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Sample records for general epidemiological parameters

  1. General image acquisition parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teissier, J.M.; Lopez, F.M.; Langevin, J.F.

    1993-01-01

    The general parameters are of primordial importance to achieve image quality in terms of spatial resolution and contrast. They also play a role in the acquisition time for each sequence. We describe them separately, before associating them in a decision tree gathering the various options that are possible for diagnosis

  2. General epidemiological parameters of viral hepatitis A, B, C, and E in six regions of China: a cross-sectional study in 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jian; Zhou, Yongdong; Lin, Xiaojing; Jiang, Yongzhen; Tian, Ruiguang; Zhang, Yonghui; Wu, Jia; Zhang, Fengwei; Zhang, Yong; Wang, Yue; Bi, Shengli

    2009-12-24

    Viral hepatitis is a serious health burden worldwide. To date, few reports have addressed the prevalence of hepatitis A, B, C, and E in China. Therefore, the general epidemiological parameters of viral hepatitis remain unknown. In this cross-sectional study, we performed a serological prevalence analysis of viral hepatitis A, B, C, and E in 8,762 randomly selected Chinese subjects, which represented six areas of China. The overall prevalence of anti-Hepatitis C virus antibody (anti-HCV) was 0.58%, which was much lower than was estimated by WHO. The prevalences of Hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg), anti-Hepatitis B virus surface protein antibody (HBsAb), and anti-Hepatitis B virus core protein antibody (HBcAb) were 5.84%, 41.31%, and 35.92%, respectively, whereas in the group of subjects less than 5 years old, these prevalences were 1.16%, 46.77%, and 8.69% respectively, which suggests that the Hepatitis B virus (HBV)-carrier population is decreasing, and the nationwide HBV vaccine program has contributed to the lowered HBV prevalence in the younger generation in China. Meanwhile, a large deficit remains in coverage provided by the national HBV immune program. In addition, our data suggested the possibility that HBsAb may not last long enough to protect people from HBV infection throughout life. The overall prevalence of anti-Hepatitis A virus antibody (anti-HAV) and anti-Hepatitis E virus antibody (anti-HEV) were as high as 72.87% and 17.66%, respectively. The indices increased with age, which suggests that a large proportion of Chinese adults are protected by latent infection. Furthermore, the pattern of HEV infection was significantly different among ethnic groups in China. Our study provided much important information concerning hepatitis A, B, C, and E prevalence in China and will contribute to worldwide oversight of viral hepatitis.

  3. [Epidemiology of fatigue in general practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuhrer, R

    1994-11-01

    The epidemiology of fatigue is not well known in France, and this study reports on factors associated with fatigue in a sample of 3,784 general practice patients. Prevalence rates according to several definitions of fatigue are presented and factors are examined that have been reported to be associated with fatigue. Although 41.2% of the sample report having experienced symptoms of fatigue for at least three days, only 7.6% declare fatigue as a reason for consulting a doctor. Women report more symptoms of fatigue, but they do not consult more often than men for this reason. Age is strongly correlated with fatigue, but this is found only for men. Socioprofessional category bears no relationship to fatigue as a reason for consultation, however, the diagnosis of fatigue is more often attributed to professionals and upper management than it is to office staff or skilled and unskilled workers. We do find a strong relationship between depressive symptomatology as measured by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies (CES-D) and fatigue; nonetheless, fatigue is neither sensitive nor specific to the diagnosis of depression.

  4. Generalized Confidence Intervals and Fiducial Intervals for Some Epidemiological Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionut Bebu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available For binary outcome data from epidemiological studies, this article investigates the interval estimation of several measures of interest in the absence or presence of categorical covariates. When covariates are present, the logistic regression model as well as the log-binomial model are investigated. The measures considered include the common odds ratio (OR from several studies, the number needed to treat (NNT, and the prevalence ratio. For each parameter, confidence intervals are constructed using the concepts of generalized pivotal quantities and fiducial quantities. Numerical results show that the confidence intervals so obtained exhibit satisfactory performance in terms of maintaining the coverage probabilities even when the sample sizes are not large. An appealing feature of the proposed solutions is that they are not based on maximization of the likelihood, and hence are free from convergence issues associated with the numerical calculation of the maximum likelihood estimators, especially in the context of the log-binomial model. The results are illustrated with a number of examples. The overall conclusion is that the proposed methodologies based on generalized pivotal quantities and fiducial quantities provide an accurate and unified approach for the interval estimation of the various epidemiological measures in the context of binary outcome data with or without covariates.

  5. Assessment of epidemiological parameters and their use in epidemiological and forecasting models of cereal airborne diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vallavieille-Pope, C. de; Giosue, S.; Munk, L.

    2000-01-01

    Assessments of epidemiological parameters (e.g. infection efficiency, latent period, spore production) are required for the prediction of epidemic progress, for the estimation of components of partial resistance for different host plant cultivars and for the estimation of fitness components of pa...

  6. Parameter space of general gauge mediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajaraman, Arvind; Shirman, Yuri; Smidt, Joseph; Yu, Felix

    2009-01-01

    We study a subspace of General Gauge Mediation (GGM) models which generalize models of gauge mediation. We find superpartner spectra that are markedly different from those of typical gauge and gaugino mediation scenarios. While typical gauge mediation predictions of either a neutralino or stau next-to-lightest supersymmetric particle (NLSP) are easily reproducible with the GGM parameters, chargino and sneutrino NLSPs are generic for many reasonable choices of GGM parameters.

  7. Spillover effects in epidemiology: parameters, study designs and methodological considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin-Chung, Jade; Arnold, Benjamin F; Berger, David; Luby, Stephen P; Miguel, Edward; Colford Jr, John M; Hubbard, Alan E

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Many public health interventions provide benefits that extend beyond their direct recipients and impact people in close physical or social proximity who did not directly receive the intervention themselves. A classic example of this phenomenon is the herd protection provided by many vaccines. If these ‘spillover effects’ (i.e. ‘herd effects’) are present in the same direction as the effects on the intended recipients, studies that only estimate direct effects on recipients will likely underestimate the full public health benefits of the intervention. Causal inference assumptions for spillover parameters have been articulated in the vaccine literature, but many studies measuring spillovers of other types of public health interventions have not drawn upon that literature. In conjunction with a systematic review we conducted of spillovers of public health interventions delivered in low- and middle-income countries, we classified the most widely used spillover parameters reported in the empirical literature into a standard notation. General classes of spillover parameters include: cluster-level spillovers; spillovers conditional on treatment or outcome density, distance or the number of treated social network links; and vaccine efficacy parameters related to spillovers. We draw on high quality empirical examples to illustrate each of these parameters. We describe study designs to estimate spillovers and assumptions required to make causal inferences about spillovers. We aim to advance and encourage methods for spillover estimation and reporting by standardizing spillover parameter nomenclature and articulating the causal inference assumptions required to estimate spillovers. PMID:29106568

  8. General statistical data structure for epidemiologic studies of DOE workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frome, E.L.; Hudson, D.R.

    1981-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies to evaluate the occupational risks associated with employment in the nuclear industry are currently being conducted by the Department of Energy. Data that have potential value in evaluating any long-term health effects of occupational exposure to low levels of radiation are obtained for each individual at a given facility. We propose a general data structure for statistical analysis that is used to define transformations from the data management system into the data analysis system. Statistical methods of interest in epidemiologic studies include contingency table analysis and survival analysis procedures that can be used to evaluate potential associations between occupational radiation exposure and mortality. The purposes of this paper are to discuss (1) the adequacy of this data structure for single- and multiple-facility analysis and (2) the statistical computing problems encountered in dealing with large populations over extended periods of time

  9. A general, multivariate definition of causal effects in epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanders, W Dana; Klein, Mitchel

    2015-07-01

    Population causal effects are often defined as contrasts of average individual-level counterfactual outcomes, comparing different exposure levels. Common examples include causal risk difference and risk ratios. These and most other examples emphasize effects on disease onset, a reflection of the usual epidemiological interest in disease occurrence. Exposure effects on other health characteristics, such as prevalence or conditional risk of a particular disability, can be important as well, but contrasts involving these other measures may often be dismissed as non-causal. For example, an observed prevalence ratio might often viewed as an estimator of a causal incidence ratio and hence subject to bias. In this manuscript, we provide and evaluate a definition of causal effects that generalizes those previously available. A key part of the generalization is that contrasts used in the definition can involve multivariate, counterfactual outcomes, rather than only univariate outcomes. An important consequence of our generalization is that, using it, one can properly define causal effects based on a wide variety of additional measures. Examples include causal prevalence ratios and differences and causal conditional risk ratios and differences. We illustrate how these additional measures can be useful, natural, easily estimated, and of public health importance. Furthermore, we discuss conditions for valid estimation of each type of causal effect, and how improper interpretation or inferences for the wrong target population can be sources of bias.

  10. Epidemiology of dizziness in northern Poland – The first Polish neurootologic survey of the general population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romuald Wojtczak

    2017-09-01

    The authors present the first Polish neurootologic survey of epidemiology of dizziness in the general population. This condition is common in the general population, and this study indicates its prevalence in 16.4% of the inhabitants of the town and district of Bytów. It is recommendable that epidemiological studies should be carried out.

  11. Epidemiology in Germany-general development and personal experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichmann, Heinz-Erich

    2017-08-01

    Did you ever hear about epidemiology in Germany? Starting from an epidemiological desert the discipline has grown remarkably, especially during the last 10-15 years: research institutes have been established, research funding has improved, multiple curriculae in Epidemiology and Public Health are offered. This increase has been quite steep, and now the epidemiological infrastructure is much better. Several medium-sized and even big population cohorts are ongoing, and the number and quality of publications from German epidemiologists has reached a respectable level. My own career in epidemiology started in the field of environmental health. After German reunification I concentrated for many years on environmental problems in East Germany and observed the health benefits after improvement of the situation. Later, I concentrated on population-based cohorts in newborns (GINI/LISA) and adults (KORA, German National Cohort), and on biobanking. This Essay describes the development in Germany after worldwar 2, illustrated by examples of research results and build-up of epidemiological infractructures worth mentioning.

  12. mosaicQA - A General Approach to Facilitate Basic Data Quality Assurance for Epidemiological Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialke, Martin; Rau, Henriette; Schwaneberg, Thea; Walk, Rene; Bahls, Thomas; Hoffmann, Wolfgang

    2017-05-29

    Epidemiological studies are based on a considerable amount of personal, medical and socio-economic data. To answer research questions with reliable results, epidemiological research projects face the challenge of providing high quality data. Consequently, gathered data has to be reviewed continuously during the data collection period. This article describes the development of the mosaicQA-library for non-statistical experts consisting of a set of reusable R functions to provide support for a basic data quality assurance for a wide range of application scenarios in epidemiological research. To generate valid quality reports for various scenarios and data sets, a general and flexible development approach was needed. As a first step, a set of quality-related questions, targeting quality aspects on a more general level, was identified. The next step included the design of specific R-scripts to produce proper reports for metric and categorical data. For more flexibility, the third development step focussed on the generalization of the developed R-scripts, e.g. extracting characteristics and parameters. As a last step the generic characteristics of the developed R functionalities and generated reports have been evaluated using different metric and categorical datasets. The developed mosaicQA-library generates basic data quality reports for multivariate input data. If needed, more detailed results for single-variable data, including definition of units, variables, descriptions, code lists and categories of qualified missings, can easily be produced. The mosaicQA-library enables researchers to generate reports for various kinds of metric and categorical data without the need for computational or scripting knowledge. At the moment, the library focusses on the data structure quality and supports the assessment of several quality indicators, including frequency, distribution and plausibility of research variables as well as the occurrence of missing and extreme values. To

  13. Schur Convexity of Generalized Heronian Means Involving Two Parameters

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    Bencze Mihály

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Schur convexity and Schur-geometric convexity of generalized Heronian means involving two parameters are studied, the main result is then used to obtain several interesting and significantly inequalities for generalized Heronian means.

  14. Comparison of nuisance parameters in pediatric versus adult randomized trials: a meta-epidemiologic empirical evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vandermeer, Ben; van der Tweel, Ingeborg; Jansen-van der Weide, Marijke C.; Weinreich, Stephanie S.; Contopoulos-Ioannidis, Despina G.; Bassler, Dirk; Fernandes, Ricardo M.; Askie, Lisa; Saloojee, Haroon; Baiardi, Paola; Ellenberg, Susan S.; van der Lee, Johanna H.

    2018-01-01

    Background: We wished to compare the nuisance parameters of pediatric vs. adult randomized-trials (RCTs) and determine if the latter can be used in sample size computations of the former. Methods: In this meta-epidemiologic empirical evaluation we examined meta-analyses from the Cochrane Database of

  15. Parameter Estimation for a Computable General Equilibrium Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Robinson, Sherman; Tarp, Finn

    2002-01-01

    We introduce a maximum entropy approach to parameter estimation for computable general equilibrium (CGE) models. The approach applies information theory to estimating a system of non-linear simultaneous equations. It has a number of advantages. First, it imposes all general equilibrium constraints...

  16. Parameter Estimation for a Computable General Equilibrium Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Robinson, Sherman; Tarp, Finn

    We introduce a maximum entropy approach to parameter estimation for computable general equilibrium (CGE) models. The approach applies information theory to estimating a system of nonlinear simultaneous equations. It has a number of advantages. First, it imposes all general equilibrium constraints...

  17. Learning regularization parameters for general-form Tikhonov

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Julianne; Español, Malena I

    2017-01-01

    Computing regularization parameters for general-form Tikhonov regularization can be an expensive and difficult task, especially if multiple parameters or many solutions need to be computed in real time. In this work, we assume training data is available and describe an efficient learning approach for computing regularization parameters that can be used for a large set of problems. We consider an empirical Bayes risk minimization framework for finding regularization parameters that minimize average errors for the training data. We first extend methods from Chung et al (2011 SIAM J. Sci. Comput. 33 3132–52) to the general-form Tikhonov problem. Then we develop a learning approach for multi-parameter Tikhonov problems, for the case where all involved matrices are simultaneously diagonalizable. For problems where this is not the case, we describe an approach to compute near-optimal regularization parameters by using operator approximations for the original problem. Finally, we propose a new class of regularizing filters, where solutions correspond to multi-parameter Tikhonov solutions, that requires less data than previously proposed optimal error filters, avoids the generalized SVD, and allows flexibility and novelty in the choice of regularization matrices. Numerical results for 1D and 2D examples using different norms on the errors show the effectiveness of our methods. (paper)

  18. The epidemiology of suicide and attempted suicide in Dutch general practice 1983-2003.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marquet, R.L.; Bartelds, A.I.M.; Kerkhof, A.J.F.M.; Schellevis, F.G.; Zee, J. van der

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Many patients attempting or committing suicide consult their general practitioner (GP) in the preceding period, indicating that GPs might play an important role in prevention. The aim of the present study was to analyse the epidemiology of suicidal behaviour in Dutch general practice in

  19. Testing for one Generalized Linear Single Order Parameter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellegaard, Niels Langager; Christensen, Tage Emil; Dyre, Jeppe

    We examine a linear single order parameter model for thermoviscoelastic relaxation in viscous liquids, allowing for a distribution of relaxation times. In this model the relaxation of volume and entalpy is completely described by the relaxation of one internal order parameter. In contrast to prior...... work the order parameter may be chosen to have a non-exponential relaxation. The model predictions contradict the general consensus of the properties of viscous liquids in two ways: (i) The model predicts that following a linear isobaric temperature step, the normalized volume and entalpy relaxation...... responses or extrapolate from measurements of a glassy state away from equilibrium. Starting from a master equation description of inherent dynamics, we calculate the complex thermodynamic response functions. We device a way of testing for the generalized single order parameter model by measuring 3 complex...

  20. Quantum solutions for Prisoner's Dilemma game with general parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Z.W.; Jin, H.; Zhao, H.

    2008-01-01

    The quantum game of the Prisoner's Dilemma with general payoff matrix was studied in L. Marinatto and T. Weber's scheme presented in [Phys. Lett. A 272 (2000) 291, so that the results of two schemes of the quantum game can be compared. The Nash equilibria and the solutions of the game are obtained. They are related to initial state, matrix parameters and the intervals among the parameters. It can be concluded from the results that the quantum PD game in Marinatto and Weber's scheme matches the one in Eisert et al.'s scheme, one with general unitary operations.

  1. Constraints on a generalized deceleration parameter from cosmic chronometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamon, Abdulla Al

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we have proposed a generalized parametrization for the deceleration parameter q in order to study the evolutionary history of the universe. We have shown that the proposed model can reproduce three well known q-parametrized models for some specific values of the model parameter α. We have used the latest compilation of the Hubble parameter measurements obtained from the cosmic chronometer (CC) method (in combination with the local value of the Hubble constant H0) and the Type Ia supernova (SNIa) data to place constraints on the parameters of the model for different values of α. We have found that the resulting constraints on the deceleration parameter and the dark energy equation of state support the ΛCDM model within 1σ confidence level at the present epoch.

  2. Testing general relativity at cosmological scales: Implementation and parameter correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dossett, Jason N.; Ishak, Mustapha; Moldenhauer, Jacob

    2011-01-01

    The testing of general relativity at cosmological scales has become a possible and timely endeavor that is not only motivated by the pressing question of cosmic acceleration but also by the proposals of some extensions to general relativity that would manifest themselves at large scales of distance. We analyze here correlations between modified gravity growth parameters and some core cosmological parameters using the latest cosmological data sets including the refined Cosmic Evolution Survey 3D weak lensing. We provide the parametrized modified growth equations and their evolution. We implement known functional and binning approaches, and propose a new hybrid approach to evolve the modified gravity parameters in redshift (time) and scale. The hybrid parametrization combines a binned redshift dependence and a smooth evolution in scale avoiding a jump in the matter power spectrum. The formalism developed to test the consistency of current and future data with general relativity is implemented in a package that we make publicly available and call ISiTGR (Integrated Software in Testing General Relativity), an integrated set of modified modules for the publicly available packages CosmoMC and CAMB, including a modified version of the integrated Sachs-Wolfe-galaxy cross correlation module of Ho et al. and a new weak-lensing likelihood module for the refined Hubble Space Telescope Cosmic Evolution Survey weak gravitational lensing tomography data. We obtain parameter constraints and correlation coefficients finding that modified gravity parameters are significantly correlated with σ 8 and mildly correlated with Ω m , for all evolution methods. The degeneracies between σ 8 and modified gravity parameters are found to be substantial for the functional form and also for some specific bins in the hybrid and binned methods indicating that these degeneracies will need to be taken into consideration when using future high precision data.

  3. Epidemiology of Hepatitis C Virus in Bangladeshi General Population

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    Mamun Al-Mahtab

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hepatitis C virus is encountered sporadically in Bangladesh. It results in a wide range liver diseases, with asymptomatic acute hepatitis rarely at one end to HCC at the other end of the spectrum. Methods: 1018 individuals of different age groups and sex with varied religious, educational and social backgrounds were tested for anti-HCV by ELISA. Before testing, blood samples were preserved at -20°C. The study was conducted in a semi-urban location on the outskirts of Dhaka. Results: 0.88% tested positive for anti HCV. None of them tested positive for HBsAg. There was a male predominance and those who tested positive were mostly between 17 and 50 years of age. Major risk factors for exposure to HBV appeared to be injudicious use of injectable medications, treatment by unqualified, traditional practitioners, mass-vaccination against cholera and smallpox, barbers and body piercing. Conclusion: HCV remains an important cause of morbidity and mortality in Bangladesh. Key words: HCV; prevalence; general population; Bangladesh.DOI: 10.3329/bsmmuj.v2i1.3705 BSMMU J 2009; 2(1: 14-17

  4. Observational constraints on Hubble parameter in viscous generalized Chaplygin gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, P.

    2018-04-01

    Cosmological model with viscous generalized Chaplygin gas (in short, VGCG) is considered here to determine observational constraints on its equation of state parameters (in short, EoS) from background data. These data consists of H(z)-z (OHD) data, Baryonic Acoustic Oscillations peak parameter, CMB shift parameter and SN Ia data (Union 2.1). Best-fit values of the EoS parameters including present Hubble parameter (H0) and their acceptable range at different confidence limits are determined. In this model the permitted range for the present Hubble parameter and the transition redshift (zt) at 1σ confidence limits are H0= 70.24^{+0.34}_{-0.36} and zt=0.76^{+0.07}_{-0.07} respectively. These EoS parameters are then compared with those of other models. Present age of the Universe (t0) have also been determined here. Akaike information criterion and Bayesian information criterion for the model selection have been adopted for comparison with other models. It is noted that VGCG model satisfactorily accommodates the present accelerating phase of the Universe.

  5. Generalization of binary tensor product schemes depends upon four parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashir, R.; Bari, M.; Mustafa, G.

    2018-01-01

    This article deals with general formulae of parametric and non parametric bivariate subdivision scheme with four parameters. By assigning specific values to those parameters we get some special cases of existing tensor product schemes as well as a new proposed scheme. The behavior of schemes produced by the general formulae is interpolating, approximating and relaxed. Approximating bivariate subdivision schemes produce some other surfaces as compared to interpolating bivariate subdivision schemes. Polynomial reproduction and polynomial generation are desirable properties of subdivision schemes. Capability of polynomial reproduction and polynomial generation is strongly connected with smoothness, sum rules, convergence and approximation order. We also calculate the polynomial generation and polynomial reproduction of 9-point bivariate approximating subdivision scheme. Comparison of polynomial reproduction, polynomial generation and continuity of existing and proposed schemes has also been established. Some numerical examples are also presented to show the behavior of bivariate schemes. (author)

  6. Diabatic models with transferrable parameters for generalized chemical reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reimers, Jeffrey R; McKemmish, Laura K; McKenzie, Ross H; Hush, Noel S

    2017-01-01

    Diabatic models applied to adiabatic electron-transfer theory yield many equations involving just a few parameters that connect ground-state geometries and vibration frequencies to excited-state transition energies and vibration frequencies to the rate constants for electron-transfer reactions, utilizing properties of the conical-intersection seam linking the ground and excited states through the Pseudo Jahn-Teller effect. We review how such simplicity in basic understanding can also be obtained for general chemical reactions. The key feature that must be recognized is that electron-transfer (or hole transfer) processes typically involve one electron (hole) moving between two orbitals, whereas general reactions typically involve two electrons or even four electrons for processes in aromatic molecules. Each additional moving electron leads to new high-energy but interrelated conical-intersection seams that distort the shape of the critical lowest-energy seam. Recognizing this feature shows how conical-intersection descriptors can be transferred between systems, and how general chemical reactions can be compared using the same set of simple parameters. Mathematical relationships are presented depicting how different conical-intersection seams relate to each other, showing that complex problems can be reduced into an effective interaction between the ground-state and a critical excited state to provide the first semi-quantitative implementation of Shaik’s “twin state” concept. Applications are made (i) demonstrating why the chemistry of the first-row elements is qualitatively so different to that of the second and later rows, (ii) deducing the bond-length alternation in hypothetical cyclohexatriene from the observed UV spectroscopy of benzene, (iii) demonstrating that commonly used procedures for modelling surface hopping based on inclusion of only the first-derivative correction to the Born-Oppenheimer approximation are valid in no region of the chemical

  7. Modal Parameter Identification from Responses of General Unknown Random Inputs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibrahim, S. R.; Asmussen, J. C.; Brincker, Rune

    1996-01-01

    Modal parameter identification from ambient responses due to a general unknown random inputs is investigated. Existing identification techniques which are based on assumptions of white noise and or stationary random inputs are utilized even though the inputs conditions are not satisfied....... This is accomplished via adding. In cascade. A force cascade conversion to the structures system under consideration. The input to the force conversion system is white noise and the output of which is the actual force(s) applied to the structure. The white noise input(s) and the structures responses are then used...

  8. Epidemiological studies of general population groups exposed to low-level radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, J.M.; Inskip, H.

    1986-01-01

    The exposure of man to radiation and the resulting risk of carcinogenesis continue to be of concern to the public. In this context, there is often a tendency to carry out epidemiological studies concerning the induction of cancer in radiation workers and members of the public which are not supported by a statistically valid data base or whose result are misinterpreted or misused. To assist national authorities in evaluating radiological risks, the Nuclear Energy Agency has sponsored a critical review of the methodologies for, and the limitations of, these epidemiological studies, and of the precautions to be adopted in interpreting their results. Prepared by two consultants, Dr. Joan M. Davies and Dr. Hazel Inskip, the review focuses on the problems encountered when carrying out epidemiological studies on groups of the general population exposed to radiation, and using their results for radiological protection purposes. The primary objective is to provide background material for national authorities who have responsibilities in the field of radiological protection, as well as to other persons interested in this subject. It is published under the responsibility of the Secretary General of the OECD, and does not necessarily reflect the views of Member Governments

  9. Numerical simulations of generalized Langevin equations with deeply asymptotic parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bao Jingdong; Li Rongwu; Wu Wei

    2004-01-01

    A unified algorithm for solving Langevin equations with deeply asymptotic parameters is proposed and tested. The method consists of identifying solvable linear friction and implementing the force evaluations by use of the Runge-Kutta method. We apply the present scheme to the periodic motion of an overdamped particle subjected to a multiplicative white noise. The accurate calculations for the temporal velocity of the particle and its correlation function can be realized by introducing an inertial term. It is shown that the fluctuation around the steady quantity increases with decreasing time step in the overdamped white-noise algorithm, however, a massive white-noise technique greatly reduces this spurious drift, and the result can converge to the correct value if the added inertia approaches zero. The other application is the simulation of generalized Langevin equation with an exponential memory friction, this allows us to treat a weak non-Markovian process

  10. Estimating the parameters of a generalized lambda distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fournier, B.; Rupin, N.; Najjar, D.; Iost, A.; Rupin, N.; Bigerelle, M.; Wilcox, R.; Fournier, B.

    2007-01-01

    The method of moments is a popular technique for estimating the parameters of a generalized lambda distribution (GLD), but published results suggest that the percentile method gives superior results. However, the percentile method cannot be implemented in an automatic fashion, and automatic methods, like the starship method, can lead to prohibitive execution time with large sample sizes. A new estimation method is proposed that is automatic (it does not require the use of special tables or graphs), and it reduces the computational time. Based partly on the usual percentile method, this new method also requires choosing which quantile u to use when fitting a GLD to data. The choice for u is studied and it is found that the best choice depends on the final goal of the modeling process. The sampling distribution of the new estimator is studied and compared to the sampling distribution of estimators that have been proposed. Naturally, all estimators are biased and here it is found that the bias becomes negligible with sample sizes n ≥ 2 * 10(3). The.025 and.975 quantiles of the sampling distribution are investigated, and the difference between these quantiles is found to decrease proportionally to 1/root n.. The same results hold for the moment and percentile estimates. Finally, the influence of the sample size is studied when a normal distribution is modeled by a GLD. Both bounded and unbounded GLDs are used and the bounded GLD turns out to be the most accurate. Indeed it is shown that, up to n = 10(6), bounded GLD modeling cannot be rejected by usual goodness-of-fit tests. (authors)

  11. EPIPOI: A user-friendly analytical tool for the extraction and visualization of temporal parameters from epidemiological time series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alonso Wladimir J

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is an increasing need for processing and understanding relevant information generated by the systematic collection of public health data over time. However, the analysis of those time series usually requires advanced modeling techniques, which are not necessarily mastered by staff, technicians and researchers working on public health and epidemiology. Here a user-friendly tool, EPIPOI, is presented that facilitates the exploration and extraction of parameters describing trends, seasonality and anomalies that characterize epidemiological processes. It also enables the inspection of those parameters across geographic regions. Although the visual exploration and extraction of relevant parameters from time series data is crucial in epidemiological research, until now it had been largely restricted to specialists. Methods EPIPOI is freely available software developed in Matlab (The Mathworks Inc that runs both on PC and Mac computers. Its friendly interface guides users intuitively through useful comparative analyses including the comparison of spatial patterns in temporal parameters. Results EPIPOI is able to handle complex analyses in an accessible way. A prototype has already been used to assist researchers in a variety of contexts from didactic use in public health workshops to the main analytical tool in published research. Conclusions EPIPOI can assist public health officials and students to explore time series data using a broad range of sophisticated analytical and visualization tools. It also provides an analytical environment where even advanced users can benefit by enabling a higher degree of control over model assumptions, such as those associated with detecting disease outbreaks and pandemics.

  12. Comment on 'Immirzi parameter in quantum general relativity'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samuel, Joseph

    2001-01-01

    The Immirzi parameter is a free parameter which appears in the physical predictions of loop quantum gravity and is sometimes viewed as a quantization ambiguity. Interpretations have been offered for the Immirzi ambiguity, but there does not appear to be a clear understanding or even a consensus about its origin and significance. We show that a previously discussed example containing a 'finite dimensional analogue' of the Immirzi ambiguity is fallacious, in the sense that the ambiguity in this example is not intrinsic to the system, but introduced artificially by compactifying the configuration space

  13. A general method of estimating stellar astrophysical parameters from photometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belikov, A. N.; Roeser, S.

    2008-01-01

    Context. Applying photometric catalogs to the study of the population of the Galaxy is obscured by the impossibility to map directly photometric colors into astrophysical parameters. Most of all-sky catalogs like ASCC or 2MASS are based upon broad-band photometric systems, and the use of broad

  14. Epidemiology Characteristics of Constipation for General Population, Pediatric Population, and Elderly Population in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huikuan Chu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To acquire more data about the epidemiologic characteristics of constipation in different kinds of populations in China. Methods. Using “constipation” and “China” as search terms; relevant papers were searched from January 1995 to April 2014. Data on prevalence, gender, diagnostic criteria, geographical area, educational class, age, race, and physician visit results were extracted and analyzed. Results. 36 trials were included. Prevalence rates of constipation in elderly population (18.1% and pediatric population (18.8% were significantly higher than that in general population (8.2%. Prevalence of constipation defined by non-Rome criteria was higher than that by Rome criteria in general population. Prevalence rates of constipation were different for different geographical area. People with less education were predisposed to constipation. In pediatric population, prevalence of constipation was the lowest in children aged 2–6 years. Prevalence of constipation in ethnic minorities was higher than that in Han people. People with constipation were predisposed to FD, haemorrhoid, and GERD. Only 22.2% patients seek medical advice in general population. Conclusions. In China, prevalence of constipation was lower compared with most of other countries. The factors including female gender, diagnostic criteria, geographical area, age, educational class, and race seemed to have major effects on prevalence of constipation.

  15. CLINICAL-EPIDEMIOLOGICAL FEATURES AND OUTCOME OF GENERALIZED FORMS OF MENINGOCOCCAL INFECTION IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. P. Martynova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the research was to study clinical and epidemiological features and outcomes of generalized forms of meningococcal infection in children from Krasnoyarsk and Krasnoyarsk Territory during the period from 2012 to 2016. Materials and methods. A retrospective analysis of 57 medical records of hospital patients with generalized forms of meningococcal infection was carried out in the infectious and resuscitative departments of the Krasnoyarsk Clinical Hospital No. 1 from 2012 to 2016, including 12 protocols of pathologoanatomical studies of the deceased patients and 45 medical cards of ambulatory patients – convalescents of the disease from 2012 to 2016. Results. The epidemic situation for meningococcal infection in Krasnoyarsk Territory from 2012 to 2016 is characterized by signs of inter-epidemic period. Children of the first 3 years of life are in the group of high risk for the development of GFMI, which accounts for 74% of the total number of cases of children aged 14. There are signs of meningococcal infection «aging» – in the age structure the number of children in the first year of life decreased, while the proportion of children aged 4–7 and 7–14 increased compared to previous decades. There is a tendency to a decrease in the proportion of the combined forms with an increase in the frequency of «pure» meningococcemia. In recent years there has been an «atypical» course of generalized forms of the disease, when classical hemorrhagic necrotic rashes appear only on the 3rd – 4th day of the disease. In convalescents who underwent a combined form of MI and «pure» meningitis severe residual effects leading patients to disability are possible to develop. Conclusion. The use of polyvalent conjugated vaccines in potential risk groups will allow us to reduce the morbidity and mortality from generalized forms of meningococcal infection, including younger children.

  16. Protecting the privacy of individual general practice patient electronic records for geospatial epidemiology research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazumdar, Soumya; Konings, Paul; Hewett, Michael; Bagheri, Nasser; McRae, Ian; Del Fante, Peter

    2014-12-01

    General practitioner (GP) practices in Australia are increasingly storing patient information in electronic databases. These practice databases can be accessed by clinical audit software to generate reports that inform clinical or population health decision making and public health surveillance. Many audit software applications also have the capacity to generate de-identified patient unit record data. However, the de-identified nature of the extracted data means that these records often lack geographic information. Without spatial references, it is impossible to build maps reflecting the spatial distribution of patients with particular conditions and needs. Links to socioeconomic, demographic, environmental or other geographically based information are also not possible. In some cases, relatively coarse geographies such as postcode are available, but these are of limited use and researchers cannot undertake precision spatial analyses such as calculating travel times. We describe a method that allows researchers to implement meaningful mapping and spatial epidemiological analyses of practice level patient data while preserving privacy. This solution has been piloted in a diabetes risk research project in the patient population of a practice in Adelaide. The method offers researchers a powerful means of analysing geographic clinic data in a privacy-protected manner. © 2014 Public Health Association of Australia.

  17. [The acute (surgical) abdomen - epidemiology, diagnosis and general principles of management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundmann, R T; Petersen, M; Lippert, H; Meyer, F

    2010-06-01

    This review comments on epidemiology, diagnosis and general principles of surgical management in patients with acute abdomen. DEFINITION AND EPIDEMIOLOGY: The most common cause of acute abdominal pain is non-specific abdominal pain (24 - 44.3 % of the study populations), followed by acute appendicitis (15.9 - 28.1 %), acute biliary disease (2.9 - 9.7 %) and bowel obstruction or diverticulitits in elderly patients. Acute appendicitis represents the cause of surgical intervention in two-thirds of the children with acute abdomen. A standardised physical examination combined with ultrasonography (US) represents the initial investigation in patients with acute abdominal pain. Due to the risk associated with radiation and due to the costs, a selective use of CT imaging is recommended. The work-flow given in this paper restricts the use of CT imaging to less than 50 % of patients with acute abdominal pain. Diagnostic laparoscopy should be considered in patients without a specific diagnosis after appropriate imaging and as an alternative to active clinical observation which is the current practice in patients with non-specific abdominal pain. Acute small bowel obstruction has previously been considered as a relative contraindication for laparoscopic management, but it has been shown in the meantime that laparoscopic treatment is an elegant tool for the management of simple band small bowel obstruction. Bedside diagnostic laparoscopy is recommended in intensive care unit (ICU) patients with acute abdomen or sepsis of unknown origin, in suspicion of acute cholecystitis, diffuse gut hypoperfusion and mesenteric ischaemia or in refractory lactic acidosis, especially after cardiac surgery. Early administration of analgesia to patients with acute abdominal pain in the emergency department will reduce the patient's discomfort without impairing clinically important diagnostic accuracy and is recommended on the basis of some prospective randomised trials. However, the impact on

  18. Epidemiology and genetics of common mental disorders in the general population: the PEGASUS-Murcia project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Mateu, Fernando; Tormo, MJ; Vilagut, G; Alonso, J; Ruíz-Merino, G; Escámez, T; Salmerón, D; Júdez, J; Martínez, S; Navarro, C

    2013-01-01

    environmental interactions in the aetiology of common mental disorders in representative samples of the general population. A collaborative multidisciplinary research approach offers the potential to advance our knowledge of the underlying complex interactions and this opens the field for further innovative study designs in psychiatric epidemiology. PMID:24302509

  19. [Epidemiology of gunshot wounds at Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua General Hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moye-Elizalde, G A; Ruiz-Martínez, F; Suarez-Santamaría, J J; Ruiz-Ramírez, M; Reyes-Gallardo, A; Díaz-Apodaca, B A

    2013-01-01

    Since 2007, Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua has been considered as one of the most violent cities in the world. The General Hospital in this city is the main facility where patients with gunshot wounds are taken. The increased number of admissions of patients with these injuries to many hospitals in the country deserves special attention, as it has an impact on hospital resources and management protocols. To disseminate the epidemiology of fractures caused by gunshot wounds and the hospital care of these patients. A retrospective, observational cohort study was conducted of patients admitted to the Traumatology and Orthopedics Service, Cd. Juárez General Hospital, in Chihuahua, Mexico, from January 2008 to December 2010. All of them sustained fractures resulting from gunshot wounds. A total of 1281 patients with a diagnosis of gunshot wounds were admitted to the hospital; 402 of them were included in this study with 559 fractures; 329 were males and 73 females. Of the 559 fractures, 257 involved the upper limb, 294 the lower limb, and 8 the pelvis. Gunshot wounds-related fractures were classified according to the Gustilo classification. Seventy-nine patients had grade I fractures, 302 grade III, and 21 patients had both grades. Conservative treatment was used in 44.3% of fractures and osteosynthesis in 55%. One patient underwent amputation upon admission. The most widely used osteosynthesis methods were external fixator (37%), straight plates (21%) and intramedullary nail (17%). Five patients (1.3%) underwent amputation: two with femur fracture and 3 with humeral fracture. There were 27 deep infections (6%); one of them resulted in late amputation of the pelvic limb. The most common associated injuries included: chest injuries in 20 patients and abdominal injuries in 17. The range of hospital stay was 1-18 days, with a mean stay of 11 days. The overall mortality rate considering the total number of patients admitted (1,281) was 99 patients (7.72%). From 2006 to 2010 the

  20. Bridging the data gaps in the epidemiology of hepatitis C virus infection in Malaysia using multi-parameter evidence synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Scott A; Mohamed, Rosmawati; Dahlui, Maznah; Naning, Herlianna; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba

    2014-11-07

    Collecting adequate information on key epidemiological indicators is a prerequisite to informing a public health response to reduce the impact of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in Malaysia. Our goal was to overcome the acute data shortage typical of low/middle income countries using statistical modelling to estimate the national HCV prevalence and the distribution over transmission pathways as of the end of 2009. Multi-parameter evidence synthesis methods were applied to combine all available relevant data sources - both direct and indirect - that inform the epidemiological parameters of interest. An estimated 454,000 (95% credible interval [CrI]: 392,000 to 535,000) HCV antibody-positive individuals were living in Malaysia in 2009; this represents 2.5% (95% CrI: 2.2-3.0%) of the population aged 15-64 years. Among males of Malay ethnicity, for 77% (95% CrI: 69-85%) the route of probable transmission was active or a previous history of injecting drugs. The corresponding proportions were smaller for male Chinese and Indian/other ethnic groups (40% and 71%, respectively). The estimated prevalence in females of all ethnicities was 1% (95% CrI: 0.6 to 1.4%); 92% (95% CrI: 88 to 95%) of infections were attributable to non-drug injecting routes of transmission. The prevalent number of persons living with HCV infection in Malaysia is estimated to be very high. Low/middle income countries often lack a comprehensive evidence base; however, evidence synthesis methods can assist in filling the data gaps required for the development of effective policy to address the future public health and economic burden due to HCV.

  1. Cross-sectional Comparison of the Epidemiology of DSM-5 Generalized Anxiety Disorder Across the Globe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruscio, Ayelet Meron; Hallion, Lauren S; Lim, Carmen C W; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Al-Hamzawi, Ali; Alonso, Jordi; Andrade, Laura Helena; Borges, Guilherme; Bromet, Evelyn J; Bunting, Brendan; Caldas de Almeida, José Miguel; Demyttenaere, Koen; Florescu, Silvia; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Gureje, Oye; Haro, Josep Maria; He, Yanling; Hinkov, Hristo; Hu, Chiyi; de Jonge, Peter; Karam, Elie G; Lee, Sing; Lepine, Jean-Pierre; Levinson, Daphna; Mneimneh, Zeina; Navarro-Mateu, Fernando; Posada-Villa, José; Slade, Tim; Stein, Dan J; Torres, Yolanda; Uda, Hidenori; Wojtyniak, Bogdan; Kessler, Ronald C; Chatterji, Somnath; Scott, Kate M

    2017-05-01

    Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is poorly understood compared with other anxiety disorders, and debates persist about the seriousness of this disorder. Few data exist on GAD outside a small number of affluent, industrialized nations. No population-based data exist on GAD as it is currently defined in DSM-5. To provide the first epidemiologic data on DSM-5 GAD and explore cross-national differences in its prevalence, course, correlates, and impact. Data come from the World Health Organization World Mental Health Survey Initiative. Cross-sectional general population surveys were carried out in 26 countries using a consistent research protocol and assessment instrument. A total of 147 261 adults from representative household samples were interviewed face-to-face in the community. The surveys were conducted between 2001 and 2012. Data analysis was performed from July 22, 2015, to December 12, 2016. The Composite International Diagnostic Interview was used to assess GAD along with comorbid disorders, role impairment, and help seeking. Respondents were 147 261 adults aged 18 to 99 years. The surveys had a weighted mean response rate of 69.5%. Across surveys, DSM-5 GAD had a combined lifetime prevalence (SE) of 3.7% (0.1%), 12-month prevalence of 1.8% (0.1%), and 30-day prevalence of 0.8% (0). Prevalence estimates varied widely across countries, with lifetime prevalence highest in high-income countries (5.0% [0.1%]), lower in middle-income countries (2.8% [0.1%]), and lowest in low-income countries (1.6% [0.1%]). Generalized anxiety disorder typically begins in adulthood and persists over time, although onset is later and clinical course is more persistent in lower-income countries. Lifetime comorbidity is high (81.9% [0.7%]), particularly with mood (63.0% [0.9%]) and other anxiety (51.7% [0.9%]) disorders. Severe role impairment is common across life domains (50.6% [1.2%]), particularly in high-income countries. Treatment is sought by approximately half of

  2. Determining Rheological Parameters of Generalized Yield-Power-Law Fluid Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stryczek Stanislaw

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The principles of determining rheological parameters of drilling muds described by a generalized yield-power-law are presented in the paper. Functions between tangent stresses and shear rate are given. The conditions of laboratory measurements of rheological parameters of generalized yield-power-law fluids are described and necessary mathematical relations for rheological model parameters given. With the block diagrams, the methodics of numerical solution of these relations has been presented. Rheological parameters of an exemplary drilling mud have been calculated with the use of this numerical program.

  3. How good is controlled attenuation parameter and fatty liver index for assessing liver steatosis in general population: correlation with ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalhana, Sofia; Leitão, Jorge; Alves, Ana C; Bourbon, Mafalda; Cortez-Pinto, Helena

    2014-07-01

    Liver steatosis measurement by controlled attenuation parameter (CAP) is a non-invasive method for diagnosing steatosis, based on transient elastography. Its usefulness as screening procedure for hepatic steatosis in general population has not been previously evaluated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of CAP and fatty liver index (FLI) for detection and quantification of steatosis in general population. Recruitment was done from a prospective epidemiological study of the general adult population. Steatosis was evaluated using CAP, FLI and ultrasound (US). Steatosis scored according to Hamaguchi's US scoring, from 0 (S0) to 6 (S6) points. Hepatic steatosis defined by score ≥2 (S≥2) and moderate/severe steatosis by score ≥4 (S≥4). Performance of CAP and FLI for diagnosing steatosis compared with US was assessed using areas under receiver operating characteristic curves (AUROC). From 219 consecutive individuals studied, 13 (5.9%) excluded because of failure/unreliable liver stiffness measurements. Steatosis prevalence: S≥2 38.4% and S≥4 12.1%. CAP significantly correlated with steatosis (ρ = 0.73, P steatosis score (ρ = 0.76; P steatosis quantification in the general population. Larger studies are needed for validation. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Robust seismicity forecasting based on Bayesian parameter estimation for epidemiological spatio-temporal aftershock clustering models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimian, Hossein; Jalayer, Fatemeh

    2017-08-29

    In the immediate aftermath of a strong earthquake and in the presence of an ongoing aftershock sequence, scientific advisories in terms of seismicity forecasts play quite a crucial role in emergency decision-making and risk mitigation. Epidemic Type Aftershock Sequence (ETAS) models are frequently used for forecasting the spatio-temporal evolution of seismicity in the short-term. We propose robust forecasting of seismicity based on ETAS model, by exploiting the link between Bayesian inference and Markov Chain Monte Carlo Simulation. The methodology considers the uncertainty not only in the model parameters, conditioned on the available catalogue of events occurred before the forecasting interval, but also the uncertainty in the sequence of events that are going to happen during the forecasting interval. We demonstrate the methodology by retrospective early forecasting of seismicity associated with the 2016 Amatrice seismic sequence activities in central Italy. We provide robust spatio-temporal short-term seismicity forecasts with various time intervals in the first few days elapsed after each of the three main events within the sequence, which can predict the seismicity within plus/minus two standard deviations from the mean estimate within the few hours elapsed after the main event.

  5. General methods for modified projective synchronization of hyperchaotic systems with known or unknown parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yang; Fang, Jian-an

    2008-03-01

    This work is concerned with the general methods for modified projective synchronization of hyperchaotic systems. A systematic method of active control is developed to synchronize two hyperchaotic systems with known parameters. Moreover, by combining the adaptive control and linear feedback methods, general sufficient conditions for the modified projective synchronization of identical or different chaotic systems with fully unknown or partially unknown parameters are presented. Meanwhile, the speed of parameters identification can be regulated by adjusting adaptive gain matrix. Numerical simulations verify the effectiveness of the proposed methods.

  6. Admissible Estimators in the General Multivariate Linear Model with Respect to Inequality Restricted Parameter Set

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shangli Zhang

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available By using the methods of linear algebra and matrix inequality theory, we obtain the characterization of admissible estimators in the general multivariate linear model with respect to inequality restricted parameter set. In the classes of homogeneous and general linear estimators, the necessary and suffcient conditions that the estimators of regression coeffcient function are admissible are established.

  7. Epidemiología de la enfermedad de Chagas, Departamento General Paz, Argentina Chagas' disease epidemiology in the province of General Paz, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena B Oscherov

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: El objetivo del presente trabajo fue investigar la colonización por triatominos en ambientes domésticos y peridomésticos y evaluar la seroprevalencia de infectados chagásicos en localidades rurales. MÉTODOS: La investigación se realizó en General Paz, Corrientes, Argentina. Las viviendas y peridomicilios se seleccionaron mediante un muestreo simple al azar. La búsqueda de triatominos se efectuó por el método captura/hora/hombre. Los insectos se identificaron taxonómicamente y se clasificaron según sexo y edad. La infección por Trypanosoma cruzi se detectó por observación directa de las heces al microscopio y por la técnica de la reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR. Se evaluaron serológicamente a pobladores voluntarios mediante las técnicas de hemaglutinación indirecta (HAI y ensayo inmunoenzimático (ELISA. Se hallaron los índices de infestación, densidad, colonización, infección natural y dispersión. RESULTADOS: Se analizaron 42 viviendas y 50 peridomicilios. En el domicilio los índices de infestación e infección de Triatoma infestans fueron 23,8 y 19,4 respectivamente. Los índices de densidad, colonización y dispersión fueron 2,1; 47,0 y 50,0 respectivamente. La infestación del peridomicilio por T. infestans fue 5,9% y por T. sordida 11,8%. T. sordida resultó infectada por Trypanosoma cruzi en un 2,0%. La seroprevalencia al T. cruzi de los 85 pacientes fue del 22,3%. CONCLUSIONES: Se estima que en el área investigada la transmisión del T. cruzi está interrumpida. Sin embargo, la presencia de infectados humanos y de T. infestans parasitadas posibilitan el reinicio del ciclo de transmisión. Se proponen acciones de rociado con insecticidas con el objeto de eliminar las poblaciones del vector.OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate triatomine colonization in domestic and peridomestic ecotopes and to assess the seroprevalence of Chagas' disease in rural areas. METHODS: The study was

  8. Oncology. Pt. 1. General part, epidemiology - pathogenesis - basic principles of therapy. 2. upd. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiddemann, Wolfgang; Bartram Claus R.

    2010-01-01

    The book Oncology is aimed to communicate the compiled knowledge on tumor development and cancer: fundamental knowledge base, practice related know-how for diagnostics and therapy. Part 1 includes the following chapters: epidemiology and pathogenesis, basic principles of diagnostics, basic principles of therapy, complication of malign growth, tumors in the gastrointestinal tract, female genital carcinomas, kidney and urinary tract carcinomas, respiratory tract and lung carcinomas, carcinomas in the head - neck area, bone and soft tissue carcinomas, pediatric tumors, hematological neoplasm, other carcinomas. The book can be used as reference for clinical work. [de

  9. Contact parameters in two dimensions for general three-body systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    F. Bellotti, F.; Frederico, T.; T. Yamashita, M.

    2014-01-01

    a subsystem is composed of two identical non-interacting particles. We also show that the three-body contact parameter is negligible in the case of one non-interacting subsystem compared to the situation where all subsystem are bound. As example, we present results for mixtures of Lithium with two Cesium......We study the two dimensional three-body problem in the general case of three distinguishable particles interacting through zero-range potentials. The Faddeev decomposition is used to write the momentum-space wave function. We show that the large-momentum asymptotic spectator function has the same...... to obtain two- and three-body contact parameters. We specialize from the general cases to examples of two identical, interacting or non-interacting, particles. We find that the two-body contact parameter is not a universal constant in the general case and show that the universality is recovered when...

  10. Bacterial CRISPR Regions: General Features and their Potential for Epidemiological Molecular Typing Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Zahra; Ahmadi, Ali; Najafi, Ali; Ranjbar, Reza

    2018-01-01

    CRISPR (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats) loci as novel and applicable regions in prokaryotic genomes have gained great attraction in the post genomics era. These unique regions are diverse in number and sequence composition in different pathogenic bacteria and thereby can be a suitable candidate for molecular epidemiology and genotyping studies. Results:Furthermore, the arrayed structure of CRISPR loci (several unique repeats spaced with the variable sequence) and associated cas genes act as an active prokaryotic immune system against viral replication and conjugative elements. This property can be used as a tool for RNA editing in bioengineering studies. The aim of this review was to survey some details about the history, nature, and potential applications of CRISPR arrays in both genetic engineering and bacterial genotyping studies.

  11. Definition of a matrix of the generalized parameters asymmetrical multiphase transmission lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suslov V.M.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Idle time, without introduction of wave characteristics, algorithm of definition of a matrix of the generalized parameters asymmetrical multiphase transmission lines is offered. Definition of a matrix of parameters is based on a matrix primary specific of parameters of line and simple iterative procedure. The amount of iterations of iterative procedure is determined by a set error of performance of the resulted matrix ratio between separate blocks of a determined matrix. The given error is connected by close image of with a margin error determined matrix.

  12. Nash equilibria in quantum games with generalized two-parameter strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flitney, Adrian P.; Hollenberg, Lloyd C.L.

    2007-01-01

    In the Eisert protocol for 2x2 quantum games [J. Eisert, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 83 (1999) 3077], a number of authors have investigated the features arising from making the strategic space a two-parameter subset of single qubit unitary operators. We argue that the new Nash equilibria and the classical-quantum transitions that occur are simply an artifact of the particular strategy space chosen. By choosing a different, but equally plausible, two-parameter strategic space we show that different Nash equilibria with different classical-quantum transitions can arise. We generalize the two-parameter strategies and also consider these strategies in a multiplayer setting

  13. Generalized synchronization induced by noise and parameter mismatching in Hindmarsh-Rose neurons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Ying; Xu Jianxue; He Daihai; Earn, David J.D.

    2005-01-01

    Synchronization of two simple neuron models has been investigated in many studies. Thresholds for complete synchronization (CS) and phase synchronization (PS) have been obtained for coupling by diffusion or noise. In addition, it has been shown that it is possible for directional diffusion to induce generalized synchronization (GS) in a pair of neuron models even if the neurons are not identical (and differ in a single parameter). We study a system of two uncoupled, nonidentical Hindmarsh-Rose (HR) neurons and show that GS can be achieved by a combination of noise and changing the value of a second parameter in one of the neurons (the second parameter mismatch cancels the first). The significance of this approach will be the greatest in situations where the parameter that is originally mismatched cannot be controlled, but a suitable controllable parameter can be identified

  14. Epidemiology of unintentional injuries in childhood: a population-based survey in general practice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otters, H.; Schellevis, F.G.; Damen, J.; Wouden, J.C. van der; Suijlekom-Smit, L.W.A.; Koes, B.W.

    2005-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the incidence of unintentional injuries presented in general practice, and to identify children at risk from experiencing an unintentional injury. We used the data of all 0–17-yearold children from a representative survey in 96 Dutch general practices in 2001. We computed

  15. Quantum correction and ordering parameter for systems connected by a general point canonical transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeon, Kyu Hwang; Hong, Suc Kyoung; Um, Chung In; George, Thomas F.

    2006-01-01

    With quantum operators corresponding to functions of the canonical variables, Schroedinger equations are constructed for systems corresponding to classical systems connected by a general point canonical transformation. Using the operator connecting quantum states between systems before and after the transformation, the quantum correction term and ordering parameter are obtained

  16. Grain Size and Parameter Recovery with TIMSS and the General Diagnostic Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skaggs, Gary; Wilkins, Jesse L. M.; Hein, Serge F.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the degree of grain size of the attributes and the sample sizes that can support accurate parameter recovery with the General Diagnostic Model (GDM) for a large-scale international assessment. In this resampling study, bootstrap samples were obtained from the 2003 Grade 8 TIMSS in Mathematics at varying…

  17. Exploring Alternative Characteristic Curve Approaches to Linking Parameter Estimates from the Generalized Partial Credit Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, James S.; Bao, Han; Huang, Chun-Wei; Gagne, Phill

    Characteristic curve approaches for linking parameters from the generalized partial credit model were examined for cases in which common (anchor) items are calibrated separately in two groups. Three of these approaches are simple extensions of the test characteristic curve (TCC), item characteristic curve (ICC), and operating characteristic curve…

  18. Computer-assisted semen analysis parameters as predictors for fertility of men from the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, L; Scheike, Thomas Harder; Jensen, Tina Kold

    2000-01-01

    The predictive value of sperm motility parameters obtained by computer-assisted semen analysis (CASA) was evaluated for the fertility of men from general population. In a prospective study with couples stopping use of contraception in order to try to conceive, CASA was performed on semen samples...

  19. Generalized dislocated lag function projective synchronization of fractional order chaotic systems with fully uncertain parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Cong; Zhang, Hong-li; Fan, Wen-hui

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a new method to improve the safety of secure communication. This method uses the generalized dislocated lag projective synchronization and function projective synchronization to form a new generalized dislocated lag function projective synchronization. Moreover, this paper takes the examples of fractional order Chen system and Lü system with uncertain parameters as illustration. As the parameters of the two systems are uncertain, the nonlinear controller and parameter update algorithms are designed based on the fractional stability theory and adaptive control method. Moreover, this synchronization form and method of control are applied to secure communication via chaotic masking modulation. Many information signals can be recovered and validated. Finally, simulations are used to show the validity and feasibility of the proposed scheme.

  20. Parameter identification in a generalized time-harmonic Rayleigh damping model for elastography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elijah E W Van Houten

    Full Text Available The identifiability of the two damping components of a Generalized Rayleigh Damping model is investigated through analysis of the continuum equilibrium equations as well as a simple spring-mass system. Generalized Rayleigh Damping provides a more diversified attenuation model than pure Viscoelasticity, with two parameters to describe attenuation effects and account for the complex damping behavior found in biological tissue. For heterogeneous Rayleigh Damped materials, there is no equivalent Viscoelastic system to describe the observed motions. For homogeneous systems, the inverse problem to determine the two Rayleigh Damping components is seen to be uniquely posed, in the sense that the inverse matrix for parameter identification is full rank, with certain conditions: when either multi-frequency data is available or when both shear and dilatational wave propagation is taken into account. For the multi-frequency case, the frequency dependency of the elastic parameters adds a level of complexity to the reconstruction problem that must be addressed for reasonable solutions. For the dilatational wave case, the accuracy of compressional wave measurement in fluid saturated soft tissues becomes an issue for qualitative parameter identification. These issues can be addressed with reasonable assumptions on the negligible damping levels of dilatational waves in soft tissue. In general, the parameters of a Generalized Rayleigh Damping model are identifiable for the elastography inverse problem, although with more complex conditions than the simpler Viscoelastic damping model. The value of this approach is the additional structural information provided by the Generalized Rayleigh Damping model, which can be linked to tissue composition as well as rheological interpretations.

  1. The surgeon general's "epidemiologic criteria for causality": a criticism of Burch's critique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilienfeld, A M

    1983-01-01

    In this paper, it has not been possible to critically and objectively assess each of the points made by Burch, since it would be time-consuming both for this author as well as for the reader. However, the major areas of concern expressed by Burch have been reviewed and evaluated. This has in many instances required going back to the original reports of studies to which Burch refers. In doing so, it came as a complete surprise to note that Burch has incompletely presented the findings of several studies or has omitted discussing others more fully. This is, needless to say, most disturbing. In viewing the issue of the causal interpretation of the cigarette smoking--lung cancer relationship, it would appear that Burch would not be satisfied unless there is a randomized controlled experiment in humans. However, since such an experiment seems hardly feasible, one must depend upon a synthesis of findings of epidemiologic observations, experimental work on animals and studies of chemical constituents of tobacco and cigarette smoke. However, these do not seem to satisfy Burch, who has developed a theoretical conceptual framework for the etiology of cancer and many other diseases, based upon statistical models and equations. Such an approach is extremely limited. Scientific information and inferences are in the public domain, thereby allowing criticism and evaluation. It is customary, in the experimental sciences, for a scientist who is dissatisfied with the findings of another scientist, to attempt to repeat the experiment to see if his findings are the same or different. This should also be expected in the cigarette smoking-lung cancer issue.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. Optimization of the dressing parameters in cylindrical grinding based on a generalized utility function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksandrova, Irina

    2016-01-01

    The existing studies, concerning the dressing process, focus on the major influence of the dressing conditions on the grinding response variables. However, the choice of the dressing conditions is often made, based on the experience of the qualified staff or using data from reference books. The optimal dressing parameters, which are only valid for the particular methods and dressing and grinding conditions, are also used. The paper presents a methodology for optimization of the dressing parameters in cylindrical grinding. The generalized utility function has been chosen as an optimization parameter. It is a complex indicator determining the economic, dynamic and manufacturing characteristics of the grinding process. The developed methodology is implemented for the dressing of aluminium oxide grinding wheels by using experimental diamond roller dressers with different grit sizes made of medium- and high-strength synthetic diamonds type ??32 and ??80. To solve the optimization problem, a model of the generalized utility function is created which reflects the complex impact of dressing parameters. The model is built based on the results from the conducted complex study and modeling of the grinding wheel lifetime, cutting ability, production rate and cutting forces during grinding. They are closely related to the dressing conditions (dressing speed ratio, radial in-feed of the diamond roller dresser and dress-out time), the diamond roller dresser grit size/grinding wheel grit size ratio, the type of synthetic diamonds and the direction of dressing. Some dressing parameters are determined for which the generalized utility function has a maximum and which guarantee an optimum combination of the following: the lifetime and cutting ability of the abrasive wheels, the tangential cutting force magnitude and the production rate of the grinding process. The results obtained prove the possibility of control and optimization of grinding by selecting particular dressing

  3. Post-Newtonian parameter γ in generalized non-local gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xue; Wu, YaBo; Yang, WeiQiang; Zhang, ChengYuan; Chen, BoHai; Zhang, Nan

    2017-10-01

    We investigate the post-Newtonian parameter γ and derive its formalism in generalized non-local (GNL) gravity, which is the modified theory of general relativity (GR) obtained by adding a term m 2 n-2 R☐-n R to the Einstein-Hilbert action. Concretely, based on parametrizing the generalized non-local action in which gravity is described by a series of dynamical scalar fields ϕ i in addition to the metric tensor g μν, the post-Newtonian limit is computed, and the effective gravitational constant as well as the post-Newtonian parameters are directly obtained from the generalized non-local gravity. Moreover, by discussing the values of the parametrized post-Newtonian parameters γ, we can compare our expressions and results with those in Hohmann and Järv et al. (2016), as well as current observational constraints on the values of γ in Will (2006). Hence, we draw restrictions on the nonminimal coupling terms F̅ around their background values.

