WorldWideScience

Sample records for general energy system

  1. Energy information systems: a general overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sen, B.K.

    1991-01-01

    The unprecedented energy crises that engulfed the world in early 1970s brought about a spurt in energy research all over the world, which in turn caused the rapid growth of literature in the field. In order to achieve effective bibliographical control, proper dissemination of information, and rapid access to the desired document, energy information systems of diverse scope came into being. The paper describes the special features of several information systems like (i) International Nuclear Information Systems, which covers world literature on nuclear science and technology (ii) Energy Information Services which takes cares of energy information transfer among the Commonwealth countries of the Asia and Pacific region; (ii) Information Network on New Energy Sources and Technologies for Asia And Pacific. This system is being developed to ensure smooth energy information transfer amongst non-commonwealth countries of Asia and the Pacific. (author)

  2. A generalized window energy rating system for typical office buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, Cheng; Chen, Tingyao; Yang, Hongxing; Chung, Tse-ming [Research Center for Building Environmental Engineering, Department of Building Services Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong (China)

    2010-07-15

    Detailed computer simulation programs require lengthy inputs, and cannot directly provide an insight to relationship between the window energy performance and the key window design parameters. Hence, several window energy rating systems (WERS) for residential houses and small buildings have been developed in different countries. Many studies showed that utilization of daylight through elaborate design and operation of windows leads to significant energy savings in both cooling and lighting in office buildings. However, the current WERSs do not consider daylighting effect, while most of daylighting analyses do not take into account the influence of convective and infiltration heat gains. Therefore, a generalized WERS for typical office buildings has been presented, which takes all primary influence factors into account. The model includes embodied and operation energy uses and savings by a window to fully reflect interactions among the influence parameters. Reference locations selected for artificial lighting and glare control in the current common simulation practice may cause uncompromised conflicts, which could result in over- or under-estimated energy performance. Widely used computer programs, DOE2 and ADELINE, for hourly daylighting and cooling simulations have their own weaknesses, which may result in unrealistic or inaccurate results. An approach is also presented for taking the advantages of the both programs and avoiding their weaknesses. The model and approach have been applied to a typical office building of Hong Kong as an example to demonstrate how a WERS in a particular location can be established and how well the model can work. The energy effect of window properties, window-to-wall ratio (WWR), building orientation and lighting control strategies have been analyzed, and can be indicated by the localized WERS. An application example also demonstrates that the algebraic WERS derived from simulation results can be easily used for the optimal design of

  3. DNA – A General Energy System Simulation Tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmegaard, Brian; Houbak, Niels

    2005-01-01

    The paper reviews the development of the energy system simulation tool DNA (Dynamic Network Analysis). DNA has been developed since 1989 to be able to handle models of any kind of energy system based on the control volume approach, usually systems of lumped parameter components. DNA has proven...... to be a useful tool in the analysis and optimization of several types of thermal systems: Steam turbines, gas turbines, fuels cells, gasification, refrigeration and heat pumps for both conventional fossil fuels and different types of biomass. DNA is applicable for models of both steady state and dynamic...... operation. The program decides at runtime to apply the DAE solver if the system contains differential equations. This makes it easy to extend an existing steady state model to simulate dynamic operation of the plant. The use of the program is illustrated by examples of gas turbine models. The paper also...

  4. Surface energy and radiation balance systems - General description and improvements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritschen, Leo J.; Simpson, James R.

    1989-01-01

    Surface evaluation of sensible and latent heat flux densities and the components of the radiation balance were desired for various vegetative surfaces during the ASCOT84 experiment to compare with modeled results and to relate these values to drainage winds. Five battery operated data systems equipped with sensors to determine the above values were operated for 105 station days during the ASCOT84 experiment. The Bowen ratio energy balance technique was used to partition the available energy into the sensible and latent heat flux densities. A description of the sensors and battery operated equipment used to collect and process the data is presented. In addition, improvements and modifications made since the 1984 experiment are given. Details of calculations of soil heat flow at the surface and an alternate method to calculate sensible and latent heat flux densities are provided.

  5. A general purpose program system for high energy physics experiment data acquisition and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Shuren; Xing Yuguo; Jin Bingnian

    1985-01-01

    This paper introduced the functions, structure and system generation of a general purpose program system (Fermilab MULTI) for high energy physics experiment data acquisition and analysis. Works concerning the reconstruction of MULTI system level 0.5 which can be run on the computer PDP-11/23 are also introduced briefly

  6. Nuclear Energy General Objectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    considered and the specific goals to be achieved at different stages of implementation, all of which are consistent with the Basic Principles. The four Objectives publications include Nuclear General Objectives, Nuclear Power Objectives, Nuclear Fuel Cycle Objectives, and Radioactive Waste Management and Decommissioning Objectives. All four Objectives publications follow the same structure. For each topic in the area, the objectives are described in accordance with the sequence in the Basic Principles publication. Within each of these four Objectives publications, the individual topics that make up each area are addressed. The topics included in Nuclear General Objectives are Energy Systems Analysis and Development of Strategies for Nuclear Energy, Economics, Infrastructure, Management Systems, Human Resources and Knowledge Management. The diversity of the topics contained in Nuclear General Objectives necessitated incorporating some repetition in order to simplify access to the relevant information for the various interested audiences.

  7. Energy eigenvalues and squeezing properties of general systems of coupled quantum anharmonic oscillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, N. N.; Chew, L. Y.

    2007-01-01

    We have generalized the two-step approach to the solution of systems of N coupled quantum anharmonic oscillators. By using the squeezed vacuum state of each individual oscillator, we construct the tensor product state, and obtain the optimal squeezed vacuum product state through energy minimization. We then employ this optimal state and its associated bosonic operators to define a basis set to construct the Heisenberg matrix. The diagonalization of the matrix enables us to obtain the energy eigenvalues of the coupled oscillators. In particular, we have applied our formalism to determine the eigenenergies of systems of two coupled quantum anharmonic oscillators perturbed by a general polynomial potential, as well as three and four coupled systems. Furthermore, by performing a first-order perturbation analysis about the optimal squeezed vacuum product state, we have also examined into the squeezing properties of two coupled oscillator systems

  8. A General Mathematical Framework for Calculating Systems-Scale Efficiency of Energy Extraction and Conversion: Energy Return on Investment (EROI) and Other Energy Return Ratios

    OpenAIRE

    Adam R. Brandt; Michael Dale

    2011-01-01

    The efficiencies of energy extraction and conversion systems are typically expressed using energy return ratios (ERRs) such as the net energy ratio (NER) or energy return on investment (EROI). A lack of a general mathematical framework prevents inter-comparison of NER/EROI estimates between authors: methods used are not standardized, nor is there a framework for succinctly reporting results in a consistent fashion. In this paper we derive normalized mathematical forms of four ERRs for energy ...

  9. Generalized Energy Flow Analysis Considering Electricity Gas and Heat Subsystems in Local-Area Energy Systems Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaqi Shi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available To alleviate environmental pollution and improve the efficient use of energy, energy systems integration (ESI—covering electric power systems, heat systems and natural gas systems—has become an important trend in energy utilization. The traditional power flow calculation method, with the object as the power system, will prove difficult in meeting the requirements of the coupled energy flow analysis. This paper proposes a generalized energy flow (GEF analysis method which is suitable for an ESI containing electricity, heat and gas subsystems. First, the models of electricity, heat, and natural gas networks in the ESI are established. In view of the complexity of the conventional method to solve the gas network including the compressor, an improved practical equivalent method was adopted based on different control modes. On this basis, a hybrid method combining homotopy and the Newton-Raphson algorithm was executed to compute the nonlinear equations of GEF, and the Jacobi matrix reflecting the coupling relationship of multi-energy was derived considering the grid connected mode and island modes of the power system in the ESI. Finally, the validity of the proposed method in multi-energy flow calculation and the analysis of interacting characteristics was verified using practical cases.

  10. A multi-harmonic generalized energy balance method for studying autonomous oscillations of nonlinear conservative systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaji, Nidish Narayanaa; Krishna, I. R. Praveen; Padmanabhan, C.

    2018-05-01

    The Harmonic Balance Method (HBM) is a frequency-domain based approximation approach used for obtaining the steady state periodic behavior of forced dynamical systems. Intrinsically these systems are non-autonomous and the method offers many computational advantages over time-domain methods when the fundamental period of oscillation is known (generally fixed as the forcing period itself or a corresponding sub-harmonic if such behavior is expected). In the current study, a modified approach, based on He's Energy Balance Method (EBM), is applied to obtain the periodic solutions of conservative systems. It is shown that by this approach, periodic solutions of conservative systems on iso-energy manifolds in the phase space can be obtained very efficiently. The energy level provides the additional constraint on the HBM formulation, which enables the determination of the period of the solutions. The method is applied to the linear harmonic oscillator, a couple of nonlinear oscillators, the elastic pendulum and the Henon-Heiles system. The approach is used to trace the bifurcations of the periodic solutions of the last two, being 2 degree-of-freedom systems demonstrating very rich dynamical behavior. In the process, the advantages offered by the current formulation of the energy balance is brought out. A harmonic perturbation approach is used to evaluate the stability of the solutions for the bifurcation diagram.

  11. A general-purpose process modelling framework for marine energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimopoulos, George G.; Georgopoulou, Chariklia A.; Stefanatos, Iason C.; Zymaris, Alexandros S.; Kakalis, Nikolaos M.P.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Process modelling techniques applied in marine engineering. • Systems engineering approaches to manage the complexity of modern ship machinery. • General purpose modelling framework called COSSMOS. • Mathematical modelling of conservation equations and related chemical – transport phenomena. • Generic library of ship machinery component models. - Abstract: High fuel prices, environmental regulations and current shipping market conditions impose ships to operate in a more efficient and greener way. These drivers lead to the introduction of new technologies, fuels, and operations, increasing the complexity of modern ship energy systems. As a means to manage this complexity, in this paper we present the introduction of systems engineering methodologies in marine engineering via the development of a general-purpose process modelling framework for ships named as DNV COSSMOS. Shifting the focus from components – the standard approach in shipping- to systems, widens the space for optimal design and operation solutions. The associated computer implementation of COSSMOS is a platform that models, simulates and optimises integrated marine energy systems with respect to energy efficiency, emissions, safety/reliability and costs, under both steady-state and dynamic conditions. DNV COSSMOS can be used in assessment and optimisation of design and operation problems in existing vessels, new builds as well as new technologies. The main features and our modelling approach are presented and key capabilities are illustrated via two studies on the thermo-economic design and operation optimisation of a combined cycle system for large bulk carriers, and the transient operation simulation of an electric marine propulsion system

  12. A General Mathematical Framework for Calculating Systems-Scale Efficiency of Energy Extraction and Conversion: Energy Return on Investment (EROI and Other Energy Return Ratios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam R. Brandt

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The efficiencies of energy extraction and conversion systems are typically expressed using energy return ratios (ERRs such as the net energy ratio (NER or energy return on investment (EROI. A lack of a general mathematical framework prevents inter-comparison of NER/EROI estimates between authors: methods used are not standardized, nor is there a framework for succinctly reporting results in a consistent fashion. In this paper we derive normalized mathematical forms of four ERRs for energy extraction and conversion pathways. A bottom-up (process model formulation is developed for an n-stage energy harvesting and conversion pathway with various system boundaries. Formations with the broadest system boundaries use insights from life cycle analysis to suggest a hybrid process model/economic input output based framework. These models include indirect energy consumption due to external energy inputs and embodied energy in materials. Illustrative example results are given for simple energy extraction and conversion pathways. Lastly, we discuss the limitations of this approach and the intersection of this methodology with “top-down” economic approaches.

  13. General theory of excitation energy transfer in donor-mediator-acceptor systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Akihiro

    2009-04-21

    General theory of the excitation energy transfer (EET) in the case of donor-mediator-acceptor system was constructed by using generalized master equation (GME). In this theory, we consider the direct and indirect transitions in the EET consistently. Hence, our theory includes the quantum mechanical interference between the direct and indirect transitions automatically. Memory functions in the GME were expressed by the overlap integrals among the time-dependent emission spectrum of the donor, the absorption spectrum of the mediator, the time-dependent emission spectrum of the mediator, and the absorption spectrum of the acceptor. In the Markov limit of the memory functions, we obtained the rate of EET which consists of three terms due to the direct transition, the indirect transition, and the interference between them. We found that the interference works effectively in the limit of slow thermalization at the intermediate state. The formula of EET rate in this limit was expressed by the convolution of the EET interaction and optical spectra. The interference effect strongly depends on the width of the absorption spectrum of mediator molecule and the energy gap between the donor and the mediator molecules.

  14. Mean energy of some interacting bosonic systems derived by virtue of the generalized Hellmann-Feynman theorem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Hong-yi; Xu, Xue-xiang

    2009-06-01

    By virtue of the generalized Hellmann-Feynman theorem [H. Y. Fan and B. Z. Chen, Phys. Lett. A 203, 95 (1995)], we derive the mean energy of some interacting bosonic systems for some Hamiltonian models without proceeding with diagonalizing the Hamiltonians. Our work extends the field of applications of the Hellmann-Feynman theorem and may enrich the theory of quantum statistics.

  15. A GENERALIZED COEFFICIENT OF FRICTION FOR ASSESSING ENERGY EFFICIENCY OF BEARING SYSTEMS

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Bender, Farid

    2011-01-01

    Environmental impact estimations, often carried out in the framework of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) on production machines and machine tools, show that a significant (if not the greatest) part of the environmental impact is related to the use-phase of the machine. A closer analysis reveals that the energy efficiency of the bearing systems, i.e. their friction loss, is the main culprit in this. Cost reduction and maintenance savings were the main motivations that initiated tribology as a s...

  16. General Relativity and Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, A. T.

    1973-01-01

    Reviews theoretical and experimental fundamentals of Einstein's theory of general relativity. Indicates that recent development of the theory of the continually expanding universe may lead to revision of the space-time continuum of the finite and unbounded universe. (CC)

  17. General Electric Nuclear Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The ESBWR is a 1380 MWe boiling water reactor with improved operating safety margins and passive safety systems. He stated that the ESBWR derived from earlier GE plant design certification efforts and is the result of eight years of International cooperative work. He stated that the biggest challenge is to cross the regulatory hurdles associated with the inspections, tests, analyses, and acceptance criteria (ITAAC) and combined license (COL) programs. He further stated that he did not know how long it might take to license the ESBWR, in part, because the last GE design certification took about 8 to 10 years. Dr. Rao also provided a brief overview of the GE Nuclear Advance Liquid Metal S-PRISM design

  18. Energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haefele, W.

    1974-01-01

    Up to the present the production, transmission and distribution of energy has been considered mostly as a fragmented problem; at best only subsystems have been considered. Today the scale of energy utilization is increasing rapidly, and correspondingly, the reliance of societies on energy. Such strong quantitative increases influence the qualitative nature of energy utilization in most of its aspects. Resources, reserves, reliability and environment are among the key words that may characterize the change in the nature of the energy utilization problem. Energy can no longer be considered an isolated technical and economical problem, rather it is embedded in the ecosphere and the society-technology complex. Restraints and boundary conditions have to be taken into account with the same degree of attention as in traditional technical problems, for example a steam turbine. This results in a strong degree of interweaving. Further, the purpose of providing energy becomes more visible, that is, to make survival possible in a civilized and highly populated world on a finite globe. Because of such interweaving and finiteness it is felt that energy should be considered as a system and therefore the term 'energy systems' is used. The production of energy is only one component of such a system; the handling of energy and the embedding of energy into the global and social complex in terms of ecology, economy, risks and resources are of similar importance. he systems approach to the energy problem needs more explanation. This paper is meant to give an outline of the underlying problems and it is hoped that by so doing the wide range of sometimes confusing voices about energy can be better understood. Such confusion starts already with the term 'energy crisis'. Is there an energy crisis or not? Much future work is required to tackle the problems of energy systems. This paper can only marginally help in that respect. But it is hoped that it will help understand the scope of the

  19. Energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haefele, W [Nuclear Research Centre, Applied Systems Analysis and Reactor Physics, Karlsruhe (Germany); International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Laxenburg (Austria)

    1974-07-01

    Up to the present the production, transmission and distribution of energy has been considered mostly as a fragmented problem; at best only subsystems have been considered. Today the scale of energy utilization is increasing rapidly, and correspondingly, the reliance of societies on energy. Such strong quantitative increases influence the qualitative nature of energy utilization in most of its aspects. Resources, reserves, reliability and environment are among the key words that may characterize the change in the nature of the energy utilization problem. Energy can no longer be considered an isolated technical and economical problem, rather it is embedded in the ecosphere and the society-technology complex. Restraints and boundary conditions have to be taken into account with the same degree of attention as in traditional technical problems, for example a steam turbine. This results in a strong degree of interweaving. Further, the purpose of providing energy becomes more visible, that is, to make survival possible in a civilized and highly populated world on a finite globe. Because of such interweaving and finiteness it is felt that energy should be considered as a system and therefore the term 'energy systems' is used. The production of energy is only one component of such a system; the handling of energy and the embedding of energy into the global and social complex in terms of ecology, economy, risks and resources are of similar importance. he systems approach to the energy problem needs more explanation. This paper is meant to give an outline of the underlying problems and it is hoped that by so doing the wide range of sometimes confusing voices about energy can be better understood. Such confusion starts already with the term 'energy crisis'. Is there an energy crisis or not? Much future work is required to tackle the problems of energy systems. This paper can only marginally help in that respect. But it is hoped that it will help understand the scope of the

  20. The Riemann problem for the relativistic full Euler system with generalized Chaplygin proper energy density-pressure relation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Zhiqiang

    2018-04-01

    The relativistic full Euler system with generalized Chaplygin proper energy density-pressure relation is studied. The Riemann problem is solved constructively. The delta shock wave arises in the Riemann solutions, provided that the initial data satisfy some certain conditions, although the system is strictly hyperbolic and the first and third characteristic fields are genuinely nonlinear, while the second one is linearly degenerate. There are five kinds of Riemann solutions, in which four only consist of a shock wave and a centered rarefaction wave or two shock waves or two centered rarefaction waves, and a contact discontinuity between the constant states (precisely speaking, the solutions consist in general of three waves), and the other involves delta shocks on which both the rest mass density and the proper energy density simultaneously contain the Dirac delta function. It is quite different from the previous ones on which only one state variable contains the Dirac delta function. The formation mechanism, generalized Rankine-Hugoniot relation and entropy condition are clarified for this type of delta shock wave. Under the generalized Rankine-Hugoniot relation and entropy condition, we establish the existence and uniqueness of solutions involving delta shocks for the Riemann problem.

  1. Real time simulation of nonlinear generalized predictive control for wind energy conversion system with nonlinear observer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouari, Kamel; Rekioua, Toufik; Ouhrouche, Mohand

    2014-01-01

    In order to make a wind power generation truly cost-effective and reliable, an advanced control techniques must be used. In this paper, we develop a new control strategy, using nonlinear generalized predictive control (NGPC) approach, for DFIG-based wind turbine. The proposed control law is based on two points: NGPC-based torque-current control loop generating the rotor reference voltage and NGPC-based speed control loop that provides the torque reference. In order to enhance the robustness of the controller, a disturbance observer is designed to estimate the aerodynamic torque which is considered as an unknown perturbation. Finally, a real-time simulation is carried out to illustrate the performance of the proposed controller. Copyright © 2013 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Energy and Uncertainty in General Relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooperstock, F. I.; Dupre, M. J.

    2018-03-01

    The issue of energy and its potential localizability in general relativity has challenged physicists for more than a century. Many non-invariant measures were proposed over the years but an invariant measure was never found. We discovered the invariant localized energy measure by expanding the domain of investigation from space to spacetime. We note from relativity that the finiteness of the velocity of propagation of interactions necessarily induces indefiniteness in measurements. This is because the elements of actual physical systems being measured as well as their detectors are characterized by entire four-velocity fields, which necessarily leads to information from a measured system being processed by the detector in a spread of time. General relativity adds additional indefiniteness because of the variation in proper time between elements. The uncertainty is encapsulated in a generalized uncertainty principle, in parallel with that of Heisenberg, which incorporates the localized contribution of gravity to energy. This naturally leads to a generalized uncertainty principle for momentum as well. These generalized forms and the gravitational contribution to localized energy would be expected to be of particular importance in the regimes of ultra-strong gravitational fields. We contrast our invariant spacetime energy measure with the standard 3-space energy measure which is familiar from special relativity, appreciating why general relativity demands a measure in spacetime as opposed to 3-space. We illustrate the misconceptions by certain authors of our approach.

  3. Analysis of a general circulation model. II - Distribution of kinetic energy in the South Atlantic and Kuroshio/Oyashio systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garraffo, Zulema; Garzoli, Silvia L.; Haxby, William; Olson, Donald

    1992-01-01

    It was found (Garzoli et al., 1992) that the general circulation model of Semtner and Chervin (1992) provides accurate descriptions of the Brazil-Malvinas and the Kuroshio/Oyashio confluence systems, except for the fact that the model prediction shows less variability than that present in observations. This paper investigates the problem of model variability by analyzing the mean and the eddy kinetic energy from the model and comparing the values with the Geosat altimeter observations for the South Atlantic Ocean and for the Kuroshio system. It is found that, while the model shows transient eddy activity in the areas that overlap the Geosat observations, the energy level of the model transient motions is considerably smaller following an arch along the bottom topography. The same was found from the comparisons made with values obtained from FGGE and surface drifters. It is suggested that the model is poorly resolving instabilities in the confluence front, and is not resolving other transients appearing in regions of marked topography.

  4. A Neural Network Controller for Variable-Speed Variable-Pitch Wind Energy Conversion Systems Using Generalized Minimum Entropy Criterion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mifeng Ren

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the neural network controller design problem for variable pitch wind energy conversion systems (WECS with non-Gaussian wind speed disturbances in the stochastic distribution control framework. The approach here is used to directly model the unknown control law based on a fixed neural network (the number of layers and nodes in a neural network is fixed without the need to construct a separate model for the WECS. In order to characterize the randomness of the WECS, a generalized minimum entropy criterion is established to train connection weights of the neural network. For the train purpose, both kernel density estimation method and sliding window technique are adopted to estimate the PDF of tracking error and entropies. Due to the unknown process dynamics, the gradient of the objective function in a gradient-descent-type algorithm is estimated using an incremental perturbation method. The proposed approach is illustrated on a simulated WECS with non-Gaussian wind speed.

  5. Energy Usage Analysis System

    Data.gov (United States)

    General Services Administration — The EUAS application is a web based system which serves Energy Center of Expertise, under the Office of Facilitates Management and Service Programs. EUAS is used for...

  6. On generalized Volterra systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charalambides, S. A.; Damianou, P. A.; Evripidou, C. A.

    2015-01-01

    We construct a large family of evidently integrable Hamiltonian systems which are generalizations of the KM system. The algorithm uses the root system of a complex simple Lie algebra. The Hamiltonian vector field is homogeneous cubic but in a number of cases a simple change of variables transforms such a system to a quadratic Lotka-Volterra system. We present in detail all such systems in the cases of A3, A4 and we also give some examples from higher dimensions. We classify all possible Lotka-Volterra systems that arise via this algorithm in the An case.

  7. Generalized Asynchronous Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. S. Kudryashova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper consider a mathematical model of a concurrent system, the special case of which is an asynchronous system. Distributed asynchronous automata are introduced here. It is proved that Petri nets and transition systems with independence can be considered as distributed asynchronous automata. Time distributed asynchronous automata are defined in a standard way by correspondence which relates events with time intervals. It is proved that the time distributed asynchronous automata generalize time Petri nets and asynchronous systems.

  8. Background history and cosmic perturbations for a general system of self-conserved dynamical dark energy and matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gómez-Valent, Adrià; Karimkhani, Elahe; Solà, Joan

    2015-01-01

    We determine the Hubble expansion and the general cosmic perturbation equations for a general system consisting of self-conserved matter, ρ m , and self-conserved dark energy (DE), ρ D . While at the background level the two components are non-interacting, they do interact at the perturbations level. We show that the coupled system of matter and DE perturbations can be transformed into a single, third order, matter perturbation equation, which reduces to the (derivative of the) standard one in the case that the DE is just a cosmological constant. As a nontrivial application we analyze a class of dynamical models whose DE density ρ D (H) consists of a constant term, C 0 , and a series of powers of the Hubble rate. These models were previously analyzed from the point of view of dynamical vacuum models, but here we treat them as self-conserved DE models with a dynamical equation of state. We fit them to the wealth of expansion history and linear structure formation data and compare their fit quality with that of the concordance ΛCDM model. Those with C 0 =0 include the so-called ''entropic-force'' and ''QCD-ghost'' DE models, as well as the pure linear model ρ D ∼H, all of which appear strongly disfavored. The models with C 0 ≠0 , in contrast, emerge as promising dynamical DE candidates whose phenomenological performance is highly competitive with the rigid Λ-term inherent to the ΛCDM

  9. Background history and cosmic perturbations for a general system of self-conserved dynamical dark energy and matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gómez-Valent, Adrià; Karimkhani, Elahe; Solà, Joan, E-mail: adriagova@ecm.ub.edu, E-mail: e.karimkhani91@basu.ac.ir, E-mail: sola@ecm.ub.edu [High Energy Physics Group, Dept. ECM, and Institut de Ciències del Cosmos (ICC), Universitat de Barcelona, Av. Diagonal 647, E-08028 Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain)

    2015-12-01

    We determine the Hubble expansion and the general cosmic perturbation equations for a general system consisting of self-conserved matter, ρ{sub m}, and self-conserved dark energy (DE), ρ{sub D}. While at the background level the two components are non-interacting, they do interact at the perturbations level. We show that the coupled system of matter and DE perturbations can be transformed into a single, third order, matter perturbation equation, which reduces to the (derivative of the) standard one in the case that the DE is just a cosmological constant. As a nontrivial application we analyze a class of dynamical models whose DE density ρ{sub D}(H) consists of a constant term, C{sub 0}, and a series of powers of the Hubble rate. These models were previously analyzed from the point of view of dynamical vacuum models, but here we treat them as self-conserved DE models with a dynamical equation of state. We fit them to the wealth of expansion history and linear structure formation data and compare their fit quality with that of the concordance ΛCDM model. Those with C{sub 0}=0 include the so-called ''entropic-force'' and ''QCD-ghost'' DE models, as well as the pure linear model ρ{sub D}∼H, all of which appear strongly disfavored. The models with C{sub 0}≠0 , in contrast, emerge as promising dynamical DE candidates whose phenomenological performance is highly competitive with the rigid Λ-term inherent to the ΛCDM.

  10. Energy infrastructure: hydrogen energy system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veziroglu, T N

    1979-02-01

    In a hydrogen system, hydrogen is not a primary source of energy, but an intermediary, an energy carrier between the primary energy sources and the user. The new unconventional energy sources, such as nuclear breeder reactors, fusion reactors, direct solar radiation, wind energy, ocean thermal energy, and geothermal energy have their shortcomings. These shortcomings of the new sources point out to the need for an intermediary energy system to form the link between the primary energy sources and the user. In such a system, the intermediary energy form must be transportable and storable; economical to produce; and if possible renewable and pollution-free. The above prerequisites are best met by hydrogen. Hydrogen is plentiful in the form of water. It is the cheapest synthetic fuel to manufacture per unit of energy stored in it. It is the least polluting of all of the fuels, and is the lightest and recyclable. In the proposed system, hydrogen would be produced in large plants located away from the consumption centers at the sites where primary new energy sources and water are available. Hydrogen would then be transported to energy consumption centers where it would be used in every application where fossil fuels are being used today. Once such a system is established, it will never be necessary to change to any other energy system.

  11. Energy management systems in buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lush, D. M.

    1979-07-01

    An investigation is made of the range of possibilities available from three types of systems (automatic control devices, building envelope, and the occupants) in buildings. The following subjects are discussed: general (buildings, design and personnel); new buildings (envelope, designers, energy and load calculations, plant design, general design parameters); existing buildings (conservation measures, general energy management, air conditioned buildings, industrial buildings); man and motivation (general, energy management and documentation, maintenance, motivation); automatic energy management systems (thermostatic controls, optimized plant start up, air conditioned and industrial buildings, building automatic systems). (MCW)

  12. Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS), General Electric Phase 1. Volume 2: Advanced energy conversion systems. Part 1: Open-cycle gas turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, D. H.; Corman, J. C.

    1976-01-01

    Ten energy conversion systems are defined and analyzed in terms of efficiency. These include: open-cycle gas turbine recuperative; open-cycle gas turbine; closed-cycle gas turbine; supercritical CO2 cycle; advanced steam cycle; liquid metal topping cycle; open-cycle MHD; closed-cycle inert gas MHD; closed-cycle liquid metal MHD; and fuel cells. Results are presented.

  13. Wind energy systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, H. J.

    1978-01-01

    A discussion on wind energy systems involved with the DOE wind energy program is presented. Some of the problems associated with wind energy systems are discussed. The cost, efficiency, and structural design of wind energy systems are analyzed.

  14. Alternative Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, M.; Duckers, L.; Lockett, P.; Loughridge, B.; Peatfield, T.; White, P.

    1984-01-01

    The Coventry (Lanchester) Polytechnic Wave Energy Group has been involved in the United Kingdom wave energy research programme since its inception in 1975. Whilst the work of the group is mainly concerned with wave energy, and currently is directed towards the design of a wave energy device tailored to the needs of isolated/island communities, it has some involvement with other aspects of the alternatives. This conference, dealing with alternative energy systems and their electrical integration and utilisation was engendered by the general interest which the Polytechnic group members have in the alternatives and their use. The scope for electrical integration and utilisation is very broad. Energy for family groups may be provided in a relatively unsophisticated way which is acceptable to them. Small population centres, for example island communities relying upon diesel equipment, can reap the benefits of the alternatives through their ability to accept novel integration schemes and a flexible approach to the use of the energy available. Consumers already enjoying the benefits of a 'firm' electricity grid supply can use energy from a variety of alternative systems, via the grid, without having to modify their energy consumption habits. In addition to the domestic and industrial applications and coastal possibilities, specialist applications in isolated environments have also emerged. The Proceedings detail practical, technical and economic aspects of the alternatives and their electrical integration and utilisation.

  15. Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS), Westinghouse phase 1. Volume 1: Introduction and summary and general assumptions. [energy conversion systems for electric power plants using coal - feasibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beecher, D. T.

    1976-01-01

    Nine advanced energy conversion concepts using coal or coal-derived fuels are summarized. They are; (1) open-cycle gas turbines, (2) combined gas-steam turbine cycles, (3) closed-cycle gas turbines, (4) metal vapor Rankine topping, (5) open-cycle MHD; (6) closed-cycle MHD; (7) liquid-metal MHD; (8) advanced steam; and (9) fuel cell systems. The economics, natural resource requirements, and performance criteria for the nine concepts are discussed.

  16. GVS - GENERAL VISUALIZATION SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, S. R.

    1994-01-01

    The primary purpose of GVS (General Visualization System) is to support scientific visualization of data output by the panel method PMARC_12 (inventory number ARC-13362) on the Silicon Graphics Iris computer. GVS allows the user to view PMARC geometries and wakes as wire frames or as light shaded objects. Additionally, geometries can be color shaded according to phenomena such as pressure coefficient or velocity. Screen objects can be interactively translated and/or rotated to permit easy viewing. Keyframe animation is also available for studying unsteady cases. The purpose of scientific visualization is to allow the investigator to gain insight into the phenomena they are examining, therefore GVS emphasizes analysis, not artistic quality. GVS uses existing IRIX 4.0 image processing tools to allow for conversion of SGI RGB files to other formats. GVS is a self-contained program which contains all the necessary interfaces to control interaction with PMARC data. This includes 1) the GVS Tool Box, which supports color histogram analysis, lighting control, rendering control, animation, and positioning, 2) GVS on-line help, which allows the user to access control elements and get information about each control simultaneously, and 3) a limited set of basic GVS data conversion filters, which allows for the display of data requiring simpler data formats. Specialized controls for handling PMARC data include animation and wakes, and visualization of off-body scan volumes. GVS is written in C-language for use on SGI Iris series computers running IRIX. It requires 28Mb of RAM for execution. Two separate hardcopy documents are available for GVS. The basic document price for ARC-13361 includes only the GVS User's Manual, which outlines major features of the program and provides a tutorial on using GVS with PMARC_12 data. Programmers interested in modifying GVS for use with data in formats other than PMARC_12 format may purchase a copy of the draft GVS 3.1 Software Maintenance

  17. Energy conditions and stability in general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, G.S.

    1982-01-01

    The dominant energy condition in general relativity theory, which says that every observer measures a nonnegative local energy density and a nonspacelike local energy flow, is examined in connection with the types of energy-momentum tensor it permits. The condition that the energy-momentum tensor be ''stable'' in obeying the dominant energy conditions is then defined in terms of a suitable topology on the set of energy-momentum tensors on space-time and the consequences are evaluated and discussed. (author)

  18. Ecological and general systems an introduction to systems ecology

    CERN Document Server

    Odum, Howard T.

    1994-01-01

    Using an energy systems language that combines energetics, kinetics, information, cybernetics, and simulation, Ecological and General Systems compares models of many fields of science, helping to derive general systems principles. First published as Systems Ecology in 1983, Ecological and General Systems proposes principles of self-organization and the designs that prevail by maximizing power and efficiency. Comparisons to fifty other systems languages are provided. Innovative presentations are given on earth homeostasis (Gaia); the inadequacy of presenting equations without network relationships and energy constraints; the alternative interpretation of high entropy complexity as adaptive structure; basic equations of ecological economics; and the energy basis of scientific hierarchy.

  19. Evolving energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, E.

    1991-04-01

    This thesis presents scenarios of future energy systems, a cost-benefit analysis of measures to avoid greenhouse-gas emissions, an analysis of the effect of energy prices on end-use efficiencies and fuel choices, and an evaluation of financial-incentive programs designed to induce investments in efficient energy use. Twelve integrated energy supply/demand scenarios for the Swedish heat-and-power sector are presented to illustrate the potential for improvements in end-use efficiency and increased utilization of renewable energy sources. The results show that greenhouse-gas emissions could be reduced by 35 per cent from 1987 levels by 2010, with a net economic benefit compared to a business-as-usual scenario. A generalized methodology for calculating the net costs of reducing greenhouse-gas emissions is applied to a variety of fuel choices and energy end-use technologies. A key finding is that a combination of increased end-use efficiencies and use of renewable energy systems is required to achieve maximum cost-effective emissions reductions. End-use efficiencies and inter-fuel competition in Denmark and Sweden are compared during a time period in which real electricity prices were declining in Sweden and increasing in Denmark. Despite these different price environments, efficiencies and choices of heating fuels did not generally develop as expected according to economic theory. The influences of counter-price and non-price factors are important in understanding this outcome. Relying on prices alone injects considerable uncertainty into the energy planning process, and precludes efficiency improvements and fuel choices attainable with other mechanisms. Incentive programs can be used to promote energy-efficient technologies. Utilities in Europe have recently offered financial incentives intended to stimulate the adoption of compact-fluorescent lamps. These programs have been cost-effective in comparison to new electric supply. (au).

  20. Wind energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, R.D.; McNerney, G.M.

    1993-01-01

    Wind energy has matured to a level of development where it is ready to become a generally accepted utility generation technology. A brief discussion of this development is presented, and the operating and design principles are discussed. Alternative designs for wind turbines and the tradeoffs that must be considered are briefly compared. Development of a wind energy system and the impacts on the utility network including frequency stability, voltage stability, and power quality are discussed. The assessment of wind power station economics and the key economic factors that determine the economic viability of a wind power plant are presented

  1. Energy Information Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Home > Building Energy Information Systems and Performance Monitoring (EIS-PM) Building Energy evaluate and improve performance monitoring tools for energy savings in commercial buildings. Within the and visualization capabilities to energy and facility managers. As an increasing number of

  2. Comparative assessment and management of the health and environmental impacts of energy systems. General framework and preliminary results for the nuclear fuel cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rostron, W; Schneider, T; Thieme, M; Dreicer, M

    1992-06-01

    The comparison of the effects of electricity producing systems is of growing importance in decision-making processes for energy planning. This report documents the preliminary results of a project for the CEC-DG XII Radiation Protection Programme on the comparative assessment and management of the health and environmental impacts of energy systems. The work reported in this document has also been supported by EDF - Mission Environnement. In order to profit from the comparative studies already existing, some of the most important ones were surveyed. The aim of these past energy comparison studies was mainly to obtain a global measure of the risks associated with an energy cycle, with a view to ranking the various electricity production systems; but this is now recognised as merely an academic exercise, with a limited impact in decision-making. For energy planning the development of a multi-dimensional approach seems more suitable, as this allows the different types of indicators and measures needed to assess the risks of different energy cycles to be compared. From the past studies it has been seen that health indicators are generally well established, but a weakness is noted with respect to indicators of environmental impacts. This remains a difficult subject, and until such indicators are established, surrogates like concentrations in the environment will have to be used, or qualitative comparisons must suffice. This report presents a general framework allowing for consistent comparisons between different energy systems. The key issues discussed are: assessment by fuel cycle, consideration of the dimensions of time and space, the impact pathway approach for assessing risk, and coherent indicators that can be used to measure the impacts. First results are presented for four activities of the nuclear fuel cycle according to the approach developed: (1) the construction and dismantling of a 900 MWe pressurized water reactor, (2) the transportation of materials between

  3. Paul Scherrer Institute Scientific Report 1998. Volume V: General Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daum, C; Leuenberger, J [eds.

    1999-08-01

    In view of its mission to contribute towards the development of a globally more sustainable energy supply system, the General Energy Department is focusing on four topical areas: advancing technologies for the use of renewable energies; investigating options for chemical and electrochemical energy storage on various time scales; developing highly efficient converters for the low emission use of fossil and renewable fuels, including both combustion devices and fuel cells; analyzing the consequences of energy use, and advancing scenarios for the development of the energy supply system. Progress in 1998 in these topical areas is described in this report. A list of scientific publications in 1998 is also provided. (author) figs., tabs., refs.

  4. Generalized linear solvation energy model applied to solute partition coefficients in ionic liquid-supercritical carbon dioxide systems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Planeta, Josef; Karásek, Pavel; Hohnová, Barbora; Šťavíková, Lenka; Roth, Michal

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 1250, SI (2012), s. 54-62 ISSN 0021-9673 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP206/11/0138; GA ČR(CZ) GAP106/12/0522; GA ČR(CZ) GPP503/11/P523 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : ionic liquid * supercritical carbon dioxide * solvation energy model Subject RIV: BJ - Thermodynamics Impact factor: 4.612, year: 2012

  5. Croatian Energy System Defossilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potocnik, V.

    2013-01-01

    Defossilization of an energy system, as primary cause of the actual climate change, means exchange of predominantly imported fossil fuels with climate more convenient energy carriers, facilitating thus the way out of crisis.Overview of the world and Croatian energy system situation is presented as well as the overview of climate change. The most important Croatian energy system defossilization measures-energy efficiency increase, renewable energy inclusion and others - are described.(author)

  6. Energy systems security

    CERN Document Server

    Voeller, John G

    2014-01-01

    Energy Systems Security features articles from the Wiley Handbook of Science and Technology for Homeland Security covering topics related to electricity transmission grids and their protection, risk assessment of energy systems, analysis of interdependent energy networks. Methods to manage electricity transmission disturbances so as to avoid blackouts are discussed, and self-healing energy system and a nano-enabled power source are presented.

  7. Simple implementation of general dark energy models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloomfield, Jolyon K.; Pearson, Jonathan A.

    2014-01-01

    We present a formalism for the numerical implementation of general theories of dark energy, combining the computational simplicity of the equation of state for perturbations approach with the generality of the effective field theory approach. An effective fluid description is employed, based on a general action describing single-scalar field models. The formalism is developed from first principles, and constructed keeping the goal of a simple implementation into CAMB in mind. Benefits of this approach include its straightforward implementation, the generality of the underlying theory, the fact that the evolved variables are physical quantities, and that model-independent phenomenological descriptions may be straightforwardly investigated. We hope this formulation will provide a powerful tool for the comparison of theoretical models of dark energy with observational data

  8. Kinetic energy storage system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaeggi, M.; Folini, P.

    1983-09-03

    A flywheel system for the purpose of energy storage in decentral solar- or wind energy plants is introduced. The system comprises a rotor made out of plastic fibre, a motor/generator serving as electro-mechanical energy converter and a frequency-voltage transformer serving as electric adapter. The storable energy quantity amounts to several kWh.

  9. Loss energy states of nonstationary quantum systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodonov, V.V.; Man'ko, V.I.

    1978-01-01

    The concept of loss energy states is introduced. The loss energy states of the quantum harmonic damping oscillator are considered in detail. The method of constructing the loss energy states for general multidimensional quadratic nonstationary quantum systems is briefly discussed

  10. Solar energy conversion systems

    CERN Document Server

    Brownson, Jeffrey R S

    2013-01-01

    Solar energy conversion requires a different mind-set from traditional energy engineering in order to assess distribution, scales of use, systems design, predictive economic models for fluctuating solar resources, and planning to address transient cycles and social adoption. Solar Energy Conversion Systems examines solar energy conversion as an integrative design process, applying systems thinking methods to a solid knowledge base for creators of solar energy systems. This approach permits different levels of access for the emerging broad audience of scientists, engineers, architects, planners

  11. Renewable Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Connolly, David

    2014-01-01

    on the electricity sector, smart energy systems include the entire energy system in its approach to identifying suitable energy infrastructure designs and operation strategies. The typical smart grid sole focus on the electricity sector often leads to the conclusion that transmission lines, flexible electricity......This paper presents the learning of a series of studies that analyse the problems and perspectives of converting the present energy system into a 100 % renewable energy system using a smart energy systems approach. As opposed to, for instance, the smart grid concept, which takes a sole focus...... are to be found when the electricity sector is combined with the heating and cooling sectors and/or the transportation sector. Moreover, the combination of electricity and gas infrastructures may play an important role in the design of future renewable energy systems. The paper illustrates why electricity smart...

  12. Generalized formulation of free energy and application to photosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hwe Ik; Choi, M. Y.

    2018-03-01

    The origin of free energy on the earth is solar radiation. However, the amount of free energy it contains has seldom been investigated, because the free energy concept was believed to be inappropriate for a system of photons. Instead, the origin of free energy has been sought in the process of photosynthesis, imposing a limit of conversion given by the Carnot efficiency. Here we present a general formulation, capable of not only assessing accurately the available amount of free energy in the photon gas but also explaining the primary photosynthetic process more succinctly. In this formulation, the problem of "photosynthetic conversion of the internal energy of photons into the free energy of chlorophyll" is replaced by simple "free energy transduction" between the photons and chlorophyll. An analytic expression for the photosynthetic efficiency is derived and shown to deviate from the Carnot efficiency. Some predictions verifiable possibly by observation are also suggested.

  13. Wind energy analysis system

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    M.Ing. (Electrical & Electronic Engineering) One of the most important steps to be taken before a site is to be selected for the extraction of wind energy is the analysis of the energy within the wind on that particular site. No wind energy analysis system exists for the measurement and analysis of wind power. This dissertation documents the design and development of a Wind Energy Analysis System (WEAS). Using a micro-controller based design in conjunction with sensors, WEAS measure, calcu...

  14. Flexible energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik

    2003-01-01

    The paper discusses and analyses diffent national strategies and points out key changes in the energy system in order to achieve a system which can benefit from a high percentage of wind and CHP without having surplus production problems, introduced here as a flexible energy system....

  15. General solar energy information user study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belew, W.W.; Wood, B.L.; Marle, T.L.; Reinhardt, C.L.

    1981-03-01

    This report describes the results of a series of telephone interviews with groups of users of information on general solar energy. These results, part of a larger study on many different solar technologies, identify types of information each group needed and the best ways to get information to each group. The report is 1 of 10 discussing study results. The overall study provides baseline data about information needs in the solar community. An earlier study identified the information user groups in the solar community and the priority (to accelerate solar energy commercialization) of getting information to each group. In the current study only high-priority groups were examined. Results from 13 groups of respondents are analyzed in this report: Loan Officers, Real Estate Appraisers, Tax Assessors, Insurers, Lawyers, Utility Representatives, Public Interest Group Representatives, Information and Agricultural Representatives, Public Interest Group Representatives, Information and Agricultural Specialists at State Cooperative Extension Service Offices, and State Energy Office Representatives. The data will be used as input to the determination of information products and services the Solar Energy Research Institute, the Solar Energy Information Data Bank Network, and the entire information outreach community should be preparing and disseminating.

  16. General Systems Theory and Instructional Systems Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salisbury, David F.

    1990-01-01

    Describes basic concepts in the field of general systems theory (GST) and identifies commonalities that exist between GST and instructional systems design (ISD). Models and diagrams that depict system elements in ISD are presented, and two matrices that show how GST has been used in ISD literature are included. (11 references) (LRW)

  17. Chinese hotel general managers' perspectives on energy-saving practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yidan

    As hotels' concern about sustainability and budget-control is growing steadily, energy-saving issues have become one of the important management concerns hospitality industry face. By executing proper energy-saving practices, previous scholars believed that hotel operation costs can decrease dramatically. Moreover, they believed that conducting energy-saving practices may eventually help the hotel to gain other benefits such as an improved reputation and stronger competitive advantage. The energy-saving issue also has become a critical management problem for the hotel industry in China. Previous research has not investigated energy-saving in China's hotel segment. To achieve a better understanding of the importance of energy-saving, this document attempts to present some insights into China's energy-saving practices in the tourist accommodations sector. Results of the study show the Chinese general managers' attitudes toward energy-saving issues and the differences among the diverse hotel managers who responded to the study. Study results indicate that in China, most of the hotels' energy bills decrease due to the implementation of energy-saving equipments. General managers of hotels in operation for a shorter period of time are typically responsible for making decisions about energy-saving issues; older hotels are used to choosing corporate level concerning to this issue. Larger Chinese hotels generally have official energy-saving usage training sessions for employees, but smaller Chinese hotels sometimes overlook the importance of employee training. The study also found that for the Chinese hospitality industry, energy-saving practices related to electricity are the most efficient and common way to save energy, but older hotels also should pay attention to other ways of saving energy such as water conservation or heating/cooling system.

  18. LCA of Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laurent, Alexis; Espinosa Martinez, Nieves; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2018-01-01

    Energy systems are essential in the support of modern societies’ activities, and can span a wide spectrum of electricity and heat generation systems and cooling systems. Along with their central role and large diversity, these systems have been demonstrated to cause serious impacts on human health...... , ecosystems and natural resources. Over the past two decades, energy systems have thus been the focus of more than 1000 LCA studies, with the aim to identify and reduce these impacts. This chapter addresses LCA applications to energy systems for generation of electricity and heat . The chapter gives insight...

  19. Renewable Energy Tracking Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renewable energy generation ownership can be accounted through tracking systems. Tracking systems are highly automated, contain specific information about each MWh, and are accessible over the internet to market participants.

  20. New secondary energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulten, R.

    1977-01-01

    As an introduction, the FRG's energy industry situation is described, secondary energy systems to be taken into consideration are classified, and appropriate market requirements are analyzed. Dealt with is district heating, i.e. the direct transport of heat by means of circulating media, and long-distance energy, i.e. the long-distance energy transport by means of chemical conversion in closed- or open-cycle systems. In closed-cycle systems heat is transported in the form of chemical latent energy. In contrast to this, chemical energy is transported in open-cycle systems in the form of fuel gases produced by coal gasification or by thermochemical water splitting. (GG) [de

  1. Generalized fast feedback system in the SLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendrickson, L.; Allison, S.; Gromme, T.; Himel, T.; Krauter, K.; Rouse, F.; Sass, R.; Shoaee, H.

    1992-01-01

    A generalized fast feedback system has been developed to stabilize beams at various locations in the SLC. The system is designed to perform measurements and change actuator settings to control beam states such as position, angle and energy on a pulse to pulse basis. The software design is based on the state space formalism of digital control theory. The system is database-driven, facilitating the addition of new loops without requiring additional software. A communications system, KISNet, provides fast communications links between microprocessors for feedback loops which involve multiple micros. Feedback loops have been installed in seventeen locations throughout the SLC and have proven to be invaluable in stabilizing the machine. (author)

  2. Generalized fast feedback system in the SLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendrickson, L.; Allison, S.; Gromme, T.; Himel, T.; Krauter, K.; Rouse, F.; Sass, R.; Shoaee, H.

    1991-11-01

    A generalized fast feedback system has been developed to stabilize beams at various locations in the SLC. The system is designed to perform measurements and change actuator settings to control beam states such as position, angle and energy on a pulse to pulse basis. The software design is based on the state space formalism of digital control theory. The system is database-driven, facilitating the addition of new loops without requiring additional software. A communications system, KISNet, provides fast communications links between microprocessors for feedback loops which involve multiple micros. Feedback loops have been installed in seventeen locations throughout the SLC and have proven to be invaluable in stabilizing the machine

  3. Energy Systems Integration Facility News | Energy Systems Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facility | NREL Energy Systems Integration Facility News Energy Systems Integration Facility Energy Dataset A massive amount of wind data was recently made accessible online, greatly expanding the Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has completed technology validation testing for Go

  4. Small Wind Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simões, Marcelo Godoy; Farret, Felix Alberto; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2017-01-01

    considered when selecting a generator for a wind power plant, including capacity of the AC system, types of loads, availability of spare parts, voltage regulation, technical personal and cost. If several loads are likely inductive, such asphase-controlled converters, motors and fluorescent lights......This chapter intends to serve as a brief guide when someone is considering the use of wind energy for small power applications. It is discussed that small wind energy systems act as the major energy source for residential or commercial applications, or how to make it part of a microgrid...... as a distributed generator. In this way, sources and loads are connected in such a way to behave as a renewable dispatch center. With this regard, non-critical loads might be curtailed or shed during times of energy shortfall or periods of high costs of energy production. If such a wind energy system is connected...

  5. Smart energy management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Aniruddha; Singh, Jugdutt

    2010-04-01

    Peak and average energy usage in domestic and industrial environments is growing rapidly and absence of detailed energy consumption metrics is making systematic reduction of energy usage very difficult. Smart energy management system aims at providing a cost-effective solution for managing soaring energy consumption and its impact on green house gas emissions and climate change. The solution is based on seamless integration of existing wired and wireless communication technologies combined with smart context-aware software which offers a complete solution for automation of energy measurement and device control. The persuasive software presents users with easy-to-assimilate visual cues identifying problem areas and time periods and encourages a behavioural change to conserve energy. The system allows analysis of real-time/statistical consumption data with the ability to drill down into detailed analysis of power consumption, CO2 emissions and cost. The system generates intelligent projections and suggests potential methods (e.g. reducing standby, tuning heating/cooling temperature, etc.) of reducing energy consumption. The user interface is accessible using web enabled devices such as PDAs, PCs, etc. or using SMS, email, and instant messaging. Successful real-world trial of the system has demonstrated the potential to save 20 to 30% energy consumption on an average. Low cost of deployment and the ability to easily manage consumption from various web enabled devices offers gives this system a high penetration and impact capability offering a sustainable solution to act on climate change today.

  6. What Is Energy Systems Integration? | Energy Systems Integration Facility |

    Science.gov (United States)

    NREL What Is Energy Systems Integration? What Is Energy Systems Integration? Energy systems integration (ESI) is an approach to solving big energy challenges that explores ways for energy systems to Research Community NREL is a founding member of the International Institute for Energy Systems Integration

  7. General Business Model Patterns for Local Energy Management Concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Facchinetti, Emanuele, E-mail: emanuele.facchinetti@hslu.ch; Sulzer, Sabine [Lucerne Competence Center for Energy Research, Lucerne University of Applied Science and Arts, Horw (Switzerland)

    2016-03-03

    The transition toward a more sustainable global energy system, significantly relying on renewable energies and decentralized energy systems, requires a deep reorganization of the energy sector. The way how energy services are generated, delivered, and traded is expected to be very different in the coming years. Business model innovation is recognized as a key driver for the successful implementation of the energy turnaround. This work contributes to this topic by introducing a heuristic methodology easing the identification of general business model patterns best suited for Local Energy Management concepts such as Energy Hubs. A conceptual framework characterizing the Local Energy Management business model solution space is developed. Three reference business model patterns providing orientation across the defined solution space are identified, analyzed, and compared. Through a market review, a number of successfully implemented innovative business models have been analyzed and allocated within the defined solution space. The outcomes of this work offer to potential stakeholders a starting point and guidelines for the business model innovation process, as well as insights for policy makers on challenges and opportunities related to Local Energy Management concepts.

  8. Paul Scherrer Institut Scientific Report 2003. Volume V: General Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wokaun, A.; Daum, C.

    2004-03-01

    Research at PSI comprises all aspects of human energy use, with the ultimate goal of promoting development towards a sustainable energy supply system. In the General Energy Research Department, technologies are being advanced for the utilization of renewable energy sources, low-loss energy storage, efficient conversion, and low emission energy use. Experimental and model-based assessment of these emissions forms the basis of a comprehensive assessment of economic, ecological and environmental consequences, for both present and future energy supply systems. The research program of the department is centered around 1) development, use, and characterisation of catalysts for energy technologies in many different fields, like e.g. the partial oxidation of methanol for hydrogen production, the processing of methane by catalytic combustion and reforming; 2) use of concentrated solar radiation to induce chemical conversions, thereby producing energy carriers; 3) development of efficient, less polluting combustion engines and burners by advancing the detailed understanding of reaction mechanisms and combustion pathways; 4) research and development of low temperature polymer electrolyte fuel cells, novel batteries and capacitors, with applications envisaged for electric vehicles, photovoltaics and on-site load leveling; 5) experimental and model based research concerning transportation and chemistry of atmospheric trace gases related to anthropogenic energy transformations. Progress in 2000 in these topical areas is described in this report. A list of scientific publications in 2002 is also provided

  9. Paul Scherrer Institut Scientific Report 2004. Volume V: General Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wokaun, A.; Daum, C.

    2005-01-01

    Research at PSI comprises all aspects of human energy use, with the ultimate goal of promoting development towards a sustainable energy supply system. In the General Energy Research Department, technologies are being advanced for the utilization of renewable energy sources, low-loss energy storage, efficient conversion, and low emission energy use. Experimental and model-based assessment of these emissions forms the basis of a comprehensive assessment of economic, ecological and environmental consequences, for both present and future energy supply systems. The research program of the department is centered around 1) development, use, and characterisation of catalysts for energy technologies in many different fields, like e.g. the partial oxidation of methanol for hydrogen production, the processing of methane by catalytic combustion and reforming; 2) use of concentrated solar radiation to induce chemical conversions, thereby producing energy carriers; 3) development of efficient, less polluting combustion engines and burners by advancing the detailed understanding of reaction mechanisms and combustion pathways; 4) research and development of low temperature polymer electrolyte fuel cells, novel batteries and capacitors, with applications envisaged for electric vehicles, photovoltaics and on-site load leveling; 5) experimental and model based research concerning transportation and chemistry of atmospheric trace gases related to anthropogenic energy transformations. Progress in 2000 in these topical areas is described in this report. A list of scientific publications in 2002 is also provided

  10. Paul Scherrer Institute Scientific Report 2000. Volume V: General Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daum, Christina; Leuenberger, Jakob

    2001-01-01

    Research at PSI comprises all aspects of human energy use, with the ultimate goal of promoting development towards a sustainable energy supply system. In the General Energy Research Department, technologies are being advanced for the utilization of renewable energy sources, low-loss energy storage, efficient conversion, and low emission energy use. Experimental and model-based assessment of these emissions forms the basis of a comprehensive assessment of economic, ecological and environmental consequences, for both present and future energy supply systems. The research program of the department is centered around 1) development, use, and characterisation of catalysts for energy technologies in many different fields, like e.g. the partial oxidation of methanol for hydrogen production, the processing of methane by catalytic combustion and reforming; 2) use of concentrated solar radiation to induce chemical conversions, thereby producing energy carriers; 3) development of efficient, less polluting combustion engines and burners by advancing the detailed understanding of reaction mechanisms and combustion pathways; 4) research and development of low temperature polymer electrolyte fuel cells, novel batteries and capacitors, with applications envisaged for electric vehicles, photovoltaics and on-site load leveling; 5) experimental and model based research concerning transportation and chemistry of atmospheric trace gases related to anthropogenic energy transformations. Progress in 2000 in these topical areas is described in this report. A list of scientific publications in 2000 is also provided

  11. Paul Scherrer Institut Scientific Report 2001. Volume V: General Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wokaun, Alexander; Daum, Christina [eds.

    2002-03-01

    Research at PSI comprises all aspects of human energy use, with the ultimate goal of promoting development towards a sustainable energy supply system. In the General Energy Research Department, technologies are being advanced for the utilization of renewable energy sources, low-loss energy storage, efficient conversion, and low emission energy use. Experimental and model-based assessment of these emissions forms the basis of a comprehensive assessment of economic, ecological and environmental consequences, for both present and future energy supply systems. The research program of the department is centered around 1) development, use, and characterisation of catalysts for energy technologies in many different fields, like e.g. the partial oxidation of methanol for hydrogen production, the processing of methane by catalytic combustion and reforming; 2) use of concentrated solar radiation to induce chemical conversions, thereby producing energy carriers; 3) development of efficient, less polluting combustion engines and burners by advancing the detailed understanding of reaction mechanisms and combustion pathways; 4) research and development of low temperature polymer electrolyte fuel cells, novel batteries and capacitors, with applications envisaged for electric vehicles, photovoltaics and on-site load leveling; 5) experimental and model based research concerning transportation and chemistry of atmospheric trace gases related to anthropogenic energy transformations. Progress in 2000 in these topical areas is described in this report. A list of scientific publications in 2001 is also provided.

  12. Paul Scherrer Institute Scientific Report 2000. Volume V: General Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daum, Christina; Leuenberger, Jakob [eds.

    2001-07-01

    Research at PSI comprises all aspects of human energy use, with the ultimate goal of promoting development towards a sustainable energy supply system. In the General Energy Research Department, technologies are being advanced for the utilization of renewable energy sources, low-loss energy storage, efficient conversion, and low emission energy use. Experimental and model-based assessment of these emissions forms the basis of a comprehensive assessment of economic, ecological and environmental consequences, for both present and future energy supply systems. The research program of the department is centered around 1) development, use, and characterisation of catalysts for energy technologies in many different fields, like e.g. the partial oxidation of methanol for hydrogen production, the processing of methane by catalytic combustion and reforming; 2) use of concentrated solar radiation to induce chemical conversions, thereby producing energy carriers; 3) development of efficient, less polluting combustion engines and burners by advancing the detailed understanding of reaction mechanisms and combustion pathways; 4) research and development of low temperature polymer electrolyte fuel cells, novel batteries and capacitors, with applications envisaged for electric vehicles, photovoltaics and on-site load leveling; 5) experimental and model based research concerning transportation and chemistry of atmospheric trace gases related to anthropogenic energy transformations. Progress in 2000 in these topical areas is described in this report. A list of scientific publications in 2000 is also provided.

  13. Paul Scherrer Institute Scientific Report 2000. Volume V: General Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daum, Christina; Leuenberger, Jakob [eds.

    2001-03-01

    Research at PSI comprises all aspects of human energy use, with the ultimate goal of promoting development towards a sustainable energy supply system. In the General Energy Research Department, technologies are being advanced for the utilization of renewable energy sources, low-loss energy storage, efficient conversion, and low emission energy use. Experimental and model-based assessment of these emissions forms the basis of a comprehensive assessment of economic, ecological and environmental consequences, for both present and future energy supply systems. The research program of the department is centered around (1) development, use, and characterisation of catalysts for energy technologies in many different fields, like e.g. the partial oxidation of methanol for hydrogen production, the processing of methane by catalytic combustion and reforming; (2) use of concentrated solar radiation to induce chemical conversions, thereby producing energy carriers; (3) development of efficient, less polluting combustion engines and burners by advancing the detailed understanding of reaction mechanisms and combustion pathways; (4) research and development of low temperature polymer electrolyte fuel cells, novel batteries and capacitors, with applications envisaged for electric vehicles, photovoltaics and on-site load leveling; (5) experimental and model based research concerning transportation and chemistry of atmospheric trace gases related to anthropogenic energy transformations. Progress in 2000 in these topical areas is described in this report. A list of scientific publications in 2000 is also provided.

  14. Paul Scherrer Institut Scientific Report 2002. Volume V: General Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wokaun, Alexander; Daum, Christina [eds.

    2003-03-01

    Research at PSI comprises all aspects of human energy use, with the ultimate goal of promoting development towards a sustainable energy supply system. In the General Energy Research Department, technologies are being advanced for the utilization of renewable energy sources, low-loss energy storage, efficient conversion, and low emission energy use. Experimental and model-based assessment of these emissions forms the basis of a comprehensive assessment of economic, ecological and environmental consequences, for both present and future energy supply systems. The research program of the department is centered around 1) development, use, and characterisation of catalysts for energy technologies in many different fields, like e.g. the partial oxidation of methanol for hydrogen production, the processing of methane by catalytic combustion and reforming; 2) use of concentrated solar radiation to induce chemical conversions, thereby producing energy carriers; 3) development of efficient, less polluting combustion engines and burners by advancing the detailed understanding of reaction mechanisms and combustion pathways; 4) research and development of low temperature polymer electrolyte fuel cells, novel batteries and capacitors, with applications envisaged for electric vehicles, photovoltaics and on-site load leveling; 5) experimental and model based research concerning transportation and chemistry of atmospheric trace gases related to anthropogenic energy transformations. Progress in 2000 in these topical areas is described in this report. A list of scientific publications in 2002 is also provided.

  15. General Business Model Patterns for Local Energy Management Concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Facchinetti, Emanuele; Sulzer, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    The transition toward a more sustainable global energy system, significantly relying on renewable energies and decentralized energy systems, requires a deep reorganization of the energy sector. The way how energy services are generated, delivered, and traded is expected to be very different in the coming years. Business model innovation is recognized as a key driver for the successful implementation of the energy turnaround. This work contributes to this topic by introducing a heuristic methodology easing the identification of general business model patterns best suited for Local Energy Management concepts such as Energy Hubs. A conceptual framework characterizing the Local Energy Management business model solution space is developed. Three reference business model patterns providing orientation across the defined solution space are identified, analyzed, and compared. Through a market review, a number of successfully implemented innovative business models have been analyzed and allocated within the defined solution space. The outcomes of this work offer to potential stakeholders a starting point and guidelines for the business model innovation process, as well as insights for policy makers on challenges and opportunities related to Local Energy Management concepts.

  16. Paul Scherrer Institut Scientific Report 2004. Volume V: General Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wokaun, Alexander; Daum, Christina (eds.)

    2005-03-01

    Research at PSI comprises all aspects of human energy use, with the ultimate goal of promoting development towards a sustainable energy supply system. In the General Energy Research Department, technologies are being advanced for the utilization of renewable energy sources, low-loss energy storage, efficient conversion, and low emission energy use. Experimental and model-based assessment of these emissions forms the basis of a comprehensive assessment of economic, ecological and environmental consequences, for both present and future energy supply systems. The research program of the department is centered around 1) development, use, and characterisation of catalysts for energy technologies in many different fields, like e.g. the partial oxidation of methanol for hydrogen production, the processing of methane by catalytic combustion and reforming; 2) use of concentrated solar radiation to induce chemical conversions, thereby producing energy carriers; 3) development of efficient, less polluting combustion engines and burners by advancing the detailed understanding of reaction mechanisms and combustion pathways; 4) research and development of low temperature polymer electrolyte fuel cells, novel batteries and capacitors, with applications envisaged for electric vehicles, photovoltaics and on-site load leveling; 5) experimental and model based research concerning transportation and chemistry of atmospheric trace gases related to anthropogenic energy transformations. Progress in 2000 in these topical areas is described in this report. A list of scientific publications in 2002 is also provided.

  17. Paul Scherrer Institut Scientific Report 2002. Volume V: General Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wokaun, A.; Daum, C.

    2003-03-01

    Research at PSI comprises all aspects of human energy use, with the ultimate goal of promoting development towards a sustainable energy supply system. In the General Energy Research Department, technologies are being advanced for the utilization of renewable energy sources, low-loss energy storage, efficient conversion, and low emission energy use. Experimental and model-based assessment of these emissions forms the basis of a comprehensive assessment of economic, ecological and environmental consequences, for both present and future energy supply systems. The research program of the department is centered around 1) development, use, and characterisation of catalysts for energy technologies in many different fields, like e.g. the partial oxidation of methanol for hydrogen production, the processing of methane by catalytic combustion and reforming; 2) use of concentrated solar radiation to induce chemical conversions, thereby producing energy carriers; 3) development of efficient, less polluting combustion engines and burners by advancing the detailed understanding of reaction mechanisms and combustion pathways; 4) research and development of low temperature polymer electrolyte fuel cells, novel batteries and capacitors, with applications envisaged for electric vehicles, photovoltaics and on-site load leveling; 5) experimental and model based research concerning transportation and chemistry of atmospheric trace gases related to anthropogenic energy transformations. Progress in 2000 in these topical areas is described in this report. A list of scientific publications in 2002 is also provided

  18. Paul Scherrer Institut Scientific Report 2003. Volume V: General Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wokaun, Alexander; Daum, Christina (eds.)

    2004-03-01

    Research at PSI comprises all aspects of human energy use, with the ultimate goal of promoting development towards a sustainable energy supply system. In the General Energy Research Department, technologies are being advanced for the utilization of renewable energy sources, low-loss energy storage, efficient conversion, and low emission energy use. Experimental and model-based assessment of these emissions forms the basis of a comprehensive assessment of economic, ecological and environmental consequences, for both present and future energy supply systems. The research program of the department is centered around 1) development, use, and characterisation of catalysts for energy technologies in many different fields, like e.g. the partial oxidation of methanol for hydrogen production, the processing of methane by catalytic combustion and reforming; 2) use of concentrated solar radiation to induce chemical conversions, thereby producing energy carriers; 3) development of efficient, less polluting combustion engines and burners by advancing the detailed understanding of reaction mechanisms and combustion pathways; 4) research and development of low temperature polymer electrolyte fuel cells, novel batteries and capacitors, with applications envisaged for electric vehicles, photovoltaics and on-site load leveling; 5) experimental and model based research concerning transportation and chemistry of atmospheric trace gases related to anthropogenic energy transformations. Progress in 2000 in these topical areas is described in this report. A list of scientific publications in 2002 is also provided.

  19. Paul Scherrer Institute Scientific Report 1999. Volume V: General Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daum, Christina; Leuenberger, Jakob [eds.

    2000-07-01

    Strengthening of international collaborations represented a strategic goal of the General Energy Research Department for 1999. For the Fifth Framework Program of the European Union, we participated in consortia and in the successful preparation of several proposals. National networks with partners from academia and Industry have been formed in two topical areas of central interest in the context of sustainability, i.e. 'Ecoefficient energy use and material cycles' and 'Sustainable transportation' on the other hand. Research at PSI comprises all aspects of human energy use, with the ultimate goal of promoting development towards a sustainable energy supply system. In the General Energy Research Department, technologies are being advanced for the utilization of renewable energy sources, low-loss energy storage, efficient conversion, and low emission energy use. Experimental and model-based assessment of these emissions forms the basis of a comprehensive assessment of economic, ecological and environmental consequences, for both present and future energy supply systems. The research program of the department is centered around 1) development, use, and characterisation of catalysts for energy technologies in many different fields, like e.g. the partial oxidation of methanol for hydrogen production, the processing of methane by catalytic combustion and reforming; 2) use of concentrated solar radiation to induce chemical conversions, thereby producing energy carriers; 3) development of efficient, less polluting combustion engines and burners by advancing the detailed understanding of reaction mechanisms and combustion pathways; 4) research and development of low temperature polymer electrolyte fuel cells, novel batteries and capacitors, with applications envisaged for electric vehicles, photovoltaics and on-site load leveling; 5) experimental and model based research concerning transportation and chemistry of atmospheric trace gases related to anthropogenic energy

  20. Paul Scherrer Institute Scientific Report 1999. Volume V: General Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daum, Christina; Leuenberger, Jakob

    2000-01-01

    Strengthening of international collaborations represented a strategic goal of the General Energy Research Department for 1999. For the Fifth Framework Program of the European Union, we participated in consortia and in the successful preparation of several proposals. National networks with partners from academia and Industry have been formed in two topical areas of central interest in the context of sustainability, i.e. 'Ecoefficient energy use and material cycles' and 'Sustainable transportation' on the other hand. Research at PSI comprises all aspects of human energy use, with the ultimate goal of promoting development towards a sustainable energy supply system. In the General Energy Research Department, technologies are being advanced for the utilization of renewable energy sources, low-loss energy storage, efficient conversion, and low emission energy use. Experimental and model-based assessment of these emissions forms the basis of a comprehensive assessment of economic, ecological and environmental consequences, for both present and future energy supply systems. The research program of the department is centered around 1) development, use, and characterisation of catalysts for energy technologies in many different fields, like e.g. the partial oxidation of methanol for hydrogen production, the processing of methane by catalytic combustion and reforming; 2) use of concentrated solar radiation to induce chemical conversions, thereby producing energy carriers; 3) development of efficient, less polluting combustion engines and burners by advancing the detailed understanding of reaction mechanisms and combustion pathways; 4) research and development of low temperature polymer electrolyte fuel cells, novel batteries and capacitors, with applications envisaged for electric vehicles, photovoltaics and on-site load leveling; 5) experimental and model based research concerning transportation and chemistry of atmospheric trace gases related to anthropogenic energy

  1. Paul Scherrer Institute Scientific Report 1999. Volume V: General Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daum, Christina; Leuenberger, Jakob [eds.

    2000-07-01

    Strengthening of international collaborations represented a strategic goal of the General Energy Research Department for 1999. For the Fifth Framework Program of the European Union, we participated in consortia and in the successful preparation of several proposals. National networks with partners from academia and Industry have been formed in two topical areas of central interest in the context of sustainability, i.e. 'Ecoefficient energy use and material cycles' and 'Sustainable transportation' on the other hand. Research at PSI comprises all aspects of human energy use, with the ultimate goal of promoting development towards a sustainable energy supply system. In the General Energy Research Department, technologies are being advanced for the utilization of renewable energy sources, low-loss energy storage, efficient conversion, and low emission energy use. Experimental and model-based assessment of these emissions forms the basis of a comprehensive assessment of economic, ecological and environmental consequences, for both present and future energy supply systems. The research program of the department is centered around 1) development, use, and characterisation of catalysts for energy technologies in many different fields, like e.g. the partial oxidation of methanol for hydrogen production, the processing of methane by catalytic combustion and reforming; 2) use of concentrated solar radiation to induce chemical conversions, thereby producing energy carriers; 3) development of efficient, less polluting combustion engines and burners by advancing the detailed understanding of reaction mechanisms and combustion pathways; 4) research and development of low temperature polymer electrolyte fuel cells, novel batteries and capacitors, with applications envisaged for electric vehicles, photovoltaics and on-site load leveling; 5) experimental and model based research concerning transportation and chemistry of atmospheric trace gases related to

  2. Energy production systems engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Blair, Thomas Howard

    2017-01-01

    Energy Production Systems Engineering presents IEEE, Electrical Apparatus Service Association (EASA), and International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) standards of engineering systems and equipment in utility electric generation stations. Electrical engineers that practice in the energy industry must understand the specific characteristics of electrical and mechanical equipment commonly applied to energy production and conversion processes, including the mechanical and chemical processes involved, in order to design, operate and maintain electrical systems that support and enable these processes. To aid this understanding, Energy Production Systems Engineeringdescribes the equipment and systems found in various types of utility electric generation stations. This information is accompanied by examples and practice problems. It also addresses common issues of electrical safety that arise in electric generation stations.

  3. Perspective of long term demand and supply of energy and general inspection of energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    Since the oil crisis, Japanese energy policy was promoted to get rid of the excess dependence on petroleum and to attain energy security, but energy situation largely changed during the past ten years, and it has become necessary to make general inspection on the long term demand and supply of energy and the energy policy. After the second oil crisis, the worldwide demand of petroleum decreased drastically due to the rapid price rise, and the base price of crude oil was lowered for the first time. It is necessary to positively endeavor to reduce energy cost with new idea. The points of the general inspection are the correspondence of the energy policy to the large structural change of energy, the most desirable system for attaining the optimum structure of energy demand and supply and the utilization of market mechanism as far as possible. This report is the results of discussion held eight times since April, 1983. The change of energy situation in Japan and abroad and the perspective, the new problems in energy countermeasures and the trend of response, the preferential and effective promotion of general energy countermeasures and so on are reported. This report shows the fundamental direction of energy countermeasures hereafter, and the concrete and special examination must be made on many remaining problems. (Kako, I.)

  4. Energy efficiency system development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leman, A. M.; Rahman, K. A.; Chong, Haw Jie; Salleh, Mohd Najib Mohd; Yusof, M. Z. M.

    2017-09-01

    By subjecting to the massive usage of electrical energy in Malaysia, energy efficiency is now one of the key areas of focus in climate change mitigation. This paper focuses on the development of an energy efficiency system of household electrical appliances for residential areas. Distribution of Questionnaires and pay a visit to few selected residential areas are conducted during the fulfilment of the project as well as some advice on how to save energy are shared with the participants. Based on the collected data, the system developed by the UTHM Energy Team is then evaluated from the aspect of the consumers' behaviour in using electrical appliances and the potential reduction targeted by the team. By the end of the project, 60% of the participants had successfully reduced the electrical power consumption set by the UTHM Energy Team. The reasons for whether the success and the failure is further analysed in this project.

  5. Generalized stacking fault energies of alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Lu, Song; Hu, Qing-Miao; Kwon, Se Kyun; Johansson, Börje; Vitos, Levente

    2014-07-02

    The generalized stacking fault energy (γ surface) provides fundamental physics for understanding the plastic deformation mechanisms. Using the ab initio exact muffin-tin orbitals method in combination with the coherent potential approximation, we calculate the γ surface for the disordered Cu-Al, Cu-Zn, Cu-Ga, Cu-Ni, Pd-Ag and Pd-Au alloys. Studying the effect of segregation of the solute to the stacking fault planes shows that only the local chemical composition affects the γ surface. The calculated alloying trends are discussed using the electronic band structure of the base and distorted alloys.Based on our γ surface results, we demonstrate that the previous revealed 'universal scaling law' between the intrinsic energy barriers (IEBs) is well obeyed in random solid solutions. This greatly simplifies the calculations of the twinning measure parameters or the critical twinning stress. Adopting two twinnability measure parameters derived from the IEBs, we find that in binary Cu alloys, Al, Zn and Ga increase the twinnability, while Ni decreases it. Aluminum and gallium yield similar effects on the twinnability.

  6. Generalized dark energy interactions with multiple fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Bruck, Carsten van; Mifsud, Jurgen [Consortium for Fundamental Physics, School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Sheffield, Hounsfield Road, Sheffield S3 7RH (United Kingdom); Mimoso, José P.; Nunes, Nelson J., E-mail: c.vandebruck@sheffield.ac.uk, E-mail: jmifsud1@sheffield.ac.uk, E-mail: jpmimoso@fc.ul.pt, E-mail: njnunes@fc.ul.pt [Instituto de Astrofísica e Ciências do Espaço, Faculdade de Ciências da Universidade de Lisboa, Campo Grande, PT1749-016 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2016-11-01

    In the search for an explanation for the current acceleration of the Universe, scalar fields are the most simple and useful tools to build models of dark energy. This field, however, must in principle couple with the rest of the world and not necessarily in the same way to different particles or fluids. We provide the most complete dynamical system analysis to date, consisting of a canonical scalar field conformally and disformally coupled to both dust and radiation. We perform a detailed study of the existence and stability conditions of the systems and comment on constraints imposed on the disformal coupling from Big-Bang Nucleosynthesis and given current limits on the variation of the fine-structure constant.

  7. Flow energy conversion system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sargsyan, R.A.

    2011-01-01

    A cost-effective hydropower system called here Flow Energy Converter was developed, patented, manufactured and tested for water pumping, electricity generation and other purposes especially useful for the rural communities. The system consists of water-driven turbine with plane-surface blades, power transmission means and pump and/or generator. Working sample of the Flow Energy Converter was designed and manufactured at the Institute of Radio Physics and Electronics

  8. Solar Energy Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    Calibrated in kilowatt hours per square meter, the solar counter produced by Dodge Products, Inc. provides a numerical count of the solar energy that has accumulated on a surface. Solar energy sensing, measuring and recording devices in corporate solar cell technology developed by Lewis Research Center. Customers for their various devices include architects, engineers and others engaged in construction and operation of solar energy facilities; manufacturers of solar systems or solar related products, such as glare reducing windows; and solar energy planners in federal and state government agencies.

  9. Living Systems Energy Module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-26

    The Living Systems Energy Module, renamed Voyage from the Sun, is a twenty-lesson curriculum designed to introduce students to the major ways in which energy is important in living systems. Voyage from the Sun tells the story of energy, describing its solar origins, how it is incorporated into living terrestrial systems through photosynthesis, how it flows from plants to herbivorous animals, and from herbivores to carnivores. A significant part of the unit is devoted to examining how humans use energy, and how human impact on natural habitats affects ecosystems. As students proceed through the unit, they read chapters of Voyage from the Sun, a comic book that describes the flow of energy in story form (Appendix A). During the course of the unit, an ``Energy Pyramid`` is erected in the classroom. This three-dimensional structure serves as a classroom exhibit, reminding students daily of the importance of energy and of the fragile nature of our living planet. Interactive activities teach students about adaptations that allow plants and animals to acquire, to use and to conserve energy. A complete list of curricular materials and copies of all activity sheets appear in Appendix B.

  10. Small Wind Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simoes, Marcelo; Farret, Felix Alberto; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2015-01-01

    devices, and a centralized distribution control. In order to establish a small wind energy system it is important to observe the following: (i) Attending the energy requirements of the actual or future consumers; (ii) Establishing civil liabilities in case of accidents and financial losses due to shortage...... or low quality of energy; (iii) Negotiating collective conditions to interconnect the microgrid with the public network or with other sources of energy that is independent of wind resources; (iv) Establishing a performance criteria of power quality and reliability to end-users, in order to reduce costs...... and guaranteeing an acceptable energy supply. This paper discuss how performance is affected by local conditions and random nature of the wind, power demand profiles, turbine related factors, and presents the technical issues for implementing a self-excited induction generator system, or a permanent magnet based...

  11. Generalized spin Sutherland systems revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Fehér

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available We present generalizations of the spin Sutherland systems obtained earlier by Blom and Langmann and by Polychronakos in two different ways: from SU(n Yang–Mills theory on the cylinder and by constraining geodesic motion on the N-fold direct product of SU(n with itself, for any N>1. Our systems are in correspondence with the Dynkin diagram automorphisms of arbitrary connected and simply connected compact simple Lie groups. We give a finite-dimensional as well as an infinite-dimensional derivation and shed light on the mechanism whereby they lead to the same classical integrable systems. The infinite-dimensional approach, based on twisted current algebras (alias Yang–Mills with twisted boundary conditions, was inspired by the derivation of the spinless Sutherland model due to Gorsky and Nekrasov. The finite-dimensional method relies on Hamiltonian reduction under twisted conjugations of N-fold direct product groups, linking the quantum mechanics of the reduced systems to representation theory similarly as was explored previously in the N=1 case.

  12. Energy saving synergies in national energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thellufsen, Jakob Zinck; Lund, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    In the transition towards a 100% renewable energy system, energy savings are essential. The possibility of energy savings through conservation or efficiency increases can be identified in, for instance, the heating and electricity sectors, in industry, and in transport. Several studies point...... to various optimal levels of savings in the different sectors of the energy system. However, these studies do not investigate the idea of energy savings being system dependent. This paper argues that such system dependency is critical to understand, as it does not make sense to analyse an energy saving...... without taking into account the actual benefit of the saving in relation to the energy system. The study therefore identifies a need to understand how saving methods may interact with each other and the system in which they are conducted. By using energy system analysis to do hourly simulation...

  13. Electrical energy systems

    CERN Document Server

    El-Hawary, Mohamed E

    2007-01-01

    Features discussions ranging from the technical aspects of generation, transmission, distribution, and utilization to power system components, theory, protection, and the energy control center that offer an introduction to effects of deregulating electric power systems, blackouts and their causes, and minimizing their effects.

  14. The Smart Energy System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jurowetzki, Roman; Dyrelund, Anders; Hummelmose, Lars

    Copenhagen Cleantech Cluster has launched a new report, which provides an overview of Danish competencies relating to smart energy systems. The report, which is based on a questionnaire answered by almost 200 companies working with smart energy as well as a number of expert interviews, focuses on...... production, large scale solar heat, fuel cells, heat storage, waste incineration, among others, the report draws a picture of Denmark as a research and development hub for smart energy system solutions.......Copenhagen Cleantech Cluster has launched a new report, which provides an overview of Danish competencies relating to smart energy systems. The report, which is based on a questionnaire answered by almost 200 companies working with smart energy as well as a number of expert interviews, focuses...... on the synergies which are obtained through integration of the district heating and district cooling, gas, and electricity grid into a single smart energy system. Besides documenting the technology and innovation strengths that Danish companies possess particularly relating to wind, district heating, CHP...

  15. Understanding renewable energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quaschning, Volker

    2005-01-15

    Beginning with an overview of renewable energy sources including biomass, hydroelectricity, geothermal, tidal, wind and solar power, this book explores the fundamentals of different renewable energy systems. The main focus is on technologies with high development potential such as solar thermal systems, photovoltaics and wind power. This text not only describes technological aspects, but also deals consciously with problems of the energy industry. In this way, the topics are treated in a holistic manner, bringing together maths, engineering, climate studies and economics, and enabling readers to gain a broad understanding of renewable energy technologies and their potential. The book also contains a free CD-ROM resource, which includes a variety of specialist simulation software and detailed figures from the book. (Author)

  16. Hamiltonian Dynamics and Positive Energy in General Relativity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deser, S. [Physics Department, Brandeis University, Waltham, MA (United States)

    1969-07-15

    A review is first given of the Hamiltonian formulation of general relativity; the gravitational field is a self-interacting massless spin-two system within the framework of ordinary Lorentz covariant field theory. The recently solved problem of positive-definiteness of the field energy is then discussed. The latter, a conserved functional of the dynamical variables, is shown to have only one extremum, a local minimum, which is the vacuum state (flat space). This implies positive energy for the field, with the vacuum as ground-state. Similar results hold when minimally coupled matter is present. (author)

  17. Stochastic Energy Deployment System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-11-30

    SEDS is an economy-wide energy model of the U.S. The model captures dynamics between supply, demand, and pricing of the major energy types consumed and produced within the U.S. These dynamics are captured by including: the effects of macroeconomics; the resources and costs of primary energy types such as oil, natural gas, coal, and biomass; the conversion of primary fuels into energy products like petroleum products, electricity, biofuels, and hydrogen; and lastly the end- use consumption attributable to residential and commercial buildings, light and heavy transportation, and industry. Projections from SEDS extend to the year 2050 by one-year time steps and are generally projected at the national level. SEDS differs from other economy-wide energy models in that it explicitly accounts for uncertainty in technology, markets, and policy. SEDS has been specifically developed to avoid the computational burden, and sometimes fruitless labor, that comes from modeling significantly low-level details. Instead, SEDS focuses on the major drivers within the energy economy and evaluates the impact of uncertainty around those drivers.

  18. Concept research on general passive system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Xu; Yang Yanhua; Zheng Mingguang

    2009-01-01

    This paper summarized the current passive techniques used in nuclear power plants. Through classification and analysis, the functional characteristics and inherent identification of passive systems were elucidated. By improving and extending the concept of passive system, the general passive concept was proposed, and space and time relativity was discussed and assumption of general passive system were illustrated. The function of idealized general passive system is equivalent with the current passive system, but the design of idealized general passive system is more flexible. (authors)

  19. Energy systems transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dangerman, A T C Jérôme; Schellnhuber, Hans Joachim

    2013-02-12

    The contemporary industrial metabolism is not sustainable. Critical problems arise at both the input and the output side of the complex: Although affordable fossil fuels and mineral resources are declining, the waste products of the current production and consumption schemes (especially CO(2) emissions, particulate air pollution, and radioactive residua) cause increasing environmental and social costs. Most challenges are associated with the incumbent energy economy that is unlikely to subsist. However, the crucial question is whether a swift transition to its sustainable alternative, based on renewable sources, can be achieved. The answer requires a deep analysis of the structural conditions responsible for the rigidity of the fossil-nuclear energy system. We argue that the resilience of the fossil-nuclear energy system results mainly from a dynamic lock-in pattern known in operations research as the "Success to the Successful" mode. The present way of generating, distributing, and consuming energy--the largest business on Earth--expands through a combination of factors such as the longevity of pertinent infrastructure, the information technology revolution, the growth of the global population, and even the recent financial crises: Renewable-energy industries evidently suffer more than the conventional-energy industries under recession conditions. Our study tries to elucidate the archetypical traits of the lock-in pattern and to assess the respective importance of the factors involved. In particular, we identify modern corporate law as a crucial system element that thus far has been largely ignored. Our analysis indicates that the rigidity of the existing energy economy would be reduced considerably by the assignment of unlimited liabilities to the shareholders.

  20. Wind Energy Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conservation and Renewable Energy Inquiry and Referral Service (DOE), Silver Spring, MD.

    During the 1920s and 1930s, millions of wind energy systems were used on farms and other locations far from utility lines. However, with passage of the Rural Electrification Act in 1939, cheap electricity was brought to rural areas. After that, the use of wind machines dramatically declined. Recently, the rapid rise in fuel prices has led to a…

  1. Energy Systems Integration Facility Videos | Energy Systems Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facility | NREL Energy Systems Integration Facility Videos Energy Systems Integration Facility Integration Facility NREL + SolarCity: Maximizing Solar Power on Electrical Grids Redefining What's Possible for Renewable Energy: Grid Integration Robot-Powered Reliability Testing at NREL's ESIF Microgrid

  2. Energy Systems Integration Laboratory | Energy Systems Integration Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    | NREL Integration Laboratory Energy Systems Integration Laboratory Research in the Energy Systems Integration Laboratory is advancing engineering knowledge and market deployment of hydrogen technologies. Applications include microgrids, energy storage for renewables integration, and home- and station

  3. Energy storage connection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedict, Eric L.; Borland, Nicholas P.; Dale, Magdelena; Freeman, Belvin; Kite, Kim A.; Petter, Jeffrey K.; Taylor, Brendan F.

    2012-07-03

    A power system for connecting a variable voltage power source, such as a power controller, with a plurality of energy storage devices, at least two of which have a different initial voltage than the output voltage of the variable voltage power source. The power system includes a controller that increases the output voltage of the variable voltage power source. When such output voltage is substantially equal to the initial voltage of a first one of the energy storage devices, the controller sends a signal that causes a switch to connect the variable voltage power source with the first one of the energy storage devices. The controller then causes the output voltage of the variable voltage power source to continue increasing. When the output voltage is substantially equal to the initial voltage of a second one of the energy storage devices, the controller sends a signal that causes a switch to connect the variable voltage power source with the second one of the energy storage devices.

  4. Energy Storage System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    SatCon Technology Corporation developed the drive train for use in the Chrysler Corporation's Patriot Mark II, which includes the Flywheel Energy Storage (FES) system. In Chrysler's experimental hybrid- electric car, the hybrid drive train uses an advanced turboalternator that generates electricity by burning a fuel; a powerful, compact electric motor; and a FES that eliminates the need for conventional batteries. The FES system incorporates technology SatCon developed in more than 30 projects with seven NASA centers, mostly for FES systems for spacecraft attitude control and momentum recovery. SatCon will continue to develop the technology with Westinghouse Electric Corporation.

  5. Energy Storage and Smart Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Østergaard, Poul Alberg; Connolly, David

    2016-01-01

    It is often highlighted how the transition to renewable energy supply calls for significant electricity storage. However, one has to move beyond the electricity-only focus and take a holistic energy system view to identify optimal solutions for integrating renewable energy. In this paper......, an integrated cross-sector approach is used to determine the most efficient and least-cost storage options for the entire renewable energy system concluding that the best storage solutions cannot be found through analyses focusing on the individual sub-sectors. Electricity storage is not the optimum solution...... to integrate large inflows of fluctuating renewable energy, since more efficient and cheaper options can be found by integrating the electricity sector with other parts of the energy system and by this creating a Smart Energy System. Nevertheless, this does not imply that electricity storage should...

  6. Energy Storage and Smart Energy Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poul Alberg Østergaard

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available It is often highlighted how the transition to renewable energy supply calls for significant electricity storage. However, one has to move beyond the electricity-only focus and take a holistic energy system view to identify optimal solutions for integrating renewable energy. In this paper, an integrated cross-sector approach is used to determine the most efficient and least-cost storage options for the entire renewable energy system concluding that the best storage solutions cannot be found through analyses focusing on the individual sub-sectors. Electricity storage is not the optimum solution to integrate large inflows of fluctuating renewable energy, since more efficient and cheaper options can be found by integrating the electricity sector with other parts of the energy system and by this creating a Smart Energy System. Nevertheless, this does not imply that electricity storage should be disregarded but that it will be needed for other purposes in the future.

  7. Energy Efficient Mobile Operating Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Waseem

    2013-01-01

    Energy is an important resource in mobile computers now days. It is important to manage energy in efficient manner so that energy consumption will be reduced. Developers of operating system decided to increase the battery life time of mobile phones at operating system level. So, design of energy efficient mobile operating system is the best way to reduce the energy consumption in mobile devices. In this paper, currently used energy efficient mobile operating system is discussed and compared. ...

  8. Wellons Canada energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    Wellons Canada is a British Columbia-based company that specializes in the manufacture and installation of lumber drying and energy conversion equipment. This brochure provided details of the Wellons energy system designed for oriented strand board (OSB) plants. The brochure outlined the system's scope of supply, and provided illustrations of system procedures from the initial wet fuel bin through to the electric precipitator used for air clean-up. During the process, fuel was conveyed from the bin to metering bins into combustors and through a cyclo-blast cell. Forced draft fan systems were then used to provide primary and secondary combustion air. Radiant heaters were then used. A drop-out chamber was supplied to allow for complete combustion of fuel particles and to provide a drop-out of ash. A fan was then used to deliver diluent air to maintain the set point temperature in the hot gas stream. Refractory lined hot gas ducts were used to deliver heat to the dryers. Hot gas was then drawn through a multi-cyclone collector for ash removal. Electrostatic precipitators were used to clean up emissions on a continuous operating basis. An automatic system was used to collect ash from the combustion system grates and other areas. Details of installation services provided by the company were also included. 42 figs.

  9. Wind energy conversion system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longrigg, Paul

    1987-01-01

    The wind energy conversion system includes a wind machine having a propeller connected to a generator of electric power, the propeller rotating the generator in response to force of an incident wind. The generator converts the power of the wind to electric power for use by an electric load. Circuitry for varying the duty factor of the generator output power is connected between the generator and the load to thereby alter a loading of the generator and the propeller by the electric load. Wind speed is sensed electro-optically to provide data of wind speed upwind of the propeller, to thereby permit tip speed ratio circuitry to operate the power control circuitry and thereby optimize the tip speed ratio by varying the loading of the propeller. Accordingly, the efficiency of the wind energy conversion system is maximized.

  10. 21st Century's energy: Hydrogen energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veziroglu, T. Nejat; Sahin, Suemer

    2008-01-01

    Fossil fuels (i.e., petroleum, natural gas and coal), which meet most of the world's energy demand today, are being depleted fast. Also, their combustion products are causing the global problems, such as the greenhouse effect, ozone layer depletion, acid rains and pollution, which are posing great danger for our environment and eventually for the life in our planet. Many engineers and scientists agree that the solution to these global problems would be to replace the existing fossil fuel system by the hydrogen energy system. Hydrogen is a very efficient and clean fuel. Its combustion will produce no greenhouse gases, no ozone layer depleting chemicals, little or no acid rain ingredients and pollution. Hydrogen, produced from renewable energy (e.g., solar) sources, would result in a permanent energy system, which we would never have to change. However, there are other energy systems proposed for the post-petroleum era, such as a synthetic fossil fuel system. In this system, synthetic gasoline and synthetic natural gas will be produced using abundant deposits of coal. In a way, this will ensure the continuation of the present fossil fuel system. The two possible energy systems for the post-fossil fuel era (i.e., the solar-hydrogen energy system and the synthetic fossil fuel system) are compared with the present fossil fuel system by taking into consideration production costs, environmental damages and utilization efficiencies. The results indicate that the solar-hydrogen energy system is the best energy system to ascertain a sustainable future, and it should replace the fossil fuel system before the end of the 21st century

  11. 21st century's energy: hydrogen energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veziroglu, T. N.

    2007-01-01

    Fossil fuels (i.e., petroleum, natural gas and coal), which meet most of the world's energy demand today, are being depleted fast. Also, their combustion products are causing the global problems, such as the greenhouse effect, ozone layer depletion, acid rains and pollution, which are posing great danger for our environment and eventually for the life in our planet. Many engineers and scientists agree that the solution to these global problems would be to replace the existing fossil fuel system by the Hydrogen Energy System. Hydrogen is a very efficient and clean fuel. Its combustion will produce no greenhouse gases, no ozone layer depleting chemicals, little or no acid rain ingredients and pollution. Hydrogen, produced from renewable energy (e.g., solar) sources, would result in a permanent energy system, which we would never have to change. However, there are other energy systems proposed for the post-petroleum era, such as a synthetic fossil fuel system. In this system, synthetic gasoline and synthetic natural gas will be produced using abundant deposits of coal. In a way, this will ensure the continuation of the present fossil fuel system. The two possible energy systems for the post-fossil fuel era (i.e., the solar hydrogen energy system and the synthetic fossil fuel system) are compared with the present fossil fuel system by taking into consideration production costs, environmental damages and utilization efficiencies. The results indicate that the solar hydrogen energy system is the best energy system to ascertain a sustainable future, and it should replace the fossil fuel system before the end of the 21st Century

  12. Hydrogen energy systems studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogden, J.M.; Steinbugler, M.; Dennis, E. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)] [and others

    1995-09-01

    For several years, researchers at Princeton University`s Center for Energy and Environmental Studies have carried out technical and economic assessments of hydrogen energy systems. Initially, we focussed on the long term potential of renewable hydrogen. More recently we have explored how a transition to renewable hydrogen might begin. The goal of our current work is to identify promising strategies leading from near term hydrogen markets and technologies toward eventual large scale use of renewable hydrogen as an energy carrier. Our approach has been to assess the entire hydrogen energy system from production through end-use considering technical performance, economics, infrastructure and environmental issues. This work is part of the systems analysis activity of the DOE Hydrogen Program. In this paper we first summarize the results of three tasks which were completed during the past year under NREL Contract No. XR-11265-2: in Task 1, we carried out assessments of near term options for supplying hydrogen transportation fuel from natural gas; in Task 2, we assessed the feasibility of using the existing natural gas system with hydrogen and hydrogen blends; and in Task 3, we carried out a study of PEM fuel cells for residential cogeneration applications, a market which might have less stringent cost requirements than transportation. We then give preliminary results for two other tasks which are ongoing under DOE Contract No. DE-FG04-94AL85803: In Task 1 we are assessing the technical options for low cost small scale production of hydrogen from natural gas, considering (a) steam reforming, (b) partial oxidation and (c) autothermal reforming, and in Task 2 we are assessing potential markets for hydrogen in Southern California.

  13. The Nature of Living Systems: An Exposition of the Basic Concepts in General Systems Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, James G.

    General systems theory is a set of related definitions, assumptions, and propositions which deal with reality as an integrated hierarchy of organizations of matter and energy. In this paper, the author defines the concepts of space, time, matter, energy, and information in terms of their meaning in general systems theory. He defines a system as a…

  14. General overview of the Mexican energy sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-Jacome, D.

    1999-01-01

    An overview of Mexico's energy sector was presented, with particular focus on the natural gas and electricity sectors. Mexico ranks fifth in oil production, eighth in proven oil reserves, and fourteenth in natural gas reserves. In 1998, the energy sector generated 3.3 per cent of Mexico's gross domestic product (GDP), and oil accounted for 7.5 per cent of total exports. National production of natural gas has been forecasted to grow at a rate of 5.2 per cent annually over the next 10 years. This will be largely due to the increased demand for natural gas to produce electricity. The Mexican government has also taken initiatives to restructure the Mexican energy sector with particular focus on increasing the competitiveness of the electric power industry. Electricity demand is also expected to grow at a rate of 6 per cent annually over the next six years. The objectives of energy reform are to promote more investment from all sectors in order to strengthen the development of the electric power industry and to provide a reliable, high quality service at competitive prices. 9 figs

  15. Covariant generalized holographic dark energy and accelerating universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nojiri, Shin'ichi; Odintsov, S. D.

    2017-08-01

    We propose the generalized holographic dark energy model where the infrared cutoff is identified with the combination of the FRW universe parameters: the Hubble rate, particle and future horizons, cosmological constant, the universe lifetime (if finite) and their derivatives. It is demonstrated that with the corresponding choice of the cutoff one can map such holographic dark energy to modified gravity or gravity with a general fluid. Explicitly, F( R) gravity and the general perfect fluid are worked out in detail and the corresponding infrared cutoff is found. Using this correspondence, we get realistic inflation or viable dark energy or a unified inflationary-dark energy universe in terms of covariant holographic dark energy.

  16. Multiple Energy System Analysis of Smart Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thellufsen, Jakob Zinck

    2015-01-01

    thermal grids and smart gas grids, Smart Energy Systems moves the flexibility away from the fuel as is the case in current energy systems and into the system itself. However, most studies applying a Smart Energy System approach deals with analyses for either single countries or whole continents......To eliminate the use of fossil fuels in the energy sector it is necessary to transition to future 100% renewable energy systems. One approach for this radical change in our energy systems is Smart Energy Systems. With a focus on development and interaction between smart electricity grids, smart......, but it is unclear how regions, municipalities, and communities should deal with these national targets. It is necessary to be able to provide this information since Smart Energy Systems utilize energy resources and initiatives that have strong relations to local authorities and communities, such as onshore wind...

  17. Energy systems in transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haefele, W.

    1989-01-01

    The principal point of the author was to discuss energy systems (ES) in transition, transition addresses the next 10-25 years, and strategy of the transition. He considers different scenarios of future development of ES. Further he presents considerations elaborated during the last years on the concept of novel horizontally integrated ES which gives promise to be at least an approximation to the desired object of no emissions. The main ideas of the concept are: to decompose and thereby clean all the primary inputs before they are brought to combustion; to develop a network combining all the primary inputs to an integrated supply structure of high absorption, buffer, and storage capacity that resembles in some way the supply and utility functions of the well established electric grid but completes it at best on the basis of mass flows; to achieve a high flexibility in supplying the final energy. The author considers the long run perspective of hydrogen, solar, and nuclear energy with respect to alternative energy sources. 6 refs, 24 figs

  18. Quantum vacuum energy in general relativity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henke, Christian [University of Technology at Clausthal, Department of Mathematics, Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany)

    2018-02-15

    The paper deals with the scale discrepancy between the observed vacuum energy in cosmology and the theoretical quantum vacuum energy (cosmological constant problem). Here, we demonstrate that Einstein's equation and an analogy to particle physics leads to the first physical justification of the so-called fine-tuning problem. This fine-tuning could be automatically satisfied with the variable cosmological term Λ(a) = Λ{sub 0} + Λ{sub 1}a{sup -(4-ε)}, 0 < ε << 1, where a is the scale factor. As a side effect of our solution of the cosmological constant problem, the dynamical part of the cosmological term generates an attractive force and solves the missing mass problem of dark matter. (orig.)

  19. General program of energy research: innovation in hard coal, 1974-1977. New drivage systems. Rahmenprogramm energieforschung: innovation steinkohle, 1974-1977. Neue vortriebssysteme. Volume 1, Part 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-01

    During the four year period of the program, initiated by the German Federal government, 19 research and machine development projects in the field of road heading machines were subsidized. The Juelich energy research project management oversaw the progress of the programs. Projects for developing new machines at a total cost of 0.1 to 3.2 million DM per project were subsidized by 50%. The developed machinery includes the Roboter, WAV 200 and AM 50 high powered road cutter loaders, HSV 4 and Hausherr Mini ripper hydraulic percussion hammer heading machines, the DEMAG/SVM full face tunneling machine with a cutting head of 6 m in diameter, efficient drilling and blasting equipment for road drivage in rock and mechanized systems for achieving efficient support work, and keeping pace with the speed of mine drivage.

  20. Energy System Analysis of 100 Per cent Renewable Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Mathiesen, Brian Vad

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the methodology and results of the overall energy system analysis of a 100 per cent renewable energy system. The input for the systems is the result of a project of the Danish Association of Engineers, in which 1600 participants during more than 40 seminars discussed...... and designed a model for the future energy system of Denmark, putting emphasis on energy efficiency, CO2 reduction, and industrial development. The energy system analysis methodology includes hour by hour computer simulations leading to the design of flexible energy systems with the ability to balance...... the electricity supply and demand and to exchange electricity productions on the international electricity markets. The results are detailed system designs and energy balances for two energy target years: year 2050 with 100 per cent renewable energy from biomass and combinations of wind, wave and solar power...

  1. Energy Storage Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, David

    2017-07-01

    As renewable energy use expands there will be a need to develop ways to balance its variability. Storage is one of the options. Presently the main emphasis is for systems storing electrical power in advanced batteries (many of them derivatives of parallel developments in the electric vehicle field), as well as via liquid air storage, compressed air storage, super-capacitors and flywheels, and, the leader so far, pumped hydro reservoirs. In addition, new systems are emerging for hydrogen generation and storage, feeding fuel cell power production. Heat (and cold) is also a storage medium and some systems exploit thermal effects as part of wider energy management activity. Some of the more exotic ones even try to use gravity on a large scale. This short book looks at all the options, their potentials and their limits. There are no clear winners, with some being suited to short-term balancing and others to longer-term storage. The eventual mix adopted will be shaped by the pattern of development of other balancing measures, including smart-grid demand management and super-grid imports and exports.

  2. General systems theory mathematical foundations

    CERN Document Server

    Mesarovic, Mihajlo D

    1975-01-01

    In this book, we study theoretical and practical aspects of computing methods for mathematical modelling of nonlinear systems. A number of computing techniques are considered, such as methods of operator approximation with any given accuracy; operator interpolation techniques including a non-Lagrange interpolation; methods of system representation subject to constraints associated with concepts of causality, memory and stationarity; methods of system representation with an accuracy that is the best within a given class of models; methods of covariance matrix estimation;methods for low-rank mat

  3. Smart energy and smart energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Østergaard, Poul Alberg; Connolly, David

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, the terms “Smart Energy” and “Smart Energy Systems” have been used to express an approach that reaches broader than the term “Smart grid”. Where Smart Grids focus primarily on the electricity sector, Smart Energy Systems take an integrated holistic focus on the inclusion of more...... sectors (electricity, heating, cooling, industry, buildings and transportation) and allows for the identification of more achievable and affordable solutions to the transformation into future renewable and sustainable energy solutions. This paper first makes a review of the scientific literature within...... the field. Thereafter it discusses the term Smart Energy Systems with regard to the issues of definition, identification of solu- tions, modelling, and integration of storage. The conclusion is that the Smart Energy System concept represents a scientific shift in paradigms away from single-sector thinking...

  4. Energy Systems Integration News | Energy Systems Integration Facility |

    Science.gov (United States)

    the Energy Systems Integration Facility as part of NREL's work with SolarCity and the Hawaiian Electric Companies. Photo by Amy Glickson, NREL Welcome to Energy Systems Integration News, NREL's monthly date on the latest energy systems integration (ESI) developments at NREL and worldwide. Have an item

  5. Energy Systems High-Pressure Test Laboratory | Energy Systems Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facility | NREL Energy Systems High-Pressure Test Laboratory Energy Systems High-Pressure Test Laboratory In the Energy Systems Integration Facility's High-Pressure Test Laboratory, researchers can safely test high-pressure hydrogen components. Photo of researchers running an experiment with a hydrogen fuel

  6. General Systems Theory and Instructional Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salisbury, David F.

    The use of general systems theory in the field of instructional systems design (ISD) is explored in this paper. Drawing on work by Young, the writings of 12 representative ISD writers and researchers were surveyed to determine the use of 60 general systems theory concepts by the individual authors. The average number of concepts used by these…

  7. General Logic-Systems and Consequence Operators

    OpenAIRE

    Herrmann, Robert A.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, general logic-systems are investigated. It is shown that there are infinitely many finite consequence operators defined on a fixed language L that cannot be generated from a finite logic-system. It is shown that a set map is a finite consequence operator iff it is defined by a general logic-system.

  8. HYDROKINETIC ENERGY CONVERSION SYSTEMS: PROSPECTS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    Hydrokinetic energy conversion systems utilize the kinetic energy of flowing water bodies with little or no head to generate ... generator. ... Its principle of operation is analogous to that of wind ..... Crisis-solar and wind power systems, 2009,.

  9. Integrated energy systems and local energy markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Münster, Ebbe

    2006-01-01

    Significant benefits are connected with an increase in the flexibility of the Danish energy system. On the one hand, it is possible to benefit from trading electricity with neighbouring countries, and on the other, Denmark will be able to make better use of wind power and other types of renewable...... energy in the future. This paper presents the analysis of different ways of increasing flexibility in the Danish energy system by the use of local regulation mechanisms. This strategy is compared with the opposite extreme, i.e. trying to solve all balancing problems via electricity trade...

  10. Wind Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Ma, Ke

    2017-01-01

    transmission networks at the scale of hundreds of megawatts. As its level of grid penetration has begun to increase dramatically, wind power is starting to have a significant impact on the operation of the modern grid system. Advanced power electronics technologies are being introduced to improve......Wind power now represents a major and growing source of renewable energy. Large wind turbines (with capacities of up to 6-8 MW) are widely installed in power distribution networks. Increasing numbers of onshore and offshore wind farms, acting as power plants, are connected directly to power...... the characteristics of the wind turbines, and make them more suitable for integration into the power grid. Meanwhile, there are some emerging challenges that still need to be addressed. This paper provides an overview and discusses some trends in the power electronics technologies used for wind power generation...

  11. Energy Systems Integration News | Energy Systems Integration Facility |

    Science.gov (United States)

    organization and independent system operator settle energy transactions in its real-time markets at the same time interval it dispatches energy, and settle operating reserves transactions in its real-time markets the electric grid. These control systems will enable real-time coordination between distributed energy

  12. Renewable energy covernance systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hvelplund, F.

    2001-01-01

    The 'political quota-/certificate price market' system introduces an inefficient competition between energy robots, and weakens the increasingly important competition between equipment producers. It hampers the competition between investors by making it difficult for neighbours and local investors to invest in wind turbines. Due to its mono price character, it gives too high profits to wind turbine owners at very good wind sites, and not high enough to wind turbine owners at poor wind sites. The 'political quota-/certificate price market' system is very far from being a market model, as the RE amount is politically decided and the certificate market price is also political influenced. The conclusion, therefore, is that it is time to find a RE governance model that considers the specific needs and characteristics of RE technologies. The present analysis strongly indicates that a 'political price-/amount market' model in this connection is far better than the 'political quota-/certificate price market' model. Furthermore, a common EU model, based on the principle of site efficiency, would be much more flexible, cheaper and easier to pursue than the 'political quota-/certificate price market', or mono price model, which is designed for uranium and fossil fuel technologies, and represents a governance model designed for the technologies of yesterday. (EHS)

  13. Gestalt Therapy and General System Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitner, Phillip A.

    While General Systems Theory (GST) concepts appear to be applicable in explaining some of the phenomena that occur in a Gestalt Therapy group, research is needed to support this assumption. General Systems Theory may not be a group theory per se. Instead, GST may be a theory about groups. A meta-theory exists where its value and usefulness is…

  14. Decaying states as complex energy eigenvectors in generalized quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudarshan, E.C.G.; Chiu, C.B.; Gorini, V.

    1977-04-01

    The problem of particle decay is reexamined within the Hamiltonian formalism. By deforming contours of integration, the survival amplitude is expressed as a sum of purely exponential contributions arising from the simple poles of the resolvent on the second sheet plus a background integral along a complex contour GAMMA running below the location of the poles. One observes that the time dependence of the survival amplitude in the small time region is strongly correlated to the asymptotic behaviour of the energy spectrum of the system; one computes the small time behavior of the survival amplitude for a wide variety of asymptotic behaviors. In the special case of the Lee model, using a formal procedure of analytic continuation, it is shown that a complete set of complex energy eigenvectors of the Hamiltonian can be associated with the poles of the resolvent of the background contour GAMMA. These poles and points along GAMMA correspond to the discrete and the continuum states respectively. In this context, each unstable particle is associated with a well defined object, which is a discrete generalized eigenstate of the Hamiltonian having a complex eigenvalue, with its real and negative imaginary parts being the mass and half width of the particle respectively. Finally, one briefly discusses the analytic continuation of the scattering amplitude within this generalized scheme, and notes the appearance of ''redundant poles'' which do not correspond to discrete solutions of the modified eigenvalue problem

  15. Constraints on stress-energy perturbations in general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traschen, J.

    1985-01-01

    Conditions are found for the existence of integral constraints on stress-energy perturbations in general relativity. The integral constraints can be thought of as a general-relativistic generalization of the conservation of energy and momentum of matter perturbations in special relativity. The constraints are stated in terms of a vector field V, and the Robertson-Walker spacetimes are shown to have such constraint vectors. Although in general V is not a Killing vector, in a vacuum spacetime the constraint vectors are precisely the Killing vectors

  16. Energy Systems Integration News | Energy Systems Integration Facility |

    Science.gov (United States)

    grids. In terms of paper sessions, NREL ESI researcher Santosh Veda chaired a session on energy Kroposki chaired a session on advanced renewable energy power systems. While Veda, Muljadi, and Kroposki

  17. National Energy Outlook Modelling System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volkers, C.M. [ECN Policy Studies, Petten (Netherlands)

    2013-12-15

    For over 20 years, the Energy research Centre of the Netherlands (ECN) has been developing the National Energy Outlook Modelling System (NEOMS) for Energy projections and policy evaluations. NEOMS enables 12 energy models of ECN to exchange data and produce consistent and detailed results.

  18. General Merchandise 50% Energy Savings Technical Support Document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hale, E.; Leach, M.; Hirsch, A.; Torcellini, P.

    2009-09-01

    This report documents technical analysis for medium-box general merchandise stores aimed at providing design guidance that achieves whole-building energy savings of at least 50% over ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2004.

  19. Commercial Building Partnership General Merchandise Energy Savings Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-03-01

    The Commercial Building Partnership (CBP) paired selected commercial building owners and operators with representatives of DOE, national laboratories and private sector exports to explore energy efficiency measures across general merchandise commercial buildings.

  20. Covariant generalized holographic dark energy and accelerating universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nojiri, Shin' ichi [Nagoya University, Department of Physics, Nagoya (Japan); Nagoya University, Kobayashi-Maskawa Institute for the Origin of Particles and the Universe, Nagoya (Japan); Odintsov, S.D. [ICREA, Barcelona (Spain); Institute of Space Sciences (IEEC-CSIC), Barcelona (Spain); National Research Tomsk State University, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Tomsk State Pedagogical University, Tomsk (Russian Federation)

    2017-08-15

    We propose the generalized holographic dark energy model where the infrared cutoff is identified with the combination of the FRW universe parameters: the Hubble rate, particle and future horizons, cosmological constant, the universe lifetime (if finite) and their derivatives. It is demonstrated that with the corresponding choice of the cutoff one can map such holographic dark energy to modified gravity or gravity with a general fluid. Explicitly, F(R) gravity and the general perfect fluid are worked out in detail and the corresponding infrared cutoff is found. Using this correspondence, we get realistic inflation or viable dark energy or a unified inflationary-dark energy universe in terms of covariant holographic dark energy. (orig.)

  1. Covariant generalized holographic dark energy and accelerating universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nojiri, Shin'ichi; Odintsov, S.D.

    2017-01-01

    We propose the generalized holographic dark energy model where the infrared cutoff is identified with the combination of the FRW universe parameters: the Hubble rate, particle and future horizons, cosmological constant, the universe lifetime (if finite) and their derivatives. It is demonstrated that with the corresponding choice of the cutoff one can map such holographic dark energy to modified gravity or gravity with a general fluid. Explicitly, F(R) gravity and the general perfect fluid are worked out in detail and the corresponding infrared cutoff is found. Using this correspondence, we get realistic inflation or viable dark energy or a unified inflationary-dark energy universe in terms of covariant holographic dark energy. (orig.)

  2. Smart Energy Systems and Energy Transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duic, N.

    2016-01-01

    Transition to decarbonized energy systems is becoming more attractive with fall of investment costs of renewables and volatile prices and political insecurity of fossil fuels. Improving energy efficiency, especially of buildings and transport, is important, but due to long life of buildings, it will be a slow way of decarbonization. The renewable energy resources are bountiful, especially wind and solar, while integrating them into current energy systems is proving to be a challenge. Solar has reached grid parity making it cheapest electricity source for retail customers in most of the World, creating new prosumer markets. It has started to reach cost parity in sunny countries, and soon solar energy will be cheapest everywhere. The limit of cheap and easy integration for wind is around 20% of yearly electricity generation, while a combined wind and solar may reach 30%. Going any further asks for implementation of completely free energy markets (involving day ahead, intraday and various reserve and ancillary services markets), demand response, coupling of wholesale and retail energy prices, and it involves integration between electricity, heat, water and transport systems. The cheapest and simplest way of increasing further the penetration of renewables is integrating power and heating/cooling systems through the use of district heating and cooling (which may be centrally controlled and may have significant heat storage capacity), since power to heat technologies are excellent for demand response. District cooling is of particular importance to historic cities that want to remove split systems from their facades. In countries with low heat demand water supply system may be used to increase the penetration of renewables, by using water at higher potential energy as storage media, or in dry climates desalination and stored water may be used for those purposes, and reversible hydro may be used as balancing technology. Electrification of personal car transport allows

  3. On the generalized entropy pseudoadditivity for complex systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Qiuping A.; Nivanen, Laurent; Le Mehaute, Alain; Pezeril, Michel

    2002-01-01

    We show that Abe's general pseudoadditivity for entropy prescribed by thermal equilibrium in nonextensive systems holds not only for entropy, but also for energy. The application of this general pseudoadditivity to Tsallis entropy tells us that the factorization of the probability of a composite system into a product of the probabilities of the subsystems is just a consequence of the existence of thermal equilibrium and not due to the independence of the subsystems. (author)

  4. Proposed general amendments to the atomic energy control regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    Canada's Atomic Energy Control Act defines the powers and responsibilities of the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB). Among these is to make regulations to control the development, application and use of atomic energy. In these proposed general amendments to the Atomic Energy Control Regulations substantial changes are proposed in the designation of the authority of AECB staff, exemptions from licensing, international safeguards, duties of licensees and atomic radiation workers, security of information, and provision for hearings. The scope of the control of atomic energy has been redefined as relating to matters of health, safety, security, international safeguards, and the protection of the environment

  5. Polish energy-system modernisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drozdz, M.

    2003-01-01

    The Polish energy-system needs intensive investments in new technologies, which are energy efficient, clean and cost effective. Since the early 1990s, the Polish economy has had practically full access to modern technological devices, equipment and technologies. Introducing new technologies is a difficult task for project teams, constructors and investors. The author presents a set of principles for project teams useful in planning and energy modernisation. Several essential features are discussed: Energy-efficient appliances and systems; Choice of energy carriers, media and fuels; Optimal tariffs, maximum power and installed power; Intelligent, integrated, steering systems; Waste-energy recovery; Renewable-energy recovery. In practice there are several difficulties connected with planning and realising good technological and economic solutions. The author presents his own experiences of energy-system modernisation of industrial processes and building new objects. (Author)

  6. Constitutional compatibility of energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossnagel, A.

    1983-01-01

    The paper starts from the results of the Enquiry Commission on 'Future Nuclear Energy Policy' of the 8th Federal German Parliament outlining technically feasible energy futures in four 'pathways'. For the purpose of the project, which was to establish the comparative advantages and disadvantages of different energy systems, these four scenarios were reduced to two alternatives: cases K (= nuclear energy) and S (= solar energy). The question to Ge put is: Which changes within our legal system will be ushered in by certain technological developments and how do these changes relate to the legal condition intended so far. Proceeding in this manner will not lead to the result of a nuclear energy system or a solar energy system being in conformity or in contradiction with the constitutional law, but will provide a catalogue of implications orientated to the aims of legal standards: a person deciding in favour of a nuclear energy system or a solar energy system supports this or that development of constitutional policy, and a person purishing this or that aim of legal policy should be consistent and decide in favour of this or that energy system. The investigation of constitutional compatibility leads to the question what effects different energy systems will have on the forms of political intercourse laid down in the constitutional law, which are orientated to models of a liberal constitutional tradition of citizens. (orig./HSCH) [de

  7. Generalized Cross-Gramian for Linear Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaker, Hamid Reza

    2012-01-01

    The cross-gramian is a well-known matrix with embedded controllability and observability information. The cross-gramian is related to the Hankel operator and the Hankel singular values of a linear square system and it has several interesting properties. These properties make the cross...... square symmetric systems, the ordinary cross-gramian does not exist. To cope with this problem, a new generalized cross-gramian is introduced in this paper. In contrast to the ordinary cross-gramian, the generalized cross-gramian can be easily obtained for general linear systems and therefore can be used...

  8. Smart Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Connolly, David; Lund, Henrik; Mathiesen, Brian Vad

    2013-01-01

    • To reduce the costs of energy towards 2050 This transition faces many challenges from a variety of different perspectives, including: • Technology: The development of new technologies and infrastructures, which will enable us to utilise renewable energy resources. • Business: The design of new markets...

  9. Energy Systems Integration News | Energy Systems Integration Facility |

    Science.gov (United States)

    , utilities can operate more efficiently and profitably. That can increase the use of renewable energy sources challenge to utility companies, grid operators, and other stakeholders involved in wind energy integration recording is available from the July 16 webinar "Smart Grid Research at NREL's Energy Systems

  10. Educational Interpretations of General Systems Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hug, William E.; King, James E.

    This chapter discusses General Systems Theory as it applies to education, classrooms, innovations, and instructional design. The principles of equifinality, open and closed systems, the individual as the key system, hierarchical structures, optimization, stability, cooperation, and competition are discussed, and their relationship to instructional…

  11. Fusion in the energy system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fusion energy is the fundamental energy source of the Universe, as the energy of the Sun and the stars are produced by fusion of e.g. hydrogen to helium. Fusion energy research is a strongly international endeavor aiming at realizing fusion energy production in power plants on Earth. Reaching...... of integration into the future electricity system and socio-economic studies of fusion energy will be presented, referring to the programme of Socio-Economic Research on Fusion (SERF) under the European Fusion Energy Agreement (EFDA)....

  12. On a generalized oscillator system: interbasis expansions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kibler, M [Lyon-1 Univ., 69 - Villeurbanne (France). Inst. de Physique Nucleaire; Mardoyan, L G; Pogosyan, G S [Joint Inst. for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation). Lab. of Theoretical Physics

    1997-12-31

    This article deals with a nonrelativistic quantum mechanical study of a dynamical system which generalizes the isotropic harmonic oscillator system in three dimensions. The Schroedinger equation for this generalized oscillator system is separable in spherical, cylindrical, and spheroidal (prolate and oblate) coordinates. The quantum mechanical spectrum of this system is worked out in some details. The problem of interbasis expansions of the wave functions is completely solved. The coefficients for the expansion of the cylindrical basis in terms of the spherical basis, and vice-versa, are found to be analytic continuations (to real values of their arguments) of Clebsch-Gordan coefficients for the group SU(2). The interbasis expansion coefficients for the prolate and oblate spheroidal bases in terms of the spherical or the cylindrical bases are shown to satisfy three-term recursion relations. Finally, a connection between the generalized oscillator system (projected on the z-line) and the Morse system (in one dimension) are discussed. 41 refs.,.

  13. On a generalized oscillator system: interbasis expansions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kibler, M.; Mardoyan, L.G.; Pogosyan, G.S.

    1996-01-01

    This article deals with a nonrelativistic quantum mechanical study of a dynamical system which generalizes the isotropic harmonic oscillator system in three dimensions. The Schroedinger equation for this generalized oscillator system is separable in spherical, cylindrical, and spheroidal (prolate and oblate) coordinates. The quantum mechanical spectrum of this system is worked out in some details. The problem of interbasis expansions of the wave functions is completely solved. The coefficients for the expansion of the cylindrical basis in terms of the spherical basis, and vice-versa, are found to be analytic continuations (to real values of their arguments) of Clebsch-Gordan coefficients for the group SU(2). The interbasis expansion coefficients for the prolate and oblate spheroidal bases in terms of the spherical or the cylindrical bases are shown to satisfy three-term recursion relations. Finally, a connection between the generalized oscillator system (projected on the z-line) and the Morse system (in one dimension) are discussed. 41 refs.,

  14. Kerr-Taub-NUT General Frame, Energy, and Momentum in Teleparallel Equivalent of General Relativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamal G. L. Nashed

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A new exact solution describing a general stationary and axisymmetric object of the gravitational field in the framework of teleparallel equivalent of general relativity (TEGR is derived. The solution is characterized by three parameters “the gravitational mass M, the rotation a, and the NUT L.” The vierbein field is axially symmetric, and the associated metric gives the Kerr-Taub-NUT spacetime. Calculation of the total energy using two different methods, the gravitational energy momentum and the Riemannian connection 1-form Γα̃β, is carried out. It is shown that the two methods give the same results of energy and momentum. The value of energy is shown to depend on the mass M and the NUT parameter L. If L is vanishing, then the total energy reduced to the energy of Kerr black hole.

  15. Energy innovation systems indicator report 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borup, M. [Technical Univ. of Denmark. DTU Management Engineering, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Klitkou, A.; Iversen, E. [Nordic Institute for Studies in Innovation, Research and Education, Oslo (Norway)

    2012-12-15

    Knowledge about the innovation systems with respect to new energy solutions and technologies is of central importance for understanding the dynamics of change in the energy sector and assessment of opportunities for moving towards more climate-friendly and sustainable energy systems and for socio-economic development in the field, creation of new businesses, work places, etc.. This is the topic that in general is addressed in the research activities of the ''EIS - Strategic research alliance for Energy Innovation Systems and their dynamics - Denmark in global competition''. As part of this, the present report gives an overview of the available indicators of energy innovation systems and points out some of the limitations and potentials there currently are in this connection. Focus is on Denmark. Figures for other countries, primarily Nordic or European, are in some cases showed as well, offering a comparative perspective. (Author)

  16. Energy Systems Integration News - October 2016 | Energy Systems Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facility | NREL October 2016 Energy Systems Integration News A monthly recap of the latest energy systems integration (ESI) developments at NREL and around the world. Subscribe Archives October Integration Facility's main control room. OMNETRIC Group Demonstrates a Distributed Control Hierarchy for

  17. Energy policy of the International Energy Agency (IEA) countries. General review of the year 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This book is a general review on energy policy leaded by Members countries of International Energy Agency (IEA) during the year 1990. This book describes also the trends and the recent events which have affected energy demand, energy conservation, energy efficiency, energy supply and energy source development. This annual review gives the IEA energy forecasting for the next years, till year 2001. A detailed study of energy policy in Federal Republic of Germany, Austria, Denmark, Greece, Ireland and Japan is given. The policy of fifteen another Members countries, which have been analyzed the previous years, is recapitulated and briefly brought up to date

  18. Systems approach in energy management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutta-Choudhury, K.

    1993-01-01

    Several years ago when the author was working in the chemicals division of a paper company in Instrumentation and Controls, one experience had a lasting impact on his work approach which is systems approach. The maintenance manager told the author that a very important piece of boiler instrument of the power plant had broken down and delivery of the replacement needed to be expedited. The instrument was ordered over the phone in another city. The purchase order was personally delivered at the supplier's office and arrangements were made so the instrument was put on the next flight. A week later the maintenance manager indicated that the particular instrument still had not arrived in the plant and he could not run the power plant. Thus the company incurred substantial losses. Further inquiries showed that the instrument did indeed arrive at the plant stores on time. But, in the absence of any instructions thereon, the instrument was not delivered to the power plant. The sense of urgency was lost in the existing delivery process. In other words, the process or system failed. The whole process from requisitioning to delivery of ordered items was analyzed and corrective procedures were incorporated to prevent future repetitions. This brings up the subject of systems approach in engineering management in general and energy management in particular. This involves defining an objective and designing a system for an effective way of getting there

  19. General digitalized system on nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akagi, Katsumi; Kadohara, Hozumi; Taniguchi, Manabu

    2000-01-01

    Hitherto, instrumentation control system in a PWR nuclear power plant has stepwisely adopted digital technology such as application of digital instrumentation control device to ordinary use (primary/secondary system control device, and so on), application of CRT display system to monitoring function, and so forth, to realize load reduction of an operator due to expansion of operation automation range, upgrading of reliability and maintenance due to self-diagnosis function, reduction of mass in cables due to multiple transfer, and upgrading of visual recognition due to information integration. In next term PWR plant instrumentation control system, under consideration of application practice of conventional digital technology, application of general digitalisation system to adopt digitalisation of overall instrumentation control system containing safety protection system, and central instrumentation system (new type of instrumentation system) and to intend to further upgrade economics, maintenance, operability/monitoring under security of reliability/safety is planned. And, together with embodiment of construction program of the next-term plant, verification at the general digitalisation proto-system aiming at establishment of basic technology on the system is carried out. Then, here was described on abstract of the general digitalisation system and characteristics of a digital type safety protection apparatus to be adopted in the next-term plant. (G.K.)

  20. Distributed energy systems with wind power and energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korpaas, Magnus

    2004-07-01

    The topic of this thesis is the study of energy storage systems operating with wind power plants. The motivation for applying energy storage in this context is that wind power generation is intermittent and generally difficult to predict, and that good wind energy resources are often found in areas with limited grid capacity. Moreover, energy storage in the form of hydrogen makes it possible to provide clean fuel for transportation. The aim of this work has been to evaluate how local energy storage systems should be designed and operated in order to increase the penetration and value of wind power in the power system. Optimization models and sequential and probabilistic simulation models have been developed for this purpose. Chapter 3 presents a sequential simulation model of a general wind hydrogen energy system. Electrolytic hydrogen is used either as a fuel for transportation or for power generation in a stationary fuel cell. The model is useful for evaluating how hydrogen storage can increase the penetration of wind power in areas with limited or no transmission capacity to the main grid. The simulation model is combined with a cost model in order to study how component sizing and choice of operation strategy influence the performance and economics of the wind-hydrogen system. If the stored hydrogen is not used as a separate product, but merely as electrical energy storage, it should be evaluated against other and more energy efficient storage options such as pumped hydro and redox flow cells. A probabilistic model of a grid-connected wind power plant with a general energy storage unit is presented in chapter 4. The energy storage unit is applied for smoothing wind power fluctuations by providing a firm power output to the grid over a specific period. The method described in the chapter is based on the statistical properties of the wind speed and a general representation of the wind energy conversion system and the energy storage unit. This method allows us to

  1. Energy policies and renewable energy systems monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Nisio, Attilio; Savino, Mario; Spadavecchia, Maurizio [Electrical and Electronic Measurements Laboratory, Dept. of Electrical and Electronic Engineering - Politecnico di Bari, Bari (Italy)], e-mails: dinisio@misure.poliba.it, savino@misure.poliba.it, spadavecchia@misure.poliba.it

    2011-07-01

    Full text: The global energy crisis is forcing every country worldwide to review its policies on energy. The environmental disaster at Japan's Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant has accelerated this process. Many people around the world are citing the disaster as evidence that nuclear power would endanger the survival of mankind on earth and should be banned. Today we need to focus more substantially on energy saving, especially using smart devices with low power consumption. We have also to review the approach to the exploitation of energy and move from a philosophy 'from the ground to the subsurface' to another 'from the earth to the sun'. This paper highlights the increasing importance of solar power in meeting energy needs while achieving security of supply and minimising carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions. It deals also with the development of solar power plants, which require a supervisory control system that improves their efficiency and reliability. (author)

  2. Sustainable Energy Systems and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Dinçer, İbrahim

    2012-01-01

    Sustainable Energy Systems and Applications presents analyses of sustainable energy systems and their applications, providing new understandings, methodologies, models and applications along with descriptions of several illustrative examples and case studies. This textbook aims to address key pillars in the field, such as: better efficiency, cost effectiveness, use of energy resources, environment, energy security, and sustainable development. It also includes some cutting-edge topics, such as hydrogen and fuel cells, renewable, clean combustion technologies, CO2 abatement technologies, and some potential tools for design, analysis and performance improvement. The book also: Discusses producing energy by increasing systems efficiency in generation, conversion, transportation and consumption Analyzes the conversion of fossil fuels to clean fuels for limiting  pollution and creating a better environment Sustainable Energy Systems and Applications is a research-based textbook which can be used by senior u...

  3. Algebraic structure of general electromagnetic fields and energy flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hacyan, Shahen

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Algebraic structure of general electromagnetic fields in stationary spacetime. → Eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the electomagnetic field tensor. → Energy-momentum in terms of eigenvectors and Killing vector. → Explicit form of reference frame with vanishing Poynting vector. → Application of formalism to Bessel beams. - Abstract: The algebraic structures of a general electromagnetic field and its energy-momentum tensor in a stationary space-time are analyzed. The explicit form of the reference frame in which the energy of the field appears at rest is obtained in terms of the eigenvectors of the electromagnetic tensor and the existing Killing vector. The case of a stationary electromagnetic field is also studied and a comparison is made with the standard short-wave approximation. The results can be applied to the general case of a structured light beams, in flat or curved spaces. Bessel beams are worked out as example.

  4. CAMAC instrumentation system: introduction and general description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costrell, L.

    1976-01-01

    The CAMAC instrumentation system is described in a general way in this introductory paper which is followed by papers that discuss the system in greater detail. This paper is an updated version of the introductory paper that appeared in the April 1973 IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science

  5. Integrability of some generalized Lotka - Volterra systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bountis, T.C.; Bier, M.; Hijmans, J.

    1983-08-08

    Several integrable systems of nonlinear ordinary differential equations of the Lotka-Volterra type are identified by the Painleve property and completely integrated. One such integrable case of N first order ode's is found, with N - 2 free parameters and N arbitrary. The concept of integrability of a general dynamical system, not necessarily derived from a hamiltonian, is also discussed.

  6. State energy-price system: 1981 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, J.M.; Imhoff, K.L.; Hood, L.J.

    1983-08-01

    This report updates the State Energy Price Data System (STEPS) to include state-level energy prices by fuel and by end-use sectors for 1981. Both physical unit prices and Btu prices are presented. Basic documentation of the data base remains generally the same as in the original report: State Energy Price System; Volume 1: Overview and Technical Documentation (DOE/NBB-0029 Volume 1 of 2, November 1982). The present report documents only the changes in procedures necessitated by the update to 1981 and the corrections to the basic documentation.

  7. Battery energy storage system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tol, C.S.P.; Evenblij, B.H.

    2009-01-01

    The ability to store electrical energy adds several interesting features to a ships distribution network, as silent power, peak shaving and a ride through in case of generator failure. Modern intrinsically safe Li-ion batteries bring these within reach. For this modern lithium battery applications

  8. Proceedings of the General Committee for solar thermal energy 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibert, Francois; Loyen, Richard; Khebchache, Bouzid; Cholin, Xavier; Leicher, David; Mozas, Kevin; Leclercq, Martine; Laugier, Patrick; Dias, Pedro; Kuczer, Eric; Benabdelkarim, Mohamed; Brottier, Laetitia; Soussana, Max; Cheze, David; Mugnier, Daniel; Laplagne, Valerie; Mykieta, Frederic; Ducloux, Antoine; Egret, Dominique; Noisette, Nadege; Peneau, Yvan; Seguis, Anne-Sophie; Gerard, Roland

    2017-10-01

    After an introducing contribution which discussed the difficult evolution of the solar thermal energy sector in 2015, contributions addressed development plans for SOCOL (a plan for collective solar thermal and solar heat) which aims at reviving the market and at opening new markets. A next set of contributions discussed how solar thermal energy can be at the service of energy transition. Following sessions addressed issues like innovation at the service of solar thermal energy, energetic display of solar systems and application of the Ecodesign and Labelling directives, and the reduction of carbon footprint and the energy dependence of territories

  9. Generalized entropy formalism and a new holographic dark energy model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayahian Jahromi, A.; Moosavi, S. A.; Moradpour, H.; Morais Graça, J. P.; Lobo, I. P.; Salako, I. G.; Jawad, A.

    2018-05-01

    Recently, the Rényi and Tsallis generalized entropies have extensively been used in order to study various cosmological and gravitational setups. Here, using a special type of generalized entropy, a generalization of both the Rényi and Tsallis entropy, together with holographic principle, we build a new model for holographic dark energy. Thereinafter, considering a flat FRW universe, filled by a pressureless component and the new obtained dark energy model, the evolution of cosmos has been investigated showing satisfactory results and behavior. In our model, the Hubble horizon plays the role of IR cutoff, and there is no mutual interaction between the cosmos components. Our results indicate that the generalized entropy formalism may open a new window to become more familiar with the nature of spacetime and its properties.

  10. Holographic Dark Energy with Generalized Chaplygin Gas in Higher Dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghose, S.; Saha, A.; Paul, B. C.

    2014-11-01

    We investigate holographic dark energy (HDE) correspondence of interacting Generalized Chaplygin Gas (GCG) in the framework of compact Kaluza-Klein (KK) cosmology. The evolution of the modified HDE with corresponding equation of state is obtained here. Considering the present value of the density parameter a stable configuration is found which accommodates Dark Energy (DE). We note a connection between DE and Phantom fields. It reveals that the DE might have evolved from a Phantom state in the past.

  11. Some general scaling rules in high energy heavy ion reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, B.; Idh, J.; Otterlund, I.; Stenlund, E.

    1988-09-01

    We show, using the Fritiof model scenario that the wide variation in the number of participating nucleons tend to drown other dynamical variations in the measurables of high energy ion collisions. We propose a set if general scaling laws for inclusive distributions in which it is the mean multiplicity and the mean transverse energy from each source which are the measurables in the interactions. (authors)

  12. Formal First Integrals of General Dynamical Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Jiao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this paper is trying to make a complete study on the integrability for general analytic nonlinear systems by first integrals. We will firstly give an exhaustive discussion on analytic planar systems. Then a class of higher dimensional systems with invariant manifolds will be considered; we will develop several criteria for existence of formal integrals and give some applications to illustrate our results at last.

  13. Decarbonization of Croatian Energy System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potocnik, V.

    2012-01-01

    Energy system decarbonization is reduction of greenhouse gases (CO 2 ) emission, chiefly from the fossil fuels (coal, oil, natural gas) combustion. The main objective of an energy system decarbonization is the climate change mitigation, and at the same time development of local industry and employment, better environment and health protection, as well as reduction of the fossil fuels import and foreign debt. Croatia has small fossil fuels reserves and large renewable energy sources (RES) reserves, energy efficiency (ENEF) is relatively low, and energy import, according to the actual Energy strategy 2009, should increase from 50% to 70% until 2020. Croatian energy system participates with about one third in the Croatian foreign trade deficit. The main measures of the Croatian energy system decarbonization should be: increasing ENEF (energy savings), switch from fossil fuels to RES, administrative measures (low carbon development strategy, environmental tax reform, and decoupling income from energy sales). By urgent application of these measures, Croatia could become fossil fuels free until the year 2050.(author)

  14. Optimization Models and Methods Developed at the Energy Systems Institute

    OpenAIRE

    N.I. Voropai; V.I. Zorkaltsev

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents shortly some optimization models of energy system operation and expansion that have been created at the Energy Systems Institute of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences. Consideration is given to the optimization models of energy development in Russia, a software package intended for analysis of power system reliability, and model of flow distribution in hydraulic systems. A general idea of the optimization methods developed at the Energy Systems Institute...

  15. Integrated energy systems and local energy markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, Henrik; Muenster, Ebbe

    2006-01-01

    Significant benefits are connected with an increase in the flexibility of the Danish energy system. On the one hand, it is possible to benefit from trading electricity with neighbouring countries, and on the other, Denmark will be able to make better use of wind power and other types of renewable energy in the future. This paper presents the analysis of different ways of increasing flexibility in the Danish energy system by the use of local regulation mechanisms. This strategy is compared with the opposite extreme, i.e. trying to solve all balancing problems via electricity trade on the international market. The conclusion is that it is feasible for the Danish society to include the CHP plants in the balancing of fluctuating wind power. There are major advantages in equipping small CHP plants as well as the large CHP plants with heat pumps. By doing so, it will be possible to increase the share of wind power from the present 20 to 40% without causing significant problems of imbalance between electricity consumption and production. Investment in increased flexibility is in itself profitable. Furthermore, the feasibility of wind power is improved

  16. Income- and energy-taxation for redistribution in general equilibrium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FitzRoy, F.R.

    1993-01-01

    In a 3-factor General Equilibrium (GE)-model with a continuum of ability, the employed choose optimal labour supply, and equilibrium unemployment is determined by benefits funded by wage- and energy-taxes. Aggregate labour and the net wage may increase or decrease with taxation (and unemployment), and conditions for a reduction in redistributive wage-taxes to be Pareto-improving are derived. A small energy tax always raises the net wage, providing the wage tax is reduced to maintain constant employment and a balanced budget. High ability households prefer higher energy taxes when externalities are uniformly distributed and non-distorting. (author)

  17. Energy spectra of odd nuclei in the generalized model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. O. Korzh

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Based on the generalized nuclear model, energy spectra of the odd nuclei of such elements as 25Mg, 41K, and 65Cu are determined, and the structure of wave functions of these nuclei in the excited and normal states is studied. High quality in determining the energy spectra is possible due to the accurate calculations of all elements of the energy matrix. It is demonstrated that the structure of the wave functions so determined provides the possibility to more accurately select the nuclear model and the method for calculating the nucleon cross-sections of the inelastic scattering of nucleons by odd nuclei.

  18. The notion of general interest in the energy field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauby, P.

    2008-01-01

    The 1980's have been marked by a reversal of the reference paradigm concerning the manner in which energy issues are tackled: whilst during the whole period following the Second World War, primacy was placed on the pursuit of general interest in energy policies like in the industrial forms of organisation, the issues have tended to be tackled first of all in terms of 'markets', particularly in Europe and in developed countries. This article aims to raise once more and redefine energy issues, not using the opposition and exclusion between markets and general interest as a reference, but their relations and interactions as they are constructed, in particular within the framework of European integration processes. After giving a reminder of the essence of 'general interest', it will examine the energy issues in Europe and the construction of their relationship with the europeanization of public services. It will analyse the perspectives of a Community energy policy around three key questions: what internal market? What common policy? What public service obligations? (authors)

  19. Principles of sustainable energy systems

    CERN Document Server

    Kreith, Frank

    2013-01-01

    … ""This is an ideal book for seniors and graduate students interested in learning about the sustainable energy field and its penetration. The authors provide very strong discussion on cost-benefit analysis and ROI calculations for various alternate energy systems in current use. This is a descriptive book with detailed case-based analyses of various systems and engineering applications. The text book provides real-world case studies and related problems pertaining to sustainable energy systems.""--Dr. Kuruvilla John, University of North Texas""The new edition of ""Principles of Sustainable En

  20. Energy transfer in plasmonic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pustovit, Vitaliy N; Urbas, Augustine M; Shahbazyan, Tigran V

    2014-01-01

    We present our results on energy transfer between donor and acceptor molecules or quantum dots near a plasmonic nanoparticle. In such systems, the Förster resonance energy transfer is strongly modified due to plasmon-mediated coupling between donors and acceptors. The transfer efficiency is determined by a competition between transfer, radiation and dissipation that depends sensitively on system parameters. When donor and accepror spectral bands overlap with dipole surface plasmon resonance, the dominant transfer mechanism is through plasmon-enhanced radiative coupling. When transfer takes place from an ensemble of donors to an acceptor, a cooperative amplification of energy transfer takes place in a wide range of system parameters. (paper)

  1. Hydrogen energy systems studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogden, J.M.; Kreutz, T.G.; Steinbugler, M. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)] [and others

    1996-10-01

    In this report the authors describe results from technical and economic assessments carried out during the past year with support from the USDOE Hydrogen R&D Program. (1) Assessment of technologies for small scale production of hydrogen from natural gas. Because of the cost and logistics of transporting and storing hydrogen, it may be preferable to produce hydrogen at the point of use from more readily available energy carriers such as natural gas or electricity. In this task the authors assess near term technologies for producing hydrogen from natural gas at small scale including steam reforming, partial oxidation and autothermal reforming. (2) Case study of developing a hydrogen vehicle refueling infrastructure in Southern California. Many analysts suggest that the first widespread use of hydrogen energy is likely to be in zero emission vehicles in Southern California. Several hundred thousand zero emission automobiles are projected for the Los Angeles Basin alone by 2010, if mandated levels are implemented. Assuming that hydrogen vehicles capture a significant fraction of this market, a large demand for hydrogen fuel could evolve over the next few decades. Refueling a large number of hydrogen vehicles poses significant challenges. In this task the authors assess near term options for producing and delivering gaseous hydrogen transportation fuel to users in Southern California including: (1) hydrogen produced from natural gas in a large, centralized steam reforming plant, and delivered to refueling stations via liquid hydrogen truck or small scale hydrogen gas pipeline, (2) hydrogen produced at the refueling station via small scale steam reforming of natural gas, (3) hydrogen produced via small scale electrolysis at the refueling station, and (4) hydrogen from low cost chemical industry sources (e.g. excess capacity in refineries which have recently upgraded their hydrogen production capacity, etc.).

  2. Exergy Analysis of Complex Ship Energy Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Marty

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available With multiple primary and secondary energy converters (diesel engines, steam turbines, waste heat recovery (WHR and oil-fired boilers, etc. and extensive energy networks (steam, cooling water, exhaust gases, etc., ships may be considered as complex energy systems. Understanding and optimizing such systems requires advanced holistic energy modeling. This modeling can be done in two ways: The simpler approach focuses on energy flows, and has already been tested, approved and presented; a new, more complicated approach, focusing on energy quality, i.e., exergy, is presented in this paper. Exergy analysis has rarely been applied to ships, and, as a general rule, the shipping industry is not familiar with this tool. This paper tries to fill this gap. We start by giving a short reminder of what exergy is and describe the principles of exergy modeling to explain what kind of results should be expected from such an analysis. We then apply these principles to the analysis of a large two-stroke diesel engine with its cooling and exhaust systems. Simulation results are then presented along with the exergy analysis. Finally, we propose solutions for energy and exergy saving which could be applied to marine engines and ships in general.

  3. Photovoltaic Energy Conversion Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kouro, Samir; Wu, Bin; Abu-Rub, Haitham

    2014-01-01

    This chapter presents a comprehensive overview of grid-connected PV systems, including power curves, grid-connected configurations, different converter topologies (both single- and three-phase), control schemes, MPPT, and anti-islanding detection methods. The focus of the chapter has been on the ...

  4. Probabilistic Approaches to Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Jan Emil Banning

    of renewable energy generation. Particularly we focus on producing forecasting models that can predict renewable energy generation, single user demand, and provide advanced forecast products that are needed for an efficient integration of renewable energy into the power generation mix. Such forecasts can...... integration of renewable energy.Thus forecast products should be developed in unison with the decision making tool as they are two sides of the same overall challenge.......Energy generation from wind and sun is increasing rapidly in many parts of the world. This presents new challenges on how to integrate this uncertain, intermittent and non-dispatchable energy source. This thesis deals with forecasting and decision making in energy systems with a large proportion...

  5. Secure Automated Microgrid Energy System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    O&M Operations and Maintenance PSO Power System Optimization PV Photovoltaic RAID Redundant Array of Independent Disks RBAC Role...elements of the initial study and operational power system model (feeder size , protective devices, generation sources, controllable loads, transformers...EW-201340) Secure Automated Microgrid Energy System December 2016 This document has been cleared for public release; Distribution Statement A

  6. General Atomic's radioactive gas recovery system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahn, J.A.; Perry, C.A.

    1975-01-01

    General Atomic Company has developed a Radioactive Gas Recovery System for the HTGR which separates, for purposes of retention, the radioactive components from the non-radioactive reactor plant waste gases. This provides the capability for reducing to an insignificant level the amount of radioactivity released from the gas waste system to the atmosphere--a most significant improvement in reducing total activity release to the environment. (U.S.)

  7. Annual report 2001. General direction of energy and raw materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This report summarizes the 2001 activity of the French general direction of energy and raw materials (DGEMP) of the ministry of finances and industry: 1 - security of energy supplies: a recurrent problem; 2001, a transition year for nuclear energy worldwide; petroleum refining in font of the 2005 dead-line; the OPEC and the upset of the oil market; the pluri-annual planning of power production investments; renewable energies: a reconfirmed priority; 2 - the opening of markets: the opening of French electricity and gas markets; the international development of Electricite de France (EdF) and of Gaz de France (GdF); electricity and gas industries: first branch agreements; 3 - the present-day topics: 2001, the year of objective contracts; AREVA, the future to be prepared; the new IRSN; the agreements on climate and the energy policy; the mastery of domestic energy consumptions; the safety of hydroelectric dams; Technip-Coflexip: the birth of a para-petroleum industry giant; the cleansing of the mining activity in French Guyana; the future of workmen of Lorraine basin coal mines; 4 - 2001 at a glance: highlights; main legislative and regulatory texts; 5 - DGEMP: November 2001 reorganization and new organization chart; energy and raw materials publications; www.industrie.gouv.fr/energie. (J.S.)

  8. Electrical Energy Storage for Renewable Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helms, C. R. [Univ. of Texas, Dallas, TX (United States); Cho, K. J. [Univ. of Texas, Dallas, TX (United States); Ferraris, John [Univ. of Texas, Dallas, TX (United States); Balkus, Ken [Univ. of Texas, Dallas, TX (United States); Chabal, Yves [Univ. of Texas, Dallas, TX (United States); Gnade, Bruce [Univ. of Texas, Dallas, TX (United States); Rotea, Mario [Univ. of Texas, Dallas, TX (United States); Vasselli, John [Univ. of Texas, Dallas, TX (United States)

    2012-08-31

    This program focused on development of the fundamental understanding necessary to significantly improve advanced battery and ultra-capacitor materials and systems to achieve significantly higher power and energy density on the one hand, and significantly lower cost on the other. This program spanned all the way from atomic-level theory, to new nanomaterials syntheses and characterization, to system modeling and bench-scale technology demonstration. This program not only delivered significant advancements in fundamental understanding and new materials and technology, it also showcased the power of the cross-functional, multi-disciplinary teams at UT Dallas and UT Tyler for such work. These teams are continuing this work with other sources of funding from both industry and government.

  9. Invariant of dynamical systems: A generalized entropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meson, A.M.; Vericat, F.

    1996-01-01

    In this work the concept of entropy of a dynamical system, as given by Kolmogorov, is generalized in the sense of Tsallis. It is shown that this entropy is an isomorphism invariant, being complete for Bernoulli schemes. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  10. General Systems Theory and Counterplan Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Arnie

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the trend in academic debate on policy questions toward a wide acceptance of counterplans, encouraging combinations of proposals which appear at face value able to coexist but upon deeper analysis are incompatible. Argues in opposition to this trend by applying concepts from general systems theory to competition. (KEH)

  11. Monitoring systems and energy management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roldan Oliva, J. J.

    2011-01-01

    The current situation in the general economic framework as well as the environmental context that surrounds us, has meant that increasingly more companies and institutions concerned with the control and expenditure of resources used. Among these, as an element common to any industry, building or installation, are energy resources, respondents more strongly every year. (Author)

  12. General program of energy research: innovation in hard coal, 1974-1977. New logistical systems. Volume 2. Rahmenprogramm energieforschung: innovation steinkohle, 1976-1977. Neue logistische systeme. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-01

    The Federal Ministry of Economy subsidized 22 research and development projects in the field of new logistic systems in underground coal mines. The Juelich energy research project management, as the representative of the ministry, examined and endorsed all projects before the financial aid of 50% of the total project cost was granted. The 22 projects included development of the following underground equipment: electrical motor brakes for belt conveyors, automatic operation of underground locomotive transportation, protected batteries for use in firedamp conditions, rack wheel drives for the rack rail train and suspended monorail trolley, electrical equipment for 10 kV power supply, flame proof electrical switches, capacitors, circuit breakers, transformers and vacuum contactors,a chair lift system for personnel transportation, and also computerized monitoring systems in the field of mine operation and mine safety.

  13. Energy Conservation In Compressed Air Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yusuf, I.Y.; Dewu, B.B.M.

    2004-01-01

    Compressed air is an essential utility that accounts for a substantial part of the electricity consumption (bill) in most industrial plants. Although the general saying Air is free of charge is not true for compressed air, the utility's cost is not accorded the rightful importance due to its by most industries. The paper will show that the cost of 1 unit of energy in the form of compressed air is at least 5 times the cost electricity (energy input) required to produce it. The paper will also provide energy conservation tips in compressed air systems

  14. Nonlinear generalization of special relativity at very high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winterberg, F.

    1984-01-01

    It is shown, that the introduction of a fundamental length constant into the operator representation of the quantum mechanical commutation relations, as suggested by Bagge, leads to a nonlinear generalization of the Lorentz transformations. The theory requires the introduction of a substratum (ether) and which can be identified as the zero point vacuum energy. At very high energies a non-Lorentz invariant behaviour for the cross sections between elementary particles is predicted. Using the Einstein clock synchronisation definition, the velocity of light is also constant and equal to c in the new theory, but the zero point vacuum energy becomes finite, as are all other quantities which are divergent in Lorentz invariant quantum field theories. In the limiting case where the length constant is set equal to zero, the zero point vacuum energy diverges and special relativity is recovered. (orig.) [de

  15. Interacting holographic dark energy models: a general approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Som, S.; Sil, A.

    2014-08-01

    Dark energy models inspired by the cosmological holographic principle are studied in homogeneous isotropic spacetime with a general choice for the dark energy density . Special choices of the parameters enable us to obtain three different holographic models, including the holographic Ricci dark energy (RDE) model. Effect of interaction between dark matter and dark energy on the dynamics of those models are investigated for different popular forms of interaction. It is found that crossing of phantom divide can be avoided in RDE models for β>0.5 irrespective of the presence of interaction. A choice of α=1 and β=2/3 leads to a varying Λ-like model introducing an IR cutoff length Λ -1/2. It is concluded that among the popular choices an interaction of the form Q∝ Hρ m suits the best in avoiding the coincidence problem in this model.

  16. The baltic states' energy system

    OpenAIRE

    Nikitaravičius, Martynas

    2006-01-01

    THE BALTIC STATES’ ENERGY SYSTEM SUMMARY The goal of paper – the comparative analysis of Baltic states‘ (i.e. of Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia) energy systems in 1990-2004. The main causes that affected the development of Baltic states’ energetics are indicated in this work. By the method of statistical analysis, the comparative advantages of Baltic states‘ energetics are detected. Moreover, the main trends of further development of integration of Baltic states ‘ energetics into the energetics o...

  17. TEXT Energy Storage System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weldon, W.F.; Rylander, H.G.; Woodson, H.H.

    1977-01-01

    The Texas Experimental Tokamak (TEXT) Enery Storage System, designed by the Center for Electromechanics (CEM), consists of four 50 MJ, 125 V homopolar generators and their auxiliaries and is designed to power the toroidal and poloidal field coils of TEXT on a two-minute duty cycle. The four 50 MJ generators connected in series were chosen because they represent the minimum cost configuration and also represent a minimal scale up from the successful 5.0 MJ homopolar generator designed, built, and operated by the CEM

  18. Energy Systems Integration News | Energy Systems Integration Facility |

    Science.gov (United States)

    determine how well a solar photovoltaic (PV) system with battery energy storage can provide backup power to . These analyses will result in a design guide for climate-specific sizing of the system. NREL's Erfan , feasibility, and operational analyses for photovoltaic and concentrating solar power generation projects

  19. A general framework for intelligent recommender systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Aguilar

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a general framework for an intelligent recommender system that extends the concept of a knowledge-based recommender system. The intelligent recommender system exploits knowledge, learns, discovers new information, infers preferences and criticisms, among other things. For that, the framework of an intelligent recommender system is defined by the following components: knowledge representation paradigm, learning methods, and reasoning mechanisms. Additionally, it has five knowledge models about the different aspects that we can consider during a recommendation: users, items, domain, context and criticisms. The mix of the components exploits the knowledge, updates it and infers, among other things. In this work, we implement one intelligent recommender system based on this framework, using Fuzzy Cognitive Maps (FCMs. Next, we test the performance of the intelligent recommender system with specialized criteria linked to the utilization of the knowledge in order to test the versatility and performance of the framework.

  20. The challenge of greening energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joseph, A.; Hughes, L.

    2006-01-01

    The current state of world energy supply and demand was examined along with future challenges facing population growth, economic growth, energy-demand growth, fossil energy supply, technology improvements, renewable energy solutions, and conservation measures. It was suggested that in order to implement cleaner and greener energy technology, it is important to understand the nature of global energy systems. The challenge of defining the related ideologies of green energy and sustainability was discussed. In this paper, green energy was defined as indicating environmental compatibility with little or no negative environmental impact. This differs from the concept of sustainability, which was defined as an action that can be repeated continuously without depleting or diminishing resources. In general, green energy options include most technologies that do not involve fossil fuels. However, this paper considered a spectrum of shades of green with some options being low-impact and cleaner, and others having high environmental impacts. As an example, the authors presented the ongoing debate over nuclear energy and hydro power. Although both energy sources can be sustainable over hundreds of years, they may or may not be environmentally compatible because they are often considered to have problematic attributes. Energy from renewable sources currently accounts for less than 20 per cent of world primary energy supply because price and implementation challenges in the renewables sector do not generally compare well to other energy sources. With high energy-demands beginning to strain finite fossil-energy supplies, the energy sector is now subject to more frequent disruptions and price fluctuations. Future growth from emerging economies will demand more energy and resources. This paper also emphasized that the proportion of green sources of energy has not increased substantially in the past 3 decades, and despite many technological advances, there continue to be significant

  1. The challenge of greening energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph, A.; Hughes, L. [Dalhousie Univ., Halifax, NS (Canada). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Energy Research Group

    2006-07-01

    The current state of world energy supply and demand was examined along with future challenges facing population growth, economic growth, energy-demand growth, fossil energy supply, technology improvements, renewable energy solutions, and conservation measures. It was suggested that in order to implement cleaner and greener energy technology, it is important to understand the nature of global energy systems. The challenge of defining the related ideologies of green energy and sustainability was discussed. In this paper, green energy was defined as indicating environmental compatibility with little or no negative environmental impact. This differs from the concept of sustainability, which was defined as an action that can be repeated continuously without depleting or diminishing resources. In general, green energy options include most technologies that do not involve fossil fuels. However, this paper considered a spectrum of shades of green with some options being low-impact and cleaner, and others having high environmental impacts. As an example, the authors presented the ongoing debate over nuclear energy and hydro power. Although both energy sources can be sustainable over hundreds of years, they may or may not be environmentally compatible because they are often considered to have problematic attributes. Energy from renewable sources currently accounts for less than 20 per cent of world primary energy supply because price and implementation challenges in the renewables sector do not generally compare well to other energy sources. With high energy-demands beginning to strain finite fossil-energy supplies, the energy sector is now subject to more frequent disruptions and price fluctuations. Future growth from emerging economies will demand more energy and resources. This paper also emphasized that the proportion of green sources of energy has not increased substantially in the past 3 decades, and despite many technological advances, there continue to be significant

  2. Energy Monitoring System Berbasis Web

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novan Zulkarnain

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Government through the Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources (ESDM encourages the energy savings at whole buildings in Indonesia. Energy Monitoring System (EMS is a web-based solution to monitor energy usage in a building. The research methods used are the analysis, prototype design and testing. EMSconsists of hardware which consists of electrical sensors, temperature-humidity sensor, and a computer. Data on EMS are designed using Modbus protocol, stored in MySQL database application, and displayed on charts through Dashboard on LED TV using PHP programming.

  3. Global energy-momentum conservation in general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nissani, N.; Leibowitz, E.

    1989-01-01

    It is shown that there exists a family of coordinate systems in which the energy-momentum tensor is globally conserved. Furthermore, this preferred class of frames includes geodesic systems with respect to any arbitrary point or timelike geodesic line. This implies a physically satisfactory conservation law with no need to introduce an extraneous pseudotensor

  4. General distributed control system for fusion experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klingner, P.L.; Levings, S.J.; Wilkins, R.W.

    1986-01-01

    A general control system using distributed LSI-11 microprocessors is being developed. Common software residues in each LSI-11 and is tailored to an application by control specifications downloaded from a host computer. The microprocessors, their control interfaces, and the micro-to-host communications are CAMAC based. The host computer also supports an operator interface, coordination of multiple microprocessors, and utilities to create and maintain the control specifications. Typical applications include monitoring safety interlocks as well as controlling vacuum systems, high voltage charging systems, and diagnostics

  5. TITUS: a general finite element system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bougrelle, P.

    1983-01-01

    TITUS is a general finite element structural analysis system which performs linear/non-linear, static/dynamic analyses of heat-transfer/thermo-mechanical problems. One of the major features of TITUS is that it was designed by engineers, to address engineers in an industrial environment. This has resulted in an easy to use system, with a high-level free-formatted problem oriented language, a large selection of pre- and post processors and sophisticated graphic capabilities. TITUS has many references in civil, mechanical and nuclear engineering applications. The TITUS system is available on various types of machines, from large mainframes to mini computers

  6. Integrating renewable energy into general practice : final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-12-01

    This feasibility study was conducted to determine the viability of integrating solar thermal residential domestic hot water systems and community ground source heating and air conditioning within low-income housing projects in Toronto. The study examined the organizational changes needed to incorporate renewable energy systems for small-scale district and individual homes. The study was conducted on behalf of Habitat for Humanity (HFHT). Results of the study showed that the most significant benefits of integrating renewable energy systems will be the elimination of fossil fuel usage; reductions in home operating costs for partner families; and the potential for leveraging increased sponsorship funds. A geoexchange heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) system was recommended for the new HFHT headquarters as well as for future housing projects. It was concluded that HFHT should prepare for increased integration of renewable energy technologies as capital costs decrease and greater financial incentives become available. 15 tabs., 3 figs.

  7. Innovative nuclear energy systems roadmap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-12-01

    Developing nuclear energy that is sustainable, safe, has little waste by-product, and cannot be proliferated is an extremely vital and pressing issue. To resolve the four issues through free thinking and overall vision, research activities of 'innovative nuclear energy systems' and 'innovative separation and transmutation' started as a unique 21st Century COE Program for nuclear energy called the Innovative Nuclear Energy Systems for Sustainable Development of the World, COE-INES. 'Innovative nuclear energy systems' include research on CANDLE burn-up reactors, lead-cooled fast reactors and using nuclear energy in heat energy. 'Innovative separation and transmutation' include research on using chemical microchips to efficiently separate TRU waste to MA, burning or destroying waste products, or transmuting plutonium and other nuclear materials. Research on 'nuclear technology and society' and 'education' was also added in order for nuclear energy to be accepted into society. COE-INES was a five-year program ending in 2007. But some activities should be continued and this roadmap detailed them as a rough guide focusing inventions and discoveries. This technology roadmap was created for social acceptance and should be flexible to respond to changing times and conditions. (T. Tanaka)

  8. Medical Information Management System (MIMS): A generalized interactive information system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alterescu, S.; Friedman, C. A.; Hipkins, K. R.

    1975-01-01

    An interactive information system is described. It is a general purpose, free format system which offers immediate assistance where manipulation of large data bases is required. The medical area is a prime area of application. Examples of the system's operation, commentary on the examples, and a complete listing of the system program are included.

  9. Efficiency Evaluation of Energy Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Kanoğlu, Mehmet; Dinçer, İbrahim

    2012-01-01

    Efficiency is one of the most frequently used terms in thermodynamics, and it indicates how well an energy conversion or process is accomplished. Efficiency is also one of the most frequently misused terms in thermodynamics and is often a source of misunderstanding. This is because efficiency is often used without being properly defined first. This book intends to provide a comprehensive evaluation of various efficiencies used for energy transfer and conversion systems including steady-flow energy devices (turbines, compressors, pumps, nozzles, heat exchangers, etc.), various power plants, cogeneration plants, and refrigeration systems. The book will cover first-law (energy based) and second-law (exergy based) efficiencies and provide a comprehensive understanding of their implications. It will help minimize the widespread misuse of efficiencies among students and researchers in energy field by using an intuitive and unified approach for defining efficiencies. The book will be particularly useful for a clear ...

  10. Generalized Energy-Dependent Q Values for Fission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogt, R

    2010-03-31

    We extend Madland's parameterization of the energy release in fission to obtain the dependence of the fission Q value for major and minor actinides on the incident neutron energies in the range 0 {le} E{sub n} {le} 20 MeV. Our parameterization is based on the actinide evaluations recommended for the ENDF/B-VII.1 release. This paper describes the calculation of energydependent fission Q values based on the calculation of the prompt energy release in fission by Madland. This calculation was adopted for use in the LLNL ENDL database and then generalized to obtain the prompt fission energy release for all actinides. Here the calculation is further generalized to the total energy release in fission. There are several stages in a fission event, depending on the time scale. Neutrons and gammas may be emitted at any time during the fission event.While our discussion here is focussed on compound nucleus creation by an incident neutron, similar parameterizations could be obtained for incident gammas or spontaneous fission.

  11. Control of Solar Energy Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Camacho, Eduardo F; Rubio, Francisco R; Martínez, Diego

    2012-01-01

    Control of Solar Energy Systems details the main solar energy systems, problems involved with their control, and how control systems can help in increasing their efficiency.  After a brief introduction to the fundamental concepts associated with the use of solar energy in both photovoltaic and thermal plants, specific issues related to control of solar systems are embarked upon. Thermal energy systems are then explored in depth, as well as  other solar energy applications such as solar furnaces and solar refrigeration systems. Problems of variable generation profile and of the contribution of many solar plants to the same grid system are considered with the necessary integrated and supervisory control solutions being discussed. The text includes material on: ·         A comparison of basic and advanced control methods for parabolic troughs from PID to nonlinear model-based control; ·         solar towers and solar tracking; ·         heliostat calibration, characterization and off...

  12. Generalized direct Lyapunov method for the analysis of stability and attraction in general time systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Druzhinina, O V; Shestakov, A A

    2002-01-01

    A generalized direct Lyapunov method is put forward for the study of stability and attraction in general time systems of the following types: the classical dynamical system in the sense of Birkhoff, the general system in the sense of Zubov, the general system in the sense of Seibert, the general system with delay, and the general 'input-output' system. For such systems, with the help of generalized Lyapunov functions with respect to two filters, two quasifilters, or two filter bases, necessary and sufficient conditions for stability and attraction are obtained under minimal assumptions about the mathematical structure of the general system

  13. Integrated roof wind energy system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moonen S.P.G.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Wind is an attractive renewable source of energy. Recent innovations in research and design have reduced to a few alternatives with limited impact on residential construction. Cost effective solutions have been found at larger scale, but storage and delivery of energy to the actual location it is used, remain a critical issue. The Integrated Roof Wind Energy System is designed to overcome the current issues of urban and larger scale renewable energy system. The system is built up by an axial array of skewed shaped funnels that make use of the Venturi Effect to accelerate the wind flow. This inventive use of shape and geometry leads to a converging air capturing inlet to create high wind mass flow and velocity toward a vertical-axis wind turbine in the top of the roof for generation of a relatively high amount of energy. The methods used in this overview of studies include an array of tools from analytical modelling, PIV wind tunnel testing, and CFD simulation studies. The results define the main design parameters for an efficient system, and show the potential for the generation of high amounts of renewable energy with a novel and effective system suited for the built environment.

  14. General Navier–Stokes-like momentum and mass-energy equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monreal, Jorge, E-mail: jmonreal@mail.usf.edu

    2015-03-15

    A new system of general Navier–Stokes-like equations is proposed to model electromagnetic flow utilizing analogues of hydrodynamic conservation equations. Such equations are intended to provide a different perspective and, potentially, a better understanding of electromagnetic mass, energy and momentum behaviour. Under such a new framework additional insights into electromagnetism could be gained. To that end, we propose a system of momentum and mass-energy conservation equations coupled through both momentum density and velocity vectors.

  15. Energy Systems Integration Partnerships: NREL + Cogent Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berdahl, Sonja E [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-08-09

    NREL is collaborating with Cogent Energy Systems (Cogent) to introduce small-scale waste-to-energy technology in microgrids.The focus of the project is to test and demonstrate the feasibility, reliability, and usefulness of integrating electricity generated using a simulated syngas composition matching the syngas stream to be produced by a HelioStorm-based WTE gasifier to power a microgrid as a means of addressing and complementing the intermittency of other sources of electricity.

  16. Energy-Water System Solutions | Energy Analysis | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    System Solutions Energy-Water System Solutions NREL has been a pioneer in the development of energy -water system solutions that explicitly address and optimize energy-water tradeoffs. NREL has evaluated energy-water system solutions for Department of Defense bases, islands, communities recovering from

  17. The energy and the linear momentum of space-times in general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoen, R.; Yau, S.T.

    1981-01-01

    We extend our previous proof of the positive mass conjecture to allow a more general asymptotic condition proposed by York. Hence we are able to prove that for an isolated physical system, the energy momentum four vector is a future timelike vector unless the system is trivial. Furthermore, we allow singularities of the type of black holes. (orig.)

  18. Analysis of integrated energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuhashi, Takaharu; Kaya, Yoichi; Komiyama, Hiroshi; Hayashi, Taketo; Yasukawa, Shigeru.

    1988-01-01

    World attention is now attracted to the concept of Novel Horizontally Integrated Energy System (NHIES). In NHIES, all fossil fuels are fist converted into CO and H 2 . Potential environmental contaminants such as sulfur are removed during this process. CO turbines are mainly used to generate electric power. Combustion is performed in pure oxygen produced through air separation, making it possible to completely prevent the formation of thermal NOx. Thus, NHIES would release very little amount of such substances that would contribute to acid rain. In this system, the intermediate energy sources of CO, H 2 and O 2 are integrated horizontally. They are combined appropriately to produce a specific form of final energy source. The integration of intermediate energy sources can provide a wide variety of final energy sources, allowing any type of fossil fuel to serve as an alternative to other types of fossil fuel. Another feature of NHIES is the positive use of nuclear fuel to reduce the formation of CO 2 . Studies are under way in Japan to develop a new concept of integrated energy system. These studies are especially aimed at decreased overall efficiency and introduction of new liquid fuels that are high in conversion efficiency. Considerations are made on the final form of energy source, robust control, acid fallout, and CO 2 reduction. (Nogami, K.)

  19. Renewable Energy Devices and Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Ionel, Dan M.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, essential statistics demonstrating the increasing role of renewable energy generation are firstly discussed. A state of the art review section covers fundamentals of wind turbines and PV systems. Included are schematic diagrams illustrating the main components and system topologies...... and the fundamental and increasing role of power electronics as an enabler for renewable energy integration, and for the future power system and smart grid. Recent examples of research and development, including new devices and system installations for utility power plants, as well for as residential and commercial......, fuel cells, and storage with batteries and hydrogen, respectively. Recommended further readings on topics of electric power engineering for renewable energy are included in a final section. This paper also represents an editorial introduction for two special issues of the Electric Power Component...

  20. World energy data system (WENDS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lareau, W.E.

    1979-01-01

    This paper presents a unique application of System 2000: the storage of preformatted textual information in a completely user oriented data base. The World Energy Data System is an information system which allows qualified users online access to non-classified management level data on worldwide energy technology and research and development activities. WENDS has been used to transmit up-to-date informaion on foreign energy technology and research and development programs to DOE program divisions, the Congress, and other U.S. government officials going abroad. The WENDS concept is first described. Then, the method of storage of the textual information is discussed followed by a discussion of the retrieval system which is thoroughly designed to serve the user

  1. A more general interacting model of holographic dark energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Fei; Zhang Jingfei; Lu Jianbo; Wang Wei; Gui Yuanxing

    2010-01-01

    So far, there have been no theories or observational data that deny the presence of interaction between dark energy and dark matter. We extend naturally the holographic dark energy (HDE) model, proposed by Granda and Oliveros, in which the dark energy density includes not only the square of the Hubble scale, but also the time derivative of the Hubble scale to the case with interaction and the analytic forms for the cosmic parameters are obtained under the specific boundary conditions. The various behaviors concerning the cosmic expansion depend on the introduced numerical parameters which are also constrained. The more general interacting model inherits the features of the previous ones of HDE, keeping the consistency of the theory.

  2. The Generalized Conversion Factor in Einstein's Mass-Energy Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Sharma

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Einstein's September 1905 paper is origin of light energy-mass inter conversion equation ($L = Delta mc^{2}$ and Einstein speculated $E = Delta mc^{2}$ from it by simply replacing $L$ by $E$. From its critical analysis it follows that $L = Delta mc^{2}$ is only true under special or ideal conditions. Under general cases the result is $L propto Delta mc^{2}$ ($E propto Delta mc^{2}$. Consequently an alternate equation $Delta E = A ub c^{2}Delta M$ has been suggested, which implies that energy emitted on annihilation of mass can be equal, less and more than predicted by $Delta E = Delta mc^{2}$. The total kinetic energy of fission fragments of U-235 or Pu-239 is found experimentally 20-60 MeV less than Q-value predicted by $Delta mc^{2}$. The mass of particle Ds (2317 discovered at SLAC, is more than current estimates. In many reactions including chemical reactions $E = Delta mc^{2}$ is not confirmed yet, but regarded as true. It implies the conversion factor than $c^{2}$ is possible. These phenomena can be explained with help of generalized mass-energy equation $Delta E = A ub c^{2}Delta M$.

  3. Parton self-energies for general momentum-space anisotropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasmaei, Babak S.; Strickland, Michael

    2018-03-01

    We introduce an efficient general method for calculating the self-energies, collective modes, and dispersion relations of quarks and gluons in a momentum-anisotropic high-temperature quark-gluon plasma. The method introduced is applicable to the most general classes of deformed anisotropic momentum distributions and the resulting self-energies are expressed in terms of a series of hypergeometric basis functions which are valid in the entire complex phase-velocity plane. Comparing to direct numerical integration of the self-energies, the proposed method is orders of magnitude faster and provides results with similar or better accuracy. To extend previous studies and demonstrate the application of the proposed method, we present numerical results for the parton self-energies and dispersion relations of partonic collective excitations for the case of an ellipsoidal momentum-space anisotropy. Finally, we also present, for the first time, the gluon unstable mode growth rate for the case of an ellipsoidal momentum-space anisotropy.

  4. Generalized data management systems and scientific information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    This report aims to stimulate scientists of all disciplines to consider the advantages of using a generalized data management system (GDMS) for storage, manipulation and retrieval of the data they collect and often need to share. It should also be of interest to managers and programmers who need to make decisions on the management of scientific (numeric or non-numeric) data. Another goal of this report is to expose the features that a GDMS should have which are specifically necessary to support scientific data, such as data types and special manipulation functions. A GDMS is a system that provides generalized tools for the purpose of defining a database structure, for loading the data, for modification of the data, and for organizing the database for efficient retrieval and formatted output. A data management system is 'generalized' when it provides a user-oriented language for the different functions, so that it is possible to define any new database, its internal organization, and to retrieve and modify the data without the need to develop special purpose software (program) for each new database

  5. Generalized trends in the formation energies of perovskite oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, ZhenHua; Calle-Vallejo, Federico; Mogensen, Mogens B; Rossmeisl, Jan

    2013-05-28

    Generalized trends in the formation energies of several families of perovskite oxides (ABO3) and plausible explanations to their existence are provided in this study through a combination of DFT calculations, solid-state physics analyses and simple physical/chemical descriptors. The studied elements at the A site of perovskites comprise rare-earth, alkaline-earth and alkaline metals, whereas 3d and 5d metals were studied at the B site. We also include ReO3-type compounds, which have the same crystal structure of cubic ABO3 perovskites except without A-site elements. From the observations we extract the following four conclusions for the perovskites studied in the present paper: for a given cation at the B site, (I) perovskites with cations of identical oxidation state at the A site possess close formation energies; and (II) perovskites with cations of different oxidation states at the A site usually have quite different but ordered formation energies. On the other hand, for a given A-site cation, (III) the formation energies of perovskites vary linearly with respect to the atomic number of the elements at the B site within the same period of the periodic table, and the slopes depend systematically on the oxidation state of the A-site cation; and (IV) the trends in formation energies of perovskites with elements from different periods at the B site depend on the oxidation state of A-site cations. Since the energetics of perovskites is shown to be the superposition of the individual contributions of their constituent oxides, the trends can be rationalized in terms of A-O and B-O interactions in the ionic crystal. These findings reveal the existence of general systematic trends in the formation energies of perovskites and provide further insight into the role of ion-ion interactions in the properties of ternary compounds.

  6. Emergency notification systems for the general public

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stearns, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes various aspects of the design, installation, and evaluation of a system to alert the public in the event of an incident at a nuclear generating plant. It is based on experience in the development of alerting systems for 20 U.S. nuclear plants. An alerting system for the community surrounding a nuclear plant is generally referred to as a prompt notification system (PNS). The area within a 10-mile radius surrounding a nuclear plant where the public must be alerted is referred to as an emergency planning zone (EPZ). This circle is usually adjusted to follow the boundaries of local political jurisdictions and to enclose any concentration of population which my be on the border of the EPZ. The following aspects of PNS implementation are addressed in this paper: regulatory perspective, alternative alerting methods, PNS implementation and design, and evaluation and documentation

  7. Introduction to Renewable Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Ke; Yang, Yongheng; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2014-01-01

    . It is concluded that as the quick development of renewable energy, wind power and PV power both show great potential to be largely integrated into the power grid. Power electronics is playing essential role in both of the systems to achieve more controllable, efficient, and reliable energy production......In this chapter, the state-of-the-arts developments of renewable energy are reviewed in respect to the installed power and market share, where wind power and photovoltaic power generation are the main focuses due to the fast growing speed and large share of installed capacity. Some basic principles...... of operation, mission profiles, as well as power electronics solutions and corresponding controls are discussed respectively in the case of wind power and photovoltaic power systems. Finally a few development trends for renewable energy conversions are also given from a power electronics point of view...

  8. Get with the System: General Systems Theory for Business Officials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graczyk, Sandra L.

    1993-01-01

    An introduction to general systems theory and an overview of vocabulary and concepts are presented to introduce school business officials to systems thinking and to foster its use as an analytical tool. The theory is then used to analyze a sample problem: planning changes to a district's administrative computer system. (eight references) (MLF)

  9. Generalized projective synchronization between Lorenz system and Chen's system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Guohui

    2007-01-01

    On the basis of active backstepping design, this paper presents the generalized projective synchronization between two different chaotic systems: Lorenz system and Chen's system. The proposed method combines backstepping methods and active control without having to calculate the Lyapunov exponents and the eigenvalues of the Jacobian matrix, which makes it simple and convenient. Numerical simulations show that this method works very well

  10. Generalized Detectability for Discrete Event Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Shaolong; Lin, Feng

    2011-01-01

    In our previous work, we investigated detectability of discrete event systems, which is defined as the ability to determine the current and subsequent states of a system based on observation. For different applications, we defined four types of detectabilities: (weak) detectability, strong detectability, (weak) periodic detectability, and strong periodic detectability. In this paper, we extend our results in three aspects. (1) We extend detectability from deterministic systems to nondeterministic systems. Such a generalization is necessary because there are many systems that need to be modeled as nondeterministic discrete event systems. (2) We develop polynomial algorithms to check strong detectability. The previous algorithms are based on observer whose construction is of exponential complexity, while the new algorithms are based on a new automaton called detector. (3) We extend detectability to D-detectability. While detectability requires determining the exact state of a system, D-detectability relaxes this requirement by asking only to distinguish certain pairs of states. With these extensions, the theory on detectability of discrete event systems becomes more applicable in solving many practical problems. PMID:21691432

  11. GENERAL EARTHQUAKE-OBSERVATION SYSTEM (GEOS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borcherdt, R.D.; Fletcher, Joe B.; Jensen, E.G.; Maxwell, G.L.; VanSchaack, J.R.; Warrick, R.E.; Cranswick, E.; Johnston, M.J.S.; McClearn, R.

    1985-01-01

    Microprocessor technology has permitted the development of a General Earthquake-Observation System (GEOS) useful for most seismic applications. Central-processing-unit control via robust software of system functions that are isolated on hardware modules permits field adaptability of the system to a wide variety of active and passive seismic experiments and straightforward modification for incorporation of improvements in technology. Various laboratory tests and numerous deployments of a set of the systems in the field have confirmed design goals, including: wide linear dynamic range (16 bit/96 dB); broad bandwidth (36 hr to 600 Hz; greater than 36 hr available); selectable sensor-type (accelerometer, seismometer, dilatometer); selectable channels (1 to 6); selectable record mode (continuous, preset, trigger); large data capacity (1. 4 to 60 Mbytes); selectable time standard (WWVB, master, manual); automatic self-calibration; simple field operation; full capability to adapt system in the field to a wide variety of experiments; low power; portability; and modest costs. System design goals for a microcomputer-controlled system with modular software and hardware components as implemented on the GEOS are presented. The systems have been deployed for 15 experiments, including: studies of near-source strong motion; high-frequency microearthquakes; crustal structure; down-hole wave propagation; teleseismicity; and earth-tidal strains.

  12. Photovoltaic Energy Harvester with Power Management System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ferri

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a photovoltaic energy harvester, realized in 0.35-μm CMOS technology. The proposed system collects light energy from the environment, by means of 2-mm2 on-chip integrated microsolar cells, and accumulates it in an external capacitor. While the capacitor is charging, the load is disconnected. When the energy in the external capacitor is enough to operate the load for a predefined time slot, the load is connected to the capacitor by a power management circuit. The choice of the value of the capacitance determines the operating time slot for the load. The proposed solution is suitable for discrete-time-regime applications, such as sensor network nodes, or, in general, systems that require power supply periodically for short time slots. The power management circuit includes a charge pump, a comparator, a level shifter, and a linear voltage regulator. The whole system has been extensively simulated, integrated, and experimentally characterized.

  13. Generalized Reduced Order Modeling of Aeroservoelastic Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gariffo, James Michael

    Transonic aeroelastic and aeroservoelastic (ASE) modeling presents a significant technical and computational challenge. Flow fields with a mixture of subsonic and supersonic flow, as well as moving shock waves, can only be captured through high-fidelity CFD analysis. With modern computing power, it is realtively straightforward to determine the flutter boundary for a single structural configuration at a single flight condition, but problems of larger scope remain quite costly. Some such problems include characterizing a vehicle's flutter boundary over its full flight envelope, optimizing its structural weight subject to aeroelastic constraints, and designing control laws for flutter suppression. For all of these applications, reduced-order models (ROMs) offer substantial computational savings. ROM techniques in general have existed for decades, and the methodology presented in this dissertation builds on successful previous techniques to create a powerful new scheme for modeling aeroelastic systems, and predicting and interpolating their transonic flutter boundaries. In this method, linear ASE state-space models are constructed from modal structural and actuator models coupled to state-space models of the linearized aerodynamic forces through feedback loops. Flutter predictions can be made from these models through simple eigenvalue analysis of their state-transition matrices for an appropriate set of dynamic pressures. Moreover, this analysis returns the frequency and damping trend of every aeroelastic branch. In contrast, determining the critical dynamic pressure by direct time-marching CFD requires a separate run for every dynamic pressure being analyzed simply to obtain the trend for the critical branch. The present ROM methodology also includes a new model interpolation technique that greatly enhances the benefits of these ROMs. This enables predictions of the dynamic behavior of the system for flight conditions where CFD analysis has not been explicitly

  14. Autonomous renewable energy conversion system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valtchev, V. [Technical University of Varna (Bulgaria). Dept. of Electronics; Bossche, A. van den; Ghijselen, J.; Melkebeek, J. [University of Gent (Belgium). Dept. of Electrical Power Engineering

    2000-02-01

    This paper briefly reviews the need for renewable power generation and describes a medium-power Autonomous Renewable Energy Conversion System (ARECS), integrating conversion of wind and solar energy sources. The objectives of the paper are to extract maximum power from the proposed wind energy conversion scheme and to transfer this power and the power derived by the photovoltaic system in a high efficiency way to a local isolated load. The wind energy conversion operates at variable shaft speed yielding an improved annual energy production over constant speed systems. An induction generator (IG) has been used because of its reduced cost, robustness, absence of separate DC source for excitation, easier dismounting and maintenance. The maximum energy transfer of the wind energy is assured by a simple and reliable control strategy adjusting the stator frequency of the IG so that the power drawn is equal to the peak power production of the wind turbine at any wind speed. The presented control strategy also provides an optimal efficiency operation of the IG by applying a quadratic dependence between the IG terminal voltage and frequency V {approx} f{sup 2}. For improving the total system efficiency, high efficiency converters have been designed and implemented. The modular principle of the proposed DC/DC conversion provides the possibility for modifying the system structure depending on different conditions. The configuration of the presented ARECS and the implementation of the proposed control algorithm for optimal power transfer are fully discussed. The stability and dynamic performance as well as the different operation modes of the proposed control and the operation of the converters are illustrated and verified on an experimental prototype. (author)

  15. Entropy of holographic dark energy and the generalized second law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Praseetha, P; Mathew, Titus K

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we have considered holographic dark energy and studied its cosmology and thermodynamics. We have analyzed the generalized second law (GSL) of thermodynamics in a flat universe consisting of interacting dark energy and dark matter. We performed the analysis under both thermal equilibrium and nonequilibrium conditions. If the apparent horizon is taken as the boundary of the universe, we have shown that the rate of change of the total entropy of the universe is proportional to (1+q) 2 , which in fact shows that the GSL is valid at the apparent horizon, irrespective of the sign of the deceleration parameter, q. Hence, for any form of dark energy, the apparent horizon can be considered as a perfect thermodynamic boundary of the universe. We confirmed this conclusion by using the holographic dark energy model. When the event horizon is taken as the boundary, we found that the GSL is only partially satisfied. The analysis under nonequilibrium conditions revealed that the GSL is satisfied if the temperature of the dark energy is greater than the temperature of the dark matter. (paper)

  16. Energy Systems Integration Newsletter - December 2016 | Energy Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    system makes renewable energy integration easier. ESIF Research Shows That Connected Residential Devices and business intelligence. Baggu also noted the opportunity to harness next-generation graphical -through, ramp rate control, soft-start reconnection, and voltage-watt control. NREL then conducted power

  17. 76 FR 11437 - Application To Export Electric Energy; Societe Generale Energy Corp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-02

    ... reliability of the U.S. electric power supply system. Copies of this application will be made available, upon... surplus energy purchased from electric utilities, Federal power marketing agencies and other entities... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY [OE Docket No. EA-376] Application To Export Electric Energy; Societe...

  18. Rebound effect of improved energy efficiency for different energy types: A general equilibrium analysis for China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Yingying; Liu, Yu; Zhou, Meifang

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores the rebound effect of different energy types in China based on a static computable general equilibrium model. A one-off 5% energy efficiency improvement is imposed on five different types of energy, respectively, in all the 135 production sectors in China. The rebound effect is measured both on the production level and on the economy-wide level for each type of energy. The results show that improving energy efficiency of using electricity has the largest positive impact on GDP among the five energy types. Inter-fuel substitutability does not affect the macroeconomic results significantly, but long-run impact is usually greater than the short-run impact. For the exports-oriented sectors, those that are capital-intensive get big negative shock in the short run while those that are labour-intensive get hurt in the long run. There is no “backfire” effect; however, improving efficiency of using electricity can cause negative rebound, which implies that improving the energy efficiency of using electricity might be a good policy choice under China's current energy structure. In general, macro-level rebound is larger than production-level rebound. Primary energy goods show larger rebound effect than secondary energy goods. In addition, the paper points out that the policy makers in China should look at the rebound effect in the long term rather than in the short term. The energy efficiency policy would be a good and effective policy choice for energy conservation in China when it still has small inter-fuel substitution. - Highlights: • Primary energy goods show larger rebound effect than secondary energy goods. • Improving efficiency of using electricity can cause negative rebound. • The energy efficiency policy would be an effective policy choice for China. • Policy-makers should consider the rebound effect in the longer term.

  19. Identification of general linear mechanical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirlin, S. W.; Longman, R. W.; Juang, J. N.

    1983-01-01

    Previous work in identification theory has been concerned with the general first order time derivative form. Linear mechanical systems, a large and important class, naturally have a second order form. This paper utilizes this additional structural information for the purpose of identification. A realization is obtained from input-output data, and then knowledge of the system input, output, and inertia matrices is used to determine a set of linear equations whereby we identify the remaining unknown system matrices. Necessary and sufficient conditions on the number, type and placement of sensors and actuators are given which guarantee identificability, and less stringent conditions are given which guarantee generic identifiability. Both a priori identifiability and a posteriori identifiability are considered, i.e., identifiability being insured prior to obtaining data, and identifiability being assured with a given data set.

  20. General framework and key technologies of national nuclear emergency system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Feng; Li Xudong; Zhu Guangying; Song Yafeng; Zeng Suotian; Shen Lifeng

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear emergency is the important safeguard for the sustainable development of nuclear energy, and is the significant part of national public crisis management. The paper gives the definition of nuclear emergency system explicitly based on the analysis of the characteristics of the nuclear emergency, and through the research of the structure and general framework, the general framework of the national nuclear emergency management system (NNEMS) is obtained, which is constructed in four parts, including one integrative platform, six layers, eight applications and two systems, then the paper indicate that the architecture of national emergency system that should be laid out by three-tiers, i.e. national, provincial and organizations with nuclear facilities, and also describe the functions of the NNEMS on the nuclear emergency's workflow. Finally, the paper discuss the key technology that NNIEMS needed, such as WebGIS, auxiliary decision-making, digitalized preplan and the conformity and usage of resources, and analyze the technical principle in details. (authors)

  1. Duality transformations for general abelian systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savit, R.

    1982-01-01

    We describe the general structure of duality transformations for a very broad set of abelian statistical and field theoretic systems. This includes theories with many different types of fields and a large variety of kinds of interactions including, but not limited to nearest neighbor, next nearest neighbor, multi-spin interactions, etc. We find that the dual form of a theory does not depend directly on the dimensionality of the theory, but rather on the number of fields and number of different kinds of interactions. The dual forms we find have a generalized gauge symmetry and posses the usual property of having a temperature (or coupling constant) which is inverted from that of the original theory. Our results reduce to the well-known results in those particular cases that have heretofore been studied. Our procedure also suggests variations capable of generating other forms of the dual theory which may be useful in various specific cases. (orig.)

  2. Solar thermal energy utilization. German studies on technology and application. Vol. 1. General investigations on energy availability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, M. (Deutsche Forschungs- und Versuchsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DFVLR), Koeln (Germany, F.R.). Hauptabteilung Energietechnik) (ed.)

    1987-01-01

    The first volume of a three-volume series titled 'Solar thermal energy utilization' comprises three papers dealing with general investigations into energy availability. Their titles are: Yearly yield of solar CRS-process heat and temperature of reaction; - literature survey in the field of primary and secondary concentrating solar energy systems concerning the choice and manufacturing process of suitable materials; - considerations and proposals for future research and development of high temperature solar processes. Each of the three chapters was abstracted for entry into the database. (HWJ).

  3. Unbalance on power systems: a general review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reineri, Claudio A.; Gomez Targarona, Juan C.

    2009-07-01

    A general revision of different aspects in relation to the voltage unbalance in electric power systems is presented, that should necessarily be deeply known by technical operators and designers of facilities, installations, and electric equipment. Dissimilar unbalance definitions, unbalance measurement methods, their quantification and the interpretation of such magnitudes are revised. The causes of the unbalances in electric power systems were described and analyzed. The effects on power systems are also studied, specially those that have influence on: system operability, lost of efficiency of the three phase system and their impact in the definitions of traditional power. Similarly is studied the unbalance effect on certain loads, in particular: three-phase motors, power electronics and ASD's. Also methods to locate the origin of these problems, as well as the different normative or standards, and possible methods to mitigate their effects are deeply detailed. It is concluded in the necessity to deepen the study of the power system unbalance, because numerous non resolved aspects still exist whose solution requires of a deep knowledge on the part of the involved professionals. (author)

  4. SRAC95; general purpose neutronics code system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okumura, Keisuke; Tsuchihashi, Keichiro; Kaneko, Kunio.

    1996-03-01

    SRAC is a general purpose neutronics code system applicable to core analyses of various types of reactors. Since the publication of JAERI-1302 for the revised SRAC in 1986, a number of additions and modifications have been made for nuclear data libraries and programs. Thus, the new version SRAC95 has been completed. The system consists of six kinds of nuclear data libraries(ENDF/B-IV, -V, -VI, JENDL-2, -3.1, -3.2), five modular codes integrated into SRAC95; collision probability calculation module (PIJ) for 16 types of lattice geometries, Sn transport calculation modules(ANISN, TWOTRAN), diffusion calculation modules(TUD, CITATION) and two optional codes for fuel assembly and core burn-up calculations(newly developed ASMBURN, revised COREBN). In this version, many new functions and data are implemented to support nuclear design studies of advanced reactors, especially for burn-up calculations. SRAC95 is available not only on conventional IBM-compatible computers but also on scalar or vector computers with the UNIX operating system. This report is the SRAC95 users manual which contains general description, contents of revisions, input data requirements, detail information on usage, sample input data and list of available libraries. (author)

  5. SRAC95; general purpose neutronics code system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okumura, Keisuke; Tsuchihashi, Keichiro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Kaneko, Kunio

    1996-03-01

    SRAC is a general purpose neutronics code system applicable to core analyses of various types of reactors. Since the publication of JAERI-1302 for the revised SRAC in 1986, a number of additions and modifications have been made for nuclear data libraries and programs. Thus, the new version SRAC95 has been completed. The system consists of six kinds of nuclear data libraries(ENDF/B-IV, -V, -VI, JENDL-2, -3.1, -3.2), five modular codes integrated into SRAC95; collision probability calculation module (PIJ) for 16 types of lattice geometries, Sn transport calculation modules(ANISN, TWOTRAN), diffusion calculation modules(TUD, CITATION) and two optional codes for fuel assembly and core burn-up calculations(newly developed ASMBURN, revised COREBN). In this version, many new functions and data are implemented to support nuclear design studies of advanced reactors, especially for burn-up calculations. SRAC95 is available not only on conventional IBM-compatible computers but also on scalar or vector computers with the UNIX operating system. This report is the SRAC95 users manual which contains general description, contents of revisions, input data requirements, detail information on usage, sample input data and list of available libraries. (author).

  6. Energy efficient distributed computing systems

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Young-Choon

    2012-01-01

    The energy consumption issue in distributed computing systems raises various monetary, environmental and system performance concerns. Electricity consumption in the US doubled from 2000 to 2005.  From a financial and environmental standpoint, reducing the consumption of electricity is important, yet these reforms must not lead to performance degradation of the computing systems.  These contradicting constraints create a suite of complex problems that need to be resolved in order to lead to 'greener' distributed computing systems.  This book brings together a group of outsta

  7. DNA - A Thermal Energy System Simulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2008-01-01

    DNA is a general energy system simulator for both steady-state and dynamic simulation. The program includes a * component model library * thermodynamic state models for fluids and solid fuels and * standard numerical solvers for differential and algebraic equation systems and is free and portable...... (open source, open use, standard FORTRAN77). DNA is text-based using whichever editor, you like best. It has been integerated with the emacs editor. This is usually available on unix-like systems. for windows we recommend the Installation instructions for windows: First install emacs and then run...... the DNA installer...

  8. Design and Realization of Online Monitoring System of Distributed New Energy and Renewable Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yanfen; Zhou, Tao; Li, Mengwen; Zheng, Guotai; Li, Hao

    2018-01-01

    Aimed at difficult centralized monitoring and management of current distributed new energy and renewable energy generation projects due to great varieties, different communication protocols and large-scale difference, this paper designs a online monitoring system of new energy and renewable energy characterized by distributed deployment, tailorable functions, extendible applications and fault self-healing performance. This system is designed based on international general standard for grid information data model, formulates unified data acquisition and transmission standard for different types of new energy and renewable energy generation projects, and can realize unified data acquisition and real-time monitoring of new energy and renewable energy generation projects, such as solar energy, wind power, biomass energy, etc. within its jurisdiction. This system has applied in Beijing. At present, 576 projects are connected to the system. Good effect is achieved and stability and reliability of the system have been validated.

  9. Enhanced distributed energy resource system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atcitty, Stanley [Albuquerque, NM; Clark, Nancy H [Corrales, NM; Boyes, John D [Albuquerque, NM; Ranade, Satishkumar J [Las Cruces, NM

    2007-07-03

    A power transmission system including a direct current power source electrically connected to a conversion device for converting direct current into alternating current, a conversion device connected to a power distribution system through a junction, an energy storage device capable of producing direct current connected to a converter, where the converter, such as an insulated gate bipolar transistor, converts direct current from an energy storage device into alternating current and supplies the current to the junction and subsequently to the power distribution system. A microprocessor controller, connected to a sampling and feedback module and the converter, determines when the current load is higher than a set threshold value, requiring triggering of the converter to supply supplemental current to the power transmission system.

  10. Generalized reciprocity principle for discrete symplectic systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Elyseeva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies transformations for conjoined bases of symplectic difference systems $Y_{i+1}=\\mathcal S_{i}Y_{i}$ with the symplectic coefficient matrices $\\mathcal S_i.$ For an arbitrary symplectic transformation matrix $P_{i}$ we formulate most general sufficient conditions for $\\mathcal S_{i},\\, P_{i}$ which guarantee that $P_{i}$ preserves oscillatory properties of conjoined bases $Y_{i}.$ We present examples which show that our new results extend the applicability of the discrete transformation theory.

  11. Photovoltaic power systems energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buldini, P.L.

    1991-01-01

    Basically, the solar photovoltaic power system consists of: Array of solar panels; Charge/voltage stabilizer; Blocking diode and Storage device. The storage device is a very important part of the system due to the necessity to harmonize the inevitable time shift between energy supply and demand. As energy storage, different devices can be utilized, such as hydropumping, air or other gas compression, flywheel, superconducting magnet, hydrogen generation and so on, but actually secondary (rechargeable) electrochemical cells appear to be the best storage device, due to the direct use for recharge of the d.c. current provided by the solar panels, without any intermediate step of energy transformation and its consequent loss of efficiency

  12. Generalized trends in the formation energies of perovskite oxides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeng, Zhenhua; Calle-Vallejo, Federico; Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg

    2013-01-01

    Generalized trends in the formation energies of several families of perovskite oxides (ABO3) and plausible explanations to their existence are provided in this study through a combination of DFT calculations, solid-state physics analyses and simple physical/chemical descriptors. The studied...... elements at the A site of perovskites comprise rare-earth, alkaline-earth and alkaline metals, whereas 3d and 5d metals were studied at the B site. We also include ReO3-type compounds, which have the same crystal structure of cubic ABO3 perovskites except without A-site elements. From the observations we...... extract the following four conclusions for the perovskites studied in the present paper: for a given cation at the B site, (I) perovskites with cations of identical oxidation state at the A site possess close formation energies; and (II) perovskites with cations of different oxidation states at the A site...

  13. General theory for environmental effects on (vertical) electronic excitation energies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwabe, Tobias

    2016-10-21

    Almost 70 years ago, the first theoretical model for environmental effects on electronic excitation energies has been derived. Since then, several different interpretations and refined models have been proposed for the perichromic shift of a chromophore due to its surrounding medium. Some of these models are contradictory. Here, the contributing terms are derived within the framework of long-range perturbation theory with the least approximations so far. The derivation is based on a state-specific interpretation of the interaction energies and all terms can be identified with individual properties of either the chromophore or the surroundings, respectively. Further, the much debated contribution due to transition moments coupled to the environment can be verified in the form of a non-resonant excitonic coupling to the dynamic polarizabilities in the environment. These general insights should clarify discussions and interpretations of environmental effects on electronic excitations and should foster the development of new models for the computation of these effects.

  14. Dissipative generalized Chaplygin gas as phantom dark energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz, Norman; Lepe, Samuel; Pena, Francisco

    2007-01-01

    The generalized Chaplygin gas, characterized by the equation of state p=-A/ρ α , has been considered as a model for dark energy due to its dark-energy-like evolution at late times. When dissipative processes are taken into account, within the framework of the standard Eckart theory of relativistic irreversible thermodynamics, cosmological analytical solutions are found. Using the truncated causal version of the Israel-Stewart formalism, a suitable model was constructed which crosses the w=-1 barrier. The future-singularities encountered in both approaches are of a new type, and not included in the classification presented by Nojiri and Odintsov [S. Nojiri, S.D. Odintsov, Phys. Rev. D 72 (2005) 023003

  15. Dissipative generalized Chaplygin gas as phantom dark energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz, Norman [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencia, Universidad de Santiago, Casilla 307, Santiago (Chile)]. E-mail: ncruz@lauca.usach.cl; Lepe, Samuel [Instituto de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Basicas y Matematicas, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Valparaiso, Avenida Brasil 2950, Valparaiso (Chile)]. E-mail: slepe@ucv.cl; Pena, Francisco [Departamento de Ciencias Fisicas, Facultad de Ingenieria, Ciencias y Administracion, Universidad de la Frontera, Avda. Francisco Salazar 01145, Casilla 54-D, Temuco (Chile)]. E-mail: fcampos@ufro.cl

    2007-03-15

    The generalized Chaplygin gas, characterized by the equation of state p=-A/{rho}{sup {alpha}}, has been considered as a model for dark energy due to its dark-energy-like evolution at late times. When dissipative processes are taken into account, within the framework of the standard Eckart theory of relativistic irreversible thermodynamics, cosmological analytical solutions are found. Using the truncated causal version of the Israel-Stewart formalism, a suitable model was constructed which crosses the w=-1 barrier. The future-singularities encountered in both approaches are of a new type, and not included in the classification presented by Nojiri and Odintsov [S. Nojiri, S.D. Odintsov, Phys. Rev. D 72 (2005) 023003].

  16. International Atomic Energy Agency thirty-third general conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    A brief account is given of the 33rd session of IAEA General Conference held in Vienna from 25 to 29 September 1989. The Minister for Primary Industry and Energy, Mr John Kerin, led the Australian delegation. His statement to the General Conference highlighted Australia's role as a major uranium exporter, its committment to the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapon Treaty and support for the role which the Agency plays in it. The major Australian policy initiatives in environmental areas were also outlined. Australia continues to make a substantial extra-budgetary contribution to the Regional Cooperation Agreement for Asia and Pacific (RCA), and it has recently expanded its committment by agreeing to support a series of new RCA projects. In this context, the role played by the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization for the provision of technical assistance and cooperation in many areas of the Agency's activities is discussed. ills

  17. Deicing System Protects General Aviation Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Kelly Aerospace Thermal Systems LLC worked with researchers at Glenn Research Center on deicing technology with assistance from the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program. Kelly Aerospace acquired Northcoast Technologies Ltd., a firm that had conducted work on a graphite foil heating element under a NASA SBIR contract and developed a lightweight, easy-to-install, reliable wing and tail deicing system. Kelly Aerospace engineers combined their experiences with those of the Northcoast engineers, leading to the certification and integration of a thermoelectric deicing system called Thermawing, a DC-powered air conditioner for single-engine aircraft called Thermacool, and high-output alternators to run them both. Thermawing, a reliable anti-icing and deicing system, allows pilots to safely fly through ice encounters and provides pilots of single-engine aircraft the heated wing technology usually reserved for larger, jet-powered craft. Thermacool, an innovative electric air conditioning system, uses a new compressor whose rotary pump design runs off an energy-efficient, brushless DC motor and allows pilots to use the air conditioner before the engine even starts

  18. Maintaining Department of Energy facilities general design criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metzler, J.F.

    1985-01-01

    A General Design Criteria (GDC) Planning Board has been established in the Department of Energy to streamline the improvement and maintenance of the GDC Manual. This Planning Board, composed of a membership from field organizations and Headquarters programmatic offices, started work on 15 enhancements to the GDC Manual. One of those enhancements details natural phenomena hazards criteria. In the past year the Planning Board submitted a major recommendation which has been implemented into what is known as the GDC Improvements project. The result of this project pledges to dramatically increase the GDC Manual's utilization and effectiveness

  19. Cross section recondensation method via generalized energy condensation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douglass, Steven; Rahnema, Farzad

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → A new method is presented which corrects for core environment error from specular boundaries at the lattice cell level. → Solution obtained with generalized energy condensation provides improved approximation to the core level fine-group flux. → Iterative recondensation of the cross sections and unfolding of the flux provides on-the-fly updating of the core cross sections. → Precomputation of energy integrals and fine-group cross sections allows for easy implementation and efficient solution. → Method has been implemented in 1D and shown to correct the environment error, particularly in strongly heterogeneous cores. - Abstract: The standard multigroup method used in whole-core reactor analysis relies on energy condensed (coarse-group) cross sections generated from single lattice cell calculations, typically with specular reflective boundary conditions. Because these boundary conditions are an approximation and not representative of the core environment for that lattice, an error is introduced in the core solution (both eigenvalue and flux). As current and next generation reactors trend toward increasing assembly and core heterogeneity, this error becomes more significant. The method presented here corrects for this error by generating updated coarse-group cross sections on-the-fly within whole-core reactor calculations without resorting to additional cell calculations. In this paper, the fine-group core flux is unfolded by making use of the recently published Generalized Condensation Theory and the cross sections are recondensed at the whole-core level. By iteratively performing this recondensation, an improved core solution is found in which the core-environment has been fully taken into account. This recondensation method is both easy to implement and computationally very efficient because it requires precomputation and storage of only the energy integrals and fine-group cross sections. In this work, the theoretical basis and development

  20. Energy savings potential from energy-conserving irrigation systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilfert, G.L.; Patton, W.P.; Harrer, B.J.; Clark, M.A.

    1982-11-01

    This report systematically compares, within a consistent framework, the technical and economic characteristics of energy-conserving irrigation systems with those of conventional irrigation systems and to determine total energy savings. Levelized annual costs of owning and operating both energy-conserving and conventional irrigation systems have been developed and compared for all 17 states to account for the differences in energy costs and irrigation conditions in each state. Market penetration of energy-conserving systems is assessed for those systems having lower levelized annual costs than conventional systems performing the same function. Annual energy savings were computed by matching the energy savings per system with an assumed maximum market penetration of 100 percent in those markets where the levelized annual costs of energy-conserving systems are lower than the levelized annual costs of conventional systems.

  1. Oil Subsidies and Renewable Energy in Saudi Arabia: A General Equilibrium Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Blazquez, J; Hunt, Lester; Manzano, B

    2017-01-01

    In 2016, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) announced its Vision 2030 strategic plan incorporating major changes to the economic structure of the country, including an intention to deploy 9.5 GW of renewable energy in an effort to reduce the penetration of oil in the electricity generation system. This paper assesses the macroeconomic impact of such changes in the KSA, coupled with reductions in implicit energy subsidies. Based on a dynamic general equilibrium model, our analysis suggests that...

  2. Energy systems analysis of biogas systems; Energianalys av biogassystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berglund, Maria; Boerjesson, Paal

    2003-05-01

    The aim of this study was to calculate the net energy output and energy efficiency, from a life-cycle perspective and for Swedish conditions, in anaerobic digestion of various raw materials. Our calculations are based on literature reviews concerning the total primary energy input required for the production of biogas (i.e. direct and indirect energy inputs, e.g. when producing and distributing diesel fuels, electricity, fertilisers) as well as the biogas yield from various raw materials. Our analyses include handling and transportation of raw materials, operation of the biogas plants, and transportation and spreading of digested residues, as well as the biogas yield from manure, ley crops, tops and leaves of sugar beets, straw, municipal organic waste, slaughter waste, and grease separator sludge. All calculations concern individual raw materials. The net energy input required to run a biogas system (i.e. centralised biogas plant) typically corresponds to approximately 20-40% of the energy content in the produced biogas. Theoretically, the raw materials could be transported for some 200 km (manure) up to 700 km (slaughter waste) before the net energy output becomes negative. The variations in energy efficiency between studied biogas systems depend mainly on the type of raw material studied and the calculation methods used. Raw materials with high water content and low biogas yield (e.g. manure) require rather large energy inputs compared to the amount of biogas produced. Energy demanding handling of the raw materials, such as ley crops, could correspond to as much as approximately 40% of the net energy input. Varying energy efficiency in different parts of the biogas system, but most of all, changes in the biogas yield, could considerably affect the total net energy output. In general, operation of the biogas plant is the most energy demanding process in the biogas systems, corresponding to some 40-80% of the net energy input in the biogas systems. This implies

  3. General programmed system for physiological signal processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tournier, E; Monge, J; Magnet, C; Sonrel, C

    1975-01-01

    Improvements made to the general programmed signal acquisition and processing system, Plurimat S, are described, the aim being to obtain a less specialized system adapted to the biological and medical field. In this modified system the acquisition will be simplified. The standard processings offered will be integrated to a real advanced language which will enable the user to create his own processings, the loss of speed being compensated by a greater flexibility and universality. The observation screen will be large and the quality of the recording very good so that a large signal fraction may be displayed. The data will be easily indexed and filed for subsequent display and processing. This system will be used for two kinds of task: it can either be specialized, as an integral part of measurement and diagnostic preparation equipment used routinely in clinical work (e.g. vectocardiographic examination), or its versatility can be used for studies of limited duration to gain information in a given field or to study new diagnosis or treatment methods.

  4. Energy Systems and Population Health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ezzati, Majid; Bailis, Rob; Kammen, Daniel M.; Holloway, Tracey; Price, Lynn; Cifuentes, Luis A.; Barnes, Brendon; Chaurey, Akanksha; Dhanapala, Kiran N.

    2004-04-12

    It is well-documented that energy and energy systems have a central role in social and economic development and human welfare at all scales, from household and community to regional and national (41). Among its various welfare effects, energy is closely linked with people s health. Some of the effects of energy on health and welfare are direct. With abundant energy, more food or more frequent meals can be prepared; food can be refrigerated, increasing the types of food items that are consumed and reducing food contamination; water pumps can provide more water and eliminate the need for water storage leading to contamination or increased exposure to disease vectors such as mosquitoes or snails; water can be disinfected by boiling or using other technologies such as radiation. Other effects of energy on public health are mediated through more proximal determinants of health and disease. Abundant energy can lead to increased irrigation, agricultural productivity, and access to food and nutrition; access to energy can also increase small-scale income generation such as processing of agricultural commodities (e.g., producing refined oil from oil seeds, roasting coffee, drying and preserving fruits and meats) and production of crafts; ability to control lighting and heating allows education or economic activities to be shielded from daily or seasonal environmental constraints such as light, temperature, rainfall, or wind; time and other economic resources spent on collecting and/or transporting fuels can be used for other household needs if access to energy is facilitated; energy availability for transportation increases access to health and education facilities and allow increased economic activity by facilitating the transportation of goods and services to and from markets; energy for telecommunication technology (radio, television, telephone, or internet) provides increased access to information useful for health, education, or economic purposes; provision of energy

  5. Decentralized Energy from Waste Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca Antizar-Ladislao

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last five years or so, biofuels have been given notable consideration worldwide as an alternative to fossil fuels, due to their potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by partial replacement of oil as a transport fuel. The production of biofuels using a sustainable approach, should consider local production of biofuels, obtained from local feedstocks and adapted to the socio-economical and environmental characteristics of the particular region where they are developed. Thus, decentralized energy from waste systems will exploit local biomass to optimize their production and consumption. Waste streams such as agricultural and wood residues, municipal solid waste, vegetable oils, and algae residues can all be integrated in energy from waste systems. An integral optimization of decentralized energy from waste systems should not be based on the optimization of each single process, but the overall optimization of the whole process. This is by obtaining optimal energy and environmental benefits, as well as collateral beneficial co-products such as soil fertilizers which will result in a higher food crop production and carbon dioxide fixation which will abate climate change.

  6. Decentralized energy from waste systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antizar-Ladislao, B.; Turrion-Gomez, J. L.

    2010-01-01

    In the last five years or so, biofuels have been given notable consideration worldwide as an alternative to fossil fuels, due to their potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by partial replacement of oil as a transport fuel. The production of biofuels using a sustainable approach, should consider local production of biofuels, obtained from local feedstocks and adapted to the socio-economical and environmental characteristics of the particular region where they are developed. Thus, decentralized energy from waste systems will exploit local biomass to optimize their production and consumption. Waste streams such as agricultural and wood residues, municipal solid waste, vegetable oils, and algae residues can all be integrated in energy from waste systems. An integral optimization of decentralized energy from waste systems should not be based on the optimization of each single process, but the overall optimization of the whole process. This is by obtaining optimal energy and environmental benefits, as well as collateral beneficial co-products such as soil fertilizers which will result in a higher food crop production and carbon dioxide fixation which will abate climate change. (author)

  7. Non-existence of global solutions to generalized dissipative Klein-Gordon equations with positive energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxim Olegovich Korpusov

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this article the initial-boundary-value problem for generalized dissipative high-order equation of Klein-Gordon type is considered. We continue our study of nonlinear hyperbolic equations and systems with arbitrary positive energy. The modified concavity method by Levine is used for proving blow-up of solutions.

  8. Agent based energy management systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolter, Martin

    2012-07-01

    In liberalized, regulated energy markets, the different participants - namely producers and consumers of energy, transmission and distribution system operators as well as regulatory authorities - have partly divergent and partly convergent interests. Loads, power plants and grid operators try to maximize their own benefit in this highly complex environment accepting to act detrimentally to others. Although the relationship between the participants is mostly competitive, there are some fundamental shared interests, e.g. voltage stability, a constant system frequency or efficient energy production, transmission and distribution, which are endangered e.g. by increased injection of volatile sources in low and medium voltage grids, displacement of stabilizing bulk generation and the slowly progressing extension of the electric grid. There is a global consensus, that the resulting challenges can efficiently be faced using information and communication technologies to coordinate grid utilization and operation. The basic idea is to benefit from unused reserves by participating in deployment of system services e.g. reactive power supply to keep the voltage within certain bounds. The coordination can best be done by the grid operator. All activities of that kind are summarized under the umbrella term ''Smart Grid''. To simultaneously model the behavior and interests of different types of market participants and their convergent and divergent interests, multi-agent systems are used. They offer a perfectly fitting framework for this sort of game theory and can easily be adapted to all kinds of new challenges of electricity markets. In this work, multi-agent systems are used to either cooperatively or competitively solve problems in distribution and transmission systems. Therefore, conventional algorithms have to be modified to converge into multiple local optima using only small pieces of the entire system information. It is clearly stated, that personal

  9. Thermostatistic properties of a q-deformed ideal Fermi gas with a general energy spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, