkey, Benjamin; Webberley, Helen
In 2003, the Faculty of Family Planning and Reproductive Health Care (FFPRHC) of the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists published guidance on emergency contraception (EC). A literature search revealed no published work describing doctors' actions when prescribing EC. In order to assess the extent to which the FFPRHC Guidance is being followed in general practice, an audit of the medical notes of women requesting EC between January 2003 and December 2004 in six general practice surgeries located in the West Midlands, UK was conducted. From the medical notes, discussions between health care professionals and patients requesting EC regarding ongoing contraceptive needs, the risk of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and the availability of the emergency intrauterine device (IUD) were recorded. A total of 718 emergency contraceptive pill consultations were analysed. The median age for presentation was 24 years. The 20-24 years age group accounted for the most consultations (30.9%). In 40% of consultations there was no evidence of future contraceptive needs having been discussed. Only 20 (2.8%) consultation notes contained evidence that STIs had been discussed. Chlamydia tests were undertaken in only 15/718 (1.7%) consultations. In only 10 (1.4%) of the consultations was the IUD discussed with the patient as an alternative form of EC. This audit suggests that the FFPRHC Guidance on EC is not being followed in general practice, and therefore patients requesting EC may not be receiving the highest standard of care.
planning suggests the need for African national governments and population policy ... Sub-Saharan Africa has the highest average fertility rate in the world. .... Generally, the success of family planning programs in Africa is affected by poverty, ...
... Source Code The Surgeon General's Family Health History Initiative To help focus attention on the importance of ... health campaign, called the Surgeon General's Family History Initiative, to encourage all American families to learn more ...
Mali's branch of the International Planned Parenthood Federation has found a vehicle that effectively conveys the idea of family planning through the use of contraception, a method that blends the country's cultural heritage and modern technology. Despite becoming the first sub-Saharan francophone country to promote family planning, Mali only counted 1% of its population using a modern method of contraception. So with the aid of The Johns Hopkins University/Population COmmunication Services (JHU/PCS), the Association Malienne pour la Protection et la Promotion de la Famille (AMPPF) developed several programs to promote contraception, but none were more successful than the Koteba Project, which used Mali's traditional theater form to communicate the message. While comical, the Koteba generally deals with social issues -- it informs and entertains. This particular Koteba told the story of two government employees, one with two wives and many children, the other with one wife and few children. The first one sees nothing but family problems: fighting wives and delinquent children. The second one, who had used family planning, enjoys a peaceful home. Upon hearing of his friend's successes with family planning, the tormented government employee becomes convinced of its needs, and persuades his wives to accompany him to a family planning clinic. Developed at a cost of approximately US $3000 and televised nationwide, the Koteba proved effective. A survey of 500 people attending an AMPPF clinic revealed that 1/4 of them remembered the program. With the success of the Koteba, JHU/PCS and AMPPF are now exploring other traditional channels of communication.
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This locator tool will help you find Title X family planning centers that provide high quality and cost-effective family planning and related preventive health...
A $5 million credit has been approved by the International Development Association, an affilate of the World Bank, to help finance a population project in Egypt. The project provides for the construction, equipping and furnishing of 22 general health centers, 12 polyclinics, 3 centers for training nursing teachers and 3 centers for in service training. 100 and 50 multipurpose vehicles will be provided to improve mobility of family planning services. Also included are a study on the maintenance of health facilities, 3 evaluation studies of family planning acceptors, an experimental home visiting program to inform and motivate people on family planning, and assistance in the production of health education material useful for family planning information and motivation. Simple demographic facts illustrate the seriousness of the population problem in Egypt. The current population of 35 million will be double by the year 2000 if the present 2.5% annual increase continues. This will put strains on a country whose population density quadrupled during the last century, and which stands to day at 950 persons per square kilometer of habitable land, a density rivalled by only 2 or 3 other countries in the world. The IDA credit will cover about 1/2 of the project's expense. The Egyptian government will finance the local costs. full text
Audétat, Marie-Claude; Voirol, Christian; Béland, Normand; Fernandez, Nicolas; Sanche, Gilbert
Abstract Objective To assess use of the remediation instrument that has been implemented in training sites at the University of Montreal in Quebec to support faculty in diagnosing and remediating resident academic difficulties, to examine whether and how this particular remediation instrument improves the remediation process, and to determine its effects on the residents’ subsequent rotation assessments. Design A multimethods approach in which data were collected from different sources: remediation plans developed by faculty, program statistics for the corresponding academic years, and students’ academic records and rotation assessment results. Setting Family medicine residency program at the University of Montreal. Participants Family medicine residents in academic difficulty. Main outcome measures Assessment of the content, process, and quality of remediation plans, and students’ academic and rotation assessment results (successful, below expectations, or failure) both before and after the remediation period. Results The framework that was developed for assessing remediation plans was used to analyze 23 plans produced by 10 teaching sites for 21 residents. All plans documented cognitive problems and implemented numerous remediation measures. Although only 48% of the plans were of good quality, implementation of a remediation plan was positively associated with the resident’s success in rotations following the remediation period. Conclusion The use of remediation plans is well embedded in training sites at the University of Montreal. The residents’ difficulties were mainly cognitive in nature, but this generally related to deficits in clinical reasoning rather than knowledge gaps. The reflection and analysis required to produce a remediation plan helps to correct many academic difficulties and normalize the academic career of most residents in difficulty. Further effort is still needed to improve the quality of plans and to support teachers.
The Chinese Communist Central Committee and the State Council aim to solve food and clothing problems among impoverished rural people by the year 2000. This goal was a priority on the agenda of the recent October 1996 National Conference on Poverty Alleviation and Development and the 1996 National Conference of the State Family Planning Commission. Poverty is attributed to rapid population growth and underdevelopment. Poverty is concentrated in parts of 18 large provinces. These provinces are characterized by Family Planning Minister Peng as having high birth rates, early marriage and childbearing, unplanned births, and multiple births. Overpopulation is tied to overconsumption, depletion of resources, deforestation, soil erosion, pollution, shortages of water, decreases in shares of cultivated land, degraded grasslands, and general destruction of the environment. Illiteracy in poor areas is over 20%, compared to the national average of 15%. Mortality and morbidity are higher. Family planning is harder to enforce in poor areas. Pilot programs in Sichuan and Guizhou provinces are promoting integration of family planning with poverty alleviation. Several conferences have addressed the integrated program strategies. Experience has shown that poverty alleviation occurs by controlled population growth and improved quality of life. Departments should "consolidate" their development efforts under Communist Party leadership at all levels. Approaches should emphasize self-reliance and public mobilization. The emphasis should be on women's participation in development. Women's income should be increased. Family planning networks at the grassroots level need to be strengthened simultaneously with increased poverty alleviation and development. The government strategy is to strengthen leadership, mobilize the public, and implement integrated programs.
Utilisation of family planning by women will promote sustainable development and general wellbeing of women at the rural community. The study assessed utilization of family planning techniques among women in the rural area of Lagos state. Sixty respondents were randomly selected for the study. Structured interview ...
The inclusion of constitutional provisions and laws regarding family planning and the creation of the Population Commission in the Philippines are examples of the growing recognition in many developing countries that proper and humane control of population growth is a key factor in economic progress. Similar provisions have recently appeared in Thailand, Mexico, and the Brazilian state of Rio de Janeiro. Awareness of the need for adequate public education to ensure the success of family planning programs has resulted in the formation of commissions for that purpose in Australia, Belgium, Chile, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Guatemala, Italy, Mexico, New Zealand, Portugal, and Sri Lanka. Voluntary sterilization is gradually gaining support. 3 South Asian nations (Pakistan, Singapore, and New Zealand) were among 12 to liberalize laws in 1974 and 1975. However, the prevailing opinion is that a massive public education program will have to be waged before acceptance becomes widespread in the region. Singapore's sterilization law can be used as a guideline for other nations in the area contemplating policy changes.
Esra Esim Büyükbayrak
Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the effect of family planning counseling on the changeover of the family planning method and to determine level of knowledge of participants on family planning methods and their attitude towards changeover of the method after counseling. Setting: Kartal education and reseach hospital obstetrics and gynecology clinic, department of family planning. Patients. 500 consecutive women applying to family planning department for any reason. Interventions: Effective family planning counseling service was given to each participant then a questioner containin 14 questions was applied with face to face technique. Main Outcome Measures: Attitude towards family planning counseling, comparison of the preference of family planning method before and after family planning counseling service and influential sociodemographic parameters on method choise were studied. Results: 45,2% of the participants were not taken family planning counseling service before. knowledge on family planning methods was sufficient in 25,2% of the participants, insufficient in 56,8% of the participants and 18% of the participants reported that they have no idea. 57,8% of the participants change mind about family planning counseling. 52,2% of the participants changeover perious method after counseling. 99,4% of the participants said that family planning counseling service should be given to every women. Preference of family planning method before and after family planning counseling service was statistically significantly different (p<0.01. Educational level, income and age were found to be influential sociodemographic factors for method preference. Conclusions: Effective family planning counseling service is found to have favorable effect on attitude and knowledge about family planning methods. Modern method usage increase as educational level and income of the participants increase.
Marshall, M N; Gray, D J; Pearson, V; Phillips, D R; Owen, M
Providing 75% of family planning services in the United Kingdom, general practitioners are required to produce leaflets which describe the contraceptive services they provide. The authors analyzed information about family planning provided to clients through practice leaflets. 88% of practice leaflets from the 198 practices in Devon were available from the Devon Family Health Services Authority for analysis. It was determined that the leaflets are not being best used to advertise the range and potential of family planning services. Although all practices in Devon offer contraceptive services, only 90% of leaflets mentioned that the services are available. Reference to postcoital contraception and information about services outside the practice for people who might not want to see their family doctor are also sorely lacking. A clear need exists to provide patients with more information. Finally, the authors found that group practices and those with female partners are most likely to give high priority to family planning issues in their leaflets.
The findings of a 7-year field experiment conducted in the Indian Punjab show that integrating family planning with health services is more effective and efficient than providing family planning separately. The field experiment was conducted between 1968 and 1974 at Narangwal in the Indian State of Punjab. It involved 26 villages, with a total population of 35,000 in 1971-72. The demographic characteristics of the villages were found to be typical of the area. 5 groups of villages were provided with different combinations of services for health, nutrition and family planning. A control group received no project services. A population study was made of the effects of integrating family planning with maternal and child health services. A nutritional study looked at the results of integrating nutritional care and health services. The effectiveness of integration was evaluated by identifying it both with increased use of family planning and improved health. Efficiency was judged by relating effectiveness to input costs. Distribution of the benefits was also examined. The effectiveness of these different combinations of services on the use of family planning was measured: 1) by all changes in the use of modern methods of family planning, 2) by the number of new acceptors, 3) by the changes in the proportion of eligible women using contraceptives, and 4) by how many people started to use the more effective methods. Results showed the use of family planning increased substantially in the experimental groups, whereas the control group remained constant. It was also found that, though the services combining family planning with maternal health care stimulated more use of family planning, they were more costly than the more integrated srevices. The Narangwal experiment provides significant evidence in favor of combining the provision of family planning and health services, but its potential for replication on a large scale needs to be studied.
Family planning utilization in Tanzania is low. This study was cross sectional. It examined family planning use and socio demographic variables, social networks, knowledge and communication among the couples, whereby a stratified sample of 440 women of reproductive age (18-49), married or cohabiting was studied in ...
Anoka County Community Health and Environmental Services, Coon Rapids, MN.
This guide provides information in English, Bosnian, Russian, Spanish, and Nuer on family planning. Topics covered include a variety of birth control methods: abstinence, condoms, contraceptive foam, birth control pills, the Depo-Provera shot, the Norplant implant, diaphragms, intrauterine devices, natural family planning, sterilization, and the…
Colorado State Dept. of Education, Denver. Div. of Special Education Services.
This guide to family-directed transition planning is intended to help parents and students with disabilities take leading roles in the process of transition from school to post-school activities. First, a letter to families examines the challenge of change and the transition process. Section 2 examines regulations that affect transition planning,…
Correu Azcona, S; Cervantes, A; Campos, J; Keller, A
It is evident that since the period 1973-4, some important changes have occurred with regard to the age, number of living children, and educational status of new acceptors within the family planning program of the Secretaria de Salubriad y Asistencia. While the 1973-4 acceptors were older, had more children, and had more education, the 1976 acceptors were younger, had less education, and had a number of children similar to the population at large. It is interesting to note that 1976 rural acceptors exhibit the same fertility levels as those acceptors of the 1973-4 urban programs, although as a whole, they are younger and less educated. It is possible that through the same legitimization process, accelerated by communication and motivation campaigns, it will shortly be possible for the rural program to recruit acceptors with fewer children. (author's modified)
Utomo, Iwu Dwisetyani; Arsyad, Syahmida S; Hasmi, Eddy Nurul
Family planning was once a sensitive issue in Indonesia, but today it is considered essential. This paper reports on a study in 1997-98 of the role of village family planning volunteers and the cadres who worked under them in West Java, Central Java and DI Yogyakarta, in implementing the national family planning programme in Indonesia. A total of 108 village family planning volunteers, 108 family planning cadres, 108 local leaders and 324 couples eligible for family planning from 36 villages in the three provinces were interviewed. The volunteers and cadres have made a significant contribution to the implementation of the family planning programme. They promote family planning, organise meetings, provide information, organise income-generation activities, give savings and credit assistance, collect and report data and deliver other family welfare services. Teachers, wives of government officials and others recognised by the community as better off in terms of education and living conditions were most often identified to become family planning volunteers. Because they are women and because they are the most distant arm of the programme, their work is taken for granted. As their activities are directed towards women, especially in women's traditional roles, the programme tends to entrench the existing gender gap in responsibility for family planning and family welfare.
Creusa Ferreira da Silva
Full Text Available Objectives: To identify educational practices in family planning, facilitating factors, difficulties and resulting impacts. Method: This is an integrative literature review, using the three descriptors: "family planning", "health education" and "contraception"; In the databases of the Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO, Latin American and Caribbean Literature in Health Sciences (LILACS and Nursing Database (BDENF, were searched in January and February 2016. Results: Regarding the accomplishment of educational practices, most of the studies pointed out its accomplishment. The difficulties and facilitators aspects were related to the management of the health service, professional competence and users. Guarantee of family rights and autonomy were the impacts pointed out. Conclusion: The study showed that educational practices in family planning are tools to be encouraged as a guarantee and respect for sexual and reproductive rights. Descriptors: family planning; education in health; contraception.
Psychology has significance in family planning work, because it may promote the scientific nature of family planning work and thus increase its effectiveness. Since people have some common aspects in their psychological process, family planning workers should master some common rules of the people's psychological process in order to understand psychological trends and possible behavior. Through this method, family planning workers may find how to adjust to problems they may encounter in their daily work, such as the worries about a single child being too lonely, spoiled, and hard to handle for the parents, the traditional belief that more children represent good fortune, and more male children may provide security for one's old age. Traditionally, the Chinese people believed that only male children can carry on the family line and that more children will provide a larger labor force, which is beneficial to a family's financial situation. In family planning work, all such incorrect ways of thinking should be corrected and revised. Studies of children's psychology should also be developed so that children may develop a healthy mentality. All these are crucial to the success of family planning work and the promotion of population quality.
Wujiang City in south Jiangsu Province is a county-level city, well known for its economic development and effective family planning program. Family planning is practiced voluntarily by the people. The growth rate of the city's population has decreased to 5.47/1000; the proportion of planned births has increased to 98%; and the total fertility rate has declined to 1.5. There are 34 towns (and townships) and 883 administrative villages under the jurisdiction of the city. The living standard has improved significantly. The successful implementation of family planning is largely due to the quality services delivered to farmers, especially women of reproductive age. In an interview, Mme. Ji and Mme. Shen, chiefs of the Wujiang Family Planning Committee, describe the services they deliver. The information, education, and communication (IEC) program is focused on population schools (city, town, township, and village), which deliver information to middle school students, premarital youth, and women who are pregnant, lying-in, or menopausal. Pamphlets on marriage and reproductive health are published by the county population school. Family planning service centers, which deliver contraceptive and technical services, were established in every town and township in 1993. Ultrasound scans are available and have been used to diagnose diseases, including cancer. Over 3000 women have been helped. Misuse of fetal sex identification is banned. The Family Planning Committee and the technical service centers in the city provide counselling services on fewer, healthier births; maternal and child health care; reproductive health; and treatment of infertility. There are several kinds of insurance related to family planning; these include old age support for the parents of only-children, safety insurance for only-children, and old age insurance for newlyweds. The insurance premium is shared by the couple (100 yuan) and the township (400 yuan). Only-child couples, two-daughter families
Mar 3, 2008 ... Shisana, Human Sciences Research Council, P. Dana, Human Sciences Research Council and K. Zuma, Human Sciences .... The aim of this study was to investigate family ..... World Health Organization WHO, United Nations.
Caldwell, John C; Caldwell, Pat
Sub-Saharan Africa will be the family planning frontier of the twenty-first century. Fertility levels and population growth rates are still high, and family planning programs suited to the region are still being developed. Nevertheless, by the end of the twentieth century, fertility transition was under way in Southern Africa and a few countries elsewhere. Successful regional family planning in the twenty-first century will depend upon stronger political leadership, the development of family planning programs that meet the needs of all segments of society and not only currently married women, assistance to the market, and a recognition of the central importance of hormonal methods, especially injectables. Problems include stagnation in economic growth and in child mortality decline, as well as the persistence of the AIDS epidemic.
Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD USA. Afr J Reprod ... contraceptive information and knowledge, gender roles, and ... The single- gender focus ... the advantages of service linkages between family planning ...
Hen, Itay; Rieffel, Eleanor G.; Do, Minh; Venturelli, Davide
There are two common ways to evaluate algorithms: performance on benchmark problems derived from real applications and analysis of performance on parametrized families of problems. The two approaches complement each other, each having its advantages and disadvantages. The planning community has concentrated on the first approach, with few ways of generating parametrized families of hard problems known prior to this work. Our group's main interest is in comparing approaches to solving planning problems using a novel type of computational device - a quantum annealer - to existing state-of-the-art planning algorithms. Because only small-scale quantum annealers are available, we must compare on small problem sizes. Small problems are primarily useful for comparison only if they are instances of parametrized families of problems for which scaling analysis can be done. In this technical report, we discuss our approach to the generation of hard planning problems from classes of well-studied NP-complete problems that map naturally to planning problems or to aspects of planning problems that many practical planning problems share. These problem classes exhibit a phase transition between easy-to-solve and easy-to-show-unsolvable planning problems. The parametrized families of hard planning problems lie at the phase transition. The exponential scaling of hardness with problem size is apparent in these families even at very small problem sizes, thus enabling us to characterize even very small problems as hard. The families we developed will prove generally useful to the planning community in analyzing the performance of planning algorithms, providing a complementary approach to existing evaluation methods. We illustrate the hardness of these problems and their scaling with results on four state-of-the-art planners, observing significant differences between these planners on these problem families. Finally, we describe two general, and quite different, mappings of planning
This presentation began with at least three biases: (i) Acceptance of a secular approach to the problem of artificially controlling human reproduction; (ii) acceptance of an absolute egalitarian position in matter of choices and applications of family planning methods; and (iii) acceptance of the view that a small family gives women more opportunities to flourish as humans. The conclusion of the presentation is: though in implementing family planning programmes much deviation from the egalitarian principle could be found, in reality the implementation itself does bring about some opportunities for women to enhance their position in society. Undoubtedly the malpractices in family planning programmes cause death and miseries to women. But, until better methods are invented for both male and female sexes to replace the harmful ones and the male members of the society feel equal responsibility in matters of controlling reproduction, women have now no other choice but to accept the lesser evil.
The author summarized the current status of Spain's general radioactive waste management plan. This plan forms the basis for a national radioactive waste management policy and decommissioning strategy. It is updated periodically, the current 5. plan was approved in 1999. The most important element of the current strategy is the development of a centralized interim HLW storage facility by 2010. (A.L.B.)
Many people consider family planning to be the cure for population growth and its consequences (poverty, child mortality, morbidity, depletion of natural resources, and environmental degradation). International organizations support family planning programs and population-political strategies control their operations. Other key players in family planning are the pharmaceutical industry, the churches, and governments. Women tend not be involved in developing population and family planning policies, however, but instead implement the policies. Population planners are generally not interested in family planning methods which give women control over their own bodies, e.g., female-controlled barrier methods. In fact, they distrust them because the planners consider women to be unreliable. Besides, the low effectiveness of these methods means women need to rely on abortion, which is a problem in many developing countries, e.g., Latin America. Further, family planning programs must meet predetermined goals, so their service is lacking, e.g., limited supply of contraceptives and not enough time to provide information to clients. Family planning revolves around women. For example, they encourage them to talk their partners into approving the women's use of contraception, but this is almost always difficult for women in developing countries. Provision of family planning cannot be successful without society accepting and treating women as full citizens. In addition, society needs to realize that women have a sexuality separate from men. Political will is needed for these changes in attitude. The international women's movement does not agree on the degree which women can control contraceptives themselves. Women's groups are working to improve the position and independence of women and contraception is just 1 factor which can help them achieve this goal. The Women's Sexuality and Health Feminist Collective in Sao Paulo, Brazil, is an example of a coalition of women's health
Larriba Díaz-Zorita, Alejandro; Gonzalo Angulo, José Antonio; Tua Pereda, Jorge; Mallo Rodríguez, Carlos
Ejemplar dedicado a: Plan General de Contabilidad 90 En el presente artículo los autores trazan una panorámica ordenada del conjunto de novedades que ha introducido el Plan General de Contabilidad de 1990 sobre el hasta ahora vigente de 1973. Publicado
US funding for foreign assistance has been jeopardized in recent years in the context of dwindling public support for foreign aid. To stymie the provision of international family planning program assistance and services overseas, Congressional opponents of family planning and abortion are offering amendments to foreign aid legislation at every possible opportunity. State Department reauthorization legislation is the current target of family planning opponents' efforts. Reauthorization is the process by which Congress indicates its ongoing support for a program, makes any necessary changes, and sets new funding ceilings. The global gag rule joined UNFPA funding cuts on the 1997 State Department reauthorization bill, H.R. 1757, which passed the House of Representatives in early June. If successfully appended to the State Department bill, the gag rule would prevent the US from funding any organization in a developing country which provides legal abortion services or communicates with its government on abortion-related policy, regardless of whether that organization used its own non-US funds. These restrictions and cuts to international family planning program assistance could adversely affect family planning programs, leading to less contraceptive use and higher rates of abortion, maternal morbidity, and maternal mortality. President Bill Clinton has promised to veto the bill if both houses of Congress accept the restrictions. These issues will probably arise on the annual appropriations legislation which funds US operations overseas.
This brief article was adapted from a report by the Longchang County Government, Sichuan Province, China, at the National Conference on Urban Family Planning Programs. The Longchang County family planning program has shifted emphasis since 1990 toward management of out-migrant workers. Overpopulation in the family planning region resulted in each person having about one-sixth of an acre (0.6 mu) of land. There were about 200,000 surplus rural workers. 75,000 migrants left the region in 1995, of which 70,300 had signed birth control contracts and had received family planning certificates. Family planning township agencies in Longchang County increased their IEC and counseling services for migrants and their families. The Longchang County family planning program maintained family planning contacts in receiving areas in order to obtain pregnancy and birth information on the migrant population. During 1991-95 the number of unplanned births declined from 1394 to 71, and 97% of the births were planned.
Key strategies to promote family planning include domestication of provisions of international conventions on family planning into state laws, and ensuring their implementation; development of community friendly family planning services; establishment of effective family planning commodities logistics management system; ...
Results: Fifty (17.2%) respondents were using at least one family planning method. One hundred and ninety-eight (68.3%) respondents had used at least one family planning method at some point in time. Reasons given for not using any family planning method included “Family planning is against my religious beliefs” ...
Ghaida M.J. Al-Shoraian
Full Text Available Background: Job burnout is an important syndrome that can deplete the emotional health aspects of physicians. Its impacts are reflected both on the physicians and their patients through undermining the performance of physicians and degrading the quality of the administered medical care leading to dissatisfaction of the patients about the medical service. Objectives: This study is formulated to compare the prevalence of high burnout among family physicians and general practitioners and reveal the predictors of high grades of burnout among physicians. Subjects and methods: A cross sectional study was carried out. Out of 378 physicians working in two health regions in Kuwait, 200 physicians returned a filled questionnaire, of these 105 were family physicians and the rest were primary health care physicians. Maslach Burnout Inventory–Human Service Survey tool was used to estimate high degree of burnout on three domains, namely emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and personal accomplishment. Results: General practitioners were more likely to suffer from high grades of emotional exhaustion (63.2% than family physicians (19.0%. They also suffered from high grade of depersonalization (65.3% compared with family physicians (27.6%. Those suffering from high grades of personal accomplishment burnout (inverse score constituted 61.1% of primary health care physicians and 33.3% of family physicians. Those suffering from grades for the three burnout domain constituted more than one third of primary health care physicians (36.8% compared with only 5.7% of family physicians. Type of physician job and marital status proved to be significant predictors of high grades of burnout. Conclusion: Burnout is more common among primary care than family physicians. Searching for and eliminating all sources of stress in the primary health care centers in addition to training of these physicians on coping strategies to deal with stress at work seems to be an important
AJRH Managing Editor
Keywords: Unmet need, contraceptive use, intention to use family planning. Résumé ... not using family planning because of health concerns or ..... insurance plans cover contraception as an employee right and/or as a means of reducing.
Demand for contraception and sterilization among women in Tibet is high. In 1966, when a family planning service team was sent to Namling County by the Maternal and Child Health Hospital (MCHH) of the Region, more than 500 women from six local townships arrived at the county MCHH seeking surgical sterilization. Since only one doctor was available to do ligation, most of the women were turned away; however, they would not leave until they were given a written appointment for a future date. In 1996, a 27-year-old Tibetan mother from Baxoi County, who had 5 children, traveled for 2 days, with 2 of her children, to a county town to be sterilized. A woman from Tingri County, who had 4 children, reached a county hospital only to be asked to return home; again, there were only one or two doctors available. She gave birth to a 5th child and returned to the hospital; again, the doctor was unavailable. Since then, she has delivered a 6th child. According to Bai Lang (secretary of the County Party committee), who spoke before the Regional Family Planning Committee, Namling County's nationally recognized poverty could have been alleviated if family planning had been implemented earlier. Family planning policy has been accepted well there.
Projects supported by the Directorate for Population (S&T/POP) of the U.S. Agency for International Development and aimed at increasing for-profit private sector involvement in providing family planning services and products are described. Making products commercially available through social-marketing partnerships with the commercial sector, USAID has saved $1.1 million in commodity costs from Brazil, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Indonesia, and Peru. Active private sector involvement benefits companies, consumers, and donors through increased corporate profits, healthier employees, improved consumer access at lower cost, and the possibility of sustained family planning programs. Moreover, private, for-profit companies will be able to meet service demands over the next 20 years where traditional government and donor agency sources would fail. Using employee surveys and cost-benefit analyses to demonstrate expected financial and health benefits for businesses and work forces, S&T/POP's Technical Information on Population for the Private Sector (TIPPS) project encourages private companies in developing countries to invest in family planning and maternal/child health care for their employees. 36 companies in 9 countries have responded thus far, which examples provided from Peru and Zimbabwe. The Enterprise program's objectives are also to increase the involvement of for-profit companies in delivering family planning services, and to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of private volunteer organizations in providing services. Projects have been started with mines, factories, banks, insurance companies, and parastatals in 27 countries, with examples cited from Ghana and Indonesia. Finally, the Social Marketing for Change project (SOMARC) builds demand and distributes low-cost contraceptives through commercial channels especially to low-income audiences. Partnerships have been initiated with the private sector in 17 developing countries, with examples provided from
Dias Saxena, F
India was one of the first countries in the world to launch a national family planning program in an apparent effort to help women gain access to birth control measures and reduce population growth. Family planning acquired a different meaning and emphasis in the 1960s, however, when a clause in the US PL480 wheat import policy demanded that India speed its implementation of birth control measures if the country wanted food aid. Women in India were therefore expected to consume contraceptives with dangerous and unknown side effects in order to quality the country for food aid. Women rejected this stipulation. By the 1980s, it was acknowledged that family planning programs in India had failed to produce a decline in the birth rate and that no sign of change was on the horizon despite the investment of substantial funds to that end, the input of expert assistance, and the establishment of appropriate infrastructure in the country. Experts and policy makers blamed women for having misused the pill and sought alternative methods which would not require user compliance. Norplant and norethisterone enanthate (Net-en) were subsequently developed. Policymakers, experts, and the press have now been clamoring for the right to conduct Norplant trials despite reported side effects. The drug's ability to prevent pregnancy is more important for family planning experts. The author notes that the emphasis has been upon contraceptive methods for women instead of men because men were not expected to take responsibility for family planning. She also notes that feminists are opposed to Norplant and Net-en, and hopes that the government withdraws them from the market.
Pethe, V P
Focus is on some of the basic issues and considerations involved in the question of compulsion in family planning, which in terms of current contraceptive technology, only means compulsory sterilization. Pressures have been increasing to implement more stringent measures to control population growth in most of the developing countries throughout the world. During the Emergency in India (1975-1977) the government at that time, along with some individuals and groups, deemed it necessary to adopt the drastic measure of compulsory sterilization. The six sections of the discussion deal with the following: 1) compulsory family planning as rational or ethical choice basic issues; 2) neo-Malthusian thesis on compulsion - fallacies, dangers and inadequacies; 3) ethical and philosophical problems - premise of irresponsible procreation; 4) individual rights versus societal interests; 5) elitism in social policy and cost benefit considerations; and 6) international consensus against compulsion. All forums, under the auspices of the United Nations, of which India is a member, have rejected coercion and reiterated repeatedly that every individual has a basic human right to decide how many children to have and at what intervals. The most recent forum to endorse the human right to family size was the World Population Conference held at Bucharest in 1974. The 14 conditions spelled out by the United Nations Fund for Population Activity for effecting a free and responsible choice in family size may form a sound basis for a comprehensive policy concerning family planning in India. The coercive measures adopted during the Emergency are responsible for a backlash in India and retarding the progress of the family planning movement.
Cong, Zhen; Liang, Daan; Luo, Jianjun
Tornadoes, with warnings usually issued just minutes before their touchdowns, pose great threats to properties and people's physical and mental health. Few studies have empirically investigated the association of family emergency preparedness planning and observed protective behaviors in the context of tornadoes. The purpose of this study was to examine predictors for the action of taking shelter at the time of tornadoes. Specifically, this study investigated whether having a family emergency preparedness plan was associated with higher likelihood of taking shelter upon receiving tornado warnings. This study also examined the effects of socioeconomic status and functional limitations on taking such actions. A telephone survey based on random sampling was conducted in 2012 with residents in Tuscaloosa AL and Joplin MO. Each city experienced considerable damages, injuries, and casualties after severe tornadoes (EF-4 and EF-5) in 2011. The working sample included 892 respondents. Analysis was conducted in early 2013. Logistic regression identified emergency preparedness planning as the only shared factor that increased the likelihood of taking shelter in both cities and the only significant factor in Joplin. In Tuscaloosa, being female and white also increased the likelihood of taking shelter. Disability was not found to have an effect. This study provided empirical evidence on the importance of having a family emergency preparedness plan in mitigating the risk of tornadoes. The findings could be applied to other rapid-onset disasters. © 2013 American Journal of Preventive Medicine Published by American Journal of Preventive Medicine All rights reserved.
The Alan Guttmacher Institute's State Reproductive Health Monitor provides legislative information on family planning, sex education, and teenage pregnancy. The listing contains information on pending bills; the state, the identifying legislation number, the sponsor, the committee, the date the bill was introduced, a description of the bill, and when available, the bill's status. From January through February, 1993, the bills cover a wide range of regulation and social policy including: appropriations for family planning services; Norplant implants for women receiving AFDC benefits; the requirement that health insurance policies provide coverage for contraception services; the repeal of the sterilization procedure review committee; since a need for such a committee has vanished; requiring hotels, motels, and innkeepers to offer condoms for sale to registered guests; allowing male and female public assistance recipients between ages 18-35 who submit to sterilization operations to be eligible to receive a $2,000 grant; a provision that no more children may be included in the size of the family, for the purpose of determining the amount of AFDC benefits that a family may receive, than at the time that eligibility was determined, and that before a family with 2 or more children can receive AFDC benefits, the woman must consent to and have surgically implanted Norplant or a similar reversible birth control device with a 5-year or longer effectiveness.
China conducted its 1st nationwide Family Planning Publicity Month in 1983, from New Year's Day to Spring Festival (February 13). The campaign emphasized the rural areas and focused on explaining why family planning is a state policy. The most noticeable achievements of this campaign were that every household became familiar with the fact that family planning is a basic state policy. The majority of the population take this policy seriously, realizing that strict control of population growth is both a good and imperative policy. More than 1,830,000 propaganda columns and photo exhibitions were displayed, 5,900,000 radio and television programs broadcast, 2,010,000 theatrical performances, movie and slide showings presented, and 97,000,000 copies of materials published for public dissemination. The activities were varied and interesting, vivid and lively, and purposeful and persuasive. 1 of the most effective methods of publicizing population control has been the presentation of comparative statistics. This aspect of the campaign was a specific and lively form of education in population theory and practice. The presentation of statistics that show the relationship among population, land use, grain produce, and income enabled the population to reason out why population growth needs to match economic and social development. Another important accomplishment of the publicity month was that a large number of couples of reproductive age became convinced of the need to use contraception. According to the incomplete statistics, 8,860,000 people had surgical operations for birth control. The universal promotion of ligations by either partner of a reproductive couple who already had given birth to a 2nd child was an important development of family planning technique promoted simultaneously with the promotion of IUDs. The increase in the number of people doing family planning work was another achievement of the publicity month. More than 15,240,000 publicity personnel and 760
In Thailand "granny" midwives are being tested and trained to take part in modern family planning and public health programs. In Malaysia a survey of conditions relating to an increase in induced early termination or abortion of pregnancies is in progress. The International Development Research Centre (IDRC) supports these projects as well as others in Asia. Local paramedical workers, like the "barefoot doctors" in China, are being trained. In Thailand a growth plan is attempting to reduce the annual rate of population increase from about 3.3% to 2.5%. Many granny midwives have been contacted. Several methods of incentive and training are being tried and will be evaluated. Eventually granny midwives in all of Thailand's 60,000 villages will be enlisted in the national planning program. Of Thailand's 6 million married women of reproductive age less than half use modern birth control methods. Abortion is illegal in Thailand which is a predominantly Buddhist country. The project in Malaysia is being carried out by the University of Malaysia and the Federation of Family Planning Associations. Abortion is also illegal in Islamic Malaysia, although there are illegal abortion clinics. Trends so far reported to IDRC indicate that 1) lower class women are more cooperative interviewees than others, 2) most couples use some method of birth control, 3) many wish to interrupt their pregnancies, 4) poorer families have more children than wealthier ones, 5) the Chinese and Indian people show a greater tendency to limit families than do the Malays, and 6) most couples want 3 or 4 children.
Family life clinics which will provide family planning services alongside maternal and child health services and general counseling are opening in health centers throughout Bahrain and in the main hospital at Manama. Bahrain, a small island in the Arabian Gulf, formed its first Family Planning Association (FPA) just 4 years ago; and this new initiative is seen as a direct result of cooperation between FPA and the government. To spread family planning awareness and services particularly to the poorer section of the population, Bahrain's FPA developed in various stages. Stage 1, in 1975, was to attract and educate volunteers and channel their interest into special committees dealing with programs; public relations; child welfare; legal and medical affairs; research; and conferences and education. Stage 2 came with the need to coordinate the work and set up a 2-person staff and an office. Stage 3 developed with the first field campaign. Door-to-door visiting was tried but was not popular with volunteers or residents. Approaching the population through community clubs and institutions was tried with much success. The new family life clinics are the latest stage of a fruitful cooperation between FPA and the Ministry of Labor and Social Affairs. In addition to the new family life clinics, an active effort to improve family planning awareness has continued using national seminars and mass media. Fund-raising is under way for a mobile,clinic which will provide health services and methods of contraception, to which there is still substantial resistance, to many on the island who have no exposure to the mass media. Wide acceptance of the need for family planning for the sake of mothers, the family, and the child is growing in Bahrain.
Buddeberg-Fischer, Barbara; Stamm, Martina; Klaghofer, Richard
The study investigates in what way physicians integrate their desire to have children into their career planning. Within the framework of a prospective cohort study of Swiss medical school graduates on career development of young physicians, beginning in 2001, 534 participants (285 women, 249 men) were assessed in January 2007, in terms of having children, planning to have children, the career aspired to and the work-family balance used or planned. Among the study participants, 19% (54) of the women and 24% (59) of the men have children. Of the others 88% plan to start a family in the future. Female physicians with children are less advanced in their careers than women without children; for male physicians no such difference can be observed. Of the female physicians with children or the desire for children 42% aspire to work in a practice, 28% to a clinical and only 4% to an academic career. Of the male physicians with children or the desire for children one third aspire to work in a practice, one third to a clinical and 14% to an academic career. The preferred model of work repartition of female physicians with children is father full time/mother part time or both parents part time; the preferred model of male physicians is father full time/mother part time or not working. Children are an important factor in the career and life planning of physicians, female physicians paying more attention to an even work-family balance than male physicians. Copyright 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.
planning increases with women's education, and creating a conductive environment for ... Key words: Family planning, Modern methods, Utilization, Reproductive age, Partner discussion .... Traditional methods consist of periodic abstinence,.
use family planning methods (36.68%, 38.59% and 70.51%, respectively. Conclusions The use of family planning methods is positively related to a higher level of education and having children over 14. Factors such as sex, age, income and self-perceived health do not appear to influence their use. Furthermore, being a native of this country, the European Union or Central/South America represents a greater likelihood of use than being African or Asian. Although no general differences in use were found between sexes, the difference found in the case of Asian women stands out, with a higher likelihood of use.
Saurina, Carme; Vall-Llosera, Laura; Saez, Marc
.51%, respectively). The use of family planning methods is positively related to a higher level of education and having children over 14. Factors such as sex, age, income and self-perceived health do not appear to influence their use. Furthermore, being a native of this country, the European Union or Central/South America represents a greater likelihood of use than being African or Asian. Although no general differences in use were found between sexes, the difference found in the case of Asian women stands out, with a higher likelihood of use.
Hull, T H; Hull, V J; Singarimbun, M
A historical overview and descriptions of family planning programs in Indonesia are presented. 85 million of the 135 million inhabitants of the Indonesian archipelago are concentrated on the island of Java, which comprises about 7% of the Indonesian land mass. The Dutch colonial government preferred a policy ("transmigration") which advocated the redistribution of population from Java to the other islands to relieve overpopulation. This policy was also advocated by President Sukarno after the Indonesian Revolution of 1940. The need for family planning was recognized by small groups, and official policy supported national family planning programs to replace transmigration programs only after Sukarno became president in 1966. The focus of the program was on Java and Bali, the 2 most populous islands. Local clinics became the locus for birth control efforts. Fieldworkers affiliated with the clinics were given the job of advocating birth control use door-to-door. Fieldworkers "incentive programs," area "target" (quota) programs, and "special drives" were organized to create new contraceptive "acceptors." A data reporting system and a research program increase the effectiveness of the family planning drive by ascertaining trends in contraceptive use which can determine where and how money and effort can best be applied. "Village Contraception Distribution Centers" bring the contraceptive means closer to the people than do the clinics. Figures from the years 1969-1977 show the great increase in acceptance of contraceptives by the inhabitants of the Java-Bali area. Steps are now being taken to alleviate the large monthly variations in the number of (often temporary) acceptors caused by the "target programs" and "special drives." The average acceptor is 27-years-old, has 2.6 children, has not finished primary school, and has a husband of low social status. Bali has shown the greatest success in family planning. It is a small island with a highly developed system of local
... the desired attitudinal and behavioral changes towards family planning is yet to be ... from selected rural areas in Ibadan towards family planning using the Health ... The study revealed that the socio-economic status of mothers significantly ...
Watson, W B; Lapham, R J
The 1974 Population Conference at Bucharest was marked with controversy between developed and developing countries, with the latter strongly critical of aid for population control but less for social and economic development. The Plan of Action which was finally approved emphasized the importance of social and economic factors in relation to population growth while recommending that couples in all nations should have access to family planning information. Different regions of the world, however, have widely divergent population policies and goals. The Asia-Pacific region of the developing world, which has 3/4 of the population of the developing world, has articulated a strong stance in favor of reducing birth rates at Post-Bucharest Consultation. Government-supported family planning programs are seen as a high priority item to reduce rapid population growth. Rapid population growth is not seen as a high-priority problem in most African, Arab, and Latin American countries. Population problems will be solved with economic and social advancement. There is more concern in Latin America for family planning as a "human right" issue than to promote demographic goals. Latin America was also concerned with migration/urbanization issues. All of the Regional Consultations after Bucharest favored a greater emphasis on population in development planning, concern for the problems caused by migration and urbanization, improvement in the status of women, and support for the reduction of mortality levels. Some 74 countries containing 93% of the population of the developing world, supported family planning, with only 4 populous countries -- Burma, Ethiopia, Peru, and North Korea not in support. More than 98% of the population of Asia lives in countries which support family planning; the figures are 94% for Latin America, 90% for the Middle East and North Africa and 64% for Sub-Saharan Africa. The governments of 39 countries with a combined population of 2.3 billion have stated that
Brazil's population could vary from a minimum of 164.5 million to a maximum of 183.5 million at the turn of the century. The increase in population is due essentially to a decline in mortality, since natality has remained steady, averaging 6.2 children/woman. During the 1st 4 years of the 1980s, a 19% drop in natality was registered, with the greatest reduction occurring in the East-Central (25%) region, testimony to an increased presence of highly effective contraceptive means. 65% of all married women between the ages of 15 and 44 use contraceptives, placing Brazil among the most developed countries (U.S.A., 68%). The main contraceptive method used is sterilization, preferred even by very young women, median age 29, as evidenced by a study in Sao Paulo. The choice of contraceptives, however, is limited. During the military dictatorship family planning was put in the hands of private organizations (BEMFAM since 1965, CEPAIMC since 1975) and recent policies have emphasized a hands-off attitude leaving birth control decisions to the family nucleus. The economic crisis, at the end of the 1970s, modified this position. In order to avoid that, only the wealthy classes have access to family planning means, the government increasingly plays an active role in providing information and assistance. A not-for-profit institution, ABEPF (Brazilian Association for Family Planning Entities), the largest of its kind in Latin America, organizes and promotes private initiative programs. Acting as a true syndicate, each clinic affiliated with the association receives training of professionals and equipment for installation of laboratories and consulting rooms. Various women's rights movements have been active and succeeded in influencing political parties.
This article describes the family planning activities of a barefoot doctor, Jiang Shuqin, who has delivered family planning and other medical services to poor local farmers in China over the past 20 years. The once backward township of Kulongshan in Fengning Manchu Nationality Autonomous County, Chengde City, Hebei Province in North China, where she works, has advanced. Her efforts were recognized at the 1997 National Conference on Family Planning Work. Her first success was in treating a poor woman's sick child, which resulted in such gratitude that her initial reluctance to accept contraception was overcome and she agreed to terminate her pregnancy. Another case involved an elder sister who became pregnant for her infertile sister; when the latter was diagnosed and treated for gynecological disease and subsequently conceived herself, the older sister was convinced to abort her pregnancy. One woman was counseled to delay a pregnancy until treatment for tuberculosis was completed and was happy to avoid birth defects and enjoyed having a healthy baby 3 years later. Ms. Shuqin was known to quickly respond to a home delivery and difficult labor and even saved a baby whose supply of oxygen was limited during a difficult labor. She even performed an operation to stop massive hemorrhaging from a retained placenta while in her 8th month of pregnancy and being barely able to stand on her swollen and painful legs; she completed the operation on her knees. She wrote a paper to county officials on rice production on reclaimed paddy fields that benefitted hundreds of farmers. Her practice expanded to include treatment of animals. Her family complains about her absences, but everyone in the township appreciates her services. The township is proud to be one with no unplanned births.
sebiferum) and cogon grass (Imperata Resource/Issue Areas Hurlburt Field General Plan Environmental Assessment 4-9 cylindrica) are most...habitat on the western portion of the installation. The restoration of a native long-leaf pine/wire grass community on Hurlburt is associated with a
Background: Good quality of care in family planning (FP) services help individuals and couples to meet their reproductive health needs safely and effectively. Therefore, assessment and improvement of the quality of family planning services could enhance family planning services utilization. This study was thus conducted ...
Background: The unmet need for family planning services in Ethiopia is believed to be high (36%) while the already available services do not appear to be optimally used by potential clients. It is thus expected that an assessment and improvement of the quality of family planning services could enhance family planning ...
In logistics regression analysis family planning was significantly lower in the illiterate. Positive husband\\'s attitude had the strongest association (0R 9.3, 95% CI 4.6,18.7) with family planning, in addition to programs that create demand for smaller well-spread children, IEC and family planning services should target men and ...
These are age, level of education, knowledge about family planning benefits and districts. Conclusion: Women's perception towards family planning services delivered by CHWs in Western region in Kenya is quite low. To improve the demand and supply for family planning services in this region, there is need to invest a ...
Schneiderman, Gerald; And Others
Based on interviews with 24 families, the article discusses family planning and the choices available to those families in which a child has previously died from Tay-Sachs or related lipid storage diseases. (IM)
Full Text Available Objectives: 1. To evaluate the role of Lactational Amenorrhea Method (LAM as a spacing method. 2. To assess knowledge attitude and practices regarding breastfeeding. 3. To bring awareness regarding importance of breastfeeding on child health and as a method of family planning so that exclusive breast feeding is promoted. Study Design: Cross sectional study. Setting: In rural village of district Wardha. Study Universe : All the lactating mothers who had2 children (one of which was less than 3 years. Study Variables: Duration of Breast Feeding, LAM, Importance of Breast Feeding. Knowledge of Colostrum, Awareness of Breast Feeding, etc. Statistical analysis used: Percentages and proportions. Result: A total 42 families were included in the survey of which 26 (61.9% belongs to nuclear families with majority of the women 19(45.2% in the age group of 20-25 yrs, 20 (47.6% were illiterate and 18(42.8% families were of lower Socio Economic Status. A directly proportional relationship was found between duration of Breastfeeding & LAM and period of LAM & age of youngest child when the mother delivered again. Only 31% knew about the importance of breastfeeding. 16.6% of woman initiated Breast Feeding within 1/2 hr.
Samir A. Abass
Full Text Available Data in many real life engineering and economical problems suffer from inexactness. Herein we assume that we are given some intervals in which the data can simultaneously and independently perturb. We consider the generalized production planning problem with interval data. The interval data are in both of the objective function and constraints. The existing results concerning the qualitative and quantitative analysis of basic notions in parametric production planning problem. These notions are the set of feasible parameters, the solvability set and the stability set of the first kind.
Started in 1970, the Indonesian Family Planning Program is doing very well. It is coordinated by the National Family Planning Coordinating Board (BKKBN). Many new acceptors are being enrolled daily. Its aim is to reduce to 1971 fertility rate of 50% in 1990. Strategy factors are listed. The following paper, "BKKBN and the Expanding Role of Private Sector Family Planning Services and Commercial Contraceptive Sales in Indonesia," by Dr. Haryono Suyono is introduced. Another article, "A breakthrough in Family Planning Promotional Strategy," by Mr. Sumarsono is also introduced. This article deals with the marketing aspect of Indonesia's family planning program.
Weaver, J L
In population planning in Latin America the programs are as successful as the government's support of family planning. Colombia is one of the few Latin American countries which has actively exhorted its populace to birth control. If the propensity for large families reflects a belief in the economic or social utility of children, instead of machismo, birthrates will fall with expanded social security and economic welfare programs. If birthrates are the result of machismo, new gender models stressing the positive rewards and social esteem to be gained through responsible parenthood would have to be taught to both adults and children. The position profamily planning in most Latin American countries is generally supported by the ministers, technocrats, corporations, businessmen, middle-class women, doctors, mass media, protestant congregations, and working-class women. Family planning is usually opposed by members of the armed forces, Catholic hierarchy, Catholic lay organizations, oligarchy, university students, leftist intellectuals, Marxist insurgents, Indian communities, and peasants. The portion of the total national populations encompassed by the groups composing the core combination, ideological bias, and stability group ranges from 50-60% in Argentina, Uruguay, and Venezuela to 10-20% in Central America, Bolivia, Ecuador, and Paraguay. Most groups are outside the policy-making process.
