WorldWideScience

Sample records for general equilibrium framework

  1. Quantity Constrained General Equilibrium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Babenko, R.; Talman, A.J.J.

    2006-01-01

    In a standard general equilibrium model it is assumed that there are no price restrictions and that prices adjust infinitely fast to their equilibrium values.In case of price restrictions a general equilibrium may not exist and rationing on net demands or supplies is needed to clear the markets.In

  2. Essays in general equilibrium theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Konovalov, A.

    2001-01-01

    The thesis focuses on various issues of general equilibrium theory and can approximately be divided into three parts. The first part of the thesis studies generalized equilibria in the Arrow-Debreu model in the situation where the strong survival assumption is not satisfied. Chapter four deals with

  3. The inherent dangers of using computable general equilibrium models as a single integrated modelling framework for sustainability impact assessment. A critical note on Boehringer and Loeschel (2006)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scrieciu, S. Serban

    2007-01-01

    The search for methods of assessment that best evaluate and integrate the trade-offs and interactions between the economic, environmental and social components of development has been receiving a new impetus due to the requirement that sustainability concerns be incorporated into the policy formulation process. A paper forthcoming in Ecological Economics (Boehringer, C., Loeschel, A., in press. Computable general equilibrium models for sustainability impact assessment: status quo and prospects, Ecological Economics.) claims that Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) models may potentially represent the much needed 'back-bone' tool to carry out reliable integrated quantitative Sustainability Impact Assessments (SIAs). While acknowledging the usefulness of CGE models for some dimensions of SIA, this commentary questions the legitimacy of employing this particular economic modelling tool as a single integrating modelling framework for a comprehensive evaluation of the multi-dimensional, dynamic and complex interactions between policy and sustainability. It discusses several inherent dangers associated with the advocated prospects for the CGE modelling approach to contribute to comprehensive and reliable sustainability impact assessments. The paper warns that this reductionist viewpoint may seriously infringe upon the basic values underpinning the SIA process, namely a transparent, heterogeneous, balanced, inter-disciplinary, consultative and participatory take to policy evaluation and building of the evidence-base. (author)

  4. Financial stability, wealth effects and optimal macroeconomic policy combination in the United Kingdom: A new-Keynesian dynamic stochastic general equilibrium framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ali Nasir

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study derives an optimal macroeconomic policy combination for financial sector stability in the United Kingdom by employing a New Keynesian Dynamic Stochastic General Equilibrium (NK-DSGE framework. The empirical results obtained show that disciplined fiscal and accommodative monetary policies stance is optimal for financial sector stability. Furthermore, fiscal indiscipline countered by contractionary monetary stance adversely affects financial sector stability. Financial markets, e.g. stocks and Gilts show a short-term asymmetric response to macroeconomic policy interaction and to each other. The asymmetry is a reflection of portfolio adjustment. However in the long-run, the responses to suggested optimal policy combination had homogenous effects and there was evidence of co-movement in the stock and Gilt markets.

  5. On generalized operator quasi-equilibrium problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kum, Sangho; Kim, Won Kyu

    2008-09-01

    In this paper, we will introduce the generalized operator equilibrium problem and generalized operator quasi-equilibrium problem which generalize the operator equilibrium problem due to Kazmi and Raouf [K.R. Kazmi, A. Raouf, A class of operator equilibrium problems, J. Math. Anal. Appl. 308 (2005) 554-564] into multi-valued and quasi-equilibrium problems. Using a Fan-Browder type fixed point theorem in [S. Park, Foundations of the KKM theory via coincidences of composites of upper semicontinuous maps, J. Korean Math. Soc. 31 (1994) 493-519] and an existence theorem of equilibrium for 1-person game in [X.-P. Ding, W.K. Kim, K.-K. Tan, Equilibria of non-compact generalized games with L*-majorized preferences, J. Math. Anal. Appl. 164 (1992) 508-517] as basic tools, we prove new existence theorems on generalized operator equilibrium problem and generalized operator quasi-equilibrium problem which includes operator equilibrium problems.

  6. Risk premia in general equilibrium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Posch, Olaf

    This paper shows that non-linearities can generate time-varying and asymmetric risk premia over the business cycle. These (empirical) key features become relevant and asset market implications improve substantially when we allow for non-normalities in the form of rare disasters. We employ explici......'s effective risk aversion.......This paper shows that non-linearities can generate time-varying and asymmetric risk premia over the business cycle. These (empirical) key features become relevant and asset market implications improve substantially when we allow for non-normalities in the form of rare disasters. We employ explicit...... solutions of dynamic stochastic general equilibrium models, including a novel solution with endogenous labor supply, to obtain closed-form expressions for the risk premium in production economies. We find that the curvature of the policy functions affects the risk premium through controlling the individual...

  7. Monetary Policy Frameworks and Real Equilibrium Determinacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Henrik

    2002-01-01

    In a simple "prototype" model of monetary policymaking, I examine the issue of real equilibrium determinacy under targeting and instrument rules. The former framework involves minimization of a loss function (under discretion or commitment), whereas the latter involves commitment to an interest...... rate rule. While instrument rules only lead to determinacy under certain conditions, the targeting rules under consideration always secure determinacy. Within an extended model, I argue that econometric estimations of nominal interest rate response functions may tell little about the economy...

  8. Micro Data and General Equilibrium Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Browning, Martin; Hansen, Lars Peter; Heckman, James J.

    1999-01-01

    Dynamic general equilibrium models are required to evaluate policies applied at the national level. To use these models to make quantitative forecasts requires knowledge of an extensive array of parameter values for the economy at large. This essay describes the parameters required for different...... economic models, assesses the discordance between the macromodels used in policy evaluation and the microeconomic models used to generate the empirical evidence. For concreteness, we focus on two general equilibrium models: the stochastic growth model extended to include some forms of heterogeneity...

  9. General Equilibrium Models: Improving the Microeconomics Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Walter; Westhoff, Frank

    2009-01-01

    General equilibrium models now play important roles in many fields of economics including tax policy, environmental regulation, international trade, and economic development. The intermediate microeconomics classroom has not kept pace with these trends, however. Microeconomics textbooks primarily focus on the insights that can be drawn from the…

  10. The contribution of several Nobel Laureates in the development of the Theory of general economic equilibrium

    OpenAIRE

    Florentina Xhelili Krasniqi; Rahmie Topxhiu; Donat Rexha

    2016-01-01

    Nobel Laureates with their contributions to the development of the theory of general equilibrium have enabled this theory to be one of the most important for theoretical and practical analysis of the overall economy and the efficient use of economic resources. Results of the research showing that contributions of Nobel Laureates in the economy belong to two main frameworks of development of the general equilibrium theory: one was the mathematical model of general equilibrium developed by J...

  11. Strong Duality and Optimality Conditions for Generalized Equilibrium Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. H. Fang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider a generalized equilibrium problem involving DC functions. By using the properties of the epigraph of the conjugate functions, some sufficient and/or necessary conditions for the weak and strong duality results and optimality conditions for generalized equilibrium problems are provided.

  12. Parameter Estimation for a Computable General Equilibrium Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Robinson, Sherman; Tarp, Finn

    2002-01-01

    We introduce a maximum entropy approach to parameter estimation for computable general equilibrium (CGE) models. The approach applies information theory to estimating a system of non-linear simultaneous equations. It has a number of advantages. First, it imposes all general equilibrium constraints...

  13. Parameter Estimation for a Computable General Equilibrium Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Robinson, Sherman; Tarp, Finn

    We introduce a maximum entropy approach to parameter estimation for computable general equilibrium (CGE) models. The approach applies information theory to estimating a system of nonlinear simultaneous equations. It has a number of advantages. First, it imposes all general equilibrium constraints...

  14. Financial Structure and Economic Welfare: Applied General Equilibrium Development Economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Robert

    2010-09-01

    This review provides a common framework for researchers thinking about the next generation of micro-founded macro models of growth, inequality, and financial deepening, as well as direction for policy makers targeting microfinance programs to alleviate poverty. Topics include treatment of financial structure general equilibrium models: testing for as-if-complete markets or other financial underpinnings; examining dual-sector models with both a perfectly intermediated sector and a sector in financial autarky, as well as a second generation of these models that embeds information problems and other obstacles to trade; designing surveys to capture measures of income, investment/savings, and flow of funds; and aggregating individuals and households to the level of network, village, or national economy. The review concludes with new directions that overcome conceptual and computational limitations.

  15. Financial Structure and Economic Welfare: Applied General Equilibrium Development Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Robert

    2010-01-01

    This review provides a common framework for researchers thinking about the next generation of micro-founded macro models of growth, inequality, and financial deepening, as well as direction for policy makers targeting microfinance programs to alleviate poverty. Topics include treatment of financial structure general equilibrium models: testing for as-if-complete markets or other financial underpinnings; examining dual-sector models with both a perfectly intermediated sector and a sector in financial autarky, as well as a second generation of these models that embeds information problems and other obstacles to trade; designing surveys to capture measures of income, investment/savings, and flow of funds; and aggregating individuals and households to the level of network, village, or national economy. The review concludes with new directions that overcome conceptual and computational limitations. PMID:21037939

  16. Dividend taxation in an infinite-horizon general equilibrium model

    OpenAIRE

    Pham, Ngoc-Sang

    2017-01-01

    We consider an infinite-horizon general equilibrium model with heterogeneous agents and financial market imperfections. We investigate the role of dividend taxation on economic growth and asset price. The optimal dividend taxation is also studied.

  17. The DART general equilibrium model: A technical description

    OpenAIRE

    Springer, Katrin

    1998-01-01

    This paper provides a technical description of the Dynamic Applied Regional Trade (DART) General Equilibrium Model. The DART model is a recursive dynamic, multi-region, multi-sector computable general equilibrium model. All regions are fully specified and linked by bilateral trade flows. The DART model can be used to project economic activities, energy use and trade flows for each of the specified regions to simulate various trade policy as well as environmental policy scenarios, and to analy...

  18. The contribution of several Nobel Laureates in the development of the Theory of general economic equilibrium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florentina Xhelili Krasniqi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Nobel Laureates with their contributions to the development of the theory of general equilibrium have enabled this theory to be one of the most important for theoretical and practical analysis of the overall economy and the efficient use of economic resources. Results of the research showing that contributions of Nobel Laureates in the economy belong to two main frameworks of development of the general equilibrium theory: one was the mathematical model of general equilibrium developed by John R. Hicks (1939, Kenneth J.Arrow (1951 and Gerard Debreu (1954 and second frames of general equilibrium belongs to Paul A. Samuelson (1958. To highlight the contributions of these Nobel laureates in the development of the theory of general equilibrium have been selected and are presented in the paper some views, estimates and assumptions that have contributed not only in solving concrete problems, but also to the development of economic science in general. Their works represent a synthesis of theoretical and practical aspects of treatment of general equilibrium which are the starting point for further research in this field.

  19. Magnetotail equilibrium theory - The general three-dimensional solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birn, J.

    1987-01-01

    The general magnetostatic equilibrium problem for the geomagnetic tail is reduced to the solution of ordinary differential equations and ordinary integrals. The theory allows the integration of the self-consistent magnetotail equilibrium field from the knowledge of four functions of two space variables: the neutral sheet location, the total pressure, the magnetic field strength, and the z component of the magnetic field at the neutral sheet.

  20. R&D and economic growth in Slovenia: A dynamic general equilibrium approach with endogenous growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbic, M.; Majcen, B.; Ivanova, O.; Cok, M.

    2011-01-01

    In the article, we model R&D as a major endogenous growth element in a small open economy general equilibrium framework and consider several R&D policy scenarios for Slovenia. Increase of the share of sectoral investment in R&D that is deductible from the corporate income tax and increase of

  1. Transport infrastructure and technology: Investment, externalities, and general equilibrium effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van den Bergh, Jeroen C.J.M.; Nijkamp, P. [Faculty of Economics, Free University, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    1993-04-01

    The paper addresses the use of general equilibrium models to analyze transportation policies. After a discussion of possible approaches, a representative set of static and dynamic models is developed and investigated, which focus on the interaction between general equilibrium, transport, infrastructure and environment. It is shown that each of these allows one to deal with specific types of policy questions. More technical modelling issues are dealt with as well, e.g. returns to scale, production functions, and disaggregation. Finally, attention is devoted to freight transport in a multisectoral production setting. 5 figs., 8 refs.

  2. Pricing decisions in an experimental dynamic stochastic general equilibrium economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noussair, C.N.; Pfajfar, D.; Zsiros, J.

    We construct experimental economies, populated with human subjects, with a structure based on a nonlinear version of the New Keynesian dynamic stochastic general equilibrium (DSGE) model. We analyze the behavior of firms’ pricing decisions in four different experimental economies. We consider how

  3. An applied general equilibrium model for Dutch agribusiness policy analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peerlings, J.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to develop a basic static applied general equilibrium (AGE) model to analyse the effects of agricultural policy changes on Dutch agribusiness. In particular the effects on inter-industry transactions, factor demand, income, and trade are of

  4. Financial Intermediation, Competition, and Risk : A General Equilibrium Exposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Di Nicolo, G.; Lucchetta, M.

    2010-01-01

    We study a simple general equilibrium model in which investment in a risky technology is subject to moral hazard and banks can extract market power rents. We show that more bank competition results in lower economy-wide risk, lower bank capital ratios, more efficient production plans and

  5. Statistical equilibrium and symplectic geometry in general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iglesias, P.

    1981-09-01

    A geometrical construction is given of the statistical equilibrium states of a system of particles in the gravitational field in general relativity. By a method of localization variables, the expression of thermodynamic values is given and the compatibility of this description is shown with a macroscopic model of a relativistic continuous medium for a given value of the free-energy function [fr

  6. Municipal solid waste management problems: an applied general equilibrium analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartelings, H.

    2003-01-01

    Keywords: Environmental policy; General equilibrium modeling; Negishi format; Waste management policies; Market distortions.

    About 40% of the entire budget spent on environmental problems in the

  7. A Generalized DRM Architectural Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PATRICIU, V. V.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Online digital goods distribution environment lead to the need for a system to protect digital intellectual property. Digital Rights Management (DRM is the system born to protect and control distribution and use of those digital assets. The present paper is a review of the current state of DRM, focusing on architectural design, security technologies, and important DRM deployments. The paper primarily synthesizes DRM architectures within a general framework. We also present DRM ecosystem as providing a better understanding of what is currently happening to content rights management from a technological point of view. This paper includes conclusions of several DRM initiative studies, related to rights management systems with the purpose of identifying and describing the most significant DRM architectural models. The basic functions and processes of the DRM solutions are identified.

  8. Income- and energy-taxation for redistribution in general equilibrium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FitzRoy, F.R.

    1993-01-01

    In a 3-factor General Equilibrium (GE)-model with a continuum of ability, the employed choose optimal labour supply, and equilibrium unemployment is determined by benefits funded by wage- and energy-taxes. Aggregate labour and the net wage may increase or decrease with taxation (and unemployment), and conditions for a reduction in redistributive wage-taxes to be Pareto-improving are derived. A small energy tax always raises the net wage, providing the wage tax is reduced to maintain constant employment and a balanced budget. High ability households prefer higher energy taxes when externalities are uniformly distributed and non-distorting. (author)

  9. On the Concept "Chemical Equilibrium": The Associative Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gussarsky, Esther; Gorodetsky, Malka

    1990-01-01

    Word associations were used to map high school students' concepts of "chemical equilibrium" and "equilibrium." It was found that the preconception of the two concepts was differentiated on noncritical dimensions. (Author/CW)

  10. World Oil Price and Biofuels : A General Equilibrium Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Timilsina, Govinda R.; Mevel, Simon; Shrestha, Ashish

    2011-01-01

    The price of oil could play a significant role in influencing the expansion of biofuels. However, this issue has not been fully investigated yet in the literature. Using a global computable general equilibrium model, this study analyzes the impact of oil price on biofuel expansion, and subsequently, on food supply. The study shows that a 65 percent increase in oil price in 2020 from the 20...

  11. Trade Liberalisation and Poverty in Bangladesh: A General Equilibrium Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Nahar, Bodrun; Siriwardana, Mahinda

    2009-01-01

    This paper uses a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model to investigate the impact on poverty of trade liberalisation in Bangladesh. The simulation results show that the complete removal of tariffs favours export oriented sectors in the economy. With trade liberalisation, rural and urban areas experience an overall reduction in poverty in the short run. However, a marginal increase in the poverty gap and poverty severity for urban areas is projected, implying that the poor become poorer i...

  12. Differential topology and general equilibrium with complete and incomplete markets

    CERN Document Server

    Villanacci, Antonio; Benevieri, Pierluigi; Battinelli, Andrea

    2002-01-01

    General equilibrium In this book we try to cope with the challenging task of reviewing the so called general equilibrium model and of discussing one specific aspect of the approach underlying it, namely, market completeness. With the denomination "general equilibrium" (from now on in short GE) we shall mainly refer to two different things. On one hand, in particular when using the expression "GE approach", we shall refer to a long established methodolog­ ical tradition in building and developing economic models, which includes, as of today, an enormous amount of contributions, ranging in number by several 1 thousands • On the other hand, in particular when using the expression "stan­ dard differentiable GE model", we refer to a very specific version of economic model of exchange and production, to be presented in Chapters 8 and 9, and to be modified in Chapters 10 to 15. Such a version is certainly formulated within the GE approach, but it is generated by making several quite restrictive 2 assumptions •...

  13. Money demand in general equilibrium endogenous growth: Estimating the role of a variable interest elasticity

    OpenAIRE

    Gillman, Max; Otto, Glen

    2006-01-01

    The paper presents and tests a theory of the demand for money that is derived from a general equilibrium, endogenous growth economy, which in effect combines a special case of the shopping time exchange economy with the cash-in-advance framework. The model predicts that both higher inflation and financial innovation - that reduces the cost of credit - induce agents to substitute away from money towards exchange credit. The implied interest elasticity of money demand rises with the inflation r...

  14. Can Migrants Save Greece From Ageing? A Computable General Equilibrium Approach Using G-AMOS.

    OpenAIRE

    Nikos Pappas

    2008-01-01

    The population of Greece is projected to age in the course of the next three decades. This paper combines demographic projections with a multi-period economic Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) modelling framework to assess the macroeconomic impact of these future demographic trends. The simulation strategy adopted in Lisenkova et. al. (2008) is also employed here. The size and age composition of the population in the future depends on current and future values of demographic parameters suc...

  15. Generalizations of the Nash Equilibrium Theorem in the KKM Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sehie Park

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The partial KKM principle for an abstract convex space is an abstract form of the classical KKM theorem. In this paper, we derive generalized forms of the Ky Fan minimax inequality, the von Neumann-Sion minimax theorem, the von Neumann-Fan intersection theorem, the Fan-type analytic alternative, and the Nash equilibrium theorem for abstract convex spaces satisfying the partial KKM principle. These results are compared with previously known cases for G-convex spaces. Consequently, our results unify and generalize most of previously known particular cases of the same nature. Finally, we add some detailed historical remarks on related topics.

  16. Generalized Nash equilibrium problems, bilevel programming and mpec

    CERN Document Server

    Lalitha, CS

    2017-01-01

    The book discusses three classes of problems: the generalized Nash equilibrium problems, the bilevel problems and the mathematical programming with equilibrium constraints (MPEC). These problems interact through their mathematical analysis as well as their applications. The primary aim of the book is to present the modern tool of variational analysis and optimization, which are used to analyze these three classes of problems. All contributing authors are respected academicians, scientists and researchers from around the globe. These contributions are based on the lectures delivered by experts at CIMPA School, held at the University of Delhi, India, from 25 November–6 December 2013, and peer-reviewed by international experts. The book contains five chapters. Chapter 1 deals with nonsmooth, nonconvex bilevel optimization problems whose feasible set is described by using the graph of the solution set mapping of a parametric optimization problem. Chapter 2 describes a constraint qualification to MPECs considere...

  17. General framework for adsorption processes on dynamic interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmuck, Markus; Kalliadasis, Serafim

    2016-01-01

    We propose a novel and general variational framework modelling particle adsorption mechanisms on evolving immiscible fluid interfaces. A by-product of our thermodynamic approach is that we systematically obtain analytic adsorption isotherms for given equilibrium interfacial geometries. We validate computationally our mathematical methodology by demonstrating the fundamental properties of decreasing interfacial free energies by increasing interfacial particle densities and of decreasing surface pressure with increasing surface area. (paper)

  18. Abstract generalized vector quasi-equilibrium problems in noncompact Hadamard manifolds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haishu Lu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper deals with the abstract generalized vector quasi-equilibrium problem in noncompact Hadamard manifolds. We prove the existence of solutions to the abstract generalized vector quasi-equilibrium problem under suitable conditions and provide applications to an abstract vector quasi-equilibrium problem, a generalized scalar equilibrium problem, a scalar equilibrium problem, and a perturbed saddle point problem. Finally, as an application of the existence of solutions to the generalized scalar equilibrium problem, we obtain a weakly mixed variational inequality and two mixed variational inequalities. The results presented in this paper unify and generalize many known results in the literature.

  19. Development of a General Purpose Gamification Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Vea, Eivind

    2016-01-01

    This report describes the design and implementation of a general purpose gamification framework developed in JavaScript on the Metor platform. Gamification is described as the use of game elements in none-game contexts. The purpose is to encourage and change user behaviour. Examples of existing gamification use cases and frameworks are described. A demo game shows how a general purpose framework can be used.

  20. Pharmaceutical industry and trade liberalization using computable general equilibrium model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barouni, M; Ghaderi, H; Banouei, Aa

    2012-01-01

    Computable general equilibrium models are known as a powerful instrument in economic analyses and widely have been used in order to evaluate trade liberalization effects. The purpose of this study was to provide the impacts of trade openness on pharmaceutical industry using CGE model. Using a computable general equilibrium model in this study, the effects of decrease in tariffs as a symbol of trade liberalization on key variables of Iranian pharmaceutical products were studied. Simulation was performed via two scenarios in this study. The first scenario was the effect of decrease in tariffs of pharmaceutical products as 10, 30, 50, and 100 on key drug variables, and the second was the effect of decrease in other sectors except pharmaceutical products on vital and economic variables of pharmaceutical products. The required data were obtained and the model parameters were calibrated according to the social accounting matrix of Iran in 2006. The results associated with simulation demonstrated that the first scenario has increased import, export, drug supply to markets and household consumption, while import, export, supply of product to market, and household consumption of pharmaceutical products would averagely decrease in the second scenario. Ultimately, society welfare would improve in all scenarios. We presents and synthesizes the CGE model which could be used to analyze trade liberalization policy issue in developing countries (like Iran), and thus provides information that policymakers can use to improve the pharmacy economics.

  1. Exploring Chemical Equilibrium with Poker Chips: A General Chemistry Laboratory Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindel, Thomas H.

    2012-01-01

    A hands-on laboratory exercise at the general chemistry level introduces students to chemical equilibrium through a simulation that uses poker chips and rate equations. More specifically, the exercise allows students to explore reaction tables, dynamic chemical equilibrium, equilibrium constant expressions, and the equilibrium constant based on…

  2. Generalized Information Equilibrium Approaches to EEG Sleep Stage Discrimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd Zorick

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in neuroscience have raised the hypothesis that the underlying pattern of neuronal activation which results in electroencephalography (EEG signals is via power-law distributed neuronal avalanches, while EEG signals are nonstationary. Therefore, spectral analysis of EEG may miss many properties inherent in such signals. A complete understanding of such dynamical systems requires knowledge of the underlying nonequilibrium thermodynamics. In recent work by Fielitz and Borchardt (2011, 2014, the concept of information equilibrium (IE in information transfer processes has successfully characterized many different systems far from thermodynamic equilibrium. We utilized a publicly available database of polysomnogram EEG data from fourteen subjects with eight different one-minute tracings of sleep stage 2 and waking and an overlapping set of eleven subjects with eight different one-minute tracings of sleep stage 3. We applied principles of IE to model EEG as a system that transfers (equilibrates information from the time domain to scalp-recorded voltages. We find that waking consciousness is readily distinguished from sleep stages 2 and 3 by several differences in mean information transfer constants. Principles of IE applied to EEG may therefore prove to be useful in the study of changes in brain function more generally.

  3. General equilibrium effects of increasing carbon taxes in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, G.W.; Kristroem, B.

    1997-01-01

    Sweden was one of the first countries to introduce carbon taxes, and is currently evaluating further carbon taxes. The authors were asked to advise a government commission charged with undertaking the official Swedish evaluation. We did so by constructing and simulating a computable general equilibrium model of Sweden. In this report, the carbon tax debate in Sweden is first reviewed, then our model is described and the main results presented. The conclusion from the cost-benefit analysis is clear, the benefits of increasing the carbon tax in Sweden are a tiny fraction of the costs that consumers must pay in the form of higher prices and reduced incomes. Although we do not put much credence in the gross benefit numbers, they do serve to highlight the basis of our conclusion that carbon tax increases are not currently justifiable in Sweden. 35 refs., 13 tabs

  4. Vehicle technology under CO2 constraint: a general equilibrium analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaefer, Andreas; Jacoby, Henry D.

    2006-01-01

    A study is presented of the rates of penetration of different transport technologies under policy constraints on CO 2 emissions. The response of this sector is analyzed within an overall national level of restriction, with a focus on automobiles, light trucks, and heavy freight trucks. Using the US as an example, a linked set of three models is used to carry out the analysis: a multi-sector computable general equilibrium model of the economy, a MARKAL-type model of vehicle and fuel supply technology, and a model simulating the split of personal and freight transport among modes. Results highlight the importance of incremental improvements in conventional internal combustion engine technology, and, in the absence of policies to overcome observed consumer discount rates, the very long time horizons before radical alternatives like the internal combustion engine hybrid drive train vehicle are likely to take substantial market share

  5. General equilibrium effects of increasing carbon taxes in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, G W [South Carolina Univ., Columbia, SC (United States). Dept. of Economics, College of Business Administration; Kristroem, B [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Umeaa (Sweden). Dept. of Forest Economics

    1997-09-01

    Sweden was one of the first countries to introduce carbon taxes, and is currently evaluating further carbon taxes. The authors were asked to advise a government commission charged with undertaking the official Swedish evaluation. We did so by constructing and simulating a computable general equilibrium model of Sweden. In this report, the carbon tax debate in Sweden is first reviewed, then our model is described and the main results presented. The conclusion from the cost-benefit analysis is clear, the benefits of increasing the carbon tax in Sweden are a tiny fraction of the costs that consumers must pay in the form of higher prices and reduced incomes. Although we do not put much credence in the gross benefit numbers, they do serve to highlight the basis of our conclusion that carbon tax increases are not currently justifiable in Sweden. 35 refs., 13 tabs.

  6. Estimation of the transboundary economic impacts of the Grand Ethiopia Renaissance Dam: A Computable General Equilibrium Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kahsay, T.N.; Kuik, O.J.; Brouwer, R.; van der Zaag, P.

    2015-01-01

    Employing a multi-region multi-sector computable general equilibrium (CGE) modeling framework, this study estimates the direct and indirect economic impacts of the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam (GERD) on the Eastern Nile economies. The study contributes to the existing literature by evaluating the

  7. A general nonlinear evolution equation for irreversible conservative approach to stable equilibrium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beretta, G.P.

    1986-01-01

    This paper addresses a mathematical problem relevant to the question of nonequilibrium and irreversibility, namely, that of ''designing'' a general evolution equation capable of describing irreversible but conservative relaxtion towards equilibrium. The objective is to present an interesting mathematical solution to this design problem, namely, a new nonlinear evolution equation that satisfies a set of very stringent relevant requirements. Three different frameworks are defined from which the new equation could be adopted, with entirely different interpretations. Some useful well-known mathematics involving Gram determinants are presented and a nonlinear evolution equation is given which meets the stringent design specifications

  8. Teaching Chemical Equilibrium and Thermodynamics in Undergraduate General Chemistry Classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Anil C.

    1995-01-01

    Discusses some of the conceptual difficulties encountered by undergraduate students in learning certain aspects of chemical equilibrium and thermodynamics. Discusses teaching strategies for dealing with these difficulties. (JRH)

  9. Computable general equilibrium model fiscal year 2013 capability development report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, Brian Keith [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Rivera, Michael Kelly [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Boero, Riccardo [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-05-17

    This report documents progress made on continued developments of the National Infrastructure Simulation and Analysis Center (NISAC) Computable General Equilibrium Model (NCGEM), developed in fiscal year 2012. In fiscal year 2013, NISAC the treatment of the labor market and tests performed with the model to examine the properties of the solutions computed by the model. To examine these, developers conducted a series of 20 simulations for 20 U.S. States. Each of these simulations compared an economic baseline simulation with an alternative simulation that assumed a 20-percent reduction in overall factor productivity in the manufacturing industries of each State. Differences in the simulation results between the baseline and alternative simulations capture the economic impact of the reduction in factor productivity. While not every State is affected in precisely the same way, the reduction in manufacturing industry productivity negatively affects the manufacturing industries in each State to an extent proportional to the reduction in overall factor productivity. Moreover, overall economic activity decreases when manufacturing sector productivity is reduced. Developers ran two additional simulations: (1) a version of the model for the State of Michigan, with manufacturing divided into two sub-industries (automobile and other vehicle manufacturing as one sub-industry and the rest of manufacturing as the other subindustry); and (2) a version of the model for the United States, divided into 30 industries. NISAC conducted these simulations to illustrate the flexibility of industry definitions in NCGEM and to examine the simulation properties of in more detail.

  10. A general framework for reasoning on inconsistency

    CERN Document Server

    Martinez, Maria Vanina; Subrahmanian, VS; Amgoud, Leila

    2013-01-01

    This SpringerBrief proposes a general framework for reasoning about inconsistency in a wide variety of logics, including inconsistency resolution methods that have not yet been studied.  The proposed framework allows users to specify preferences on how to resolve inconsistency when there are multiple ways to do so. This empowers users to resolve inconsistency in data leveraging both their detailed knowledge of the data as well as their application needs. The brief shows that the framework is well-suited to handle inconsistency in several logics, and provides algorithms to compute preferred opt

  11. A general framework of automorphic inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schimmrigk, Rolf

    2016-01-01

    Automorphic inflation is an application of the framework of automorphic scalar field theory, based on the theory of automorphic forms and representations. In this paper the general framework of automorphic and modular inflation is described in some detail, with emphasis on the resulting stratification of the space of scalar field theories in terms of the group theoretic data associated to the shift symmetry, as well as the automorphic data that specifies the potential. The class of theories based on Eisenstein series provides a natural generalization of the model of j-inflation considered previously.

  12. A general framework of automorphic inflation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schimmrigk, Rolf [Department of Physics, Indiana University at South Bend,1700 Mishawaka Ave. South Bend, IN 46634 (United States)

    2016-05-24

    Automorphic inflation is an application of the framework of automorphic scalar field theory, based on the theory of automorphic forms and representations. In this paper the general framework of automorphic and modular inflation is described in some detail, with emphasis on the resulting stratification of the space of scalar field theories in terms of the group theoretic data associated to the shift symmetry, as well as the automorphic data that specifies the potential. The class of theories based on Eisenstein series provides a natural generalization of the model of j-inflation considered previously.

  13. Generalized multivalued equilibrium-like problems: auxiliary principle technique and predictor-corrector methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Dadashi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper is dedicated to the introduction a new class of equilibrium problems named generalized multivalued equilibrium-like problems which includes the classes of hemiequilibrium problems, equilibrium-like problems, equilibrium problems, hemivariational inequalities, and variational inequalities as special cases. By utilizing the auxiliary principle technique, some new predictor-corrector iterative algorithms for solving them are suggested and analyzed. The convergence analysis of the proposed iterative methods requires either partially relaxed monotonicity or jointly pseudomonotonicity of the bifunctions involved in generalized multivalued equilibrium-like problem. Results obtained in this paper include several new and known results as special cases.

  14. A general framework for intelligent recommender systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Aguilar

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a general framework for an intelligent recommender system that extends the concept of a knowledge-based recommender system. The intelligent recommender system exploits knowledge, learns, discovers new information, infers preferences and criticisms, among other things. For that, the framework of an intelligent recommender system is defined by the following components: knowledge representation paradigm, learning methods, and reasoning mechanisms. Additionally, it has five knowledge models about the different aspects that we can consider during a recommendation: users, items, domain, context and criticisms. The mix of the components exploits the knowledge, updates it and infers, among other things. In this work, we implement one intelligent recommender system based on this framework, using Fuzzy Cognitive Maps (FCMs. Next, we test the performance of the intelligent recommender system with specialized criteria linked to the utilization of the knowledge in order to test the versatility and performance of the framework.

  15. A General Framework for Probabilistic Characterizing Formulae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sack, Joshua; Zhang, Lijun

    2012-01-01

    Recently, a general framework on characteristic formulae was proposed by Aceto et al. It offers a simple theory that allows one to easily obtain characteristic formulae of many non-probabilistic behavioral relations. Our paper studies their techniques in a probabilistic setting. We provide...... a general method for determining characteristic formulae of behavioral relations for probabilistic automata using fixed-point probability logics. We consider such behavioral relations as simulations and bisimulations, probabilistic bisimulations, probabilistic weak simulations, and probabilistic forward...

  16. General equilibrium effects of a supply side GHG mitigation option under the Clean Development Mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timilsina, Govinda R; Shrestha, Ram M

    2006-09-01

    The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) under the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change is considered a key instrument to encourage developing countries' participation in the mitigation of global climate change. Reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions through the energy supply and demand side activities are the main options to be implemented under the CDM. This paper analyses the general equilibrium effects of a supply side GHG mitigation option-the substitution of thermal power with hydropower--in Thailand under the CDM. A static multi-sector general equilibrium model has been developed for the purpose of this study. The key finding of the study is that the substitution of electricity generation from thermal power plants with that from hydropower plants would increase economic welfare in Thailand. The supply side option would, however, adversely affect the gross domestic product (GDP) and the trade balance. The percentage changes in economic welfare, GDP and trade balance increase with the level of substitution and the price of certified emission reduction (CER) units.

  17. Peak Oil profiles through the lens of a general equilibrium assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waisman, Henri; Rozenberg, Julie; Sassi, Olivier; Hourcade, Jean-Charles

    2012-01-01

    This paper disentangles the interactions between oil production profiles, the dynamics of oil prices and growth trends. We do so through a general equilibrium model in which Peak Oil endogenously emerges from the interplay between the geological, technical, macroeconomic and geopolitical determinants of supply and demand under non-perfect expectations. We analyze the macroeconomic effects of oil production profiles and demonstrate that Peak Oil dates that differ only slightly may lead to very different time profiles of oil prices, exportation flows and economic activity. We investigate Middle-East's trade-off between different pricing trajectories in function of two alternative objectives (maximisation of oil revenues or households’ welfare) and assess its impact on OECD growth trajectories. A sensitivity analysis highlights the respective roles of the amount of resources, inertia on the deployment of non conventional oil and short-term oil price dynamics on Peak Oil dates and long-term oil prices. It also examines the effects of these assumptions on OECD growth and Middle-East strategic tradeoffs. - Highlights: ► Geological determinants behind Hubbert curves in a general equilibrium framework. ► We endogenize the interactions between Peak Oil dates, oil prices and growth trends. ► Close Peak Oil dates lead to different trends of oil prices, exportation and growth. ► Low short-term prices benefit to the long-term macroeconomy of oil exporters. ► High short-term prices hedge oil importers against economic tensions after Peak Oil.

  18. A multidimensional framework of conceptual change for developing chemical equilibrium learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanyoo, Wassana; Suwannoi, Paisan; Treagust, David F.

    2018-01-01

    The purposes of this research is to investigate the existing chemical equilibrium lessons in Thailand based on the multidimensional framework of conceptual change, to determine how the existing lessons could enhance students' conceptual change. This research was conducted based on qualitative perspective. Document, observations and interviews were used to collect data. To comprehend all students conceptions, diagnostic tests were applied comprised of The Chemical Equilibrium Diagnostic Test (the CEDT) and The Chemical Equilibrium Test for Reveal Conceptual Change (the CETforRCC). In addition, to study students' motivations, the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (the MSLQ) and students' task engagement were applied. Following each perspective of conceptual change - ontological, epistemological, and social/affective - the result showed that the existing chemical equilibrium unit did not enhance students' conceptual change, and some issues were found. The problems obstructed students conceptual change should be remedy under the multidimensional framework of conceptual change. Finally, some suggestions were provided to enhance students' conceptual change in chemical equilibrium effectively

  19. Dogville or an illustration of some properties of general equilibrium

    OpenAIRE

    Harmgart, H.; Huck, S.

    2008-01-01

    In this note we argue that Lars von Trier’s movie Dogville can be viewed as an illustration of a simple economy where one agent has only her body as initial endowment. The movie illustrates some interesting comparative statics of equilibrium allocations. It shows how life would be like in a world where, in the absence of constitutional or legal constraints, economic forces reign freely and raises some fundamental issues of voluntary exchange versus force that apply to a number ...

  20. A General Framework for Reviewing Dictionaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sandro

    2013-01-01

    in specific types of situations in the real (extra-lexicographic) world. I propose a basis for a framework that contains an outline of general theoretical and practical principles that underlie the true nature of dictionary reviews, and places the reviews in a lexicographic universe with the dictionary...... and lexicography at its centre. This seems to be in line with the modern understanding of lexicography as a separate academic discipline concerned with the compilation, design, evaluation and use of dictionaries. Moreover, a set of generally applicable principles may lead the discourse community to accept...

  1. R&D and economic growth in Slovenia: A dynamic general equilibrium approach with endogenous growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verbič Miroslav

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article, we model R&D as a major endogenous growth element in a small open economy general equilibrium framework and consider several R&D policy scenarios for Slovenia. Increase of the share of sectoral investment in R&D that is deductible from the corporate income tax and increase of government spending on R&D turned out to be the most effective suggested policy measures. While the former policy measure is still followed in part by an undesired transfer of the tax relief to dividends, a moderate increase of government spending on R&D boosts long-run productivity in the economy, thus increasing the future value of firms, which is reflected in a desired dividend increase. The households that would gain more utility from such policy scenarios are those with more skilled and highly skilled labour, but not the very top earners in the economy.

  2. General Equilibrium Analysis of Electricity Market Liberalization in Singapore: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fenglong XIAO

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The liberalization in electricity market in Singapore has being undertaken for more than 15 years. This paper evaluates the influence of competition policies by computable general equilibrium (CGE model. Instead of the direct measurement of the impact of competition policy, the benefit of liberalization is reflected by the simulation of a hypothetical regulatory condition. Comparing to the regulatory scenario, simulation result implies the current liberalization raises GDP and exchange rate significantly, but also leaves the tradeoff between higher national income and lower consumer welfare to government. If such choice of economic policy is necessary for political demand, a formal legal framework is required to enforce the restoration of the economy from regulatory restrictions.

  3. Equilibrium and nonequilibrium many-body perturbation theory: a unified framework based on the Martin-Schwinger hierarchy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Leeuwen, Robert; Stefanucci, Gianluca

    2013-01-01

    We present a unified framework for equilibrium and nonequilibrium many-body perturbation theory. The most general nonequilibrium many-body theory valid for general initial states is based on a time-contour originally introduced by Konstantinov and Perel'. The various other well-known formalisms of Keldysh, Matsubara and the zero-temperature formalism are then derived as special cases that arise under different assumptions. We further present a single simple proof of Wick's theorem that is at the same time valid in all these flavors of many-body theory. It arises simply as a solution of the equations of the Martin-Schwinger hierarchy for the noninteracting many-particle Green's function with appropriate boundary conditions. We further discuss a generalized Wick theorem for general initial states on the Keldysh contour and derive how the formalisms based on the Keldysh and Konstantinov-Perel'-contours are related for the case of general initial states.

  4. The truthful signalling hypothesis: an explicit general equilibrium model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausken, Kjell; Hirshleifer, Jack

    2004-06-21

    In mating competition, the truthful signalling hypothesis (TSH), sometimes known as the handicap principle, asserts that higher-quality males signal while lower-quality males do not (or else emit smaller signals). Also, the signals are "believed", that is, females mate preferentially with higher-signalling males. Our analysis employs specific functional forms to generate analytic solutions and numerical simulations that illuminate the conditions needed to validate the TSH. Analytic innovations include: (1) A Mating Success Function indicates how female mating choices respond to higher and lower signalling levels. (2) A congestion function rules out corner solutions in which females would mate exclusively with higher-quality males. (3) A Malthusian condition determines equilibrium population size as related to per-capita resource availability. Equilibria validating the TSH are achieved over a wide range of parameters, though not universally. For TSH equilibria it is not strictly necessary that the high-quality males have an advantage in terms of lower per-unit signalling costs, but a cost difference in favor of the low-quality males cannot be too great if a TSH equilibrium is to persist. And although the literature has paid less attention to these points, TSH equilibria may also fail if: the quality disparity among males is too great, or the proportion of high-quality males in the population is too large, or if the congestion effect is too weak. Signalling being unprofitable in aggregate, it can take off from a no-signalling equilibrium only if the trait used for signalling is not initially a handicap, but instead is functionally useful at low levels. Selection for this trait sets in motion a bandwagon, whereby the initially useful indicator is pushed by male-male competition into the domain where it does indeed become a handicap.

  5. A general framework for updating belief distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissiri, P G; Holmes, C C; Walker, S G

    2016-11-01

    We propose a framework for general Bayesian inference. We argue that a valid update of a prior belief distribution to a posterior can be made for parameters which are connected to observations through a loss function rather than the traditional likelihood function, which is recovered as a special case. Modern application areas make it increasingly challenging for Bayesians to attempt to model the true data-generating mechanism. For instance, when the object of interest is low dimensional, such as a mean or median, it is cumbersome to have to achieve this via a complete model for the whole data distribution. More importantly, there are settings where the parameter of interest does not directly index a family of density functions and thus the Bayesian approach to learning about such parameters is currently regarded as problematic. Our framework uses loss functions to connect information in the data to functionals of interest. The updating of beliefs then follows from a decision theoretic approach involving cumulative loss functions. Importantly, the procedure coincides with Bayesian updating when a true likelihood is known yet provides coherent subjective inference in much more general settings. Connections to other inference frameworks are highlighted.

  6. Distributional impacts of carbon pricing: A general equilibrium approach with micro-data for households

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rausch, Sebastian; Metcalf, Gilbert E.; Reilly, John M.

    2011-01-01

    Many policies to limit greenhouse gas emissions have at their core efforts to put a price on carbon emissions. Carbon pricing impacts households both by raising the cost of carbon intensive products and by changing factor prices. A complete analysis requires taking both effects into account. The impact of carbon pricing is determined by heterogeneity in household spending patterns across income groups as well as heterogeneity in factor income patterns across income groups. It is also affected by precise formulation of the policy (how is the revenue from carbon pricing distributed) as well as the treatment of other government policies (e.g. the treatment of transfer payments). What is often neglected in analyses of policy is the heterogeneity of impacts across households even within income or regional groups. In this paper, we incorporate 15,588 households from the U.S. Consumer and Expenditure Survey data as individual agents in a comparative-static general equilibrium framework. These households are represented within the MIT USREP model, a detailed general equilibrium model of the U.S. economy. In particular, we categorize households by full household income (factor income as well as transfer income) and apply various measures of lifetime income to distinguish households that are temporarily low-income (e.g., retired households drawing down their financial assets) from permanently low-income households. We also provide detailed within-group distributional measures of burden impacts from various policy scenarios. - Highlights: → We develop a simulation model with 15,588 households to study the distributional impacts of carbon pricing in the US. → Sources side impacts have typically been ignored in the literature biasing studies towards finding carbon pricing to be regressive. → Our general equilibrium framework allows us to capture uses and sources side impacts from carbon pricing. → We find that variation in impacts within broad socioeconomic groups may

  7. General stochastic variational formulation for the oligopolistic market equilibrium problem with excesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbagallo, Annamaria; Di Meglio, Guglielmo; Mauro, Paolo

    2017-07-01

    The aim of the paper is to study, in a Hilbert space setting, a general random oligopolistic market equilibrium problem in presence of both production and demand excesses and to characterize the random Cournot-Nash equilibrium principle by means of a stochastic variational inequality. Some existence results are presented.

  8. Final Technical Report: "Representing Endogenous Technological Change in Climate Policy Models: General Equilibrium Approaches"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ian Sue Wing

    2006-04-18

    The research supported by this award pursued three lines of inquiry: (1) The construction of dynamic general equilibrium models to simulate the accumulation and substitution of knowledge, which has resulted in the preparation and submission of several papers: (a) A submitted pedagogic paper which clarifies the structure and operation of computable general equilibrium (CGE) models (C.2), and a review article in press which develops a taxonomy for understanding the representation of technical change in economic and engineering models for climate policy analysis (B.3). (b) A paper which models knowledge directly as a homogeneous factor, and demonstrates that inter-sectoral reallocation of knowledge is the key margin of adjustment which enables induced technical change to lower the costs of climate policy (C.1). (c) An empirical paper which estimates the contribution of embodied knowledge to aggregate energy intensity in the U.S. (C.3), followed by a companion article which embeds these results within a CGE model to understand the degree to which autonomous energy efficiency improvement (AEEI) is attributable to technical change as opposed to sub-sectoral shifts in industrial composition (C.4) (d) Finally, ongoing theoretical work to characterize the precursors and implications of the response of innovation to emission limits (E.2). (2) Data development and simulation modeling to understand how the characteristics of discrete energy supply technologies determine their succession in response to emission limits when they are embedded within a general equilibrium framework. This work has produced two peer-reviewed articles which are currently in press (B.1 and B.2). (3) Empirical investigation of trade as an avenue for the transmission of technological change to developing countries, and its implications for leakage, which has resulted in an econometric study which is being revised for submission to a journal (E.1). As work commenced on this topic, the U.S. withdrawal

  9. A framework for modelling gene regulation which accommodates non-equilibrium mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahsendorf, Tobias; Wong, Felix; Eils, Roland; Gunawardena, Jeremy

    2014-12-05

    Gene regulation has, for the most part, been quantitatively analysed by assuming that regulatory mechanisms operate at thermodynamic equilibrium. This formalism was originally developed to analyse the binding and unbinding of transcription factors from naked DNA in eubacteria. Although widely used, it has made it difficult to understand the role of energy-dissipating, epigenetic mechanisms, such as DNA methylation, nucleosome remodelling and post-translational modification of histones and co-regulators, which act together with transcription factors to regulate gene expression in eukaryotes. Here, we introduce a graph-based framework that can accommodate non-equilibrium mechanisms. A gene-regulatory system is described as a graph, which specifies the DNA microstates (vertices), the transitions between microstates (edges) and the transition rates (edge labels). The graph yields a stochastic master equation for how microstate probabilities change over time. We show that this framework has broad scope by providing new insights into three very different ad hoc models, of steroid-hormone responsive genes, of inherently bounded chromatin domains and of the yeast PHO5 gene. We find, moreover, surprising complexity in the regulation of PHO5, which has not yet been experimentally explored, and we show that this complexity is an inherent feature of being away from equilibrium. At equilibrium, microstate probabilities do not depend on how a microstate is reached but, away from equilibrium, each path to a microstate can contribute to its steady-state probability. Systems that are far from equilibrium thereby become dependent on history and the resulting complexity is a fundamental challenge. To begin addressing this, we introduce a graph-based concept of independence, which can be applied to sub-systems that are far from equilibrium, and prove that history-dependent complexity can be circumvented when sub-systems operate independently. As epigenomic data become increasingly

  10. A general equilibrium view of global rebound effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Taoyuan

    2010-01-01

    How do energy efficiency gains affect energy consumption? The effects are generally called 'rebound effects' in the literature. Previous studies have extensively focused on only part of the global economy to study rebound effects, e.g. energy consumption by households, one industry, or one country. However, since the global economy is highly connected among countries, these studies may lead to misleading conclusions if the rebound effects in the rest of the economy are significant. Recently Saunders (2008) analyzes the demand side by taking the global economy as a whole. Wei (2007) also provides a general analysis by using Cobb-Douglas production functions for the global economy. The present article expands Wei (2007) general analysis to explore the rebound effects from an economist's viewpoint by taking the global economy as a whole and applying general forms of production functions. The analysis provides new insights related to rebound effects: we highlight the role of energy supply as a determinant of rebound. We show that the substitution between energy resources and other productive resources is more relevant to long term rebound. We predict that long term rebound may be lower than short term rebound. And we also discover that super-conservation can happen in both the short term and the long term.

  11. Development of parallellized higher-order generalized depletion perturbation theory for application in equilibrium cycle optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geemert, R. van E-mail: rene.vangeemert@psi.ch; Hoogenboom, J.E. E-mail: j.e.hoogenboom@iri.tudelft.nl

    2001-09-01

    As nuclear fuel economy is basically a multi-cycle issue, a fair way of evaluating reload patterns is to consider their performance in the case of an equilibrium cycle. The equilibrium cycle associated with a reload pattern is defined as the limit fuel cycle that eventually emerges after multiple successive periodic refueling, each time implementing the same reload scheme. Since the equilibrium cycle is the solution of a reload operation invariance equation, it can in principle be found with sufficient accuracy only by applying an iterative procedure, simulating the emergence of the limit cycle. For a design purpose such as the optimization of reload patterns, in which many different equilibrium cycle perturbations (resulting from many different limited changes in the reload operator) must be evaluated, this requires far too much computational effort. However, for very fast calculation of these many different equilibrium cycle perturbations it is also possible to set up a generalized variational approach. This approach results in an iterative scheme that yields the exact perturbation in the equilibrium cycle solution as well, in an accelerated way. Furthermore, both the solution of the adjoint equations occurring in the perturbation theory formalism and the implementation of the optimization algorithm have been parallellized and executed on a massively parallel machine. The combination of parallellism and generalized perturbation theory offers the opportunity to perform very exhaustive, fast and accurate sampling of the solution space for the equilibrium cycle reload pattern optimization problem.

  12. CHI: A General Agent Communication Framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldsmith, S.Y.; Phillips, L.R.; Spires, S.V.

    1998-12-17

    We have completed and exercised a communication framework called CHI (CLOS to HTML Interface) by which agents can communicate with humans. CHI follows HTTP (HyperText Transfer Protocol) and produces HTML (HyperText Markup Language) for use by WWW (World-Wide Web) browsers. CHI enables the rapid and dynamic construction of interface mechanisms. The essence of CHI is automatic registration of dynamically generated interface elements to named objects in the agent's internal environment. The agent can access information in these objects at will. State is preserved, so an agent can pursue branching interaction sequences, activate failure recovery behaviors, and otherwise act opportunistically to maintain a conversation. The CHI mechanism remains transparent in multi-agent, multi-user environments because of automatically generated unique identifiers built into the CHI mechanism. In this paper we discuss design, language, implementation, and extension issues, and, by way of illustration, examine the use of the general CHI/HCHI mechanism in a specific international electronic commerce system. We conclude that the CHI mechanism is an effective, efficient, and extensible means of the agent/human communication.

  13. A general theory of non-equilibrium dynamics of lipid-protein fluid membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lomholt, Michael Andersen; Hansen, Per Lyngs; Miao, L.

    2005-01-01

    We present a general and systematic theory of non-equilibrium dynamics of multi-component fluid membranes, in general, and membranes containing transmembrane proteins, in particular. Developed based on a minimal number of principles of statistical physics and designed to be a meso...

  14. The Extended Generalized Cost Concept and its Application in Freight Transport and General Equilibrium Modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tavasszy, L.; Davydenko, I.; Ruijgrok, K.

    2009-01-01

    The integration of Spatial Equilibrium models and Freight transport network models is important to produce consistent scenarios for future freight transport demand. At various spatial scales, we see the changes in production, trade, logistics networking and transportation, being driven by

  15. Computable general equilibrium modelling in the context of trade and environmental policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koesler, Simon Tobias

    2014-10-14

    This thesis is dedicated to the evaluation of environmental policies in the context of climate change. Its objectives are twofold. Its first part is devoted to the development of potent instruments for quantitative impact analysis of environmental policy. In this context, the main contributions include the development of a new computable general equilibrium (CGE) model which makes use of the new comprehensive and coherent World Input-Output Dataset (WIOD) and which features a detailed representation of bilateral and bisectoral trade flows. Moreover it features an investigation of input substitutability to provide modellers with adequate estimates for key elasticities as well as a discussion and amelioration of the standard base year calibration procedure of most CGE models. Building on these tools, the second part applies the improved modelling framework and studies the economic implications of environmental policy. This includes an analysis of so called rebound effects, which are triggered by energy efficiency improvements and reduce their net benefit, an investigation of how firms restructure their production processes in the presence of carbon pricing mechanisms, and an analysis of a regional maritime emission trading scheme as one of the possible options to reduce emissions of international shipping in the EU context.

  16. Environmental impacts of coal subsidies in Turkey: A general equilibrium analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acar, Sevil; Yeldan, A. Erinc

    2016-01-01

    In this study we aim at providing an analytical framework for Turkey to study the macroeconomics and environmental impacts of the existing coal subsidization scheme. To this end we develop a regionally differentiated applied general equilibrium model spanning over 2015–2030. Our analytical apparatus focuses exclusively on the fiscal implications as well as the environmental repercussions of the removal of the subsidies on greenhouse gas emissions. With the aid of a set of alternative policy scenarios against a “business as usual” path, we study the regional and sectorial performances of growth, employment, investment and capital accumulation, consumption/welfare and trade balance. Our results indicate that by simple elimination of the coal subsidization scheme, Turkey can reduce its aggregate gaseous emissions by as much as 5% without a significant loss in its GDP. - Highlights: • Turkey supports the coal sector providing both production and investment subsidies. • Eliminating production subsidies leads to a 2.5% decline in total CO2(eq) by 2030. • Additionally, removal of regional investment subsidies reduces CO2(eq) by 5.4%. • The macro-effects of both scenarios are found to be quite small. • Coal subsidies could be transferred to the financing of green policy alternatives.

  17. Computable general equilibrium modelling in the context of trade and environmental policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koesler, Simon Tobias

    2014-01-01

    This thesis is dedicated to the evaluation of environmental policies in the context of climate change. Its objectives are twofold. Its first part is devoted to the development of potent instruments for quantitative impact analysis of environmental policy. In this context, the main contributions include the development of a new computable general equilibrium (CGE) model which makes use of the new comprehensive and coherent World Input-Output Dataset (WIOD) and which features a detailed representation of bilateral and bisectoral trade flows. Moreover it features an investigation of input substitutability to provide modellers with adequate estimates for key elasticities as well as a discussion and amelioration of the standard base year calibration procedure of most CGE models. Building on these tools, the second part applies the improved modelling framework and studies the economic implications of environmental policy. This includes an analysis of so called rebound effects, which are triggered by energy efficiency improvements and reduce their net benefit, an investigation of how firms restructure their production processes in the presence of carbon pricing mechanisms, and an analysis of a regional maritime emission trading scheme as one of the possible options to reduce emissions of international shipping in the EU context.

  18. Essays on environmental policy analysis: Computable general equilibrium approaches applied to Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, M.

    2001-01-01

    This thesis consists of three essays within the field of applied environmental economics, with the common basic aim of analyzing effects of Swedish environmental policy. Starting out from Swedish environmental goals, the thesis assesses a range of policy-related questions. The objective is to quantify policy outcomes by constructing and applying numerical models especially designed for environmental policy analysis. Static and dynamic multi-sectoral computable general equilibrium models are developed in order to analyze the following issues. The costs and benefits of a domestic carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) tax reform. Special attention is given to how these costs and benefits depend on the structure of the tax system and, furthermore, how they depend on policy-induced changes in 'secondary' pollutants. The effects of allowing for emission permit trading through time when the domestic long-term domestic environmental goal is specified in CO 2 stock terms. The effects on long-term projected economic growth and welfare that are due to damages from emission flow and accumulation of 'local' pollutants (nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide), as well as the outcome of environmental policy when costs and benefits are considered in an integrated environmental-economic framework

  19. Independent control of joint stiffness in the framework of the equilibrium-point hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latash, M L

    1992-01-01

    In the framework of the equilibrium-point hypothesis, virtual trajectories and joint stiffness patterns have been reconstructed during two motor tasks practiced against a constant bias torque. One task required a voluntary increase in joint stiffness while preserving the original joint position. The other task involved fast elbow flexions over 36 degrees. Joint stiffness gradually subsided after the termination of fast movements. In both tasks, the external torque could slowly and unexpectedly change. The subjects were required not to change their motor commands if the torque changed, i.e. "to do the same no matter what the motor did". In both tasks, changes in joint stiffness were accompanied by unchanged virtual trajectories that were also independent of the absolute value of the bias torque. By contrast, the intercept of the joint compliant characteristic with the angle axis, r(t)-function, has demonstrated a clear dependence upon both the level of coactivation and external load. We assume that a template virtual trajectory is generated at a certain level of the motor hierarchy and is later scaled taking into account some commonly changing dynamic factors of the movement execution, for example, external load. The scaling leads to the generation of commands to the segmental structures that can be expressed, according to the equilibrium-point hypothesis, as changes in the thresholds of the tonic stretch reflex for corresponding muscles.

  20. Frictions, Persistence, and Central Bank Policy in an Experimental Dynamic Stochastic General Equilibrium Economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noussair, C.N.; Pfajfar, D.; Zsiros, J.

    2011-01-01

    New Keynesian dynamic stochastic general equilibrium models are the principal paradigm currently employed for central bank policymaking. In this paper, we construct experimental economies, populated with human subjects, with the structure of a New Keynesian DSGE model. We give individuals monetary

  1. Energy taxes and wages in a general equilibrium model of production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, H.

    2000-01-01

    Energy taxes are responsible for a good deal of observed differences in energy prices across states and countries. They alter patterns of production and income distribution. The present paper examines the potential of energy taxes to lower wages in a general equilibrium model of production with capital, labour and energy inputs. (Author)

  2. Regional disaster impact analysis: comparing Input-Output and Computable General Equilibrium models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koks, E.E.; Carrera, L.; Jonkeren, O.; Aerts, J.C.J.H.; Husby, T.G.; Thissen, M.; Standardi, G.; Mysiak, J.

    2016-01-01

    A variety of models have been applied to assess the economic losses of disasters, of which the most common ones are input-output (IO) and computable general equilibrium (CGE) models. In addition, an increasing number of scholars have developed hybrid approaches: one that combines both or either of

  3. Performing an Environmental Tax Reform in a regional Economy. A Computable General Equilibrium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andre, F.J.; Cardenete, M.A.; Velazquez, E.

    2003-01-01

    We use a Computable General Equilibrium model to simulate the effects of an Environmental Tax Reform in a regional economy (Andalusia, Spain).The reform involves imposing a tax on CO2 or SO2 emissions and reducing either the Income Tax or the payroll tax of employers to Social Security, and

  4. A general equilibrium model of ecosystem services in a river basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travis Warziniack

    2014-01-01

    This study builds a general equilibrium model of ecosystem services, with sectors of the economy competing for use of the environment. The model recognizes that production processes in the real world require a combination of natural and human inputs, and understanding the value of these inputs and their competing uses is necessary when considering policies of resource...

  5. Pension Fund Restoration Policy in General Equilibrium : Tinbergen Institute MPhil Thesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kastelein, P.

    2016-01-01

    This paper quantifies the business cycle effects and distributional implications of pension fund restoration policy after the economy has been hit by a financial shock. We extend a canonical New-Keynesian dynamic general equilibrium model with a tractable demographic structure and a pension fund.

  6. Measurement of use value and non-use value of environmental quality consistent with general equilibrium approach

    OpenAIRE

    Naoki Sakamoto; Kazunori Nakajima

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes the consistent method with general equilibrium models to measure use value and non-use value of large-scale change in environmental quality. First, we develop a general equilibrium model that parameters of the utility function with environmental quality as a dependent variable can be estimated on the basis of the travel cost method and the contingent variation method. Second, we examine to identify the general equilibrium impact of environmental quality by a comparative st...

  7. Global impacts of U.S. bioenergy production and policy: A general equilibrium perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Samuel Garner

    The conversion of biomass to energy represents a promising pathway forward in efforts to reduce fossil fuel use in the transportation and electricity sectors. In addition to potential benefits, such as greenhouse gas reductions and increased energy security, bioenergy production also presents a unique set of challenges. These challenges include tradeoffs between food and fuel production, distortions in energy markets, and terrestrial emissions associated with changing land-use patterns. Each of these challenges arises from market-mediated responses to bioenergy production, and are therefore largely economic in nature. This dissertation directly addresses these opportunities and challenges by evaluating the economic impacts of U.S. bioenergy production and policy, focusing on both existing and future biomass-to-energy pathways. The analysis approaches the issue from a global, economy-wide perspective, reflecting two important facts. First, that large-scale bioenergy production connects multiple sectors of the economy due to the use of agricultural land resources for biomass production, and competition with fossil fuels in energy markets. Second, markets for both agricultural and energy commodities are highly integrated globally, causing domestic policies to have international effects. The reader can think of this work as being comprised of three parts. Part I provides context through an extensive review of the literature on the market-mediated effects of conventional biofuel production (Chapter 2) and develops a general equilibrium modeling framework for assessing the extent to which these phenomenon present a challenge for future bioenergy pathways (Chapter 3). Part II (Chapter 4) explores the economic impacts of the lignocellulosic biofuel production targets set in the U.S. Renewable Fuel Standard on global agricultural and energy commodity markets. Part III (Chapter 5) extends the analysis to consider potential inefficiencies associated with policy

  8. Modeling the economic costs of disasters and recovery: analysis using a dynamic computable general equilibrium model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, W.; Li, N.; Wu, J.-D.; Hao, X.-L.

    2014-04-01

    Disaster damages have negative effects on the economy, whereas reconstruction investment has positive effects. The aim of this study is to model economic causes of disasters and recovery involving the positive effects of reconstruction activities. Computable general equilibrium (CGE) model is a promising approach because it can incorporate these two kinds of shocks into a unified framework and furthermore avoid the double-counting problem. In order to factor both shocks into the CGE model, direct loss is set as the amount of capital stock reduced on the supply side of the economy; a portion of investments restores the capital stock in an existing period; an investment-driven dynamic model is formulated according to available reconstruction data, and the rest of a given country's saving is set as an endogenous variable to balance the fixed investment. The 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake is selected as a case study to illustrate the model, and three scenarios are constructed: S0 (no disaster occurs), S1 (disaster occurs with reconstruction investment) and S2 (disaster occurs without reconstruction investment). S0 is taken as business as usual, and the differences between S1 and S0 and that between S2 and S0 can be interpreted as economic losses including reconstruction and excluding reconstruction, respectively. The study showed that output from S1 is found to be closer to real data than that from S2. Economic loss under S2 is roughly 1.5 times that under S1. The gap in the economic aggregate between S1 and S0 is reduced to 3% at the end of government-led reconstruction activity, a level that should take another four years to achieve under S2.

  9. Carbon Taxes and Joint Implementation. An Applied General Equilibrium Analysis for Germany and India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehringer, C.; Loeschel, A. [Centre for European Economic Research ZEW, Mannheim (Germany); Conrad, K. [Department of Economics, Mannheim University, Mannheim (Germany)

    2003-01-01

    Germany has committed itself to reducing its carbon emissions by 25% in 2005 as compared to 1990 emission levels. To achieve this goal, the government has recently launched an environmental tax reform which entails a continuous increase in energy taxes in conjunction with a revenue-neutral cut in non-wage labor costs. This policy is supposed to yield a double dividend, reducing both, the problem of global warming and high unemployment rates. In addition to domestic actions, international treaties on climate protection allow for the supplementary use of flexible instruments to exploit cheaper emission reduction possibilities elsewhere. One concrete option for Germany would be to enter joint implementation (JI) with developing countries such as India where Germany pays emission reduction abroad rather than meeting its reduction target solely by domestic action. In this paper, we investigate whether an environmental tax reform cum JI provides employment and overall efficiency gains as compared to an environmental tax reform stand-alone. We address this question in the framework of a large-scale general equilibrium model for Germany and India where Germany may undertake JI with the Indian electricity sector. Our main finding is that JI offsets largely the adverse effects of carbon emission constraints on the German economy. JI significantly lowers the level of carbon taxes and thus reduces the total costs of abatement as well as negative effects on labor demand. In addition, JI triggers direct investment demand for energy efficient power plants produced in Germany. This provides positive employment effects and additional income for Germany. For India, joint implementation equips its electricity industry with scarce capital goods leading to a more efficient power production with lower electricity prices for the economy and substantial welfare gains.

  10. Pre-equilibrium Longitudinal Flow in the IP-Glasma Framework for Pb+Pb Collisions at the LHC

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Scott; Shen, Chun; Fillion-Gourdeau, François; Jeon, Sangyong; Gale, Charles

    2017-08-01

    In this work, we debut a new implementation of IP-Glasma and quantify the pre-equilibrium longitudinal flow in the IP-Glasma framework. The saturation physics based IP-Glasma model naturally provides a non-zero initial longitudinal flow through its pre-equilibrium Yang-Mills evolution. A hybrid IP-Glasma+MUSIC+UrQMD frame-work is employed to test this new implementation against experimental data and to make further predictions about hadronic flow observables in Pb+Pb collisions at 5.02 TeV. Finally, the non-zero pre-equilibrium longitudinal flow of the IP-Glasma model is quantified, and its origin is briefly discussed.

  11. Oil Subsidies and Renewable Energy in Saudi Arabia: A General Equilibrium Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Blazquez, J; Hunt, Lester; Manzano, B

    2017-01-01

    In 2016, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) announced its Vision 2030 strategic plan incorporating major changes to the economic structure of the country, including an intention to deploy 9.5 GW of renewable energy in an effort to reduce the penetration of oil in the electricity generation system. This paper assesses the macroeconomic impact of such changes in the KSA, coupled with reductions in implicit energy subsidies. Based on a dynamic general equilibrium model, our analysis suggests that...

  12. Why Enforcing its UNCAC Commitments Would be Good for Russia: A Computable General Equilibrium Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael P. BARRY

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Russia has ratified the UN Convention Against Corruption but has not successfully enforced it. This paper uses updated GTAP data to reconstruct a computable general equilibrium (CGE model to quantify the macroeconomic effects of corruption in Russia. Corruption is found to cost the Russian economy billions of dollars a year. A conclusion of the paper is that implementing and enforcing the UNCAC would be of significant economic benefit to Russia and its people.

  13. Reforming the Canadian Sales Tax System: A Regional General Equilibrium Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    CHUN-YAN KUO; BOB HAMILTON

    1991-01-01

    The paper develops a regional general equilibrium model of the Canadian economy to analyze the sectoral and regional impacts of the major changes to the Canadian sales tax system. The results indicate that replacing the federal sales tax with the goods and service tax increases real output in Canada in the long run by 1.4 percent. If the provincial sales taxes are also integrated, real output increases by a further 0.8 percent.

  14. Examining Policies to Reduce Homelessness Using a General Equilibrium Model of the Housing Market

    OpenAIRE

    Mansur, Erin; Quigley, John M.; Raphael, Steven; Smolensky, Eugene

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we use a general equilibrium simulation model to assess the potential impacts on homelessness of various housing-market policy interventions. We calibrate the model to the four largest metropolitan areas in California. We explore the welfare con- sequences and the effects on homelessness of three housing-market policy interventions: extending housing vouchers to all low-income households, subsidizing all landlords, and subsidizing those landlords who supply low-income housing. ...

  15. Impacts of climate change for Swiss winter and summer tourism: a general equilibrium analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Thurm, Boris; Vielle, Marc; Vöhringer, Frank

    2017-01-01

    Tourism could be greatly affected by climate change due to its strong dependence on weather. In Switzerland, the sector represents an appreciable share of the economy. Thus, studying climate effects on tourism is necessary for developing adequate adaptation strategies. While most of the studies focused on winter tourism, we investigate the climate change impacts on both winter and summer tourism in Switzerland. Using a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model, we simulate the impacts of tem...

  16. Efficient "Myopic" Asset Pricing in General Equilibrium: A Potential Pitfall in Excess Volatility Tests

    OpenAIRE

    Willem H. Buiter

    1987-01-01

    Excess volatility tests for financial market efficiency maintain the hypothesis of risk-neutrality. This permits the specification of the benchmark efficient market price as the present discounted value of expected future dividends. By departing from the risk-neutrality assumption in a stripped-down version of Lucas's general equilibrium asset pricing model, I show that asset prices determined in a competitive asset market and efficient by construction can nevertheless violate the variance bo...

  17. Discharge Fee Policy Analysis: A Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) Model of Water Resources and Water Environments

    OpenAIRE

    Guohua Fang; Ting Wang; Xinyi Si; Xin Wen; Yu Liu

    2016-01-01

    To alleviate increasingly serious water pollution and shortages in developing countries, various kinds of policies have been implemented by local governments. It is vital to quantify and evaluate the performance and potential economic impacts of these policies. This study develops a Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) model to simulate the regional economic and environmental effects of discharge fees. Firstly, water resources and water environment factors are separated from the input and out...

  18. Analyzing the Effects of Technological Change: A Computable General Equilibrium Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-09-01

    present important simplifying assumptions about the nature of consumer preferences and production possibility sets. If a general equilibrium model...important assumptions are in such areas as consumer preferences , the actions of the government, and the financial structure of the model. Each of these is...back in the future. 4.3.2 Consumer demand Consumer preferences are a second important modeling assumption affecting the results of the study. The PILOT

  19. Domestic Environmental Policy and International Factor Mobility: A General Equilibrium Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Stefan Felder; Reto Schleiniger

    1995-01-01

    This paper studies the conditions under which a green tax reform not only benefits the environment but also enhances the efficiency of the tax system. The focus is on the consequences of international factor mobility for the scope of a double dividend. The investigation of the double-dividend claim is based on a general equilibrium model of a stylised small open economy. The simulations of equal-yield tax reform scenarios indicate that an environmental tax on consumption yields a double divid...

  20. Implications of the Biofuels Boom for the Global Livestock Industry: A Computable General Equilibrium Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Taheripour, Farzad; Hertel, Thomas W.; Tyner, Wallace E.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we offer a general equilibrium analysis of the impacts of US and EU biofuel mandates for the global livestock sector. Our simulation boosts biofuel production in the US and EU from 2006 levels to mandated 2015 levels. We show that mandates will encourage crop production in both biofuel and non biofuel producing regions, while reducing livestock and livestock production in most regions of the world. The non-ruminant industry curtails its production more than other livestock indu...

  1. Assimilation of tourism satellite accounts and applied general equilibrium models to inform tourism policy analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Rossouw, Riaan; Saayman, Melville

    2011-01-01

    Historically, tourism policy analysis in South Africa has posed challenges to accurate measurement. The primary reason for this is that tourism is not designated as an 'industry' in standard economic accounts. This paper therefore demonstrates the relevance and need for applied general equilibrium (AGE) models to be completed and extended through an integration with tourism satellite accounts (TSAs) as a tool for policy makers (especially tourism policy makers) in South Africa. The paper sets...

  2. CO2, energy and economy interactions: A multisectoral, dynamic, computable general equilibrium model for Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yoonyoung

    While vast resources have been invested in the development of computational models for cost-benefit analysis for the "whole world" or for the largest economies (e.g. United States, Japan, Germany), the remainder have been thrown together into one model for the "rest of the world." This study presents a multi-sectoral, dynamic, computable general equilibrium (CGE) model for Korea. This research evaluates the impacts of controlling COsb2 emissions using a multisectoral CGE model. This CGE economy-energy-environment model analyzes and quantifies the interactions between COsb2, energy and economy. This study examines interactions and influences of key environmental policy components: applied economic instruments, emission targets, and environmental tax revenue recycling methods. The most cost-effective economic instrument is the carbon tax. The economic effects discussed include impacts on main macroeconomic variables (in particular, economic growth), sectoral production, and the energy market. This study considers several aspects of various COsb2 control policies, such as the basic variables in the economy: capital stock and net foreign debt. The results indicate emissions might be stabilized in Korea at the expense of economic growth and with dramatic sectoral allocation effects. Carbon dioxide emissions stabilization could be achieved to the tune of a 600 trillion won loss over a 20 year period (1990-2010). The average annual real GDP would decrease by 2.10% over the simulation period compared to the 5.87% increase in the Business-as-Usual. This model satisfies an immediate need for a policy simulation model for Korea and provides the basic framework for similar economies. It is critical to keep the central economic question at the forefront of any discussion regarding environmental protection. How much will reform cost, and what does the economy stand to gain and lose? Without this model, the policy makers might resort to hesitation or even blind speculation. With

  3. General description of the national regulatory framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basurto C, J.

    2008-12-01

    Of the six existing hierarchy in the Mexican legal system, the first five of the Constitution of the Mexican Official Norms have a binding character, containing mandatory requirements to meet, while the sixth is not binding. The articles that have nuclear subject in the Mexican Constitution are 25, 27 and 28. At the same hierarchical level as the Constitution is the international treaties signed and ratified by our country, such as for example the Nuclear Safety Convention or the Convention on the Nuclear Materials Physical Protection. For the treaties negotiation process consists of a text adoption, the authentication which implies the final content signature and unalterable, the Senate approval and the consent submission, which implies the ratification and publication in the Federation Official Gazette. In the case of Mexican laws your proposition process includes an initiative, the analysis of the relevant committee, the discussion, approval, sanction, and with it the publication of the initiation force. The road can become very convoluted because some steps are recurrent, returning to the same level several times. Regulations whose purpose is to clarify, develop or explain the general principles contained in the laws that relate to more obtainable your application are subject to a similarly complicated process. First we developed a preliminary draft by the competent authority subject to revision and opinion of the respective institutions prior to submission to the Federal Executive. The final document is submitted to the latter project, which must be approved by the agencies involved, approved by the Federal Executive and finally published in the Federation Official Gazette, from which it launched its application. (Author)

  4. General equilibrium second-order hydrodynamic coefficients for free quantum fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzzegoli, M.; Grossi, E.; Becattini, F.

    2017-10-01

    We present a systematic calculation of the corrections of the stress-energy tensor and currents of the free boson and Dirac fields up to second order in thermal vorticity, which is relevant for relativistic hydrodynamics. These corrections are non-dissipative because they survive at general thermodynamic equilibrium with non vanishing mean values of the conserved generators of the Lorentz group, i.e. angular momenta and boosts. Their equilibrium nature makes it possible to express the relevant coefficients by means of correlators of the angular-momentum and boost operators with stress-energy tensor and current, thus making simpler to determine their so-called "Kubo formulae". We show that, at least for free fields, the corrections are of quantum origin and we study several limiting cases and compare our results with previous calculations. We find that the axial current of the free Dirac field receives corrections proportional to the vorticity independently of the anomalous term.

  5. A general maximum entropy framework for thermodynamic variational principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewar, Roderick C.

    2014-01-01

    Minimum free energy principles are familiar in equilibrium thermodynamics, as expressions of the second law. They also appear in statistical mechanics as variational approximation schemes, such as the mean-field and steepest-descent approximations. These well-known minimum free energy principles are here unified and extended to any system analyzable by MaxEnt, including non-equilibrium systems. The MaxEnt Lagrangian associated with a generic MaxEnt distribution p defines a generalized potential Ψ for an arbitrary probability distribution p-hat, such that Ψ is a minimum at (p-hat) = p. Minimization of Ψ with respect to p-hat thus constitutes a generic variational principle, and is equivalent to minimizing the Kullback-Leibler divergence between p-hat and p. Illustrative examples of min–Ψ are given for equilibrium and non-equilibrium systems. An interpretation of changes in Ψ is given in terms of the second law, although min–Ψ itself is an intrinsic variational property of MaxEnt that is distinct from the second law

  6. A general maximum entropy framework for thermodynamic variational principles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dewar, Roderick C., E-mail: roderick.dewar@anu.edu.au [Research School of Biology, The Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia)

    2014-12-05

    Minimum free energy principles are familiar in equilibrium thermodynamics, as expressions of the second law. They also appear in statistical mechanics as variational approximation schemes, such as the mean-field and steepest-descent approximations. These well-known minimum free energy principles are here unified and extended to any system analyzable by MaxEnt, including non-equilibrium systems. The MaxEnt Lagrangian associated with a generic MaxEnt distribution p defines a generalized potential Ψ for an arbitrary probability distribution p-hat, such that Ψ is a minimum at (p-hat) = p. Minimization of Ψ with respect to p-hat thus constitutes a generic variational principle, and is equivalent to minimizing the Kullback-Leibler divergence between p-hat and p. Illustrative examples of min–Ψ are given for equilibrium and non-equilibrium systems. An interpretation of changes in Ψ is given in terms of the second law, although min–Ψ itself is an intrinsic variational property of MaxEnt that is distinct from the second law.

  7. The Analysis of Pricing Power of Preponderant Metal Mineral Resources under the Perspective of Intergenerational Equity and Social Preferences: An Analytical Framework Based on Cournot Equilibrium Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meirui Zhong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper combines intergenerational equity equilibrium and social preferences equilibrium with Cournot equilibrium solving the technological problem of intergenerational equity and strategic value compensation confirmation, achieving the effective combination between sustainable development concept and value evaluation, thinking and expanding the theoretical framework for the lack of pricing power of mineral resources. The conclusion of the theoretical model and the numerical simulation shows that intergenerational equity equilibrium and social preferences equilibrium enhance international trade market power of preponderant metal mineral resources owing to the production of intergenerational equity compensation value and strategic value. However, the impact exerted on Cournot market power by social preferences is inconsistent: that is, changes of altruistic Cournot equilibrium and reciprocal inequity Cournot equilibrium are consistent, while inequity aversion Cournot equilibrium has the characteristic of loss aversion, namely, under the consideration of inequity aversion Cournot competition, Counot-Nash equilibrium transforms monotonically with sympathy and jealousy of inequity aversion.

  8. Non-equilibrium reactive flux: A unified framework for slow and fast reaction kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Amartya; Makri, Nancy

    2017-10-21

    The flux formulation of reaction rate theory is recast in terms of the expectation value of the reactive flux with an initial condition that corresponds to a non-equilibrium, factorized reactant density. In the common case of slow reactive processes, the non-equilibrium expression reaches the plateau regime only slightly slower than the equilibrium flux form. When the reactants are described by a single quantum state, as in the case of electron transfer reactions, the factorized reactant density describes the true initial condition of the reactive process. In such cases, the time integral of the non-equilibrium flux expression yields the reactant population as a function of time, allowing characterization of the dynamics in cases where there is no clear separation of time scales and thus a plateau regime cannot be identified. The non-equilibrium flux offers a unified approach to the kinetics of slow and fast chemical reactions and is ideally suited to mixed quantum-classical methods.

  9. General framework for fluctuating dynamic density functional theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durán-Olivencia, Miguel A.; Yatsyshin, Peter; Goddard, Benjamin D.; Kalliadasis, Serafim

    2017-12-01

    We introduce a versatile bottom-up derivation of a formal theoretical framework to describe (passive) soft-matter systems out of equilibrium subject to fluctuations. We provide a unique connection between the constituent-particle dynamics of real systems and the time evolution equation of their measurable (coarse-grained) quantities, such as local density and velocity. The starting point is the full Hamiltonian description of a system of colloidal particles immersed in a fluid of identical bath particles. Then, we average out the bath via Zwanzig’s projection-operator techniques and obtain the stochastic Langevin equations governing the colloidal-particle dynamics. Introducing the appropriate definition of the local number and momentum density fields yields a generalisation of the Dean-Kawasaki (DK) model, which resembles the stochastic Navier-Stokes description of a fluid. Nevertheless, the DK equation still contains all the microscopic information and, for that reason, does not represent the dynamical law of observable quantities. We address this controversial feature of the DK description by carrying out a nonequilibrium ensemble average. Adopting a natural decomposition into local-equilibrium and nonequilibrium contribution, where the former is related to a generalised version of the canonical distribution, we finally obtain the fluctuating-hydrodynamic equation governing the time-evolution of the mesoscopic density and momentum fields. Along the way, we outline the connection between the ad hoc energy functional introduced in previous DK derivations and the free-energy functional from classical density-functional theory. The resultant equation has the structure of a dynamical density-functional theory (DDFT) with an additional fluctuating force coming from the random interactions with the bath. We show that our fluctuating DDFT formalism corresponds to a particular version of the fluctuating Navier-Stokes equations, originally derived by Landau and Lifshitz

  10. Marginal abatement cost curves in general equilibrium: The influence of world energy prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klepper, Gernot; Peterson, Sonja

    2006-01-01

    Marginal abatement cost curves (MACCs) are a favorite instrument to analyze international emissions trading. This paper focuses on the question of how to define MACCs in a general equilibrium context where the global abatement level influences energy prices and in turn national MACCs. We discuss the mechanisms theoretically and then use the CGE model DART for quantitative simulations. The result is, that changes in energy prices resulting from different global abatement levels do indeed affect national MACCs. Also, we compare different possibilities of defining MACCs-of which some are robust against changes in energy prices while others vary considerably. (author)

  11. Economic effects of a carbon tax: with a general equilibrium illustration for Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proost, S.; Regemorter, D. Van

    1992-01-01

    The feasibility and efficiency arguments of an international and a national carbon tax are analysed. It is argued that an internationally organized carbon tax can be a good instrument for implementing an international CO 2 abatement strategy. Less efficient instruments like national CO 2 reduction emission objectives are more likely to be implemented. A national carbon tax is analysed as a policy instrument to reach such an internationally agreed national CO 2 emission reduction objective. This is done for Belgium using a dynamic general equilibrium model. (author)

  12. Stabilization of emission of CO2: A computable general equilibrium assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glomsroed, S.; Vennemo, H.; Johnsen, T.

    1992-01-01

    A multisector computable general equilibrium model is used to study economic development perspectives in Norway if CO 2 emissions were stabilized. The effects discussed include impacts on main macroeconomic indicators and economic growth, sectoral allocation of production, and effects on the market for energy. The impact of other pollutants than CO 2 on emissions is assessed along with the related impact on noneconomic welfare. The results indicate that CO 2 emissions might be stabilized in Norway without dramatically reducing economic growth. Sectoral allocation effects are much larger. A substantial reduction in emissions to air other than CO 2 is found, yielding considerable gains in noneconomic welfare. 25 refs., 6 tabs., 2 figs

  13. Entropy Production and Equilibrium Conditions of General-Covariant Spin Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Muschik

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In generalizing the special-relativistic one-component version of Eckart’s continuum thermodynamics to general-relativistic space-times with Riemannian or post-Riemannian geometry as presented by Schouten (Schouten, J.A. Ricci-Calculus, 1954 and Blagojevic (Blagojevic, M. Gauge Theories of Gravitation, 2013 we consider the entropy production and other thermodynamical quantities, such as the entropy flux and the Gibbs fundamental equation. We discuss equilibrium conditions in gravitational theories, which are based on such geometries. In particular, thermodynamic implications of the non-symmetry of the energy-momentum tensor and the related spin balance equations are investigated, also for the special case of general relativity.

  14. A dynamic general equilibrium analysis on fostering a hydrogen economy in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, Jeong Hwan; Cho, Gyeong-Lyeob

    2010-01-01

    Hydrogen is anticipated to become one of the major alternative energy technologies for a sustainable energy system. This study analyzes the dynamic economic impacts of building a hydrogen economy in Korea employing a dynamic Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) model. As a frontier technology, hydrogen is featured as having a slow diffusion rate due to option value, positive externality, resistance of old technology, and complementary vintages. Without government intervention, hydrogen-derived energy will supply up to 6.5% of final energy demand by 2040. Simulation outcomes show that as price subsidy rates increase by 10%, 20%, and 30%, hydrogen demand will increase by 9.2%, 15.2%, and 37.7%, respectively, of final energy demand by 2040. The output of the transportation sector will increase significantly, while demands for oil and electricity will decline. Demands for coal and LNG will experience little change. Household consumption will decline because of the increase of income taxes. Overall GDP will increase because of the increase in exports and investments. CO 2 emission will decline for medium and high subsidy rate cases, but increase for low subsidy cases. Ultimately, subsidy policy on hydrogen will not be an effective measure for mitigating CO 2 emission in Korea when considering dynamic general equilibrium effects. (author)

  15. Energy, economy and equity interactions in a CGE [Computable General Equilibrium] model for Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naqvi, Farzana

    1997-01-01

    In the last three decades, Computable General Equilibrium modelling has emerged as an established field of applied economics. This book presents a CGE model developed for Pakistan with the hope that it will lay down a foundation for application of general equilibrium modelling for policy formation in Pakistan. As the country is being driven swiftly to become an open market economy, it becomes vital to found out the policy measures that can foster the objectives of economic planning, such as social equity, with the minimum loss of the efficiency gains from the open market resource allocations. It is not possible to build a model for practical use that can do justice to all sectors of the economy in modelling of their peculiar features. The CGE model developed in this book focuses on the energy sector. Energy is considered as one of the basic needs and an essential input to economic growth. Hence, energy policy has multiple criteria to meet. In this book, a case study has been carried out to analyse energy pricing policy in Pakistan using this CGE model of energy, economy and equity interactions. Hence, the book also demonstrates how researchers can model the fine details of one sector given the core structure of a CGE model. (UK)

  16. A general modeling framework for describing spatially structured population dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sample, Christine; Fryxell, John; Bieri, Joanna; Federico, Paula; Earl, Julia; Wiederholt, Ruscena; Mattsson, Brady; Flockhart, Tyler; Nicol, Sam; Diffendorfer, James E.; Thogmartin, Wayne E.; Erickson, Richard A.; Norris, D. Ryan

    2017-01-01

    Variation in movement across time and space fundamentally shapes the abundance and distribution of populations. Although a variety of approaches model structured population dynamics, they are limited to specific types of spatially structured populations and lack a unifying framework. Here, we propose a unified network-based framework sufficiently novel in its flexibility to capture a wide variety of spatiotemporal processes including metapopulations and a range of migratory patterns. It can accommodate different kinds of age structures, forms of population growth, dispersal, nomadism and migration, and alternative life-history strategies. Our objective was to link three general elements common to all spatially structured populations (space, time and movement) under a single mathematical framework. To do this, we adopt a network modeling approach. The spatial structure of a population is represented by a weighted and directed network. Each node and each edge has a set of attributes which vary through time. The dynamics of our network-based population is modeled with discrete time steps. Using both theoretical and real-world examples, we show how common elements recur across species with disparate movement strategies and how they can be combined under a unified mathematical framework. We illustrate how metapopulations, various migratory patterns, and nomadism can be represented with this modeling approach. We also apply our network-based framework to four organisms spanning a wide range of life histories, movement patterns, and carrying capacities. General computer code to implement our framework is provided, which can be applied to almost any spatially structured population. This framework contributes to our theoretical understanding of population dynamics and has practical management applications, including understanding the impact of perturbations on population size, distribution, and movement patterns. By working within a common framework, there is less chance

  17. THE GENERALIZED MAXIMUM LIKELIHOOD METHOD APPLIED TO HIGH PRESSURE PHASE EQUILIBRIUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcio CARDOZO-FILHO

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available The generalized maximum likelihood method was used to determine binary interaction parameters between carbon dioxide and components of orange essential oil. Vapor-liquid equilibrium was modeled with Peng-Robinson and Soave-Redlich-Kwong equations, using a methodology proposed in 1979 by Asselineau, Bogdanic and Vidal. Experimental vapor-liquid equilibrium data on binary mixtures formed with carbon dioxide and compounds usually found in orange essential oil were used to test the model. These systems were chosen to demonstrate that the maximum likelihood method produces binary interaction parameters for cubic equations of state capable of satisfactorily describing phase equilibrium, even for a binary such as ethanol/CO2. Results corroborate that the Peng-Robinson, as well as the Soave-Redlich-Kwong, equation can be used to describe phase equilibrium for the following systems: components of essential oil of orange/CO2.Foi empregado o método da máxima verossimilhança generalizado para determinação de parâmetros de interação binária entre os componentes do óleo essencial de laranja e dióxido de carbono. Foram usados dados experimentais de equilíbrio líquido-vapor de misturas binárias de dióxido de carbono e componentes do óleo essencial de laranja. O equilíbrio líquido-vapor foi modelado com as equações de Peng-Robinson e de Soave-Redlich-Kwong usando a metodologia proposta em 1979 por Asselineau, Bogdanic e Vidal. A escolha destes sistemas teve como objetivo demonstrar que o método da máxima verosimilhança produz parâmetros de interação binária, para equações cúbicas de estado capazes de descrever satisfatoriamente até mesmo o equilíbrio para o binário etanol/CO2. Os resultados comprovam que tanto a equação de Peng-Robinson quanto a de Soave-Redlich-Kwong podem ser empregadas para descrever o equilíbrio de fases para o sistemas: componentes do óleo essencial de laranja/CO2.

  18. General multi-group macroscopic modeling for thermo-chemical non-equilibrium gas mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yen, E-mail: yen.liu@nasa.gov; Vinokur, Marcel [NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California 94035 (United States); Panesi, Marco; Sahai, Amal [University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, Illinois 61801 (United States)

    2015-04-07

    This paper opens a new door to macroscopic modeling for thermal and chemical non-equilibrium. In a game-changing approach, we discard conventional theories and practices stemming from the separation of internal energy modes and the Landau-Teller relaxation equation. Instead, we solve the fundamental microscopic equations in their moment forms but seek only optimum representations for the microscopic state distribution function that provides converged and time accurate solutions for certain macroscopic quantities at all times. The modeling makes no ad hoc assumptions or simplifications at the microscopic level and includes all possible collisional and radiative processes; it therefore retains all non-equilibrium fluid physics. We formulate the thermal and chemical non-equilibrium macroscopic equations and rate coefficients in a coupled and unified fashion for gases undergoing completely general transitions. All collisional partners can have internal structures and can change their internal energy states after transitions. The model is based on the reconstruction of the state distribution function. The internal energy space is subdivided into multiple groups in order to better describe non-equilibrium state distributions. The logarithm of the distribution function in each group is expressed as a power series in internal energy based on the maximum entropy principle. The method of weighted residuals is applied to the microscopic equations to obtain macroscopic moment equations and rate coefficients succinctly to any order. The model’s accuracy depends only on the assumed expression of the state distribution function and the number of groups used and can be self-checked for accuracy and convergence. We show that the macroscopic internal energy transfer, similar to mass and momentum transfers, occurs through nonlinear collisional processes and is not a simple relaxation process described by, e.g., the Landau-Teller equation. Unlike the classical vibrational energy

  19. General multi-group macroscopic modeling for thermo-chemical non-equilibrium gas mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yen; Panesi, Marco; Sahai, Amal; Vinokur, Marcel

    2015-04-01

    This paper opens a new door to macroscopic modeling for thermal and chemical non-equilibrium. In a game-changing approach, we discard conventional theories and practices stemming from the separation of internal energy modes and the Landau-Teller relaxation equation. Instead, we solve the fundamental microscopic equations in their moment forms but seek only optimum representations for the microscopic state distribution function that provides converged and time accurate solutions for certain macroscopic quantities at all times. The modeling makes no ad hoc assumptions or simplifications at the microscopic level and includes all possible collisional and radiative processes; it therefore retains all non-equilibrium fluid physics. We formulate the thermal and chemical non-equilibrium macroscopic equations and rate coefficients in a coupled and unified fashion for gases undergoing completely general transitions. All collisional partners can have internal structures and can change their internal energy states after transitions. The model is based on the reconstruction of the state distribution function. The internal energy space is subdivided into multiple groups in order to better describe non-equilibrium state distributions. The logarithm of the distribution function in each group is expressed as a power series in internal energy based on the maximum entropy principle. The method of weighted residuals is applied to the microscopic equations to obtain macroscopic moment equations and rate coefficients succinctly to any order. The model's accuracy depends only on the assumed expression of the state distribution function and the number of groups used and can be self-checked for accuracy and convergence. We show that the macroscopic internal energy transfer, similar to mass and momentum transfers, occurs through nonlinear collisional processes and is not a simple relaxation process described by, e.g., the Landau-Teller equation. Unlike the classical vibrational energy

  20. General multi-group macroscopic modeling for thermo-chemical non-equilibrium gas mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yen; Panesi, Marco; Sahai, Amal; Vinokur, Marcel

    2015-04-07

    This paper opens a new door to macroscopic modeling for thermal and chemical non-equilibrium. In a game-changing approach, we discard conventional theories and practices stemming from the separation of internal energy modes and the Landau-Teller relaxation equation. Instead, we solve the fundamental microscopic equations in their moment forms but seek only optimum representations for the microscopic state distribution function that provides converged and time accurate solutions for certain macroscopic quantities at all times. The modeling makes no ad hoc assumptions or simplifications at the microscopic level and includes all possible collisional and radiative processes; it therefore retains all non-equilibrium fluid physics. We formulate the thermal and chemical non-equilibrium macroscopic equations and rate coefficients in a coupled and unified fashion for gases undergoing completely general transitions. All collisional partners can have internal structures and can change their internal energy states after transitions. The model is based on the reconstruction of the state distribution function. The internal energy space is subdivided into multiple groups in order to better describe non-equilibrium state distributions. The logarithm of the distribution function in each group is expressed as a power series in internal energy based on the maximum entropy principle. The method of weighted residuals is applied to the microscopic equations to obtain macroscopic moment equations and rate coefficients succinctly to any order. The model's accuracy depends only on the assumed expression of the state distribution function and the number of groups used and can be self-checked for accuracy and convergence. We show that the macroscopic internal energy transfer, similar to mass and momentum transfers, occurs through nonlinear collisional processes and is not a simple relaxation process described by, e.g., the Landau-Teller equation. Unlike the classical vibrational energy

  1. General multi-group macroscopic modeling for thermo-chemical non-equilibrium gas mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yen; Vinokur, Marcel; Panesi, Marco; Sahai, Amal

    2015-01-01

    This paper opens a new door to macroscopic modeling for thermal and chemical non-equilibrium. In a game-changing approach, we discard conventional theories and practices stemming from the separation of internal energy modes and the Landau-Teller relaxation equation. Instead, we solve the fundamental microscopic equations in their moment forms but seek only optimum representations for the microscopic state distribution function that provides converged and time accurate solutions for certain macroscopic quantities at all times. The modeling makes no ad hoc assumptions or simplifications at the microscopic level and includes all possible collisional and radiative processes; it therefore retains all non-equilibrium fluid physics. We formulate the thermal and chemical non-equilibrium macroscopic equations and rate coefficients in a coupled and unified fashion for gases undergoing completely general transitions. All collisional partners can have internal structures and can change their internal energy states after transitions. The model is based on the reconstruction of the state distribution function. The internal energy space is subdivided into multiple groups in order to better describe non-equilibrium state distributions. The logarithm of the distribution function in each group is expressed as a power series in internal energy based on the maximum entropy principle. The method of weighted residuals is applied to the microscopic equations to obtain macroscopic moment equations and rate coefficients succinctly to any order. The model’s accuracy depends only on the assumed expression of the state distribution function and the number of groups used and can be self-checked for accuracy and convergence. We show that the macroscopic internal energy transfer, similar to mass and momentum transfers, occurs through nonlinear collisional processes and is not a simple relaxation process described by, e.g., the Landau-Teller equation. Unlike the classical vibrational energy

  2. Tourism Contribution to Poverty Alleviation in Kenya: A Dynamic Computable General Equilibrium Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njoya, Eric Tchouamou; Seetaram, Neelu

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this article is to investigate the claim that tourism development can be the engine for poverty reduction in Kenya using a dynamic, microsimulation computable general equilibrium model. The article improves on the common practice in the literature by using the more comprehensive Foster-Greer-Thorbecke (FGT) index to measure poverty instead of headcount ratios only. Simulations results from previous studies confirm that expansion of the tourism industry will benefit different sectors unevenly and will only marginally improve poverty headcount. This is mainly due to the contraction of the agricultural sector caused the appreciation of the real exchange rates. This article demonstrates that the effect on poverty gap and poverty severity is, nevertheless, significant for both rural and urban areas with higher impact in the urban areas. Tourism expansion enables poorer households to move closer to the poverty line. It is concluded that the tourism industry is pro-poor. PMID:29595836

  3. Social incidence and economic costs of carbon limits; A computable general equilibrium analysis for Switzerland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephan, G.; Van Nieuwkoop, R.; Wiedmer, T. (Institute for Applied Microeconomics, Univ. of Bern (Switzerland))

    1992-01-01

    Both distributional and allocational effects of limiting carbon dioxide emissions in a small and open economy are discussed. It starts from the assumption that Switzerland attempts to stabilize its greenhouse gas emissions over the next 25 years, and evaluates costs and benefits of the respective reduction programme. From a methodological viewpoint, it is illustrated how a computable general equilibrium approach can be adopted for identifying economic effects of cutting greenhouse gas emissions on the national level. From a political economy point of view it considers the social incidence of a greenhouse policy. It shows in particular that public acceptance can be increased and economic costs of greenhouse policies can be reduced, if carbon taxes are accompanied by revenue redistribution. 8 tabs., 1 app., 17 refs.

  4. Zero-rating food in South Africa: A computable general equilibrium analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Kearney

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Zero-rating food is considered to alleviate poverty of poor households who spend the largest proportion of their income on food.  However, this will result in a loss of revenue for government.  A Computable General Equilibrium (CGE model is used to analyze the combined effects on zero-rating food and using alternative revenue sources to compensate for the loss in revenue.  To prohibit excessively high increases in the statutory VAT rates of business and financial services, increasing direct taxes or increasing VAT to 16 per cent, is investigated.  Increasing direct taxes is the most successful option when creating a more progressive tax structure, and still generating a positive impact on GDP.  The results indicate that zero-rating food combined with a proportional percentage increase in direct taxes can improve the welfare of poor households.

  5. Hurricane Sandy Economic Impacts Assessment: A Computable General Equilibrium Approach and Validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boero, Riccardo [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Edwards, Brian Keith [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2017-08-07

    Economists use computable general equilibrium (CGE) models to assess how economies react and self-organize after changes in policies, technology, and other exogenous shocks. CGE models are equation-based, empirically calibrated, and inspired by Neoclassical economic theory. The focus of this work was to validate the National Infrastructure Simulation and Analysis Center (NISAC) CGE model and apply it to the problem of assessing the economic impacts of severe events. We used the 2012 Hurricane Sandy event as our validation case. In particular, this work first introduces the model and then describes the validation approach and the empirical data available for studying the event of focus. Shocks to the model are then formalized and applied. Finally, model results and limitations are presented and discussed, pointing out both the model degree of accuracy and the assessed total damage caused by Hurricane Sandy.

  6. Emission policies and the Nigerian economy. Simulations from a dynamic applied general equilibrium model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nwaobi, Godwin Chukwudum

    2004-01-01

    Recently, there has been growing concern that human activities may be affecting the global climate through growing atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases (GHG). Such warming could have major impacts on economic activity and society. For the Nigerian case, the study uses multisector dynamic applied general equilibrium model to quantify the economy-wide, distributional and environmental costs of policies to curb GHG emissions. The simulation results indicate effectiveness of carbon tax, tradable permit and backstop technology policies in curbing GHG emissions but with distorted economy-wide income distributional effects. However, the model was found to be sensitive to three key exogenous variable and parameters tested: lower GDP growth rate, changed interfuel substitution elasticity and autonomous energy efficiency factor. Unlike the first test, the last two tests only had improved environmental effect but stable economy wide effect. This then suggest that domestic energy conservation measures could be a second best alternative

  7. National CO2 policy and externalities. Some general equilibrium results for Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felder, Stefan; Schleiniger, Reto

    2002-01-01

    Switzerland, following the Kyoto agreement, plans to reduce CO 2 emissions by 10% over the next decade with a tax on the use of fossil fuels. This policy, while having a marginal effect on global CO 2 emission levels, will have a positive effect on local environmental quality. However, since different sources of energy produce different local external effects, a uniform CO 2 tax is ill targeted. This paper shows that a policy setting tax rates equal to the lower bounds of the estimated local marginal external effects would reduce the national CO 2 level by 30%. Using a computable general equilibrium model of the Swiss economy, it also finds substantial efficiency gains of Pigovian taxes as compared to a uniform CO 2 tax

  8. Assessing economic impacts of China's water pollution mitigation measures through a dynamic computable general equilibrium analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin Changbo; Jia Yangwen; Wang Hao; Bressers, Hans T A; Su, Z

    2011-01-01

    In this letter, we apply an extended environmental dynamic computable general equilibrium model to assess the economic consequences of implementing a total emission control policy. On the basis of emission levels in 2007, we simulate different emission reduction scenarios, ranging from 20 to 50% emission reduction, up to the year 2020. The results indicate that a modest total emission reduction target in 2020 can be achieved at low macroeconomic cost. As the stringency of policy targets increases, the macroeconomic cost will increase at a rate faster than linear. Implementation of a tradable emission permit system can counterbalance the economic costs affecting the gross domestic product and welfare. We also find that a stringent environmental policy can lead to an important shift in production, consumption and trade patterns from dirty sectors to relatively clean sectors.

  9. Tourism Contribution to Poverty Alleviation in Kenya: A Dynamic Computable General Equilibrium Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njoya, Eric Tchouamou; Seetaram, Neelu

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this article is to investigate the claim that tourism development can be the engine for poverty reduction in Kenya using a dynamic, microsimulation computable general equilibrium model. The article improves on the common practice in the literature by using the more comprehensive Foster-Greer-Thorbecke (FGT) index to measure poverty instead of headcount ratios only. Simulations results from previous studies confirm that expansion of the tourism industry will benefit different sectors unevenly and will only marginally improve poverty headcount. This is mainly due to the contraction of the agricultural sector caused the appreciation of the real exchange rates. This article demonstrates that the effect on poverty gap and poverty severity is, nevertheless, significant for both rural and urban areas with higher impact in the urban areas. Tourism expansion enables poorer households to move closer to the poverty line. It is concluded that the tourism industry is pro-poor.

  10. International trade in carbon emission rights and basic materials: General equilibrium calculations for 2020

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perroni, C.; Rutherford, T.F.

    1993-01-01

    Restrictions on CO 2 emissions affect international trade and the pattern of comparative advantage. This paper, based on calculations with a static general equilibrium model, suggests that international trade in carbon rights is a substitute for trade in energy-intensive goods, and thus international trading in carbon rights reduces sectoral effects of emission reductions. In our model, we surprisingly find that free riding by non-signatory countries may not render unilateral action ineffective. If the OECD unilaterally cuts global emissions by 5 per cent from 1990 levels by the year 2020, emission by non-OECD regions increase but offset less than 15 per cent of this cutback. Moreover, carbon taxes depress international oil prices and create incentives for increased trade in natural gas. 14 refs, 7 figs

  11. International trade in oil, gas and carbon emission rights: An intertemporal general equilibrium model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manne, A.S.; Rutherford, T.F.

    1994-01-01

    This paper employs a five-region intertemporal model to examine three issues related to carbon emission restrictions. First, we investigate the possible impact of such limits upon future oil prices. We show that carbon limits are likely to differ in their near- and long-term impact. Second, we analyze the problem of open-quotes leakageclose quotes which could arise if the OECD countries were to adopt unilateral limits upon carbon emissions. Third, we quantify some of the gains from trade in carbon emission rights. Each of these issues have been studied before, but to our knowledge this is the first study based on a multi-regional, forward-looking model. We show that sequential joint maximization can be an effective way to compute equilibria for intertemporal general equilibrium models of international trade. 18 refs., 10 figs

  12. Assessment of information impacts in power system security against malicious attacks in a general framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bompard, E.; Napoli, R.; Xue, F.

    2009-01-01

    In the analysis of power systems security, recently a new concern related to possible malicious attacks caught much attention. Coordination among different transmission system operators (TSO) in an interconnected power system to counteract such attacks has become an important problem. This paper presents a general framework for describing the physical, cyber and decision-making aspects of the problem and their interrelations; within this framework, an analytic tool for the assessment of information impacts in handling on-line security after a malicious attack is proposed and discussed. The model is based on the socially rational multi-agent systems and the equilibrium of a fictitious play is considered to analyze the impacts of various levels of information available to the interconnected system operators on the outcomes of the decision-making process under attack. A 34-buses test system, with 3 systems interconnected by tie-lines, is presented to illustrate the model and compare the impacts of different information scenarios

  13. Assessment of information impacts in power system security against malicious attacks in a general framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bompard, E. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Elettrica, Politecnico di Torino, I-10129 Torino (Italy)], E-mail: ettore.bompard@polito.it; Napoli, R.; Xue, F. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Elettrica, Politecnico di Torino, I-10129 Torino (Italy)

    2009-06-15

    In the analysis of power systems security, recently a new concern related to possible malicious attacks caught much attention. Coordination among different transmission system operators (TSO) in an interconnected power system to counteract such attacks has become an important problem. This paper presents a general framework for describing the physical, cyber and decision-making aspects of the problem and their interrelations; within this framework, an analytic tool for the assessment of information impacts in handling on-line security after a malicious attack is proposed and discussed. The model is based on the socially rational multi-agent systems and the equilibrium of a fictitious play is considered to analyze the impacts of various levels of information available to the interconnected system operators on the outcomes of the decision-making process under attack. A 34-buses test system, with 3 systems interconnected by tie-lines, is presented to illustrate the model and compare the impacts of different information scenarios.

  14. Time-Depending Parametric Variational Approach for an Economic General Equilibrium Problem of Pure Exchange with Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scaramuzzino, F.

    2009-01-01

    This paper considers a qualitative analysis of the solution of a pure exchange general economic equilibrium problem according to two independent parameters. Some recently results obtained by the author in the static and the dynamic case have been collected. Such results have been applied in a particular parametric case: it has been focused the attention on a numerical application for which the existence of the solution of time-depending parametric variational inequality that describes the equilibrium conditions has been proved by means of the direct method. By using MatLab computation after a linear interpolation, the curves of equilibrium have been visualized.

  15. General Equilibrium in a Segmented Market Economy with Convex Transaction Cost: Existence, Efficiency, Commodity and Fiat Money

    OpenAIRE

    Starr, Ross M.

    2002-01-01

    This study derives the monetary structure of transactions, the use of commodity or fiat money, endogenously from transaction costs in a segmented market general equilibrium model. Market segmentation means there are separate budget constraints for each transaction: budgets balance in each transaction separately. Transaction costs imply differing bid and ask (selling and buying) prices. The most liquid instruments are those with the lowest proportionate bid/ask spread in equilibrium. Exist...

  16. Monetary compensations in climate policy through the lens of a general equilibrium assessment: The case of oil-exporting countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waisman, Henri; Rozenberg, Julie; Hourcade, Jean Charles

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the compensations that major oil producers have claimed for since the Kyoto Protocol in order to alleviate the adverse impacts of climate policy on their economies. The amount of these adverse impacts is assessed through a general equilibrium model which endogenizes both the reduction of oil exportation revenues under international climate policy and the macroeconomic effect of carbon pricing on Middle-East's economy. We show that compensating the drop of exportation revenues does not offset GDP and welfare losses because of the time profile of the general equilibrium effects. When considering instead compensation based on GDP losses, the effectiveness of monetary transfers proves to be drastically limited by general equilibrium effects in opened economies. The main channels of this efficiency gap are investigated and its magnitude proves to be conditional upon strategic and policy choices of the Middle-East. This leads us to suggest that other means than direct monetary compensating transfers should be discussed to engage the Middle-East in climate policies. - Highlights: • We endogenize the interplay between climate policy, oil markets and the macroeconomy. • We quantify the transfers to compensate climate policy losses in oil-exporting countries. • We assess the general equilibrium effect of monetary transfers in opened economies. • The macroeconomic efficiency of transfers is altered by general equilibrium effects. • Monetary compensation schemes are not efficient for oil exporters in climate policy

  17. Econometrically calibrated computable general equilibrium models: Applications to the analysis of energy and climate politics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schu, Kathryn L.

    Economy-energy-environment models are the mainstay of economic assessments of policies to reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, yet their empirical basis is often criticized as being weak. This thesis addresses these limitations by constructing econometrically calibrated models in two policy areas. The first is a 35-sector computable general equilibrium (CGE) model of the U.S. economy which analyzes the uncertain impacts of CO2 emission abatement. Econometric modeling of sectors' nested constant elasticity of substitution (CES) cost functions based on a 45-year price-quantity dataset yields estimates of capital-labor-energy-material input substitution elasticities and biases of technical change that are incorporated into the CGE model. I use the estimated standard errors and variance-covariance matrices to construct the joint distribution of the parameters of the economy's supply side, which I sample to perform Monte Carlo baseline and counterfactual runs of the model. The resulting probabilistic abatement cost estimates highlight the importance of the uncertainty in baseline emissions growth. The second model is an equilibrium simulation of the market for new vehicles which I use to assess the response of vehicle prices, sales and mileage to CO2 taxes and increased corporate average fuel economy (CAFE) standards. I specify an econometric model of a representative consumer's vehicle preferences using a nested CES expenditure function which incorporates mileage and other characteristics in addition to prices, and develop a novel calibration algorithm to link this structure to vehicle model supplies by manufacturers engaged in Bertrand competition. CO2 taxes' effects on gasoline prices reduce vehicle sales and manufacturers' profits if vehicles' mileage is fixed, but these losses shrink once mileage can be adjusted. Accelerated CAFE standards induce manufacturers to pay fines for noncompliance rather than incur the higher costs of radical mileage improvements

  18. IAEA Director General Comments on Cooperation Framework with Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    Full text: The following are remarks by the Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency, Yukiya Amano, at a News Conference after he signed a Joint Statement on a Framework for Cooperation with the Islamic Republic of Iran: ''The International Atomic Energy Agency and the Islamic Republic of Iran have just issued the Joint Statement on a Framework for Cooperation. ''Under the Framework, Iran and the IAEA will cooperate further with respect to verification activities to be undertaken by the IAEA to resolve all present and past issues. The practical measures contained in the Annex are substantive measures and will be implemented in three months starting from today. ''This is an important step forward to start with, but much more needs to be done. ''The outstanding issues that are not contained in the Annex to the Framework for Cooperation, including those in my previous reports to the Board of Governors, will be addressed in the subsequent steps under the Framework for Cooperation. ''The IAEA is firmly committed to resolving all outstanding issues through dialogue and cooperation . (IAEA)

  19. General framework and key technologies of national nuclear emergency system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Feng; Li Xudong; Zhu Guangying; Song Yafeng; Zeng Suotian; Shen Lifeng

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear emergency is the important safeguard for the sustainable development of nuclear energy, and is the significant part of national public crisis management. The paper gives the definition of nuclear emergency system explicitly based on the analysis of the characteristics of the nuclear emergency, and through the research of the structure and general framework, the general framework of the national nuclear emergency management system (NNEMS) is obtained, which is constructed in four parts, including one integrative platform, six layers, eight applications and two systems, then the paper indicate that the architecture of national emergency system that should be laid out by three-tiers, i.e. national, provincial and organizations with nuclear facilities, and also describe the functions of the NNEMS on the nuclear emergency's workflow. Finally, the paper discuss the key technology that NNIEMS needed, such as WebGIS, auxiliary decision-making, digitalized preplan and the conformity and usage of resources, and analyze the technical principle in details. (authors)

  20. Uncertain long-run emissions targets, CO{sub 2} price and global energy transition: A general equilibrium approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durand-Lasserve, Olivier, E-mail: olivier.durand@uclouvain.b [Universite Catholique de Louvain (UCL), CORE, Voie du Roman Pays 34, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Pierru, Axel, E-mail: axel.pierru@ifp.f [IFP, Economics Department, 232 Avenue Napoleon Bonaparte, 92852 Rueil-Malmaison (France); Smeers, Yves, E-mail: yves.smeers@uclouvain.ac.b [Universite Catholique de Louvain (UCL), CORE, Voie du Roman Pays 34, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium)

    2010-09-15

    The persistent uncertainty about mid-century CO{sub 2} emissions targets is likely to affect not only the technological choices that energy-producing firms will make in the future but also their current investment decisions. We illustrate this effect on CO{sub 2} price and global energy transition within a MERGE-type general-equilibrium model framework, by considering simple stochastic CO{sub 2} policy scenarios. In these scenarios, economic agents know that credible long-run CO{sub 2} emissions targets will be set in 2020, with two possible outcomes: either a 'hard cap' or a 'soft cap'. Each scenario is characterized by the relative probabilities of both possible caps. We derive consistent stochastic trajectories-with two branches after 2020-for prices and quantities of energy commodities and CO{sub 2} emissions permits. The impact of uncertain long-run CO{sub 2} emissions targets on prices and technological trajectories is discussed. In addition, a simple marginal approach allows us to analyze the Hotelling rule with risk premia observed for certain scenarios.

  1. Uncertain long-run emissions targets, CO{sub 2} price and global energy transition. A general equilibrium approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durand-Lasserve, Olivier; Smeers, Yves [Universite Catholique de Louvain (UCL), CORE, Voie du Roman Pays 34, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Pierru, Axel [IFP, Economics Department, 232 Avenue Napoleon Bonaparte, 92852 Rueil-Malmaison (France)

    2010-09-15

    The persistent uncertainty about mid-century CO{sub 2} emissions targets is likely to affect not only the technological choices that energy-producing firms will make in the future but also their current investment decisions. We illustrate this effect on CO{sub 2} price and global energy transition within a MERGE-type general-equilibrium model framework, by considering simple stochastic CO{sub 2} policy scenarios. In these scenarios, economic agents know that credible long-run CO{sub 2} emissions targets will be set in 2020, with two possible outcomes: either a hard cap or a soft cap. Each scenario is characterized by the relative probabilities of both possible caps. We derive consistent stochastic trajectories - with two branches after 2020 - for prices and quantities of energy commodities and CO{sub 2} emissions permits. The impact of uncertain long-run CO{sub 2} emissions targets on prices and technological trajectories is discussed. In addition, a simple marginal approach allows us to analyze the Hotelling rule with risk premia observed for certain scenarios. (author)

  2. Uncertain long-run emissions targets, CO2 price and global energy transition. A general equilibrium approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durand-Lasserve, Olivier; Smeers, Yves; Pierru, Axel

    2010-01-01

    The persistent uncertainty about mid-century CO 2 emissions targets is likely to affect not only the technological choices that energy-producing firms will make in the future but also their current investment decisions. We illustrate this effect on CO 2 price and global energy transition within a MERGE-type general-equilibrium model framework, by considering simple stochastic CO 2 policy scenarios. In these scenarios, economic agents know that credible long-run CO 2 emissions targets will be set in 2020, with two possible outcomes: either a hard cap or a soft cap. Each scenario is characterized by the relative probabilities of both possible caps. We derive consistent stochastic trajectories - with two branches after 2020 - for prices and quantities of energy commodities and CO 2 emissions permits. The impact of uncertain long-run CO 2 emissions targets on prices and technological trajectories is discussed. In addition, a simple marginal approach allows us to analyze the Hotelling rule with risk premia observed for certain scenarios. (author)

  3. A general framework for performance guaranteed green data center networking

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Ting; Xia, Yu; Muppala, Jogesh; Hamdi, Mounir; Foufou, Sebti

    2014-01-01

    From the perspective of resource allocation and routing, this paper aims to save as much energy as possible in data center networks. We present a general framework, based on the blocking island paradigm, to try to maximize the network power conservation and minimize sacrifices of network performance and reliability. The bandwidth allocation mechanism together with power-aware routing algorithm achieve a bandwidth guaranteed tighter network. Besides, our fast efficient heuristics for allocatin...

  4. Deflected Mirage Mediation: A Phenomenological Framework for Generalized Supersymmetry Breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Everett, Lisa L.; Kim, Ian-Woo; Ouyang, Peter; Zurek, Kathryn M.

    2008-01-01

    We present a general phenomenological framework for dialing between gravity mediation, gauge mediation, and anomaly mediation. The approach is motivated from recent developments in moduli stabilization, which suggest that gravity mediated terms can be effectively loop suppressed and thus comparable to gauge and anomaly mediated terms. The gauginos exhibit a mirage unification behavior at a ''deflected'' scale, and gluinos are often the lightest colored sparticles. The approach provides a rich setting in which to explore generalized supersymmetry breaking at the CERN Large Hadron Collider

  5. The Equilibrium Constant for Bromothymol Blue: A General Chemistry Laboratory Experiment Using Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klotz, Elsbeth; Doyle, Robert; Gross, Erin; Mattson, Bruce

    2011-01-01

    A simple, inexpensive, and environmentally friendly undergraduate laboratory experiment is described in which students use visible spectroscopy to determine a numerical value for an equilibrium constant, K[subscript c]. The experiment correlates well with the lecture topic of equilibrium even though the subject of the study is an acid-base…

  6. GEM-E3: A computable general equilibrium model applied for Switzerland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahn, O. [Paul Scherrer Inst., CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Frei, C. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL) and Paul Scherrer Inst. (Switzerland)

    2000-01-01

    The objectives of the European Research Project GEM-E3-ELITE, funded by the European Commission and coordinated by the Centre for European Economic Research (Germany), were to further develop the general equilibrium model GEM-E3 (Capros et al., 1995, 1997) and to conduct policy analysis through case studies. GEM-E3 is an applied general equilibrium model that analyses the macro-economy and its interaction with the energy system and the environment through the balancing of energy supply and demand, atmospheric emissions and pollution control, together with the fulfillment of overall equilibrium conditions. PSI's research objectives within GEM-E3-ELITE were to implement and apply GEM-E3 for Switzerland. The first objective required in particular the development of a Swiss database for each of GEM-E3 modules (economic module and environmental module). For the second objective, strategies to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions were evaluated for Switzerland. In order to develop the economic, PSI collaborated with the Laboratory of Applied Economics (LEA) of the University of Geneva and the Laboratory of Energy Systems (LASEN) of the Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne (EPFL). The Swiss Federal Statistical Office (SFSO) and the Institute for Business Cycle Research (KOF) of the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH Zurich) contributed also data. The Swiss environmental database consists mainly of an Energy Balance Table and of an Emission Coefficients Table. Both were designed using national and international official statistics. The Emission Coefficients Table is furthermore based on know-how of the PSI GaBE Project. Using GEM-E3 Switzerland, two strategies to reduce the Swiss CO{sub 2} emissions were evaluated: a carbon tax ('tax only' strategy), and the combination of a carbon tax with the buying of CO{sub 2} emission permits ('permits and tax' strategy). In the first strategy, Switzerland would impose the necessary carbon tax to achieve

  7. GEM-E3: A computable general equilibrium model applied for Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahn, O.; Frei, C.

    2000-01-01

    The objectives of the European Research Project GEM-E3-ELITE, funded by the European Commission and coordinated by the Centre for European Economic Research (Germany), were to further develop the general equilibrium model GEM-E3 (Capros et al., 1995, 1997) and to conduct policy analysis through case studies. GEM-E3 is an applied general equilibrium model that analyses the macro-economy and its interaction with the energy system and the environment through the balancing of energy supply and demand, atmospheric emissions and pollution control, together with the fulfillment of overall equilibrium conditions. PSI's research objectives within GEM-E3-ELITE were to implement and apply GEM-E3 for Switzerland. The first objective required in particular the development of a Swiss database for each of GEM-E3 modules (economic module and environmental module). For the second objective, strategies to reduce CO 2 emissions were evaluated for Switzerland. In order to develop the economic, PSI collaborated with the Laboratory of Applied Economics (LEA) of the University of Geneva and the Laboratory of Energy Systems (LASEN) of the Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne (EPFL). The Swiss Federal Statistical Office (SFSO) and the Institute for Business Cycle Research (KOF) of the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH Zurich) contributed also data. The Swiss environmental database consists mainly of an Energy Balance Table and of an Emission Coefficients Table. Both were designed using national and international official statistics. The Emission Coefficients Table is furthermore based on know-how of the PSI GaBE Project. Using GEM-E3 Switzerland, two strategies to reduce the Swiss CO 2 emissions were evaluated: a carbon tax ('tax only' strategy), and the combination of a carbon tax with the buying of CO 2 emission permits ('permits and tax' strategy). In the first strategy, Switzerland would impose the necessary carbon tax to achieve the reduction target, and use the tax

  8. A Generalized Cauchy Distribution Framework for Problems Requiring Robust Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrillo RafaelE

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Statistical modeling is at the heart of many engineering problems. The importance of statistical modeling emanates not only from the desire to accurately characterize stochastic events, but also from the fact that distributions are the central models utilized to derive sample processing theories and methods. The generalized Cauchy distribution (GCD family has a closed-form pdf expression across the whole family as well as algebraic tails, which makes it suitable for modeling many real-life impulsive processes. This paper develops a GCD theory-based approach that allows challenging problems to be formulated in a robust fashion. Notably, the proposed framework subsumes generalized Gaussian distribution (GGD family-based developments, thereby guaranteeing performance improvements over traditional GCD-based problem formulation techniques. This robust framework can be adapted to a variety of applications in signal processing. As examples, we formulate four practical applications under this framework: (1 filtering for power line communications, (2 estimation in sensor networks with noisy channels, (3 reconstruction methods for compressed sensing, and (4 fuzzy clustering.

  9. Generalized quantum master equations in and out of equilibrium: When can one win?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, Aaron; Markland, Thomas E.; Montoya-Castillo, Andrés; Wang, Lu

    2016-01-01

    Generalized quantum master equations (GQMEs) are an important tool in modeling chemical and physical processes. For a large number of problems, it has been shown that exact and approximate quantum dynamics methods can be made dramatically more efficient, and in the latter case more accurate, by proceeding via the GQME formalism. However, there are many situations where utilizing the GQME approach with an approximate method has been observed to return the same dynamics as using that method directly. Here, for systems both in and out of equilibrium, we provide a more detailed understanding of the conditions under which using an approximate method can yield benefits when combined with the GQME formalism. In particular, we demonstrate the necessary manipulations, which are satisfied by exact quantum dynamics, that are required to recast the memory kernel in a form that can be analytically shown to yield the same result as a direct application of the dynamics regardless of the approximation used. By considering the connections between these forms of the kernel, we derive the conditions that approximate methods must satisfy if they are to offer different results when used in conjunction with the GQME formalism. These analytical results thus provide new insights as to when proceeding via the GQME approach can be used to improve the accuracy of simulations.

  10. Energy from sugarcane bagasse under electricity rationing in Brazil: a computable general equilibrium model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scaramucci, Jose A.; Perin, Clovis; Pulino, Petronio; Bordoni, Orlando F.J.G.; Cunha, Marcelo P. da; Cortez, Luis A.B.

    2006-01-01

    In the midst of the institutional reforms of the Brazilian electric sectors initiated in the 1990s, a serious electricity shortage crisis developed in 2001. As an alternative to blackout, the government instituted an emergency plan aimed at reducing electricity consumption. From June 2001 to February 2002, Brazilians were compelled to curtail electricity use by 20%. Since the late 1990s, but especially after the electricity crisis, energy policy in Brazil has been directed towards increasing thermoelectricity supply and promoting further gains in energy conservation. Two main issues are addressed here. Firstly, we estimate the economic impacts of constraining the supply of electric energy in Brazil. Secondly, we investigate the possible penetration of electricity generated from sugarcane bagasse. A computable general equilibrium (CGE) model is used. The traditional sector of electricity and the remainder of the economy are characterized by a stylized top-down representation as nested CES (constant elasticity of substitution) production functions. The electricity production from sugarcane bagasse is described through a bottom-up activity analysis, with a detailed representation of the required inputs based on engineering studies. The model constructed is used to study the effects of the electricity shortage in the preexisting sector through prices, production and income changes. It is shown that installing capacity to generate electricity surpluses by the sugarcane agroindustrial system could ease the economic impacts of an electric energy shortage crisis on the gross domestic product (GDP)

  11. Computable general equilibrium models for sustainability impact assessment: Status quo and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehringer, Christoph; Loeschel, Andreas

    2006-01-01

    Sustainability Impact Assessment (SIA) of economic, environmental, and social effects triggered by governmental policies has become a central requirement for policy design. The three dimensions of SIA are inherently intertwined and subject to trade-offs. Quantification of trade-offs for policy decision support requires numerical models in order to assess systematically the interference of complex interacting forces that affect economic performance, environmental quality, and social conditions. This paper investigates the use of computable general equilibrium (CGE) models for measuring the impacts of policy interference on policy-relevant economic, environmental, and social (institutional) indicators. We find that operational CGE models used for energy-economy-environment (E3) analyses have a good coverage of central economic indicators. Environmental indicators such as energy-related emissions with direct links to economic activities are widely covered, whereas indicators with complex natural science background such as water stress or biodiversity loss are hardly represented. Social indicators stand out for very weak coverage, mainly because they are vaguely defined or incommensurable. Our analysis identifies prospects for future modeling in the field of integrated assessment that link standard E3-CGE-models to themespecific complementary models with environmental and social focus. (author)

  12. Discharge Fee Policy Analysis: A Computable General Equilibrium (CGE Model of Water Resources and Water Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guohua Fang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available To alleviate increasingly serious water pollution and shortages in developing countries, various kinds of policies have been implemented by local governments. It is vital to quantify and evaluate the performance and potential economic impacts of these policies. This study develops a Computable General Equilibrium (CGE model to simulate the regional economic and environmental effects of discharge fees. Firstly, water resources and water environment factors are separated from the input and output sources of the National Economic Production Department. Secondly, an extended Social Accounting Matrix (SAM of Jiangsu province is developed to simulate various scenarios. By changing values of the discharge fees (increased by 50%, 100% and 150%, three scenarios are simulated to examine their influence on the overall economy and each industry. The simulation results show that an increased fee will have a negative impact on Gross Domestic Product (GDP. However, waste water may be effectively controlled. Also, this study demonstrates that along with the economic costs, the increase of the discharge fee will lead to the upgrading of industrial structures from a situation of heavy pollution to one of light pollution which is beneficial to the sustainable development of the economy and the protection of the environment.

  13. Computable General Equilibrium Model Fiscal Year 2013 Capability Development Report - April 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, Brian Keith [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). National Infrastructure Simulation and Analysis Center (NISAC); Rivera, Michael K. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). National Infrastructure Simulation and Analysis Center (NISAC); Boero, Riccardo [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). National Infrastructure Simulation and Analysis Center (NISAC)

    2014-04-01

    This report documents progress made on continued developments of the National Infrastructure Simulation and Analysis Center (NISAC) Computable General Equilibrium Model (NCGEM), developed in fiscal year 2012. In fiscal year 2013, NISAC the treatment of the labor market and tests performed with the model to examine the properties of the solutions computed by the model. To examine these, developers conducted a series of 20 simulations for 20 U.S. States. Each of these simulations compared an economic baseline simulation with an alternative simulation that assumed a 20-percent reduction in overall factor productivity in the manufacturing industries of each State. Differences in the simulation results between the baseline and alternative simulations capture the economic impact of the reduction in factor productivity. While not every State is affected in precisely the same way, the reduction in manufacturing industry productivity negatively affects the manufacturing industries in each State to an extent proportional to the reduction in overall factor productivity. Moreover, overall economic activity decreases when manufacturing sector productivity is reduced. Developers ran two additional simulations: (1) a version of the model for the State of Michigan, with manufacturing divided into two sub-industries (automobile and other vehicle manufacturing as one sub-industry and the rest of manufacturing as the other subindustry); and (2) a version of the model for the United States, divided into 30 industries. NISAC conducted these simulations to illustrate the flexibility of industry definitions in NCGEM and to examine the simulation properties of in more detail.

  14. Economic impact of ethanol promotion in Mexico: A general equilibrium analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elizondo, Alejandra; Boyd, Roy

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we analyze the economic impact of a decision to produce ethanol in Mexico, comparing the effect of a subsidy to initiate ethanol production with that of alternative public policies. Public support of biofuels has been a public policy goal since 2008, and the promotion of ethanol remains an active part of the government agenda. The evidence used to encourage or alter the policy is (by necessity) chiefly based on international experience. In this study we use a computable general equilibrium model (CGE) to estimate the impact of ethanol production on the Mexican economy. Using cost data from Brazil we introduce ethanol into a Mexican social accounting matrix, and insert a latent sector into the model to analyze ethanol promotion. Our results show that subsidies to ethanol would increase agriculture production but at the expense of aggregate welfare. By contrast, alternative 'clean energy' policies appear to advance economic growth to a greater extent. - Highlights: • A CGE model is used to estimate the impact of ethanol promotion in Mexico. • The benefits of a policy designed to promote the use of ethanol are rather small. • The rural sector benefits modestly, but production in other sectors decrease. • Alternative policies advance economic growth and welfare to a greater extent.

  15. Impacts Of External Price Shocks On Malaysian Macro Economy-An Applied General Equilibrium Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abul Quasem Al-Amin

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the impacts of external price shocks in the Malaysian economy. There are three simulations are carried out with different degrees of external shocks using Malaysian Social Accounting Matrix (SAM and Computable General Equilibrium (CGE analysis. The model results indicate that the import price shocks, better known as external price shocks by 15% decreases the domestic production of building and construction sector by 25.87%, hotels, restaurants and entertainment sector by 12.04%, industry sector by 12.02%, agriculture sector by 11.01%, and electricity and gas sector by 9.55% from the baseline. On the import side, our simulation results illustrate that as a result of the import price shocks by 15%, imports decreases significantly in all sectors from base level. Among the scenarios, the largest negative impacts goes on industry sectors by 29.67% followed by building and construction sector by 22.42%, hotels, restaurants and entertainment sector by 19.45%, electricity and gas sector by 13.%, agriculture sector by 12.63% and other service sectors by 11.17%. However significant negative impact goes to the investment and fixed capital investment. It also causes the household income, household consumption and household savings down and increases the cost of livings in the economy results in downward social welfare.

  16. Transition towards a low carbon economy: A computable general equilibrium analysis for Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Böhringer, Christoph; Rutherford, Thomas F.

    2013-01-01

    In the transition to sustainable economic structures the European Union assumes a leading role with its climate and energy package which sets ambitious greenhouse gas emission reduction targets by 2020. Among EU Member States, Poland with its heavy energy system reliance on coal is particularly worried on the pending trade-offs between emission regulation and economic growth. In our computable general equilibrium analysis of the EU climate and energy package we show that economic adjustment cost for Poland hinge crucially on restrictions to where-flexibility of emission abatement, revenue recycling, and technological options in the power system. We conclude that more comprehensive flexibility provisions at the EU level and a diligent policy implementation at the national level could achieve the transition towards a low carbon economy at little cost thereby broadening societal support. - Highlights: ► Economic impact assessment of the EU climate and energy package for Poland. ► Sensitivity analysis on where-flexibility, revenue recycling and technology choice. ► Application of a hybrid bottom-up, top-down CGE model

  17. Non-equilibrium Economics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katalin Martinás

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available A microeconomic, agent based framework to dynamic economics is formulated in a materialist approach. An axiomatic foundation of a non-equilibrium microeconomics is outlined. Economic activity is modelled as transformation and transport of commodities (materials owned by the agents. Rate of transformations (production intensity, and the rate of transport (trade are defined by the agents. Economic decision rules are derived from the observed economic behaviour. The non-linear equations are solved numerically for a model economy. Numerical solutions for simple model economies suggest that the some of the results of general equilibrium economics are consequences only of the equilibrium hypothesis. We show that perfect competition of selfish agents does not guarantee the stability of economic equilibrium, but cooperativity is needed, too.

  18. Rebound effect of improved energy efficiency for different energy types: A general equilibrium analysis for China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Yingying; Liu, Yu; Zhou, Meifang

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores the rebound effect of different energy types in China based on a static computable general equilibrium model. A one-off 5% energy efficiency improvement is imposed on five different types of energy, respectively, in all the 135 production sectors in China. The rebound effect is measured both on the production level and on the economy-wide level for each type of energy. The results show that improving energy efficiency of using electricity has the largest positive impact on GDP among the five energy types. Inter-fuel substitutability does not affect the macroeconomic results significantly, but long-run impact is usually greater than the short-run impact. For the exports-oriented sectors, those that are capital-intensive get big negative shock in the short run while those that are labour-intensive get hurt in the long run. There is no “backfire” effect; however, improving efficiency of using electricity can cause negative rebound, which implies that improving the energy efficiency of using electricity might be a good policy choice under China's current energy structure. In general, macro-level rebound is larger than production-level rebound. Primary energy goods show larger rebound effect than secondary energy goods. In addition, the paper points out that the policy makers in China should look at the rebound effect in the long term rather than in the short term. The energy efficiency policy would be a good and effective policy choice for energy conservation in China when it still has small inter-fuel substitution. - Highlights: • Primary energy goods show larger rebound effect than secondary energy goods. • Improving efficiency of using electricity can cause negative rebound. • The energy efficiency policy would be an effective policy choice for China. • Policy-makers should consider the rebound effect in the longer term.

  19. The mineral sector and economic development in Ghana: A computable general equilibrium analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addy, Samuel N.

    A computable general equilibrium model (CGE) model is formulated for conducting mineral policy analysis in the context of national economic development for Ghana. The model, called GHANAMIN, places strong emphasis on production, trade, and investment. It can be used to examine both micro and macro economic impacts of policies associated with mineral investment, taxation, and terms of trade changes, as well as mineral sector performance impacts due to technological change or the discovery of new deposits. Its economywide structure enables the study of broader development policy with a focus on individual or multiple sectors, simultaneously. After going through a period of contraction for about two decades, mining in Ghana has rebounded significantly and is currently the main foreign exchange earner. Gold alone contributed 44.7 percent of 1994 total export earnings. GHANAMIN is used to investigate the economywide impacts of mineral tax policies, world market mineral prices changes, mining investment, and increased mineral exports. It is also used for identifying key sectors for economic development. Various simulations were undertaken with the following results: Recently implemented mineral tax policies are welfare increasing, but have an accompanying decrease in the output of other export sectors. World mineral price rises stimulate an increase in real GDP; however, this increase is less than real GDP decreases associated with price declines. Investment in the non-gold mining sector increases real GDP more than investment in gold mining, because of the former's stronger linkages to the rest of the economy. Increased mineral exports are very beneficial to the overall economy. Foreign direct investment (FDI) in mining increases welfare more so than domestic capital, which is very limited. Mining investment and the increased mineral exports since 1986 have contributed significantly to the country's economic recovery, with gold mining accounting for 95 percent of the

  20. Development of a global computable general equilibrium model coupled with detailed energy end-use technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimori, Shinichiro; Masui, Toshihiko; Matsuoka, Yuzuru

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Detailed energy end-use technology information is considered within a CGE model. • Aggregated macro results of the detailed model are similar to traditional model. • The detailed model shows unique characteristics in the household sector. - Abstract: A global computable general equilibrium (CGE) model integrating detailed energy end-use technologies is developed in this paper. The paper (1) presents how energy end-use technologies are treated within the model and (2) analyzes the characteristics of the model’s behavior. Energy service demand and end-use technologies are explicitly considered, and the share of technologies is determined by a discrete probabilistic function, namely a Logit function, to meet the energy service demand. Coupling with detailed technology information enables the CGE model to have more realistic representation in the energy consumption. The proposed model in this paper is compared with the aggregated traditional model under the same assumptions in scenarios with and without mitigation roughly consistent with the two degree climate mitigation target. Although the results of aggregated energy supply and greenhouse gas emissions are similar, there are three main differences between the aggregated and the detailed technologies models. First, GDP losses in mitigation scenarios are lower in the detailed technology model (2.8% in 2050) as compared with the aggregated model (3.2%). Second, price elasticity and autonomous energy efficiency improvement are heterogeneous across regions and sectors in the detailed technology model, whereas the traditional aggregated model generally utilizes a single value for each of these variables. Third, the magnitude of emissions reduction and factors (energy intensity and carbon factor reduction) related to climate mitigation also varies among sectors in the detailed technology model. The household sector in the detailed technology model has a relatively higher reduction for both energy

  1. Are Equity and Efficiency Irreconcilable Goals in Education? A General Equilibrium Analysis of Basic Education Finance in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Weili; Lu, Ming

    2007-01-01

    Lacking guidance of general equilibrium (GE) theories in public economics and the corresponding proper mechanisms, China has not surprisingly witnessed an inequality in educational expenditures across regions as well as insufficiency of funds for education in poor areas. It is wrongly thought that what happens is due to the decentralized financing…

  2. Economic evaluation of increased ethanol use from a 'general equilibrium' aspect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daruvala, D.

    1997-12-01

    It has been recognized that a contribution to the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions can be achieved within the transport sector by the increased use of motor alcohols such as ethanol. The production of ethanol using renewable lignocellulosic materials such as softwood rather than a starch based process is of interest as these raw materials are cheaper and available in large quantities in Sweden. However the large quantities of wood raw material required has raised the question of how an increase in demand for wood material would affect production and profitability in other sectors, particularly the forest related industries. This study contains a broad outline over the flow of wood raw material through such sectors that can be affected if a large increased production of ethanol would occur. These sectors are the forest sector, sawmill sector, pulp sector, the district heating sector and the ethanol sector were chosen because of their production or use of wood raw material. A theoretical model that could estimate these effects was developed. The model in this study is not a general equilibrium model in the traditional sense, but has been designed to measure the net welfare effects caused by an introduction of a single distortion where other sectors in the economy, where in this case the district heating and forest related industries are assumed to be the only other sectors altered as a result. The idea behind this is that a change in the price of ethanol, caused for example by a subsidy will affect not only the market for ethanol but will even have consequences on the other markets, which are interlinked through their production and consumption of wood raw material 17 refs, 4 figs, 9 tabs

  3. Can technological innovation help China take on its climate responsibility? An intertemporal general equilibrium analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Wei

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the effectiveness of China’s indigenous R and D and technological innovation to curb its carbon emissions. The mechanism of endogenous technical change (TC) is incorporated an intertemporal computable general equilibrium (CGE) model. R and D investments and knowledge creations are modeled as the endogenous behaviors of private firms. The accumulated stocks of knowledge are applied in the production process to affect the rate and bias of TC. Simulation results show that: (1) while China’s indigenous R and D efforts play a significant role to curb carbon emissions, sole dependence on R and D may be far from sufficient to achieve pledged climate target, with complementary policies being required to reinforce existing climate actions; (2) innovation policies can strengthen R and D investment and cut emissions further, but the complementary effect is relatively minor; (3) carbon taxation can generate significant carbon-saving benefits and fulfill climate target, but this achievement is at the cost of economic losses. The induced technical improvement, however, can partially mitigate the deadweight loss incurred by carbon tax distortion. - Highlights: ► We examine the effect of China’s technological innovation to curb its carbon emissions. ► A mechanism of R and D-induced technical change is incorporated into an intertemporal CGE model. ► Private R and D efforts and public R and D intervention are insufficient to achieve climate target. ► A carbon tax is indispensable to achieve climate target but at the cost of output losses. ► Induced technical change can partially mitigate the deadweight loss incurred by carbon tax.

  4. The economic impact of more sustainable water use in agriculture: A computable general equilibrium analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calzadilla, Alvaro; Rehdanz, Katrin; Tol, Richard S. J.

    2010-04-01

    SummaryAgriculture is the largest consumer of freshwater resources - around 70 percent of all freshwater withdrawals are used for food production. These agricultural products are traded internationally. A full understanding of water use is, therefore, impossible without understanding the international market for food and related products, such as textiles. Based on the global general equilibrium model GTAP-W, we offer a method for investigating the role of green (rain) and blue (irrigation) water resources in agriculture and within the context of international trade. We use future projections of allowable water withdrawals for surface water and groundwater to define two alternative water management scenarios. The first scenario explores a deterioration of current trends and policies in the water sector (water crisis scenario). The second scenario assumes an improvement in policies and trends in the water sector and eliminates groundwater overdraft world-wide, increasing water allocation for the environment (sustainable water use scenario). In both scenarios, welfare gains or losses are not only associated with changes in agricultural water consumption. Under the water crisis scenario, welfare not only rises for regions where water consumption increases (China, South East Asia and the USA). Welfare gains are considerable for Japan and South Korea, Southeast Asia and Western Europe as well. These regions benefit from higher levels of irrigated production and lower food prices. Alternatively, under the sustainable water use scenario, welfare losses not only affect regions where overdrafting is occurring. Welfare decreases in other regions as well. These results indicate that, for water use, there is a clear trade-off between economic welfare and environmental sustainability.

  5. Equilibrium theory of island biogeography: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angela D. Yu; Simon A. Lei

    2001-01-01

    The topography, climatic pattern, location, and origin of islands generate unique patterns of species distribution. The equilibrium theory of island biogeography creates a general framework in which the study of taxon distribution and broad island trends may be conducted. Critical components of the equilibrium theory include the species-area relationship, island-...

  6. Trade liberalization, the Mercosur integration process and the agriculture-industry transfers: a general equilibrium analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquim Bento de Souza Ferreira Filho

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the effects of trade liberalization and Mercosur integration process upon the Brazilian economy, with emphasis on the agricultural and agroindustrial production sectors, under the hypothesis that those phenomena could be another step in the rural-urban transfer process in Brazil. The analysis is conducted through an applied general equilibrium model. Results suggest that trade liberalization would hardly generate a widespread process of rural-urban transfers, although Brazilian agriculture shows up as a loser in the process. Notwithstanding that fact, there are transfers inside the agricultural sectors, where, besides the losses in the value added of the grain production sectors, there would be gains for the livestock and for the ''other crops" sectors. The agroindustry, in contrast, seems to gain both in Brazil and Argentina. Model results suggest yet that the Brazilian society would be benefitted as a whole by the integration, despite the losses in the agricultural sector.Este artigo analisa os efeitos do processo de liberalização comercial e de constituição do Mercosul sobre a economia brasileira, com ênfase nos setores produtivos da agricultura e da agroindústria, sob a hipótese de que aqueles fenômenos seriam mais uma etapa no processo de transferências rurais-urbanas no Brasil. Para tanto, a análise é conduzida através do uso de um modelo de equilíbrio geral aplicado. Os resultados sugerem que a integração comercial não irá gerar um processo amplo de transferências rurais-urbanas no Brasil, embora a agricultura brasileira apareça, no agregado, como o setor perdedor na integração, em benefício da agricultura argentina. Há, entretanto, transferências dentro dos setores da agropecuária brasileira, onde, ao lado das perdas no valor adicionado do setor produtor de grãos, haveria ganhos para a pecuária e para o setor ''outras culturas". A agroindústria, em contraste, parece ganhar tanto no Brasil

  7. A General Solution Framework for Component-Commonality Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nils Boysen

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Component commonality - the use of the same version of a component across multiple products - is being increasingly considered as a promising way to offer high external variety while retaining low internal variety in operations. However, increasing commonality has both positive and negative cost effects, so that optimization approaches are required to identify an optimal commonality level. As components influence to a greater or lesser extent nearly every process step along the supply chain, it is not surprising that a multitude of diverging commonality problems is being investigated in literature, each of which are developing a specific algorithm designed for the respective commonality problem being considered. The paper on hand aims at a general framework which is flexible and efficient enough to be applied to a wide range of commonality problems. Such a procedure based on a two-stage graph approach is presented and tested. Finally, flexibility of the procedure is shown by customizing the framework to account for different types of commonality problems.

  8. A general framework for sensor-based human activity recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köping, Lukas; Shirahama, Kimiaki; Grzegorzek, Marcin

    2018-04-01

    Today's wearable devices like smartphones, smartwatches and intelligent glasses collect a large amount of data from their built-in sensors like accelerometers and gyroscopes. These data can be used to identify a person's current activity and in turn can be utilised for applications in the field of personal fitness assistants or elderly care. However, developing such systems is subject to certain restrictions: (i) since more and more new sensors will be available in the future, activity recognition systems should be able to integrate these new sensors with a small amount of manual effort and (ii) such systems should avoid high acquisition costs for computational power. We propose a general framework that achieves an effective data integration based on the following two characteristics: Firstly, a smartphone is used to gather and temporally store data from different sensors and transfer these data to a central server. Thus, various sensors can be integrated into the system as long as they have programming interfaces to communicate with the smartphone. The second characteristic is a codebook-based feature learning approach that can encode data from each sensor into an effective feature vector only by tuning a few intuitive parameters. In the experiments, the framework is realised as a real-time activity recognition system that integrates eight sensors from a smartphone, smartwatch and smartglasses, and its effectiveness is validated from different perspectives such as accuracies, sensor combinations and sampling rates. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Calculating observables in inhomogeneous cosmologies. Part I: general framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellaby, Charles; Walters, Anthony

    2018-02-01

    We lay out a general framework for calculating the variation of a set of cosmological observables, down the past null cone of an arbitrarily placed observer, in a given arbitrary inhomogeneous metric. The observables include redshift, proper motions, area distance and redshift-space density. Of particular interest are observables that are zero in the spherically symmetric case, such as proper motions. The algorithm is based on the null geodesic equation and the geodesic deviation equation, and it is tailored to creating a practical numerical implementation. The algorithm provides a method for tracking which light rays connect moving objects to the observer at successive times. Our algorithm is applied to the particular case of the Szekeres metric. A numerical implementation has been created and some results will be presented in a subsequent paper. Future work will explore the range of possibilities.

  10. Connecting Solubility, Equilibrium, and Periodicity in a Green, Inquiry Experiment for the General Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacciatore, Kristen L.; Amado, Jose; Evans, Jason J.; Sevian, Hannah

    2008-01-01

    We present a novel first-year chemistry laboratory experiment that connects solubility, equilibrium, and chemical periodicity concepts. It employs a unique format that asks students to replicate experiments described in different sample lab reports, each lacking some essential information, rather than follow a scripted procedure. This structure is…

  11. Multiple spatial scaling and the weak-coupling approximation. I. General formulation and equilibrium theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleinsmith, P E [Carnegie-Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, Pa. (USA)

    1976-04-01

    Multiple spatial scaling is incorporated in a modified form of the Bogoliubov plasma cluster expansion; then this proposed reformulation of the plasma weak-coupling approximation is used to derive, from the BBGKY Hierarchy, a decoupled set of equations for the one-and two-particle distribution functions in the limit as the plasma parameter goes to zero. Because the reformulated cluster expansion permits retention of essential two-particle collisional information in the limiting equations, while simultaneously retaining the well-established Debye-scale relative ordering of the correlation functions, decoupling of the Hierarchy is accomplished without introduction of the divergence problems encountered in the Bogoliubov theory, as is indicated by an exact solution of the limiting equations for the equilibrium case. To establish additional links with existing plasma equilibrium theories, the two-particle equilibrium correlation function is used to calculate the interaction energy and the equation of state. The limiting equation for the equilibrium three-particle correlation function is then developed, and a formal solution is obtained.

  12. Existence and Hadamard well-posedness of a system of simultaneous generalized vector quasi-equilibrium problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenyan Zhang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract An existence result for the solution set of a system of simultaneous generalized vector quasi-equilibrium problems (for short, (SSGVQEP is obtained, which improves Theorem 3.1 of the work of Ansari et al. (J. Optim. Theory Appl. 127:27-44, 2005. Moreover, a definition of Hadamard-type well-posedness for (SSGVQEP is introduced and sufficient conditions for Hadamard well-posedness of (SSGVQEP are established.

  13. An Interaction of Economy and Environment in Dynamic Computable General Equilibrium Modelling with a Focus on Climate Change Issues in Korea : A Proto-type Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joh, Seung Hun; Dellink, Rob; Nam, Yunmi; Kim, Yong Gun; Song, Yang Hoon [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    2000-12-01

    In the beginning of the 21st century, climate change is one of hottest issues in arena of both international environment and domestic one. During the COP6 meeting held in The Hague, over 10,000 people got together from the world. This report is a series of policy study on climate change in context of Korea. This study addresses on interactions of economy and environment in a perfect foresight dynamic computable general equilibrium with a focus on greenhouse gas mitigation strategy in Korea. The primary goal of this study is to evaluate greenhouse gas mitigation portfolios of changes in timing and magnitude with a particular focus on developing a methodology to integrate the bottom-up information on technical measures to reduce pollution into a top-down multi-sectoral computable general equilibrium framework. As a non-Annex I country Korea has been under strong pressure to declare GHG reduction commitment. Of particular concern is economic consequences GHG mitigation would accrue to the society. Various economic assessment have been carried out to address on the issue including analyses on cost, ancillary benefit, emission trading, so far. In this vein, this study on GHG mitigation commitment is a timely answer to climate change policy field. Empirical results available next year would be highly demanded in the situation. 62 refs., 13 figs., 9 tabs.

  14. Applicability of Markets to Global Scheduling in Grids: Critical Examination of General Equilibrium Theory and Market Folklore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakai, Junko; VanDerWijngaart, Rob F.

    2003-01-01

    Markets are often considered superior to other global scheduling mechanisms for distributed computing systems. This claim is supported by: a casual observation from our every-day life that markets successfully equilibrate supply and demand, and the features of markets which originate in the general equilibrium theory, e.g., efficiency and the lack of necessity of 2 central controller. This paper describes why such beliefs in markets are not warranted. It does so by examining the general equilibrium theory, in terms of scope, abstraction, and interpretation. Not only does the general equilibrium theory fail to provide a satisfactory explanation of actual economies, including a computing-resource economy, it also falls short of supplying theoretical foundations for commonly held views of market desirability. This paper also points out that the argument for the desirability of markets involves circular reasoning and that the desirability can be established only vis-a-vis a scheduling goal. Finally, recasting the conclusion of Arrow's Impossibility Theorem as that for global scheduling, we conclude that there exists no market-based scheduler that is rational (in the sense defined in microeconomic theory), takes into account utility of more than one user, and yet yields a Pareto-optimal outcome for arbitrary user utility functions.

  15. Impact of a carbon tax on the Chilean economy: A computable general equilibrium analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García Benavente, José Miguel

    2016-01-01

    In 2009, the government of Chile announced their official commitment to reduce national greenhouse gas emissions by 20% below a business-as-usual projection by 2020. Due to the fact that an effective way to reduce emissions is to implement a national carbon tax, the goal of this article is to quantify the value of a carbon tax that will allow the achievement of the emission reduction target and to assess its impact on the economy. The approach used in this work is to compare the economy before and after the implementation of the carbon tax by creating a static computable general equilibrium model of the Chilean economy. The model developed here disaggregates the economy in 23 industries and 23 commodities, and it uses four consumer agents (households, government, investment, and the rest of the world). By setting specific production and consumptions functions, the model can assess the variation in commodity prices, industrial production, and agent consumption, allowing a cross-sectoral analysis of the impact of the carbon tax. The benchmark of the economy, upon which the analysis is based, came from a social accounting matrix specially constructed for this model, based on the year 2010. The carbon tax was modeled as an ad valorem tax under two scenarios: tax on emissions from fossil fuels burned only by producers and tax on emissions from fossil fuels burned by producers and households. The abatement cost curve has shown that it is more cost-effective to tax only producers, rather than to tax both producers and households. This is due to the fact that when compared to the emission level observed in 2010, a 20% emission reduction will cause a loss in GDP of 2% and 2.3% respectively. Under the two scenarios, the tax value that could lead to that emission reduction is around 26 US dollars per ton of CO_2-equivalent. The most affected productive sectors are oil refinery, transport, and electricity — having a contraction between 7% and 9%. Analyzing the electricity

  16. CO2/H2O adsorption equilibrium and rates on metal-organic frameworks: HKUST-1 and Ni/DOBDC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jian; Wang, Yu; Benin, Annabelle I; Jakubczak, Paulina; Willis, Richard R; LeVan, M Douglas

    2010-09-07

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have recently attracted intense research interest because of their permanent porous structures, huge surface areas, and potential applications as novel adsorbents and catalysts. In order to provide a basis for consideration of MOFs for removal of carbon dioxide from gases containing water vapor, such as flue gas, we have studied adsorption equilibrium of CO(2), H(2)O vapor, and their mixtures and also rates of CO(2) adsorption in two MOFs: HKUST-1 (CuBTC) and Ni/DOBDC (CPO-27-Ni or Ni/MOF-74). The MOFs were synthesized via solvothermal methods, and the as-synthesized products were solvent exchanged and regenerated before experiments. Pure component adsorption equilibria and CO(2)/H(2)O binary adsorption equilibria were studied using a volumetric system. The effects of H(2)O adsorption on CO(2) adsorption for both MOF samples were determined, and the results for 5A and NaX zeolites were included for comparison. The hydrothermal stabilities for the two MOFs over the course of repetitive measurements of H(2)O and CO(2)/H(2)O mixture equilibria were also studied. CO(2) adsorption rates from helium for the MOF samples were investigated by using a unique concentration-swing frequency response (CSFR) system. Mass transfer into the MOFs is rapid with the controlling resistance found to be macropore diffusion, and rate parameters were established for the mechanism.

  17. A general framework for unambiguous detection of quantum states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eldar, Y.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text:The problem of detecting information stored in the state of a quantum system is a fundamental problem in quantum information theory. Several approaches have emerged to distinguishing between a collection of non-orthogonal quantum states. We consider the problem of unambiguous detection where we seek a measurement that with a certain probability returns an inconclusive result, but such that if the measurement returns an answer, then the answer is correct with probability 1. We begin by considering unambiguous discrimination between a set of linearly independent pure quantum states. We show that the design of the optimal measurement that minimizes the probability of an inconclusive result can be formulated as a semidefinite programming problem. Based on this formulation, we develop a set of necessary and sufficient conditions for an optimal quantum measurement. We show that the optimal measurement can be computed very efficiently in polynomial time by exploiting the many well-known algorithms for solving semidefinite programs, which are guaranteed to converge to the global optimum. Using the general conditions for optimality, we derive necessary and sufficient conditions so that the measurement that results in an equal probability of an inconclusive result for each one of the quantum states is optimal. We refer to this measurement as the equal-probability measurement (EPM). We then show that for any state set, the prior probabilities of the states can be chosen such that the EPM is optimal. Finally, we consider state sets with strong symmetry properties and equal prior probabilities for which the EPM is optimal. We next develop a general framework for unambiguous state discrimination between a collection of mixed quantum states, which can be applied to any number of states with arbitrary prior probabilities. In particular, we derive a set of necessary and sufficient conditions for an optimal measurement that minimizes the probability of an inconclusive

  18. A general framework for regularized, similarity-based image restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheradmand, Amin; Milanfar, Peyman

    2014-12-01

    Any image can be represented as a function defined on a weighted graph, in which the underlying structure of the image is encoded in kernel similarity and associated Laplacian matrices. In this paper, we develop an iterative graph-based framework for image restoration based on a new definition of the normalized graph Laplacian. We propose a cost function, which consists of a new data fidelity term and regularization term derived from the specific definition of the normalized graph Laplacian. The normalizing coefficients used in the definition of the Laplacian and associated regularization term are obtained using fast symmetry preserving matrix balancing. This results in some desired spectral properties for the normalized Laplacian such as being symmetric, positive semidefinite, and returning zero vector when applied to a constant image. Our algorithm comprises of outer and inner iterations, where in each outer iteration, the similarity weights are recomputed using the previous estimate and the updated objective function is minimized using inner conjugate gradient iterations. This procedure improves the performance of the algorithm for image deblurring, where we do not have access to a good initial estimate of the underlying image. In addition, the specific form of the cost function allows us to render the spectral analysis for the solutions of the corresponding linear equations. In addition, the proposed approach is general in the sense that we have shown its effectiveness for different restoration problems, including deblurring, denoising, and sharpening. Experimental results verify the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm on both synthetic and real examples.

  19. A general equilibrium model of guest-worker migration: the source-country perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djajic, S; Milbourne, R

    1988-11-01

    "This paper examines the problem of guest-worker migration from an economy populated by identical, utility-maximizing individuals with finite working lives. The decision to migrate, the rate of saving while abroad, as well as the length of a migrant's stay in the foreign country, are all viewed as part of a solution to an intertemporal optimization problem. In addition to studying the microeconomic aspects of temporary migration, the paper analyses the determinants of the equilibrium flow of migrants, the corresponding domestic wage, and the level of welfare enjoyed by a typical worker. Effects of an emigration tax are also investigated." excerpt

  20. A General Iterative Method of Fixed Points for Mixed Equilibrium Problems and Variational Inclusion Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phayap Katchang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to investigate the problem of finding a common element of the set of solutions for mixed equilibrium problems, the set of solutions of the variational inclusions with set-valued maximal monotone mappings and inverse-strongly monotone mappings, and the set of fixed points of a family of finitely nonexpansive mappings in the setting of Hilbert spaces. We propose a new iterative scheme for finding the common element of the above three sets. Our results improve and extend the corresponding results of the works by Zhang et al. (2008, Peng et al. (2008, Peng and Yao (2009, as well as Plubtieng and Sriprad (2009 and some well-known results in the literature.

  1. A generalized quantitative antibody homeostasis model: maintenance of global antibody equilibrium by effector functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prechl, József

    2017-11-01

    The homeostasis of antibodies can be characterized as a balanced production, target-binding and receptor-mediated elimination regulated by an interaction network, which controls B-cell development and selection. Recently, we proposed a quantitative model to describe how the concentration and affinity of interacting partners generates a network. Here we argue that this physical, quantitative approach can be extended for the interpretation of effector functions of antibodies. We define global antibody equilibrium as the zone of molar equivalence of free antibody, free antigen and immune complex concentrations and of dissociation constant of apparent affinity: [Ab]=[Ag]=[AbAg]= K D . This zone corresponds to the biologically relevant K D range of reversible interactions. We show that thermodynamic and kinetic properties of antibody-antigen interactions correlate with immunological functions. The formation of stable, long-lived immune complexes correspond to a decrease of entropy and is a prerequisite for the generation of higher-order complexes. As the energy of formation of complexes increases, we observe a gradual shift from silent clearance to inflammatory reactions. These rules can also be applied to complement activation-related immune effector processes, linking the physicochemical principles of innate and adaptive humoral responses. Affinity of the receptors mediating effector functions shows a wide range of affinities, allowing the continuous sampling of antibody-bound antigen over the complete range of concentrations. The generation of multivalent, multicomponent complexes triggers effector functions by crosslinking these receptors on effector cells with increasing enzymatic degradation potential. Thus, antibody homeostasis is a thermodynamic system with complex network properties, nested into the host organism by proper immunoregulatory and effector pathways. Maintenance of global antibody equilibrium is achieved by innate qualitative signals modulating a

  2. Recycling of carbon/energy taxes and the labor market. A general equilibrium analysis for the European Community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welsch, H.

    1996-01-01

    A quantitative assessment of a cost shift from labor to energy by means of a carbon/energy tax is provided. In the analysis a general equilibrium model for the European Community is utilized, focusing on the modelling of labor supply. The importance of the feedback from an induced increase in labor demand to wage formation is highlighted. (It is shown that the goals of C) 2 reduction and improved employment are complementary, provided that the reduction in labor costs, financed by the carbon/energy tax, is not offset by increased wage claims. Under this condition reduced CO 2 is consistent with an increase in GDP. 1 fig., 3 tabs., 17 refs

  3. Long-run and Cyclic Movements in the Unemployment Rate in Hong Kong: A Dynamic, General Equilibrium Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Michael K. Salemi

    2007-01-01

    Prior to the late 1990s, low unemployment was a standard feature of macroeconomic life in Hong Kong. Between 1985 and 1997, the unemployment rate averaged 2.5 percent. But the picture changed dramatically thereafter with the unemployment rate rising to 6.2 percent by 1999 and remaining above 5 percent through 2005. What caused the large and sustained increase? This paper provides some answers with an analysis based on a dynamic, general equilibrium model of a small, open economy in which wage...

  4. An Applied General Equilibrium (AGE) analysis of a policy designed to reduce the household consumption of wood in the Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dufournaud, C.M.; Quinn, J.T.; Harrington, J.J.

    1994-01-01

    The Sudan, along with all Sahelian countries, faces urgent environmental problems caused, in part, by the clear-cutting of scrub for firewood. Analyzes the economic consequences of a policy often proposed to reduce the consumption of firewood. Specifically, the authors simulate the policy of introducing more efficient wood burning stoves into households by using an Applied General Equilibrium (AGE) model. The results indicate that the anticipated reduction in the economy-wide demand for wood, based on the increase in the technical efficiency of the stoves, is not fully realized. 23 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs

  5. APPLICATION OF A GENERALIZED MAXIMUM LIKELIHOOD METHOD IN THE REDUCTION OF MULTICOMPONENT LIQUID-LIQUID EQUILIBRIUM DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. STRAGEVITCH

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available The equations of the method based on the maximum likelihood principle have been rewritten in a suitable generalized form to allow the use of any number of implicit constraints in the determination of model parameters from experimental data and from the associated experimental uncertainties. In addition to the use of any number of constraints, this method also allows data, with different numbers of constraints, to be reduced simultaneously. Application of the method is illustrated in the reduction of liquid-liquid equilibrium data of binary, ternary and quaternary systems simultaneously

  6. Active Learning Session Based on Didactical Engineering Framework for Conceptual Change in Students' Equilibrium and Stability Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canu, Michael; Duque, Mauricio; de Hosson, Cécile

    2017-01-01

    Engineering students on control courses lack a deep understanding of equilibrium and stability that are crucial concepts in this discipline. Several studies have shown that students find it difficult to understand simple familiar or academic static equilibrium cases as well as dynamic ones from mechanics even if they know the discipline's criteria…

  7. Brain drain in globalization A general equilibrium analysis from the sending countries’ perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Luca MARCHIORI; I-Ling SHEN; Frederic DOCQUIER

    2009-01-01

    The paper assesses the global effects of brain drain on developing economies and quantifies the relative sizes of various static and dynamic impacts. By constructing a unified generic framework characterized by overlapping generations dynamics and calibrated to real data, this study incorporates many direct impacts of brain drain whose interactions, along with other indirect effects, are endogenously and dynamically generated. Our findings suggest that the short-run impact of brain drain on r...

  8. Economic analysis of energy supply and national economy on the basis of general equilibrium models. Applications of the input-output decomposition analysis and the Computable General Equilibrium models shown by the example of Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, Jong-Hwan.

    1993-01-01

    Firstly, this study investigaties the causes of sectoral growth and structural changes in the Korean economy. Secondly, it develops the borders of a consistent economic model in order to investigate simultaneously the different impacts of changes in energy and in the domestic economy. This is done any both the Input-Output-Decomposition analysis and a Computable General Equilibrium model (CGE Model). The CGE Model eliminates the disadvantages of the IO Model and allows the investigation of the interdegenerative of the various energy sectors with the economy. The Social Accounting Matrix serves as the data basis of the GCE Model. Simulated experiments have been comet out with the help of the GCE Model, indicating the likely impact of an oil price shock in the economy-sectorally and generally. (orig.) [de

  9. Generalized lower-hybrid drift instabilities in current-sheet equilibrium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Peter H.; Lui, Anthony T. Y.; Sitnov, Mikhail I.

    2002-01-01

    A class of drift instabilities in one-dimensional current-sheet configuration, i.e., classical Harris equilibrium, with frequency ranging from low ion-cyclotron to intermediate lower-hybrid frequencies, are investigated with an emphasis placed on perturbations propagating along the direction of cross-field current flow. Nonlocal two-fluid stability analysis is carried out, and a class of unstable modes with multiple eigenstates, similar to that of the familiar quantum mechanical potential-well problem, are found by numerical means. It is found that the most unstable modes correspond to quasi-electrostatic, short-wavelength perturbations in the lower-hybrid frequency range, with wave functions localized at the edge of the current sheet where the density gradient is maximum. It is also found that there exist quasi-electromagnetic modes located near the center of the current sheet where the current density is maximum, with both kink- and sausage-type polarizations. These modes are low-frequency, long-wavelength perturbations. It turns out that the current-driven modes are low-order eigensolutions while the lower-hybrid-type modes are higher-order states, and there are intermediate solutions between the two extreme cases. Attempts are made to interpret the available simulation results in light of the present eigenmode analysis

  10. China’s Rare Earths Supply Forecast in 2025: A Dynamic Computable General Equilibrium Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianping Ge

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The supply of rare earths in China has been the focus of significant attention in recent years. Due to changes in regulatory policies and the development of strategic emerging industries, it is critical to investigate the scenario of rare earth supplies in 2025. To address this question, this paper constructed a dynamic computable equilibrium (DCGE model to forecast the production, domestic supply, and export of China’s rare earths in 2025. Based on our analysis, production will increase by 10.8%–12.6% and achieve 116,335–118,260 tons of rare-earth oxide (REO in 2025, based on recent extraction control during 2011–2016. Moreover, domestic supply and export will be 75,081–76,800 tons REO and 38,797–39,400 tons REO, respectively. The technological improvements on substitution and recycling will significantly decrease the supply and mining activities of rare earths. From a policy perspective, we found that the elimination of export regulations, including export quotas and export taxes, does have a negative impact on China’s future domestic supply of rare earths. The policy conflicts between the increase in investment in strategic emerging industries, and the increase in resource and environmental taxes on rare earths will also affect China’s rare earths supply in the future.

  11. Generalized Intelligent Framework for Tutoring (GIFT) Cloud/Virtual Open Campus Quick Start Guide (Revision 1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    ARL-CR-0816 ● JUNE 2017 US Army Research Laboratory Generalized Intelligent Framework for Tutoring (GIFT) Cloud/Virtual Open...to the originator. ARL-CR-0816 ● JUNE 2017 US Army Research Laboratory Generalized Intelligent Framework for Tutoring (GIFT...January 2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Generalized Intelligent Framework for Tutoring (GIFT) Cloud/Virtual Open Campus Quick-Start Guide (Revision 1

  12. General Retarded Contact Self-energies in and beyond the Non-equilibrium Green's Functions Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubis, Tillmann; He, Yu; Andrawis, Robert; Klimeck, Gerhard

    2016-03-01

    Retarded contact self-energies in the framework of nonequilibrium Green's functions allow to model the impact of lead structures on the device without explicitly including the leads in the actual device calculation. Most of the contact self-energy algorithms are limited to homogeneous or periodic, semi-infinite lead structures. In this work, the complex absorbing potential method is extended to solve retarded contact self-energies for arbitrary lead structures, including irregular and randomly disordered leads. This method is verified for regular leads against common approaches and on physically equivalent, but numerically different irregular leads. Transmission results on randomly alloyed In0.5Ga0.5As structures show the importance of disorder in the leads. The concept of retarded contact self-energies is expanded to model passivation of atomically resolved surfaces without explicitly increasing the device's Hamiltonian.

  13. Porter's contribution to more general and dynamic strategy frameworks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.A.J. van den Bosch (Frans)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction. Understanding why firms are successful is a very basic question in strategy both from a practitioner and a research perspective. In the strategy and management literature, however, we are confronted with different analytical frameworks, applicable at different levels

  14. The distribution of economic impacts among rural households: A general equilibrium evaluation of regional water policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wernstedt, K.

    1991-01-01

    This study focuses on the relative distribution among urban and rural household income classes on the economic impacts of two water-related policies in the Columbia River Basin in the northwestern US. The two policies involve: (1) strategies to improve downstream anadromous fish migrations currently hindered by hydropower operations; and (2) proposals to transfer water from irrigation to hydropower generation. A regional input-output model traces the economic effects of the initial demand and price changes through the entire region. The model incorporates price changes in both a short-run (all endogenous prices are fixed) and a longer-run framework based on a Cobb-Douglas representation (all prices can vary). The analysis suggests that the construction of facilities to enhance fish migration and the physical transport of fish have opposite relative effects. The former benefits rural households, while the latter benefits urban households. Electricity price increases resulting from altered hydropower operations harm middle-income rural households, in the short-run. In the longer-run, electricity price increases seem to favor relatively all rural households. Changes associated with the water transfer policy also include electricity price alterations, as well as price and demand changes for agricultural products. Rural households benefit relative to urban households from agricultural product final demand increases, and tend to lose relatively with agricultural price and demand decreases. The inclusion of secondary impacts allows decision makers to asses the income effects of a project across a wider segment of the population, while the incorporation of short-and longer-run economic frameworks allows policy makers to assess both immediate and future income changes

  15. Equilibrium arrival times to queues with general service times and non-linear utility functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breinbjerg, Jesper

    2017-01-01

    by a general utility function which is decreasing in the waiting time and service completion time of each customer. Applications of such queueing games range from people choosing when to arrive at a grand opening sale to travellers choosing when to line up at the gate when boarding an airplane. We develop...

  16. General framework and basis of decommissioning of nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santiago, J. L.; Martin, N.; Correa, C.

    2013-01-01

    This article summarizes the legal framework defining the strategies, the main activities and the basic responsibilities and roles of the various agents involved in the decommissioning of nuclear facilities in Spain. It also describes briefly the most relevant projects and activities already developed and/or ongoing nowadays, which have positioned Spain within the small group of countries having an integrated and proved experience and know how in this particular field. (Author)

  17. Structuring energy supply and demand networks in a general equilibrium model to simulate global warming control strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, S.; Veselka, T.D.; Cirillo, R.R.

    1991-01-01

    Global warming control strategies which mandate stringent caps on emissions of greenhouse forcing gases can substantially alter a country's demand, production, and imports of energy products. Although there is a large degree of uncertainty when attempting to estimate the potential impact of these strategies, insights into the problem can be acquired through computer model simulations. This paper presents one method of structuring a general equilibrium model, the ENergy and Power Evaluation Program/Global Climate Change (ENPEP/GCC), to simulate changes in a country's energy supply and demand balance in response to global warming control strategies. The equilibrium model presented in this study is based on the principle of decomposition, whereby a large complex problem is divided into a number of smaller submodules. Submodules simulate energy activities and conversion processes such as electricity production. These submodules are linked together to form an energy supply and demand network. Linkages identify energy and fuel flows among various activities. Since global warming control strategies can have wide reaching effects, a complex network was constructed. The network represents all energy production, conversion, transportation, distribution, and utilization activities. The structure of the network depicts interdependencies within and across economic sectors and was constructed such that energy prices and demand responses can be simulated. Global warming control alternatives represented in the network include: (1) conservation measures through increased efficiency; and (2) substitution of fuels that have high greenhouse gas emission rates with fuels that have lower emission rates. 6 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs

  18. The Optimal Price Ratio of Typical Energy Sources in Beijing Based on the Computable General Equilibrium Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongxiu He

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In Beijing, China, the rational consumption of energy is affected by the insufficient linkage mechanism of the energy pricing system, the unreasonable price ratio and other issues. This paper combines the characteristics of Beijing’s energy market, putting forward the society-economy equilibrium indicator R maximization taking into consideration the mitigation cost to determine a reasonable price ratio range. Based on the computable general equilibrium (CGE model, and dividing four kinds of energy sources into three groups, the impact of price fluctuations of electricity and natural gas on the Gross Domestic Product (GDP, Consumer Price Index (CPI, energy consumption and CO2 and SO2 emissions can be simulated for various scenarios. On this basis, the integrated effects of electricity and natural gas price shocks on the Beijing economy and environment can be calculated. The results show that relative to the coal prices, the electricity and natural gas prices in Beijing are currently below reasonable levels; the solution to these unreasonable energy price ratios should begin by improving the energy pricing mechanism, through means such as the establishment of a sound dynamic adjustment mechanism between regulated prices and market prices. This provides a new idea for exploring the rationality of energy price ratios in imperfect competitive energy markets.

  19. Generalized Intelligent Framework for Tutoring (GIFT) Cloud/Virtual Open Campus Quick-Start Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    The GIFT Account allows users to log into GIFT Cloud , manage their personal storage in GIFT Cloud , download GIFT Local, and access resources...ARL-CR-0796 ● MAR 2016 US Army Research Laboratory Generalized Intelligent Framework for Tutoring (GIFT) Cloud / Virtual Open...originator. ARL-CR-0796 ● MAR 2016 US Army Research Laboratory Generalized Intelligent Framework for Tutoring (GIFT) Cloud / Virtual

  20. Retrofitting Non-Cognitive-Diagnostic Reading Assessment under the Generalized DINA Model Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huilin; Chen, Jinsong

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive diagnosis models (CDMs) are psychometric models developed mainly to assess examinees' specific strengths and weaknesses in a set of skills or attributes within a domain. By adopting the Generalized-DINA model framework, the recently developed general modeling framework, we attempted to retrofit the PISA reading assessments, a…

  1. An Evaluation of the Generalized Intelligent Framework for Tutoring (GIFT) from an Author’s Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    An Evaluation of the Generalized Intelligent Framework for Tutoring (GIFT) from an Author’s Perspective by Robert A Sottilare, Keith W...Intelligent Framework for Tutoring (GIFT) from an Author’s Perspective Robert A Sottilare and Keith W Brawner Human Research and Engineering...SUBTITLE An Evaluation of the Generalized Intelligent Framework for Tutoring (GIFT) from an Author’s Perspective 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT

  2. The impact of increased efficiency in the industrial use of energy: A computable general equilibrium analysis for the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allan, Grant; Hanley, Nick; McGregor, Peter; Swales, Kim; Turner, Karen

    2007-01-01

    The conventional wisdom is that improving energy efficiency will lower energy use. However, there is an extensive debate in the energy economics/policy literature concerning 'rebound' effects. These occur because an improvement in energy efficiency produces a fall in the effective price of energy services. The response of the economic system to this price fall at least partially offsets the expected beneficial impact of the energy efficiency gain. In this paper we use an economy-energy-environment computable general equilibrium (CGE) model for the UK to measure the impact of a 5% across the board improvement in the efficiency of energy use in all production sectors. We identify rebound effects of the order of 30-50%, but no backfire (no increase in energy use). However, these results are sensitive to the assumed structure of the labour market, key production elasticities, the time period under consideration and the mechanism through which increased government revenues are recycled back to the economy

  3. The strategic marketing planning – General Framework for Customer Segmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Elena OPRESCU

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Any approach that involves the use of strategic resources of an organisation requires a responsible approach, a behaviour that enables it to properly integrate itself into the dynamic of the business environment. This articles addresses in a synthetic manner, the issues of specific integration efforts for customers’ segmentation in the strategic marketing planning. The essential activity for any organisation wishing to optimise its response to the market, the customer segmentation will fully benefit from the framework provided by the strategic marketing planning. Being a sequential process, it not only allows time optimisation of the entire marketing activity but it also leads to accuracy of the strategic planning and its stages.

  4. Fundamentals of sketch-based passwords a general framework

    CERN Document Server

    Riggan, Benjamin S; Wang, Cliff

    2015-01-01

    This SpringerBrief explores graphical password systems and examines novel drawing-based methods in terms of security, usability, and human computer-interactions. It provides a systematic approach for recognizing, comparing, and matching sketch-based passwords in the context of modern computing systems. The book offers both a security and usability analysis of the accumulative framework used for incorporating handwriting biometrics and a human computer-interaction performance analysis. The chapters offer new perspectives and experimental results regarding model uniqueness, recognition tolerance

  5. Two carrier temperatures non-equilibrium generalized Planck law for semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibelli, François; Lombez, Laurent; Guillemoles, Jean-François

    2016-10-01

    Planck's law of radiation describes the light emitted by a blackbody. This law has been generalized in the past for the case of a non-blackbody material having a quasi Fermi-level splitting: the lattice of the material and the carriers are then considered in an isothermal regime. Hot carrier spectroscopy deals with carriers out of the isothermal regime, as their respective temperatures (THe ≠ THh) are considered to be different than that of the lattice (TL). Here we show that Fermi-Dirac distribution temperature for each type of carrier still determine an effective radiation temperature: an explicit relationship is given involving the effective masses. Moreover, we show how to determine, in principle with an additional approximation, the carrier temperatures (THe, THh) and the corresponding absolute electrochemical potentials from photoluminescence measurements.

  6. Generalized framework for context-specific metabolic model extraction methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semidán eRobaina Estévez

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Genome-scale metabolic models are increasingly applied to investigate the physiology not only of simple prokaryotes, but also eukaryotes, such as plants, characterized with compartmentalized cells of multiple types. While genome-scale models aim at including the entirety of known metabolic reactions, mounting evidence has indicated that only a subset of these reactions is active in a given context, including: developmental stage, cell type, or environment. As a result, several methods have been proposed to reconstruct context-specific models from existing genome-scale models by integrating various types of high-throughput data. Here we present a mathematical framework that puts all existing methods under one umbrella and provides the means to better understand their functioning, highlight similarities and differences, and to help users in selecting a most suitable method for an application.

  7. Multi-attribute utility theory. Toward a more general framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beaudoin, F.; Munier, B.; Serquin, Y.; Ecole Normale Superieure, 94 - Cachan

    1997-12-01

    Optimizing maintenance programs for nuclear power plants is a difficult task. Beyond the reliability of the systems at hand, one has to consider several conflicting objectives such as safety, availability, maintenance costs, personal exposure to radiations, all under risk. Multi-Attributed Utility Theory is a widely used framework to cope with such problems. This procedure is, however, based on a set of axioms which imply an expected utility treatment of risk. It has been shown elsewhere that the risk structure to be considered in such cases does not correspond to behavior consistent with such a treatment of risk, but would rather correspond to a rank dependent evaluation type of model. The question raised is then how to use a multi-attributed scheme of preferences under such conditions. (author)

  8. DEEP: a general computational framework for predicting enhancers

    KAUST Repository

    Kleftogiannis, Dimitrios A.

    2014-11-05

    Transcription regulation in multicellular eukaryotes is orchestrated by a number of DNA functional elements located at gene regulatory regions. Some regulatory regions (e.g. enhancers) are located far away from the gene they affect. Identification of distal regulatory elements is a challenge for the bioinformatics research. Although existing methodologies increased the number of computationally predicted enhancers, performance inconsistency of computational models across different cell-lines, class imbalance within the learning sets and ad hoc rules for selecting enhancer candidates for supervised learning, are some key questions that require further examination. In this study we developed DEEP, a novel ensemble prediction framework. DEEP integrates three components with diverse characteristics that streamline the analysis of enhancer\\'s properties in a great variety of cellular conditions. In our method we train many individual classification models that we combine to classify DNA regions as enhancers or non-enhancers. DEEP uses features derived from histone modification marks or attributes coming from sequence characteristics. Experimental results indicate that DEEP performs better than four state-of-the-art methods on the ENCODE data. We report the first computational enhancer prediction results on FANTOM5 data where DEEP achieves 90.2% accuracy and 90% geometric mean (GM) of specificity and sensitivity across 36 different tissues. We further present results derived using in vivo-derived enhancer data from VISTA database. DEEP-VISTA, when tested on an independent test set, achieved GM of 80.1% and accuracy of 89.64%. DEEP framework is publicly available at http://cbrc.kaust.edu.sa/deep/.

  9. DEEP: a general computational framework for predicting enhancers

    KAUST Repository

    Kleftogiannis, Dimitrios A.; Kalnis, Panos; Bajic, Vladimir B.

    2014-01-01

    Transcription regulation in multicellular eukaryotes is orchestrated by a number of DNA functional elements located at gene regulatory regions. Some regulatory regions (e.g. enhancers) are located far away from the gene they affect. Identification of distal regulatory elements is a challenge for the bioinformatics research. Although existing methodologies increased the number of computationally predicted enhancers, performance inconsistency of computational models across different cell-lines, class imbalance within the learning sets and ad hoc rules for selecting enhancer candidates for supervised learning, are some key questions that require further examination. In this study we developed DEEP, a novel ensemble prediction framework. DEEP integrates three components with diverse characteristics that streamline the analysis of enhancer's properties in a great variety of cellular conditions. In our method we train many individual classification models that we combine to classify DNA regions as enhancers or non-enhancers. DEEP uses features derived from histone modification marks or attributes coming from sequence characteristics. Experimental results indicate that DEEP performs better than four state-of-the-art methods on the ENCODE data. We report the first computational enhancer prediction results on FANTOM5 data where DEEP achieves 90.2% accuracy and 90% geometric mean (GM) of specificity and sensitivity across 36 different tissues. We further present results derived using in vivo-derived enhancer data from VISTA database. DEEP-VISTA, when tested on an independent test set, achieved GM of 80.1% and accuracy of 89.64%. DEEP framework is publicly available at http://cbrc.kaust.edu.sa/deep/.

  10. I. Dissociation free energies of drug-receptor systems via non-equilibrium alchemical simulations: a theoretical framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procacci, Piero

    2016-06-01

    In this contribution I critically revise the alchemical reversible approach in the context of the statistical mechanics theory of non-covalent bonding in drug-receptor systems. I show that most of the pitfalls and entanglements for the binding free energy evaluation in computer simulations are rooted in the equilibrium assumption that is implicit in the reversible method. These critical issues can be resolved by using a non-equilibrium variant of the alchemical method in molecular dynamics simulations, relying on the production of many independent trajectories with a continuous dynamical evolution of an externally driven alchemical coordinate, completing the decoupling of the ligand in a matter of a few tens of picoseconds rather than nanoseconds. The absolute binding free energy can be recovered from the annihilation work distributions by applying an unbiased unidirectional free energy estimate, on the assumption that any observed work distribution is given by a mixture of normal distributions, whose components are identical in either direction of the non-equilibrium process, with weights regulated by the Crooks theorem. I finally show that the inherent reliability and accuracy of the unidirectional estimate of the decoupling free energies, based on the production of a few hundreds of non-equilibrium independent sub-nanosecond unrestrained alchemical annihilation processes, is a direct consequence of the funnel-like shape of the free energy surface in molecular recognition. An application of the technique to a real drug-receptor system is presented in the companion paper.

  11. The quality and outcomes framework: QOF - transforming general practice

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gillam, Stephen; Siriwardena, Aloysius Niroshan

    2011-01-01

    ... comprehensive scheme of its kind in the world. Champions claim the QOF advances the quality of primary care; detractors fear the end of general practice as we know it. The introduction of the QOF provides a unique opportunity for research, analysis and re ection. This book is the rst comprehensive analysis of the impact of the QOF, examining the claims and counter-claims ...

  12. Equilibrium and non-equilibrium phenomena in arcs and torches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mullen, van der J.J.A.M.

    2000-01-01

    A general treatment of non-equilibrium plasma aspects is obtained by relating transport fluxes to equilibrium restoring processes in so-called disturbed Bilateral Relations. The (non) equilibrium stage of a small microwave induced plasma serves as case study.

  13. Request for All - Generalized Request Framework for PhEDEx

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, C-H; Ratnikova, N.; Sanchez-Hernandez, A.; Zhang, X.; Magini, N.

    2014-01-01

    PhEDEx has been serving CMS community since 2004 as the data broker. Every PhEDEx operation is initiated by a request, such as request to move data, request to delete data, and so on. A request has it own life cycle, including creation, approval, notification, and book keeping and the details depend on its type. Currently, only two kinds of requests, transfer and deletion, are fully integrated in PhEDEx. They are tailored specifically to the operations workflows. To be able to serve a new type of request it generally means a fair amount of development work.After several years of operation, we have gathered enough experience to rethink the request handling in PhEDEx. Generalized Request Project is set to abstract such experience and come up with a request system which is not tied into current workflow yet it is general enough to accommodate current and future requests.The challenges are dealing with different stages in a requests life cycle, complexity of approval process and complexity of the ability and auth...

  14. Beyond heat baths II: framework for generalized thermodynamic resource theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunger Halpern, Nicole

    2018-03-01

    Thermodynamics, which describes vast systems, has been reconciled with small scales, relevant to single-molecule experiments, in resource theories. Resource theories have been used to model exchanges of energy and information. Recently, particle exchanges were modeled; and an umbrella family of thermodynamic resource theories was proposed to model diverse baths, interactions, and free energies. This paper motivates and details the family’s structure and prospective applications. How to model electrochemical, gravitational, magnetic, and other thermodynamic systems is explained. Szilárd’s engine and Landauer’s Principle are generalized, as resourcefulness is shown to be convertible not only between information and gravitational energy, but also among diverse degrees of freedom. Extensive variables are associated with quantum operators that might fail to commute, introducing extra nonclassicality into thermodynamic resource theories. An early version of this paper partially motivated the later development of noncommutative thermalization. This generalization expands the theories’ potential for modeling realistic systems with which small-scale statistical mechanics might be tested experimentally.

  15. Chemical Principles Revisited: Chemical Equilibrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickey, Charles D.

    1980-01-01

    Describes: (1) Law of Mass Action; (2) equilibrium constant and ideal behavior; (3) general form of the equilibrium constant; (4) forward and reverse reactions; (5) factors influencing equilibrium; (6) Le Chatelier's principle; (7) effects of temperature, changing concentration, and pressure on equilibrium; and (8) catalysts and equilibrium. (JN)

  16. A General Probabilistic Forecasting Framework for Offshore Wind Power Fluctuations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trombe, Pierre-Julien; Pinson, Pierre; Madsen, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    Accurate wind power forecasts highly contribute to the integration of wind power into power systems. The focus of the present study is on large-scale offshore wind farms and the complexity of generating accurate probabilistic forecasts of wind power fluctuations at time-scales of a few minutes...... fluctuations are characterized by highly volatile dynamics which are difficult to capture and predict. Due to the lack of adequate on-site meteorological observations to relate these dynamics to meteorological phenomena, we propose a general model formulation based on a statistical approach and historical wind...... power measurements only. We introduce an advanced Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) estimation method to account for the different features observed in an empirical time series of wind power: autocorrelation, heteroscedasticity and regime-switching. The model we propose is an extension of Markov...

  17. Deflected Mirage Mediation: A Framework for Generalized Supersymmetry Breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ian-Woo

    2008-01-01

    We present a model of supersymmetry breaking in which the contributions from gravity/modulus, anomaly, and gauge mediation are all comparable. We term this scenario 'deflected mirage mediation', which is a generalization of the KKLT-motivated mirage mediation scenario to include gauge mediated contributions. These contributions deflect the gaugino mass unification scale and alter the pattern of soft parameters at low energies. Competitive gauge-mediated terms can naturally appear within phenomenological models based on the KKLT setup by the stabilization of the gauge singlet field responsible for the masses of the messenger fields. We analyze the renormalization group evolution of the supersymmetry breaking terms and the resulting low energy mass spectra.

  18. A General Probabilistic Forecasting Framework for Offshore Wind Power Fluctuations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik Madsen

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Accurate wind power forecasts highly contribute to the integration of wind power into power systems. The focus of the present study is on large-scale offshore wind farms and the complexity of generating accurate probabilistic forecasts of wind power fluctuations at time-scales of a few minutes. Such complexity is addressed from three perspectives: (i the modeling of a nonlinear and non-stationary stochastic process; (ii the practical implementation of the model we proposed; (iii the gap between working on synthetic data and real world observations. At time-scales of a few minutes, offshore fluctuations are characterized by highly volatile dynamics which are difficult to capture and predict. Due to the lack of adequate on-site meteorological observations to relate these dynamics to meteorological phenomena, we propose a general model formulation based on a statistical approach and historical wind power measurements only. We introduce an advanced Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC estimation method to account for the different features observed in an empirical time series of wind power: autocorrelation, heteroscedasticity and regime-switching. The model we propose is an extension of Markov-Switching Autoregressive (MSAR models with Generalized AutoRegressive Conditional Heteroscedastic (GARCH errors in each regime to cope with the heteroscedasticity. Then, we analyze the predictive power of our model on a one-step ahead exercise of time series sampled over 10 min intervals. Its performances are compared to state-of-the-art models and highlight the interest of including a GARCH specification for density forecasts.

  19. A generalized coherence framework for detecting and characterizing nonlinear interactions in the nervous system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, Y.; Solis Escalante, T.; van der Helm, F.C.T.; Schouten, A.C.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This paper introduces a generalized coherence framework for detecting and characterizing nonlinear interactions in the nervous system, namely cross-spectral coherence (CSC). CSC can detect different types of nonlinear interactions including harmonic and intermodulation coupling as present

  20. Air pollution-induced health impacts on the national economy of China: demonstration of a computable general equilibrium approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Yue; Yang, Hongwei; Masui, Toshihiko

    2005-01-01

    At the present time, ambient air pollution is a serious public health problem in China. Based on the concentration-response relationship provided by international and domestic epidemiologic studies, the authors estimated the mortality and morbidity induced by the ambient air pollution of 2000. To address the mechanism of the health impact on the national economy, the authors applied a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model, named AIM/Material China, containing 39 production sectors and 32 commodities. AIM/Material analyzes changes of the gross domestic product (GDP), final demand, and production activity originating from health damages. If ambient air quality met Grade II of China's air quality standard in 2000, then the avoidable GDP loss would be 0.38%o of the national total, of which 95% was led by labor loss. Comparatively, medical expenditure had less impact on national economy, which is explained from the aspect of the final demand by commodities and the production activities by sectors. The authors conclude that the CGE model is a suitable tool for assessing health impacts from a point of view of national economy through the discussion about its applicability.

  1. General Equilibrium Analysis of Economic Instruments in Materials-Product Chains with Materials Balance, Recycling and Waste Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kandelaars, P.A.A.H.; Van den Bergh, J.C.J.M. [Department of Spatial Economics, Faculty of Economics and Econometrics, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    1997-12-31

    Optimal environmental taxation and subsidies in a materials-product (M-P) chain are examined. This incorporates the main economic activities extraction, production, consumption, recycling and waste treatment. A static general equilibrium model of this M-P chain is constructed, with environmental impacts represented as negative externalities generated by natural resource extraction and final dumping of waste. The model includes various environmental taxes and subsidies on products and materials to pay for these externalities. The originality of this analytical exercise is twofold: in all stages of the M-P chain materials balance conditions are satisfied; furthermore, recycling is explicitly included as a separate activity with inputs, outputs and objectives. Thus, the paper combines physical-environmental and welfare economic perspectives on materials flows. The results show that the externalities generated by extraction and harmful waste can only be optimized by imposing a direct tax on the new materials. In a second-best world the externalities may be sub-optimized by taxing the generation of harmful waste or by subsidizing the use of recycled materials. Changes in some variables causes a shift between the optimal taxes on new materials at the beginning and harmful waste at the end of the M-P chain. This linkage is interesting because it shows that the whole M-P chain needs to be considered instead of parts of this chain. 16 refs.

  2. Housing demand or money supply? A new Keynesian dynamic stochastic general equilibrium model on China's housing market fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Xing-Chun; He, Ling-Yun

    2015-08-01

    There is a bitter controversy over what drives the housing price in China in the existing literature. In this paper, we investigate the underlying driving force behind housing price fluctuations in China, especially focusing on the role of housing demand shock with that of money supply shock in explaining housing price movements, by a new Keynesian dynamic stochastic general equilibrium model. Empirical results suggest that it is housing demand, instead of money supply, that mainly drives China's housing price movements. Relevant policy implication is further discussed, namely, whether to consider the housing price fluctuations in the conduct of monetary policy. By means of the policy simulations, we find that a real house price-augmented money supply rule is a better monetary policy for China's economy stabilization. 1. Investment refers to fixed capital investment. 2. Housing price refers to national average housing price. Quarterly data on housing price during the period of our work are not directly available. However, monthly data of the value of sales on housing and sale volume on housing can be directly obtained from National Bureau of Statistics of China. We add up the monthly data and calculate one quarter's housing price by dividing the value of housing sales by its sale volume in one quarter. 3. M2 means the broad money supply in China.

  3. Analysis of Future Vehicle Energy Demand in China Based on a Gompertz Function Method and Computable General Equilibrium Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Wu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a model for the projection of Chinese vehicle stocks and road vehicle energy demand through 2050 based on low-, medium-, and high-growth scenarios. To derive a gross-domestic product (GDP-dependent Gompertz function, Chinese GDP is estimated using a recursive dynamic Computable General Equilibrium (CGE model. The Gompertz function is estimated using historical data on vehicle development trends in North America, Pacific Rim and Europe to overcome the problem of insufficient long-running data on Chinese vehicle ownership. Results indicate that the number of projected vehicle stocks for 2050 is 300, 455 and 463 million for low-, medium-, and high-growth scenarios respectively. Furthermore, the growth in China’s vehicle stock will increase beyond the inflection point of Gompertz curve by 2020, but will not reach saturation point during the period 2014–2050. Of major road vehicle categories, cars are the largest energy consumers, followed by trucks and buses. Growth in Chinese vehicle demand is primarily determined by per capita GDP. Vehicle saturation levels solely influence the shape of the Gompertz curve and population growth weakly affects vehicle demand. Projected total energy consumption of road vehicles in 2050 is 380, 575 and 586 million tonnes of oil equivalent for each scenario.

  4. Economic Impacts of Potential Foot and Mouth Disease Agro-terrorism in the United States: A Computable General Equilibrium Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oladosu, Gbadebo A [ORNL; Rose, Adam [University of Southern California, Los Angeles; Bumsoo, Lee [University of Illinois

    2013-01-01

    The foot and mouth disease (FMD) virus has high agro-terrorism potential because it is contagious, can be easily transmitted via inanimate objects and can be spread by wind. An outbreak of FMD in developed countries results in massive slaughtering of animals (for disease control) and disruptions in meat supply chains and trade, with potentially large economic losses. Although the United States has been FMD-free since 1929, the potential of FMD as a deliberate terrorist weapon calls for estimates of the physical and economic damage that could result from an outbreak. This paper estimates the economic impacts of three alternative scenarios of potential FMD attacks using a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model of the US economy. The three scenarios range from a small outbreak successfully contained within a state to a large multi-state attack resulting in slaughtering of 30 percent of the national livestock. Overall, the value of total output losses in our simulations range between $37 billion (0.15% of 2006 baseline economic output) and $228 billion (0.92%). Major impacts stem from the supply constraint on livestock due to massive animal slaughtering. As expected, the economic losses are heavily concentrated in agriculture and food manufacturing sectors, with losses ranging from $23 billion to $61 billion in the two industries.

  5. Comprehensive optimisation of China’s energy prices, taxes and subsidy policies based on the dynamic computable general equilibrium model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Y.X.; Liu, Y.Y.; Du, M.; Zhang, J.X.; Pang, Y.X.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Energy policy is defined as a complication of energy price, tax and subsidy policies. • The maximisation of total social benefit is the optimised objective. • A more rational carbon tax ranges from 10 to 20 Yuan/ton under the current situation. • The optimal coefficient pricing is more conducive to maximise total social benefit. - Abstract: Under the condition of increasingly serious environmental pollution, rational energy policy plays an important role in the practical significance of energy conservation and emission reduction. This paper defines energy policies as the compilation of energy prices, taxes and subsidy policies. Moreover, it establishes the optimisation model of China’s energy policy based on the dynamic computable general equilibrium model, which maximises the total social benefit, in order to explore the comprehensive influences of a carbon tax, the sales pricing mechanism and the renewable energy fund policy. The results show that when the change rates of gross domestic product and consumer price index are ±2%, ±5% and the renewable energy supply structure ratio is 7%, the more reasonable carbon tax ranges from 10 to 20 Yuan/ton, and the optimal coefficient pricing mechanism is more conducive to the objective of maximising the total social benefit. From the perspective of optimising the overall energy policies, if the upper limit of change rate in consumer price index is 2.2%, the existing renewable energy fund should be improved

  6. Development of effect assessment methodology for the deployment of fast reactor cycle system with dynamic computable general equilibrium model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiotani, Hiroki; Ono, Kiyoshi

    2009-01-01

    The Global Trade and Analysis Project (GTAP) is a widely used computable general equilibrium (CGE) model developed by Purdue University. Although the GTAP-E, an energy environmental version of the GTAP model, is useful for surveying the energy-economy-environment-trade linkage is economic policy analysis, it does not have the decomposed model of the electricity sector and its analyses are comparatively static. In this study, a recursive dynamic CGE model with a detailed electricity technology bundle with nuclear power generation including FR was developed based on the GTAP-E to evaluate the long-term socioeconomic effects of FR deployment. The capital stock changes caused by international investments and some dynamic constraints of the FR deployment and operation (e.g., load following capability and plutonium mass balance) were incorporated in the analyses. The long-term socioeconomic effects resulting from the deployment of economic competitive FR with innovative technologies can be assessed; the cumulative effects of the FR deployment on GDP calculated using this model costed over 40 trillion yen in Japan and 400 trillion yen worldwide, which were several times more than the cost of the effects calculated using the conventional cost-benefit analysis tool, because of ripple effects and energy substitutions among others. (author)

  7. Assessing the economic impact of North China’s water scarcity mitigation strategy : a multi - region, water - extended computable general equilibrium analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qin, Changbo; Qin, C.; Su, Zhongbo; Bressers, Johannes T.A.; Jia, Y.; Wang, H.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a multi-region computable general equilibrium model for analyzing the effectiveness of measures and policies for mitigating North China’s water scarcity with respect to three different groups of scenarios. The findings suggest that a reduction in groundwater use would negatively

  8. A Comparative Analysis of Some Policy Options to Reduce Rationing in the UK’s NHS: Lessons from a General Equilibrium Model Incorporating Positive Health Effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, M.M.; Reed, G.

    2009-01-01

    This paper seeks to determine the macro-economic impacts of changes in health care provision. The resource allocation issues have been explored in theory, by applying the Rybczynski theorem, and empirically, using a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model for the UK with a detailed health

  9. Developing a framework of, and quality indicators for, general practice management in Europe.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engels, Y.M.P.; Campbell, S.M.; Dautzenberg, M.G.H.; Hombergh, P. van den; Brinkmann, H.; Szecsenyi, J.; Falcoff, H.; Seuntjens, L.; Kuenzi, B.; Grol, R.P.T.M.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To develop a framework for general practice management made up of quality indicators shared by six European countries. METHODS: Two-round postal Delphi questionnaire in the setting of general practice in Belgium, France, Germany, The Netherlands, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. Six

  10. The economy-wide impact of pandemic influenza on the UK: a computable general equilibrium modelling experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Richard D; Keogh-Brown, Marcus R; Barnett, Tony; Tait, Joyce

    2009-11-19

    To estimate the potential economic impact of pandemic influenza, associated behavioural responses, school closures, and vaccination on the United Kingdom. A computable general equilibrium model of the UK economy was specified for various combinations of mortality and morbidity from pandemic influenza, vaccine efficacy, school closures, and prophylactic absenteeism using published data. The 2004 UK economy (the most up to date available with suitable economic data). The economic impact of various scenarios with different pandemic severity, vaccination, school closure, and prophylactic absenteeism specified in terms of gross domestic product, output from different economic sectors, and equivalent variation. The costs related to illness alone ranged between 0.5% and 1.0% of gross domestic product ( pound8.4bn to pound16.8bn) for low fatality scenarios, 3.3% and 4.3% ( pound55.5bn to pound72.3bn) for high fatality scenarios, and larger still for an extreme pandemic. School closure increases the economic impact, particularly for mild pandemics. If widespread behavioural change takes place and there is large scale prophylactic absence from work, the economic impact would be notably increased with few health benefits. Vaccination with a pre-pandemic vaccine could save 0.13% to 2.3% of gross domestic product ( pound2.2bn to pound38.6bn); a single dose of a matched vaccine could save 0.3% to 4.3% ( pound5.0bn to pound72.3bn); and two doses of a matched vaccine could limit the overall economic impact to about 1% of gross domestic product for all disease scenarios. Balancing school closure against "business as usual" and obtaining sufficient stocks of effective vaccine are more important factors in determining the economic impact of an influenza pandemic than is the disease itself. Prophylactic absence from work in response to fear of infection can add considerably to the economic impact.

  11. SRB states and nonequilibrium statistical mechanics close to equilibrium

    OpenAIRE

    Gallavotti, Giovannni; Ruelle, David

    1996-01-01

    Nonequilibrium statistical mechanics close to equilibrium is studied using SRB states and a formula for their derivatives with respect to parameters. We write general expressions for the thermodynamic fluxes (or currents) and the transport coefficients, generalizing previous results. In this framework we give a general proof of the Onsager reciprocity relations.

  12. Generalized frameworks for first-order evolution inclusions based on Yosida approximations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram U. Verma

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available First, general frameworks for the first-order evolution inclusions are developed based on the A-maximal relaxed monotonicity, and then using the Yosida approximation the solvability of a general class of first-order nonlinear evolution inclusions is investigated. The role the A-maximal relaxed monotonicity is significant in the sense that it not only empowers the first-order nonlinear evolution inclusions but also generalizes the existing Yosida approximations and its characterizations in the current literature.

  13. Understanding general practice: a conceptual framework developed from case studies in the UK NHS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Checkland, Kath

    2007-01-01

    General practice in the UK is undergoing a period of rapid and profound change. Traditionally, research into the effects of change on general practice has tended to regard GPs as individuals or as members of a professional group. To understand the impact of change, general practices should also be considered as organisations. To use the organisational studies literature to build a conceptual framework of general practice organisations, and to test and develop this empirically using case studies of change in practice. This study used the implementation of National Service Frameworks (NSFs) and the new General Medical Services (GMS) contract as incidents of change. In-depth, qualitative case studies. The design was iterative: each case study was followed by a review of the theoretical ideas. The final conceptual framework was the result of the dynamic interplay between theory and empirical evidence. Five general practices in England, selected using purposeful sampling. Semi-structured interviews with all clinical and managerial personnel in each practice, participant and nonparticipant observation, and examination of documents. A conceptual framework was developed that can be used to understand how and why practices respond to change. This framework enabled understanding of observed reactions to the introduction of NSFs and the new GMS contract. Important factors for generating responses to change included the story that the practice members told about their practice, beliefs about what counted as legitimate work, the role played by the manager, and previous experiences of change. Viewing general practices as small organisations has generated insights into factors that influence responses to change. Change tends to occur from the bottom up and is determined by beliefs about organisational reality. The conceptual framework suggests some questions that can be asked of practices to explain this internal reality.

  14. A reaction-based paradigm to model reactive chemical transport in groundwater with general kinetic and equilibrium reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Fan; Yeh, Gour-Tsyh; Parker, Jack C.; Brooks, Scott C; Pace, Molly; Kim, Young Jin; Jardine, Philip M.; Watson, David B.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a reaction-based water quality transport model in subsurface flow systems. Transport of chemical species with a variety of chemical and physical processes is mathematically described by M. partial differential equations (PDEs). Decomposition via Gauss-Jordan column reduction of the reaction network transforms M. species reactive transport equations into two sets of equations: a set of thermodynamic equilibrium equations representing NE equilibrium reactions and a set of reactive transport equations of M-NE kinetic-variables involving no equilibrium reactions (a kinetic-variable is a linear combination of species). The elimination of equilibrium reactions from reactive transport equations allows robust and efficient numerical integration. The model solves the PDEs of kinetic-variables rather than individual chemical species, which reduces the number of reactive transport equations and simplifies the reaction terms in the equations. A variety of numerical methods are investigated for solving the coupled transport and reaction equations. Simulation comparisons with exact solutions were performed to verify numerical accuracy and assess the effectiveness of various numerical strategies to deal with different application circumstances. Two validation examples involving simulations of uranium transport in soil columns are presented to evaluate the ability of the model to simulate reactive transport with complex reaction networks involving both kinetic and equilibrium reactions

  15. A reaction-based paradigm to model reactive chemical transport in groundwater with general kinetic and equilibrium reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fan; Yeh, Gour-Tsyh; Parker, Jack C; Brooks, Scott C; Pace, Molly N; Kim, Young-Jin; Jardine, Philip M; Watson, David B

    2007-06-16

    This paper presents a reaction-based water quality transport model in subsurface flow systems. Transport of chemical species with a variety of chemical and physical processes is mathematically described by M partial differential equations (PDEs). Decomposition via Gauss-Jordan column reduction of the reaction network transforms M species reactive transport equations into two sets of equations: a set of thermodynamic equilibrium equations representing N(E) equilibrium reactions and a set of reactive transport equations of M-N(E) kinetic-variables involving no equilibrium reactions (a kinetic-variable is a linear combination of species). The elimination of equilibrium reactions from reactive transport equations allows robust and efficient numerical integration. The model solves the PDEs of kinetic-variables rather than individual chemical species, which reduces the number of reactive transport equations and simplifies the reaction terms in the equations. A variety of numerical methods are investigated for solving the coupled transport and reaction equations. Simulation comparisons with exact solutions were performed to verify numerical accuracy and assess the effectiveness of various numerical strategies to deal with different application circumstances. Two validation examples involving simulations of uranium transport in soil columns are presented to evaluate the ability of the model to simulate reactive transport with complex reaction networks involving both kinetic and equilibrium reactions.

  16. Abnormal motor patterns in the framework of the equilibrium-point hypothesis: a cause for dystonic movements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latash, M L; Gutman, S R

    1994-01-01

    Until now, the equilibrium-point hypothesis (lambda model) of motor control has assumed nonintersecting force-length characteristics of the tonic stretch reflex for individual muscles. Limited data from animal experiments suggest, however, that such intersections may occur. We have assumed the possibility of intersection of the characteristics of the tonic stretch reflex and performed a computer simulation of movement trajectories and electromyographic patterns. The simulation has demonstrated, in particular, that a transient change in the slope of the characteristic of an agonist muscle may lead to temporary movement reversals, hesitations, oscillations, and multiple electromyographic bursts that are typical of movements of patients with dystonia. The movement patterns of three patients with idiopathic dystonia during attempts at fast single-joint movements (in the elbow, wrist, and ankle) were recorded and compared with the results of the computer simulation. This approach considers that motor disorders in dystonia result from faulty control patterns that may not correlate with any morphological or neurophysiological changes. It provides a basis for the high variability of dystonic movements. The uniqueness of abnormal motor patterns in dystonia, that precludes statistical analysis across patients, may result from subtle differences in the patterns of intersecting characteristics of the tonic stretch reflex. The applicability of our analysis to disordered multijoint movement patterns is discussed.

  17. Probing the hydrogen equilibrium and kinetics in zeolite imidazolate frameworks via molecular dynamics and quasi-elastic neutron scattering experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantatosaki, Evangelia; Jobic, Hervé; Kolokolov, Daniil I; Karmakar, Shilpi; Biniwale, Rajesh; Papadopoulos, George K

    2013-01-21

    The problem of simulating processes involving equilibria and dynamics of guest sorbates within zeolitic imidazolate frameworks (ZIF) by means of molecular dynamics (MD) computer experiments is of growing importance because of the promising role of ZIFs as molecular "traps" for clean energy applications. A key issue for validating such an atomistic modeling attempt is the possibility of comparing the MD results, with real experiments being able to capture analogous space and time scales to the ones pertained to the computer experiments. In the present study, this prerequisite is fulfilled through the quasi-elastic neutron scattering technique (QENS) for measuring self-diffusivity, by elaborating the incoherent scattering signal of hydrogen nuclei. QENS and MD experiments were performed in parallel to probe the hydrogen motion, for the first time in ZIF members. The predicted and measured dynamics behaviors show considerable concentration variation of the hydrogen self-diffusion coefficient in the two topologically different ZIF pore networks of this study, the ZIF-3 and ZIF-8. Modeling options such as the flexibility of the entire matrix versus a rigid framework version, the mobility of the imidazolate ligand, and the inclusion of quantum mechanical effects in the potential functions were examined in detail for the sorption thermodynamics and kinetics of hydrogen and also of deuterium, by employing MD combined with Widom averaging towards studying phase equilibria. The latter methodology ensures a rigorous and efficient way for post-processing the dynamics trajectory, thereby avoiding stochastic moves via Monte Carlo simulation, over the large number of configurational degrees of freedom a nonrigid framework encompasses.

  18. A General Framework for Portfolio Theory—Part I: Theory and Various Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislaus Maier-Paape

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Utility and risk are two often competing measurements on the investment success. We show that efficient trade-off between these two measurements for investment portfolios happens, in general, on a convex curve in the two-dimensional space of utility and risk. This is a rather general pattern. The modern portfolio theory of Markowitz (1959 and the capital market pricing model Sharpe (1964, are special cases of our general framework when the risk measure is taken to be the standard deviation and the utility function is the identity mapping. Using our general framework, we also recover and extend the results in Rockafellar et al. (2006, which were already an extension of the capital market pricing model to allow for the use of more general deviation measures. This generalized capital asset pricing model also applies to e.g., when an approximation of the maximum drawdown is considered as a risk measure. Furthermore, the consideration of a general utility function allows for going beyond the “additive” performance measure to a “multiplicative” one of cumulative returns by using the log utility. As a result, the growth optimal portfolio theory Lintner (1965 and the leverage space portfolio theory Vince (2009 can also be understood and enhanced under our general framework. Thus, this general framework allows a unification of several important existing portfolio theories and goes far beyond. For simplicity of presentation, we phrase all for a finite underlying probability space and a one period market model, but generalizations to more complex structures are straightforward.

  19. Policy implementation in practice: the case of national service frameworks in general practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Checkland, Kath; Harrison, Stephen

    2004-10-01

    National Service Frameworks are an integral part of the government's drive to 'modernise' the NHS, intended to standardise both clinical care and the design of the services used to deliver that clinical care. This article uses evidence from qualitative case studies in three general practices to illustrate the difficulties associated with the implementation of such top-down guidelines and models of service. In these studies it was found that, while there had been little explicit activity directed at implementation overall, the National Service Framework for coronary heart disease had in general fared better than that for older people. Gunn's notion of 'perfect implementation' is used to make sense of the findings.

  20. Electromagnetic scattering and emission by a fixed multi-particle object in local thermal equilibrium: General formalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishchenko, Michael I

    2017-10-01

    The majority of previous studies of the interaction of individual particles and multi-particle groups with electromagnetic field have focused on either elastic scattering in the presence of an external field or self-emission of electromagnetic radiation. In this paper we apply semi-classical fluctuational electrodynamics to address the ubiquitous scenario wherein a fixed particle or a fixed multi-particle group is exposed to an external quasi-polychromatic electromagnetic field as well as thermally emits its own electromagnetic radiation. We summarize the main relevant axioms of fluctuational electrodynamics, formulate in maximally rigorous mathematical terms the general scattering-emission problem for a fixed object, and derive such fundamental corollaries as the scattering-emission volume integral equation, the Lippmann-Schwinger equation for the dyadic transition operator, the multi-particle scattering-emission equations, and the far-field limit. We show that in the framework of fluctuational electrodynamics, the computation of the self-emitted component of the total field is completely separated from that of the elastically scattered field. The same is true of the computation of the emitted and elastically scattered components of quadratic/bilinear forms in the total electromagnetic field. These results pave the way to the practical computation of relevant optical observables.

  1. Generalized Yosida Approximations Based on Relatively A-Maximal m-Relaxed Monotonicity Frameworks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heng-you Lan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce and study a new notion of relatively A-maximal m-relaxed monotonicity framework and discuss some properties of a new class of generalized relatively resolvent operator associated with the relatively A-maximal m-relaxed monotone operator and the new generalized Yosida approximations based on relatively A-maximal m-relaxed monotonicity framework. Furthermore, we give some remarks to show that the theory of the new generalized relatively resolvent operator and Yosida approximations associated with relatively A-maximal m-relaxed monotone operators generalizes most of the existing notions on (relatively maximal monotone mappings in Hilbert as well as Banach space and can be applied to study variational inclusion problems and first-order evolution equations as well as evolution inclusions.

  2. Averaged description of 3D MHD equilibrium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medvedev, S.Yu.; Drozdov, V.V.; Ivanov, A.A.; Martynov, A.A.; Pashekhonov, Yu.Yu.; Mikhailov, M.I.

    2001-01-01

    A general approach by S.A.Galkin et al. in 1991 to 2D description of MHD equilibrium and stability in 3D systems was proposed. The method requires a background 3D equilibrium with nested flux surfaces to generate the metric of a Riemannian space in which the background equilibrium is described by the 2D equation of Grad-Shafranov type. The equation can be solved then varying plasma profiles and shape to get approximate 3D equilibria. In the framework of the method both planar axis conventional stellarators and configurations with spatial magnetic axis can be studied. In the present report the formulation and numerical realization of the equilibrium problem for stellarators with planar axis is reviewed. The input background equilibria with nested flux surfaces are taken from vacuum magnetic field approximately described by analytic scalar potential

  3. Interference Calculus A General Framework for Interference Management and Network Utility Optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Schubert, Martin

    2012-01-01

    This book develops a mathematical framework for modeling and optimizing interference-coupled multiuser systems. At the core of this framework is the concept of general interference functions, which provides a simple means of characterizing interdependencies between users. The entire analysis builds on the two core axioms scale-invariance and monotonicity. The proposed network calculus has its roots in power control theory and wireless communications. It adds theoretical tools for analyzing the typical behavior of interference-coupled networks. In this way it complements existing game-theoretic approaches. The framework should also be viewed in conjunction with optimization theory. There is a fruitful interplay between the theory of interference functions and convex optimization theory. By jointly exploiting the properties of interference functions, it is possible to design algorithms that outperform general-purpose techniques that only exploit convexity. The title “network calculus” refers to the fact tha...

  4. Policy options and their potential effects on Moroccan small farmers and the poor facing increased world food prices: A general equilibrium model analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Diao, Xinshen; Doukkali, Rachid; Yu, Bingxin

    2008-01-01

    "This study evaluates the potential impact of the recent rise in world food prices on the Moroccan economy and possible policy options to respond to it. The study focuses mainly on the poverty effects of such an external shock and the possible policy responses to it. A new social accounting matrix (SAM) and a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model have been developed for this study based on micro-level data in combination with sectoral and economywide data. The CGE model simulations show ...

  5. A general framework for implementing NLO calculations in shower Monte Carlo programs. The POWHEG BOX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alioli, Simone [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Nason, Paolo [INFN, Milano-Bicocca (Italy); Oleari, Carlo [INFN, Milano-Bicocca (Italy); Milano-Bicocca Univ. (Italy); Re, Emanuele [Durham Univ. (United Kingdom). Inst. for Particle Physics Phenomenology

    2010-02-15

    In this work we illustrate the POWHEG BOX, a general computer code framework for implementing NLO calculations in shower Monte Carlo programs according to the POWHEG method. Aim of this work is to provide an illustration of the needed theoretical ingredients, a view of how the code is organized and a description of what a user should provide in order to use it. (orig.)

  6. A general framework for implementing NLO calculations in shower Monte Carlo programs. The POWHEG BOX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alioli, Simone; Nason, Paolo; Oleari, Carlo; Re, Emanuele

    2010-02-01

    In this work we illustrate the POWHEG BOX, a general computer code framework for implementing NLO calculations in shower Monte Carlo programs according to the POWHEG method. Aim of this work is to provide an illustration of the needed theoretical ingredients, a view of how the code is organized and a description of what a user should provide in order to use it. (orig.)

  7. A general theoretical framework for decoherence in open and closed systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castagnino, Mario; Fortin, Sebastian; Laura, Roberto; Lombardi, Olimpia

    2008-01-01

    A general theoretical framework for decoherence is proposed, which encompasses formalisms originally devised to deal just with open or closed systems. The conditions for decoherence are clearly stated and the relaxation and decoherence times are compared. Finally, the spin-bath model is developed in detail from the new perspective

  8. General System Theory: Toward a Conceptual Framework for Science and Technology Education for All.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, David; Stroup, Walter

    1993-01-01

    Suggests using general system theory as a unifying theoretical framework for science and technology education for all. Five reasons are articulated: the multidisciplinary nature of systems theory, the ability to engage complexity, the capacity to describe system dynamics, the ability to represent the relationship between microlevel and…

  9. The Rate-Controlled Constrained-Equilibrium Approach to Far-From-Local-Equilibrium Thermodynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hameed Metghalchi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Rate-Controlled Constrained-Equilibrium (RCCE method for the description of the time-dependent behavior of dynamical systems in non-equilibrium states is a general, effective, physically based method for model order reduction that was originally developed in the framework of thermodynamics and chemical kinetics. A generalized mathematical formulation is presented here that allows including nonlinear constraints in non-local equilibrium systems characterized by the existence of a non-increasing Lyapunov functional under the system’s internal dynamics. The generalized formulation of RCCE enables to clarify the essentials of the method and the built-in general feature of thermodynamic consistency in the chemical kinetics context. In this paper, we work out the details of the method in a generalized mathematical-physics framework, but for definiteness we detail its well-known implementation in the traditional chemical kinetics framework. We detail proofs and spell out explicit functional dependences so as to bring out and clarify each underlying assumption of the method. In the standard context of chemical kinetics of ideal gas mixtures, we discuss the relations between the validity of the detailed balance condition off-equilibrium and the thermodynamic consistency of the method. We also discuss two examples of RCCE gas-phase combustion calculations to emphasize the constraint-dependent performance of the RCCE method.

  10. Discovering a Change in Equilibrium Constant with Change in Ionic Strength: An Empirical Laboratory Experiment for General Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolzberg, Richard J.

    1999-05-01

    Students are challenged to investigate the hypothesis that an equilibrium constant, Kc, measured as a product and quotient of molar concentrations, is constant at constant temperature. Spectrophotometric measurements of absorbance of a solution of Fe3+(aq) and SCN-(aq) treated with different amounts of KNO3 are made to determine Kc for the formation of FeSCN2+(aq). Students observe a regular decrease in the value of Kc as the concentration of added KNO3 is increased.

  11. The Inefficiency of the Stock Market Equilibrium under Moral Hazard

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calcagno, R.; Wagner, W.B.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we study the constrained efficiency of a stock market equilibrium under moral hazard.We extend a standard general equilbrium framework (Magill and Quinzii (1999) and (2002)) to allow for a more general initial ownership distribution.We show that the market allocation is constrained

  12. A general framework for global asymptotic stability analysis of delayed neural networks based on LMI approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Jinde; Ho, Daniel W.C.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, global asymptotic stability is discussed for neural networks with time-varying delay. Several new criteria in matrix inequality form are given to ascertain the uniqueness and global asymptotic stability of equilibrium point for neural networks with time-varying delay based on Lyapunov method and Linear Matrix Inequality (LMI) technique. The proposed LMI approach has the advantage of considering the difference of neuronal excitatory and inhibitory efforts, which is also computationally efficient as it can be solved numerically using recently developed interior-point algorithm. In addition, the proposed results generalize and improve previous works. The obtained criteria also combine two existing conditions into one generalized condition in matrix form. An illustrative example is also given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed results

  13. An Evaluation of the Generalized Intelligent Framework for Tutoring (GIFT) from a Researcher’s or Analyst’s Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    An Evaluation of the Generalized Intelligent Framework for Tutoring (GIFT) from a Researcher’s or Analyst’s Perspective by Robert A...Generalized Intelligent Framework for Tutoring (GIFT) from a Researcher’s or Analyst’s Perspective Robert A Sottilare and Anne M Sinatra Human...2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE An Evaluation of the Generalized Intelligent Framework for Tutoring (GIFT) from a Researcher’s or Analyst’s Perspective

  14. Theoretical Studies of Aqueous Systems above 25 deg C. 1. Fundamental Concepts for Equilibrium Diagrams and some General Features of the Water System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, Derek

    1971-09-15

    The illustration of thermodynamic data on aqueous systems is discussed and diagrams are described that are useful for bringing together the large numbers of data that are relevant to technological problems such as corrosion, mass-transport and deposition. Two kinds of logarithmic equilibrium diagram are particularly useful, namely, diagrams depicting the variation with pH or pe of the concentrations of ionic species relative to that of a chosen reference ion and diagrams depicting the fields of conditions of pH and pe in which the various species in any given system predominate or are stable. Such diagrams clearly and concisely illustrate the data and greatly simplify the comparison of the states of a system at different temperatures. Estimates of the equilibrium constants for the redox and the acid-base dissociation of water up to 375 C are reported and some general features of aqueous systems at elevated temperatures are discussed

  15. Non-Equilibrium Thermodynamics in Multiphase Flows

    CERN Document Server

    Mauri, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Non-equilibrium thermodynamics is a general framework that allows the macroscopic description of irreversible processes. This book introduces non-equilibrium thermodynamics and its applications to the rheology of multiphase flows. The subject is relevant to graduate students in chemical and mechanical engineering, physics and material science. This book is divided into two parts. The first part presents the theory of non-equilibrium thermodynamics, reviewing its essential features and showing, when possible, some applications. The second part of this book deals with how the general theory can be applied to model multiphase flows and, in particular, how to determine their constitutive relations. Each chapter contains problems at the end, the solutions of which are given at the end of the book. No prior knowledge of statistical mechanics is required; the necessary prerequisites are elements of transport phenomena and on thermodynamics. “The style of the book is mathematical, but nonetheless it remains very re...

  16. Equilibrium thermodynamics - Callen's postulational approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongschaap, R.J.J.; Öttinger, Hans Christian

    2001-01-01

    In order to provide the background for nonequilibrium thermodynamics, we outline the fundamentals of equilibrium thermodynamics. Equilibrium thermodynamics must not only be obtained as a special case of any acceptable nonequilibrium generalization but, through its shining example, it also elucidates

  17. Projecting regional climate and cropland changes using a linked biogeophysical-socioeconomic modeling framework: 1. Model description and an equilibrium application over West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guiling; Ahmed, Kazi Farzan; You, Liangzhi; Yu, Miao; Pal, Jeremy; Ji, Zhenming

    2017-03-01

    Agricultural land use alters regional climate through modifying the surface mass, energy, and momentum fluxes; climate influences agricultural land use through their impact on crop yields. These interactions are not well understood and have not been adequately considered in climate projections. This study tackles the critical linkages within the coupled natural-human system of West Africa in a changing climate based on an equilibrium application of a modeling framework that asynchronously couples models of regional climate, crop yield, multimarket agricultural economics, and cropland expansion. Using this regional modeling framework driven with two global climate models, we assess the contributions of land use change (LUC) and greenhouse gas (GHGs) concentration changes to regional climate changes and assess the contribution of climate change and socioeconomic factors to agricultural land use changes. For future cropland expansion in West Africa, our results suggest that socioeconomic development would be the dominant driver in the east (where current cropland coverage is already high) and climate changes would be the primary driver in the west (where future yield drop is severe). For future climate, it is found that agricultural expansion would cause a dry signal in the west and a wet signal in the east downwind, with an east-west contrast similar to the GHG-induced changes. Over a substantial portion of West Africa, the strength of the LUC-induced climate signals is comparable to the GHG-induced changes. Uncertainties originating from the driving global models are small; human decision making related to land use and international trade is a major source of uncertainty.

  18. Generalizing Backtrack-Free Search: A Framework for Search-Free Constraint Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonsson, Ari K.; Frank, Jeremy

    2000-01-01

    Tractable classes of constraint satisfaction problems are of great importance in artificial intelligence. Identifying and taking advantage of such classes can significantly speed up constraint problem solving. In addition, tractable classes are utilized in applications where strict worst-case performance guarantees are required, such as constraint-based plan execution. In this work, we present a formal framework for search-free (backtrack-free) constraint satisfaction. The framework is based on general procedures, rather than specific propagation techniques, and thus generalizes existing techniques in this area. We also relate search-free problem solving to the notion of decision sets and use the result to provide a constructive criterion that is sufficient to guarantee search-free problem solving.