  4. Urinary phthalate metabolites and male reproductive function parameters in Chongqing general population, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xue; Cui, Zhihong; Zhou, Niya; Ma, Mingfu; Li, Lianbing; Li, Yafei; Lin, Hui; Ao, Lin; Shu, Weiqun; Liu, Jinyi; Cao, Jia

    2014-03-01

    This study was designed to investigate the phthalates exposure levels in general population in Chongqing City of China, and to determine the possible associations between phthalate exposure and male reproductive function parameters. We recruited 232 general men through Chongqing Family Planning Research Institute and Reproductive Center of Chongqing. In a single spot urine sample from each man, phthalate metabolites, including mono-butyl phthalate (MBP), mono-ethyl phthalate (MEP), mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP), mono-benzyl phthalate (MBzP), phthalic acid (PA), and total PA were analyzed using solid phase extraction and coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography and detection by tandem mass spectrometry. Semen parameters were dichotomized based on World Health Organization reference values. Sperm DNA damage were analyzed using the alkaline single-cell gel electrophoresis assay. Reproductive hormones were determined in serum by the radioimmunoassay kit. We observed a weak association between urinary MBP concentration and sperm concentration in Chongqing general population. MBP levels above the median were 1.97 times (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.97-4.04) more likely to have sperm concentration below the reference value. There were no other associations between phthalate metabolites and reproductive function parameters after adjusted for potential risk factors. Our study suggested that general population in Chongqing area of China exposure to the environmental level of phthalate have weak or without adverse effects on the reproduction. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. The epidemiology of contact allergy in the general population--prevalence and main findings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jacob Pontoppidan; Linneberg, Allan; Menné, Torkil

    2007-01-01

    1966 and 2007. The most prevalent contact allergens were nickel, thimerosal, and fragrance mix. The median nickel allergy prevalence was 8.6% (range 0.7-27.8%) and demonstrates that nickel was an important cause of contact allergy in the general population and that it was widespread in both men...

  6. [Economic and epidemiologic aspects of generalized anxiety disorder: a review of the literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albarracin, G; Rovira, J; Carreras, L; Rejas, J

    2008-01-01

    The objective is to assess the prevalence and treatment patterns of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) in Spain as well as the cost associated to this disorder in different countries. A search in the literature of health and economics databases was conducted. In regards to the 32 references selected, 6 studies had data on the prevalence of GAD and 3 on treatment patterns in Spain and 11 studies on the costs associated to the disease on an international level. The remaining 20 studies were of general interest for methodological or contextual reasons. GAD is a mental disorder with high prevalence. According to some authors, it is probably underdiagnosed. No appropriate long term treatment is available. High health care and social costs are associated to GAD. The frequent presence of comorbidity, different definitions and methodologies used in the studies limits the comparability and synthesis of the results. It also makes it difficult to obtain valid estimations of prevalence and costs.

  7. Evolution of the Brans—Dicke Parameter in Generalized Chameleon Cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamil, Mubasher; Momeni, D.

    2011-01-01

    Motivated by an earlier study of Sahoo and Singh [Mod. Phys. Lett. A 17 (2002) 2409], we investigate the time dependence of the Brans-Dicke parameter ω(t) for an expanding Universe in the generalized Brans-Dicke Chameleon cosmology, and obtain an explicit dependence of ω(t) in different expansion phases of the Universe. Also, we discuss how the observed accelerated expansion of the observable Universe can be accommodated in the present formalism. (geophysics, astronomy, and astrophysics)

  8. Adaptive generalized function projective lag synchronization of different chaotic systems with fully uncertain parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Xiangjun; Lu Hongtao

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Adaptive generalized function projective lag synchronization (AGFPLS) is proposed. → Two uncertain chaos systems are lag synchronized up to a scaling function matrix. → The synchronization speed is sensitively influenced by the control gains. → The AGFPLS scheme is robust against noise perturbation. - Abstract: In this paper, a novel projective synchronization scheme called adaptive generalized function projective lag synchronization (AGFPLS) is proposed. In the AGFPLS method, the states of two different chaotic systems with fully uncertain parameters are asymptotically lag synchronized up to a desired scaling function matrix. By means of the Lyapunov stability theory, an adaptive controller with corresponding parameter update rule is designed for achieving AGFPLS between two diverse chaotic systems and estimating the unknown parameters. This technique is employed to realize AGFPLS between uncertain Lue chaotic system and uncertain Liu chaotic system, and between Chen hyperchaotic system and Lorenz hyperchaotic system with fully uncertain parameters, respectively. Furthermore, AGFPLS between two different uncertain chaotic systems can still be achieved effectively with the existence of noise perturbation. The corresponding numerical simulations are performed to demonstrate the validity and robustness of the presented synchronization method.

  9. Descriptive epidemiology of stigma against depression in a general population sample in Alberta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang JianLi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mental health illnesses, such as depression, are responsible for a growing disease burden worldwide. Unfortunately, effective treatment is often impeded by stigmatizing attitudes of other individuals, which have been found to lead to a number of negative consequences including reduced help-seeking behavior and increased social distance. Despite the high prevalence of depression in Canada, little research has been conducted to examine stigma against depression in the Canadian general population. Such information is crucial to understanding the current state of stigmatizing attitudes in the Canadian communities, and framing future stigma reduction initiatives. The objectives of this study were to estimate the percentages of various stigmatizing attitudes toward depression in a general population sample and to compare the percentages by demographics and socioeconomic characteristics. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional telephone survey in Alberta, Canada, between February and June 2006. Random digit dialing was used to recruit participants who were aged 18-74 years old (n = 3047. Participants were presented a case vignette describing a depressed individual, and responded to a 9-item Personal Stigma questionnaire. The percentages of stigmatizing attitudes were estimated and compared by demographic and socioeconomic variables. Results Among the participants, 45.9% endorsed that depressed individuals were unpredictable and 21.9% held the view that people with depression were dangerous. Significant differences in stigmatizing attitudes were found by gender, age, education, and immigration status. A greater proportion of men than women held stigmatizing views on each stigma item. No consistent trend emerged by age in stigma against depression. Participants with higher levels of education reported less stigmatizing attitudes than those with less education. Participants who were not born in Canada were more likely to hold

  10. Epidemiology of vestibular vertigo: a neurotologic survey of the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuhauser, H K; von Brevern, M; Radtke, A; Lezius, F; Feldmann, M; Ziese, T; Lempert, T

    2005-09-27

    The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence and incidence of vestibular vertigo in the general population and to describe its clinical characteristics and associated factors. The neurotologic survey had a two-stage general population sampling design: nationwide modified random digit dialing sampling for participation in the German National Telephone Health Interview Survey 2003 (response rate 52%) with screening of a random sample of 4,869 participants for moderate or severe dizziness or vertigo, followed by detailed neurotologic interviews developed through piloting and validation (n = 1,003, response rate 87%). Diagnostic criteria for vestibular vertigo were rotational vertigo, positional vertigo, or recurrent dizziness with nausea and oscillopsia or imbalance. Vestibular vertigo was detected by our interview with a specificity of 94% and a sensitivity of 84[corrected]% in a concurrent validation study using neurotology clinic diagnoses as an accepted standard (n = 61). The lifetime prevalence of vestibular vertigo was 7.4[corrected]%, the 1-year prevalence was 4.9[corrected]%, and the incidence was 1.4[corrected]%. In 80% of affected individuals, vertigo resulted in a medical consultation, interruption of daily activities, or sick leave. Female sex, age, lower educational level, and various comorbid conditions, including tinnitus, depression, and several cardiovascular diseases and risk factors, were associated with vestibular vertigo in the past year in univariate analysis. In multivariable analysis, only female sex, self-reported depression, tinnitus, hypertension, and dyslipidemia had an independent effect on vestibular vertigo. Vestibular vertigo is common in the general population, affecting [corrected] 5% of adults in 1 year. The frequency and health care impact of vestibular symptoms at the population level have been underestimated.

  11. Urinary uranium and kidney function parameters in professional assistance workers in the Epidemiological Study Air Disaster in Amsterdam (ESADA)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A. Bijlsma (Joost); P. Slottje (Pauline); A.C. Huizink (Anja); J.W.R. Twisk (Jos); G.B. van der Voet (Gijsbert); F.A. de Wolff (Frederik); F. Vanhaecke (Frank); L. Moens (Luc); T. Smid (Tjabe)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractBackground. The Epidemiological Study Air Disaster in Amsterdam (ESADA) aimed to assess long-term health effects in professional assistance workers involved in the 1992 air disaster in Amsterdam. As part of ESADA indications of nephrotoxicity due to exposure to uranium from the balance

  12. Urinary uranium and kidney function parameters in professional assistance workers in the Epidemiological Study Air Disaster in Amsterdam (ESADA)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijlsma, Joost A.; Slottje, Pauline; Huizink, Anja C.; Twisk, Jos W. R.; van der Voet, Gijsbert B.; de Wolff, Frederik A.; Vanhaecke, Frank; Moens, Luc; Smid, Tjabe

    2008-01-01

    The Epidemiological Study Air Disaster in Amsterdam (ESADA) aimed to assess long-term health effects in professional assistance workers involved in the 1992 air disaster in Amsterdam. As part of ESADA indications of nephrotoxicity due to exposure to uranium from the balance weights of the crashed

  13. The epidemiology of hand eczema in the general population--prevalence and main findings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jacob P; Johansen, Jeanne D; Linneberg, Allan

    2010-01-01

    Numerous studies have investigated the prevalence and risk factors of hand eczema in the general population. These studies are of high value as they tend to be less biased than studies using clinical populations and as they are important for healthcare decision makers when they allocate resources......-year prevalence nearly 10%, whereas the lifetime prevalence reached 15%. Based on seven studies, the median incidence rate of hand eczema was 5.5 cases/1000 person-years (women = 9.6 and men = 4.0). A high incidence rate was associated with female sex, contact allergy, atopic dermatitis, and wet work....... Atopic dermatitis was the single most important risk factor for hand eczema. Hand eczema resulted in medical consultations in 70%, sick leave (> 7 days) in about 20%, and job change in about 10%. Mean sick time was longer among those with allergic hand eczema than those with atopic and irritant hand...

  14. INTRA-ABDOMINAL INFECTION AND ACUTE ABDOMEN-EPIDEMIOLOGY, DIAGNOSIS AND GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF SURGICAL MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Dušan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Intra-abdominal infections are multifactorial and present an complex inflammatory response of the peritoneum to microorganisms followed by exudation in the abdominal cavity and systemic response Despite advances in management and critical care of patients with acute generalized peritonitis due to hollow viscus perforation, prognosis is still very poor, with high mortality rate. Early detection and adequate treatment is essential to minimize complications in the patient with acute abdomen. Prognostic evaluation of complicated IAI by modern scoring systems is important to assess the severity and the prognosis of the disease. Control of the septic source can be achieved either by nonoperative or operative means. Nonoperative interventional procedures include percutaneous drainages of abscesses. The management of primary peritonitis is non-surgical and antibiotic- treatment. The management of secondary peritonitis include surgery to control the source of infection, removal of toxins, bacteria, and necrotic tissue, antibiotic therapy, supportive therapy and nutrition. "Source control" is sine qua non of success and adequate surgical procedure involves closure or resection of any openings into the gastrointestinal tract, resection of inflamed tissue and drainage of all abdominal and pelivic collections.

  15. CONSTANCES: a general prospective population-based cohort for occupational and environmental epidemiology: cohort profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Marcel; Carton, Matthieu; Descatha, Alexis; Leclerc, Annette; Roquelaure, Yves; Santin, Gaëlle; Zins, Marie

    2017-01-01

    WHY THE COHORT WAS SET UP?: CONSTANCES is a general-purpose cohort with a focus on occupational and environmental factors. CONSTANCES was designed as a randomly selected sample of French adults aged 18-69 years at inception; 200 000 participants will be included. At enrolment, the participants are invited to complete questionnaires and to attend a health screening centre (HSC) for a health examination. A biobank will be set up. The follow-up includes an yearly self-administered questionnaire, a periodic visit to an HSC and linkage to social and national health administrative databases. Data collected for participants include social and demographic characteristics, socioeconomic status, life events and behaviours. Regarding occupational and environmental factors, a wealth of data on organisational, chemical, biological, biomechanical and psychosocial lifelong exposure, as well as residential characteristics, are collected at enrolment and during follow-up. The health data cover a wide spectrum: self-reported health scales, reported prevalent and incident diseases, long-term chronic diseases and hospitalisations, sick-leaves, handicaps, limitations, disabilities and injuries, healthcare usage and services provided, and causes of death. To take into account non-participation and attrition, a random cohort of non-participants was set up and will be followed through the same national databases as participants. Inclusions begun at the end of 2012 and more than 110 000 participants were already included by September 2016. Several projects on occupational and environmental risks already applied to a public call for nested research projects. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  16. Beyond bixels: Generalizing the optimization parameters for intensity modulated radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markman, Jerry; Low, Daniel A.; Beavis, Andrew W.; Deasy, Joseph O.

    2002-01-01

    Intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatment planning systems optimize fluence distributions by subdividing the fluence distribution into rectangular bixels. The algorithms typically optimize the fluence intensity directly, often leading to fluence distributions with sharp discontinuities. These discontinuities may yield difficulties in delivery of the fluence distribution, leading to inaccurate dose delivery. We have developed a method for decoupling the bixel intensities from the optimization parameters; either by introducing optimization control points from which the bixel intensities are interpolated or by parametrizing the fluence distribution using basis functions. In either case, the number of optimization search parameters is reduced from the direct bixel optimization method. To illustrate the concept, the technique is applied to two-dimensional idealized head and neck treatment plans. The interpolation algorithms investigated were nearest-neighbor, linear and cubic spline, and radial basis functions serve as the basis function test. The interpolation and basis function optimization techniques were compared against the direct bixel calculation. The number of optimization parameters were significantly reduced relative to the bixel optimization, and this was evident in the reduction of computation time of as much as 58% from the full bixel optimization. The dose distributions obtained using the reduced optimization parameter sets were very similar to the full bixel optimization when examined by dose distributions, statistics, and dose-volume histograms. To evaluate the sensitivity of the fluence calculations to spatial misalignment caused either by delivery errors or patient motion, the doses were recomputed with a 1 mm shift in each beam and compared to the unshifted distributions. Except for the nearest-neighbor algorithm, the reduced optimization parameter dose distributions were generally less sensitive to spatial shifts than the bixel

  17. Analysis of Loss of Control Parameters for Aircraft Maneuvering in General Aviation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameer Ud-Din

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A rapid increase in the occurrence of loss of control in general aviation has raised concern in recent years. Loss of control (LOC pertains to unique characteristics in which external and internal events act in conjunction. The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA has approved an Integrated Safety Assessment Model (ISAM for evaluating safety in the National Airspace System (NAS. ISAM consists of an event sequence diagram (ESD with fault trees containing numerous parameters, which is recognized as casual risk model. In this paper, we outline an integrated risk assessment framework to model maneuvering through cross-examining external and internal events. The maneuvering is in the critical flight phase with a high number of LOC occurrences in general aviation, where highly trained and qualified pilots failed to maintain aircraft control irrespective of the preventive nature of the events. Various metrics have been presented for evaluating the significance of these parameters to identify the most important ones. The proposed sensitivity analysis considers the accident, fatality, and risk reduction frequencies that assist in the decision-making process and foresees future risks from a general aviation perspective.

  18. A general CPL-AdS methodology for fixing dynamic parameters in dual environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, De-Shuang; Jiang, Wen

    2012-10-01

    The algorithm of Continuous Point Location with Adaptive d-ary Search (CPL-AdS) strategy exhibits its efficiency in solving stochastic point location (SPL) problems. However, there is one bottleneck for this CPL-AdS strategy which is that, when the dimension of the feature, or the number of divided subintervals for each iteration, d is large, the decision table for elimination process is almost unavailable. On the other hand, the larger dimension of the features d can generally make this CPL-AdS strategy avoid oscillation and converge faster. This paper presents a generalized universal decision formula to solve this bottleneck problem. As a matter of fact, this decision formula has a wider usage beyond handling out this SPL problems, such as dealing with deterministic point location problems and searching data in Single Instruction Stream-Multiple Data Stream based on Concurrent Read and Exclusive Write parallel computer model. Meanwhile, we generalized the CPL-AdS strategy with an extending formula, which is capable of tracking an unknown dynamic parameter λ in both informative and deceptive environments. Furthermore, we employed different learning automata in the generalized CPL-AdS method to find out if faster learning algorithm will lead to better realization of the generalized CPL-AdS method. All of these aforementioned contributions are vitally important whether in theory or in practical applications. Finally, extensive experiments show that our proposed approaches are efficient and feasible.

  19. Epidemiología de la enfermedad de Chagas, Departamento General Paz, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscherov Elena B

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: El objetivo del presente trabajo fue investigar la colonización por triatominos en ambientes domésticos y peridomésticos y evaluar la seroprevalencia de infectados chagásicos en localidades rurales. MÉTODOS: La investigación se realizó en General Paz, Corrientes, Argentina. Las viviendas y peridomicilios se seleccionaron mediante un muestreo simple al azar. La búsqueda de triatominos se efectuó por el método captura/hora/hombre. Los insectos se identificaron taxonómicamente y se clasificaron según sexo y edad. La infección por Trypanosoma cruzi se detectó por observación directa de las heces al microscopio y por la técnica de la reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR. Se evaluaron serológicamente a pobladores voluntarios mediante las técnicas de hemaglutinación indirecta (HAI y ensayo inmunoenzimático (ELISA. Se hallaron los índices de infestación, densidad, colonización, infección natural y dispersión. RESULTADOS: Se analizaron 42 viviendas y 50 peridomicilios. En el domicilio los índices de infestación e infección de Triatoma infestans fueron 23,8 y 19,4 respectivamente. Los índices de densidad, colonización y dispersión fueron 2,1; 47,0 y 50,0 respectivamente. La infestación del peridomicilio por T. infestans fue 5,9% y por T. sordida 11,8%. T. sordida resultó infectada por Trypanosoma cruzi en un 2,0%. La seroprevalencia al T. cruzi de los 85 pacientes fue del 22,3%. CONCLUSIONES: Se estima que en el área investigada la transmisión del T. cruzi está interrumpida. Sin embargo, la presencia de infectados humanos y de T. infestans parasitadas posibilitan el reinicio del ciclo de transmisión. Se proponen acciones de rociado con insecticidas con el objeto de eliminar las poblaciones del vector.

  20. Generalized intermediate long-wave hierarchy in zero-curvature representation with noncommutative spectral parameter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degasperis, A.; Lebedev, D.; Olshanetsky, M.; Pakuliak, S.; Perelomov, A.; Santini, P. M.

    1992-11-01

    The simplest generalization of the intermediate long-wave hierarchy (ILW) is considered to show how to extend the Zakharov-Shabat dressing method to nonlocal, i.e., integro-partial differential, equations. The purpose is to give a procedure of constructing the zero-curvature representation of this class of equations. This result obtains by combining the Drinfeld-Sokolov formalism together with the introduction of an operator-valued spectral parameter, namely, a spectral parameter that does not commute with the space variable x. This extension provides a connection between the ILWk hierarchy and the Saveliev-Vershik continuum graded Lie algebras. In the case of ILW2 the Fairlie-Zachos sinh-algebra was found.

  1. Design and Feasibility of an International Study Assessing the Prevalence of Contact Allergy to Fragrances in the General Population : The European Dermato-Epidemiology Network Fragrance Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rossi, Marta; Coenraads, Pieter-Jan; Diepgen, Thomas; Svensson, Ake; Elsner, Peter; Goncalo, Margarida; Bruze, Magnus; Naldi, Luigi

    2010-01-01

    Background/Aims: Data on contact allergy to fragrances in the general population are limited. Data from allergological services suggest that the frequency of contact allergy to fragrances is increasing. The European Dermato-Epidemiology Network (EDEN) Fragrance Study aims to obtain reliable data on

  2. Phthalate exposure and reproductive parameters in young men from the general Swedish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelsson, Jonatan; Rylander, Lars; Rignell-Hydbom, Anna; Jönsson, Bo A G; Lindh, Christian H; Giwercman, Aleksander

    2015-12-01

    In animals, exposure to certain phthalates negatively affects the male reproductive function. Human results are conflicting and mostly based on subfertile males, in whom the association between exposure and reproductive function may differ from the general population. To study if levels of phthalate metabolites were associated with semen quality and reproductive hormones in general Swedish men. We recruited 314 young men delivering semen, urine and blood samples at the same visit. We analyzed reproductive hormones and several semen parameters including progressive motility and high DNA stainability (HDS)-a marker for sperm immaturity. In urine, we analyzed metabolites of phthalates, including diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP). We studied associations between urinary levels of the metabolites and seminal as well as serum reproductive parameters, accounting for potential confounders. DEHP metabolite levels, particularly urinary mono-(2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl) phthalate (MECPP), were negatively associated with progressive sperm motility, which was 11 (95% CI: 5.0-17) percentage points lower in the highest quartile of MECPP than in the lowest. Further, men in the highest quartile of the DEHP metabolite monoethylhexyl phthalate had 27% (95% CI: 5.5%-53%) higher HDS than men in the lowest quartile. DEHP metabolite levels seemed negatively associated with sperm motility and maturation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Design and feasibility of an international study assessing the prevalence of contact allergy to fragrances in the general population: the European Dermato-Epidemiology Network Fragrance Study

    OpenAIRE

    Rossi, M; Coenraads, PJ; Diepgen, T; Svensson, A; Elsner, P; Gonçalo, Margarida; Bruze, M; Naldi, L

    2010-01-01

    Background/Aims: Data on contact allergy to fragrances in the general population are limited. Data from allergological services suggest that the frequency of contact allergy to fragrances is increasing. The European Dermato-Epidemiology Network (EDEN) Fragrance Study aims to obtain reliable data on the prevalence of contact allergy to fragrances and other sensitizers of the European baseline series, in the general population of different geographical areas of Europe. We report the methodology...

  4. [A sero-epidemiological study of hepatitis E among general population in Shandong Province of China in 2014].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, B Y; Zhang, L; Lyu, J J; Feng, Y; Liu, J Y; Wu, W L; Song, L Z; Xu, A Q

    2017-07-06

    Objective: To analyze the sero-epidemiological characteristics of hepatitis E virus (HEV) in Shandong province, and thereby to provide evidence for the policy-making of hepatitis E prevention and control. Methods: The inhabitants aged between 1-59 years old were randomly selected to participate in the study by two-stage stratified random sampling method from 12 counties in Shandong province in October, 2014. Firstly two townships were selected from each county by probability proportional to size sampling (PPS) method. A total of 5 229 participants aged 1-59 years old were selected by stratified random sampling method. All the participants finished a questionnaire survey and a venous blood sample (3-5 ml) was collected from each to test anti-HEV IgG by enzyme-linked assay (ELISA). The weighted prevalence of anti-HEV IgG with different demographic characteristics was estimated. The variance of the positive rate of anti-HEV IgG was calculated by Taylor series linearization method, as well as its 95 %CI . A statistical test was conducted to compare the rate of its 95 %CI , and the results in the present study were compared with those in sero-survey in 2006. Results: A total of 5 229 subjects entered the final analysis in 2014. The overall weighed prevalence of anti-HEV IgG was 9.19% (95 %CI: 6.18%-12.20%) among natural population in Shandong province, decreased by 19.88% in comparison with that in 2006 sero-survey (11.47%, 95 %CI: 8.92%-14.02%). The prevalence increased with age increasing (χ(2trend)=288.11, Ppopulations (13.76%, 95 %CI: 10.15%-17.38%; 21.11%, 95 %CI: 12.67%-29.55%; 17.81%, 95 %CI: 7.63%-28.00%; 21.08%, 95 %CI: 0.03%-42.12%) in 2006 survey. Conclusion: The prevalence of anti-HEV IgG has decreased in Shandong province in the recent years, but the epidemiological characteristics found no obvious changes. HEV susceptibility in natural population was generally high. Hepatitis E vaccines were recommended to be used in HEV high-risk population in the

  5. Switched generalized function projective synchronization of two identical/different hyperchaotic systems with uncertain parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Hongmin; Li Chunlai

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate two switched synchronization schemes, namely partial and complete switched generalized function projective synchronization, by using the adaptive control method. Partial switched synchronization of chaotic systems means that the state variables of the drive system synchronize with partial different state variables of the response system, whereas complete switched synchronization of chaotic systems means that all the state variables of the drive system synchronize with complete different state variables of the response system. Because the switched synchronization scheme exists in many combinations, it is a promising type of synchronization as it provides greater security in secure communications. Based on the Lyapunov stability theory, the adaptive control laws and the parameter update laws are derived to make the states of two identical/different hyperchaotic systems asymptotically synchronized up to a desired scaling function. Finally, numerical simulations are performed to verify and illustrate the analytical results.

  6. Chemically induced transition phenomena in polyurethanes as seen from generalized mode Grueneisen parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, U; Philipp, M; Bactavatchalou, R; Sanctuary, R; Baller, J; Zielinski, B; Krueger, J K [Laboratoire de Physique des Materiaux, Universite du Luxembourg, 162A, Avenue de la Faiencerie, L-1115 (Luxembourg); Possart, W; Alnot, P [Laboratoire Europeen de Recherche, Universitaire Saarland-Lorraine (Luxembourg)], E-mail: ulrich.mueller@uni.lu

    2008-05-21

    Many phenomenological properties of reactive polymers like polyurethanes increase or decrease continuously in the course of the curing process before saturating at the end of the chemical reaction. This holds true for instance for the mass density, the refractive index, the chemical turnover and the hypersonic properties. The reason for this monotone behaviour is that the chemical reaction behaves like a continuous succession of irreversible phase transitions. These transitions are superposed by the sol-gel transition and possibly by the chemically induced glass transition, with the drawback that the latter two highlighted transitions are often hidden by the underlying curing process. In this work we propose generalized mode Grueneisen parameters as an alternative probe for elucidating the polymerization process itself and the closely related transition phenomena. As a model system we use polyurethane composed of a diisocyanate and varying ratios of difunctional and trifunctional alcohols.

  7. Anxiolytic and antidepressive effects of magnesium in rats and their effect on general behavioural parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samardžić Janko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnesium (Mg is an essential element that catalyses more than 300 enzyme systems. Its effects on the central nervous system are exhibited through the blocking of activity of N-methyl D-aspartat (NMDA receptors and potentiating of GABA-ergic neurotransmission. Due to the vast importance of these two neurotransmission systems in the fine regulation of the central integrative function activity, the aim of this research was to test the anxiolytic and antidepressive effects of magnesium, after acute and repeated application, and its influence on general behavioural parameters. In this research Wistar albino rats were treated with increasing doses of Mg chloride 6-hydrate (MgCl 10, 20, 30 mg/kg. In order to determine anxiolytic and antidepressive properties of magnesium two models were used: elevated plus maze (EPM and forced swim test (FST. Behavioural parameters (stillness and mobility were recorded during acute and repeated administration of the active substance. Results of EPM testing showed no significant difference between groups, p>0.05. After acute application of increasing doses of magnesium chloride hydrate in FST, we showed the statistically significant difference in immobility time between the group of animals treated with Mg and the control group treated with the solvent, p<0.01. The statistically significant difference between groups treated with the lowest and the middle dose of magnesium and the controls was observed already on the first day of examining behavioural parameters (p=0.020, p=0.010. Our research has showed that magnesium, following acute administration, increases locomotor activity, and has an antidepressive but not an anxiolytic effect.

  8. [Drug advertising to the general public: conceptual parameters of a risk producer practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Alvaro César

    2010-11-01

    This article analyzes some concepts relating to marketing, advertising, medications, regulation and manipulation. It discusses ethical and health surveillance parameters of drugs advertising for the general public. The focus of this work is the analysis of contradictions from a conceptual point of view between the practice of pharmaceutical advertising as a tool for the increase of sales and the conquest of markets versus the policy of rational use of medicines. Academic studies and monitoring of drugs advertising conducted by the National Health Surveillance Agency show that the contents of the advertising pieces oriented towards the general public overestimate the - sometimes dubious - qualities of their medication, focusing almost exclusively on the benefits and put them in a central position in the therapeutic process. They also fail to mention the risks inherent in their use. Rather than focusing on regulatory proposals aimed at creating constraints to this practice, this article discusses the impossibility, considering the interests of public health, of the coexistence of marketing with the policies for the correct, rational and safe use of drugs.

  9. Multi-parameter vital sign database to assist in alarm optimization for general care units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, James; Kanter, Benjamin; Skora, Brooke; McCombie, Scott; Henry, Isaac; McCombie, Devin; Kennedy, Rosemary; Soller, Babs

    2016-12-01

    Continual vital sign assessment on the general care, medical-surgical floor is expected to provide early indication of patient deterioration and increase the effectiveness of rapid response teams. However, there is concern that continual, multi-parameter vital sign monitoring will produce alarm fatigue. The objective of this study was the development of a methodology to help care teams optimize alarm settings. An on-body wireless monitoring system was used to continually assess heart rate, respiratory rate, SpO 2 and noninvasive blood pressure in the general ward of ten hospitals between April 1, 2014 and January 19, 2015. These data, 94,575 h for 3430 patients are contained in a large database, accessible with cloud computing tools. Simulation scenarios assessed the total alarm rate as a function of threshold and annunciation delay (s). The total alarm rate of ten alarms/patient/day predicted from the cloud-hosted database was the same as the total alarm rate for a 10 day evaluation (1550 h for 36 patients) in an independent hospital. Plots of vital sign distributions in the cloud-hosted database were similar to other large databases published by different authors. The cloud-hosted database can be used to run simulations for various alarm thresholds and annunciation delays to predict the total alarm burden experienced by nursing staff. This methodology might, in the future, be used to help reduce alarm fatigue without sacrificing the ability to continually monitor all vital signs.

  10. Associations between urinary phthalate concentrations and semen quality parameters in a general population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, M.S.; Whitcomb, B.W.; Chen, Z.; Ye, A.; Kannan, K.; Buck Louis, G.M.

    2015-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION Are urinary phthalate concentrations associated with altered semen quality parameters among males recruited from the general population? SUMMARY ANSWER Urinary levels of metabolites of phthalate diesters are associated with lower total sperm counts, larger sperm head sizes, and higher percentages of morphologically abnormal sperm. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY High dose experiments in rats implicate phthalates as anti-androgens. Studies involving infertile men seeking care suggest that phthalates influence measures of semen quality raising concern about the implications for men in the general population. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION This prospective cohort study comprised 501 male partners in couples discontinuing contraception to become pregnant, who were recruited from 16 US counties using population-based sampling frameworks from 2005 to 2009. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS Urine and semen samples were obtained at baseline from 473 (94%) men, of whom 378 (80%) men provided a second sample the following month. Urine was analyzed for 14 monoester metabolites of phthalate diesters by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. Semen samples were analyzed for 34 quality parameters categorized as general, motility, morphology, sperm head and sperm chromatin structure. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE Urinary mono-[2-(carboxymethyl) hexyl] phthalate (MCMHP), mono-(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (MEHHP), mono-benzyl phthalate (MBzP), and mono-isononyl phthalate (MNP) were significantly associated with lower total sperm counts and concentrations, larger sperm head sizes, higher proportions of megalo head sperm morphology, and/or other morphological changes. Urinary mono-methyl phthalate (MMP) and mono-cyclohexyl phthalate (MCPP) were significantly associated with lower sperm motility, and urine mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP) was significantly associated with higher sperm motility. LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR

  11. Genetic parameters for racing records in trotters using linear and generalized linear models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suontama, M; van der Werf, J H J; Juga, J; Ojala, M

    2012-09-01

    Heritability and repeatability and genetic and phenotypic correlations were estimated for trotting race records with linear and generalized linear models using 510,519 records on 17,792 Finnhorses and 513,161 records on 25,536 Standardbred trotters. Heritability and repeatability were estimated for single racing time and earnings traits with linear models, and logarithmic scale was used for racing time and fourth-root scale for earnings to correct for nonnormality. Generalized linear models with a gamma distribution were applied for single racing time and with a multinomial distribution for single earnings traits. In addition, genetic parameters for annual earnings were estimated with linear models on the observed and fourth-root scales. Racing success traits of single placings, winnings, breaking stride, and disqualifications were analyzed using generalized linear models with a binomial distribution. Estimates of heritability were greatest for racing time, which ranged from 0.32 to 0.34. Estimates of heritability were low for single earnings with all distributions, ranging from 0.01 to 0.09. Annual earnings were closer to normal distribution than single earnings. Heritability estimates were moderate for annual earnings on the fourth-root scale, 0.19 for Finnhorses and 0.27 for Standardbred trotters. Heritability estimates for binomial racing success variables ranged from 0.04 to 0.12, being greatest for winnings and least for breaking stride. Genetic correlations among racing traits were high, whereas phenotypic correlations were mainly low to moderate, except correlations between racing time and earnings were high. On the basis of a moderate heritability and moderate to high repeatability for racing time and annual earnings, selection of horses for these traits is effective when based on a few repeated records. Because of high genetic correlations, direct selection for racing time and annual earnings would also result in good genetic response in racing success.

  12. Evaluating the influence of epidemiological parameters and host ecology on the spread of phocine distemper virus through populations of harbour seals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catriona M Harris

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Outbreaks of phocine distemper virus (PDV in Europe during 1988 and 2002 were responsible for the death of around 23,000 and 30,000 harbour seals, respectively. These epidemics, particularly the one in 2002, provided an unusual opportunity to estimate epidemic parameters for a wildlife disease. There were marked regional differences in the values of some parameters both within and between epidemics. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used an individual-based model of seal movement that allowed us to incorporate realistic representations of space, time and animal behaviour into a traditional epidemiological modelling framework. We explored the potential influence of a range of ecological (foraging trip duration, time of epidemic onset, population size and epidemiological (length of infectious period, contact rate between infectious and susceptible individuals, case mortality parameters on four readily-measurable epidemic characteristics (number of dead individuals, duration of epidemic, peak mortality date and prevalence and on the probability that an epidemic would occur in a particular region. We analysed the outputs as if they were the results of a series of virtual experiments, using Generalised Linear Modelling. All six variables had a significant effect on the probability that an epidemic would be recognised as an unusual mortality event by human observers. CONCLUSIONS: Regional and temporal variation in contact rate was the most likely cause of the observed differences between the two epidemics. This variation could be a consequence of differences in the way individuals divide their time between land and sea at different times of the year.

  13. Evaluation of epidemiological studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breckow, J.

    1995-01-01

    The publication is intended for readers with a professional background in radiation protection who are not experts in the field of epidemiology. The potentials and the limits of epidemiology are shown and concepts and terminology of radioepidemilogic studies as well as epidemiology in general are explained, in order to provide the necessary basis for understanding or performing evaluations of epidemiologic studies. (orig./VHE) [de

  14. Estimation of the shape parameter of a generalized Pareto distribution based on a transformation to Pareto distributed variables

    OpenAIRE

    van Zyl, J. Martin

    2012-01-01

    Random variables of the generalized Pareto distribution, can be transformed to that of the Pareto distribution. Explicit expressions exist for the maximum likelihood estimators of the parameters of the Pareto distribution. The performance of the estimation of the shape parameter of generalized Pareto distributed using transformed observations, based on the probability weighted method is tested. It was found to improve the performance of the probability weighted estimator and performs good wit...

  15. [The information on a sanitary-and-epidemiologic condition of general educational establishments and catering services of schoolboys].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onishchenko, G G

    2008-01-01

    The federal service on supervision in sphere of protection of the rights of consumers and well-being of the person develops normative and methodical documents, including sanitary rules and the norms defining hygienic parameters of food value of food raw material and foodstuff, children used in a feed and teenagers; requirements to catering services of pupils of various types of teaching and educational establishments. Decisions of the Main state health officer of the Russian Federation, the conditions directed on improvement and catering services in educational establishments are published. At participation of Rospotrebnadzor's experts on subjects of the Russian Federation the regional programs directed on improvement of catering services of pupils are developed. The information on a condition of general educational establishments with offers on improvement of a sanitary-engineering condition, goes to address of enforcement authorities.

  16. Epidemiology of gastroesophageal reflux disease: A general population-based study in Xi’an of Northwest China

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Jin-Hai; Luo, Jin-Yan; Dong, Lei; Gong, Jun; Tong, Ming

    2004-01-01

    AIM: Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a common disorder in the Western population, but detailed population-based data in China are limited. The aim of this study was to understand the epidemiology of symptomatic gastroesophageal reflux (SGER) in adults of Xi’an, a northwestern city of China, and to explore the potential risk factors of GERD.

  17. " Evaluation Of Some Epidemiologic Parameters, Risk Factors, Clinical And Audiological Characteristics Of 48 Patients With Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss "

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Amiridavan

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss (SSNHL is an emergency situation, and is one of the most controversial subjects in domain of otolaryngology. In this article, we have analyzed some Epidemiologic Characteristics, clinical features, audiological Characteristics, and other findings in routine serological tests and MRI of 48 cases with SSNHL ,who came or were referred to us in the past 2 years. Study design: Cross sectional. Materials and Methods: In 48 patients with chief complaint of SSNHL, from June 2003 to Feb. 2005, who were admitted in clinic of otolaryngology- in Kashani Hospital -Isfahan- Iran, physical examination and history taking, audiological evaluation, MRI,and serological tests were performed in a similar way , and data were analyzed by SPSS software. Results: From 48 cases(M:28 ,F:20 with mean age of 40.9(+/-15.9 years, left ear was involved in 26 cases (54.1% ,and right ear in 19 cases (39.5% ,and in 3 cases (6.3%,both sides were involved. The severity of hearing loss was “subjectively” HIGH in 78% of patients, and the mean threshold of hearing had been calculated as 69 dB. The most common pattern in pure tone audiometry curves ,was ‘flat pattern’(75% ,and then ,’down sloping pattern’(16%.The most adjunctive clinical symptom was “tinnitus”(in 78.7%, and 40% of patients had “true vertigo”. 44.4% of our patients had some evidences of upper respiratory tract infections (URIs during recent 2 weeks. Positive family history, smoking, alcohol intake ,oral contraceptive and ototoxic drugs consumption were uncommon. 24% of cases (11 of 39 had increased ESR, and 100% of 39 patients had negative VDRL. Diabetes mellitus was the most common underlying disease (in 6 cases.From 20 patients ,who were succeeded to perform brain and ear MRI, 2 cases had tumor in internal auditory canal and cerebellopontine angle. Conclusion: SSNHL has some limitations in being studied histopathologically or in the form of

  18. On the analysis of glow curves with the general order kinetics: Reliability of the computed trap parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortega, F. [Facultad de Ingeniería (UNCPBA) and CIFICEN (UNCPBA – CICPBA – CONICET), Av. del Valle 5737, 7400 Olavarría (Argentina); Santiago, M.; Martinez, N.; Marcazzó, J.; Molina, P.; Caselli, E. [Instituto de Física Arroyo Seco (UNCPBA) and CIFICEN (UNCPBA – CICPBA – CONICET), Pinto 399, 7000 Tandil (Argentina)

    2017-04-15

    Nowadays the most employed kinetics for analyzing glow curves is the general order kinetics (GO) proposed by C. E. May and J. A. Partridge. As shown in many articles this kinetics might yield wrong parameters characterizing trap and recombination centers. In this article this kinetics is compared with the modified general order kinetics put forward by M. S. Rasheedy by analyzing synthetic glow curves. The results show that the modified kinetics gives parameters, which are more accurate than that yield by the original general order kinetics. A criterion is reported to evaluate the accuracy of the trap parameters found by deconvolving glow curves. This criterion was employed to assess the reliability of the trap parameters of the YVO{sub 4}: Eu{sup 3+} compounds.

  19. Exposure to ionizing radiations having a medical origin. Propositions for the implementation and the development of epidemiology surveillance activities in general population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-09-01

    This report gives propositions relative to the implementation and the development of epidemiology surveillance activities in general population in relation with medical exposure to ionizing radiations. It is intended for the General Direction of Health and General Direction of Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection. These propositions have been elaborated by a work group coordinated and run by InVS and gathering the following organisms: French Agency of sanitary safety of health products (A.F.S.S.A.P.S.), Center of Quality Assurance of technological applications in the area of health (C.A.A.T.S.), Direction of Hospitals and Care organization (D.H.O.S.), General Direction of Health (D.G.S.), General Direction of Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection (D.G.S.N.R.), National Federation of radiologists physicists (F.N.M.R.), institute of Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety (I.R.S.N.), INSERM 'epidemiology of cancers', French Society of Biology and Nuclear Medicine (S.F.B.M.N.), French Society of Medical Physics (S.F.P.M.), French Society of Radiology (S.F.R.). (N.C.)

  20. Towards all-order Laurent expansion of generalized hypergeometric functions around rational values of parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalmykov, M.Yu.; Kniehl, B.A. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik

    2008-07-15

    We prove the following theorems: 1) The Laurent expansions in {epsilon} of the Gauss hypergeometric functions {sub 2}F{sub 1}(I{sub 1}+a{epsilon},I{sub 2}+b{epsilon};I{sub 3}+(p)/(q)+c{epsilon};z), {sub 2}F{sub 1}(I{sub 1}+(p)/(q)+a{epsilon},I{sub 2}+(p/q)+b{epsilon};I{sub 3}+(p)/(q)+c{epsilon};z) and {sub 2}F{sub 1}(I{sub 1}+(p)/(q)+ a{epsilon},I{sub 2}+b{epsilon};I{sub 3}+(p)/(q)+c{epsilon};z), where I{sub 1},I{sub 2},I{sub 3},p,q are arbitrary integers, a,b,c are arbitrary numbers and {epsilon} is an infinitesimal parameter, are expressible in terms of multiple polylogarithms of q-roots of unity with coefficients that are ratios of polynomials; 2) The Laurent expansion of the Gauss hypergeometric function {sub 2}F{sub 1}(I{sub 1}+(p)/(q)+a{epsilon},I{sub 2}+b{epsilon};I{sub 3}+c{epsilon};z) is expressible in terms of multiple polylogarithms of q-roots of unity times powers of logarithm with coefficients that are ratios of polynomials; 3) The multiple inverse rational sums {sigma}{sup {infinity}}{sub j=1}({gamma}(j))/({gamma}(1+j-(p)/(q))) (z{sup j})/(j{sup c}) S{sub a{sub 1}}(j-1).. S{sub a{sub p}}(j-1) and the multiple rational sums {sigma}{sup {infinity}}{sub j=1} ({gamma}(j+(p)/(q)))/({gamma}(1+j)) (z{sup j})/(j{sup c}) S{sub a{sub 1}}(j-1).. S{sub a{sub p}}(j-1), where S{sub a}(j)={sigma}{sup j}{sub k=1}(1)/(k{sup a}) is a harmonic series and c is an arbitrary integer, are expressible in terms of multiple polylogarithms; 4) The generalized hypergeometric functions {sub p}F{sub p.1}((vector)A+(vector)a{epsilon};(vector)B+(vector)b{epsilon},(p)/(q)+B{sub p-1};z) and {sub p}F{sub p-1}((vector)A+(vector)a{epsilon},(p)/(q)+A{sub p};(vector)B+(vector)b{epsilon};z) are expressible in terms of multiple polylogarithms with coefficients that are ratios of polynomials. (orig.)

  1. Generalized Extreme Value's shape parameter and its nature for extreme precipitation using long time series and Bayesian approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragulina, Galina; Reitan, Trond

    2016-04-01

    Assessing the probability of extreme precipitation events is of great importance in civil planning. This requires understanding of how return values change with different return periods, which is essentially described by the Generalized Extreme Value distribution's shape parameter. Some works in the field have suggested a constant shape parameter, while our analysis indicates a non-universal value. We first re-analyse an older precipitation dataset (169 stations) extended by Norwegian data (71 stations). We show that while each set seems to have a constant shape parameter, it differs between the two datasets, indicating regional differences. For a more comprehensive analysis of spatial effects, we examine a global dataset (1495 stations). We provide shape parameter maps for two models. We find clear evidence for the shape parameter being dependent on elevation while the effect of latitude remains uncertain. Our results confirm an explanation in terms of dominating precipitation systems based on a proxy derived from the Köppen-Geiger climate classification.

  2. Investigation Patients with Urinary Stones from the Aspect of Epidemiologic Parameters Admitted at Urology Department of Imam Reza Hospital During Years 2005-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Tavakkoli Tabassi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Urolithiasis is one of the most frequent diseases of urinary system which forms high percentage of patients who come to Urology wards. Therefore, study of epidemiological characteristics of patients of each ward can be helpful for making the best general decision. Methods: First, we devided 5133 cases who had come to Urology department of imam Reza hospital of mashhad during 2005-2008, in 2 groups and then in 6 groups. We investigated and compared 2 groups of lithotripsy and surgery from the aspect of epidemiological characteristics. So, we did for 6 groups: pyelolithotomy and nephrolithotomy, ureterolithotomy, ureteroscopy and TUL, PNL, ESWL, cystolitholapaxy. Results: From 5133 cases, mean age of 43.41, men to female ratio 2.1, 90.1% had done lithotripsy and 9.2% surgery. Percentage of patients of pyelolithotomy and nephrolithotomy was 3.5% ureterolithotomy 0.8%, ureteroscopy and TUL39.5%, PNL 4.9%, ESWL 49.5%, cystolitholapaxy 1.9%. Mean stay in hospital for 1.31±0.19 and for surgery 4.84±0.16, in ESWL 0.81±0.25 and in pyelolithotomy and nephrolithotomy 5.09±0.17 days. During years 2005-2008 percentage of ESWL was : 59.9, 51.4 & 38.4% of all admissions in these years. PNLs percentage was: 3.8, 5.51, 5.53%. Choosing of PNL in urban people was highest (84.5% and for rural people pyelolithotomy and nephrolithotomy is the most technique in use. Conclusion: Despite of other advanced countries high percentage of our patients undergo open surgery especially in rural people, yet. So, we should provide facilities of education and financials for modern and lower costs of urinary tract stone treatments.

  3. Design and feasibility of an international study assessing the prevalence of contact allergy to fragrances in the general population: the European Dermato-Epidemiology Network Fragrance Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Marta; Coenraads, Pieter-Jan; Diepgen, Thomas; Svensson, Åke; Elsner, Peter; Gonçalo, Margarida; Bruze, Magnus; Naldi, Luigi

    2010-01-01

    Data on contact allergy to fragrances in the general population are limited. Data from allergological services suggest that the frequency of contact allergy to fragrances is increasing. The European Dermato-Epidemiology Network (EDEN) Fragrance Study aims to obtain reliable data on the prevalence of contact allergy to fragrances and other sensitizers of the European baseline series, in the general population of different geographical areas of Europe. We report the methodology and the reliability of instruments adopted and discuss the feasibility based on a pilot phase. Descriptive epidemiology survey. A random sample from the general population is selected and interviewed, and is offered patch testing in a randomized way. We specifically enquire about any skin rash reported during the previous year, and any history of reactions to products that may contain the sensitizer and/or a history of avoidance of the same products. Patch test data are linked to the questionnaire information to define clinical relevance. The questionnaire showed high test-retest reliability in 94 individuals. Patch test reading also showed a high level of interrater reliability. During the pilot phase, a total of 589 participants were recruited. The EDEN Fragrance Study is feasible and able to provide useful data on fragrance allergy.

  4. The epidemiology of pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacteria: data from a general hospital in Athens, Greece, 2007-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagiotou, Marios; Papaioannou, Andriana I; Kostikas, Konstantinos; Paraskeua, Maria; Velentza, Ekaterini; Kanellopoulou, Maria; Filaditaki, Vasiliki; Karagiannidis, Napoleon

    2014-01-01

    The epidemiology of pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) in Greece is largely unknown. To determine the incidence and the demographic, microbiological, and clinical characteristics of patients with pulmonary NTM infection and pulmonary NTM disease. A retrospective review of the demographic, microbiological, and clinical characteristics of patients with NTM culture-positive respiratory specimens from January 2007 to May 2013. A total of 120 patients were identified with at least one respiratory NTM isolate and 56 patients (46%) fulfilled the microbiological ATS/IDSA criteria for NTM disease. Of patients with adequate data, 16% fulfilled the complete ATS/IDSA criteria for NTM disease. The incidence of pulmonary NTM infection and disease was 18.9 and 8.8 per 100.000 inpatients and outpatients, respectively. The spectrum of NTM species was high (13 species) and predominated by M. avium-intracellulare complex (M. avium (13%), M. intracellulare (10%)), M. gordonae (14%), and M. fortuitum (12%). The ratio of isolation of NTM to M. tuberculosis in all hospitalized patients was 0.59. The first data on the epidemiology of pulmonary NTM in Athens, Greece, are presented. NTM infection is common in patients with chronic respiratory disease. However, only a significantly smaller proportion of patients fulfill the criteria for NTM disease.

  5. The Epidemiology of Pulmonary Nontuberculous Mycobacteria: Data from a General Hospital in Athens, Greece, 2007–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaioannou, Andriana I.; Paraskeua, Maria; Velentza, Ekaterini; Kanellopoulou, Maria; Filaditaki, Vasiliki; Karagiannidis, Napoleon

    2014-01-01

    Background. The epidemiology of pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) in Greece is largely unknown. Objectives. To determine the incidence and the demographic, microbiological, and clinical characteristics of patients with pulmonary NTM infection and pulmonary NTM disease. Methods. A retrospective review of the demographic, microbiological, and clinical characteristics of patients with NTM culture-positive respiratory specimens from January 2007 to May 2013. Results. A total of 120 patients were identified with at least one respiratory NTM isolate and 56 patients (46%) fulfilled the microbiological ATS/IDSA criteria for NTM disease. Of patients with adequate data, 16% fulfilled the complete ATS/IDSA criteria for NTM disease. The incidence of pulmonary NTM infection and disease was 18.9 and 8.8 per 100.000 inpatients and outpatients, respectively. The spectrum of NTM species was high (13 species) and predominated by M. avium-intracellulare complex (M. avium (13%), M. intracellulare (10%)), M. gordonae (14%), and M. fortuitum (12%). The ratio of isolation of NTM to M. tuberculosis in all hospitalized patients was 0.59. Conclusions. The first data on the epidemiology of pulmonary NTM in Athens, Greece, are presented. NTM infection is common in patients with chronic respiratory disease. However, only a significantly smaller proportion of patients fulfill the criteria for NTM disease. PMID:25132991

  6. Generalized linear differential equations in a Banach space : continuous dependence on a parameter

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Monteiro, G.A.; Tvrdý, Milan

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 33, č. 1 (2013), s. 283-303 ISSN 1078-0947 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : generalized differential equations * continuous dependence * Kurzweil-Stieltjes integral Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.923, year: 2013 http://aimsciences.org/journals/displayArticlesnew.jsp?paperID=7615

  7. ESTIMATION OF PARAMETERS AND RELIABILITY FUNCTION OF EXPONENTIATED EXPONENTIAL DISTRIBUTION: BAYESIAN APPROACH UNDER GENERAL ENTROPY LOSS FUNCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Kumar Singh

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this Paper we propose Bayes estimators of the parameters of Exponentiated Exponential distribution and Reliability functions under General Entropy loss function for Type II censored sample. The proposed estimators have been compared with the corresponding Bayes estimators obtained under Squared Error loss function and maximum likelihood estimators for their simulated risks (average loss over sample space.

  8. Detecting generalized synchronization of chaotic dynamical systems. A kernel-based method and choice of its parameter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suetani, Hiromichi; Iba, Yukito; Aihara, Kazuyuki

    2006-01-01

    An approach based on the kernel methods for capturing the nonlinear interdependence between two signals is introduced. It is demonstrated that the proposed approach is useful for characterizing generalized synchronization with a successful simple example. An attempt to choose an optimal kernel parameter based on cross validation is also discussed. (author)

  9. A generalized TRL algorithm for s-parameter de-embedding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colestock, P.; Foley, M.

    1993-04-01

    At FNAL bench measurements of the longitudinal impedance of various beamline components have been performed using stretched wire methods. The basic approach is to use a network analyzer (NWA) to measure the transmission and reflection characteristics (s-parameters) of the beam line component. It is then possible to recover the effective longitudinal impedance from the s-parameters. Several NWA calibration procedures have been implemented in an effort to improve the accuracy of these measurements. These procedures are mathematical techniques for extracting the s-parameters of a test device from external NWA measurements which include the effect of measurement fixtures. The TRL algorithm has proven to be the most effective of these techniques. This method has the advantage of properly accounting for the nonideal calibration standards used in the NWA measurements

  10. Epidemiologic parameters and evaluation of control measure for 2009 novel influenza a (H1N1 in Xiamen, Fujian Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen Jinyu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Containment of influenza A H1N1 virus spread was implemented successfully in Xiamen, with large-scale inoculation to reduce morbidity. To identify beneficial elements and to guide decision-making in epidemic containment, we analyzed the epidemiologic parameters and evaluated the control measures. Method We determined various parameters from laboratory-confirmed cases, including incubation period, duration of illness and reproductive number (R0, and evaluated the control measures. Results There were1414 cases with dates of onset between June 14, 2009 and March 22, 2010. The incidence was 56.79/100,000, and mortality was 0.12/100,000. The incidence during the community epidemic phase was 6.23 times higher than in the containment phase. A total of 296,888 subjects were inoculated with domestic influenza H1N1 virus cleavage vaccine. An epidemic curve showed that vaccination in students cut the peak incidence of illness significantly. Men (relative risk (RR = 1.30, 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.17-1.45 and persons aged 0-14 years were at greater risk of infection. The incidence increased with younger age (χ2 = 950.675, p = ∞. Morbidity was lower in urban than in rural areas (RR = 0.56, 95%CI: 0.50-0.62. The median incubation time was 2 days, median duration of symptoms was 7 days, and the within-school reproductive number was 1.35. Conclusion Our analysis indicated that the characteristics of this novel influenza virus were similar to those of seasonal influenza. The principle of "interception of imported cases" applied at Xiamen ports, and vaccination of students effectively limited the spread of the influenza pandemic and reduced the epidemic peak.

  11. Variational estimation of process parameters in a simplified atmospheric general circulation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Guokun; Koehl, Armin; Stammer, Detlef

    2016-04-01

    Parameterizations are used to simulate effects of unresolved sub-grid-scale processes in current state-of-the-art climate model. The values of the process parameters, which determine the model's climatology, are usually manually adjusted to reduce the difference of model mean state to the observed climatology. This process requires detailed knowledge of the model and its parameterizations. In this work, a variational method was used to estimate process parameters in the Planet Simulator (PlaSim). The adjoint code was generated using automatic differentiation of the source code. Some hydrological processes were switched off to remove the influence of zero-order discontinuities. In addition, the nonlinearity of the model limits the feasible assimilation window to about 1day, which is too short to tune the model's climatology. To extend the feasible assimilation window, nudging terms for all state variables were added to the model's equations, which essentially suppress all unstable directions. In identical twin experiments, we found that the feasible assimilation window could be extended to over 1-year and accurate parameters could be retrieved. Although the nudging terms transform to a damping of the adjoint variables and therefore tend to erases the information of the data over time, assimilating climatological information is shown to provide sufficient information on the parameters. Moreover, the mechanism of this regularization is discussed.

  12. A general form of the cross energy parameter of equations of state

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coutinho, Joao A. P.; Panayiotis, Vlamos; Kontogeorgis, Georgios

    2000-01-01

    . The proposed rule is derived from molecular considerations, namely, the London−Mie theory. The typically used geometric mean (GM) and other combining rules can be deducted from this expression from different values of the parameter n, which is the attractive tail of the Mie potential. We show that using this n...

  13. Modeling phase equilibria of alkanols with the simplified PC-SAFT equation of state and generalized pure compound parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grenner, Andreas; Kontogeorgis, Georgios; von Solms, Nicolas

    2007-01-01

    The simplified PC-SAFT equation of state has been applied to liquid-liquid, vapor-liquid and solid-liquid equilibria for mixtures containing 1-or 2-alkanols with alkanes, aromatic hydrocarbons, CO2 and water. For the alkanols we use generalized pure compound parameters. This means that two...... of the physical pure compound parameters, in (segment number) and or (segment diameter), are obtained from linear extrapolations, since m and m sigma(3), increase linearly with respect to the molar mass, and moreover, the two association parameters (association energy and association volume) were assumed...... to be constant for all alkanols. Only the dispersion energy is fitted to experimental data. Thus it is possible to estimate parameters for several 1-and 2-alkanols. The final aim is to develop a group contribution approach for PC-SAFT which is suitable for complex compounds, considering that the motivation...

  14. Profesi Epidemiologi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buchari Lapau

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Makalah ini pertama kali menjelaskan perlu adanya profesi kesehatan masyarakat dalam rangka pembangunan kesehatan. Lalu dijelaskan apa profesi itu dan standar keberadaan profesi, atas dasar mana dapat ditetapkan bahwa pelayanan epidemiologi merupakan salah satu profesi. Dalam rangka pembinaan profesi kesehatan masyarakat, IAKMI dan APTKMI telah membentuk Majelis Kolegium Kesehatan Masyarakat Indonesia (MKKMI yang terdiri atas 8 kolegium antara lain Kolegium Epidemiologi, yang telah menyusun Standar Profesi Epidemiologi yang terdiri atas beberapa standar. Masing-masing standar dijelaskan mulai dari kurikulum, standar pelayanan epidmiologi, profil epidemiolog kesehatan, peran epidemiolog kesehatan, fungsi epidemiolog kesehatan, standar kompetensi epidemiologi, dan standar pendidikan profesi epidemiologi.

  15. Role of perisynaptic parameters in neurotransmitter homeostasis - computational study of a general synapse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendyam, Sandeep; Mohan, Ashwin; Kalivas, Peter W.; Nair, Satish S.

    2015-01-01

    Extracellular neurotransmitter concentrations vary over a wide range depending on the type of neurotransmitter and location in the brain. Neurotransmitter homeostasis near a synapse is achieved by a balance of several mechanisms including vesicular release from the presynapse, diffusion, uptake by transporters, non-synaptic production, and regulation of release by autoreceptors. These mechanisms are also affected by the glia surrounding the synapse. However, the role of these mechanisms in achieving neurotransmitter homeostasis is not well understood. A biophysical modeling framework was proposed to reverse engineer glial configurations and parameters related to homeostasis for synapses that support a range of neurotransmitter gradients. Model experiments reveal that synapses with extracellular neurotransmitter concentrations in the micromolar range require non-synaptic neurotransmitter sources and tight synaptic isolation by extracellular glial formations. The model was used to identify the role of perisynaptic parameters on neurotransmitter homeostasis, and to propose glial configurations that could support different levels of extracellular neurotransmitter concentrations. Ranking the parameters based on their effect on neurotransmitter homeostasis, non-synaptic sources were found to be the most important followed by transporter concentration and diffusion coefficient. PMID:22460547

  16. The Green-Kubo formula for general Markov processes with a continuous time parameter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Fengxia; Liu Yong; Chen Yong

    2010-01-01

    For general Markov processes, the Green-Kubo formula is shown to be valid under a mild condition. A class of stochastic evolution equations on a separable Hilbert space and three typical infinite systems of locally interacting diffusions on Z d (irreversible in most cases) are shown to satisfy the Green-Kubo formula, and the Einstein relations for these stochastic evolution equations are shown explicitly as a corollary.

  17. A General 2D Meshless Interpolating Boundary Node Method Based on the Parameter Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyin Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The presented study proposed an improved interpolating boundary node method (IIBNM for 2D potential problems. The improved interpolating moving least-square (IIMLS method was applied to construct the shape functions, of which the delta function properties and boundary conditions were directly implemented. In addition, any weight function used in the moving least-square (MLS method was also applicable in the IIMLS method. Boundary cells were required in the computation of the boundary integrals, and additional discretization error was not avoided if traditional cells were used to approximate the geometry. The present study applied the parametric cells created in the parameter space to preserve the exact geometry, and the geometry was maintained due to the number of cells. Only the number of nodes on the boundary was required as additional information for boundary node construction. Most importantly, the IIMLS method can be applied in the parameter space to construct shape functions without the requirement of additional computations for the curve length.

  18. General principles of control method of passenger car bodies bending vibration parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skachkov, A. N.; Samoshkin, S. L.; Korshunov, S. D.; Kobishchanov, V. V.; Antipin, D. Ya

    2018-03-01

    Weight reduction of passenger cars is a promising direction of reducing the cost of their production and increasing transportation profitability. One way to reduce the weight of passenger cars is the lightweight metal body design by means of using of high-strength aluminum alloys, low-alloy and stainless steels. However, it has been found that the limit of the lightweight metal body design is not determined by the total mode of deformation, but its flexural rigidity, as the latter influences natural frequencies of body bending vibrations. With the introduction of mandatory certification for compliance with the Customs Union technical regulations, the following index was confirmed: “first natural frequency of body bending vibrations in the vertical plane”. This is due to the fact that vibration, noise and car motion depend on this index. To define the required indexes, the principles of the control method of bending vibration parameters of passenger car bodies are proposed in this paper. This method covers all stages of car design – development of design documentation, manufacturing and testing experimental and pilot models, launching the production. The authors also developed evaluation criteria and the procedure of using the results for introduction of control method of bending vibration parameters of passenger car bodies.

  19. General analytical procedure for determination of acidity parameters of weak acids and bases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilarski, Bogusław; Kaliszan, Roman; Wyrzykowski, Dariusz; Młodzianowski, Janusz; Balińska, Agata

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents a new convenient, inexpensive, and reagent-saving general methodology for the determination of pK a values for components of the mixture of diverse chemical classes weak organic acids and bases in water solution, without the need to separate individual analytes. The data obtained from simple pH-metric microtitrations are numerically processed into reliable pK a values for each component of the mixture. Excellent agreement has been obtained between the determined pK a values and the reference literature data for compounds studied.

  20. DETERMINATION ALGORITHM OF OPTIMAL GEOMETRICAL PARAMETERS FOR COMPONENTS OF FREIGHT CARS ON THE BASIS OF GENERALIZED MATHEMATICAL MODELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Fomin

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Presentation of features and example of the use of the offered determination algorithm of optimum geometrical parameters for the components of freight cars on the basis of the generalized mathematical models, which is realized using computer. Methodology. The developed approach to search for optimal geometrical parameters can be described as the determination of optimal decision of the selected set of possible variants. Findings. The presented application example of the offered algorithm proved its operation capacity and efficiency of use. Originality. The determination procedure of optimal geometrical parameters for freight car components on the basis of the generalized mathematical models was formalized in the paper. Practical value. Practical introduction of the research results for universal open cars allows one to reduce container of their design and accordingly to increase the carrying capacity almost by100 kg with the improvement of strength characteristics. Taking into account the mass of their park this will provide a considerable economic effect when producing and operating. The offered approach is oriented to the distribution of the software packages (for example Microsoft Excel, which are used by technical services of the most enterprises, and does not require additional capital investments (acquisitions of the specialized programs and proper technical staff training. This proves the correctness of the research direction. The offered algorithm can be used for the solution of other optimization tasks on the basis of the generalized mathematical models.

  1. Edge subdivision and edge multisubdivision versus some domination related parameters in generalized corona graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda Dettlaff

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Given a graph \\(G=(V,E\\, the subdivision of an edge \\(e=uv\\in E(G\\ means the substitution of the edge \\(e\\ by a vertex \\(x\\ and the new edges \\(ux\\ and \\(xv\\. The domination subdivision number of a graph \\(G\\ is the minimum number of edges of \\(G\\ which must be subdivided (where each edge can be subdivided at most once in order to increase the domination number. Also, the domination multisubdivision number of \\(G\\ is the minimum number of subdivisions which must be done in one edge such that the domination number increases. Moreover, the concepts of paired domination and independent domination subdivision (respectively multisubdivision numbers are defined similarly. In this paper we study the domination, paired domination and independent domination (subdivision and multisubdivision numbers of the generalized corona graphs.

  2. ''Sheiva'' : a general purpose multi-parameter data acquisition and processing system at VECC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viyogi, Y.P.; Ganguly, N.K.

    1982-01-01

    A general purpose interactive software to be used with the PDP-15/76 on-line computer at VEC Centre for the acquisition and processing of data in nuclear physics experiments is described. The program can accommodate a maximum of thirty two inputs although the present hardware limits the number of inputs to eight. Particular emphasis is given to the problems of flexibility and ease of operation, memory optimisation and techniques dealing with experimenter-computer interaction. Various graphical methods for one- and two-dimensional data presentation are discussed. Specific problems of particle identification using detector telescopes have been dealt with carefully to handle experiments using several detector telescopes and those involving light particle-heavy particle coincidence studies. Steps needed to tailor this program towards utilisation for special experiments are also described. (author)

  3. Impact of seasonal variation, age and smoking status on human semen parameters: The Massachusetts General Hospital experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zuying; Godfrey-Bailey, Linda; Schiff, Isaac; Hauser, Russ

    2004-01-01

    Background To investigate the relationship of human semen parameters with season, age and smoking status. Methods The present study used data from subjects recruited into an ongoing cross-sectional study on the relationship between environmental agents and semen characteristics. Our population consisted of 306 patients who presented to the Vincent Memorial Andrology Laboratory of Massachusetts General Hospital for semen evaluation. Sperm concentration and motility were measured with computer aided sperm analysis (CASA). Sperm morphology was scored using Tygerberg Kruger strict criteria. Regression analyses were used to investigate the relationships between semen parameters and season, age and smoking status, adjusting for abstinence interval. Results Sperm concentration in the spring was significantly higher than in winter, fall and summer (p seasons. There were no statistically significant relationships between semen parameters and smoking status, though current smokers tended to have lower sperm concentration. We also did not find a statistically significant relationship between age and semen parameters. Conclusions We found seasonal variations in sperm concentration and suggestive evidence of seasonal variation in sperm motility and percent sperm with normal morphology. Although smoking status was not a significant predictor of semen parameters, this may have been due to the small number of current smokers in the study. PMID:15507127

  4. A measurement of social support in epidemiological research: the social experiences checklist tested in a general population in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oostrom, M. A.; Tijhuis, M. A.; de Haes, J. C.; Tempelaar, R.; Kromhout, D.

    1995-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to examine in a general population the psychometric qualities of an instrument designed to measure positive and negative social experiences that had been developed in a clinical setting. DESIGN: The Netherlands monitoring project on cardiovascular disease risk

  5. Epidemiology of mental disability using Indian Disability Evaluation Assessment Scale among general population in an urban area of Puducherry, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, S G; Premarajan, K C; Kattimani, S; Kar, S S

    2018-01-01

    There is paucity of information on epidemiology of mental disability in India. The objective of this study was to assess mental disability, and to study the association between sociodemographic and comorbid chronic conditions with mental disability. This community-based cross-sectional study was conducted among ≥5 years age group in an urban area attached to a Tertiary Care Medical Institute in Puducherry, India. Mental disability was assessed using Indian Disability Evaluation and Assessment Scale. Chronic morbid conditions and other associated factors were collected using pretested questionnaire. Univariate and multiple logistic regression analysis. About 2537 subjects were covered with a response rate of 94.1%. Overall, the prevalence of mental disability was found to be 7.1% (181/2537). Among them, majority had mild mental disability (151, 83.4%), followed by moderate (21, 11.6%), severe (8, 4.4%), and profound (1, 0.6%) mental disability. Univariate analysis showed that age group status, marital status, education level, occupation, family type, religion, hypertension, joint pain, backache, current smoking, current alcohol use, and conflicts were associated with mental disability (P < 0.05). Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that male gender (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] =2.064), widowed status (AOR = 27.022), separated/divorced status (AOR = 16.674), currently married status (AOR = 18.487), being illiterate (AOR = 4.352), having 1st-10th standard education (AOR = 2.531), being in an unskilled (AOR = 0.287) or semiskilled/skilled occupation (AOR = 0.025), belonging to a nuclear family (AOR = 1.816), and absence of family conflicts (AOR = 0.259) were significantly associated with mental disability compared to their counterparts. Mental disability is more common in this area. Males, lesser education level, skilled or unskilled occupation, nuclear family, and conflicts were associated with mental disability after adjusting other variables. Multicentric

  6. Epidemiology of mental disability using Indian Disability Evaluation Assessment Scale among general population in an urban area of Puducherry, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S G Kumar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is paucity of information on epidemiology of mental disability in India. Objective: The objective of this study was to assess mental disability, and to study the association between sociodemographic and comorbid chronic conditions with mental disability. Materials and Methods: This community-based cross-sectional study was conducted among ≥5 years age group in an urban area attached to a Tertiary Care Medical Institute in Puducherry, India. Mental disability was assessed using Indian Disability Evaluation and Assessment Scale. Chronic morbid conditions and other associated factors were collected using pretested questionnaire. Statistical Analysis: Univariate and multiple logistic regression analysis. Results: About 2537 subjects were covered with a response rate of 94.1%. Overall, the prevalence of mental disability was found to be 7.1% (181/2537. Among them, majority had mild mental disability (151, 83.4%, followed by moderate (21, 11.6%, severe (8, 4.4%, and profound (1, 0.6% mental disability. Univariate analysis showed that age group status, marital status, education level, occupation, family type, religion, hypertension, joint pain, backache, current smoking, current alcohol use, and conflicts were associated with mental disability (P < 0.05. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that male gender (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] =2.064, widowed status (AOR = 27.022, separated/divorced status (AOR = 16.674, currently married status (AOR = 18.487, being illiterate (AOR = 4.352, having 1st–10th standard education (AOR = 2.531, being in an unskilled (AOR = 0.287 or semiskilled/skilled occupation (AOR = 0.025, belonging to a nuclear family (AOR = 1.816, and absence of family conflicts (AOR = 0.259 were significantly associated with mental disability compared to their counterparts. Conclusion: Mental disability is more common in this area. Males, lesser education level, skilled or unskilled occupation, nuclear family, and

  7. Optimal capacity and buffer size estimation under Generalized Markov Fluids Models and QoS parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bavio, José; Marrón, Beatriz

    2014-01-01

    Quality of service (QoS) for internet traffic management requires good traffic models and good estimation of sharing network resource. A link of a network processes all traffic and it is designed with certain capacity C and buffer size B. A Generalized Markov Fluid model (GMFM), introduced by Marrón (2011), is assumed for the sources because describes in a versatile way the traffic, allows estimation based on traffic traces, and also consistent effective bandwidth estimation can be done. QoS, interpreted as buffer overflow probability, can be estimated for GMFM through the effective bandwidth estimation and solving the optimization problem presented in Courcoubetis (2002), the so call inf-sup formulas. In this work we implement a code to solve the inf-sup problem and other optimization related with it, that allow us to do traffic engineering in links of data networks to calculate both, minimum capacity required when QoS and buffer size are given or minimum buffer size required when QoS and capacity are given

  8. A generalized Fellner-Schall method for smoothing parameter optimization with application to Tweedie location, scale and shape models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Simon N; Fasiolo, Matteo

    2017-12-01

    We consider the optimization of smoothing parameters and variance components in models with a regular log likelihood subject to quadratic penalization of the model coefficients, via a generalization of the method of Fellner (1986) and Schall (1991). In particular: (i) we generalize the original method to the case of penalties that are linear in several smoothing parameters, thereby covering the important cases of tensor product and adaptive smoothers; (ii) we show why the method's steps increase the restricted marginal likelihood of the model, that it tends to converge faster than the EM algorithm, or obvious accelerations of this, and investigate its relation to Newton optimization; (iii) we generalize the method to any Fisher regular likelihood. The method represents a considerable simplification over existing methods of estimating smoothing parameters in the context of regular likelihoods, without sacrificing generality: for example, it is only necessary to compute with the same first and second derivatives of the log-likelihood required for coefficient estimation, and not with the third or fourth order derivatives required by alternative approaches. Examples are provided which would have been impossible or impractical with pre-existing Fellner-Schall methods, along with an example of a Tweedie location, scale and shape model which would be a challenge for alternative methods, and a sparse additive modeling example where the method facilitates computational efficiency gains of several orders of magnitude. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. © 2017, The Authors Biometrics published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Biometric Society.

  9. Epidemiological factors associated with ESBL- and non ESBL-producing E. coli causing urinary tract infection in general practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertz, Frederik Boëtius; Schønning, Kristian; Rasmussen, Steen Christian; Littauer, Pia; Knudsen, Jenny Dahl; Løbner-Olesen, Anders; Frimodt-Møller, Niels

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate how use of antibiotics precedes the presence of ESBL-producing E.coli in general practice. The authors performed a triple-case-control study where three case groups were individually compared to a single control group of uninfected individuals. Urine samples were prospectively collected and retrospective statistical analyses were done. This study included 98 cases with urinary tract infection (UTI) caused by ESBL-producing E. coli, 174 with antibiotic-resistant (non-ESBL) E. coli, 177 with susceptible E. coli and 200 with culture negative urine samples. Case groups had significantly higher use of antibiotics than the control group within 30 days before infection (p E. coli. Exposure to antibiotics was a risk factor for UTI with E. coli, while prior antibiotic usage was not an indisputable predictor for infection with ESBL-producing E.coli in general practice.

  10. The Geography of Mental Health and General Wellness in Galveston Bay After Hurricane Ike: A Spatial Epidemiologic Study With Longitudinal Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruebner, Oliver; Lowe, Sarah R; Tracy, Melissa; Cerdá, Magdalena; Joshi, Spruha; Norris, Fran H; Galea, Sandro

    2016-04-01

    To demonstrate a spatial epidemiologic approach that could be used in the aftermath of disasters to (1) detect spatial clusters and (2) explore geographic heterogeneity in predictors for mental health and general wellness. We used a cohort study of Hurricane Ike survivors (n=508) to assess the spatial distribution of postdisaster mental health wellness (most likely resilience trajectory for posttraumatic stress symptoms [PTSS] and depression) and general wellness (most likely resilience trajectory for PTSS, depression, functional impairment, and days of poor health) in Galveston, Texas. We applied the spatial scan statistic (SaTScan) and geographically weighted regression. We found spatial clusters of high likelihood wellness in areas north of Texas City and spatial concentrations of low likelihood wellness in Galveston Island. Geographic variation was found in predictors of wellness, showing increasing associations with both forms of wellness the closer respondents were located to Galveston City in Galveston Island. Predictors for postdisaster wellness may manifest differently across geographic space with concentrations of lower likelihood wellness and increased associations with predictors in areas of higher exposure. Our approach could be used to inform geographically targeted interventions to promote mental health and general wellness in disaster-affected communities.

  11. Robust Adaptive Sliding Mode Control for Generalized Function Projective Synchronization of Different Chaotic Systems with Unknown Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuchun Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available When the parameters of both drive and response systems are all unknown, an adaptive sliding mode controller, strongly robust to exotic perturbations, is designed for realizing generalized function projective synchronization. Sliding mode surface is given and the controlled system is asymptotically stable on this surface with the passage of time. Based on the adaptation laws and Lyapunov stability theory, an adaptive sliding controller is designed to ensure the occurrence of the sliding motion. Finally, numerical simulations are presented to verify the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed method even when both drive and response systems are perturbed with external disturbances.

  12. The epidemiological profile of pediatric patients admitted to the general intensive care unit in an Ethiopian university hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abebe T

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Teshome Abebe, Mullu Girmay, Girma G/Michael, Million Tesfaye Department of Anesthesia, Jimma University, Jimma, Ethiopia Background: In least developing countries, there are few data on children's critical care. This makes the provision of aid and improvement of outcome difficult. Objectives: To describe admission and outcome patterns of children managed in a general intensive care unit at Jimma University Specialized Hospital (JUSH, Ethiopia, over a 5-year period. Methods: A retrospective cross-sectional study design was used. All children from birth to 14 years of age who were admitted to the general ICU of the hospital from 2009–2013 were included. Patient charts and ICU documentation log were reviewed. Results: A total of 170 children were admitted to the ICU of JUSH over the study period. The greater share was taken by males (54.7%, with a male-to-female ratio of 1.2:1. The overall mortality rate was 40%. The majority of the children were in the age range of 10–14 years (38.8%. Of the total number of patients admitted, 34.7% were trauma cases, 45.8% of whom died. The highest percentage, 69.5%, of trauma patients were admitted for head injuries. Among the trauma cases, burn and polytrauma were the second and third leading causes (15.3% of admission. Postoperative patients and medical patients accounted for the rest of the admitted cases (28.2% and 27.6% of the cases respectively. Conclusion: The leading cause of admission and death was trauma. Postoperative and medical causes of admission were also significant. The mortality rate in the ICU was very high, and this could be due to various factors. Further research benchmarking and interventions are highly recommended. Keywords: trauma, critical care, pediatric, ICU, ventilation, oxygenation

  13. Deriving amplification factors from simple site parameters using generalized regression neural networks: implications for relevant site proxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudghene Stambouli, Ahmed; Zendagui, Djawad; Bard, Pierre-Yves; Derras, Boumédiène

    2017-07-01

    Most modern seismic codes account for site effects using an amplification factor (AF) that modifies the rock acceleration response spectra in relation to a "site condition proxy," i.e., a parameter related to the velocity profile at the site under consideration. Therefore, for practical purposes, it is interesting to identify the site parameters that best control the frequency-dependent shape of the AF. The goal of the present study is to provide a quantitative assessment of the performance of various site condition proxies to predict the main AF features, including the often used short- and mid-period amplification factors, Fa and Fv, proposed by Borcherdt (in Earthq Spectra 10:617-653, 1994). In this context, the linear, viscoelastic responses of a set of 858 actual soil columns from Japan, the USA, and Europe are computed for a set of 14 real accelerograms with varying frequency contents. The correlation between the corresponding site-specific average amplification factors and several site proxies (considered alone or as multiple combinations) is analyzed using the generalized regression neural network (GRNN). The performance of each site proxy combination is assessed through the variance reduction with respect to the initial amplification factor variability of the 858 profiles. Both the whole period range and specific short- and mid-period ranges associated with the Borcherdt factors Fa and Fv are considered. The actual amplification factor of an arbitrary soil profile is found to be satisfactorily approximated with a limited number of site proxies (4-6). As the usual code practice implies a lower number of site proxies (generally one, sometimes two), a sensitivity analysis is conducted to identify the "best performing" site parameters. The best one is the overall velocity contrast between underlying bedrock and minimum velocity in the soil column. Because these are the most difficult and expensive parameters to measure, especially for thick deposits, other

  14. Epidemiological profile of Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome in a general population younger than 50 years of age in an era of radiofrequency catheter ablation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chun-Wei; Wu, Mei-Hwan; Chen, Hui-Chi; Kao, Feng-Yu; Huang, San-Kuei

    2014-07-01

    The prevalence of Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome varies between 0.68 and 1.7/1000. The epidemiological profile may be modified after the introduction of transcatheter interventions. The aim of this study is to investigate the epidemiological trends of the WPW syndrome in a general population during a period with available and reimbursed transcatheter ablation. Data of WPW patients <50 years old were retrieved from our national database (2000-2010). We identified 6086 (61% male) patients, accounting for an overall prevalence of 0.36/1000 with a peak of 0.61/1000 in ages 20-24 years. The risk of death and sudden death was 0.071% and 0.02% per patient-year, respectively. The 42 deaths occurred at a median age of 29 years. Associated congenial heart disease was noted in 158 (2.6%) patients, including 42 with Ebstein's anomaly that increased the mortality risk (P=0.001, OR=8.5). In those without congenital heart disease, myocardial dysfunction occurred in 115 (1.9%) patients and increased the risk of death (P<0.001, OR=10.6) and sudden death. Radiofrequency catheter ablation was performed in 2527 patients at a median age of 25.7 years (4.54% per patient-year, discharge mortality 0.16%); 11 (0.4%) before the age of 5, and 2231 (88%) after the age of 15. Whereas repeated ablation procedures accounted for 6.0% of the procedures, those in Ebstein's patients were 25%. Radiofrequency catheter ablation is already a common treatment for WPW patients, particularly during young adulthood, which accounts for a lower prevalence. Myocardial dysfunction and associated congenital heart disease remain as risks of mortality. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Image Denoising via Bayesian Estimation of Statistical Parameter Using Generalized Gamma Density Prior in Gaussian Noise Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittisuwan, Pichid

    2015-03-01

    The application of image processing in industry has shown remarkable success over the last decade, for example, in security and telecommunication systems. The denoising of natural image corrupted by Gaussian noise is a classical problem in image processing. So, image denoising is an indispensable step during image processing. This paper is concerned with dual-tree complex wavelet-based image denoising using Bayesian techniques. One of the cruxes of the Bayesian image denoising algorithms is to estimate the statistical parameter of the image. Here, we employ maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimation to calculate local observed variance with generalized Gamma density prior for local observed variance and Laplacian or Gaussian distribution for noisy wavelet coefficients. Evidently, our selection of prior distribution is motivated by efficient and flexible properties of generalized Gamma density. The experimental results show that the proposed method yields good denoising results.

  16. Hepatitis B virus infections and risk factors among the general population in Anhui Province, China: an epidemiological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Xiaoqing

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatitis B is one of the most common infectious diseases in China. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg among the general population and the risk factors associated with HBV infection in Anhui province, China. Methods A provincial serosurvey was conducted in four cities, and selected through stratified clustering sampling. Data on demographics, immunization history, medical history, family medical history, and life history were collected, along with serum tested for HBsAg. Completed surveys were analysed from 8,875 participants. Results Overall prevalence of HBsAg was 7.44%. Using multivariate analysis, older age was a risk factor for HBsAg infection among children younger than 15 years. Among adults 15-59 years old, the risk factors were male gender, a history of surgical operations, at least one HBsAg-positive family member, and non-vaccination. For adults older than 59 years, the risk factor was a blood transfusion history. Conclusions Though Anhui province has already reached the national goal of reducing HBsAg prevalence to less than 1% among children younger than 5 years, there are still several risk factors for HBsAg infection among the older population. Immunization programs should continue to focus on adults, and interventions should be taken to reduce risk factors associated with being infected with Hepatitis B.

  17. Admission of foreign citizens to the general teaching hospital of Bologna, northeastern Italy: an epidemiological and clinical survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbatani, Sergio; Baldi, Elena; Manfredi, Roberto; Chiodo, Francesco

    2006-04-01

    The emergency regarding recent immigration waves into Italy makes continued healthcare monitoring of these populations necessary. Through a survey of hospital admissions carried out during the last five years at the S. Orsola-Malpighi General Hospital of Bologna (Italy), all causes of admission of these subjects were evaluated, together with their correlates. Subsequently, we focused on admissions due to infectious diseases. All available data regarding foreign citizens admitted as inpatients or in Day-Hospital settings of our teaching hospital from January 1, 1999, to March 31, 2004, were assessed. Diagnosis-related group (DRG) features, and single discharge diagnoses, were also evaluated, and a further assessment of infectious diseases was subsequently made. Within a comprehensive pool of 339,051 hospitalized patients, foreign citizen discharges numbered 7,312 (2.15%), including 2,542 males (34.8%) and 4,769 females (65.2%). Males had a mean age of 36.8+/-14.7 years, while females were aged 30.8+/-12.2 years. In the assessment of the areas of origin, 34.6% of hospitalizations were attributed to patients coming from Eastern Europe, 15.3% from Northern Africa, 7.3% (comprehensively) from Western Europe and United States, 6.9% from the Indian subcontinent, 5.9% from sub-Saharan Africa, 5.7% from Latin America, 4.1% from China, 2.5% from the Philippines, and 1.1% from the Middle East. Among women, most hospitalizations (58.8%) were due to obstetrical-gynecological procedures or diseases, including assistance with delivery (27.1%), and pregnancy complications (18.7%), followed by psycho-social disturbances (5.9%), malignancies (5.1%), gastrointestinal diseases (4.7%), and voluntary pregnancy interruption (4.4%). Among men, the most frequent causes of admissions were related to trauma (15.9%), followed by gastroenteric disorders (12%), heart-vascular diseases (8.9%), psycho-social disorders (8.4%), respiratory (7.1%), kidney (6.1%), liver (5.2%), and metabolic (4

  18. Admission of foreign citizens to the general teaching hospital of bologna, northeastern Italy: An epidemiological and clinical survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Sabbatani

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The emergency regarding recent immigration waves into Italy makes continued healthcare monitoring of these populations necessary. METHODS: Through a survey of hospital admissions carried out during the last five years at the S. Orsola-Malpighi General Hospital of Bologna (Italy, all causes of admission of these subjects were evaluated, together with their correlates. Subsequently, we focused on admissions due to infectious diseases. All available data regarding foreign citizens admitted as inpatients or in Day-Hospital settings of our teaching hospital from January 1, 1999, to March 31, 2004, were assessed. Diagnosis-related group (DRG features, and single discharge diagnoses, were also evaluated, and a further assessment of infectious diseases was subsequently made. RESULTS: Within a comprehensive pool of 339,051 hospitalized patients, foreign citizen discharges numbered 7,312 (2.15%, including 2,542 males (34.8% and 4,769 females (65.2%. Males had a mean age of 36.8±14.7 years, while females were aged 30.8±12.2 years. In the assessment of the areas of origin, 34.6% of hospitalizations were attributed to patients coming from Eastern Europe, 15.3% from Northern Africa, 7.3% (comprehensively from Western Europe and United States, 6.9% from the Indian subcontinent, 5.9% from sub-Saharan Africa, 5.7% from Latin America, 4.1% from China, 2.5% from the Philippines, and 1.1% from the Middle East. Among women, most hospitalizations (58.8% were due to obstetrical-gynecological procedures or diseases, including assistance with delivery (27.1%, and pregnancy complications (18.7%, followed by psycho-social disturbances (5.9%, malignancies (5.1%, gastrointestinal diseases (4.7%, and voluntary pregnancy interruption (4.4%. Among men, the most frequent causes of admissions were related to trauma (15.9%, followed by gastroenteric disorders (12%, heart-vascular diseases (8.9%, psycho-social disorders (8.4%, respiratory (7.1%, kidney (6.1%, liver

  19. Sex hormones and quantitative ultrasound parameters at the heel in men and women from the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pätzug, Konrad; Friedrich, Nele; Kische, Hanna; Hannemann, Anke; Völzke, Henry; Nauck, Matthias; Keevil, Brian G; Haring, Robin

    2017-12-01

    The present study investigates potential associations between liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) measured sex hormones, dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) and bone ultrasound parameters at the heel in men and women from the general population. Data from 502 women and 425 men from the population-based Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP-TREND) were used. Cross-sectional associations of sex hormones including testosterone (TT), calculated free testosterone (FT), dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS), androstenedione (ASD), estrone (E1) and SHBG with quantitative ultrasound (QUS) parameters at the heel, including broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA), speed of sound (SOS) and stiffness index (SI) were examined by analysis of variance (ANOVA) and multivariable quantile regression models. Multivariable regression analysis showed a sex-specific inverse association of DHEAS with SI in men (Beta per SI unit = - 3.08, standard error (SE) = 0.88), but not in women (Beta = - 0.01, SE = 2.09). Furthermore, FT was positively associated with BUA in men (Beta per BUA unit = 29.0, SE = 10.1). None of the other sex hormones (ASD, E1) or SHBG was associated with QUS parameters after multivariable adjustment. This cross-sectional population-based study revealed independent associations of DHEAS and FT with QUS parameters in men, suggesting a potential influence on male bone metabolism. The predictive role of DHEAS and FT as a marker for osteoporosis in men warrants further investigation in clinical trials and large-scale observational studies.

  20. Epidemiology: Then and Now.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuller, Lewis H

    2016-03-01

    Twenty-five years ago, on the 75th anniversary of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, I noted that epidemiologic research was moving away from the traditional approaches used to investigate "epidemics" and their close relationship with preventive medicine. Twenty-five years later, the role of epidemiology as an important contribution to human population research, preventive medicine, and public health is under substantial pressure because of the emphasis on "big data," phenomenology, and personalized medical therapies. Epidemiology is the study of epidemics. The primary role of epidemiology is to identify the epidemics and parameters of interest of host, agent, and environment and to generate and test hypotheses in search of causal pathways. Almost all diseases have a specific distribution in relation to time, place, and person and specific "causes" with high effect sizes. Epidemiology then uses such information to develop interventions and test (through clinical trials and natural experiments) their efficacy and effectiveness. Epidemiology is dependent on new technologies to evaluate improved measurements of host (genomics), epigenetics, identification of agents (metabolomics, proteomics), new technology to evaluate both physical and social environment, and modern methods of data collection. Epidemiology does poorly in studying anything other than epidemics and collections of numerators and denominators without specific hypotheses even with improved statistical methodologies. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Role of the parameters involved in the plan optimization based on the generalized equivalent uniform dose and radiobiological implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Widesott, L; Strigari, L; Pressello, M C; Landoni, V; Benassi, M

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the role and the weight of the parameters involved in the intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) optimization based on the generalized equivalent uniform dose (gEUD) method, for prostate and head-and-neck plans. We systematically varied the parameters (gEUD max and weight) involved in the gEUD-based optimization of rectal wall and parotid glands. We found that the proper value of weight factor, still guaranteeing planning treatment volumes coverage, produced similar organs at risks dose-volume (DV) histograms for different gEUD max with fixed a = 1. Most of all, we formulated a simple relation that links the reference gEUD max and the associated weight factor. As secondary objective, we evaluated plans obtained with the gEUD-based optimization and ones based on DV criteria, using the normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) models. gEUD criteria seemed to improve sparing of rectum and parotid glands with respect to DV-based optimization: the mean dose, the V 40 and V 50 values to the rectal wall were decreased of about 10%, the mean dose to parotids decreased of about 20-30%. But more than the OARs sparing, we underlined the halving of the OARs optimization time with the implementation of the gEUD-based cost function. Using NTCP models we enhanced differences between the two optimization criteria for parotid glands, but no for rectum wall

  2. Order parameter free enhanced sampling of the vapor-liquid transition using the generalized replica exchange method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Qing; Kim, Jaegil; Straub, John E

    2013-03-14

    The generalized Replica Exchange Method (gREM) is extended into the isobaric-isothermal ensemble, and applied to simulate a vapor-liquid phase transition in Lennard-Jones fluids. Merging an optimally designed generalized ensemble sampling with replica exchange, gREM is particularly well suited for the effective simulation of first-order phase transitions characterized by "backbending" in the statistical temperature. While the metastable and unstable states in the vicinity of the first-order phase transition are masked by the enthalpy gap in temperature replica exchange method simulations, they are transformed into stable states through the parameterized effective sampling weights in gREM simulations, and join vapor and liquid phases with a succession of unimodal enthalpy distributions. The enhanced sampling across metastable and unstable states is achieved without the need to identify a "good" order parameter for biased sampling. We performed gREM simulations at various pressures below and near the critical pressure to examine the change in behavior of the vapor-liquid phase transition at different pressures. We observed a crossover from the first-order phase transition at low pressure, characterized by the backbending in the statistical temperature and the "kink" in the Gibbs free energy, to a continuous second-order phase transition near the critical pressure. The controlling mechanisms of nucleation and continuous phase transition are evident and the coexistence properties and phase diagram are found in agreement with literature results.

  3. Generalized Dependence of Semi-Microscopic Folding-Model Parameters for Alpha-Particles in the Field of Low and Medium Energy

    CERN Document Server

    Kuterbekov, K A; Penionzhkevich, Yu E; Zholdybaev, T K

    2003-01-01

    Energy and mass dependences of the semi-microscopic alpha-particle potential parameters have been investigated for the first time. In general, a good description of elastic and inelastic differential and total reaction cross sections for different nuclei using the revealed global parameters has been obtained within the framework of semi-microscopic approaches.

  4. Posture with elevated and extended thorax. The influence of the position on some haemodynamic and ventilatory parameters under general anaesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Videbaek, F

    1980-12-01

    The effects of a change in posture from flat supine to supine with elevated and extended thorax have been investigated in 12 healthy patients under general anaesthesia prior to elective surgery on the stomach. The following parameters were measured: pulse rate, mean arterial blood pressure (MABP), central venous pressure (CVP), ventilation pressure, oesophageal pressure, and arterial oxygen and carbon dioxide tensions. Changes were measured as deviations from initial values before the change of position at 4 and 15 min after the change. One patient (8%) had a 31% fall in MABP and a 87% fall in CVP, requiring treatment outside the standard procedure, but acceptable values were obtained by simple means. Eleven patients showed only minor changes: a mean initial rise in pulse rate of 10% and a fall in CVP of 25%, after which the pulse rate returned to the initial level and the CVP remained stable. MABP was unchanged, as were ventilation pressure, oesophageal pressure and gas tensions. On the basis of reports in the literature and findings in this study, it is concluded that otherwise healthy patients tolerate the posture well, the slight risk of haemodynamic complications being outweighed by the surgical advantages. This posture should be used with caution in patients who may be haemodynamically unable to compensate.

  5. Smallest detectable change and test-retest reliability of a self-reported outcome measure: Results of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, General Self-Efficacy Scale, and 12-item General Health Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, Shotaro; Takahashi, Kana; Inoue, Aimi; Takada, Koki; Ishihara, Yoshiaki; Tanigawa, Masaru; Hirao, Kazuki

    2017-12-01

    This study aims to examine the smallest detectable change (SDC) and test-retest reliability of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), General Self-Efficacy Scale (GSES), and 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12). We tested 154 young adults at baseline and 2 weeks later. We calculated the intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs) for test-retest reliability with a two-way random effects model for agreement. We then calculated the standard error of measurement (SEM) for agreement using the ICC formula. The SEM for agreement was used to calculate SDC values at the individual level (SDC ind ) and group level (SDC group ). The study participants included 137 young adults. The ICCs for all self-reported outcome measurement scales exceeded 0.70. The SEM of CES-D was 3.64, leading to an SDC ind of 10.10 points and SDC group of 0.86 points. The SEM of GSES was 1.56, leading to an SDC ind of 4.33 points and SDC group of 0.37 points. The SEM of GHQ-12 with bimodal scoring was 1.47, leading to an SDC ind of 4.06 points and SDC group of 0.35 points. The SEM of GHQ-12 with Likert scoring was 2.44, leading to an SDC ind of 6.76 points and SDC group of 0.58 points. To confirm that the change was not a result of measurement error, a score of self-reported outcome measurement scales would need to change by an amount greater than these SDC values. This has important implications for clinicians and epidemiologists when assessing outcomes. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Clinical epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, S W; Bonnett, B

    1987-06-01

    Rational clinical practice requires deductive particularization of diagnostic findings, prognoses, and therapeutic responses from groups of animals (herds) to the individual animal (herd) under consideration This process utilizes concepts, skills, and methods of epidemiology, as they relate to the study of the distribution and determinants of health and disease in populations, and casts them in a clinical perspective.We briefly outline diagnostic strategies and introduce a measure of agreement, called kappa, between clinical diagnoses. This statistic is useful not only as a measure of diagnostic accuracy, but also as a means of quantifying and understanding disagreement between diagnosticians. It is disconcerting to many, clinicians included, that given a general deficit of data on sensitivity and specificity, the level of agreement between many clinical diagnoses is only moderate at best with kappa values of 0.3 to 0.6.Sensitivity, specificity, pretest odds, and posttest probability of disease are defined and related to the interpretation of clinical findings and ancillary diagnostic test results. An understanding of these features and how they relate to ruling-in or ruling-out a diagnosis, or minimizzing diagnostic errors will greatly enhance the diagnostic accuracy of the practitioner, and reduce the frequency of clinical disagreement. The approach of running multiple tests on every patient is not only wasteful and expensive, it is unlikely to improve the ability of the clinician to establish the correct diagnosis.We conclude with a discussion of how to decide on the best therapy, a discussion which centers on, and outlines the key features of, the well designed clinical trial. Like a diagnosis, the results from a clinical trial may not always be definitive, nonetheless it is the best available method of gleaning information about treatment efficacy.

  7. Advances in radiation epidemiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boice, J.

    1997-01-01

    The 1994 UNSCEAR report provides an informative review of radiation epidemiology. During the past 2 years there have been several major advances in our understanding of radiation effects based on new studies of atomic bomb survivors in Japan, of patients given diagnostic and therapeutic radiation (including iodine-131), of workers occupationally exposed, and of general populations exposed to residential radon. Laboratory approaches are also being incorporated into epidemiological investigations to learn more about the biological mechanism by which radiation causes cancer in man. (author)

  8. Competitive Modes for the Detection of Chaotic Parameter Regimes in the General Chaotic Bilinear System of Lorenz Type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallory, Kristina; van Gorder, Robert A.

    We study chaotic behavior of solutions to the bilinear system of Lorenz type developed by Celikovsky and Vanecek [1994] through an application of competitive modes. This bilinear system of Lorenz type is one possible canonical form holding the Lorenz equation as a special case. Using a competitive modes analysis, which is a completely analytical method allowing one to identify parameter regimes for which chaos may occur, we are able to demonstrate a number of parameter regimes which admit a variety of distinct chaotic behaviors. Indeed, we are able to draw some interesting conclusions which relate the behavior of the mode frequencies arising from writing the state variables for the Celikovsky-Vanecek model as coupled oscillators, and the types of emergent chaotic behaviors observed. The competitive modes analysis is particularly useful if all but one of the model parameters are fixed, and the remaining free parameter is used to modify the chaos observed, in a manner analogous to a bifurcation parameter. Through a thorough application of the method, we are able to identify several parameter regimes which give new dynamics (such as specific forms of chaos) which were not observed or studied previously in the Celikovsky-Vanecek model. Therefore, the results demonstrate the advantage of the competitive modes approach for detecting new parameter regimes leading to chaos in third-order dynamical systems.

  9. Epidemiological causality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morabia, Alfredo

    2005-01-01

    Epidemiological methods, which combine population thinking and group comparisons, can primarily identify causes of disease in populations. There is therefore a tension between our intuitive notion of a cause, which we want to be deterministic and invariant at the individual level, and the epidemiological notion of causes, which are invariant only at the population level. Epidemiologists have given heretofore a pragmatic solution to this tension. Causal inference in epidemiology consists in checking the logical coherence of a causality statement and determining whether what has been found grossly contradicts what we think we already know: how strong is the association? Is there a dose-response relationship? Does the cause precede the effect? Is the effect biologically plausible? Etc. This approach to causal inference can be traced back to the English philosophers David Hume and John Stuart Mill. On the other hand, the mode of establishing causality, devised by Jakob Henle and Robert Koch, which has been fruitful in bacteriology, requires that in every instance the effect invariably follows the cause (e.g., inoculation of Koch bacillus and tuberculosis). This is incompatible with epidemiological causality which has to deal with probabilistic effects (e.g., smoking and lung cancer), and is therefore invariant only for the population.

  10. Correction: General optimization procedure towards the design of a new family of minimal parameter spin-component-scaled double-hybrid density functional theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roch, Loïc M; Baldridge, Kim K

    2018-02-07

    Correction for 'General optimization procedure towards the design of a new family of minimal parameter spin-component-scaled double-hybrid density functional theory' by Loïc M. Roch and Kim K. Baldridge, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2017, 19, 26191-26200.

  11. A null-parameter formula for storage-evapotranspiration relationship based on generalized proportionality hypothesis and its applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, P. F.; Wang, X. S.; Istanbulluoglu, E.

    2017-12-01

    Different formulas have been developed to estimate the mean annual evapotranspiration ratio (E/P) at catchment scale from the mean annual aridity index (Ep/P) based on the Budyko framework. A major challenge in using the Budyko framework for the inter-annual behaviors of a catchment is the missed storage in these formulas. Efforts have been contributed to modify the formulas for estimating the annual E/P from both of the annual Ep/P and the change in storage, leading to a significant increase in the number of empirical parameters. In this paper we develop a null-parameter formula of the storage-evapotranspiration relationship based on a new interpretation of the proportionality hypothesis, which takes the storage in the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum (SPAC) as the accessible water for the evapotranspiration processes. According to the formula, the annual E/P depends on the annual Ep/P and S/P values where S is the initial SPAC storage in a year. The difference between the S values of two years represents the inter-annual change in storage in the SPAC system. An annual water balance model including groundwater storage for a basin is required to estimate the annual runoff and S/P from year to year. We develop a tri-parameters model using this null-parameter formula to minimize the number of parameters and successfully applied to investigate the NLRB basin in Nebraska, USA. For mean annual water balance, the tri-parameters model results in one-parameter formulas to estimate both of the mean annual E/P and S/P so that the status of storage can be included in the Budyko framework. The tri-parameters model is further extended to a twin-zones model for the effect of irrigation in croplands and applied to reconstruct the hydrological behaviors in the natural state for 12 catchments in Illinois, USA, with different cropland areas. It is found in the Illinois examples (where Ep/P is less than 2) that the annual E/P increases with the increasing Ep/P almost in a linear

  12. Sex hormones and quantitative ultrasound parameters at the heel in men and women from the general population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konrad Pätzug

    2017-12-01

    Conclusions: This cross-sectional population-based study revealed independent associations of DHEAS and FT with QUS parameters in men, suggesting a potential influence on male bone metabolism. The predictive role of DHEAS and FT as a marker for osteoporosis in men warrants further investigation in clinical trials and large-scale observational studies.

  13. Generalizing the order and the parameters of macro-operators by explanation-based learning - Extension of Explanation-Based Learning on Partial Order

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Huihua

    1992-01-01

    The traditional generalization methods such as FIKE's macro-operator learning and Explanation-Based Learning (EBL) deal with totally ordered plans. They generalize only the plan operators and the conditions under which the generalized plan can be applied in its initial total order, but not the partial order among operators in which the generalized plan can be successfully executed. In this paper, we extend the notion of the EBL on the partial order of plans. A new method is presented for learning, from a totally or partially ordered plan, partially ordered macro-operators (generalized plans) each of which requires a set of the weakest conditions for its reuse. It is also valuable for generalizing partially ordered plans. The operators are generalized in the FIKE's triangle table. We introduce the domain axioms to generate the constraints for the consistency of generalized states. After completing the triangle table with the information concerning the operator destructions (interactions), we obtain the global explanation of the partial order on the operators. Then, we represent all the necessary ordering relations by a directed graph. The exploitation of this graph permits to explicate the dependence between the partial orders and the constraints among the parameters of generalized operators, and allows all the solutions to be obtained. (author) [fr

  14. The generalized fracture criteria based on the multi-parameter representation of the crack tip stress field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanova, L. V.

    2017-12-01

    The paper is devoted to the multi-parameter asymptotic description of the stress field near the crack tip of a finite crack in an infinite isotropic elastic plane medium subject to 1) tensile stress; 2) in-plane shear; 3) mixed mode loading for a wide range of mode-mixity situations (Mode I and Mode II). The multi-parameter series expansion of stress tensor components containing higher-order terms is obtained. All the coefficients of the multiparameter series expansion of the stress field are given. The main focus is on the discussion of the influence of considering the higher-order terms of the Williams expansion. The analysis of the higher-order terms in the stress field is performed. It is shown that the larger the distance from the crack tip, the more terms it is necessary to keep in the asymptotic series expansion. Therefore, it can be concluded that several more higher-order terms of the Williams expansion should be used for the stress field description when the distance from the crack tip is not small enough. The crack propagation direction angle is calculated. Two fracture criteria, the maximum tangential stress criterion and the strain energy density criterion, are used. The multi-parameter form of the two commonly used fracture criteria is introduced and tested. Thirty and more terms of the Williams series expansion for the near-crack-tip stress field enable the angle to be calculated more precisely.

  15. Distributed Time-Varying Formation Robust Tracking for General Linear Multiagent Systems With Parameter Uncertainties and External Disturbances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Yongzhao; Dong, Xiwang; Li, Qingdong; Ren, Zhang

    2017-05-18

    This paper investigates the time-varying formation robust tracking problems for high-order linear multiagent systems with a leader of unknown control input in the presence of heterogeneous parameter uncertainties and external disturbances. The followers need to accomplish an expected time-varying formation in the state space and track the state trajectory produced by the leader simultaneously. First, a time-varying formation robust tracking protocol with a totally distributed form is proposed utilizing the neighborhood state information. With the adaptive updating mechanism, neither any global knowledge about the communication topology nor the upper bounds of the parameter uncertainties, external disturbances and leader's unknown input are required in the proposed protocol. Then, in order to determine the control parameters, an algorithm with four steps is presented, where feasible conditions for the followers to accomplish the expected time-varying formation tracking are provided. Furthermore, based on the Lyapunov-like analysis theory, it is proved that the formation tracking error can converge to zero asymptotically. Finally, the effectiveness of the theoretical results is verified by simulation examples.

  16. CEDR: Comprehensive Epidemiologic Data Resource

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) and its predecessor agencies have a long history of epidemiologic research programs. The main focus of these programs has been the Health and Mortality Study of the DOE work force. This epidemiologic study began in 1964 with a feasibility study of workers at the Hanford facility. Studies of other populations exposed to radiation have also been supported, including the classic epidemiologic study of radium dial painters and studies of atomic bomb survivors. From a scientific perspective, these epidemiologic research program have been productive, highly credible, and formed the bases for many radiological protection standards. Recently, there has been concern that, although research results were available, the data on which these results were based were not easily obtained by interested investigators outside DOE. Therefore, as part of an effort to integrate and broaden access to its epidemiologic information, the DOE has developed the Comprehensive Epidemiologic Data Resource (CEDR) Program. Included in this effort is the development of a computer information system for accessing the collection of CEDR data and its related descriptive information. The epidemiologic data currently available through the CEDAR Program consist of analytic data sets, working data sets, and their associated documentation files. In general, data sets are the result of epidemiologic studies that have been conducted on various groups of workers at different DOE facilities during the past 30 years.

  17. The performance of a prototype device designed to evaluate general quality parameters of X-ray equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, C. H.; Fernandes, D. C.; Lavínia, N. C.; Caldas, L. V. E.; Pires, S. R.; Medeiros, R. B.

    2014-02-01

    The performance of radiological equipment can be assessed using non-invasive methods and portable instruments that can analyze an X-ray beam with just one exposure. These instruments use either an ionization chamber or a state solid detector (SSD) to evaluate X-ray beam parameters. In Brazil, no such instruments are currently being manufactured; consequently, these instruments come at a higher cost to users due to importation taxes. Additionally, quality control tests are time consuming and impose a high workload on the X-ray tubes when evaluating their performance parameters. The assessment of some parameters, such as the half-value layer (HVL), requires several exposures; however, this can be reduced by using a SSD that requires only a single exposure. One such SSD uses photodiodes designed for high X-ray sensitivity without the use of scintillation crystals. This sensitivity allows one electron-hole pair to be created per 3.63 eV of incident energy, resulting in extremely high and stable quantum efficiencies. These silicon photodiodes operate by absorbing photons and generating a flow of current that is proportional to the incident power. The aim of this study was to show the response of the solid sensor PIN RD100A detector in a multifunctional X-ray analysis system that is designed to evaluate the average peak voltage (kVp), exposure time, and HVL of radiological equipment. For this purpose, a prototype board that uses four SSDs was developed to measure kVp, exposure time, and HVL using a single exposure. The reproducibility and accuracy of the results were compared to that of different X-ray beam analysis instruments. The kVp reproducibility and accuracy results were 2% and 3%, respectively; the exposure time reproducibility and accuracy results were 2% and 1%, respectively; and the HVL accuracy was ±2%. The prototype's methodology was able to calculate these parameters with appropriate reproducibility and accuracy. Therefore, the prototype can be considered

  18. The performance of a prototype device designed to evaluate general quality parameters of X-ray equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murata, C.H.; Fernandes, D.C.; Lavínia, N.C.; Caldas, L.V.E; Pires, S.R; Medeiros, R.B.

    2014-01-01

    The performance of radiological equipment can be assessed using non-invasive methods and portable instruments that can analyze an X-ray beam with just one exposure. These instruments use either an ionization chamber or a state solid detector (SSD) to evaluate X-ray beam parameters. In Brazil, no such instruments are currently being manufactured; consequently, these instruments come at a higher cost to users due to importation taxes. Additionally, quality control tests are time consuming and impose a high workload on the X-ray tubes when evaluating their performance parameters. The assessment of some parameters, such as the half-value layer (HVL), requires several exposures; however, this can be reduced by using a SSD that requires only a single exposure. One such SSD uses photodiodes designed for high X-ray sensitivity without the use of scintillation crystals. This sensitivity allows one electron-hole pair to be created per 3.63 eV of incident energy, resulting in extremely high and stable quantum efficiencies. These silicon photodiodes operate by absorbing photons and generating a flow of current that is proportional to the incident power. The aim of this study was to show the response of the solid sensor PIN RD100A detector in a multifunctional X-ray analysis system that is designed to evaluate the average peak voltage (kVp), exposure time, and HVL of radiological equipment. For this purpose, a prototype board that uses four SSDs was developed to measure kVp, exposure time, and HVL using a single exposure. The reproducibility and accuracy of the results were compared to that of different X-ray beam analysis instruments. The kVp reproducibility and accuracy results were 2% and 3%, respectively; the exposure time reproducibility and accuracy results were 2% and 1%, respectively; and the HVL accuracy was ±2%. The prototype's methodology was able to calculate these parameters with appropriate reproducibility and accuracy. Therefore, the prototype can be considered

  19. Optimization of GATE and PHITS Monte Carlo code parameters for uniform scanning proton beam based on simulation with FLUKA general-purpose code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurosu, Keita [Department of Medical Physics and Engineering, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Department of Radiation Oncology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Takashina, Masaaki; Koizumi, Masahiko [Department of Medical Physics and Engineering, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Das, Indra J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN 46202 (United States); Moskvin, Vadim P., E-mail: vadim.p.moskvin@gmail.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN 46202 (United States)

    2014-10-01

    Although three general-purpose Monte Carlo (MC) simulation tools: Geant4, FLUKA and PHITS have been used extensively, differences in calculation results have been reported. The major causes are the implementation of the physical model, preset value of the ionization potential or definition of the maximum step size. In order to achieve artifact free MC simulation, an optimized parameters list for each simulation system is required. Several authors have already proposed the optimized lists, but those studies were performed with a simple system such as only a water phantom. Since particle beams have a transport, interaction and electromagnetic processes during beam delivery, establishment of an optimized parameters-list for whole beam delivery system is therefore of major importance. The purpose of this study was to determine the optimized parameters list for GATE and PHITS using proton treatment nozzle computational model. The simulation was performed with the broad scanning proton beam. The influences of the customizing parameters on the percentage depth dose (PDD) profile and the proton range were investigated by comparison with the result of FLUKA, and then the optimal parameters were determined. The PDD profile and the proton range obtained from our optimized parameters list showed different characteristics from the results obtained with simple system. This led to the conclusion that the physical model, particle transport mechanics and different geometry-based descriptions need accurate customization in planning computational experiments for artifact-free MC simulation.

  20. Optimization of GATE and PHITS Monte Carlo code parameters for uniform scanning proton beam based on simulation with FLUKA general-purpose code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurosu, Keita; Takashina, Masaaki; Koizumi, Masahiko; Das, Indra J.; Moskvin, Vadim P.

    2014-01-01

    Although three general-purpose Monte Carlo (MC) simulation tools: Geant4, FLUKA and PHITS have been used extensively, differences in calculation results have been reported. The major causes are the implementation of the physical model, preset value of the ionization potential or definition of the maximum step size. In order to achieve artifact free MC simulation, an optimized parameters list for each simulation system is required. Several authors have already proposed the optimized lists, but those studies were performed with a simple system such as only a water phantom. Since particle beams have a transport, interaction and electromagnetic processes during beam delivery, establishment of an optimized parameters-list for whole beam delivery system is therefore of major importance. The purpose of this study was to determine the optimized parameters list for GATE and PHITS using proton treatment nozzle computational model. The simulation was performed with the broad scanning proton beam. The influences of the customizing parameters on the percentage depth dose (PDD) profile and the proton range were investigated by comparison with the result of FLUKA, and then the optimal parameters were determined. The PDD profile and the proton range obtained from our optimized parameters list showed different characteristics from the results obtained with simple system. This led to the conclusion that the physical model, particle transport mechanics and different geometry-based descriptions need accurate customization in planning computational experiments for artifact-free MC simulation

  1. Translational Epidemiology in Psychiatry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissman, Myrna M.; Brown, Alan S.; Talati, Ardesheer

    2012-01-01

    Translational research generally refers to the application of knowledge generated by advances in basic sciences research translated into new approaches for diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of disease. This direction is called bench-to-bedside. Psychiatry has similarly emphasized the basic sciences as the starting point of translational research. This article introduces the term translational epidemiology for psychiatry research as a bidirectional concept in which the knowledge generated from the bedside or the population can also be translated to the benches of laboratory science. Epidemiologic studies are primarily observational but can generate representative samples, novel designs, and hypotheses that can be translated into more tractable experimental approaches in the clinical and basic sciences. This bedside-to-bench concept has not been explicated in psychiatry, although there are an increasing number of examples in the research literature. This article describes selected epidemiologic designs, providing examples and opportunities for translational research from community surveys and prospective, birth cohort, and family-based designs. Rapid developments in informatics, emphases on large sample collection for genetic and biomarker studies, and interest in personalized medicine—which requires information on relative and absolute risk factors—make this topic timely. The approach described has implications for providing fresh metaphors to communicate complex issues in interdisciplinary collaborations and for training in epidemiology and other sciences in psychiatry. PMID:21646577

  2. A generalized Zakharov-Shabat equation with finite-band solutions and a soliton-equation hierarchy with an arbitrary parameter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yufeng; Tam, Honwah; Feng Binlu

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → A generalized Zakharov-Shabat equation is obtained. → The generalized AKNS vector fields are established. → The finite-band solution of the g-ZS equation is obtained. → By using a Lie algebra presented in the paper, a new soliton hierarchy with an arbitrary parameter is worked out. - Abstract: In this paper, a generalized Zakharov-Shabat equation (g-ZS equation), which is an isospectral problem, is introduced by using a loop algebra G ∼ . From the stationary zero curvature equation we define the Lenard gradients {g j } and the corresponding generalized AKNS (g-AKNS) vector fields {X j } and X k flows. Employing the nonlinearization method, we obtain the generalized Zhakharov-Shabat Bargmann (g-ZS-B) system and prove that it is Liouville integrable by introducing elliptic coordinates and evolution equations. The explicit relations of the X k flows and the polynomial integrals {H k } are established. Finally, we obtain the finite-band solutions of the g-ZS equation via the Abel-Jacobian coordinates. In addition, a soliton hierarchy and its Hamiltonian structure with an arbitrary parameter k are derived.

  3. General hybrid projective complete dislocated synchronization with non-derivative and derivative coupling based on parameter identification in several chaotic and hyperchaotic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Jun-Wei; Shen Yi; Zhang Guo-Dong; Wang Yan-Feng; Cui Guang-Zhao

    2013-01-01

    According to the Lyapunov stability theorem, a new general hybrid projective complete dislocated synchronization scheme with non-derivative and derivative coupling based on parameter identification is proposed under the framework of drive-response systems. Every state variable of the response system equals the summation of the hybrid drive systems in the previous hybrid synchronization. However, every state variable of the drive system equals the summation of the hybrid response systems while evolving with time in our method. Complete synchronization, hybrid dislocated synchronization, projective synchronization, non-derivative and derivative coupling, and parameter identification are included as its special item. The Lorenz chaotic system, Rössler chaotic system, memristor chaotic oscillator system, and hyperchaotic Lü system are discussed to show the effectiveness of the proposed methods. (general)

  4. Relaxation of structural parameters and potential coefficients of nonrigid molecules. General symmetry properties and application to ab initio study of 1,2-difluoroethane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, T.-K.; Günthard, H. H.

    1989-07-01

    Structural parameters like bond length, bond angles, etc. and harmonic and anharmonic potential coefficients of molecules with internal rotation, inversion or puckering modes are generally assumed to vary with the large amplitude internal coordinates in a concerted manner (relaxation). Taking the coordinate vectors of the nuclear configuration of semirigid molecules with relaxation (SRMRs) as functions of relaxing structural parameters and finite amplitude internal coordinate, the isometric group of SRMRs is discussed and the irreducible representations of the latter are shown to classify into engendered and nonengendered ones. On this basis a concept of equivalent sets of nuclei SRMRs is introduced and an analytical expression is derived which defines the most general functional form of relaxation increments of all common types of structural parameters compatible with isometric symmetry. This formula is shown to be a close analog of an analytical expression defining the transformations induced by the isometric group of infinitesimal internal coordinates associated with typical structural parameters. Furthermore analogous formulae are given for the most general form of the relaxation of harmonic potential coefficients as a function of finite internal coordinates. The general relations are illustrated by ab initio calculations for 1,2-difluoroethane at the MP4/DZP//HF/4-31G* level for twelve values of the dihedral angle including complete structure optimization. The potential to internal rotation is found to be in essential agreement with experimentally derived data. For a complete set of ab initio structural parameters the associated relaxation increments are represented as Fourier series, which are shown to confirm the form predicted by the general formula and the isometric group of 1,2-difluoroethane. Depending on type of the structural parameters (bond length, bond angles, etc.), the associated relaxation increments appear to follow some simple rules. Similarly

  5. Quality and Safety of General Anesthesia with Propofol and Sevoflurane in Children Aged 1-14 Based on Laboratory Parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanis-Vatrenjak, Selma; Mesic, Amira; Abdagic, Ines; Mujezinovic, Djenita; Zvizdic, Zlatan

    2015-08-01

    Knowledge of anatomic, physiological, biochemical and physical characteristics of children of all age groups, the existing illness and possible pathological response of the organism to the existing situation, require a pediatric anesthesiologist to participate in the preparation of a child for surgical treatment, to choose the best anesthesia technique and medications, and manipulative techniques to enable the scheduled surgical treatment with minimum anesthesia risks. The aim of this clinical study was to prove reliability and quality of propofol or sevoflurane general anesthesia in children in the age group of 1-14 years from the ASA I group and in the elective surgical treatments in duration of 60 minutes, based on preoperative and postoperative levels of laboratory findings (transaminases, blood sugar, urea and creatinine). the study included 160 patients randomized in two groups based on different approaches: total intravenous anesthesia was used for the propofol group (n=80) (TIVA) and the inhalation technique was used for the sevoflurane group (n=80). statistical evaluation of the obtained results indicates stability of laboratory findings in the immediate postoperative course (after 24 hours) in respect to the preoperative period. Based on the Mann Whitney test (P), preoperative and postoperative blood sugar levels in the sevoflurane vs. propofol group were P=0.152 vs. 0.021; creatinine levels P=0.113 vs. 0.325; urea levels P= 0.016 vs. 0.900; AST levels P=0,031 vs. 0,268 and ALT levels P=0.021 vs. 0.058. Level of significance was Psecurity and quality of general anesthesia in children age group 1-14 years, from the ASA I group. All analyzed laboratory levels in the postoperative course remained in their referential values in both groups of participants.

  6. Epidemiology and Clinical Parameters of Adult Human ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    [1] Sub-Saharan Africa has remained the most affected region in the global AIDS .... this will invariably affect the future man power and Nigerian economy if nothing is .... well as development of cancers such as Kaposi's sarcoma, lymphoma and ...

  7. Benefit of general anesthesia monitored by bispectral index compared with monitoring guided only by clinical parameters. Systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Rogério Degrandi Oliveira

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: The bispectral index parameter is used to guide the titration of general anesthesia; however, many studies have shown conflicting results regarding the benefits of bispectral index monitoring. The objective of this systematic review with meta-analysis is to evaluate the clinical impact of monitoring with the bispectral index parameter. Methods: The search for evidence in scientific information sources was conducted during December 2013 to January 2015, the following primary databases: Medline/PubMed, LILACS, Cochrane, CINAHL, Ovid, SCOPUS and TESES. The criteria for inclusion in the study were randomized controlled trials, comparing general anesthesia monitored, with bispectral index parameter with anesthesia guided solely by clinical parameters, and patients aged over 18 years. The criteria for exclusion were studies involving anesthesia or sedation for diagnostic procedures, and intraoperative wake-up test for surgery of the spine. Results: The use of monitoring with the bispectral index has shown benefits reducing time to extubation, orientation in time and place, and discharge from both the operating room and post anesthetic care unit. The risk of nausea and vomiting after surgery was reduced by 12% in patients monitored with bispectral index. Occurred a reduction of 3% in the risk of cognitive impairment postoperatively at 3 months postoperatively and 6% reduction in the risk of postoperative delirium in patients monitored with bispectral index. Furthermore, the risk of intraoperative memory has been reduced by 1%. Conclusion: Clinically, anesthesia monitoring with the BIS can be justified because it allows advantages from reducing the recovery time after waking, mainly by reducing the administration of general anesthetics as well as the risk of adverse events.

  8. Exposure to ionizing radiations having a medical origin. Propositions for the implementation and the development of epidemiology surveillance activities in general population; Exposition aux rayonnements ionisants d'origine medicale. Propositions pour la mise en place et le developpement d'activites de surveillance epidemiologique en population generale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-09-01

    This report gives propositions relative to the implementation and the development of epidemiology surveillance activities in general population in relation with medical exposure to ionizing radiations. It is intended for the General Direction of Health and General Direction of Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection. These propositions have been elaborated by a work group coordinated and run by InVS and gathering the following organisms: French Agency of sanitary safety of health products (A.F.S.S.A.P.S.), Center of Quality Assurance of technological applications in the area of health (C.A.A.T.S.), Direction of Hospitals and Care organization (D.H.O.S.), General Direction of Health (D.G.S.), General Direction of Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection (D.G.S.N.R.), National Federation of radiologists physicists (F.N.M.R.), institute of Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety (I.R.S.N.), INSERM 'epidemiology of cancers', French Society of Biology and Nuclear Medicine (S.F.B.M.N.), French Society of Medical Physics (S.F.P.M.), French Society of Radiology (S.F.R.). (N.C.)

  9. Molecular epidemiology and antimicrobial susceptibility of Clostridium difficile isolated from the Chinese People’s Liberation Army General Hospital in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Wang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Clostridium difficile is a Gram-positive, spore-forming obligate anaerobe responsible for antibiotic-associated diarrhoea. Its virulence is associated with the production of endotoxins A and B and endospores, which can cause symptoms, such as diarrhoea, toxic megacolon, and pseudomembranous colitis. Given the increasing elderly population and the well-recognized problem of over-prescribing of broad-spectrum antibiotics, it is critical to have an understanding of molecular epidemiology and antimicrobial susceptibility in China. This study analyzed the toxin types and multilocus sequence typing (MLST results of 74 clinical isolates of C. difficile after the glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH screening test and anaerobic culture. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs of four different antibiotics were determined for all of the isolates, and the bacterial resistance mechanisms were investigated. Sixty-five strains (75% were toxigenic, including 54 tcdA-positive, tcdB-positive, and cdtA/cdtB-negative strains (A+B+CDT− and nine A−B+CDT− strains. Eleven strains (14.9% were non-toxigenic. All clinical isolates were classified into 26 MLST genotypes, with the predominant type being ST-54 (18.9%. All isolates were susceptible to vancomycin. The tetracycline, clindamycin, and levofloxacin resistance rates were 1.4%, 36.5%, and 20.3%, respectively. The expression of tet(M, erm(B, and mutations of gyrA and/or gyrB were observed in the tetracycline-, clindamycin-, and levofloxacin-resistant isolates, respectively.

  10. Oncology. Pt. 1. General part, epidemiology - pathogenesis - basic principles of therapy. 2. upd. ed.; Die Onkologie. T. 1. Allgemeiner Teil, Epidemiologie - Pathogenese - Grundprinzipien der Therapie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiddemann, Wolfgang [Muenchen Univ. Klinikum Grosshadern (Germany). Medizinische Klinik und Poliklinik III; Bartram Claus R. (eds.) [Heidelberg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Humangenetik

    2010-07-01

    The book Oncology is aimed to communicate the compiled knowledge on tumor development and cancer: fundamental knowledge base, practice related know-how for diagnostics and therapy. Part 1 includes the following chapters: epidemiology and pathogenesis, basic principles of diagnostics, basic principles of therapy, complication of malign growth, tumors in the gastrointestinal tract, female genital carcinomas, kidney and urinary tract carcinomas, respiratory tract and lung carcinomas, carcinomas in the head - neck area, bone and soft tissue carcinomas, pediatric tumors, hematological neoplasm, other carcinomas. The book can be used as reference for clinical work. [German] Die gesamte Onkologie - verlaessliches Wissen fuer Ihre Kompetenz. ''Die Onkologie'' stellt sich der Herausforderung, das staendig wachsende Wissen ueber Tumorerkrankungen in seiner Gesamtheit zu vermitteln. Sowohl inhaltlich als auch didaktisch auf hoechsten Niveau: Fundiertes Grundlagenwissen zum umfassenden Nachschlagen Praxisrelevantes Know-how fuer Diagnostik und Therapie Systematischer Aufbau fuer das Verstaendnis der komplexen Zusammenhaenge Die Onkologie - eine Enzyklopaedie der modernen klinischen Tumorlehre. Angesehene Experten aus Klinik, Forschung und Praxis liefern Ihnen in Teil1 klinisches Grundlagenwissen zu den Grundprinzipien der Therapie, Epidemiologie, Aetiologie und Pathogenese, sowie zu Komplikationen des malignen Wachstums. Zum Nachschlagen und Anwenden: finden Sie alle Optionen - auch fuer Ihren schwierigsten Fall. Der uebersichtliche Aufbau und die exzellenten Abbildungen erleichtern Ihnen das schnelle Auffinden und Verstaendnis der gesuchten Informationen. Fuer den Alltag onkologisch taetiger Aerzte ist Die Onkologie ein unentbehrlicher Meilenstein. (orig.)

  11. Mathematical epidemiology

    CERN Document Server

    Driessche, Pauline; Wu, Jianhong

    2008-01-01

    Based on lecture notes of two summer schools with a mixed audience from mathematical sciences, epidemiology and public health, this volume offers a comprehensive introduction to basic ideas and techniques in modeling infectious diseases, for the comparison of strategies to plan for an anticipated epidemic or pandemic, and to deal with a disease outbreak in real time. It covers detailed case studies for diseases including pandemic influenza, West Nile virus, and childhood diseases. Models for other diseases including Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome, fox rabies, and sexually transmitted infections are included as applications. Its chapters are coherent and complementary independent units. In order to accustom students to look at the current literature and to experience different perspectives, no attempt has been made to achieve united writing style or unified notation. Notes on some mathematical background (calculus, matrix algebra, differential equations, and probability) have been prepared and may be downlo...

  12. EPRI epidemiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    A fight is brewing within the electric power community over the fate of a proposed $5 to $8 million epidemiological study of the effects of radiation on US nuclear plant workers. Several industry experts, claiming the project would merely lead to confusion by producing no clear results, are trying to prevent the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) from funding what would be the largest ever occupational study of this kind, covering perhaps as many as 500,000 workers. Ralph Lapp, a well-known radiation physicist, says that EPRI is facing unprecedented technical dissent from within. He claims there is already plenty of evidence that nuclear utilities are among the safest places to work, at least in terms of cancer risk, and that the proposed EPRI study would raise new concerns without yielding any answers

  13. Home care by general practitioners for cancer patients in the last 3 months of life: An epidemiological study of quality and associated factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivodic, Lara; Harding, Richard; Calanzani, Natalia; McCrone, Paul; Hall, Sue; Deliens, Luc; Higginson, Irene J; Gomes, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Background: Stronger generalist end-of-life care at home for people with cancer is called for but the quality of end-of-life care delivered by general practitioners has been questioned. Aim: To determine the degree of and factors associated with bereaved relatives’ satisfaction with home end-of-life care delivered by general practitioners to cancer patients. Design: Population-based mortality followback survey. Setting/participants: Bereaved relatives of people who died of cancer in London, United Kingdom (identified from death registrations in 2009–2010), were invited to complete a postal questionnaire surveying the deceased’s final 3 months of life. Results: Questionnaires were completed for 596 decedents of whom 548 spent at least 1 day at home in the last 3 months of life. Of the respondents, 55% (95% confidence interval: 51%–59%) reported excellent/very good home care by general practitioners, compared with 78% (95% confidence interval: 74%–82%) for specialist palliative care providers and 68% (95% confidence interval: 64%–73%) for district/community/private nurses. The odds of high satisfaction (excellent/very good) with end-of-life care by general practitioners doubled if general practitioners made three or more compared with one or no home visits in the patient’s last 3 months of life (adjusted odds ratio: 2.54 (95% confidence interval: 1.52–4.24)) and halved if the patient died at hospital rather than at home (adjusted odds ratio: 0.55 (95% confidence interval: 0.31–0.998)). Conclusion: There is considerable room for improvement in the satisfaction with home care provided by general practitioners to terminally ill cancer patients. Ensuring an adequate offer of home visits by general practitioners may help to achieve this goal. PMID:26036688

  14. Impact of Material and Architecture Model Parameters on the Failure of Woven Ceramic Matrix Composites (CMCs) via the Multiscale Generalized Method of Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kuang C.; Arnold, Steven M.

    2011-01-01

    It is well known that failure of a material is a locally driven event. In the case of ceramic matrix composites (CMCs), significant variations in the microstructure of the composite exist and their significance on both deformation and life response need to be assessed. Examples of these variations include changes in the fiber tow shape, tow shifting/nesting and voids within and between tows. In the present work, the effects of many of these architectural parameters and material scatter of woven ceramic composite properties at the macroscale (woven RUC) will be studied to assess their sensitivity. The recently developed Multiscale Generalized Method of Cells methodology is used to determine the overall deformation response, proportional elastic limit (first matrix cracking), and failure under tensile loading conditions. The macroscale responses investigated illustrate the effect of architectural and material parameters on a single RUC representing a five harness satin weave fabric. Results shows that the most critical architectural parameter is weave void shape and content with other parameters being less in severity. Variation of the matrix material properties was also studied to illustrate the influence of the material variability on the overall features of the composite stress-strain response.

  15. A new general method for simultaneous fitting of temperature and concentration dependence of reaction rates yields kinetic and thermodynamic parameters for HIV reverse transcriptase specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, An; Ziehr, Jessica L; Johnson, Kenneth A

    2017-04-21

    Recent studies have demonstrated the dominant role of induced fit in enzyme specificity of HIV reverse transcriptase and many other enzymes. However, relevant thermodynamic parameters are lacking, and equilibrium thermodynamic methods are of no avail because the key parameters can only be determined by kinetic measurement. By modifying KinTek Explorer software, we present a new general method for globally fitting data collected over a range of substrate concentrations and temperatures and apply it to HIV reverse transcriptase. Fluorescence stopped-flow methods were used to record the kinetics of enzyme conformational changes that monitor nucleotide binding and incorporation. The nucleotide concentration dependence was measured at temperatures ranging from 5 to 37 °C, and the raw data were fit globally to derive a single set of rate constants at 37 °C and a set of activation enthalpy terms to account for the kinetics at all other temperatures. This comprehensive analysis afforded thermodynamic parameters for nucleotide binding ( K d , Δ G , Δ H , and Δ S at 37 °C) and kinetic parameters for enzyme conformational changes and chemistry (rate constants and activation enthalpy). Comparisons between wild-type enzyme and a mutant resistant to nucleoside analogs used to treat HIV infections reveal that the ground state binding is weaker and the activation enthalpy for the conformational change step is significantly larger for the mutant. Further studies to explore the structural underpinnings of the observed thermodynamics and kinetics of the conformational change step may help to design better analogs to treat HIV infections and other diseases. Our new method is generally applicable to enzyme and chemical kinetics. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  16. Bayesian conjugate analysis using a generalized inverted Wishart distribution accounts for differential uncertainty among the genetic parameters--an application to the maternal animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munilla, S; Cantet, R J C

    2012-06-01

    Consider the estimation of genetic (co)variance components from a maternal animal model (MAM) using a conjugated Bayesian approach. Usually, more uncertainty is expected a priori on the value of the maternal additive variance than on the value of the direct additive variance. However, it is not possible to model such differential uncertainty when assuming an inverted Wishart (IW) distribution for the genetic covariance matrix. Instead, consider the use of a generalized inverted Wishart (GIW) distribution. The GIW is essentially an extension of the IW distribution with a larger set of distinct parameters. In this study, the GIW distribution in its full generality is introduced and theoretical results regarding its use as the prior distribution for the genetic covariance matrix of the MAM are derived. In particular, we prove that the conditional conjugacy property holds so that parameter estimation can be accomplished via the Gibbs sampler. A sampling algorithm is also sketched. Furthermore, we describe how to specify the hyperparameters to account for differential prior opinion on the (co)variance components. A recursive strategy to elicit these parameters is then presented and tested using field records and simulated data. The procedure returned accurate estimates and reduced standard errors when compared with non-informative prior settings while improving the convergence rates. In general, faster convergence was always observed when a stronger weight was placed on the prior distributions. However, analyses based on the IW distribution have also produced biased estimates when the prior means were set to over-dispersed values. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  17. SU-E-T-254: Optimization of GATE and PHITS Monte Carlo Code Parameters for Uniform Scanning Proton Beam Based On Simulation with FLUKA General-Purpose Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurosu, K [Department of Radiation Oncology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka (Japan); Department of Medical Physics ' Engineering, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka (Japan); Takashina, M; Koizumi, M [Department of Medical Physics ' Engineering, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka (Japan); Das, I; Moskvin, V [Department of Radiation Oncology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Monte Carlo codes are becoming important tools for proton beam dosimetry. However, the relationships between the customizing parameters and percentage depth dose (PDD) of GATE and PHITS codes have not been reported which are studied for PDD and proton range compared to the FLUKA code and the experimental data. Methods: The beam delivery system of the Indiana University Health Proton Therapy Center was modeled for the uniform scanning beam in FLUKA and transferred identically into GATE and PHITS. This computational model was built from the blue print and validated with the commissioning data. Three parameters evaluated are the maximum step size, cut off energy and physical and transport model. The dependence of the PDDs on the customizing parameters was compared with the published results of previous studies. Results: The optimal parameters for the simulation of the whole beam delivery system were defined by referring to the calculation results obtained with each parameter. Although the PDDs from FLUKA and the experimental data show a good agreement, those of GATE and PHITS obtained with our optimal parameters show a minor discrepancy. The measured proton range R90 was 269.37 mm, compared to the calculated range of 269.63 mm, 268.96 mm, and 270.85 mm with FLUKA, GATE and PHITS, respectively. Conclusion: We evaluated the dependence of the results for PDDs obtained with GATE and PHITS Monte Carlo generalpurpose codes on the customizing parameters by using the whole computational model of the treatment nozzle. The optimal parameters for the simulation were then defined by referring to the calculation results. The physical model, particle transport mechanics and the different geometrybased descriptions need accurate customization in three simulation codes to agree with experimental data for artifact-free Monte Carlo simulation. This study was supported by Grants-in Aid for Cancer Research (H22-3rd Term Cancer Control-General-043) from the Ministry of Health

  18. A MEASUREMENT OF SOCIAL SUPPORT IN EPIDEMIOLOGIC RESEARCH - THE SOCIAL EXPERIENCES CHECKLIST TESTED IN A GENERAL-POPULATION IN THE NETHERLANDS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANOOSTROM, MA; TIJHUIS, MAR; DEHAES, JCJM; KROMHOUT, D

    1995-01-01

    Study objective - This study aimed to examine in a general population the psychometric qualities of an instrument designed to measure positive and negative social experiences that had been developed in a clinical setting. Design - The Netherlands monitoring project on cardiovascular disease risk

  19. Coccidioidomycosis: epidemiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brown J

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Jennifer Brown,1 Kaitlin Benedict,2 Benjamin J Park,2 George R Thompson III1,31Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of California, Davis Medical Center, Sacramento, CA, USA; 2Mycotic Diseases Branch, Division of Foodborne, Waterborne, and Environmental Diseases, US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA; 3Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, One Shields Avenue, Tupper Hall, Coccidioidomycosis Serology Laboratory, University of California, Davis, CA, USAAbstract: Coccidioidomycosis consists of a spectrum of disease, ranging from a mild, self-limited, febrile illness to severe, life-threatening infection. It is caused by the soil-dwelling fungi, Coccidioides immitis and C. posadasii, which are present in diverse endemic areas. Climate changes and environmental factors affect the Coccidioides lifecycle and influence infection rates. The incidence of coccidioidomycosis has risen substantially over the past two decades. The vast majority of Coccidioides infections occur in the endemic zones, such as California, Arizona, Mexico, and Central America. Infections occurring outside those zones appear to be increasingly common, and pose unique clinical and public health challenges. It has long been known that elderly persons, pregnant women, and members of certain ethnic groups are at risk for severe or disseminated coccidioidomycosis. In recent years, it has become evident that persons with immunodeficiency diseases, diabetics, transplant recipients, and prisoners are also particularly vulnerable.Keywords: coccidioidomycosis, Coccidioides, epidemiology, incidence, risk factors, geography

  20. Worldwide epidemiology of fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queiroz, Luiz Paulo

    2013-08-01

    Studying the epidemiology of fibromyalgia (FM) is very important to understand the impact of this disorder on persons, families and society. The recent modified 2010 classification criteria of the American College of Rheumatology (ACR), without the need of tender points palpation, allows that larger and nationwide surveys may be done, worldwide. This article reviews the prevalence and incidence studies done in the general population, in several countries/continents, the prevalence of FM in special groups/settings, the association of FM with some sociodemographic characteristics of the population, and the comorbidity of FM with others disorders, especially with headaches.

  1. A generalized nonlinear tempeature response function for some growth and developmental parameters in kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa (A. Chev. C. F. Liang & A. R. Ferguson

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Streck Nereu Augusto

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Temperature is a major factor that affects metabolic processes in living organisms. Thermal time has been widely used to account for the effects of temperature on crop growth and development. However, the thermal time approach has been criticized because it assumes a linear relationship between the rate of crop growth or development and temperature. The response of the rate of crop growth and development to temperature is nonlinear. The objective of this study was to develop a generalized nonlinear temperature response function for some growth and developmental parameters in kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa (A. Chev. C. F. Liang & A. R. Ferguson. The nonlinear function has three coefficients (the cardinal temperatures, which were 0ºC, 25ºC, and 40ºC. Data of temperature response of relative growth rate, relative leaf area growth, net photosynthesis rate, and leaf appearance rate in kiwifruit (female cv. Hayward at two light levels, which are from published research, were used as independent data for evaluating the performance of the nonlinear and the thermal time functions. The results showed that the generalized nonlinear response function is better than the thermal time approach, and the temperature response of several growth and developmental parameters in kiwifruit can be described with the same response function.

  2. [Eco-epidemiology: towards epidemiology of complexity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizouarn, Philippe

    2016-05-01

    In order to solve public health problems posed by the epidemiology of risk factors centered on the individual and neglecting the causal processes linking the risk factors with the health outcomes, Mervyn Susser proposed a multilevel epidemiology called eco-epidemiology, addressing the interdependence of individuals and their connection with molecular, individual, societal, environmental levels of organization participating in the causal disease processes. The aim of this epidemiology is to integrate more than a level of organization in design, analysis and interpretation of health problems. After presenting the main criticisms of risk-factor epidemiology focused on the individual, we will try to show how eco-epidemiology and its development could help to understand the need for a broader and integrative epidemiology, in which studies designed to identify risk factors would be balanced by studies designed to answer other questions equally vital to public health. © 2016 médecine/sciences – Inserm.

  3. Epidemiological factors associated with ESBL- and non ESBL-producing E. coli causing urinary tract infection in general practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertz, Frederik Boetius; Schønning, Kristian; Rasmussen, Steen Christian

    2016-01-01

    were prospectively collected and retrospective statistical analyses were done. This study included 98 cases with urinary tract infection (UTI) caused by ESBL-producing E. coli, 174 with antibiotic-resistant (non-ESBL) E. coli, 177 with susceptible E. coli and 200 with culture negative urine samples....... Case groups had significantly higher use of antibiotics than the control group within 30 days before infection (p UTI by ESBL......-producing E. coli. Exposure to antibiotics was a risk factor for UTI with E. coli, while prior antibiotic usage was not an indisputable predictor for infection with ESBL-producing E.coli in general practice....

  4. Gonorrhoea and Syphilis Epidemiology in Flemish General Practice 2009–2013: Results from a Registry-based Retrospective Cohort Study Compared with Mandatory Notification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Schweikardt

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The number of newly diagnosed gonorrhoea and syphilis cases has increased in Flanders in recent years. Our aim was to investigate, to which extent these diagnoses were registered by general practitioners (GPs, and to examine opportunities and limits of the Intego database in this regard. Methods: Data from a retrospective cohort study based on the Flemish Intego general practice database was analyzed for the years 2009–2013. Case definitions were applied. Due to small case numbers obtained, cases were pooled and averaged over the observation period. Frequencies were compared with those calculated from figures of mandatory notification. Results: A total of 91 gonorrhoea and 23 syphilis cases were registered. The average Intego annual frequency of gonorrhoea cases obtained was 11.9 (95% Poisson confidence interval (CI 9.6; 14.7 per 100,000 population, and for syphilis 3.0 (CI 1.9; 4.5, respectively, while mandatory notification was calculated at 14.0 (CI: 13.6, 14.4 and 7.0 (CI: 6.7, 7.3, respectively. Conclusion: In spite of limitations such as small numbers and different case definitions, comparison with mandatory notification suggests that the GP was involved in the large majority of gonorrhoea cases, while the majority of new syphilis cases did not come to the knowledge of the GP.

  5. Epidemiological survey of generalized anxiety disorder in Yunfu City%云浮市广泛性焦虑障碍流行病学调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟书铭; 肖垚南; 陈妙扬; 郑洪波; 张璐璐; 陈丁玲; 卢冬艳

    2015-01-01

    目的:了结云浮市15岁以上人群广泛性焦虑障碍的患病率及分布特点。方法采用初级单位含量比例分层整体随机抽样方法,以美国精神障碍诊断与统计手册第4版(DSM-Ⅳ)轴障碍定式临床检查患者版(SCID-Ⅰ/P)对全市5县区2373人进行入户面访调查。结果广泛性焦虑障碍的时点患病率为0.46%,其中男性为0.30%,女性为0.69%,该疾病与无业或失业状态关系密切,精神科就诊率为18.18%。结论广泛性焦虑障碍在云浮市患病率较高,就诊率较低,健全社区精神卫生服务有利于降低其发生发展。%Objective To describe the prevalence and distribution of generalized anxiety disorder among people aged above 15 years in Yunfu city. Methods A total of 2 373 subjects were randomly selected from 5 rural and rural-urban fringe zone by the elementary unit stratified cluster sampling method. They were assessed by face to face interview with United States Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 4th edition (DSM-Ⅳ) AxisⅠDisorders-style version of the clinical examination of patients (SCID-Ⅰ/P). Results The current prevalence of gen-eralized anxiety disorder was 0.46%. It was 0.30%of male and 0.69%of female. The disease was closely associated with unemployed status, and its rate of visiting the doctors was 18.8%. Conclusion The prevalence of generalized anxiety disorder in Yunfu city was relatively high, while the visiting rate was low. Occurrence and development of the disease could be reduced by improving mental health service.

  6. Increase in sickness absence with psychiatric diagnosis in Norway: a general population-based epidemiologic study of age, gender and regional distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brage Sören

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to assess the incidence of sickness absence with psychiatric diagnoses from 1994–2000, and the distribution across gender, age groups, diagnostic groups and regions in a general population. Methods The population at risk was defined as all individuals aged 16–66 years who were entitled to sickness benefits in 1994, 1996, 1998 and 2000 (n = 2,282,761 in 2000. All individuals with a full-time disability pension were excluded. The study included approximately 77% of the Norwegian population aged 16–66 years. For each year, the study base started on 1 January and ended on 31 December. Individuals that were sick-listed for more than 14/16 consecutive days with a psychiatric diagnosis on their medical certificate were selected as cases. Included in this study were data for Norway, the capital city Oslo and five regions in the southeast of the country. Results Sickness absence with psychiatric diagnoses increased in all age groups, in women and men, and in all regions. At the national level, the cumulative incidence increased in women from 1.7% in 1994 to 4.6% in 2000, and in men from 0.8% in 1994 to 2.2% in 2000. The highest cumulative incidence was found in middle-aged women and men (30–59 years. Women had a higher incidence than men in all stratification groups. The cumulative incidences in 2000 varied between 4.6% to 5.6% in women in the different regions, and for men the corresponding figures were 2.1% to 3.2%. Throughout the four years studied, women in Oslo had more than twice as high incidence levels of sickness absence with alcohol and drug diagnoses as the country as a whole. There were some differences between regions in sickness absence with specific psychiatric diagnoses, but they were small and most comparisons were non-significant. Conclusion Sickness absence with psychiatric diagnoses increased between 1994 and 2000 in Norway. The increase was highest in the middle-aged, and in women

  7. Racial/ethnic disparities in service utilization for individuals with co-occurring mental health and substance use disorders in the general population: results from the national epidemiologic survey on alcohol and related conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzenbuehler, Mark L; Keyes, Katherine M; Narrow, William E; Grant, Bridget F; Hasin, Deborah S

    2008-07-01

    This study sought to determine whether black/white disparities in service utilization for mental health and substance use disorders persist or are diminished among individuals with psychiatric comorbidity in the general population. The 2001-2002 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions was used to identify individuals with lifetime co-occurring substance use disorders and mood/anxiety disorders (N = 4250; whites, N = 3597; blacks, N = 653). Lifetime service utilization for problems with mood, anxiety, alcohol, and drugs was assessed. Compared to whites, blacks with co-occurring mood or anxiety and substance use disorders were significantly less likely to receive services for mood or anxiety disorders, equally likely to receive services for alcohol use disorders, and more likely to receive some types of services for drug use disorders. Regardless of race/ethnicity, individuals with these co-occurring disorders were almost twice as likely to use services for mood/anxiety disorders than for substance use disorders. Despite the fact that comorbidity generally increases the likelihood of service use, black/white disparities in service utilization among an all-comorbid sample were found, although these disparities differed by type of disorder. Further research is warranted to understand the factors underlying these differences. Prevention and intervention strategies are needed to address the specific mental health needs of blacks with co-occurring disorders, as well as the overall lack of service use for substance use disorders among individuals with co-occurring psychiatric conditions.

  8. Epidemiology of fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Lily; Buskila, Dan

    2003-10-01

    Chronic widespread pain, the cardinal symptom of fibromyalgia (FM), is common in the general population, with comparable prevalence rates of 7.3% to 12.9% across different countries. The prevalence of FM in the general population was reported to range from 0.5% to 5% and up to 15.7% in the clinic. The common association of FM with other rheumatic disorders, chronic viral infections, and systemic illnesses has been well documented in several studies. Up to 65% of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus meet the criteria for FM. FM is considered a member of the family of functional somatic syndromes. These syndromes are very common and share a similar phenomenology, epidemiologic characteristics, high rates of occurrence, a common pathogenesis, and similar management strategies. A high prevalence of FM was demonstrated among relatives of patients with FM and it may be attributed to genetic and environmental factors.

  9. [Orientation of patients referred by their general practionner to the public or private hospital sector in France: A prospective epidemiologic study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuter, P-G; Kernéis, S; Turbelin, C; Souty, C; Arena, C; Gavazzi, G; Sarazin, M; Blanchon, T; Hanslik, T

    2012-12-01

    In-patients characteristics generate cost differences between hospitals. In France, there are few data on the characteristics on the patients referred to hospitals by their general practitioners (GPs) and none on the predictors of referral to the public or for-profit hospitals. The aim of this study was to analyze those characteristics and the predictors of referral to the public or for-profit hospitals. We collected, prospectively, the request for hospitalizations made by the GPs of the Sentinelles network in France, from 2007 to 2009. Patients' characteristics and also the reasons for that request were analyzed. A logistic regression was used to compare the population between local hospitals. Ten thousand seven hundred and eighteen statements were collected. The median age was 73 years. Patients were women in 51% of the cases, and only 14% of the hospitalizations had been planned. Hospitalization in the public sector was preferred for young children and the elderly (Pprivate sector, patients addressed to the public sector were more often seen for emergencies (OR: 2.3 [2.0-2.8]), by a doctor different from their referring GP (OR: 1.7 [1.4-2.1]) and out of the GP's office. The reasons for hospital admission were different depending on the sector of hospitalization (Ppublic sector hospitals presented with greater comorbidity or more complex diagnosis (for example: feeling ill, fainting or syncope and fever) or a greater disability (for example: stroke, neurological and psychiatric diseases). This study suggests that GPs send their patients to the public or for-profit hospitals according to criteria of severity, comorbidity and disability. Copyright © 2012 Société nationale française de médecine interne (SNFMI). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Epidemiology and outcomes of people with dementia, delirium, and unspecified cognitive impairment in the general hospital: prospective cohort study of 10,014 admissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynish, Emma L; Hapca, Simona M; De Souza, Nicosha; Cvoro, Vera; Donnan, Peter T; Guthrie, Bruce

    2017-07-27

    Cognitive impairment of various kinds is common in older people admitted to hospital, but previous research has usually focused on single conditions in highly-selected groups and has rarely examined associations with outcomes. This study examined prevalence and outcomes of cognitive impairment in a large unselected cohort of people aged 65+ with an emergency medical admission. Between January 1, 2012, and June 30, 2013, admissions to a single general hospital acute medical unit aged 65+ underwent a structured specialist nurse assessment (n = 10,014). We defined 'cognitive spectrum disorder' (CSD) as any combination of delirium, known dementia, or Abbreviated Mental Test (AMT) score dementia, 9.4% known dementia alone, and 4.5% unspecified cognitive impairment (AMT score dementia). Of those with known dementia, 45.8% had delirium superimposed. Outcomes were worse in those with CSD compared to those without - LOS 25.0 vs. 11.8 days, 30-day mortality 13.6% vs. 9.0%, 1-year mortality 40.0% vs. 26.0%, 1-year death or readmission 62.4% vs. 51.5% (all P dementia had the longest LOS, and people with dementia the worst mortality at 1 year. CSD is common in older inpatients and associated with considerably worse outcomes, with little variation between different types of CSD. Healthcare systems should systematically identify and develop care pathways for older people with CSD admitted as medical emergencies, and avoid only focusing on condition-specific pathways such as those for dementia or delirium alone.

  11. General optimization procedure towards the design of a new family of minimal parameter spin-component-scaled double-hybrid density functional theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roch, Loïc M; Baldridge, Kim K

    2017-10-04

    A general optimization procedure towards the development and implementation of a new family of minimal parameter spin-component-scaled double-hybrid (mSD) density functional theory (DFT) is presented. The nature of the proposed exchange-correlation functional establishes a methodology with minimal empiricism. This new family of double-hybrid (DH) density functionals is demonstrated using the PBEPBE functional, illustrating the optimization procedure to the mSD-PBEPBE method, and the performance characteristics shown for a set of non-covalent complexes covering a broad regime of weak interactions. With only two parameters, mSD-PBEPBE and its cost-effective counterpart, RI-mSD-PBEPBE, show a mean absolute error of ca. 0.4 kcal mol -1 averaged over 66 weak interacting systems. Following a successive 2D-grid refinement for a CBS extrapolation of the coefficients, the optimization procedure can be recommended for the design and implementation of a variety of additional DH methods using any of the plethora of currently available functionals.

  12. ADHD in the Arab World: A Review of Epidemiologic Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farah, Lynn G.; Fayyad, John A.; Eapen, Valsamma; Cassir,Youmna; Salamoun, Mariana M.; Tabet, Caroline C.; Mneimneh, Zeina N.; Karam, Elie G.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Epidemiological studies on psychiatric disorders are quite rare in the Arab World. This article reviews epidemiological studies on ADHD in all the Arab countries. Method: All epidemiological studies on ADHD conducted from 1966 through th present were reviewed. Samples were drawn from the general community, primary care clinical…

  13. Radiation epidemiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabrikant, J.I.; Lyman, J.T.; Alpen, E.L.

    1983-01-01

    The effect of latency periods on cancer risk estimation is under study in our laboratory. Insofar as cancer incidences and radiation doses are concerned, effort is made to ascertain these with the greatest reliability, although problems arise, particularly in attempts to reconstruct the events of exposure many years prevously. The matter of the long latent periods begs the important issue of how to project into the future the risk of cancer induced in individuals exposed at the present time, or depriving a projection model appropriate for predicting how induced cancers will express themselves in time following exposure. Two risk-projection models which are generally used by radiation epidemiologists are discussed

  14. Epidemiology of IBD

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... IBD? Projects and Partners Data and Statistics Resources Epidemiology of the IBD Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... 5:1424-9. 2 Loftus EV, Jr. Clinical epidemiology of inflammatory bowel disease: Incidence, prevalence, and environmental ...

  15. International Lymphoma Epidemiology Consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    The InterLymph Consortium, or formally the International Consortium of Investigators Working on Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma Epidemiologic Studies, is an open scientific forum for epidemiologic research in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.

  16. Finite-part integration of the generalized Stieltjes transform and its dominant asymptotic behavior for small values of the parameter. I. Integer orders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tica, Christian D.; Galapon, Eric A.

    2018-02-01

    The paper addresses the exact evaluation of the generalized Stieltjes transform Sn[f ] =∫0∞f (x ) (ω+x ) -nd x of integral order n = 1, 2, 3, … about ω = 0 from which the asymptotic behavior of Sn[f] for small parameters ω is directly extracted. An attempt to evaluate the integral by expanding the integrand (ω + x)-n about ω = 0 and then naively integrating the resulting infinite series term by term leads to an infinite series whose terms are divergent integrals. Assigning values to the divergent integrals, say, by analytic continuation or by Hadamard's finite part is known to reproduce only some of the correct terms of the expansion but completely misses out a group of terms. Here we evaluate explicitly the generalized Stieltjes transform by means of finite-part integration recently introduced in Galapon [Proc. R. Soc. A 473, 20160567 (2017)]. It is shown that, when f(x) does not vanish or has zero of order m at the origin such that (n - m) ≥ 1, the dominant terms of Sn[f] as ω → 0 come from contributions arising from the poles and branch points of the complex valued function f(z)(ω + z)-n. These dominant terms are precisely the terms missed out by naive term by term integration. Furthermore, it is demonstrated how finite-part integration leads to new series representations of special functions by exploiting their known Stieltjes integral representations. Finally, the application of finite part integration in obtaining asymptotic expansions of the effective diffusivity in the limit of high Peclet number, the Green-Kubo formula for the self-diffusion coefficient, and the antisymmetric part of the diffusion tensor in the weak noise limit is discussed.

  17. [Ways of urban sanitary and epidemiological well-being management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreĭmer, M A

    2010-01-01

    The scientific rationale for preventive measures based on sanitary-and-epidemiological surveillance on environmental objects is considered. The sizes of functional zones and space for various types of communal services and amenities and leisure are regulated to ensure good urban vital activities. Multistorey housing causes an increase in the number of negative factors per area units and in their impact on health. A proposal has been made for the standardization of the ranges of urban population upsurge and size, by using the sanitary-and-hygienic rules and norms rather than climatic parameters. A criterion system for assessing the data of statistical observations has been substantiated and 5 levels of analysis and managerial decision-making have been proposed. Cause-and-effect relations may be determined for the parameters of the second level; models of program-oriented studies for the third level, only sanitary-and-epidemiological surveillance is possible for the fourth and fifth levels. The space planning scheme must provide for water supply reserves, generation areas for pure air coming into the town, and waste disposal areas. The general layout may use statistical observation parameters characterizing the second level of occurrence of negative phenomena. The statistical observation parameters characterizing the third and fourth levels of occurrence of negative phenomena may be used for municipal improvements and sanitary maintenance. These characterizing the fourth and fifth level may be used for prevention in therapeutic-and-prophylactic institutions.

  18. Epidemiology of Lyme Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis J White

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigation of the epidemiology of Lyme disease depends upon information generated from several sources. Human disease surveillance can be conducted by both passive and active means involving physicians, public health agencies and laboratories. Passive and active tick surveillance programs can document the extent of tick-borne activity, identify the geographic range of potential vector species, and determine the relative risk of exposure to Lyme disease in specific areas. Standardized laboratory services can play an important role in providing data. Epidemiologists can gain a better understanding of Lyme disease through the collection of data from such programs. The interpretation of data and provision of information to the medical and general communities are important functions of public health agencies.

  19. Correlated ab initio calculations of spectroscopic parameters of SnO within the framework of the higher-order generalized Douglas-Kroll transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Alexander; Reiher, Markus; Hess, Bernd Artur

    2004-05-08

    The first molecular calculations with the generalized Douglas-Kroll method up to fifth order in the external potential (DKH5) are presented. We study the spectroscopic parameters and electron affinity of the tin oxide molecule SnO and its anion SnO(-) applying nonrelativistic as well as relativistic calculations with higher orders of the DK approximation. In order to guarantee highly accurate results close to the basis set limit, an all-electron basis for Sn of at least quintuple-zeta quality has been constructed and optimized. All-electron CCSD(T) calculations of the potential energy curves of both SnO and SnO(-) reproduce the experimental values very well. Relative energies and valence properties are already well described with the established standard second-order approximation DKH2 and the higher-order corrections DKH3-DKH5 hardly affect these quantities. However, an accurate description of total energies and inner-shell properties requires superior relativistic schemes up to DKH5. (c) 2004 American Institute of Physics.

  20. Caracterización clínica y epidemiológica de los casos de dengue: experiencia del Hospital General de Culiacán, Sinaloa, México Clinical and epidemiologic characteristics of dengue cases: the experience of a general hospital in Culiacan, Sinaloa, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Guadalupe Ramírez-Zepeda

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Documentar las características clínicas y epidemiológicas de los pacientes con dengue atendidos en un hospital de Culiacán, Sinaloa, México. MÉTODOS: Estudio transversal, observacional y analítico realizado en el Hospital General Dr. Bernardo J. Gastélum de Culiacán entre el 1 de octubre y el 2 de diciembre de 2003. Se evaluó la asociación entre las variables independientes (las características clínicas y epidemiológicas de los pacientes y la variable dependiente (diagnóstico confirmado de dengue hemorrágico mediante el análisis de regresión simple. Las variables que mostraron una relación significativa (P 100 000/mm3 en casos con cuadros clínicos graves (fuga capilar que no se clasificaron como dengue hemorrágico por no cumplir todos los criterios establecidos por la OMS.OBJECTIVES: To document the clinical and epidemiological characteristics present in dengue patients served by a hospital in Culiacan, Sinaloa, Mexico. METHODS: A cross-sectional, observational, and analytical study was carried out at the Hospital General Dr. Bernardo J. Gastélum de Culiacan from 1 October to 2 December 2003. Associations between the independent variables (the patients' clinical and epidemiological characteristics and the dependent variable (confirmed hemorrhagic dengue were determined through simple regression analysis. The variables that were significantly associated (P 100000/mm3 were confirmed in cases with acute clinical symptoms (capillary leak that were not classified as hemorrhagic dengue due to falling short of the criteria established by WHO.

  1. General characteristics of the neritic ichthyoplankton of the Northwestern sector of the Alborán Sea in August, 1982. II.- Ichthyoplankton relations with marine environmental parameters.

    OpenAIRE

    García-García, A. (Alberto); Pérez-de-Rubín-y-Feigl, J. (Juan)

    1985-01-01

    Relations between biological and hydrological parameters such as temperature, zooplankton, organic matter and biovolumes, chlorophyll ‘a’ values and ichthyoplankton abundance are studied. Postprint 0

  2. Indoor radon epidemiological study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunz, E; Tomasek, L; Mueller, T [National Radiation Protection Institute, Prague (Czech Republic); Placek, V [Inst. for Expertises and Emergencies, Pribram-Kamenna (Czech Republic); Matzner, J; Heribanova, A [State Office for Nuclear Safety, Prague (Czech Republic)

    1996-12-31

    The study is a long-term prospective cohort study of lung cancer and possibility other causes of death. The study population includes inhabitants of the area, who had resided there for at three years and at least one of these between 1.1.1960 and 21.12.1989. A total of 11865 inhabitants satisfied these criteria. The cumulative exposure of each respondent is being assessed on the basis of measurements in dwellings, time spent there and estimation of previous exposure levels by a model accounting for constructional changes in buildings. One year lasting measurements of radon daughter products by integral dosimeters (Kodak film LR 115) were performed in practically all dwellings of the specified area. Radon measurements in houses in term of equilibrium concentration are compared with the results of a pilot study in Petrovice in 1990-91 which gave the stimulus for the epidemiological study. The distribution of death causes and ratio of observed (O) to expected (E) cases among collected death cases in the cohort, generally, somewhat lower ratios than one reflect the non-industrial character of the region, with the exception of lung cancer in man. The differences in the O/E ratios for lung cancer among the separate communities indicate that even in the situation of generally lower mortality, the dependence of lung cancer mortality on radon.

  3. An animated depiction of major depression epidemiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patten Scott B

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidemiologic estimates are now available for a variety of parameters related to major depression epidemiology (incidence, prevalence, etc.. These estimates are potentially useful for policy and planning purposes, but it is first necessary that they be synthesized into a coherent picture of the epidemiology of the condition. Several attempts to do so have been made using mathematical modeling procedures. However, this information is not easy to communicate to users of epidemiological data (clinicians, administrators, policy makers. Methods In this study, up-to-date data on major depression epidemiology were integrated using a discrete event simulation model. The mathematical model was animated in Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML to create a visual, rather than mathematical, depiction of the epidemiology. Results Consistent with existing literature, the model highlights potential advantages of population health strategies that emphasize access to effective long-term treatment. The paper contains a web-link to the animation. Conclusion Visual animation of epidemiological results may be an effective knowledge translation tool. In clinical practice, such animations could potentially assist with patient education and enhanced long-term compliance.

  4. An animated depiction of major depression epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patten, Scott B

    2007-06-08

    Epidemiologic estimates are now available for a variety of parameters related to major depression epidemiology (incidence, prevalence, etc.). These estimates are potentially useful for policy and planning purposes, but it is first necessary that they be synthesized into a coherent picture of the epidemiology of the condition. Several attempts to do so have been made using mathematical modeling procedures. However, this information is not easy to communicate to users of epidemiological data (clinicians, administrators, policy makers). In this study, up-to-date data on major depression epidemiology were integrated using a discrete event simulation model. The mathematical model was animated in Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML) to create a visual, rather than mathematical, depiction of the epidemiology. Consistent with existing literature, the model highlights potential advantages of population health strategies that emphasize access to effective long-term treatment. The paper contains a web-link to the animation. Visual animation of epidemiological results may be an effective knowledge translation tool. In clinical practice, such animations could potentially assist with patient education and enhanced long-term compliance.

  5. Automated spatial and thematic generalization using a context transformation model : integrating steering parameters, classification and aggregation hierarchies, reduction factors, and topological structures for multiple abstractions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richardson, D.E.

    1993-01-01

    This dissertation presents a model for spatial and thematic digital generalization. To do so, the development of digital generalization over the last thirty years is first reviewed

    The approach to generalization taken in this research differs from other existing works as

  6. Low dose epidemiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tirmarche, M.; Hubert, P.

    1992-01-01

    Actually, epidemiological studies have to establish if the assessment of cancer risk can be verified at low chronic radiation doses. The population surveillance must be very long, the side effects and cancers of such radiation appearing much later. In France, this epidemiological study on nuclear workers have been decided recently. Before describing the experiment and french projects in epidemiology of nuclear workers, the authors present the main english and american studies

  7. Epidemiology of subtypes of depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, L V

    2007-01-01

    depression, dysthymia, and subsyndromal states; the association between stressful life events and depression appears to diminish with the number of depressive episodes. Finally, recent genetic findings are congruent with a model indicating that the majority of depressions develop in the interplay between...... genes and stressful experiences, whereas 'reactive' depressions and 'endogenous' depressions apparently exist at a lower prevalence. CONCLUSION: Further longitudinal, analytical, and genetic epidemiologic studies are needed to reveal which conditions are mild and transient, and which may be precursors......OBJECTIVE: There is a general clinical impression that depression differs qualitatively from non-depressive conditions, and that it can be identified as a categorical entity. In contrast, epidemiological studies support the view that depression is dynamic in nature and develops on a continuous...

  8. Optimization of GATE and PHITS Monte Carlo code parameters for spot scanning proton beam based on simulation with FLUKA general-purpose code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurosu, Keita [Department of Radiation Oncology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN 46202 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Department of Radiology, Osaka University Hospital, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Das, Indra J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN 46202 (United States); Moskvin, Vadim P. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN 46202 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN 38105 (United States)

    2016-01-15

    Spot scanning, owing to its superior dose-shaping capability, provides unsurpassed dose conformity, in particular for complex targets. However, the robustness of the delivered dose distribution and prescription has to be verified. Monte Carlo (MC) simulation has the potential to generate significant advantages for high-precise particle therapy, especially for medium containing inhomogeneities. However, the inherent choice of computational parameters in MC simulation codes of GATE, PHITS and FLUKA that is observed for uniform scanning proton beam needs to be evaluated. This means that the relationship between the effect of input parameters and the calculation results should be carefully scrutinized. The objective of this study was, therefore, to determine the optimal parameters for the spot scanning proton beam for both GATE and PHITS codes by using data from FLUKA simulation as a reference. The proton beam scanning system of the Indiana University Health Proton Therapy Center was modeled in FLUKA, and the geometry was subsequently and identically transferred to GATE and PHITS. Although the beam transport is managed by spot scanning system, the spot location is always set at the center of a water phantom of 600 × 600 × 300 mm{sup 3}, which is placed after the treatment nozzle. The percentage depth dose (PDD) is computed along the central axis using 0.5 × 0.5 × 0.5 mm{sup 3} voxels in the water phantom. The PDDs and the proton ranges obtained with several computational parameters are then compared to those of FLUKA, and optimal parameters are determined from the accuracy of the proton range, suppressed dose deviation, and computational time minimization. Our results indicate that the optimized parameters are different from those for uniform scanning, suggesting that the gold standard for setting computational parameters for any proton therapy application cannot be determined consistently since the impact of setting parameters depends on the proton irradiation

  9. Optimization of GATE and PHITS Monte Carlo code parameters for spot scanning proton beam based on simulation with FLUKA general-purpose code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurosu, Keita; Das, Indra J.; Moskvin, Vadim P.

    2016-01-01

    Spot scanning, owing to its superior dose-shaping capability, provides unsurpassed dose conformity, in particular for complex targets. However, the robustness of the delivered dose distribution and prescription has to be verified. Monte Carlo (MC) simulation has the potential to generate significant advantages for high-precise particle therapy, especially for medium containing inhomogeneities. However, the inherent choice of computational parameters in MC simulation codes of GATE, PHITS and FLUKA that is observed for uniform scanning proton beam needs to be evaluated. This means that the relationship between the effect of input parameters and the calculation results should be carefully scrutinized. The objective of this study was, therefore, to determine the optimal parameters for the spot scanning proton beam for both GATE and PHITS codes by using data from FLUKA simulation as a reference. The proton beam scanning system of the Indiana University Health Proton Therapy Center was modeled in FLUKA, and the geometry was subsequently and identically transferred to GATE and PHITS. Although the beam transport is managed by spot scanning system, the spot location is always set at the center of a water phantom of 600 × 600 × 300 mm 3 , which is placed after the treatment nozzle. The percentage depth dose (PDD) is computed along the central axis using 0.5 × 0.5 × 0.5 mm 3 voxels in the water phantom. The PDDs and the proton ranges obtained with several computational parameters are then compared to those of FLUKA, and optimal parameters are determined from the accuracy of the proton range, suppressed dose deviation, and computational time minimization. Our results indicate that the optimized parameters are different from those for uniform scanning, suggesting that the gold standard for setting computational parameters for any proton therapy application cannot be determined consistently since the impact of setting parameters depends on the proton irradiation technique

  10. The contribution of epidemiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandt, P. van den; Voorrips, L.; Hertz-Picciotto, I.; Shuker, D.; Boeing, H.; Speijers, G.; Guittard, C.; Kleiner, J.; Knowles, M.; Wolk, A.; Goldbohm, A.

    2002-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies directly contribute data on risk (or benefit) in humans as the investigated species, and in the full food intake range normally encountered by humans. This paper starts with introducing the epidemiologic approach, followed by a discussion of perceived differences between

  11. Radiobiology and Epidemiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desaintes, C; Holmstock, L.

    2001-01-01

    The main objectives of research in the field of radiobiology and epidemiology performed at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN are: (1) to study cancer mortality in nuclear workers in Belgium and to co-ordinate the Belgian contribution to the 'International Collaborative Study of Cancer Risk among Radiation Workers in the Nuclear Industry'; (2) to elucidate the molecular basis of individual susceptibility to ionizing radiation in mammalian embryo during the early phases of its development; (3) to assess the genetic risk of maternal exposure to ionizing radiation; (4) to elucidate the cellular mechanisms leading to brain damage after prenatal irradiation; (5) to monitor the early variations of gene expression induced by ionising radiation and cytokines; (6) to evaluate the use of cytokines and natural substances for improving radiotherapy protocols; (6) to advise authorities and to provide the general population with adequate information concerning the health risk arising from radiation exposure. Progress and major achievements in these topical areas in 2000 are reported

  12. Radiobiology and Epidemiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desaintes, C; Holmstock, L

    2001-04-01

    The main objectives of research in the field of radiobiology and epidemiology performed at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN are: (1) to study cancer mortality in nuclear workers in Belgium and to co-ordinate the Belgian contribution to the 'International Collaborative Study of Cancer Risk among Radiation Workers in the Nuclear Industry'; (2) to elucidate the molecular basis of individual susceptibility to ionizing radiation in mammalian embryo during the early phases of its development; (3) to assess the genetic risk of maternal exposure to ionizing radiation; (4) to elucidate the cellular mechanisms leading to brain damage after prenatal irradiation; (5) to monitor the early variations of gene expression induced by ionising radiation and cytokines; (6) to evaluate the use of cytokines and natural substances for improving radiotherapy protocols; (6) to advise authorities and to provide the general population with adequate information concerning the health risk arising from radiation exposure. Progress and major achievements in these topical areas in 2000 are reported.

  13. Qualification of spontaneous undirected locomotor behavior of fish for sublethal toxicity testing. Part 1. Variability of measurement parameters under general test conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogl, C.; Grillitsch, B.; Wytek, R.; Spieser, O.H.; Scholz, W.

    1999-12-01

    An automated, personal computer-based video-processing, object-recognition, and object-tracing system was used to record and analyze undirected spontaneous locomotor behavior of small groups of undisturbed zebra fish (Brachydanio rerio) in laboratory tanks. The primary data provided by the monitoring system were the individually assigned, time-stamped coordinates of the fish in two-dimensional projection. Secondary parameters (position, velocity of movement in the horizontal and the vertical direction, and temporal intraindividual and interindividual association) were calculated. The computed parameters offered a multidimensional description of spontaneous undirected swimming behavior of the fish and proved to be largely independent of water temperature, length, weight, and sex ratio of the zebra fish within the standardized range, but varied significantly with the feeding regime, time of day, number of fish per tank, and batch. Statistical characteristics of the behavioral parameters confirmed them as being appropriate for parametric statistical analyses.

  14. The epidemiology of endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Daniel W; Missmer, Stacey A

    2002-03-01

    Advances in understanding the epidemiology of endometriosis have lagged behind other diseases because of methodologic problems related to disease definition and control selection. Nevertheless, a better picture of the epidemiology of endometriosis has emerged over the past few decades. Prevalence estimates of the disease in clinic populations vary from about a 4% occurrence of largely asymptomatic endometriosis found in women undergoing tubal ligation to 50% of teenagers with intractable dysmenorrhea. General population incidence during the 1970s in this country has been suggested to be 1.6 per 1000 white females aged 15-49, while a more current study based upon hospital discharges finds endometriosis as a first listed diagnosis in 1.3 per 1000 discharges in women aged 15-44. There is a clinical impression that blacks have lower rates of endometriosis and Orientals have higher rates than whites. A variety of personal risk factors for endometriosis have also been described. Women with endometriosis may be taller and thinner. Menstrual factors reported to increase risk include dysmenorrhea, early menarche, and shorter cycle lengths. There is support for the idea that lifestyle exposures that might raise or lower estrogen levels could affect risk, including a decreased risk associated with smoking and exercise and an increased risk associated with caffeine or alcohol use. These risk factors appear to be compatible with the central importance of retrograde menstruation influenced by outflow obstruction that might affect its amount, immune factors that might affect its ability to be cleared, or hormonal stimuli that might affect its growth. In this model, dysmenorrhea could be either a disease symptom or a manifestation of outflow obstruction. Nulliparity could be either a consequence of disease or a cause since nulliparous women would not have the benefit of cervical dilation associated with labor and delivery. Since there is evidence that family history is a risk

  15. Causal diagrams in systems epidemiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joffe Michael

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Methods of diagrammatic modelling have been greatly developed in the past two decades. Outside the context of infectious diseases, systematic use of diagrams in epidemiology has been mainly confined to the analysis of a single link: that between a disease outcome and its proximal determinant(s. Transmitted causes ("causes of causes" tend not to be systematically analysed. The infectious disease epidemiology modelling tradition models the human population in its environment, typically with the exposure-health relationship and the determinants of exposure being considered at individual and group/ecological levels, respectively. Some properties of the resulting systems are quite general, and are seen in unrelated contexts such as biochemical pathways. Confining analysis to a single link misses the opportunity to discover such properties. The structure of a causal diagram is derived from knowledge about how the world works, as well as from statistical evidence. A single diagram can be used to characterise a whole research area, not just a single analysis - although this depends on the degree of consistency of the causal relationships between different populations - and can therefore be used to integrate multiple datasets. Additional advantages of system-wide models include: the use of instrumental variables - now emerging as an important technique in epidemiology in the context of mendelian randomisation, but under-used in the exploitation of "natural experiments"; the explicit use of change models, which have advantages with respect to inferring causation; and in the detection and elucidation of feedback.

  16. Causal diagrams in systems epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joffe, Michael; Gambhir, Manoj; Chadeau-Hyam, Marc; Vineis, Paolo

    2012-03-19

    Methods of diagrammatic modelling have been greatly developed in the past two decades. Outside the context of infectious diseases, systematic use of diagrams in epidemiology has been mainly confined to the analysis of a single link: that between a disease outcome and its proximal determinant(s). Transmitted causes ("causes of causes") tend not to be systematically analysed.The infectious disease epidemiology modelling tradition models the human population in its environment, typically with the exposure-health relationship and the determinants of exposure being considered at individual and group/ecological levels, respectively. Some properties of the resulting systems are quite general, and are seen in unrelated contexts such as biochemical pathways. Confining analysis to a single link misses the opportunity to discover such properties.The structure of a causal diagram is derived from knowledge about how the world works, as well as from statistical evidence. A single diagram can be used to characterise a whole research area, not just a single analysis - although this depends on the degree of consistency of the causal relationships between different populations - and can therefore be used to integrate multiple datasets.Additional advantages of system-wide models include: the use of instrumental variables - now emerging as an important technique in epidemiology in the context of mendelian randomisation, but under-used in the exploitation of "natural experiments"; the explicit use of change models, which have advantages with respect to inferring causation; and in the detection and elucidation of feedback.

  17. WHO - IPHECA: Epidemiological aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souchkevitch, G.

    1996-01-01

    In May 1991 the World Health Assembly endorsed the establishment of the International Programme on the Health Effects of the Chernobyl Accident (IPHECA) under the auspices of WHO. Five pilot projects have been carried out within IPHECA in the study territories of Belarus, Russian Federation and Ukraine in a period from 1991 to 1994. This pilot projects dealt with the detection and treatment of leukaemia and related diseases (Haematology Project), thyroid disorders (Thyroid project), brain damage during exposure 'in-utero' (Brain Damage 'in-Utero' project) and with the development of the Chernobyl registries (Epidemiological Registry Project). A fifth pilot project on oral health was performed only in Belarus. Epidemiological investigations have been an important component of all IPHECA pilot projects. Within 'Epidemiological Registry' Project such investigations have been the principal activity. But with respect to other IPHECA projects it was carried out in addition to main objectives relating to medical monitoring, early diagnosis and treatment of specific diseases included in project protocols. To support the epidemiological investigations within IPHECA, WHO supplied 41 computers in Belarus, Russian Federation and Ukraine and provided training for specialists from these countries in internationally recognized centres. The training programmes and host countries were as follows: standardization of epidemiological investigations (United Kingdom), radiation epidemiology (Russia), development of software (United Kingdom), principles of epidemiological investigations (The Czech Republic), cohort investigations (Japan)

  18. WHO - IPHECA: Epidemiological aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souchkevitch, G [World Health Organization, Geneva (Swaziland)

    1996-07-01

    In May 1991 the World Health Assembly endorsed the establishment of the International Programme on the Health Effects of the Chernobyl Accident (IPHECA) under the auspices of WHO. Five pilot projects have been carried out within IPHECA in the study territories of Belarus, Russian Federation and Ukraine in a period from 1991 to 1994. This pilot projects dealt with the detection and treatment of leukaemia and related diseases (Haematology Project), thyroid disorders (Thyroid project), brain damage during exposure 'in-utero' (Brain Damage 'in-Utero' project) and with the development of the Chernobyl registries (Epidemiological Registry Project). A fifth pilot project on oral health was performed only in Belarus. Epidemiological investigations have been an important component of all IPHECA pilot projects. Within 'Epidemiological Registry' Project such investigations have been the principal activity. But with respect to other IPHECA projects it was carried out in addition to main objectives relating to medical monitoring, early diagnosis and treatment of specific diseases included in project protocols. To support the epidemiological investigations within IPHECA, WHO supplied 41 computers in Belarus, Russian Federation and Ukraine and provided training for specialists from these countries in internationally recognized centres. The training programmes and host countries were as follows: standardization of epidemiological investigations (United Kingdom), radiation epidemiology (Russia), development of software (United Kingdom), principles of epidemiological investigations (The Czech Republic), cohort investigations (Japan)

  19. Basic concepts of epidemiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savitz, D.A.

    1984-01-01

    Epidemiology can be defined simply as the science of the distribution and determinants of disease in human populations. As a descriptive tool, epidemiology can aid health care service providers, for example, in allocation of resources. In its analytic capacity, the epidemiologic approach can help identify determinants of disease through the study of human populations. Epidemiology is primarily an observational rather than experimental methodology, with corresponding strengths and limitations. Relative to other approaches for assessing disease etiology and impacts of potential health hazards, epidemiology has a rather unique role that is complementary to, but independent of, both basic biologic sciences and clinical medicine. Experimental biologic sciences such as toxicology and physiology provide critical information on biologic mechanisms of disease required for causal inference. Clinical medicine often serves as the warning system that provides etiologic clues to be pursued through systematic investigation. The advantage of the epidemiologic approach is its reliance on human field experience, that is, the real world. While laboratory experimentation is uniquely well suited to defining potential hazards, it can neither determine whether human populations have actually been affected nor quantify that effect. Building all the complexities of human behavior and external factors into a laboratory study or mathematical model is impossible. By studying the world as it exists, epidemiology examines the integrated, summarized product of the myriad factors influencing health

  20. Epidemiology and Radiation Protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    Epidemiology aims at providing direct evidence of the long term health effects in humans due to potentially dangerous exposures to various nuisance agents, including ionising radiation. Inappropriate interpretation and use of the results of epidemiological studies may result in inaccurate assessments of the risks associated with radiation exposure. This report presents the proceedings of a Workshop organised by the NEA to create an opportunity for epidemiologists and radiation protection specialists to exchange their experiences and views on the problems of methodology in epidemiological research and on the application of its results to the assessment of radiation risks

  1. Age and gender differences in the influences of eNOS T-786C polymorphism on arteriosclerotic parameters in general population in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Marowa; Miyai, Nobuyuki; Hattori, Sonomi; Iwahara, Akihiko; Utsumi, Miyoko; Arita, Mikio; Takeshita, Tatsuya

    2016-07-01

    The influence of T-786C polymorphism in the promoter region of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) on arteriosclerotic parameters by age and gender were examined. Brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV), heart-rate adjusted augmentation index (AIx@75), pulse pressure (PP) and albumin-creatinine ratio (ACR) were assessed as arteriosclerotic parameters in addition to non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) to HDL-C (non-HDL-C/HDL-C) ratio in 1499 participants. T-786C polymorphism (rs2070744) was screened using a TaqMan allelic discrimination assay. Analyses of covariance were carried. Women with the non-C allele showed significantly lower AIx@75 in participants aged gender differences, possibly involving antioxidative and/or endothelial signaling other than inflammatory signaling.

  2. La epidemiología ocupacional como herramienta básica para la salud de los trabajadores Occupational epidemiology as a basic tool for workers' health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caristina Robaina Aguirre

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un pequeño bosquejo del desarrollo de la Epidemiología como ciencia y su importancia en salud pública en general. Se transita por las definiciones de vieja y nueva epidemiología, de enfermedades crónicas, transmisibles y no transmisibles, del concepto de epidemiología social, etc. para posteriormente hablar de la importancia de la Epidemiología Ocupacional en la Salud PúblicaA review of the development of Epidemiology as a science, and its significance in public health in general, was made. The old and new definitions of epidemiology, of chronic, transmissible and non-transmissible diseases, of social epidemiology concept, etc., are analysed to further deal with the importance of Occupational Epidemiology in Public Health.

  3. Selecting the optimal synthesis parameters of InP/CdxZn1-xSe quantum dots for a hybrid remote phosphor white LED for general lighting applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryckaert, Jana; Correia, António; Tessier, Mickael D; Dupont, Dorian; Hens, Zeger; Hanselaer, Peter; Meuret, Youri

    2017-11-27

    Quantum dots can be used in white LEDs for lighting applications to fill the spectral gaps in the combined emission spectrum of the blue pumping LED and a broad band phosphor, in order to improve the source color rendering properties. Because quantum dots are low scattering materials, their use can also reduce the amount of backscattered light which can increase the overall efficiency of the white LED. The absorption spectrum and narrow emission spectrum of quantum dots can be easily tuned by altering their synthesis parameters. Due to the re-absorption events between the different luminescent materials and the light interaction with the LED package, determining the optimal quantum dot properties is a highly non-trivial task. In this paper we propose a methodology to select the optimal quantum dot to be combined with a broad band phosphor in order to realize a white LED with optimal luminous efficacy and CRI. The methodology is based on accurate and efficient simulations using the extended adding-doubling approach that take into account all the optical interactions. The method is elaborated for the specific case of a hybrid, remote phosphor white LED with YAG:Ce phosphor in combination with InP/CdxZn 1-x Se type quantum dots. The absorption and emission spectrum of the quantum dots are generated in function of three synthesis parameters (core size, shell size and cadmium fraction) by a semi-empirical 'quantum dot model' to include the continuous tunability of these spectra. The sufficiently fast simulations allow to scan the full parameter space consisting of these synthesis parameters and luminescent material concentrations in terms of CRI and efficacy. A conclusive visualization of the final performance allows to make a well-considered trade-off between these performance parameters. For the hybrid white remote phosphor LED with YAG:Ce and InP/CdxZn 1-x Se quantum dots a CRI Ra = 90 (with R9>50) and an overall efficacy of 110 lm/W is found.

  4. Cancer Epidemiology Cohorts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohort studies are fundamental for epidemiological research by helping researchers better understand the etiology of cancer and provide insights into the key determinants of this disease and its outcomes.

  5. Epidemiology & Genomics Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program, in the National Cancer Institute's Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences, funds research in human populations to understand the determinants of cancer occurrence and outcomes.

  6. Mathematical and statistical approaches to AIDS epidemiology

    CERN Document Server

    1989-01-01

    The 18 research articles of this volume discuss the major themes that have emerged from mathematical and statistical research in the epidemiology of HIV. The opening paper reviews important recent contributions. Five sections follow: Statistical Methodology and Forecasting, Infectivity and the HIV, Heterogeneity and HIV Transmission Dynamics, Social Dynamics and AIDS, and The Immune System and The HIV. In each, leading experts in AIDS epidemiology present the recent results. Some address the role of variable infectivity, heterogeneous mixing, and long periods of infectiousness in the dynamics of HIV; others concentrate on parameter estimation and short-term forecasting. The last section looks at the interaction between the HIV and the immune system.

  7. Determination of the correlation relationship of pedagogical tests of general physical training with a set of parameters describing the morphological features and canoeists.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flerchuk Viktor Viktorovich

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Correlation connections of tests are certain to on general physical preparation with indexes morphological possibilities of sportsmen. 15 sportsmen took part in research. Propensity of sportsmen is set to certain distances in competition activity. Directions of selection and orientation of sportsmen are recommended to work of different orientation.

  8. Methodologic frontiers in environmental epidemiology.

    OpenAIRE

    Rothman, K J

    1993-01-01

    Environmental epidemiology comprises the epidemiologic study of those environmental factors that are outside the immediate control of the individual. Exposures of interest to environmental epidemiologists include air pollution, water pollution, occupational exposure to physical and chemical agents, as well as psychosocial elements of environmental concern. The main methodologic problem in environmental epidemiology is exposure assessment, a problem that extends through all of epidemiologic re...

  9. Study of Hematological Parameters in Children Suffering from Iron Deficiency Anaemia in Chattagram Maa-o-Shishu General Hospital, Chittagong, Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed Mujib, Abu Syed; Halder, Milton; Monirul Hasan, Chowdhury Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    A total of 150 (30.61%) anemic patients out of 490 patients diagnosed to have iron deficiency anemia (IDA) have been selected for the first time in Bangladesh. For detailed study, blood samples from 150 anemic patients along with 25 controls were analyzed. Analysis of variance showed significant P value between mean platelet volume (MPV) in females (8.08 μm3) and males (7.59 μm3) (P iron deficiency anemia patients. Besides, the value of white blood cells (WBC) in males (10946.08/cmm) was significantly higher than in females (9470.833/cmm) (P anemias with only one of three biochemical parameters decreased and control showed that this group does not have iron deficiency. PMID:25400943

  10. Kinetic model framework for aerosol and cloud surface chemistry and gas-particle interactions - Part 1: General equations, parameters, and terminology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pöschl, U.; Rudich, Y.; Ammann, M.

    2007-12-01

    Aerosols and clouds play central roles in atmospheric chemistry and physics, climate, air pollution, and public health. The mechanistic understanding and predictability of aerosol and cloud properties, interactions, transformations, and effects are, however, still very limited. This is due not only to the limited availability of measurement data, but also to the limited applicability and compatibility of model formalisms used for the analysis, interpretation, and description of heterogeneous and multiphase processes. To support the investigation and elucidation of atmospheric aerosol and cloud surface chemistry and gas-particle interactions, we present a comprehensive kinetic model framework with consistent and unambiguous terminology and universally applicable rate equations and parameters. It enables a detailed description of mass transport and chemical reactions at the gas-particle interface, and it allows linking aerosol and cloud surface processes with gas phase and particle bulk processes in systems with multiple chemical components and competing physicochemical processes. The key elements and essential aspects of the presented framework are: a simple and descriptive double-layer surface model (sorption layer and quasi-static layer); straightforward flux-based mass balance and rate equations; clear separation of mass transport and chemical reactions; well-defined and consistent rate parameters (uptake and accommodation coefficients, reaction and transport rate coefficients); clear distinction between gas phase, gas-surface, and surface-bulk transport (gas phase diffusion, surface and bulk accommodation); clear distinction between gas-surface, surface layer, and surface-bulk reactions (Langmuir-Hinshelwood and Eley-Rideal mechanisms); mechanistic description of concentration and time dependences (transient and steady-state conditions); flexible addition of unlimited numbers of chemical species and physicochemical processes; optional aggregation or resolution

  11. Parameter Optimization for Feature and Hit Generation in a General Unknown Screening Method-Proof of Concept Study Using a Design of Experiment Approach for a High Resolution Mass Spectrometry Procedure after Data Independent Acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmiger, Marco P; Poetzsch, Michael; Steuer, Andrea E; Kraemer, Thomas

    2018-03-06

    High resolution mass spectrometry and modern data independent acquisition (DIA) methods enable the creation of general unknown screening (GUS) procedures. However, even when DIA is used, its potential is far from being exploited, because often, the untargeted acquisition is followed by a targeted search. Applying an actual GUS (including untargeted screening) produces an immense amount of data that must be dealt with. An optimization of the parameters regulating the feature detection and hit generation algorithms of the data processing software could significantly reduce the amount of unnecessary data and thereby the workload. Design of experiment (DoE) approaches allow a simultaneous optimization of multiple parameters. In a first step, parameters are evaluated (crucial or noncrucial). Second, crucial parameters are optimized. The aim in this study was to reduce the number of hits, without missing analytes. The obtained parameter settings from the optimization were compared to the standard settings by analyzing a test set of blood samples spiked with 22 relevant analytes as well as 62 authentic forensic cases. The optimization lead to a marked reduction of workload (12.3 to 1.1% and 3.8 to 1.1% hits for the test set and the authentic cases, respectively) while simultaneously increasing the identification rate (68.2 to 86.4% and 68.8 to 88.1%, respectively). This proof of concept study emphasizes the great potential of DoE approaches to master the data overload resulting from modern data independent acquisition methods used for general unknown screening procedures by optimizing software parameters.

  12. Comparative demography of an epiphytic lichen: support for general life history patterns and solutions to common problems in demographic parameter estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shriver, Robert K; Cutler, Kerry; Doak, Daniel F

    2012-09-01

    Lichens are major components in many terrestrial ecosystems, yet their population ecology is at best only poorly understood. Few studies have fully quantified the life history or demographic patterns of any lichen, with particularly little attention to epiphytic species. We conducted a 6-year demographic study of Vulpicida pinastri, an epiphytic foliose lichen, in south-central Alaska. After testing multiple size-structured functions to describe patterns in each V. pinastri demographic rate, we used the resulting estimates to construct a stochastic demographic model for the species. This model development led us to propose solutions to two general problems in construction of demographic models for many taxa: how to simply but accurately characterize highly skewed growth rates, and how to estimate recruitment rates that are exceptionally difficult to directly observe. Our results show that V. pinastri has rapid and variable growth and, for small individuals, low and variable survival, but that these traits are coupled with considerable longevity (e.g., >50 years mean future life span for a 4-cm(2) thallus) and little deviation of the stochastic population growth rate from the deterministic expectation. Comparisons of the demographic patterns we found with those of other lichen studies suggest that their relatively simple architecture may allow clearer generalities about growth patterns for lichens than for other taxa, and that the expected pattern of faster growth rates for epiphytic species is substantiated.

  13. Kernel-density estimation and approximate Bayesian computation for flexible epidemiological model fitting in Python.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvine, Michael A; Hollingsworth, T Déirdre

    2018-05-26

    Fitting complex models to epidemiological data is a challenging problem: methodologies can be inaccessible to all but specialists, there may be challenges in adequately describing uncertainty in model fitting, the complex models may take a long time to run, and it can be difficult to fully capture the heterogeneity in the data. We develop an adaptive approximate Bayesian computation scheme to fit a variety of epidemiologically relevant data with minimal hyper-parameter tuning by using an adaptive tolerance scheme. We implement a novel kernel density estimation scheme to capture both dispersed and multi-dimensional data, and directly compare this technique to standard Bayesian approaches. We then apply the procedure to a complex individual-based simulation of lymphatic filariasis, a human parasitic disease. The procedure and examples are released alongside this article as an open access library, with examples to aid researchers to rapidly fit models to data. This demonstrates that an adaptive ABC scheme with a general summary and distance metric is capable of performing model fitting for a variety of epidemiological data. It also does not require significant theoretical background to use and can be made accessible to the diverse epidemiological research community. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Against Popperized epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, M

    1976-03-01

    The recommendation of Popper's philosophy of science should be adopted by epidemiologists is disputed. Reference is made to other authors who have shown that the most constructive elements in Popper's ideas have been advocated by earlier philosophers and have been used in epidemiology without abandoning inductive reasoning. It is argued that Popper's denigration of inductive methods is particularly harmful to epidemiology. Inductive reasoning and statistical inference play a key role in the science; it is suggested that unfamiliarity with these ideas contributes to widespread misunderstanding of the function of epidemiology. Attention is drawn to a common fallacy involving correlations between three random variables. The prevalence of the fallacy may be related to confusion between deductive and inductive logic.

  15. Ophthalmic epidemiology in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delcourt, Cécile; Korobelnik, Jean-François; Buitendijk, Gabriëlle H S

    2016-01-01

    The European Eye Epidemiology (E3) consortium is a recently formed consortium of 29 groups from 12 European countries. It already comprises 21 population-based studies and 20 other studies (case-control, cases only, randomized trials), providing ophthalmological data on approximately 170,000 Euro......The European Eye Epidemiology (E3) consortium is a recently formed consortium of 29 groups from 12 European countries. It already comprises 21 population-based studies and 20 other studies (case-control, cases only, randomized trials), providing ophthalmological data on approximately 170......,000 European participants. The aim of the consortium is to promote and sustain collaboration and sharing of data and knowledge in the field of ophthalmic epidemiology in Europe, with particular focus on the harmonization of methods for future research, estimation and projection of frequency and impact...

  16. Epidemiology and the Tobacco Epidemic: How Research on Tobacco and Health Shaped Epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samet, Jonathan M

    2016-03-01

    In this article, I provide a perspective on the tobacco epidemic and epidemiology, describing the impact of the tobacco-caused disease epidemic on the field of epidemiology. Although there is an enormous body of epidemiologic evidence on the associations of smoking with health, little systematic attention has been given to how decades of research have affected epidemiology and its practice. I address the many advances that resulted from epidemiologic research on smoking and health, such as demonstration of the utility of observational designs and important parameters (the odds ratio and the population attributable risk), guidelines for causal inference, and systematic review approaches. I also cover unintended and adverse consequences for the field, including the strategy of doubt creation and the recruitment of epidemiologists by the tobacco industry to serve its mission. The paradigm of evidence-based action for addressing noncommunicable diseases began with the need to address the epidemic of tobacco-caused disease, an imperative for action documented by epidemiologic research. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. French RSE-M and RCC-MR code appendices for flaw analysis: Presentation of the fracture parameters calculation-Part I: General overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marie, S.; Chapuliot, S.; Kayser, Y.; Lacire, M.H.; Drubay, B.; Barthelet, B.; Le Delliou, P.; Rougier, V.; Naudin, C.; Gilles, P.; Triay, M.

    2007-01-01

    Two French nuclear codes include flaw assessment procedures: the RSE-M code 'Rules for In-service Inspection of Nuclear Power Plant Components' and the RCC-MR code 'Design and Construction rules for mechanical components of FBR nuclear islands and high temperature applications'. An important effort of development of these analytical methods has been made for the last 10 years in the frame of a collaboration between CEA, EDF and AREVA-NP, and in the frame of R and D actions involving CEA and IRSN. These activities have led to a unification of the common methods of the two codes. The calculation of fracture mechanics parameters, and in particular the stress intensity factor K I and the J integral, has been widely developed for industrial configurations. All developments have been integrated in the 2005 edition of RSE-M and in the 2007 edition of RCC-MR. This series of articles is composed of five parts: this first one presents an overview of the methods proposed in the RCC-MR and RSE-M codes. Parts II-IV provide compendia for specific components: plates (part II), pipes (part III) and elbows (part IV). Finally, part V presents the validation elements of the methods, with details on the process followed for their development and on evaluation of the accuracy of the proposed analytical methods. This first article of the series presents an overview of the calculation of K I and J in these two codes and describes briefly the defect assessment analyses. Specific details in the Appendix A16 of RCC-MR (LBB procedure and creep analyses) are also introduced in this article

  18. Epidemiology, molecular epidemiology, and risk factors for renal cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Paglino

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite only accounting for approximately 2% of all new primary cancer cases, renal cell carcinoma (RCC incidence has dramatically increased over time. Incidence rates vary greatly according to geographic areas, so that it is extremely likely that exogenous risk factors could play an important role in the development of this cancer. Several risk factors have been linked with RCC, including cigarette smoking, obesity, hypertension (and antihypertensive drugs, chronic kidney diseases (also dialysis and transplantation, as well as the use of certain analgesics. Furthermore, although RCC has not generally been considered an occupational cancer, several types of occupationally-derived exposures have been implicated in its pathogenesis. These include exposure to asbestos, chlorinated solvents, gasoline, diesel exhaust fumes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, printing inks and dyes, cadmium and lead. Finally, families with a predisposition to the development of renal neoplasms were identified and the genes involved discovered and characterized. Therefore, there are now four well-characterized, genetically determined syndromes associated with an increased incidence of kidney tumors, i.e., Von Hippel Lindau (VHL, Hereditary Papillary Renal Carcinoma (HPRC, Birt-Hogg-Dubé Syndrome (BHD, and Hereditary Leiomyomatosis and Renal Cell Cancer (HLRCC. This review will address present knowledge about the epidemiology, molecular epidemiology and risk factors of RCC.

  19. Nuclear accidents and epidemiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    A consultation on epidemiology related to the Chernobyl accident was held in Copenhagen in May 1987 as a basis for concerted action. This was followed by a joint IAEA/WHO workshop in Vienna, which reviewed appropriate methodologies for possible long-term effects of radiation following nuclear accidents. The reports of these two meetings are included in this volume, and cover the subjects: 1) Epidemiology related to the Chernobyl nuclear accident. 2) Appropriate methodologies for studying possible long-term effects of radiation on individuals exposed in a nuclear accident. Figs and tabs

  20. The relationships between sixteen perfluorinated compound concentrations in blood serum and food, and other parameters, in the general population of South Korea with proportionate stratified sampling method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hee-Young; Kim, Seung-Kyu; Kang, Dong-Mug; Hwang, Yong-Sik; Oh, Jeong-Eun

    2014-02-01

    Serum samples were collected from volunteers of various ages and both genders using a proportionate stratified sampling method, to assess the exposure of the general population in Busan, South Korea to perfluorinated compounds (PFCs). 16 PFCs were investigated in serum samples from 306 adults (124 males and 182 females) and one day composite diet samples (breakfast, lunch, and dinner) from 20 of the serum donors, to investigate the relationship between food and serum PFC concentrations. Perfluorooctanoic acid and perfluorooctanesulfonic acid were the dominant PFCs in the serum samples, with mean concentrations of 8.4 and 13 ng/mL, respectively. Perfluorotridecanoic acid was the dominant PFC in the composite food samples, ranging from studies. We confirmed from the relationships between questionnaire results and the PFC concentrations in the serum samples, that food is one of the important contribution factors of human exposure to PFCs. However, there were no correlations between the PFC concentrations in the one day composite diet samples and the serum samples, because a one day composite diet sample is not necessarily representative of a person's long-term diet and because of the small number of samples taken. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Factors involved in the paradox of reverse epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Ponce, Esther; Santolaria, Francisco; Alemán-Valls, María-Remedios; González-Reimers, Emilio; Martínez-Riera, Antonio; Rodríguez-Gaspar, Melchor; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Eva

    2010-08-01

    The hypothesis of reverse epidemiology holds that some cardiovascular risk factors, such as obesity, hypercholesterolemia and hypertension, in the elderly or in some chronic diseases are not harmful but permit better survival. However, this phenomenon is controversial and the underlying reasons are poorly understood. To search for factors simultaneously linked to reverse epidemiology and to short or long term survival. We included 400 patients, older than 60 years, hospitalized in a general internal medicine unit; 61 died in hospital and 338 were followed up by telephone. Obesity, higher blood pressure and serum cholesterol, besides being related to lower mortality both in hospital and after discharge, were associated with better nutrition and functional capacity, less intense acute phase reaction and organ dysfunction, and lower incidence of high-mortality diseases such as dementia, pneumonia, sepsis or cancer. These associations may explain why obesity and other reverse epidemiology data are inversely related to mortality. Weight loss was related to mortality independently of BMI. Patients with BMI under 30 kg/m(2) who died in hospital showed more weight loss than those who survived; the lower the BMI, the greater the weight loss. In contrast, patients with BMI over 30 kg/m(2) who died in hospital gained more weight than those who survived; the higher the BMI, the greater the weight gain. In patients over 60 years of age admitted to an internal medicine ward, obesity did not show independent survival value, being displaced by other nutritional parameters, functional capacity, acute phase reaction, organ dysfunction and diseases with poor prognosis. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  2. Population-Based Study of the Epidemiology of Herpes Zoster in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, You Jeong; Lee, Chang Nam; Lim, Chi-Yeon; Jeon, Woo Seok; Park, Young Min

    2014-01-01

    General epidemiological data regarding herpes zoster (HZ) are necessary for treatment and prevention of this disease. In addition, epidemiological data can play an important role in evaluating the efficacy and impact of vaccination. Though several epidemiological studies of HZ in Korea have been conducted, they usually depend on hospital-based data and may not be representative of HZ characteristics all over Korea. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the incidence and other epidemiologi...

  3. en epidemiología

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana V. Diez Roux

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available La epidemiología sociocultural se caracteriza por la integración de procesos sociales, culturales, económicos y políticos con procesos biológicos en el estudio de los determinantes de la salud. Por definición, esto implica la consideración de determinantes especificados a múltiples niveles, desde los genes hasta las características de la sociedad en su totalidad. En este artículo se analizan diversos problemas metodológicos que surgen en epidemiología (y en las ciencias sociales en general por la presencia de múltiples niveles de organización que pueden ser relevantes para entender las causas de la salud y la enfermedad. Se subraya la necesidad de investigar conjuntamente (o de integrar determinantes de la salud definidos a distintos niveles. El artículo concluye con un examen de las implicaciones de la presencia de múltiples niveles para el estudio de los determinantes sociales o culturales de la salud.

  4. Epidemiologic research program: Selected bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-05-01

    This bibliography is a current listing of scientific reports from epidemiologic and related activities sponsored by the Department of Energy. The Office of Epidemiology and Health Surveillance now is the departmental focal point for these activities and any others relating to the study of human health effects. The Office's mission is evolving to encompass the new role of the Department in environmental restoration, weapons dismantlement and nuclear material storage, and development of new energy technologies. Publications in these areas will be included in future editions of the bibliography. The present edition brings the listing up to date, and should facilitate access to specific reports. The program has been divided into several general areas of activity: the Radiation Effects Research Foundation, which supports studies of survivors of the atomic weapons in Hiroshima and Nagasaki; mortality and morbidity studies of DOE workers; studies on internally deposited alpha emitters; medical/histologic studies; studies on the genetic aspects of radiation damage; community health surveillance studies; and the development of computational techniques and of databases to make the results as widely useful as possible

  5. Epidemiology of burns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dokter, Jan

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to understand the epidemiology, treatment and outcomes of specialized burn care in The Netherlands. This thesis is mainly based on historical data of the burn centre in Rotterdam from 1986, combined with historical data from the burn centres in Groningen and Beverwijk from

  6. The Epidemiology of Pheochromocytoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ladefoged Ebbehøj, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    Pheochromocytoma and catecholamine secreting paraganglioma (PPGL) are exceedingly rare endocrine tumours, but remain a frequent diagnostic dilemma due to their potential life-threatening nature. Reliable data on the epidemiology of PPGL is lacking and no time trends in incidence rates (IR) have...

  7. Epidemiology of differentiated thyroid carcinoma in Morocco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben Rais, N.; Ghfir, I.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: The incidence of thyroid cancer has been in linear increase for several decades because of the evolution and the generalization of the means of diagnosis. The objective of our work is to carry out an epidemiologic approach of differentiated thyroid carcinoma in our country, with an evaluation of the recent review of literature. Materials and methods: Our work consists of a retrospective analysis of 3144 cases of differentiated thyroid carcinoma, followed in nuclear medicine department of Ibn Sina hospital in Rabat for a period of 12 years. Our evaluation parameters related to the incidence of thyroid carcinoma are age of onset, sex, size of tumor, histological type, evolution and risk factors. Results: The incidence of differentiated thyroid carcinoma was estimated in our country at 0,8 by 100000 inhabitants per year. The sex ratio was evaluated at 3,5/1 whereas the average age was 42,5 years. Papillary carcinoma represented 65,58 %, well differentiated follicular carcinoma 21,92 % and moderately differentiated carcinoma to 12,5%. The microcarcinomas were estimated at 8,1 %. The size of tumor at the time of diagnosis was higher than 2 cm in 70% of cases. The lymphatic extension was objectified in 47,6 % of papillary forms and 3,5 % of follicular carcinoma. Remote metastasis was found in 0,8 % of cases between 30 and 40 years and 4,71 % after the age of 40 years. Discussion: The cancer of thyroid is not very frequent. Indeed, its annual incidence throughout the world is 0,5 to 10 by 100.000 inhabitants with a clear female prevalence. The majority of cases occur between 15 and 50 years. This cancer is very rare in children less than 15 years. In Morocco, the incidence has increased these last decades like many countries in the world (0,8 by 100.000 inhabitants per year). We note, in addition, an increase in the prevalence of papillary microcarcinoma seeing the improvement of early tracking methods (echography, fine needle aspiration biopsy). The risk

  8. Mapping epidemiology's past to inform its future: metaknowledge analysis of epidemiologic topics in leading journals, 1974-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinquart, Ludovic; Galea, Sandro

    2015-07-15

    An empiric perspective on what epidemiology has studied over time might inform discussions about future directions for the discipline. We aimed to identify the main areas of epidemiologic inquiry and determine how they evolved over time in 5 high-impact epidemiologic journals. We analyzed the titles and abstracts of 20,895 articles that were published between 1974 and 2013. In 5 time periods that reflected approximately equal numbers of articles, we identified the main topics by clustering terms based on co-occurrence. Infectious disease and cardiovascular disease epidemiology were the prevailing topics over the 5 periods. Cancer epidemiology was a major topic from 1974 to 2001 but disappeared thereafter. Nutritional epidemiology gained relative importance from 1974 to 2013. Environmental epidemiology appeared during 1996-2001 and continued to be important, whereas 2 clusters related to methodology and meta-analysis in genetics appeared during 2008-2013. Several areas of epidemiology, including injury or psychiatric epidemiology, did not make an appearance as major topics at any time. In an ancillary analysis of 6 high-impact general medicine journals, we found patterns of epidemiologic articles that were overall consistent with the findings in epidemiologic journals. This metaknowledge investigation allowed identification of the dominant topics in and conversely those that were absent from 5 major epidemiologic journals. We discuss implications for the field. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Epidemiological Study of Greek University Students' Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kounenou, Kalliope; Koutra, Aikaterini; Katsiadrami, Aristea; Diacogiannis, Georgios

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, 805 Greek students participated by filling in self-report questionnaires studying depression (Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale), general health status (General Health Questionnaire), general psychopathology (Symptom Checklist-90-R), and personal demographic features. Some of the more prevalent findings…

  10. Epidemiological studies in mucus hypersecretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestbo, Jørgen

    2002-01-01

    Respiratory mucus in epidemiology has mainly been studied using standardized questionnaires including questions on cough and phlegm. In chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) much controversy exists regarding the importance of mucus hypersecretion. From being the key element in the 'British...... hypothesis' it was reduced to being an innocent disorder in the 1980s but is now again recognized as a potential risk factor for an accelerated loss of lung function. Whereas early studies in mainly occupational cohorts showed no effect of chronic mucus hypersecretion on decline in lung function......, such an effect has been shown in subsequent studies on general population samples. Chronic mucus hypersecretion also increases risk of hospital admission which may be due to an increased risk of lower respiratory tract infection. In severe COPD this may explain the increased mortality associated...

  11. Worldwide molecular epidemiology of HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry I Z Requejo

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV is the worldwide disseminated causative agent of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS. HIV is a member of the Lentivirus genus of Retroviridae family and is grouped in two types named HIV-1 and HIV-2. These viruses have a notable ability to mutate and adapt to the new conditions of human environment. A large incidence of errors at the transcriptional level results in changes on the genetic bases during the reproductive cycle. The elevated genomic variability of HIV has carried important implications for the diagnosis, treatment and prevention as well as epidemiologic investigations. The present review describes important definitions and geographical distribution of subtypes, circulating recombinant forms and other genomic variations of HIV. The present study aimed at leading students of Biomedical Sciences and public health laboratory staff guidance to general and specific knowledge about the genomic variability of the HIV.

  12. Epidemiological characterization of oral cancer. Study Protocol.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Fernández

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Oral cancer is a disease of high impact globally. It ranks as the sixth more frequent one among all types of cancer. In spite of being a widely known pathology and easy access to the diagnosis, the lack of epidemiological data reported in the last 10 years in Chile called attention to. At the global level, the World Health Organization (WHO has developed a project called “GLOBOCAN” in order to collect epidemiological data of the global cancer, between its data, highlights the high incidence and high rate of mortality in the male sex, parameter that shows tendency to replicate in both America and Chile. In consequence to these data, a narrative review of the literature concerning the epidemiological profile of the different forms of oral cancer in the past 15 years was done. The diagnosis of oral cancer crosses transversely the Dental Science, forcing us to establish triads of work between oral and maxillofacial surgeons, pathologists and dentists of the various specialties, so as to allow a timely research, appropriate biopsies and histopathological studies finishes with the purpose of, on the one hand, obtain timely and accurate diagnostics, in addition, maintaining the epidemiological indicators.

  13. Epidemiology applied to health physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    The technical program of the mid-year meeting of the Health Physics Society, entitled Epidemiology Applied to Health physics, was developed to meet three objectives: (1) give health physicists a deeper understanding of the basics of epidemiological methods and their use in developing standards, regulations, and criteria and in risk assessment; (2) present current reports on recently completed or on-going epidemiology studies; and (3) encourage greater interaction between the health physics and epidemiology disciplines. Included are studies relating methods in epidemiology to radiation protection standards, risk assessment from exposure to bone-seekers, from occupational exposures in mines, mills and nuclear facilities, and from radioactivity in building materials

  14. Parameter Estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sales-Cruz, Mauricio; Heitzig, Martina; Cameron, Ian

    2011-01-01

    of optimisation techniques coupled with dynamic solution of the underlying model. Linear and nonlinear approaches to parameter estimation are investigated. There is also the application of maximum likelihood principles in the estimation of parameters, as well as the use of orthogonal collocation to generate a set......In this chapter the importance of parameter estimation in model development is illustrated through various applications related to reaction systems. In particular, rate constants in a reaction system are obtained through parameter estimation methods. These approaches often require the application...... of algebraic equations as the basis for parameter estimation.These approaches are illustrated using estimations of kinetic constants from reaction system models....

  15. Epidemiology and ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourguignon, M.; Masse, R.; Slama, R.; Spira, A.; Timarche, M.; Laurier, D.; Billon, S.; Rogel, A.; Telle Lamberton, M.; Catelinois, O.; Thierry, I.; Grosche, B.; Ron, E.; Vathaire, F. de; Cherie Challine, L.; Donadieu, J.; Pirard, Ph.; Bloch, J.; Setbon, M.

    2004-01-01

    The ionizing radiations have effects on living being. The determinist effects appear since a threshold of absorbed dose of radiation is reached. In return, the stochastic effects of ionizing radiations are these ones whom apparition cannot be described except in terms of probabilities. They are in one hand, cancers and leukemia, on the other hand, lesions of the genome potentially transmissible to the descendants. That is why epidemiology, defined by specialists as the science that studies the frequency and distribution of illness in time and space, the contribution of factors that determine this frequency and this distribution among human populations. This issue gathers and synthesizes the knowledge and examines the difficulties of methodologies. It allows to give its true place to epidemiology. (N.C.)

  16. Epidemiology of Gout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyon

    2014-01-01

    Synopsis Gout is the most prevalent inflammatory arthritis in men. The findings of several epidemiological studies from a diverse range of countries suggest that the prevalence of gout has risen over the last few decades. Whilst incidence data are scarce, data from the US suggests that the incidence of gout is also rising. Evidence from prospective epidemiological studies has confirmed dietary factors (animal purines, alcohol and fructose), obesity, the metabolic syndrome, hypertension, diuretic use, and chronic kidney disease as clinically relevant risk factors for hyperuricemia and gout. Low-fat dairy products, coffee, and vitamin C appear to have a protective effect. Further prospective studies are required to examine other proposed risk factors for hyperuricaemia and gout such as the use of β-blockers and angiotension-II receptor antagonists (other than losartan), obstructive sleep apnoea, and osteoarthritis, and putative protective factors such as calcium-channel blockers and losartan. PMID:24703341

  17. Epidemiological studies on syncope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruwald, Martin Huth

    2013-01-01

    of the patients play an essential role. In epidemiology these factors have major impact on the outcome of the patients. Until recently, even the definition of syncope differed from one study to another which has made literature reviews difficult. Traditionally the data on epidemiology of syncope has been taken...... from smaller studies from different clinical settings with wide differences in patient morbidity. Through the extensive Danish registries we examined the characteristics and prognosis of the patients hospitalized due to syncope in a nationwide study. The aims of the present thesis were to investigate......, prevalence and cardiovascular factors associated with the risk of syncope, 4) the prognosis in healthy individuals discharged after syncope, and 5) the prognosis of patients after syncope and evaluation of the CHADS2 score as a tool for short- and long-term risk prediction. The first studies of the present...

  18. The leukemias: Epidemiologic aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linet, M.S.

    1984-01-01

    Particularly geared to physicians and cancer researchers, this study of the epidemiology and etiology of leukemia analyzes the four major leukemia subtypes in terms of genetic and familial determinant factors and examines the incidence, distribution and frequency of reported leukemia clusters. Linet discusses the connection between other types of malignancies, their treatments, and the subsequent development of leukemia and evaluates the impact on leukemia onset of such environmental factors as radiation therapy, drugs, and occupational hazards

  19. Worldwide Report, Epidemiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-11-22

    caused by ingesting eggs of the pork tapeworm, Taenia solium . It has been described as the most com- mon parasitic disease of the central nervous...rather difficult to detect in stool specimens and at this stage it is impossible to distinguish between T. solium and T. saginata eggs either by...Knowledge and Perspectives, pp. 25-38. Academic Press, New York. 12. Pawlowskz S. (1982). Epidemiology and prevention of Taenia saginata infec- tion. In

  20. Epidemiology and moral philosophy.

    OpenAIRE

    Westrin, C G; Nilstun, T; Smedby, B; Haglund, B

    1992-01-01

    To an increasing extent ethical controversies affect and sometimes obstruct public health work and epidemiological research. In order to improve communication between the concerned parties a model for identification and analysis of ethical conflicts in individual-based research has been worked out in co-operation between epidemiologists and moral philosophers. The model has two dimensions. One dimension specifies relevant ethical principles (as beneficence, non-maleficence, autonomy and justi...

  1. Fibromyalgia: Prevalence, epidemiologic profiles and economic costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabo-Meseguer, Asensi; Cerdá-Olmedo, Germán; Trillo-Mata, José Luis

    2017-11-22

    Fibromyalgia is an idiopathic chronic condition that causes widespread musculoskeletal pain, hyperalgesia and allodynia. This review aims to approach the general epidemiology of fibromyalgia according to the most recent published studies, identifying the general worldwide prevalence of the disease, its basic epidemiological profiles and its economic costs, with specific interest in the Spanish and Comunidad Valenciana cases. Fibromyalgia affects, on average, 2.10% of the world's population; 2.31% of the European population; 2.40% of the Spanish population; and 3.69% of the population in the Comunidad Valenciana. It supposes a painful loss of the quality of life of the people who suffer it and the economic costs are enormous: in Spain is has been estimated at more than 12,993 million euros annually. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Epidemiological models for the spread of anti-malarial resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antia R

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The spread of drug resistance is making malaria control increasingly difficult. Mathematical models for the transmission dynamics of drug sensitive and resistant strains can be a useful tool to help to understand the factors that influence the spread of drug resistance, and they can therefore help in the design of rational strategies for the control of drug resistance. Methods We present an epidemiological framework to investigate the spread of anti-malarial resistance. Several mathematical models, based on the familiar Macdonald-Ross model of malaria transmission, enable us to examine the processes and parameters that are critical in determining the spread of resistance. Results In our simplest model, resistance does not spread if the fraction of infected individuals treated is less than a threshold value; if drug treatment exceeds this threshold, resistance will eventually become fixed in the population. The threshold value is determined only by the rates of infection and the infectious periods of resistant and sensitive parasites in untreated and treated hosts, whereas the intensity of transmission has no influence on the threshold value. In more complex models, where hosts can be infected by multiple parasite strains or where treatment varies spatially, resistance is generally not fixed, but rather some level of sensitivity is often maintained in the population. Conclusions The models developed in this paper are a first step in understanding the epidemiology of anti-malarial resistance and evaluating strategies to reduce the spread of resistance. However, specific recommendations for the management of resistance need to wait until we have more data on the critical parameters underlying the spread of resistance: drug use, spatial variability of treatment and parasite migration among areas, and perhaps most importantly, cost of resistance.

  3. [Causal analysis approaches in epidemiology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, O; Siroux, V; Le Moual, N; Varraso, R

    2014-02-01

    Epidemiological research is mostly based on observational studies. Whether such studies can provide evidence of causation remains discussed. Several causal analysis methods have been developed in epidemiology. This paper aims at presenting an overview of these methods: graphical models, path analysis and its extensions, and models based on the counterfactual approach, with a special emphasis on marginal structural models. Graphical approaches have been developed to allow synthetic representations of supposed causal relationships in a given problem. They serve as qualitative support in the study of causal relationships. The sufficient-component cause model has been developed to deal with the issue of multicausality raised by the emergence of chronic multifactorial diseases. Directed acyclic graphs are mostly used as a visual tool to identify possible confounding sources in a study. Structural equations models, the main extension of path analysis, combine a system of equations and a path diagram, representing a set of possible causal relationships. They allow quantifying direct and indirect effects in a general model in which several relationships can be tested simultaneously. Dynamic path analysis further takes into account the role of time. The counterfactual approach defines causality by comparing the observed event and the counterfactual event (the event that would have been observed if, contrary to the fact, the subject had received a different exposure than the one he actually received). This theoretical approach has shown limits of traditional methods to address some causality questions. In particular, in longitudinal studies, when there is time-varying confounding, classical methods (regressions) may be biased. Marginal structural models have been developed to address this issue. In conclusion, "causal models", though they were developed partly independently, are based on equivalent logical foundations. A crucial step in the application of these models is the

  4. Epidemiology of Postherpetic Neuralgia in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Myong-Joo; Kim, Yeon-Dong; Cheong, Yong-Kwan; Park, Seon-Jeong; Choi, Seung-Won; Hong, Hyon-Joo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) is a disease entity defined as persistent pain after the acute pain of herpes zoster gradually resolves. It is associated with impaired daily activities, resulting in reduced quality of life. General epidemiological data on PHN is necessary for the effective management. However, data on the epidemiology of PHN in Korea is lacking. The aim of this study was to evaluate the epidemiological features of PHN in the general population. We used population-based medical data for 51,448,491 subscribers to the Health Insurance Service in the year of 2013 to analyze of PHN epidemiology in Korea, such as the incidence, regional distribution, seasonal variation, and healthcare resource utilization. Total number of patients and medical cost on PHN were analyzed from 2009 to 2013. Findings indicate that the incidence of PHN in Korea was 2.5 per 1000 person-years, which was strongly correlated with age and sex. There were no differences in seasonal variation or regional distribution. The medical cost increased steadily over the study period. When admitted to general hospitals, patients with PHN were mainly managed in the dermatology and anesthesiology departments. The incidence and prevalence rates of PHN in Koreans appear to be considerably higher compared to those in western populations, while the sex and age predisposition was similar. Considering that the pain associated with PHN can have a marked impact on a patient's quality of life resulting in a medicosocial economic burden, anesthesiology physicians have an important role in primary care in Korea. Future research on the cost-effectiveness of the management of PHN is needed. PMID:27057902

  5. Epidemiology of Posttraumatic Osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Abbey C; Hubbard-Turner, Tricia; Wikstrom, Erik A; Palmieri-Smith, Riann M

    2017-06-02

    Osteoarthritis is a leading cause of disability whose prevalence and incidence continue to increase. History of joint injury represents an important risk factor for posttraumatic osteoarthritis and is a significant contributor to the rapidly growing percentage of the population with osteoarthritis. This review will present the epidemiology associated with posttraumatic osteoarthritis, with particular emphasis on the knee and ankle joints. It is important to understand the effect of posttraumatic osteoarthritis on the population so that sufficient resources can be devoted to countering the disease and promoting optimal long-term health for patients after joint injury.

  6. Molecular epidemiology of ascariasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Betson, Martha; Halstead, Fennella; Nejsum, Peter

      We are using molecular epidemiology techniques to study the population structure of Ascaris obtained from humans and pigs. Worms were obtained from human hosts on Zanzibar and in Uganda, Bangladesh, Guatemala and Nepal and Ascaris from pigs were collected from in Uganda, Tanzania, Denmark......, Guatemala and the Philippines. Genomic DNA was extracted from each worm and a 450 base pair fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase gene subunit 1 (COI) was PCR amplified. The products were sequenced from both strands and sequences were manually edited. Fifty different Ascaris CO1 haplotypes were...

  7. Worldwide Report, Epidemiology, No. 327

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1983-01-01

    Partial Contents: Epidemiology, Human Diseases, Health, Malaria, AIDS, Homosexual Male, Medical Administration, Rabies, Tuberculosis, Encephalitis Statistics, Gastroenteritie, Mystery Diseases, Children, Epidemics...

  8. Epidemiology, hunger and development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo H. Battaglin Machado

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the relationship between epidemiology and food security implies in disclosing famine causes, the way it is distributed in the society and to which extent it affects the populations. Building up from that perspective, this paper attempts to understand the famine logic throughout the various transitions accomplished in the past decades: epidemiologic, demographic, risk, nutritional and development. The reflexes of the demographic transition that took place in Brazil in the XXth century are related to the population nutritional status standard changes, that is, they shifted from malnutrition high prevalence to a significant increase in obesity. However, the paradox of this situation is due to the fact that most risk factors that bring about diseases of the modern world come from the “excess”, while millions die around the globe because of “deprivation”. The food production alone does not ensure its equitable distribution among the various groups of the society. The access alone does not lead to quality. The choices are made individually, but life style options imply in a set of correlations that go from economy to culture. It means that this field has a collective basis and encompasses environment and development.

  9. Global epidemiology of sporotrichosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarti, Arunaloke; Bonifaz, Alexandro; Gutierrez-Galhardo, Maria Clara; Mochizuki, Takashi; Li, Shanshan

    2015-01-01

    Sporotrichosis is an endemic mycosis caused by the dimorphic fungus Sporothrix schenckii sensu lato. It has gained importance in recent years due to its worldwide prevalence, recognition of multiple cryptic species within the originally described species, and its distinctive ecology, distribution, and epidemiology across the globe. In this review, we describe the current knowledge of the taxonomy, ecology, prevalence, molecular epidemiology, and outbreaks due to S. schenckii sensu lato. Despite its omnipresence in the environment, this fungus has remarkably diverse modes of infection and distribution patterns across the world. We have delved into the nuances of how sporotrichosis is intimately linked to different forms of human activities, habitats, lifestyles, and environmental and zoonotic interactions. The purpose of this review is to stimulate discussion about the peculiarities of this unique fungal pathogen and increase the awareness of clinicians and microbiologists, especially in regions of high endemicity, to its emergence and evolving presentations and to kindle further research into understanding the unorthodox mechanisms by which this fungus afflicts different human populations. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The International Society for Human and Animal Mycology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Clinical Epidemiology Of Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagaraja D

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Stroke is a huge public health problem because of its high morbidity and disability. The epidemiology of stroke is of relevance to construct practical paradigms to tackle this major health issue in the community. Recent data have shown that about 72-86% of strokes are ischemic, 9-18% are due to hemorrhage (intracerebral of subarachnoid and the rest are undefined. The risk factors for stroke are multiple and combined. At present, stroke is no more considered as unavoidable and untreatable. It is an emergency and specialized units and teams improve outcome and lower costs. Death related to stroke is declining in many countries and in both sexes. This decrease in multifactorial. The detection and more effective treatment of hypertension may play an important factor, as well as the improved medical care and improvement in diagnostic procedures. While stroke incidence appears stable and stroke mortality is slowly declining, the absolute magnitude of stroke is likely to grow over the next 30 years. as the population ages, the absolute number of stroke victims and demands on healthcare and other support systems is likely to increase substantially in the future. Keeping this in perspective, this chapter shall focus on the epidemiology of stroke in the world and in Indian, in particular.

  11. Inventory parameters

    CERN Document Server

    Sharma, Sanjay

    2017-01-01

    This book provides a detailed overview of various parameters/factors involved in inventory analysis. It especially focuses on the assessment and modeling of basic inventory parameters, namely demand, procurement cost, cycle time, ordering cost, inventory carrying cost, inventory stock, stock out level, and stock out cost. In the context of economic lot size, it provides equations related to the optimum values. It also discusses why the optimum lot size and optimum total relevant cost are considered to be key decision variables, and uses numerous examples to explain each of these inventory parameters separately. Lastly, it provides detailed information on parameter estimation for different sectors/products. Written in a simple and lucid style, it offers a valuable resource for a broad readership, especially Master of Business Administration (MBA) students.

  12. Epidemiology of radiogenic breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howe, G.R.

    1984-01-01

    The primary objective of epidemiologic studies of radiogenic breast cancer is to use empirical data from human populations exposed to radiation, in order to delineate increases in risk of breast cancer as a function of the radiation characteristics and the characteristics of the women exposed. In addition, such empirical data may be used to test hypotheses concerning the biological mechanism of radiation-induced breast cancer, and this mechanism in turn may serve as a useful model both for other radiogenic solid tumors, and for breast tumors induced by other carcinogens. Specifically, the objective may be formulated in terms of developing an appropriate relatively simple mathematical model, whose functional form may be tested and whose parameters may be estimated from the relevant human data. It is necessary to derive such a model, both because of the sampling instability of estimates based on small subgroups of populations and also because observations may not be available in populations with the characteristics of interest. These latter two restrictions are exemplified by the problem of estimating an increase in risk for individuals with relatively small exposures, and the problem of estimating lifetime risk

  13. Direct progeny detection techniques and random epidemiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayya, Y.S.; Mishra, Rosaline; Sapra, B.K.

    2015-01-01

    Over the past 40 years, there has been considerable progress in the measurements methods and their application to the estimates of risks due to radon among general populations. The previous decade saw major development in this regard. It was the direct estimate of indoor radon risk from epidemiological studies in Europe and North America. These were important findings that demonstrated the presence of lung cancer risks at residential radon levels supplementing the generally used risks estimates at high exposures obtained from uranium miner's data. The residential radon epidemiological studies largely used radon concentration as a measure of exposure. The exposure to decay products, which are primarily the dose givers, are assumed to be proportional to the measured gas concentrations. Also, the presence of thoron was neglected in these studies. Although several corrections have appeared to these assessments, the question of variability of actual decay product exposures has largely remained unaddressed. In order to circumvent this limitation, passive techniques were developed to estimate the decay product concentrations directly using deposition monitors. These are based on detecting the alpha particles from decay products deposited on an absorber mounted LR-115 detectors. Known as Direct radon, and Thoron Progeny sensors (DRPS/DTPS), these have been further refined to separate fine fraction from the coarse fraction by wire-mesh capping techniques. Large number environmental calibration exercises and field data generation has been carried out on the progeny concentrations in Indian and some European environments. The development of progeny sensors offers a new tool for future epidemiology. Since in the Indian context, there exist no radon related epidemiological estimates of risk, it is time one conducts large scale studies to seek possible correlations between DRPS/DTPS data and lung cancer risks. While epidemiological studies in High background radiation areas

  14. Transforming Epidemiology for 21st Century Medicine and Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoury, Muin J.; Lam, Tram Kim; Ioannidis, John P.A.; Hartge, Patricia; Spitz, Margaret R.; Buring, Julie E.; Chanock, Stephen J.; Croyle, Robert T.; Goddard, Katrina A.; Ginsburg, Geoffrey S.; Herceg, Zdenko; Hiatt, Robert A.; Hoover, Robert N.; Hunter, David J.; Kramer, Barnet S.; Lauer, Michael S.; Meyerhardt, Jeffrey A.; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I.; Palmer, Julie R.; Sellers, Thomas A.; Seminara, Daniela; Ransohoff, David F.; Rebbeck, Timothy R.; Tourassi, Georgia; Winn, Deborah M.; Zauber, Ann; Schully, Sheri D.

    2013-01-01

    In 2012, the National Cancer Institute (NCI) engaged the scientific community to provide a vision for cancer epidemiology in the 21st century. Eight overarching thematic recommendations, with proposed corresponding actions for consideration by funding agencies, professional societies, and the research community emerged from the collective intellectual discourse. The themes are (i) extending the reach of epidemiology beyond discovery and etiologic research to include multilevel analysis, intervention evaluation, implementation, and outcomes research; (ii) transforming the practice of epidemiology by moving towards more access and sharing of protocols, data, metadata, and specimens to foster collaboration, to ensure reproducibility and replication, and accelerate translation; (iii) expanding cohort studies to collect exposure, clinical and other information across the life course and examining multiple health-related endpoints; (iv) developing and validating reliable methods and technologies to quantify exposures and outcomes on a massive scale, and to assess concomitantly the role of multiple factors in complex diseases; (v) integrating “big data” science into the practice of epidemiology; (vi) expanding knowledge integration to drive research, policy and practice; (vii) transforming training of 21st century epidemiologists to address interdisciplinary and translational research; and (viii) optimizing the use of resources and infrastructure for epidemiologic studies. These recommendations can transform cancer epidemiology and the field of epidemiology in general, by enhancing transparency, interdisciplinary collaboration, and strategic applications of new technologies. They should lay a strong scientific foundation for accelerated translation of scientific discoveries into individual and population health benefits. PMID:23462917

  15. Environmental forcing, invasion and control of ecological and epidemiological systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenman, J V; Norman, R A

    2007-08-07

    Destabilising a biological system through periodic or stochastic forcing can lead to significant changes in system behaviour. Forcing can bring about coexistence when previously there was exclusion; it can excite massive system response through resonance, it can offset the negative effect of apparent competition and it can change the conditions under which the system can be invaded. Our main focus is on the invasion properties of continuous time models under periodic forcing. We show that invasion is highly sensitive to the strength, period, phase, shape and configuration of the forcing components. This complexity can be of great advantage if some of the forcing components are anthropogenic in origin. They can be turned into instruments of control to achieve specific objectives in ecology and disease management, for example. Culling, vaccination and resource regulation are considered. A general analysis is presented, based on the leading Lyapunov exponent criterion for invasion. For unstructured invaders, a formula for this exponent can typically be written down from the model equations. Whether forcing hinders or encourages invasion depends on two factors: the covariances between invader parameters and resident populations and the shifts in average resident population levels brought about by the forcing. The invasion dynamics of a structured invader are much more complicated but an analytic solution can be obtained in quadratic approximation for moderate forcing strength. The general theory is illustrated by a range of models drawn from ecology and epidemiology. The relationship between periodic and stochastic forcing is also considered.

  16. Cancer Epidemiology Data Repository (CEDR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In an effort to broaden access and facilitate efficient data sharing, the Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program (EGRP) has created the Cancer Epidemiology Data Repository (CEDR), a centralized, controlled-access database, where Investigators can deposit individual-level de-identified observational cancer datasets.

  17. [Epidemiology of osteoporosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grazio, Simeon

    2006-01-01

    Osteoporosis represents a major and increasing public health problem with the aging of population. Major clinical consequences and economic burden of the disease are fractures. Many risk factors are associated with the fractures including low bone mass, hormonal disorders, personal and family history of fractures, low body weight, use of certain drugs (e.g. glucocorticoids), cigarette smoking, elevated intake of alchohol, low physical activity, insufficient level of vitamin D and low intake of calcium. This epidemiological review describes frequency, importance of risk factors and impact of osteoporosis and osteoporotic fractures. Objective measures of bone mineral density along with clinical assessment of risk factors can help identify patients who will benefit from prevention and intervention efforts and eventually reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with osteoporosis-related fractures.

  18. Temporal network epidemiology

    CERN Document Server

    Holme, Petter

    2017-01-01

    This book covers recent developments in epidemic process models and related data on temporally varying networks. It is widely recognized that contact networks are indispensable for describing, understanding, and intervening to stop the spread of infectious diseases in human and animal populations; “network epidemiology” is an umbrella term to describe this research field. More recently, contact networks have been recognized as being highly dynamic. This observation, also supported by an increasing amount of new data, has led to research on temporal networks, a rapidly growing area. Changes in network structure are often informed by epidemic (or other) dynamics, in which case they are referred to as adaptive networks. This volume gathers contributions by prominent authors working in temporal and adaptive network epidemiology, a field essential to understanding infectious diseases in real society.

  19. [Ethics and epidemiology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barata, Rita Barradas

    2005-01-01

    Human actions take place at the confluence of circumstances that require us to discern the proper way to act. Ethics falls within the terrain of practical knowledge, of knowledge about what is contingent. It belongs to the domain of moral judgments or value judgments. The counterpart of disenchantment with our contemporary world lies in an effort to re-establish an interest in ethics. There are basically three orders of relations between public health and human rights: the quest for balance between the collective good and individual rights; methods and techniques for identifying human rights violations and assessing their negative impact; and the tie between protecting individual rights and promoting health. The relationship between ethics and epidemiology goes beyond the ethical aspects involving research on human beings to encompass political commitments, practices within health services, and the production of knowledge.

  20. The Epidemiology of Sarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burningham Zachary

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Sarcomas account for over 20% of all pediatric solid malignant cancers and less than 1% of all adult solid malignant cancers. The vast majority of diagnosed sarcomas will be soft tissue sarcomas, while malignant bone tumors make up just over 10% of sarcomas. The risks for sarcoma are not well-understood. We evaluated the existing literature on the epidemiology and etiology of sarcoma. Risks for sarcoma development can be divided into environmental exposures, genetic susceptibility, and an interaction between the two. HIV-positive individuals are at an increased risk for Kaposi’s sarcoma, even though HHV8 is the causative virus. Radiation exposure from radiotherapy has been strongly associated with secondary sarcoma development in certain cancer patients. In fact, the risk of malignant bone tumors increases as the cumulative dose of radiation to the bone increases (p for trend

  1. Epidemiological aspects of suicide attempts among Moroccan children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekaoui, Nour; Karboubi, Lamiae; Ouadghiri, Fatima Zahra; Dakhama, Badr Sououd Benjelloun

    2016-01-01

    Suicidal behavior among children has significantly increased in Morocco. We conducted a study on the epidemiological aspect to propose a treatment strategy. Descriptive retrospective study over a period of 3 years (April 2012-April 2015) involving children who visited pediatric medical emergencies of the Children Hospital of Rabat after an autolysis attempt. We observed epidemiological parameters, history, social and family context, the means used, the presumed cause, clinical manifestation, and the management. 66 patients were identified. A female predominance was found (sex =15). The average age was 13 years old. This was a first episode in 97% of cases. Psychiatric history was found in 6 patients. The causes of suicide attempt were unidentified in 65%. The most frequent cause was family conflict (35%). The most frequent method was pharmaceutical drug ingestion (54.4%). Children were asymptomatic (57.6%). Neurological manifestations (30%) were most frequent. Digestive symptoms (12%) and hemodynamic (3%) were also discovered. Patients were hospitalized in a general pediatric service 92.4% of the times, admitted to intensive care 4.5% of the times, and two patients refused to be hospitalized. The treatment consisted of gastric lavage (18%) supplemented by symptomatic measures. The outcome was favorable in 95.4% of cases. We recorded 2 deaths by rat poison poisoning. All patients were advised in writing after leaving to follow up with a psychological treatment. Suicide attempts are the result of an ill being, mostly among children living in a family with conflict. Upstream treatment is essential to identify children at risk. Additionally, a psychiatric care in hospital is essential to avoid recurrences.

  2. Population health and status of epidemiology: WHO European Region I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahu, Mati; Vlassov, Vasiliy V; Pega, Frank; Andreeva, Tatiana; Ay, Pinar; Baburin, Aleksei; Bencko, Vladimír; Csépe, Péter; Gebska-Kuczerowska, Anita; Ondrusová, Martina; Ribak, Joseph

    2013-06-01

    This article of the International Epidemiological Association commissioned paper series stocktakes the population health and status of epidemiology in 21 of the 53 countries of the WHO European Region. By United Nations geographical classification, these countries belong to Eastern Europe, Western Asia and South-Central Asia. Published data were used to describe population health indicators and risk factors. Epidemiological training and research was assessed based on author knowledge, information searches and E-mail survey of experts. Bibliometric analyses determined epidemiological publication outputs. Between-country differences in life expectancy, amount and profile of disease burden and prevalence of risk factors are marked. Epidemiological training is affected by ongoing structural reforms of educational systems. Training is advanced in Israel and several Eastern European countries. Epidemiological research is mainly university-based in most countries, but predominantly conducted by governmental research institutes in several countries of the former Soviet Union. Funding is generally external and limited, partially due to competition from and prioritization of biomedical research. Multiple relevant professional societies exist, especially in Poland, the Czech Republic and Hungary. Few of the region's 39 epidemiological academic journals have international currency. The number of epidemiological publications per population is highest for Israel and lowest for South-Central Asian countries. Epidemiological capacity will continue to be heterogeneous across the region and depend more on countries' individual historical, social, political and economic conditions and contexts than their epidemiologists' successive efforts. National and international research funding, and within- and between-country collaborations should be enhanced, especially for South-Central Asian countries.

  3. Molecular Infectious Disease Epidemiology: Survival Analysis and Algorithms Linking Phylogenies to Transmission Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenah, Eben; Britton, Tom; Halloran, M. Elizabeth; Longini, Ira M.

    2016-01-01

    Recent work has attempted to use whole-genome sequence data from pathogens to reconstruct the transmission trees linking infectors and infectees in outbreaks. However, transmission trees from one outbreak do not generalize to future outbreaks. Reconstruction of transmission trees is most useful to public health if it leads to generalizable scientific insights about disease transmission. In a survival analysis framework, estimation of transmission parameters is based on sums or averages over the possible transmission trees. A phylogeny can increase the precision of these estimates by providing partial information about who infected whom. The leaves of the phylogeny represent sampled pathogens, which have known hosts. The interior nodes represent common ancestors of sampled pathogens, which have unknown hosts. Starting from assumptions about disease biology and epidemiologic study design, we prove that there is a one-to-one correspondence between the possible assignments of interior node hosts and the transmission trees simultaneously consistent with the phylogeny and the epidemiologic data on person, place, and time. We develop algorithms to enumerate these transmission trees and show these can be used to calculate likelihoods that incorporate both epidemiologic data and a phylogeny. A simulation study confirms that this leads to more efficient estimates of hazard ratios for infectiousness and baseline hazards of infectious contact, and we use these methods to analyze data from a foot-and-mouth disease virus outbreak in the United Kingdom in 2001. These results demonstrate the importance of data on individuals who escape infection, which is often overlooked. The combination of survival analysis and algorithms linking phylogenies to transmission trees is a rigorous but flexible statistical foundation for molecular infectious disease epidemiology. PMID:27070316

  4. Participatory epidemiology: the contribution of participatory research to epidemiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Bach

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidemiology has contributed in many ways to identifying various risk factors for disease and to promoting population health. However, there is a continuing debate about the ability of epidemiology not only to describe, but also to provide results which can be better translated into public health practice. It has been proposed that participatory research approaches be applied to epidemiology as a way to bridge this gap between description and action. A systematic account of what constitutes participatory epidemiology practice has, however, been lacking. Methods A scoping review was carried out focused on the question of what constitutes participatory approaches to epidemiology for the purpose of demonstrating their potential for advancing epidemiologic research. Relevant databases were searched, including both the published and non-published (grey literature. The 102 identified sources were analyzed in terms of comparing common epidemiologic approaches to participatory counterparts regarding central aspects of the research process. Exemplary studies applying participatory approaches were examined more closely. Results A highly diverse, interdisciplinary body of literature was synthesized, resulting in a framework comprised of seven aspects of the research process: research goal, research question, population, context, data synthesis, research management, and dissemination of findings. The framework specifies how participatory approaches not only differ from, but also how they can enhance common approaches in epidemiology. Finally, recommendations for the further development of participatory approaches are given. These include: enhancing data collection, data analysis, and data validation; advancing capacity building for research at the local level; and developing data synthesis. Conclusion The proposed framework provides a basis for systematically developing the emergent science of participatory epidemiology.

  5. JPRS Report, Epidemiology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1989-01-01

    Partial Contents: AIDS, Free Zones, Tuberculosis, Preventive Medicine, Clinical Medicine, Stresses, Chlamydia, General Diseases, Doctors, Herbs, Malaria, Dengue, Animal Diseases, Death, Agriculture, Medical Research...

  6. Epidemiological aspects of suicide attempts among Moroccan children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Descriptive retrospective study over a period of 3 years (April 2012-April 2015) involving children who visited pediatric medical emergencies of the Children Hospital of Rabat after an autolysis attempt. We observed epidemiological parameters, history, social and family context, the means used, the presumed cause, clinical ...

  7. Diagnostic utility of clinical and biochemical parameters in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diagnostic utility of clinical and biochemical parameters in pancreatic head malignancy ... Department of Surgery, Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, ..... technical review on the epidemiology, diagnosis, and.

  8. Epidemiology and costs of diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, G; Landi, A

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence of diabetes is increasing worldwide, particularly in developing countries. In the next decades, India and China are expected to provide the greatest numbers of affected people, mainly owing to the increasing incidence of this disease in those countries. Regarding developed countries, such as in Europe and the United States, the increasing trend is mainly due to the prolonged survival of both the general and the diabetic populations. From an epidemiologic point of view, the first relevant point is that almost 80% of diabetes cases could be prevented just by avoiding overweight and obesity. The estimated attributable risk of excess body weight is extremely high; no other modifiable effect has such an impact on the health of the general population. The second relevant point is that the global trend of the disease shows a tendency to onset at a younger age. The third point is that in developed countries the prevalence of diabetes is increasing mainly among the elderly, who are responsible for the highest consumption of health care resources in absolute terms. Regarding type 1 diabetes, which represents one-tenth of affected individuals, both large geographic and temporal variations in disease incidence have been found, supporting the hypothesis of as yet unknown environmental determinants. The incidence is increasing in linear fashion, not supporting the hypothesis of younger age at onset as the main explanation for this trend. Because the prevalences of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes are increasing worldwide, they will produce a profound impact on overall health care costs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Epidemiological data, efficacy and safety of a paracetamol-tramadol fixed combination in the treatment of moderate-to-severe pain. SALZA: a post-marketing study in general practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejjad, O; Serrie, A; Ganry, H

    2011-05-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of the paracetamol-tramadol combination (PTC) in treating moderate-to-severe pain, in patients aged 65 years and over within general practitioner (GP) practice centers. This was an observational, non-interventional, longitudinal, multicenter, open, non-comparative, prospective study. This intermediary analysis was of patients recruited before the French Health Authority confirmation (25th June, 2009) of the EMEA decision to withdraw all analgesics containing dextropropoxyphen. Trial registration information: This study has been submitted for approval to the CNIL and French Medical Council (CNOM) only. A total of 2663 patients aged 65 years or over were assessed 1 month after inclusion in the study. PTC was prescribed as first-line treatment in 30% of patients and, in the other cases, after failed or inadequate efficacy (69.8%), and/or as a result of safety problems (7.8%) with at least one other analgesic. During the month of the study period 14.7% of patients received an additional rescue analgesic. The study confirmed the efficacy of PTC with regard to pain intensity (-3.1 points reduction of pain scored 6.1 points on inclusion), pain relief (64.8% of patients experienced significant pain relief), patient satisfaction (90.5% of patients satisfied or completely satisfied) and clinical global impression evaluated by the patient (78.7% much or very much improved), regardless of the pain etiologies or duration of the underlying pathology. PTC was well-tolerated in this patient group, who had a mean age of 73.6 ± 6.6 years. A total of 119 patients (4.5%) reported at least one adverse event (AE). All were known and predictable AEs. This percentage is comparable to that found under similar conditions in patients of all ages (4.2%). PTC, due to the complementary action of its two analgesics, is effective in treating the different types of pain in a GP's practice setting and is well-tolerated, even in an elderly population. Study

  10. Epidemiological data and radiation risk estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardis, E.

    2002-01-01

    The results of several major epidemiology studies on populations with particular exposure to ionizing radiation should become available during the first years of the 21. century. These studies are expected to provide answers to a number of questions concerning public health and radiation protection. Most of the populations concerned were accidentally exposed to radiation in ex-USSR or elsewhere or in a nuclear industrial context. The results will complete and test information on risk coming from studies among survivors of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bombs, particularly studies on the effects of low dose exposure and prolonged low-dose exposure, of different types of radiation, and environmental and host-related factors which could modify the risk of radiation-induced effects. These studies are thus important to assess the currently accepted scientific evidence on radiation protection for workers and the general population. In addition, supplementary information on radiation protection could be provided by formal comparisons and analyses combining data from populations with different types of exposure. Finally, in order to provide pertinent information for public health and radiation protection, future epidemiology studies should be targeted and designed to answer specific questions, concerning, for example, the risk for specific populations (children, patients, people with genetic predisposition). An integrated approach, combining epidemiology and studies on the mechanisms of radiation induction should provide particularly pertinent information. (author)

  11. Generalized Superconductivity. Generalized Levitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciobanu, B.; Agop, M.

    2004-01-01

    In the recent papers, the gravitational superconductivity is described. We introduce the concept of generalized superconductivity observing that any nongeodesic motion and, in particular, the motion in an electromagnetic field, can be transformed in a geodesic motion by a suitable choice of the connection. In the present paper, the gravitoelectromagnetic London equations have been obtained from the generalized Helmholtz vortex theorem using the generalized local equivalence principle. In this context, the gravitoelectromagnetic Meissner effect and, implicitly, the gravitoelectromagnetic levitation are given. (authors)

  12. Epidemiologic studies based on the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beebe, G.

    1996-01-01

    There are great opportunities in the post-Chernobyl experience for significant epidemiologic research, perhaps even more in the area of disaster research than in the area of the human health effects of ionizing radiation. But the potential opportunity for learning the effects of radioiodine on the thyroid is very great and has aroused widespread national and international investigative interest. The opportunities for significant epidemiologic research are, however, severely limited currently by the worsening economic situation in Belarus and Ukraine, where the greatest exposure occurred, and by the lack of personnel trained in appropriate methods of study, the lack of modern equipment, the lack of supplies, the poor communication facilities, and the difficulties of accurate dose estimation. the disadvantages may or may not outweigh the obvious advantages of large numbers, the extensive direct thyroidal measurements made shortly after the accident in 1986, the magnitude of the releases of radioiodine, and the retention of the former Soviet system of universal medical care. Both the European Commission (EC) and the World Health Organization (WHO) have been working actively to strengthen the infrastructure of Russia, Belarus, and Ukraine. New scientific knowledge has yet to emerge from the extensive epidemiologic work but information of considerable public health significance has begun to accumulate. The bulk of the thyroid cancer has been shown to be valid by international pathology review; both EC and WHO representatives have declared the increase in thyroid cancer among children to have been caused in large part by Chernobyl. No increase in leukemia has been seen in the general population. The WHO pilot studies have shown no evidence of an increase in psychologic or neurologic complications among those exposed in utero. Ongoing epidemiologic work can be described by review of the inventory that the WHO has begun to maintain and publish. 20 refs., 7 tabs

  13. Bomb parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerr, George D.; Young, Rebert W.; Cullings, Harry M.; Christry, Robert F.

    2005-01-01

    The reconstruction of neutron and gamma-ray doses at Hiroshima and Nagasaki begins with a determination of the parameters describing the explosion. The calculations of the air transported radiation fields and survivor doses from the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombs require knowledge of a variety of parameters related to the explosions. These various parameters include the heading of the bomber when the bomb was released, the epicenters of the explosions, the bomb yields, and the tilt of the bombs at time of explosion. The epicenter of a bomb is the explosion point in air that is specified in terms of a burst height and a hypocenter (or the point on the ground directly below the epicenter of the explosion). The current reassessment refines the energy yield and burst height for the Hiroshima bomb, as well as the locations of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki hypocenters on the modern city maps used in the analysis of the activation data for neutrons and TLD data for gamma rays. (J.P.N.)

  14. Epidemiology of prostatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieger, John N.; Lee, Shaun Wen Huey; Jeon, Jeonseong; Cheah, Phaik Yeong; Liong, Men Long; Riley, Donald E.

    2008-01-01

    Background Prostatitis describes a combination of infectious diseases (acute and chronic bacterial prostatitis), chronic pelvic pain syndrome, and asymptomatic inflammation. Materials and methods We employed evidence-based methods to review the epidemiology of prostatitis syndromes. Results The prevalence of prostatitis symptoms could be compared in five studies surveying 10 617 men. Overall, 873 participants met various criteria for prostatitis, representing an overall rate of 8.2%, with prevalence ranging from 2.2 to 9.7%. A history of sexually transmitted diseases was associated with an increased risk for prostatitis symptoms. Men reporting a history of prostatitis symptoms had a substantially increased rate of benign prostatic hyperplasia, lower urinary tract symptoms and prostate cancer. In one study, the incidence of physician-diagnosed prostatitis was 4.9 cases per 1000 person-years. Two studies suggest that about one-third of men reporting prostatitis symptoms had resolution after 1 year. Patients with previous episodes and more severe symptoms are at higher risk for chronic pelvic pain. Discussion The prevalence of prostatitis symptoms is high, comparable to rates of ischamic heart disease and diabetes. Clinical evaluation appears necessary to verify that prostatitis is responsible for patients’ symptoms. Prostatitis symptoms may increase a man’s risk for benign prostate hypertrophy, lower urinary tract symptoms and prostate cancer. We need to define natural history and consequences of prostatitis, develop better algorithms for diagnosis and treatment, and develop strategies for prevention. PMID:18164907

  15. Epidemiology of Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, Malcolm V.; Ford, Jean G.; Samet, Jonathan M.; Spivack, Simon D.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Ever since a lung cancer epidemic emerged in the mid-1900s, the epidemiology of lung cancer has been intensively investigated to characterize its causes and patterns of occurrence. This report summarizes the key findings of this research. Methods: A detailed literature search provided the basis for a narrative review, identifying and summarizing key reports on population patterns and factors that affect lung cancer risk. Results: Established environmental risk factors for lung cancer include smoking cigarettes and other tobacco products and exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke, occupational lung carcinogens, radiation, and indoor and outdoor air pollution. Cigarette smoking is the predominant cause of lung cancer and the leading worldwide cause of cancer death. Smoking prevalence in developing nations has increased, starting new lung cancer epidemics in these nations. A positive family history and acquired lung disease are examples of host factors that are clinically useful risk indicators. Risk prediction models based on lung cancer risk factors have been developed, but further refinement is needed to provide clinically useful risk stratification. Promising biomarkers of lung cancer risk and early detection have been identified, but none are ready for broad clinical application. Conclusions: Almost all lung cancer deaths are caused by cigarette smoking, underscoring the need for ongoing efforts at tobacco control throughout the world. Further research is needed into the reasons underlying lung cancer disparities, the causes of lung cancer in never smokers, the potential role of HIV in lung carcinogenesis, and the development of biomarkers. PMID:23649439

  16. TUBERCULOSIS: EPIDEMIOLOGY AND CONTROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgia Sulis

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB is a major public health concern worldwide: despite a regular, although slow, decline in incidence over the last decade, as many as 8.6 million new cases and 1.3 million deaths were estimated to have occurred in 2012. TB is by all means a poverty-related disease, mainly affecting the most vulnerable populations in the poorest countries. The presence of multidrug-resistant strains of M. tuberculosis in most countries, with some where prevalence is high, is among the major challenges for TB control, which may hinder recent achievements especially in some settings. Early TB case detection especially in resource-constrained settings and in marginalized groups remains a challenge, and about 3 million people are estimated to remain undiagnosed or not notified and untreated. The World Health Organization (WHO has recently launched the new global TB strategy for the “post-2015 era” aimed at “ending the global TB epidemic” by 2035, based on the three pillars that emphasize patient-centred TB care and prevention, bold policies and supportive systems, and intensified research and innovation. This paper aims to provide an overview of the global TB epidemiology as well as of the main challenges that must be faced to eliminate the disease as a public health problem everywhere.

  17. Epidemiology of severe trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberdi, F; García, I; Atutxa, L; Zabarte, M

    2014-12-01

    Major injury is the sixth leading cause of death worldwide. Among those under 35 years of age, it is the leading cause of death and disability. Traffic accidents alone are the main cause, fundamentally in low- and middle-income countries. Patients over 65 years of age are an increasingly affected group. For similar levels of injury, these patients have twice the mortality rate of young individuals, due to the existence of important comorbidities and associated treatments, and are more likely to die of medical complications late during hospital admission. No worldwide, standardized definitions exist for documenting, reporting and comparing data on severely injured trauma patients. The most common trauma scores are the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS), the Injury Severity Score (ISS) and the Trauma and Injury severity Score (TRISS). Documenting the burden of injury also requires evaluation of the impact of post-trauma impairments, disabilities and handicaps. Trauma epidemiology helps define health service and research priorities, contributes to identify disadvantaged groups, and also facilitates the elaboration of comparable measures for outcome predictions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  18. Social phobia: epidemiology and health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wancata, Johannes; Fridl, Marion; Friedrich, Fabian

    2009-12-01

    This paper gives an overview on the epidemiology of social phobia. About 4.5% of the adult general populations suffer from social phobia, i.e. it is the most frequent of all anxiety disorders. Social phobia is clearly more frequent among women than among men. About the half of all individuals with social phobia suffer from any comorbid mental disorders. Reviews show a large variability between single studies, probably due to methodological differences. Several population surveys indicate that a marked proportion of those with social phobia do not receive adequate treatment.

  19. Recommendations for epidemiological studies on COPD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakke, P S; Rönmark, E; Eagan, T

    2011-01-01

    of the disease and definitions of the risk factors. Few community studies have examined phenotypes of COPD and included other ways of characterising the disease beyond that of spirometry. The objective of the present Task Force report is to present recommendations for the performance of general population...... for planning and performing an epidemiological study on COPD. The main message of the paper is that thorough planning is worth half the study. It is crucial to stick to standardised methods and good quality control during sampling. We recommend collecting biological markers, depending on the specific...

  20. The European concerted action on air pollution epidemiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ackermann-Liebrich, U [Basel Univ. (Switzerland). Inst. for Social and Preventive Medicine

    1996-12-31

    The European Concerted Action on Air Pollution Epidemiology was started in 1990 with the aim of bringing together European researchers in the field and improving research through collaboration and by preparing documents which would help to this end and by organizing workshops. A further aim was to stimulate cooperative research. Air pollution epidemiology investigates human effects of community air pollution by epidemiological methods. Epidemiology in general investigates the distribution and determinants of health-related states and events in populations. Diseases in which air pollution may play a significant role are mainly diseases of the respiratory system, for example chronic non-specific lung disease and lung cancer. Most diseases caused by air pollution can also be caused by other factors. Air pollution epidemiology is therefore specific in the expo variable (community air pollution) rather than in the type of health effects being studied. Air pollution epidemiology is beset with some specially challenging difficulties: ubiquitous exposure and as a consequence limited heterogeneity in exposure, low relative risks, few or specific health end points, and strong confounding. Further on the exposure-effect relationship is complicated by assumptions inherent to different study designs which relate to the exposure duration necessary to produce a certain health effect. In reports and workshops the concerted action tries to propose strategies to deal with these problems. (author)

  1. The European concerted action on air pollution epidemiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ackermann-Liebrich, U. [Basel Univ. (Switzerland). Inst. for Social and Preventive Medicine

    1995-12-31

    The European Concerted Action on Air Pollution Epidemiology was started in 1990 with the aim of bringing together European researchers in the field and improving research through collaboration and by preparing documents which would help to this end and by organizing workshops. A further aim was to stimulate cooperative research. Air pollution epidemiology investigates human effects of community air pollution by epidemiological methods. Epidemiology in general investigates the distribution and determinants of health-related states and events in populations. Diseases in which air pollution may play a significant role are mainly diseases of the respiratory system, for example chronic non-specific lung disease and lung cancer. Most diseases caused by air pollution can also be caused by other factors. Air pollution epidemiology is therefore specific in the expo variable (community air pollution) rather than in the type of health effects being studied. Air pollution epidemiology is beset with some specially challenging difficulties: ubiquitous exposure and as a consequence limited heterogeneity in exposure, low relative risks, few or specific health end points, and strong confounding. Further on the exposure-effect relationship is complicated by assumptions inherent to different study designs which relate to the exposure duration necessary to produce a certain health effect. In reports and workshops the concerted action tries to propose strategies to deal with these problems. (author)

  2. Metabolomics and Epidemiology Working Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Metabolomics and Epidemiology (MetEpi) Working Group promotes metabolomics analyses in population-based studies, as well as advancement in the field of metabolomics for broader biomedical and public health research.

  3. Genomic Resources for Cancer Epidemiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page provides links to research resources, complied by the Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program, that may be of interest to genetic epidemiologists conducting cancer research, but is not exhaustive.

  4. Generalized Probability Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Souto Martinez

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available From the integration of nonsymmetrical hyperboles, a one-parameter generalization of the logarithmic function is obtained. Inverting this function, one obtains the generalized exponential function. Motivated by the mathematical curiosity, we show that these generalized functions are suitable to generalize some probability density functions (pdfs. A very reliable rank distribution can be conveniently described by the generalized exponential function. Finally, we turn the attention to the generalization of one- and two-tail stretched exponential functions. We obtain, as particular cases, the generalized error function, the Zipf-Mandelbrot pdf, the generalized Gaussian and Laplace pdf. Their cumulative functions and moments were also obtained analytically.

  5. Occupational reproductive epidemiology: Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roman, Eve; Doyle, Pat

    1993-01-01

    The authors review the current state of knowledge about possible adverse effects of hazardous paternal workplace exposures on human reproduction is scant. The methodology for studying possible association between occupational exposures and adverse reproductive events is not well developed. More detailed laboratory and epidemiological research is clearly required, and better collaboration between these two disciplines is needed. Associations suggested in the course of epidemiological research need to be tested in the laboratory, and vice versa. (author)

  6. General general game AI

    OpenAIRE

    Togelius, Julian; Yannakakis, Georgios N.; 2016 IEEE Conference on Computational Intelligence and Games (CIG)

    2016-01-01

    Arguably the grand goal of artificial intelligence research is to produce machines with general intelligence: the capacity to solve multiple problems, not just one. Artificial intelligence (AI) has investigated the general intelligence capacity of machines within the domain of games more than any other domain given the ideal properties of games for that purpose: controlled yet interesting and computationally hard problems. This line of research, however, has so far focuse...

  7. Understanding disease control: influence of epidemiological and economic factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Oleś

    Full Text Available We present a model of disease transmission on a regular and small world network and compare different control options. Comparison is based on a total cost of epidemic, including cost of palliative treatment of ill individuals and preventive cost aimed at vaccination or culling of susceptible individuals. Disease is characterized by pre-symptomatic phase, which makes detection and control difficult. Three general strategies emerge: global preventive treatment, local treatment within a neighborhood of certain size and only palliative treatment with no prevention. While the choice between the strategies depends on a relative cost of palliative and preventive treatment, the details of the local strategy and, in particular, the size of the optimal treatment neighborhood depend on the epidemiological factors. The required extent of prevention is proportional to the size of the infection neighborhood, but depends on time till detection and time till treatment in a non-nonlinear (power law. The optimal size of control neighborhood is also highly sensitive to the relative cost, particularly for inefficient detection and control application. These results have important consequences for design of prevention strategies aiming at emerging diseases for which parameters are not nessecerly known in advance.

  8. Czech mass methanol outbreak 2012: epidemiology, challenges and clinical features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakharov, Sergey; Pelclova, Daniela; Urban, Pavel; Navratil, Tomas; Diblik, Pavel; Kuthan, Pavel; Hubacek, Jaroslav A; Miovsky, Michal; Klempir, Jiri; Vaneckova, Manuela; Seidl, Zdenek; Pilin, Alexander; Fenclova, Zdenka; Petrik, Vit; Kotikova, Katerina; Nurieva, Olga; Ridzon, Petr; Rulisek, Jan; Komarc, Martin; Hovda, Knut Erik

    2014-12-01

    Methanol poisonings occur frequently globally, but reports of larger outbreaks where complete clinical and laboratory data are reported remain scarce. The objective of the present study was to report the data from the mass methanol poisoning in the Czech Republic in 2012 addressing the general epidemiology, treatment, and outcomes, and to present a protocol for the use of fomepizole ensuring that the antidote was provided to the most severely poisoned patients in the critical phase. A combined prospective and retrospective case series study of 121 patients with confirmed methanol poisoning. From a total of 121 intoxicated subjects, 20 died outside the hospital and 101 were hospitalized. Among them, 60 survived without, and 20 with visual/CNS sequelae, whereas 21 patients died. The total and hospital mortality rates were 34% and 21%, respectively. Multivariate regression analysis found pH 0.05). Severity of metabolic acidosis, state of consciousness, and serum ethanol on admission were the only significant parameters associated with mortality. The type of dialysis or antidote did not appear to affect mortality. Recommendations that were issued for hospital triage of fomepizole administration allowed conservation of valuable antidote in this massive poisoning outbreak for those patients most in need.

  9. Molecular epidemiology of heartwater (Ehrlichia ruminantium infection) in The Gambia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faburay, B.

    2007-01-01

    Heartwater is caused by Ehrlichia ruminantium and transmitted by ticks of the genus Amblyomma. It occurs in sub-Saharan Africa and in the Caribbean and affects domestic ruminants. There is general lack of information on the epidemiology of the disease in The Gambia. Results of a countrywide

  10. Epidemiology of constipation in children and adults: A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mugie, Suzanne M.; Benninga, Marc A.; Di Lorenzo, Carlo

    2011-01-01

    We aimed to review the published literature regarding the epidemiology of constipation in the general paediatric and adult population and to assess its geographic, gender and age distribution, and associated factors. A search of the Medline database was performed. Study selection criteria included:

  11. Band parameters of phosphorene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lew Yan Voon, L C; Wang, J; Zhang, Y; Willatzen, M

    2015-01-01

    Phosphorene is a two-dimensional nanomaterial with a direct band-gap at the Brillouin zone center. In this paper, we present a recently derived effective-mass theory of the band structure in the presence of strain and electric field, based upon group theory. Band parameters for this theory are computed using a first-principles theory based upon the generalized-gradient approximation to the density-functional theory. These parameters and Hamiltonian will be useful for modeling physical properties of phosphorene. (paper)

  12. Band parameters of phosphorene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lew Yan Voon, L. C.; Wang, J.; Zhang, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Phosphorene is a two-dimensional nanomaterial with a direct band-gap at the Brillouin zone center. In this paper, we present a recently derived effective-mass theory of the band structure in the presence of strain and electric field, based upon group theory. Band parameters for this theory...... are computed using a first-principles theory based upon the generalized-gradient approximation to the density-functional theory. These parameters and Hamiltonian will be useful for modeling physical properties of phosphorene....

  13. Epidemiology of Mental Retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heber, Rick

    Prevalence data on mental retardation is presented including international estimates on general prevalence, age directions, geographical variations within the United States, racial and ethnic variations, economic class distributions, family variations, and population distribution in institutions. Statistics are also provided in areas of specific…

  14. A Systematic Bayesian Integration of Epidemiological and Genetic Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Max S. Y.; Marion, Glenn; Streftaris, George; Gibson, Gavin

    2015-01-01

    Genetic sequence data on pathogens have great potential to inform inference of their transmission dynamics ultimately leading to better disease control. Where genetic change and disease transmission occur on comparable timescales additional information can be inferred via the joint analysis of such genetic sequence data and epidemiological observations based on clinical symptoms and diagnostic tests. Although recently introduced approaches represent substantial progress, for computational reasons they approximate genuine joint inference of disease dynamics and genetic change in the pathogen population, capturing partially the joint epidemiological-evolutionary dynamics. Improved methods are needed to fully integrate such genetic data with epidemiological observations, for achieving a more robust inference of the transmission tree and other key epidemiological parameters such as latent periods. Here, building on current literature, a novel Bayesian framework is proposed that infers simultaneously and explicitly the transmission tree and unobserved transmitted pathogen sequences. Our framework facilitates the use of realistic likelihood functions and enables systematic and genuine joint inference of the epidemiological-evolutionary process from partially observed outbreaks. Using simulated data it is shown that this approach is able to infer accurately joint epidemiological-evolutionary dynamics, even when pathogen sequences and epidemiological data are incomplete, and when sequences are available for only a fraction of exposures. These results also characterise and quantify the value of incomplete and partial sequence data, which has important implications for sampling design, and demonstrate the abilities of the introduced method to identify multiple clusters within an outbreak. The framework is used to analyse an outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease in the UK, enhancing current understanding of its transmission dynamics and evolutionary process. PMID:26599399

  15. Clinical epidemiological aspects of chronic lymphoid leukaemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Brunet, Marisol; Hernandez Galano, Geldris P; Suarez Beyries, Lidia C; Duverger Magdaleon, Ernesto

    2011-01-01

    A descriptive and retrospective study of 71 patients with chronic lymphoid leukemia, attended at the Hematology Service from 'Dr Juan Bruno Zayas Alfonso' Teaching General Hospital in Santiago de Cuba was carried out from January, 2001 to November, 2006, in order to identify some clinical epidemiological variables on them, to show the therapeutical variables more used, as well as to assess survival, mortality, and the main causes of the clinical entity. Elderly, male sex, and high risk category related to advanced stage were predominant in the series. The therapeutical schedule of chlorambucil and prednisone was the most used, achieving good results in the majority of the case material. The survival of patients, in general, ranged among 1-5 years, whereas deaths occurred due to disease progression, infectious respiratory processes, pro-lymphocytic transformation, second neoplasias, and strokes. (author)

  16. Physiological parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natera, E.S.

    1998-01-01

    The physiological characteristics of man depend on the intake, metabolism and excretion of stable elements from food, water, and air. The physiological behavior of natural radionuclides and radionuclides from nuclear weapons testing and from the utilization of nuclear energy is believed to follow the pattern of stable elements. Hence information on the normal physiological processes occurring in the human body plays an important role in the assessment of the radiation dose received by man. Two important physiological parameters needed for internal dose determination are the pulmonary function and the water balance. In the Coordinated Research Programme on the characterization of Asian population, five participants submitted data on these physiological characteristics - China, India, Japan, Philippines and Viet Nam. During the CRP, data on other pertinent characteristics such as physical and dietary were simultaneously being collected. Hence, the information on the physiological characteristics alone, coming from the five participants were not complete and are probably not sufficient to establish standard values for the Reference Asian Man. Nonetheless, the data collected is a valuable contribution to this research programme

  17. Propaganda de medicamentos para grande público: parâmetros conceituais de uma prática produtora de risco Drug advertising to the general public: conceptual parameters of a risk producer practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro César Nascimento

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo analisa alguns conceitos relativos a marketing, propaganda, medicamento, regulação e manipulação, discutindo parâmetros éticos e de vigilância sanitária relativos à prática da propaganda de medicamentos para o grande público. O foco deste trabalho é a análise das contradições, desde o ponto de vista conceitual, da prática da propaganda farmacêutica como instrumento de elevação das vendas e conquista de mercados versus a política de uso racional de medicamentos. Estudos acadêmicos e a monitoração da propaganda farmacêutica realizada pela Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária demonstram que os conteúdos das peças publicitárias de medicamentos direcionadas ao grande público superestimam as qualidades do produto, enaltecem quase exclusivamente seus benefícios, colocando-os em uma posição central no processo terapêutico; e omitem os riscos inerentes à sua utilização e exageram suas qualidades, às vezes duvidosas. Mais que se debruçar sobre propostas reguladoras que objetivariam criar constrangimentos a esta prática, este artigo discute a impossibilidade, considerando-se os interesses da saúde pública, da convivência de interesses tão díspares quanto os do marketing - que busca sempre expandir mercados - e das políticas de uso correto, racional e seguro de medicamentos.This article analyzes some concepts relating to marketing, advertising, medications, regulation and manipulation. It discusses ethical and health surveillance parameters of drugs advertising for the general public. The focus of this work is the analysis of contradictions from a conceptual point of view between the practice of pharmaceutical advertising as a tool for the increase of sales and the conquest of markets versus the policy of rational use of medicines. Academic studies and monitoring of drugs advertising conducted by the National Health Surveillance Agency show that the contents of the advertising pieces oriented

  18. Epidemiology of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ley B

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Brett Ley, Harold R Collard Department of Medicine, Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, USA Abstract: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is a chronic fibrotic lung disease of unknown cause that occurs in adults and has a poor prognosis. Its epidemiology has been difficult to study because of its rarity and evolution in diagnostic and coding practices. Though uncommon, it is likely underappreciated both in terms of its occurrence (ie, incidence, prevalence and public health impact (ie, health care costs and resource utilization. Incidence and mortality appear to be on the rise, and prevalence is expected to increase with the aging population. Potential risk factors include occupational and environmental exposures, tobacco smoking, gastroesophageal reflux, and genetic factors. An accurate understanding of its epidemiology is important, especially as novel therapies are emerging. Keywords: idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, epidemiology, incidence, prevalence, mortality, risk factors

  19. Epidemiología de campo y epidemiología social Field epidemiology and social epidemiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Segura del Pozo

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Mediante la comparación de la epidemiología de campo y la epidemiología social, se pretende reflexionar sobre los imaginarios no explícitos que operan en ambos ámbitos, necesariamente convergentes, sobre los obstáculos de la práctica epidemiológica actual para alcanzar su función social y sobre la necesidad de cambiar las bases epistemológicas, metodológicas y prácticas que operan en la epidemiología, empezando por la formación del epidemiólogo de campo. La epidemiología de campo tiende a la acción sin marco teórico. La epidemiología social, por el contrario, tiende a los desarrollos teóricos (reflexión e investigación sobre los determinantes sociales alejados de la acción, debido a los limitantes para cambiar las políticas públicas. Otras diferencias se sitúan en el nivel de intervención (micro/macroespacios, el objeto de intervención (control del brote frente a control de las desigualdades y en la forma de articular la comunicación con la sociedad. Se asemejan en la preocupación por el método, la predominancia de una orientación positivista y condicionada por la estadística, aunque en proceso de cierta apertura epistemológica, la tensión experimentada entre relacionarse con un mundo virtual de bases de datos o con la sociedad real, su situación en la periferia del sistema político-social-institucional-profesional y por estar abocadas a la frustración profesional. Finalmente, se formulan 10 interrogantes a los epidemiólogos de campo sobre su práctica actual, a través de los cuales se podría evaluar si están realizando una epidemiología social, y se sugieren cambios para introducir en la formación y práctica del epidemiólogo.Comparing field epidemiology and social epidemiology, we pretend to think about the no explicit images and meanings operating in both necessary convergent fields, about the obstacles present in epidemiological practice to fulfil its social function and about the necessity of

  20. Molecular epidemiology of human rhinoviruses

    OpenAIRE

    Savolainen-Kopra, Carita

    2006-01-01

    The first part of this work investigates the molecular epidemiology of a human enterovirus (HEV), echovirus 30 (E-30). This project is part of a series of studies performed in our research team analyzing the molecular epidemiology of HEV-B viruses. A total of 129 virus strains had been isolated in different parts of Europe. The sequence analysis was performed in three different genomic regions: 420 nucleotides (nt) in the VP4/VP2 capsid protein coding region, the entire VP1 capsid protein cod...

  1. Population Neuroscience: Dementia Epidemiology Serving Precision Medicine and Population Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganguli, Mary; Albanese, Emiliano; Seshadri, Sudha; Bennett, David A; Lyketsos, Constantine; Kukull, Walter A; Skoog, Ingmar; Hendrie, Hugh C

    2018-01-01

    Over recent decades, epidemiology has made significant contributions to our understanding of dementia, translating scientific discoveries into population health. Here, we propose reframing dementia epidemiology as "population neuroscience," blending techniques and models from contemporary neuroscience with those of epidemiology and biostatistics. On the basis of emerging evidence and newer paradigms and methods, population neuroscience will minimize the bias typical of traditional clinical research, identify the relatively homogenous subgroups that comprise the general population, and investigate broader and denser phenotypes of dementia and cognitive impairment. Long-term follow-up of sufficiently large study cohorts will allow the identification of cohort effects and critical windows of exposure. Molecular epidemiology and omics will allow us to unravel the key distinctions within and among subgroups and better understand individuals' risk profiles. Interventional epidemiology will allow us to identify the different subgroups that respond to different treatment/prevention strategies. These strategies will inform precision medicine. In addition, insights into interactions between disease biology, personal and environmental factors, and social determinants of health will allow us to measure and track disease in communities and improve population health. By placing neuroscience within a real-world context, population neuroscience can fulfill its potential to serve both precision medicine and population health.

  2. NASA Remote Sensing Data for Epidemiological Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, Nancy G.; Vicente, G. A.

    2002-01-01

    In response to the need for improved observations of environmental factors to better understand the links between human health and the environment, NASA has established a new program to significantly improve the utilization of NASA's diverse array of data, information, and observations of the Earth for health applications. This initiative, lead by Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) has the following goals: (1) To encourage interdisciplinary research on the relationships between environmental parameters (e.g., rainfall, vegetation) and health, (2) Develop practical early warning systems, (3) Create a unique system for the exchange of Earth science and health data, (4) Provide an investigator field support system for customers and partners, (5) Facilitate a system for observation, identification, and surveillance of parameters relevant to environment and health issues. The NASA Environment and Health Program is conducting several interdisciplinary projects to examine applications of remote sensing data and information to a variety of health issues, including studies on malaria, Rift Valley Fever, St. Louis Encephalitis, Dengue Fever, Ebola, African Dust and health, meningitis, asthma, and filariasis. In addition, the NASA program is creating a user-friendly data system to help provide the public health community with easy and timely access to space-based environmental data for epidemiological studies. This NASA data system is being designed to bring land, atmosphere, water and ocean satellite data/products to users not familiar with satellite data/products, but who are knowledgeable in the Geographic Information Systems (GIS) environment. This paper discusses the most recent results of the interdisciplinary environment-health research projects and provides an analysis of the usefulness of the satellite data to epidemiological studies. In addition, there will be a summary of presently-available NASA Earth science data and a description of how it may be obtained.

  3. Epidemiology of COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Raherison

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is responsible for early mortality, high death rates and significant cost to health systems. The projection for 2020 indicates that COPD will be the third leading cause of death worldwide (from sixth in 1990 and fifth leading cause of years lost through early mortality or handicap (disability-adjusted life years (12th in 1990. Active smoking remains the main risk factor, but other factors are becoming better known, such as occupational factors, infections and the role of air pollution. Prevalence of COPD varies according to country, age and sex. This disease is also associated with significant comorbidities. COPD is a disorder that includes various phenotypes, the continuum of which remains under debate. The major challenge in the coming years will be to prevent onset of smoking along with early detection of the disease in the general population.

  4. General introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emmelkamp, P.; Ehring, T.; Emmelkamp, P.; Ehring, T.

    2014-01-01

    This introductory chapter of this two-volume handbook commences with an overview of the book, which is aimed to provide a comprehensive overview of the current knowledge on the phenomenology, classification, epidemiology, etiology, and clinical management of anxiety disorders. Whereas Volume 1

  5. Statistical inference to advance network models in epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, David; Bansal, Shweta; Hunter, David R

    2011-03-01

    Contact networks are playing an increasingly important role in the study of epidemiology. Most of the existing work in this area has focused on considering the effect of underlying network structure on epidemic dynamics by using tools from probability theory and computer simulation. This work has provided much insight on the role that heterogeneity in host contact patterns plays on infectious disease dynamics. Despite the important understanding afforded by the probability and simulation paradigm, this approach does not directly address important questions about the structure of contact networks such as what is the best network model for a particular mode of disease transmission, how parameter values of a given model should be estimated, or how precisely the data allow us to estimate these parameter values. We argue that these questions are best answered within a statistical framework and discuss the role of statistical inference in estimating contact networks from epidemiological data. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Epidemiology of organising pneumonia in Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudmundsson, G; Sveinsson, O; Isaksson, H J; Jonsson, S; Frodadottir, H; Aspelund, T

    2006-01-01

    Background Cryptogenic organising pneumonia (COP) has also been called idiopathic bronchiolitis obliterans organising pneumonia. In secondary organising pneumonia (SOP) the causes can be identified or it occurs in a characteristic clinical context. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence and epidemiological features of COP and SOP nationwide in Iceland over an extended period. Methods A retrospective study of organising pneumonia (OP) in Iceland over 20 years was conducted and the epidemiology and survival were studied. All pathological reports of patients diagnosed with or suspected of having COP or SOP in the period 1984–2003 were identified and the pathology samples were re‐evaluated using strict diagnostic criteria. Results After re‐evaluation, 104 patients fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for OP (58 COP and 46 SOP). The mean annual incidence of OP was 1.97/100 000 population (1.10/100 000 for COP and 0.87/100 000 for SOP). The mean age at diagnosis was 67 years with a wide age range. The most common causes of death were lung diseases other than OP, and only one patient died from OP. Patients with OP had a lower rate of survival than the general population, but there was no statistical difference between COP and SOP. Conclusions The incidence of OP is higher than previously reported, suggesting that OP needs to be considered as a diagnosis more often than has been done in the past. PMID:16809413

  7. Psoriasis: epidemiology, natural history, and differential diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basko-Plluska JL

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Juliana L Basko-Plluska, Vesna Petronic-RosicDepartment of Medicine, Section of Dermatology, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USAAbstract: Psoriasis is a chronic, immune-mediated, inflammatory disease which affects primarily the skin and joints. It occurs worldwide, but its prevalence varies considerably between different regions of the world. Genetic susceptibility as well as environmental factors play an important role in determining the development and prognosis of psoriasis. Genome-wide association studies have identified many genetic loci as potential psoriasis susceptibility regions, including PSORS1 through PSORS7. Histocompatibility antigen (HLA studies have also identified several HLA antigens, with HLA-Cw6 being the most frequently associated antigen. Epidemiological studies identified several modifiable risk factors that may predispose individuals to developing psoriasis or exacerbate pre-existing disease. These include smoking, obesity, alcohol consumption, diet, infections, medications and stressful life events. The exact mechanism by which they trigger psoriasis remains to be elucidated; however, existing data suggest that they are linked through Th1-mediated immunological pathways. The natural history of psoriasis varies depending on the clinical subtype as well as special circumstances, including pregnancy and HIV infection. In general, psoriasis is a chronic disease with intermittent remissions and exacerbations. The differential diagnosis is vast and includes many other immune-mediated, inflammatory disorders.Keywords: psoriasis, epidemiology, natural history, differential diagnosis

  8. Epidemiological methods: a brief review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkelstein, W. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Epidemiology, the study of disease distributions in populations and the factors which influence these distributions, is an observational science, i.e., its data base consists of measurements made on free living individuals characterized by presence or absence of disease states and putative risk factors. Epidemiological studies are usually classified as descriptive or analytical. Descriptive studies are primarily used for planning and evaluating health programs or to generate etiological hypotheses. Analytical studies are primarily used for testing etiological hypotheses. Analytical studies are designed either as cohort investigations in which populations with and without a putative risk factor are followed through time to ascertain their differential incidence of disease, or case-control investigations in which the history of exposure to a putative risk factor is compared among persons with a disease and appropriate controls free of disease. Both descriptive and analytical epidemiological studies have been applied to health physics problems. Examples of such problems and the epidemiological methods used to explore them will be presented

  9. Glossary for econometrics and epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunasekara, F Imlach; Carter, K; Blakely, T

    2008-10-01

    Epidemiologists and econometricians are often interested in similar topics-socioeconomic position and health outcomes-but the different languages that epidemiologists and economists use to interpret and discuss their results can create a barrier to mutual communication. This glossary defines key terms used in econometrics and epidemiology to assist in bridging this gap.

  10. Killing fields; The epidemiological evidence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Best, Simon

    1990-02-01

    The threat posed by low frequency fields emerged initially because a researcher, looking for environmental factors in childhood leukaemia, observed a link between low voltage, high current power lines and disease occurrence. Cellular evidence now supports the findings but epidemiology still leads the argument. (43 references). (author).

  11. Brain Tumor Epidemiology Consortium (BTEC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Brain Tumor Epidemiology Consortium is an open scientific forum organized to foster the development of multi-center, international and inter-disciplinary collaborations that will lead to a better understanding of the etiology, outcomes, and prevention of brain tumors.

  12. Candida infections : detection and epidemiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borst, A. (Annemarie)

    2002-01-01

    Despite the fact that the yeast Candida is the number 4 cause of bloodstream infections in the United States and ranks number 8 in Europe, adequate detection methods are lacking. Furthermore, relatively little is known about the epidemiology of Candida. Our aim was to improve the detection and

  13. Panel 1 : Epidemiology and Diagnosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Homøe, Preben; Kværner, Kari; Casey, Janet R; Damoiseaux, Roger A M J; van Dongen, Thijs M A; Gunasekera, Hasantha; Jensen, Ramon G; Kvestad, Ellen; Morris, Peter S; Weinreich, Heather M

    Objective To create a literature review between 2011 and June 1, 2015, on advances in otitis media (OM) epidemiology and diagnosis (including relevant audiology studies). Data Sources Electronic search engines (PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library) with a predefined search strategy. Review Methods

  14. [Epidemiology of rabies in Algeria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benelmouffok, A; Belkaid, M; Benhassine, M

    An epidemiological study on rabies in Algeria has been carried out on data provided by the "Institut national de Santé publique" and the "Institut Pasteur d'Algérie". It showed that no region is unhurt. The animal reservoir is of the domestic type, essentially the dog. In 40% of cases, bites are due to stray dogs.

  15. TFOS DEWS II Epidemiology Report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stapleton, Fiona; Alves, Monica; Bunya, Vatinee Y.; Jalbert, Isabelle; Lekhanont, Kaevalin; Malet, Florence; Na, Kyung-Sun; Schaumberg, Debra; Uchino, Miki; Vehof, Jelle; Viso, Eloy; Vitale, Susan; Jones, Lyndon

    The subcommittee reviewed the prevalence, incidence, risk factors, natural history, morbidity and questionnaires reported in epidemiological studies of dry eye disease (DED). A meta-analysis of published prevalence data estimated the impact of age and sex. Global mapping of prevalence was

  16. Radiation epidemiology: Past and present

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boice, J.D. Jr.

    1997-01-01

    Major advancements in radiation epidemiology have occurred during the last several years in studies of atomic bomb survivors, patients given medical radiation, and radiation workers, including underground miners. Risks associated with the Chernobyl accident, indoor radon and childhood exposure to I-131 have yet to be elucidated. Situations in the former Soviet Union around Chelyabinsk, a nuclear installation in the southern Urals, and in the Altai, which received radioactive fallout from weapons testing at Semipalatinsk, Kazakhstan, have the potential to provide information on the effects of chronic radiation exposure. Since Roentgen's discovery of x-rays just 100 years ago, a tremendous amount of knowledge has been accumulated about human health effects following irradiation. The 1994 UNSCEAR report contains the latest compilation and synthesis of radiation epidemiology. This overview will cover epidemiology from a radiation perspective. The different types of study methodologies will be described, followed by a kaleidoscope coverage of past and present studies; ending with some remaining questions in radiation epidemiology. This should set the stage for future chapters, and stimulate thinking about implications of the new data on radiation cancer risks

  17. [Occupational epidemiology: some methodological considerations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvear-Galindo, María Guadalupe; del Pilar Paz-Román, María

    2006-01-01

    During the last decade, occupational epidemiology has gained a great importance, not only because of the increase of pollutants and their noxiousness, but also because it has gone from the descriptive to the analytic level. The purpose of this work is to present what has been reported on epidemiological studies, different ways of characterizing and measuring occupational exposure, by emphasizing slants of exposure and selection measurement. In the reviewed studies, an interest in improving the exposure evaluation has been shown. The mainly reported measurement slants are the ways of measuring and classifying the exposure. The main designs were transversal with the use of matrixes to improve the evaluation of exposure. Conditions of hygiene and security were considered in order to control the quality of the information. This information was analyzed with different criteria. Some of the elements that hinder the research on occupational epidemiology are a mixed exposure, small populations, lack of exposure data, low levels of exposure and long periods of illness latency. Some breakthroughs in the strategies of epidemiological analysis and some other areas of knowledge have made possible a better understanding of work and health conditions of workers.

  18. Development and application of Human Genome Epidemiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jingwen

    2017-12-01

    Epidemiology is a science that studies distribution of diseases and health in population and its influencing factors, it also studies how to prevent and cure disease and promote health strategies and measures. Epidemiology has developed rapidly in recent years and it is an intercross subject with various other disciplines to form a series of branch disciplines such as Genetic epidemiology, molecular epidemiology, drug epidemiology and tumor epidemiology. With the implementation and completion of Human Genome Project (HGP), Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) has emerged at this historic moment. In this review, the development of Human Genome Epidemiology, research content, the construction and structure of relevant network, research standards, as well as the existing results and problems are briefly outlined.

  19. About the Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epidemiology is the scientific study of the causes and distribution of disease in populations. NCI-funded epidemiology research is conducted through research at institutions in the United States and internationally.

  20. Mitochondrial DNA and Cancer Epidemiology Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    A workshop to review the state-of-the science in the mitochondrial DNA field and its use in cancer epidemiology, and to develop a concept for a research initiative on mitochondrial DNA and cancer epidemiology.

  1. Can Machines Learn Respiratory Virus Epidemiology?: A Comparative Study of Likelihood-Free Methods for the Estimation of Epidemiological Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi L. Tessmer

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available To estimate and predict the transmission dynamics of respiratory viruses, the estimation of the basic reproduction number, R0, is essential. Recently, approximate Bayesian computation methods have been used as likelihood free methods to estimate epidemiological model parameters, particularly R0. In this paper, we explore various machine learning approaches, the multi-layer perceptron, convolutional neural network, and long-short term memory, to learn and estimate the parameters. Further, we compare the accuracy of the estimates and time requirements for machine learning and the approximate Bayesian computation methods on both simulated and real-world epidemiological data from outbreaks of influenza A(H1N1pdm09, mumps, and measles. We find that the machine learning approaches can be verified and tested faster than the approximate Bayesian computation method, but that the approximate Bayesian computation method is more robust across different datasets.

  2. Epidemiology of Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Ann G; Cote, Michele L

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer continues to be one of the most common causes of cancer death despite understanding the major cause of the disease: cigarette smoking. Smoking increases lung cancer risk 5- to 10-fold with a clear dose-response relationship. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke among nonsmokers increases lung cancer risk about 20%. Risks for marijuana and hookah use, and the new e-cigarettes, are yet to be consistently defined and will be important areas for continued research as use of these products increases. Other known environmental risk factors include exposures to radon, asbestos, diesel, and ionizing radiation. Host factors have also been associated with lung cancer risk, including family history of lung cancer, history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and infections. Studies to identify genes associated with lung cancer susceptibility have consistently identified chromosomal regions on 15q25, 6p21 and 5p15 associated with lung cancer risk. Risk prediction models for lung cancer typically include age, sex, cigarette smoking intensity and/or duration, medical history, and occupational exposures, however there is not yet a risk prediction model currently recommended for general use. As lung cancer screening becomes more widespread, a validated model will be needed to better define risk groups to inform screening guidelines.

  3. The evolving epidemiology of inflammatory bowel disease.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Shanahan, Fergus

    2009-07-01

    Epidemiologic studies in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) include assessments of disease burden and evolving patterns of disease presentation. Although it is hoped that sound epidemiologic studies provide aetiological clues, traditional risk factor-based epidemiology has provided limited insights into either Crohn\\'s disease or ulcerative colitis etiopathogenesis. In this update, we will summarize how the changing epidemiology of IBD associated with modernization can be reconciled with current concepts of disease mechanisms and will discuss studies of clinically significant comorbidity in IBD.

  4. History and philosophy of modern epidemiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Hanne

    2012-01-01

    Epidemiological studies of chronic diseases began around the mid-20th century. Contrary to the infectious disease epidemiology which had prevailed at the beginning of the 20th century and which had focused on single agents causing individual diseases, the chronic disease epidemiology which emerge...

  5. Recommendations for epidemiological studies on COPD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakke, P S; Rönmark, E; Eagan, T

    2011-01-01

    of the disease and definitions of the risk factors. Few community studies have examined phenotypes of COPD and included other ways of characterising the disease beyond that of spirometry. The objective of the present Task Force report is to present recommendations for the performance of general population...... for planning and performing an epidemiological study on COPD. The main message of the paper is that thorough planning is worth half the study. It is crucial to stick to standardised methods and good quality control during sampling. We recommend collecting biological markers, depending on the specific......The prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has been extensively studied, especially in Western Europe and North America. Few of these data are directly comparable because of differences between the surveys regarding composition of study populations, diagnostic criteria...

  6. Quality in epidemiological surveillance of contact allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uter, Wolfgang; Rustemeyer, Thomas; Wilkinson, Mark

    2016-01-01

    , and concentration of allergens. However, concerning other aspects, explicit compliance with international patch testing guidelines, notably the European Society of Contact Dermatitis guideline, which covers all relevant general aspects, is deemed to be a sufficient description of methods, supplemented by study......-specific information, including partial non-compliance with the guideline, as indicated. Besides technical aspects, the quality of reporting of scientific results has several other dimensions, including epidemiological and biostatistical aspects discussed in this article. Prospectively, when a study is planned......, performed, and reported, issues such as selection of patients and sample size and their impact on power and precision, the role of misclassification and potential conflicts of interests need to be addressed and discussed, respectively. Retrospectively, when a study is read and analysed, all relevant aspects...

  7. Main clinical epidemiological features of lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa Montane, Daniel Marino; Prado Lage, Yulien; Lozano Salazar; Jorge Luis

    2011-01-01

    A descriptive and cross-sectional study of 95 patients with lung cancer, discharged from Neumology Service at 'Dr Juan Bruno Zayas Alfonso' General Hospital in Santiago de Cuba, was carried out from January, 2008 to December, 2008 in order to identify the main clinical epidemiological features of the aforementioned disease. A malignancy predominance among men aged between 56 and 65 years old, belonging to urban areas and being heavy smoker (out of 30 cigarettes per day over 30 years ), was found. Those affected without a confirmed histological type and IV clinical stage epidermoid carcinoma were predominant. Most of them had the opportunity to be treated. Increasing and intensifying health promotion and disease prevention campaigns were recommended so as to achieve the population to avoid or quit the smoking habit. (author)

  8. General quantum variational calculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur M. C. Brito da Cruz

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available We develop a new variational calculus based in the general quantum difference operator recently introduced by Hamza et al. In particular, we obtain optimality conditions for generalized variational problems where the Lagrangian may depend on the endpoints conditions and a real parameter, for the basic and isoperimetric problems, with and without fixed boundary conditions. Our results provide a generalization to previous results obtained for the $q$- and Hahn-calculus.

  9. "Epidemiological criminology": coming full circle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akers, Timothy A; Lanier, Mark M

    2009-03-01

    Members of the public health and criminal justice disciplines often work with marginalized populations: people at high risk of drug use, health problems, incarceration, and other difficulties. As these fields increasingly overlap, distinctions between them are blurred, as numerous research reports and funding trends document. However, explicit theoretical and methodological linkages between the 2 disciplines remain rare. A new paradigm that links methods and statistical models of public health with those of their criminal justice counterparts is needed, as are increased linkages between epidemiological analogies, theories, and models and the corresponding tools of criminology. We outline disciplinary commonalities and distinctions, present policy examples that integrate similarities, and propose "epidemiological criminology" as a bridging framework.

  10. Viral marketing as epidemiological model

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues, Helena Sofia; Fonseca, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    In epidemiology, an epidemic is defined as the spread of an infectious disease to a large number of people in a given population within a short period of time. In the marketing context, a message is viral when it is broadly sent and received by the target market through person-to-person transmission. This specific marketing communication strategy is commonly referred as viral marketing. Due to this similarity between an epidemic and the viral marketing process and because the understanding of...

  11. Epidemiologic perspectives in radiation carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jablon, S.

    1984-01-01

    Epidemiological studies can tell much about carcinogenic effects at large doses, but not at small. To embark on large, long-term, expensive follow-up studies to learn something of scientific value about the effects of low doses-an average of three rads, say - is to waste time, effort, and money. It would be a fruitless effort even if the only problem to overcome was sampling variability - but it is not

  12. EPIDEMIOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF COLORECTAL CANCER

    OpenAIRE

    B. Shafayan M. Keyhani

    2003-01-01

    This study was carried out to analyze certain epidemiological variations in Iranian patients with colorectal cancer. (CRC): From March 1981 up to March 1993, 103 patients were analyzed retrospectively for age, gender, marital state, job, nutritional habits, presenting symptoms and histopathological features. Most of the patients with colorectal cancer were male, age range 20-75 (mean 56), 25.4 percent were long-term smokers and bleeding was the most common symptom. The rectum was the most com...

  13. Biomarkers in Prostate Cancer Epidemiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mudit Verma

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the etiology of a disease such as prostate cancer may help in identifying populations at high risk, timely intervention of the disease, and proper treatment. Biomarkers, along with exposure history and clinical data, are useful tools to achieve these goals. Individual risk and population incidence of prostate cancer result from the intervention of genetic susceptibility and exposure. Biochemical, epigenetic, genetic, and imaging biomarkers are used to identify people at high risk for developing prostate cancer. In cancer epidemiology, epigenetic biomarkers offer advantages over other types of biomarkers because they are expressed against a person’s genetic background and environmental exposure, and because abnormal events occur early in cancer development, which includes several epigenetic alterations in cancer cells. This article describes different biomarkers that have potential use in studying the epidemiology of prostate cancer. We also discuss the characteristics of an ideal biomarker for prostate cancer, and technologies utilized for biomarker assays. Among epigenetic biomarkers, most reports indicate GSTP1 hypermethylation as the diagnostic marker for prostate cancer; however, NKX2-5, CLSTN1, SPOCK2, SLC16A12, DPYS, and NSE1 also have been reported to be regulated by methylation mechanisms in prostate cancer. Current challenges in utilization of biomarkers in prostate cancer diagnosis and epidemiologic studies and potential solutions also are discussed.

  14. Panel 1: Epidemiology and Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homøe, Preben; Kværner, Kari; Casey, Janet R; Damoiseaux, Roger A M J; van Dongen, Thijs M A; Gunasekera, Hasantha; Jensen, Ramon G; Kvestad, Ellen; Morris, Peter S; Weinreich, Heather M

    2017-04-01

    Objective To create a literature review between 2011 and June 1, 2015, on advances in otitis media (OM) epidemiology and diagnosis (including relevant audiology studies). Data Sources Electronic search engines (PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library) with a predefined search strategy. Review Methods Articles with appropriate epidemiologic methodology for OM, including acute mastoiditis and eustachian tube dysfunction. Items included OM worldwide and in high-risk populations, OM-related hearing loss, news in OM diagnostics, prenatal risk factors and comorbidities, postnatal risk factors, genetics, microbiological epidemiology, guidelines, and quality of life. Conclusions Diagnostic evidence and genetic studies are increasing; guidelines are introduced worldwide; and there is evidence of benefit of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines. New risk factors and comordities are identified in the study period, and quality of life is affected in children and their families. Implications for Practice Chronic suppurative OM occurs worldwide and contributes to lifelong hearing loss. Uniform definitions are still lacking and should be provided. An association between HIV and chronic suppurative OM has been found. Tympanometry is recommended for diagnosis, with or without pneumatic otoscopy. Video otoscopy, algorithms, and validated questionnaires may assist clinicians. Childhood obesity is associated with OM. Heritability accounts for 20% to 50% of OM diagnoses. OM-prone children seem to produce weaker immunologic responses to pneumococcal conjugate vaccines. Clinicians tend to individualize treatment without adhering to guidelines.

  15. Epidemiologic research using probabilistic outcome definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Bing; Hennessy, Sean; Lo Re, Vincent; Small, Dylan S

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies using electronic healthcare data often define the presence or absence of binary clinical outcomes by using algorithms with imperfect specificity, sensitivity, and positive predictive value. This results in misclassification and bias in study results. We describe and evaluate a new method called probabilistic outcome definition (POD) that uses logistic regression to estimate the probability of a clinical outcome using multiple potential algorithms and then uses multiple imputation to make valid inferences about the risk ratio or other epidemiologic parameters of interest. We conducted a simulation to evaluate the performance of the POD method with two variables that can predict the true outcome and compared the POD method with the conventional method. The simulation results showed that when the true risk ratio is equal to 1.0 (null), the conventional method based on a binary outcome provides unbiased estimates. However, when the risk ratio is not equal to 1.0, the traditional method, either using one predictive variable or both predictive variables to define the outcome, is biased when the positive predictive value is value is poor (less than 0.75 in our simulation). In contrast, the POD method provides unbiased estimates of the risk ratio both when this measure of effect is equal to 1.0 and not equal to 1.0. Even when the sensitivity and positive predictive value are low, the POD method continues to provide unbiased estimates of the risk ratio. The POD method provides an improved way to define outcomes in database research. This method has a major advantage over the conventional method in that it provided unbiased estimates of risk ratios and it is easy to use. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. [Epidemiological dynamics of Dengue on Easter Island].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canals, Mauricio; González, Christian; Canals, Andrea; Figueroa, Daniela

    2012-08-01

    Dengue is considered an emerging disease with an increasing prevalence especially in South America. In 2002, an epidemic of classic Dengue (DENV-1) occurred unexpectedly on Easter Island, where it had never been detected before. It reappeared in 2006-2007 and 2008, 2009 and 2011. The aim of this study was to estimate the most relevant parameters of the epidemiological dynamics of transmission of Dengue on Easter Island and to model the dynamics since 2002, comparing the predictions with the actual situation observed. Of the total cases, 52.27% were females and 47.73% men. The average age of infection was 31.38 ± 18.37 years, similar in men and women. We estimated the reproductive number R0 = 3.005 with an IC0,95 = [1.92, 4.61]. The inter-epidemic period reached an estimated T = 5.20 to 6.8 years. The case simulation showed recurrent epidemics with decreasing magnitude (damped oscillations), which is a known phenomenon in models of dengue and malaria. There was good qualitative fit to the epidemiological dynamics from 2002 onwards. It accurately predicted the rise in cases between 2006 and 2011. The predicted number of cases during the 2002 epidemic is greater than the confirmed cases and the predicted epidemic was faster than notified cases. Interepidemic period in the simulation was 6.72 years between 2002 and 2008 and 4.68 years between 2008 and 2013. From the theoretical perspective, the first epidemic had affected 94% of the population (approximately 3500 cases), but 639 were reported suggesting underreporting and a lot of sub-clinical cases occurred. Future epidemic of decreasing size are expected, although the main danger are epidemics of hemorrhagic dengue fever resulting from the introduction of different dengue virus serotypes.

  17. Ethics Guidelines in Environmental Epidemiology: Their Development and Challenges We Face.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Shira; Soskolne, Colin L

    2017-06-01

    This review integrates historical developments and key events in bringing ethics into epidemiology in general and into environmental epidemiology in particular. The goal is to provide context for and discern among the various approaches and motivations that drive the need for ethical conduct in support of the public interest. The need for ethics guidelines in epidemiology is different from developments in other biomedical-related fields by virtue of its focus on populations rather than on individuals. The need for ethics guidelines in environmental epidemiology as a subspecialty of epidemiology stems from the larger scale of its mission than that of epidemiology per se. Ethics guidelines in the field of environmental epidemiology have been established. They articulate not only the profession's core values and mission, but more specifically, they address the environmental epidemiologist's obligations to the participants in research, to colleagues, and to employers. They are the product of consensus, scholarship, and diligent stewardship over several decades. The next challenge is ensuring their value and impact. The forces that support professional and institutional success, and the power of special interests, are the major threats to achieving the goals of ethical conduct and research for the public good. In environmental epidemiology, these threats have global implications.

  18. Risk estimation for carcinogens based on epidemiological data: A structured approach, illustrated by an example on chromium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goldbohm, R.A.; Tielemans, E.L.J.P.; Heederik, D.; Rubingh, C.M.; Dekkers, S.; Willems, M.I.; Dinant Kroese, E.

    2006-01-01

    It is generally recognized that human, epidemiological data, if available, are preferred as the starting point for quantitative risk analysis above the use of data from animal studies. Although methods to obtain proper risk estimates from epidemiological data are available, several impediments

  19. Anxiety: its role in the history of psychiatric epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, J M; Leighton, A H

    2009-07-01

    The role played by anxiety in the history of psychiatric epidemiology has not been well recognized. Such lack of understanding retarded the incremental growth of psychiatric research in general populations. It seems useful to look back on this history while deliberations are being carried out about how anxiety will be presented in DSM-V. Drawing on the literature and our own research, we examined work that was carried out during and after the Second World War by a Research Branch of the United States War Department, by the Stirling County Study, and by the Midtown Manhattan Study. The differential influences of Meyerian psychobiology and Freudian psychoanalysis are noted. The instruments developed in the early epidemiologic endeavors used questions about nervousness, palpitations, sweating, trembling, shortness of breath, upset stomach, etc. These symptoms are important features of what the clinical literature called 'manifest', 'free-floating' or 'chronic anxiety'. A useful descriptive name is 'autonomic anxiety'. Although not focusing on specific circumstances as in Panic and Phobic disorders, a non-specific form of autonomic anxiety is a common, disabling and usually chronic disorder that received empirical verification in studies of several community populations. It is suggested that two types of general anxiety may need to be recognized, one dominated by excessive worry and feelings of stress, as in the current DSM-IV definition of Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD), and another emphasizing frequent unexplainable autonomic fearfulness, as in the early epidemiologic studies.

  20. Exposure Metrics for RF Epidemiology: Cellular Phone Handsets (invited paper)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balzano, Q.

    1999-01-01

    The parameters are described that characterise the exposure of the users of cellular phones. The parameters are distinguished in two classes: the human and the cell phone parameters. Among the human parameters the following are discussed: size and shape of head and neck, manner of holding the phone (left vs. right, finger tips vs. palm contact) and phone position on the face of the user. The cell phone parameters causing the largest exposure variations are: antenna geometry (size, shape, extended or retracted) and matching conditions; operating RF power level; proximity of tissue to RF currents on metal parts, channel access method (analogue, pulsed, CDMA). The large variability of the RF exposure is further expanded by the variety (ever increasing) of phone models available to users who may change service frequently or sporadically. After a brief discussion of possible dose definitions and the uncertainty of the 'user' of a cell phone for a specific call, the paper analyses the critical exposure parameters that should be investigated to characterise statistically the RF exposure of the subjects of an epidemiological study. The improved exposure assessment of the users of cellular phones requires the cooperation of network operators and equipment manufacturers. The statistics of the most critical parameters, those with variability greater than 10:1, can be collected by modifying the software and hardware of the cell phone equipment. The paper suggests base station software modifications and the introduction of cell phone 'dosemeter' devices that record some of the critical exposure parameters. A certain number of these 'dosemeters' should be distributed among subscribers to determine the statistical variations of the RF exposure from cell phones. The paper concludes by recommending a pilot dosimetric study independent from any epidemiological study. (author)

  1. Research Methods in Healthcare Epidemiology: Survey and Qualitative Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safdar, Nasia; Abbo, Lilian M; Knobloch, Mary Jo; Seo, Susan K

    2016-11-01

    Surveys are one of the most frequently employed study designs in healthcare epidemiology research. Generally easier to undertake and less costly than many other study designs, surveys can be invaluable to gain insights into opinions and practices in large samples and may be descriptive and/or be used to test associations. In this context, qualitative research methods may complement this study design either at the survey development phase and/or at the interpretation/extension of results stage. This methods article focuses on key considerations for designing and deploying surveys in healthcare epidemiology and antibiotic stewardship, including identification of whether or not de novo survey development is necessary, ways to optimally lay out and display a survey, denominator measurement, discussion of biases to keep in mind particularly in research using surveys, and the role of qualitative research methods to complement surveys. We review examples of surveys in healthcare epidemiology and antimicrobial stewardship and review the pros and cons of methods used. A checklist is provided to help aid design and deployment of surveys in healthcare epidemiology and antimicrobial stewardship. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2016;1-6.

  2. ATLAS parameter study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adler, R.J.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to make an independent assessment on the parameters chosen for the ATLAS capacitor bank at LANL. The contractor will perform a study of the basic pulsed power parameters of the ATLAS device with baseline functional parameters of >25 MA implosion current and <2.5 microsecond current risetime. Nominal circuit parameters held fixed will be the 14 nH from the vacuum interface to the load, and the nominal load impedances of 1 milliohm for slow loads and 10 milliohms for fast loads. Single Ended designs, as opposed to bipolar designs, will be studied in detail. The ATLAS pulsed power design problem is about inductance. The reason that a 36 MJ bank is required is that such a bank has enough individual capacitors so that the parallel inductance is acceptably low. Since about half the inductance is in the bank, and the inductance and time constant of the submodules is fixed, the variation of output with a given parameter will generally be a weak one. In general, the dl/dt calculation demonstrates that for the real system inductances, 700 kV is the optimum voltage for the bank to drive X-ray loads. The optimum is broad, and there is little reduction in performance at voltages as low as 450 kV. The direct drive velocity analysis also shows that the optimum velocity is between 480 and 800 kV for a variety of assumptions, and that there is less than a 10% variation in velocity over this range. Voltages in the 120 kV--600 kV range are desirable for driving heavy liners. A compromise optimum operating point might be 480 kV, at which all X-ray operation scenarios are within 10% of their velocity optimum, and heavy liners can be configured to be near optimum if small enough. Based on very preliminary studies the author believes that the choice of a single operating voltage point (say, 480 kV) is unnecessary, and that a bank engineered for dual operation at 480 and 240 kV will be the best solution to the ATLAS problem

  3. Epidemiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubert, D.

    2009-01-01

    Because of the concern of people, a study of mortality has previously been conducted in two Pennsylvania counties located near manufacturing and reprocessing plants of nuclear materials over the period 1950-1995. No excessive mortality has been identified in the population exposed counties in comparison to control counties. The current study is the continuation of the previous study of mortality over a period of eight additional years (up to 2004) and the addition of a study of cancer incidence over the period 1990-2004 and mortality for causes out of cancer from 1996 to 2004. Method: The population of each county of the study was compared to the population of three control counties selected according to socioeconomic and demographic characteristics, the same way as in the previous study. The demographic, mortality and incidence data for the different counties have been earned at the state of Pennsylvania. Results: over the period 1996-2004, mortality from cancer (10 457 deaths) in the two counties studied was comparable to that of six control counties (relative risk .97 [95% CI .94 -. 99]) and previous results. Similarly, the incidence of cancer was similar in the counties studied (39350 cases of cancer) and the control counties (relative risk .99 [95% CI .97-1.00]). The number of deaths unrelated to cancer was 36 565, very close to the expected number (relative risk .99 [95% CI 1.01-1.01]). Conclusion: Overall, no increase in cancer or non-cancer disease could be attributed to living in counties that had manufacturing and reprocessing plants of nuclear materials. (N.C.)

  4. Epidemiological Trends of Spine Trauma: An Australian Level 1 Trauma Centre Study

    OpenAIRE

    Tee, J. W.; Chan, C. H. P.; Fitzgerald, M. C. B.; Liew, S. M.; Rosenfeld, J. V.

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge of current epidemiology and spine trauma trends assists in public resource allocation, fine-tuning of primary prevention methods, and benchmarking purposes. Data on all patients with traumatic spine injuries admitted to the Alfred Hospital, Melbourne between May 1, 2009, and January 1, 2011, were collected from the Alfred Trauma Registry, Alfred Health medical database, and Victorian Orthopaedic Trauma Outcomes Registry. Epidemiological trends were analyzed as a general cohort, with...

  5. Statistical significance of epidemiological data. Seminar: Evaluation of epidemiological studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, K.H.

    1993-01-01

    In stochastic damages, the numbers of events, e.g. the persons who are affected by or have died of cancer, and thus the relative frequencies (incidence or mortality) are binomially distributed random variables. Their statistical fluctuations can be characterized by confidence intervals. For epidemiologic questions, especially for the analysis of stochastic damages in the low dose range, the following issues are interesting: - Is a sample (a group of persons) with a definite observed damage frequency part of the whole population? - Is an observed frequency difference between two groups of persons random or statistically significant? - Is an observed increase or decrease of the frequencies with increasing dose random or statistically significant and how large is the regression coefficient (= risk coefficient) in this case? These problems can be solved by sttistical tests. So-called distribution-free tests and tests which are not bound to the supposition of normal distribution are of particular interest, such as: - χ 2 -independence test (test in contingency tables); - Fisher-Yates-test; - trend test according to Cochran; - rank correlation test given by Spearman. These tests are explained in terms of selected epidemiologic data, e.g. of leukaemia clusters, of the cancer mortality of the Japanese A-bomb survivors especially in the low dose range as well as on the sample of the cancer mortality in the high background area in Yangjiang (China). (orig.) [de

  6. Molecular Epidemiology of Heart Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Gustav Smith, MD, PhD

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Heart failure (HF is the end-stage of all heart disease and arguably constitutes the greatest unmet therapeutic need in cardiovascular medicine today. Classic epidemiological studies have established clinical risk factors for HF, but the cause remains poorly understood in many cases. Biochemical analyses of small case-control series and animal models have described a plethora of molecular characteristics of HF, but a single unifying pathogenic theory is lacking. Heart failure appears to result not only from cardiac overload or injury but also from a complex interplay among genetic, neurohormonal, metabolic, inflammatory, and other biochemical factors acting on the heart. Recent development of robust, high-throughput tools in molecular biology provides opportunity for deep molecular characterization of population-representative cohorts and HF cases (molecular epidemiology, including genome sequencing, profiling of myocardial gene expression and chromatin modifications, plasma composition of proteins and metabolites, and microbiomes. The integration of such detailed information holds promise for improving understanding of HF pathophysiology in humans, identification of therapeutic targets, and definition of disease subgroups beyond the current classification based on ejection fraction which may benefit from improved individual tailoring of therapy. Challenges include: 1 the need for large cohorts with deep, uniform phenotyping; 2 access to the relevant tissues, ideally with repeated sampling to capture dynamic processes; and 3 analytical issues related to integration and analysis of complex datasets. International research consortia have formed to address these challenges and combine datasets, and cohorts with up to 1 million participants are being collected. This paper describes the molecular epidemiology of HF and provides an overview of methods and tissue types and examples of published and ongoing efforts to systematically evaluate molecular

  7. Some aspects of cancer epidemiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lilienfeld, A.M.

    1982-01-01

    Epidemiolgic studies have strongly suggested that a vast majority (80-90%) of cancers are caused by radiation, chemical and biologic agents; the remainder result from endogenous or genetic factors. Biologically, cancer is most probably the end result of a complex multistage process and therefore may be due to a sequence of exposures to different agents at each of these stages. This emphasizes the need to stress the study of interactions in epidemiologic studies to a greater extent than has been done thus far. Examples of the importance of interactions in several types of cancer are presented

  8. An introduction to mathematical epidemiology

    CERN Document Server

    Martcheva, Maia

    2015-01-01

    The book is a comprehensive, self-contained introduction to the mathematical modeling and analysis of infectious diseases. It includes model building, fitting to data, local and global analysis techniques. Various types of deterministic dynamical models are considered: ordinary differential equation models, delay-differential equation models, difference equation models, age-structured PDE models and diffusion models. It includes various techniques for the computation of the basic reproduction number as well as approaches to the epidemiological interpretation of the reproduction number. MATLAB code is included to facilitate the data fitting and the simulation with age-structured models.

  9. Intrathoracic neoplasia: Epidemiology and etiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weller, R.E.

    1992-05-01

    Neoplasms of the thorax encompass those derived from the thoracic wall, trachea, mediastinum, lungs and pleura. They represent a wide variety of lesions including benign and malignant tumors arising from many tissues. The large surface area, 60 to 90 m{sup 2} in man, represented by the respiratory epithelium and associated thoracic structures are ideal targets for carcinogens carried by inspired air. The topic of discussion in this report is the epidemiology, etiology, and mechanisms of spontaneous intrathoracic neoplasia in animals and man. Much of what we know or suspect about thoracic neoplasia in animals has been extrapolated from experimentally-induced neoplasms.

  10. Epidemiology: past, present and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesteloot, H

    2004-01-01

    Epidemiology in the past was concerned essentially by the study of infectious diseases which were the cause of huge mortalities especially since urbanisation was initiated. Epidemics of pest, typhus, cholera, influenza a.o. were common. The epidemics were halted by better hygiene, vaccination and antibiotics. Since the second world war epidemiology was dominated by an "epidemic" of new chronic diseases, especially heart disease and cancer. This was due to an increase in life span and to an increase in smoking habits and in the intake of saturated fat and a too small intake of fruit and vegetables combined with a too high intake of salt (NaCl). Gradually epidemiology evolved as the study of the causes, the distribution, the risk factors and the prevention of chronic diseases, but also including accidents, suicide, depression a.o., diseases with a mass occurrence at the population level. The importance of nutrition as a determinant of health gradually became recognized, but remains undervalued by the medical profession. Mortality at the population level follows some simple mathematical laws and can be represented accurately (r2>0.99) between the ages of 35 and 84 year by either Gompertz equations (ln mortality versus age) or by a polynomial equation (ln mortality versus age, age2). This is valid for all populations and both sexes and remains valid at times of great and rapid changes in mortality. This shows that measures for prevention should be directed towards the total population. The future of epidemiology should be directed towards the slowing of the ageing process at the population level by a healthy life style consisting of: not smoking, avoiding obesity, a fair amount of physical activity and a healthy nutrition i.e little salt, little saturated fat, an adequate amount of omega-3 fatty acids and a large amount of fruit and vegetables, with an occasional glass of red wine. This contains the secret of a long and healthy life. Conceptually it will be important

  11. Generalized functions

    CERN Document Server

    Gelfand, I M; Graev, M I; Vilenkin, N Y; Pyatetskii-Shapiro, I I

    Volume 1 is devoted to basics of the theory of generalized functions. The first chapter contains main definitions and most important properties of generalized functions as functional on the space of smooth functions with compact support. The second chapter talks about the Fourier transform of generalized functions. In Chapter 3, definitions and properties of some important classes of generalized functions are discussed; in particular, generalized functions supported on submanifolds of lower dimension, generalized functions associated with quadratic forms, and homogeneous generalized functions are studied in detail. Many simple basic examples make this book an excellent place for a novice to get acquainted with the theory of generalized functions. A long appendix presents basics of generalized functions of complex variables.

  12. Major Depressive Disorder Definition, Etiology and Epidemiology: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatmagul Helvaci Celik

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Depression is one of the most common psychiatric disorders influencing the all population. Untreated depression may lead to early death and worsening in general health. Depression has several clinically distinct subtypes which are sometimes difficult to diagnose. Diagnosis and treatment of these disorders are of concern to physicians other than psychiatrists, because of their effect on course and prognosis of general medical diseases. This is a concise and up to date overview of the epidemiology,etiology physiopathology and diagnosis of major depressive disorder. [J Contemp Med 2016; 6(1.000: 51-66

  13. An epidemiologic study of flat foot in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alamy B

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available Among 880 studied feet of 7-14 years old children 6.9% suffered mild and severe flat foot. 53.8% of the affected children were symptomatic. As 40.1% of the general population experiences symptoms, in a small proportion of affected persons, symptoms are due to flat foot. The prevalence of symptoms rises with increasing severity of the disorder. In this article, reviewing general aspects of flat food, prevalence and other epidemiological aspects of flat foot for the first time in Iran have been presented

  14. Perfil clínico, epidemiológico e etiológico de pacientes com pneumonia adquirida na comunidade internados em um hospital geral da microrregião de Sumaré, SP Clinical, epidemiological, and etiological profile of inpatients with community-acquired pneumonia at a general hospital in the Sumaré microregion of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Rita Donalisio

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar aspectos clínicos, etiológicos e epidemiológicos das pneumonias adquiridas na comunidade (PAC em indivíduos internados. MÉTODOS: Foram estudados prospectivamente 66 pacientes com PAC maiores de 14 anos no Hospital Estadual Sumaré, localizado na cidade de Sumaré (SP, entre outubro de 2005 e setembro de 2007. Coletamos dados sobre história clínica, exame clínico, escore pneumonia severity index (PSI e exames laboratoriais (hemocultura, bacterioscopia/cultura de escarro, sorologias para Chlamydophila pneumoniae, Mycoplasma pneumoniae e Legionella pneumophila, além de antígenos urinários de Legionella sp. e Streptococcus pneumoniae. RESULTADOS: A idade média dos pacientes foi de 53 anos, a maioria tinha baixa escolaridade, e 55,7% apresentavam pelo menos uma comorbidade no momento da internação. O percentual de idosos vacinados contra influenza entre os internados foi significativamente menor que os da comunidade dos municípios da microrregião de Sumaré (52,6% vs. > 70%. A febre foi menos frequente entre os idosos (p OBJECTIVE: To analyze the clinical, etiological, and epidemiological aspects of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP in hospitalized individuals. METHODS: We prospectively studied 66 patients (> 14 years of age with CAP admitted to the Hospital Estadual Sumaré, located in the Sumaré microregion of Brazil, between October of 2005 and September of 2007. We collected data related to clinical history, physical examination, pneumonia severity index (PSI scores, and laboratory tests (blood culture; sputum smear microscopy and culture; serology for Chlamydophila pneumoniae, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, and Legionella pneumophila; and detection of Legionella sp. and Streptococcus pneumoniae antigens in urine. RESULTS: The mean age of patients was 53 years. Most had a low level of education, and 55.7% presented with at least one comorbidity at the time of hospitalization. The proportion of elderly people vaccinated

  15. Fertility and pregnancy: an epidemiologic perspective

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wilcox, Allen J

    2010-01-01

    .... Weaving together history, biology, obstetrics, pediatrics, demography, infectious diseases, molecular genetics, and evolutionary biology, Allen Wilcox brings a fresh coherence to the epidemiologic...

  16. Clinical Epidemiology Unit - overview of research areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clinical Epidemiology Unit (CEU) conducts etiologic research with potential clinical and public health applications, and leads studies evaluating population-based early detection and cancer prevention strategies

  17. COPD in Taiwan: a National Epidemiology Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng SL

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Shih-Lung Cheng,1,2 Ming-Cheng Chan,3 Chin-Chou Wang,4 Ching-Hsiung Lin,5 Hao-Chien Wang,6 Jeng-Yuan Hsu,3 Liang-Wen Hang,7,8 Chee-Jen Chang,9 Diahn-Warng Perng,10,* Chong-Jen Yu6,* On behalf of the Taiwan COPD Consortium 1Department of Internal Medicine, Far Eastern Memorial Hospital, New Taipei City, 2Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Yuan Ze University, Chung-Li City, Taoyuan County, 3Department of Internal Medicine, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung, 4Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Kaohsiung, 5Division of Chest Medicine, Changhua Christian Hospital, Changhua City, Changhua County, 6Department of Internal Medicine, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, 7Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Sleep Medicine Center, China Medical University Hospital, 8Department of Respiratory Therapy, College of Health Care, China Medical University, Taichung, 9Biostatistical Center for Clinical Research, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Linkou Branch, Guishan Township, Taoyuan County, 10Department of Chest Medicine, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Objectives: To determine the prevalence of COPD in Taiwan and to document the disease characteristics and associated risk factors.Methods: We conducted a random cross-sectional national survey of adults older than 40 years in Taiwan. Respiratory health screening questions identified subjects with diagnosed COPD or whose reported symptoms also fulfilled an epidemiological case definition; these were eligible to complete the survey, which also included indices of symptom severity and disability and questions on comorbidities, medical treatments, smoking habits, and occupations potentially harmful to respiratory health. Subjects with diagnosed COPD were subdivided by smoking status. Subjects who fulfilled the case definition

  18. Maximum Likelihood Estimates of Parameters in Various Types of Distribution Fitted to Important Data Cases.

    OpenAIRE

    HIROSE,Hideo

    1998-01-01

    TYPES OF THE DISTRIBUTION:13;Normal distribution (2-parameter)13;Uniform distribution (2-parameter)13;Exponential distribution ( 2-parameter)13;Weibull distribution (2-parameter)13;Gumbel Distribution (2-parameter)13;Weibull/Frechet Distribution (3-parameter)13;Generalized extreme-value distribution (3-parameter)13;Gamma distribution (3-parameter)13;Extended Gamma distribution (3-parameter)13;Log-normal distribution (3-parameter)13;Extended Log-normal distribution (3-parameter)13;Generalized ...

  19. Epidemiology: second-rate science?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parascandola, M

    1998-01-01

    In recent years epidemiology has come under increasing criticism in regulatory and public arenas for being "unscientific." The tobacco industry has taken advantage of this, insisting for decades that evidence linking cigarettes and lung cancer falls short of proof. Moreover, many epidemiologists remain unduly skeptical and self-conscious about the status of their own causal claims. This situation persists in part because of a widespread belief that only the laboratory can provide evidence sufficient for scientific proof. Adherents of this view erroneously believe that there is no element of uncertainty or inductive inference in the "direct observation" of the laboratory researcher and that epidemiology provides mere "circumstantial" evidence. The historical roots of this attitude can be traced to philosopher John Stuart Mill and physiologist Claude Bernard and their influence on modern experimental thinking. The author uses the debate over cigarettes and lung cancer to examine ideas of proof in medical science and public health, concluding that inductive inference from a limited sample to a larger population is an element in all empirical science.

  20. Epidemiology of Clostridium difficile Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    DePestel, Daryl D.; Aronoff, David M.

    2014-01-01

    There has been dramatic change in the epidemiology of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) since the turn of the 21st Century noted by a marked increase in incidence and severity, occurring at a disproportionately higher frequency in older patients. Historically considered a nosocomial infection associated with antibiotic exposure, CDI has now also emerged in the community in populations previously considered low risk. Emerging risk factors and disease recurrence represent continued challenges in the management of CDI. The increased incidence and severity associated with CDI has coincided with the emergence and rapid spread of a previously rare strain, ribotype 027. Recent data from the U.S. and Europe suggest the incidence of CDI may have reached a crescendo in recent years and is perhaps beginning to plateau. The acute-care direct costs of CDI were estimated to be $4.8 billion in 2008. However, nearly all the published studies have focused on CDI diagnosed and treated in acute-care hospital setting and fail to measure the burden outside the hospital, including recently discharged patients, outpatients, and those in long-term care facilities. Enhanced surveillance methods are needed to monitor the incidence, identify populations at risk, and characterize the molecular epidemiology of strains causing CDI. PMID:24064435

  1. Childhood vitiligo: Clinical epidemiological profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asmae Lahlou

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the clinical and the epidemiologic profiles of childhood vitiligo. Patients and Methods: We prospectively analyzed the clinical data of children with vitiligo presented to the dermatology derpartement at University Hospital – Fès for 5 years from May 2011 to May 2016. This study included 31 patients. All patients were assessed for the natural history, clinical characteristics, family history, and associated abnormalities of vitiligo. Results: Of the 31 children with vitiligo 9 (29,03% were boys and 21 (67.74% were girls. The mean age of onset of the vitiligo was 10 years. The mean duration of the disease was 38,9 weeks. The most common type of vitiligo was vitiligo vulgaris (49.5% followed by focal vitiligo (39%, acrofacial vitiligo (32%, and segmental vitiligo (16% The most frequent site of onset was the extremities followed by the head and the neck, then the trunk and the genitalia. Of the 31 children with vitiligo, 39% had a family history and 4 % had an antecedent of autoimmune diesease like le diabète, une thyroïdite, l’anémie et le psoriasis, retrouvé. Conclusion: Our children have a strong family history of vitiligo and they are developing the disease at a slightly older age compared with those of other studies; however, other epidemiologic features appear to be similar to those reported in the previously published studies.

  2. Environmental epidemiology, Volume 1: Public health and hazardous wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    Environmental Epidemiology, Volume 1, represents the first of several planned volumes on the uses of epidemiologic techniques to study environmental public health issues. This text focuses on environmental epidemiology as it relates to hazardous waste in the United States. This study was commissioned by the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry to examine available data for evidence of adverse health effects on human populations exposed to hazardous waste. The committee was also asked to identify data gaps which were impediments to analyzing hazardous waste health effects and to suggest ways that such environmental health assessments might be improved. The committee's solution to the paucity of data on this issue was to concentrate in this volume on identifying the available, peer-reviewed data and, consequently, the major data gaps. The study opens with a recapitulation of the context of hazardous waste sites in the United States, the approaches currently used by state and federal epidemiologists in analyzing hazardous waste exposure and effects, and candid assessment of the problems associated with environmental exposure assessment. From that context, the committee then presents the data currently available to assess human exposures through air, domestic water consumption, soil, and the food chain. The general focus here is on biomarker data as the date of choice. As with all NAS reports, this one closes with general conclusions and recommendations. Environmental health risk assessors will find this volume a valuable resource

  3. Epidemiology, Policy, and Racial/Ethnic Minority Health Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter-Pokras, Olivia; Offutt-Powell, Tabatha; Kaufman, Jay S.; Giles, Wayne; Mays, Vickie

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Epidemiologists have long contributed to policy efforts to address health disparities. Three examples illustrate how epidemiologists have addressed health disparities in the U.S. and abroad through a “social determinants of health” lens. Methods To identify examples of how epidemiologic research has been applied to reduce health disparities, we queried epidemiologists engaged in disparities research in the U.S., Canada, and New Zealand, and drew upon the scientific literature. Results Resulting examples covered a wide range of topic areas. Three areas selected for their contributions to policy were: 1) epidemiology's role in definition and measurement, 2) the study of housing and asthma, and 3) the study of food policy strategies to reduce health disparities. While epidemiologic research has done much to define and quantify health inequalities, it has generally been less successful at producing evidence that would identify targets for health equity intervention. Epidemiologists have a role to play in measurement and basic surveillance, etiologic research, intervention research, and evaluation research. However, our training and funding sources generally place greatest emphasis on surveillance and etiologic research. Conclusions: The complexity of health disparities requires better training for epidemiologists to effectively work in multidisciplinary teams. Together we can evaluate contextual and multilevel contributions to disease and study intervention programs in order to gain better insights into evidenced-based health equity strategies. PMID:22626003

  4. General Editorial

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education. General Editorial. Articles in Resonance – Journal of Science Education. Volume 19 Issue 1 January 2014 pp 1-2 General Editorial. General Editorial on Publication Ethics · R Ramaswamy · More Details Fulltext PDF. Volume 19 Issue 1 January 2014 pp 3-3 ...

  5. The New Epidemiology--A Challenge to Health Administration. Issues in Epidemiology for Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crichton, Anne, Ed.; Neuhauser, Duncan, Ed.

    The role of epidemiology in health administration is considered in 11 articles, and three course descriptions and a bibliography are provided. Titles and authors include the following: "The Need for Creative Managerial Epidemiology" (Gary L. Filerman); "The Growing Role of Epidemiology in Health Administration" (Maureen M.…

  6. Preliminary results on epidemiology of Coconut Lethal Yellowing in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonnot François

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies are of major importance in understanding the determinants of plant diseases in order to control the risks of their spreading. A research programme on the epidemiology of coconut lethal yellowing, or Cape Saint Paul Wilt Disease (CSPWD, in Ghana was launched in March 2007. The objective was to characterize the distribution and spread of the disease in space and time at various scales, and their relation with the environment. This article presents the general strategy used to evaluate the incidence of CSPWD along with the environmental, ecological and agronomical variables at regional level. A survey was undertaken on 1,166 plots of Coconut Sector Development Project (CSDP planted with Malayan Yellow Dwarf (MYD × Vanuatu Tall (VTT hybrids in Western Region and Central Region. Preliminary results on the distribution of CSPWD and outside variables at regional scale, along with their relations, are given.

  7. Análise da situação da poliomielite em uma amostra de crianças da cidade de São Paulo, com o auxílio de um parâmetro de vigilância epidemiológica Analysis of the poliomyelitis situation in the city of S. Paulo, Brazil by means of an epidemiologic surveillance parameter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus E. Stewien

    1977-09-01

    Full Text Available A situação da poliomielite é analisada em uma amostra de crianças de 0-10 anos de idade da cidade de São Paulo, assistidas pelo Hospital Menino Jesus, com o auxílio de um parâmetro de vigilância epidemiológica - o fator r da dinâmica da imunização. Os resultados de um recente inquérito soro-epidemiológico foram transformados matematicamente na curva de crescimento expressa pela função exponencial y = a+(1-a (1-rt, aumentando-se, com isto, consideravelmente o valor informativo do inquérito. A análise mostrou que pela vacinação oral se imunizaram efetivamente cerca de 50% e 60% do total dos indivíduos da população infantil de 0-10 anos de idade contra os poliovírus dos tipos 1 e 2, respectivamente. Além disto, houve em decorrência da circulação de poliovírus, nesta população, em média, cerca de 85 infecções com poliovírus do tipo 1 e 70 infecções com o poliovírus do tipo 2, por 1.000 habitantes, por ano. Tendo em vista que o coeficiente de morbidade da poliomielite alcança cifras da ordem 31 e 27 casos por 100.000 habitantes, respectivamente nos grupos etários de 0-1 e 1-2 anos de idade, os autores recomendam que não sejam poupados esforços no sentido de que as crianças sejam efetivamente vacinadas dentro do esquema de imunização estabelecido, recebendo a 1ª dose da vacina já aos 2 ou 3 meses de idade.The situation of poliomyelitis in the city of São Paulo is analysed by means of an epidemiologic surveillance parameter - the "r" factor of immunization events. The results of a recent sero-epidemiologic survey realized in this City were transformed into the catalytic growth curve y = a + (1 - a (1 - e-rt. The informative value of the survey is therefore considerably enhanced. The analysis showed that about 50% and 60% of the population of children 0-10 years old were immunized by oral polio vaccination against type 1 and 2 polioviruses, respectivilly-Further, the average rate of effective contacts

  8. What is desirable and feasible in dose reconstruction for application in epidemiological studies?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouville, A.; Beebe, G.W.; Anspaugh, L.

    1996-02-01

    Epidemiological studies of populations are of two general forms, monitoring or formal, and serve several possible purposes. Monitoring studies inform members of potentially affected population groups of the nature and magnitude of the risks that might have been imposed on them. Formal epidemiological studies can increase scientific knowledge about the quantitative risk that attends exposure. Risks of human health due to radiation exposure are most appropriately estimated by means of formal epidemiological studies. Dosimetric data are essential for any epidemiological study, but the detail and accuracy needed depend on the purposes to be served. If the need is for a monitoring study, then general information about doses will suffice. However, a formal study that is expected to contribute to scientific information about quantitative radiation risk requires careful individual dose estimation. This paper is devoted to the discussion of dosimetric data needed for formal epidemiological studies of populations exposed as a result of nuclear power operations. The recommendations made by the National Research Council have largely been followed. The examples used in this paper are relevant to the Chernobyl accident, which caused a large number of people to be exposed at relatively high doses and provided an opportunity for formal epidemiological studies to be initiated. The studies that are singled out are those of thyroid cancer among children who resided in Belarus and in Ukraine at the time of the accident, and those of leukemia among workers involved in the mitigation of the accident and in clean-up operations

  9. Epidemiology of extremity fractures in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beerekamp, M. S. H.; de Muinck Keizer, R. J. O.; Schep, N. W. L.; Ubbink, D. T.; Panneman, M. J. M.; Goslings, J. C.

    2017-01-01

    Insight in epidemiologic data of extremity fractures is relevant to identify people at risk. By analyzing age- and gender specific fracture incidence and treatment patterns we may adjust future policy, take preventive measures and optimize health care management. Current epidemiologic data on

  10. Complex epidemiological approach to human mutagenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czeizel, A.

    1980-01-01

    The main characteristics of the epidemiological approach are summarised and the criteria discussed for the adoption of this approach for the detection of human mutagenesis. Mutation monitoring systems are described and results of epidemiological studies of higher risk populations are presented. (C.F.)

  11. Maritim epidemiologi på Supercourse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Olaf

    2015-01-01

    Maritim epidemiologi er nu kommet med i samlingen af undervisningsmidler på ”Supercourse”. Der er oprettet en særlig mappe med Maritime Epidemiology og alle der har gode bidrag inden for området opfordres hermed til at publicere her. Supercourse er en samling af foredrag beregnet til at være en r...

  12. Retrospective study of epidemiological, clinicopathological and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Retrospective study of epidemiological, clinicopathological and biological profils of 62 colorectal cancers cases in Jijel provence (Algeria) ... Our results were often compatible with the available literature and may provide reliable and relevant data on this disease. Key words: Colorectal cancer; Epidemiology; Therapy; ...

  13. Epidemiology, diagnosis and management of food allergy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Le, T.T.M.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis describes the epidemiology, diagnosis and management of food allergy. Epidemiology This thesis shows that the prevalence of self-reported adverse food reactions in children and adults was high: 17-25% for all foods and 10-11% for 24 preselected, so-called priority foods. The prevalence

  14. Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis: epidemiology update

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marckmann, P.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose of review The aim of this article is to outline the history of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis, a new and serious disease of patients with renal failure, and to give an update on its aetiology and prevalence. Recent findings Epidemiological and histochemical studies demonstrated....... Increasingly poor renal function, aberrations in calcium-phosphate metabolism and erythropoietin treatment seem to increase the risk of the disease and its severity. Up to 25-30% of patients with renal failure exposed to gadolinium-based contrast agents may develop nephrogenic systemic disease. The figure...... that gadolinium-containing contrast agents used for magnetic resonance imaging have an essential causative role in most, if not all, cases of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis. One particular agent, gadodiamide, caused the majority of cases, but gadopentetate dimeglumine has also been implicated in several cases...

  15. [Scientific journalism and epidemiological risk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luiz, Olinda do Carmo

    2007-01-01

    The importance of the communications media in the construction of symbols has been widely acknowledged. Many of the articles on health published in the daily newspapers mention medical studies, sourced from scientific publications focusing on new risks. The disclosure of risk studies in the mass media is also a topic for editorials and articles in scientific journals, focusing the problem of distortions and the appearance of contradictory news items. The purpose of this paper is to explore the meaning and content of disclosing scientific risk studies in large-circulation daily newspapers, analyzing news items published in Brazil and the scientific publications used as their sources during 2000. The "risk" is presented in the scientific research projects as a "black box" in the meaning of Latour, with the news items downplaying scientific disputes and underscoring associations between behavioral habits and the occurrence of diseases, emphasizing individual aspects of the epidemiological approach, to the detriment of the group.

  16. Epidemiology of acute wrist trauma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, C F; Lauritsen, Jens

    1993-01-01

    Epidemiological data on wrist injuries in a population can be used for planning by applying them to criteria for care and thus deriving estimates of provisions for care according to currently desirable standards. In a 1-year study all patients > or = 15 years with acute wrist trauma and treated...... in the emergency room were examined according to an algorithm until a diagnosis was established. The overall incidence of wrist trauma was 69 per 10,000 inhabitants per year. Incidence of wrist trauma requiring x-ray examination was 58 per 10,000 per year. The incidence of distal radius fractures was 27 per 10...... using data from a population-based study. A completeness rate of 0.56 (95% confidence interval: 0.31-0.78) was found. An x-ray had been taken for all patients reporting a fracture thus justifying the use of fractures as an incidence measure when comparing groups of patients with wrist trauma....

  17. Epidemiology of Haemophilus ducreyi Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Beiras, Camila; Marks, Michael; Chen, Cheng Y; Roberts, Sally; Mitjà, Oriol

    2016-01-01

    The global epidemiology of Haemophilus ducreyi infections is poorly documented because of difficulties in confirming microbiological diagnoses. We evaluated published data on the proportion of genital and nongenital skin ulcers caused by H. ducreyi before and after introduction of syndromic management for genital ulcer disease (GUD). Before 2000, the proportion of GUD caused by H. ducreyi ranged from 0.0% to 69.0% (35 studies in 25 countries). After 2000, the proportion ranged from 0.0% to 15.0% (14 studies in 13 countries). In contrast, H. ducreyi has been recently identified as a causative agent of skin ulcers in children in the tropical regions; proportions ranged from 9.0% to 60.0% (6 studies in 4 countries). We conclude that, although there has been a sustained reduction in the proportion of GUD caused by H. ducreyi, this bacterium is increasingly recognized as a major cause of nongenital cutaneous ulcers.

  18. EPIDEMIOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF COLORECTAL CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Shafayan M. Keyhani

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to analyze certain epidemiological variations in Iranian patients with colorectal cancer. (CRC: From March 1981 up to March 1993, 103 patients were analyzed retrospectively for age, gender, marital state, job, nutritional habits, presenting symptoms and histopathological features. Most of the patients with colorectal cancer were male, age range 20-75 (mean 56, 25.4 percent were long-term smokers and bleeding was the most common symptom. The rectum was the most common site and moderately differentiated carcinoma was considered as the main common histopathological variety. In conclusion, increasing incidence of colorectal cancer in younger Iranian population, below 30 and late admission and diagnosis were the main findings in the present study necessitating screening programs with annual fecal occult blood tests in high risk families.

  19. Economic epidemiology of avian influenza on smallholder poultry farms☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boni, Maciej F.; Galvani, Alison P.; Wickelgren, Abraham L.; Malani, Anup

    2013-01-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) is often controlled through culling of poultry. Compensating farmers for culled chickens or ducks facilitates effective culling and control of HPAI. However, ensuing price shifts can create incentives that alter the disease dynamics of HPAI. Farmers control certain aspects of the dynamics by setting a farm size, implementing infection control measures, and determining the age at which poultry are sent to market. Their decisions can be influenced by the market price of poultry which can, in turn, be set by policy makers during an HPAI outbreak. Here, we integrate these economic considerations into an epidemiological model in which epidemiological parameters are determined by an outside agent (the farmer) to maximize profit from poultry sales. Our model exhibits a diversity of behaviors which are sensitive to (i) the ability to identify infected poultry, (ii) the average price of infected poultry, (iii) the basic reproductive number of avian influenza, (iv) the effect of culling on the market price of poultry, (v) the effect of market price on farm size, and (vi) the effect of poultry density on disease transmission. We find that under certain market and epidemiological conditions, culling can increase farm size and the total number of HPAI infections. Our model helps to inform the optimization of public health outcomes that best weigh the balance between public health risk and beneficial economic outcomes for farmers. PMID:24161559

  20. On the epidemiology of influenza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scragg Robert

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The epidemiology of influenza swarms with incongruities, incongruities exhaustively detailed by the late British epidemiologist, Edgar Hope-Simpson. He was the first to propose a parsimonious theory explaining why influenza is, as Gregg said, "seemingly unmindful of traditional infectious disease behavioral patterns." Recent discoveries indicate vitamin D upregulates the endogenous antibiotics of innate immunity and suggest that the incongruities explored by Hope-Simpson may be secondary to the epidemiology of vitamin D deficiency. We identify – and attempt to explain – nine influenza conundrums: (1 Why is influenza both seasonal and ubiquitous and where is the virus between epidemics? (2 Why are the epidemics so explosive? (3 Why do they end so abruptly? (4 What explains the frequent coincidental timing of epidemics in countries of similar latitude? (5 Why is the serial interval obscure? (6 Why is the secondary attack rate so low? (7 Why did epidemics in previous ages spread so rapidly, despite the lack of modern transport? (8 Why does experimental inoculation of seronegative humans fail to cause illness in all the volunteers? (9 Why has influenza mortality of the aged not declined as their vaccination rates increased? We review recent discoveries about vitamin D's effects on innate immunity, human studies attempting sick-to-well transmission, naturalistic reports of human transmission, studies of serial interval, secondary attack rates, and relevant animal studies. We hypothesize that two factors explain the nine conundrums: vitamin D's seasonal and population effects on innate immunity, and the presence of a subpopulation of "good infectors." If true, our revision of Edgar Hope-Simpson's theory has profound implications for the prevention of influenza.

  1. Global epidemiology of celiac disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Bykova

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The review presents the data on the prevalence of celiac disease in various world regions. The numbers of patients with celiac disease continues to rise every year. According to some authors, this is to be related not only to improvement in diagnosis, but to other extrinsic factors, as well, that require additional studies. In the 1980s the prevalence of this disease was 1.05%, and by the beginning of 2000s, it amounted to 1.99%. In particular, from 1993 to 2002 in Britain its incidence increased from 6 to 13.3 per 100,000. Both raised awareness of doctors and conduction of epidemiological studies play a decisive role in the improvement of the diagnosis of celiac disease. The information cumulated up to now makes it possible to conclude that the highest diagnostic rates of celiac disease can be found in the risk groups. They include 1st and 2nd degree relatives of patients with celiac disease, patients with autoimmune disorders (type 1 diabetes mellitus, autoimmune thyroiditis; those with clinical signs of an intestinal disorder, such as chronic diarrhea, as well as patients with anemia, osteoporosis and high transaminase levels of unknown origin. According to the Finnish epidemiological study, the prevalence of celiac disease, depending on the risk group, may vary from 6.6 to 16.3%. The guidelines by the American College of Gastroenterology, British Society of Gastroenterology, North-American Society of Pediatric Gastroenterology, and the Russian Consensus on Diagnosis and Treatment of Celiac Disease in Adults and Children all recommend thorough examination of patients from the risk groups. Active diagnosis of celiac disease (screening has been recognized as one of the approaches to primary prevention to autoimmune disorders and cancer.

  2. Merging economics and epidemiology to improve the prediction and management of infectious disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrings, Charles; Castillo-Chavez, Carlos; Chowell, Gerardo; Daszak, Peter; Fenichel, Eli P; Finnoff, David; Horan, Richard D; Kilpatrick, A Marm; Kinzig, Ann P; Kuminoff, Nicolai V; Levin, Simon; Morin, Benjamin; Smith, Katherine F; Springborn, Michael

    2014-12-01

    Mathematical epidemiology, one of the oldest and richest areas in mathematical biology, has significantly enhanced our understanding of how pathogens emerge, evolve, and spread. Classical epidemiological models, the standard for predicting and managing the spread of infectious disease, assume that contacts between susceptible and infectious individuals depend on their relative frequency in the population. The behavioral factors that underpin contact rates are not generally addressed. There is, however, an emerging a class of models that addresses the feedbacks between infectious disease dynamics and the behavioral decisions driving host contact. Referred to as "economic epidemiology" or "epidemiological economics," the approach explores the determinants of decisions about the number and type of contacts made by individuals, using insights and methods from economics. We show how the approach has the potential both to improve predictions of the course of infectious disease, and to support development of novel approaches to infectious disease management.

  3. Generalized product

    OpenAIRE

    Greco, Salvatore; Mesiar, Radko; Rindone, Fabio

    2014-01-01

    Aggregation functions on [0,1] with annihilator 0 can be seen as a generalized product on [0,1]. We study the generalized product on the bipolar scale [–1,1], stressing the axiomatic point of view. Based on newly introduced bipolar properties, such as the bipolar increasingness, bipolar unit element, bipolar idempotent element, several kinds of generalized bipolar product are introduced and studied. A special stress is put on bipolar semicopulas, bipolar quasi-copulas and bipolar copulas.

  4. Generating three-parameter sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filinyuk M. A.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Generating sensors provide the possibility of getting remote information and its easy conversion into digital form. Typically, these are one-parameter sensors formed by combination of a primary transmitter (PT and a sine wave generator. Two-parameter sensors are not widely used as their implementation causes a problem with ambiguity output when measuring the PT. Nevertheless, the problem of creating miniature, thrifty multi-parameter RF sensors for different branches of science and industry remains relevant. Considering ways of designing RF sensors, we study the possibility of constructing a three-parameter microwave radio frequency range sensor, which is based on a two-stage three-parameter generalized immitance convertor (GIC. Resistive, inductive and capacitive PT are used as sensing elements. A mathematical model of the sensor, which describes the relation of the sensor parameters to the parameters of GIC and PT was developed. The basic parameters of the sensor, its transfer function and sensitivity were studied. It is shown that the maximum value of the power generated signal will be observed at a frequency of 175 MHz, and the frequency ranges depending on the parameters of the PT will be different. Research results and adequacy of the mathematical model were verified by the experiment. Error of the calculated dependences of the lasing frequency on PT parameters change, compared with the experimental data does not exceed 2 %. The relative sensitivity of the sensor based on two-stage GIC showed that for the resistive channel it is about 1.88, for the capacitive channel –1,54 and for the inductive channel –11,5. Thus, it becomes possible to increase the sensor sensitivity compared with the sensitivity of the PT almost 1,2—2 times, and by using the two stage GIC a multifunctional sensor is provided.

  5. EPIDEMIOLOGIC OVERVIEW OF AIDS IN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annah Rachel Graciano

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To verify the prevalence of AIDS in Brazil among the years 2000 and 2014 and the mortality rate from 2000 to 2013, correlating the rates for male and female and age. Methods: analytical ecological study with temporal bias of design. The data sources used were SIH, SIM and IBGE. The quantified variables refer to the gender and age of the general population. The selected groups were aged between 0 and 100 years of age. Results: The study showed that between 2000 and 2014 there was a significant reduction in the prevalence of AIDS in Brazil. Regarding the findings by gender, the highest overall prevalence rate corresponded to the year 2001 with a rate of 0.027% (95% CI: 0.027% - 0.028%, while the lowest rate was for the year 2014 with the corresponding rate of 0.010% (95% CI: 0.010% - 0.010%. Regarding the number of cases relating to age, there was a significant reduction in the absolute number of cases among the 2005 and 2006 and subsequent increase between 2006 and 2007. Conclusion: It was concluded that the AIDS epidemiological patterns in Brazil over the the last 15 years was favorable, with significant decrease from 2000 to 2014 while mortality rates not having be changed during the period analyzed.

  6. Epidemiology of gynecologic cancers in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiyi; Tang, Huijuan; Chen, Tianhui

    2018-01-01

    Cancer has become a major disease burden across the globe. It was estimated that 4.29 million new incident cases and 2.81 million death cases of cancer would occur in 2015 in China, with the age-standardized incidence rate (ASIR) of 201.1 per 100,000 and age-standardized mortality rate (ASMR) of 126.9 per 100,000, respectively. For females, 2 of the top 10 most common types of cancer would be gynecologic cancers, with breast cancer being the most prevalent (268.6 thousand new incident cases) and cervical cancer being the 7th most common cancer (98.9 thousand new incident cases). The incidence and mortality of gynecologic cancers have been constantly increasing in China over last 2 decades, which become a major health concern for women. Survival rates of gynecologic cancers are generally not satisfactory and decrease along with advancing stage, though national data on survival are still not available. It is of great importance to overview on the epidemiology of gynecologic cancers, which may provide scientific clues for strategy-making of prevention and control, and eventually lowering the incidence and mortality rate as well as improving the survival rate in the future. Copyright © 2018. Asian Society of Gynecologic Oncology, Korean Society of Gynecologic Oncology.

  7. DOE [Department of Energy] Epidemiologic Research Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The objective of the Department of Energy (DOE) Epidemiologic Research Program is to determine the human health effects resulting from the generation and use of energy, and of the operation of DOE facilities. The program is divided into seven general areas of activity; the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) which supports studies of survivors of the atomic weapons in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, mortality and morbidity studies of DOE workers, studies on internally deposited alpha emitters, medical/histologic studies, studies on the aspects of radiation damage, community health surveillance studies, and the development of computational techniques and of databases to make the results as widely useful as possible. Excluding the extensive literature from the RERF, the program has produced 340 publications in scientific journals, contributing significantly to improving the understanding of the health effects of ionizing radiation exposure. In addition, a large number of public presentations were made and are documented elsewhere in published proceedings or in books. The purpose of this bibliography is to present a guide to the research results obtained by scientists supported by the program. The bibliography, which includes doctoral theses, is classified by laboratory and by year and also summarizes the results from individual authors by journal

  8. DOE (Department of Energy) Epidemiologic Research Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    The objective of the Department of Energy (DOE) Epidemiologic Research Program is to determine the human health effects resulting from the generation and use of energy, and of the operation of DOE facilities. The program is divided into seven general areas of activity; the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) which supports studies of survivors of the atomic weapons in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, mortality and morbidity studies of DOE workers, studies on internally deposited alpha emitters, medical/histologic studies, studies on the aspects of radiation damage, community health surveillance studies, and the development of computational techniques and of databases to make the results as widely useful as possible. Excluding the extensive literature from the RERF, the program has produced 340 publications in scientific journals, contributing significantly to improving the understanding of the health effects of ionizing radiation exposure. In addition, a large number of public presentations were made and are documented elsewhere in published proceedings or in books. The purpose of this bibliography is to present a guide to the research results obtained by scientists supported by the program. The bibliography, which includes doctoral theses, is classified by laboratory and by year and also summarizes the results from individual authors by journal.

  9. Epidemiology of Rhodotorula: An Emerging Pathogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, Fernanda; Goldani, Luciano Z.

    2012-01-01

    This is an updated paper focusing on the general epidemiological aspects of Rhodotorula in humans, animals, and the environment. Previously considered nonpathogenic, Rhodotorula species have emerged as opportunistic pathogens that have the ability to colonise and infect susceptible patients. Rhodotorula species are ubiquitous saprophytic yeasts that can be recovered from many environmental sources. Several authors describe the isolation of this fungus from different ecosystems, including sites with unfavourable conditions. Compared to R. mucilaginosa, R. glutinis and R. minuta are less frequently isolated from natural environments. Among the few references to the pathogenicity of Rhodotorula spp. in animals, there are several reports of an outbreak of skin infections in chickens and sea animals and lung infections and otitis in sheep and cattle. Most of the cases of infection due to Rhodotorula in humans were fungemia associated with central venous catheter (CVC) use. The most common underlying diseases included solid and haematologic malignancies in patients who were receiving corticosteroids and cytotoxic drugs, the presence of CVC, and the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics. Unlike fungemia, some of the other localised infections caused by Rhodotorula, including meningeal, skin, ocular, peritoneal, and prosthetic joint infections, are not necessarily linked to the use of CVCs or immunosuppression. PMID:23091485

  10. Molecular epidemiology and evolution of fish Novirhabdoviruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurath, Gael

    2014-01-01

    The genus Novirhabdoviridae contains several of the important rhabdoviruses that infect fish hosts. There are four established virus species: Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV), Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV), Hirame rhabdovirus(HIRRV), and Snakehead rhabdovirus (SHRV). Viruses of these species vary in host and geographic range, and they have all been studied at the molecular and genomic level. As globally significant pathogens of cultured fish, IHNV and VHSV have been particularly well studied in terms of molecular epidemiology and evolution. Phylogenic analyses of hundreds of field isolates have defined five major genogroups of IHNV and four major genotypes of VHSV worldwide. These phylogenies are informed by the known histories of IHNV and VHSV, each involving a series of viral emergence events that are sometimes associated with host switches, most often into cultured rainbow trout. In general, IHNV has relatively low genetic diversity and a narrow host range, and has been spread from its endemic source in North American to Europe and Asia due to aquaculture activities. In contrast, VHSV has broad host range and high genetic diversity, and the source of emergence events is virus in widespread marine fish reservoirs in the northern Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. Common mechanisms of emergence and host switch events include use of raw feed, proximity to wild fish reservoirs of virus, and geographic translocations of virus or naive fish hosts associated with aquaculture.

  11. Epidemiology of Stuttering: 21st Century Advances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yairi, Ehud; Ambrose, Nicoline

    2012-01-01

    Epidemiological advances in stuttering during the current century are reviewed within the perspectives of past knowledge. The review is organized in six sections: (a) onset (b) incidence (c) prevalence (d) developmental paths, (e) genetics and (f) subtypes. It is concluded that: (1) most of the risk for stuttering onset is over by age 5, earlier than has been previously thought, with a male-to-female ratio near onset smaller than what has been thought, (2) there are indications that the lifespan incidence in the general population may be higher than the 5% commonly cited in past work, (3) the average prevalence over the lifespan may be lower than the commonly held 1%, (4) the effects of race, ethnicity, culture, bilingualism, and socioeconomic status on the incidence/prevalence of stuttering remain uncertain, (5) longitudinal, as well as incidence and prevalence studies support high levels of natural recovery from stuttering, (6) advances in biological genetic research have brought within reach the identification of candidate genes that contribute to stuttering in the population at large, (7) subtype-differentiation has attracted growing interest, with most of the accumulated evidence supporting a distinction between persistent and recovered subtypes. PMID:23773662

  12. Epidemiologic characterization of Colorado backyard bird flocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Emily I; Reif, John S; Hill, Ashley E; Slota, Katharine E; Miller, Ryan S; Bjork, Kathe E; Pabilonia, Kristy L

    2012-06-01

    Backyard gallinaceous bird flocks may play an important role in the spread of infectious diseases within poultry populations as well as the transmission of zoonotic diseases to humans. An epidemiologic characterization was conducted of Colorado backyard flocks to gather information on general flock characteristics, human movement of birds, human-bird interaction, biosecurity practices, and flock health. Our results suggest that backyard poultry flocks in Colorado are small-sized flocks (68.6% of flocks had meat or egg) production for the family (86.44%) or as pet or hobby birds (42.27%). The backyard flock environment may promote bird-to-bird transmission as well as bird-to-human transmission of infectious disease. Birds are primarily housed with free access to the outside (96.85%), and many are moved from the home premises (46.06% within 1 yr). Human contact with backyard flocks is high, biosecurity practices are minimal, and bird health is negatively impacted by increased movement events. Increased knowledge of backyard bird characteristics and associated management practices can provide guidelines for the development of measures to decrease disease transmission between bird populations, decrease disease transmission from birds to humans, and increase the overall health of backyard birds.

  13. Somatic symptom profiles in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eliasen, Marie; Jørgensen, Torben; Schröder, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to identify and describe somatic symptom profiles in the general adult population in order to enable further epidemiological research within multiple somatic symptoms. METHODS: Information on 19 self-reported common somatic symptoms was achieved from a population...

  14. The current epidemiology of SIDS in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mehanni, M

    2000-12-01

    This paper examines some epidemiological factors associated with SIDS to give a general profile of SIDS cases occurring in Ireland between the years 1993 to 1997. There has been a dramatic decrease in the incidence of the Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) in the Republic of Ireland in the last decade from an average rate of 2.2\\/1000 live-births in the 1980s to 0.8\\/1000 live-births in the years 1993-1997, a decrease of 100 deaths a year. The fall in the SIDS rate has been seen in many countries and is felt to be associated with Reduce The Risks (RTR) of SIDS campaigns and the avoidance of the prone sleeping position. The use of the prone sleep position averaged at 6% of children being put prone in the years 1993-1997 but the prone position has progressively decreased from 13% of children being put prone in 1994 to only 2% in 1997. The profile of the Irish SIDS cases is similar to that of SIDS cases in other countries following similar RTR campaigns with a male predominance, the characteristic clustering of deaths in the first six months of life and the majority of cases (75%) occuring in the night sleep period. The loss of the seasonal variation of the time of death is also shown and factors such as lower socio-economic status, unemployment and medical card eligibility were seen in higher proportions in SIDS families than in the general population. A high percentage of SIDS mothers smoked (73%). Higher smoking rates were seen among younger and single mothers and smoking rates were inversely related to educational level and socioeconomic grouping. An urgent question that needs to be addressed is how socioeconomic disadvantage increases the SIDS risk and what factors influence socioeconomically disadvantaged families to adopt life style and parenting practices such as smoking that influence their children\\'s health.

  15. Brain microbleeds: Epidemiology and clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyano, I; Bravo, N; Miranda, J; Gil-Gregorio, P; Olazarán, J

    2016-06-22

    Brain microbleeds (BMB) are haemosiderin deposits contained within macrophages, which are displayed as hypointense images in some T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging sequences. There are still many questions to be answered about the pathophysiology and clinical relevance of BMB. We conducted a literature review of the main epidemiological, clinical, and anatomical pathology studies of BMB performed in the general population, in patients at risk of or already suffering from a vascular disease, and in patients with cognitive impairment. We analysed the prevalence of BMB, risk factors, and potential pathophysiological mechanisms and clinical implications. The prevalence of BMB is highly variable (3%-27% in the general population, 6%-80% in patients with vascular risk factors or vascular disease, and 16%-45% in patients with cognitive impairment). BMB are associated with ageing, Alzheimer disease (AD), and in particular haemorrhagic or ischaemic cerebrovascular disease. The pathological substrate of BMB is either lipohyalinosis (subcortical BMB) or cerebral amyloid angiopathy (lobar BMB). BMB exacerbate cognitive impairment, possibly through cortical-subcortical and intracortical disconnection, and increase the risk of death, mostly due to vascular causes. BMB also increase the risk of cerebral haemorrhage, particularly in patients with multiple lobar BMB (probable erebral amyloid angiopathy). Therefore, anticoagulant treatment may be contraindicated in these patients. In patients with lower risk of bleeding, the new oral anticoagulants and the combination of clinical and magnetic resonance imaging follow-up could be helpful in the decision-making process. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. The current epidemiology of SIDS in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehanni, M; Cullen, A; Kiberd, B; McDonnell, M; O'Regan, M; Matthews, T

    2000-12-01

    This paper examines some epidemiological factors associated with SIDS to give a general profile of SIDS cases occurring in Ireland between the years 1993 to 1997. There has been a dramatic decrease in the incidence of the Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) in the Republic of Ireland in the last decade from an average rate of 2.2/1000 live-births in the 1980s to 0.8/1000 live-births in the years 1993-1997, a decrease of 100 deaths a year. The fall in the SIDS rate has been seen in many countries and is felt to be associated with Reduce The Risks (RTR) of SIDS campaigns and the avoidance of the prone sleeping position. The use of the prone sleep position averaged at 6% of children being put prone in the years 1993-1997 but the prone position has progressively decreased from 13% of children being put prone in 1994 to only 2% in 1997. The profile of the Irish SIDS cases is similar to that of SIDS cases in other countries following similar RTR campaigns with a male predominance, the characteristic clustering of deaths in the first six months of life and the majority of cases (75%) occuring in the night sleep period. The loss of the seasonal variation of the time of death is also shown and factors such as lower socio-economic status, unemployment and medical card eligibility were seen in higher proportions in SIDS families than in the general population. A high percentage of SIDS mothers smoked (73%). Higher smoking rates were seen among younger and single mothers and smoking rates were inversely related to educational level and socioeconomic grouping. An urgent question that needs to be addressed is how socioeconomic disadvantage increases the SIDS risk and what factors influence socioeconomically disadvantaged families to adopt life style and parenting practices such as smoking that influence their children's health.

  17. Epidemiological study around La Hague

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The North Cotentin is in France, the area where have been led until now, the biggest number of epidemiology studies on the effects of ionizing radiations on man, in order to assess the leukemia incidences and other cancer pathologies around nuclear facilities. The North Cotentin concentrates four nuclear installations.The objective of this file is to take stock of the situation in this field. In 1995 and 1998 have been published two sections of an epidemiology study about the incidence of leukemia in North Cotentin (J.F. Viel study for the period 1978-1992, Spira study for 1993-1997). The study of the Professor Spira does not bring to the fore a significant excess of leukemia for the period 1978-1997. The report of the professor Spira advocates several complementary epidemiology studies to precise or complete the data and lighten the causes of leukemia in North Cotentin. The studies of J.F.Viel shows that it does not exist a significant excess of cases in the studied area (25 cases for 22.8 expected cases, so a non significant difference) but notices an aggregate at the limit to be significant in the Beaumont-Hague canton (4 cases for 1.4 expected cases). J.F.Viel puts forward a relationship between the risk increase (of leukemia incidence) and some individual characteristics linked to the way of life of the studied persons: the North Cotentin beaches frequenting by the mothers or the children at least one time by month, the consumption of fish or shellfish having a local origin at least one time by week. This study suggests that it is the radioactivity, on the beaches on in fishes and shellfish that would be at the origin of the additional noticed leukemia. The authorities asked at the beginning of 1997, a scientific commission directed by the Professor Souleau to propose a new epidemiology study on the leukemia risk around La Hague. The report concludes that the leukemia incidence in the North Cotentin is in accordance with the expected incidence (25 observed

  18. Booster parameter list

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parsa, Z.

    1986-10-01

    The AGS Booster is designed to be an intermediate synchrotron injector for the AGS, capable of accelerating protons from 200 MeV to 1.5 GeV. The parameters listed include beam and operational parameters and lattice parameters, as well as parameters pertaining to the accelerator's magnets, vacuum system, radio frequency acceleration system, and the tunnel. 60 refs., 41 figs

  19. Lumped-parameter models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibsen, Lars Bo; Liingaard, M.

    2006-12-15

    A lumped-parameter model represents the frequency dependent soil-structure interaction of a massless foundation placed on or embedded into an unbounded soil domain. In this technical report the steps of establishing a lumped-parameter model are presented. Following sections are included in this report: Static and dynamic formulation, Simple lumped-parameter models and Advanced lumped-parameter models. (au)

  20. Importance theory for lumped-parameter systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cady, K.B.; Kenton, M.A.; Ward, J.C.; Piepho, M.G.

    1981-01-01

    A general sensitivity theory has been developed for nonlinear lumped parameter system simulations. The point of departure is general perturbation theory for nonlinear systems. Importance theory as developed here allows the calculation of the sensitivity of a response function to any physical or design parameter; importance of any equation or term or physical effect in the system model on the response function; variance of the response function caused by the variances and covariances of all physical parameters; and approximate effect on the response function of missing physical phenomena or incorrect parameters

  1. Red Meat and Colorectal Cancer: A Quantitative Update on the State of the Epidemiologic Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Dominik D; Weed, Douglas L; Miller, Paula E; Mohamed, Muhima A

    2015-01-01

    The potential relationship between red meat consumption and colorectal cancer (CRC) has been the subject of scientific debate. Given the high degree of resulting uncertainty, our objective was to update the state of the science by conducting a systematic quantitative assessment of the epidemiologic literature. Specifically, we updated and expanded our previous meta-analysis by integrating data from new prospective cohort studies and conducting a broader evaluation of the relative risk estimates by specific intake categories. Data from 27 independent prospective cohort studies were meta-analyzed using random-effects models, and sources of potential heterogeneity were examined through subgroup and sensitivity analyses. In addition, a comprehensive evaluation of potential dose-response patterns was conducted. In the meta-analysis of all cohorts, a weakly elevated summary relative risk was observed (1.11, 95% CI: 1.03-1.19); however, statistically significant heterogeneity was present. In general, summary associations were attenuated (closer to the null and less heterogeneous) in models that isolated fresh red meat (from processed meat), adjusted for more relevant factors, analyzed women only, and were conducted in countries outside of the United States. Furthermore, no clear patterns of dose-response were apparent. In conclusion, the state of the epidemiologic science on red meat consumption and CRC is best described in terms of weak associations, heterogeneity, an inability to disentangle effects from other dietary and lifestyle factors, lack of a clear dose-response effect, and weakening evidence over time. KEY TEACHING POINTS: •The role of red meat consumption in colorectal cancer risk has been widely contested among the scientific community.•In the current meta-analysis of red meat intake and colorectal cancer, we comprehensively examined associations by creating numerous sub-group stratifications, conducting extensive sensitivity analyses, and evaluating dose

  2. Influence of radiation exposure on our society and epidemiological study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshimoto, Yasuhiko

    1997-01-01

    A brief epidemiological review of risk assessment of radiation was discussed with respect to two periods; before and after the establishment of the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation. Selected topics were the studies of atomic bomb survivors and people living in the contaminated areas due to Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident. An ethical view to ensure that potential social benefits of epidemiology are maximized was emphasized as well as a scientific view. On the other hand it should be recognized that there are the limitations of epidemiological studies on the basis of the observations on man in which the animal-experimental setting generally cannot be controlled over. Informing people about the professional confidence and caution of radiation exposure is needed to resolve social concern associated with low dose, low dose rate of radiation. Also there are guidelines for the investigation of clusters of adverse health events. In the future an appropriate strategy for decontamination might be expected to unusual radiation exposure as a consequence of a nuclear power plant accident. Justification for the implementations can be determined only through the assessment of the effects both on the environment and health of humans after the accident. (author)

  3. Quantifying the dilution effect for models in ecological epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, M G; Heesterbeek, J A P

    2018-03-01

    The dilution effect , where an increase in biodiversity results in a reduction in the prevalence of an infectious disease, has been the subject of speculation and controversy. Conversely, an amplification effect occurs when increased biodiversity is related to an increase in prevalence. We explore the conditions under which these effects arise, using multi species compartmental models that integrate ecological and epidemiological interactions. We introduce three potential metrics for quantifying dilution and amplification, one based on infection prevalence in a focal host species, one based on the size of the infected subpopulation of that species and one based on the basic reproduction number. We introduce our approach in the simplest epidemiological setting with two species, and show that the existence and strength of a dilution effect is influenced strongly by the choices made to describe the system and the metric used to gauge the effect. We show that our method can be generalized to any number of species and to more complicated ecological and epidemiological dynamics. Our method allows a rigorous analysis of ecological systems where dilution effects have been postulated, and contributes to future progress in understanding the phenomenon of dilution in the context of infectious disease dynamics and infection risk. © 2018 The Author(s).

  4. Review of epidemiologic studies at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voelz, G.L.; Wilkinson, G.S.; Acquavella, J.F.; Reyes, M.; McInroy, J.F.

    1982-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies at Los Alamos are directed toward understanding potential health risks associated with activities pertaining to national energy and defense needs. Currently this research focuses on evaluating the effects of plutonium exposure in man. The major programs consist of (1) epidemiologic studies of the incidence of disease and mortality among plutonium and other workers at six Department of Energy (DOE) contractor facilities (Los Alamos, Rocky Flats, Mound, Savannah River, Hanford, and Oak Ridge), and (2) measurement of plutonium and other radionuclides in human tissues. Currently, investigations of mortality for Pantex workers and the surrounding general population are also being conducted for DOE in support of an Environment Impact Statement. This paper places emphasis on the activities of the national epidemiologic study of plutonium workers. The purpose of the plutonium workers study is to: (1) investigate whether adverse health effects are associated with exposures to plutonium, (2) explore whether adverse health effects are associated with exposure to transuranic elements, other radioisotopes, and hazardous substances that are found in nuclear facilities making routine use of plutonium, and (3) to describe in detail the nature of such health effects should they be discovered

  5. Epidemiological studies of groups with occupational exposure to radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, J.M.

    1985-01-01

    The exposure of man to radiation and the resulting risk of carcinogenesis continues to be of concern to the public. In this context, there is often a tendency to carry out epidemiological studies concerning the induction of cancer in radiation workers and members of the public which are not supported by a statistically valid data base or whose results are misinterpreted or misused. To assist national authorities in evaluating radiological risks, the Nuclear Energy Agency has sponsored a critical review of the methodologies for, and the limitations of, these epidemiological studies, and of the precautions to be adopted in interpreting their results. Prepared by a consultant, Dr. Joan M. Davies, the review focuses on the problems encountered when carrying out epidemiological studies on groups of workers occupationally exposed to radiations, and using their results for radiological protection purposes. It is published under the responsibility of the Secretary General of the OECD, and does not necessarily reflect the views of Member Governments. The primary objective is to provide background material to be used by national authorities that have responsibilities in the field of radiological protection as well as by other persons interested in this subject

  6. Assessing the first wave of epidemiological studies of nanomaterial workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liou, Saou-Hsing; Tsai, Candace S. J.; Pelclova, Daniela; Schubauer-Berigan, Mary K.; Schulte, Paul A.

    2015-01-01

    The results of early animal studies of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) and air pollution epidemiology suggest that it is important to assess the health of ENM workers. Initial epidemiological studies of workers’ exposure to ENMs (<100 nm) are reviewed and characterized for their study designs, findings, and limitations. Of the 15 studies, 11 were cross-sectional, 4 were longitudinal (1 was both cross-sectional and longitudinal in design), and 1 was a descriptive pilot study. Generally, the studies used biologic markers as the dependent variables. All 11 cross-sectional studies showed a positive relationship between various biomarkers and ENM exposures. Three of the four longitudinal studies showed a negative relationship; the fourth showed positive findings after a 1-year follow-up. Each study considered exposure to ENMs as the independent variable. Exposure was assessed by mass concentration in 10 studies and by particle count in six studies. Six of them assessed both mass and particle concentrations. Some of the studies had limited exposure data because of inadequate exposure assessment. Generally, exposure levels were not very high in comparison to those in human inhalation chamber studies, but there were some exceptions. Most studies involved a small sample size, from 2 to 258 exposed workers. These studies represent the first wave of epidemiological studies of ENM workers. They are limited by small numbers of participants, inconsistent (and in some cases inadequate) exposure assessments, generally low exposures, and short intervals between exposure and effect. Still, these studies are a foundation for future work; they provide insight into where ENM workers are experiencing potentially adverse effects that might be related to ENM exposures

  7. Assessing the first wave of epidemiological studies of nanomaterial workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liou, Saou-Hsing, E-mail: shliou@nhri.org.tw [National Health Research Institutes, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (China); Tsai, Candace S. J. [Colorado State University, Department of Environmental and Radiological Health Science (United States); Pelclova, Daniela [Charles University in Prague, Department of Occupational Medicine, First Faculty of Medicine (Czech Republic); Schubauer-Berigan, Mary K.; Schulte, Paul A. [National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (United States)

    2015-10-15

    The results of early animal studies of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) and air pollution epidemiology suggest that it is important to assess the health of ENM workers. Initial epidemiological studies of workers’ exposure to ENMs (<100 nm) are reviewed and characterized for their study designs, findings, and limitations. Of the 15 studies, 11 were cross-sectional, 4 were longitudinal (1 was both cross-sectional and longitudinal in design), and 1 was a descriptive pilot study. Generally, the studies used biologic markers as the dependent variables. All 11 cross-sectional studies showed a positive relationship between various biomarkers and ENM exposures. Three of the four longitudinal studies showed a negative relationship; the fourth showed positive findings after a 1-year follow-up. Each study considered exposure to ENMs as the independent variable. Exposure was assessed by mass concentration in 10 studies and by particle count in six studies. Six of them assessed both mass and particle concentrations. Some of the studies had limited exposure data because of inadequate exposure assessment. Generally, exposure levels were not very high in comparison to those in human inhalation chamber studies, but there were some exceptions. Most studies involved a small sample size, from 2 to 258 exposed workers. These studies represent the first wave of epidemiological studies of ENM workers. They are limited by small numbers of participants, inconsistent (and in some cases inadequate) exposure assessments, generally low exposures, and short intervals between exposure and effect. Still, these studies are a foundation for future work; they provide insight into where ENM workers are experiencing potentially adverse effects that might be related to ENM exposures.

  8. Transmuted Generalized Inverse Weibull Distribution

    OpenAIRE

    Merovci, Faton; Elbatal, Ibrahim; Ahmed, Alaa

    2013-01-01

    A generalization of the generalized inverse Weibull distribution so-called transmuted generalized inverse Weibull dis- tribution is proposed and studied. We will use the quadratic rank transmutation map (QRTM) in order to generate a flexible family of probability distributions taking generalized inverse Weibull distribution as the base value distribution by introducing a new parameter that would offer more distributional flexibility. Various structural properties including explicit expression...

  9. General relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenyon, I.R.

    1990-01-01

    General relativity is discussed in this book at a level appropriate to undergraduate students of physics and astronomy. It describes concepts and experimental results, and provides a succinct account of the formalism. A brief review of special relativity is followed by a discussion of the equivalence principle and its implications. Other topics covered include the concepts of curvature and the Schwarzschild metric, test of the general theory, black holes and their properties, gravitational radiation and methods for its detection, the impact of general relativity on cosmology, and the continuing search for a quantum theory of gravity. (author)

  10. Epidemiological issues related to dose reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shore, R.E.

    1996-01-01

    When a dose reconstruction is performed around some nuclear site, a decision has to be made as to whether an epidemiologic study should be performed there and, if so, what form the study should take. The goal of this paper is to provide an overview of epidemiologic and biostatistical issues that help determine whether an epidemiologic study around a nuclear facility is worthwhile doing from a scientific standpoint. We are all aware that public health and sociopolitical concerns often assume considerable importance in these decisions, but they will not be considered here. 27 refs., 2 tabs

  11. Radon epidemiology: A guide to the literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marks, S.

    1988-12-01

    This document was written as a comprehensive overview of the voluminous literature on both uranium miner and residential radon epidemiology studies. This document provides the reader with a fairly complete list of radon epidemiology publications and key features of each, so that readers may further pursue only those publications of interest in the vast body of radon literature. A companion document, exploring all on-going residential radon epidemiology studies will be published by the Office of Health and Environmental Research (OHER), the Department of Energy (DOE) in the spring of 1989

  12. IDGenerator: unique identifier generator for epidemiologic or clinical studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Olden

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Creating study identifiers and assigning them to study participants is an important feature in epidemiologic studies, ensuring the consistency and privacy of the study data. The numbering system for identifiers needs to be random within certain number constraints, to carry extensions coding for organizational information, or to contain multiple layers of numbers per participant to diversify data access. Available software can generate globally-unique identifiers, but identifier-creating tools meeting the special needs of epidemiological studies are lacking. We have thus set out to develop a software program to generate IDs for epidemiological or clinical studies. Results Our software IDGenerator creates unique identifiers that not only carry a random identifier for a study participant, but also support the creation of structured IDs, where organizational information is coded into the ID directly. This may include study center (for multicenter-studies, study track (for studies with diversified study programs, or study visit (baseline, follow-up, regularly repeated visits. Our software can be used to add a check digit to the ID to minimize data entry errors. It facilitates the generation of IDs in batches and the creation of layered IDs (personal data ID, study data ID, temporary ID, external data ID to ensure a high standard of data privacy. The software is supported by a user-friendly graphic interface that enables the generation of IDs in both standard text and barcode 128B format. Conclusion Our software IDGenerator can create identifiers meeting the specific needs for epidemiologic or clinical studies to facilitate study organization and data privacy. IDGenerator is freeware under the GNU General Public License version 3; a Windows port and the source code can be downloaded at the Open Science Framework website: https://osf.io/urs2g/ .

  13. Epidemiology of worldwide spinal cord injury: a literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Y

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Yi Kang,1,2,* Han Ding,1,2,* Hengxing Zhou,1,2 Zhijian Wei,1,2 Lu Liu,1,2 Dayu Pan,1,2 Shiqing Feng1,2 1Department of Orthopaedics, Tianjin Medical University General Hospital, 2Tianjin Neurological Institute, Key Laboratory of Post-Neuroinjury Neuro-repair and Regeneration in Central Nervous System, Ministry of Education and Tianjin City, Tianjin, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Study design: A literature review of worldwide epidemiology of spinal cord injury (SCI. Objectives: To review the epidemiological indicators of SCI, such as incidence, prevalence, demographic characteristics, etiology, level and severity of injury, complications and mortality. Setting: The Department of Orthopaedics, Tianjin Medical University General Hospital, ­Heping District, Tianjin, People’s Republic of China. Methods: We searched articles published in PubMed, Medline, EMBASE and the Web of ­Science between January 1993 and June 2017 using the key words “spinal cord injury”, “­traumatic spinal cord injury”, “non-traumatic spinal cord injury” and “epidemiology”. The incidence, etiology, prevalence, patient demographics, level and severity of injury, complications and mortality were reviewed from the articles. Results: The epidemiology of SCI has changed. Motor vehicle accidents and falls have become the most common reasons of injury gradually. Incidence of SCI varies by regions or countries, and it has gradually increased with the expansion of human activities. The number of male patients were significantly more than female, the average age of patients with SCI had a tendency to increase gradually. The cervical level of spine was the most common part of injury; there were more number of patients with tetraplegia than patients with paraplegia. Electrolyte disturbances, pulmonary infections, urinary tract infections and bedsores were the four most common complications. Conclusion: We must have a greater

  14. Internal dosimetry for epidemiologic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groer, P.G.

    1987-01-01

    In traditional epidemiologic analyses, a single valued summary index, the standardized mortality ratio (SMR), is quite popular. The SMR is simply the ratio of the number of deaths observed in the study population to the number of deaths expected if the study population were subject to the age-specific rates of a standard population. SMRs for all causes or specific causes can be calculated. For such a simple analysis an exposed cohort is often characterized by an average organ or whole body dose or dose interval, and the necessary dose estimation effort is relatively minor. Modern statistical methods focus on the estimation of the cause-specific mortality rate λ for study populations exposed to ionizing radiations or toxic chemicals. The dependence of λ on factors other than demographic characteristics, such as race and sex, is usually described through a parametric model. Such factors, often called covariates or covariables, are incorporated in the mathematical expression for the hazard rate. The external gamma dose or the internal lung dose from inhaled uranium are good examples for covariates. This type of analysis permits the use of individual doses and gives a detailed and quantitative description of the mortality rate as a function of the covariables, but at the cost of a major dosimetric effort. The generation of the necessary dose information and also the calculational efforts become especially taxing for time-dependent covariates such as an internal, cumulative organ dose. 4 refs

  15. The epidemiology of premature ejaculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saitz, Theodore Robert; Serefoglu, Ege Can

    2016-08-01

    Vast advances have occurred over the past decade with regards to understanding the epidemiology, pathophysiology and management of premature ejaculation (PE); however, we still have much to learn about this common sexual problem. As a standardized evidence-based definition of PE has only recently been established, the reported prevalence rates of PE prior to this definition have been difficult to interpret. As a result, a large range of conflicting prevalence rates have been reported. In addition to the lack of a standardized definition and operational criteria, the method of recruitment for study participation and method of data collection have obviously contributed to the broad range of reported prevalence rates. The new criteria and classification of PE will allow for continued research into the diverse phenomenology, etiology and pathogenesis of the disease to be conducted. While the absolute pathophysiology and true prevalence of PE remains unclear, developing a better understanding of the true prevalence of the disease will allow for the completion of more accurate analysis and treatment of the disease.

  16. Epidemiology of Ciguatera in Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radke, Elizabeth G; Reich, Andrew; Morris, John Glenn

    2015-08-01

    Ciguatera is the most commonly reported marine food-borne illness worldwide. Because there is a biological plausibility that ciguatera may be impacted by long-term climate variability and Florida is on the northern border of the geographic distribution of ciguatera, it is important to update our understanding of its epidemiology in Florida. We performed an analysis of 291 reports in Florida from 2000 to 2011 and an e-mail survey of 5,352 recreational fishers to estimate incidence and underreporting and identify high risk demographic groups, fish types, and catch locations. Incidence was 5.6 per 100,000 adjusted for underreporting. Hispanics had the highest incidence rate (relative risk [RR] = 3.4) and were more likely to eat barracuda than non-Hispanics. The most common catch locations for ciguatera-causing fish were the Bahamas and Florida Keys. Cases caused by fish from northern Florida were infrequent. These results indicate that ciguatera incidence is higher than estimated from public health reports alone. There is little evidence that incidence or geographic range has increased because of increased seawater temperatures since earlier studies. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  17. Foot burns: epidemiology and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemington-Gorse, S; Pellard, S; Wilson-Jones, N; Potokar, T

    2007-12-01

    This is a retrospective study of the epidemiology and management of isolated foot burns presenting to the Welsh Centre for Burns from January 1998 to December 2002. A total of 289 were treated of which 233 were included in this study. Approximately 40% were in the paediatric age group and the gender distribution varied dramatically for adults and children. In the adult group the male:female ratio was 3.5:1, however in the paediatric group the male:female ratio was more equal (1.6:1). Scald burns (65%) formed the largest group in children and scald (35%) and chemical burns (32%) in adults. Foot burns have a complication rate of 18% and prolonged hospital stay. Complications include hypertrophic scarring, graft loss/delayed healing and wound infection. Although isolated foot burns represent a small body surface area, over half require treatment as in patients to allow for initial aggressive conservative management of elevation and regular wound cleansing to avoid complications. This study suggests a protocol for the initial acute management of foot burns. This protocol states immediate referral of all foot burns to a burn centre, admission of these burns for 24-48 h for elevation, regular wound cleansing with change of dressings and prophylactic antibiotics.

  18. Epidemiology of sporotrichosis in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata-Essayag, Sofia; Delgado, Alejandro; Colella, Maria T; Landaeta-Nezer, Maria E; Rosello, Arantza; Perez de Salazar, Celina; Olaizola, Carolina; Hartung, Claudia; Magaldi, Sylvia; Velasquez, Etna

    2013-08-01

    Sporotrichosis is one of the most common subcutaneous mycoses in Venezuela. It is a granulomatous chronic infection with cutaneous or subcutaneous tissue lesions. Regional lymphatic involvement may be present; extracutaneous disease is rare. The causal fungus Sporothrix schenckii has been isolated from soil, vegetation, and animals on numerous occasions and in many localities throughout the world. The aim of this study is to describe clinical and epidemiological features of cases of sporotrichosis observed in Venezuela and review of the literature. We included the demographic data, clinical features, diagnostic methods, treatment, and follow-up of patients with sporotrichosis from 1963 to 2009, diagnosed at the Department of Medical Mycology. One-hundred and thirty-three sporotrichosis cases were diagnosed. Most patients were under the age of 30 years (66.15%). In 61.6% of them, the mode of transmission was not identified. The predominant clinical form in this population was lymphocutaneous (63.15%). Direct microscopic diagnosis was performed in 123 cases, and 57.9% yielded positive results for asteroid body. Sporotrichosis is an endemic subcutaneous mycosis in Venezuela. There are no reports to this date of disseminated forms of the disease, even amongst patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Direct microscopic examination of wet mount slides with saline solution or distilled water in the search for asteroid bodies is paramount. Saturated sodium and potassium iodine solutions continue to be extremely efficacious and affordable to most of our patients, therefore our treatment of choice. © 2013 The International Society of Dermatology.

  19. Epidemiology of cancer in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenberg, R.S.; Shuster, J.L. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    The epidemiologic features of cancers among children have stimulated abundant descriptive and analytic investigation. The descriptive work has demonstrated consistent differences in the incidence rates of these cancers by anatomic site, age, race, and gender. It is clear that the various forms of cancer during childhood have distinctive patterns of occurrence. To a large extent, the characteristic population distributions of these diseases may represent differences in the underlying etiologic processes. Analytic studies of cancer during childhood have addressed possible genetic and environmental risk factors for these diseases. The demonstration of cancers induced by transplacental exposure to diethylstilbestrol has confirmed the speculation that the prenatal environment may influence subsequent carcinogenesis. Although possible leukemogenic effects of intrauterine diagnostic irradiation remain controversial, the issue may become unimportant clinically as prenatal irradiation is replaced by other diagnostic modalities (194). To date, studies of prenatal ultrasound have provided no evidence of an overall excess of subsequent malignancies. Postnatal exposure to high doses of irradiation is known to produce considerable excesses of leukemias and other cancers. At present, there are insufficient data available to reach a firm conclusion on the possible carcinogenic effects of exposure during childhood to low doses of irradiation, fringe magnetic fields, or chemicals

  20. TFOS DEWS II Epidemiology Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapleton, Fiona; Alves, Monica; Bunya, Vatinee Y; Jalbert, Isabelle; Lekhanont, Kaevalin; Malet, Florence; Na, Kyung-Sun; Schaumberg, Debra; Uchino, Miki; Vehof, Jelle; Viso, Eloy; Vitale, Susan; Jones, Lyndon

    2017-07-01

    The subcommittee reviewed the prevalence, incidence, risk factors, natural history, morbidity and questionnaires reported in epidemiological studies of dry eye disease (DED). A meta-analysis of published prevalence data estimated the impact of age and sex. Global mapping of prevalence was undertaken. The prevalence of DED ranged from 5 to 50%. The prevalence of signs was higher and more variable than symptoms. There were limited prevalence studies in youth and in populations south of the equator. The meta-analysis confirmed that prevalence increases with age, however signs showed a greater increase per decade than symptoms. Women have a higher prevalence of DED than men, although differences become significant only with age. Risk factors were categorized as modifiable/non-modifiable, and as consistent, probable or inconclusive. Asian ethnicity was a mostly consistent risk factor. The economic burden and impact of DED on vision, quality of life, work productivity, psychological and physical impact of pain, are considerable, particularly costs due to reduced work productivity. Questionnaires used to evaluate DED vary in their utility. Future research should establish the prevalence of disease of varying severity, the incidence in different populations and potential risk factors such as youth and digital device usage. Geospatial mapping might elucidate the impact of climate, environment and socioeconomic factors. Given the limited study of the natural history of treated and untreated DED, this remains an important area for future research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Snowboard traumatology: an epidemiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigozzi, F; Santori, N; Di Salvo, V; Parisi, A; Di-Luigi, L

    1997-06-01

    In the past 10 years, snowboarding has become a popular winter sport among young people, and the number of accidents has increased proportionately. The incidence of traumas from snowboarding is shown to be 4 to 6 for every 1000 medical examinations, which is similar to that of downhill skiing. However, other important statistical differences exist between the two sports. This study of 106 snowboarding-related injury cases analyzes the epidemiology of these injuries in Italy. Results found that 45.1% of injuries are located in the upper limbs and that significant advantages are obtained with the introduction of guards to protect the upper limbs during descent. Serious ligament injuries to the knee are more rare in snowboarding than in downhill skiing. In both sports, injuries are more common with rigid boots, which lead to a higher incidence of injury to the upper limbs. Finally, a high percentage of injury to beginners was found in this study. Training courses for those who are considering taking up the sport of snowboarding could significantly lower their risk of trauma.

  2. [Epidemiology of pain in Gabon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nzoghe Nguema, Pierre; Ngaka Nsafu, D

    2004-01-01

    The authors report on a prospective survey which took place from January 1999 to December 2000 - the epidemiology of pain in Gabon - to determine its distribution in the population. Ninety-eight women and eighty-four men aged 17 to 80 years old (mean age: 50) who consulted at the pain clinic were included in the study, a majority of the patients being aged between 21 and 60 years. Lower back pains and gonalgias secondary to osteo-arthritis or arthritis were more common in the North of the country, where the patients represented 57.7% of the sample, these two previous localisations along with cephalagias accounting for 52.7% of the motives for the visits. Thoracic and abdominal pains common in both men and women in the South were psychological. Patients working in the tertiary sector represented 45.3% of the patients, those of the secondary sector 24.4%, and those of the primary 20.3%. The non-steroidal anti-inflammatory analgesics (NSAI) associated with WHO grade 1 and 2 analgesics were effective in 50% of cases, some of whom also needed steroidal articular infiltration. Psychological pains were soothed by amitriptyline. A specific training of doctors and paramedics in pain treatment is necessary to improve care and assistance in this area. Copyright John Libbey Eurotext 2003.

  3. Epidemiological features of brain tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živković Nenad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain tumors account for 1.4% of all cancers and 2.4% of all cancer-related deaths. The incidence of brain tumors varies and it is higher in developed countries of Western Europe, North America, Australia and New Zealand. In Serbia, according to data from 2009, malignant brain tumors account for 2. 2 of all tumors, and from all cancer­related deaths, 3.2% is caused by malignant brain tumors. According to recent statistical reports, an overall incidence of brain tumors for benign and malignant tumors combined is 18.71 per 100,000 persons/year. The most common benign brain tumor in adults is meningioma, which is most present in women, and the most common malignant tumor is glioblastoma, which is most present in adult men. Due to high mortality, especially in patients diagnosed with glioblastoma and significant brain tumor morbidity, there is a constant interest in understanding its etiology in order to possibly prevent tumor occurrence in future and enable more efficient treatment strategies for this fatal brain disease. Despite the continuously growing number of epidemiological studies on possible factors of tumor incidence, the etiology remains unclear. The only established environmental risk factor of gliomas is ionizing radiation exposure. Exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields via cell phone use has gained a lot of attention as a potential risk factor of brain tumor development. However, studies have been inconsistent and inconclusive, so more definite results are still expected.

  4. The changing demographic pattern of multiple sclerosis epidemiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch-Henriksen, Nils; Sørensen, Per Soelberg

    2010-01-01

    in Europe and North America, while this gradient is still apparent for Australia and New Zealand; and suggest a general, although not ubiquitous, increase in incidence of MS in females. The latter observation should prompt epidemiological studies to focus on changes in lifestyle in females. New insights....... These sources of error might play a part in the geographical and temporal variations. Our literature search and meta-regression analyses indicated an almost universal increase in prevalence and incidence of MS over time; they challenge the well accepted theory of a latitudinal gradient of incidence of MS...

  5. Illness Among Paralympic Athletes: Epidemiology, Risk Markers, and Preventative Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janse Van Rensburg, Dina Christina; Schwellnus, Martin; Derman, Wayne; Webborn, Nick

    2018-05-01

    Paralympic athletes have unique preexisting medical conditions that predispose them to increased risk of illness, but data are limited to studies conducted during the last 3 Paralympic Games. This article reviews the epidemiology of illness (risk, patterns, and predictors) in Paralympic athletes and provides practical guidelines for illness prevention. The incidence rate of illness (per 1000 athlete-days) in Paralympic athletes is high in Summer (10.0-13.2) and Winter (18.7) Paralympic Games. The authors propose general and specific guidelines on preventative strategies regarding illness in these athletes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. General problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This article presents the general problems as natural disasters, consequences of global climate change, public health, the danger of criminal actions, the availability to information about problems of environment

  7. Generalized Recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christian Skov; Lando, David; Pedersen, Lasse Heje

    We characterize when physical probabilities, marginal utilities, and the discount rate can be recovered from observed state prices for several future time periods. Our characterization makes no assumptions of the probability distribution, thus generalizing the time-homogeneous stationary model...

  8. General Conformity

    Science.gov (United States)

    The General Conformity requirements ensure that the actions taken by federal agencies in nonattainment and maintenance areas do not interfere with a state’s plans to meet national standards for air quality.

  9. Inflation and cosmological parameter estimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamann, J.

    2007-05-15

    In this work, we focus on two aspects of cosmological data analysis: inference of parameter values and the search for new effects in the inflationary sector. Constraints on cosmological parameters are commonly derived under the assumption of a minimal model. We point out that this procedure systematically underestimates errors and possibly biases estimates, due to overly restrictive assumptions. In a more conservative approach, we analyse cosmological data using a more general eleven-parameter model. We find that regions of the parameter space that were previously thought ruled out are still compatible with the data; the bounds on individual parameters are relaxed by up to a factor of two, compared to the results for the minimal six-parameter model. Moreover, we analyse a class of inflation models, in which the slow roll conditions are briefly violated, due to a step in the potential. We show that the presence of a step generically leads to an oscillating spectrum and perform a fit to CMB and galaxy clustering data. We do not find conclusive evidence for a step in the potential and derive strong bounds on quantities that parameterise the step. (orig.)

  10. Generalized Multiparameters Fractional Variational Calculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Om Prakash Agrawal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper builds upon our recent paper on generalized fractional variational calculus (FVC. Here, we briefly review some of the fractional derivatives (FDs that we considered in the past to develop FVC. We first introduce new one parameter generalized fractional derivatives (GFDs which depend on two functions, and show that many of the one-parameter FDs considered in the past are special cases of the proposed GFDs. We develop several parts of FVC in terms of one parameter GFDs. We point out how many other parts could be developed using the properties of the one-parameter GFDs. Subsequently, we introduce two new two- and three-parameter GFDs. We introduce some of their properties, and discuss how they can be used to develop FVC. In addition, we indicate how these formulations could be used in various fields, and how the generalizations presented here can be further extended.

  11. EPIDEMIOLOGY OF CHOLERA OUTBREAK IN KAMPALA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    77 No. 7 July 2000. EPIDEMIOLOGY OF CHOLERA OUTBREAK IN KAMPALA, UGANDA ... spread much (106 cases in 1995), resulting in a low level of immunity ... An intensive social ... development of a network of community health workers,.

  12. Salmonella epidemiology: A whirlwind of change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besser, John M

    2018-05-01

    The field of infectious disease epidemiology for Salmonella and other enteric pathogens is undergoing some of the most profound changes since the time of Kauffman and White. Rapid advances in "big data" technologies such as genomics and metagenomics are making it possible to monitor and control salmonellosis in new and exciting ways. Epidemiological methods are becoming increasingly robust through the routine use of standardized hypothesis-generating questionnaires, iterative open-ended interviewing, informational trace-backs and new modeling techniques for describing the attribution of disease to food sources. In addition, Salmonella epidemiology is facing important challenges and new opportunities due to the rapid adoption of culture independent diagnostic test panels by clinical laboratories. Where is this unprecedented wave of change taking us? This chapter will examine emerging trends in Salmonella epidemiology, and take a peek into the not-so-distant future. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Demographic and epidemiological characteristics of HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Department of Epidemiology and Medical Statistics, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria ... Methods: Analysis of data extracted from electronic records of 17, 312 .... system for the purpose of privacy and confidentiality of.

  14. Anticholinesterase pesticides: metabolism, neurotoxicity, and epidemiology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Satoh, Tetsuo, Ph. D; Gupta, Ramesh C

    2010-01-01

    .... The early portion of the book deals with metabolism, mechanisms and biomonitoring of anticholinesterase pesticides, while the later part deals with epidemiological studies, regulatory issues, and therapeutic intervention"--Provided by publisher.

  15. Epidemiology of small intestinal atresia in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Best, Kate E; Tennant, Peter W G; Addor, Marie-Claude

    2012-01-01

    The epidemiology of congenital small intestinal atresia (SIA) has not been well studied. This study describes the presence of additional anomalies, pregnancy outcomes, total prevalence and association with maternal age in SIA cases in Europe....

  16. Epidemiology in the Era of Big Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, Stephen J; Westreich, Daniel J; El-Sayed, Abdulrahman M

    2015-01-01

    Big Data has increasingly been promoted as a revolutionary development in the future of science, including epidemiology. However, the definition and implications of Big Data for epidemiology remain unclear. We here provide a working definition of Big Data predicated on the so-called ‘3 Vs’: variety, volume, and velocity. From this definition, we argue that Big Data has evolutionary and revolutionary implications for identifying and intervening on the determinants of population health. We suggest that as more sources of diverse data become publicly available, the ability to combine and refine these data to yield valid answers to epidemiologic questions will be invaluable. We conclude that, while epidemiology as practiced today will continue to be practiced in the Big Data future, a component of our field’s future value lies in integrating subject matter knowledge with increased technical savvy. Our training programs and our visions for future public health interventions should reflect this future. PMID:25756221

  17. Anticholinesterase pesticides: metabolism, neurotoxicity, and epidemiology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Satoh, Tetsuo, Ph. D; Gupta, Ramesh C

    2010-01-01

    ...; and epidemiology of poisonings and fatalities in people from short- and long- term exposures to these pesticides in different occupational settings on a individual country basis as well as on a global basis...

  18. Hecke algebras with unequal parameters

    CERN Document Server

    Lusztig, G

    2003-01-01

    Hecke algebras arise in representation theory as endomorphism algebras of induced representations. One of the most important classes of Hecke algebras is related to representations of reductive algebraic groups over p-adic or finite fields. In 1979, in the simplest (equal parameter) case of such Hecke algebras, Kazhdan and Lusztig discovered a particular basis (the KL-basis) in a Hecke algebra, which is very important in studying relations between representation theory and geometry of the corresponding flag varieties. It turned out that the elements of the KL-basis also possess very interesting combinatorial properties. In the present book, the author extends the theory of the KL-basis to a more general class of Hecke algebras, the so-called algebras with unequal parameters. In particular, he formulates conjectures describing the properties of Hecke algebras with unequal parameters and presents examples verifying these conjectures in particular cases. Written in the author's precise style, the book gives rese...

  19. Parameter estimation and inverse problems

    CERN Document Server

    Aster, Richard C; Thurber, Clifford H

    2005-01-01

    Parameter Estimation and Inverse Problems primarily serves as a textbook for advanced undergraduate and introductory graduate courses. Class notes have been developed and reside on the World Wide Web for faciliting use and feedback by teaching colleagues. The authors'' treatment promotes an understanding of fundamental and practical issus associated with parameter fitting and inverse problems including basic theory of inverse problems, statistical issues, computational issues, and an understanding of how to analyze the success and limitations of solutions to these probles. The text is also a practical resource for general students and professional researchers, where techniques and concepts can be readily picked up on a chapter-by-chapter basis.Parameter Estimation and Inverse Problems is structured around a course at New Mexico Tech and is designed to be accessible to typical graduate students in the physical sciences who may not have an extensive mathematical background. It is accompanied by a Web site that...

  20. Operating parameters for a general purpose computerized tomography system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walmsley, B.J.

    1976-01-01

    The diagnostic possibilities of the whole-body scanner of EMI are briefly mentioned. Picture quality, versatility in the computer controlled contrast selection as well as time saving in individual investigations are particularly pointed out. Besides an improved diagnostics, the apparatus can also lead to a considerable saving of costs when used appropriately. (ORU/LH) [de

  1. Integral Parameters of the Generalized Frequency Spectra of Moderators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purohit, S N

    1966-06-15

    A study of the integral quantities - M{sub 2} (the second energy transfer moment of the scattering kernel weighted by the Maxwellian distribution), (v{sigma}{sub s}){sub min} (the minimum value of the scattering cross section times velocity) and the moments of frequency spectrum including the effective temperature and Debye-Waller integrals - in terms of the frequency spectrum of the dynamical modes is presented. Numerical results for H{sub 2}O, D{sub 2}O, Be, BeO and C using the available frequency spectra have been obtained. In the estimation of M{sub 2} and (v{sigma}{sub s}){sub min} the first term of the Placzek mass expansion is obtained exactly and the correction by the Doppler approximation method. In addition, the exact results for the Doppler approximation and the gas model have also been given.

  2. 16 CFR 1211.5 - General testing parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... § 1211.15(i) and (k). (7) When the Demonstrated Method Test is conducted, the multiplier is to be based... condition flow chart shown in figure 1 shall be used: (1) To conduct a failure-mode and effect analysis...

  3. How to make epidemiological training infectious.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve E Bellan

    Full Text Available Modern infectious disease epidemiology builds on two independently developed fields: classical epidemiology and dynamical epidemiology. Over the past decade, integration of the two fields has increased in research practice, but training options within the fields remain distinct with few opportunities for integration in the classroom. The annual Clinic on the Meaningful Modeling of Epidemiological Data (MMED at the African Institute for Mathematical Sciences has begun to address this gap. MMED offers participants exposure to a broad range of concepts and techniques from both epidemiological traditions. During MMED 2010 we developed a pedagogical approach that bridges the traditional distinction between classical and dynamical epidemiology and can be used at multiple educational levels, from high school to graduate level courses. The approach is hands-on, consisting of a real-time simulation of a stochastic outbreak in course participants, including realistic data reporting, followed by a variety of mathematical and statistical analyses, stemming from both epidemiological traditions. During the exercise, dynamical epidemiologists developed empirical skills such as study design and learned concepts of bias while classical epidemiologists were trained in systems thinking and began to understand epidemics as dynamic nonlinear processes. We believe this type of integrated educational tool will prove extremely valuable in the training of future infectious disease epidemiologists. We also believe that such interdisciplinary training will be critical for local capacity building in analytical epidemiology as Africa continues to produce new cohorts of well-trained mathematicians, statisticians, and scientists. And because the lessons draw on skills and concepts from many fields in biology--from pathogen biology, evolutionary dynamics of host--pathogen interactions, and the ecology of infectious disease to bioinformatics, computational biology, and

  4. Epidemiologic methods in mastitis treatment and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurmond, M C

    1993-11-01

    Methods and concepts of epidemiology offer means whereby udder health can be monitored and evaluated. Prerequisite to a sound epidemiologic approach is development of measures of mastitis that minimize biases and that account for sensitivity and specificity of diagnostic tests. Mastitis surveillance offers an ongoing and passive system for evaluation of udder health, whereas clinical and observational trials offer a more proactive and developmental approach to improving udder health.

  5. Cultural epidemiology: An introduction and overview

    OpenAIRE

    Weiss, Mitchell Gralnick

    2001-01-01

    Although the value of interdisciplinary collaboration between epidemiology and anthropology is both widely acknowledged and hotly contested, effective international health policy and multicultural health programmes require it. The EMIC framework for cultural studies of illness was developed in response to such needs, and a cultural epidemiology emerged from that framework as an interdisciplinary field of research on locally valid representations of illness and their distributions in cultural ...

  6. Issues in epidemiological studies of radiofrequency workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hocking, B.

    1985-01-01

    The paper reviews some of the issues in a proposed epidemiological study of radiofrequency workers. First a few other epidemiological studies are discussed to illustrate some of the common problems such as inadequate definition of effects and/or exposure. Then technical problems in determining dosage and responses as well as study design are reviewed, and finally the administrative aspects of ethics, industrial relations and costs are considered

  7. Epidemiological Study of Heart Failure in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Guo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Heart failure (HF is a complex clinical syndrome that results from any structural or functional impairment of ventricular filling or ejection of blood. HF is one of the most important and severe end stages of many cardiovascular diseases. Epidemiological studies of HF have focused mainly on the prevalence, incidence, mortality, fatality, and distribution and temporal trends of these indicators among different populations. This review highlights important epidemiological studies of HF in China.

  8. Generalized polygons

    CERN Document Server

    Van Maldeghem, Hendrik

    1998-01-01

    Generalized Polygons is the first book to cover, in a coherent manner, the theory of polygons from scratch. In particular, it fills elementary gaps in the literature and gives an up-to-date account of current research in this area, including most proofs, which are often unified and streamlined in comparison to the versions generally known. Generalized Polygons will be welcomed both by the student seeking an introduction to the subject as well as the researcher who will value the work as a reference. In particular, it will be of great value for specialists working in the field of generalized polygons (which are, incidentally, the rank 2 Tits-buildings) or in fields directly related to Tits-buildings, incidence geometry and finite geometry. The approach taken in the book is of geometric nature, but algebraic results are included and proven (in a geometric way!). A noteworthy feature is that the book unifies and generalizes notions, definitions and results that exist for quadrangles, hexagons, octagons - in the ...

  9. General B factory design considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zisman, M.S.

    1992-12-01

    We describe the general considerations that go into the design of an asymmetric B factory collider. Justification is given for the typical parameters of such a facility, and the physics and technology challenges that arise from these parameter choices are discussed. Cost and schedule issues for a B factory are discussed briefly. A summary of existing proposals is presented, noting their similarities and differences

  10. SYVAC3 parameter distribution package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andres, T; Skeet, A

    1995-01-01

    SYVAC3 (Systems Variability Analysis Code, generation 3) is a computer program that implements a method called systems variability analysis to analyze the behaviour of a system in the presence of uncertainty. This method is based on simulating the system many times to determine the variation in behaviour it can exhibit. SYVAC3 specializes in systems representing the transport of contaminants, and has several features to simplify the modelling of such systems. It provides a general tool for estimating environmental impacts from the dispersal of contaminants. This report describes a software object type (a generalization of a data type) called Parameter Distribution. This object type is used in SYVAC3, and can also be used independently. Parameter Distribution has the following subtypes: beta distribution; binomial distribution; constant distribution; lognormal distribution; loguniform distribution; normal distribution; piecewise uniform distribution; Triangular distribution; and uniform distribution. Some of these distributions can be altered by correlating two parameter distribution objects. This report provides complete specifications for parameter distributions, and also explains how to use them. It should meet the needs of casual users, reviewers, and programmers who wish to add their own subtypes. (author). 30 refs., 75 tabs., 56 figs.

  11. Epidemiology of blindness in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solebo, Ameenat Lola; Teoh, Lucinda; Rahi, Jugnoo

    2017-09-01

    An estimated 14 million of the world's children are blind. A blind child is more likely to live in socioeconomic deprivation, to be more frequently hospitalised during childhood and to die in childhood than a child not living with blindness. This update of a previous review on childhood visual impairment focuses on emerging therapies for children with severe visual disability (severe visual impairment and blindness or SVI/BL).For children in higher income countries, cerebral visual impairment and optic nerve anomalies remain the most common causes of SVI/BL, while retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) and cataract are now the most common avoidable causes. The constellation of causes of childhood blindness in lower income settings is shifting from infective and nutritional corneal opacities and congenital anomalies to more resemble the patterns seen in higher income settings. Improvements in maternal and neonatal health and investment in and maintenance of national ophthalmic care infrastructure are the key to reducing the burden of avoidable blindness. New therapeutic targets are emerging for childhood visual disorders, although the safety and efficacy of novel therapies for diseases such as ROP or retinal dystrophies are not yet clear. Population-based epidemiological research, particularly on cerebral visual impairment and optic nerve hypoplasia, is needed in order to improve understanding of risk factors and to inform and support the development of novel therapies for disorders currently considered 'untreatable'. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  12. Cannabis Epidemiology: A Selective Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, James C; Lopez-Quintero, Catalina; Alshaarawy, Omayma

    2017-01-04

    Globally, the most widely used set of compounds among the internationally regulated drugs is cannabis. To review evidence from epidemiological research on cannabis, organized in relation to this field's five main rubrics: quantity, location, causes, mechanisms, and prevention/ control. The review covers a selection of evidence from standardized population surveys, official statistics, and governmental reports, as well as published articles and books identified via MEDLINE, Web of Science, and Google Scholar as of July 2016. In relation to quantity, an estimated 3% to 5% of the world population is thought to have tried a cannabis product, with at least one fairly recent use, mainly extra-medical and outside boundaries of prescribed use. Among cannabis users in the United States, roughly one in 7-8 has engaged in medical marijuana use. In relation to location, prevalence proportions reveal important variations across countries and between subgroups within countries. Regarding causes and mechanisms of starting to use cannabis, there is no compelling integrative and replicable conceptual model or theoretical formulation. Most studies of mechanisms have focused upon a 'gateway sequence' and person-to-person diffusion, with some recent work on disability-adjusted life years. A brief review of cannabis use consequences, as well as prevention and control strategies is also provided. At present, we know much about the frequency and occurrence of cannabis use, with too little replicable definitive evidence with respect to the other main rubrics. Given a changing regulatory environment for cannabis products, new institutions such as an independent International Cannabis Products Safety Commission may be required to produce evidence required to weigh benefits versus costs. It is not clear that governmentsponsored research will be sufficient to meet consumer demand for balanced points of view and truly definitive evidence. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries

  13. Cannabis Epidemiology: A Selective Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, James C.; Lopez-Quintero, Catalina; Alshaarawy, Omayma

    2017-01-01

    Background Globally, the most widely used set of compounds among the internationally regulated drugs is cannabis. Objective To review evidence from epidemiological research on cannabis, organized in relation to this field’s five main rubrics: quantity, location, causes, mechanisms, and prevention/control. Method The review covers a selection of evidence from standardized population surveys, official statistics, and governmental reports, as well as published articles and books identified via MEDLINE, Web of Science, and Google Scholar as of July 2016. Results In relation to quantity, an estimated 3% to 5% of the world population is thought to have tried a cannabis product, with at least one fairly recent use, mainly extra-medical and outside boundaries of prescribed use. Among cannabis users in the United States, roughly one in 7–8 has engaged in medical marijuana use. In relation to location, prevalence proportions reveal important variations across countries and between subgroups within countries. Regarding causes and mechanisms of starting to use cannabis, there is no compelling integrative and replicable conceptual model or theoretical formulation. Most studies of mechanisms have focused upon a ‘gateway sequence’ and person-to-person diffusion, with some recent work on disability-adjusted life years. A brief review of cannabis use consequences, as well as prevention and control strategies is also provided. Conclusion At present, we know much about the frequency and occurrence of cannabis use, with too little replicable definitive evidence with respect to the other main rubrics. Given a changing regulatory environment for cannabis products, new institutions such as an independent International Cannabis Products Safety Commission may be required to produce evidence required to weigh benefits versus costs. It is not clear that government sponsored research will be sufficient to meet consumer demand for balanced points of view and truly definitive evidence

  14. Epidemiological profile of infectious keratitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Farias

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To evaluate the epidemiologic aspects of cornea ulcers in a referred ophthalmology private practice center. Methods: Retrospective study over electronic files of patients treated for corneal ulcers during a period of 7 years by the same physician (RJMF at Centro de Olhos São Francisco, between june 2007 and june 2014. These patients were evaluated for risk factors such as: trauma causes, co-morbidities and contact lenses use. They were also evaluated by the microorganism found at the smears, treatment and patient's outcome. Patients that didn't return with the smears results or that didn´t have a complete follow-up were excluded from the study. Results: A total of 242 patients were fully treated during this period. 55 patients were excluded and 187 patients were included. 28.88% (54/187 were positive for gram negative bacteria, 27.81% (52/187 for filamentous fungi, 16.04% (29/187 for gram positive bacteria and only 1.07% for acanthamoeba. Twenty-four patients had negative cultures and 21 patients had combined infections (bacteria + fungi or other combination. Corneal collagen Cross-linking was effective on melting arrest in 16 of the 16 patients that we have submitted to this procedure during 2008 and 2009. Among all the patients that had corneal infection and were previously using contact lenses, 81% were infected by pseudomonas or pseudomonas associated with other gram negative bacteria. Filamentous fungi had a strong association with physical trauma. While use of saline solution for contact lenses cleaning had a strong association with gram negative bacteria and biological trauma, a strong association with combined infection. Conclusion: Gram negative bacteria (Pseudomonas followed by filamentous fungi (Fusarium sp were the most frequent etiologic agent found in our study. Cross-link was effective on corneal melting arrest. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was the most frequent isolated agent on hydrophilic contact lenses wearers.

  15. Epidemiology of acromegaly in Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Gavilanez, Enrique; Guerrero Franco, Kempis; Solórzano Zambrano, Narcisa; Navarro Chávez, Manuel; López Estrella, Camilo; Vaca Burbano, Luis; Marriott Díaz, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    To assess the epidemiology of acromegaly in the city of Guayaquil, Ecuador, and to compare our results to those reported in the literature. An analysis was made of retrospective and prospective data from all patients with acromegaly attending endocrinology clinics at the 4 main hospitals of the public health network of Guayaquil from January 2000 to December 2014. Age at diagnosis, estimated delay in diagnosis, imaging studies of pituitary gland, basal growth hormone (GH) level, GH after an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT-GH), and serum levels of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) were recorded. Incidence and prevalence of the disease were estimated using information from the 2010 census of population and housing. Forty-eight cases were recorded in the study period in 17 males (35.4%) and 31 females (64.5%); M/F ratio=1.8:1. Mean age at diagnosis was 47.3±16.8 years (range 18-86). Delay in diagnosis was 7.3±6.3 years (range 1-30). Mean age at diagnosis was 47.9±18.2 years in males and 46.3±15.8 years in females. Delay in diagnosis was 10.2±7.9 and 5.7±3.9 years in males and females, respectively. Prevalence of acromegaly is 18.7 cases per million inhabitants, and incidence of acromegaly 1.3 cases per million people per year. Acromegaly predominates in females, and is diagnosed in the fourth decade with a delay of approximately 8 years, usually even longer in males. Incidence and prevalence are lower than reported in international series. The disease is underdiagnosed and underreported in Ecuador. Copyright © 2016 SEEN. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Implementing general gauge mediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, Linda M.; Dine, Michael; Festuccia, Guido; Mason, John D.

    2009-01-01

    Recently there has been much progress in building models of gauge mediation, often with predictions different than those of minimal gauge mediation. Meade, Seiberg, and Shih have characterized the most general spectrum which can arise in gauge-mediated models. We discuss some of the challenges of building models of general gauge mediation, especially the problem of messenger parity and issues connected with R symmetry breaking and CP violation. We build a variety of viable, weakly coupled models which exhibit some or all of the possible low energy parameters.

  17. General conclusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tubiana, M.

    1993-01-01

    In conclusion, a general consensus of a number of points which the author endeavours to summarize in this article: -doctors are an excellent channel for passing on information to the public -doctors feel that they do not know enough about the subject and a training on radiobiology and radiation protection is a necessity for them -communication between doctors and the general public is poor in this field -research should be encouraged in numerous areas such as: carcinogenic effect of low doses of radiation, pedagogy and risk perception

  18. 16 CFR 1000.26 - Directorate for Epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Directorate for Epidemiology. 1000.26... AND FUNCTIONS § 1000.26 Directorate for Epidemiology. The Directorate for Epidemiology, managed by the Associate Executive Director for Epidemiology, is responsible for the collection and analysis of data on...

  19. [Epidemiology of cerebrovascular disease in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brea, Angel; Laclaustra, Martín; Martorell, Esperanza; Pedragosa, Angels

    2013-01-01

    In Spain, cerebrovascular disease (CVD) is a very common cause of morbidity and hospitalization. They are the second leading cause of mortality in the general population, and the first in women. They also constitute a very high social spending, which is estimated to increase in coming years, due to the aging of our population. Data from the Hospital Morbidity Survey of the National Statistics Institute recorded, in 2011, 116,017 strokes and 14,933 transient ischemic attacks, corresponding, respectively, to an incidence of 252 and 32 events per 100,000 people. In 2002, the cost of hospitalization for each stroke was estimated at €3,047. The amount of total cost health care throughout the life of a stroke patient is calculated at €43,129. Internationally, the direct costs of stroke constitute 3% of national health spending, this being similar amount in different countries around us. Hypertension was the cardiovascular risk factor (CVRF) more prevalent in both ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes, followed by dyslipidemia and diabetes mellitus. Peripheral arterial disease and hypertension were more frequently associated with atherothrombotic events, atrial fibrillation with cardioembolic strokes, and obesity and high blood pressure to lacunar infarcts. In Spain, as showing several studies, we are far from optimal control of CVRF, especially in secondary prevention of stroke. According to the ICTUSCARE study, achieving recommended values was 17.6% in the case of hypertension, 29.8% in LDL-cholesterol, 74.9% of smoking, and 50.2% in diabetes mellitus. In this review, we analyze in detail the epidemiology, prevention and costs originated by CVD. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. y SEA. All rights reserved.

  20. Strokes in young adults: epidemiology and prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smajlović D

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Dževdet Smajlović Department of Neurology, University Clinical Centre Tuzla, School of Medicine, University of Tuzla, Bosnia and Herzegovina Abstract: Strokes in young adults are reported as being uncommon, comprising 10%–15% of all stroke patients. However, compared with stroke in older adults, stroke in the young has a disproportionately large economic impact by leaving victims disabled before their most productive years. Recent publications report an increased incidence of stroke in young adults. This is important given the fact that younger stroke patients have a clearly increased risk of death compared with the general population. The prevalence of standard modifiable vascular risk factors in young stroke patients is different from that in older patients. Modifiable risk factors for stroke, such as dyslipidemia, smoking, and hypertension, are highly prevalent in the young stroke population, with no significant difference in geographic, climatic, nutritional, lifestyle, or genetic diversity. The list of potential stroke etiologies among young adults is extensive. Strokes of undetermined and of other determined etiology are the most common types among young patients according to TOAST (Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment criteria. Prevention is the primary treatment strategy aimed at reducing morbidity and mortality related to stroke. Therefore, primary prevention is very important with regard to stroke in young adults, and aggressive treatment of risk factors for stroke, such as hypertension, smoking, and dyslipidemia, is essential. The best form of secondary stroke prevention is directed toward stroke etiology as well as treatment of additional risk factors. However, there is a lack of specific recommendations and guidelines for stroke management in young adults. In conclusion, strokes in young adults are a major public health problem and further research, with standardized methodology, is needed in order to give us more

  1. Suicidal ideation in pregnancy: an epidemiologic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelaye, Bizu; Kajeepeta, Sandhya; Williams, Michelle A

    2016-10-01

    Suicidal behaviors are the leading causes of injury and death worldwide, and are leading causes of maternal deaths in some countries. One of the strongest risk factors, suicidal ideation, is considered a harbinger and distal predictor of later suicide attempt and completion, and also presents an opportunity for interventions prior to physical self-harm. The purpose of this systematic epidemiologic review is to synthesize available research on antepartum suicidal ideation. Original publications were identified through searches of the electronic databases using the search terms pregnancy, pregnant women, suicidal ideation, and pregnan* and suicid* as root searches. We also reviewed references of published articles. We identified a total of 2626 articles through the electronic database search. After irrelevant and redundant articles were excluded, 57 articles were selected. The selected articles were original articles that focused on pregnancy and suicidal ideation. Of the 57 included articles, 20 reported prevalence, 26 reported risk factors, 21 reported consequences of antepartum suicidal ideation, and 5 reported on screening measures. Available evidence indicates that pregnant women are more likely than the general population to endorse suicidal ideation. Additionally, a number of risk factors for antepartum suicidal ideation were identified including intimate partner violence, suicidal ideation. The few screening instruments that exist are limited as they were primarily developed to measure antepartum and postpartum depression. Given a substantial proportion of women with suicidal ideation that does not meet clinical thresholds of depression and given the stress-diathesis model that shows susceptibility to suicidal behavior independent of depressive disorders, innovative approaches to improve screening and detection of antepartum suicidal ideation are urgently needed.

  2. Disorder parameter of confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, N.; Ejiri, S.; Matsubara, Y.; Suzuki, T.

    1996-01-01

    The disorder parameter of confinement-deconfinement phase transition based on the monopole action determined previously in SU(2) QCD are investigated. We construct an operator which corresponds to the order parameter defined in the abelian Higgs model. The operator shows proper behaviors as the disorder parameter in the numerical simulations of finite temperature QCD. (orig.)

  3. Review of 241 Pu resonance parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derrien, H.

    1981-10-01

    The status of 241 Pu resonance parameters is reviewed. The most important recent results are compared in some energy ranges, both from single level and multilevel point of view. It appears that an accurate set of resonance parameters is not still obtained for a general description of the cross-sections in the resonance region. Some recommendations are given for further experiments or evaluations

  4. On parameter estimation in deformable models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisker, Rune; Carstensen, Jens Michael

    1998-01-01

    Deformable templates have been intensively studied in image analysis through the last decade, but despite its significance the estimation of model parameters has received little attention. We present a method for supervised and unsupervised model parameter estimation using a general Bayesian form...

  5. A Review of Child Psychiatric Epidemiology With Special Reference to American Indian and Alaska Native Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Ben Ezra; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Places the limited knowledge of the psychological problems of American Indian and Alaska Native children in context of general child psychiatric epidemiology, using the taxonomy of the American Psychiatric Association's third "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual." Available from: White Cloud Center, Gaines Hall UOHSC, 840 Southwest Gaines…

  6. Epidemiological aspects of recruitment of male volunteers for non-invasive urodynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    V. Avagyan (Vardan); R. van Mastrigt (Ron); J.W.N.C. Huang Foen Chung (John); A.M. Bohnen (Arthur); P.G.H. Mulder (Paul); J.L.H.R. Bosch (Ruud)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractWe studied epidemiological aspects of recruitment of volunteers for a non-invasive urodynamic study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 9,236 volunteers were invited by 20 general practitioners (GPs), using two different recruitment methods, i.e. by mail only, or during a

  7. Occupational pesticide exposure among Kenyan agricultural workers : an epidemiological and public health perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ohayo - Mitoko, G.J.A.

    1997-01-01


    This study was part of the Kenyan component of a multi-centre epidemiologic survey, the East African Pesticides Project. The general objective was to assess the health hazards posed by pesticide handling, storage and use in agricultural estates and small farms in selected rural

  8. GENERAL Iarticle

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 8; Issue 2. Supersymmetry. Akshay Kulkarni P Ramadevi. General Article Volume 8 Issue 2 February 2003 pp 28-41 ... Author Affiliations. Akshay Kulkarni1 P Ramadevi1. Physics Department, Indian Institute of Technology, Mumbai 400 076, India.

  9. General indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This document summarizes the main 2002 energy indicators for France. A first table lists the evolution of general indicators between 1973 and 2002: energy bill, price of imported crude oil, energy independence, primary and final energy consumption. The main 2002 results are detailed separately for natural gas, petroleum and coal (consumption, imports, exports, production, stocks, prices). (J.S.)

  10. Generalized Recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christian Skov; Lando, David; Pedersen, Lasse Heje

    We characterize when physical probabilities, marginal utilities, and the discount rate can be recovered from observed state prices for several future time periods. We make no assumptions of the probability distribution, thus generalizing the time-homogeneous stationary model of Ross (2015). Recov...

  11. GENERAL SURGERY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Department of Surgery, University of Cape Town Health Sciences Faculty, Groote Schuur Hospital, Observatory, Cape Town,. South Africa ... included all district, regional and tertiary hospitals in the nine provinces. Clinics and so-called ..... large contingency of senior general surgeons from countries such as Cuba, who have ...

  12. GENERAL SURGERY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    effect of fatigue on patient safety, and owing to increasing emphasis on lifestyle issues .... increasing emphasis on an appropriate work-life balance in professional life.10 ... experience, were the most negative about the EWTD in general.3,13 ...

  13. GENERAL SURGERY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    in the endoscopy room. GENERAL SURGERY. T du Toit, O C Buchel, S J A Smit. Department of Surgery, University of the Free State, Bloemfontein, ... The lack of video instrumentation in developing countries: Redundant fibre-optic instruments (the old. “eye scope”) are still being used. This instrument brings endoscopists ...

  14. General Assembly

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    5th April, 2016 – Ordinary General Assembly of the Staff Association! In the first semester of each year, the Staff Association (SA) invites its members to attend and participate in the Ordinary General Assembly (OGA). This year the OGA will be held on Tuesday, April 5th 2016 from 11:00 to 12:00 in BE Auditorium, Meyrin (6-2-024). During the Ordinary General Assembly, the activity and financial reports of the SA are presented and submitted for approval to the members. This is the occasion to get a global view on the activities of the SA, its financial management, and an opportunity to express one’s opinion, including taking part in the votes. Other points are listed on the agenda, as proposed by the Staff Council. Who can vote? Only “ordinary” members (MPE) of the SA can vote. Associated members (MPA) of the SA and/or affiliated pensioners have a right to vote on those topics that are of direct interest to them. Who can give his/her opinion? The Ordinary General Asse...

  15. GENERAL SURGERY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    could cripple the global economy. Greater attention ... Africa and 5.7 general surgeons per 100 000 in the US.12 One of the key ... 100 000 insured population working in the private sector, which is comparable with the United States (US).

  16. Necklaces: Generalizations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    . A q-ary necklace of length n is an equivalence class of q-coloured strings of length n under rota- tion. In this article, we study various generaliza- tions and derive analytical expressions to count the number of these generalized necklaces.

  17. Generalized Recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lando, David; Pedersen, Lasse Heje; Jensen, Christian Skov

    We characterize when physical probabilities, marginal utilities, and the discount rate can be recovered from observed state prices for several future time periods. We make no assumptions of the probability distribution, thus generalizing the time-homogeneous stationary model of Ross (2015...... our model empirically, testing the predictive power of the recovered expected return and other recovered statistics....

  18. General Relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Straumann, Norbert

    2013-01-01

    This book provides a completely revised and expanded version of the previous classic edition ‘General Relativity and Relativistic Astrophysics’. In Part I the foundations of general relativity are thoroughly developed, while Part II is devoted to tests of general relativity and many of its applications. Binary pulsars – our best laboratories for general relativity – are studied in considerable detail. An introduction to gravitational lensing theory is included as well, so as to make the current literature on the subject accessible to readers. Considerable attention is devoted to the study of compact objects, especially to black holes. This includes a detailed derivation of the Kerr solution, Israel’s proof of his uniqueness theorem, and a derivation of the basic laws of black hole physics. Part II ends with Witten’s proof of the positive energy theorem, which is presented in detail, together with the required tools on spin structures and spinor analysis. In Part III, all of the differential geomet...

  19. Epidemiology of low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skovron, M L

    1992-10-01

    At present, although there have been many epidemiological studies of risk factors for low back pain, there are few risk factors established in prospective studies; and our understanding of them remains relatively crude. Individuals in jobs requiring manual materials handling, particularly repeated heavy lifting and lifting while twisting, are at increased risk of back pain leading to work absence. In addition, exposure to whole-body vibration and job requirements for static postures are associated with back pain. Individual trunk strength has not been consistently demonstrated as associated with back pain; although there is some suggestion that when work requirements for heavy lifting exceed individual capacities, back pain is more likely to occur. The pattern of peak age at onset in the 20's is consistent with back pain development early in working life. Among other individual characteristics, only cigarette smoking has consistently been associated with back pain; and the biological mechanism for this finding is not understood. Evidence with respect to spinal flexibility, aerobic capacity, educational attainment and other variables is suggestive but not consistent. There is some evidence that the individual's relation to work, expressed as job satisfaction or supervisor rating, is also related to work absence due to back pain. While it is possible to describe, however crudely, the characteristics placing people at risk for back pain leading to work absence and/or medical attention, the problem of predicting chronicity and thus identifying patients for more intensive clinical intervention remains unresolved. At this time, only age of the patient and certain clinical features of the back pain such as the presence of sciatic symptoms, duration of the current episode, and history of prior episodes are consistently demonstrated predictors. In chronic patients, there is suggestive evidence that spinal flexibility, trunk strength, and certain psychological

  20. Epidemiology of ANCA associated vasculitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenche Koldingsnes

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available ANCA associated vasculitis (AAV comprises three syndromes with systemic vasculitis (Wegener’s granulomatosis (WG, Churg Strauss syndrome (CSS and icroscopic polyangiitis (MPA, which all involve small and medium sized vessels and are associated with antibodies against cytoplasmatic antibodies in neutrophils (ANCA. Polyarteritis nodosa (PAN is included in this review as it also affects medium sized vessels, and has many clinical findings in common with the AAV.Since the recognition of ANCA, increasing data have become available on the epidemiology of these vasculitidis. WG constitutes half of the AAV and its prevalence has increased from 30/million in the late 1980’s in the USA to 160/million in this century in northern Europe. The prevalence for the whole group of primary systemic vasculitides is now 300/million in Sweden. The annual incidence of WG increased from 6.0/million to 14/million during the 1990’s in Tromsø, but it is unknown if this is a true increase or the result of an increased awareness of the diagnosis. For the whole group of AAV, the annual incidence in most more recent studies is relatively constant over time and by geographical location, ranging from 13 to 21/million. Nonetheless there are interesting differences in the prevalence of specific vasculitis between different geographical areas, as well as for sub specificities of ANCA.There seems to be a South-North gradient for WG and PR3-ANCA with high figures reported from northern Europe and southern New Zealand. In European studies WG is 90% PR3-ANCA positive. MPA which is predominantly MPO-ANCA associated are more frequent in the Mediterranean countries and also has an increasing gradient towards east-Asia, as almost all AAV in China and Japan are diagnosed as MPA, predominantly MPO-ANCA positive.There are also some ethnic and gender differences. WG is most prevalent among Caucasians in the USA and in people with European ancestors in Paris and in New Zealand, less