Although the maternal mortality rate receives no newspaper headlines, the number of mothers dying throughout the world is equivalent to a full jumbo jet crashing every 5 hours. Population surveys carried out between 1981-83 by Family Health International indicated maternal mortality rates of 1.9/1000 live births in Menoufia, Egypt, and 7.2/1000 in Bali, Indonesia. 20-25% of all deaths in women aged 15-49 were directly related to pregnancy and delivery, compared to 1% in western countries where there is better prenatal care, medical assistance in almost all deliveries, and elimination of most high risk pregnancies through voluntary fertility control. Maternal mortality could be controlled by teaching traditional midwives to identify high risk patients at the beginning of their pregnancies and to refer them to appropriate health services. Maternal survival would also be improved if all women were in good health at the beginning of pregnancy. Families should be taught to seek medical care for the mother in cases of prolonged labor; many women arrive at hospitals beyond hope of recovery after hours or days of futile labor. Health policy makers should set new priorities. Sri Lanka, for example, has a lower per capita income than Pakistan, but also a lower maternal mortality rate because of better use of family planning services, more emphasis on prenatal care, and a tradition of care and attention on the part of the public health services.
Bertrand, J T; Proffitt, B J; Bartlett, T L
The health care profession is witnessing a shift in focus from the interests and needs of the service provider to those of the potential consumer in an effort to attract and maintain clients. This study illustrates the role that marketing research can play in the development of program strategies, even for relatively small organizations. The study was conducted for Planned Parenthood of Louisiana, a recently organized affiliate that began offering clinical services in May 1984, to provide information on the four Ps of marketing: product, price, place, and promotion. Data from telephone interviews among a random sample of 1,000 women 15-35 years old in New Orleans before the clinic opened confirmed that the need for family planning services was not entirely satisfied by existing service providers. Moreover, it indicated that clinic hours and the cost of services were in line with client interests. The most useful findings for developing the promotional strategy were the relatively low name recognition of Planned Parenthood and a higher-than-expected level of interest that young, low income blacks expressed in using the service.
The US Congress has become reluctant to appropriate funds for family planning assistance in developing countries. In the Congress, international family planning has misguidedly and mistakenly become the battleground over abortion. It is unfortunate that the majority in the 104th and 105th Congress have undertaken a concerted attack on US support for international family planning by reducing needed funding and saddling the program with onerous restrictions. While the Congress debates international family planning funding, women, children, and families around the world are suffering the consequences of reduced and/or restricted access to family planning services. Cutting and/or restricting international family planning funds produces a devastating effect on the health and well-being of women and children in developing countries, and in the long term, the consequences will be overpopulation leading to poverty, malnutrition, urban crowding, environmental degradation, and the depletion of the world's resources.
This document assesses the current status of population and family planning assistance throughout the world and provides brief sketches of the available sources including national governments, intergovernmental agencies such as the UNFPA and other UN entities, and nongovernmental funding, technical assistance, or funding and technical assistance organizations. The descriptions of aid-granting organizations describe their purposes, sources of funding, and activities, and give addresses where further information may be sought. At present about $100 million of the US $1 billion spent for family planning in developing countries each year comes from individuals paying for their own supplies and services, over $400 million is spent by national governments on their own programs, and about $450 million comes from developed country governments and private agencies. Over half of external assistance appears to be channeled through international agencies, and only a few countries provide a substantial proportion of aid bilaterally. In the past decade several governments, particularly in Asia, significantly increased the share of program costs they assumed themselves, and the most populous developing countries, China, India, and Indonesia, now contribute most of the funding for their own programs. Although at least 130 countries have provided population aid at some time, most is given by 12 industrialized countries. The US Agency for International Development (USAID) is the largest single donor, but the US share of population assistance has declined to 50% of all assistance in 1981 from 60% in the early 1970s. Governments of Communist bloc countries have made only small contributions to international population assistance. Most governmental asistance is in cash grant form, but loans, grants in kind, and technical assistance are also provided. Private organizations give assistance primarily to other private organizations in developing countries, and have been major innovators in
Mosena, Patricia Wimberley
Results indicated that women whose desired family size is equal to or less than their actual family size have significantly greater frequencies practicing family planning than women whose desired size exceeds their actual size. (Author)
Kessler, A; Standley, C C
Maternal age over 35, close spacing of births, parity over 4, and unwanted pregnancy are discussed as factors that are associated with increased maternal and infant mortality. The likelihood of death due to childbearing is twice as high in the 30-40 age group as in the 20-30 age group and increases 4-to five-fold in the 40+ group. Brith Birth of less than 24-30 months are associated with a two-fold increase in neonatal and infant deaths. Health objectives of large scale family planning programs are geared toward avoiding such births. This paper proposes that these objectives would result in a decrease in maternal and child deaths and thereby lead to growth. A simultaneous lowering of birth rates, however, should offset this growth.
A 1971 survey by the Center for Family Planning Program Development consisted of a questionnaire mailed to health and welfare directors in 50 states and 5 federal jurisdictions concerning their family planning policies and administrative practices. 52 agencies responded; Guam, Mississippi, and Louisiana did not. The major funding for state health agencies was allocated by HEW and by maternal and child health (MCH) formula grants under Title 5 of the Social Security Act. 11 states made additional expenditures of $1.7 million for a variety of purposes. 21 states required local welfare departments to purchase services under the Medicaid program established by Title 19 of the Social Security Act. Administration was assigned to specific organizations within the state health agencies. 31 states reported a total of 128 full-time professional personnel, with 90 assigned at state headquarters level. In general, on a state-by-state basis, the full-time staff does not correspond to the size of the appropriations. Survey findings were useful measures of resource commitments to family planning services by state health and welfare agencies and provided data on future levels of resource requirements.
Fiedler, J L; Day, L M
This article presents a step-down cost analysis using secondary data sources from 26 Bangladesh non-government organizations (NGOs) providing family planning services under a US Agency for International Development-funded umbrella organization. The unit costs of the NGOs' Maternal-Child Health (MCH) clinics and community-based distribution (CBD) systems were calculated and found to be minimally different. Several simulations were conducted to investigate the impact of alternative cost-reduction measures. The more general financial analysis proved more insightful than the unit cost analysis in terms of identifying means by which to improve the efficiency of the family planning operations of these NGOs. The analysis revealed that 56 per cent of total expenditures in the two-tiered umbrella's organizational structure are incurred in management operations and overheads. Of the remaining 44 per cent of project expenditures, 39 per cent is spent on the CBD program and 5 per cent on the MCH clinics. Within the CBD program, most resources are spent providing 4 million contacts (two-thirds of the annual total) which do not involve contraceptive re-supply. The clinics devote more resources to providing MCH services than to providing family planning services. The findings suggest that significant savings could be generated by containing administrative costs, improving operational efficiency, and reducing unnecessary or redundant fieldworker contacts. The magnitude of the potential savings raises a fundamental question about the continued viability and sustainability of this supply-driven CBD strategy.
Fan, Victoria Y.; Kim, Sunja; Choi, Seemoon; Grépin, Karen A.
Abstract With limited international resources for family planning, donors must decide how to allocate their funds to different countries. How can a donor for family planning decide whether countries are adequately prioritized for funding? This article proposes an ordinal ranking framework to identify under‐prioritized countries by rank‐ordering countries by their need for family planning and separately rank‐ordering them by their development assistance for family planning. Countries for which the rank of the need for family planning is lower than the rank of its funding are deemed under‐prioritized. We implement this diagnostic methodology to identify under‐prioritized countries that have a higher need but lower development assistance for family planning. This approach indicates whether a country is receiving less compared to other countries with similar levels of need. PMID:29044592
Basuil, Dynah A.; Casper, Wendy J.
Using social learning theory as a framework, we explore two sets of antecedents to work and family role planning attitudes among emerging adults: their work-family balance self-efficacy and their perceptions of their parents' work-to-family conflict. A total of 187 college students completed a questionnaire concerning their work-family balance…
-10 children. This means they did not know what impact large families will have on the poverty stricken households. There is some ignorance about NFP methods. They are more used to artificial harmful methods of Family Planning. Therefore ...
Barriers to utilization of modern methods of family planning amongst women in a ... is recognized by the world health organization (WHO) as a universal human right. ... Conclusion: The study finds numerous barriers to utilization of family ...
deficiency Virus (HIV) infection influence the design and background Family planning is an important preventive measure against maternal and child morbidity and mortality. This study was aimed at determining the awareness and utilization of family ...
It brought forward faith leaders, clinicians, researchers, program ... without immunization; how can we think about women's health without family ... learned. Three themes framed much of the dialogue: • Family Planning and the MDGs: Rights-.
Assessment Of Knowledge And Attitude Towards Family Planning Among Selected ... Among reasons for low uptake is religious belief on procreation. ... leaders as a change agent by the stakeholders to increase the uptake and use of family ...
Rodríguez Pacheco, Gonzalo
Este trabajo consistirá en un análisis entre los aspectos más significativos del Plan General de Contabilidad y Plan General de Contabilidad Pública, en el que se pondrán de manifiesto las principales diferencias en cada una de las partes en las que se estructuran ambos. Concretamente, marco conceptual, criterios de reconocimiento y valoración, cuentas anuales y cuadro de cuentas. Para ello, será fundamental conocer el fin que persiguen cada entidad, para posteriormente, interpretar y aplicar...
Darmokusumo, H V
In May 1984, the Minister of Manpower in Indonesia, the Chairman of the BKKBN, and representatives of the employers' and workers' organizations of Indonesia issued a joint decree pledging that they would work together to enhance the implementation of the family planning program among workers in the organized sector. 1 objective of the decree is to improve workers' productivity and the standard of living of workers and their families by implementing a family planning program. 1 baseline survey and a clinic-based survey in 5 provinces revealed that 90% of women workers are between 21-40, or are of reproductive age, and are sexually active. Only about 50% are practicing family planning; the other 50% are afraid to practice family planning due to potential side effects of various methods. This fear was most often caused by negative rumors spread by unsatisfied family planning clients. Placing materials for family planning promotion such as instructional posters and video programs advertising contraceptive services in the work setting may increase knowledge and help alleviate some of this fear. Other studies of family planning services show that employees prefer female medical doctors or midwives as service providers, employees are willing to pay for services (but can only afford a small fee), and family planning service points should be near employees' work sites.
Family planning in Malaysia is discussed. Family planning began in Malaysia about 15 years ago through the efforts of voluntary family Planning Associations in the various Malay states. In 1966 the Malaysian Parliament passed the National Family Planning Act setting up the National FAmily Planning Board to formulate policies and methods for the promotion and spread of family planning knowledge and practice on the grounds of health of mothers and children and welfare of the family. In 1967, the board set a target of 40,000 new acceptors of family planning and 90% of the target was reached. This represents 3% of the child-bearing married women aged 15-49. The target for 1968 of 65,000 new acceptors is being achieved. A survey of acceptors is to be carried out from December 1968 to April 1969 to ascertain how many women who accepted family planning continue to practice it. Malaysia's crude birth rate declined from 46.2 in 1957 to 37.3 in 1966 before the government program was instituted. Abortion attempts have been frequent. The main method of contraception used is oral contraceptives. According to a 1957 survey, 31% of the married women in the metropolitan areas and 2% of rural women were using contraception. Presently, in Malaysia there is a need to: 1) train personnel to provide services, 2) inform and motivate families to accept family planning, 3) continue a broad educational program, 4) reform Malaysia's antiquated abortion law, and 5) integrate family planning services more fully into the general health services of the country.
Hebert, Luciana Estelle; Schwandt, Hilary Megan; Boulay, Marc; Skinner, Joanna
In Nigeria, fertility continues to be high and contraceptive prevalence remains low. This study was conducted in order to understand the perceptions of, experiences with and challenges of delivering family planning services in two urban areas of Nigeria from the perspectives of family planning service providers. A qualitative study using 59 in-depth interviews was conducted among family planning providers working in hospitals, primary health centres, clinics, pharmacies and patent medicine vendors in Ibadan and Kaduna, Nigeria. Providers support a mix of individuals and organisations involved in family planning provision, including the government of Nigeria. The Nigerian government's role can take a variety of forms, including providing promotional materials for family planning facilities as well as facilitating training and educational opportunities for providers, since many providers lack basic training in family planning provision. Providers often describe their motivation to provide in terms of the health benefits offered by family planning methods. Few providers engage in any marketing of their services and many providers exclude youth and unmarried individuals from their services. The family planning provider community supports a diverse network of providers, but needs further training and support in order to improve the quality of care and market their services. Adolescents, unmarried individuals and women seeking post-abortion care are vulnerable populations that providers need to be better educated about and trained in how to serve. The perspectives of providers should be considered when designing family planning interventions in urban areas of Nigeria.
Sumarsono, S K
In 1969, the Government of Indonesia declared that the population explosion was a national problem. The National Family Planning Program was consequently launched to encourage adoption of the ideal of a small, happy and prosperous family norm. Micro-approach messages are composed of the following: physiology of menstruation; reproductive process; healthy pregnancy; rational family planning; rational application of contraceptives; infant and child care; nutrition improvement; increase in breastfeeding; increase in family income; education in family life; family health; and deferred marriage age. Macro-approach messages include: the population problem and its impact on socioeconomic aspects; efforts to cope with the population problem; and improvement of women's lot. In utilizing the media and communication channels, the program encourages the implementation of units and working units of IEC to produce IEC materials; utilizes all possible existing media and IEC channels; maintains the consistent linkage between the activity of mass media and the IEC activities in the field; and encourages the private sector to participate in the production of IEC media and materials. A media production center was set up and carries out the following activities: producing video cassettes for tv broadcasts of family planning drama, family planning news, and tv spots; producing duplicates of the video cassettes for distribution to provinces in support of the video network; producing teaching materials for family planning workers; and transfering family planning films into video cassettes. A video network was developed and includes video monitors in family planning service points such as hospitals, family planning clinics and public places like bus stations. In 1985, the program will be expanded by 50 mobile information units equipped with video monitors. Video has potentials to increase the productivity and effectiveness of the family planning program. The video production process is
Navot, Noa; Jorgenson, Alicia Grattan; Vander Stoep, Ann; Toth, Karen; Webb, Sara Jane
The diagnosis of a child with autism has short- and long-term impacts on family functioning. With early diagnosis, the diagnostic process is likely to co-occur with family planning decisions, yet little is known about how parents navigate this process. This study explores family planning decision making process among mothers of young children with…
Diminished involvement on the part of the major pharmaceutical firms in contraceptive research calls for renewed attention to the potential of natural methods of family planning. At present, these methods can demand a period of sexual abstinence as long as 17 days/month to be effective; however, Carl Djerassi has asserted that this period can be reduced by more than 50% with improved measurement of biochemical changes. Rising levels of estrogens and saliva or urine might be used in place of luteinizing hormone to predict ovulation. Similarly, increasing levels of progesterone early postovulation and the second rise in estrogens could serve as markers that there is no longer a risk of conception. Progesterone levels could be assayed in urine through use of monoclonal antibodies. Also needed are nonhormonal biochemical indicators of ovarian function. Ultimately, increases in knowledge of ovarian follicular physiology is likely to lead to more reliable markers of ovulation that estradiol. The need will remain, however, to monitor several days during each menstrual cycle given fluctuations from cycle to cycle in the same individual. The phenomenon of vast numbers of women in developing countries who are postponing childbearing until their latest late 30s is a further impetus for more serious consideration of natural alternatives to be hormonal fertility control.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Investigating use and determinants of family planning methods may be instructive in the design of interventions to improve reproductive health services. Findings Across sectional community-based study was conducted during the period February-April 2010 to investigate the use of family planning in Kassala, eastern Sudan. Structured questionnaires were used to gather socio-demographic data and use of family planning. The mean ± SD of the age and parity of 613 enrolled women was 31.1 ± 7 years and 3.4 ± 1.9, respectively. Only 44.0% of these women had previously or currently used one or more of the family planning methods. Combined pills (46.7% and progesterone injection (17.8% were the predominant method used by the investigated women. While age, residence were not associated with the use of family planning, parity (> five, couple education (≥ secondary level were significantly associated with the use of family planning. Husband objection and religious beliefs were the main reasons of non-use of family planning. Conclusion Education, encouragement of health education programs and involvement of the religious persons might promote family planning in eastern Sudan.
Husband's/partner's support for family planning may influence a women's modern contraceptive use. Socio-demographic factors, couple communication about family planning, and fertility preferences are known to play a role in contraceptive use. We conducted logistic regression analysis to investigate the relationship ...
Adherence to the policy guidelines and standards is necessary for family planning services. We compared public and private facilities in terms of provision of family planning services. We analyzed data from health facility questionnaire of the 2006 Tanzania Service Provision Assessment survey, based on 529 health ...
Introduction: High fertility,high birth rates and low family planning prevalence rate is a common feature in developing countries with consequent rapid population growth. Family planning has saved the lives and protected the health of millions of women and children. This study aims to ascertain prevalence, pattern and ...
Population in Nigeria is turning into an issue that needs public alertness. Informing men on family planning services and contraceptives is extremely necessary. For this will promote more favorable attitudes and increase their involvement. This study aimed at investigating the source of family planning information for married ...
alphabétisation, la haute connaissance et le taux d'approbation du planning familial, l'influence socio-culturelle des hommes sur leurs femmes demeure un obstacle majeur à l'utilisation du planning familial moderne dans cette région du Nigeria.
Planning a Family: Priorities and Concerns in Rural Tanzania. T Marchant, AK Mushi, R Nathan, O Mukasa, S Abdulla, C Lengeler, JRM Armstrong Schellenberg. Abstract. A fertility survey using qualitative and quantitative techniques described a high fertility setting (TFR 5.8) in southern Tanzania where family planning use ...
Knowledge, attitude and practice of family planning among pregnant women at Grace Specialist Hospital. ... Background: Unwanted pregnancy is a common event in our environment and many of them will end in an unsafe abortion. ... Education and religion did not significantly affect the use of a family planning method.
This article examines the impact of the campaign known as "Bringing New Marital and Reproductive Styles into Tens of Thousands of Households" on family planning in China. The awareness campaign, which started in October 1998, was established to increase the effectiveness of family planning and introduce progressive lifestyles among the population through an interactive and service-oriented approach focusing on the needs of human beings. The program emphasizes the following elements: 1) late marriage; 2) late childbirth; 3) fewer childbirth; 4) gender equality; 5) male participation in family planning; 6) dissemination of family planning and reproductive health knowledge; 7) healthier births and quality of education; 8) enhanced self-care capabilities; 9) higher quality of life; and 10) healthier lifestyles. A face-to-face approach was used to encourage public participation and increase the appeal of family planning programs to ordinary people. Efforts are also being made to expose rural residents to new ideas and lifestyles.
Palley, H A
Methods of overcoming resistance to publicly subsidized family planning programs are discussed. The main sources of opposition include groups that oppose family planning for moral reasons, and those who object to the spending of government funds to provide services and information. Such opposition can be weakened by indicating that family planning clinics fulf: 11 important medical needs. Presenting social justification for family planning can help to lower oppostion. In order to secure participation in the programs by low income groups it is essential to have community leaders involved in policy decisions and to use indigenous community paraprofessionals in the clinics. A coalition of representatives of the poor community and the health and welfare system, aided by the community organization, can lead to an effective family planning program.
Jørgensen, Kaj Asbjørn; Petersen, Thomas Ditlev; Nielsen, Kjeld
To enable product configuration of a product family, it is important to develop a model of the selected product family. From such a model, an often performed practice is to make a product configurator from which customers can specify individual products from the family. To get further utilisation...
Sai, F A; Nsarkoh, J D
Half of a $10,000 grant was given by the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) to finance the rural development project activities of Danfa, a village of about 835 people in Ghana. In this community the women are hard working but doubly disadvantaged. Along with a high illiteracy rate, the women are limited by inadequate income due to underemployment, under productivity, unfavorable farming conditions, and a lack of resources. Large families, frequent pregnancies, poor mother and child health, and high infant mortality all make matters worse for both the rural farm wife and her family. The project began with a nucleus of women that soon grew to between 24-30. Members soon formed small groups according to their occupational interests. The women grasped the self-help idea immediately. Once or twice a month there were demonstrations and the group worked together in such activities as making soap and pomade, preparing meals, and sewing. Meetings generally ended with a general group brainstorming and then members gathered in smaller groups to review their activities and plan for the future. During the 1st year of the project the men in the group rarely attended meetings. The group gave priority attention to their community's urgent need for working capital. 15 women farmers who met the criteria determined by the group received loans in the 1st round; only 8 satisfied the criteria in the 2nd round. At the beginning of the small loans scheme, the group decided to seek bigger loans from the bank if members proved credit worthy. This requirement was satisfied, and the group began negotiations for a loan with the Agricultural Development Bank. The group received the total group loan. The Ghana Home Science Association considers the project to be successful in several respects. Team spirit has developed the group, and the women play important and respected roles. Family planning problems are regularly presented for discussion, but it is difficult to correlate
Background: Family size predetermination and birthing according to schedule is a strong determinant of family stability as it allows proper resource allocation and management. Aims: To determine the family planning practices among parturients and determine the factors that can influence the uptake of contraceptives in the ...
This is a questionnaire base study targeting 350 married men in Ekpoma. Participation was by choice and the ... KEYWORDS: Family planning, Information source, Married men, Contraceptive, Nigeria. INTRODUCTION. Organized family ... 1988 population policy played a key role in raising demand and supply for family ...
The Tianjin Municipal People's Government (China) recently issued a decision on family planning issues regarding encouragement of late childbirth and controlling the birth of a 2nd child. The decision indicated that newlyweds who decide to have their 1st child when they are at least 25 years old will be regarded as practicing late childbirth. A total of 34 days will be added to the present 56-day maternity leave for those newlyweds practicing late childbirth. Some prerequisites for having a 2nd child include the following: the 1st child has a nonhereditary deformity; of a newly married couple, for 1 party this is a 1st marriage while the other party has only 1 child from his or her previous marriage; and a married woman who has a medical certificate on sterility issued by medical and health units at or above the district level and has adopted a child with the approval of departments concerned is now allowed to have a 2nd child. To have a 2nd child without official approval is considered as giving birth to an unplanned child. Each parent of an unplanned child has to pay a special levy for 5 years from the day the child is born. If the interval between the 1st child and the 2nd child of a woman is less than 4 years, this woman and her husband will have to pay the special levies for 5 years and will have to pay levies to make up for the deficiencies caused by the insufficient interval between their 1st and 2nd child. Due to the great differences in economic conditions existing in the rural counties, every rural county People's Government may formulate its own stipulations concerning the length and amount of levies in accordance with local conditions.
Mexico's private, nonprofit social marketing company, known as PROFAM, intends to expand its family planning clinics to marginal urban areas. The clinics are part of PROFAM's push to diversify social marketing outlets for contraceptive products and other birth control methods. PROFAM expects to establish 3 new clinics, possibly including a pregnancy test laboratory, a small 1-doctor clinic, and a large clinic housing an operating room. 1 clinic will be located outside the Mexico City area, the program's traditional boundaries. The company currently runs 2 small clinics and a pregnancy testing laboratory in Ciudad Netzahualcoyti, a community of 3.5 million on Mexico City's outskirts. PROFAM recently obtaine d government approval to sell condoms in food stores, which should increase distribtuion and sales. Currently, the company sells over 1 million high quality, lubricated condoms each month, accounting for over half of the Mexican market. Distribution covers 85% of the country's drugstore. Program setbacks occurred in 1981, when the Mexican government cancelled PROFAM's sales permits for all contraceptive products except condoms. Cancelled products included an oral contraceptive and 3 vaginal spermicides. These 4 products had provided nearly 100,000 couple years of protection in 1979 and an estimated 120,000 CYP 1980. During 1979 and 1980, condoms provided about 27,000 and 60,000 CYP, respectively. PROFAM had relied heavily on the pill and spermicides because its early studies showed condoms had a negative image in Mexico, due largely to the product's association with extramarital affairs. To counter this, PROFAM launched a widespread, free product sampling program in 1979, along with a continuing educational and advertising drive. Subsequent consumer surveys revealed a marked increase in product acceptance, with PROFAM's condom becoming the most widely known brand available in Mexico.
Benn, Marianne; Watts, Gerald F; Tybjaerg-Hansen, Anne
.0-17.4) in definite/probable FH compared with non-FH subjects, after adjusting for age, gender, body mass index, hypertension, metabolic syndrome and diabetes, and smoking. The corresponding adjusted odds ratio for coronary artery disease in FH subjects on cholesterol-lowering medication was 10.3 (7......Context: The diagnosis of familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) can be made using the Dutch Lipid Clinic Network criteria. This employs the personal and family history of premature coronary artery disease and hypercholesterolemia and the presence of a pathogenic mutation in the low-density lipoprotein...
Aziz, Mirette; Ahmed, Sabra; Ahmed, Boshra
To assess the attitudes of physicians providing family planning services at the public sector in Egypt about recommending intrauterine device (IUD) for family planning clients, and to identify the factors that could affect their attitudes. A descriptive cross sectional study, in which all the physicians providing family planning services in Assiut Governorate were invited to complete self-administered questionnaires. The study participants were recruited at the family planning sector monthly meetings of the 13 health directorates of Assiut Governorate, Upper Egypt. 250 physicians accepted to participate in the study. Bivariate and Multivariate regression analyses were performed to identify the most important predictors of recommending IUD to family planning clients when appropriate. Less than 50% of physicians would recommend IUD for clients with proper eligibility criteria; women younger than 20 years old (49.2%), women with history of ectopic pregnancy (34%), history of pelvic inflammatory diseases (40%) or sexually transmitted diseases (18.4%) and nulliparous women (22.8%). Receiving family planning formal training within the year preceding data collection and working in urban areas were the significant predictors of recommending IUD insertion for appropriate clients. Physicians providing family planning services in Upper Egypt have negative attitudes about recommending IUD for family planning clients. Continuous education and in-service training about the updated medical eligibility criteria, especially for physicians working in rural areas may reduce the unfounded medical restrictions for IUD use. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Kohan, Shahnaz; Talebian, Ferdos; Ehsanpour, Soheila
Background: One of the important factors in the prediction of family planning outcome is paying attention to women's role in decision making concerning fertility and household affairs. With the improvement of women's status and autonomy, their control over fertility is expected to increase. The present study aimed to investigate the association between women's autonomy and family planning outcome of the couples residing in Isfahan. Materials and Methods: This is cross-sectional study. Two hundred and seventy women of childbearing age, eligible for family planning and residing in Isfahan, were selected through random cluster sampling and they filled a researcher-made questionnaire. Women's autonomy was measured with the questions on their decision-making autonomy concerning household affairs and physical mobility autonomy. The association between women's autonomy and family planning outcome was analyzed through statistical methods. Results: The results showed that the mean of women's decision-making, physical mobility, and general autonomy was 50. Women's autonomy had a direct significant association with the type of contraception method (P = 0.01) and the length of usage of their present contraception method (P = 0.04) as well as where they received family planning services (P = 0.02). Conclusions: Analysis of data revealed women with higher autonomy used a more efficient contraception method and continued their contraception method for a longer time, which leads to improvement of couples’ family planning outcome. Therefore, family planning services should be planned and provided with women's autonomy under consideration. PMID:25400671
Hancock, Nancy L; Stuart, Gretchen S; Tang, Jennifer H; Chibwesha, Carla J; Stringer, Jeffrey S A; Chi, Benjamin H
Reducing the global unmet need for contraception is currently a priority for many governments, multi-lateral initiatives, non-governmental organizations, and donors. Evidence strongly suggests that the provision of quality family planning services can increase uptake, prevalence, and continuation of contraception. While an accepted framework to define the components of family planning service quality exists, translating this framework into assessment tools that are accessible, easily utilized, and valid for service providers has remained a challenge. We propose new approaches to improve the standardization and accessibility of family planning service quality assessment tools to simplify family planning service quality evaluation. With easier approaches to program evaluation, quality improvements can be performed more swiftly to help increase uptake and continuation of contraception to improve the health of women and their families.
Sonalkar, Sarita; Gaffield, Mary E
The postpartum period offers multiple opportunities for healthcare providers to assist with family planning decision making. However, there are also many changing factors during the first year after delivery that can affect family planning choices. Given that several different documents have addressed WHO guidance on postpartum family planning, the electronic WHO Postpartum Family Planning Compendium (http://srhr.org/postpartumfp) has been introduced. This resource integrates essential guidance on postpartum family planning for clinicians, program managers, and policy makers. The development of the Compendium included consultations with family planning experts, key international stakeholders, and web developers. Once the website had been created, user testing by family planning experts allowed for improvements to be made before the official launch. Future directions are adaptation of the website into a mobile application that can be more easily integrated to low-resource settings, and translation of the content into French and Spanish. © 2016 World Health Organization. International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.
Since the official launching of the Philippine Population Program in 1970, family planning campaigns have substantially addressed themselves to women. The suggestion to devote equal, if not more, attention to men as family planning targets had been raised by Dr. Mercado as early as 1971. It was not until 1978, that the deliberate inclusion of males as a target audience in family planning became a matter of policy. The Population Center Foundation (PCF), from 1979 to 1982, carried out research projects to determine the most suitable approaches and strategies to reach Filipino men. The objectives of the PCF's Male Specific Program are: 1) to test alternative schemes in promoting male family planning methods through pilot-testing of family planning clinics for men, 2) to develop teaching materials geared toward specific segments of the male population, 3) to undertake skills training in male-specific motivational approaches for program professionals, and 4) to assess the extent of the husband's role in family planning. An important finding of 1 study was that most outreach workers were female stood in the way of the motivation process, thus hampering the campaign. While the consultative motivational skills training improved knowledge, attitudes, and skills of outreach workers with regard to vasectomy and the motivation process, there were certain predispositions that were hindering the fieldworkers' effectiveness in motivating target clients. Overall, in-depth, 1-to-1 motivation in dealing with men is needed to strengthen internalization of family planning values.
In 1957, the Indonesian Planned Parenthood Federation was established. In 1970, the National Family Planning Board (BKKBN) was created. The current contraceptive prevalence rate is 45-50%. The family planning program began with a health-oriented approach. To promote acceptance, religious leaders were asked to provide legitimacy to the program. Through their efforts, it became possible to include all the means and medication used for family planning services within the program. In developing an IEC strategy to encourage couples to accept family planning, 3 main factors were studied: 1) the types of innovations that were to be introduced, 2) the characteristics of the Indonesian community, and 3) the need for an IEC strategy to convey the programs messages the community and make the community itself the agent of the innovation being introduced. The elements of the strategy were introduced stage by stage to avoid unnecessary debate. Another strategic step was the introduction of family planning using a community approach. A 3rd strategic step was a shift from couples as family planning acceptors to the introduction of the norm of a small, happy, and prosperous family. The 1st stage, expansion of program coverage, 1) promoted the need for and desirability of family planning to make the small and happy family the norm and 2) supplied contraceptives and information about contraceptives throughout Indonesia. The 2nd stage, the program maintenance approach, included 1) an increase in the frequency of visits to villages by mobile family planning teams, 2) the integration of family planning activities with other health-related activities, and 3) giving people a wider choice of methods and helping them to choose the most suitable method for them. The 3rd stage made family planning a community activity, integrated within the economic and social fabric of community life. The general strategy of the IEC program is to make the various target groups full family planning
Kenya has the highest fertility rate in the world. The average woman has 8 children. Further, urban areas attract people from rural areas leaving fewer people to farm the finite land or raise cattle. Therefore a reduced need for children to partake in agricultural activities exists. Nevertheless many barriers to family planning continue in Kenya. Family planning services are scarce especially in rural areas. Husbands must agree to their wives undergoing voluntary sterilization by going to the clinic to sign a consent form. Children are highly valued. Succession of the generations is important. The higher a woman's fertility the more valuable she is to husband. The continuance of legal polygamy fosters competition among a man's wives to have many sons with the 1 having the most being his most prized wife. In spite of these obstacles, the president of Kenya promotes family planning through his speeches and requires the Ministry of Health (MOH) to provide family planning services at all government hospitals. Moreover, church hospitals also provide family planning services. Additionally, articles that cover teenage pregnancy and family planning programs appear in daily newspapers. The MOH and the National Council on Population and Development are organizing a network of government and nongovernment organizations that provide family planning services to the public. A sample of these organizations include the Family Planning Association of Kenya, an influential women's organization (Mandeleo ya Wanawake), and several church organizations. The Association for Voluntary Surgical Contraception's regional office has promoted minilaparotomies under local anesthesia since 1986. They are now used in maternal and child health programs in government hospitals, mission hospitals, and in several family planning clinics.
The current study examined whether there are differences between gay father families (n = 36) and heterosexual families (n = 36) on father-child relationship, fathers' experiences of parental stress and children's wellbeing. The gay fathers in this study all became parents while in same-sex
The findings of the Community and Family Study Center study, based on estimated crude birthrates and total fertility rates for 1968 and 1975, indicate that there has been a significant reduction in fertility levels of both developed and developing countries. Despite regional variations, the estimates show an average proportional decline of 8.5% in total fertility rates between 1968 and 1975. Of the 148 nations studied, 113 were in developing regions and 35 in the developed regions. Information on important social and economic development factors, such as life expectancy, literacy, percent of labor force in agriculture, per capita income, and family planning program strength were gathered for each country. Analyses of these data are reported in "The Public Interest" (to be published) "Population Reference Bulletin," October 1978, and a paper presented at the 1978 Population Association of America Meetings in Atlanta, Georgia. The recent change in fertility affected 81% of the world's population, primarily the peoples of Asia, Latin America, and North America. The total fertility rate in the world in 1968 was 4635 and declined to 4068 in 1975. More substantial declines occurred in Asia and Latin America, where the number of fewer births 1000 women would bear under a given fertility schedule declined by 845 births and 617 births, respectively. As more research is conducted to investigate the underlying causes of this decline, it is likely to confirm the important role that family planning programs have had in developing nations. Although major improvements in the socioeconomic well-being of the developing areas continue as an essential goal, the need to maintain the organized provision of family planning services should not be understated.
Beekle, A T; McCabe, C
The continuing growth of the world population has become an urgent global problem. Ethiopia, like most countries in sub-Saharan Africa, is experiencing rapid population growth. Currently, the country's population is growing at a rate of 3%, one of the highest rates in the world and if it continues unabated, the population will have doubled in 23 years, preventing any gain in the national development effort. To determine the level and determinants of family planning awareness and practice in one Ethiopian town. A quantitative study using a descriptive survey design was conducted in Jimma University Hospital. The findings revealed that the knowledge and practice of modern contraception methods was low. Most women's contraceptive knowledge and practice was influenced by socio-cultural norms such as male/husband dominance and opposition to contraception, and low social status of women. A lack of formal education for women was identified as a key factor in preventing change in the patterns of contraceptive knowledge and use by women in this part of Ethiopia. The support and encouragement for women and men to enter and complete formal education is essential in bringing about a cultural and social change in attitude towards the economic and social value of family planning. This study and others suggest that education can address the imbalance in decision making about contraception and the role of women in society generally.
... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false System security plan: general requirements. 659.21... State Oversight Agency § 659.21 System security plan: general requirements. (a) The oversight agency shall require the rail transit agency to implement a system security plan that, at a minimum, complies...
... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Operation plan: General requirements. 784.11... PLAN § 784.11 Operation plan: General requirements. Each application shall contain a description of the... INTERIOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS PERMITS AND COAL EXPLORATION SYSTEMS UNDER...
... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Operation plan: General requirements. 780.11... PLAN § 780.11 Operation plan: General requirements. Each application shall contain a description of the... INTERIOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS PERMITS AND COAL EXPLORATION SYSTEMS UNDER...
Avue, B; Freeman, P
This paper examines selected factors affecting the acceptance and delivery of modern family planning from health centres in Manus. A survey was carried out of mothers attending Maternal and Child Health clinics and a written questionnaire was given to health workers. The survey of mothers demonstrated the importance of the husband's approval for contraceptive practice and showed that knowledge about traditional methods of family planning is widespread. The health workers' questionnaire demonstrated a high level of dissatisfaction with the current family planning program delivered by health clinics: 45% found the program ineffective; 68% wrote that health workers' attitudes discouraged mothers from attending for family planning. The perceived and actual benefits and costs of children and the role of men should be assessed locally before planning future family planning programs. Widespread retraining and motivating of health workers is essential if improved coverage is to be achieved through health services. The efficacy of alternative methods of delivery of family planning such as local community-based and social marketing programs should also be investigated.
Family Planning: Between Rejection And Acceptance In Islam. ... factor for health workers and policy makers to impact positively on their communities. ... who are likely to work in such communities for effective negotiation and application of ...
...." The Mexico City policy denies U.S. funds to foreign nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) that perform or promote abortion as a method of family planning -- even if the activities are undertaken with non-U.S. funds...
Nowels, Larry; Veillette, Connie
.... international family planning programs. In 1984, controversy arose over U.S. population aid policy when the Reagan Administration introduced restrictions, which became known as the "Mexico City policy...
.... international family planning programs. In 1984, controversy arose over U.S. population aid policy when the Reagan Administration introduced restrictions, which became known as the "Mexico City policy...
Little is known on integrating HIV and family planning (FP) services in community settings. Using a cluster randomized ..... process evaluation data from several studies on facility-based ... PEPFAR blueprint: Creating an AIDS-free generation.
AJRH Managing Editor
This study employed secondary data analysis of the National HIV/AIDS and. Reproductive Health ... Keywords: Unmet Need, Family Planning, Women of Reproductive Age group. Résumé ... The World Health Organization in 2012 highlighted ...
Changing Face of Family Planning Funding in Kenya: A Cross-. Sectional Survey of ... Keywords: Contraception, Expenditure, Budget, Decision-making. Résumé. A mesure ... increasingly receiving attention, including in. Kenya17. In Kenya ...
Overcoming Family Planning Challenges in Africa: Toward Meeting. Unmet Need ... The challenges posed are greater in ... Gaps in meeting women's needs persist especially ..... WHO. Everybody's business: Strengthening health systems to.
AJRH Managing Editor
Morbidity in Accra, Ghana: Another Missed Opportunity? ... was to explore the future fertility intentions, use of family planning including methods and reasons for not wanting to use .... Of the 19 women who wanted more children, more than half ...
Methods. In a quantitative descriptive survey, 360 female undergraduate students ... Access to services was good. ... Levels of awareness and utilisation of family planning services are high among female students at the University of Lesotho.
Despite an abundant body of literature exploring the relationship between population growth and forest cover change, comparatively little research has explored the forest cover impacts of family planning use, which is a key determinant of the rate of population growth in many developing country contexts. Using data from a farm-level panel survey in the Northern Ecuadorian Amazon, this paper addresses whether family planning use impacts forest cover change. Longitudinal model results show that after controlling for household life cycle and land use variables, family planning use did not have an independent effect on deforestation, reforestation, or net forest loss between 1990 and 2008. Forest cover change patterns appear indicative of farm life cycle effects. However, family planning use is associated with reduced subsequent fertility among households, suggesting that the relationship between population growth from births and forest cover change may be limited in this setting.
Background: Kenya ranks among the countries in Africa with high fertility rates. In order ... fertility rates, there is need to increase uptake of family planning services particularly by use of ... cluding distribution of pills as well as injectable contra-.
Hewitt, Caroline M; Roye, Carol; Gebbie, Kristine M
A core competency model for family planning public health nurses has been developed, using a three stage Delphi Method with an expert panel of 40 family planning senior administrators, community/public health nursing faculty and seasoned family planning public health nurses. The initial survey was developed from the 2011 Title X Family Planning program priorities. The 32-item survey was distributed electronically via SurveyMonkey(®). Panelist attrition was low, and participation robust resulting in the final 28-item model, suggesting that the Delphi Method was a successful technique through which to achieve consensus. Competencies with at least 75% consensus were included in the model and those competencies were primarily related to education/counseling and administration of medications and contraceptives. The competencies identified have implications for education/training, certification and workplace performance. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Speizer, Ilene S; Nanda, Priya; Achyut, Pranita; Pillai, Gita; Guilkey, David K
Family planning has widespread positive impacts for population health and well-being; contraceptive use not only decreases unintended pregnancies and reduces infant and maternal mortality and morbidity, but it is critical to the achievement of Millennium Development Goals. This study uses baseline, representative data from six cities in Uttar Pradesh, India to examine family planning use among the urban poor. Data were collected from about 3,000 currently married women in each city (Allahabad, Agra, Varanasi, Aligarh, Gorakhpur, and Moradabad) for a total sample size of 17,643 women. Participating women were asked about their fertility desires, family planning use, and reproductive health. The survey over-sampled slum residents; this permits in-depth analyses of the urban poor and their family planning use behaviors. Bivariate and multivariate analyses are used to examine the role of wealth and education on family planning use and unmet need for family planning. Across all of the cities, about 50% of women report modern method use. Women in slum areas generally report less family planning use and among those women who use, slum women are more likely to be sterilized than to use other methods, including condoms and hormonal methods. Across all cities, there is a higher unmet need for family planning to limit childbearing than for spacing births. Poorer women are more likely to have an unmet need than richer women in both the slum and non-slum samples; this effect is attenuated when education is included in the analysis. Programs seeking to target the urban poor in Uttar Pradesh and elsewhere in India may be better served to identify the less educated women and target these women with appropriate family planning messages and methods that meet their current and future fertility desire needs.
Ahsan, S B
More and more men are convincing their wives to use family planning in Bangladesh. In this conservative, Moslem country, women are not allowed to leave the homes so husbands must go to buy methods especially rural areas. 70% of women who use oral contraceptives (OCs), IUDs, or condoms report that their husbands obtain these method for them. many couples are poor peasants. Contraceptive prevalence is not 23.2%. Female sterilization and OCs are the 2 most popular methods (9% each) followed by condoms (2%), IUD (1.7%), and vasectomy (1.5%). The total fertility rate is 4.8 which is higher than the goal of 3.5 Bangladesh hoped to reach by 1995. In 1975, 30% of women believed fate determines family size but now only 8% think that. Attitude changes about family size have occurred despite illiteracy and poverty. Traditional religious beliefs are still prevalent in rural areas making it difficult for wives to speak to their husbands about family planning. Husband-wife communication is more open among urban, middle class couples. The long lasting hormonal implant, Norplant, holds promise as a means for Bangladesh to reach its goal. About 4500 women now have Norplant and government and nongovernment clinics plan to insert it into around 20,000 more women. A study of 2586 potential acceptors of Norplant at family clinics in Bangladesh 3 other developing countries shows that counseling diminishes the anxiety women and their husbands experience about Norplant and its side effects. A study in Bangladesh reveals higher continuation rates of Norplant for women whose husbands underwent counseling than for those whose husbands did not undergo counseling. Family planning advertisements on the radio, TV, and in newspapers have convinced couples to use family planning, but the advertisements tend to not explaining how to use family planning. Men are key to the changes in attitude about family planning in Bangladesh.
The theory of planned behaviour is a theory originating from psychology. Over time, the theory has been applied to a variety of research areas. In business administration, the theory is used to gain insight into the ethical behaviour of managers, the adoption of new products and entrepreneurship. The family business context is a specific context, in which the family has a strong influence on the strategic decisions of the business. Current application of the theory of planned behaviour in fam...
Sushma Dahal; Raj Kumar Subedi
Family planning services in Nepal are provided by government and non-government health facilities. A descriptive cross sectional study was done by secondary data review of eight months from Institutional clinic, District Health Office (DHO) Ilam district. Use of different family planning methods through government health facility was studied in relation to different variables like age, sex, ethnicity, and, number of children. Around 53% of the female users of spacing method and around 47% of ...
Huber, Douglas; Martin, Raymond; Bormet, Mona
Advocating for international family planning while avoiding miscommunications with politically and religiously conservative policy makers and the public requires care and clarity with language. We find that terms such as "international family planning" are well received when the meaning is clearly explained, such as "enabling couples to determine the number and timing of pregnancies, including the voluntary use of methods for preventing pregnancy - not including abortion - harmonious with their beliefs and values". Family planning also helps reduce abortions - a powerful message for conservative policy makers and the public. We concur with Dyer et al. (2016) that the messenger is important; we find that many of the most effective advocates are religious leaders and faith-based health providers from the Global South. They know and validate the importance of family planning for improving family health and reducing abortions in their communities. "Healthy timing and spacing of pregnancy" is positive language for policy makers, especially when describing the health impact for women and children. Universal access to contraceptive services is emerging as vital for family health and also to help achieve the Sustainable Development Goals (UN 2015). Language on international family planning will evolve, and clarity of meaning will be foundational for effective advocacy.
A conference on awareness in the mass media of the problems of family planning was held in March 1989 at Bissau by the Guinean Association for Education and Promotion of Family Health (AGEPSF). Representatives of radio, a daily newspaper, and the national press agency discussed the objectives of AGEPSF and the benefits of family planning with specialists in different sectors of national life. The secretary general of AGEPSF affirmed the interest of the government in creating a health organization to coordinate national policy in family planning and to diffuse information on family planning. The family planning objective of the AGEPSF is not limitation of births but rather spacing to promote maternal and child health. AGEPSF is a member of the International Planned Parenthood Federation and maintains relations with similar organizations throughout the world. According to the director of the national maternity hospital, family planning is a sensitive topic but it has become accepted in numerous countries as marriage in rural areas and abortions in urban areas are widespread practices in Africa with potentially grave consequences. The general director of the National Institute for Studies and Research placed the theme of family planning in the context of Guinea-Bissau by citing the low level of education, the almost insignificant number of literate women, and the lack of health services in rural areas as the principal causes of increasing infant mortality in the country. African countries should create favorable conditions, elevate the level of living of their populations, and develop concrete health actions to reduce infant and maternal mortality.
The paper discusses the effects of the changes of rural income level on family planning practice based a survey of 200 rural families in a affluent vegetable producing area of suburban Beijing. In 1984, 99.7% of child birth followed the local birth planning, and 99.1% of families with one child received One Child Certificates. The annual per capita income of the 200 families was 1,092 yuan (1 US$ = 3.7 yuan) in 1984 even higher than the community average. The number of children was negatively associated with the per capita income and per capita consumption except families with 4 children, most of whom have grown up. The rural mechanization in the community has greatly increased the need for skills and technology rather than strong laborers. The provision of community welfare programs and the increased living standard changed the value of children and also changed people's perception in favor of gender equality. Among families with 1 or 2 children, most preferred to have girls. And among families with more children, the preferred family size is smaller than the actual size, which shows a tendency towards favoring a small family. Among 1 child families, 58.7% considered 1 boy and 1 girl to be ideal, and 37.7% was happy with the only child. As the community becomes richer, both the community and individual families increased their investment in education. The spending on education per child was over 2 times as high in 1 child families than the families with more children. The educational status of parents is positively associated with the exception of children's future education and current spending on education. The concern of parents over children's education is an important factor in improving the quality of labor force. Women of higher education status are more acceptable to contraception and family planning policy. The relatively high level of education of the community has been conducive to it fertility decline.
Context: Family planning is an integral part of maternal health as its uptake is a significant factor in the reduction of maternal mortality and in ensuring positive child health outcomes. Objectives: To describe prevalence and pattern of contraceptive use, and identify reasons for discontinuation among women accessing family ...
Presswell, N J
Family planning services were introduced in Vietnam by the Americans about 20 years ago, but on a limited basis. Many of the Vietnamese refugee women have had no contact with such services. Abortion was illegal until 1975 in South Vietnam, but since the takeover, abortion clinics have been available as part of the public hospital system. Family planning was available in some of the refugee camps. Most of the Vietnam refugees fled their country by boat. Before their acceptance by Australia, the Vietnamese refugees have health checks by the Australian Commonwealth Health Department in the country of transit. Shortly after their arrival in Australia, health screening is done by the State Health Department. The majority of refugees are accommodated in migrant hostels for the 1st 3-12 months. Family planning is incorporated into Eastbridge Hostel's orientation program. During participation in some family planning discussion groups with the Indochinese refugees, it was observed that the women were particularly shy and hesitant to talk about sexual concerns in a large group or in mixed company. As personal matters are dealt with in the family, it is preferable to have a female as a discussion leader and interpreter. Visual aids such as a display of contraceptive devices, a model showing female anatomy and a family planning film for non-English speaking migrants are particularly useful. As a female doctor using a female interpreter the aim was to provide an accessible service for Indochinese women with family planning inquiries or gynecological problems. It is important that the interpreter is present in the consulting room. Nonverbal cues are most important and particular attention should be paid to establishing eye contact with the patient. Simple miming techniques or the use of diagrams may be helpful in reinforcing the work of the interpreter. When listening to the patient, it is useful to look and listen for nonverbal cues from them. Between February 1980 and May 1981
Full Text Available This study examines factors associated with the likelihood of having a plan that includes a special needs trust among families that have disabled minor children. Descriptive analyses indicate that the top two reasons families provide for not having a plan are the inability to save and no perceived need. Among families that do indicate having a plan, most do not include a special needs trust. Multivariate analyses reveal that professional involvement (financial, legal, and mental health professionals is a key factor to increasing the likelihood of having a plan with a special needs trust. Families that have met with a financial advisor are 23 times more likely, and families who are encouraged to create a plan by a mental health professional are almost three times more likely, to have a plan that includes a special needs trust. Results from this study suggest that financial therapists are uniquely positioned to educate and ensure that appropriate plans are in place to provide for the future of children with special needs.
Castro Villamil, R
During the 1960s, when family planning services were institutionalized in Colombia by PROFAMILIA, abundant foreign assistance was readily available. Few questions were asked about the longterm funding of family planning programs or the need for financial self-sufficiency. The emphasis was on program development without great attention to costs. Beginning around the early 1980s, international donors began to place a higher priority and greater investment in the incipient family planning programs of less developed countries. At present a greater number and higher quality of services are being demanded from PROFAMILIA at the lowest possible cost. Efficiency has replaced efficacy as the overriding goal. PROFAMILIA, due to its excellent results, has lost priority in the eyes of international donors. It has therefore reoriented its financing strategies toward a short, medium, and long term plan to reduce its financial dependence on international donor agencies. Self-sufficiency could be increased through various means, including total government subsidy, charging fees for services and materials sufficient to cover program costs, establishing services and marketing programs aside from family planning programs for the specific purpose of obtaining funds to cover program deficits, or establishing accounting and operational controls to reduce costs through greater efficiency. But large government subsidies are unlikely in a time of budgetary constraints, and raising fees for family planning users would exclude a large number of low-income clients from the family planning program. Cost reduction and implementation of diversified programs should therefore be emphasized for the present. The diversified program should be related to family planning so that use can be made of idle resources. PROFAMILIA has emphasized surgical procedures and medical consultations to utilize clinic facilities more fully and to increase income without increasing fixed costs. In 1990, foreign
Talukdar, Abdul Hafiz Ibne; Radwan, Ahmed G.; Salama, Khaled N.
In this paper, we report the unconventional characteristics of Memristor in Wien oscillators. Generalized mathematical models are developed to analyze four members of the Wien family using Memristors. Sustained oscillation is reported for all types
Niniek Lely Pratiwi
Full Text Available Background: The MDG target to increase maternal health will be achieved when 50% of maternal deaths can be prevented through improvment the coverage of K1, K4, to make sure that midwife stay in the village improve the delivery by health workers in health facilities, increase coverage long-term contraceptive methods participant as well as family and community empowerment in health. Methods: This study is a further analysis of Riskesdas in 2010 to assess how big the accessibility of services in family planning in Indonesia. Results: Women of 3–4 children in rural greater and prevalence (27.1% compared to women who live in urban areas (25.0%. The main reason of not using contraception mostly because they want to have children 27.0% in urban, 28.2% rural whereas, the second reason is the fear of side effects 23.1% in urban, 16.5% rural. There is 10% of respondent did not use contraceptives, because they did not need it. Health seeking behavior of pregnant women with family planning work status has a significant relationship (prevalence ratio 1.073. The jobless mothers has better access to family planning services compared to working mother. Conclusions: Accessibility of family planning services is inadequate, because not all rural ‘Poskesdes’ equipped with infrastructure and family planning devices, a lack of knowledge of family planning in rural areas. Health seeking behavior of family planning services is mostly to the midwives, the scond is to community health centers and than polindes, ‘poskesdes’ as the ranks third.
Vaidyanathan, K E
This article examines the extent to which the status of women is related to awareness, knowledge, and practice of family planning in India. It uses both macro-level data for the states of India and date from household surveys and field studies to assess the extent of interaction between the women's status indicators and family planning indicators. Results show a definite statistical relationship between women's status and women's ability to control fertility. The strongest relationship to adoption of family planning is the educational attainment of women, followed by age at marriage, and women's work participation, particularly in nonagricultural activities. Evidence from various surveys on the effects of crucial variables on reproductive behavior include 1) a marked reduction in fertility with increases in the educational level; 2) lower fertility for working women, and especially for non-manual workers; 3) a reduction in fertility with increases in age at marriage; and 4) a higher percentage of couples practicing family planning who have 2 or more surviving children, particularly if they have boys. A 1972 survey of 3 Indian states showed that 1) husbands impose a variety of restrictions on wives, with rural husbands placing more restrictions than urban husbands; 2) women's role in decision making in household affairs is positively correlated with the degree of awareness and knowledge of contraceptives as well as adoption of family planning; and 3) interspousal communication was significantly related to the practice of family planning in both rural and urban areas. In conclusion, to help encourage adoption of family planning and reduce fertility, India should 1) emphasize education for women, 2) enforce the legal minimum age at marriage, 3) promote employment opportunities for women, 4) improve women's role in decision making, and 5) encourage interspousal communication in family affairs.
Background: Family physician plan (FPP) and referral system (RS) is one of the major plans in Iran's health system with the aim of increasing the accountability in the health market, enhancing the public's access to the health services, lowering the unnecessary costs and equitable distribution of health across the society.
Full Text Available Abstract Marshall and Olkin (1997 introduced an interesting method of adding a parameter to a well-established distribution. However, they did not investigate general mathematical properties of their family of distributions. We provide for this family of distributions general expansions for the density function, explicit expressions for the moments and moments of the order statistics. Several especial models are investigated. We discuss estimation of the model parameters. An application to a real data set is presented for illustrative purposes.
44 participants from 12 West African nations met in Banjul, the Gambia, from October 22-26, 1979 and unanimously agreed that family planning is in conformity with Islam. They called for greater involvement of local Muslim leaders in African countries to encourage family planning for the promotion of maternal and child health. The Conference was sponsored by IPPF Africa Region and attended by representatives of Muslim associations, health and family planning workers, teachers, government officials, and experts on Muslim law from Cameroon, The Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Liberia, Mali, Morocco, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Upper Volta, and Zaire. The Conference members acknowledged that while the Koran, the Sunna, and the concensus of most Islam scholars is that family planning is acceptable within marriage, most traditional religious leaders are ignorant of the fact. Muslim women should be encouraged to take an interest in family planning. Other recommendations were educating Muslims on nutrition, sanitation, and health; to collect views of African Muslim leaders and publicize them; and, to persuade Ministries of Education to include family relations and parenthood in school curricula.
The General Vehicle Test Plan provides a system for general vehicle testing and for documenting and utilizing data and information in the testing of urban rail transit cars. Test procedures are defined for nine categories: (1) Performance; (2) Power ...
The Family Planning Association of Pakistan has begun a program of integration of family planning activities with other voluntary welfare agencies. 1 of the more successful projects has been in cooperation with the Family Welfare Cooperative Society of Lahore. Volunteers have provided facilities to very low-income women to help supplement income. At 1st it was knitting, embroidery, and cloth manufacture, but over several years it developed into a complex of several buildings with a comprehensive vocational training center, a showroom, schools for the children of mothers in training, a secretarial school, and a hostel for homeless women there. There is a medical unit, a full-time doctor, and family planning services.
Navot, Noa; Jorgenson, Alicia Grattan; Vander Stoep, Ann; Toth, Karen; Webb, Sara Jane
The diagnosis of a child with autism has short- and long-term impacts on family functioning. With early diagnosis, the diagnostic process is likely to co-occur with family planning decisions, yet little is known about how parents navigate this process. This study explores family planning decision making process among mothers of young children with autism spectrum disorder in the United States, by understanding the transformation in family vision before and after the diagnosis. A total of 22 mothers of first born children, diagnosed with autism between 2 and 4 years of age, were interviewed about family vision prior to and after their child's diagnosis. Grounded Theory method was used for data analysis. Findings indicated that coherence of early family vision, maternal cognitive flexibility, and maternal responses to diagnosis were highly influential in future family planning decisions. The decision to have additional children reflected a high level of adaptability built upon a solid internalized family model and a flexible approach to life. Decision to stop childrearing reflected a relatively less coherent family model and more rigid cognitive style followed by ongoing hardship managing life after the diagnosis. This report may be useful for health-care providers in enhancing therapeutic alliance and guiding family planning counseling. © The Author(s) 2015.
Navarro, M V
The Spanish feminist movement had its origins in the early 1970; in 1975 the first offical feminist conference made the following demands on the public authorities; 1) to abolish all sections of the Criminal Code which restrict women's freedom to control of their own bodies through making illegal information on and the purchase of contraceptives, 2) to decriminalize abortion, 3) to create family planning centers and to legalize contraceptives and provide them through the social security system, and 4) to include sex information in study courses. The distribution and sale of contraceptives was not legalized until 1978 and induced abortion is still a criminal offense. Nevertheless, after the 1975 meetins, a Coordinating Organization was established for the family planning committees that were functioning in the different feminist organizations. The problem of where to obtain contraceptives was solved by a group of feminist women which opened the 1st family planning center in Spain in 19779 This center was managed directly by members of the group. This and similar efforts culminated in the origin of the Movement for Movement for Family Planning that demanded in 1978; 1) the provision of sex information confronting the dominant sexual ideology and which is made a ccompulsory subject from school age, for both sexes; 2) free access to contraception for everyone; 3) the legalization of abortion, 4) the development of extensive information campaign on the problems of conception and contraception; and 5) the creation of independent, self-managed, family planning centers. There is now a Coordinating Organization of Family Planning Centers that was established in 1982. The socialist government is determined to create a public network of family planning centers.
I got married at the age of 20. In our community, generally girls are married off at 15 or 16, but my marriage was delayed according to my father's and my wishes. I did not desire to have my first child immediately. My husband and I are very young and I did not want to assume maternal responsibilities so early in life. Picking up courage, I spoke to my husband. On learning that he had similar views, I was very relieved. I belong to a middle-class family. Due to an absence of a high school in the village. I was forced to drop out of school. Young girls in our community are not allowed to move freely within the village, much less the outside world. But when I was 19, I got the opportunity to gain a lot of information on family planning, health, personal hygiene and good nutrition as part of the Better Life Project. I also learned beauty skills, embroidery, knitting and video film-making. Often I share the information and skills I learned with others. I have even advised my brother's wives about proper child care and immunization. Now that I have a good relationship with the unmarried sister of my husband, I sometimes tell her whatever I have learned. I have felt a great change in myself. My earlier inhibitions in talking to people have dropped, and I can entertain and speak freely with guests who come home. I am more confident about traveling outside my village to other places alone or with company. Learning to operate a video camera and producing a film was my favorite experience. I discovered that I can do what is normally said to be the work of boys only. Sometimes I think that if I had not learned new skills, I would not have been able to share my feelings about family planning with my husband. My mother-in-law is also agreeable to our decision about waiting to have children because both my brothers-in-law have large families. However, I have to face my sisters-in-law who taunt me about my childless status. The problem now is that my husband is not satisfied
Mcfarlane, D R; Meier, K J
Federal and state funds have provided for family planning services in American since the 1960s. Since 1976, services have been funded principally through federal statutes Title X of the Public Health Service Act and Titles V, XIX, and XX of the Social Security Act as well as various state appropriations. While these statutes aim to ensure that women of lower socioeconomic status enjoy access to reproductive health care services, levels of public expenditure in this area vary widely among states. In 1987, public family planning expenditures/woman at risk ranged from $60.16 in Wisconsin to $9.41 in Florida. Within this range of expenditures, the relative importance of each funding source per state varies widely. States with the most robust Title XIX programs, Medicaid, however, have highest per woman family planning expenditures. Upon reviewing the complement of public funding sources and how they are spent at the state level, the authors argue that categorical legislation is still needed to protect access to contraceptive services in America. In particular, of funds from supporting statues, Medicaid is distributed most equitable across the country. These funds paid for 36% of all public outlays for family planning in 1987. Without categorical legislation, however, Medicaid is insufficient to maintain the national family planning effort; the 1987 contribution of $10.49/woman at risk of unwanted pregnancy was insufficient to provide minimum services. Title X requires grantees to follow regulations which ensure state uniformity of quality and service distribution; submission of annual 5-year plans to Congress on how family planning goals will be achieved; and also authorizes monies for training and research. Despite political attacks, family planning funding must remain separate from maternal and child health programs. Such independence will keep these services politically visible; allow use of the more extensive family planning delivery system; catalyze states to
This paper explores the use of Islamic doctrine and jurisprudence by family planning organizations in the Gilgit-Baltistan region of northern Pakistan. It examines how particular interpretations of Islam are promoted in order to encourage fertility reductions, and the ways Muslim clerics, women and their families react to this process. The paper first discusses how Pakistan's demographic crisis, as the world's sixth most populous nation, has been widely blamed on under-funding for reproductive health services and wavering political commitment to family planning. Critics have called for innovative policy and programming to counter 'excessive reproduction' by also addressing socio-cultural and religious barriers to contraceptive uptake. Drawing on two years of ethnographic research, the paper examines how family planning organizations in Gilgit-Baltistan respond to this shift by employing moderate interpretations of Islam that qualify contraceptive use as a 'rational' reproductive strategy and larger families as 'irrational'. However, the use of Islamic rhetoric to enhance women's health-seeking agency and enable fertility reductions is challenged by conservative Sunni ulema (clergy), who seek to reassert collective control over women's bodies and fertility by deploying Islamic doctrine that honors frequent childbearing. Sunnis' minority status and the losses incurred by regional Shia-Sunni conflicts have further strengthened clerics' pronatalist campaigns. The paper then analyses how Sunni women navigate the multiple reproductive rationalities espoused by 'Islamized' family planning and conservative ulema. Although Islamized family planning legitimizes contraceptive use and facilitates many women's stated desire for smaller families, it frequently positions women against the interests of family, community and conservative Islam.
Wunderink, S R
This study examines economic models of household choice and the role of economic factors in determining the timing of births. A static economic model is presented and tested with data from the Netherlands. After the availability of contraceptives, the family size variable shifted from being an exogenous to an endogenous one, because births could be regulated. Costs of childbearing were construed to have maintenance costs for parents and society, attendance costs of care, and intangible costs such as anxiety or personal freedom. Benefits were intangible ones, such as joy and happiness; income; public benefits; and attendance benefits. Intangible benefits enlarged the utility of children, but maintenance costs diminished resources available for consumption. Child quality was a product of market goods purchased by parents and others and household labor. Household time allocation varied with child's age. Private responsibility for children varied by country. Quality of child care varied between countries and over time. Quality was dependent upon economies of scale, variable costs by the age of the child, variable time commitments by age of the child, and market substitutes for private child care. Higher income families spent more money but less time on children. It is pointed out that Becker's model explained number of children, but not timing of births. Postponement of birth was unlikely for those with a limited education, an unpleasant job, and low wages. When the advantages and disadvantages of having a baby were positive, spouses or single women with a high subjective preference were expected to bear a child as soon as possible. Government policy can affect the average family size by increasing or decreasing the financial and/or time burden of children. Postponement may be chosen based on long term analysis of a couple's future, the formation and use of capital, and/or high subjective time preference. Before and after first birth are different frames of reference
... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General plan. 105-1.109-50 Section 105-1.109-50 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management....109-50 General plan. Chapter 105 is divided into parts, subparts, and further subdivisions as...
Chandani, Y; Breton, G
Many developing countries increasingly recognize and acknowledge family planning as a critical part of socio-economic development. However, with few health dollars to go around, countries tend to provide essential drugs for curative care, rather than for family planning products. Donors have historically provided free contraceptives for family planning services. Whether products are donated or purchased by the country, a successful family planning program depends on an uninterrupted supply of products, beginning with the manufacturer and ending with the customer. Any break in the supply chain may cause a family planning program to fail. A well-functioning logistics system can manage the supply chain and ensure that the customers have the products they need, when they need them. Morocco was selected for the case study. The researchers had ready access to key informants and information about the Logistics Management Information System. Because the study had time and resource constraints, research included desktop reviews and interview, rather than data collection in the field. The case study showed that even in a challenging environment an LMIS can be successfully deployed and fully supported by the users. It is critical to customize the system to a country-specific situation to ensure buy-in for the implementation. Significant external support funding and technical expertise are critical components to ensure the initial success of the system. Nonetheless, evidence from the case study shows that, after a system has been implemented, the benefits may not ensure its institutionalization. Other support, including local funding and technical expertise, is required.
The individualized education plan (IEP) and the individualized family service plan (IFSP) are mandated for children with special needs. Occupational therapists participate in the development of both the IEP and the IFSP. This paper summarizes the similarities and the differences in the mandated components. The components addressed are (a) information about the child's status, (b) information about the family, (c) outcomes for the child and family, (d) intervention services, (e) other services, (f) dates and duration of services, (g) selection of a case manager, and (h) transition plans.
Fagan, Thomas; Dutta, Arin; Rosen, James; Olivetti, Agathe; Klein, Kate
Countries in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) have substantially improved access to family planning over the past 50 years. Many have also recently adopted explicit declarations of universal rights to health and universal health coverage (UHC) and have begun implementing UHC-oriented health financing schemes. These schemes will have important implications for the sustainability and further growth of family planning programs throughout the region. We examined the status of contraceptive methods in major health delivery and financing schemes in 9 LAC countries. Using a set of 37 indicators on family planning coverage, family planning financing, health financing, and family planning inclusion in UHC-oriented schemes, we conducted a desk review of secondary sources, including population surveys, health financing assessments, insurance enrollment reports, and unit cost estimates, and interviewed in-country experts. Findings: Although the modern contraceptive prevalence rate (mCPR) has continued to increase in the majority of LAC countries, substantial disparities in access for marginalized groups remain. On average, mCPR is 20% lower among indigenous women than the general population, 5% lower among uninsured women than insured, and 7% lower among the poorest women than the wealthiest. Among the poorest quintile of women, insured women had an mCPR 16.5 percentage points higher than that of uninsured women, suggesting that expansion of insurance coverage is associated with increased family planning access and use. In the high- and upper-middle-income countries we reviewed, all modern contraceptive methods are typically available through the social health insurance schemes that cover a majority of the population. However, in low- and lower-middle-income countries, despite free provision of most family planning services in public health facilities, stock-outs and implicit rationing present substantial barriers that prevent clients from accessing their preferred method
Family planning and development policy concerns are not incompatible. The emphasis on development policies at the 1974 World Population Conference at Bucharest did not mean that world governments had lost interest in the population and family planning issue. Although worldwide attitudes toward family planning have become more and more favorable, this has not yet meant great impact on world demographic trends. The "inertia factor," i.e., the effects of high birthrates in the previous generation, will camouflage declining birthrates for some time to come. The trend of fertility reduction which was perceptible only among small populations a few years ago is also becoming manifest in larger Third World countries. Mortality rate declines have slowed down but there is no rising mortality due to starvation in any country. At present, food demand exceeds availability for 80% of the Third World population. It is predicted that the food deficit will increase 70% by the year 2000.
Lundgren, Rebecka I; Gribble, James N; Greene, Margaret E; Emrick, Gail E; de Monroy, Margarita
A pilot project in rural El Salvador tested the integration of family planning into a water and sanitation program as a strategy for increasing male involvement in family planning decison making and use. The organizations involved posited that integrating family planning into a resource management and community development project would facilitate male involvement by diffusing information, by referring men and women to services, and by expanding method choice to include the new Standard Days Method through networks established around issues men cared about and were already involved in. This article examines data from a community-based household survey to assess the impact of the intervention and finds significant changes in contraceptive knowledge, attitudes, and behavior from baseline to endline. Because the differences between baseline and endline are greater than the differences between participants and nonparticipants at endline, the study demonstrates the power of informal networks for spreading information.
Smyth, Suzie; Stronge, Shirley
Family planning gives individuals and couples control and choice over the number of children they have and the timing of their births. Developments in reproductive health have resulted in major changes in the options for family planning, providing more choice and control over fertility. This article explores reproductive health in the Republic of Cuba and the Republic of Ireland, with a focus on contraceptive use and termination of pregnancy as methods of family planning. The predominant religion in both countries is Catholicism, which promotes the right to life of the unborn child. The two countries have adopted different approaches to the availability of both contraception and termination of pregnancy. Cuba has offered free access to contraception and termination of pregnancy since the 1960s to reduce maternal mortality. In Ireland, contraception was not widely available until 1995 and termination of pregnancy is available only in extremely limited circumstances.
Full Text Available In the article an ambitious plan is described for solving the problem of how to deal with the sewage water that originates from the flats in the south-east area of the capital and its outlet into the sea. The Himmerfjärden unit consists of a system of tunnels with a total length of 40 km and a depth capacity of 50 m and 100 m. The slope of these sewage tunnels is 1‰, with floor slabs of concrete. An efficient service for 250,000 people is foreseen with a possibility of an increase to 500,000 without the necessity of adding really important works. The construction works, the above mentioned tunels, as well as the pumping station and the mechanical cleaning grids have been carried out by the firm Skanska Cementgjuteriet.Se describe en el artículo un ambicioso plan para solucionar el problema de tratamiento de las aguas residuales que proceden de las plantas existentes en el área suroeste de la capital sueca y su vertido al mar. El conjunto Himmerfjärden consiste en un sistema de túneles, con 40 km de longitud total, dispuestos a profundidades de 50 y 100 m. La inclinación de estos túneles de alcantarillado es de 1‰, con solera de hormigón. Se prevé un servicio eficiente para 250.000 personas, con posibilidad de aumentar hasta 500.000, sin necesidad de realizar obras básicamente importantes, en cuanto a los túneles se refiere. Las obras de construcción, tanto de los citados túneles como de la estación de bombeo y de las rejillas de limpieza mecánica, han sido llevadas a cabo por la empresa Skanska Cementgjuteriet.
Primary data were collected from 399 currently married women of the Marati, Malekudiya, and Koraga tribes in the Dakshina Kannada district of Karnataka State in this study of the implementation of family planning programs in tribal areas. The Marati, Malekudiya, and Koraga tribes are three different endogamous tribal populations living in similar ecological conditions. Higher levels of literacy and a high rate of acceptance of family planning methods, however, have been observed among these tribes compared to the rest of the tribal population in the state. 46.4% of currently married women aged 15-49 years in the tribes were acceptors of family planning methods, having a mean 3.7 children. The majority of acceptors opted for tubectomy and vasectomy. The adoption of spacing methods is less common among tribal people. Most acceptors received their operations through government health facilities. They were motivated mainly by female health workers and received both cash and other incentives to accept family planning. The main reason for non-acceptance of family planning among non-acceptors was the desire to conceive and bear more children. The data indicate that most of the tribal households are nuclear families with household size more or less similar to that of the general population. They have a higher literacy rate than the rest of the tribal population in the state, with literacy levels between males and females and between the three tribes being quite different; the school enrollment ratio is relatively higher for both boys and girls.
Onono, Maricianah; Guzé, Mary A; Grossman, Daniel; Steinfeld, Rachel; Bukusi, Elizabeth A; Shade, Starley; Cohen, Craig R; Newmann, Sara J
Little information exists on the impact of integrating family planning (FP) services into HIV care and treatment on patients' familiarity with and attitudes toward FP. We conducted a cluster-randomized trial in 18 public HIV clinics with 12 randomized to integrated FP and HIV services and 6 to the standard referral-based system where patients are referred to an FP clinic. Serial cross-sectional surveys were done before (n = 488 women, 486 men) and after (n = 479 women, 481 men) the intervention to compare changes in familiarity with FP methods and attitudes toward FP between integrated and nonintegrated (NI) sites. We created an FP familiarity score based on the number of more effective FP methods patients could identify (score range: 0-6). Generalized estimating equations were used to control for clustering within sites. An increase in mean familiarity score between baseline (mean = 5.16) and post-intervention (mean = 5.46) occurred with an overall mean change of 0.26 (95% confidence intervals [CI] = 0.09, 0.45; p = 0.003) across all sites. At end line, there was no difference in increase of mean FP familiarity scores at intervention versus control sites (mean = 5.41 vs. 5.49, p = 0.94). We observed a relative decrease in the proportion of males agreeing that FP was "women's business" at integrated sites (baseline 42% to end line 30%; reduction of 12%) compared to males at NI sites (baseline 35% to end line 42%; increase of 7%; adjusted odds ration [aOR] = 0.43; 95% CI = 0.22, 0.85). Following FP-HIV integration, familiarity with FP methods increased but did not differ by study arm. Integration was associated with a decrease in negative attitudes toward FP among men.
... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How does one apply for a family planning services... GRANTS GRANTS FOR FAMILY PLANNING SERVICES Project Grants for Family Planning Services § 59.4 How does one apply for a family planning services grant? (a) Application for a grant under this subpart shall...
... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Who is eligible to apply for a family planning... SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR FAMILY PLANNING SERVICES Project Grants for Family Planning Services § 59.3 Who is eligible to apply for a family planning services grant? Any public or nonprofit private entity in...
The goal of the Indonesian family planning program has been to institutionalize both the concept and the norm of a small, happy and prosperous family in a manner that is acceptable to all. To this end, a larger role for the private sector in family planning (FP) has been promoted. While the government program has been very effective in the villages, it was not as effective in the urban areas where there are more diverse populations. Several meetings were held to develop a strategy for FP programs in the urban areas involving both the nongovernment organizations (NGOs) and commercial enterprises. It was agreed that several model programs would be developed through the NGOs with funds coming from both international health organizations and the National Family Planning Coordinating Board. It was hoped that the NGOs would develop into self-sufficient organizations. 1 urban activity that has just started is a specially designed social marketing project aimed at increasing the involvement and commitment of males through a condom distribution scheme. Another promising development is the shifting of the management and implementation of FP programs from the government to the community itself. A primary emphasis is to activate the private sector to expand its role in providing FP information and services. The overall strategy is to create a climate that will make it easier for people to increase their role in family planning service delivery and acceptance through mobilization of resources, funds, facilities and infrastructure so that acceptors will gradually pay for family planning services by themselves according to their needs.
The objective in this qualitative study was to obtain the discourse of the members of a healthcare team on family planning and female sterilization, and those practical effects on the work of the team. Marxist dialectic and social representations were used as references. Data were obtained by interviews and observations of certain activities of the members of the healthcare team and were subjected to analysis of the discourse. Family planning and female sterilization were considered to be rights, which pertained to the women, although the exercise of those rights is hindered by the limitations of access to contraceptive methods in general.
Kayembe, Patrick; Babazadeh, Saleh; Dikamba, Nelly; Akilimali, Pierre; Hernandez, Julie; Binanga, Arsene; Bertrand, Jane T
Background: Modern contraceptive prevalence was 14.1% in 2007 in Kinshasa, the capital city of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). Yet virtually nothing was known about the family planning supply environment. Methods: Three surveys of health facilities were conducted in 2012, 2013, and 2014 to determine the number, spatial distribution, and attributes of sites providing family planning services. The 2012 and 2013 surveys aimed to identify the universe of family planning facilities while obtaining a limited set of data on “readiness” to provide family planning services (defined as having at least 3 modern methods, at least 1 person training in family planning in the last 3 years, and an information system to track distribution of products to clients) and output (measured by couple-years of protection, or CYP). In contrast, the 2014 survey, conducted under the umbrella of the Performance Monitoring and Accountability 2020 (PMA2020) project, was based on 2-stage cluster sampling. This article provides detailed analysis of the 2012 and 2013 surveys, including bivariate and multivariate analysis of correlates of readiness to provide services and of output. Results: We identified 184 health facilities that reported providing at least 1 contraceptive method in 2012 and 395 facilities in 2013. The percentage of sites defined as “ready” to provide services increased from 44.1% in 2012 to 63.3% in 2013. For the 3-month period between January and March 2013, facilities distributed between 0 and 879.2 CYP (mean, 39.7). Nearly half (49%) of the CYP was attributable to implants, followed by IUDs (24%), CycleBeads (11%), and injectables (8%). In 2013, facilities supported by PEPFAR (n = 121) were more likely than other facilities to be rated as ready to provide services (Pplanning implementing agencies (Pplanning in the DRC in many ways, including mobilizing partners to increase contraceptive access and increasing donor investment in family planning in the DRC
..., et al. Student Assistance General Provisions, Federal Perkins Loan Program, Federal Family Education... General Provisions, Federal Perkins Loan Program, Federal Family Education Loan Program, and William D... General Provisions, Federal Perkins Loan (Perkins Loan) Program, Federal Family Education Loan (FFEL...
Decades of social change in West Germany and the emergence of an ideology that stresses individualism have altered dramatically procreative behavioral patterns. At present, West Germany is characterized by a low marriage rate (6.1/1000 in 1986), declining fertility (10.3 birth/1000), rising divorce rates (20.1/1000), and increases in the proportion of single-person households (34%). The relationship between family planning, family policy, and demographic policy is unclear and changing. Family planning practice is viewed as a part of comprehensive life planning and is based on factors such as partnership or marital status, sex roles, the conflict between working in the home and having a career, consumer aspirations, and housing conditions. The Government's family policy includes the following components: child benefits, tax relief on children, tax splitting arrangements for married couples, childcare allowance, parental leave, student grants, tax deductions for domiciliary professional help and nursing assistance, and the provision of daycare. Thus, West Germany's family policy is directed more at encouraging and facilitating parenthood and family life than at a setting demographic goals. There is no evidence, however, that such measures will be successful and divergent influences of other policy areas are often more compelling. Nor is there any way to quantify the fertility-costing impact of individual family policy measures. The indistinct nature of family planning policy in West Germany mirrors political differences between the current coalition government, which maintains a traditional view of the family, and the opposition Social-Democratic and Green Parties, which question whether the equality of men and women can be achieved in the context of old family structures.
Pethe, V P
Addresses the question of whether Malthus, were he alive today, would support compulsory family planning (a policy generally referred to as "Malthusian"). The neomalthusian position is basically that the race between population growth and development of resources, especially food supply, is highly unequal; poverty and stagnation are the inevitable outcome. Population growth must therefore be curbed by whatever means are available, through legal compulsion if necessary. A number of statements from Indian government sources during the mid 1970s, with regard to sterilization, are offered as illustrations. The Malthusian paradigm described has been subjected to severe criticism, which leads to questions about its validity as a justification for compulsory sterilization. Malthus distinguished between policy measures for control of population, rejecting all but the moral restraint implied in postponement of marriage. Thus, like Gandhi, he rejected the belief that the ends justify the means. The Malthusian basis is seen as untenable for 3 reasons: it is erroneous (science and technology have nullified the thesis of over population as the cause of poverty); it is dangerous (treating symptoms rather than the disease); it is inadequate, leaving out variables other than the economic from its analysis. Malthus the moralist would have rejected compulsion, and the use of his paradigm to justify such a policy does him an injustice.
Amenorrhea, breast feeding, fear of side effects, discontinuation due to health concerns and pressure from the surroundings were the most common cited reasons for non-use. Conclusion: Integration of family planning education during antenatal, natal and postnatal care services in Egypt should be actively initiated. Women ...
Factors Influencing Utilization of Modern Family Planning Services among Women of Child Bearing Age (15 - 49 years) in the University of Calabar Teaching Hospital, Calabar. ... Using accidental sampling technique, 150 women of childbearing age were selected to constitute the sample. Data were collected using a ...
activities and USAID began to purchase contraceptives for distribution through its programs in the developing world. The first International Population...agenda of initiatives that include the promotion of gender equality, increasing adolescent education on sexuality and reproductive health, and...maintains family planning projects in more than 60 countries that include counseling and services, training of health workers, contraceptive supplies and
Reis, Janet; And Others
Describes a pilot family planning program in an inner-city pediatric practice. Male adolescents were more likely to accept contraceptives if the provider first raised the topic of birth control to them. Identified a desire for anonymity/confidentiality and embarrassment or discomfort as the key reasons for not seeking contraceptives. Emphasizes…
... knowledge and incorporate it into the national health care delivery service. Researchers should document the available indigenous knowledge before they are forgotten while ascertaining the validity of some of the methods. Keywords: Maternal health, family planning, pregnancy management, homebased health care.
Objective:. To assess the level of regard and misconceptions of modern family planning methods in Abraka communities. Methods: The interviewer\\'s administered questionnaire method was used to gather the required information from 657 respondents randomly chosen from PO, Ajalomi, Erho, Oria, Otorho, Umeghe, ...
About half (51.4%) believed that the decision to use family planning methods is for men while 41.7% would communicate with their wives about the need for either ... is necessary to facilitate method use as well as programmes that highlight communication strategies and foster joint reproductive health decision making.
This health systems assessment evaluated the feasibility of introducing a new contraceptive device, the SILCS single-size diaphragm, into the existing family planning method mix in Uganda. A total of 26 focus group discussions with 201 female and 77 male potential users and 98 key informant interviews with policymakers ...
The focus of this research was to study the problems and prospects of family planning services in the University of Calabar Teaching Hospital, Calabar. The Levels of poverty, income and health education of the clients were studied. The main source of data and information was a structured questionnaire. A sample of 200 ...
This study aimed at assessing the pattern of family planning methods used by antenatal patients at Federal Medical Centre, Owo, Ondo State, Nigeria. The study was conducted between December,2007 and February,2008 at the antenatal clinic of the hospital. Ethical clearance was obtained from the Ethical committee of ...
Context: Medical audit in healthcare has a goal to monitor and upgrade the standard of health care in a setting. Whether a client will accept, use effectively and continue to practice contraception depends on the quality of services rendered. Objective: To assess the quality of our family planning services as perceived by our ...
Aim: This study aimed at determining the awareness about family planning amongst pregnant women presenting to the antenatal clinic of Federal Medical Centre, Owo, Ondo State, Nigeria. Methodology: The study was conducted between December, 2007 and February, 2008 at the antenatal clinic of the hospital. Ethical ...
Women with severe maternal morbidity represent an important group to target for increasing contraceptive uptake. Our objective was to explore the future fertility intentions, use of family planning including methods and reasons for not wanting to use contraception among a group of women who had traumatic delivery ...
Background: Utilisation of family planning services in Kenya remains quite low hence, the soaring population which has partly hampered achievement of the fifth Millennium Development Goal (MDG) as well as achievement of overall development goals for the entire country. Current reports indicate that male participation ...
Overcoming family planning challenges in Africa: toward meeting unmet need and scaling up service delivery. Andrzej Kulczycki. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL.
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diaphragm, into the existing family planning method mix in Uganda. A total of 26 ... expand women's options for contraceptive protection. ... several countries, and the product was approved in ..... younger clients and may not adequately market ... different stages of their life cycle. .... maternal mortality ratio in Uganda: priority.
about 25% of women who have abortion in Nigeria ... Keywords: Family planning, awareness, pregnant women, Nigeria. Annals of Ibadan .... Washington D.C. World bank 1987;52. 6. ... 2007;1(1) : Accessed on line on 7th March,2008. 19.
National School of Public Health, University of Limpopo (Medunsa Campus), Pretoria. Karl Peltzer, MA, PhD, ... Africa.1-4 Family planning can reduce the number of deaths ..... not menstruating at the time of seeking the service, too .... Tripp J, Viner R. ABC of adolescent sexual health, contraception and teenage pregnancy.
Method All records of the clients that attended the Family Planning Clinic from January 2003 to December 2007 were analyzed Results New clients were 22% while revisits were 78%, with a steady increase in the number of new clients from 4% in 2003 to 26% in 2007. Injectable contraceptives were the most commonly ...
Keywords: Mobile clinics; Staic clinic; Family planning; Cost-effectiveness. Résumé. Des analyses ... d'offrir plus de méthodes de longue durée d'action peut influer sur une décision politique entre ces options. Cliniques ... nurse and a driver9.
PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... African Journal for the Psychological Study of Social Issues ... The study adopted a qualitative and quantitative approach which included a survey of 136 randomly ... of awareness were many, very few women had adequate knowledge about family planning methods.
The author provides a global review of family planning techniques and their impact on national birth rates. Sterilization, the pill, and intrauterine devices are the most popular methods of contraception worldwide. Abortion, where it is legal, is also extremely popular. In countries such as the United States where population control is not an…
Men play critical roles in women's ability to seek health care and Reproductive Health programmes are likely to be more effective when men are involved in some way. The study was designed to assess the family planning (FP) behaviour of male civil servants in Ibadan, and determine their roles in their spouses' FP ...
Galue, Leda; Kiryakova, Virginia
In this paper we continue an investigation of a family of generalized radiation integrals. Several recurrence relations are presented. By differentiation of these integrals with respect to the parameters λ and μ we obtain also various integrals that include the logarithmic function in the integrand. Finally, we propose an algorithm for numerical evaluation of the generalized radiation integrals and illustrate it by tables of their values computed for selected values of the parameters. (author)
Augusto Lam Wong
Full Text Available Accounting provides information for making decisions of many economic agents specially the accounting records that have their basis on the organized language called the accounting plan. Until 1973, in Peru, every company prepared its accounting plan according to its information necessities which provoked a variety of words, many with lots of analytical accounts and other general ones. It’s in this situation that the First General Accounting Plan was approved and its mandatory implementation started on January 1st 1974 until 1984, and then it was changed by the General Accounting Plan (PCGR the one that is used until now. However, now its use doesn’t have any relationship with the International Financial Reporting Standars (NIIF, which are a support for the financial estate in our country. For that reason we approved the version of General Accounting Business Plan (PCGE, the one that is going to be considered on January 1st 2011. The objective of the following article is to announce the effects of the application in some of the private organizations from this new Accounting Business Plan (PCGE in relation to the General Accounting Plan.
Hall, M F
To obtain the male viewpoint toward family planning in the Chilean population, 561 men (aged 18-54) in Santiago from upper, middle, and lower socioeconomic levels were interviewed on their birth control attitudes and practices and compared with a random probability sample of 240 men from a nearby rural village. Tabulation of the interviews showed that a majority of both unmarried and married men identified themselves as active participants in birth control discussions. Younger husbands tended to have had more experience with contraception than older husbands, and respondents in higher socioeconomic levels showed a greater use of contraception (75%) than men in the lower class or village sample (35%). 23% of those in the village sample who did not use contraception cited reasons such as lack of knowledge and money or fear of harmful effects, while only 2% of the upper class in the urban sample cited such reasons. Approval of abortion for their wives was expressed by around 40% of all respondents. Approval of abortion in general ranged from 81% in cases of probable fetal deformity to 31% in single girls. Questions on sexual relations revealed that the median age for the first sexual intercourse was 16 years. 91% of the unmarried men were sexually active at a median frequence of once every 2 weeks, and contraception, if used, was most frequently oral or male devices. Among married men, sexual relations occurred at a median frequency of once every 4 days, with contraception, if used, most likely being an intrauterine device. All of the respondents tended to favor dissemination of contraceptive information more readily to men than women. Approval of providing this information to single girls was directly related to economic status. The schools were readily accepted as a forum for contraceptive discussion. The father was by far the preferred principal source of information for a son (44%) rather than friends (6%), but the respondents themselves got their information from
Hall, M F
Male attitudes toward family planning education were assessed through a study of 720 men in Santiago and 240 men in a nearby rural area of Chile. Interviews were conducted by male students at the University of Chile School of Public Health. A large majority of the men were using or planned to use contraception in the future. There was a near consensus that adults should be informed regarding family planning. More than a majority of the respondents favored provision of contraceptive information for unmarried women, but most did not approve of premarital sexual activity for females. Most respondents favored the teaching of sex education in schools "according to the age of the children." Younger and higher class males tended to hold the most liberal attitudes.
Padmadas, Sabu S; Amoako Johnson, Fiifi; Leone, Tiziana; Dahal, Govinda P
Nepal has a distinct topography that makes reproductive health and family planning services difficult to access, particularly in remote mountain and hill regions where over a quarter of modern contraceptive users rely exclusively on vasectomy. A three-level random intercept logistic regression analysis was applied on data from the 2011 Nepal Demographic and Health Survey to investigate the extent of influence of mobile family planning clinics on the odds of a male or a female sterilization, adjusting for relevant characteristics including ecological differences and random effects. The analyses included a sample of 2014 sterilization users, considering responses from currently married women of reproductive ages. The odds of a male sterilization were significantly higher in a mobile clinic than those in a government hospital (odds ratio, 1.65; 95% confidence interval, 1.21-2.25). The effects remained unaltered and statistically significant after adjusting for sociodemographic and clustering effects. Random effects were highly significant, which suggest the extent of heterogeneity in vasectomy use at the community and district levels. The odds of vasectomy use in mobile clinics were significantly higher among couples residing in hill and mountain regions and among those with three or more sons or those with only daughters. Mobile clinics significantly increase the uptake of vasectomy in hard-to-reach areas of Nepal. Reproductive health interventions should consider mobile clinics as an effective strategy to improve access to male-based modern methods and enhance gender equity in family planning. Family planning interventions in hard-to-reach communities could consider mobile clinic as an effective strategy to promote male-based modern methods. Improving access to vasectomy could substantially reduce unmet need for family planning in countries experiencing rapid fertility transition. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Finnigan, O D; Parulan, D
The benfits of establishing family planning through collective bargaining to both labor and management are discussed. Until workers can be convinced that their children will receive health care, education and employment, and that they will be economically secure in old age, it is difficult to convince them of the many benefits of child spacing and small family size. In 1953, it was calculated by management in a Japanese steel factory that about 70% of all acidents could be attributable to difficulties in the private lives of employees. In order to ease problems in the home, collective agreements were initiated by management in the Nippon Express Company to provide family planning services. Labor agreed as long as the workers were to share in the economic awards which came from participation. Costs of implementing the family planning programs were fully offset by the decrease in expenditure on family allowances, confinement, nursing, and so on. In India some ten estates began a program in which a certain amount of money is paid into an account for every month that a woman does not become pregnant. If the woman becomes pregnant, she forfeits a substantial amount of the fund. This money comes directly from the funds which would normally have to be set aside to provide for maternity and child support programs. Certain guidelines are presented in the paper to outline the areas of responsibility of labor and management in the provision of family planning services. Among the many possibilities mentioned is the idea that both labor and management could look into the conceivability of plowing back a portion of whatever savings are accrued by management into a pension scheme to compensate workers for the loss of labor caused by having fewer children than were previously anticipated.
England's Family Planning Association's (FPA) MEN TOO campaign evolved from the recognition that men seemed to receive less support and encouragement than women in their involvement in the emotional aspects of relationships, family planning, and child rearing. Created out of a concern for balancing the selective attention given to men and women, the longterm goal of the MEN TOO campaign was to support the growing number of men who are concerned about increasing their participation in emotional expression, family planning, child rearing and related areas and to explore ways of improving the information and education services that contribute to a better understanding of these issues. The shortterm project goals were to: raise the "unspoken issues" for public debate; encourage more communication and an improved quality in personal and sexual relationships; and raise the support for effective contraceptive use in sexual relationships. Prior to the publicity campaign a select bibliography, a document outlining the need for and general aims of the MEN TOO project, and a report indicating that family planning services needed to be more flexible and accommodating to men were prepared. A press conference officially launched the MEN TOO project. During the autumn of 1984 and the spring of 1985 public service announcements were transmitted on all 9 of the independent television stations participating in the scheme. The FPA's 1-day conference, "Men, Sex and Relationships" in March 1985, in London. 400 delegates, attended both professional and laypersons, about 1/3 of them men. To give the initial impetus to changing the general atmosphere within family planning clinics and to changing staff attitudes toward men, a letter was sent from the FPA's Secretary General to all District Medical Officers, with copies to Senior Family Planning Officers and to District Health Education Officers, describing the campaign and expressing the hope that more men would come forward to seek
The last 9th of December 1994 the Council of Ministries approved the Fourth General Plan of Radioactive Waste (PGRR). The Fourth Plan actualizes former texts taking into into account new circumstances, both technical and economical, affecting radioactive waste. Some of the steps that conform the global waste management process have been revised on the light of the Spanish experience but also considering the evolution and trends in other countries. In this work some of the most important aspects included in the Fourth general Plan are overviewed. (Author)
Susana Barbeito Roibal
Full Text Available A research project on Galician family owned businesses, financed by the University of A Coruña from 2004 to 2005, analyzed results from 57 of these companies that earned a profit of more than 5 million euro in 2003. One of the aspects examined in this project, which is the aim of this article, shows the importance that Galician family business owners pay to the planning for the succession process. Literature on family owned businesses emphasizes the importance of planning in successful occurrences. The obtained results increasingly show changes in the significance that the Galician family business owners give to our focus of study, almost reaching the level of importance that literature has given to the succession process in the last decade.
In China, key policy-makers at the highest levels of government recognize that the success of the family planning (FP) program depends upon improving the status of Chinese women. The highest ranking female government official, Peng Peiyun, a State Councilor and the Minister of the State Family Planning (FP) Commission, has initiated a new policy of improving the quality of service in the FP program. She recognizes that women who are gainfully employed and control their income are less likely to desire large families. One aspect of the effort to improve quality involves training FP personnel in interpersonal communication and counseling skills. The results of a pilot training program show that clients are pleased with the new approach and that use of FP services has increased. The FP Commission is also experimenting with programs which integrate all the needs of women and their families (FP, credit availability, old age support) in rural areas. Traditionally, sons provided for their elderly parents, so families with only one daughter are concerned about old age provision. Thus, national efforts are underway to develop social security systems. In the meantime, women at all levels, from grassroots FP acceptors to FP staff members and researchers are the major contributors to the innovations which will allow China to control its population growth.
Teston, R C
Dr. Cesar T. San Pedro, the director of the company clinic at Dole Philippines plantation in South Cotabato in Region 11, has been pressing the management to initiate a comprehensive family planning programs for their 10,000 workers. Pedro wants the Ministry of Labor and Employment (MOLE) to enforce its population program. The situation at Dole is one that requires an arbiter. Since 1977, there has not been a Population/Family Planning Officer (PFPO) for the area, and it is not possible to monitor closely if the qualified firms are following the labor code and providing family planning services to their employees. Susan B. Dedel, executive director of the PFPO, has reported that the office has sought to endear its program to the private sector by showing that family planning is also profitable for the firm. This "soft-sell" approach has been the hallmark of the MOLE-PFPO since it began in 1975 as a joint project of the Commission on Population (POPCOM), United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA), and International Labor Organization (ILO). Some critics have argued that this liberal style of implementation is short-selling the program. They point out that the Labor Code of 1973 enforces all establishments with at least 200 employees to have a free in-plant family planning program which includes clinic care, paid motivators, and volunteer population workers. The critics seem, at 1st glance, to have the statistics on their side. In its 5 years of operation, the PFPO has convinced only 137,000 workers to accept family planning. This is quite low, since of the 1.2 million employed by the covered firms, 800,000 are eligible for the MOLE program. Much of the weakness of the implementation is said to be due to the slow activation of the Labor-Management Coordinating Committees (LMCC). The critics maintain that because of the liberal enforcement of Department Order No. 9, the recalcitrant firms see no reason to comply. Dedel claims that the program is on the
Lee, Taewha; Lee, Hyeonkyeong; Ahn, Hyun Mi; Jang, Younkyoung; Shin, Hyejeong; Kim, Myeong Seon
To examine couple interactions to predict wives' contraceptive use as well as that of their husbands in rural Ethiopia. Previous studies stated that men's power and their preferences regarding family planning have a significant role in the adoption of contraception, as well as women's general reproductive health. Spousal communication on reproductive matters helped couples to be aware of each other's perspectives and enhanced the usage of family planning through shared decision-making. A cross-sectional descriptive design was used to analyse the Actor and Partner effects within the marital dyad. The study sample included 389 married couples who were recruited from households in seven enumeration areas randomly selected from Hetosa Woreda in Ethiopia. We used a face-to-face interview survey. Data were collected between 22 October and 21 November 2010 and analysed using descriptive statistics, chi-squared test, t-test, Pearson's correlation and the Actor-Partner interdependence model. There were significant differences in perceptions about family planning, contraceptive knowledge and contraceptive use between wives and husbands. Wives' perceptions about family planning affected theirs as well as that of their husbands' knowledge and use of contraceptive methods. However, husbands' perceptions about family planning did not affect their knowledge and use of contraceptive methods, but did influence their wives'. The application of couple data enhanced our understanding of the complex interactions between wives and husbands, which may lead to novel dyadic-based interventions to improve family planning practice. Couples must be educated and informed not only about the adoption of contraception, but also about reproductive rights and responsibilities through changes in educational and motivational strategies. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Understanding why people do not use family planning is critical to address unmet needs and to increase contraceptive use. According to the Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey 2011, most women and men had knowledge on some family planning methods but only about 29% of married women were using contraceptives. 20% women had an unmet need for family planning. We examined knowledge, attitudes and contraceptive practice as well as factors related to contraceptive use in Jimma zone, Ethiopia. METHODS: Data were collected from March to May 2010 among 854 married couples using a multi-stage sampling design. Quantitative data based on semi-structured questionnaires was triangulated with qualitative data collected during focus group discussions. We compared proportions and performed logistic regression analysis. RESULT: The concept of family planning was well known in the studied population. Sex-stratified analysis showed pills and injectables were commonly known by both sexes, while long-term contraceptive methods were better known by women, and traditional methods as well as emergency contraception by men. Formal education was the most important factor associated with better knowledge about contraceptive methods (aOR = 2.07, p<0.001, in particular among women (aOR(women = 2.77 vs. aOR(men = 1.49; p<0.001. In general only 4 out of 811 men ever used contraception, while 64% and 43% females ever used and were currently using contraception respectively. CONCLUSION: The high knowledge on contraceptives did not match with the high contraceptive practice in the study area. The study demonstrates that mere physical access (proximity to clinics for family planning and awareness of contraceptives are not sufficient to ensure that contraceptive needs are met. Thus, projects aiming at increasing contraceptive use should contemplate and establish better counseling about contraceptive side effects and method switch. Furthermore in all family planning
Canning, David; Schultz, T Paul
We consider the evidence for the effect of access to reproductive health services on the achievement of Millennium Development Goals 1, 2, and 3, which aim to eradicate extreme poverty and hunger, achieve universal primary education, and promote gender equality and empower women. At the household level, controlled trials in Matlab, Bangladesh, and Navrongo, Ghana, have shown that increasing access to family planning services reduces fertility and improves birth spacing. In the Matlab study, findings from long-term follow-up showed that women's earnings, assets, and body-mass indexes, and children's schooling and body-mass indexes, substantially improved in areas with improved access to family planning services compared with outcomes in control areas. At the macroeconomic level, reductions in fertility enhance economic growth as a result of reduced youth dependency and an increased number of women participating in paid labour. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Gold, Judy; Burke, Eva; Ciss?, Boubacar; Mackay, Anna; Eva, Gillian; Hayes, Brendan
Background: Mali has one of the world's lowest contraceptive use rates and a high rate of unmet need for family planning. In order to increase access to and choice of quality family planning services, Marie Stopes International (MSI) Mali introduced social franchising in public-sector community health centers (referred to as CSCOMs in Mali) in 3 regions under the MSI brand BlueStar. Program Description: Potential franchisees are generally identified from CSCOMs who have worked with MSI outrea...
De Paolis, M R
An analysis of 46 posters from 27 countries of Sub-Saharan Africa allowed the values conveyed by this medium to be defined, the status of the announcer and the recipient to be clarified, and their relationship and the attendant social consequences to be brought out. One of the primary characteristics of this sample was that the vast majority of the posters contained drawings and only a limited number used photos. The family was the theme most commonly represented by the image and the text: information on family planning necessarily involved the family, the synonym of fertility. The majority of posters represented the traditional, nuclear family of the Western world, comprising the father, mother, and children. It was interesting to observe that this image did not necessarily reflect reality in Africa, where traditionally the extended family, including the grandparents, uncles and aunts, is more widespread. The message most commonly conveyed the image of the nuclear family. The number of children shown varied from 1 to 4, with an average of 2. The most widely used message strategies in this sample of posters involved three types of announcer: authoritarian, nonauthoritarian, and character announcer. The authoritarian type announcer was not visually depicted but consisted of messages that were written orders or threats. The nonauthoritarian announcer, also not depicted, gave messages that contained no orders or threats. The character announcer was one the characters portrayed in the picture.
Stern, Lisa F; Simons, Hannah R; Kohn, Julia E; Debevec, Elie J; Morfesis, Johanna M; Patel, Ashlesha A
To describe contraceptive use among U.S. female family planning providers and to compare their contraceptive choices to the general population. We surveyed a convenience sample of female family planning providers ages 25-44 years, including physicians and advanced practice clinicians, via an internet-based survey from April to May 2013. Family planning providers were compared to female respondents ages 25-44 years from the 2011-2013 National Survey of Family Growth. A total of 488 responses were eligible for analysis; 331 respondents (67.8%) were using a contraceptive method. Providers' contraceptive use differed markedly from that of the general population, with providers significantly more likely to use intrauterine contraception, an implant, and the vaginal ring. Providers were significantly less likely to use female sterilization and condoms. There were no significant differences between providers and the general population in use of partner vasectomy or the pill. Long-acting reversible contraception (LARC) use was significantly higher among providers than in the general population (41.7% vs. 12.1%, pfamily planning providers differed significantly from the general population. These findings have implications for clinical practice, patient education, and health policy. Family planning providers report higher use of LARC than the general population. This may reflect differences in preferences and access. Providers might consider sharing these findings with patients, while maintaining patient choice and autonomy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hardee, Karen; Croce-Galis, Melanie; Gay, Jill
Although the range of contraceptives includes methods for men, namely condoms, vasectomy and withdrawal that men use directly, and the Standard Days Method (SDM) that requires their participation, family planning programming has primarily focused on women. What is known about reaching men as contraceptive users? This paper draws from a review of 47 interventions that reached men and proposes 10 key considerations for strengthening programming for men as contraceptive users. A review of progra...
In 1976 the United Nations's Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific launched a comparative study on integrated family planning programs in a number of countries in the region. In November 1979 the study directors from the participating countries meet in Bangkok to discuss the current status of the studies in their countries. The Korean and Malaysian studies were completed, the Bangladesh study was in the data collecting phase, and the Pakistani research design phase was completed. The meeting participants focused their attention on the findings and policy implications of the 2 completed studies and also discussed a number of theorectical and methodological issues which grew out of their research experience. The Malaysian study indicated that group structure, financial resources, and the frequency and quality of worker-client contact were the most significant variables determining program effectiveness. In the Korean Study, leadership, financial resources, and the frequency and quality of contact between agencies were the key variables in determining program effectiveness. In the Malaysian study there was a positive correlation between maternal and child health service performance measures and family planning service performance measures. This finding supported the contention that these 2 types of service provision are not in conflict with each other but instead serve to reinforce each other. Policy implications of the Korean study were 1) family planning should be an integral part of all community activities; 2) family planning workers should be adequately supported by financial and supply allocations; and 3) adequate record keeping and information exchange procedures should be incorporated in the programs.
Forrest, J D; Hermalin, A I; Henshaw, S K
During the 1970s, there was a decline in adolescent childbearing in the United States and, among teenagers who were sexually active, there was a decline in pregnancy rates as well. To what extent was increased enrollment by teenagers in federally funded family planning clinics responsible for these declines? Areal multivariate analysis reveals that adolescent birthrates were reduced between 1970 and 1975 as the result of enrollment by teenagers in family planning clinics, independent of the effects of other factors also affecting fertility, such as poverty status, education and urbanization. Using a model which controls for differences in adolescent sexual activity in different areas in 1970 and 1975, the analysis found that for every 10 teenage patients enrolled in family planning clinics in 1975, about one birth was averted in 1976. Other multivariate models, which did not control for differences in sexual activity, showed changes in the same direction, though of smaller dimension. Since the family planning program averts not only births but also pregnancies that result in abortions and miscarriages, an estimate was made of the total number of pregnancies averted by the program. Based on the proportion of unintended pregnancies among adolescents that resulted in live births in 1976 (36 percent), it was estimated that for every 10 teen patients enrolled in 1975, almost three pregnancies were averted in the following year. Over the 1970s, an estimated 2.6 million unintended adolescent pregnancies were averted by the program--944,000 births, 1,376,000 abortions and 326,000 miscarriages. In 1979 alone, an estimated 417,000 unintended pregnancies were prevented by the program.
Interviews were conducted in 1995 among 100 US family planning program personnel who serve hard-to-reach populations, such as drug abusers, prisoners, the disabled, homeless persons, and non-English speaking minorities. Findings indicate that a range of services is available for hard-to-reach groups. Most family planning agencies focus on drug abusers because of the severity of HIV infections and the availability of funding. This article describes the activities of various agencies in Michigan, Pennsylvania, and Massachusetts that serve substance abuse centers with family planning services. One recommendation for a service provider is to present services in an environment where it is safe to talk about a person's needs. One other program offered personal greetings upon arrival and the continuity of having a familiar face to oversee all reproductive and health needs. Programs for prisoners ranged from basic sex education classes to comprehensive reproductive health care. Some prisons offered individual counseling. Some programs were presented in juvenile offender facilities. Outreach to the homeless involved services at homeless shelters, outreach workers who recruited women into traditional family planning clinics, and establishment of nontraditional sites for the homeless and other hard-to-reach persons. One provider's suggestion was to offer services where high-risk women already go for other services. Most services to the disabled target the developmentally disabled rather than the physically disabled. Experience has shown that many professionals working with the disabled do not recognize their clients' sexual needs. Other hard-to-reach groups include women in housing projects and shelters for battered women, welfare applicants, and sex workers. Key to service provision is creating trust, overcoming language and cultural differences, and subsidizing the cost of care.
method. Lack of endorsement was due to its unreliability for women with irregular cycles, and during breastfeeding (Geerling, 1995). It was known as...spoke to that one individual who knew my case. I used to mail in all of my charts monthly. They kept a count because I was very irregular . It was...of natural family planning in lactating women after the return of menses . American Journal of Obstetrics and Gvnecology. 165, 2037-2039. Natural
Grierson, Lawrence E M; Fowler, Nancy; Kwan, Matthew Y W
To assess residents' practice intentions since the introduction of the College of Family Physicians of Canada's Triple C curriculum, which focuses on graduating family physicians who will provide comprehensive care within traditional and newer models of family practice. A survey based on Ajzen's theory of planned behaviour was administered on 2 occasions. McMaster University in Hamilton, Ont. Residents (n = 135) who were enrolled in the Department of Family Medicine Postgraduate Residency Program at McMaster University in July 2012 and July 2013; 54 of the 60 first-year residents who completed the survey in 2012 completed it again in 2013. The survey was modeled so as to measure the respondents' intentions to practise with a comprehensive scope; determine the degree to which their attitudes, subjective norms, and perceptions of control about comprehensive practice influence those intentions; and investigate how these relationships change as residents progress through the curriculum. The survey also queried the respondents about their intentions with respect to particular medical services that underpin comprehensive practice. The responses indicate that the factors modeled by the theory of planned behaviour survey account for 60% of the variance in the residents' intentions to adopt a comprehensive scope of practice upon graduation, that there is room for curricular improvement with respect to encouraging residents to practise comprehensive care, and that targeting subjective norms about comprehensive practice might have the greatest influence on improving resident intentions. The theory of planned behaviour presents an effective approach to assessing curricular effects on resident practice intentions while also providing meaningful information for guiding further program evaluation efforts in the Department of Family Medicine at McMaster University.
Cameroon has announced that it favors family planning as a means of improving family welfare. In the local context, family planning would refer to spacing and to a lesser extent limiting births, as well as combatting infertility. This work argues that, at a time of deep economic and financial crisis for Cameroon and of growing need and demand for family planning services, the introduction of employment-based family planning services could reinforce the family planning activities of the government and private agencies. The work broadly outlines national family planning policy, identifies weaknesses of proposed family planning strategies, and points out the advantages of employment-based services. Cameroon's infant mortality rate of 90/1000 live births and maternal mortality of 420/100,000 are partly related to its very high fertility rate, closely spaced births, and early pregnancy. The national family planning program goal is to promote health and wellbeing by preventing early and unwanted pregnancies and illnesses in high-risk groups. A decline in unwanted births would be achieved through voluntary use of contraception. The main strategy would be an ambitious IEC program to inform the population of the advantages of family planning using mass media, print materials, and interpersonal communication. The general objectives of the IEC program would be to reduce maternal mortality to 300/100,000 and infant mortality from 90 to 70/1000 and increase contraceptive prevalence from 3 to 20% by 1994. Family planning services and commercial distribution centers would be created, taking advantage of existing health facilities wherever possible as well as community based systems of service delivery for the population not yet served by the traditional distribution system. Experience with the IEC strategy in other countries demonstrates that there is a great disproportion between the population touched by IEC and contraceptive prevalence. The strategy would probably be more
Toohey, J V; Valenzuela, G J
A Spanish language family planning education program utilizing the dynamics of values clarification has been designed and implemented in the state of Oaxaca, Mexico. The design of the program features three basic personality identification activities to help individuals identify other dimensions of adult life expression than child rearing. In addition, a series of simple and precise scenarios specifically related to family planning are presented. Each scenario is accompanied by a set of valuing questions that direct the learner to respond to the scenario. The activity booklet is entitled, "Clarification De Valores En La Planificacion Familar." The booklet requires the learner to make responses to the learning materials. Responses are then used as a basis for inferring that people are comprehending and above all personalizing knowledge about themselves and their culture and family planning. The program is cross cultural and can be used in Spanish speaking communities in the U.S. Its English language form can be used with English speaking target populations. Statistical analysis of seven critical categories of the program indicated that the shifts in attitudes from pre-to post-values, whether positive or negative (desirable or undesirable), were not significant at the .05 level of confidence. It should, however, be noted that small shifts in the rate of natural increase, or rate of natural decrease for population growth can have a dramatic effect on population growth when multiplied by time.
Full Text Available Family planning services in Nepal are provided by government and non-government health facilities. A descriptive cross sectional study was done by secondary data review of eight months from Institutional clinic, District Health Office (DHO Ilam district. Use of different family planning methods through government health facility was studied in relation to different variables like age, sex, ethnicity, and, number of children. Around 53% of the female users of spacing method and around 47% of female users of permanent method were in age group 20-29 years and 25-29 years respectively. The major reasons for removal of IUCD were husband’s migration and experienced physical problems. Most of the females doing sterilization were from Disadvantaged Janajati group whereas most of the males doing sterilization were from Upper caste ethnic group. Among females doing sterilization, 70% already had their second live birth baby. Out of the total sterilization performed in 8 months, only 15.15% was done among males. So, there is need of increasing male involvement in Family planning. There is also need of programs to encourage spacing methods among the target population. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/dsaj.v6i0.8482 Dhaulagiri Journal of Sociology and Anthropology Vol. 6, 2012 125-138
Urbina Fuentes, M; Vernon Carter, R
Psychosocial and service studies round out data from the demographic and contraceptive prevalence studies that have been conducted every 3 years since 1976 in Mexico. The studies can be formative, providing basic information for development of a program, or evaluative, indicating how well a program is performing. Among formative psychosocial studies in Mexico have been knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) studies, which are usually helpful in the initial stages of family planning program implementation. A 1964 study of knowledge and practice in 7 Mexican cities showed that attitudes toward family planning were more traditional and disapproving in Mexico City than in other areas, but that many women wanted no more children. About 1/4 of the population of Mexico City knew no contraceptive methods and about 1/2 knew only less effective traditional methods. By 1979, 72% of women knew at least 1 effective method. KAP studies have demonstrated differences in the family size desires of men and women and in the determinants of attitudes toward birth control. Formative studies of surgical contraception have been psychologically oriented, and have helped provide a rational basis for making the operation accessible to the public. Despite some passing problems, most women have adapted to sterilization and their libidos have normalized by 18 months postoperative. Studies of the knowledge and attitudes of physicians conducted in the early days of family planning programs have helped in the design of programs to inform them of the advantages and side affects of contraceptive methods. Other studies have helped identify traditional midwives with large practices in rural areas who could be trained to deliver family planning services and have demonstrated that they develop a good understanding of contraindications and side effects of oral contraceptives. Teaching materials for IEC programs have been evaluated with small samples, but minimal attention has been given to research on
The US decision since the 1960s to link foreign policy with family planning and population control is noteworthy for its intention to change the demographic structure of foreign countries and the magnitude of the initiative. The current population ideologies are part of the legacy of 19th century views on science, morality, and political economy. Strong constraints were placed on US foreign policy since World War II, particularly due to presumptions about the role of developing countries in Cold War ideology. Domestic debates revolved around issues of feminism, birth control, abortion, and family political issues. Since the 1960s, environmental degradation and resource depletion were an added global dimension of US population issues. Between 1935 and 1958 birth control movements evolved from the ideologies of utopian socialists, Malthusians, women's rights activists, civil libertarians, and advocates of sexual freedom. There was a shift from acceptance of birth control to questions about the role of national government in supporting distribution of birth control. Immediately postwar the debates over birth control were outside political circles. The concept of family planning as a middle class family issue shifted the focus from freeing women from the burdens of housework to making women more efficient housewives. Family planning could not be taken as a national policy concern without justification as a major issue, a link to national security, belief in the success of intervention, and a justifiable means of inclusion in public policy. US government involvement began with agricultural education, technological assistance, and economic development that would satisfy the world's growing population. Cold War politics forced population growth as an issue to be considered within the realm of foreign policy and diplomacy. US government sponsored family planning was enthusiastic during 1967-74 but restrained during the 1980s. The 1990s has been an era of redefinition of
Suryani, Untari Fajar; Nurjazuli, Nurjazuli; Arso, Septo Pawelas
Target of MDG's to reach maternal mortality rate of 102/100.000 live-births and infantmortality rate of 23/1000 live-births had been performed by improving maternal health throughincreasing contraceptive prevalence rate and decreasing unmet need. Percentage of male withpermanent birth control in Cilacap district was in the lowest rank, 0.16%. Success of familyplanning program could not be separated from work performance of PLKB (family planning field workers); assessment of PLKB work performa...
McFarlane, D R; Meier, K J
The 104th Congress considered massive structural changes in federal aid to the states. Not only would federal categorical grants be consolidated into block grants, but entitlement programs would be converted to block grants too. Using family planning as a case study, this article examines whether program impacts change if different grant mechanisms are employed. Findings from a pooled time series analysis of state family planning expenditures show that categorical funding (here, title X of the Public Health Service Act) is the most cost effective in producing desired outcomes, such as lowering infant mortality. Policies using entitlement grants are generally more cost effective than those that rely upon block grants. We discuss the implications of these findings for health policy more broadly and for fiscal federalism in general.
ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE. Male Involvement ... However, fertility and family planning research and .... design, employing both quantitative and qualitative research .... Table 2: Types of family planning methods known to male residents ...
This FY 1996 Office of Inspector General (OIG) Annual Work Plan is a summary and distillation of information contained in annual work plans, and includes audits and inspections that are carried over from FY 1995 as well as audits and inspections scheduled to start during FY 1996. Audits and inspections included in this consolidated OIG Annual Work Plan will be performed by OIG staff. Specialized expertise available through a Certified Public Accounting firm will be used to assist in auditing the Department`s financial statements. As part of the OIG Cooperative Audit Strategy, additional audit coverage of the Department`s programs is provided by internal auditors of the Department`s integrated contractors. Through the Cooperative Audit Strategy, the OIG ensures that the internal auditors satisfy audit standards, provides planning guidance to the internal auditors, coordinates work to avoid duplication, and tracks the work of internal auditors to ensure that needed audits are performed. Applicable portions of the four annual work plans issued for Fiscal Year 1996 by the Deputy/Assistant Inspectors General have been combined to form a major part of this overall OIG Annual Work Plan. Also included are portions of the most recent OIG Semiannual Reports to Congress to give an overview of the OIG`s mission/organization, resource status, and the environment in which the OIG currently operates. The OIG Annual Work Plan also lists ongoing and planned audits and inspections, and it presents investigative statistics which have been previously reported in the two OIG Semiannual Reports to Congress which cover Fiscal Year 1995. Furthermore, included in this work plan are descriptions of several innovations developed by the OIG to streamline its operations and to conserve as much efficiency and economy as possible in a time of resource reductions.
Clark, Emily; Goodhart, Clare
The total fertility rate in Uganda is 5.9 children per woman, and women admit to having nearly two more children than they actually want. The maternal mortality rate remains stubbornly high. Family planning saves lives. It prevents maternal deaths by delaying motherhood, helping women limit their family size and avoid unwanted pregnancies. It also reduces infant mortality. USHAPE (Ugandan Sexual Health and Pastoral Education) is an initiative run in conjunction with the Royal College of General Practitioners in south-west Uganda. USHAPE aims to disseminate positive messages about modern contraception in an attempt to dispel fears and misconceptions and address the high rate of unmet need. The aim was to determine the rate of unmet need for family planning among women of reproductive age in the population local of Kisiizi hospital and to use the successful USHAPE model to train health workers to address this need. 100 patients were screened in the outpatient department to determine the level of unmet need by asking 2 questions. Level 1 training aims enhance every staff member's knowledge, so that the responsibility for family planning is adopted by the whole institution. Level 2 trains clinicians to become full family planning providers, with the necessary communication, educational and practical skills. The screening for unmet need for contraception revealed that 51% have an unmet need, which is higher than the national average of 38%. Sixty-eight members of staff at Kisiizi trained to a basic level and a further 32 staff have been trained to Level 2 higher level. The USHAPE approach has begun to tackle some of the barriers to accessing family planning, but there are further areas which need development. Our cascade model of training, involves training Ugandan USHAPE trainers with the aim of future scale up and long-term development.
Zendedel, R.; Schouten, B.C.; van Weert, J.C.M.; van den Putte, B.
Objective To explore differences in perspectives of general practitioners, Turkish-Dutch migrant patients and family interpreters on interpreters’ role, power dynamics and trust in interpreted GP consultations. Methods 54 semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with the three parties
Sollom, T; Donovan, P
65 laws relating to fertility were enacted by the 49 state legislatures that held sessions in 1985. This was the largest enacted since 1973, and the 2nd largest total since. Some of the 1985 abortion laws are designed to protect abortion rights. Several states in the US took action to severely punish the perpetrators of violence against abortion clinics. Lesislation dealing with the delivery of family planning services was subjected to public funding restrictions in 1985. Attempts have been made recently on the federal level to prevent Title X recipients from being provided with information on abortion in their pregnancy counseling sessions. These actions are similar to some of the state laws attempting to reach the same end. Many states included funds for family planning in general appropriations bills. Differences among legislators regarding the right of minors to consent to reproductive health care have led to 2 patterns of response: 1) affirmation of the right of minors to receive family planning services on their own consent; or 2) laws mandating parental involvement in a minor's abortion decision. The most troubling aspect of the fertility related legislation endated in 1985 is the effort by a number of legislatures to attach restrictions on abortion counseling and referral to family planning appropriations bills. In 1985, state laws were enacted to regulate the disposal of fetal remains, to prohibit the use of fetal remains for commercial purposes and to impose criminal sanctions for causing the miscarriage of a fetus during a felony.
Grollman, C; Cavallaro, FL; Duclos, D; Bakare, V; Martínez Álvarez, M; Borghi, J
The International Conference on Population and Development in 1994 set targets for donor funding to support family planning programmes, and recent initiatives such as FP2020 have renewed focus on the need for adequate funding to rights-based family planning. Disbursements supporting family planning disaggregated by donor, recipient country and year are not available for recent years. We estimate international donor funding for family planning in 2003-13, the period covering the introduction o...
Rahmawati Azis; Muhammad Syafar; Andi Zulkifli; Arifin Seweng
One of the problems generated by unmet need for family planning is the occurrence of unwanted pregnancies, that could impact on abortion. Unmet need for family planning affected by various factors, both from within and from outside the woman. This study aimed to analyze the influence of socio-demographic characteristics, knowledge and attitudes towards family planning unmet need in women of childbearing age couple in Makassar, South Sulawesi. This study is analytic observational research. Cro...
Robinson, Sarah; Davey, Barbara; Murrells, Trevor
While European Union policy emphasises that one of the aims of family-friendly working arrangements is to increasing gender equality, in the UK the focus has been primarily on workforce retention. Drawing on a study of Registered General Nurses who returned to work after breaks for maternity leave, this paper considers their preferences and experiences in light of current UK family-friendly policies and the implications of the findings for increasing gender equality. Questionnaires were completed by respondents in three regional health authorities and focused on the four to eight year period after qualification. The following topics were investigated: views about length of maternity break and reasons for returning to work sooner than preferred; hours sought after a return and hours obtained; the availability of preferred patterns of work and of flexible hours; retention of grade on return; the availability and use of workplace crèches, and childcare arrangements when children were unwell.
Full Text Available A polymorphic uncertain linear programming (PULP model is constructed to formulate a class of generalized production planning problems. In accordance with the practical environment, some factors such as the consumption of raw material, the limitation of resource and the demand of product are incorporated into the model as parameters of interval and fuzzy subsets, respectively. Based on the theory of fuzzy interval program and the modified possibility degree for the order of interval numbers, a deterministic equivalent formulation for this model is derived such that a robust solution for the uncertain optimization problem is obtained. Case study indicates that the constructed model and the proposed solution are useful to search for an optimal production plan for the polymorphic uncertain generalized production planning problems.
West, Colin P; Dupras, Denise M
Current medical training models in the United States are unlikely to produce sufficient numbers of general internists and primary care physicians. Differences in general internal medicine (GIM) career plans between internal medicine residency program types and across resident demographics are not well understood. To evaluate the general medicine career plans of internal medicine residents and how career plans evolve during training. A study of US internal medicine residents using an annual survey linked to the Internal Medicine In-Training Examination taken in October of 2009-2011 to evaluate career plans by training program, sex, and medical school location. Of 67,207 US eligible categorical and primary care internal medicine residents, 57,087 (84.9%) completed and returned the survey. Demographic data provided by the National Board of Medical Examiners were available for 52,035 (77.4%) of these residents, of whom 51,390 (76.5%) responded to all survey items and an additional 645 (1.0%) responded to at least 1 survey item. Data were analyzed from the 16,781 third-year residents (32.2%) in this sample. Self-reported ultimate career plans of internal medicine residents. A GIM career plan was reported by 3605 graduating residents (21.5%). A total of 562 primary care program (39.6%) and 3043 categorical (19.9%) residents reported GIM as their ultimate career plan (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 2.76; 99% CI, 2.35-3.23; P international medical graduates (22.0% vs 21.1%, respectively; AOR, 1.76; 99% CI, 1.50-2.06; P international medical graduates (57.3% vs 27.3%, respectively; AOR, 3.48; 99% CI, 2.58-4.70; P internal medicine residents, including those in primary care training programs, and differed according to resident sex, medical school location, and program type.
Adam, A Y
This article studies fertility and prospects of family planning in the Three Towns based on data from the survey on the beginning of family limitation in Khartoum province (1975). The data was obtained using a stratified random sample design of currently married women, using the 1973 census records as the sample frame. Family planning is a recent development in the Three Towns. The inherent difficulties (political, administrative, economic and cultural), of organizing an effective program are numerous and complex. The main problem facing the program at present is ignorance rather than failure to act on information already acquired. Most people do not know that fertility control is possible. Lack of communication, rather than lack of motivation is the issue the program should address itself to. Due to social attitudes, much more attention should be given to contacting husbands, informing and motivating them. A material stimulus towards successful encouragement is that contraceptives should be widely available and cheap in relation to the incomes of the masses. This opens a door of economic responsibilities that can not be met by the association alone. Therefore, contacts with philanthropic institutions and individuals, domestically and internationally, are necessary for getting financial help.
Vouking, Marius Zambou; Evina, Christine Danielle; Tadenfok, Carine Nouboudem
The World Health Organization (WHO) estimated in 2012 that 287,000 maternal deaths occurred in 2010; sub-Saharan Africa (56%) and Southern Asia (29%) accounted for the global burden of maternal deaths. Men are also recognized to be responsible for the large proportion of ill reproductive health suffered by their female partners. Male involvement helps not only in accepting a contraceptive but also in its effective use and continuation. The objectives were to assess men's knowledge, attitude, and practice of modern contraceptive methods; determine the level of spousal communication about family planning decision making; and investigate the correlates of men's opinion about their roles in family planning decision making. We searched the following electronic databases from January 1995 to December 2013: Medline, Embase, CINAHL, LILAS, International Bibliography of Social Sciences, Social Services Abstracts, and Sociological Abstracts. Along with MeSH terms and relevant keywords, we used the Cochrane Highly Sensitive Search Strategy for identifying reports of articles in PubMed. There were no restrictions to language or publication status. Of 137 hits, 7 papers met the inclusion criteria. The concept of family planning was well known to men. In the Nigerian study, almost (99%) men were aware of the existence of modern contraceptives, and most of them were aware of at least two modern methods. Awareness of the condom was highest (98%). In the Malawi study, all of the participants reported that they were not using contraception before the intervention. In Ethiopia, above 90% of male respondents have supported and approved using and choosing family planning methods, but none of them practiced terminal methods. Generally, more male respondents disagreed than agreed that men should make decisions about selected family planning issues in the family. Decision-making dynamics around method choice followed a slightly different pattern. According to female participants
Woo, C Junda; Alamgir, Hasanat; Potter, Joseph E
We assessed the impact on depot medroxyprogesterone continuation when a large care provider was banned from a state-funded family planning program. We used three methods to assess the effect of the ban: (a) In a records review, we compared how many state program participants returned to two Planned Parenthood affiliates for a scheduled dose of depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) immediately after the ban; (b) We conducted phone interviews with 224 former Planned Parenthood patients about DMPA use and access to contraception immediately after the ban; (c) We compared current contraceptive method of our interviewees to that of comparable DMPA users in the National Survey of Family Growth 2006-2010 (NSFG). (a) Fewer program clients returned for DMPA at a large urban Planned Parenthood, compared to a remotely located affiliate (14.4%, vs. 64.8%), reflecting different levels of access to alternative providers in the two cities. (b) Among program participants who went elsewhere for the injection, only 56.8% obtained it at no cost and on time. More than one in five women missed a dose because of barriers, most commonly due to difficulty finding a provider. (c) Compared to NSFG participants, our interviewees used less effective methods of contraception, even more than a year after the ban went into effect. Injectable contraception use was disrupted during the rollout of the state-funded family planning program. Women living in a remote area of Texas encountered more barriers. Requiring low-income family planning patients to switch healthcare providers has adverse consequences. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Although Yugoslavia has below-replacement fertility (a net reproduction rate in 1986 of 0.92), there are vast regional differentials. In the less developed autonomous province of Kosovo, for example, the population has doubled in the past 30 years. By region, the net reproduction rate ranges from a low of 0.83 in Croatia to a high of 1.80 in Kosovo. Until the late 1970s, when pronatalism and centralized economic planning had weakened in influence, there was an avoidance of demographic planning and policy. In 1975, the Federal Assembly issued a document on the country's demographic patterns and goals and called on republics and autonomous provinces to adapt the document to local situations--a step that was not taken. By the 1980s, the deteriorating political, economic, and demographic situation in regions with high fertility forced more explicit attention to the formulation of a national population policy. The 1989 Resolution on Population Development Policy and Family Planning sets the goal of replacement- level fertility for both high and low fertility regions and calls for an integrated approach to population issues and socioeconomic development. Decentralization, however, has represented a major obstacle to the execution of federal policy at the republic and lower local levels. While this is a chronic problem that must be addressed on the macro level, some progress could be achieved in problematic regions such as Kosovo through educational campaigns aimed at convincing individual couples of the advantages of family size of 2-3 children.
Despite a relatively strong family planning program and regionally modest levels of fertility, Ghana recorded one of the highest levels of unmet need for family planning on the African continent in 2008. Unmet need for family planning is a composite measure based on apparent contradictions between women's reproductive preferences and practices. Women who want to space or limit births but are not using contraception are considered to have an unmet need for family planning. The study sought to understand the reasons behind high levels of unmet need for family planning in Ghana. A mixed methods follow-up study was embedded within the stratified, two-stage cluster sample of the 2014 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey (GDHS). Women in 13 survey clusters who were identified as having unmet need, along with a reference group of current family planning users, were approached to be reinterviewed within an average of three weeks from their GDHS interview. Follow-up respondents were asked a combination of closed- and open-ended questions about fertility preferences and contraceptive use. Closed-ended responses were compared against the original survey; transcripts were thematically coded and analyzed using qualitative analysis software. Among fecund women identified by the 2014 GDHS as having unmet need, follow-up interviews revealed substantial underreporting of method use, particularly traditional methods. Complete postpartum abstinence was sometimes the intended method of family planning but was overlooked during questions about method use. Other respondents classified as having unmet need had ambivalent fertility preferences. In several cases, respondents expressed revised fertility preferences upon follow-up that would have made them ineligible for inclusion in the unmet need category. The reference group of family planning users also expressed unstable fertility preferences. Aversion to modern method use was generally more substantial than reported in the GDHS
Full Text Available Despite a relatively strong family planning program and regionally modest levels of fertility, Ghana recorded one of the highest levels of unmet need for family planning on the African continent in 2008. Unmet need for family planning is a composite measure based on apparent contradictions between women's reproductive preferences and practices. Women who want to space or limit births but are not using contraception are considered to have an unmet need for family planning. The study sought to understand the reasons behind high levels of unmet need for family planning in Ghana.A mixed methods follow-up study was embedded within the stratified, two-stage cluster sample of the 2014 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey (GDHS. Women in 13 survey clusters who were identified as having unmet need, along with a reference group of current family planning users, were approached to be reinterviewed within an average of three weeks from their GDHS interview. Follow-up respondents were asked a combination of closed- and open-ended questions about fertility preferences and contraceptive use. Closed-ended responses were compared against the original survey; transcripts were thematically coded and analyzed using qualitative analysis software.Among fecund women identified by the 2014 GDHS as having unmet need, follow-up interviews revealed substantial underreporting of method use, particularly traditional methods. Complete postpartum abstinence was sometimes the intended method of family planning but was overlooked during questions about method use. Other respondents classified as having unmet need had ambivalent fertility preferences. In several cases, respondents expressed revised fertility preferences upon follow-up that would have made them ineligible for inclusion in the unmet need category. The reference group of family planning users also expressed unstable fertility preferences. Aversion to modern method use was generally more substantial than reported in
Introduction Despite a relatively strong family planning program and regionally modest levels of fertility, Ghana recorded one of the highest levels of unmet need for family planning on the African continent in 2008. Unmet need for family planning is a composite measure based on apparent contradictions between women’s reproductive preferences and practices. Women who want to space or limit births but are not using contraception are considered to have an unmet need for family planning. The study sought to understand the reasons behind high levels of unmet need for family planning in Ghana. Methods A mixed methods follow-up study was embedded within the stratified, two-stage cluster sample of the 2014 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey (GDHS). Women in 13 survey clusters who were identified as having unmet need, along with a reference group of current family planning users, were approached to be reinterviewed within an average of three weeks from their GDHS interview. Follow-up respondents were asked a combination of closed- and open-ended questions about fertility preferences and contraceptive use. Closed-ended responses were compared against the original survey; transcripts were thematically coded and analyzed using qualitative analysis software. Results Among fecund women identified by the 2014 GDHS as having unmet need, follow-up interviews revealed substantial underreporting of method use, particularly traditional methods. Complete postpartum abstinence was sometimes the intended method of family planning but was overlooked during questions about method use. Other respondents classified as having unmet need had ambivalent fertility preferences. In several cases, respondents expressed revised fertility preferences upon follow-up that would have made them ineligible for inclusion in the unmet need category. The reference group of family planning users also expressed unstable fertility preferences. Aversion to modern method use was generally more substantial
Brazil, Kevin; Carter, Gillian; Cardwell, Chris; Clarke, Mike; Hudson, Peter; Froggatt, Katherine; McLaughlin, Dorry; Passmore, Peter; Kernohan, W George
In dementia care, a large number of treatment decisions are made by family carers on behalf of their family member who lacks decisional capacity; advance care planning can support such carers in the decision-making of care goals. However, given the relative importance of advance care planning in dementia care, the prevalence of advance care planning in dementia care is poor. To evaluate the effectiveness of advance care planning with family carers in dementia care homes. Paired cluster randomized controlled trial. The intervention comprised a trained facilitator, family education, family meetings, documentation of advance care planning decisions and intervention orientation for general practitioners and nursing home staff. A total of 24 nursing homes with a dementia nursing category located in Northern Ireland, United Kingdom. Family carers of nursing home residents classified as having dementia and judged as not having decisional capacity to participate in advance care planning discussions. The primary outcome was family carer uncertainty in decision-making about the care of the resident (Decisional Conflict Scale). There was evidence of a reduction in total Decisional Conflict Scale score in the intervention group compared with the usual care group (-10.5, 95% confidence interval: -16.4 to -4.7; p planning was effective in reducing family carer uncertainty in decision-making concerning the care of their family member and improving perceptions of quality of care in nursing homes. Given the global significance of dementia, the implications for clinicians and policy makers include them recognizing the importance of family carer education and improving communication between family carers and formal care providers.
White, David E.
Described in this report is an enantioselective route toward the chamigrene natural product family. The key disconnections in our synthetic approach include sequential enantioselective decarboxylative allylation and ring-closing olefin metathesis to form the all-carbon quaternary stereocenter and spirocyclic core present in all members of this class of compounds. The generality of this strategy is demonstrated by the first total syntheses of elatol and the proposed structure of laurencenone B, as well as the first enantioselective total syntheses of laurencenone C and α-chamigrene. A brief exploration of the substrate scope of the enantioselective decarboxylative allylation/ring-closing metathesis sequence with fully substituted vinyl chlorides is also presented.
White, David E.; Stewart, Ian C.; Seashore-Ludlow, Brinton A.; Grubbs, Robert H.; Stoltz, Brian M.
Described in this report is an enantioselective route toward the chamigrene natural product family. The key disconnections in our synthetic approach include sequential enantioselective decarboxylative allylation and ring-closing olefin metathesis to form the all-carbon quaternary stereocenter and spirocyclic core present in all members of this class of compounds. The generality of this strategy is demonstrated by the first total syntheses of elatol and the proposed structure of laurencenone B, as well as the first enantioselective total syntheses of laurencenone C and α-chamigrene. A brief exploration of the substrate scope of the enantioselective decarboxylative allylation/ring-closing metathesis sequence with fully substituted vinyl chlorides is also presented.
Talukdar, Abdul Hafiz Ibne
In this paper, we report the unconventional characteristics of Memristor in Wien oscillators. Generalized mathematical models are developed to analyze four members of the Wien family using Memristors. Sustained oscillation is reported for all types though oscillating resistance and time dependent poles are present. We have also proposed an analytical model to estimate the desired amplitude of oscillation before the oscillation starts. These Memristor-based oscillation results, presented for the first time, are in good agreement with simulation results. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.
Spellacy, W N
Should women with a family history of diabetes or myocardial infarcation, or women with abnormal blood glucose or cholesterol levels receive oral contraceptives? There is clear evidence that oral contraceptives can alter both carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in certain women. The lipid alteration is mainly an elevation of the circulating triglyceride levels, and only rarely is cholesterol content altered. It is also clear from extensive research during the past ten years that women who already have subclinical abnormalities, either in their triglyceride levels (family hyperlipoproteinemia) or glucose tolerance, are at great risk for the development of clinical disease while using oral contraceptives. Accordingly, all pharmaceutical firms are required by the Food and Drug Administration to instruct physicians about these problems through the package inserts and other means. Specifically, the physician should be alerted by the patient's history, and then he should use the laboratory to confirm any suspicion of abnormalities of carbohydrate or lipid metabolism. If there is any abnormal blood glucose or triglyceride value, the oral contraceptives should not be prescribed. There are other forms of contraception available for child spacing. Mechanical contraceptives will not aggravate a metabolic disorder. A useful substitute then would be an intrauterine device plus vaginal foam. When the woman has completed her family, she should be all means be offered surgical sterilization as a permanent family planning technique.
India's increase of 12 million people each year nullifies almost all the considerable progress the country made in agriculture and industrial production during 19 years of her freedom. Today she ranks 2nd in population and 7th in land area of the world. She claims 15% of the world's population, on about 2.4% of the world's land area. The Government of India has taken family planning as a major national health program under her Five-Year Plans, but impact of this program is not felt as yet. Since this is a difficult complex problem with many facets, it has to be attacked forcefully, drastically, and on all fronts. An all-out war has to be waged against the population growth. India should attack it with all the weapons she had: education, propaganda, taxation, legalization of abortion, and even compulsory sterilization. Overnight change in the fertility pattern of the people is impossible.
Full Text Available This research aims to examine the influence of marketing mix carried out media performance social media portal on attitude towards a social marketing program,and its relationship with source credibility of the portal. This study was focused on "Generasi Berencana" Program (Generation with Plan Program, a program aimed at educating the youth on family planning The Research employed Structural Equations Modeling (SEM. Based on data from 150 respondents it can be concluded that in social marketing programs, source credibility, engagement, word of mouth have positive influence on the formation of behavior, but awareness of a program is not found to influence formation of behavior. This research also obtained findings that attitudes influence behavioral intention, but subjective norms is not positively influence the formation of behavioral intentions.
Critchlow, D T
This overview of the US birth control movement reflects on the emergence of family planning policy due to the efforts of Margaret Sanger, feminists, and the civil rights movement, the eugenics motive to limit "deviant" populations, and the population control movement, which aims to solve social and economic problems through fertility control. Population control moved through three stages: from the cause of "voluntary motherhood" to advance suffrage and women's political and social status, to the concept of "birth control" promoted by socialist feminists to help empower women and the working class, to, from 1920 on, a liberal movement for civil rights and population control. Physicians such as Dr. Robert Latou Dickinson legitimized the movement in the formation of the Committee on Maternal Health in 1925, but the movement remained divided until 1939, when Sanger's group merged with the American Birth Control League, the predecessor of the present Planned Parenthood Federation of America. A key legal decision in 1939 in the United States v. One Package amended the Comstock Act and allowed for the distribution of birth control devices by mail to physicians. Sanger, after a brief retirement, formed the International Planned Parenthood Federation and supported research into the pill. Eugenicists through the Committee on Maternal Health supported Christopher Tietze and others developing the pill. Final constitutional access to contraception based on the right to privacy was granted in Griswold v. Connecticut. The ruling in Eisenstadt v. Baird in 1972 extended this right to unmarried persons. The right to privacy was further extended in the Roe v. Wade decision in 1973 on legal abortion. The argument for improving the quality of the population remained from the formation of the Population Reference Bureau in 1929 through the 1960s. Under the leadership of Rockefeller, population control was defined as justified on a scientific and humanitarian basis. US government support
Li, Cai-Chang; Ding, Gui-Jun
We study lepton mixing patterns which can be derived from the A_5 family symmetry and generalized CP. We find five phenomenologically interesting mixing patterns for which one column of the PMNS matrix is (√(((5+√5)/10)),(1/(√(5+√5))),(1/(√(5+√5))))"T (the first column of the golden ratio mixing), (√(((5−√5)/10)),(1/(√(5−√5))),(1/(√(5−√5))))"T (the second column of the golden ratio mixing), (1,1,1)"T/√3 or (√5+1,−2,√5−1)"T/4. The three lepton mixing angles are determined in terms of a single real parameter θ, and agreement with experimental data can be achieved for certain values of θ. The Dirac CP violating phase is predicted to be trivial or maximal while Majorana phases are trivial. We construct a supersymmetric model based on A_5 family symmetry and generalized CP. The lepton mixing is exactly the golden ratio pattern at leading order, and the mixing patterns of case III and case IV are reproduced after higher order corrections are considered.
Lwin, Myo Min; Munsawaengsub, Chokchai; Nanthamongkokchai, Sutham
To study the factors that influence the family planning practice among married, reproductive age women in Hlaing Township, Myanmar. Cross-sectional survey research was conducted among 284 married, reproductive age women using stratified random sampling. The data were collected through questionnaire interviews during February and March 2012 and analyzed by frequency, percentage, Chi-square test, and multiple logistic regression. The proportion of families practicing family planning was 74.7%, contraceptive injection being the most commonly used method. The factors influencing family planning practice were attitude towards family planning, 24-hour availability of family planning services, health worker support, and partner and friends support. The women with a positive attitude toward family planning practiced family planning 3.7 times more than women who had a negative attitude. If family planning services were available for 24 hours, then women would practice 3.4 times more than if they were not available for 24 hours. When women got fair to good support from health workers, they practiced 15.0 times more on family planning and 4.3 times more who got fair to good support from partners and friends than women who got low support. The factors influencing family planning practice of married, reproductive age women were attitude toward family planning, 24-hour availability of family planning services, health worker support, and partner and friends support. The findings suggest that empowerment of health workers, training of volunteers, pharmacists and contraceptive drug providers, encouraging inter-spousal communication, and peer support, as well as an integrated approach to primary health care in order to target different populations to change women's attitudes on family planning, could increase family planning practice among Myanmar women.
Anand Mohan Dixit
Full Text Available Objective: To assess the knowledge of contraceptive methods and intended family size among the men of urban slum.Material and Method: Present study conducted in urban slum area of Jaipur. Information from 400 married men of age group 18-49 years collected on semi structured schedule during June to October 2012.House to house survey conducted to achieve defined sample size. Data were analyzed by using SPSS 12 soft ware. Chi square, t test and ANOVA were used for interpretation.Result and Conclusion: Most commonly known methods of family planning were female sterilization (95.2%, condom (94.7% and Male sterilization (93.5%. IUCD (57% was still not popularly known method of contraception. Emergency contraceptive pills (12.2% and Injectables (25.7% were least known methods among men. Knowledge of different contraceptive differs according to educational status and caste of men. TV and radio were main source of information. Only 16% men said that they got information from health personnel. On analysis present family size was 3.125 while desired family size was 2.63, it shows that two child norm is not ideal to all. Men who had already two children 53 % of them still want to expand their family. Approximately half of the men feel that they have larger family size and the main reasons were inappropriate knowledge (37% and ignorance (21%. Those men who want to expand their family size, son preference was the major reason. Only 3% men show the intention of one child as ideal in family, which indicate that one child norm is too far to reach.
Anand Mohan Dixit
Full Text Available Objective: To assess the knowledge of contraceptive methods and intended family size among the men of urban slum.Material and Method: Present study conducted in urban slum area of Jaipur. Information from 400 married men of age group 18-49 years collected on semi structured schedule during June to October 2012.House to house survey conducted to achieve defined sample size. Data were analyzed by using SPSS 12 soft ware. Chi square, t test and ANOVA were used for interpretation.Result and Conclusion: Most commonly known methods of family planning were female sterilization (95.2%, condom (94.7% and Male sterilization (93.5%. IUCD (57% was still not popularly known method of contraception. Emergency contraceptive pills (12.2% and Injectables (25.7% were least known methods among men. Knowledge of different contraceptive differs according to educational status and caste of men. TV and radio were main source of information. Only 16% men said that they got information from health personnel. On analysis present family size was 3.125 while desired family size was 2.63, it shows that two child norm is not ideal to all. Men who had already two children 53 % of them still want to expand their family. Approximately half of the men feel that they have larger family size and the main reasons were inappropriate knowledge (37% and ignorance (21%. Those men who want to expand their family size, son preference was the major reason. Only 3% men show the intention of one child as ideal in family, which indicate that one child norm is too far to reach.
Sheykhi, M T
Iran's explosive population growth, which increases the country's population by about 1.9 million people annually, is causing a considerable strain on resources and the environment, and the coming generations will be facing a serious situation unless this trend is reversed. The strength of cultural values has not encouraged a declining population growth rate in parallel with the Iranian wave of modernization before and after the revolution. A special cultural revolution is the prerequisite for a demographic revolution. This study is placing main emphasis on the social and psychological factors involved in family planning. The general findings of surveys conducted so far demonstrate that few people know anything about family planning and methods of contraception. Social, cultural, and religious institutions seem to inhibit the expansion of family planning. Moreover, the lack of economic and social security promotes a large family size and prevents contraceptive use. However, social change in Iranian society will eventually be brought about by urbanization, industrialization, and education, and the ensuing modernization of values is expected to increase the use of contraceptives and lead to changes in the associated social and cultural institutions.
Hardee, Karen; Croce-Galis, Melanie; Gay, Jill
Although the range of contraceptives includes methods for men, namely condoms, vasectomy and withdrawal that men use directly, and the Standard Days Method (SDM) that requires their participation, family planning programming has primarily focused on women. What is known about reaching men as contraceptive users? This paper draws from a review of 47 interventions that reached men and proposes 10 key considerations for strengthening programming for men as contraceptive users. A review of programming shows that men and boys are not particularly well served by programs. Most programs operate from the perspective that women are contraceptive users and that men should support their partners, with insufficient attention to reaching men as contraceptive users in their own right. The notion that family planning is women's business only is outdated. There is sufficient evidence demonstrating men's desire for information and services, as well as men's positive response to existing programming to warrant further programming for men as FP users. The key considerations focus on getting information and services where men and boys need it; addressing gender norms that affect men's attitudes and use while respecting women's autonomy; reaching adolescent boys; including men as users in policies and guidelines; scaling up successful programming; filling gaps with implementation research and monitoring & evaluation; and creating more contraceptive options for men.
Natural family planning methods include the temperature method and the ovualtion method; sometimes the 2 methods are used together. The fundamental feature of natural family planning is sexual abstinence a few days before and after ovulation. Such methods are the only ones approved by the Catholic Church, and are the methods of choice for only a minority of catholics. The author conducted a survey among 80 couples practicing the rhythm method; 62 couples answered questions as to reasons for choosing natural methods, religiosity, and sharing decision making, home work, and child care. 40% of couples were under 30; 45% had been married less than 5 years, and 32% had no children; average length of time using the method was 27 months. 58% of respondents had chosen the method because of a preference for natural methods, and only 31% because of a sense of duty toward the church; 40% of those who accepted it out of preference and not out of obedience found sexual abstinence acceptable. 79% of couples indicated to arrive at decisions by talking things over, and 65% claimed to share household responsibilities, and 73% childcare responsibilities. 37% rated themselves as deeply religious; 13% were using the method in combination with use of condom during fertile days because they did not wish to abstain from coitus.
Full Text Available Cassandra Blazer, Ndola Prata Bixby Center for Population, Health, and Sustainability, School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA Abstract: We reviewed existing evidence of the efficacy of postpartum family planning interventions targeting women in the 12 months postpartum period in low- and middle-income countries. We searched for studies from January 1, 2004 to September 19, 2015, using the US Preventive Services Task Force recommendations to assess evidence quality. Our search resulted in 26 studies: 11 based in sub-Saharan Africa, six in the Middle East and North Africa, and nine in Asia. Twenty of the included studies assessed health facility-based interventions. Three were focused on community interventions, two had community and facility components, and one was a workplace program. Overall quality of the evidence was moderate, including evidence for counseling interventions. Male partner involvement, integration with other service delivery platforms, such as prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV and immunization, and innovative product delivery programs may increase knowledge and use during the postpartum period. Community-based and workplace strategies need a much stronger base of evidence to prompt recommendations. Keywords: postpartum period, family planning, birth spacing, interventions, systematic review, contraception, less developed countries
Halsall, Viannella; Rogers, Jennifer; Witt, Jacki; Song, Sejun; Nguyen, Hoang Duc Huy; Kelly, Patricia
To provide an overview of lessons learned during the development process of an app for iOS and Android based on national recommendations for providing quality family planning services. After a review of existing apps was conducted to determine whether an app of clinical recommendations for family planning existed, a team of clinicians, training specialists, and app developers created a resource app by first drafting a comprehensive content map. A prototype of the app was then pilot tested using smart tablets by a volunteer convenience sample of women's healthcare professionals. Outcomes measured included usability, acceptability, download analytics, and satisfaction by clinicians as reported through an investigator-developed tool. Sixty-nine professionals tested a prototype of the app, and completed a user satisfaction tool. Overall, user feedback was positive, and a zoom function was added to the final version as a result of the pilot test. Within 3 months of being publicly available, the app was downloaded 677 times, with 97% of downloads occurring on smart phones, 76% downloads occurring on iOS devices, and 24% on Android devices. This trend persisted throughout the following 3 months. Clinicians with an interest in developing an app should consider a team approach to development, pilot test the app prior to wider distribution, and develop a web-based version of the app to be used by clinicians who are unable to access smart devices in their practice setting.
Valadez, J J; Transgrud, R; Mbugua, M; Smith, T
This report demonstrates the use of Lot Quality Assurance Sampling (LQAS) to evaluate the technical competence of two cohorts of family planning service providers in Kenya trained with a new curriculum. One cohort had just finished training within two months of the study. The other cohort was the first group trained with the new curriculum about one year before the study. LQAS was adapted from industrial and other public health applications to assess both the individual competence of 30 service providers and the competence of each cohort. Results show that Cohorts One and Two did not differ markedly in the number of tasks needing improvement. However, both cohorts exhibited more tasks needing improvement in counseling skills as compared with physical examination skills or with all other skills. Care-givers who were not currently providing services accounted for most service-delivery problems. This result suggests that providers' use of their skills explains their ability to retain service-delivery skills learned in training to a greater degree than does the amount of time elapsed since they were trained. LQAS proved to be a rapid, easy-to-use empirical method for management decisionmaking for improvement of a family planning training curriculum and services.
Lissner, Craig L; Ali, Moazzam
The article describes an international collaboration that systematically reviewed the evidence on financing mechanisms for family planning/contraception, assessed the strength of and summarized the evidence, identified research gaps, and proposed a new research agenda to address the gaps. The review found that the evidence base is weak owing to the paucity of studies, diversity in findings, and variations in intervention, study design, and outcome measures. Of more than 17,000 papers reviewed only 38 met the eligibility criteria. A number of general recommendations on the directions and areas of future research can be drawn. There is a strong need for more robust study designs on the effectiveness of financial incentives in family planning. © 2016 The Population Council, Inc.
Much of the existing literature on the demographic impact of family planning programs focuses on their role in increasing contraceptive use, which, in turn, accelerates fertility decline. What is not clear, however, is whether this effect operates solely through a reduction in unmet need brought about by eliminating obstacles to use or whether and to what extent the programs also affect demand for contraception through messages concerning the benefits of family planning. This article aims to shed additional light on this issue by analyzing data drawn from recent Demographic and Health Surveys conducted in 63 developing countries. The first section reviews general levels and trends in unmet need, demand, and use over the course of the fertility transition. The second section presents different types of evidence of program effects, including results from a controlled experiment and from country case studies. The evidence indicates a program impact on both unmet need and demand. © 2013 The Population Council, Inc.
As of April 1, 1989 the Indonesian Ministry of Manpower will contain a family planning section within its regular structure. It will be part of a newly created Sub-directorate for Workers Welfare, which also contains sections for health facilities/services and for nutrition and other welfare services. The family planning section is to be staffed by 8 full-time officials who are responsible for population, family welfare, and family planning programs in the Ministry of Manpower.
Krasnov, Kirill; Shtanov, Yuri
We study linear cosmological perturbations in a previously introduced family of deformations of general relativity characterized by the absence of new degrees of freedom. The homogeneous and isotropic background in this class of theories is unmodified and is described by the usual Friedmann equations. The theory of cosmological perturbations is modified and the relevant deformation parameter has the dimension of length. Gravitational perturbations of the scalar type can be described by a certain relativistic potential related to the matter perturbations just as in general relativity. A system of differential equations describing the evolution of this potential and of the stress-energy density perturbations is obtained. We find that the evolution of scalar perturbations proceeds with a modified effective time-dependent speed of sound, which, contrary to the case of general relativity, does not vanish even at the matter-dominated stage. In a broad range of values of the length parameter controlling the deformation, a specific transition from the regime of modified gravity to the regime of general relativity in the evolution of scalar perturbations takes place during the radiation domination. In this case, the resulting power spectrum of perturbations in radiation and dark matter is suppressed on the comoving spatial scales that enter the Hubble radius before this transition. We estimate the bounds on the deformation parameter for which this suppression does not lead to observable consequences. Evolution of scalar perturbations at the inflationary stage is modified but very slightly and the primordial spectrum generated during inflation is not noticeably different from the one obtained in general relativity
... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General operations plan format and content. 436.102... PROGRAMS Guidelines for General Operations Plans § 436.102 General operations plan format and content. (a... effective date of these guidelines, a general operations 10-year plan which shall consist of two parts, an...
Fetters Michael D
Full Text Available Abstract Background Preconception care provided by family physicians/general practitioners (FP/GPs can provide predictable benefits to mothers and infants. The objective of this study was to elucidate knowledge of, attitudes about, and practices of preconception care by FP/GPs in Japan. Methods A survey was distributed to physician members of the Japanese Academy of Family Medicine. The questionnaire addressed experiences of preconception education in medical school and residency, frequency of preconception care in clinical practice, attitudes about providing preconception care, and perceived need for preconception education to medical students and residents. Results Two hundred and sixty-eight of 347 (77% eligible physicians responded. The most common education they reported receiving was about smoking cessation (71%, and the least was about folic acid supplementation (12%. Many participants reported providing smoking cessation in their practice (60%, though only about one third of respondents advise restricting alcohol intake. Few reported advising calcium supplementation (10% or folic acid supplementation (4%. About 70% reported their willingness to provide preconception care. Almost all participants believe medical students and residents should have education about preconception care. Conclusion FP/GPs in Japan report little training in preconception care and few currently provide it. With training, most participants are willing to provide preconception care themselves and think medical students and residents should receive this education.
Winston, Jennifer; Calhoun, Lisa M; Corroon, Meghan; Guilkey, David; Speizer, Ilene
The 2012 London Summit on Family Planning set ambitious goals to enable 120 million more women and adolescent girls to use modern contraceptives by 2020. The Urban Reproductive Health Initiative (URHI) was a Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation funded program designed to help contribute to these goals in urban areas in India, Kenya, Nigeria, and Senegal. URHI implemented a range of country-specific demand and supply side interventions, with supply interventions generally focused on improved service quality, provider training, outreach to patients, and commodity stock management. This study uses data collected by the Measurement, Learning & Evaluation (MLE) Project to examine the effectiveness of these supply-side interventions by considering URHI's influence on the number of family planning clients at health facilities over a four-year period in Kenya, Nigeria, and Senegal. The analysis used facility audits and provider surveys. Principal-components analysis was used to create country-specific program exposure variables for health facilities. Fixed-effects regression was used to determine whether family planning uptake increased at facilities with higher exposure. Outcomes of interest were the number of new family planning acceptors and the total number of family planning clients per reproductive health care provider in the last year. Higher program component scores were associated with an increase in new family planning acceptors per provider in Kenya (β = 18, 95% CI = 7-29), Nigeria (β = 14, 95% CI = 8-20), and Senegal (β = 7, 95% CI = 3-12). Higher scores were also associated with more family planning clients per provider in Kenya (β = 31, 95% CI = 7-56) and Nigeria (β = 26, 95% CI = 15-38), but not in Senegal. Supply-side interventions have increased the number of new family planning acceptors at facilities in urban Nigeria, Kenya, and Senegal and the overall number of clients in urban Nigeria and Kenya. While tailoring
Furnas, Hannah E
In a transitioning fertility climate, preferences and decisions surrounding family planning are constantly in flux. Malawi provides an ideal case study of family planning complexities as fertility preferences are flexible, the relationship context is unstable, and childbearing begins early. I use intensive longitudinal data from Tsogolo la Thanzi-a research project in Malawi that follows young adults in romantic partnerships through the course of their relationship. I examine two questions: (1) What are the typical patterns of family planning as young adults transition through a relationship? (2) How are family planning trajectories related to individual and relationship-level characteristics? I use sequence analysis to order family planning across time and to contextualize it within each relationship. I generate and cluster the family planning trajectories and find six distinct groups of young adults who engage in family planning in similar ways. I find that family planning is complex, dynamic, and unique to each relationship. I argue that (a) family planning research should use the relationship as the unit of analysis and (b) family planning behaviors and preferences should be sequenced over time for a better understanding of key concepts, such as unmet need. © 2016 The Population Council, Inc.
Harvey, P D
In 1977 and again in 1982, a series of couponed ads were run in three major Bangladeshi newspapers to test the relative effectiveness of different family planning themes. The ads offered a free booklet about methods of family planning (1977) or "detailed information on contraceptives" (1982) in the context of family health, the wife's happiness, the children's future, and family economics. The most effective ads, by a highly significant margin, were those stressing the importance of family economics (food and shelter) and the children's (sons') future. The least effective ads stressed the benefits of family planning for the wife.
Ely, Mindy S.; Gullifor, Kateri; Hollinshead, Tara
Early intervention visual impairment services are built on a model that values family. Matrix session planning pulls together parent priorities, family routines, and identified strategies in a way that helps families and early intervention professionals outline a plan that can both highlight long-term goals and focus on what can be done today.…
This paper reviews some general concepts on Planning, especially in public and welfare sectors, stressing those concerning the major flaws in the argentine system of mental health. The author considers the definition of planning levels, and sets forth three: general plan, program and project. The correlative implementation is also considered. The importance of feed-back from adequate evaluation is stressed, emphasizing three aspects: a) evaluation of dynamics, rate and extent of decrease, increase or stagnation; b) assessment of efficacity of factors involved; c) control and stabilization of goals already attained. The necessity to develop a human ecology, encompassing socio-cultural and psycho-social factors is stressed, together with fostering theoretical research and the use of its results by implementation agents. Several differences among prevailing mental health actions are pointed out which allow a distinction between two typical models: clinical and sanitarist. The main differences between them lye on: standard location of working sites, nature of basic actions, field of action, hypothesis for working, including ethiological and ecological assumptions, theoretical and methodological framework. A series of criteria for evaluating sanitary techniques and strategies are set forth, among which: operative procedures, length of treatments, degree of therapeutic concentration, and general pragmatic criteria. The indicators reviewed are: degree of efficacity, covering, degree of perseverance in treatments, cultural barriers between patient and therapist, delegation of functions into special, first-rate sanitary agents, needs for the training of mental health workers. An attempt is made at developping general evaluation criteria for mental health planning, and several indicators are proposed, among which: a) cost/efficacity ratio, including in costs the use of economical, human and physical resources; b) preventive capacities of the community; c) capacities for the
Speidel, J Joseph; Grossman, Richard A
Although obstetrician-gynecologists recognize the importance of managing fertility for the reproductive health of individuals, many are not aware of the vital effect they can have on some of the world's most pressing issues. Unintended pregnancy is a key contributor to the rapid population growth that in turn impairs social welfare, hinders economic progress, and exacerbates environmental degradation. An estimated 215 million women in developing countries wish to limit their fertility but do not have access to effective contraception. In the United States, half of all pregnancies are unplanned. Voluntary prevention of unplanned pregnancies is a cost-effective, humane way to limit population growth, slow environmental degradation, and yield other health and welfare benefits. Family planning should be a top priority for our specialty.
Tiwari, K C; Majumder, R; Bhattacharjee, S
The author collected folklore information on herbal treatments to control fertility from different parts of Assam, India. Temporary methods of birth control include Cissampelos pareira L. in combination with Piper nigrum L., root of Mimosa pudica L. and Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. Plants used for permanent sterilization include Plumbago zeylanica L., Heliotropium indicum L., Salmalia malabrica, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L., Plumeria rubra L., Bambusa rundinacea. Abortion is achieved through use of Osbeckia nepalensis or Carica papaya L. in combination with resin from Ferula narthex Boiss. It is concluded that there is tremendous scope for the collection of folklore about medicine, family planning agents, and other treatments from Assam and surrounding areas. Such a project requires proper understanding between the survey team and local people, tactful behavior, and a significant amount of time. Monetary rewards can also be helpful for obtaining information from potential respondents.
Curry, Dora Ward; Rattan, Jesse; Nzau, Jean Jose; Giri, Kamlesh
In 2012, about 43 million women of reproductive age experienced the effects of conflict. Provision of basic sexual and reproductive health services, including family planning, is a recognized right and need of refugees and internally displaced people, but funding and services for family planning have been inadequate. This article describes lessons learned during the first 2.5 years of implementing the ongoing Supporting Access to Family Planning and Post-Abortion Care in Emergencies (SAFPAC) initiative, led by CARE, which supports government health systems to deliver family planning services in 5 crisis-affected settings (Chad, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Djibouti, Mali, and Pakistan). SAFPAC's strategy focuses on 4 broad interventions drawn from public health best practices in more stable settings: competency-based training for providers, improved supply chain management, regular supervision, and community mobilization to influence attitudes and norms related to family planning. Between July 2011 and December 2013, the initiative reached 52,616 new users of modern contraceptive methods across the 5 countries (catchment population of 698,053 women of reproductive age), 61% of whom chose long-acting methods of implants or intrauterine devices. Prudent use of data to inform decision making has been an underpinning to the project's approach. A key approach to ensuring sustained ability to train and supervise new providers has been to build capacity in clinical skills training and supervision by establishing in-country training centers. In addition, monthly supervision using simple checklists has improved program and service quality, particularly with infection prevention procedures and stock management. We have generally instituted a "pull" system to manage commodities and other supplies, whereby health facilities place resupply orders as needed based on actual consumption patterns and stock-alert thresholds. Finally, reaching the community with mobilization
Gu, B; Xie, Z
Focus group discussions were conducted in China's Pingluo County, Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, and Sihui County, Guangdong Province among reproductive age women with only daughters, mothers-in-law, unmarried women aged 23 years and older, and women business persons and cadres. The topic of discussion was the status of women, gender differences in employment, education, marriage, family life, childbearing, and elderly care in counties that have above average fertility rates. There were also several groups of men, mixed gender groups with husbands working away from home, local family planning workers, and rural intellectuals. The findings showed that there is more access to education for girls and a higher employment rate for young women. Daughters receive education to the highest level affordable. Enrollments are equal for boys and girls. Women's employment is not challenged by husbands, and work is available in a variety of locations. Business ownership and operation is encouraged. By middle age, women generally do not work in enterprises, but at home or on contracted farmland. Equal rights within the family are generally accepted. Husbands turn over their salary to wives for family expenses. Girls receive the same care after birth as boys. Women's status is improving. Improvements in social status have also involved sacrifices. Women complained that the workload on the farm has increased with adult males away working in cities. Women bear the burden of family planning, including in some cases side effects from oral pills and recovery from sterilizations. One women remarked that there were burdens in bearing children, taking oral pills, having IUD insertions, and having induced abortions; men should bear 50% of the responsibility. The burden of women without sons is harder, and women may also feel inferior as the last in their family line. One family with 6 daughters accepted the fine of RMB 7000 yuan for having another child, which turned out to be a son. One
This article discusses the need for family planning (FP) as part of the development process, applauds its successes and rallies continued momentum of the FP movement. 500,000 women die each year from pregnancy- or labor-related conditions, and 10s of millions of women suffer pregnancy-related illnesses and impairments that undermine their social and economic productivity. Moreover, the 4 major factors that lead to high-risk pregnancies, namely, becoming pregnant before the age of 20, after the age of 35, after 4 or more pregnancies, and 2 years after an earlier pregnancy, all reveal the need for FP. These tragedies could be avoided by assuring better nutrition, primary health care for all, good antenatal attention and proper facilities and help in childbirth, access to good obstetric care in emergency situations, and universally available FP services. FP organizations must empower women with the knowledge of FP and the means to put it into practice. Developing countries, such as China, India, Indonesia, Thailand and Mexico, in addition to affluent industrialized countries have made strides in FP with the help of such organizations as the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF). IPPF has helped to motivate large numbers of men and women to determine their ideal family size. It has provided the means for them to reach such goals and has ensured that acceptance of FP has been on a voluntary basis. IPPF has also advised and cajoled governments into becoming involved in FP. In the future, national strategies must produce the building blocks for better policies to help women become more responsible for their lives. The education of women will be vital to achieving this objective as well as other aspects of development.
Full Text Available El siguiente texto fue publicado en el volumen Het Nieuwe Bouwen, Amsterdam 1920-1960, Stedelijk Museum-Delft University Press, 1983, pp. 52-111 con el título original "Het Algemeen Uitbreidinsplan van Amsterdam" y es una exposición ampliamente documentada de los antecedentes inmediatos y el desarrollo del Plan General de 1935. La traducción que aquí se ofrece de este largo artículo es solamente parcial, incluyendo exclusivamente lo que corresponde hasta la Segunda Guerra Mundial. Por consiguiente, no se recoge su parte final relativa a la realización efectiva del Plan en los años de posguerra y en las décadas siguientes. Aparte de esta exclusión principal, se han eliminado algunos pasajes intermedios de cierta redundancia a fin de adaptarlo a un formato más reducido.
Klein, David A; Malcolm, Nikita M; Berry-Bibee, Erin N; Paradise, Scott L; Coulter, Jessica S; Keglovitz Baker, Kristin; Schvey, Natasha A; Rollison, Julia M; Frederiksen, Brittni N
LGBT clients have unique healthcare needs but experience a wide range of quality in the care that they receive. This study provides a summary of clinical guideline recommendations related to the provision of primary care and family planning services for LGBT clients. In addition, we identify gaps in current guidelines, and inform future recommendations and guidance for clinical practice and research. PubMed, Cochrane, and Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality electronic bibliographic databases, and relevant professional organizations' websites, were searched to identify clinical guidelines related to the provision of primary care and family planning services for LGBT clients. Information obtained from a technical expert panel was used to inform the review. Clinical guidelines meeting the inclusion criteria were assessed to determine their alignment with Institute of Medicine (IOM) standards for the development of clinical practice guidelines and content relevant to the identified themes. The search parameters identified 2,006 clinical practice guidelines. Seventeen clinical guidelines met the inclusion criteria. Two of the guidelines met all eight IOM criteria. However, many recommendations were consistent regarding provision of services to LGBT clients within the following themes: clinic environment, provider cultural sensitivity and awareness, communication, confidentiality, coordination of care, general clinical principles, mental health considerations, and reproductive health. Guidelines for the primary and family planning care of LGBT clients are evolving. The themes identified in this review may guide professional organizations during guideline development, clinicians when providing care, and researchers conducting LGBT-related studies.
Chen, E C
Results are presented of a multiple classification analysis of responses to a 1972 KAP survey in Taiwan of 2013 married women aged 18-34 designed to determine whether family planning communication is primarily a reinforcement agent or a change agent. 2 types of independent variables, social demographic variables including age, number of children, residence, education, employment status, and duration of marriage; and social climate variables including ever receiving family planning information from mass media and ever discussing family planning with others, were used. KAP levels, the dependent variables, were measured by 2 variables each: awareness of effective methods and awareness of government supply of contraceptives for knowledge, wish for additional children and approve of 2-child family for attitude, and never use contraception and neither want children nor use contraception for practice. Social demographic and attitudinal variables were found to be the critical ones, while social climate and knowledge variables had only negligible effects on various stages of family planning adoption, indicating that family planning communications functioned primarily as a reinforcement agent. The effects of social demographic variables were prominent in all stages of contraceptive adoption. Examination of effects of individual variables on various stages of family planning adoption still supported the argument that family planning communications played a reinforcement role. Family planning communications functioned well in diffusing family planning knowledge and accessibility, but social demographic variables and desire for additional children were the most decisive influences on use of contraception.
Moh. Ilham A. Hamudy
Full Text Available This study is about the implementation of family planning (KB in regional affairs. Nevertheless, this study focuses on the establishment of institutional care and family planning in the area set up. The purpose of this study is to get a complete picture of the role of family planning agencies that had stood alone in implementing family planning matters that have been handed over to the local government. By using the methods of descriptive and qualitative approach, this study found several things. First, there is impression of conflicts of interest (sectoral ego between Ministry of Home Affairs (MoHA and National Population and Family Planning Board (BKKBN on forming a population and family planning (BKKBD institutions in province, county and city. Second, the two regions, Sukabumi County and Bitung City that have shaped BKKBD has focused attention in supporting the success of family planning programs. Third, the integration of family planning into the regional medium-term development plan, as did the City of Bitung and Sukabumi County, ensure the sustainability of the program and budgeted in the regional budget revenue and expenditure (APBD. Finally, this study concludes, coordination and synchronization policies on family planning should be done by the BKKBN and MoHA.
Ikechebelu, J I; Joe-Ikechebelu, N N; Obiajulu, F N
A total of 200 Nigerian women visiting Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital's antenatal clinic were interviewed about their knowledge, attitude and practice of family planning. About 90% were literate. Their knowledge (80%) and approval (87%) of family planning was high, but the practice of modern family planning was low (25%) with most women involved in Billings/safe period (56%). The common methods used were Billings/safe period, condom, withdrawal and the intrauterine contraceptive device (IUCD). A total of 81.5% of the respondents are still willing to give birth while 77% agreed that their last pregnancy was planned. A total of 58.5% of respondents were educated about family planning in the antenatal clinic. The most common source of family planning information was mass media, closely followed by health workers, while the most common single reason for non-practice of family planning was rejection by the husband. We therefore conclude that despite the high education/literacy with the attendant and high knowledge and approval rate of family planning in this part of Nigeria, the practice of family planning is still low, especially due to partner objection. Policy makers should therefore increase male involvement in family planning programmes and pursue a more aggressive public awareness campaign.
Chen, Yi; Huang, Yingfei
China introduced its world-famous One-Child Policy in 1979. However, its fertility appears to have declined even faster in the early 1970s than it did after 1979. In this study, we highlight the importance of the Family Planning Leading Group in understanding the fertility decline since the early 1970s. In 1970, provinces gradually established an institution named the Family Planning Leading Group to facilitate the restoration of family planning, which had previously been interrupted by the o...
Despite family planning's enormous health and social benefits, US support for family planning is dwindling. Not only does family planning improve the health quality of life of children and their parents, it is also a cost-effective measure, saving an average of $4.40 in health and social services costs for each public dollar invested in the program. But over the past few years, political and financial neglect have brought the public family planning infrastructure near collapse. Combined federal and state spending on family planning amounts to less than 1% of public health care funds. In 1990, Medicaid represented the largest source of funds for family planning. But since Medicaid is tied to welfare eligibility, a woman must already have a child in order to qualify for Medicaid and its family planning benefits. Direct state funding for family planning services was the 2nd largest source. Several states, however, provided no funding whatsoever for family planning. The 3rd largest source was the Title X program, a federal program devoted exclusively to family planning. It provides services to some 4 million teens and low-income women nationwide. Over the past decade, Title X has received no significant increase in funding, and inflation has reduced its purchasing power by 2/3. As a result, Title X serves less women. Meanwhile, the number of unintended pregnancies continues to increase. The US already has the highest rate of unintended pregnancies in the developed world. This is partly a result of society's ambivalence towards sex, which makes it difficult to discuss -- much less promote -- family planning. Lack of support for family planning can also be traced to the vigorous efforts of the anti-birth control lobby, which has successfully defeated attempts to increase funding.
Arias, María Luisa Flores; Champion, Jane Dimmitt; Soto, Norma Elva Sáenz; Tovar, Marlene; Dávila, Sandra Paloma Esparza
Family planning has become increasingly important as a fundamental component of sexual health and as such is offered via public health systems worldwide. Identification of barriers to use of family planning methods among heterosexual couples living in Mexico is indicated to facilitate access to family planning methods. Barriers to family planning methods were assessed among Mexican heterosexual, sexually active males and females of reproductive age, using a modified Spanish version of the Barriers to the Use of Family Planning Methods scale (Cronbach's alpha = .89, subscales ranging from .53 to .87). Participants were recruited via convenience sampling in ambulatory care clinics within a metropolitan area in Central Mexico. Participants included 52 heterosexual couples aged 18-35 years (N = 104). Sociodemographic comparisons by gender identified older age and higher education, income, and numbers of sexual partners among men than women. More men (50%) than women (25%) were currently using family planning methods; however, 80% overall indicated intentions for its use. Overall, male condoms were used and intended for use most often by men than women. Significant gender-specific differences were found, with men (71.15%) reporting no family planning barriers, whereas women (55.66%) reported barriers including low socioeconomic status, medical concerns, and stigma. The modified Spanish translation demonstrated usefulness for measuring barriers to family planning methods use in Mexico among heterosexual males and females of reproductive age. Barriers identified by Mexican women in this study may be addressed to reduce potential barriers to family planning among Mexican populations.
...) Plan on November 16,1999. The LTFSS Plan consists of 46 projects whose goal is to promote self-sufficiency among families that are participating in the California Work Opportunity and Responsibility to Kids (CalWORKs...
Gold, Judy; Burke, Eva; Cissé, Boubacar; Mackay, Anna; Eva, Gillian; Hayes, Brendan
Mali has one of the world's lowest contraceptive use rates and a high rate of unmet need for family planning. In order to increase access to and choice of quality family planning services, Marie Stopes International (MSI) Mali introduced social franchising in public-sector community health centers (referred to as CSCOMs in Mali) in 3 regions under the MSI brand BlueStar. Potential franchisees are generally identified from CSCOMs who have worked with MSI outreach teams; once accredited as franchisees, CSCOMs receive training, supervision, family planning consumables and commodities, and support for awareness raising and demand creation. To ensure availability and affordability of services, franchisees are committed to providing a wide range of contraceptive methods at low fixed prices. The performance of the BlueStar network from inception in March 2012 until December 2015 was examined using information from routine monitoring data, clinical quality audits, and client exit interviews. During this period, the network grew from 70 to 135 franchisees; an estimated 123,428 clients received voluntary family planning services, most commonly long-acting reversible methods of contraception. Franchisee efficiency and clinical quality of services increased over time, and client satisfaction with services remained high. One-quarter of clients in 2015 were under 20 years old, and three-quarters were adopters of family planning (that is, they had not been using a modern method during the 3 months prior to their visit). Applying a social franchising support package, originally developed for for-profit private-sector providers, to public-sector facilities in Mali has increased access, choice, and use of family planning in 3 regions of Mali. The experience of BlueStar Mali suggests that interventions that support quality supply of services, while simultaneously addressing demand-side barriers such as service pricing, can successfully create demand for a broad range of family
Gold, Judy; Burke, Eva; Cissé, Boubacar; Mackay, Anna; Eva, Gillian; Hayes, Brendan
Background: Mali has one of the world's lowest contraceptive use rates and a high rate of unmet need for family planning. In order to increase access to and choice of quality family planning services, Marie Stopes International (MSI) Mali introduced social franchising in public-sector community health centers (referred to as CSCOMs in Mali) in 3 regions under the MSI brand BlueStar. Program Description: Potential franchisees are generally identified from CSCOMs who have worked with MSI outreach teams; once accredited as franchisees, CSCOMs receive training, supervision, family planning consumables and commodities, and support for awareness raising and demand creation. To ensure availability and affordability of services, franchisees are committed to providing a wide range of contraceptive methods at low fixed prices. Methods and Results: The performance of the BlueStar network from inception in March 2012 until December 2015 was examined using information from routine monitoring data, clinical quality audits, and client exit interviews. During this period, the network grew from 70 to 135 franchisees; an estimated 123,428 clients received voluntary family planning services, most commonly long-acting reversible methods of contraception. Franchisee efficiency and clinical quality of services increased over time, and client satisfaction with services remained high. One-quarter of clients in 2015 were under 20 years old, and three-quarters were adopters of family planning (that is, they had not been using a modern method during the 3 months prior to their visit). Conclusion: Applying a social franchising support package, originally developed for for-profit private-sector providers, to public-sector facilities in Mali has increased access, choice, and use of family planning in 3 regions of Mali. The experience of BlueStar Mali suggests that interventions that support quality supply of services, while simultaneously addressing demand-side barriers such as service pricing
Espejo Hernandez, J. M.
The Government approved last June 23''rd the Sixth General Radioactive Waste Plan that presents the activities to be carried out by ENRESA in all its field of responsibility to the year 2070. The document considers as one of the principal changes that ENRESA will be restructured to corporate public entity assigned to the Ministry of Industry, Tourism and Trade as well as the need of a Centralised Temporary Storage for the spent fuel and the high level radioactive wastes generated in Spain. Nevertheless, information is provided on the plans for the full decommissioning of the nuclear power plants to complete their operational life and also the economic and financial aspects related to the activities contemplated in the Plan. (Author) 13 refs
Khosravan, Shahla; Karimi Moonaghi, Hossein; Yazdani, Shahram; Ahmadi, Soleiman; Mansoorian, Mohammad Reza
Leadership and management are two expected features and competencies for general practitioners (GPs). The purpose of this study was leadership and management curriculum planning for GPs which was performed based on Kern's curriculum planning cycle. This study was conducted in 2011- 2012 in Iran using an explanatory mixed-methods approach. It was conducted through an initial qualitative phase using two focus group discussions and 28 semi-structured interviews with key informants to capture their experiences and viewpoints about the necessity of management courses for undergraduate medical students, goals, objectives, and educational strategies according to Kern's curriculum planning cycle. The data was used to develop a questionnaire to be used in a quantitative written survey. Results of these two phases and that of the review of medical curriculum in other countries and management curriculum of other medical disciplines in Iran were used in management and leadership curriculum planning. In the qualitative phase, purposeful sampling and content analysis with constant comparison based on Strauss and Corbin's method were used; descriptive and analytic tests were used for quantitative data by SPSS version 14. In the qualitatively stage of this research, 6 main categories including the necessity of management course, features and objectives of management curriculum, proper educational setting, educational methods and strategies, evolutionary method and feedback result were determined. In the quantitatively stage of the research, from the viewpoints of 51.6% of 126 units of research who filled out the questionnaire, ranked high necessary of management courses. The coordination of care and clinical leadership was determined as the most important role for GPs with a mean of 6.2 from sample viewpoint. Also, team working and group dynamics had the first priority related to the principles and basics of management with a mean of 3.59. Other results were shown in the paper
Gettys, J O; Atkins, E H; Mary, C C
The report, "Recent Trends in Louisiana Fertility," released in January 1973 is reviewed. This report was distinguished from other Louisiana Family Planning Program evaluations of demographic impact by several features: 1) Louisiana crude birth rates are compared with those of the United States and Mississippi; 2) differences in age-specific nonwhite fertility rates in Louisiana between 1965 and 1971 are compared with corresponding differences in Mississippi; and 3) the concepts of "parity components of age-specific rates" and "excess births" are introduced into the discussion of Louisiana fertility trends. According to the reviewers, no scientific or even psudoscientific analysis of the Louisiana Family Planning Program has ever been published or made available by the Family Health Foundation to any state agency. They contend that the so-called evaluations of the demographic impact of the Louisiana Family Planning Program are textbook examples of customized statistics. It is suggested that the family planning program services may contribute to increased natality and that the family planning program workers are more highly motivated to retain their jobs than to bring down the brith rate. The reviewers are not convinced that the statisticians on the Family Health Foundation are responsible for all of the narrative that accompanies their charts and tables.
Chidume, C.E.; Ofoedu, E.U.
In this paper, we introduce a new iteration process and prove that it converges strongly to a common fixed point for a finite family of generalized Lipschitz nonlinear mappings in a real reflexive Banach space E with a with uniformly Gateaux differentiable norm if at least one member of the family is pseudo-contractive. We also prove that a slight modification of the process converges to a common zero for a finite family of generalized Lipschitz accretive operators defined on E. Results for nonexpansive families are obtained as easy corollaries. Finally, our new iteration process and our method of proof are of independent interest. (author)
Full Text Available Recognizing the health impact of timing and spacing pregnancies, the Sustainable Development Goals call for increased access to family planning globally. While faith-based organizations in Africa provide a significant proportion of health services, family planning service delivery has been limited. This evaluation seeks to assess the effectiveness of implementing a systems approach in strengthening the capacity of Christian Health Associations to provide family planning and increase uptake in their communities.From January 2014 to September 2015, the capacity of three Christian Health Associations in East Africa—Caritas Rwanda, Uganda Catholic Medical Bureau, and Uganda Protestant Medical Bureau—was strengthened with the aims of improving access to women with unmet need and harmonizing faith-based service delivery contributions with their national family planning programs. The key components of this systems approach to family planning included training, supervision, commodity availability, family planning promotion, data collection, and creating a supportive environment. Community-based provision of family planning, including fertility awareness methods, was introduced across intervention sites for the first time. Five hundred forty-seven facility- and community-based providers were trained in family planning, and 393,964 people were reached with family planning information. Uptake of family planning grew substantially in Year 1 (12,691 and Year 2 (19,485 across all Christian Health Associations as compared to the baseline year (3,551. Cumulatively, 32,176 clients took up a method during the intervention, and 43 percent of clients received this service at the community level. According to a provider competency checklist, facility- and community-based providers were able to adequately counsel clients on new fertility awareness methods. Integration of Christian Health Associations into the national family planning strategy improved through
Grollman, Christopher; Cavallaro, Francesca L; Duclos, Diane; Bakare, Victoria; Martínez Álvarez, Melisa; Borghi, Josephine
The International Conference on Population and Development in 1994 set targets for donor funding to support family planning programmes, and recent initiatives such as FP2020 have renewed focus on the need for adequate funding to rights-based family planning. Disbursements supporting family planning disaggregated by donor, recipient country and year are not available for recent years. We estimate international donor funding for family planning in 2003-13, the period covering the introduction of reproductive health targets to the Millennium Development Goals and up to the beginning of FP2020, and compare funding to unmet need for family planning in recipient countries. We used the dataset of donor disbursements to support reproductive, maternal, newborn and child health developed by the Countdown to 2015 based on the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development Creditor Reporting System. We assessed levels and trends in disbursements supporting family planning in the period 2003-13 and compared this to unmet need for family planning. Between 2003 and 2013, disbursements supporting family planning rose from under $400 m prior to 2008 to $886 m in 2013. More than two thirds of disbursements came from the USA. There was substantial year-on-year variation in disbursement value to some recipient countries. Disbursements have become more concentrated among recipient countries with higher national levels of unmet need for family planning. Annual disbursements of donor funding supporting family planning are far short of projected and estimated levels necessary to address unmet need for family planning. The reimposition of the US Global Gag Rule will precipitate an even greater shortfall if other donors and recipient countries do not find substantial alternative sources of funding.
Huber, Douglas; Saeedi, Nika; Samadi, Abdul Khalil
Afghan women have one of the world's highest lifetime risks of maternal death. Years of conflict have devastated the country's health infrastructure. Total fertility was one of the world's highest, contraceptive use was low and there were no Afghan models of success for family planning. We worked closely with communities, providing information about the safety and non-harmful side-effects of contraceptives and improving access to injectable contraceptives, pills and condoms. Regular interaction with community leaders, mullahs (religious leaders), clinicians, community health workers and couples led to culturally acceptable innovations. A positive view of birth spacing was created by the messages that contraceptive use is 300 times safer than pregnancy in Afghanistan and that the Quran (the holy book of Islam) promotes two years of breastfeeding. Community health workers initiated the use of injectable contraceptives for the first time. The non-for-profit organization, Management Sciences for Health, Afghan nongovernmental organizations and the Ministry of Public Health implemented the Accelerating Contraceptive Use project in three rural areas with different ethnic populations. The contraceptive prevalence rate increased by 24-27% in 8 months in the project areas. Men supported modern contraceptives once they understood contraceptive safety, effectiveness and non-harmful side-effects. Injectable contraceptives contributed most to increases in contraceptive use. Community health workers can rapidly increase contraceptive use in rural areas when given responsibility and guidance. Project innovations were adopted as best practices for national scale-up.
De La Fuente, M
Using Bolivia as the example, the author critiques international organization and health professional emphasis upon providing family planning services as inadequate to meet the needs and interests of poor women. The feminist and women's movements should be expected to fight to regain the right of self-determination, and to demand integral health care for women. Contraception will constitute but a component of this holistic approach. Poverty, natalism, development, and population policies are all interrelated issues in Bolivia as the country proceeds through a period of democratization. Where total fertility averages 5 children/women as it does in Bolivia, women should certainly have the right to choose contraception in the control of fertility. Simple provision of such services and supplies will not, however, suffice to solve more deeply rooted social and economic problems faced by those women. The author further fears that some parts of the feminist movement have forgotten that population and related policies developed and imposed by other cultures have little interest in respecting the self-determination of women as individuals. Support for these policies by movement members only reinforces and helps to reproduce existing conditions of poverty and unequal rights.
Blazer, Cassandra; Prata, Ndola
We reviewed existing evidence of the efficacy of postpartum family planning interventions targeting women in the 12 months postpartum period in low- and middle-income countries. We searched for studies from January 1, 2004 to September 19, 2015, using the US Preventive Services Task Force recommendations to assess evidence quality. Our search resulted in 26 studies: 11 based in sub-Saharan Africa, six in the Middle East and North Africa, and nine in Asia. Twenty of the included studies assessed health facility-based interventions. Three were focused on community interventions, two had community and facility components, and one was a workplace program. Overall quality of the evidence was moderate, including evidence for counseling interventions. Male partner involvement, integration with other service delivery platforms, such as prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV and immunization, and innovative product delivery programs may increase knowledge and use during the postpartum period. Community-based and workplace strategies need a much stronger base of evidence to prompt recommendations.
Full Text Available In South Africa, client satisfaction with the quality of health care has received minimal attention; probably due to the lack of locally developed and tested measures. Therefore, we developed and tested a 20-item attitude scale to determine satisfaction with Family Planning (FP services. The objectives of this study were to: ascertain reliability of the scale and confirm, through factor analysis, that satisfaction with the FP service was based on interpersonal and organisational dimensions. The sample comprised 199 black adult interviewees (158 women and 41 men, who had previously used or were currently using contraception, from an informal settlement in Gauteng, South Africa. Three items were removed from the scale due to unacceptable communality estimates. The reliability coefficient of 0.76 for the 17-item scale was satisfactory. The principal components analysis, with orthogonal and oblique rotations, extracted two factors; accounting for 51.8% of the variance. The highest loadings on Factor I involved an interpersonal dimension (friendly, encouraging, competent, informative and communicative. Factor II tended to focus on the organisational elements of the system, such as different methods, choice of methods, service availability and length of waiting time. It was concluded that this scale was a reliable, easily administered and scored measure of satisfaction, with underlying interpersonal and organisational dimensions.
Pussetti, Chiara Gemma
In the recent context of the European Union governmental activity-in particular in this time of crisis-immigration-related issues became of pivotal importance. Social healthcare programmes targeting deprived immigrant populations equate reducing social problems with guiding their conduct towards more responsible, healthier habits and life projects. Building upon a set of debates on governing the body and health under advanced liberalism, this paper, focusing on the Portuguese context and on family planning, suggests ideas towards a new research agenda on immigration and public health, claiming that social care interventions are inherently racialized. The insecurities, threats and overall concerns in a time of global crisis create a state of exception, which justifies the deployment of illiberal practices in order to secure collective well-being. In particular, I am interested in how the dominant discourses of the health and social care sectors influence  the ways in which "the right thing to do" is constructed and debated and the material effects of these decisions on immigrants lives;  the ongoing strategies, micronegotiations of power and truth between different actors;  the fading borders of the subject of medical knowledge, which becomes no longer to govern the body merely according to a medical logic, but rather to seek social well-being.
Leeuwen, M; van den Berg, Stéphanie Martine; Boomsma, D.I.
In this paper we assess the presence of assortative mating, gene¿environment interaction and the heritability of intelligence in childhood usinga twin family design with twins, their siblings and parents from 112 families. We evaluate two competing hypotheses about the cause of assortativemating in
van Leeuwen, M.; van den Berg, S.M.; Boomsma, D.I.
In this paper we assess the presence of assortative mating, gene-environment interaction and the heritability of intelligence in childhood using a twin family design with twins, their siblings and parents from 112 families. We evaluate two competing hypotheses about the cause of assortative mating
Niehaus, T A; Suhai, S; March, N H
Holas, Howard and March (2003 Phys. Lett. A 310 451) have obtained analytic solutions for ground-state properties of a whole family of two-electron spin-compensated harmonically confined model atoms whose different members are characterized by a specific interparticle potential energy u(r 12 ). Here, we make a start on the dynamic generalization of the harmonic external potential, the motivation being the serious criticism levelled recently against the foundations of time-dependent density-functional theory (e.g., Schirmer and Dreuw 2007 Phys. Rev. A 75 022513). In this context, we derive a simplified expression for the time-dependent electron density for arbitrary interparticle interaction, which is fully determined by a one-dimensional non-interacting Hamiltonian. Moreover, a closed solution for the momentum space density in the Moshinsky model is obtained
Full Text Available Background: Small families adopting family planning are usually considered happy families. They are expected to lead a better qualitative life. Quality-of-life (QOL is routinely assessed for knowing patients′ health status. Recently, the QOL concept has become increasingly popular for evaluating the impact of public health interventions. Hitherto, QOL is usually assessed by means of program achievements or indicators, which may sometimes be misleading. Hence, the new culture of QOL assessment by means of user perspectives is now becoming popular. Research Questions: 1 Is the quality-of-life of family planning (FP adopters better than that of non-FP adopters? 2 Are the user perspectives helpful in QOL assessment? Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out among 50 FP adopting families and 50 non-FP adopting families from the village of Vutoor and the city of Karimnagar in Andhra Pradesh. Sampling Methods: Random sampling, Proportions and Chi square test. Results: Program perspectives revealed a better standard of living for FP adopters because they have amenities like housing, television, and vehicles and less mortality and morbidity ( P < 0.001. However, they lack positive feelings towards life, general adaptation, personal relationships, and leisure opportunities. Finally, self-assessment by FP adopters themselves revealed no significant increase in their qualitative life after family planning ( P = 0.05. Conclusions: While assessing the impact of a health program on quality-of-life, multiple methods of assessments including user perspectives are better than program indicators alone.
Mauldin, W P
) segura de traducir las estadísticas de servicio en práticas y tal vez aún datos sobre suministro comercial en datos sabre tasas de natalidad. Esto incluye, par ejemplo, los esfuerzos para consolidar observaciones coma "cinco años-mujer de usa de IUD, a 400 condones equivalen a la prevención de un nacimiento," y esfuerzos como los de Pakistán de calcular tasas coma "años de protección de una pareja contra el embarazo."In the belief that a decrease in the rate of population growth will increase economic development, more than ten countries have inaugurated family planning programs in the past fifteen years. To provide a model for measuring the immediate, intermediate, and long-term effects of any such program, the authors use the Taiwan evaluation.The model suggests that a good system of evaluation should include monthly statistics on (1) participants, who are grouped by characteristics; (2) the distribution of supplies, reported at first by the characteristics of recipients, but after by gross volume only; (3) family planning activities of private physicians to measure the catalytic effect on the private sector; (4) new contacts and amount of advertising in mass media; (5) costs broken down by areas and by cost categories; and (6) distribution of commercial supplies. In addition, the program should conduct 300-400 interviews every 6-12 months to learn the rates of continuation and the rates and reasons for discontinuation. Finally, a KAP survey should be conducted every two years.The administration of the evaluation should be close to the director for policy decisions and for the ultimate work of evaluation-the finding of new ways to measure the main goal of change in fertility by the translation of statistics on Services provided and commercial supplies into birth rate data.
Zick, Cathleen D; Smith, Ken R; Mayer, Robert N
We assess whether a family history of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is associated with the odds that healthy family members' engage in retirement planning activities. This is a cross-sectional study utilizing individual-level data from the Utah Population Database that have been linked to Medicare records and to responses from a retirement planning survey. Engagement in 3 retirement planning activities was estimated as a function of the number of parents and grandparents diagnosed with AD along with a set of fundamental socioeconomic and demographic covariates. Adults who had a parent with AD were 86% more likely to have seen a professional financial advisor and 40% less likely to plan to retire before age 65. Caregiving costs and/or knowledge of the familial risk of developing AD may provide adult children with a forewarning of their own future financial needs that, in turn, motivates them to engage in retirement planning. © The Author(s) 2016.
van Soest, A.H.O.; Saha, U.R.
Abstract: Analyzing the effect of family planning on child survival remains an important issue but is not straightforward because of several mechanisms linking family planning, birth intervals, total fertility, and child survival. This study uses a dynamic model jointly explaining infant mortality,
Zakiyah, Neily; van Asselt, Antoinette D. I.; Roijmans, Frank; Postma, Maarten J.
Background A significant number of women in low and middle income countries (L-MICs) who need any family planning, experience a lack in access to modern effective methods. This study was conducted to review potential cost effectiveness of scaling up family planning interventions in these regions
Schwandt, Hilary M; Creanga, Andreea A; Danso, Kwabena A; Adanu, Richard M K; Agbenyega, Tsiri; Hindin, Michelle J
Group, rather than individual, family planning counseling has the potential to increase family planning knowledge and use through more efficient use of limited human resources. A randomized, noninferiority study design was utilized to identify whether group family planning counseling is as effective as individual family planning counseling in Ghana. Female gynecology patients were enrolled from two teaching hospitals in Ghana in June and July 2008. Patients were randomized to receive either group or individual family planning counseling. The primary outcome in this study was change in modern contraceptive method knowledge. Changes in family planning use intention before and after the intervention and intended method type were also explored. Comparisons between the two study arms suggest that randomization was successful. The difference in change in modern contraceptive methods known from baseline to follow-up between the two study arms (group-individual), adjusted for study site, was -0.21, (95% confidence interval: -0.53 to 0.12) suggesting no difference between the two arms. Group family planning counseling was as effective as individual family planning counseling in increasing modern contraceptive knowledge among female gynecology patients in Ghana. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
In July 1972, DANIDA and the Danish Family Planning Association provided delegations from selected countries the opportunity to devise teaching programs on population and family planning topics for 9-to 11-year-olds. Participants from the Arab Republic of Egypt, Indonesia, Korea, Malaysia, and the Philippines attended the meeting with Danish…
Kakoko, D.C.; Ketting, E.; Kamazima, S.R.; Ruben, R.
Adherence to the policy guidelines and standards is necessary for family planning services. We compared public and private facilities in terms of provision of family planning services. We analyzed data from health facility questionnaire of the 2006 Tanzania Service Provision Assessment survey, based
Jabbar, Sinaria Kamil Abdel
This paper briefly describes the development and status of family planning (FP) services, including counseling, in the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan. It also reports extensively on a FP counseling training course organized by the Jordanian Association for Family Planning and Protection (JAFPP) which is a local NGO. A field survey approach, with…
... requirements must be met by a family planning project? (a) Each project supported under this part must: (1... (iii) Promote continued participation in the project by persons to whom family planning services may be... services purchased for project participants will be authorized by the project director or his designee on...
Background: Providing quality of care in family planning services is an important task for care providers so as to increase service utilization and coverage; however, little is known about the existing quality of care in such services. Objective: To assess quality of care in family planning services in Jimma Zone, southwest ...
Maryland State Dept. of Education, Baltimore.
This document presents design concepts and considerations for planning and developing middle and high school family and consumer sciences education facilities. It includes discussions on family and consumer sciences education trends and the facility planning process. Design concepts explore multipurpose laboratories and spaces for food/nutrition…
Zhang, Linda L.; Xu, Qianli; Helo, Petri
Planning production processes for product families have been well recognised as an effective means of achieving successful product family development. However, most existing approaches do not lend themselves to planning production processes with focus on the optimality of the cohort of a product
African Journal of Reproductive Health September 2011; 15(3): 121 ... women recognized at least one family planning method, half of all recent or ... use of Primolut N tablets, addressing real and perceived side effects of family ... planning programs, research and policy. ... Utah to improve the quality of life in communities.
Casey, Christine; Brooke, Tony; Davies, Rebecca; Franklin, Deborah
Benign familial neutropenia (BFN) is a condition where there is a decrease in circulating neutrophils in the blood and patients suffer from oral manifestations which include: persistant periodontal disease, recurrent neutropenic ulceration and candidal infections. This report discusses a family affected by BFN and the effects on their oral health. Benign familial neutropenia is a rare condition and this article aims to raise awareness among general dental practitioners so that prompt referral and management in secondary care can be arranged.
... and health plan. (vi) List of acronyms and definitions. (vii) A geographic-specific appendix for each... the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP) (40 CFR part 300) and the Area Contingency Plan(s) (ACP) covering the area in which the facility operates. Facility owners or...
... diversity and inclusion within the institution's workforce and management. In addition, the business plan of... simply address diversity, inclusion, affirmative action, and management succession, or that the marketing... included in the human capital plan or marketing plan component of the business plan, the institution can...
Koffi, Tekou B; Weidert, Karen; Ouro Bitasse, Erakalaza; Mensah, Marthe Adjoko E; Emina, Jacques; Mensah, Sheila; Bongiovanni, Annette; Prata, Ndola
Family planning programs have made vast progress in many regions of sub-Saharan Africa in the last decade, but francophone West Africa is still lagging behind. More emphasis on male engagement might result in better outcomes, especially in countries with strong patriarchal societies. Few studies in francophone West Africa have examined attitudes of male involvement in family planning from the perspective of men themselves, yet this evidence is necessary for development of successful family planning projects that include men. This qualitative study, conducted in 2016, explored attitudes of 72 married men ages 18-54 through 6 focus groups in the capital of Togo, Lomé. Participants included professional workers as well as skilled and unskilled workers. Results indicate that men have specific views on family planning based on their knowledge and understanding of how and why women might use contraception. While some men did have reservations, both founded and not, there was an overwhelmingly positive response to discussing family planning and being engaged with related decisions and services. Four key findings from the analyses of focus group responses were: (1) socioeconomic motivations drive men's interest in family planning; (2) men strongly disapprove of unilateral decisions by women to use family planning; (3) misconceptions surrounding modern methods can hinder support for family planning; and (4) limited method choice for men, insufficient venues to receive services, and few messages that target men create barriers for male engagement in family planning. Future attempts to engage men in family planning programs should pay specific attention to men's concerns, misconceptions, and their roles in family decision making. Interventions should educate men on the socioeconomic and health benefits of family planning while explaining the possible side effects and dispelling myths. To help build trust and facilitate open communication, family planning programs that
Etokidem, A J; Ndifon, W; Etowa, J; Asuquo, E F
Nigeria is the most populous nation in Africa and the seventh most populous in the world. Despite a high fertility rate of 5.5 per woman and a high population growth rate of 3.2%, Nigeria's contraceptive prevalence is 15%, which is one of the lowest in the world. The objective of this study was to determine the knowledge of family planning and family planning preferences and practices of rural community women in Cross River State of Nigeria. This was a cross-sectional study involving 291 rural women. Convenience sampling method was used. The women were assembled in a hall and a semi-structured questionnaire was administered to every consenting woman until the sample size was attained. Data obtained from the study were analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 20 and presented in tables as frequencies and percentages as well as figures. Association between categorical variables was explored using chi-square test. Binary logistic regression was also performed to determine predictors of use of at least one family planning method at some point in time. Fifty (17.2%) respondents were using at least one family planning method. One hundred and ninety-eight (68.3%) respondents had used at least one family planning method at some point in time. Reasons given for not using any family planning method included "Family planning is against my religious beliefs" (56%); "it is against our culture" (43.8%); "I need more children" (64.9%); "my partner would not agree" (35.3%); "family planning does not work" (42.9%); "it reduces sexual enjoyment" (76%); and "it promotes unfaithfulness/infidelity" (59%). Binary logistic regression conducted to predict the use of at least one family planning method at some point in time using some independent variables showed that who makes the decision regarding family planning use was the strongest predictor of family planning use (OR = 0.567; 95% CI = 0.391-0.821). This suggests that family planning uptake is more
Hopkins, Kristine; Aiken, Abigail R. A.; Stevenson, Amanda; Hubert, Celia; Grossman, Daniel; Potter, Joseph E.
We examined the impact of legislation in Texas that dramatically cut and restricted participation in the state’s family planning program in 2011 using surveys and interviews with leaders at organizations that received family planning funding. Overall, 25% of family planning clinics in Texas closed. In 2011, 71% of organizations widely offered long-acting reversible contraception; in 2012–2013, only 46% did so. Organizations served 54% fewer clients than they had in the previous period. Specialized family planning providers, which were the targets of the legislation, experienced the largest reductions in services, but other agencies were also adversely affected. The Texas experience provides valuable insight into the potential effects that legislation proposed in other states may have on low-income women’s access to family planning services. PMID:25790404
Townsend, J W; Diaz de May, E; Sepúlveda, Y; Santos de Garza, Y; Rosenhouse, S
In Mexico, youth face difficulties in obtaining reliable information on sex education and family planning through existing community programs. Two alternative strategies to provide these services are being tested in poor urban areas of Monterrey. In one experimental area, Integrated Youth Centers were established, which provide sex education and family planning services as well as counseling, academic tutoring, and recreational activities. In another area, trained young adults and community counselors work through informal networks to provide sex education and family planning information. Both utilization and the cost of these services are examined in the context of plans for expanding coverage in Mexico-U.S. border areas.
...] National Poultry Improvement Plan; General Conference Committee Meeting AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health... General Conference Committee of the National Poultry Improvement Plan. DATES: The General Conference... Improvement Plan, VS, APHIS, 1498 Klondike Road, Suite 101, Conyers, GA 30094-5104; (770) 922-3496...
Ndziessi, Gilbert; Bintsene-Mpika, Gickelle; Bileckot, Richard
Patient satisfaction is considered an indicator of quality of care. This study aimed to assess the degree of clients' satisfaction with family planning (FP) services in government health centers in Congo. A cross-sectional study was conducted. A total of 635 clients nested in 27 health facilities were included in the analysis. Satisfaction was defined as "having a good perception of provider technical skills, being satisfied with the service organization and having a general positive appreciation of FP services. Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS v15. Among 635 clients, 57% perceived lack of technical competence in providers, 88% perceived good organization in FP services and 77% declared having general positive appreciation of FP services. Global level of client satisfaction was 42%. In conclusion client satisfaction with FP service was low and strengthening health workers technical competence is crucial. But, as the quality is multidimensional, other aspects especially significant funding investment and quality-assurance interventions must be taken into account.
Espejo Hernandez, J. M.
The Government approved last June 23''rd the Sixth General Radioactive Waste Plan that presents the activities to be carried out by ENRESA in all its field of responsibility to the year 2070. The document considers as one of the principal changes that ENRESA will be restructured to corporate public entity assigned to the Ministry of Industry, Tourism and Trade as well as the need of a Centralised Temporary Storage for the spent fuel and the high level radioactive wastes generated in Spain. Nevertheless, information is provided on the plans for the full decommissioning of the nuclear power plants to complete their operational life and also the economic and financial aspects related to the activities contemplated in the Plan. (Author) 13 refs.
...The Bureau of Reclamation and the California Department of Parks and Recreation (CDPR) have prepared a Final Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Report (EIS/EIR) for the San Luis Reservoir State Recreation Area Resource Management Plan/General Plan (RMP/GP). The Final EIS/EIR describes and presents the environmental effects of the No Action/No Project Alternative and three Action Alternatives for implementing the RMP/GP. A Notice of Availability of the Draft EIS/EIR was published in the Federal Register on August 3, 2012 (77 FR 46518). The comment period on the Draft EIS/EIR ended on October 2, 2012. The Final EIS/EIR contains responses to all comments received and reflects comments and any additional information received during the review period.
The population explosion has been abating since the 2nd half of the 1960s. The birth rate of the 3rd World dropped from 45/1000 during 1950-55 to 31/1000 during 1985-90. From the 1st half of the 1960s to the 1st half of the 1980s the total fertility of such countries dropped from 6.1 to 4.2 children/woman. In Taiwan, Singapore, Hong Kong, South Korea, and Malaysia living standards improved as a result of industrialization, and fertility decreased significantly. In Sri Lanka, China, North Vietnam, and Thailand the drop of fertility is explained by cultural and religious factors. In 1982 about 78% of the population of developing countries lived in 39 states that followed an official policy aimed at reducing the population. Another 16% lived in countries supporting the concept of a desired family size. However, World Bank data showed that in the mid-1980s in 27 developing countries no state family planning (FP) programs existed. India adopted an official FP program in 1952, Pakistan followed suit in 1960, South Korea in 1961, and China in 1962. In Latin America a split policy manifested itself: in Brazil birth control was rejected, only Colombia had a FP policy. In 1986 the governments of 68 of 131 developing countries representing 3.1 billion people considered the number of children per woman too high. 31 of these countries followed concrete population control policies. On the other hand, in 1986 24 countries of Africa with 40% of the continent's population took no measures to influence population growth. In Latin America and the Caribbean 18 of 33 countries were idle, except for Mexico that had a massive state FP program. These programs also improve maternal and child health with birth spacing of at least 2 years, and the prevention of pregnancies of too young women or those over 40. The evaluation of rapidly spreading FP programs in the 1970s was carried out by the World Fertility Survey in 41 countries. The impact of FP programs was more substantial than
Sidor, Anna; Cierpka, Manfred
A standardized assessment of a family system plays a crucial role in family therapy research and diagnostic, as well as in a family therapy itself. A 14-item short version of the General Family Questionnaire (FB-K) was designed to get a tool for assessing family functionality that is low time-consuming. The short version was developed by factor analysis from the long version FA-A. The quality criteria of the family questionnaire were verified in a control sample of 208 high-risk families four months after the birth of their child. The new family questionnaire demonstrates a very good reliability and a satisfactory 8-months-stability. The concurrent validity with the FACES scale "cohesion" is assured. Regarding the construct validity a positive correlation to the feeling of coherence was found. The family questionnaire shows a negative correlation to the maternal postnatal depressive symptoms, the degree of maternal stress burden, the dysfunctionality of the mother-child-relationship and impaired bonding. The values taken from a norm sample with infants are higher by trend and in the sample with children under 18 do not deviate from the values of the risk sample. FB-K covers two aspects of family functioning, the bond between family members and their willingness to communicate. The internal consistency of FB-K is excellent, the criterion and the construct validity are good.
Kwete, Dieudonné; Binanga, Arsene; Mukaba, Thibaut; Nemuandjare, Théophile; Mbadu, Muanda Fidele; Kyungu, Marie-Thérèse; Sutton, Perri; Bertrand, Jane T
Momentum for family planning in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) is evident in multiple ways: strong political will, increasing donor support, a growing number of implementing organizations, innovative family planning programming, and a cohesive family planning stakeholder group. Between 2013 and 2017, the modern contraceptive prevalence rate (mCPR) in the capital city of Kinshasa increased from 18.5% to 26.7% among married women, but as of 2013–14, it was only 7.8% at the national level. The National Multisectoral Strategic Plan for Family Planning: 2014–2020 calls for achieving an mCPR of 19.0% by 2020, an ambitious goal in light of formidable challenges to family planning in the DRC. Of the 16,465 health facilities reporting to the national health information system in 2017, only 40% offer family planning services. Key challenges include uncertainty over the political situation, difficulties of ensuring access to family planning services in a vast country with a weak transportation infrastructure, funding shortfalls for procuring adequate quantities of contraceptives, weak contraceptive logistics and supply chain management, strong cultural norms that favor large families, and low capacity of the population to pay for contraceptive services. This article describes promising initiatives designed to address these barriers, consistent with the World Health Organization's framework for health systems strengthening. For example, the national family planning coordinating mechanism is being replicated at the provincial level to oversee the expansion of family planning service delivery. Promising initiatives are being implemented to improve the supply and quality of services and generate demand for family planning, including social marketing of subsidized contraceptives at both traditional and non-traditional channels and strengthening of services in military health facilities. To expand contraceptive access, family planning is being institutionalized in
Kwete, Dieudonné; Binanga, Arsene; Mukaba, Thibaut; Nemuandjare, Théophile; Mbadu, Muanda Fidele; Kyungu, Marie-Thérèse; Sutton, Perri; Bertrand, Jane T
Momentum for family planning in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) is evident in multiple ways: strong political will, increasing donor support, a growing number of implementing organizations, innovative family planning programming, and a cohesive family planning stakeholder group. Between 2013 and 2017, the modern contraceptive prevalence rate (mCPR) in the capital city of Kinshasa increased from 18.5% to 26.7% among married women, but as of 2013-14, it was only 7.8% at the national level. The National Multisectoral Strategic Plan for Family Planning: 2014-2020 calls for achieving an mCPR of 19.0% by 2020, an ambitious goal in light of formidable challenges to family planning in the DRC. Of the 16,465 health facilities reporting to the national health information system in 2017, only 40% offer family planning services. Key challenges include uncertainty over the political situation, difficulties of ensuring access to family planning services in a vast country with a weak transportation infrastructure, funding shortfalls for procuring adequate quantities of contraceptives, weak contraceptive logistics and supply chain management, strong cultural norms that favor large families, and low capacity of the population to pay for contraceptive services. This article describes promising initiatives designed to address these barriers, consistent with the World Health Organization's framework for health systems strengthening. For example, the national family planning coordinating mechanism is being replicated at the provincial level to oversee the expansion of family planning service delivery. Promising initiatives are being implemented to improve the supply and quality of services and generate demand for family planning, including social marketing of subsidized contraceptives at both traditional and non-traditional channels and strengthening of services in military health facilities. To expand contraceptive access, family planning is being institutionalized in
Background Average contraceptive prevalence rate in the Nkwanta district of Ghana was estimated to be 6.2% relative to the national average at the time, of 19%. While several efforts had been made to improve family planning in the country, the district still had very low use of modern family planning methods. This study sought to determine the factors that influenced modern family planning use in general and specifically, the factors that determined the consistently low use of modern family planning methods in the district. Methods A case–control study was conducted in the Nkwanta district of Ghana to determine socio-economic, socio-cultural and service delivery factors influencing family planning usage. One hundred and thirty cases and 260 controls made up of women aged 15–49 years were interviewed using structured questionnaires. A logistic regression was fitted. Results Awareness and knowledge of modern family planning methods were high among cases and controls (over 90%). Lack of formal education among women, socio-cultural beliefs and spousal communication were found to influence modern family planning use. Furthermore, favourable opening hours of the facilities and distance to health facilities influenced the use of modern contraceptives. Conclusion While modern family planning seemed to be common knowledge among these women, actual use of such contraceptives was limited. There is need to improve use of modern family planning methods in the district. In addition to providing health facilities and consolidating close-to-client service initiatives in the district, policies directed towards improving modern family planning method use need to consider the influence of formal education. Promoting basic education, especially among females, will be a crucial step as the district is faced with high levels of school dropout and illiteracy rates. PMID:25117887
Based on experiences with the Productive Cooperative Movement and the Parasite Control Movement in Japan, the Japanese Family Planning Movement began in April 1954. The resultant private and nonprofit Japan Family Planning Association (JFPA) followed and it served to help Japan achieve its goal of reducing fertility by promoting family planning. It did so by publishing a monthly newsletter on family planning, hosting meetings and national conventions, spreading information via the mass media, and selling contraceptives and educational materials. JFPA earned funding from these sales with no support from the government thereby establishing self dependence and freedom to speak candidly to the government. The JFPA learned that families wanted to improve their standard of living and were willing to limit family size to 2 children. After the birth rate peaked in 1955, the birth rate and the number of illegal abortions decreased. In the 1950s, JFPA joined the International Planned Parenthood Federation and subsequently learned of the problems faced by developing countries. Based on the successful reduction of fertility in Japan and a strong economic base, JFPA and the government were in a position to organize an international cooperation program for family planning. Therefore, the leader of JFPA resigned to found the Japanese Organization for International Cooperation in Family Planning which promotes family planning in developing countries via its integrated family planning, nutrition, and parasite control program. A steering committee composed of leaders from government, universities, and private organizations sets the policies for the program in each country. It is to the Japanese government's advantage to work with private organizations instead of providing all social services because they are flexible and provide administrative stability and national expenses are minimized.
Memon, Arbia; Hamid, Saima; Kumar, Ramesh
Family Planning is the basic right of the human being. It involves decision regarding the number of children and desired space between children by the couple themselves. Quality services involving multiple dimensions build the confidence of the clients and lack of quality is one of the constraints behind incomplete coverage of family planning. Objectives of the current study were to determine the client satisfaction, decision-making process and various influences on clients in adopting family planning methods. This cross-sectional study was conducted at Family Planning Centre of Liaquat University Hospital, Hyderabad in 2016. Quality of the family planning services and satisfaction with the services were assessed through responses obtained from women selected purposively and visiting family planning centre through exit interviews with structured pretested and reliable questionnaire after taking the written consent. Access to Family Planning Centre was not an issue in 92% cases but only 31% respondents were appropriately greeted, 77% faced blank expression and 13% received sufficient privacy. Health problems and socioeconomic conditions were inquired by 41% and18% providers respectively, while motivating force for service use was mother in law in most 35% cases. Health workers were successful in clarifying misinformation (86%) and explaining side effects (71%) but only 21% respondents were satisfied with services. Respondents are influenced by family and health care providers while making decision and type of influence was considered positive by 83% respondents. Training and monitoring system be strengthened at family planning centres to improve quality of services while important influencing relations be focused for family planning education to improve utilization of services.
Morris, Robert; Khatib, Lina
We consider the architecture of systems that combine temporal planning and plan execution and introduce a layer of temporal reasoning that potential1y improves both the communication between humans and such systems, and the performance of the temporal planner itself. In particular, this additional layer simultaneously supports more flexibility in specifying and maintaining temporal constraints on plans within an uncertain and changing execution environment, and the ability to understand and trace the progress of plan execution. It is shown how a representation based on single set of abstractions of temporal information can be used to characterize the reasoning underlying plan generation and execution interpretation. The complexity of such reasoning is discussed.
Rwanda's official family planning policy dates back to 1981 and creation of the National Office of Population (ONAPO). Among its other function, ONAPO monitors proper use of family planning methods and studies the integration of family planning services into public health. Pilot family planning programs began in the prefectures of Butare, Kigali, and Ruhengeri and were extended to the other 7 around 1985. The development of family planning services in Rwanda is based on their integration into existing services, especially those devoted to maternal-child health. In 1989, 277 of the 350 health centers of all kinds in Rwanda and 12 secondary posts offered family planning services. The rate of integration was 79.4%. 185 of the 277 health services with family planning services were in the public sector. As of December 1989, the rate of integration in different prefectures varied from a high of 95.5% in Kibungo to a low of 64.9% in Gisenyi. Integration is particularly weak in health facilities administered by the Catholic Church. The 2 strategies to confront this situation are continuing dialogue with Catholic Church officials and creation of secondary family planning posts to improve accessibility to family planning for populations served by Church health services. The number of new and continuing family planning users increased from 1178 and 1368 respectively in 1982 to 66,950 and 104,604 through September 1990. There is wide variation from 1 prefecture to another in recruitment of new acceptors and in the number of acceptors per health facility. Recruitment of new acceptors is greatest in Ruhengeri, followed by Kigali and Byumba. As of September 1990, 28,943 women used pills, 2037 used IUDs, 66,515 used injectables, 3051 used barrier methods, 2888 used auto-observation methods, 343 used implants, and 588 were sterilized. The overall rate of contraceptive prevalence increased from .9% in 1983 to 6.2% in 1989 and 10% in 1990. The strategy for promoting family planning
Sileo, Katelyn M; Wanyenze, Rhoda K; Lule, Haruna; Kiene, Susan M
Uganda has one of the highest unmet needs for family planning globally, which is associated with negative health outcomes for women and population-level public health implications. The present cross-sectional study identified factors influencing family planning service uptake and contraceptive use among postpartum women in rural Uganda. Participants were 258 women who attended antenatal care at a rural Ugandan hospital. We used logistic regression models in SPSS to identify determinants of family planning service uptake and contraceptive use postpartum. Statistically significant predictors of uptake of family planning services included: education (AOR = 3.03, 95 % CI 1.57-5.83), prior use of contraceptives (AOR = 7.15, 95 % CI 1.58-32.37), partner communication about contraceptives (AOR = 1.80, 95 % CI 1.36-2.37), and perceived need of contraceptives (AOR = 2.57, 95 % CI 1.09-6.08). Statistically significant predictors of contraceptive use since delivery included: education (AOR = 2.04, 95 % CI 1.05-3.95), prior use of contraceptives (AOR = 10.79, 95 % CI 1.40-83.06), and partner communication about contraceptives (AOR = 1.81, 95 % CI 1.34-2.44). Education, partner communication, and perceived need of family planning are key determinants of postpartum family planning service uptake and contraceptive use, and should be considered in antenatal and postnatal family planning counseling.
Full Text Available A significant number of women in low and middle income countries (L-MICs who need any family planning, experience a lack in access to modern effective methods. This study was conducted to review potential cost effectiveness of scaling up family planning interventions in these regions from the published literatures and assess their implication for policy and future research.A systematic review was performed in several electronic databases i.e Medline (Pubmed, Embase, Popline, The National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER, EBSCOHost, and The Cochrane Library. Articles reporting full economic evaluations of strategies to improve family planning interventions in one or more L-MICs, published between 1995 until 2015 were eligible for inclusion. Data was synthesized and analyzed using a narrative approach and the reporting quality of the included studies was assessed using the Consolidated Health Economic Evaluation Reporting Standards (CHEERS statement.From 920 references screened, 9 studies were eligible for inclusion. Six references assessed cost effectiveness of improving family planning interventions in one or more L-MICs, while the rest assessed costs and consequences of integrating family planning and HIV services, concerning sub-Saharan Africa. Assembled evidence suggested that improving family planning interventions is cost effective in a variety of L-MICs as measured against accepted international cost effectiveness benchmarks. In areas with high HIV prevalence, integrating family planning and HIV services can be efficient and cost effective; however the evidence is only supported by a very limited number of studies. The major drivers of cost effectiveness were cost of increasing coverage, effectiveness of the interventions and country-specific factors.Improving family planning interventions in low and middle income countries appears to be cost-effective. Additional economic evaluation studies with improved reporting quality are necessary
Zakiyah, Neily; van Asselt, Antoinette D I; Roijmans, Frank; Postma, Maarten J
A significant number of women in low and middle income countries (L-MICs) who need any family planning, experience a lack in access to modern effective methods. This study was conducted to review potential cost effectiveness of scaling up family planning interventions in these regions from the published literatures and assess their implication for policy and future research. A systematic review was performed in several electronic databases i.e Medline (Pubmed), Embase, Popline, The National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER), EBSCOHost, and The Cochrane Library. Articles reporting full economic evaluations of strategies to improve family planning interventions in one or more L-MICs, published between 1995 until 2015 were eligible for inclusion. Data was synthesized and analyzed using a narrative approach and the reporting quality of the included studies was assessed using the Consolidated Health Economic Evaluation Reporting Standards (CHEERS) statement. From 920 references screened, 9 studies were eligible for inclusion. Six references assessed cost effectiveness of improving family planning interventions in one or more L-MICs, while the rest assessed costs and consequences of integrating family planning and HIV services, concerning sub-Saharan Africa. Assembled evidence suggested that improving family planning interventions is cost effective in a variety of L-MICs as measured against accepted international cost effectiveness benchmarks. In areas with high HIV prevalence, integrating family planning and HIV services can be efficient and cost effective; however the evidence is only supported by a very limited number of studies. The major drivers of cost effectiveness were cost of increasing coverage, effectiveness of the interventions and country-specific factors. Improving family planning interventions in low and middle income countries appears to be cost-effective. Additional economic evaluation studies with improved reporting quality are necessary to generate
Shade, Starley B; Kevany, Sebastian; Onono, Maricianah; Ochieng, George; Steinfeld, Rachel L; Grossman, Daniel; Newmann, Sara J; Blat, Cinthia; Bukusi, Elizabeth A; Cohen, Craig R
To evaluate costs, cost-efficiency and cost-effectiveness of integration of family planning into HIV services. Integration of family planning services into HIV care and treatment clinics. A cluster-randomized trial. Twelve health facilities in Nyanza, Kenya were randomized to integrate family planning into HIV care and treatment; six health facilities were randomized to (nonintegrated) standard-of-care with separately delivered family planning and HIV services. We assessed costs, cost-efficiency (cost per additional use of more effective family planning), and cost-effectiveness (cost per pregnancy averted) associated with the first year of integration of family planning into HIV care. More effective family planning methods included oral and injectable contraceptives, subdermal implants, intrauterine device, and female and male sterilization. We collected cost data through interviews with study staff and review of financial records to determine costs of service integration. Integration of services was associated with an average marginal cost of $841 per site and $48 per female patient. Average overall and marginal costs of integration were associated with personnel costs [initial ($1003 vs. $872) and refresher ($498 vs. $330) training, mentoring ($1175 vs. $902) and supervision ($1694 vs. $1636)], with fewer resources required for other fixed ($18 vs. $0) and recurring expenses ($471 vs. $287). Integration was associated with a marginal cost of $65 for each additional use of more effective family planning and $1368 for each pregnancy averted. Integration of family planning and HIV services is feasible, inexpensive to implement, and cost-efficient in the Kenyan setting, and thus supports current Kenyan integration policy.
Savela, Alexandra E.; O'Brien, Karen M.
This study examined how college women's instrumentality and expectations about combining work and family predicted early career development variables. Specifically, 177 undergraduate women completed measures of instrumentality (i.e., traits such as ambition, assertiveness, and risk taking), willingness to compromise career for family, anticipated…
Wang, V L
China's family planning efforts give the appearance of being substantial and effective, though in terms of hard data the precise degree of success achieved is hard to gauge. The author's five-week tour of China, upon which this article is based, showed a country that seemed capable of controlling its rate of population growth, but it was unclear whether the desired level of growth had in fact been attained. What was clear is that several unusual ingredients are primarily responsible for the marked progress made to date. Foremost among them is a public attitude of strict adherence to a moral code which effectively limits sexual relations to married couples and which encourages delay of marriage well beyond the teenage years. Enhancing this, a wide-ranging State publicity campaign promotes birth control through public address systems, brochures given newlyweds, classes and information provided to expectant parents, discussion groups designed to elicit "voluntary" adoption of birth control methods, and other means. To complement this, the Government provides a nationwide network of free or nearly free family planning services organized down to the local level and fully equipped to assist with contraception, sterilization, or termination of pregnancy upon request. Although general statistics have not been made available, it seems obvious that a substantial reduction in China's potential rate of population growth has been achieved.
... Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Alabama: General and Transportation Conformity & New Source Review... (SMC) Rule. The SIP revision also changes the State's general and transportation conformity regulations... federal general and transportation conformity regulations into the SIP. Alabama's May 2, 2011, SIP...
Bailey, Martha J.; Malkova, Olga; Norling, Johannes
This paper provides new evidence that family planning programs are associated with a decrease in the share of children and adults living in poverty. Our research design exploits the county roll-out of U.S. family planning programs in the late 1960s and early 1970s and examines their relationship with poverty rates in the short and longer-term in public census data. We find that cohorts born after federal family planning programs began were less likely to live in poverty in childhood and that these same cohorts were less likely to live in poverty as adults. PMID:25346655
Alemayehu, Mussie; Lemma, Hailemariam; Abrha, Kidan; Adama, Yohannes; Fisseha, Girmatsion; Yebyo, Henock; Gebeye, Ejigu; Negash, Kassahun; Yousuf, Jemal; Fantu, Tigist; Gebregzabher, Tesfay; Medhanyie, Araya Abrha
Ethiopia is the second most populous country in Africa with a total fertility rate (TFR) of 4.8 children per a woman and contraceptive prevalence rate (CPR) of 29 %. The overall prevalence of modern family planning in a pastoralist community, like Afar region, is low (9.1 %). This study aimed to assess family planning utilization and associated factors among married women of Afar region, Eastern Ethiopia. A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted from January 10-28, 2013 among 602 women. Multistage sampling technique was used to select the study participants. Descriptive and multiple variable logistic regression analyses were done to isolate independent predictors on utilization of family planning using SPSS 20. The overall prevalence of family planning utilization in Afar region was 8.5 % (6.2-10.7). Majority of the women (92.2 %) had used injectable. The most common reasons mentioned in the non-use of family planning methods were religion-related (85.3 %), desire to have more children (75.3 %), and husband's objection (70.1 %). Women who had a positive attitude towards family planning utilization (AOR = 4.7, 95 % CI: 2.1, 10.3), owning radio (AOR = 1.8, 95 % CI: 1.02, 4.18), and literate (AOR = 4.4, 95 % CI: 1.80, 11.08) were more likely to use family planning methods as compared to their counterparts. The increase of monthly income was also associated with the likelihood of family planning methods utilization. The odds of using family planning methods were higher among those with monthly income of $27-$55.5 (AOR = 2. 0, 95 % CI: 1.9, 4.7) and > $55 (AOR = 4. 6, 95 % CI: 1.23-17.19) as compared to women with the lowest category of monthly income ($27 and less). The low coverage of family planning in the region could be due to the influence of husband, religious and clan leader. Attitude of women towards family planning methods, possession of radio, monthly income, and educational status could influence family
Li Ying; Cheng Yi-ming; Huang Na; Guo Xin; Wang Xian-mi
This is a review of current situation of induced abortion and post abortion family planning service in China. Induced abortion is an important issue in reproductive health. This article reviewed the distribution of induced abortion in various time, areas, and population in China, and explored the character, reason, and harm to reproductive health of induced abortion.Furthermore, this article introduces the concept of Quality of Care Program in Family Planning,and discusses how important and necessary it is to introduce Quality of Care Program in Family Planning to China.
Darney, P D
A 1968 study of family size aspirations and attitudes toward contraception and the effects of overpopulation was conducted by interviewing 20 randomly selected third-year medical students and their wives from the University of California and 20 San Francisco State College students and their wives. Couples in the 2 groups were compared to each other, as were persons desiring small families (2 or fewer children) to those wanting large families (4 or more children). Although more medical students expected large families than State college couples (50% compared to less than 20%), a majority of both groups expected more children than they considered ideal for the average American family (a mean of 2.5 children). Overpopulation was considered almost unanimously to be a problem, but much of the blame for crowding in the U.S. was placed on members of lower socioeconomic classes. All couples practiced contraception. Those expecting large families (75% medical students) expressed less concern about future overpopulation problems and financial disadvantages of large families. A change in basic attitude towards responsibility of population growth seems necessary on the part of many affluent Americans, represented by these students.
Sterman, Julia J; Naughton, Geraldine A; Bundy, Anita C; Froude, Elspeth; Villeneuve, Michelle A
Despite indisputable developmental benefits of outdoor play, children with disabilities can experience play inequity. Play decisions are multifactorial; influenced by children's skills and their familial and community environments. Government agencies have responsibilities for equity and inclusion of people with disabilities; including in play. This multiple-perspective case study aimed to understand outdoor play decision-making for children with disabilities from the perspectives and interactions of: local government and families of primary school-aged children with disabilities. Five mothers, four local government employees, and two not-for-profit organization representatives participated in semi-structured interviews. Inductive and iterative analyzes involved first understanding perspectives of individuals, then stakeholders (local government and families), and finally similarities and differences through cross-case analysis. Local government focused more on physical access, than social inclusion. Local government met only minimal requirements and had little engagement with families. This resulted in poor understanding and action around family needs and preferences when designing public outdoor play spaces. To increase meaningful choice and participation in outdoor play, government understanding of family values and agency around engagement with local government needs to improve. Supporting familial collective capabilities requires understanding interactions between individuals, play, disability, and outdoor play environments.
...] National Poultry Improvement Plan; General Conference Committee Meeting and 40th Biennial Conference AGENCY... notice of a meeting of the General Conference Committee of the National Poultry Improvement Plan (NPIP... Coordinator, National Poultry Improvement Plan, VS, APHIS, 1498 Klondike Road, Suite 101, Conyers, GA 30094...
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. Results: Generally, the pastors and faith leaders understood the benefits of longer birth intervals for the health of their members and their children, and the need for them to be involved in family planning awareness. However, both seemed slow to incorporate family planning into their programs. The faith leaders indicated an interest in being a part of various forms of campaigns to promote family planning if they could be equipped with correct information on family planning. Many strongly believed family planning to be of great importance to them and their families in situations where their financial incomes were low, and that family planning could reduce the rate of abortion. A majority agreed family planning was in agreement with their religious beliefs. Some felt their members had basic information on family planning methods, but only 44 percent of the faith leaders actually counselled their members on family planning methods from time to time. Although many would like to be part of those who create awareness in their various places of worship, only 28 percent of them had the right information on family planning through training. Conclusion: One major factor for the limited involvement of faith leaders in family planning awareness is their lack of correct information on family planning. The gap can be narrowed by organizing family planning advocacy training workshops. Networks such as Africa Christian Health Association Platform (ACHAP, the Islamic Medical Association of Zimbabwe (IMAZ, Zimbabwe Association of Church-Related Hospitals (ZACH, and Zimbabwe Council of Churches (ZCC can also be leveraged to disseminate and accelerate the spread of family planning information.
Full Text Available The research aim to know the family planning behaviour, the acceptance small family norm and the influential factors in two villages that have different geographical aspect. The behaviour involve the knowledge, the attitude and the practice where as the influential factors involve education, accupation, values of children, income, children still born and family size desired. The research areas are chosen purposive in two villages that have different geographical aspect, social aspect and cultural aspect. The aspect are: 1 location and topography, 2 socialy structure, and 3 the achievement of effective acceptor. Based on the three aspects, Ngalas village (developing and Sumberejo (developed are chosen as research areas. The recorded as ative acceptor (recordedin RI/PUS/1991 form. The respondents are chosen by cencus at two neighborhoord association at every village. There are six variables in this research are assumed influence the periode of the contraceptives use, such as education, occupation status, values of children, family income, children still born, and family size desired. There are three variables are assumed influence the small family norm, such as education, occupation status, and values of children. The data was analyzed by frequency table, crosee table, and statistical analysis (Q square and Regresion. The data was always compared between the two villages. The analysis use computer by Microsoft Program. The research result showed that Sumberejo was better than Ngalas in the knowledge, the attitude, and the practice of family planning. Most of the people who live in Sumberejo understood the contraception device well (52,4%, where as in Ngalas (26,8%. Both of them agreed on using contraception device (more than 70%. The respondent who live in Sumberejo used IUD (40% and MOW/MOP (23,23%. They had used of the contraception device for 4.8 years on an average. Mean while the respondents in Ngalas use IUD (23,68% and MOW/MOP (2
Wulifan, Joseph K; Jahn, Albrecht; Hien, Hervé; Ilboudo, Patrick Christian; Meda, Nicolas; Robyn, Paul Jacob; Saidou Hamadou, T; Haidara, Ousmane; De Allegri, Manuela
Unmet need for family planning has implications for women and their families, such as unsafe abortion, physical abuse, and poor maternal health. Contraceptive knowledge has increased across low-income settings, yet unmet need remains high with little information on the factors explaining it. This study assessed factors associated with unmet need among pregnant women in rural Burkina Faso. We collected data on pregnant women through a population-based survey conducted in 24 rural districts between October 2013 and March 2014. Multivariate multilevel logistic regression was used to assess the association between unmet need for family planning and a selection of relevant demand- and supply-side factors. Of the 1309 pregnant women covered in the survey, 239 (18.26%) reported experiencing unmet need for family planning. Pregnant women with more than three living children [OR = 1.80; 95% CI (1.11-2.91)], those with a child younger than 1 year [OR = 1.75; 95% CI (1.04-2.97)], pregnant women whose partners disapproves contraceptive use [OR = 1.51; 95% CI (1.03-2.21)] and women who desired fewer children compared to their partners preferred number of children [OR = 1.907; 95% CI (1.361-2.672)] were significantly more likely to experience unmet need for family planning, while health staff training in family planning logistics management (OR = 0.46; 95% CI (0.24-0.73)] was associated with a lower probability of experiencing unmet need for family planning. Findings suggest the need to strengthen family planning interventions in Burkina Faso to ensure greater uptake of contraceptive use and thus reduce unmet need for family planning.
Berhane, Adugnaw; Biadgilign, Sibhatu; Amberbir, Alemayehu; Morankar, Sudhakar; Berhane, Alemayehu; Deribe, Kebede
This study attempted to determine knowledge, approval and communication about family planning methods among married men in Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study was conducted among a representative sample of 738 married males in Amhara Region. All 738 (100%) of the respondents had heard of family planning. About 558 (75.6%) mentioned the importance of using contraceptives for birth spacing and 457 (61.9%) to limit birth. Four hundred and forty-five (60.3%) of participants had ever discussed family planning with their wives. Thirty-three (33.0%) of the respondents reported that they were the sole decision makers in their families. About 597 (80.9%) approved the use of contraceptives. However, some participants did not discuss and approve family planning with their partner. This recalled an intensive effort has been taken by the concerned body to reach the country's targeted family planning coverage by involving men in reproductive health endeavor to enhance the discussion and agreement about family planning usage.
Gibbs, Susannah E.; Choiriyyah, Ifta; Sonenstein, Freya L.; Astone, Nan M.; Pleck, Joseph H.; Dariotis, Jacinda K.
Objectives. To estimate national need for family planning services among men in the United States according to background characteristics, access to care, receipt of services, and contraception use. Methods. We used weighted data from the 2006–2010 National Survey of Family Growth to estimate the percentage of men aged 15 to 44 years (n = 10 395) in need of family planning, based on sexual behavior, fecundity, and not trying to get pregnant with his partner. Results. Overall, 60% of men were in need of family planning, defined as those who ever had vaginal sex, were fecund, and had fecund partner(s) who were not trying to get pregnant with partner or partner(s) were not currently pregnant. The greatest need was among young and unmarried men. Most men in need of family planning had access to care, but few reported receiving family planning services (family planning education and care is substantial and largely unmet despite national public health priorities to include men in reducing unintended pregnancies. PMID:26890180
McGinn, Therese; Austin, Judy; Anfinson, Katherine; Amsalu, Ribka; Casey, Sara E; Fadulalmula, Shihab Ibrahim; Langston, Anne; Lee-Jones, Louise; Meyers, Janet; Mubiru, Frederick Kintu; Schlecht, Jennifer; Sharer, Melissa; Yetter, Mary
Despite the serious consequences of conflict for reproductive health, populations affected by conflict and its aftermath face tremendous barriers to accessing reproductive health services, due to insecurity, inadequate numbers of trained personnel and lack of supplies. Family planning is often particularly neglected. In six conflict-affected areas in Sudan, northern Uganda and the Democratic Republic of Congo, household surveys of married or in-union women of reproductive age were conducted to determine baseline measures of family planning knowledge, attitudes and behaviors regarding contraception. Health facility assessments were carried out to assess baseline measures of family planning services availability. Data were double-entered into CSPro 3.2 and exported to SAS 9.2, which was used to calculate descriptive statistics. The studies' purposes were to guide program activities and to serve as a baseline against which program accomplishments could be measured. Knowledge of modern contraceptive methods was low relative to other sub-Saharan African countries, and use of modern methods was under 4% in four sites; in two sites with prior family planning services it was 12% and 16.2%. From 30% to 40% of women reported they did not want a child within two years, however, and an additional 12% to 35% wanted no additional children, suggesting a clear need for family planning services. The health facilities assessment showed that at most only one-third of the facilities mandated to provide family planning had the necessary staff, equipment and supplies to do so adequately; in some areas, none of the facilities were prepared to offer such services. Family planning services are desired by women living in crisis situations when offered in a manner appropriate to their needs, yet services are rarely adequate to meet these needs. Refugee and internally displaced women must be included in national and donors' plans to improve family planning in Africa.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the serious consequences of conflict for reproductive health, populations affected by conflict and its aftermath face tremendous barriers to accessing reproductive health services, due to insecurity, inadequate numbers of trained personnel and lack of supplies. Family planning is often particularly neglected. Methods In six conflict-affected areas in Sudan, northern Uganda and the Democratic Republic of Congo, household surveys of married or in-union women of reproductive age were conducted to determine baseline measures of family planning knowledge, attitudes and behaviors regarding contraception. Health facility assessments were carried out to assess baseline measures of family planning services availability. Data were double-entered into CSPro 3.2 and exported to SAS 9.2, which was used to calculate descriptive statistics. The studies' purposes were to guide program activities and to serve as a baseline against which program accomplishments could be measured. Results Knowledge of modern contraceptive methods was low relative to other sub-Saharan African countries, and use of modern methods was under 4% in four sites; in two sites with prior family planning services it was 12% and 16.2%. From 30% to 40% of women reported they did not want a child within two years, however, and an additional 12% to 35% wanted no additional children, suggesting a clear need for family planning services. The health facilities assessment showed that at most only one-third of the facilities mandated to provide family planning had the necessary staff, equipment and supplies to do so adequately; in some areas, none of the facilities were prepared to offer such services. Conclusions Family planning services are desired by women living in crisis situations when offered in a manner appropriate to their needs, yet services are rarely adequate to meet these needs. Refugee and internally displaced women must be included in national and donors
Igwegbe, A O; Ugboaja, J O; Monago, E N
Entrenching an effective family planning program has being a major challenge in Sub Saharan Africa. Determining the knowledge, attitude and practice of family planning among the women is very necessary in order to achieve success. The aim of this study iS to determine the knowledge, and practice of family planning among antenatal women in Nnewi, South East, Nigeria. A descriptive cross sectional study of 356 women attending antenatal clinic at Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi, Nigeria was carried out over a 5-month period. With the aid of pre-tested interviewer-administered semi structured questionnaires, information on biosocial characteristics, knowledge of, and practice of family planning as well as sources of information on family planning were obtained from the respondents. Data was analysis was done with Epi info statistical package, version 3.5.2 (2008) Three hundred and forty (95.5%) of the respondents knew about family planning out of which 260 (76.5%) had ever used a modern method. The male condom (256; 75.3%) and the natural method (Billings method) (150; 44.1%) were the commonly known methods. Also the commonest used methods were the male condom (144; 55.4%) and Billings method (96; 36.9%). Birth spacing (248; 72.9%) and limiting births (138, 40.6%) were mainly identified as the benefits of family planning and only 6 (1.7%) of the respondents identified family planning as being important in the reduction of maternal mortality. The major sources of information on family planning were health workers (224; 65.9%) and the radio (126; 37.1%). The knowledge and practice of family planning has improved among our women. However, the methods commonly used are those associated with high failure rates. Family panning program managers should recognize this limitation. There is need for public sensitization on the correct use of the Billings method and the male condom. Ultimately, our women should be encouraged to accept the more reliable methods
Creanga, Andreea A.; Galavotti, Christine; Wamalwa, Emmanuel
Introduction Use of family planning (FP) is powerfully shaped by social and gender norms, including the perceived acceptability of FP and gender roles that limit women’s autonomy and restrict communication and decision-making between men and women. This study evaluated an intervention that catalyzed ongoing community dialogues about gender and FP in Siaya county, Nyanza Province, Kenya. Specifically, we explored the changes in perceived acceptability of FP, gender norms and use of FP. Methods We used a mixed-method approach. Information on married men and women’s socio-demographic characteristics, pregnancy intentions, gender-related beliefs, FP knowledge, attitudes, and use were collected during county-representative, cross-sectional household surveys at baseline (2009; n11 = 650 women; n12 = 305 men) and endline (2012; n21 = 617 women; n22 = 317 men); exposure to the intervention was measured at endline. We assessed changes in FP use at endline vs. baseline, and fitted multivariate logistic regression models for FP use to examine its association with intervention exposure and explore other predictors of use at endline. In-depth, qualitative interviews with 10 couples at endline further explored enablers and barriers to FP use. Results At baseline, 34.0% of women and 27.9% of men used a modern FP method compared to 51.2% and 52.2%, respectively, at endline (pwomen, but this association was not significant for men. Women’s use of modern FP was significantly associated with higher spousal communication, control over own cash earnings, and FP self-efficacy. Men who reported high approval of FP were significantly more likely to use modern FP if reporting high approval of FP and more equitable gender beliefs. FP dialogues addressed persistent myths and misconceptions, normalized FP discussions, and increased its acceptability. Public examples of couples making joint FP decisions legitimized communication and decision-making with spouses about FP especially for
AJRH Managing Editor
Barrier contraceptives are not new to Uganda. ... procurement, and delivery mechanisms for family ... *Provider category includes staff from government and nongovernmental organisation ..... terms of the HealthTech Cooperative Agreement.
A cross-sectional study to assess the knowledge, practice, and impact of family ... The proportion of unintended pregnancies admitted among the interviewees was ... for health workers, and conducting studies to explore innovative approaches.
Greuningen, M. van; Batenburg, R.S.; Velden, L.F.J. van der
Manpower planning can be an important instrument to control shortages (or oversupply) within the health care labour market. The Netherlands is one of the countries that have a relative long tradition of manpower planning in health care. In 1973 the government introduced the numerus clausus for the
...) Plan on November 16,1999. The LTFSS Plan consists of 46 projects whose goal is to promote self-sufficiency among families that are participating in the California Work Opportunity and Responsibility to Kids Act of 1997 (CalWORKS...
Vernon, R; Ojeda, G; Murad, R
Three AIDS prevention activities were incorporated into the services offered by PROFAMILIA in two operations research projects. The activities included: (1) informative talks given both to the general public and to members of target groups by PROFAMILIA's community marketing (CM) program field workers (or instructors); (2) the establishment of condom distribution posts in meeting places of target groups; and (3) mass-media information campaigns on AIDS prevention. Community-based distributors were able to successfully provide information on AIDS to their regular audiences as well as to deliver information and condoms to special target groups without negatively affecting family planning information/education/communication activities and contraceptive sales. A radio campaign that promoted condom use for AIDS prevention did not affect public perceptions about the condom and did not jeopardize PROFAMILIA's image.
spousal communication, and investigated the correlates of men's opinion in family planning decision making in ... questionnaire to collect information from 402 male study participants. ..... who attained post-secondary education were more.
PROF. OLIVER OSUAGWA
Jun 1, 2015 ... Department of Statistics, University of South Africa and Department of Statistics, University of Ibadan. ... Keywords: Bayesian inference, family planning, Nigeria, spatial analysis .... probability distribution is given as: (6) where.
This paper examines the influence of informal banking club participation on family planning practices in rural Ghana. Research from Asia suggests that family planning practices are improved by club participation. This study examines this thesis in an African context, using rural Ghana as a case study. A sample of 204 women (19 years and older) was drawn from Abokobi village, Ghana. Multivariate analyses of direct, mediating and moderating effects of women’s demographic background characteristics, membership status and length, and women’s empowerment status as predictors of family planning practices are assessed. Findings suggest that club membership and membership length is not associated with family planning practices; however, age, education level, number of children and empowerment status are.
recognizing the advantages and disadvantages of this Plan based ... physicians and health care managers and employees working in the Borujen town (n=62). ..... Nworie J. Using the Delphi technique in educational technology research.
planning information and services for sexually active young women – in ... towards ensuring the equitable distribution of resources and accessible basic services. 99 ...... denial and disengagement affecting intergenerational dialogue in many ...
Nowels, Larry; Veillette, Connie
Since 1965, U.S. policy has supported international population planning based on principles of volunteerism and informed choice that gives participants access to information on all methods of birth control...
Since 1965, the U.S. Government has supported international population planning based on principles of volunteerism and informed choice that gives participants access to information on all methods of birth control...
Alina Elena OPRESCU
Full Text Available Any approach that involves the use of strategic resources of an organisation requires a responsible approach, a behaviour that enables it to properly integrate itself into the dynamic of the business environment. This articles addresses in a synthetic manner, the issues of specific integration efforts for customers’ segmentation in the strategic marketing planning. The essential activity for any organisation wishing to optimise its response to the market, the customer segmentation will fully benefit from the framework provided by the strategic marketing planning. Being a sequential process, it not only allows time optimisation of the entire marketing activity but it also leads to accuracy of the strategic planning and its stages.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Both availability and quality of family planning services are believed to have contributed to increasing contraceptive use and declining fertility rates in developing countries. Yet, there is limited empirical evidence to show the relationship between the quality of family planning services and the population based prevalence of contraceptive methods. This study examined the relationship between quality of family planning services and use of intrauterine devices (IUD in Egypt. Methods The analysis used data from the 2003 Egypt Interim Demographic and Health Survey (EIDHS that included 8,445 married women aged 15–49, and the 2002 Egypt Service Provision Assessment (ESPA survey that included 602 facilities offering family planning services. The EIDHS collected latitude and longitude coordinates of all sampled clusters, and the ESPA collected these coordinates for all sampled facilities. Using Geographic Information System (GIS methods, individual women were linked to a facility located within 10 km of their community. A facility-level index was constructed to reflect the quality of family planning services. Four dimensions of quality of care were examined: counseling, examination room, supply of contraceptive methods, and management. Effects of quality of family planning services on the use of IUD and other contraceptive methods were estimated using multinomial logistic regression. Results are presented as relative risk ratios (RRR with significance levels (p-values. Results IUD use among women who obtained their method from public sources was significantly positively associated with quality of family planning services (RRR = 1.36, p Conclusion This study is one among the few that used geographic information to link data from a population-based survey with an independently sampled health facility survey. The findings demonstrate that service quality is an important determinant of use of clinical contraceptive methods in Egypt
Dehlendorf, Christine; Gavin, Loretta; Witt, Jacki; Moskosky, Susan
Family planning providers have an important role to play in the response to the public health challenge posed by Zika. In the United States, there are high rates of unintended pregnancy, especially in states most at risk for mosquito-borne transmission of the Zika virus. This paper describes efforts by eight of these states (Arizona, California, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, South Carolina, and Texas) to build capacity for quality family planning care in the context of Zika. Drawing on resources developed by the Office of Population Affairs, including a toolkit for family planning care in the context of Zika, agencies and stakeholders involved in the family planning delivery system in Southern states at risk for mosquito-borne transmission met over several months in the summer of 2016 to coordinate efforts to respond to the risk of Zika in their jurisdictions. Through proactive communication and collaboration, states took steps to integrate Zika-related family planning care, including screening for Zika risk and providing appropriate, client-centered counseling. Challenges faced by the states included not having family planning included as a component of their state's Zika response effort, limited funding for family planning activities, and the need for robust communication networks between multiple state and federal agencies. The efforts described in this paper can help other states to integrate family planning into their Zika response. This is relevant to all states; even when mosquito-borne transmission is not occurring or expected, all states experience travel-related and sexually transmitted Zika infections. Copyright © 2017 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. All rights reserved.
Withers, Mellissa; Dworkin, Shari L; Zakaras, Jennifer M; Onono, Maricianah; Oyier, Beryl; Cohen, Craig R; Bukusi, Elizabeth A; Grossman, Daniel; Newmann, Sara J
Gender inequity has been closely linked with unmet need for family planning among women in sub-Saharan Africa but the factors related to male family planning disapproval are not well-understood. This qualitative study explored men's perspectives of gender roles and cultural norms as they pertain to family planning. Twelve small group meetings were held with 106 married men in Nyanza Province, Kenya. Shifting gender relations made the definitions of manhood more tenuous than ever. Men's previous identities as sole breadwinners, which gave them significant control over decision-making, were being undermined by women's increasing labour force participation. While many men viewed family planning positively, fears that family planning would lead to more female sexual agency and promiscuity or that male roles would be further jeopardised were widespread and were major deterrents to male family planning approval. By addressing such fears, gender-sensitive programmes could help more men to accept family planning. Increased family planning education for men is needed to dispel misconceptions regarding family planning side-effects. Focusing on the advantages of family planning, namely financial benefits and reduced conflict among couples, could resonate with men. Community leaders, outreach workers and healthcare providers could help shift men's approval of joint decision-making around family size to other reproductive domains, such as family planning use.
Hunter, Tara; Botfield, Jessica R; Estoesta, Jane; Markham, Pippa; Robertson, Sarah; McGeechan, Kevin
This study reviewed implementation of the Domestic Violence Routine Screening (DVRS) program at Family Planning NSW and outcomes of screening to determine the feasibility of routine screening in a family planning setting and the suitability of this program in the context of women's reproductive and sexual health. A retrospective review of medical records was undertaken of eligible women attending Family Planning NSW clinics between 1 January and 31 December 2015. Modified Poisson regression was used to estimate prevalence ratios and assess association between binary outcomes and client characteristics. Of 13440 eligible women, 5491 were screened (41%). Number of visits, clinic attended, age, employment status and disability were associated with completion of screening. In all, 220 women (4.0%) disclosed domestic violence. Factors associated with disclosure were clinic attended, age group, region of birth, employment status, education and disability. Women who disclosed domestic violence were more likely to have discussed issues related to sexually transmissible infections in their consultation. All women who disclosed were assessed for any safety concerns and offered a range of suitable referral options. Although routine screening may not be appropriate in all health settings, given associations between domestic violence and sexual and reproductive health, a DVRS program is considered appropriate in sexual and reproductive health clinics and appears to be feasible in a service such as Family Planning NSW. Consistent implementation of the program should continue at Family Planning NSW and be expanded to other family planning services in Australia to support identification and early intervention for women affected by domestic violence.
Tawfik, Youssef; Rahimzai, Mirwais; Ahmadzai, Malalah; Clark, Phyllis Annie; Kamgang, Evelyn
To address low contraceptive use in Afghanistan, we supported 2 large public maternity hospitals and 3 private hospitals in Kabul to use modern quality improvement (QI) methods to integrate family planning into postpartum care. In 2012, QI teams comprising hospital staff applied root cause analysis to identify barriers to integrated postpartum family planning (PPFP) services and to develop solutions for how to integrate services. Changes made to service provision to address identified barriers included creating a private counseling space near the postpartum ward, providing PPFP counseling training and job aids to staff, and involving husbands and mothers-in-law in counseling in person or via mobile phones. After 10 months, the proportion of postpartum women who received family planning counseling before discharge in the 5 hospitals increased from 36% to 55%, and the proportion of women who received family planning counseling with their husbands rose from 18% to 90%. In addition, the proportion of postpartum women who agreed to use family planning and left the hospital with their preferred method increased from 12% to 95%. Follow-up telephone surveys with a random sample of women who had received PPFP services in the 2 public hospitals and a control group of postpartum women who had received routine hospital services found significant differences in the proportion of women with self-reported pregnancies: 3% vs. 15%, respectively, 6 months after discharge; 6% vs. 22% at 12 months; and 14% vs. 35% at 18 months (P family planning and postpartum services by testing changes they deemed feasible.
PRATA, NDOLA; FRASER, ASHLEY; HUCHKO, MEGAN J.; GIPSON, JESSICA D.; WITHERS, MELLISSA; LEWIS, SHAYNA; CIARALDI, ERICA J.; UPADHYAY, USHMA D.
Summary This paper reviews the literature examining the relationship between women’s empowerment and contraceptive use, unmet need for contraception and related family planning topics in developing countries. Searches were conducted using PubMed, Popline and Web of Science search engines in May 2013 to examine literature published between January 1990 and December 2012. Among the 46 articles included in the review, the majority were conducted in South Asia (n = 24). Household decision-making (n = 21) and mobility (n = 17) were the most commonly examined domains of women’s empowerment. Findings show that the relationship between empowerment and family planning is complex, with mixed positive and null associations. Consistently positive associations between empowerment and family planning outcomes were found for most family planning outcomes but those investigations represented fewer than two-fifths of the analyses. Current use of contraception was the most commonly studied family planning outcome, examined in more than half the analyses, but reviewed articles showed inconsistent findings. This review provides the first critical synthesis of the literature and assesses existing evidence between women’s empowerment and family planning use. PMID:28069078
Shang-chun WU; Yan ZOU; K Church; O Meirik
The four cornerstones of guidance in technique service of family planning are established by WHO based on high quality evidences. They have been updated according to the appearing new evidences, and the consensuses were reached by the international experts in this field. The four documents include Medical Eligibility Criteria for Contraceptive Use, Selected Practice Recommendations for Contraceptive Use, Decision-making Tool for Family Planning Clients and Providers and The Global Handbook for Family Planning Providers. The first two documents mainlyface to the policy-makers and programme managers and were treated as the important references for creating the local guideline. The other two documents were developed for the front-line health-care and family planning providers at different levels, which include plenty of essential technical information to help providers improve their ability in service delivery and counselling. China paid great attention to the introduction and application of WHO guidelines. As soon as the newer editions of these documents were available, the Chinese version would be followed. WHO guidelines have been primarily adapted with the newly issued national guideline, The Clinical Practical Skill Guidelines- Family Planning Part, which was established by China Medical Association. At the same time, the WHO guidelines have been introduced to some of the linicians and family planning providers at different levels. In the future, more special training courses will be introduced to the township level based on the needs of grassroot providers.
Barber, Sarah L
In Mexico, family planning advice has been incorporated into the clinical guidelines for prenatal care. However, the relationship between women's receipt of family planning advice during prenatal care and subsequent contraceptive use has not been evaluated. Data were collected in 2003 and 2004 in 17 Mexican states from 2,238 urban low-income women postpartum. Participating women reported on prenatal services received and contraceptive use. Logistic and multinomial logistic regression models evaluated whether receiving family planning advice during prenatal care predicted current contraceptive use, after quality of care in the community, service utilization, delivery characteristics, household socioeconomic characteristics, and maternal and infant characteristics were controlled for. Overall, 47% of women used a modern contraceptive method. Women who received family planning advice during prenatal care were more likely to use a contraceptive than were those who did not receive such advice (odds ratio, 2.2). Women who received family planning advice had a higher probability of using condoms (relative risk ratio, 2.3) and IUDs (5.2), and of undergoing sterilization (1.4), than of using no method. Integrating family planning advice into prenatal care may be an important strategy for reaching women when their demand for contraception is high.
Sharad Kumar Sharma
Full Text Available There is wide variation of family planning services use among ethnic groups in Nepal. Despite three decades of implementation the need for family planning services is substantially unmet (25Š, and there have been no systematic studies evaluating the impact of the family planning program. This study pooled data from nationally representative surveys conducted in 1996, 2001, and 2006. Multilevel logistic regression analysis of 23,381 married women of reproductive age nested within 764 clusters indicated that Muslims, Janjatis, and Dalits were significantly less likely to use contraceptives than Brahmins and Chhetries (OR=0.27, 0.88 and 0.82 respectively. The odds of using contraceptives by the Newar were higher than the odds for Brahmins and Chhetries, although it was not significant. Exposure of women to family planning messages through health facilities, family planning workers, radio, and television increased the odds of using modern contraceptives. However, the impact of family planning information on contraceptive use varied according to ethnicity. We also found that modern contraceptive use varied significantly across the clusters, and the cluster-level indicators, such as mean age at marriage, mean household asset score, percentage of women with secondary education, and percentage of women working away from home, were important in explaining this.
Keeny, S. M., Ed.
An annual review, third in a series, covers developments in the field of population and family planning in East Asia. For each of the 10 countries involved (Hong Kong, Indonesia, South Korea, Laos, Malaysia, Phillipines, Singapore, Taiwan, Thailand, and South Vietnam) there is an article written by the agent responsible for the family planning…
In this study, the author evaluated a project in The Netherlands that aimed to promote family members' participation in care plan meetings at a psychogeriatric nursing home. The small-scale pilot project, which was conducted in four wards of the nursing home, was designed to involve families in
Popp, Tierney K.; You, Hyun-Kyung
The mediating role of parental satisfaction in the relation between family involvement in early intervention service planning and parental self-efficacy was explored. Participants included families of children with disability or delay involved in early intervention (n = 2586). Data were examined upon entry into early intervention (T1) and at…
Bos, H.M.W.; van Balen, F.
The study assessed the extent to which children between eight and 12 years old in planned lesbian families in the Netherlands experience stigmatization, as well as the influence of protective factors (relationship with parents, social acceptance by peers, contact with children from other families
de la Fuente, Daniel; Rubio, Rafael M.
We introduce a new family of Galilean spacetimes, the Galilean generalized Robertson-Walker spacetimes. This new family is relevant in the context of a generalized Newton-Cartan theory. We study its geometrical structure and analyse the completeness of its inextensible free falling observers. This sort of spacetimes constitutes the local geometric model of a much wider family of spacetimes admitting certain conformal symmetry. Moreover, we find some sufficient geometric conditions which guarantee a global splitting of a Galilean spacetime as a Galilean generalized Robertson-Walker spacetime.
Wahyuni Apri Astuti
Full Text Available This study is carried out in Nusukan, Banjarsari, Surakarta. The problems that are related to economic crisis in Indonesia are the supply of contraception, the weakening of people purchasing power so they influence the realization of family planning program. The goals of the study are: to know the supply of contraception for poor household, to study the influence of the effect of economic crisis for the participant of family planning, to study the change of birth control and its effective strategy and to know the quality of family planning service. The data are collected using observation, and questionnaire. The study takes the area in which it has more productive couple, the percentage of poor families and the prosperous families I that belong to productive couple whose age 20 to 49 years old, at least they have two children, and participant of family planning or ever followed it. The result of the study shows that 82% respondents can get contraception easily before and at economic crisis. It is one of the important factors, for which the participant of family planning is still high. Although the economic crisis influences the price of contraception and family Income, it does not affect the participant of family planning. 87% respondents participate actively the family planning. This shows that the people have realized the importance of family planning program. There is an impact of economic crisis for the change of the ways of birth control. 38% respondents have changed over their strategy from modern to traditional contraception and the contrary, and from modern contraception to the other one. Some of them are abstention. The level of the people adaptation is high enough. They use various ways to prevent of being pregnant. 92% respondents do not want to be pregnant. If it happens an unwanted pregnancy, 15% of the respondents will abort their pregnancy. This is the challenge for the officers and the government to supply safe and accurate
Gebremedhin, Almaz Yirga; Kebede, Yigzaw; Gelagay, Abebaw Addis; Habitu, Yohannes Ayanaw
Postpartum period is an important entry point for family planning service provision; however, women in Ethiopia are usually uncertain about the use of family planning methods during this period. Limited studies have been conducted to assess postpartum family planning use in Addis Ababa, in particular and in the country in general. So, this study was conducted to assess postpartum family planning use and its associated factors among women in extended postpartum period in Kolfe Keranyo sub city of Addis Ababa. A community-based cross sectional study was conducted from May to June 2015 on 803 women who have had live births during the year (2014) preceding the data collection in the sub city. The multi-stage cluster sampling technique was used to select study participants. Data were collected by interviewer administered structured questionnaire, entered into EPI INFO version 7 and analyzed by SPSS Version 20. Bivariable and Multivariable logistic regression models were employed to see the presence and strength of the association between the dependent and independent variables by computing the odds ratios with a 95% confidence intervals and p -values. The prevalence of postpartum family planning use was 80.3% (95% CI: 74.5, 83.1). Marriage, (AOR 0.09, 95% CI: 0.03, 0.22), menses resumption after birth, (AOR 2.12, 95% CI: 1.37, 3.41), length of time after delivery, (AOR 2.37, 95% CI: 1.18, 4.75), and history of contraceptive use before last pregnancy, (AOR 0.12, 95% CI: 0.07, 0.18) were the factors associated with postpartum family planning use. The prevalence of postpartum family planning use was high and the main factors associated with it were marriage, menses resumption, length of time after delivery, and history of previous contraceptive use. Therefore women should get appropriate information about the possibility of exposure to pregnancy prior to menses resumption by giving special emphasis to those who had no previous history of contraceptive use and exposure to
RESULTS: The average levels of perceived informed choice and client provider interaction were 70.0% and 67.6%, respectively. Perceived clinical competence of providers, perceived integration and coordination of care, perceived accessibility of services, perceived participation of families and friends in care delivery, ...
2016 Journal of Basic and Clinical Reproductive Sciences | Published by ... Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the level of awareness of family ... Subjects and Methods: This was a ... pregnant women, whom were selected through a systematic sampling .... are run by 3 resident consultant obstetricians, 5 medical.
Full Text Available Background: More than 100 million women in less developed countries or about 17% of all married women would prefer to avoid pregnancy, but are not using any form of family planning. Despite the government′s many efforts, the unmet need for family planning in India is still 12.8%. The present study is aimed to assess prevalence of the unmet need for family planning, its determinants, and the reasons for the unmet need for family planning. Materials and Methods: A sample size of 500 was divided equally among the rural and urban areas. A simple random technique was used to select the first household for the survey. A predesigned and pretested questionnaire was used to record the information. Data was entered on Microsoft Access and analyzed using the statistical software SPSS version 11.5 for Windows Vista. The chi square test was used for finding the association and trends. Results: In the present study, 35% of the population had an unmet need, of which 58.28% belonged to rural area, while 41.71% belonged to the urban area. The significant determinants associated with the unmet need for family planning were religion, type of family, husband′s education and occupation, socioeconomic class, women′s age, women′s education and occupation, exposure to mass media, and healthcare facility where services were provided. Overall, lack of motivation and obstacles were the major reasons for the unmet need. Conclusion: Improved access to family planning services, better education, improved standard of living, and higher exposure to mass media can significantly decrease the unmet need of family planning.
Center for Disease Control (DHEW/PHS), Atlanta, GA.
This report summarizes abortion information received by the Center for Disease Control from collaborators in state health departments, hospitals, and other pertinent sources. While it is intended primarily for use by the above sources, it may also interest those responsible for family planning evaluation and hospital abortion planning. Information…
Eto, Kumi; Koch, Pamela; Contento, Isobel R.; Adachi, Miyuki
Objective: To examine associations between Theory of Planned Behavior variables and the family meal frequency. Methods: Fifth-through seventh-grade students (n = 236) completed a self-administered questionnaire in their classrooms. The relationships between Theory of Planned Behavior variables (intention, attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived…
...: BOEM-2012-0077] RIN 1010-AD77 Timing Requirements for the Submission of a Site Assessment Plan (SAP) or... would amend the timing requirements for submitting a Site Assessment Plan (SAP) or General Activities... and grants will have a preliminary term of 12 months in which a lessee or grantee must submit a SAP or...
... management under alternative B would be to enable visitor participation in a wide variety of outdoor... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service [2031-A046-409] General Management Plan/Wilderness Study/Off-Road Vehicle Management Plan, Final Environmental Impact Statement, Big Cypress National...
Clissett, Philip; Porock, Davina; Harwood, Rowan H; Gladman, John R F
To explore the experiences of family carers of people with cognitive impairment during admission to hospital. Providing appropriate care in acute hospitals for people with co-morbid cognitive impairment, especially dementia or delirium or both, is challenging to healthcare professionals. One key element is close working with family members. Qualitative interview study. Semi-structured interviews with family carers of 34 older people who had been admitted to a UK general hospital and had co-morbid cognitive impairment. Interviews conducted in 2009 and 2010. Analysis was undertaken using Strauss and Corbin's framework. The findings elaborate a core problem, 'disruption from normal routine' and a core process, 'gaining or giving a sense of control to cope with disruption'. Family carers responded to disruption proactively by trying to make sense of the situation and attempting to gain control for themselves or the patient. They tried to stay informed, communicate with staff about the patient and plan for the future. The interaction of the core problem and the core process resulted in outcomes where family members either valued the support of hospital staff and services or were highly critical of the care provided. Family carers are not passive in the face of the disruption of hospitalization and respond both by trying to involve themselves in the care and support of their relative and by trying to work in partnership with members of staff. Nurses need to foster this relationship conscientiously. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Meekers, Dominique; Ratovonanahary, Raseliarison; Andrianantoandro, Tokinirina; Randrianarisoa, Hiangotiana
In several African countries fertility levels have stagnated or increased slightly. However, many women still report an unmet need for family planning. Therefore achieving further fertility declines requires programs that increase demand for family planning, but that also address the existing unmet need. One way to improve contraceptive access in a cost-effective manner might be to integrate family planning services into other existing health services. This paper analyzes secondary data from the 2012-2013 Millennium Development Goals (MDG) survey in Madagascar to estimate the number of women with an unmet need for family planning that might benefit from integrating family planning services into other health services. In Madagascar, one third of the demand for family planning is not met; an estimated 820,000 women have an unmet need for family planning. A substantial portion of these women can be reached by integrating family planning services into existing maternal and child health services. Health providers are uniquely positioned to help address method-related reasons for non-use of family planning, such as concerns about health problems and side-effects. Given the large unmet need for family planning, programs should not exclusively focus on increasing the demand for family planning, but also seek new ways to address the existing unmet need. Our study illustrates that simple analyses of existing health survey data can be an important tool for informing the design of programs to tackle this unmet need.
Corroon, Meghan; Kebede, Essete; Spektor, Gean; Speizer, Ilene
The Family Planning 2020 initiative aims to reach 120 million new family planning users by 2020. Drug shops and pharmacies are important private-sector sources of contraception in many contexts but are less well understood than public-sector sources, especially in urban environments. This article explores the role that drug shops and pharmacies play in the provision of contraceptive methods in selected urban areas of Nigeria and Kenya as well as factors associated with women's choice of where to obtain these methods. Using data collected in 2010/2011 from representative samples of women in selected urban areas of Nigeria and Kenya as well as a census of pharmacies and drug shops audited in 2011, we examine the role of drug shops and pharmacies in the provision of short-acting contraceptive methods and factors associated with a women's choice of family planning source. In urban Nigeria and Kenya, drug shops and pharmacies were the major source for the family planning methods of oral contraceptive pills, emergency contraceptives, and condoms. The majority of injectable users obtained their method from public facilities in both countries, but 14% of women in Nigeria and 6% in Kenya obtained injectables from drug shops or pharmacies. Harder-to-reach populations were the most likely to choose these outlets to obtain their short-acting methods. For example, among users of these methods in Nigeria, younger women (family planning users who had never been married were significantly more likely than married users to obtain these methods from a drug shop or a pharmacy than from a public-sector health facility. Low levels of family planning-related training (57% of providers in Kenya and 41% in Nigeria had received training) and lack of family planning promotional activities in pharmacies and drug shops in both countries indicate the need for additional support from family planning programs to leverage this important access point. Drug shops and pharmacies offer an important
Simmons, R S; Ashraf, A
1. Family planning occupied a subordinate position in the medical and health bureaucracy almost two decades after its introduction. Senior Ministry officials accorded low priority to formal program objectives, while the State Family Planning Officer, the highest state official concerned solely with the family planning program, suffered from a relatively subordinate position in the Directorate and a lack of authority and support. Within the medical profession, family planning was held in low esteem, and the medical and health bureaucracies did not have a mechanism for selecting personnel on the basis of interest and commitment. 2. Organizational adjustment to family planning in the Ministry of Health was a slow and painful process, absorbing the energy and attention of Ministry officials for almost a decade. The repeated reorganizations of the district setup revolving around the division of labor between medical, health, and family planning acitvities and between the rural and urban program, led to months of almost total inertia and detracted substantially from the supervisory capacity of the officials involved. 3. Decision making and guidance suffered from the quick turnover of the Secretary, the most powerful administrator in the Ministry. In Uttar Pradesh Secretaries stayed barely long enough to begin to understand the complex organizational setup of the program. 4. Multiple and often conflicting lines of authority characterized the relationships between the higher and lower echelons within the Ministry. This was accentuated when the District Family Planning Officer was placed under the administrative control of the District Magistrate. While intended to "energize" family planning through the association of the most prestigious and powerful district official with the program, this organizational arrangement resulted in conflicting instructions to the staffs of the primary health centers. 5. The organizational behavior of the Ministry of Health was shaped by the
Calvo-Salguero, Antonia; Martínez-De-Lecea, José-María Salinas; Carrasco-González, Ana-María
The objective of this study is to analyze the mediating role of intrinsic and extrinsic job satisfaction in the relationship between the 2 dimensions of work-family conflict-family interfering with work (FIW) and work interfering with family (WIF)-and general job satisfaction. Step-by-step hierarchical regression analyses were carried out on a sample of 151 men and women from a Spanish public organization. The results confirmed the mediating role of intrinsic job satisfaction in the case of FIW. This highlights the importance of taking into account the level of satisfaction with the intrinsic facets of one's job as a measure for understanding why FIW has a negative impact on general job satisfaction.
... Assistance General Provisions, Federal Perkins Loan Program, Federal Family Education Loan Program, and... Provisions, Federal Perkins Loan (Perkins Loan) Program, Federal Family Education Loan (FFEL) Program, and... Vol. 78 Friday, No. 212 November 1, 2013 Part II Department of Education 34 CFR Parts 668, 674...
Full Text Available Abstract Background The reasons why patients decide to consult a general practitioner vary enormously. While there may be individual reasons for this variation, the family context has a significant and unique influence upon the frequency of individuals' visits. The objective of this study was to explore which family factors can explain the differences between strikingly high, and correspondingly low, family consultation rates in families with children aged up to 21. Methods Data were used from the second Dutch national survey of general practice. This survey extracted from the medical records of 96 practices in the Netherlands, information on all consultations with patients during 2001. We defined, through multilevel analysis, two groups of families. These had respectively, predominantly high, and low, contact frequencies due to a significant family influence upon the frequency of the individual's first contacts. Binomial logistic regression analyses were used to analyse which of the family factors, related to shared circumstances and socialisation conditions, can explain the differences in consultation rates between the two groups of families. Results In almost 3% of all families, individual consultation rates decrease significantly due to family influence. In 11% of the families, individual consultation rates significantly increase due to family influence. While taking into account the health status of family members, family factors can explain family consultation rates. These factors include circumstances such as their economic status and number of children, as well as socialisation conditions such as specific health knowledge and family beliefs. The chance of significant low frequencies of contact due to family influences increases significantly with factors such as, paid employment of parents in the health care sector, low expectations of general practitioners' care for minor ailments and a western cultural background. Conclusion Family
Full Text Available Background: Utilization of family planning methods, their side effects and the factors influencing their uses. Aims: To study the family planning practices/methods among the married women of reproductive age (15- 45yrs. Study Design: Community-based study. Study Subjects: The Women of reproductive age groups (15-45yrs adopting family planning methods & those residing in urban slums of, Lucknow. Sample size: 540, Study Period : July 2009 to July 2011. Sampling Technique: thirty cluster sampling. Result: The acceptance of family planning methods both temporary and permanent methods increased with level of literacy of women. About 53.40 % adopted I.U.C.D, 38.83% O.C pills & only 7.77% of their partners used condoms. 66.6% have undergone laparoscopic & 33.4% mini-lap sterilization. Vasectomy was not done for even a single partner. More number of illiterate and primary educated accepted permanent method after 3 or more children than higher educated who accepted it after 1 or 2 children. Among acceptors of permanent methods, total 70.27 % were experiencing side effects and among temporary method users, it accounted 23.30%. Conclusions: Acceptance in family planning is associated with increasing age, nuclear family & level of literacy. IUCD is the most accepted one among all the temporary methods. Vasectomy and newer contraceptives were not at all used.
You must submit one risk management plan (RMP) to EPA for all of your covered processes. The internet-based RMP*eSubmit allows you to submit your RMP in EPA's Central Data Exchange (CDX), where you can access and change/correct existing RMPs.
Koops, Lisa Huisman; Keppen, Heidi
Enjoyment is an important but often overlooked element in the music classroom. In this article, we review research literature related to enjoyment in musical interactions and discuss the role of enjoyment in the general music classroom. Drawing on research literature, our experience as general music teachers, and our research on enjoyment during…
Hauk, Mateusz; Chodkiewicz, Jan
The purpose of this study was to analyze the role of general and occupational stress in the relationship between workaholism (recognized in two ways: as addiction and as behavioral tendency) and the intensity of work-family and family-work conflict. The study included 178 working people. The survey was conducted at three stages - half a year before a holiday, right after the holiday and half a year after the holiday. The Excessive Work Involvement Scale (SZAP) by Golińska for the measurement of workaholism recognized as addiction; The Scale of Workaholism as Behavioral Tendencies (SWBT) by Mudrack and Naughton as adapted by Dudek et al for the measurement of workaholism as behavioral tendency; the Perceived Stress Scale by Cohen et al., as adapted by Juczyński for the measurement of general stress; the Scale of Occupational Stress by Stanton in the adaptation of Dudek and Hauk for measurement of occupational stress; the Scale of Work-Family Conflict WFC/FWC by Netemeyer et al. with the Polish adaptation of A.M. Zalewska. Workaholism was measured once - before a holiday, the explained and intervening variables (the level of conflicts and stress, respectively) were measured at three stages. To test the mediating role of general and occupational stress, hierarchical regression analysis as well as the method of bootstrapping were applied. Our results indicate that general stress is an important mediator of the relationship between workaholism recognized as an addiction and work-family conflicts. Occupational stress turned out to be the only mediator in the relationship between workaholism (recognized as an addiction) and the work-family conflict, noted exclusively in the first stage of the study. Both general and occupational stress were not significant mediators in the relationship between workaholism recognized as a behavioral tendency and the conflicts described.
Woo, C. Junda; Alamgir, Hasanat; Potter, Joseph E.
Objective We assessed the impact on depot medroxyprogesterone continuation when a large care provider was banned from a state-funded family planning program. Study Design We used three methods to assess the effect of the ban: (a) In a records review, we compared how many state program participants returned to two Planned Parenthood affiliates for a scheduled dose of depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) immediately after the ban; (b) We conducted phone interviews with 224 former Planned Parenthood patients about DMPA use and access to contraception immediately after the ban; (c) We compared current contraceptive method of our interviewees to that of comparable DMPA users in the National Survey of Family Growth 2006–2010 (NSFG). Results (a) Fewer program clients returned for DMPA at a large urban Planned Parenthood, compared to a remotely located affiliate (14.4%, vs. 64.8%), reflecting different levels of access to alternative providers in the two cities. (b) Among program participants who went elsewhere for the injection, only 56.8% obtained it at no cost and on time. More than one in five women missed a dose because of barriers, most commonly due to difficulty finding a provider. (c) Compared to NSFG participants, our interviewees used less effective methods of contraception, even more than a year after the ban went into effect. Conclusions Injectable contraception use was disrupted during the rollout of the state-funded family planning program. Women living in a remote area of Texas encountered more barriers. Implications Requiring low-income family planning patients to switch healthcare providers has adverse consequences. PMID:26680757
Steinauer, Jody E; Turk, Jema K; Preskill, Felisa; Devaskar, Sangita; Freedman, Lori; Landy, Uta
Obstetrics and gynecology residency programs are required to provide access to abortion training, but residents can opt out of participating for religious or moral reasons. Quantitative data suggest that most residents who opt out of doing abortions participate and gain skills in other aspects of the family planning training. However, little is known about their experience and perspective. Between June 2010 and June 2011, we conducted semistructured interviews with current and former residents who opted out of some or all of the family planning training at ob-gyn residency programs affiliated with the Kenneth J. Ryan Residency Training Program in Abortion and Family Planning. Residents were either self-identified or were identified by their Ryan Program directors as having opted out of some training. The interviews were transcribed and coded using modified grounded theory. Twenty-six physicians were interviewed by telephone. Interviewees were from geographically diverse programs (35% Midwest, 31% West, 19% South/Southeast and 15% North/Northeast). We identified four dominant themes about their experience: (a) skills valued in the family planning training, (b) improved patient-centered care, (c) changes in attitudes about abortion and (d) miscommunication as a source of negative feelings. Respondents valued the ability to partially participate in the family planning training and identified specific aspects of their training which will impact future patient care. Many of the effects described in the interviews address core competencies in medical knowledge, patient care, communication and professionalism. We recommend that programs offer a spectrum of partial participation in family planning training to all residents, including residents who choose to opt out of doing some or all abortions. Learners who morally object to abortion but participate in training in family planning and abortion, up to their level of comfort, gain clinical and professional skills. We
Drake, Jennifer Kidwell; Espinoza, Henry; Suraratdecha, Chutima; Lacayo, Yann; Keith, Bonnie M; Vail, Janet G
To assess private-sector stakeholders' and donors' perceptions of a total market approach (TMA) to family planning in Nicaragua in the context of decreased funding; to build evidence for potential strategies and mechanisms for TMA implementation (including public-private partnerships (PPPs)); and to identify information gaps and future priorities for related research and advocacy. A descriptive exploratory study was conducted in various locations in Nicaragua from March to April 2010. A total of 24 key private-sector stakeholders and donors were interviewed and their responses analyzed using two questionnaires and a stakeholder analysis tool (PolicyMakerTM software). All survey participants supported a TMA, and public-private collaboration, in family planning in Nicaragua. Based on the survey responses, opportunities for further developing PPPs for family planning include building on and expanding existing governmental frameworks, such as Nicaragua's current coordination mechanism for contraceptive security. Obstacles include the lack of ongoing government engagement with the commercial (for-profit) sector and confusion about regulations for its involvement in family planning. Strategies for strengthening existing PPPs include establishing a coordination mechanism specifically for the commercial sector and collecting and disseminating evidence supporting public-private collaboration in family planning. There was no formal or absolute opposition to a TMA or PPPs in family planning in Nicaragua among a group of diverse nongovernmental stakeholders and donors. This type of study can help identify strategies to mobilize existing and potential advocates in achieving articulated policy goals, including diversification of funding sources for family planning to achieve contraceptive security.
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Understanding of family planning scenario among different societies and communities, which by and large reside in urban slum areas, might prove useful in increasing family planning acceptance by them and decreasing population growth. Unmet need is a valuable indicator for assessing the achievements of national family planning programs. OBJECTIVES: The present study was undertaken with the objectives to estimate unmet need for family planning among the married women of reproductive age group (15 - 49 years in urban slums of Lucknow and to determine the various factors that influence the unmet need. METHODS: A community based cross - sectional study was conducted in slums of Lucknow City from February 2014 to September 2014. A total 452 married women in reproductive age group were interviewed through house to house survey with the help of a pre - designed, pre - tested and semi - structured questionnaire. RESULTS: The total unmet need for family planning was 69.0%. Multivariate logistic regression revealed socioeconomic status upper lower and below (OR 2.7; 95% CI 1.5 - 5.1; p = 0.00; duration of marriage less than 1 year (OR 1.8; 95% CI 1.1 - 2.9; p = 0.01; less number of live issues (OR 1.6; 95% CI 1.1 - 2.5; p = 0.00; working status of women (OR 1.9; 95% CI 1.1 - 2.9; p = 0.03; social class i.e. OBC and SC/ST (OR 2.3; 95% CI 1.1 - 4.6; p = 0.02 were found to be independent predictors of unmet need of family planning. CONCLUSION: The present study revealed that unmet need for family planning was quite high among women belonging to social class i.e. OBC and SC/ST, with low socioeconomic status, duration of marriage less than one year less number of live issues and working status of the women.
Zabin, L S
Several ideologies of the present Administration appear to converge as they impinge upon family planning--themes which are not restricted to reproductive health but which interact in ways particularly threatening to its achievements of the last decade. Most of these ideologies are clear, articulated objectives of the present government such as overall budget reduction and the return of budgetary control to the states. Others are responsive to the influence of the so called "moral mojority." Essentially, the federal government can affect family planning delivery through 4 different routes: through the allocation of funds; through specific legislation; and through regulation or organizational structure (areas in the hands of the executive branch alone). There have been recent and prime examples of all 4 routes, all directed at weakening the federal family planning program which has grown steadily stronger with bipartisan support in the last decades. Major sources of family planning support are reviewed in order to indicate the areas of change or of serious risk to the field. By retaining the categorical funding of Title 10 (half of the federal money in the family planning field has, for some years, come through Title 10 of the Public Health Service Act) in 1981, Congress reasserted the importance it places upon fertility regualtion against Administration pressure to block-grant. Despite an approximately 23% cut, this funding remains the single best hope for the field in these tight money times. In the language of the House Budget Committee report, Congress expressed its intention that an emphasis upon family planning be retained in the Maternal and Child Health block grant. It is no surprise that under the pressure of funding cuts that intention has not been honored. An upsurge in the use of Medicaid funding by family planning providers has increased the proportion of family planning funds from this source. In Title 20 of the Social Security Act (Social Services) it
Ling, Jes; Tong, S F
Traditionally, family planning initiatives were concentrated on women despite it being a family matter. As family dynamics evolved over the years, fathers' involvement in family planning has become crucial in enhancing the family well-being. This study aimed to identify the role played by men in family planning activities and the association of socio-economic characteristics with these roles. This was a cross-sectional study carried out in a university primary care clinic. All married male attendees to the clinic, aged 50 years and below, were approached to answer a set of self-administered questionnaires, asking for their involvement in family planning practices. The data were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics. There were 167 participants in the study. A high proportion of men participated in the discussions regarding previous pregnancies (60.42%), future child planning (89.76%) and desired family size (89.76%). However, the discussions on the usage of family planning methods (FPMs; 39.16%) were significantly low. Socio-economic factors associated with higher likelihood of men discussing family planning activities were older age ( p family planning activities. The roles taken by men in family planning were associated with older age and higher socio-economic class. The majority of men needs to be encouraged to play a more active role in the discussion of FPMs.
Buono, Nicola; Thulesius, Hans; Petrazzuoli, Ferdinando; Van Merode, Tiny; Koskela, Tuomas; Le Reste, Jean-Yves; Prick, Hanny; Soler, Jean Karl
To document family medicine research in the 25 EGPRN member countries in 2010. Semi-structured survey with open-ended questions. Academic family medicine in 23 European countries, Israel, and Turkey. 25 EGPRN national representatives. Demographics of the general population and family medicine. Assessments, opinions, and suggestions. EGPRN has represented family medicine for almost half a billion people and > 300,000 general practitioners (GPs). Turkey had the largest number of family medicine departments and highest density of GPs, 2.1/1000 people, Belgium had 1.7, Austria 1.6, and France 1.5. Lowest GP density was reported from Israel 0.17, Greece 0.18, and Slovenia 0.4 GPs per 1000 people. Family medicine research networks were reported by 22 of 25 and undergraduate family medicine research education in 20 of the 25 member countries, and in 10 countries students were required to do research projects. Postgraduate family medicine research was reported by 18 of the member countries. Open-ended responses showed that EGPRN meetings promoted stimulating and interesting research questions such as comparative studies of chronic pain management, sleep disorders, elderly care, healthy lifestyle promotion, mental health, clinical competence, and appropriateness of specialist referrals. Many respondents reported a lack of interest in family medicine research related to poor incentives and low family medicine status in general and among medical students in particular. It was suggested that EGPRN exert political lobbying for family medicine research. Since 1974, EGPRN organizes biannual conferences that unite and promote primary care practice, clinical research and academic family medicine in 25 member countries.
... planning process and will remain actively involved throughout the development of the plan. Prepared by... the long-term management of Paterson Great Falls NHP early in the process through public meetings and... Impact Statement and General Management Plan, Paterson Great Falls National Historical Park, NJ AGENCY...
...] General Conference Committee of the National Poultry Improvement Plan; Reestablishment AGENCY: Animal and... Poultry Improvement Plan (Committee) for a 2-year period. The Secretary of Agriculture has determined that.... Rhorer, Senior Coordinator, National Poultry Improvement Plan, VS, APHIS, USDA, Suite 101, 1498 Klondike...
... Improvement Plan AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of intent to renew... the General Conference Committee of the National Poultry Improvement Plan (Committee) for a 2year... Improvement Plan, VS, APHIS, USDA, 1506 Klondike Road, Suite 300, Conyers, GA 30094; (770) 922-3496...
Ouma, S; Turyasima, M; Acca, H; Nabbale, F; Obita, K O; Rama, M; Adong, C C; Openy, A; Beatrice, M O; Odongo-Aginya, E I; Awor, S
Uganda's rapid population growth (3.2%) since 1948 has placed more demands on health sector and lowered living standard of Ugandans resulting into 49% of people living in acute poverty especially in post conflict Northern Uganda. The population rise was due to low use of contraceptive methods (21% in rural areas and 43% in urban areas) and coupled with high unmet need for family planning (41%). This indicated poor access to reproductive health services. Effective use of family planning could reduce the rapid population growth. To determine obstacles to family planning use among rural women in Northern Uganda. A descriptive cross-sectional analytical study. Atiak Health Centre IV, Amuru District, rural Northern Uganda. Four hundred and twenty four females of reproductive ages were selected from both Inpatient and Outpatient Departments of Atiak Health Centre IV. There was high level of awareness 418 (98.6%), positive attitude 333 (78.6%) and fair level of utilisation 230 (54.2%) of family planning. However, significant obstacles to family planning usage included; long distance to Health facility, unavailability of preferred contraceptive methods, absenteeism of family planning providers, high cost of managing side effects, desire for big family size, children dying less than five years old, husbands forbidding women from using family planning and lack of community leaders' involvement in family planning programme. In spites of the high level of awareness, positive attitude, and free family planning services, there were obstacles that hindered family planning usage among these rural women. However, taking services close to people, reducing number of children dying before their fifth birthday, educating men about family planning, making sure family planning providers and methods are available, reducing cost of managing side effects and involving community leaders will improve utilisation of family planning and thus reduce the rapid population growth and poverty.
Ouma, S.; Turyasima, M.; Acca, H.; Nabbale, F.; Obita, K. O.; Rama, M.; Adong, C. C.; Openy, A.; Beatrice, M. O.; Odongo-Aginya, E. I.; Awor, S.
Background Uganda’s rapid population growth (3.2%) since 1948 has placed more demands on health sector and lowered living standard of Ugandans resulting into 49% of people living in acute poverty especially in post conflict Northern Uganda. The population rise was due to low use of contraceptive methods (21% in rural areas and 43% in urban areas) and coupled with high unmet need for family planning (41%). This indicated poor access to reproductive health services. Effective use of family planning could reduce the rapid population growth. Objective To determine obstacles to family planning use among rural women in Northern Uganda. Design A descriptive cross-sectional analytical study. Setting Atiak Health Centre IV, Amuru District, rural Northern Uganda. Subjects Four hundred and twenty four females of reproductive ages were selected from both Inpatient and Outpatient Departments of Atiak Health Centre IV. Results There was high level of awareness 418 (98.6%), positive attitude 333 (78.6%) and fair level of utilisation 230 (54.2%) of family planning. However, significant obstacles to family planning usage included; long distance to Health facility, unavailability of preferred contraceptive methods, absenteeism of family planning providers, high cost of managing side effects, desire for big family size, children dying less than five years old, husbands forbidding women from using family planning and lack of community leaders’ involvement in family planning programme. Conclusions In spites of the high level of awareness, positive attitude, and free family planning services, there were obstacles that hindered family planning usage among these rural women. However, taking services close to people, reducing number of children dying before their fifth birthday, educating men about family planning, making sure family planning providers and methods are available, reducing cost of managing side effects and involving community leaders will improve utilisation of family
... Environmental Impact Statement for General Management Plan/ Wilderness Study, Hawaii Volcanoes National Park, Hawaii AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of intent. SUMMARY: The National Park... updating the General Management Plan (GMP) for Hawaii Volcanoes National Park. As part of this conservation...
... kinds of resource management activities, visitor activities, and developments that would be appropriate... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service General Management Plan; Joshua Tree National... National Park Service is updating the General Management Plan (GMP) for Joshua Tree National Park...
... visitor use in the Park. The GMP will provide updated management direction for the entire park. The EEWS....YP0000] Draft Environmental Impact Statement for General Management Plan, Everglades National Park... the General Management Plan (GMP) and East Everglades Wilderness Study (EEWS) for Everglades National...
Warren, Nicole; Alvarez, Carmen; Makambo, Maphie Tosha; Johnson-Agbakwu, Crista; Glass, Nancy
There is little evidence about family planning knowledge, attitudes, and use among couples in post-conflict Democratic Republic of the Congo. We used qualitative descriptions to analyze data from 75 participants. Intimate partner violence (IPV) was common among participants. They were aware of family planning methods; however, IPV and fears of side effects were barriers to use. Although participants were concerned about the cost of large families, had positive attitudes toward family planning, and intended to use it, actual use was uncommon. The need for family planning was acute because of war-related poverty. Couples negotiated, but men had strong influence over family planning decisions. Couples saw health workers as a valuable resource. Interventions in this setting should include a couple-based approach that addresses IPV as well as family planning content.
Limaye, Rupali J; Ahmed, Naheed; Ohkubo, Saori; Ballard, Anne
To address unmet needs for family planning and advance women's rights, US federal foreign aid recipients must ensure compliance with the family planning legislative and policy requirements. Because many health providers work in rural and remote settings, blended learning, which combines in-person and online experiences, is a promising approach for strengthening their compliance knowledge. This cross-sectional study examined the effect of blended learning that included three components (online course, in-person training and conference call) on retention of family planning compliance knowledge. A total of 660 learners from 44 countries completed the online survey (8% response rate). Study participants were asked about their knowledge of family planning compliance and suggestions to improve their learning experiences. Knowledge retention was higher in the group that utilised all three learning approaches compared with the online course plus conference call group (Pblended learning training resulted in the highest gains in knowledge retention compared with online-only learning. These findings suggest that blended learning and repeat online trainings are critical to ensuring health professionals are aware of family planning compliance regulations. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Beeson, Tishra; Mead, Katherine H; Wood, Susan; Goldberg, Debora Goetz; Shin, Peter; Rosenbaum, Sara
The confidentiality of family planning services remains a high priority to adolescents, but barriers to implementing confidentiality and privacy practices exist in settings designed for teenagers who are medically underserved, including federally qualified health centers (FQHCs). A sample of 423 FQHCs surveyed in 2011 provided information on their use of five selected privacy and confidentiality practices, which were examined separately and combined into an index. Regression modeling was used to assess whether various state policies and organizational characteristics were associated with FQHCs' scores on the index. In-depth case studies of six FQHCs were conducted to provide additional contextual information. Among FQHCs reporting on confidentiality, most reported providing written or verbal information regarding adolescents' rights to confidential care (81%) and limiting access to family planning and medical records to protect adolescents' confidentiality (84%). Far fewer reported maintaining separate medical records for family planning (10%), using a security block on electronic medical records to prevent disclosures (43%) or using separate contact information for communications regarding family planning services (50%). Index scores were higher among FQHCs that received Title X funding than among those that did not (coefficient, 0.70) and among FQHCs with the largest patient volumes than among those with the smallest caseloads (0.43). Case studies highlighted how a lack of guidelines and providers' confusion over relevant laws present a challenge in offering confidential care to adolescents. The organizational practices used to ensure adolescent family planning confidentiality in FQHCs are varied across organizations. Copyright © 2016 by the Guttmacher Institute.
Seidman, Dominika; Weber, Shannon; Carlson, Kimberly; Witt, Jacki
Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) provides a radically different HIV prevention option for women. Not only is PrEP the first discrete, woman-controlled method that is taken in advance of exposure, but it is both safe and highly effective, offering over 90% protection if taken daily. While multiple modalities of PrEP are in development ranging from vaginal rings to injectables and implants, only PrEP with oral tenofovir/emtricitabine is currently FDA-approved. Family planning clinics provide key access points for many women to learn about and obtain PrEP. By incorporating PrEP services into family planning care, family planning providers have the opportunity to meet women's expectations, ensure women are aware of and offered comprehensive HIV prevention options, and reverse emerging disparities in PrEP access. Despite real and perceived barriers to integrating PrEP into family planning care, providing PrEP services, ranging from education to onsite provision, is not only possible but an important component of providing high-quality sexual and reproductive healthcare to women. Lessons learned from early adopters will help guide those in family planning settings initiating or enhancing PrEP services. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Nortman, D L; Halvas, J; Rabago, A
A cost-benefit analysis of the family planning program of the Mexican Social Security System (IMSS) was undertaken to test the hypothesis that IMSS's family planning services yield a net savings to IMSS by reducing the load on its maternal and infant care service. The cost data are believed to be of exceptionally high quality because they were empirically ascertained by a retrospective and prospective survey of unit time and personnel costs per specified detailed type of service in 37 IMSS hospitals and 16 clinics in 13 of Mexico's 32 states. Based on the average cost per case, the analysis disclosed that for every peso (constant 1983 currency) that IMSS spent on family planning services to its urban population during 1972-1984 inclusive, the agency saved nine pesos. The article concludes by raising the speculative question as to the proportion of the births averted by the IMSS family planning program that would have been averted in the absence of IMSS's family planning services.
Realizing the potential of commercial marketing in changing the attitude and behavior of the target audience in the early years of the 4th 5-year development plan, the National Family Planning Program tried to develop new ventures in communicating the concept of the small family norm to the people. The condom was chosen as the 1st product to be sold through the social marketing project because male awareness about family planning was still low. Based on audience research, the pricing, packaging, and branding of the product was developed. The most accepted brand name was Dua Lima because it has a neutral meaning, is easily remembered, and can be described in sign language. The last reason is very important because most consumers have difficulty communicating about condoms in the sales outlet. Social marketing has proved effective because of strong public relations activities and the involvement of formal and informal leaders. This experiment has convinced family planning management that social marketing is workable for promoting the small family norm. In 1987, under the new program of self-sufficiency in family planning, the private sector is invited to participate by providing family planning services for target audiences, using the principles of self-sufficiency and self-support. There are 2 principal activities; 1) the IEC campaign, and 2) product (contraceptive) selling. IEC activities include a media campaign public relations work. Product selling is done through commercial channels such as pharmaceutical firms, drug stores, private doctors, and midwives. It was decided that the campaign would be aided by a name and logo. The blue circle was chosen because it is unique, communicative, and simple. The social marketing of contraceptives in Indonesia can be considered a breakthrough in communication strategy for a national development program.
On the basis of 1982 census data, it is estimated that from 1987-1997 13 million women will enter the age of marriage and child-bearing each year. The tasks of keeping the population size around 1.2 billion by the year 2000 is arduous. Great efforts have to be made to continue encouraging one child/couple, and to pursue the current plans and policies and maintain strict control over fertility. Keeping population growth in pace with economic growth, environment, ecological balance, availability of per capita resources, education programs, employment capability, health services, maternal and child care, social welfare and social security should be a component of the long term development strategy of the country. Family planning is a comprehensive program which involves long cycles and complicated factors, viewpoints of expediency in guiding policy and program formulation for short term benefits are inappropriate. The emphasis of family planning program strategy should be placed on the rural areas where the majority of population reside. Specifically, the major aspects of strategic thrusts should be the linkage between policy implementation and reception, between family planning publicity and changes of ideation on fertility; the integrated urban and rural program management relating to migration and differentiation of policy towards minority population and areas in different economic development stages. In order to achieve the above strategies, several measures are proposed. (1) strengthening family planning program and organization structure; (2) providing information on population and contraception; (3) establishing family planning program network for infiltration effects; (4) using government financing, taxation, loan, social welfare and penalty to regulate fertility motivations; (5) improving the system of target allocation and data reporting to facilitate program implementation; (6) strengthening population projection and policy research; (7) and strengthening
The State Council (the central government) recently issued a Circular for Speeding Up the Integration of Poverty Alleviation and Development with the Family Planning Programme during the Ninth Five-year Plan (1996-2000). The Circular was jointly submitted by the State Family Planning Commission and the Leading Group for Poverty Alleviation and Development. The document sets the two major tasks as solving the basic needs for food and clothing of the rural destitute and the control of over-rapid growth of China's population. Practice indicates that a close Integration Programme is the best way for impoverished farmers to alleviate poverty and become better-off. Overpopulation and low educational attainments and poor health quality of population in backward areas are the major factors retarding socioeconomic development. Therefore, it is inevitable to integrate poverty alleviation with family planning. It is a path with Chinese characteristics for a balanced population and sustainable socioeconomic development. The targets of the Integration Programme are as follows: The first is that preferential policies should be worked out to guarantee family planning acceptors, especially households with an only daughter or two daughters, are the first to be helped to eradicate poverty and become well-off. They should become good examples for other rural poor in practicing fewer but healthier births, and generating family income. The second target is that the population plans for the poor counties identified by the central government and provincial governments must be fulfilled. This should contribute to breaking the vicious circle of poverty leading to more children, in turn generating more poverty. The circular demands that more efforts should focus on the training of cadres for the Integrated Programme and on services for poor family planning acceptors. full text
AJRH Managing Editor
lead to multiplication of infectious agents and cross-contamination. Dschang being a windy and dusty environment, sanitary towels were liable to contamination by dirty air when exposed especially on the shells of vendors and these could constitute sources of cross contamination. Generally, male contraception is culturally.
proposed for the TOP. Boussier et al. (2007) presents a branch-and- price algorithm that relies on a pricing step within the column generation phase...dominates in all metric categories and B&B appears to be the least favorable. We use performance proles ( Dolan and Moré 2002) as a method for comparing...exceeded, with greater computing power it may be possible to obtain the optimal solution in a period of time that can support a 24-hour planning
Full Text Available Introduction: The purpose of this study was to analyze the role of general and occupational stress in the relationship between workaholism (recognized in two ways: as addiction and as behavioral tendency and the intensity of work-family and familywork conflict. Materials and Methods: The study included 178 working people. The survey was conducted at three stages - half a year before a holiday, right after the holiday and half a year after the holiday. The Excessive Work Involvement Scale (SZAP by Golińska for the measurement of workaholism recognized as addiction; The Scale of Workaholism as Behavioral Tendencies (SWBT by Mudrack and Naughton as adapted by Dudek et al for the measurement of workaholism as behavioral tendency; the Perceived Stress Scale by Cohen et al., as adapted by Juczyński for the measurement of general stress; the Scale of Occupational Stress by Stanton in the adaptation of Dudek and Hauk for measurement of occupational stress; the Scale of Work-Family Conflict WFC/FWC by Netemeyer et al. with the Polish adaptation of A.M. Zalewska. Workaholism was measured once - before a holiday, the explained and intervening variables (the level of conflicts and stress, respectively were measured at three stages. To test the mediating role of general and occupational stress, hierarchical regression analysis as well as the method of bootstrapping were applied. Results and Conclusions: Our results indicate that general stress is an important mediator of the relationship between workaholism recognized as an addiction and work-family conflicts. Occupational stress turned out to be the only mediator in the relationship between workaholism (recognized as an addiction and the work-family conflict, noted exclusively in the first stage of the study. Both general and occupational stress were not significant mediators in the relationship between workaholism recognized as a behavioral tendency and the conflicts described.
Calvin, Amy O; Engebretson, Joan C; Sardual, S Alexander
The purpose of this qualitative descriptive study was to explore hemodialysis patients' family members' understanding of end-of-life decision-making processes. The project aimed to address (a) family members' constructions of advance care planning (ACP), including their roles and responsibilities, and (b) family members' perceptions of health care providers' roles and responsibilities in ACP. Eighteen family members of persons undergoing hemodialysis were recruited primarily from outpatient dialysis facilities and interviewed individually. Confirmed transcript data were analyzed, coded, and compared, and categories were established. Interpretations were validated throughout the interviews and peer debriefing sessions were used at a later stage in the analysis. The overarching construct identified was one of Protection. Family members protect patients by (a) Sharing Burdens, (b) Normalizing Life, and (c) Personalizing Care. Recommendations for future research include the need to explore ACP of persons undergoing hemodialysis who do not have a family support system. © The Author(s) 2013.
Mola, Ernesto; De Bonis, Judith A; Giancane, Raffaele
Efforts to improve the quality of healthcare for patients with chronic conditions have resulted in growing evidence supporting the inclusion of patient empowerment as a key ingredient of care. In 2002, WONCA Europe issued the European Definition of General Practice/Family Medicine, which is currently considered the point of reference for European health institutions and general medical practice. Patient empowerment does not appear among the 11 characteristics of the discipline. The aim of this study is to show that many characteristics of general practice are already oriented towards patient empowerment. Therefore, promoting patient empowerment and self-management should be included as a characteristic of the discipline. The following investigation was conducted: analysing the concept and approach to empowerment as applied to healthcare in the literature; examining whether aspects of empowerment are already part of general medical practice; and identifying reasons why the European definition of general practice/family medicine should contain empowerment as a characteristic of the discipline. General practice/family medicine is the most suitable setting for promoting patient empowerment, because many of its characteristics are already oriented towards encouraging it and because its widespread presence can ensure the generalization of empowerment promotion and self-management education to the totality of patients and communities. "Promoting patient empowerment and self-management" should be considered one of the essential characteristics of general practice/family medicine and should be included in its definition.
The Latino population in the United States is quickly growing, and its unintended pregnancy rate is increasing. To decrease unintended pregnancies, couples must mutually agree on family planning. Communication between partners is one key factor identified in successful family planning for couples. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine sexual communication and its associations with sexual relationship power, general communication, and views on family planning. The Actor-Partner Interdependence Model was used to analyze dyadic influences of the chosen variables. Forty immigrant Latino couples were recruited from prenatal care clinics. The study results were grouped according to the three types of power structures: exhibition of men's traditional machismo values, exhibition of women's increased power in their relationships, and exhibition of men's and women's own empowerment with sexual communication. There was a negative association between men's views on family planning and women's sexual communication (exhibition of machismo values); a negative association between women's sexual relationship power and their partners' sexual communication (exhibition of women's increased power); and positive associations between men's and women's general communication and sexual communication (exhibition of men's and women's own empowerment). Dyadic influences of sexual communication and associated variables need to be incorporated into interventions to facilitate family planning for couples.
The Latino population in the United States is quickly growing, and its unintended pregnancy rate is increasing. To decrease unintended pregnancies, couples must mutually agree on family planning. Communication between partners is one key factor identified in successful family planning for couples. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine sexual communication and its associations with sexual relationship power, general communication, and views on family planning. The Actor–Partner Interdependence Model was used to analyze dyadic influences of the chosen variables. Forty immigrant Latino couples were recruited from prenatal care clinics. The study results were grouped according to the three types of power structures: exhibition of men’s traditional machismo values, exhibition of women’s increased power in their relationships, and exhibition of men’s and women’s own empowerment with sexual communication. There was a negative association between men’s views on family planning and women’s sexual communication (exhibition of machismo values); a negative association between women’s sexual relationship power and their partners’ sexual communication (exhibition of women’s increased power); and positive associations between men’s and women’s general communication and sexual communication (exhibition of men’s and women’s own empowerment). Dyadic influences of sexual communication and associated variables need to be incorporated into interventions to facilitate family planning for couples. PMID:27367797
This inspection plan describes the activities that shall be conducted for a general inspection of the Hanford Facility. RCRA includes a requirement that general facility inspections be conducted of the 100, 200 East, 200 West, 300, 400, and 1100 areas and the banks of the Columbia River. This plan meets the RCRA requirements and also provides for scheduling of inspections and defines general and specific items to be noted during the inspections
This paper studies the formation of Japanese ventures in family planning deployed in various villages in Asia from the 1960s onward in the name of development aid. By critically examining how Asia became the priority area for Japan's international cooperation in family planning and by analyzing how the adjective "humanistic" was used to underscore the originality of Japan's family planning program overseas, the paper shows that visions of Japanese actors were directly informed by Japan's delicate position in Cold War geopolitics, between the imagined West represented by the United States and "underdeveloped" Asia, at a time when Japan was striving to (re-)establish its position in world politics and economics. Additionally, by highlighting subjectivities and intra-Asian networks centered on Japanese actors, the paper also aims to destabilize the current historiography on population control which has hitherto focused either on Western actors in the transnational population control movement or on non-Western "acceptors" subjected to the population control programs.
Full Text Available Introduction. Family planning is an important aspect of population policy at the state level, because the demographic trends in Serbia are very unfavorable. Objective. The objective of this study was to examine the differences in family planning between the women in rural and urban areas of Serbia. Methods. This study represents the secondary analysis of the National Health Survey of the population in Serbia from 2006, which was conducted as a cross sectional study, on a representative sample of the population. Results. The respondents who used condoms as a method of contraception, were often younger, better educated, had better financial status, lived in Vojvodina, and had no children. Conclusion. Our study showed that there were differences in terms of family planning between the women of urban and rural areas, however, these differences could be explained by differences in age and education. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 175025: National Health Survey of the Population of Serbia
The government of Nangong City, a newly instituted city with a relatively large proportion of agricultural workers has integrated family planning into the building up of mental civilization. As a result, in 1986, the family planning practice rate was 98.4%. One way the government accomplished this was by developing production to eliminate poverty, to show that population development has a significant impact on socioeconomic development. To help change people's attitudes about family planning, the government 1) used publicity, such as speechmaking, mass media, and courses in population theory; 2) awarded those who made contributions; 3) carried out publicity and education in accordance with characteristics of different groups of people; and 4) encouraged bridegrooms to live with their wives' families if the wives' parents had had no son. Another technique the government used as the popularization of scientific knowledge about population theory, physiology and hygiene, birth control, and eugenics and health in births. A 4th method was to popularize knowledge of laws and regulations, such as of early marriage and consanguineous marriage. 5th, the government developed social security undertakings: 1) giving priority to single-child families and 2) taking care of the elderly. Finally, the government improved maternal and child care by 1) providing premarital health care; 2) creating a project for healthier births and better upbringing; 3) family planning workers showing warm concern for reproductive women; and 4) controlling women's diseases and providing health care knowledge, as well as family planning services. These 6 activities have resulted in 1) the decreasing momentum of per capita arable land being controlled, 2) 1-child couples having more time to learn, 3) the development of educational undertakings, 4) a change in people's traditional practices, and 5) improvement in the understanding of patriotism.
Full Text Available Objective: Regardless of three decades of implementation of family planning program in Nepal, need offamily planning services is largely unmet. Systematic studies, evaluating the impact of family program onseveral ethnic groups of Nepal has not been carried out in large scale. This study sheds light on theinvestigation of, whether the use of contraceptives varies among different ethnic groups in Nepal andwhat are the predictors of contraceptive variance in ethnic groups in Nepal.Materials and methods: The study is based on data collected from Nepal Demographic Health Survey(NDHS 2006. Multilevel logistic regression analyses of 10793 married women of reproductive agenested within 264 clusters from the surveys were considered as the sample size. Individual, household,and program variables were set and a multilevel logistic regression model was fitted to analyze thevariables, using GLLAMM command in STATA-9.Results: Multilevel logistic regression analysis indicated that Muslims, Dalits and Terai madheshi womenwere significantly less likely to use modern contraceptives compared to the Brahmins and Chhetries(Higher Castes. Women who were exposed to family planning information in radio were more likely touse modern contraceptives than women not exposed to radio information (OR=1.22, P> 0.01. An odd ofusing contraceptives by Newar was (OR 1.09, P>0.05, the highest among all ethnic groups. Exposure ofwomen to family planning messages through health facilities, family planning workers, and means ofcommunication, increased the odds of using modern contraceptives. However, impact of the familyplanning information on contraceptive use varied among ethnicity.Conclusion: Special attention need to be paid, in particular to the ethnicity, while formulating familyplanning policies in Nepal, for better success rate of family planning intervention programs.
Diamond-Smith, Nadia; Raj, Anita; Prata, Ndola; Weiser, Sheri D
Women in Nepal have low status, especially younger women in co-resident households. Nepal also faces high levels of household food insecurity and malnutrition, and stagnation in uptake of modern family planning methods. This study aims to understand if household structure and food insecurity interact to influence family planning use in Nepal. Using data on married, non-pregnant women aged 15-49 with at least one child from the Nepal 2011 Demographic and Health Survey (N = 7,460), we explore the relationship between women's position in the household, food insecurity as a moderator, and family planning use, using multi-variable logistic regressions. We adjust for household and individual factors, including other status-related variables. In adjusted models, living in a food insecure household and co-residing with in-laws either with no other daughter-in-laws or as the eldest or youngest daughter-in-law (compared to not-co-residing with in-laws) are all associated with lower odds of family planning use. In the interaction model, younger-sisters-in-law and women co-residing with no sisters-in-law in food insecure households have the lowest odds of family planning use. This study shows that household position is associated with family planning use in Nepal, and that food insecurity modifies these associations-highlighting the importance of considering both factors in understanding reproductive health care use in Nepal. Policies and programs should focus on the multiple pathways through which food insecurity impacts women's reproductive health, including focusing on women with the lowest status in households.
Sufrin, Carolyn; Baird, Sara; Clarke, Jennifer; Feldman, Elizabeth
Purpose Incarcerated women around the globe are predominantly of reproductive age. Most of these women have been pregnant before, and many want to be sexually active and avoid pregnancy upon release. Yet few of these women are on a regular method of contraception. Providing contraceptive services for women in custody benefits individual and public health goals of reducing unintended pregnancy. This policy briefing reviews evidence for an unmet need for family planning in the correctional setting, and policy implications for expanding services. The paper aims to discuss these issues. Design/methodology/approach The authors describe four model programs in the USA with established contraceptive services on site, highlighting practical steps other facilities can implement. Findings Correctional facilities health administrators, providers, advocates, and legislators should advance policies which should counsel women on family planning and should make a range of contraceptive methods available before release, while remaining sensitive to the potential pressure these women may feel to use birth control in this unique environment. Practical implications Family planning services for incarcerated women benefits individuals, facilities, and the community. Social implications Policies which enable correctional facilities to provide comprehensive family planning to incarcerated women - including reproductive life goals counseling and contraceptive method provision - promote equity in access to critical reproductive health services and also provide broad scale population level benefits in preventing unintended pregnancy or enabling counseling for healthy pregnancies for a group of women who often have limited access to such services. Originality/value This policy briefing highlights an area of health care in prisons and jails which gets little attention in research and in policy circles: family planning services for incarcerated women. In addition to reviewing the importance of
This paper examined reproductive goals and family planning attitudes at the couple level in Pakistan. Data were based on the responses of the 1260 matched couples in the 1990-91 Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey. The questions integrated in the interview were on desired fertility, family size ideas, son preference, and family planning attitude. Findings of the analysis showed that about 60% of the couples have given similar responses (agreeing either positively or negatively) to several fertility-related questions, whereas the remaining 40% differ in their attitudes. This divergence may partly be of the environmental factors such as spouse rural background, lack of education, and minimal communication between spouses. This implies that a couple's joint approval, discussion of family planning, and husband's desire for no more children have the strongest effect on promoting contraceptive use. Thus, it is concluded that the role of couple agreement is important in promoting the use of family planning, and men should be made equal targets of such programs in Pakistan.
Desai, Jaikishan; Tarozzi, Alessandro
The impact of community-based family planning programs and access to credit on contraceptive use, fertility, and family size preferences has not been established conclusively in the literature. We provide additional evidence on the possible effect of such programs by describing the results of a randomized field experiment whose main purpose was to increase the use of contraceptive methods in rural areas of Ethiopia. In the experiment, administrative areas were randomly allocated to one of three intervention groups or to a fourth control group. In the first intervention group, both credit and family planning services were provided and the credit officers also provided information on family planning. Only credit or family planning services, but not both, were provided in the other two intervention groups, while areas in the control group received neither type of service. Using pre- and post-intervention surveys, we find that neither type of program, combined or in isolation, led to an increase in contraceptive use that is significantly greater than that observed in the control group. We conjecture that the lack of impact has much to do with the mismatch between women's preferred contraceptive method (injectibles) and the contraceptives provided by community-based agents (pills and condoms).
Farmer, Didi Bertrand; Berman, Leslie; Ryan, Grace; Habumugisha, Lameck; Basinga, Paulin; Nutt, Cameron; Kamali, Francois; Ngizwenayo, Elias; Fleur, Jacklin St; Niyigena, Peter; Ngabo, Fidele; Farmer, Paul E; Rich, Michael L
Background: While Rwanda has achieved impressive gains in contraceptive coverage, unmet need for family planning is high, and barriers to accessing quality reproductive health services remain. Few studies in Rwanda have qualitatively investigated factors that contribute to family planning use, barriers to care, and quality of services from the community perspective. Methods: We undertook a qualitative study of community perceptions of reproductive health and family planning in Rwanda’s southern Kayonza district, which has the country’s highest total fertility rate. From October 2011 to December 2012, we conducted interviews with randomly selected male and female community members (n = 96), community health workers (n = 48), and health facility nurses (n = 15), representing all 8 health centers’ catchment areas in the overall catchment area of the district’s Rwinkwavu Hospital. We then carried out a directed content analysis to identify key themes and triangulate findings across methods and informant groups. Results: Key themes emerged across interviews surrounding: (1) fertility beliefs: participants recognized the benefits of family planning but often desired larger families for cultural and historical reasons; (2) social pressures and gender roles: young and unmarried women faced significant stigma and husbands exerted decision-making power, but many husbands did not have a good understanding of family planning because they perceived it as a woman’s matter; (3) barriers to accessing high-quality services: out-of-pocket costs, stock-outs, limited method choice, and long waiting times but short consultations at facilities were common complaints; (4) side effects: poor management and rumors and fears of side effects affected contraceptive use. These themes recurred throughout many participant narratives and influenced reproductive health decision making, including enrollment and retention in family planning programs. Conclusions: As Rwanda
Teenage pregnancy is a signifi cant social issue in the United States, resulting in increased levels of poverty. Most public health family planning efforts have traditionally focused on teaching teens the how-to of contraception, with little focus on teaching the why-to. During my time as a nurse practitioner in a public health department family planning clinic, I developed a method to open discussions with patients about the possibilities of a future that includes delayed childbearing. My experience with this strategy taught me that hope may indeed be the most powerful contraceptive of all.
Huber, Douglas; Curtis, Carolyn; Irani, Laili; Pappa, Sara; Arrington, Lauren
Worldwide 75 million women need postabortion care (PAC) services each year following safe or unsafe induced abortions and miscarriages. We reviewed more than 550 studies on PAC published between 1994 and 2013 in the peer-reviewed and gray literature, covering emergency treatment, postabortion family planning, organization of services, and related topics that impact practices and health outcomes, particularly in the Global South. In this article, we present findings from studies with strong evidence that have major implications for programs and practice. For example, vacuum aspiration reduced morbidity, costs, and time in comparison to sharp curettage. Misoprostol 400 mcg sublingually or 600 mcg orally achieved 89% to 99% complete evacuation rates within 2 weeks in multiple studies and was comparable in effectiveness, safety, and acceptability to manual vacuum aspiration. Misoprostol was safely introduced in several PAC programs through mid-level providers, extending services to secondary hospitals and primary health centers. In multiple studies, postabortion family planning uptake before discharge increased by 30-70 percentage points within 1-3 years of strengthening postabortion family planning services; in some cases, increases up to 60 percentage points in 4 months were achieved. Immediate postabortion contraceptive acceptance increased on average from 32% before the interventions to 69% post-intervention. Several studies found that women receiving immediate postabortion intrauterine devices and implants had fewer unintended pregnancies and repeat abortions than those who were offered delayed insertions. Postabortion family planning is endorsed by the professional organizations of obstetricians/gynecologists, midwives, and nurses as a standard of practice; major donors agree, and governments should be encouraged to provide universal access to postabortion family planning. Important program recommendations include offering all postabortion women family planning
Teenage pregnancy is a significant social issue in the United States, resulting in increased levels of poverty. Most public health family planning efforts have traditionally focused on teaching teens the how-to of contraception, with little focus on teaching the why-to. During my time as a nurse practitioner in a public health department family planning clinic, I developed a method to open discussions with patients about the possibilities of a future that includes delayed childbearing. My experience with this strategy taught me that hope may indeed be the most powerful contraceptive of all.
Kagurusi, Patrick T
The media has been employed to increase uptake of Family Planning through behaviour change communication (BCC). Understanding the barriers encountered in effectively undertaking this function would increase the strategy's effectiveness. Sixty journalists from East Africa participated in trainings to enhance their BCC skills for Family Planning in which a qualitative study was nested to identify barriers to effective Family Planning BCC in the region's media. The barriers were observed to be insufficient BCC skills, journalists' conflict of interest, interests of media houses, inaccessible sources of family planning information, editorial ideologies and absence of commercially beneficial demand. Coupled with the historical ideologies of the media in the region, the observed barriers have precipitated ineffective family planning BCC in the regions media. Effective BCC for family planning in the regions media requires capacity building among practitioners and alignment of the concept to the media's and consumers' aspirations.
The estate and tax planning problems that are commonly encountered by private individuals who own mines and minerals situated in Saskatchewan were discussed. The basic concepts of legal ownership of mines and minerals, petroleum and natural gas leases, drilling licenses and spacing regulations were reviewed, followed by a summary of basic estate and tax planning strategies. These strategies emphasized the three fundamental objectives of estate and tax planning for family mineral holdings, namely (1) eliminating estate tax, (2) income splitting to minimize tax payable from year to year, and (3) title consolidation to simplify ownership. The various means by which an 'Estate Freeze' can be effected - sale/transfer to spouse and/or children, trust, incorporation, and subsequent sale of mineral assets to the corporation, and the basic tax planning instruments available to to the family mineral owner also have been addressed
Family planning in the old Soviet Union was administered through roughly 100 Family and Marriage Centers scattered across the hugh country. Unfortunately they only provided abortions and help for infertile couples, and not much else. The old Soviet government gave contraceptives a low priority and as a result they were only available as imports on the black market. The result is a lot of ignorance and misinformation about oral contraceptives, IUDs, and sexuality in general. The average Soviet women has 4-6 abortions in a life time. The USSR's infant mortality rate in 1991 was 23/1000. In 1988 its maternal mortality rate was 43/1000. The contraceptive prevalence rate in 1988 was 13.7%. There are some small, encouraging signs of change. The abortion rate fell 15.4% between 1975-1988 according to JOICFP. In 1989 the Soviet Family and Health Association (SFHA) was established in order to improve these horrible statistics. The biggest obstacle to the success of the SFHA is the political instability currently being experienced as the Commonwealth is being formed. The IPPF helped raise $14,000 dollars to purchase 15.5 million Malaysian condoms. UN aid is only in the form of technical assistance since the Commonwealth is considered a developed nation. This is the same problem currently facing the Eastern Block nations. The Commonwealth is really like 2 different countries in terms of its family planning needs. The states of the South and East have a population growth rate of 2.5% annually. While the states of the North and West have a population growth rate of 0.6%. Until political stability is achieved in the new Commonwealth, donor nations are going to be unwilling to offer a great deal of assistance. Ultimately the Commonwealth is going to have fund its own family planning system aided by the technical advice from the West.
Al-Khaldi, Yahia M; Al-Ghamdi, Essam A; Al-Mogbil, Tariq I; Al-Khashan, Hesham I
The objectives of this study were to assess the current situation of the teaching and training of undergraduate and postgraduate programs in family medicine in KSA, assess the current practice of family medicine, and draw a roadmap to achieve Saudi vision 2020. This study was conducted with the support and collaboration of the Primary Health Care Department of the Ministry of Health, Saudi Arabia, and World Health Organization (EMRO) in November 2015. Based on the literature review of previous studies conducted for similar purposes, relevant questionnaires were developed. These consisted of four forms, each of which was directed at a different authority to achieve the above-mentioned objectives. Data of all questionnaires were coded, entered, and analyzed using SPSS version 16. There are 2282 primary health-care centers (PHCCs), 60% of which are in rural areas. More than half of the PHCCs have a laboratory and more than one-third have a Radiology Department. Out of the 6107 physicians, 636 are family physicians (10%). All medical colleges have a family medicine department with a total staff of 170 medical teachers. Thirteen departments run family medicine courses of 4-8 weeks' duration for students. Fourteen colleges have internship programs in family medicine and four colleges have postgraduate centers for family medicine (27%). There are 95 training centers for Saudi Board (Saudi Board of Family Medicine [SBFM]) and 68 centers for Saudi Diploma (Saudi Diploma of Family Medicine [SDFM]). The total number of trainers was 241, while the total trainees were 756 in SBFM and 137 in SDFM. This survey showed that there is a shortage of qualified family physicians in all health sectors in Saudi Arabia as a result of the lack of a strategic plan for the training of family physicians. A national strategic plan with specific objectives and an explicit budget are necessary to deal with this shortage and improve the quality of health-care services at PHCCs.
The Hanford Facility Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Permit, General Inspection Requirements, includes a requirement that general facility inspections be conducted of the 100, 200 East, 200 West, 300, 400, and 1100 Areas and the banks of the Columbia River. This inspection plan describes the activities that shall be conducted for a general inspection of the Hanford Facility
... Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Virginia; General Conformity Requirements for Federal... incorporate revisions to Federal general conformity requirements promulgated in July of 2006 and in April of 2010. EPA is approving this Virginia SIP revision to update its state general conformity requirements...
Daniel Ferreira Dahdah
Full Text Available There is a consensus in the literature that the company of a family member during the hospitalization period increases patient recovery. However, this can have some negative effects on the caregiver’s health. With the purpose of reducing these negatives effects, it is useful to let family members express themselves. The State Hospital of Ribeirão Preto created a Group of Family Companions coordinated by the Occupational Therapy and Social Service. This study focuses on the assistance offered in a general hospital to families that undergo the whole illness and hospitalization process of their family member, suffering the impacts of this process in their daily lives, and on the intervention of Occupational Therapy in these cases.
O'Gorman, Rick; Roberts, Ruth
Kinship and friendship are key human relationships. Increasingly, data suggest that people are not less altruistic toward friends than close kin. Some accounts suggest that psychologically we do not distinguish between them; countering this is evidence that kinship provides a unique explanatory factor. Using the Implicit Association Test, we examined how people implicitly think about close friends versus close kin in three contexts. In Experiment 1, we examined generic attitudinal dispositions toward friends and family. In Experiment 2, attitude similarity as a marker of family and friends was examined, and in Experiments 3 and 4, strength of in-group membership for family and friends was examined. Findings show that differences exist in implicit cognitive associations toward family and friends. There is some evidence that people hold more positive general dispositions toward friends, associate attitude similarity more with friends, consider family as more representative of the in-group than friends, but see friends as more in-group than distant kin.
Full Text Available In this paper, a group acceptance sampling plan (GASP is introduced for the situations when lifetime of the items follows the generalized Pareto distribution. The design parameters such as minimum group size and acceptance number are determined when the consumer’s risk and the test termination time are specified. The proposed sampling plan is compared with the existing sampling plan. It is concluded that the proposed sampling plan performs better than the existing plan in terms of minimum sample size required to reach the same decision.
Ahmed, Salahuddin; Norton, Maureen; Williams, Emma; Ahmed, Saifuddin; Shah, Rasheduzzaman; Begum, Nazma; Mungia, Jaime; Lefevre, Amnesty; Al-Kabir, Ahmed; Winch, Peter J; McKaig, Catharine; Baqui, Abdullah H
Short birth intervals are associated with increased risk of adverse maternal and neonatal health (MNH) outcomes. Improving postpartum contraceptive use is an important programmatic strategy to improve the health and well-being of women, newborns, and children. This article documents the intervention package and evaluation design of a study conducted in a rural district of Bangladesh to evaluate the effects of an integrated, community-based MNH and postpartum family planning program on contraceptive use and birth-interval lengths. The study integrated family planning counseling within 5 community health worker (CHW)-household visits to pregnant and postpartum women, while a community mobilizer (CM) led community meetings on the importance of postpartum family planning and pregnancy spacing for maternal and child health. The CM and the CHWs emphasized 3 messages: (1) Use of the Lactational Amenorrhea Method (LAM) during the first 6 months postpartum and transition to another modern contraceptive method; (2) Exclusive, rather than fully or nearly fully, breastfeeding to support LAM effectiveness and good infant breastfeeding practices; (3) Use of a modern contraceptive method after a live birth for at least 24 months before attempting another pregnancy (a birth-to-birth interval of about 3 years) to support improved infant health and nutrition. CHWs provided only family planning counseling in the original study design, but we later added community-based distribution of methods, and referrals for clinical methods, to meet women's demand. Using a quasi-experimental design, and relying primarily on pre/post-household surveys, we selected pregnant women from 4 unions to receive the intervention (n = 2,280) and pregnant women from 4 other unions (n = 2,290) to serve as the comparison group. Enrollment occurred between 2007 and 2009, and data collection ended in January 2013. Formative research showed that women and their family members generally did not perceive
Mitsumune, T.; Nakatsuka, T.; Nishikawa, K.
Gamma families with total energy greater than 10 TeV, found in the EX chamber which was cooperated with the EAS array, were combined with EAS triggered by big bursts. The absolute intensity of the size spectrum of these combined EAS was compared with that of general EAS obtained by AS trigger. The EAS with sizes greater than 2x1 million were always accompanied by gamma families with sigma E sub gamma H 10 TeV, n sub gamma, H 2 and Emin=3 TeV, although the rate of EAS accompaning such gamma families decreases rapidly as their sizes decrease
Singh, Kiran A; Spencer, A John; Roberts-Thomson, Kaye F; Brennan, David S
The characteristics of the work environment and relationships with family roles may impact on health and be of public health significance. The aims were to investigate the cross-sectional association of work-family conflict with oral- and general health-related quality of life, and well-being. A random sample of 45-54-year olds from Adelaide, South Australia, was surveyed by self-complete questionnaire in 2004-2005 (n = 879, response rate = 43.8%). Health-related quality of life was measured with the OHIP-14 and EQ-VAS instruments, and well-being by the Satisfaction With Life Scale. In adjusted analyses controlling for sex, income, education, tooth brushing frequency and social support, the higher Family Interferes with Work (FIW) tertile and the middle tertile of Work Interferes with Family (WIF) were associated with more oral health-related impacts as measured by OHIP-14 in relation to problems with teeth, mouth or dentures (Beta = 1.64, P Work-family conflict was associated with more oral health impacts and lower general health and well-being among employed middle-aged adults. This supports the view of work-family conflict as a psychosocial risk factor for health outcomes spanning function, health perceptions and well-being, and encompassing both oral health and general health.
Because of its geographical position and its population of over 1.19 million, Dongguan County in Guangdong Province, China occupies an important position in the family planning program of the whole province, and country. In the 1st 10 days of July 1985, the Family Planning Commission of Guangdong Province conducted a survey of Dongguan County. The results show 6 remarkable changes: 1) both rural and urban people are more and more likely to practice family planning on their own accord. (The total fertility rate dropped from 5.9 in the early years of the People's Republic to 2.05 in 1982); 2) women, released from heavy household chores, have become a vital new force for the development of industrial production (The gross industrial output value of the town industry increased by 87.57% from 1987 to 1984.); 3) the living standard of both rural and urban people improved along with more flourishing industrial and agricultural production; 4) educational work and population quality have improved; 5) moral culture has progressed (Family planning is commonly practiced.); and 6) social development has occurred, such as purification of tap water, and the building of cultural, sport, and recreational facilities. The County Family Planning commission achieved its successes by political mobilization policies, scientific birth control, and good services. Their main approaches include 1) associating political mobilization with the local reality; 2) popularizing knowledge of birth control science and life science through special schools, training courses, lectures, and research; 3) rewarding 1-child families with material benefits; and 4) improving living conditions of widowed and childless old people to alleviate worries of sonless households.
Glass, D V
Abstract Neo-Malthusian organisations for spreading birth control propaganda were created in many West European countries in the 1870s and '80s. But the birth control movement proper, with its provision of clinics and other means of supplying advice on contraception, began much later-generally after World War I and largely on a welfare basis, divorced from Malthusianism. Legal and other difficulties impeded progress and conditioned the nature of the movement. Since World War II, however, the relevance of birth control has come increasingly to be recognized and the movement has expanded markedly. In some countries - especially in France, West Germany and Italy - there are still legal obstacles, though ways have been found of avoiding them. But even in other countries the direct impact of birth control clinics is far smaller than might have been expected and married couples still obtain their information on contraception from other sources. In recent years the various national movements have shown a greater interest in the evaluation of their activities. As a result, the near future may see substantial changes in their structure and in the approach to their potential clientèle.
Full Text Available Background: Unmet need is a valuable indicator for assessing the achievements of national family planning programs. The present study was undertaken with the objectives to determine the magnitude of unmet need for family planning among the married women of reproductive age group (15-49 years, to evaluate the various factors that influence the unmet need and to explore the common reasons for unmet need for family planning. Methods: A community based, cross-sectional study was conducted from February to April 2012 in Laucha village in Kishanganj, Bihar through multistage sampling. Married women aged 15-49 years, who were permanent residents of the village, were selected by complete enumeration (330 in total and interviewed through house to house survey with the help of a pre-designed, pre-tested and semi-structured questionnaire. Results: The total unmet need for family planning was 23.9%; 9.4% for spacing births and 14.5% for limiting births. The unmet need varied significantly with age (p < 0.05 and was highest in ≤ 19 years age group (33.7%. It was also significantly higher among illiterates, those with low monthly per capita income, among Muslims and among those having more than two living issues (p < 0.05. Husband’s disapproval (34.2%, lack of awareness (27.8% and fear of side effects (24.1% were common reasons behind the unmet need. Conclusion: the unmet need for family planning was quite high among the respondents and associated with various bio-social determinants that should be considered while planning for scaling-up the program.
Full Text Available Background: Unmet need is a valuable indicator for assessing the achievements of national family planning programs. The present study was undertaken with the objectives to determine the magnitude of unmet need for family planning among the married women of reproductive age group (15-49 years, to evaluate the various factors that influence the unmet need and to explore the common reasons for unmet need for family planning. Methods: A community based, cross-sectional study was conducted from February to April 2012 in Laucha village in Kishanganj, Bihar through multistage sampling. Married women aged 15-49 years, who were permanent residents of the village, were selected by complete enumeration (330 in total and interviewed through house to house survey with the help of a pre-designed, pre-tested and semi-structured questionnaire. Results: The total unmet need for family planning was 23.9%; 9.4% for spacing births and 14.5% for limiting births. The unmet need varied significantly with age (p < 0.05 and was highest in ≤ 19 years age group (33.7%. It was also significantly higher among illiterates, those with low monthly per capita income, among Muslims and among those having more than two living issues (p < 0.05. Husband’s disapproval (34.2%, lack of awareness (27.8% and fear of side effects (24.1% were common reasons behind the unmet need. Conclusion: the unmet need for family planning was quite high among the respondents and associated with various bio-social determinants that should be considered while planning for scaling-up the program.
Catholic groups and individuals united in a public rally in Manila's Rizal Park to decry a "cultural dictatorship," which promotes abortion, homosexuality, lesbianism, sexual perversion, condoms, and artificial contraception. Government spokesmen responded that condoms and contraception were part of government policy to spread family planning knowledge and informed choices among the population. Cardinal Jaime Sin and former president Corazon Aquino joined forces to lead the movement against the national family planning program in the largest demonstration since the ouster of Ferdinand Marcos in 1986. Also criticized was the 85-page draft action plan for the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) scheduled for September 1994. Cardinal Sin accused President Clinton of using the action plan to promote worldwide abortion. Under the administration of President Fidel Ramos, family planning funding has quintupled and the number of family planning workers has increased from 200 to 8000. President Ramos has gone the farthest of any administration in opposing the Church's positions on contraception and abortion, although years ago Fidel Ramos and Cardinal Sin were allies in the effort to push out Ferdinand Marcos. The population of the Philippines is 85% Catholic, and laws reflect the Church's doctrine against divorce and abortion. The current growth rate is 2.3%, and the goal is to reduce growth to 2.0% by 1998, the end of Ramos's term in office. The population target is in accord with demographic goals proposed in the UN draft action plan. The Vatican has opposed the language in the plan and may have encouraged other religious leaders to join those opposed to the "war against our babies and children." Sin said that contraceptive distribution was "intrinsically evil" and should be stopped now. Ramos's administration stated that their policies and programs are not "in the hands of the devil" and there is support for the Church on family values and
van Soest-Poortvliet, Mirjam C; van der Steen, Jenny T; Gutschow, Giselka; Deliens, Luc; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, Bregje D; de Vet, Henrica C W; Hertogh, Cees M P M
The aim of this study was to describe the process of advance care planning (ACP) and to explore factors related to the timing and content of ACP in nursing home patients with dementia, as perceived by family, physicians, and nurses. A qualitative descriptive study. A total of 65 in-depth qualitative interviews were held with families, on-staff elderly care physicians, and nurses of 26 patients with dementia who died in the Dutch End Of Life in Dementia (DEOLD) study. Interviews were coded and analyzed to find themes. Family, nurses, and physicians of all patients indicated they had multiple contact moments during nursing home stay in which care goals and treatment decisions were discussed. Nearly all interviewees indicated that physicians took the initiative for these ACP discussions. Care goals discussed and established during nursing home stay and the terminology to describe care goals varied between facilities. Regardless of care goals and other factors, cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and hospitalization were always discussed in advance with family and commonly resulted in a do-not-resuscitate (DNR) and a do-not-hospitalize (DNH) order. The timing of care planning discussions about other specific treatments or conditions and the content of treatment decisions varied. The factors that emerged from the interviews as related to ACP were general strategies that guided physicians in initiating ACP discussions, patient's condition, wishes expressed by patient or family, family's willingness, family involvement, continuity of communication, consensus with or within family, and general nursing home policy. Two influential underlying strategies guided physicians in initiating ACP discussions: (1) wait for a reason to initiate discussions, such as a change in health condition and (2) take initiative to discuss possible treatments (actively, including describing scenarios). ACP is a multifactorial process, which may lean on professional caregivers' guidance. The most
and is dominated by blue grama (Bouteloua gracilis), buffalo grass (Buchloe dactyloides), three-awned grass (Aristida purpurea), dropseed (Sporobolus...General Plan are to achieve optimal land use planning, protect the natural and human environment, and plan for future mission growth . The Proposed Action...future mission growth , and to improve environmental quality, recreation opportunities, and the safety and medical functions on Base. According to space
Clark, Cari Jo; Spencer, Rachael A; Khalaf, Inaam A; Gilbert, Louisa; El-Bassel, Nabila; Silverman, Jay G; Raj, Anita
Risk for unmet need for contraception is associated with men's perpetration of intimate partner violence (IPV) against women and may be influenced by violence perpetrated by other family members (family violence, FV). Women who married as minors may be most vulnerable to the potential compounding effect of IPV and FV on unmet need. Using nationally representative data from the 2012 Jordan Population and Family Health Survey we examined unmet need by exposure to IPV and FV by women's age at marriage (<18, 18+ years). Logistic regression was used to test whether IPV and FV were independently associated with unmet need, by age at marriage. Interaction terms (IPV×FV) were tested in both models. Stratification by FV was employed to clarify the interpretation of significant interactions. IPV increased the odds of unmet need by 87% [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 1.87; 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.13-3.10] and 76% (AOR 1.76; 95% CI 1.30-2.38) among women who married prior to and after the age of 18 years, respectively. Women married as minors who experienced IPV and FV had a four-fold higher likelihood of having an unmet need (AOR 6.75; 95% CI 1.95-23.29) compared to those experiencing only IPV (AOR 1.49; 95% CI 0.84-2.38). No interaction between IPV and FV was detected for women married at or above majority. Laws that prohibit child marriage should be strengthened and health sector screening for violence experience could help identify women at risk of unmet need and improve women's reproductive agency. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Kuek, K; Liow, T S
The Chinese traditional medical system and pharmacology have a 1000-year history, and practitioners of Chinese traditional medicine play an important role in providing health care and family planning services in China. Vast numbers of patients from all walks of life and of all races benefit from Chinese traditional medicine. Although there are no official government records on the activities of practitioners of traditional medicine, the Chinese charitable medical organizations have some data on the nature of available services and their use. In China, in the context of significant government investment in health care facilities throughout the country and the proliferation of private hospitals, specialist centers, and general practitioners providing modern health care, the number of Chinese traditional charity medical aid departments, instead of falling by the wayside, has increased. The Chinese Traditional Medicine and Physician and Medicine Dealers Association of Malaysia was established 27 years ago. There are now officially 719 Chinese physicians and 1869 medical halls and Chinese physician infirmaries in Malaysia. The authors describe the status of Chinese physicians and medical halls in Malaysia, charitable organizations, and applications of Chinese traditional medicine.
Mprah, Wisdom Kwadwo; Anafi, Patricia; Addai Yeaboah, Paul Yaw
Having a good knowledge of family planning methods is vital for reducing maternal morbidity and mortality resulting from unintended pregnancies and unsafe abortions. In this paper, we highlight deaf people's ability to discern various misconceptions about pregnancy, with the aim of assessing their level of knowledge on pregnancy prevention methods. The article is derived from a sexual and reproductive health (SRH) needs assessment involving participants residing in two cities and a senior high school in Ghana. The needs assessment involved three focus groups with 26 participants, a survey with 152 respondents, and an interview with one health professional. Apart from the health professional, all the remaining participants were deaf people. Findings from the study indicated that more than half the participants lacked familiarity with pregnancy prevention methods. The findings of this study confirm other studies that there is a general lack of knowledge on SRH issues among deaf people in Ghana. Thus, although this study focused on prevention of unwanted pregnancy, which is just one component of SRH issues, the study provides insights into the broader SRH needs of the deaf community and calls for making these issues visible for policy-making.
AJRH Managing Editor
2Department of Global Health, The George Washington University, ... This paper identifies most widely used types of FP, intent and unmet needs among .... counseling received in the past; sources of FP ... than one year of experience. .... Popular family planning methods among mothers in Eldoret and Port Victoria Kenya.
Danis, Peter G; Kurz, Sally A; Covert, Laura M
Traditional medical school curricula have not addressed fertility awareness-based methods (FABMs) of family planning. The objective of this study was to assess (1) 3-year medical students' knowledge of FABMs of family planning, (2) their confidence in utilizing that knowledge in patient care, and (3) to implement focused education on FABMs to improve knowledge and confidence. Third-year medical students at one institution in the United States were given a 10-question assessment at the beginning of their OB-GYN rotation. Two lectures about FABMs and their clinical applications were given during the rotation. Students were given the same questions at the end of the rotation. Each questionnaire consisted of eight questions to assess a student's knowledge of FABMs and two questions to assess the student's confidence in sharing and utilizing that information in a clinical setting. McNemar's test was used to analyze the data. Two hundred seventy-seven students completed a pretest questionnaire and 196 students completed the posttest questionnaire. Medical knowledge improved from an initial test score of 38.99% to final test score of 53.57% ( p Medical schools may not include FABMs in OB-GYN curriculum; however, to patients, these methods remain a sought after and valid form of family planning. This study shows that brief, focused education can increase medical students' knowledge of and confidence with FABMs of family planning.
Listyawardani, Dwi; Hariastuti, Iswari
Systems thinking is needed due to the growing complexity of the problems faced family planning field workers in the external environment that is constantly changing. System thinking ability could not be separated from efforts to develop learning for the workers, both learning at the individual, group, or organization level. The design of the study…
Matthews, Zoe; Padmadas, Sabu S.; Hutter, Inge; McEachran, Juliet; Brown, James J.
Recent stagnation in the reduction of infant mortality in India can arguably be attributed to early child bearing practices and the lack of progress in lengthening birth intervals. Meanwhile, family planning efforts have been particularly successful in the southern states such as Andhra Pradesh,