  19. National Service Frameworks and UK general practitioners: street-level bureaucrats at work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Checkland, Kath

    2004-11-01

    This paper argues that the past decade has seen significant changes in the nature of medical work in general practice in the UK. Increasing pressure to use normative clinical guidelines and the move towards explicit quantitative measures of performance together have the potential to alter the way in which health care is delivered to patients. Whilst it is possible to view these developments from the well-established sociological perspectives of deprofessionalisation and proletarianisation, this paper takes a view of general practice as work, and uses the ideas of Lipsky to analyse practice-level responses to some of these changes. In addition to evidence-based clinical guidelines, National Service Frameworks, introduced by the UK government in 1997, also specify detailed models of service provision that health care providers are expected to follow. As part of a larger study examining the impact of National Service Frameworks in general practice, the response of three practices to the first four NSFs were explored. The failure of NSFs to make a significant impact is compared to the practices' positive responses to purely clinical guidelines such as those developed by the British Hypertension Society. Lipsky's concept of public service workers as 'street-level bureaucrats' is discussed and used as a framework within which to view these findings.

  20. An Exemplar-Based Multi-View Domain Generalization Framework for Visual Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Li; Li, Wen; Xu, Dong; Cai, Jianfei

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, we propose a new exemplar-based multi-view domain generalization (EMVDG) framework for visual recognition by learning robust classifier that are able to generalize well to arbitrary target domain based on the training samples with multiple types of features (i.e., multi-view features). In this framework, we aim to address two issues simultaneously. First, the distribution of training samples (i.e., the source domain) is often considerably different from that of testing samples (i.e., the target domain), so the performance of the classifiers learnt on the source domain may drop significantly on the target domain. Moreover, the testing data are often unseen during the training procedure. Second, when the training data are associated with multi-view features, the recognition performance can be further improved by exploiting the relation among multiple types of features. To address the first issue, considering that it has been shown that fusing multiple SVM classifiers can enhance the domain generalization ability, we build our EMVDG framework upon exemplar SVMs (ESVMs), in which a set of ESVM classifiers are learnt with each one trained based on one positive training sample and all the negative training samples. When the source domain contains multiple latent domains, the learnt ESVM classifiers are expected to be grouped into multiple clusters. To address the second issue, we propose two approaches under the EMVDG framework based on the consensus principle and the complementary principle, respectively. Specifically, we propose an EMVDG_CO method by adding a co-regularizer to enforce the cluster structures of ESVM classifiers on different views to be consistent based on the consensus principle. Inspired by multiple kernel learning, we also propose another EMVDG_MK method by fusing the ESVM classifiers from different views based on the complementary principle. In addition, we further extend our EMVDG framework to exemplar-based multi-view domain

  1. A General Framework for Setting Quantitative Population Objectives for Wildlife Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen E. Dybala

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available https://doi.org/10.15447/sfews.2017v15iss1art8Quantitative population objectives are necessary to successfully achieve conservation goals of secure or robust wildlife populations. However, existing methods for setting quantitative population objectives commonly require extensive species-specific population viability data, which are often unavailable or are based on estimates of historical population sizes, which may no longer represent feasible objectives. Conservation practitioners require an alternative, science-based method for setting long-term quantitative population objectives. We reviewed conservation biology literature to develop a general conceptual framework that represents conservation biology principles and identifies key milestones a population would be expected to pass in the process of becoming a recovered or robust population. We then synthesized recent research to propose general hypotheses for the orders of magnitude at which most populations would be expected to reach each milestone. The framework is structured as a hierarchy of four population sizes, ranging from very small populations at increased risk of inbreeding depression and extirpation (< 1,000 adults to large populations with minimized risk of extirpation (> 50,000 adults, along with additional modifiers describing steeply declining and resilient populations. We also discuss the temporal and geographic scales at which this framework should be applied. To illustrate the application of this framework to conservation planning, we outline our use of the framework to set long-term population objectives for a multi-species regional conservation plan, and discuss additional considerations in applying this framework to other systems. This general framework provides a transparent, science-based method by which conservation practitioners and stakeholders can agree on long-term population objectives of an appropriate magnitude, particularly when the alternative approaches are

  2. A general multiscale framework for the emergent effective elastodynamics of metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridhar, A.; Kouznetsova, V. G.; Geers, M. G. D.

    2018-02-01

    This paper presents a general multiscale framework towards the computation of the emergent effective elastodynamics of heterogeneous materials, to be applied for the analysis of acoustic metamaterials and phononic crystals. The generality of the framework is exemplified by two key characteristics. First, the underlying formalism relies on the Floquet-Bloch theorem to derive a robust definition of scales and scale separation. Second, unlike most homogenization approaches that rely on a classical volume average, a generalized homogenization operator is defined with respect to a family of particular projection functions. This yields a generalized macro-scale continuum, instead of the classical Cauchy continuum. This enables (in a micromorphic sense) to homogenize the rich dispersive behavior resulting from both Bragg scattering and local resonance. For an arbitrary unit cell, the homogenization projection functions are constructed using the Floquet-Bloch eigenvectors obtained in the desired frequency regime at select high symmetry points, which effectively resolves the emergent phenomena dominating that regime. Furthermore, a generalized Hill-Mandel condition is proposed that ensures power consistency between the homogenized and full-scale model. A high-order spatio-temporal gradient expansion is used to localize the multiscale problem leading to a series of recursive unit cell problems giving the appropriate micro-mechanical corrections. The developed multiscale method is validated against standard numerical Bloch analysis of the dispersion spectra of example unit cells encompassing multiple high-order branches generated by local resonance and/or Bragg scattering.

  3. A general CFD framework for fault-resilient simulations based on multi-resolution information fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seungjoon; Kevrekidis, Ioannis G.; Karniadakis, George Em

    2017-10-01

    We develop a general CFD framework for multi-resolution simulations to target multiscale problems but also resilience in exascale simulations, where faulty processors may lead to gappy, in space-time, simulated fields. We combine approximation theory and domain decomposition together with statistical learning techniques, e.g. coKriging, to estimate boundary conditions and minimize communications by performing independent parallel runs. To demonstrate this new simulation approach, we consider two benchmark problems. First, we solve the heat equation (a) on a small number of spatial "patches" distributed across the domain, simulated by finite differences at fine resolution and (b) on the entire domain simulated at very low resolution, thus fusing multi-resolution models to obtain the final answer. Second, we simulate the flow in a lid-driven cavity in an analogous fashion, by fusing finite difference solutions obtained with fine and low resolution assuming gappy data sets. We investigate the influence of various parameters for this framework, including the correlation kernel, the size of a buffer employed in estimating boundary conditions, the coarseness of the resolution of auxiliary data, and the communication frequency across different patches in fusing the information at different resolution levels. In addition to its robustness and resilience, the new framework can be employed to generalize previous multiscale approaches involving heterogeneous discretizations or even fundamentally different flow descriptions, e.g. in continuum-atomistic simulations.

  4. MHD equilibrium with toroidal rotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, J.

    1987-03-01

    The present work attempts to formulate the equilibrium of axisymmetric plasma with purely toroidal flow within ideal MHD theory. In general, the inertial term Rho(v.Del)v caused by plasma flow is so complicated that the equilibrium equation is completely different from the Grad-Shafranov equation. However, in the case of purely toroidal flow the equilibrium equation can be simplified so that it resembles the Grad-Shafranov equation. Generally one arbitrary two-variable functions and two arbitrary single variable functions, instead of only four single-variable functions, are allowed in the new equilibrium equations. Also, the boundary conditions of the rotating (with purely toroidal fluid flow, static - without any fluid flow) equilibrium are the same as those of the static equilibrium. So numerically one can calculate the rotating equilibrium as a static equilibrium. (author)

  5. Modelling the Common Agricultural Policy with the Modular Agricultural GeNeral Equilibrium Tool (MAGNET). Effects of the 2014-2020 CAP financial agreement on welfare, trade, factor and product markets

    OpenAIRE

    BOULANGER PIERRE; PHILIPPIDIS GEORGE

    2013-01-01

    This JRC report presents methodological development of the Modular Applied GeNeral Equilibrium Tool (MAGNET), a global computable general equilibrium (CGE) model, for representing the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP). Using original data on European Union (EU) domestic support, it examines some likely macroeconomic effects of the expected CAP budget over the period 2014-2020. Results suggest that agreed budget cuts, in constant price, have limited impacts on EU and world markets, given the br...

  6. Implementation of a PETN failure model using ARIA's general chemistry framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hobbs, Michael L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-01-01

    We previously developed a PETN thermal decomposition model that accurately predicts thermal ignition and detonator failure [1]. This model was originally developed for CALORE [2] and required several complex user subroutines. Recently, a simplified version of the PETN decomposition model was implemented into ARIA [3] using a general chemistry framework without need for user subroutines. Detonator failure was also predicted with this new model using ENCORE. The model was simplified by 1) basing the model on moles rather than mass, 2) simplifying the thermal conductivity model, and 3) implementing ARIA’s new phase change model. This memo briefly describes the model, implementation, and validation.

  7. General Retarded Contact Self-energies in and beyond the Non-equilibrium Green's Functions Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubis, Tillmann; He, Yu; Andrawis, Robert; Klimeck, Gerhard

    2016-01-01

    Retarded contact self-energies in the framework of nonequilibrium Green's functions allow to model the impact of lead structures on the device without explicitly including the leads in the actual device calculation. Most of the contact self-energy algorithms are limited to homogeneous or periodic, semi-infinite lead structures. In this work, the complex absorbing potential method is extended to solve retarded contact self-energies for arbitrary lead structures, including irregular and randomly disordered leads. This method is verified for regular leads against common approaches and on physically equivalent, but numerically different irregular leads. Transmission results on randomly alloyed In 0.5 Ga 0.5 As structures show the importance of disorder in the leads. The concept of retarded contact self-energies is expanded to model passivation of atomically resolved surfaces without explicitly increasing the device's Hamiltonian. (paper)

  8. A general framework for predicting delayed responses of ecological communities to habitat loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Youhua; Shen, Tsung-Jen

    2017-04-20

    Although biodiversity crisis at different spatial scales has been well recognised, the phenomena of extinction debt and immigration credit at a crossing-scale context are, at best, unclear. Based on two community patterns, regional species abundance distribution (SAD) and spatial abundance distribution (SAAD), Kitzes and Harte (2015) presented a macroecological framework for predicting post-disturbance delayed extinction patterns in the entire ecological community. In this study, we further expand this basic framework to predict diverse time-lagged effects of habitat destruction on local communities. Specifically, our generalisation of KH's model could address the questions that could not be answered previously: (1) How many species are subjected to delayed extinction in a local community when habitat is destructed in other areas? (2) How do rare or endemic species contribute to extinction debt or immigration credit of the local community? (3) How will species differ between two local areas? From the demonstrations using two SAD models (single-parameter lognormal and logseries), the predicted patterns of the debt, credit, and change in the fraction of unique species can vary, but with consistencies and depending on several factors. The general framework deepens the understanding of the theoretical effects of habitat loss on community dynamic patterns in local samples.

  9. Generalized Framework and Algorithms for Illustrative Visualization of Time-Varying Data on Unstructured Meshes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander S. Rattner; Donna Post Guillen; Alark Joshi

    2012-12-01

    Photo- and physically-realistic techniques are often insufficient for visualization of simulation results, especially for 3D and time-varying datasets. Substantial research efforts have been dedicated to the development of non-photorealistic and illustration-inspired visualization techniques for compact and intuitive presentation of such complex datasets. While these efforts have yielded valuable visualization results, a great deal of work has been reproduced in studies as individual research groups often develop purpose-built platforms. Additionally, interoperability between illustrative visualization software is limited due to specialized processing and rendering architectures employed in different studies. In this investigation, a generalized framework for illustrative visualization is proposed, and implemented in marmotViz, a ParaView plugin, enabling its use on variety of computing platforms with various data file formats and mesh geometries. Detailed descriptions of the region-of-interest identification and feature-tracking algorithms incorporated into this tool are provided. Additionally, implementations of multiple illustrative effect algorithms are presented to demonstrate the use and flexibility of this framework. By providing a framework and useful underlying functionality, the marmotViz tool can act as a springboard for future research in the field of illustrative visualization.

  10. Toward a model framework of generalized parallel componential processing of multi-symbol numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Stefan; Cornelsen, Sonja; Moeller, Korbinian; Nuerk, Hans-Christoph

    2015-05-01

    In this article, we propose and evaluate a new model framework of parallel componential multi-symbol number processing, generalizing the idea of parallel componential processing of multi-digit numbers to the case of negative numbers by considering the polarity signs similar to single digits. In a first step, we evaluated this account by defining and investigating a sign-decade compatibility effect for the comparison of positive and negative numbers, which extends the unit-decade compatibility effect in 2-digit number processing. Then, we evaluated whether the model is capable of accounting for previous findings in negative number processing. In a magnitude comparison task, in which participants had to single out the larger of 2 integers, we observed a reliable sign-decade compatibility effect with prolonged reaction times for incompatible (e.g., -97 vs. +53; in which the number with the larger decade digit has the smaller, i.e., negative polarity sign) as compared with sign-decade compatible number pairs (e.g., -53 vs. +97). Moreover, an analysis of participants' eye fixation behavior corroborated our model of parallel componential processing of multi-symbol numbers. These results are discussed in light of concurrent theoretical notions about negative number processing. On the basis of the present results, we propose a generalized integrated model framework of parallel componential multi-symbol processing. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Testing general relativity with compact-body orbits: a modified Einstein–Infeld–Hoffmann framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Will, Clifford M.

    2018-04-01

    We describe a general framework for analyzing orbits of systems containing compact objects (neutron stars or black holes) in a class of Lagrangian-based alternative theories of gravity that also admit a global preferred reference frame. The framework is based on a modified Einstein–Infeld–Hoffmann (EIH) formalism developed by Eardley and by Will, generalized to include the possibility of Lorentz-violating, preferred-frame effects. It uses a post-Newtonian N-body Lagrangian with arbitrary parameters that depend on the theory of gravity and on ‘sensitivities’ that encode the effects of the bodies’ internal structure on their motion. We determine the modified EIH parameters for the Einstein-Æther and Khronometric vector-tensor theories of gravity. We find the effects of motion relative to a preferred universal frame on the orbital parameters of binary systems containing neutron stars, such as a class of ultra-circular pulsar-white dwarf binaries; the amplitudes of the effects depend upon ‘strong-field’ preferred-frame parameters \\hatα1 and \\hatα2 , which we relate to the fundamental modified EIH parameters. We also determine the amplitude of the ‘Nordtvedt effect’ in a triple system containing the pulsar J0337+1715 in terms of the modified EIH parameters.

  12. Selected aspects of proposed new EU general data protection legal framework and the Croatian perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina GUMZEJ

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Proposed new EU general data protection legal framework profoundly affects a large number of day-to-day business operations of organizations processing personal data and calls for significant effort on their part toward the necessary legal-regulatory compliance. In this paper the author examines key legislative developments towards this new EU frame and impact for the Republic of Croatia as the youngest EU Member State. Following introductory overview, legal analysis of draft EU General Data Protection Regulation as proposed by the European Commission and recently adopted amendments by the European Parliament mainly focuses on selected solutions impacting national data protection supervisory authorities. This is complemented with examination of relevant sources of EU law, including the case law of the Court of Justice of the European Union. Assessment of results of this research is next made with respect to prospects of the data protection legal framework of the Republic of Croatia. The paper is concluded with the author’s critical overview of analyzed EU proposals impacting national data protection supervisory authorities in light of EU pivotal goals, and de lege ferenda proposals to timely address identified obstacles towards more adequate enforcement of data protection legislation in Croatia.

  13. A general framework for thermodynamically consistent parameterization and efficient sampling of enzymatic reactions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Saa

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Kinetic models provide the means to understand and predict the dynamic behaviour of enzymes upon different perturbations. Despite their obvious advantages, classical parameterizations require large amounts of data to fit their parameters. Particularly, enzymes displaying complex reaction and regulatory (allosteric mechanisms require a great number of parameters and are therefore often represented by approximate formulae, thereby facilitating the fitting but ignoring many real kinetic behaviours. Here, we show that full exploration of the plausible kinetic space for any enzyme can be achieved using sampling strategies provided a thermodynamically feasible parameterization is used. To this end, we developed a General Reaction Assembly and Sampling Platform (GRASP capable of consistently parameterizing and sampling accurate kinetic models using minimal reference data. The former integrates the generalized MWC model and the elementary reaction formalism. By formulating the appropriate thermodynamic constraints, our framework enables parameterization of any oligomeric enzyme kinetics without sacrificing complexity or using simplifying assumptions. This thermodynamically safe parameterization relies on the definition of a reference state upon which feasible parameter sets can be efficiently sampled. Uniform sampling of the kinetics space enabled dissecting enzyme catalysis and revealing the impact of thermodynamics on reaction kinetics. Our analysis distinguished three reaction elasticity regions for common biochemical reactions: a steep linear region (0> ΔGr >-2 kJ/mol, a transition region (-2> ΔGr >-20 kJ/mol and a constant elasticity region (ΔGr <-20 kJ/mol. We also applied this framework to model more complex kinetic behaviours such as the monomeric cooperativity of the mammalian glucokinase and the ultrasensitive response of the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase of Escherichia coli. In both cases, our approach described appropriately not only

  14. Quantum generalized observables framework for psychological data: a case of preference reversals in US elections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khrennikova, Polina; Haven, Emmanuel

    2017-10-01

    Politics is regarded as a vital area of public choice theory, and it is strongly relying on the assumptions of voters' rationality and as such, stability of preferences. However, recent opinion polls and real election outcomes in the USA have shown that voters often engage in `ticket splitting', by exhibiting contrasting party support in Congressional and Presidential elections (cf. Khrennikova 2014 Phys. Scripta T163, 014010 (doi:10.1088/0031-8949/2014/T163/014010); Khrennikova & Haven 2016 Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A 374, 20150106 (doi:10.1098/rsta.2015.0106); Smith et al. 1999 Am. J. Polit. Sci. 43, 737-764 (doi:10.2307/2991833)). Such types of preference reversals cannot be mathematically captured via the formula of total probability, thus showing that voters' decision making is at variance with the classical probabilistic information processing framework. In recent work, we have shown that quantum probability describes well the violation of Bayesian rationality in statistical data of voting in US elections, through the so-called interference effects of probability amplitudes. This paper is proposing a novel generalized observables framework of voting behaviour, by using the statistical data collected and analysed in previous studies by Khrennikova (Khrennikova 2015 Lect. Notes Comput. Sci. 8951, 196-209) and Khrennikova & Haven (Khrennikova & Haven 2016 Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A 374, 20150106 (doi:10.1098/rsta.2015.0106)). This framework aims to overcome the main problems associated with the quantum probabilistic representation of psychological data, namely the non-double stochasticity of transition probability matrices. We develop a simplified construction of generalized positive operator valued measures by formulating special non-orthonormal bases with respect to these operators. This article is part of the themed issue `Second quantum revolution: foundational questions'.

  15. Developing a framework of, and quality indicators for, general practice management in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engels, Yvonne; Campbell, Stephen; Dautzenberg, Maaike; van den Hombergh, Pieter; Brinkmann, Henrik; Szécsényi, Joachim; Falcoff, Hector; Seuntjens, Luc; Kuenzi, Beat; Grol, Richard

    2005-04-01

    To develop a framework for general practice management made up of quality indicators shared by six European countries. Two-round postal Delphi questionnaire in the setting of general practice in Belgium, France, Germany, The Netherlands, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. Six national expert panels, each consisting of 10 members, primarily primary care practitioners and experts in the field of quality in primary care participated in the study. The main outcome measures were: (a) a European framework with indicators for the organization of primary care; and (b) ratings of the face validity of the usefulness of the indicators by expert panels in six countries. Agreement was reached about a definition of practice management across five domains (infrastructure, staff, information, finance, and quality and safety), and a common set of indicators for the organization of general practice. The panellist response rate was 95%. Sixty-two indicators (37%) were rated face valid by all six panels. Examples include out of hours service, accessibility, the content of doctors' bags and staff involvement in quality improvement. No indicators were rated invalid by all six panels. It proved to be possible to develop a European set of indicators for assessing the quality of practice management, despite the differences in health care systems and cultures in the six different countries. These indicators will now be used in a quality assessment procedure of practice management in nine European countries. While organizational indicators are part of the new GMS contract in the UK, this research shows that many practice management issues within primary care are also of relevance in other European countries.

  16. A general science-based framework for dynamical spatio-temporal models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wikle, C.K.; Hooten, M.B.

    2010-01-01

    Spatio-temporal statistical models are increasingly being used across a wide variety of scientific disciplines to describe and predict spatially-explicit processes that evolve over time. Correspondingly, in recent years there has been a significant amount of research on new statistical methodology for such models. Although descriptive models that approach the problem from the second-order (covariance) perspective are important, and innovative work is being done in this regard, many real-world processes are dynamic, and it can be more efficient in some cases to characterize the associated spatio-temporal dependence by the use of dynamical models. The chief challenge with the specification of such dynamical models has been related to the curse of dimensionality. Even in fairly simple linear, first-order Markovian, Gaussian error settings, statistical models are often over parameterized. Hierarchical models have proven invaluable in their ability to deal to some extent with this issue by allowing dependency among groups of parameters. In addition, this framework has allowed for the specification of science based parameterizations (and associated prior distributions) in which classes of deterministic dynamical models (e. g., partial differential equations (PDEs), integro-difference equations (IDEs), matrix models, and agent-based models) are used to guide specific parameterizations. Most of the focus for the application of such models in statistics has been in the linear case. The problems mentioned above with linear dynamic models are compounded in the case of nonlinear models. In this sense, the need for coherent and sensible model parameterizations is not only helpful, it is essential. Here, we present an overview of a framework for incorporating scientific information to motivate dynamical spatio-temporal models. First, we illustrate the methodology with the linear case. We then develop a general nonlinear spatio-temporal framework that we call general quadratic

  17. Weak Acid Ionization Constants and the Determination of Weak Acid-Weak Base Reaction Equilibrium Constants in the General Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyasulu, Frazier; McMills, Lauren; Barlag, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    A laboratory to determine the equilibrium constants of weak acid negative weak base reactions is described. The equilibrium constants of component reactions when multiplied together equal the numerical value of the equilibrium constant of the summative reaction. The component reactions are weak acid ionization reactions, weak base hydrolysis…

  18. Deep graphs—A general framework to represent and analyze heterogeneous complex systems across scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traxl, Dominik; Boers, Niklas; Kurths, Jürgen

    2016-06-01

    Network theory has proven to be a powerful tool in describing and analyzing systems by modelling the relations between their constituent objects. Particularly in recent years, a great progress has been made by augmenting "traditional" network theory in order to account for the multiplex nature of many networks, multiple types of connections between objects, the time-evolution of networks, networks of networks and other intricacies. However, existing network representations still lack crucial features in order to serve as a general data analysis tool. These include, most importantly, an explicit association of information with possibly heterogeneous types of objects and relations, and a conclusive representation of the properties of groups of nodes as well as the interactions between such groups on different scales. In this paper, we introduce a collection of definitions resulting in a framework that, on the one hand, entails and unifies existing network representations (e.g., network of networks and multilayer networks), and on the other hand, generalizes and extends them by incorporating the above features. To implement these features, we first specify the nodes and edges of a finite graph as sets of properties (which are permitted to be arbitrary mathematical objects). Second, the mathematical concept of partition lattices is transferred to the network theory in order to demonstrate how partitioning the node and edge set of a graph into supernodes and superedges allows us to aggregate, compute, and allocate information on and between arbitrary groups of nodes. The derived partition lattice of a graph, which we denote by deep graph, constitutes a concise, yet comprehensive representation that enables the expression and analysis of heterogeneous properties, relations, and interactions on all scales of a complex system in a self-contained manner. Furthermore, to be able to utilize existing network-based methods and models, we derive different representations of

  19. The Nature Index: A General Framework for Synthesizing Knowledge on the State of Biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Certain, Grégoire; Skarpaas, Olav; Bjerke, Jarle-Werner; Framstad, Erik; Lindholm, Markus; Nilsen, Jan-Erik; Norderhaug, Ann; Oug, Eivind; Pedersen, Hans-Christian; Schartau, Ann-Kristin; van der Meeren, Gro I.; Aslaksen, Iulie; Engen, Steinar; Garnåsjordet, Per-Arild; Kvaløy, Pål; Lillegård, Magnar; Yoccoz, Nigel G.; Nybø, Signe

    2011-01-01

    The magnitude and urgency of the biodiversity crisis is widely recognized within scientific and political organizations. However, a lack of integrated measures for biodiversity has greatly constrained the national and international response to the biodiversity crisis. Thus, integrated biodiversity indexes will greatly facilitate information transfer from science toward other areas of human society. The Nature Index framework samples scientific information on biodiversity from a variety of sources, synthesizes this information, and then transmits it in a simplified form to environmental managers, policymakers, and the public. The Nature Index optimizes information use by incorporating expert judgment, monitoring-based estimates, and model-based estimates. The index relies on a network of scientific experts, each of whom is responsible for one or more biodiversity indicators. The resulting set of indicators is supposed to represent the best available knowledge on the state of biodiversity and ecosystems in any given area. The value of each indicator is scaled relative to a reference state, i.e., a predicted value assessed by each expert for a hypothetical undisturbed or sustainably managed ecosystem. Scaled indicator values can be aggregated or disaggregated over different axes representing spatiotemporal dimensions or thematic groups. A range of scaling models can be applied to allow for different ways of interpreting the reference states, e.g., optimal situations or minimum sustainable levels. Statistical testing for differences in space or time can be implemented using Monte-Carlo simulations. This study presents the Nature Index framework and details its implementation in Norway. The results suggest that the framework is a functional, efficient, and pragmatic approach for gathering and synthesizing scientific knowledge on the state of biodiversity in any marine or terrestrial ecosystem and has general applicability worldwide. PMID:21526118

  20. Iteration scheme for implicit calculations of kinetic and equilibrium chemical reactions in fluid dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramshaw, J.D.; Chang, C.H.

    1995-01-01

    An iteration scheme for the implicit treatment of equilibrium chemical reactions in partial equilibrium flow has previously been described. Here we generalize this scheme to kinetic reactions as well as equilibrium reactions. This extends the applicability of the scheme to problems with kinetic reactions that are fast in regions of the flow field but slow in others. The resulting scheme thereby provides a single unified framework for the implicit treatment of an arbitrary number of coupled equilibrium and kinetic reactions in chemically reacting fluid flow. 10 refs., 2 figs

  1. Generalized nuclear Fukui functions in the framework of spin-polarized density-functional theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamorro, E.; Proft, F. de; Geerlings, P.

    2005-01-01

    An extension of Cohen's nuclear Fukui function is presented in the spin-polarized framework of density-functional theory (SP-DFT). The resulting new nuclear Fukui function indices Φ Nα and Φ Sα are intended to be the natural descriptors for the responses of the nuclei to changes involving charge transfer at constant multiplicity and also the spin polarization at constant number of electrons. These generalized quantities allow us to gain new insights within a perturbative scheme based on DFT. Calculations of the electronic and nuclear SP-DFT quantities are presented within a Kohn-Sham framework of chemical reactivity for a sample of molecules, including H 2 O, H 2 CO, and some simple nitrenes (NX) and phosphinidenes (PX), with X=H, Li, F, Cl, OH, SH, NH 2 , and PH 2 . Results have been interpreted in terms of chemical bonding in the context of Berlin's theorem, which provides a separation of the molecular space into binding and antibinding regions

  2. Health state evaluation of an item: A general framework and graphical representation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, R.; Jardine, A.K.S.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a general theoretical framework to evaluate the health state of an item based on condition monitoring information. The item's health state is defined in terms of its relative health level and overall health level. The former is evaluated based on the relative magnitude of the composite covariate and the latter is evaluated using a fractile life of the residual life distribution at the decision instant. In addition, a method is developed to graphically represent the degradation model, failure threshold model, and the observation history of the composite covariate. As a result, the health state of the monitored item can be intuitively presented and the evaluated result can be subsequently used in a condition-based maintenance optimization decision model, which is amenable to computer modeling. A numerical example is included to illustrate the proposed approach and its appropriateness

  3. An Improved Generalized Predictive Control in a Robust Dynamic Partial Least Square Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Xin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To tackle the sensitivity to outliers in system identification, a new robust dynamic partial least squares (PLS model based on an outliers detection method is proposed in this paper. An improved radial basis function network (RBFN is adopted to construct the predictive model from inputs and outputs dataset, and a hidden Markov model (HMM is applied to detect the outliers. After outliers are removed away, a more robust dynamic PLS model is obtained. In addition, an improved generalized predictive control (GPC with the tuning weights under dynamic PLS framework is proposed to deal with the interaction which is caused by the model mismatch. The results of two simulations demonstrate the effectiveness of proposed method.

  4. Approach to equilibrium of a quantum system and generalization of the Montroll-Shuler equation for vibrational relaxation of a molecular oscillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenkre, V. M.; Chase, M.

    2017-08-01

    The approach to equilibrium of a quantum mechanical system in interaction with a bath is studied from a practical as well as a conceptual point of view. Explicit memory functions are derived for given models of bath couplings. If the system is a harmonic oscillator representing a molecule in interaction with a reservoir, the generalized master equation derived becomes an extension into the coherent domain of the well-known Montroll-Shuler equation for vibrational relaxation and unimolecular dissociation. A generalization of the Bethe-Teller result regarding energy relaxation is found for short times. The theory has obvious applications to relaxation dynamics at ultra-short times as in observations on the femtosecond time scale and to the investigation of quantum coherence at those short times. While vibrational relaxation in chemical physics is a primary target of the study, another system of interest in condensed matter physics, an electron or hole in a lattice subjected to a strong DC electric field that gives rise to well-known Wannier-Stark ladders, is naturally addressed with the theory. Specific system-bath interactions are explored to obtain explicit details of the dynamics. General phenomenological descriptions of the reservoir are considered rather than specific microscopic realizations.

  5. A general-purpose process modelling framework for marine energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimopoulos, George G.; Georgopoulou, Chariklia A.; Stefanatos, Iason C.; Zymaris, Alexandros S.; Kakalis, Nikolaos M.P.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Process modelling techniques applied in marine engineering. • Systems engineering approaches to manage the complexity of modern ship machinery. • General purpose modelling framework called COSSMOS. • Mathematical modelling of conservation equations and related chemical – transport phenomena. • Generic library of ship machinery component models. - Abstract: High fuel prices, environmental regulations and current shipping market conditions impose ships to operate in a more efficient and greener way. These drivers lead to the introduction of new technologies, fuels, and operations, increasing the complexity of modern ship energy systems. As a means to manage this complexity, in this paper we present the introduction of systems engineering methodologies in marine engineering via the development of a general-purpose process modelling framework for ships named as DNV COSSMOS. Shifting the focus from components – the standard approach in shipping- to systems, widens the space for optimal design and operation solutions. The associated computer implementation of COSSMOS is a platform that models, simulates and optimises integrated marine energy systems with respect to energy efficiency, emissions, safety/reliability and costs, under both steady-state and dynamic conditions. DNV COSSMOS can be used in assessment and optimisation of design and operation problems in existing vessels, new builds as well as new technologies. The main features and our modelling approach are presented and key capabilities are illustrated via two studies on the thermo-economic design and operation optimisation of a combined cycle system for large bulk carriers, and the transient operation simulation of an electric marine propulsion system

  6. A general framework of persistence strategies for biological systems helps explain domains of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liudmila S Yafremava

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The nature and cause of the division of organisms in superkingdoms is not fully understood. Assuming that environment shapes physiology, here we construct a novel theoretical framework that helps identify general patterns of organism persistence. This framework is based on Jacob von Uexküll’s organism-centric view of the environment and James G. Miller’s view of organisms as matter-energy-information processing molecular machines. Three concepts describe an organism's environmental niche: scope, umwelt and gap. Scope denotes the entirety of environmental events and conditions to which the organism is exposed during its lifetime. Umwelt encompasses an organism's perception of these events. The gap is the organism's blind spot, the scope that is not covered by umwelt. These concepts bring organisms of different complexity to a common ecological denominator. Ecological and physiological data suggest organisms persist using three strategies: flexibility, robustness and economy. All organisms use umwelt information to flexibly adapt to environmental change. They implement robustness against environmental perturbations within the gap generally through redundancy and reliability of internal constituents. Both flexibility and robustness improve survival. However, they also incur metabolic matter-energy processing costs, which otherwise could have been used for growth and reproduction. Lineages evolve unique tradeoff solutions among strategies in the space of what we call a persistence triangle. Protein domain architecture and other evidence support the preferential use of flexibility and robustness properties. Archaea and Bacteria gravitate toward the triangle’s economy vertex, with Archaea biased toward robustness. Eukarya trade economy for survivability. Protista occupy a saddle manifold separating akaryotes from multicellular organisms. Plants and the more flexible Fungi share an economic stratum, and Metazoa are locked in a positive feedback

  7. Local equilibrium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1984-12-15

    From 3-6 September the First International Workshop on Local Equilibrium in Strong Interaction Physics took place in Bad-Honnef at the Physics Centre of the German Physical Society. A number of talks covered the experimental and theoretical investigation of the 'hotspots' effect, both in high energy particle physics and in intermediate energy nuclear physics.

  8. Equilibrium Dialysis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    context of antimicrobial therapy in malnutrition. Dialysis has in the past presented technical problems, being complicated and time-consuming. A new dialysis system based on the equilibrium technique has now become available, and it is the principles and practical application of this apparatus (Kontron Diapack; Kontron.

  9. Strategic Equilibrium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Damme, E.E.C.

    2000-01-01

    An outcome in a noncooperative game is said to be self-enforcing, or a strategic equilibrium, if, whenever it is recommended to the players, no player has an incentive to deviate from it.This paper gives an overview of the concepts that have been proposed as formalizations of this requirement and of

  10. Maximin equilibrium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ismail, M.S.

    2014-01-01

    We introduce a new concept which extends von Neumann and Morgenstern's maximin strategy solution by incorporating `individual rationality' of the players. Maximin equilibrium, extending Nash's value approach, is based on the evaluation of the strategic uncertainty of the whole game. We show that

  11. A general framework for a collaborative water quality knowledge and information network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalcanale, Fernanda; Fontane, Darrell; Csapo, Jorge

    2011-03-01

    Increasing knowledge about the environment has brought about a better understanding of the complexity of the issues, and more information publicly available has resulted into a steady shift from centralized decision making to increasing levels of participatory processes. The management of that information, in turn, is becoming more complex. One of the ways to deal with the complexity is the development of tools that would allow all players, including managers, researchers, educators, stakeholders and the civil society, to be able to contribute to the information system, in any level they are inclined to do so. In this project, a search for the available technology for collaboration, methods of community filtering, and community-based review was performed and the possible implementation of these tools to create a general framework for a collaborative "Water Quality Knowledge and Information Network" was evaluated. The main goals of the network are to advance water quality education and knowledge; encourage distribution and access to data; provide networking opportunities; allow public perceptions and concerns to be collected; promote exchange of ideas; and, give general, open, and free access to information. A reference implementation was made available online and received positive feedback from the community, which also suggested some possible improvements.

  12. General equilibrium without utility functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balasko, Yves; Tvede, Mich

    2010-01-01

    not to require transitivity and completeness of consumers' preferences. We show in this paper that if consumers' non-ordered preferences satisfy a mild version of convexity already considered in the literature, then the following properties are also satisfied: (1) the smooth manifold structure...

  13. Sweatshop equilibrium

    OpenAIRE

    Chau, Nancy H.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a capability-augmented model of on the job search, in which sweatshop conditions stifle the capability of the working poor to search for a job while on the job. The augmented setting unveils a sweatshop equilibrium in an otherwise archetypal Burdett-Mortensen economy, and reconciles a number of oft noted yet perplexing features of sweatshop economies. We demonstrate existence of multiple rational expectation equilibria, graduation pathways out of sweatshops in complete abs...

  14. A Bivariate Generalized Linear Item Response Theory Modeling Framework to the Analysis of Responses and Response Times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molenaar, Dylan; Tuerlinckx, Francis; van der Maas, Han L J

    2015-01-01

    A generalized linear modeling framework to the analysis of responses and response times is outlined. In this framework, referred to as bivariate generalized linear item response theory (B-GLIRT), separate generalized linear measurement models are specified for the responses and the response times that are subsequently linked by cross-relations. The cross-relations can take various forms. Here, we focus on cross-relations with a linear or interaction term for ability tests, and cross-relations with a curvilinear term for personality tests. In addition, we discuss how popular existing models from the psychometric literature are special cases in the B-GLIRT framework depending on restrictions in the cross-relation. This allows us to compare existing models conceptually and empirically. We discuss various extensions of the traditional models motivated by practical problems. We also illustrate the applicability of our approach using various real data examples, including data on personality and cognitive ability.

  15. A Flexible Nonlinear Modelling Framework for Nonstationary Generalized Extreme Value Analysis in Hydrology and Climatology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, A. J.

    2009-12-01

    Parameters in a Generalized Extreme Value (GEV) distribution are specified as a function of covariates using a conditional density network (CDN), which is a probabilistic extension of the multilayer perceptron neural network. If the covariate is time, or is dependent on time, then the GEV-CDN model can be used to perform nonlinear, nonstationary GEV analysis of hydrological or climatological time series. Due to the flexibility of the neural network architecture, the model is capable of representing a wide range of nonstationary relationships. Model parameters are estimated by generalized maximum likelihood, an approach that is tailored to the estimation of GEV parameters from geophysical time series. Model complexity is identified using the Bayesian information criterion and the Akaike information criterion with small sample size correction. Monte Carlo simulations are used to validate GEV-CDN performance on four simple synthetic problems. The model is then demonstrated on precipitation data from southern California, a series that exhibits nonstationarity due to interannual/interdecadal climatic variability. A hierarchy of models can be defined by adjusting three aspects of the GEV-CDN model architecture: (i) by specifying either a linear or a nonlinear hidden-layer activation function; (ii) by adjusting the number of hidden-layer nodes; or (iii) by disconnecting weights leading to output-layer nodes. To illustrate, five GEV-CDN models are shown here in order of increasing complexity for the case of a single covariate, which, in this case, is assumed to be time. The shape parameter is assumed to be constant in all models, although this is not a requirement of the GEV-CDN framework.

  16. skeleSim: an extensible, general framework for population genetic simulation in R

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parobek, Christian M.; Archer, Frederick I.; DePrenger-Levin, Michelle E.; Hoban, Sean M.; Liggins, Libby; Strand, Allan E.

    2016-01-01

    Simulations are a key tool in molecular ecology for inference and forecasting, as well as for evaluating new methods. Due to growing computational power and a diversity of software with different capabilities, simulations are becoming increasingly powerful and useful. However, the widespread use of simulations by geneticists and ecologists is hindered by difficulties in understanding these softwares’ complex capabilities, composing code and input files, a daunting bioinformatics barrier, and a steep conceptual learning curve. skeleSim (an R package) guides users in choosing appropriate simulations, setting parameters, calculating genetic summary statistics, and organizing data output, in a reproducible pipeline within the R environment. skeleSim is designed to be an extensible framework that can ‘wrap’ around any simulation software (inside or outside the R environment) and be extended to calculate and graph any genetic summary statistics. Currently, skeleSim implements coalescent and forward-time models available in the fastsimcoal2 and rmetasim simulation engines to produce null distributions for multiple population genetic statistics and marker types, under a variety of demographic conditions. skeleSim is intended to make simulations easier while still allowing full model complexity to ensure that simulations play a fundamental role in molecular ecology investigations. skeleSim can also serve as a teaching tool: demonstrating the outcomes of stochastic population genetic processes; teaching general concepts of simulations; and providing an introduction to the R environment with a user-friendly graphical user interface (using shiny). PMID:27736016

  17. The Reinvention of General Relativity: A Historiographical Framework for Assessing One Hundred Years of Curved Space-time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Alexander; Lalli, Roberto; Renn, M Jürgen

    2015-09-01

    The history of the theory of general relativity presents unique features. After its discovery, the theory was immediately confirmed and rapidly changed established notions of space and time. The further implications of general relativity, however, remained largely unexplored until the mid 1950s, when it came into focus as a physical theory and gradually returned to the mainstream of physics. This essay presents a historiographical framework for assessing the history of general relativity by taking into account in an integrated narrative intellectual developments, epistemological problems, and technological advances; the characteristics of post-World War II and Cold War science; and newly emerging institutional settings. It argues that such a framework can help us understand this renaissance of general relativity as a result of two main factors: the recognition of the untapped potential of general relativity and an explicit effort at community building, which allowed this formerly disparate and dispersed field to benefit from the postwar changes in the scientific landscape.

  18. Medical imaging technology shock and volatility of macro economics: Analysis using a three-sector dynamical stochastic general equilibrium REC model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Shurong; Huang, Yeqing

    2017-07-07

    The study analysed the medical imaging technology business cycle from 1981 to 2009 and found that the volatility of consumption in Chinese medical imaging business was higher than that of the developed countries. The volatility of gross domestic product (GDP) and the correlation between consumption and GDP is also higher than that of the developed countries. Prior to the early 1990s the volatility of consumption is even higher than GDP. This fact makes it difficult to explain the volatile market using the standard one sector real economic cycle (REC) model. Contrary to the other domestic studies, this study considers a three-sector dynamical stochastic general equilibrium REC model. In this model there are two consumption sectors, whereby one is labour intensive and another is capital intensive. The more capital intensive investment sector only introduces technology shocks in the medical imaging market. Our response functions and Monte-Carlo simulation results show that the model can explain 90% of the volatility of consummation relative to GDP, and explain the correlation between consumption and GDP. The results demonstrated the significant correlation between the technological reform in medical imaging and volatility in the labour market on Chinese macro economy development.

  19. Macroeconomic impact of a mild influenza pandemic and associated policies in Thailand, South Africa and Uganda: a computable general equilibrium analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Richard D; Keogh-Brown, Marcus R

    2013-11-01

    Previous research has demonstrated the value of macroeconomic analysis of the impact of influenza pandemics. However, previous modelling applications focus on high-income countries and there is a lack of evidence concerning the potential impact of an influenza pandemic on lower- and middle-income countries. To estimate the macroeconomic impact of pandemic influenza in Thailand, South Africa and Uganda with particular reference to pandemic (H1N1) 2009. A single-country whole-economy computable general equilibrium (CGE) model was set up for each of the three countries in question and used to estimate the economic impact of declines in labour attributable to morbidity, mortality and school closure. Overall GDP impacts were less than 1% of GDP for all countries and scenarios. Uganda's losses were proportionally larger than those of Thailand and South Africa. Labour-intensive sectors suffer the largest losses. The economic cost of unavoidable absence in the event of an influenza pandemic could be proportionally larger for low-income countries. The cost of mild pandemics, such as pandemic (H1N1) 2009, appears to be small, but could increase for more severe pandemics and/or pandemics with greater behavioural change and avoidable absence. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Assessment of health and economic effects by PM2.5 pollution in Beijing: a combined exposure-response and computable general equilibrium analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guizhi; Gu, SaiJu; Chen, Jibo; Wu, Xianhua; Yu, Jun

    2016-12-01

    Assessment of the health and economic impacts of PM2.5 pollution is of great importance for urban air pollution prevention and control. In this study, we evaluate the damage of PM2.5 pollution using Beijing as an example. First, we use exposure-response functions to estimate the adverse health effects due to PM2.5 pollution. Then, the corresponding labour loss and excess medical expenditure are computed as two conducting variables. Finally, different from the conventional valuation methods, this paper introduces the two conducting variables into the computable general equilibrium (CGE) model to assess the impacts on sectors and the whole economic system caused by PM2.5 pollution. The results show that, substantial health effects of the residents in Beijing from PM2.5 pollution occurred in 2013, including 20,043 premature deaths and about one million other related medical cases. Correspondingly, using the 2010 social accounting data, Beijing gross domestic product loss due to the health impact of PM2.5 pollution is estimated as 1286.97 (95% CI: 488.58-1936.33) million RMB. This demonstrates that PM2.5 pollution not only has adverse health effects, but also brings huge economic loss.

  1. A General Framework for Analyzing, Characterizing, and Implementing Spectrally Modulated, Spectrally Encoded Signals

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Roberts, Marcus L

    2006-01-01

    .... Research is rapidly progressing in SDR hardware and software venues, but current CR-based SDR research lacks the theoretical foundation and analytic framework to permit efficient implementation...

  2. A Multiperiod Equilibrium Pricing Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minsuk Kwak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose an equilibrium pricing model in a dynamic multiperiod stochastic framework with uncertain income. There are one tradable risky asset (stock/commodity, one nontradable underlying (temperature, and also a contingent claim (weather derivative written on the tradable risky asset and the nontradable underlying in the market. The price of the contingent claim is priced in equilibrium by optimal strategies of representative agent and market clearing condition. The risk preferences are of exponential type with a stochastic coefficient of risk aversion. Both subgame perfect strategy and naive strategy are considered and the corresponding equilibrium prices are derived. From the numerical result we examine how the equilibrium prices vary in response to changes in model parameters and highlight the importance of our equilibrium pricing principle.

  3. Equilibrium Trust

    OpenAIRE

    Luca Anderlini; Daniele Terlizzese

    2009-01-01

    We build a simple model of trust as an equilibrium phenomenon, departing from standard "selfish" preferences in a minimal way. Agents who are on the receiving end of an other to transact can choose whether to cheat and take away the entire surplus, taking into account a "cost of cheating." The latter has an idiosyncratic component (an agent's type), and a socially determined one. The smaller the mass of agents who cheat, the larger the cost of cheating suffered by those who cheat. Depending o...

  4. Axiomatic Quantum Field Theory in Terms of Operator Product Expansions: General Framework, and Perturbation Theory via Hochschild Cohomology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Hollands

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a new framework for quantum field theory in terms of consistency conditions. The consistency conditions that we consider are ''associativity'' or ''factorization'' conditions on the operator product expansion (OPE of the theory, and are proposed to be the defining property of any quantum field theory. Our framework is presented in the Euclidean setting, and is applicable in principle to any quantum field theory, including non-conformal ones. In our framework, we obtain a characterization of perturbations of a given quantum field theory in terms of a certain cohomology ring of Hochschild-type. We illustrate our framework by the free field, but our constructions are general and apply also to interacting quantum field theories. For such theories, we propose a new scheme to construct the OPE which is based on the use of non-linear quantized field equations.

  5. From single-shot towards general work extraction in a quantum thermodynamic framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gemmer, Jochen; Anders, Janet

    2015-01-01

    This paper considers work extraction from a quantum system to a work storage system (or weight) following Horodecki and Oppenheim (2013 Nat. Commun. 4 2059). An alternative approach is here developed that relies on the comparison of subspace dimensions without a need to introduce thermo-majorization used previously. Optimal single shot work for processes where a weight transfers from (a) a single energy level to another single energy level is then re-derived. In addition we discuss the final state of the system after work extraction and show that the system typically ends in its thermal state, while there are cases where the system is only close to it. The work of formation in the single level transfer setting is also re-derived. The approach presented now allows the extension of the single shot work concept to work extraction (b) involving multiple final levels of the weight. A key conclusion here is that the single shot work for case (a) is appropriate only when a resonance of a particular energy is required. When wishing to identify ‘work extraction’ with finding the weight in a specific available energy or any higher energy a broadening of the single shot work concept is required. As a final contribution we consider transformations of the system that (c) result in general weight state transfers. Introducing a transfer-quantity allows us to formulate minimum requirements for transformations to be at all possible in a thermodynamic framework. We show that choosing the free energy difference of the weight as the transfer-quantity one recovers various single shot results including single level transitions (a), multiple final level transitions (b), and recent results on restricted sets of multi-level to multi-level weight transfers. (paper)

  6. General framework for studying the dynamics of folded and nonfolded proteins by NMR relaxation spectroscopy and MD simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prompers, J.J.; Brüschweiler, R.

    2002-01-01

    A general framework is presented for the interpretation of NMR relaxation data of proteins. The method, termed isotropic reorientational eigenmode dynamics (iRED), relies on a principal component analysis of the isotropically averaged covariance matrix of the lattice functions of the spin

  7. Equilibrium and non equilibrium in fragmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorso, C.O.; Chernomoretz, A.; Lopez, J.A.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: In this communication we present recent results regarding the interplay of equilibrium and non equilibrium in the process of fragmentation of excited finite Lennard Jones drops. Because the general features of such a potential resemble the ones of the nuclear interaction (fact that is reinforced by the similarity between the EOS of both systems) these studies are not only relevant from a fundamental point of view but also shed light on the problem of nuclear multifragmentation. We focus on the microscopic analysis of the state of the fragmenting system at fragmentation time. We show that the Caloric Curve (i e. the functional relationship between the temperature of the system and the excitation energy) is of the type rise plateau with no vapor branch. The usual rise plateau rise pattern is only recovered when equilibrium is artificially imposed. This result puts a serious question on the validity of the freeze out hypothesis. This feature is independent of the dimensionality or excitation mechanism. Moreover we explore the behavior of magnitudes which can help us determine the degree of the assumed phase transition. It is found that no clear cut criteria is presently available. (Author)

  8. Spontaneity and Equilibrium: Why "?G Equilibrium" Are Incorrect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raff, Lionel M.

    2014-01-01

    The fundamental criteria for chemical reactions to be spontaneous in a given direction are generally incorrectly stated as ?G equilibrium are also misstated as being ?G = 0 or ?A = 0. Following a brief review of the…

  9. Para-equilibrium phase diagrams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelton, Arthur D.; Koukkari, Pertti; Pajarre, Risto; Eriksson, Gunnar

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A rapidly cooled system may attain a state of para-equilibrium. • In this state rapidly diffusing elements reach equilibrium but others are immobile. • Application of the Phase Rule to para-equilibrium phase diagrams is discussed. • A general algorithm to calculate para-equilibrium phase diagrams is described. - Abstract: If an initially homogeneous system at high temperature is rapidly cooled, a temporary para-equilibrium state may result in which rapidly diffusing elements have reached equilibrium but more slowly diffusing elements have remained essentially immobile. The best known example occurs when homogeneous austenite is quenched. A para-equilibrium phase assemblage may be calculated thermodynamically by Gibbs free energy minimization under the constraint that the ratios of the slowly diffusing elements are the same in all phases. Several examples of calculated para-equilibrium phase diagram sections are presented and the application of the Phase Rule is discussed. Although the rules governing the geometry of these diagrams may appear at first to be somewhat different from those for full equilibrium phase diagrams, it is shown that in fact they obey exactly the same rules with the following provision. Since the molar ratios of non-diffusing elements are the same in all phases at para-equilibrium, these ratios act, as far as the geometry of the diagram is concerned, like “potential” variables (such as T, pressure or chemical potentials) rather than like “normal” composition variables which need not be the same in all phases. A general algorithm to calculate para-equilibrium phase diagrams is presented. In the limit, if a para-equilibrium calculation is performed under the constraint that no elements diffuse, then the resultant phase diagram shows the single phase with the minimum Gibbs free energy at any point on the diagram; such calculations are of interest in physical vapor deposition when deposition is so rapid that phase

  10. A generalized adjoint framework for sensitivity and global error estimation in time-dependent nuclear reactor simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stripling, H.F.; Anitescu, M.; Adams, M.L.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We develop an abstract framework for computing the adjoint to the neutron/nuclide burnup equations posed as a system of differential algebraic equations. ► We validate use of the adjoint for computing both sensitivity to uncertain inputs and for estimating global time discretization error. ► Flexibility of the framework is leveraged to add heat transfer physics and compute its adjoint without a reformulation of the adjoint system. ► Such flexibility is crucial for high performance computing applications. -- Abstract: We develop a general framework for computing the adjoint variable to nuclear engineering problems governed by a set of differential–algebraic equations (DAEs). The nuclear engineering community has a rich history of developing and applying adjoints for sensitivity calculations; many such formulations, however, are specific to a certain set of equations, variables, or solution techniques. Any change or addition to the physics model would require a reformulation of the adjoint problem and substantial difficulties in its software implementation. In this work we propose an abstract framework that allows for the modification and expansion of the governing equations, leverages the existing theory of adjoint formulation for DAEs, and results in adjoint equations that can be used to efficiently compute sensitivities for parametric uncertainty quantification. Moreover, as we justify theoretically and demonstrate numerically, the same framework can be used to estimate global time discretization error. We first motivate the framework and show that the coupled Bateman and transport equations, which govern the time-dependent neutronic behavior of a nuclear reactor, may be formulated as a DAE system with a power constraint. We then use a variational approach to develop the parameter-dependent adjoint framework and apply existing theory to give formulations for sensitivity and global time discretization error estimates using the adjoint

  11. A general unified non-equilibrium model for predicting saturated and subcooled critical two-phase flow rates through short and long tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraser, D.W.H.; Abdelmessih, A.H.

    1995-01-01

    A general unified model is developed to predict one-component critical two-phase pipe flow. Modelling of the two-phase flow is accomplished by describing the evolution of the flow between the location of flashing inception and the exit (critical) plane. The model approximates the nonequilibrium phase change process via thermodynamic equilibrium paths. Included are the relative effects of varying the location of flashing inception, pipe geometry, fluid properties and length to diameter ratio. The model predicts that a range of critical mass fluxes exist and is bound by a maximum and minimum value for a given thermodynamic state. This range is more pronounced at lower subcooled stagnation states and can be attributed to the variation in the location of flashing inception. The model is based on the results of an experimental study of the critical two-phase flow of saturated and subcooled water through long tubes. In that study, the location of flashing inception was accurately controlled and adjusted through the use of a new device. The data obtained revealed that for fixed stagnation conditions, the maximum critical mass flux occurred with flashing inception located near the pipe exit; while minimum critical mass fluxes occurred with the flashing front located further upstream. Available data since 1970 for both short and long tubes over a wide range of conditions are compared with the model predictions. This includes test section L/D ratios from 25 to 300 and covers a temperature and pressure range of 110 to 280 degrees C and 0.16 to 6.9 MPa. respectively. The predicted maximum and minimum critical mass fluxes show an excellent agreement with the range observed in the experimental data

  12. Top-down/bottom-up description of electricity sector for Switzerland using the GEM-E3 computable general equilibrium model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krakowski, R. A.

    2006-06-01

    Participation of the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) in the advancement and extension of the multi-region, Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) model GEM-E3 (CES/KUL, 2002) focused primarily on two top-level facets: a) extension of the model database and model calibration, particularly as related to the second component of this study, which is; b) advancement of the dynamics of innovation and investment, primarily through the incorporation of Exogenous Technical Learning (ETL) into he Bottom-Up (BU, technology-based) part of the dynamic upgrade; this latter activity also included the completion of the dynamic coupling of the BU description of the electricity sector with the 'Top-Down' (TD, econometric) description of the economy inherent to the GEM-E3 CGE model. The results of this two- component study are described in two parts that have been combined in this single summary report: Part I describes the methodology and gives illustrative results from the BUTD integration, as well as describing the approach to and giving preliminary results from incorporating an ETL description into the BU component of the overall model; Part II reports on the calibration component of task in terms of: a) formulating a BU technology database for Switzerland based on previous work; incorporation of that database into the GEM-E3 model; and calibrating the BU database with the TD database embodied in the (Swiss) Social Accounting Matrix (SAM). The BUTD coupling along with the ETL incorporation described in Part I represent the major effort embodied in this investigation, but this effort could not be completed without the calibration preamble reported herein as Part II. A brief summary of the scope of each of these key study components is given. (author)

  13. Top-down/bottom-up description of electricity sector for Switzerland using the GEM-E3 computable general equilibrium model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krakowski, R. A

    2006-06-15

    Participation of the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) in the advancement and extension of the multi-region, Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) model GEM-E3 (CES/KUL, 2002) focused primarily on two top-level facets: a) extension of the model database and model calibration, particularly as related to the second component of this study, which is; b) advancement of the dynamics of innovation and investment, primarily through the incorporation of Exogenous Technical Learning (ETL) into he Bottom-Up (BU, technology-based) part of the dynamic upgrade; this latter activity also included the completion of the dynamic coupling of the BU description of the electricity sector with the 'Top-Down' (TD, econometric) description of the economy inherent to the GEM-E3 CGE model. The results of this two- component study are described in two parts that have been combined in this single summary report: Part I describes the methodology and gives illustrative results from the BUTD integration, as well as describing the approach to and giving preliminary results from incorporating an ETL description into the BU component of the overall model; Part II reports on the calibration component of task in terms of: a) formulating a BU technology database for Switzerland based on previous work; incorporation of that database into the GEM-E3 model; and calibrating the BU database with the TD database embodied in the (Swiss) Social Accounting Matrix (SAM). The BUTD coupling along with the ETL incorporation described in Part I represent the major effort embodied in this investigation, but this effort could not be completed without the calibration preamble reported herein as Part II. A brief summary of the scope of each of these key study components is given. (author)

  14. A general unified non-equilibrium model for predicting saturated and subcooled critical two-phase flow rates through short and long tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraser, D.W.H. [Univ. of British Columbia (Canada); Abdelmessih, A.H. [Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    1995-09-01

    A general unified model is developed to predict one-component critical two-phase pipe flow. Modelling of the two-phase flow is accomplished by describing the evolution of the flow between the location of flashing inception and the exit (critical) plane. The model approximates the nonequilibrium phase change process via thermodynamic equilibrium paths. Included are the relative effects of varying the location of flashing inception, pipe geometry, fluid properties and length to diameter ratio. The model predicts that a range of critical mass fluxes exist and is bound by a maximum and minimum value for a given thermodynamic state. This range is more pronounced at lower subcooled stagnation states and can be attributed to the variation in the location of flashing inception. The model is based on the results of an experimental study of the critical two-phase flow of saturated and subcooled water through long tubes. In that study, the location of flashing inception was accurately controlled and adjusted through the use of a new device. The data obtained revealed that for fixed stagnation conditions, the maximum critical mass flux occurred with flashing inception located near the pipe exit; while minimum critical mass fluxes occurred with the flashing front located further upstream. Available data since 1970 for both short and long tubes over a wide range of conditions are compared with the model predictions. This includes test section L/D ratios from 25 to 300 and covers a temperature and pressure range of 110 to 280{degrees}C and 0.16 to 6.9 MPa. respectively. The predicted maximum and minimum critical mass fluxes show an excellent agreement with the range observed in the experimental data.

  15. Equilibrium thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    de Oliveira, Mário J

    2017-01-01

    This textbook provides an exposition of equilibrium thermodynamics and its applications to several areas of physics with particular attention to phase transitions and critical phenomena. The applications include several areas of condensed matter physics and include also a chapter on thermochemistry. Phase transitions and critical phenomena are treated according to the modern development of the field, based on the ideas of universality and on the Widom scaling theory. For each topic, a mean-field or Landau theory is presented to describe qualitatively the phase transitions. These theories include the van der Waals theory of the liquid-vapor transition, the Hildebrand-Heitler theory of regular mixtures, the Griffiths-Landau theory for multicritical points in multicomponent systems, the Bragg-Williams theory of order-disorder in alloys, the Weiss theory of ferromagnetism, the Néel theory of antiferromagnetism, the Devonshire theory for ferroelectrics and Landau-de Gennes theory of liquid crystals. This new edit...

  16. A General Cross-Layer Cloud Scheduling Framework for Multiple IoT Computer Tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Guanlin; Bao, Weidong; Zhu, Xiaomin; Zhang, Xiongtao

    2018-05-23

    The diversity of IoT services and applications brings enormous challenges to improving the performance of multiple computer tasks' scheduling in cross-layer cloud computing systems. Unfortunately, the commonly-employed frameworks fail to adapt to the new patterns on the cross-layer cloud. To solve this issue, we design a new computer task scheduling framework for multiple IoT services in cross-layer cloud computing systems. Specifically, we first analyze the features of the cross-layer cloud and computer tasks. Then, we design the scheduling framework based on the analysis and present detailed models to illustrate the procedures of using the framework. With the proposed framework, the IoT services deployed in cross-layer cloud computing systems can dynamically select suitable algorithms and use resources more effectively to finish computer tasks with different objectives. Finally, the algorithms are given based on the framework, and extensive experiments are also given to validate its effectiveness, as well as its superiority.

  17. Feasibility Study of a Generalized Framework for Developing Computer-Aided Detection Systems-a New Paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemoto, Mitsutaka; Hayashi, Naoto; Hanaoka, Shouhei; Nomura, Yukihiro; Miki, Soichiro; Yoshikawa, Takeharu

    2017-10-01

    We propose a generalized framework for developing computer-aided detection (CADe) systems whose characteristics depend only on those of the training dataset. The purpose of this study is to show the feasibility of the framework. Two different CADe systems were experimentally developed by a prototype of the framework, but with different training datasets. The CADe systems include four components; preprocessing, candidate area extraction, candidate detection, and candidate classification. Four pretrained algorithms with dedicated optimization/setting methods corresponding to the respective components were prepared in advance. The pretrained algorithms were sequentially trained in the order of processing of the components. In this study, two different datasets, brain MRA with cerebral aneurysms and chest CT with lung nodules, were collected to develop two different types of CADe systems in the framework. The performances of the developed CADe systems were evaluated by threefold cross-validation. The CADe systems for detecting cerebral aneurysms in brain MRAs and for detecting lung nodules in chest CTs were successfully developed using the respective datasets. The framework was shown to be feasible by the successful development of the two different types of CADe systems. The feasibility of this framework shows promise for a new paradigm in the development of CADe systems: development of CADe systems without any lesion specific algorithm designing.

  18. La inversión extranjera directa y las exportaciones en Tailandia. Pruebas de causalidad de Granger y equilibrio general Foreign direct inverstment and exports in Thailand. granger's causality tests and general equilibrium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Lombaerde Philippe

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available Los autores investigan la causalidad entre inversión directa y las exportaciones en el caso de Tailandia, un país caracterizado por un rapido crecimiento económico y de exportaciones, y por sus entradas de capital extranjero relativamente importantes. Sus resultados en prueba de causalidad de Granger contradicen los resultados de un estudio de equilibrio general, utilizando datos sobre la inversión japonesa en Tailandia. Los autores apuntan al riesgo de utilizar una sola metodología y sugieren razones por ambigüedad de los resultados.The authors investigate the FDI -export causality in the case of
    Thailand, a country characterized by rapid economic and exports growth, and relatively important incoming FDI flows , Their results from Granger causality tests contradict with those from a general-equilibrium study using data on Japanese FDI in Thailand. The authors indicate the risk of using single methodologies and suggest reasons for the ambiguous
    results.

  19. An efficient heuristic versus a robust hybrid meta-heuristic for general framework of serial-parallel redundancy problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadjadi, Seyed Jafar; Soltani, R.

    2009-01-01

    We present a heuristic approach to solve a general framework of serial-parallel redundancy problem where the reliability of the system is maximized subject to some general linear constraints. The complexity of the redundancy problem is generally considered to be NP-Hard and the optimal solution is not normally available. Therefore, to evaluate the performance of the proposed method, a hybrid genetic algorithm is also implemented whose parameters are calibrated via Taguchi's robust design method. Then, various test problems are solved and the computational results indicate that the proposed heuristic approach could provide us some promising reliabilities, which are fairly close to optimal solutions in a reasonable amount of time.

  20. Health services research evaluation principles. Broadening a general framework for evaluating health information technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sockolow, P S; Crawford, P R; Lehmann, H P

    2012-01-01

    Our forthcoming national experiment in increased health information technology (HIT) adoption funded by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 will require a comprehensive approach to evaluating HIT. The quality of evaluation studies of HIT to date reveals a need for broader evaluation frameworks that limits the generalizability of findings and the depth of lessons learned. Develop an informatics evaluation framework for health information technology (HIT) integrating components of health services research (HSR) evaluation and informatics evaluation to address identified shortcomings in available HIT evaluation frameworks. A systematic literature review updated and expanded the exhaustive review by Ammenwerth and deKeizer (AdK). From retained studies, criteria were elicited and organized into classes within a framework. The resulting Health Information Technology Research-based Evaluation Framework (HITREF) was used to guide clinician satisfaction survey construction, multi-dimensional analysis of data, and interpretation of findings in an evaluation of a vanguard community health care EHR. The updated review identified 128 electronic health record (EHR) evaluation studies and seven evaluation criteria not in AdK: EHR Selection/Development/Training; Patient Privacy Concerns; Unintended Consequences/ Benefits; Functionality; Patient Satisfaction with EHR; Barriers/Facilitators to Adoption; and Patient Satisfaction with Care. HITREF was used productively and was a complete evaluation framework which included all themes that emerged. We can recommend to future EHR evaluators that they consider adding a complete, research-based HIT evaluation framework, such as HITREF, to their evaluation tools suite to monitor HIT challenges as the federal government strives to increase HIT adoption.

  1. Support of the extremal measure in a vector equilibrium problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapik, M A

    2006-01-01

    A generalization of the Mhaskar-Saff functional is obtained for a vector equilibrium problem with an external field. As an application, the supports of the equilibrium measures are found in a special vector equilibrium problem with Nikishin matrix.

  2. Problems in equilibrium theory

    CERN Document Server

    Aliprantis, Charalambos D

    1996-01-01

    In studying General Equilibrium Theory the student must master first the theory and then apply it to solve problems. At the graduate level there is no book devoted exclusively to teaching problem solving. This book teaches for the first time the basic methods of proof and problem solving in General Equilibrium Theory. The problems cover the entire spectrum of difficulty; some are routine, some require a good grasp of the material involved, and some are exceptionally challenging. The book presents complete solutions to two hundred problems. In searching for the basic required techniques, the student will find a wealth of new material incorporated into the solutions. The student is challenged to produce solutions which are different from the ones presented in the book.

  3. Accelerating Multiagent Reinforcement Learning by Equilibrium Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yujing; Gao, Yang; An, Bo

    2015-07-01

    An important approach in multiagent reinforcement learning (MARL) is equilibrium-based MARL, which adopts equilibrium solution concepts in game theory and requires agents to play equilibrium strategies at each state. However, most existing equilibrium-based MARL algorithms cannot scale due to a large number of computationally expensive equilibrium computations (e.g., computing Nash equilibria is PPAD-hard) during learning. For the first time, this paper finds that during the learning process of equilibrium-based MARL, the one-shot games corresponding to each state's successive visits often have the same or similar equilibria (for some states more than 90% of games corresponding to successive visits have similar equilibria). Inspired by this observation, this paper proposes to use equilibrium transfer to accelerate equilibrium-based MARL. The key idea of equilibrium transfer is to reuse previously computed equilibria when each agent has a small incentive to deviate. By introducing transfer loss and transfer condition, a novel framework called equilibrium transfer-based MARL is proposed. We prove that although equilibrium transfer brings transfer loss, equilibrium-based MARL algorithms can still converge to an equilibrium policy under certain assumptions. Experimental results in widely used benchmarks (e.g., grid world game, soccer game, and wall game) show that the proposed framework: 1) not only significantly accelerates equilibrium-based MARL (up to 96.7% reduction in learning time), but also achieves higher average rewards than algorithms without equilibrium transfer and 2) scales significantly better than algorithms without equilibrium transfer when the state/action space grows and the number of agents increases.

  4. Equilibrium statistical mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Jackson, E Atlee

    2000-01-01

    Ideal as an elementary introduction to equilibrium statistical mechanics, this volume covers both classical and quantum methodology for open and closed systems. Introductory chapters familiarize readers with probability and microscopic models of systems, while additional chapters describe the general derivation of the fundamental statistical mechanics relationships. The final chapter contains 16 sections, each dealing with a different application, ordered according to complexity, from classical through degenerate quantum statistical mechanics. Key features include an elementary introduction t

  5. Molecular equilibrium with condensation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharp, C.M.; Huebner, W.F.

    1990-01-01

    Minimization of the Gibbs energy of formation for species of chemical elements and compounds in their gas and condensed phases determines their relative abundances in a mixture in chemical equilibrium. The procedure is more general and more powerful than previous abundance determinations in multiphase astrophysical mixtures. Some results for astrophysical equations of state are presented, and the effects of condensation on opacity are briefly indicated. 18 refs

  6. A general framework for modeling growth and division of mammalian cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier, John H; Pohl, Phillip I

    2011-01-06

    Modeling the cell-division cycle has been practiced for many years. As time has progressed, this work has gone from understanding the basic principles to addressing distinct biological problems, e.g., the nature of the restriction point, how checkpoints operate, the nonlinear dynamics of the cell cycle, the effect of localization, etc. Most models consist of coupled ordinary differential equations developed by the researchers, restricted to deal with the interactions of a limited number of molecules. In the future, cell-cycle modeling--and indeed all modeling of complex biologic processes--will increase in scope and detail. A framework for modeling complex cell-biologic processes is proposed here. The framework is based on two constructs: one describing the entire lifecycle of a molecule and the second describing the basic cellular machinery. Use of these constructs allows complex models to be built in a straightforward manner that fosters rigor and completeness. To demonstrate the framework, an example model of the mammalian cell cycle is presented that consists of several hundred differential equations of simple mass action kinetics. The model calculates energy usage, amino acid and nucleotide usage, membrane transport, RNA synthesis and destruction, and protein synthesis and destruction for 33 proteins to give an in-depth look at the cell cycle. The framework presented here addresses how to develop increasingly descriptive models of complex cell-biologic processes. The example model of cellular growth and division constructed with the framework demonstrates that large structured models can be created with the framework, and these models can generate non-trivial descriptions of cellular processes. Predictions from the example model include those at both the molecular level--e.g., Wee1 spontaneously reactivates--and at the system level--e.g., pathways for timing-critical processes must shut down redundant pathways. A future effort is to automatically estimate

  7. Governmental, Legal and Regulatory Framework for Safety. General Safety Requirements. Part 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-09-15

    The objective of this publication is to establish requirements in respect of the governmental, legal and regulatory framework for safety. It covers the essential aspects of the framework for establishing a regulatory body and taking other actions necessary to ensure the effective regulatory control of facilities and activities utilized for peaceful purposes. Other responsibilities and functions, such as liaison within the global safety regime and on support services for safety (including radiation protection), emergency preparedness and response, nuclear security, and the State system of accounting for and control of nuclear material, are also covered.

  8. Governmental, Legal and Regulatory Framework for Safety. General Safety Requirements. Part 1 (Arabic Edition)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-09-15

    The objective of this publication is to establish requirements in respect of the governmental, legal and regulatory framework for safety. It covers the essential aspects of the framework for establishing a regulatory body and taking other actions necessary to ensure the effective regulatory control of facilities and activities utilized for peaceful purposes. Other responsibilities and functions, such as liaison within the global safety regime and on support services for safety (including radiation protection), emergency preparedness and response, nuclear security, and the State system of accounting for and control of nuclear material, are also covered.

  9. Governmental, Legal and Regulatory Framework for Safety. General Safety Requirements. Part 1 (Spanish Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this publication is to establish requirements in respect of the governmental, legal and regulatory framework for safety. It covers the essential aspects of the framework for establishing a regulatory body and taking other actions necessary to ensure the effective regulatory control of facilities and activities utilized for peaceful purposes. Other responsibilities and functions, such as liaison within the global safety regime and on support services for safety (including radiation protection), emergency preparedness and response, nuclear security, and the State system of accounting for and control of nuclear material, are also covered

  10. Governmental, Legal and Regulatory Framework for Safety. General Safety Requirements. Part 1 (French Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this publication is to establish requirements in respect of the governmental, legal and regulatory framework for safety. It covers the essential aspects of the framework for establishing a regulatory body and taking other actions necessary to ensure the effective regulatory control of facilities and activities utilized for peaceful purposes. Other responsibilities and functions, such as liaison within the global safety regime and on support services for safety (including radiation protection), emergency preparedness and response, nuclear security, and the State system of accounting for and control of nuclear material, are also covered

  11. Governmental, Legal and Regulatory Framework for Safety. General Safety Requirements. Part 1 (Chinese Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this publication is to establish requirements in respect of the governmental, legal and regulatory framework for safety. It covers the essential aspects of the framework for establishing a regulatory body and taking other actions necessary to ensure the effective regulatory control of facilities and activities utilized for peaceful purposes. Other responsibilities and functions, such as liaison within the global safety regime and on support services for safety (including radiation protection), emergency preparedness and response, nuclear security, and the State system of accounting for and control of nuclear material, are also covered

  12. Thermodynamic chemical energy transfer mechanisms of non-equilibrium, quasi-equilibrium, and equilibrium chemical reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roh, Heui-Seol

    2015-01-01

    Chemical energy transfer mechanisms at finite temperature are explored by a chemical energy transfer theory which is capable of investigating various chemical mechanisms of non-equilibrium, quasi-equilibrium, and equilibrium. Gibbs energy fluxes are obtained as a function of chemical potential, time, and displacement. Diffusion, convection, internal convection, and internal equilibrium chemical energy fluxes are demonstrated. The theory reveals that there are chemical energy flux gaps and broken discrete symmetries at the activation chemical potential, time, and displacement. The statistical, thermodynamic theory is the unification of diffusion and internal convection chemical reactions which reduces to the non-equilibrium generalization beyond the quasi-equilibrium theories of migration and diffusion processes. The relationship between kinetic theories of chemical and electrochemical reactions is also explored. The theory is applied to explore non-equilibrium chemical reactions as an illustration. Three variable separation constants indicate particle number constants and play key roles in describing the distinct chemical reaction mechanisms. The kinetics of chemical energy transfer accounts for the four control mechanisms of chemical reactions such as activation, concentration, transition, and film chemical reactions. - Highlights: • Chemical energy transfer theory is proposed for non-, quasi-, and equilibrium. • Gibbs energy fluxes are expressed by chemical potential, time, and displacement. • Relationship between chemical and electrochemical reactions is discussed. • Theory is applied to explore nonequilibrium energy transfer in chemical reactions. • Kinetics of non-equilibrium chemical reactions shows the four control mechanisms

  13. A general framework for the evaluation of genetic association studies using multiple marginal models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kitsche, Andreas; Ritz, Christian; Hothorn, Ludwig A.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In this study, we present a simultaneous inference procedure as a unified analysis framework for genetic association studies. METHODS: The method is based on the formulation of multiple marginal models that reflect different modes of inheritance. The basic advantage of this methodology...

  14. Human factors of transitions in automated driving : A general framework and literature survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, Z.; Happee, R.; Cabrall, C.D.D.; Kyriakidis, M.; de Winter, J.C.F.

    2016-01-01

    The topic of transitions in automated driving is becoming important now that cars are automated to ever greater extents. This paper proposes a theoretical framework to support and align human factors research on transitions in automated driving. Driving states are defined based on the allocation of

  15. Covariant framework for a mass monopole as a field structure in general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schleifer, N.

    1980-01-01

    We present a covariant framework for what is usually referred to as a mass monopole, by utilizing certain scalar invariants that are functions of the eigenvalues of the Riemann tensor. We thus bridge one of the theoretical gaps in the Einstein-Infeld-Hoffmann (EIH) derivation of the equations of motion of particles from the field equations: the lack of a covariant characterization of those aspects of a particle's structure which influence its motion. We have succeeded in giving a covariant framework for a mass monopole, which is the particle type assumed by EIH in their derivation. This is accomplished by using only the field outside the mass (singularity) to describe its characteristics, thereby conforming to a pure field description of nature. The utility of the framework has been verified by applying it to two physically relevant situations. The first is that of a Kerr particle, and the second is that of one spherically symmetric mass orbiting another. Our framework does indeed correspond to the intuitively expected results. In addition, our novel use of eigenvalues of the Riemann tensor appears to be a possible avenue of approach to the covariant characterization of other particle structure

  16. Goal Orientations of General Chemistry Students via the Achievement Goal Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Scott E.

    2018-01-01

    The Achievement Goal Framework describes students' goal orientations as: task-based, focusing on the successful completion of the task; self-based, evaluating performance relative to one's own past performance; or other-based, evaluating performance relative to the performance of others. Goal orientations have been used to explain student success…

  17. A study of electricity planning in Thailand: An integrated top-down and bottom-up Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) modeling analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srisamran, Supree

    This dissertation examines the potential impacts of three electricity policies on the economy of Thailand in terms of macroeconomic performance, income distribution, and unemployment rate. The three considered policies feature responses to potential disruption of imported natural gas used in electricity generation, alternative combinations (portfolios) of fuel feedstock for electricity generation, and increases in investment and local electricity consumption. The evaluation employs Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) approach with the extension of electricity generation and transmission module to simulate the counterfactual scenario for each policy. The dissertation consists of five chapters. Chapter one begins with a discussion of Thailand's economic condition and is followed by a discussion of the current state of electricity generation and consumption and current issues in power generation. The security of imported natural gas in power generation is then briefly discussed. The persistence of imported natural gas disruption has always caused trouble to the country, however, the economic consequences of this disruption have not yet been evaluated. The current portfolio of power generation and the concerns it raises are then presented. The current portfolio of power generation is heavily reliant upon natural gas and so needs to be diversified. Lastly, the anticipated increase in investment and electricity consumption as a consequence of regional integration is discussed. Chapter two introduces the CGE model, its background and limitations. Chapter three reviews relevant literature of the CGE method and its application in electricity policies. In addition, the submodule characterizing the network of electricity generation and distribution and the method of its integration with the CGE model are explained. Chapter four presents the findings of the policy simulations. The first simulation illustrates the consequences of responses to disruptions in natural gas imports

  18. Transient magnetic currents through a molecular bridge: limits to reduction of non-equilibrium Green's functions to a generalized master equation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kalvová, Anděla; Velický, B.; Špička, Václav

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 30, č. 3 (2017), s. 807-811 ISSN 1557-1939 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : non-equilibrium * initial conditions * transient currents * molecular islands Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) Impact factor: 1.180, year: 2016

  19. Effect of Topography on Learning Military Tactics - Integration of Generalized Intelligent Framework for Tutoring (GIFT) and Augmented REality Sandtable (ARES)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Dunleavy M, Dede C. Augmented reality teaching and learning. Handbook of research on educational communications and technology . New York (NY): Springer...taxonomy of mixed reality visual displays. IEICE Transactions on Information and Systems. 1994;77(12):1321–1329. Noordzij ML, Scholten P, Laroy-Noordzij...Generalized Intelligent Framework for Tutoring (GIFT) and Augmented REality Sandtable (ARES) by Michael W Boyce, Ramsamooj J Reyes, Deeja E Cruz, Charles

  20. KMCLib: A general framework for lattice kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leetmaa, Mikael; Skorodumova, Natalia V.

    2014-09-01

    KMCLib is a general framework for lattice kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) simulations. The program can handle simulations of the diffusion and reaction of millions of particles in one, two, or three dimensions, and is designed to be easily extended and customized by the user to allow for the development of complex custom KMC models for specific systems without having to modify the core functionality of the program. Analysis modules and on-the-fly elementary step diffusion rate calculations can be implemented as plugins following a well-defined API. The plugin modules are loosely coupled to the core KMCLib program via the Python scripting language. KMCLib is written as a Python module with a backend C++ library. After initial compilation of the backend library KMCLib is used as a Python module; input to the program is given as a Python script executed using a standard Python interpreter. We give a detailed description of the features and implementation of the code and demonstrate its scaling behavior and parallel performance with a simple one-dimensional A-B-C lattice KMC model and a more complex three-dimensional lattice KMC model of oxygen-vacancy diffusion in a fluorite structured metal oxide. KMCLib can keep track of individual particle movements and includes tools for mean square displacement analysis, and is therefore particularly well suited for studying diffusion processes at surfaces and in solids. Catalogue identifier: AESZ_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AESZ_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: GNU General Public License, version 3 No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 49 064 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 1 575 172 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Python and C++. Computer: Any computer that can run a C++ compiler and a Python interpreter. Operating system: Tested on Ubuntu 12

  1. A General Framework for Portfolio Theory. Part I: theory and various models

    OpenAIRE

    Maier-Paape, Stanislaus; Zhu, Qiji Jim

    2017-01-01

    Utility and risk are two often competing measurements on the investment success. We show that efficient trade-off between these two measurements for investment portfolios happens, in general, on a convex curve in the two dimensional space of utility and risk. This is a rather general pattern. The modern portfolio theory of Markowitz [H. Markowitz, Portfolio Selection, 1959] and its natural generalization, the capital market pricing model, [W. F. Sharpe, Mutual fund performance , 1966] are spe...

  2. Governmental, Legal and Regulatory Framework for Safety. General Safety Requirements. Part 1, Revision 1 (Chinese Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    This publication establishes requirements in respect of the governmental, legal and regulatory framework for safety. It covers the essential aspects of the framework for establishing a regulatory body and taking other actions necessary to ensure the effective regulatory control of facilities and activities utilized for peaceful purposes. Other responsibilities and functions, such as liaison within the global safety regime and on support services for safety (including radiation protection), emergency preparedness and response, nuclear security, and the State system of accounting for and control of nuclear material, are also covered. A review of Safety Requirements publications was commenced in 2011 following the accident in the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant in Japan. The review revealed no significant areas of weakness and resulted in just a small set of amendments to strengthen the requirements and facilitate their implementation, which are contained in the present publication.

  3. A Generalized Decision Framework Using Multi-objective Optimization for Water Resources Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basdekas, L.; Stewart, N.; Triana, E.

    2013-12-01

    Colorado Springs Utilities (CSU) is currently engaged in an Integrated Water Resource Plan (IWRP) to address the complex planning scenarios, across multiple time scales, currently faced by CSU. The modeling framework developed for the IWRP uses a flexible data-centered Decision Support System (DSS) with a MODSIM-based modeling system to represent the operation of the current CSU raw water system coupled with a state-of-the-art multi-objective optimization algorithm. Three basic components are required for the framework, which can be implemented for planning horizons ranging from seasonal to interdecadal. First, a water resources system model is required that is capable of reasonable system simulation to resolve performance metrics at the appropriate temporal and spatial scales of interest. The system model should be an existing simulation model, or one developed during the planning process with stakeholders, so that 'buy-in' has already been achieved. Second, a hydrologic scenario tool(s) capable of generating a range of plausible inflows for the planning period of interest is required. This may include paleo informed or climate change informed sequences. Third, a multi-objective optimization model that can be wrapped around the system simulation model is required. The new generation of multi-objective optimization models do not require parameterization which greatly reduces problem complexity. Bridging the gap between research and practice will be evident as we use a case study from CSU's planning process to demonstrate this framework with specific competing water management objectives. Careful formulation of objective functions, choice of decision variables, and system constraints will be discussed. Rather than treating results as theoretically Pareto optimal in a planning process, we use the powerful multi-objective optimization models as tools to more efficiently and effectively move out of the inferior decision space. The use of this framework will help CSU

  4. Plasduino: An inexpensive, general-purpose data acquisition framework for educational experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldini, L.

    2014-01-01

    Based on the Arduino development platform, plasduino is an open source data acquisition framework specifically designed for educational physics experiments. The source code, schematics and documentation are in the public domain under a GPL license and the system, streamlined for low cost and ease of use, can be replicated on the scale of a typical didactic lab with minimal effort. We describe the basic architecture of the system and illustrate its potential with some real-life examples.

  5. Plasduino: An inexpensive, general-purpose data acquisition framework for educational experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldini, L. [Universita' di Pisa and INFN Sez. di Pisa, Pisa (Italy)

    2014-07-15

    Based on the Arduino development platform, plasduino is an open source data acquisition framework specifically designed for educational physics experiments. The source code, schematics and documentation are in the public domain under a GPL license and the system, streamlined for low cost and ease of use, can be replicated on the scale of a typical didactic lab with minimal effort. We describe the basic architecture of the system and illustrate its potential with some real-life examples.

  6. GELATIO: a general framework for modular digital analysis of high-purity Ge detector signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agostini, M; Pandola, L; Zavarise, P; Volynets, O

    2011-01-01

    GELATIO is a new software framework for advanced data analysis and digital signal processing developed for the GERDA neutrinoless double beta decay experiment. The framework is tailored to handle the full analysis flow of signals recorded by high purity Ge detectors and photo-multipliers from the veto counters. It is designed to support a multi-channel modular and flexible analysis, widely customizable by the user either via human-readable initialization files or via a graphical interface. The framework organizes the data into a multi-level structure, from the raw data up to the condensed analysis parameters, and includes tools and utilities to handle the data stream between the different levels. GELATIO is implemented in C++. It relies upon ROOT and its extension TAM, which provides compatibility with PROOF, enabling the software to run in parallel on clusters of computers or many-core machines. It was tested on different platforms and benchmarked in several GERDA-related applications. A stable version is presently available for the GERDA Collaboration and it is used to provide the reference analysis of the experiment data.

  7. GELATIO: a general framework for modular digital analysis of high-purity Ge detector signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostini, M.; Pandola, L.; Zavarise, P.; Volynets, O.

    2011-08-01

    GELATIO is a new software framework for advanced data analysis and digital signal processing developed for the GERDA neutrinoless double beta decay experiment. The framework is tailored to handle the full analysis flow of signals recorded by high purity Ge detectors and photo-multipliers from the veto counters. It is designed to support a multi-channel modular and flexible analysis, widely customizable by the user either via human-readable initialization files or via a graphical interface. The framework organizes the data into a multi-level structure, from the raw data up to the condensed analysis parameters, and includes tools and utilities to handle the data stream between the different levels. GELATIO is implemented in C++. It relies upon ROOT and its extension TAM, which provides compatibility with PROOF, enabling the software to run in parallel on clusters of computers or many-core machines. It was tested on different platforms and benchmarked in several GERDA-related applications. A stable version is presently available for the GERDA Collaboration and it is used to provide the reference analysis of the experiment data.

  8. Impuestos al capital y al trabajo en Colombia: un análisis mediante equilibrio general computable Effect of Taxes on Capital and Labor in Colombia: A Computable General Equilibrium Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Botero Garcia

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Mediante un modelo de equilibrio general computable, calibrado para Colombia, se analiza el impacto de diversas políticas económicas, que afectan el precio relativo de los factores productivos. Se concluye que los estímulos a la inversión, que pueden interpretarse como acciones que disminuyen el precio del capital, propician sin embargo la acumulación de capital, y por esa vía, incrementan la productividad del trabajo, generando efectos positivos netos sobre el empleo. La eliminación de los aportes parafiscales, por su parte, genera una reducción en el costo del trabajo, pero su efecto global sobre el empleo es compensado parcialmente por las acciones fiscales tendientes a generar rentas alternativas que permitan mantener los beneficios asociados a esos aportes. Se sugiere que el esquema ideal sería aquel que establece estímulos a la inversión, focalizados hacia sectores intensivos en empleo, al tiempo que crea redes de protección social adecuadas, para enfrentar los problemas asociados a la pobreza.   Abstract Using a computable general equilibrium model, calibrated for Colombia, it is analyze the impact of various economic policies, which affect the relative price of production factors. The results concluded that the incentives for investment, which can be interpreted as actions that decrease the cost of capital, however lead to the accumulation of capital, and thereby increase the productivity of labour, generating net positive effects on employment. The Elimination of the payroll taxes, for its part, generates a reduction in the cost of labour, but their overall effect on employment is partially offset by the tax measures designed to generate alternative income to keep the benefits associated with these contributions. Finally the suggestion is that the ideal scheme would be one that provides incentives for investment, focused towards employment-intensive sectors, at the time that creates networks of social protection appropriate

  9. Helical axis stellarator equilibrium model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koniges, A.E.; Johnson, J.L.

    1985-02-01

    An asymptotic model is developed to study MHD equilibria in toroidal systems with a helical magnetic axis. Using a characteristic coordinate system based on the vacuum field lines, the equilibrium problem is reduced to a two-dimensional generalized partial differential equation of the Grad-Shafranov type. A stellarator-expansion free-boundary equilibrium code is modified to solve the helical-axis equations. The expansion model is used to predict the equilibrium properties of Asperators NP-3 and NP-4. Numerically determined flux surfaces, magnetic well, transform, and shear are presented. The equilibria show a toroidal Shafranov shift

  10. Generalized Information Theory Meets Human Cognition: Introducing a Unified Framework to Model Uncertainty and Information Search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crupi, Vincenzo; Nelson, Jonathan D; Meder, Björn; Cevolani, Gustavo; Tentori, Katya

    2018-06-17

    Searching for information is critical in many situations. In medicine, for instance, careful choice of a diagnostic test can help narrow down the range of plausible diseases that the patient might have. In a probabilistic framework, test selection is often modeled by assuming that people's goal is to reduce uncertainty about possible states of the world. In cognitive science, psychology, and medical decision making, Shannon entropy is the most prominent and most widely used model to formalize probabilistic uncertainty and the reduction thereof. However, a variety of alternative entropy metrics (Hartley, Quadratic, Tsallis, Rényi, and more) are popular in the social and the natural sciences, computer science, and philosophy of science. Particular entropy measures have been predominant in particular research areas, and it is often an open issue whether these divergences emerge from different theoretical and practical goals or are merely due to historical accident. Cutting across disciplinary boundaries, we show that several entropy and entropy reduction measures arise as special cases in a unified formalism, the Sharma-Mittal framework. Using mathematical results, computer simulations, and analyses of published behavioral data, we discuss four key questions: How do various entropy models relate to each other? What insights can be obtained by considering diverse entropy models within a unified framework? What is the psychological plausibility of different entropy models? What new questions and insights for research on human information acquisition follow? Our work provides several new pathways for theoretical and empirical research, reconciling apparently conflicting approaches and empirical findings within a comprehensive and unified information-theoretic formalism. Copyright © 2018 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  11. Bure's underground research laboratory: general framework, objectives, siting process and schedule of the URL project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaussen, J.L.

    2001-01-01

    Bure URL project is one of the components of the French research program dedicated to the study of HLLLW (High Level Long Lived Radioactive Waste) disposal in geologic repository within the framework of the 1991 Radioactive Waste Act. Pursuant to the said act, the objective of the URL project is to participate in the ''evaluation of options for retrievable or non- retrievable disposal in deep geologic formations''. More precisely, the goal of this URL, which is situated 300 km East of Paris, is to gain a better knowledge of a site capable of hosting a geologic repository. (author)

  12. Nonequilibrium process of self-gravitating N-body systems and quasi-equilibrium structure using normalized q-expectation values for Tsallis' generalized entropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komatsu, Nobuyoshi; Kiwata, Takahiro; Kimura, Shigeo

    2010-01-01

    To clarify the nonequilibrium processes of self-gravitating systems, we examine a system enclosed in a spherical container with reflecting walls, by N-body simulations. To simulate nonequilibrium processes, we consider loss of energy through the reflecting wall, i.e., a particle reflected at a non-adiabatic wall is cooled to mimic energy loss. We also consider quasi-equilibrium structures of stellar polytropes to compare with the nonequilibrium process, where the quasi-equilibrium structure is obtained from an extremum-state of Tsallis' entropy. Consequently, we numerically show that, with increasing cooling rates, the dependence of the temperature on energy, i.e., the ε-T curve, varies from that of microcanonical ensembles (or isothermal spheres) to a common curve. The common curve appearing in the nonequilibrium process agrees well with an ε-T curve for a quasi-equilibrium structure of the stellar polytrope, especially for the polytrope index n ∼ 5. In fact, for n > 5, the stellar polytrope within an adiabatic wall exhibits gravothermal instability [Taruya, Sakagami, Physica A, 322 (2003) 285]. The present study indicates that the stellar polytrope with n ∼ 5 likely plays an important role in quasi-attractors of the nonequilibrium process in self-gravitating systems with non-adiabatic walls.

  13. Land Surface Verification Toolkit (LVT) - A Generalized Framework for Land Surface Model Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sujay V.; Peters-Lidard, Christa D.; Santanello, Joseph; Harrison, Ken; Liu, Yuqiong; Shaw, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Model evaluation and verification are key in improving the usage and applicability of simulation models for real-world applications. In this article, the development and capabilities of a formal system for land surface model evaluation called the Land surface Verification Toolkit (LVT) is described. LVT is designed to provide an integrated environment for systematic land model evaluation and facilitates a range of verification approaches and analysis capabilities. LVT operates across multiple temporal and spatial scales and employs a large suite of in-situ, remotely sensed and other model and reanalysis datasets in their native formats. In addition to the traditional accuracy-based measures, LVT also includes uncertainty and ensemble diagnostics, information theory measures, spatial similarity metrics and scale decomposition techniques that provide novel ways for performing diagnostic model evaluations. Though LVT was originally designed to support the land surface modeling and data assimilation framework known as the Land Information System (LIS), it also supports hydrological data products from other, non-LIS environments. In addition, the analysis of diagnostics from various computational subsystems of LIS including data assimilation, optimization and uncertainty estimation are supported within LVT. Together, LIS and LVT provide a robust end-to-end environment for enabling the concepts of model data fusion for hydrological applications. The evolving capabilities of LVT framework are expected to facilitate rapid model evaluation efforts and aid the definition and refinement of formal evaluation procedures for the land surface modeling community.

  14. Land surface Verification Toolkit (LVT) - a generalized framework for land surface model evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, S. V.; Peters-Lidard, C. D.; Santanello, J.; Harrison, K.; Liu, Y.; Shaw, M.

    2012-06-01

    Model evaluation and verification are key in improving the usage and applicability of simulation models for real-world applications. In this article, the development and capabilities of a formal system for land surface model evaluation called the Land surface Verification Toolkit (LVT) is described. LVT is designed to provide an integrated environment for systematic land model evaluation and facilitates a range of verification approaches and analysis capabilities. LVT operates across multiple temporal and spatial scales and employs a large suite of in-situ, remotely sensed and other model and reanalysis datasets in their native formats. In addition to the traditional accuracy-based measures, LVT also includes uncertainty and ensemble diagnostics, information theory measures, spatial similarity metrics and scale decomposition techniques that provide novel ways for performing diagnostic model evaluations. Though LVT was originally designed to support the land surface modeling and data assimilation framework known as the Land Information System (LIS), it supports hydrological data products from non-LIS environments as well. In addition, the analysis of diagnostics from various computational subsystems of LIS including data assimilation, optimization and uncertainty estimation are supported within LVT. Together, LIS and LVT provide a robust end-to-end environment for enabling the concepts of model data fusion for hydrological applications. The evolving capabilities of LVT framework are expected to facilitate rapid model evaluation efforts and aid the definition and refinement of formal evaluation procedures for the land surface modeling community.

  15. Radical covalent organic frameworks: a general strategy to immobilize open-accessible polyradicals for high-performance capacitive energy storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Fei; Xu, Hong; Chen, Xiong; Wu, Dingcai; Wu, Yang; Liu, Hao; Gu, Cheng; Fu, Ruowen; Jiang, Donglin

    2015-06-01

    Ordered π-columns and open nanochannels found in covalent organic frameworks (COFs) could render them able to store electric energy. However, the synthetic difficulty in achieving redox-active skeletons has thus far restricted their potential for energy storage. A general strategy is presented for converting a conventional COF into an outstanding platform for energy storage through post-synthetic functionalization with organic radicals. The radical frameworks with openly accessible polyradicals immobilized on the pore walls undergo rapid and reversible redox reactions, leading to capacitive energy storage with high capacitance, high-rate kinetics, and robust cycle stability. The results suggest that channel-wall functional engineering with redox-active species will be a facile and versatile strategy to explore COFs for energy storage. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. A generalized framework for assessment of safety margins in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavrilas, M.; Youngblood, B.; Prelewicz, D.; Meyer, Jim

    2004-01-01

    The protection of public health and safety, and the environment from inadvertent releases of radioactive materials from nuclear power plants relies on the implementation of the defense-in-depth strategy. The term defense-in-depth evolved historically, and thus its application has not always been uniform. The use of the term in the context of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) safety philosophy entails the reliance of a nuclear facility on successive compensatory measures in preventing accidents or mitigating damage caused by malfunctions, accidents, or naturally occurring events. The introduction of probabilistic risk analyses with NUREG-74/014 and subsequent evolution in risk assessment techniques, are leading to the implementation of risk informed regulation to ensure the safety of the public and the environment. Risk informed regulation minimizes the likelihood of overlooking potentially significant accident sequences while limiting unnecessary burdens imposed on licensees. The proposed framework merges fundamental elements of safety regulation: defense-in depth, safety margins and probabilistic risk. It formalizes the relationship between probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) methods and data, and deterministic analyses in a manner consistent with NRC's defense-in-depth philosophy. Succinctly put, the likelihood and consequences of accident scenarios are considered simultaneously and quantified by a plant safety metric. The integration of these fundamental elements into a practically applicable safety framework is consistent with the NRC policy statement on use of probabilistic risk assessment methods and the November 2002 Regulatory Guide on risk informed decisions on plant-specific changes to the licensing basis. Safety information resulting from the application of the framework supersedes traditional safety figures of merit. Safety quantifiers, referred herein as safety indices, expand on the qualifier outcomes that currently accompany fault tree

  17. Information-preserving structures: A general framework for quantum zero-error information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blume-Kohout, Robin; Ng, Hui Khoon; Poulin, David; Viola, Lorenza

    2010-01-01

    Quantum systems carry information. Quantum theory supports at least two distinct kinds of information (classical and quantum), and a variety of different ways to encode and preserve information in physical systems. A system's ability to carry information is constrained and defined by the noise in its dynamics. This paper introduces an operational framework, using information-preserving structures, to classify all the kinds of information that can be perfectly (i.e., with zero error) preserved by quantum dynamics. We prove that every perfectly preserved code has the same structure as a matrix algebra, and that preserved information can always be corrected. We also classify distinct operational criteria for preservation (e.g., 'noiseless','unitarily correctible', etc.) and introduce two natural criteria for measurement-stabilized and unconditionally preserved codes. Finally, for several of these operational criteria, we present efficient (polynomial in the state-space dimension) algorithms to find all of a channel's information-preserving structures.

  18. The interrogation decision-making model: A general theoretical framework for confessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yueran; Guyll, Max; Madon, Stephanie

    2017-02-01

    This article presents a new model of confessions referred to as the interrogation decision-making model . This model provides a theoretical umbrella with which to understand and analyze suspects' decisions to deny or confess guilt in the context of a custodial interrogation. The model draws upon expected utility theory to propose a mathematical account of the psychological mechanisms that not only underlie suspects' decisions to deny or confess guilt at any specific point during an interrogation, but also how confession decisions can change over time. Findings from the extant literature pertaining to confessions are considered to demonstrate how the model offers a comprehensive and integrative framework for organizing a range of effects within a limited set of model parameters. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Electromagnetic characterization of bianisotropic metasurfaces on refractive substrates: General theoretical framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albooyeh, M.; Tretyakov, Sergei [Department of Radio Science and Engineering, Aalto University, P.O. Box 13000, FI-00076, Aalto (Finland); Simovski, Constantin [Department of Radio Science and Engineering, Aalto University, P.O. Box 13000, FI-00076, Aalto (Finland); Laboratory of Metamaterials, University for Information Technology, Mechanics and Optics (ITMO), 197101, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2016-10-15

    We present a general methodology for electromagnetic homogenization and characterization of bianisotropic metasurfaces formed by regular or random arrangements of small arbitrary inclusions at interfaces of two different isotropic media. The approach unites and generalizes the earlier theories developed independently by two joint research groups: that of profs. Holloway and Kuester and that of profs. Simovski and Tretyakov. We analyze the features of both formalisms and discuss their peculiarities in several example cases. Our theory can be used in the analysis and synthesis of a wide spectrum of metasurfaces. (copyright 2016 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  20. Formal framework for a nonlocal generalization of Einstein's theory of gravitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hehl, Friedrich W.; Mashhoon, Bahram

    2009-01-01

    The analogy between electrodynamics and the translational gauge theory of gravity is employed in this paper to develop an ansatz for a nonlocal generalization of Einstein's theory of gravitation. Working in the linear approximation, we show that the resulting nonlocal theory is equivalent to general relativity with 'dark matter'. The nature of the predicted dark matter, which is the manifestation of the nonlocal character of gravity in our model, is briefly discussed. It is demonstrated that this approach can provide a basis for the Tohline-Kuhn treatment of the astrophysical evidence for dark matter.

  1. Evaluating the implementation of a quality improvement process in General Practice using a realist evaluation framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moule, Pam; Clompus, Susan; Fieldhouse, Jon; Ellis-Jones, Julie; Barker, Jacqueline

    2018-05-25

    Underuse of anticoagulants in atrial fibrillation is known to increase the risk of stroke and is an international problem. The National Institute for Health Care and Excellence guidance CG180 seeks to reduce atrial fibrillation related strokes through prescriptions of Non-vitamin K antagonist Oral Anticoagulants. A quality improvement programme was established by the West of England Academic Health Science Network (West of England AHSN) to implement this guidance into General Practice. A realist evaluation identified whether the quality improvement programme worked, determining how and in what circumstances. Six General Practices in 1 region, became the case study sites. Quality improvement team, doctor, and pharmacist meetings within each of the General Practices were recorded at 3 stages: initial planning, review, and final. Additionally, 15 interviews conducted with the practice leads explored experiences of the quality improvement process. Observation and interview data were analysed and compared against the initial programme theory. The quality improvement resources available were used variably, with the training being valued by all. The initial programme theories were refined. In particular, local workload pressures and individual General Practitioner experiences and pre-conceived ideas were acknowledged. Where key motivators were in place, such as prior experience, the programme achieved optimal outcomes and secured a lasting quality improvement legacy. The employment of a quality improvement programme can deliver practice change and improvement legacy outcomes when particular mechanisms are employed and in contexts where there is a commitment to improve service. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. General framework for real-time implementation of balancing services market outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Virag, A.; Jokic, A.; Bosch, van den P.P.J.

    2012-01-01

    Load frequency control (LFC) is widely used for real-time balancing connected power systems. With the deregulation of power system markets, there is a necessity for adapting the current LFC to support market-based operation. In this paper we propose a general balancing tool which covers both,

  3. Making a Map of Science: General Systems Theory as a Conceptual Framework for Tertiary Science Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulyaev, Sergei A.; Stonyer, Heather R.

    2002-01-01

    Develops an integrated approach based on the use of general systems theory (GST) and the concept of 'mapping' scientific knowledge to provide students with tools for a more holistic understanding of science. Uses GST as the core methodology for understanding science and its complexity. Discusses the role of scientific community in producing…

  4. Applying the Multilevel Framework of Discourse Comprehension to Evaluate the Text Characteristics of General Chemistry Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyburn, Daniel T.; Pazicni, Samuel

    2014-01-01

    Prior chemistry education research has demonstrated a relationship between student reading skill and general chemistry course performance. In addition to student characteristics, however, the qualities of the learning materials with which students interact also impact student learning. For example, low-knowledge students benefit from texts that…

  5. A Framework for a General Purpose Intelligent Control System for Particle Accelerators. Phase II Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westervelt, Robert; Klein, William; Kroupa, Michael; Olsson, Eric; Rothrock, Rick

    1999-01-01

    Vista Control Systems, Inc. has developed a portable system for intelligent accelerator control. The design is general in scope and is thus configurable to a wide range of accelerator facilities and control problems. The control system employs a multi-layer organization in which knowledge-based decision making is used to dynamically configure lower level optimization and control algorithms

  6. Coulomb excitation of rotational states in the 162Dy nucleus in the framework of the generalized semiclassical approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolotin, Yu.L.; Gonchar, V.Yu.; Chekanov, N.A.

    1985-01-01

    Coulomb excitation of rotational states induced in heavyion collisions is treated in the framework of the generalized semiclassical approximation. The Hamiltonian of the system under consideration involves not only Coulomb forces (monopole, quadrupole, and hexadecapole) but as well a real nuclear potential in the form of the deformed Woods-Saxon potential. Strong dependence of the excitation probability on the interference between the Coulomb and nuclear interactions is shown. Calculations are carried out for the reaction 40 Ar+ 162 Dy at E=148.6 MeV. The calculated Coulomb excitation probabilities agree satisfactory with the corresponding experimental values

  7. Decay constants of pseudoscalar mesons in Bethe–Salpeter framework with generalized structure of hadron-quark vertex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatnagar, Shashank; Li, Shiyuan

    2009-01-01

    We employ the framework of Bethe–Salpeter equation under Covariant Instantaneous Ansatz to study the leptonic decays of pseudoscalar mesons. The Dirac structure of hadron-quark vertex function Γ is generalized to include various Dirac covariants besides γ5 from their complete set. The covariants are incorporated in accordance with a power counting rule, order-by-order in powers of the inverse of the meson mass. The decay constants are calculated with the incorporation of leading order covariants. Most of the results are dramatically improved. (author)

  8. A NEW APROACH OF CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK FOR GENERAL PURPOSE FINANCIAL REPORTING BY PUBLIC SECTOR ENTITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nistor Cristina

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The importance of accounting in the modern economy is obvious. That is more elevated bodies of the European Union and elsewhere dealing with the organization and functioning of accounting as a fundamental component of business (Nistor C., 2009. The mission of the International Federation of Accountants (IFAC is to serve the public interest, strengthen the worldwide accountancy profession and contribute to the development of strong international economies by initiating and encouraging the professional standards of high quality, the convergence process these international standards and to discuss issues of public interest which is extremely relevant international experience of (IFAC, 2011. Currently, the concepts related to financial reports in public sector are developed by IPSAS references. Many of today's IPSAS are based on international accounting standards (IAS / IFRS, to the extent that they are relevant to the requirements of the public sector. Therefore today's IPSAS are based on concepts and definitions of the IASB's conceptual framework, with changes where necessary for public sector specific approach. Thus this study present this brief draft statement under discussion by the leadership of IFAC in collaboration with other organizations and groups that develop financial reporting requirements of the public sector. Then, we highlight the importance and the degree of acceptance of the project which results from comments received. On the basis of combining qualitative with quantitative research seeks to demonstrate the necessity and usefulness of a common conceptual framework of the International Accounting Standards (in this case the Public Sector, starting from their emergence from presenting their bodies involved in the foundation, the content standards, experience of different countries. The results have direct implications on Romanian public accounting system, given that the reference of the international implementation and reporting is

  9. A Generalized Robust Minimization Framework for Low-Rank Matrix Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Ze Shao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the problem of recovering low-rank matrices which are heavily corrupted by outliers or large errors. To improve the robustness of existing recovery methods, the problem is solved by formulating it as a generalized nonsmooth nonconvex minimization functional via exploiting the Schatten p-norm (0 < p ≤1 and Lq(0 < q ≤1 seminorm. Two numerical algorithms are provided based on the augmented Lagrange multiplier (ALM and accelerated proximal gradient (APG methods as well as efficient root-finder strategies. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed generalized approach is more inclusive and effective compared with state-of-the-art methods, either convex or nonconvex.

  10. Unification of Electromagnetism and Gravitation in the Framework of General Geometry

    OpenAIRE

    Shahverdiyev, Shervgi

    2005-01-01

    A new geometry, called General geometry, is constructed. It is proven that its the most simplest special case is geometry underlying Electromagnetism. Another special case is Riemannian geometry. Action for electromagnetic field and Maxwell equations are derived from curvature function of geometry underlying Electromagnetism. It is shown that equation of motion for a particle interacting with electromagnetic field coincides exactly with equation for geodesics of geometry underlying Electromag...

  11. Process mapping as a framework for performance improvement in emergency general surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGirolamo, Kristin; D'Souza, Karan; Hall, William; Joos, Emilie; Garraway, Naisan; Sing, Chad Kim; McLaughlin, Patrick; Hameed, Morad

    2018-02-01

    Emergency general surgery conditions are often thought of as being too acute for the development of standardized approaches to quality improvement. However, process mapping, a concept that has been applied extensively in manufacturing quality improvement, is now being used in health care. The objective of this study was to create process maps for small bowel obstruction in an effort to identify potential areas for quality improvement. We used the American College of Surgeons Emergency General Surgery Quality Improvement Program pilot database to identify patients who received nonoperative or operative management of small bowel obstruction between March 2015 and March 2016. This database, patient charts and electronic health records were used to create process maps from the time of presentation to discharge. Eighty-eight patients with small bowel obstruction (33 operative; 55 nonoperative) were identified. Patients who received surgery had a complication rate of 32%. The processes of care from the time of presentation to the time of follow-up were highly elaborate and variable in terms of duration; however, the sequences of care were found to be consistent. We used data visualization strategies to identify bottlenecks in care, and they showed substantial variability in terms of operating room access. Variability in the operative care of small bowel obstruction is high and represents an important improvement opportunity in general surgery. Process mapping can identify common themes, even in acute care, and suggest specific performance improvement measures.

  12. Gravitational wave tests of general relativity with the parameterized post-Einsteinian framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornish, Neil; Sampson, Laura; Yunes, Nicolas; Pretorius, Frans

    2011-01-01

    Gravitational wave astronomy has tremendous potential for studying extreme astrophysical phenomena and exploring fundamental physics. The waves produced by binary black hole mergers will provide a pristine environment in which to study strong-field dynamical gravity. Extracting detailed information about these systems requires accurate theoretical models of the gravitational wave signals. If gravity is not described by general relativity, analyses that are based on waveforms derived from Einstein's field equations could result in parameter biases and a loss of detection efficiency. A new class of ''parameterized post-Einsteinian'' waveforms has been proposed to cover this eventuality. Here, we apply the parameterized post-Einsteinian approach to simulated data from a network of advanced ground-based interferometers and from a future space-based interferometer. Bayesian inference and model selection are used to investigate parameter biases, and to determine the level at which departures from general relativity can be detected. We find that in some cases the parameter biases from assuming the wrong theory can be severe. We also find that gravitational wave observations will beat the existing bounds on deviations from general relativity derived from the orbital decay of binary pulsars by a large margin across a wide swath of parameter space.

  13. cMsg - A general purpose, publish-subscribe, interprocess communication implementation and framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timmer, C; Abbott, D; Gyurjyan, V; Heyes, G; Jastrzembski, E; Wolin, E

    2008-01-01

    cMsg is software used to send and receive messages in the Jefferson Lab online and runcontrol systems. It was created to replace the several IPC software packages in use with a single API. cMsg is asynchronous in nature, running a callback for each message received. However, it also includes synchronous routines for convenience. On the framework level, cMsg is a thin API layer in Java, C, or C++ that can be used to wrap most message-based interprocess communication protocols. The top layer of cMsg uses this same API and multiplexes user calls to one of many such wrapped protocols (or domains) based on a URL-like string which we call a Uniform Domain Locator or UDL. One such domain is a complete implementation of a publish-subscribe messaging system using network communications and written in Java (user APIs in C and C++ too). This domain is built in a way which allows it to be used as a proxy server to other domains (protocols). Performance is excellent allowing the system not only to be used for messaging but also as a data distribution system

  14. STICK: Spike Time Interval Computational Kernel, a Framework for General Purpose Computation Using Neurons, Precise Timing, Delays, and Synchrony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagorce, Xavier; Benosman, Ryad

    2015-11-01

    There has been significant research over the past two decades in developing new platforms for spiking neural computation. Current neural computers are primarily developed to mimic biology. They use neural networks, which can be trained to perform specific tasks to mainly solve pattern recognition problems. These machines can do more than simulate biology; they allow us to rethink our current paradigm of computation. The ultimate goal is to develop brain-inspired general purpose computation architectures that can breach the current bottleneck introduced by the von Neumann architecture. This work proposes a new framework for such a machine. We show that the use of neuron-like units with precise timing representation, synaptic diversity, and temporal delays allows us to set a complete, scalable compact computation framework. The framework provides both linear and nonlinear operations, allowing us to represent and solve any function. We show usability in solving real use cases from simple differential equations to sets of nonlinear differential equations leading to chaotic attractors.

  15. The Justice Dimension of Sustainability: A Systematic and General Conceptual Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klara Helene Stumpf

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We discuss how the normative dimension of sustainability can be captured in terms of justice. We (i identify the core characteristics of the concept of sustainability and discuss underlying ethical, ontological and epistemological assumptions; (ii introduce a general conceptual structure of justice for the analysis and comparison of different conceptions of justice; and (iii employ this conceptual structure to determine the specific characteristics and challenges of justice in the context of sustainability. We demonstrate that sustainability raises specific and partly new challenges of justice regarding the community of justice, the judicandum, the informational base, the principles, and the instruments of justice.

  16. A general framework and review of scatter correction methods in cone beam CT. Part 2: Scatter estimation approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruehrnschopf and, Ernst-Peter; Klingenbeck, Klaus

    2011-01-01

    The main components of scatter correction procedures are scatter estimation and a scatter compensation algorithm. This paper completes a previous paper where a general framework for scatter compensation was presented under the prerequisite that a scatter estimation method is already available. In the current paper, the authors give a systematic review of the variety of scatter estimation approaches. Scatter estimation methods are based on measurements, mathematical-physical models, or combinations of both. For completeness they present an overview of measurement-based methods, but the main topic is the theoretically more demanding models, as analytical, Monte-Carlo, and hybrid models. Further classifications are 3D image-based and 2D projection-based approaches. The authors present a system-theoretic framework, which allows to proceed top-down from a general 3D formulation, by successive approximations, to efficient 2D approaches. A widely useful method is the beam-scatter-kernel superposition approach. Together with the review of standard methods, the authors discuss their limitations and how to take into account the issues of object dependency, spatial variance, deformation of scatter kernels, external and internal absorbers. Open questions for further investigations are indicated. Finally, the authors refer on some special issues and applications, such as bow-tie filter, offset detector, truncated data, and dual-source CT.

  17. Knowledge management for systems biology a general and visually driven framework applied to translational medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Falciani Francesco

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To enhance our understanding of complex biological systems like diseases we need to put all of the available data into context and use this to detect relations, pattern and rules which allow predictive hypotheses to be defined. Life science has become a data rich science with information about the behaviour of millions of entities like genes, chemical compounds, diseases, cell types and organs, which are organised in many different databases and/or spread throughout the literature. Existing knowledge such as genotype - phenotype relations or signal transduction pathways must be semantically integrated and dynamically organised into structured networks that are connected with clinical and experimental data. Different approaches to this challenge exist but so far none has proven entirely satisfactory. Results To address this challenge we previously developed a generic knowledge management framework, BioXM™, which allows the dynamic, graphic generation of domain specific knowledge representation models based on specific objects and their relations supporting annotations and ontologies. Here we demonstrate the utility of BioXM for knowledge management in systems biology as part of the EU FP6 BioBridge project on translational approaches to chronic diseases. From clinical and experimental data, text-mining results and public databases we generate a chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD knowledge base and demonstrate its use by mining specific molecular networks together with integrated clinical and experimental data. Conclusions We generate the first semantically integrated COPD specific public knowledge base and find that for the integration of clinical and experimental data with pre-existing knowledge the configuration based set-up enabled by BioXM reduced implementation time and effort for the knowledge base compared to similar systems implemented as classical software development projects. The knowledgebase enables the

  18. ECONOMETRIC APPROACH OF HETEROSKEDASTICITY ON FINANCIAL TIME SERIES IN A GENERAL FRAMEWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FELICIA RAMONA BIRĂU

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of the diagnostic tests for detecting heteroskedasticity on financial time series. In financial econometrics, heteroskedasticity is generally associated with cross sectional data but can also be identified modeling time series data. The presence of heteroscedasticity in financial time series can be caused by certain specific factors, like a model misspecification, inadequate data transformation or as a result of certain outliers. Heteroskedasticity arise when the homoskedasticity assumption is violated. Testing for the presence of heteroskedasticity in financial time is performed by applying diagnostic test, such as : Breusch-Pagan LM test, White’s test, Glesjer LM test, Harvey-Godfrey LM test, Park LM test and Goldfeld-Quand test.

  19. A generalized linear factor model approach to the hierarchical framework for responses and response times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molenaar, Dylan; Tuerlinckx, Francis; van der Maas, Han L J

    2015-05-01

    We show how the hierarchical model for responses and response times as developed by van der Linden (2007), Fox, Klein Entink, and van der Linden (2007), Klein Entink, Fox, and van der Linden (2009), and Glas and van der Linden (2010) can be simplified to a generalized linear factor model with only the mild restriction that there is no hierarchical model at the item side. This result is valuable as it enables all well-developed modelling tools and extensions that come with these methods. We show that the restriction we impose on the hierarchical model does not influence parameter recovery under realistic circumstances. In addition, we present two illustrative real data analyses to demonstrate the practical benefits of our approach. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  20. A framework for general sparse matrix-matrix multiplication on GPUs and heterogeneous processors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Weifeng; Vinter, Brian

    2015-01-01

    General sparse matrix-matrix multiplication (SpGEMM) is a fundamental building block for numerous applications such as algebraic multigrid method (AMG), breadth first search and shortest path problem. Compared to other sparse BLAS routines, an efficient parallel SpGEMM implementation has to handle...... extra irregularity from three aspects: (1) the number of nonzero entries in the resulting sparse matrix is unknown in advance, (2) very expensive parallel insert operations at random positions in the resulting sparse matrix dominate the execution time, and (3) load balancing must account for sparse data...... memory space and efficiently utilizes the very limited on-chip scratchpad memory. Parallel insert operations of the nonzero entries are implemented through the GPU merge path algorithm that is experimentally found to be the fastest GPU merge approach. Load balancing builds on the number of necessary...

  1. A Framework for Incorporating General Domain Knowledge into Latent Dirichlet Allocation using First-Order Logic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrzejewski, D; Zhu, X; Craven, M; Recht, B

    2011-01-18

    Topic models have been used successfully for a variety of problems, often in the form of application-specific extensions of the basic Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) model. Because deriving these new models in order to encode domain knowledge can be difficult and time-consuming, we propose the Fold-all model, which allows the user to specify general domain knowledge in First-Order Logic (FOL). However, combining topic modeling with FOL can result in inference problems beyond the capabilities of existing techniques. We have therefore developed a scalable inference technique using stochastic gradient descent which may also be useful to the Markov Logic Network (MLN) research community. Experiments demonstrate the expressive power of Fold-all, as well as the scalability of our proposed inference method.

  2. RosettaAntibodyDesign (RAbD): A general framework for computational antibody design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adolf-Bryfogle, Jared; Kalyuzhniy, Oleks; Kubitz, Michael; Weitzner, Brian D; Hu, Xiaozhen; Adachi, Yumiko; Schief, William R; Dunbrack, Roland L

    2018-04-01

    A structural-bioinformatics-based computational methodology and framework have been developed for the design of antibodies to targets of interest. RosettaAntibodyDesign (RAbD) samples the diverse sequence, structure, and binding space of an antibody to an antigen in highly customizable protocols for the design of antibodies in a broad range of applications. The program samples antibody sequences and structures by grafting structures from a widely accepted set of the canonical clusters of CDRs (North et al., J. Mol. Biol., 406:228-256, 2011). It then performs sequence design according to amino acid sequence profiles of each cluster, and samples CDR backbones using a flexible-backbone design protocol incorporating cluster-based CDR constraints. Starting from an existing experimental or computationally modeled antigen-antibody structure, RAbD can be used to redesign a single CDR or multiple CDRs with loops of different length, conformation, and sequence. We rigorously benchmarked RAbD on a set of 60 diverse antibody-antigen complexes, using two design strategies-optimizing total Rosetta energy and optimizing interface energy alone. We utilized two novel metrics for measuring success in computational protein design. The design risk ratio (DRR) is equal to the frequency of recovery of native CDR lengths and clusters divided by the frequency of sampling of those features during the Monte Carlo design procedure. Ratios greater than 1.0 indicate that the design process is picking out the native more frequently than expected from their sampled rate. We achieved DRRs for the non-H3 CDRs of between 2.4 and 4.0. The antigen risk ratio (ARR) is the ratio of frequencies of the native amino acid types, CDR lengths, and clusters in the output decoys for simulations performed in the presence and absence of the antigen. For CDRs, we achieved cluster ARRs as high as 2.5 for L1 and 1.5 for H2. For sequence design simulations without CDR grafting, the overall recovery for the native

  3. RosettaAntibodyDesign (RAbD): A general framework for computational antibody design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adolf-Bryfogle, Jared; Kalyuzhniy, Oleks; Kubitz, Michael; Hu, Xiaozhen; Adachi, Yumiko; Schief, William R.

    2018-01-01

    A structural-bioinformatics-based computational methodology and framework have been developed for the design of antibodies to targets of interest. RosettaAntibodyDesign (RAbD) samples the diverse sequence, structure, and binding space of an antibody to an antigen in highly customizable protocols for the design of antibodies in a broad range of applications. The program samples antibody sequences and structures by grafting structures from a widely accepted set of the canonical clusters of CDRs (North et al., J. Mol. Biol., 406:228–256, 2011). It then performs sequence design according to amino acid sequence profiles of each cluster, and samples CDR backbones using a flexible-backbone design protocol incorporating cluster-based CDR constraints. Starting from an existing experimental or computationally modeled antigen-antibody structure, RAbD can be used to redesign a single CDR or multiple CDRs with loops of different length, conformation, and sequence. We rigorously benchmarked RAbD on a set of 60 diverse antibody–antigen complexes, using two design strategies—optimizing total Rosetta energy and optimizing interface energy alone. We utilized two novel metrics for measuring success in computational protein design. The design risk ratio (DRR) is equal to the frequency of recovery of native CDR lengths and clusters divided by the frequency of sampling of those features during the Monte Carlo design procedure. Ratios greater than 1.0 indicate that the design process is picking out the native more frequently than expected from their sampled rate. We achieved DRRs for the non-H3 CDRs of between 2.4 and 4.0. The antigen risk ratio (ARR) is the ratio of frequencies of the native amino acid types, CDR lengths, and clusters in the output decoys for simulations performed in the presence and absence of the antigen. For CDRs, we achieved cluster ARRs as high as 2.5 for L1 and 1.5 for H2. For sequence design simulations without CDR grafting, the overall recovery for the

  4. Stochastic thermodynamics of quantum maps with and without equilibrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barra, Felipe; Lledó, Cristóbal

    2017-11-01

    We study stochastic thermodynamics for a quantum system of interest whose dynamics is described by a completely positive trace-preserving (CPTP) map as a result of its interaction with a thermal bath. We define CPTP maps with equilibrium as CPTP maps with an invariant state such that the entropy production due to the action of the map on the invariant state vanishes. Thermal maps are a subgroup of CPTP maps with equilibrium. In general, for CPTP maps, the thermodynamic quantities, such as the entropy production or work performed on the system, depend on the combined state of the system plus its environment. We show that these quantities can be written in terms of system properties for maps with equilibrium. The relations that we obtain are valid for arbitrary coupling strengths between the system and the thermal bath. The fluctuations of thermodynamic quantities are considered in the framework of a two-point measurement scheme. We derive the entropy production fluctuation theorem for general maps and a fluctuation relation for the stochastic work on a system that starts in the Gibbs state. Some simplifications for the probability distributions in the case of maps with equilibrium are presented. We illustrate our results by considering spin 1/2 systems under thermal maps, nonthermal maps with equilibrium, maps with nonequilibrium steady states, and concatenations of them. Finally, and as an important application, we consider a particular limit in which the concatenation of maps generates a continuous time evolution in Lindblad form for the system of interest, and we show that the concept of maps with and without equilibrium translates into Lindblad equations with and without quantum detailed balance, respectively. The consequences for the thermodynamic quantities in this limit are discussed.

  5. A general framework for the regression analysis of pooled biomarker assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; McMahan, Christopher; Gallagher, Colin

    2017-07-10

    As a cost-efficient data collection mechanism, the process of assaying pooled biospecimens is becoming increasingly common in epidemiological research; for example, pooling has been proposed for the purpose of evaluating the diagnostic efficacy of biological markers (biomarkers). To this end, several authors have proposed techniques that allow for the analysis of continuous pooled biomarker assessments. Regretfully, most of these techniques proceed under restrictive assumptions, are unable to account for the effects of measurement error, and fail to control for confounding variables. These limitations are understandably attributable to the complex structure that is inherent to measurements taken on pooled specimens. Consequently, in order to provide practitioners with the tools necessary to accurately and efficiently analyze pooled biomarker assessments, herein, a general Monte Carlo maximum likelihood-based procedure is presented. The proposed approach allows for the regression analysis of pooled data under practically all parametric models and can be used to directly account for the effects of measurement error. Through simulation, it is shown that the proposed approach can accurately and efficiently estimate all unknown parameters and is more computational efficient than existing techniques. This new methodology is further illustrated using monocyte chemotactic protein-1 data collected by the Collaborative Perinatal Project in an effort to assess the relationship between this chemokine and the risk of miscarriage. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Phase Equilibrium, Chemical Equilibrium, and a Test of the Third Law: Experiments for Physical Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dannhauser, Walter

    1980-01-01

    Described is an experiment designed to provide an experimental basis for a unifying point of view (utilizing theoretical framework and chemistry laboratory experiments) for physical chemistry students. Three experiments are described: phase equilibrium, chemical equilibrium, and a test of the third law of thermodynamics. (Author/DS)

  7. A general population genetic framework for antagonistic selection that accounts for demography and recurrent mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connallon, Tim; Clark, Andrew G

    2012-04-01

    Antagonistic selection--where alleles at a locus have opposing effects on male and female fitness ("sexual antagonism") or between components of fitness ("antagonistic pleiotropy")--might play an important role in maintaining population genetic variation and in driving phylogenetic and genomic patterns of sexual dimorphism and life-history evolution. While prior theory has thoroughly characterized the conditions necessary for antagonistic balancing selection to operate, we currently know little about the evolutionary interactions between antagonistic selection, recurrent mutation, and genetic drift, which should collectively shape empirical patterns of genetic variation. To fill this void, we developed and analyzed a series of population genetic models that simultaneously incorporate these processes. Our models identify two general properties of antagonistically selected loci. First, antagonistic selection inflates heterozygosity and fitness variance across a broad parameter range--a result that applies to alleles maintained by balancing selection and by recurrent mutation. Second, effective population size and genetic drift profoundly affect the statistical frequency distributions of antagonistically selected alleles. The "efficacy" of antagonistic selection (i.e., its tendency to dominate over genetic drift) is extremely weak relative to classical models, such as directional selection and overdominance. Alleles meeting traditional criteria for strong selection (N(e)s > 1, where N(e) is the effective population size, and s is a selection coefficient for a given sex or fitness component) may nevertheless evolve as if neutral. The effects of mutation and demography may generate population differences in overall levels of antagonistic fitness variation, as well as molecular population genetic signatures of balancing selection.

  8. Spontaneity and Equilibrium: Why "?G Equilibrium" Are Incorrect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raff, Lionel M.

    2014-01-01

    The fundamental criteria for chemical reactions to be spontaneous in a given direction are generally incorrectly stated as ?G chemistry textbooks and even in some more advanced texts. Similarly, the criteria for equilibrium are also misstated as being ?G = 0 or ?A = 0. Following a brief review of the…

  9. Potential and flux field landscape theory. II. Non-equilibrium thermodynamics of spatially inhomogeneous stochastic dynamical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Wei; Wang, Jin

    2014-01-01

    We have established a general non-equilibrium thermodynamic formalism consistently applicable to both spatially homogeneous and, more importantly, spatially inhomogeneous systems, governed by the Langevin and Fokker-Planck stochastic dynamics with multiple state transition mechanisms, using the potential-flux landscape framework as a bridge connecting stochastic dynamics with non-equilibrium thermodynamics. A set of non-equilibrium thermodynamic equations, quantifying the relations of the non-equilibrium entropy, entropy flow, entropy production, and other thermodynamic quantities, together with their specific expressions, is constructed from a set of dynamical decomposition equations associated with the potential-flux landscape framework. The flux velocity plays a pivotal role on both the dynamic and thermodynamic levels. On the dynamic level, it represents a dynamic force breaking detailed balance, entailing the dynamical decomposition equations. On the thermodynamic level, it represents a thermodynamic force generating entropy production, manifested in the non-equilibrium thermodynamic equations. The Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process and more specific examples, the spatial stochastic neuronal model, in particular, are studied to test and illustrate the general theory. This theoretical framework is particularly suitable to study the non-equilibrium (thermo)dynamics of spatially inhomogeneous systems abundant in nature. This paper is the second of a series

  10. Equilibrium Droplets on Deformable Substrates: Equilibrium Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koursari, Nektaria; Ahmed, Gulraiz; Starov, Victor M

    2018-05-15

    Equilibrium conditions of droplets on deformable substrates are investigated, and it is proven using Jacobi's sufficient condition that the obtained solutions really provide equilibrium profiles of both the droplet and the deformed support. At the equilibrium, the excess free energy of the system should have a minimum value, which means that both necessary and sufficient conditions of the minimum should be fulfilled. Only in this case, the obtained profiles provide the minimum of the excess free energy. The necessary condition of the equilibrium means that the first variation of the excess free energy should vanish, and the second variation should be positive. Unfortunately, the mentioned two conditions are not the proof that the obtained profiles correspond to the minimum of the excess free energy and they could not be. It is necessary to check whether the sufficient condition of the equilibrium (Jacobi's condition) is satisfied. To the best of our knowledge Jacobi's condition has never been verified for any already published equilibrium profiles of both the droplet and the deformable substrate. A simple model of the equilibrium droplet on the deformable substrate is considered, and it is shown that the deduced profiles of the equilibrium droplet and deformable substrate satisfy the Jacobi's condition, that is, really provide the minimum to the excess free energy of the system. To simplify calculations, a simplified linear disjoining/conjoining pressure isotherm is adopted for the calculations. It is shown that both necessary and sufficient conditions for equilibrium are satisfied. For the first time, validity of the Jacobi's condition is verified. The latter proves that the developed model really provides (i) the minimum of the excess free energy of the system droplet/deformable substrate and (ii) equilibrium profiles of both the droplet and the deformable substrate.

  11. Equilibrium fluctuation relations for voltage coupling in membrane proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ilsoo; Warshel, Arieh

    2015-11-01

    A general theoretical framework is developed to account for the effects of an external potential on the energetics of membrane proteins. The framework is based on the free energy relation between two (forward/backward) probability densities, which was recently generalized to non-equilibrium processes, culminating in the work-fluctuation theorem. Starting from the probability densities of the conformational states along the "voltage coupling" reaction coordinate, we investigate several interconnected free energy relations between these two conformational states, considering voltage activation of ion channels. The free energy difference between the two conformational states at zero (depolarization) membrane potential (i.e., known as the chemical component of free energy change in ion channels) is shown to be equivalent to the free energy difference between the two "equilibrium" (resting and activated) conformational states along the one-dimensional voltage couplin reaction coordinate. Furthermore, the requirement that the application of linear response approximation to the free energy functionals of voltage coupling should satisfy the general free energy relations, yields a novel closed-form expression for the gating charge in terms of other basic properties of ion channels. This connection is familiar in statistical mechanics, known as the equilibrium fluctuation-response relation. The theory is illustrated by considering the coupling of a unit charge to the external voltage in the two sites near the surface of membrane, representing the activated and resting states. This is done using a coarse-graining (CG) model of membrane proteins, which includes the membrane, the electrolytes and the electrodes. The CG model yields Marcus-type voltage dependent free energy parabolas for the response of the electrostatic environment (electrolytes etc.) to the transition from the initial to the final configuratinal states, leading to equilibrium free energy difference and free

  12. Maximally Localized States and Quantum Corrections of Black Hole Thermodynamics in the Framework of a New Generalized Uncertainty Principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Shao-Jun; Miao, Yan-Gang; Zhao, Ying-Jie

    2015-01-01

    As a generalized uncertainty principle (GUP) leads to the effects of the minimal length of the order of the Planck scale and UV/IR mixing, some significant physical concepts and quantities are modified or corrected correspondingly. On the one hand, we derive the maximally localized states—the physical states displaying the minimal length uncertainty associated with a new GUP proposed in our previous work. On the other hand, in the framework of this new GUP we calculate quantum corrections to the thermodynamic quantities of the Schwardzschild black hole, such as the Hawking temperature, the entropy, and the heat capacity, and give a remnant mass of the black hole at the end of the evaporation process. Moreover, we compare our results with that obtained in the frameworks of several other GUPs. In particular, we observe a significant difference between the situations with and without the consideration of the UV/IR mixing effect in the quantum corrections to the evaporation rate and the decay time. That is, the decay time can greatly be prolonged in the former case, which implies that the quantum correction from the UV/IR mixing effect may give rise to a radical rather than a tiny influence to the Hawking radiation.

  13. Punctuated Equilibrium in Statistical Models of Generalized Coevolutionary Resilience: How Sudden Ecosystem Transitions Can Entrain Both Phenotype Expression and Darwinian Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Rodrick; Wallace, Deborah

    We argue that mesoscale ecosystem resilience shifts akin to sudden phase transitions in physical systems can entrain similarly punctuated events of gene expression on more rapid time scales, and, in part through such means, slower changes induced by selection pressure, triggering punctuated equilibrium Darwinian evolutionary transitions on geologic time scales. The approach reduces ecosystem, gene expression, and Darwinian genetic dynamics to a least common denominator of information sources interacting by crosstalk at markedly differing rates. Pettini's 'topological hypothesis', via a homology between information source uncertainty and free energy density, generates a regression-like class of statistical models of sudden coevolutionary phase transition based on the Rate Distortion and Shannon-McMillan Theorems of information theory which links all three levels. A mathematical treatment of Holling's extended keystone hypothesis regarding the particular role of mesoscale phenomena in entraining both slower and faster dynamical structures produces the result. A main theme is the necessity of a cognitive paradigm for gene expression, mirroring I. Cohen's cognitive approach to immune function. Invocation of the necessary conditions imposed by the asymptotic limit theorems of communication theory enables us to penetrate one layer more deeply before needing to impose an empirically-derived phenomenological system of 'Onsager relation' recursive coevolutionary stochastic differential equations. Extending the development to second order via a large deviations argument permits modeling the influence of human cultural structures on ecosystems as 'farming'.

  14. A Bayesian Framework for Generalized Linear Mixed Modeling Identifies New Candidate Loci for Late-Onset Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xulong; Philip, Vivek M; Ananda, Guruprasad; White, Charles C; Malhotra, Ankit; Michalski, Paul J; Karuturi, Krishna R Murthy; Chintalapudi, Sumana R; Acklin, Casey; Sasner, Michael; Bennett, David A; De Jager, Philip L; Howell, Gareth R; Carter, Gregory W

    2018-03-05

    Recent technical and methodological advances have greatly enhanced genome-wide association studies (GWAS). The advent of low-cost whole-genome sequencing facilitates high-resolution variant identification, and the development of linear mixed models (LMM) allows improved identification of putatively causal variants. While essential for correcting false positive associations due to sample relatedness and population stratification, LMMs have commonly been restricted to quantitative variables. However, phenotypic traits in association studies are often categorical, coded as binary case-control or ordered variables describing disease stages. To address these issues, we have devised a method for genomic association studies that implements a generalized linear mixed model (GLMM) in a Bayesian framework, called Bayes-GLMM Bayes-GLMM has four major features: (1) support of categorical, binary and quantitative variables; (2) cohesive integration of previous GWAS results for related traits; (3) correction for sample relatedness by mixed modeling; and (4) model estimation by both Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) sampling and maximal likelihood estimation. We applied Bayes-GLMM to the whole-genome sequencing cohort of the Alzheimer's Disease Sequencing Project (ADSP). This study contains 570 individuals from 111 families, each with Alzheimer's disease diagnosed at one of four confidence levels. With Bayes-GLMM we identified four variants in three loci significantly associated with Alzheimer's disease. Two variants, rs140233081 and rs149372995 lie between PRKAR1B and PDGFA The coded proteins are localized to the glial-vascular unit, and PDGFA transcript levels are associated with AD-related neuropathology. In summary, this work provides implementation of a flexible, generalized mixed model approach in a Bayesian framework for association studies. Copyright © 2018, Genetics.

  15. Understanding Thermal Equilibrium through Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathare, Shirish; Huli, Saurabhee; Nachane, Madhura; Ladage, Savita; Pradhan, Hemachandra

    2015-01-01

    Thermal equilibrium is a basic concept in thermodynamics. In India, this concept is generally introduced at the first year of undergraduate education in physics and chemistry. In our earlier studies (Pathare and Pradhan 2011 "Proc. episteme-4 Int. Conf. to Review Research on Science Technology and Mathematics Education" pp 169-72) we…

  16. Equilibrium theory : A salient approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schalk, S.

    1999-01-01

    Whereas the neoclassical models in General Equilibrium Theory focus on the existence of separate commodities, this thesis regards 'bundles of trade' as the unit objects of exchange. Apart from commodities and commodity bundles in the neoclassical sense, the term `bundle of trade' includes, for

  17. Nash equilibrium with lower probabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groes, Ebbe; Jacobsen, Hans Jørgen; Sloth, Birgitte

    1998-01-01

    We generalize the concept of Nash equilibrium in mixed strategies for strategic form games to allow for ambiguity in the players' expectations. In contrast to other contributions, we model ambiguity by means of so-called lower probability measures or belief functions, which makes it possible...

  18. Shape characteristics of equilibrium and non-equilibrium fractal clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansfield, Marc L; Douglas, Jack F

    2013-07-28

    It is often difficult in practice to discriminate between equilibrium and non-equilibrium nanoparticle or colloidal-particle clusters that form through aggregation in gas or solution phases. Scattering studies often permit the determination of an apparent fractal dimension, but both equilibrium and non-equilibrium clusters in three dimensions frequently have fractal dimensions near 2, so that it is often not possible to discriminate on the basis of this geometrical property. A survey of the anisotropy of a wide variety of polymeric structures (linear and ring random and self-avoiding random walks, percolation clusters, lattice animals, diffusion-limited aggregates, and Eden clusters) based on the principal components of both the radius of gyration and electric polarizability tensor indicates, perhaps counter-intuitively, that self-similar equilibrium clusters tend to be intrinsically anisotropic at all sizes, while non-equilibrium processes such as diffusion-limited aggregation or Eden growth tend to be isotropic in the large-mass limit, providing a potential means of discriminating these clusters experimentally if anisotropy could be determined along with the fractal dimension. Equilibrium polymer structures, such as flexible polymer chains, are normally self-similar due to the existence of only a single relevant length scale, and are thus anisotropic at all length scales, while non-equilibrium polymer structures that grow irreversibly in time eventually become isotropic if there is no difference in the average growth rates in different directions. There is apparently no proof of these general trends and little theoretical insight into what controls the universal anisotropy in equilibrium polymer structures of various kinds. This is an obvious topic of theoretical investigation, as well as a matter of practical interest. To address this general problem, we consider two experimentally accessible ratios, one between the hydrodynamic and gyration radii, the other

  19. Ion exchange equilibrium constants

    CERN Document Server

    Marcus, Y

    2013-01-01

    Ion Exchange Equilibrium Constants focuses on the test-compilation of equilibrium constants for ion exchange reactions. The book first underscores the scope of the compilation, equilibrium constants, symbols used, and arrangement of the table. The manuscript then presents the table of equilibrium constants, including polystyrene sulfonate cation exchanger, polyacrylate cation exchanger, polymethacrylate cation exchanger, polysterene phosphate cation exchanger, and zirconium phosphate cation exchanger. The text highlights zirconium oxide anion exchanger, zeolite type 13Y cation exchanger, and

  20. Radiative-convective equilibrium model intercomparison project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wing, Allison A.; Reed, Kevin A.; Satoh, Masaki; Stevens, Bjorn; Bony, Sandrine; Ohno, Tomoki

    2018-03-01

    RCEMIP, an intercomparison of multiple types of models configured in radiative-convective equilibrium (RCE), is proposed. RCE is an idealization of the climate system in which there is a balance between radiative cooling of the atmosphere and heating by convection. The scientific objectives of RCEMIP are three-fold. First, clouds and climate sensitivity will be investigated in the RCE setting. This includes determining how cloud fraction changes with warming and the role of self-aggregation of convection in climate sensitivity. Second, RCEMIP will quantify the dependence of the degree of convective aggregation and tropical circulation regimes on temperature. Finally, by providing a common baseline, RCEMIP will allow the robustness of the RCE state across the spectrum of models to be assessed, which is essential for interpreting the results found regarding clouds, climate sensitivity, and aggregation, and more generally, determining which features of tropical climate a RCE framework is useful for. A novel aspect and major advantage of RCEMIP is the accessibility of the RCE framework to a variety of models, including cloud-resolving models, general circulation models, global cloud-resolving models, single-column models, and large-eddy simulation models.

  1. Equilibrium in a Production Economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiarolla, Maria B., E-mail: maria.chiarolla@uniroma1.it [Universita di Roma ' La Sapienza' , Dipartimento di Metodi e Modelli per l' Economia, il Territorio e la Finanza, Facolta di Economia (Italy); Haussmann, Ulrich G., E-mail: uhaus@math.ubc.ca [University of British Columbia, Department of Mathematics (Canada)

    2011-06-15

    Consider a closed production-consumption economy with multiple agents and multiple resources. The resources are used to produce the consumption good. The agents derive utility from holding resources as well as consuming the good produced. They aim to maximize their utility while the manager of the production facility aims to maximize profits. With the aid of a representative agent (who has a multivariable utility function) it is shown that an Arrow-Debreu equilibrium exists. In so doing we establish technical results that will be used to solve the stochastic dynamic problem (a case with infinite dimensional commodity space so the General Equilibrium Theory does not apply) elsewhere.

  2. Equilibrium in a Production Economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiarolla, Maria B.; Haussmann, Ulrich G.

    2011-01-01

    Consider a closed production-consumption economy with multiple agents and multiple resources. The resources are used to produce the consumption good. The agents derive utility from holding resources as well as consuming the good produced. They aim to maximize their utility while the manager of the production facility aims to maximize profits. With the aid of a representative agent (who has a multivariable utility function) it is shown that an Arrow-Debreu equilibrium exists. In so doing we establish technical results that will be used to solve the stochastic dynamic problem (a case with infinite dimensional commodity space so the General Equilibrium Theory does not apply) elsewhere.

  3. Generalized hydrogeologic framework and groundwater budget for a groundwater availability study for the glacial aquifer system of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Howard W.; Bayless, E. Randall; Dudley, Robert W.; Feinstein, Daniel T.; Fienen, Michael N.; Hoard, Christopher J.; Hodgkins, Glenn A.; Qi, Sharon L.; Roth, Jason L.; Trost, Jared J.

    2017-12-14

    The glacial aquifer system groundwater availability study seeks to quantify (1) the status of groundwater resources in the glacial aquifer system, (2) how these resources have changed over time, and (3) likely system response to future changes in anthropogenic and environmental conditions. The glacial aquifer system extends from Maine to Alaska, although the focus of this report is the part of the system in the conterminous United States east of the Rocky Mountains. The glacial sand and gravel principal aquifer is the largest source of public and self-supplied industrial supply for any principal aquifer and also is an important source for irrigation supply. Despite its importance for water supply, water levels in the glacial aquifer system are generally stable varying with climate and only locally from pumping. The hydrogeologic framework developed for this study includes the information from waterwell records and classification of material types from surficial geologic maps into likely aquifers dominated by sand and gravel deposits. Generalized groundwater budgets across the study area highlight the variation in recharge and discharge primarily driven by climate.

  4. Financial equilibrium with career concerns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amil Dasgupta

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available What are the equilibrium features of a financial market where a sizeable proportion of traders face reputational concerns? This question is central to our understanding of financial markets, which are increasingly dominated by institutional investors. We construct a model of delegated portfolio management that captures key features of the US mutual fund industry and embed it in an asset pricing framework. We thus provide a formal model of financial equilibrium with career concerned agents. Fund managers differ in their ability to understand market fundamentals, and in every period investors choose a fund. In equilibrium, the presence of career concerns induces uninformed fund managers to churn, i.e., to engage in trading even when they face a negative expected return. Churners act as noise traders and enhance the level of trading volume. The equilibrium relationship between fund return and net fund flows displays a skewed shape that is consistent with stylized facts. The robustness of our core results is probed from several angles.

  5. Equilibrium Arrival Times to Queues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breinbjerg, Jesper; Østerdal, Lars Peter

    We consider a non-cooperative queueing environment where a finite number of customers independently choose when to arrive at a queueing system that opens at a given point in time and serves customers on a last-come first-serve preemptive-resume (LCFS-PR) basis. Each customer has a service time...... requirement which is identically and independently distributed according to some general probability distribution, and they want to complete service as early as possible while minimizing the time spent in the queue. In this setting, we establish the existence of an arrival time strategy that constitutes...... a symmetric (mixed) Nash equilibrium, and show that there is at most one symmetric equilibrium. We provide a numerical method to compute this equilibrium and demonstrate by a numerical example that the social effciency can be lower than the effciency induced by a similar queueing system that serves customers...

  6. Hydrostatic equilibrium of stars without electroneutrality constraint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krivoruchenko, M. I.; Nadyozhin, D. K.; Yudin, A. V.

    2018-04-01

    The general solution of hydrostatic equilibrium equations for a two-component fluid of ions and electrons without a local electroneutrality constraint is found in the framework of Newtonian gravity theory. In agreement with the Poincaré theorem on analyticity and in the context of Dyson's argument, the general solution is demonstrated to possess a fixed (essential) singularity in the gravitational constant G at G =0 . The regular component of the general solution can be determined by perturbation theory in G starting from a locally neutral solution. The nonperturbative component obtained using the method of Wentzel, Kramers and Brillouin is exponentially small in the inner layers of the star and grows rapidly in the outward direction. Near the surface of the star, both components are comparable in magnitude, and their nonlinear interplay determines the properties of an electro- or ionosphere. The stellar charge varies within the limits of -0.1 to 150 C per solar mass. The properties of electro- and ionospheres are exponentially sensitive to variations of the fluid densities in the central regions of the star. The general solutions of two exactly solvable stellar models without a local electroneutrality constraint are also presented.

  7. Equilibrium Solubility of CO2 in Alkanolamines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waseem Arshad, Muhammad; Fosbøl, Philip Loldrup; von Solms, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    Equilibrium solubility of CO2 were measured in aqueous solutions of Monoethanolamine (MEA) and N,N-diethylethanolamine(DEEA). Equilibrium cells are generally used for these measurements. In this study, the equilibrium data were measured from the calorimetry. For this purpose a reaction calorimeter...... (model CPA 122 from ChemiSens AB, Sweden) was used. The advantage of this method is being the measurement of both heats of absorption and equilibrium solubility data of CO2 at the same time. The measurements were performed for 30 mass % MEA and 5M DEEA solutions as a function of CO2 loading at three...... different temperatures 40, 80 and 120 ºC. The measured 30 mass % MEA and 5M DEEA data were compared with the literature data obtained from different equilibrium cells which validated the use of calorimeters for equilibrium solubility measurements....

  8. A General Mathematical Framework for Calculating Systems-Scale Efficiency of Energy Extraction and Conversion: Energy Return on Investment (EROI) and Other Energy Return Ratios

    OpenAIRE

    Adam R. Brandt; Michael Dale

    2011-01-01

    The efficiencies of energy extraction and conversion systems are typically expressed using energy return ratios (ERRs) such as the net energy ratio (NER) or energy return on investment (EROI). A lack of a general mathematical framework prevents inter-comparison of NER/EROI estimates between authors: methods used are not standardized, nor is there a framework for succinctly reporting results in a consistent fashion. In this paper we derive normalized mathematical forms of four ERRs for energy ...

  9. Plasma equilibrium and instabilities in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldas, I.L.; Vannucci, A.

    1985-01-01

    A phenomenological introduction of some of the main theoretical and experimental features on equilibrium and instabilities in tokamaks is presented. In general only macroscopic effects are considered, being the plasma described as a fluid. (L.C.) [pt

  10. A simple and rational numerical method of two-phase flow with volume-junction model. 2. The numerical method for general condition of two-phase flow in non-equilibrium states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okazaki, Motoaki

    1997-11-01

    In the previous report, the usefulness of a new numerical method to achieve a rigorous numerical calculation using a simple explicit method with the volume-junction model was presented with the verification calculation for the depressurization of a saturated two-phase mixture. In this report, on the basis of solution method above, a numerical method for general condition of two-phase flow in non-equilibrium states is presented. In general condition of two-phase flow, the combinations of saturated and non-saturated conditions of each phase are considered in the each flow of volume and junction. Numerical evaluation programs are separately prepared for each combination of flow condition. Several numerical calculations of various kinds of non-equilibrium two-phase flow are made to examine the validity of the numerical method. Calculated results showed that the thermodynamic states obtained in different solution schemes were consistent with each other. In the first scheme, the states are determined by using the steam table as a function of pressure and specific enthalpy which are obtained as the solutions of simultaneous equations. In the second scheme, density and specific enthalpy of each phase are directly calculated by using conservation equations of mass and enthalpy of each phase, respectively. Further, no accumulation of error in mass and energy was found. As for the specific enthalpy, two cases of using energy equations for the volume are examined. The first case uses total energy conservation equation and the second case uses the type of the first law of thermodynamics. The results of both cases agreed well. (author)

  11. Phase equilibrium engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Brignole, Esteban Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Traditionally, the teaching of phase equilibria emphasizes the relationships between the thermodynamic variables of each phase in equilibrium rather than its engineering applications. This book changes the focus from the use of thermodynamics relationships to compute phase equilibria to the design and control of the phase conditions that a process needs. Phase Equilibrium Engineering presents a systematic study and application of phase equilibrium tools to the development of chemical processes. The thermodynamic modeling of mixtures for process development, synthesis, simulation, design and

  12. Equilibrium and generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balter, H.S.

    1994-01-01

    This work studies the behaviour of radionuclides when it produce a desintegration activity,decay and the isotopes stable creation. It gives definitions about the equilibrium between activity of parent and activity of the daughter, radioactive decay,isotope stable and transient equilibrium and maxim activity time. Some considerations had been given to generators that permit a disgregation of two radioisotopes in equilibrium and its good performance. Tabs

  13. A proximal point algorithm with generalized proximal distances to BEPs

    OpenAIRE

    Bento, G. C.; Neto, J. X. Cruz; Lopes, J. O.; Soares Jr, P. A.; Soubeyran, A.

    2014-01-01

    We consider a bilevel problem involving two monotone equilibrium bifunctions and we show that this problem can be solved by a proximal point method with generalized proximal distances. We propose a framework for the convergence analysis of the sequences generated by the algorithm. This class of problems is very interesting because it covers mathematical programs and optimization problems under equilibrium constraints. As an application, we consider the problem of the stability and change dyna...

  14. Generalized Boolean logic Driven Markov Processes: A powerful modeling framework for Model-Based Safety Analysis of dynamic repairable and reconfigurable systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piriou, Pierre-Yves; Faure, Jean-Marc; Lesage, Jean-Jacques

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a modeling framework that permits to describe in an integrated manner the structure of the critical system to analyze, by using an enriched fault tree, the dysfunctional behavior of its components, by means of Markov processes, and the reconfiguration strategies that have been planned to ensure safety and availability, with Moore machines. This framework has been developed from BDMP (Boolean logic Driven Markov Processes), a previous framework for dynamic repairable systems. First, the contribution is motivated by pinpointing the limitations of BDMP to model complex reconfiguration strategies and the failures of the control of these strategies. The syntax and semantics of GBDMP (Generalized Boolean logic Driven Markov Processes) are then formally defined; in particular, an algorithm to analyze the dynamic behavior of a GBDMP model is developed. The modeling capabilities of this framework are illustrated on three representative examples. Last, qualitative and quantitative analysis of GDBMP models highlight the benefits of the approach.

  15. Cluster imaging of multi-brain networks (CIMBN: a general framework for hyperscanning and modeling a group of interacting brains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lian eDuan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Studying the neural basis of human social interactions is a key topic in the field of social neuroscience. Brain imaging studies in this field usually focus on the neural correlates of the social interactions between two participants. However, as the participant number further increases, even by a small amount, great difficulties raise. One challenge is how to concurrently scan all the interacting brains with high ecological validity, especially for a large number of participants. The other challenge is how to effectively model the complex group interaction behaviors emerging from the intricate neural information exchange among a group of socially organized people. Confronting these challenges, we propose a new approach called Cluster Imaging of Multi-brain Networks (CIMBN. CIMBN consists of two parts. The first part is a cluster imaging technique with high ecological validity based on multiple functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS systems. Using this technique, we can easily extend the simultaneous imaging capacity of social neuroscience studies up to dozens of participants. The second part of CIMBN is a multi-brain network (MBN modeling method based on graph theory. By taking each brain as a network node and the relationship between any two brains as a network edge, one can construct a network model for a group of interacting brains. The emergent group social behaviors can then be studied using the network’s properties, such as its topological structure and information exchange efficiency. Although there is still much work to do, as a general framework for hyperscanning and modeling a group of interacting brains, CIMBN can provide new insights into the neural correlates of group social interactions, and advance social neuroscience and social psychology.

  16. Fall Back Equilibrium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleppe, J.; Borm, P.E.M.; Hendrickx, R.L.P.

    2008-01-01

    Fall back equilibrium is a refinement of the Nash equilibrium concept. In the underly- ing thought experiment each player faces the possibility that, after all players decided on their action, his chosen action turns out to be blocked. Therefore, each player has to decide beforehand on a back-up

  17. A Comparison between Linear IRT Observed-Score Equating and Levine Observed-Score Equating under the Generalized Kernel Equating Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Haiwen

    2012-01-01

    In this article, linear item response theory (IRT) observed-score equating is compared under a generalized kernel equating framework with Levine observed-score equating for nonequivalent groups with anchor test design. Interestingly, these two equating methods are closely related despite being based on different methodologies. Specifically, when…

  18. Governmental, Legal and Regulatory Framework for Safety. General Safety Requirements. Part 1 (French Edition); Cadre gouvernemental, legislatif et reglementaire de la surete. Prescriptions generales de surete. Partie 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-11-15

    The objective of this publication is to establish requirements in respect of the governmental, legal and regulatory framework for safety. It covers the essential aspects of the framework for establishing a regulatory body and taking other actions necessary to ensure the effective regulatory control of facilities and activities utilized for peaceful purposes. Other responsibilities and functions, such as liaison within the global safety regime and on support services for safety (including radiation protection), emergency preparedness and response, nuclear security, and the State system of accounting for and control of nuclear material, are also covered.

  19. Governmental, Legal and Regulatory Framework for Safety. General Safety Requirements. Part 1 (Spanish Edition); Marco gubernamental, juridico y regulador para la seguridad. Requisitos de Seguridad Generales. Parte 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-11-15

    The objective of this publication is to establish requirements in respect of the governmental, legal and regulatory framework for safety. It covers the essential aspects of the framework for establishing a regulatory body and taking other actions necessary to ensure the effective regulatory control of facilities and activities utilized for peaceful purposes. Other responsibilities and functions, such as liaison within the global safety regime and on support services for safety (including radiation protection), emergency preparedness and response, nuclear security, and the State system of accounting for and control of nuclear material, are also covered.

  20. Local Nash equilibrium in social networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yichao; Aziz-Alaoui, M A; Bertelle, Cyrille; Guan, Jihong

    2014-08-29

    Nash equilibrium is widely present in various social disputes. As of now, in structured static populations, such as social networks, regular, and random graphs, the discussions on Nash equilibrium are quite limited. In a relatively stable static gaming network, a rational individual has to comprehensively consider all his/her opponents' strategies before they adopt a unified strategy. In this scenario, a new strategy equilibrium emerges in the system. We define this equilibrium as a local Nash equilibrium. In this paper, we present an explicit definition of the local Nash equilibrium for the two-strategy games in structured populations. Based on the definition, we investigate the condition that a system reaches the evolutionary stable state when the individuals play the Prisoner's dilemma and snow-drift game. The local Nash equilibrium provides a way to judge whether a gaming structured population reaches the evolutionary stable state on one hand. On the other hand, it can be used to predict whether cooperators can survive in a system long before the system reaches its evolutionary stable state for the Prisoner's dilemma game. Our work therefore provides a theoretical framework for understanding the evolutionary stable state in the gaming populations with static structures.

  1. Non-Equilibrium Properties from Equilibrium Free Energy Calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohorille, Andrew; Wilson, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    Calculating free energy in computer simulations is of central importance in statistical mechanics of condensed media and its applications to chemistry and biology not only because it is the most comprehensive and informative quantity that characterizes the eqUilibrium state, but also because it often provides an efficient route to access dynamic and kinetic properties of a system. Most of applications of equilibrium free energy calculations to non-equilibrium processes rely on a description in which a molecule or an ion diffuses in the potential of mean force. In general case this description is a simplification, but it might be satisfactorily accurate in many instances of practical interest. This hypothesis has been tested in the example of the electrodiffusion equation . Conductance of model ion channels has been calculated directly through counting the number of ion crossing events observed during long molecular dynamics simulations and has been compared with the conductance obtained from solving the generalized Nernst-Plank equation. It has been shown that under relatively modest conditions the agreement between these two approaches is excellent, thus demonstrating the assumptions underlying the diffusion equation are fulfilled. Under these conditions the electrodiffusion equation provides an efficient approach to calculating the full voltage-current dependence routinely measured in electrophysiological experiments.

  2. A note on existence of mixed solutions to equilibrium problems with equilibrium constraints

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Červinka, Michal

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 2007, č. 24 (2007), s. 27-44 ISSN 1212-074X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA1030405 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : equilibrium problems with equilibrium constraints * variational analysis * mixed strategy Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  3. The equilibrium response to doubling atmospheric CO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, J.F.B.

    1990-01-01

    The equilibrium response of climate to increased atmospheric carbon dioxide as simulated by general circulation models is assessed. Changes that are physically plausible are summarized, along with an indication of the confidence attributable to those changes. The main areas of uncertainty are highlighted. They include: equilibrium experiments with mixed-layer oceans focusing on temperature, precipitation, and soil moisture; equilibrium studies with dynamical ocean-atmosphere models; results deduced from equilibrium CO 2 experiments; and priorities for future research to improve atmosphere models

  4. Semiexperimental equilibrium structures for building blocks of organic and biological molecules: the B2PLYP route.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penocchio, Emanuele; Piccardo, Matteo; Barone, Vincenzo

    2015-10-13

    The B2PLYP double hybrid functional, coupled with the correlation-consistent triple-ζ cc-pVTZ (VTZ) basis set, has been validated in the framework of the semiexperimental (SE) approach for deriving accurate equilibrium structures of molecules containing up to 15 atoms. A systematic comparison between new B2PLYP/VTZ results and several equilibrium SE structures previously determined at other levels, in particular B3LYP/SNSD and CCSD(T) with various basis sets, has put in evidence the accuracy and the remarkable stability of such model chemistry for both equilibrium structures and vibrational corrections. New SE equilibrium structures for phenylacetylene, pyruvic acid, peroxyformic acid, and phenyl radical are discussed and compared with literature data. Particular attention has been devoted to the discussion of systems for which lack of sufficient experimental data prevents a complete SE determination. In order to obtain an accurate equilibrium SE structure for these situations, the so-called templating molecule approach is discussed and generalized with respect to our previous work. Important applications are those involving biological building blocks, like uracil and thiouracil. In addition, for more general situations the linear regression approach has been proposed and validated.

  5. OPTIMAL CONGESTION CHARGES IN GENERAL EQUILIBRIUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Joo MOON, Ph.D.

    2002-01-01

    Another maximization problem involves characterizing the second-best optimal solution. In this problem, it is assumed to impose the congestion toll only on a single highway link. This problem yields the second-best congestion toll different from the first-best one. This second-best optimal congestion toll has the structure to reflect its impact on other highway links exempt from the congestion charge program.

  6. "Overreaction" of Asset Prices in General Equilibrium

    OpenAIRE

    Aiyagari, S.R.; Gertler, M.

    1998-01-01

    We attempt to explain the overreaction of asset prices to movements in short-term interest rates, dividends, and asset supplies. The key element of our explanation is a margin constraint that traders face which limits their leverage to a fraction of the value of their assets. Traders may lever themselves, further, either directly by borrowing short term or indirectly by engaging in futures and options trading, so that the scenario is relevant to contemporary financial markets. When some shock...

  7. On the forces and fluxes in non-equilibrium thermodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitahara, Kazuo

    1986-01-01

    A formulation of non-equilibrium thermodynamics of continuum systems based on local equilibrium assumption is reported. Thermodynamic forces are defined from a generalized local entropy and irreversible fluxes are defined as non-advective parts of fluxes of conservative quantities. The validity of the general evolution criterion and its generalization is discussed. (author)

  8. Numerical method for partial equilibrium flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramshaw, J.D.; Cloutman, L.D.; Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545)

    1981-01-01

    A numerical method is presented for chemically reactive fluid flow in which equilibrium and nonequilibrium reactions occur simultaneously. The equilibrium constraints on the species concentrations are established by a quadratic iterative procedure. If the equilibrium reactions are uncoupled and of second or lower order, the procedure converges in a single step. In general, convergence is most rapid when the reactions are weakly coupled. This can frequently be achieved by a judicious choice of the independent reactions. In typical transient calculations, satisfactory accuracy has been achieved with about five iterations per time step

  9. Thermodynamics Far from Equilibrium: from Glasses to Black Holes

    OpenAIRE

    Nieuwenhuizen, Th. M.

    2001-01-01

    A framework for the non-equilibrium thermodynamics of glasses is discussed. It also explains the non-equilibrium thermodynamics of a black hole isolated from matter. The first and second laws of black dynamics and black hole thermodynamics are shown to coincide, while the third laws deal with different issues.

  10. DIAGNOSIS OF FINANCIAL EQUILIBRIUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUCIU GHEORGHE

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The analysis based on the balance sheet tries to identify the state of equilibrium (disequilibrium that exists in a company. The easiest way to determine the state of equilibrium is by looking at the balance sheet and at the information it offers. Because in the balance sheet there are elements that do not reflect their real value, the one established on the market, they must be readjusted, and those elements which are not related to the ordinary operating activities must be eliminated. The diagnosis of financial equilibrium takes into account 2 components: financing sources (ownership equity, loaned, temporarily attracted. An efficient financial equilibrium must respect 2 fundamental requirements: permanent sources represented by ownership equity and loans for more than 1 year should finance permanent needs, and temporary resources should finance the operating cycle.

  11. Quasi-equilibrium interpretation of aging dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franz, S.; Virasoro, M.A.

    2000-04-01

    We develop an interpretation of the off-equilibrium dynamical solution of mean-field glassy models in terms of quasi-equilibrium concepts. We show that the relaxation of the 'thermoremanent magnetization' follows a generalized version of the Onsager regression postulate of induced fluctuations. We then find the rationale for the equality between the fluctuation-dissipation ratio and the rate of growth of the configurational entropy close to the asymptotic state, found empirically in mean-field solutions. (author)

  12. Equilibrium statistical mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Mayer, J E

    1968-01-01

    The International Encyclopedia of Physical Chemistry and Chemical Physics, Volume 1: Equilibrium Statistical Mechanics covers the fundamental principles and the development of theoretical aspects of equilibrium statistical mechanics. Statistical mechanical is the study of the connection between the macroscopic behavior of bulk matter and the microscopic properties of its constituent atoms and molecules. This book contains eight chapters, and begins with a presentation of the master equation used for the calculation of the fundamental thermodynamic functions. The succeeding chapters highlight t

  13. Computing Equilibrium Chemical Compositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcbride, Bonnie J.; Gordon, Sanford

    1995-01-01

    Chemical Equilibrium With Transport Properties, 1993 (CET93) computer program provides data on chemical-equilibrium compositions. Aids calculation of thermodynamic properties of chemical systems. Information essential in design and analysis of such equipment as compressors, turbines, nozzles, engines, shock tubes, heat exchangers, and chemical-processing equipment. CET93/PC is version of CET93 specifically designed to run within 640K memory limit of MS-DOS operating system. CET93/PC written in FORTRAN.

  14. Temperature in and out of equilibrium: A review of concepts, tools and attempts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puglisi, A.; Sarracino, A.; Vulpiani, A.

    2017-11-01

    We review the general aspects of the concept of temperature in equilibrium and non-equilibrium statistical mechanics. Although temperature is an old and well-established notion, it still presents controversial facets. After a short historical survey of the key role of temperature in thermodynamics and statistical mechanics, we tackle a series of issues which have been recently reconsidered. In particular, we discuss different definitions and their relevance for energy fluctuations. The interest in such a topic has been triggered by the recent observation of negative temperatures in condensed matter experiments. Moreover, the ability to manipulate systems at the micro and nano-scale urges to understand and clarify some aspects related to the statistical properties of small systems (as the issue of temperature's ;fluctuations;). We also discuss the notion of temperature in a dynamical context, within the theory of linear response for Hamiltonian systems at equilibrium and stochastic models with detailed balance, and the generalized fluctuation-response relations, which provide a hint for an extension of the definition of temperature in far-from-equilibrium systems. To conclude we consider non-Hamiltonian systems, such as granular materials, turbulence and active matter, where a general theoretical framework is still lacking.

  15. Equilibrium Implications of Fiscal Policy with Tax Evasion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busato, Francesco; Chiarini, Bruno; Rey, Guido M.

    This paper studies equilibrium effects of fiscal policy disturbances within a dynamic general equilibrium model where tax evasion and underground activities are explicitly incorporated. There are three mainresults. (i) The underground sector mitigates the distortionary impact of fiscal policies......, while lesseningthe drop (and the rise) of aggregate production after restrictive (expansionary) tax shocks. (ii) Taxevasion and underground economy can rationalize expansionary response to contractionary fiscal policies;(iii) A dynamic general equilibrium with tax evasion gives a rational justification...

  16. SPANDE, Stress Analysis of General Space-frame and Pipework. SPATAM, Tilt Angle Calculation of Framework for Program SPANDE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, D.C.; Enderby, J.A.; Knowles, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    1 - Nature of physical problem solved: The programme is intended to analyse almost any type of space-frame. Members of the frame may be either straight or of constant curvature between nodes provided that, in the case of curved members, one of the principal axes of the cross-section of the member lies in the same plane as the member. Loading may comprise concentrated loads, distributed loads, thermal loads or may take the form of specified displacements. The programme calculates the forces and moments in all the members of the framework, the reactions at all external restraints and the displacements of all the nodes. For pipework problems, the maximum stress difference in the pipe, calculated in accordance with the code of practice, is also quoted. 2 - Method of solution: The framework is solved by displacement methods involving stiffness matrices, making it possible to analyse space-frames with virtually any number of redundancies. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: For ICL 4/70, the framework is limited to 1000 nodes, 2000 members, 100 different member types or 200 specified nodal displacements

  17. Immunity by equilibrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberl, Gérard

    2016-08-01

    The classical model of immunity posits that the immune system reacts to pathogens and injury and restores homeostasis. Indeed, a century of research has uncovered the means and mechanisms by which the immune system recognizes danger and regulates its own activity. However, this classical model does not fully explain complex phenomena, such as tolerance, allergy, the increased prevalence of inflammatory pathologies in industrialized nations and immunity to multiple infections. In this Essay, I propose a model of immunity that is based on equilibrium, in which the healthy immune system is always active and in a state of dynamic equilibrium between antagonistic types of response. This equilibrium is regulated both by the internal milieu and by the microbial environment. As a result, alteration of the internal milieu or microbial environment leads to immune disequilibrium, which determines tolerance, protective immunity and inflammatory pathology.

  18. Dissipation and the relaxation to equilibrium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, Denis J; Williams, Stephen R; Searles, Debra J

    2009-01-01

    Using the recently derived dissipation theorem and a corollary of the transient fluctuation theorem (TFT), namely the second-law inequality, we derive the unique time independent, equilibrium phase space distribution function for an ergodic Hamiltonian system in contact with a remote heat bath. We prove under very general conditions that any deviation from this equilibrium distribution breaks the time independence of the distribution. Provided temporal correlations decay, we show that any nonequilibrium distribution that is an even function of the momenta eventually relaxes (not necessarily monotonically) to the equilibrium distribution. Finally we prove that the negative logarithm of the microscopic partition function is equal to the thermodynamic Helmholtz free energy divided by the thermodynamic temperature and Boltzmann's constant. Our results complement and extend the findings of modern ergodic theory and show the importance of dissipation in the process of relaxation towards equilibrium

  19. Intermittent many-body dynamics at equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danieli, C.; Campbell, D. K.; Flach, S.

    2017-06-01

    The equilibrium value of an observable defines a manifold in the phase space of an ergodic and equipartitioned many-body system. A typical trajectory pierces that manifold infinitely often as time goes to infinity. We use these piercings to measure both the relaxation time of the lowest frequency eigenmode of the Fermi-Pasta-Ulam chain, as well as the fluctuations of the subsequent dynamics in equilibrium. The dynamics in equilibrium is characterized by a power-law distribution of excursion times far off equilibrium, with diverging variance. Long excursions arise from sticky dynamics close to q -breathers localized in normal mode space. Measuring the exponent allows one to predict the transition into nonergodic dynamics. We generalize our method to Klein-Gordon lattices where the sticky dynamics is due to discrete breathers localized in real space.

  20. Relativistic Fluid Dynamics Far From Local Equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romatschke, Paul

    2018-01-01

    Fluid dynamics is traditionally thought to apply only to systems near local equilibrium. In this case, the effective theory of fluid dynamics can be constructed as a gradient series. Recent applications of resurgence suggest that this gradient series diverges, but can be Borel resummed, giving rise to a hydrodynamic attractor solution which is well defined even for large gradients. Arbitrary initial data quickly approaches this attractor via nonhydrodynamic mode decay. This suggests the existence of a new theory of far-from-equilibrium fluid dynamics. In this Letter, the framework of fluid dynamics far from local equilibrium for a conformal system is introduced, and the hydrodynamic attractor solutions for resummed Baier-Romatschke-Son-Starinets-Stephanov theory, kinetic theory in the relaxation time approximation, and strongly coupled N =4 super Yang-Mills theory are identified for a system undergoing Bjorken flow.

  1. Teaching Chemical Equilibrium with the Jigsaw Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doymus, Kemal

    2008-03-01

    This study investigates the effect of cooperative learning (jigsaw) versus individual learning methods on students’ understanding of chemical equilibrium in a first-year general chemistry course. This study was carried out in two different classes in the department of primary science education during the 2005-2006 academic year. One of the classes was randomly assigned as the non-jigsaw group (control) and other as the jigsaw group (cooperative). Students participating in the jigsaw group were divided into four “home groups” since the topic chemical equilibrium is divided into four subtopics (Modules A, B, C and D). Each of these home groups contained four students. The groups were as follows: (1) Home Group A (HGA), representin g the equilibrium state and quantitative aspects of equilibrium (Module A), (2) Home Group B (HGB), representing the equilibrium constant and relationships involving equilibrium constants (Module B), (3) Home Group C (HGC), representing Altering Equilibrium Conditions: Le Chatelier’s principle (Module C), and (4) Home Group D (HGD), representing calculations with equilibrium constants (Module D). The home groups then broke apart, like pieces of a jigsaw puzzle, and the students moved into jigsaw groups consisting of members from the other home groups who were assigned the same portion of the material. The jigsaw groups were then in charge of teaching their specific subtopic to the rest of the students in their learning group. The main data collection tool was a Chemical Equilibrium Achievement Test (CEAT), which was applied to both the jigsaw and non-jigsaw groups The results indicated that the jigsaw group was more successful than the non-jigsaw group (individual learning method).

  2. Equilibrium shoreface profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Troels; Hughes, Michael G

    2017-01-01

    Large-scale coastal behaviour models use the shoreface profile of equilibrium as a fundamental morphological unit that is translated in space to simulate coastal response to, for example, sea level oscillations and variability in sediment supply. Despite a longstanding focus on the shoreface...... profile and its relevance to predicting coastal response to changing environmental conditions, the processes and dynamics involved in shoreface equilibrium are still not fully understood. Here, we apply a process-based empirical sediment transport model, combined with morphodynamic principles to provide......; there is no tuning or calibration and computation times are short. It is therefore easily implemented with repeated iterations to manage uncertainty....

  3. Non-equilibrium dynamics of one-dimensional Bose gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langen, T.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the non-equilibrium dynamics of isolated quantum many-body systems is an open problem on vastly different energy, length, and time scales. Examples range from the dynamics of the early universe and heavy-ion collisions to the subtle coherence and transport properties in condensed matter physics. However, realizations of such quantum many-body systems, which are both well isolated from the environment and accessible to experimental study are scarce. This thesis presents a series of experiments with ultracold one-dimensional Bose gases. These gases combine a nearly perfect isolation from the environment with many well-established methods to manipulate and probe their quantum states. This makes them an ideal model system to explore the physics of quantum many body systems out of equilibrium. In the experiments, a well-defined non-equilibrium state is created by splitting a single one-dimensional gas coherently into two parts. The relaxation of this state is probed using matter-wave interferometry. The Observations reveal the emergence of a prethermalized steady state which differs strongly from thermal equilibrium. Such thermal-like states had previously been predicted for a large variety of systems, but never been observed directly. Studying the relaxation process in further detail shows that the thermal correlations of the prethermalized state emerge locally in their final form and propagate through the system in a light-cone-like evolution. This provides first experimental evidence for the local relaxation conjecture, which links relaxation processes in quantum many-body systems to the propagation of correlations. Furthermore, engineering the initial state of the evolution demonstrates that the prethermalized state is described by a generalized Gibbs ensemble, an observation which substantiates the importance of this ensemble as an extension of standard statistical mechanics. Finally, an experiment is presented, where pairs of gases with an atom

  4. On financial equilibrium with intermediation costs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markeprand, Tobias Ejnar

    2008-01-01

    This paper studies the set of competitive equilibria in financial economies with intermediation costs. We consider an arbitrary dividend structure, which includes options and equity with limited liabilities.We show a general existence result and upper-hemi continuity of the equilibrium correspond......This paper studies the set of competitive equilibria in financial economies with intermediation costs. We consider an arbitrary dividend structure, which includes options and equity with limited liabilities.We show a general existence result and upper-hemi continuity of the equilibrium...

  5. Does Croatia Need a General Anti-Avoidance Rule? Recommended Changes to Croatia’s Current Legislative Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Prebble

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers whether Croatia would benefit from the introduction of a general anti-avoidance rule into its tax system. The paper gives an overview of what tax avoidance is and differentiates the concept from the related concepts of tax evasion and fraud. The paper then describes how general anti-avoidance rules work. The paper gives an overview of Croatia’s tax system, including the measures the country already has to combat tax avoidance, and concludes that a general anti-avoidance rule is necessary. The paper draws on the experiences of countries with legal systems similar to that of Croatia to suggest the form that a Croatian general anti-avoidance rule should take.

  6. Risk perception and strategic decision making :general insights, a framework, and specific application to electricity generation using nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brewer, Jeffrey D.

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this report is to promote increased understanding of decision making processes and hopefully to enable improved decision making regarding high-consequence, highly sophisticated technological systems. This report brings together insights regarding risk perception and decision making across domains ranging from nuclear power technology safety, cognitive psychology, economics, science education, public policy, and neural science (to name a few). It forms them into a unique, coherent, concise framework, and list of strategies to aid in decision making. It is suggested that all decision makers, whether ordinary citizens, academics, or political leaders, ought to cultivate their abilities to separate the wheat from the chaff in these types of decision making instances. The wheat includes proper data sources and helpful human decision making heuristics; these should be sought. The chaff includes ''unhelpful biases'' that hinder proper interpretation of available data and lead people unwittingly toward inappropriate decision making ''strategies''; obviously, these should be avoided. It is further proposed that successfully accomplishing the wheat vs. chaff separation is very difficult, yet tenable. This report hopes to expose and facilitate navigation away from decision-making traps which often ensnare the unwary. Furthermore, it is emphasized that one's personal decision making biases can be examined, and tools can be provided allowing better means to generate, evaluate, and select among decision options. Many examples in this report are tailored to the energy domain (esp. nuclear power for electricity generation). The decision making framework and approach presented here are applicable to any high-consequence, highly sophisticated technological system

  7. Microeconomics : Equilibrium and Efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ten Raa, T.

    2013-01-01

    Microeconomics: Equilibrium and Efficiency teaches how to apply microeconomic theory in an innovative, intuitive and concise way. Using real-world, empirical examples, this book not only covers the building blocks of the subject, but helps gain a broad understanding of microeconomic theory and

  8. Differential Equation of Equilibrium

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    ABSTRACT. Analysis of underground circular cylindrical shell is carried out in this work. The forth order differential equation of equilibrium, comparable to that of beam on elastic foundation, was derived from static principles on the assumptions of P. L Pasternak. Laplace transformation was used to solve the governing ...

  9. Comments on equilibrium, transient equilibrium, and secular equilibrium in serial radioactive decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prince, J.R.

    1979-01-01

    Equations describing serial radioactive decay are reviewed along with published descriptions or transient and secular equilibrium. It is shown that terms describing equilibrium are not used in the same way by various authors. Specific definitions are proposed; they suggest that secular equilibrium is a subset of transient equilibrium

  10. A More Practical Method for Explaining Equilibrium

    OpenAIRE

    Yi-Jang Yu

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to suggest a more practical method for explaining market equilibrium in a two-dimensional risk-return world. Its main difference from textbook contents is to define, in both qualitative and quantitative ways, the environment or the system factor and treat it as an endogenous variable. Once the two-dimensional framework that is capable of managing uncertainty and environmental relationship can be reasonably established, a greater number of economic issues can be effect...

  11. Multi-equilibrium property of metabolic networks: SSI module

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Luonan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Revealing the multi-equilibrium property of a metabolic network is a fundamental and important topic in systems biology. Due to the complexity of the metabolic network, it is generally a difficult task to study the problem as a whole from both analytical and numerical viewpoint. On the other hand, the structure-oriented modularization idea is a good choice to overcome such a difficulty, i.e. decomposing the network into several basic building blocks and then studying the whole network through investigating the dynamical characteristics of the basic building blocks and their interactions. Single substrate and single product with inhibition (SSI metabolic module is one type of the basic building blocks of metabolic networks, and its multi-equilibrium property has important influence on that of the whole metabolic networks. Results In this paper, we describe what the SSI metabolic module is, characterize the rates of the metabolic reactions by Hill kinetics and give a unified model for SSI modules by using a set of nonlinear ordinary differential equations with multi-variables. Specifically, a sufficient and necessary condition is first given to describe the injectivity of a class of nonlinear systems, and then, the sufficient condition is used to study the multi-equilibrium property of SSI modules. As a main theoretical result, for the SSI modules in which each reaction has no more than one inhibitor, a sufficient condition is derived to rule out multiple equilibria, i.e. the Jacobian matrix of its rate function is nonsingular everywhere. Conclusions In summary, we describe SSI modules and give a general modeling framework based on Hill kinetics, and provide a sufficient condition for ruling out multiple equilibria of a key type of SSI module.

  12. Optimising value and quality in general practice within the primary health care sector through relationship marketing: a conceptual framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Manjit K

    2004-01-01

    Discusses the rationale of applying relationship marketing and service quality concepts within the primary health care sector. The use of relational strategies in general practice, by modelling the relationships between practitioners and patients from a marketing perspective, could potentially lead to sustained high quality service being provided, and to more efficient use of resources. This essentially conceptually focused paper addresses an area that has not yet been researched in detail, and furthers understanding of the relationships that facilitate exchange within general practice and service delivery in non-profit, resource-constrained conditions. Deeper understanding of the needs and expectations of patients and the way these can be delivered by general practice can only lead to improvements for all parties involved. The relationship marketing paradigm presents itself as a potentially exciting way of addressing issues associated with ensuring that the highest level of quality is delivered in this area of the UK National Health Service.

  13. A generalized disjunctive programming framework for the optimal synthesis and analysis of processes for ethanol production from corn stover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Felipe; Aroca, Germán; Caballero, José Antonio; Conejeros, Raúl

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the techno-economic performance of process configurations for ethanol production involving solid-liquid separators and reactors in the saccharification and fermentation stage, a family of process configurations where few alternatives have been proposed. Since including these process alternatives creates a large number of possible process configurations, a framework for process synthesis and optimization is proposed. This approach is supported on kinetic models fed with experimental data and a plant-wide techno-economic model. Among 150 process configurations, 40 show an improved MESP compared to a well-documented base case (BC), almost all include solid separators and some show energy retrieved in products 32% higher compared to the BC. Moreover, 16 of them also show a lower capital investment per unit of ethanol produced per year. Several of the process configurations found in this work have not been reported in the literature. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Risk perception & strategic decision making :general insights, a framework, and specific application to electricity generation using nuclear energy.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brewer, Jeffrey D.

    2005-11-01

    The objective of this report is to promote increased understanding of decision making processes and hopefully to enable improved decision making regarding high-consequence, highly sophisticated technological systems. This report brings together insights regarding risk perception and decision making across domains ranging from nuclear power technology safety, cognitive psychology, economics, science education, public policy, and neural science (to name a few). It forms them into a unique, coherent, concise framework, and list of strategies to aid in decision making. It is suggested that all decision makers, whether ordinary citizens, academics, or political leaders, ought to cultivate their abilities to separate the wheat from the chaff in these types of decision making instances. The wheat includes proper data sources and helpful human decision making heuristics; these should be sought. The chaff includes ''unhelpful biases'' that hinder proper interpretation of available data and lead people unwittingly toward inappropriate decision making ''strategies''; obviously, these should be avoided. It is further proposed that successfully accomplishing the wheat vs. chaff separation is very difficult, yet tenable. This report hopes to expose and facilitate navigation away from decision-making traps which often ensnare the unwary. Furthermore, it is emphasized that one's personal decision making biases can be examined, and tools can be provided allowing better means to generate, evaluate, and select among decision options. Many examples in this report are tailored to the energy domain (esp. nuclear power for electricity generation). The decision making framework and approach presented here are applicable to any high-consequence, highly sophisticated technological system.

  15. Equilibrium and out-of-equilibrium thermodynamics in supercooled liquids and glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mossa, S; Nave, E La; Tartaglia, P; Sciortino, F

    2003-01-01

    We review the inherent structure thermodynamical formalism and the formulation of an equation of state (EOS) for liquids in equilibrium based on the (volume) derivatives of the statistical properties of the potential energy surface. We also show that, under the hypothesis that during ageing the system explores states associated with equilibrium configurations, it is possible to generalize the proposed EOS to out-of-equilibrium (OOE) conditions. The proposed formulation is based on the introduction of one additional parameter which, in the chosen thermodynamic formalism, can be chosen as the local minimum where the slowly relaxing OOE liquid is trapped

  16. Answer Sets in a Fuzzy Equilibrium Logic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schockaert, Steven; Janssen, Jeroen; Vermeir, Dirk; de Cock, Martine

    Since its introduction, answer set programming has been generalized in many directions, to cater to the needs of real-world applications. As one of the most general “classical” approaches, answer sets of arbitrary propositional theories can be defined as models in the equilibrium logic of Pearce. Fuzzy answer set programming, on the other hand, extends answer set programming with the capability of modeling continuous systems. In this paper, we combine the expressiveness of both approaches, and define answer sets of arbitrary fuzzy propositional theories as models in a fuzzification of equilibrium logic. We show that the resulting notion of answer set is compatible with existing definitions, when the syntactic restrictions of the corresponding approaches are met. We furthermore locate the complexity of the main reasoning tasks at the second level of the polynomial hierarchy. Finally, as an illustration of its modeling power, we show how fuzzy equilibrium logic can be used to find strong Nash equilibria.

  17. Using Eight Key Questions as an Inquiry-Based Framework for Ethical Reasoning Issues in a General Education Earth Systems and Climate Change Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, E. A.; Ball, T. C.

    2014-12-01

    An important objective in general education geoscience courses is to help students evaluate social and ethical issues based upon scientific knowledge. It can be difficult for instructors trained in the physical sciences to design effective ways of including ethical issues in large lecture courses where whole-class discussions are not practical. The Quality Enhancement Plan for James Madison University, "The Madison Collaborative: Ethical Reasoning in Action," (http://www.jmu.edu/mc/index.shtml) has identified eight key questions to be used as a framework for developing ethical reasoning exercises and evaluating student learning. These eight questions are represented by the acronym FOR CLEAR and are represented by the concepts of Fairness, Outcomes, Responsibilities, Character, Liberty, Empathy, Authority, and Rights. In this study, we use the eight key questions as an inquiry-based framework for addressing ethical issues in a 100-student general education Earth systems and climate change course. Ethical reasoning exercises are presented throughout the course and range from questions of personal behavior to issues regarding potential future generations and global natural resources. In the first few exercises, key questions are identified for the students and calibrated responses are provided as examples. By the end of the semester, students are expected to identify key questions themselves and justify their own ethical and scientific reasoning. Evaluation rubrics are customized to this scaffolding approach to the exercises. Student feedback and course data will be presented to encourage discussion of this and other approaches to explicitly incorporating ethical reasoning in general education geoscience courses.

  18. Generalized structure of hadron-quark vertex function in Bethe-Salpeter framework: applications to leptonic decays of V-mesons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhatnagar, Shashank [Department of Physics, Addis Ababa University, PO Box 101739, Addis Ababa (Ethiopia); Li Shiyuan [Department of Physics, Shandong University, Jinan, 250100 (China)

    2006-07-15

    We employ the framework of the Bethe-Salpeter equation under a covariant instantaneous ansatz to study the leptonic decays of vector mesons. The structure of the hadron-quark vertex function {gamma} is generalized to include various Dirac covariants (other than i{gamma} . {epsilon}) from their complete set. They are incorporated in accordance with a naive power counting rule order-by-order in powers of the inverse of the meson mass. The decay constants for {rho}, {omega} and {phi} mesons are calculated with the incorporation of leading-order covariants.

  19. Generalized structure of hadron-quark vertex function in Bethe-Salpeter framework: applications to leptonic decays of V-mesons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatnagar, Shashank; Li Shiyuan

    2006-01-01

    We employ the framework of the Bethe-Salpeter equation under a covariant instantaneous ansatz to study the leptonic decays of vector mesons. The structure of the hadron-quark vertex function Γ is generalized to include various Dirac covariants (other than iγ . ε) from their complete set. They are incorporated in accordance with a naive power counting rule order-by-order in powers of the inverse of the meson mass. The decay constants for ρ, ω and φ mesons are calculated with the incorporation of leading-order covariants

  20. Equilibrium and pre-equilibrium emissions in proton-induced ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    necessary for the domain of fission-reactor technology for the calculation of nuclear transmutation ... tions occur in three stages: INC, pre-equilibrium and equilibrium (or compound. 344. Pramana ... In the evaporation phase of the reaction, the.

  1. Towards generalizing co-evolutionary dynamics of socio-hydrology: Theoretical frameworks of cultural evolution and robustness-fragility tradeoff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, W. S.; Yu, D. J.; Davis, T.; Hillis, V.; Waring, T. M.

    2017-12-01

    One ongoing challenge to socio-hydrology is the problem of generalization: to what extent do common human-water co-evolutions exist across distinct cases and what are underlying mechanisms of these co-evolutions. This problem stems in part from a lack of unifying theories in socio-hydrology, which hinders the explanation and generalization of results between cases in different regions. Theories help an analyst to make assumptions that are necessary to diagnose a specific phenomenon, to explain the general mechanisms of causation, and, thus, to predict future outcomes. To help address the issue, this study introduces two theories that are increasingly used in the fields of sustainability science and social-ecological systems research: robustness-fragility tradeoff (RFTO) and cultural multi-level selection (CMLS). We apply each of these theories to two distinct cases (water management issues in southwest Bangladesh and the Kissimmee River Basin, Florida) and interpret the phenomena of the levee and adaptation effects. CMLS and RFTO focus on complementary aspects of socio-hydrological phenomena. The theory of RFTO, which is mostly about inherent tradeoffs associated with infrastructure improvements, explains how efforts to increase system robustness can generate hidden endogenous risks. CMLS theory, rooted in the broader theory of cultural evolution, concerns how human cultural dynamics can act as an endogenous driver of system change across multiple levels of social organizations. Using the applied examples, we demonstrate that these two theories can provide an effective way to study social-hydrological systems and to overcome the generalization problem. Our work shows that multiple theories can be synthesized to give a richer understanding of diverse socio-hydrological patterns.

  2. A Framework for Generalized Conjugate Gradient Methods - with Special Emphasis on Contributions by Rüdiger Weiss

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gutknecht, M. H.; Rozložník, Miroslav

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 41, - (2002), s. 7-22 ISSN 0168-9274 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA1030103; GA ČR GA101/00/1035 Institutional research plan: AV0Z1030915 Keywords : sparse linear systems * Krylov space method * orthogonal residual method * minimal residual method * conjugate gradient method * residual smoothing * CG * CGNE * CGNR * CR * FOM * GMRES * PRES Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.504, year: 2002

  3. Gated equilibrium bloodpool scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinders Folmer, S.C.C.

    1981-01-01

    This thesis deals with the clinical applications of gated equilibrium bloodpool scintigraphy, performed with either a gamma camera or a portable detector system, the nuclear stethoscope. The main goal has been to define the value and limitations of noninvasive measurements of left ventricular ejection fraction as a parameter of cardiac performance in various disease states, both for diagnostic purposes as well as during follow-up after medical or surgical intervention. Secondly, it was attempted to extend the use of the equilibrium bloodpool techniques beyond the calculation of ejection fraction alone by considering the feasibility to determine ventricular volumes and by including the possibility of quantifying valvular regurgitation. In both cases, it has been tried to broaden the perspective of the observations by comparing them with results of other, invasive and non-invasive, procedures, in particular cardiac catheterization, M-mode echocardiography and myocardial perfusion scintigraphy. (Auth.)

  4. A General Model of Sensitized Luminescence in Lanthanide-Based Coordination Polymers and Metal-Organic Framework Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einkauf, Jeffrey D; Clark, Jessica M; Paulive, Alec; Tanner, Garrett P; de Lill, Daniel T

    2017-05-15

    Luminescent lanthanides containing coordination polymers and metal-organic frameworks hold great potential in many applications due to their distinctive spectroscopic properties. While the ability to design coordination polymers for specific functions is often mentioned as a major benefit bestowed on these compounds, the lack of a meaningful understanding of the luminescence in lanthanide coordination polymers remains a significant challenge toward functional design. Currently, the study of these compounds is based on the antenna effect as derived from molecular systems, where organic antennae are used to facilitate lanthanide-centered luminescence. This molecular-based approach does not take into account the unique features of extended network solids, particularly the formation of band structure. While guidelines for the antenna effect are well established, they require modification before being applied to coordination polymers. A series of nine coordination polymers with varying topologies and organic linkers were studied to investigate the accuracy of the antenna effect in coordination polymer systems. By comparing a molecular-based approach to a band-based one, it was determined that the band structure that occurs in aggregated organic solids needs to be considered when evaluating the luminescence of lanthanide coordination polymers.

  5. Volatility in Equilibrium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bollerslev, Tim; Sizova, Natalia; Tauchen, George

    Stock market volatility clusters in time, carries a risk premium, is fractionally inte- grated, and exhibits asymmetric leverage effects relative to returns. This paper develops a first internally consistent equilibrium based explanation for these longstanding empirical facts. The model is cast i......, and the dynamic cross-correlations of the volatility measures with the returns calculated from actual high-frequency intra-day data on the S&P 500 aggregate market and VIX volatility indexes....

  6. A General Mathematical Framework for Calculating Systems-Scale Efficiency of Energy Extraction and Conversion: Energy Return on Investment (EROI and Other Energy Return Ratios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam R. Brandt

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The efficiencies of energy extraction and conversion systems are typically expressed using energy return ratios (ERRs such as the net energy ratio (NER or energy return on investment (EROI. A lack of a general mathematical framework prevents inter-comparison of NER/EROI estimates between authors: methods used are not standardized, nor is there a framework for succinctly reporting results in a consistent fashion. In this paper we derive normalized mathematical forms of four ERRs for energy extraction and conversion pathways. A bottom-up (process model formulation is developed for an n-stage energy harvesting and conversion pathway with various system boundaries. Formations with the broadest system boundaries use insights from life cycle analysis to suggest a hybrid process model/economic input output based framework. These models include indirect energy consumption due to external energy inputs and embodied energy in materials. Illustrative example results are given for simple energy extraction and conversion pathways. Lastly, we discuss the limitations of this approach and the intersection of this methodology with “top-down” economic approaches.

  7. Equilibrium calculations, ch. 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deursen, A.P.J. van

    1976-01-01

    A calculation is presented of dimer intensities obtained in supersonic expansions. There are two possible limiting considerations; the dimers observed are already present in the source, in thermodynamic equilibrium, and are accelerated in the expansion. Destruction during acceleration is neglected, as are processes leading to newly formed dimers. On the other hand one can apply a kinetic approach, where formation and destruction processes are followed throughout the expansion. The difficulty of this approach stems from the fact that the density, temperature and rate constants have to be known at all distances from the nozzle. The simple point of view has been adopted and the measured dimer intensities are compared with the equilibrium concentration in the source. The comparison is performed under the assumption that the detection efficiency for dimers is twice the detection efficiency for monomers. The experimental evidence against the simple point of view that the dimers of the onset region are formed in the source already, under equilibrium conditions, is discussed. (Auth.)

  8. Economic Equilibrium and Soviet Economic Reform

    OpenAIRE

    Herbert E. Scarf

    1991-01-01

    The paper, prepared for a Roundtable on Major Economic Problems in the U.S. and the U.S.S.R., discusses some aspects of price theory ñ in particular, the theory of general equilibrium -ñ which may offer some theoretical insights about the economic problems to be encountered during the transition from Socialism to private markets in the Soviet Union.

  9. Static Equilibrium Configurations of Charged Metallic Bodies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper we developed a simple numerical scheme to determine the static equilibrium configuration of charged metallic bodies by minimizing the potential energy function. The method developed has some advantages; it combines the general theory and the physical meanings nested in the mathematical model and this ...

  10. Teaching Chemical Equilibrium with the Jigsaw Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doymus, Kemal

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of cooperative learning (jigsaw) versus individual learning methods on students' understanding of chemical equilibrium in a first-year general chemistry course. This study was carried out in two different classes in the department of primary science education during the 2005-2006 academic year. One of the classes…

  11. Discrimination of unitary transformations in the Deutsch-Jozsa algorithm: Implications for thermal-equilibrium-ensemble implementations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, David

    2010-01-01

    A general framework for regarding oracle-assisted quantum algorithms as tools for discriminating among unitary transformations is described. This framework is applied to the Deutsch-Jozsa problem and all possible quantum algorithms which solve the problem with certainty using oracle unitaries in a particular form are derived. It is also used to show that any quantum algorithm that solves the Deutsch-Jozsa problem starting with a quantum system in a particular class of initial, thermal equilibrium-based states of the type encountered in solution-state NMR can only succeed with greater probability than a classical algorithm when the problem size n exceeds ∼10 5 .

  12. Energy shift and Casimir-Polder force for an atom out of thermal equilibrium near a dielectric substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wenting; Yu, Hongwei

    2014-09-01

    We study the energy shift and the Casimir-Polder force of an atom out of thermal equilibrium near the surface of a dielectric substrate. We first generalize, adopting the local source hypothesis, the formalism proposed by Dalibard, Dupont-Roc, and Cohen-Tannoudji [J. Phys. (Paris) 43, 1617 (1982), 10.1051/jphys:0198200430110161700; J. Phys. (Paris) 45, 637 (1984), 10.1051/jphys:01984004504063700], which separates the contributions of thermal fluctuations and radiation reaction to the energy shift and allows a distinct treatment of atoms in the ground and excited states, to the case out of thermal equilibrium, and then we use the generalized formalism to calculate the energy shift and the Casimir-Polder force of an isotropically polarizable neutral atom. We identify the effects of the thermal fluctuations that originate from the substrate and the environment and discuss in detail how the Casimir-Polder force out of thermal equilibrium behaves in three different distance regions in both the low-temperature limit and the high-temperature limit for both the ground-state and excited-state atoms, with special attention devoted to the distinctive features as opposed to thermal equilibrium. In particular, we recover the distinctive behavior of the atom-wall force out of thermal equilibrium at large distances in the low-temperature limit recently found in a different theoretical framework, and furthermore we give a concrete region where this behavior holds.

  13. Pre-equilibrium plasma dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinz, U.

    1986-01-01

    Approaches towards understanding and describing the pre-equilibrium stage of quark-gluon plasma formation in heavy-ion collisions are reviewed. Focus is on a kinetic theory approach to non-equilibrium dynamics, its extension to include the dynamics of color degrees of freedom when applied to the quark-gluon plasma, its quantum field theoretical foundations, and its relationship to both the particle formation stage at the very beginning of the nuclear collision and the hydrodynamic stage at late collision times. The usefulness of this approach to obtain the transport coefficients in the quark-gluon plasma and to derive the collective mode spectrum and damping rates in this phase are discussed. Comments are made on the general difficulty to find appropriated initial conditions to get the kinetic theory started, and a specific model is given that demonstrates that, once given such initial conditions, the system can be followed all the way through into the hydrodynamical regime. 39 refs., 7 figs. (LEW)

  14. Non-equilibrium phase transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mottola, E.; Cooper, F.M.; Bishop, A.R.; Habib, S.; Kluger, Y.; Jensen, N.G.

    1998-01-01

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Non-equilibrium phase transitions play a central role in a very broad range of scientific areas, ranging from nuclear, particle, and astrophysics to condensed matter physics and the material and biological sciences. The aim of this project was to explore the path to a deeper and more fundamental understanding of the common physical principles underlying the complex real time dynamics of phase transitions. The main emphasis was on the development of general theoretical tools to deal with non-equilibrium processes, and of numerical methods robust enough to capture the time-evolving structures that occur in actual experimental situations. Specific applications to Laboratory multidivisional efforts in relativistic heavy-ion physics (transition to a new phase of nuclear matter consisting of a quark-gluon plasma) and layered high-temperature superconductors (critical currents and flux flow at the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory) were undertaken

  15. Pre-equilibrium plasma dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinz, U.

    1986-01-01

    Approaches towards understanding and describing the pre-equilibrium stage of quark-gluon plasma formation in heavy-ion collisions are reviewed. Focus is on a kinetic theory approach to non-equilibrium dynamics, its extension to include the dynamics of color degrees of freedom when applied to the quark-gluon plasma, its quantum field theoretical foundations, and its relationship to both the particle formation stage at the very beginning of the nuclear collision and the hydrodynamic stage at late collision times. The usefulness of this approach to obtain the transport coefficients in the quark-gluon plasma and to derive the collective mode spectrum and damping rates in this phase are discussed. Comments are made on the general difficulty to find appropriated initial conditions to get the kinetic theory started, and a specific model is given that demonstrates that, once given such initial conditions, the system can be followed all the way through into the hydrodynamical regime. 39 refs., 7 figs

  16. A Dynamic Multi-Projection-Contour Approximating Framework for the 3D Reconstruction of Buildings by Super-Generalized Optical Stereo-Pairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yiming; Su, Nan; Zhao, Chunhui; Wang, Liguo

    2017-09-19

    In this paper, a novel framework of the 3D reconstruction of buildings is proposed, focusing on remote sensing super-generalized stereo-pairs (SGSPs). As we all know, 3D reconstruction cannot be well performed using nonstandard stereo pairs, since reliable stereo matching could not be achieved when the image-pairs are collected at a great difference of views, and we always failed to obtain dense 3D points for regions of buildings, and cannot do further 3D shape reconstruction. We defined SGSPs as two or more optical images collected in less constrained views but covering the same buildings. It is even more difficult to reconstruct the 3D shape of a building by SGSPs using traditional frameworks. As a result, a dynamic multi-projection-contour approximating (DMPCA) framework was introduced for SGSP-based 3D reconstruction. The key idea is that we do an optimization to find a group of parameters of a simulated 3D model and use a binary feature-image that minimizes the total differences between projection-contours of the building in the SGSPs and that in the simulated 3D model. Then, the simulated 3D model, defined by the group of parameters, could approximate the actual 3D shape of the building. Certain parameterized 3D basic-unit-models of typical buildings were designed, and a simulated projection system was established to obtain a simulated projection-contour in different views. Moreover, the artificial bee colony algorithm was employed to solve the optimization. With SGSPs collected by the satellite and our unmanned aerial vehicle, the DMPCA framework was verified by a group of experiments, which demonstrated the reliability and advantages of this work.

  17. Noncompact Equilibrium Points and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Al-Rumaih

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We prove an equilibrium existence result for vector functions defined on noncompact domain and we give some applications in optimization and Nash equilibrium in noncooperative game.

  18. Evaluating the Generalization Value of Process-based Models in a Deep-in-time Machine Learning framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, C.; Fang, K.

    2017-12-01

    Deep Learning (DL) methods have made revolutionary strides in recent years. A core value proposition of DL is that abstract notions and patterns can be extracted purely from data, without the need for domain expertise. Process-based models (PBM), on the other hand, can be regarded as repositories of human knowledge or hypotheses about how systems function. Here, through computational examples, we argue that there is merit in integrating PBMs with DL due to the imbalance and lack of data in many situations, especially in hydrology. We trained a deep-in-time neural network, the Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM), to learn soil moisture dynamics from Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) Level 3 product. We show that when PBM solutions are integrated into LSTM, the network is able to better generalize across regions. LSTM is able to better utilize PBM solutions than simpler statistical methods. Our results suggest PBMs have generalization value which should be carefully assessed and utilized. We also emphasize that when properly regularized, the deep network is robust and is of superior testing performance compared to simpler methods.

  19. A general framework to select working fluid and configuration of ORCs for low-to-medium temperature heat sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vivian, Jacopo; Manente, Giovanni; Lazzaretto, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • General guidelines are proposed to select ORC working fluid and cycle layout. • Distance between critical and heat source temperature for optimal fluid selection. • Separate contributions of cycle efficiency and heat recovery factor. - Abstract: The selection of the most suitable working fluid and cycle configuration for a given heat source is a fundamental step in the search for the optimum design of Organic Rankine Cycles. In this phase cycle efficiency and heat source recovery factor lead to opposite design choices in the achievement of maximum system efficiency and, in turn, maximum power output. In this work, both separate and combined effects of these two performance factors are considered to supply a thorough understanding of the compromise resulting in maximum performance. This goal is pursued by carrying out design optimizations of four different ORC configurations operating with twenty-seven working fluids and recovering heat from sensible heat sources in the temperature range 120–180 °C. Optimum working fluids and thermodynamic parameters are those which simultaneously allow high cycle efficiency and high heat recovery from the heat source to be obtained. General guidelines are suggested to reach this target for any system configuration. The distance between fluid critical temperature and inlet temperature of the heat source is found to play a key role in predicting the optimum performance of all system configurations regardless of the inlet temperature of the heat source

  20. A generalized theoretical framework for the description of spin decoupling in solid-state MAS NMR: Offset effect on decoupling performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Kong Ooi; Meier, Beat H., E-mail: beme@ethz.ch, E-mail: maer@ethz.ch; Ernst, Matthias, E-mail: beme@ethz.ch, E-mail: maer@ethz.ch [Physical Chemistry, ETH Zürich, Vladimir-Prelog-Weg 2, 8093 Zürich (Switzerland); Agarwal, Vipin [Physical Chemistry, ETH Zürich, Vladimir-Prelog-Weg 2, 8093 Zürich (Switzerland); TIFR Centre for Interdisciplinary Sciences, 21 Brundavan Colony, Narsinghi, Hyderabad 500 075 (India)

    2016-09-07

    We present a generalized theoretical framework that allows the approximate but rapid analysis of residual couplings of arbitrary decoupling sequences in solid-state NMR under magic-angle spinning conditions. It is a generalization of the tri-modal Floquet analysis of TPPM decoupling [Scholz et al., J. Chem. Phys. 130, 114510 (2009)] where three characteristic frequencies are used to describe the pulse sequence. Such an approach can be used to describe arbitrary periodic decoupling sequences that differ only in the magnitude of the Fourier coefficients of the interaction-frame transformation. It allows a ∼100 times faster calculation of second-order residual couplings as a function of pulse sequence parameters than full spin-dynamics simulations. By comparing the theoretical calculations with full numerical simulations, we show the potential of the new approach to examine the performance of decoupling sequences. We exemplify the usefulness of this framework by analyzing the performance of commonly used high-power decoupling sequences and low-power decoupling sequences such as amplitude-modulated XiX (AM-XiX) and its super-cycled variant SC-AM-XiX. In addition, the effect of chemical-shift offset is examined for both high- and low-power decoupling sequences. The results show that the cross-terms between the dipolar couplings are the main contributions to the line broadening when offset is present. We also show that the SC-AM-XIX shows a better offset compensation.

  1. A generalized theoretical framework for the description of spin decoupling in solid-state MAS NMR: Offset effect on decoupling performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Kong Ooi; Agarwal, Vipin; Meier, Beat H; Ernst, Matthias

    2016-09-07

    We present a generalized theoretical framework that allows the approximate but rapid analysis of residual couplings of arbitrary decoupling sequences in solid-state NMR under magic-angle spinning conditions. It is a generalization of the tri-modal Floquet analysis of TPPM decoupling [Scholz et al., J. Chem. Phys. 130, 114510 (2009)] where three characteristic frequencies are used to describe the pulse sequence. Such an approach can be used to describe arbitrary periodic decoupling sequences that differ only in the magnitude of the Fourier coefficients of the interaction-frame transformation. It allows a ∼100 times faster calculation of second-order residual couplings as a function of pulse sequence parameters than full spin-dynamics simulations. By comparing the theoretical calculations with full numerical simulations, we show the potential of the new approach to examine the performance of decoupling sequences. We exemplify the usefulness of this framework by analyzing the performance of commonly used high-power decoupling sequences and low-power decoupling sequences such as amplitude-modulated XiX (AM-XiX) and its super-cycled variant SC-AM-XiX. In addition, the effect of chemical-shift offset is examined for both high- and low-power decoupling sequences. The results show that the cross-terms between the dipolar couplings are the main contributions to the line broadening when offset is present. We also show that the SC-AM-XIX shows a better offset compensation.

  2. Thermodynamic equilibrium in relativistic rotating systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suen, W.M.; Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO; Young, K.

    1988-01-01

    The thermodynamic equilibrium configurations of relativistic rotating stars are studied using the maximum entropy principle. It is shown that the heuristic arguments for the equilibrium conditions can be developed into a maximum entropy principle in which the variations are carried out in a fixed background spacetime. This maximum principle with the fixed background assumption is technically simpler than, but has to be justified by, a maximum entropy principle without the assumption. Such a maximum entropy principle is formulated in this paper, showing that the general relativistic system can be treated on the same footing as other long-range force systems. (author)

  3. Current control necessary for toroidal plasma equilibrium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagao, S.

    1987-01-01

    It is shown that a significant amount of dipole current is necessary for the plasma equilibrium of toroidal configurations in general. Through the vector product with the poloidal field, this dipole current force has to balance with the hoop force of plasma pressure itself of the annular shape. The measurement of such a current of dipole type may be interesting for the confirmation of the plasma equilibrium in the toroidal system. Moreover it is certained that there is a new mode of a tokamak operation with such a dipole current component and with smaller vertical field than that based on the classical tokamak theory. (author) [pt

  4. Computing Properties Of Chemical Mixtures At Equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcbride, B. J.; Gordon, S.

    1995-01-01

    Scientists and engineers need data on chemical equilibrium compositions to calculate theoretical thermodynamic properties of chemical systems. Information essential in design and analysis of such equipment as compressors, turbines, nozzles, engines, shock tubes, heat exchangers, and chemical-processing equipment. CET93 is general program that calculates chemical equilibrium compositions and properties of mixtures for any chemical system for which thermodynamic data are available. Includes thermodynamic data for more than 1,300 gaseous and condensed species and thermal-transport data for 151 gases. Written in FORTRAN 77.

  5. A general-purpose framework to simulate musculoskeletal system of human body: using a motion tracking approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehsani, Hossein; Rostami, Mostafa; Gudarzi, Mohammad

    2016-02-01

    Computation of muscle force patterns that produce specified movements of muscle-actuated dynamic models is an important and challenging problem. This problem is an undetermined one, and then a proper optimization is required to calculate muscle forces. The purpose of this paper is to develop a general model for calculating all muscle activation and force patterns in an arbitrary human body movement. For this aim, the equations of a multibody system forward dynamics, which is considered for skeletal system of the human body model, is derived using Lagrange-Euler formulation. Next, muscle contraction dynamics is added to this model and forward dynamics of an arbitrary musculoskeletal system is obtained. For optimization purpose, the obtained model is used in computed muscle control algorithm, and a closed-loop system for tracking desired motions is derived. Finally, a popular sport exercise, biceps curl, is simulated by using this algorithm and the validity of the obtained results is evaluated via EMG signals.

  6. Flux Jacobian Matrices For Equilibrium Real Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinokur, Marcel

    1990-01-01

    Improved formulation includes generalized Roe average and extension to three dimensions. Flux Jacobian matrices derived for use in numerical solutions of conservation-law differential equations of inviscid flows of ideal gases extended to real gases. Real-gas formulation of these matrices retains simplifying assumptions of thermodynamic and chemical equilibrium, but adds effects of vibrational excitation, dissociation, and ionization of gas molecules via general equation of state.

  7. Universality in equilibrium and away from it: A personal perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munoz, Miguel A.

    2011-01-01

    In this talk/paper I discuss the concept of universality in phase transitions and the question of whether universality classes are more robust in equilibrium than away from it. In both of these situations, the main ingredients determining universality are symmetries, conservation laws, the dimension of the space and of the order-parameter and the presence of long-range interactions or quenched disorder. The existence of detailed-balance and fluctuation-dissipation theorems imposes severe constraints on equilibrium systems, allowing to define universality classes in a very robust way; instead, non-equilibrium allows for more variability. Still, quite robust non-equilibrium universality classes have been identified in the last decades. Here, I discuss some examples in which (i) non-equilibrium phase transitions are simply controlled by equilibrium critical points, i.e. non-equilibrium ingredients turn out to be irrelevant in the renormalization group sense and (ii) non-equilibrium situations in which equilibrium seems to come out of the blue, generating an adequate effective description of intrinsically non-equilibrium problems. Afterwards, I shall describe different genuinely non-equilibrium phase transitions in which introducing small, apparently innocuous changes (namely: presence or absence of an underlying lattice, parity conservation in the overall number of particles, existence of an un-accessible vacuum state, deterministic versus stochastic microscopic rules, presence or absence of a Fermionic constraint), the critical behavior is altered, making the case for lack of robustness. However, it will be argued that in all these examples, there is an underlying good reason (in terms of general principles) for universality to be altered. The final conclusions are that: (i) robust universality classes exist both in equilibrium and non-equilibrium; (ii) symmetry and conservation principles are crucial in both, (iii) non-equilibrium allows for more variability (i

  8. Stellar Equilibrium in Semiclassical Gravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carballo-Rubio, Raúl

    2018-02-09

    The phenomenon of quantum vacuum polarization in the presence of a gravitational field is well understood and is expected to have a physical reality, but studies of its backreaction on the dynamics of spacetime are practically nonexistent outside of the specific context of homogeneous cosmologies. Building on previous results of quantum field theory in curved spacetimes, in this Letter we first derive the semiclassical equations of stellar equilibrium in the s-wave Polyakov approximation. It is highlighted that incorporating the polarization of the quantum vacuum leads to a generalization of the classical Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff equation. Despite the complexity of the resulting field equations, it is possible to find exact solutions. Aside from being the first known exact solutions that describe relativistic stars including the nonperturbative backreaction of semiclassical effects, these are identified as a nontrivial combination of the black star and gravastar proposals.

  9. Sedimentation dynamics and equilibrium profiles in multicomponent mixtures of colloidal particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spruijt, E; Biesheuvel, P M

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we give a general theoretical framework that describes the sedimentation of multicomponent mixtures of particles with sizes ranging from molecules to macroscopic bodies. Both equilibrium sedimentation profiles and the dynamic process of settling, or its converse, creaming, are modeled. Equilibrium profiles are found to be in perfect agreement with experiments. Our model reconciles two apparently contradicting points of view about buoyancy, thereby resolving a long-lived paradox about the correct choice of the buoyant density. On the one hand, the buoyancy force follows necessarily from the suspension density, as it relates to the hydrostatic pressure gradient. On the other hand, sedimentation profiles of colloidal suspensions can be calculated directly using the fluid density as apparent buoyant density in colloidal systems in sedimentation–diffusion equilibrium (SDE) as a result of balancing gravitational and thermodynamic forces. Surprisingly, this balance also holds in multicomponent mixtures. This analysis resolves the ongoing debate of the correct choice of buoyant density (fluid or suspension): both approaches can be used in their own domain. We present calculations of equilibrium sedimentation profiles and dynamic sedimentation that show the consequences of these insights. In bidisperse mixtures of colloids, particles with a lower mass density than the homogeneous suspension will first cream and then settle, whereas particles with a suspension-matched mass density form transient, bimodal particle distributions during sedimentation, which disappear when equilibrium is reached. In all these cases, the centers of the distributions of the particles with the lowest mass density of the two, regardless of their actual mass, will be located in equilibrium above the so-called isopycnic point, a natural consequence of their hard-sphere interactions. We include these interactions using the Boublik–Mansoori–Carnahan–Starling–Leland (BMCSL

  10. Equilibrium thermodynamics in modified gravitational theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bamba, Kazuharu; Geng, C.-Q.; Tsujikawa, Shinji

    2010-01-01

    We show that it is possible to obtain a picture of equilibrium thermodynamics on the apparent horizon in the expanding cosmological background for a wide class of modified gravity theories with the Lagrangian density f(R,φ,X), where R is the Ricci scalar and X is the kinetic energy of a scalar field φ. This comes from a suitable definition of an energy-momentum tensor of the 'dark' component that respects to a local energy conservation in the Jordan frame. In this framework the horizon entropy S corresponding to equilibrium thermodynamics is equal to a quarter of the horizon area A in units of gravitational constant G, as in Einstein gravity. For a flat cosmological background with a decreasing Hubble parameter, S globally increases with time, as it happens for viable f(R) inflation and dark energy models. We also show that the equilibrium description in terms of the horizon entropy S is convenient because it takes into account the contribution of both the horizon entropy S in non-equilibrium thermodynamics and an entropy production term.

  11. Stochastic linearization of turbulent dynamics of dispersive waves in equilibrium and non-equilibrium state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Shixiao W; Lu, Haihao; Zhou, Douglas; Cai, David

    2016-01-01

    Characterizing dispersive wave turbulence in the long time dynamics is central to understanding of many natural phenomena, e.g., in atmosphere ocean dynamics, nonlinear optics, and plasma physics. Using the β -Fermi–Pasta–Ulam nonlinear system as a prototypical example, we show that in thermal equilibrium and non-equilibrium steady state the turbulent state even in the strongly nonlinear regime possesses an effective linear stochastic structure in renormalized normal variables. In this framework, we can well characterize the spatiotemporal dynamics, which are dominated by long-wavelength renormalized waves. We further demonstrate that the energy flux is nearly saturated by the long-wavelength renormalized waves in non-equilibrium steady state. The scenario of such effective linear stochastic dynamics can be extended to study turbulent states in other nonlinear wave systems. (paper)

  12. Non-equilibrium thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    De Groot, Sybren Ruurds

    1984-01-01

    The study of thermodynamics is especially timely today, as its concepts are being applied to problems in biology, biochemistry, electrochemistry, and engineering. This book treats irreversible processes and phenomena - non-equilibrium thermodynamics.S. R. de Groot and P. Mazur, Professors of Theoretical Physics, present a comprehensive and insightful survey of the foundations of the field, providing the only complete discussion of the fluctuating linear theory of irreversible thermodynamics. The application covers a wide range of topics: the theory of diffusion and heat conduction, fluid dyn

  13. Using a Spreadsheet Scroll Bar to Solve Equilibrium Concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raviolo, Andres

    2012-01-01

    A simple, conceptual method is described for using the spreadsheet scroll bar to find the composition of a system at chemical equilibrium. Simulation of any kind of chemical equilibrium can be carried out using this method, and the effects of different disturbances can be predicted. This simulation, which can be used in general chemistry…

  14. Non-equilibrium quantum heat machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alicki, Robert; Gelbwaser-Klimovsky, David

    2015-11-01

    Standard heat machines (engine, heat pump, refrigerator) are composed of a system (working fluid) coupled to at least two equilibrium baths at different temperatures and periodically driven by an external device (piston or rotor) sometimes called the work reservoir. The aim of this paper is to go beyond this scheme by considering environments which are stationary but cannot be decomposed into a few baths at thermal equilibrium. Such situations are important, for example in solar cells, chemical machines in biology, various realizations of laser cooling or nanoscopic machines driven by laser radiation. We classify non-equilibrium baths depending on their thermodynamic behavior and show that the efficiency of heat machines powered by them is limited by the generalized Carnot bound.

  15. Non-equilibrium quantum heat machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alicki, Robert; Gelbwaser-Klimovsky, David

    2015-01-01

    Standard heat machines (engine, heat pump, refrigerator) are composed of a system (working fluid) coupled to at least two equilibrium baths at different temperatures and periodically driven by an external device (piston or rotor) sometimes called the work reservoir. The aim of this paper is to go beyond this scheme by considering environments which are stationary but cannot be decomposed into a few baths at thermal equilibrium. Such situations are important, for example in solar cells, chemical machines in biology, various realizations of laser cooling or nanoscopic machines driven by laser radiation. We classify non-equilibrium baths depending on their thermodynamic behavior and show that the efficiency of heat machines powered by them is limited by the generalized Carnot bound. (paper)

  16. Hidden symmetries and equilibrium properties of multiplicative white-noise stochastic processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Arenas, Zochil; Barci, Daniel G.

    2012-12-01

    Multiplicative white-noise stochastic processes continue to attract attention in a wide area of scientific research. The variety of prescriptions available for defining them makes the development of general tools for their characterization difficult. In this work, we study equilibrium properties of Markovian multiplicative white-noise processes. For this, we define the time reversal transformation for such processes, taking into account that the asymptotic stationary probability distribution depends on the prescription. Representing the stochastic process in a functional Grassmann formalism, we avoid the necessity of fixing a particular prescription. In this framework, we analyze equilibrium properties and study hidden symmetries of the process. We show that, using a careful definition of the equilibrium distribution and taking into account the appropriate time reversal transformation, usual equilibrium properties are satisfied for any prescription. Finally, we present a detailed deduction of a covariant supersymmetric formulation of a multiplicative Markovian white-noise process and study some of the constraints that it imposes on correlation functions using Ward-Takahashi identities.

  17. Hidden symmetries and equilibrium properties of multiplicative white-noise stochastic processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arenas, Zochil González; Barci, Daniel G

    2012-01-01

    Multiplicative white-noise stochastic processes continue to attract attention in a wide area of scientific research. The variety of prescriptions available for defining them makes the development of general tools for their characterization difficult. In this work, we study equilibrium properties of Markovian multiplicative white-noise processes. For this, we define the time reversal transformation for such processes, taking into account that the asymptotic stationary probability distribution depends on the prescription. Representing the stochastic process in a functional Grassmann formalism, we avoid the necessity of fixing a particular prescription. In this framework, we analyze equilibrium properties and study hidden symmetries of the process. We show that, using a careful definition of the equilibrium distribution and taking into account the appropriate time reversal transformation, usual equilibrium properties are satisfied for any prescription. Finally, we present a detailed deduction of a covariant supersymmetric formulation of a multiplicative Markovian white-noise process and study some of the constraints that it imposes on correlation functions using Ward–Takahashi identities. (paper)

  18. Thermal equilibrium of goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, Alex S C; Nascimento, Sheila T; Nascimento, Carolina C N; Gebremedhin, Kifle G

    2016-05-01

    The effects of air temperature and relative humidity on thermal equilibrium of goats in a tropical region was evaluated. Nine non-pregnant Anglo Nubian nanny goats were used in the study. An indirect calorimeter was designed and developed to measure oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide production, methane production and water vapour pressure of the air exhaled from goats. Physiological parameters: rectal temperature, skin temperature, hair-coat temperature, expired air temperature and respiratory rate and volume as well as environmental parameters: air temperature, relative humidity and mean radiant temperature were measured. The results show that respiratory and volume rates and latent heat loss did not change significantly for air temperature between 22 and 26°C. In this temperature range, metabolic heat was lost mainly by convection and long-wave radiation. For temperature greater than 30°C, the goats maintained thermal equilibrium mainly by evaporative heat loss. At the higher air temperature, the respiratory and ventilation rates as well as body temperatures were significantly elevated. It can be concluded that for Anglo Nubian goats, the upper limit of air temperature for comfort is around 26°C when the goats are protected from direct solar radiation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Intramolecular Association within the SAFT Framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avlund, Ane Søgaard; Kontogeorgis, Georgios; Chapman, Walter G.

    2011-01-01

    A general theory for modelling intramolecular association within the SAFT framework is proposed. Sear and Jackson [Phys. Rev. E. 50 (1), 386 (1994)] and Ghonasgi and Chapman [J. Chem. Phys. 102 (6), 2585 (1995)] have previously extended SAFT to include intramolecular association for chains with two...... the contribution to the Helmholtz free energy from association (inter- as well as intramolecularly) at equilibrium. Sear and Jackson rederived the contribution to the Helmholtz free energy from association from the theory by Wertheim [J. Stat. Phys. 42 (3–4), 459 (1986)] with inclusion of intramolecular...

  20. The implementation of the Common Assessment Framework in the assessment of administrative and efficiency of nursing service in General Hospital of island region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apostolos Efkarpidis

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The Common Assessment Framework (CAF is an easy to use tool of Total Quality Management (TQM which is available to the public sector organizations in Europe. The Common Assessment Framework applied every two years providing a self-assessment framework to organizations, conceptually similar with the European Foundation Quality Management, taking into account their differences. It is common for all public organizations ensuring the comparability of results between similar services. Objective: To measure the existing administrative and operational level of Nursing Service in General Hospital. Methodology: The study was authorized by the General Manager of the Hospital. We followed the steps of the procedure provided the Implementation Guide of the CAF and used the questionnaire of the Guide. The sample consisted of 32 employees (Self-Assessment Group of all categories in a total of 101 employees. The analysis was performed with the Excel program. Results: The results of the evaluation were initiated between two rating scales based on the average (50 points a of the scale with grades from 31 to 50 (below average indicating the relative satisfaction for some activity and the moderate level of efficiency and effectiveness, and b of the scale with grades from 51 to 70 (above average indicating satisfaction for some activity and the good level of efficiency and effectiveness. The rating on the nine criteria of the CAF were: 1 Leadership (57.36, 2 Strategy – Planning (44.1, 3 Human Resource Management (50.07, 4 Partnerships – Resources (41,18, 5 Process Management – Changes (30.04, 6 Results for the Citizen (49.17, 7 Results for the Human Resources (42.13, 8 Results in Society (53, 97, 9 Main results (53,78. Conclusions: Τhe Nursing Service of the General Hospital was evaluated for its administration as well as the organizational performance by staff and citizens, based on the CAF. Seventy two weak points were spoted needing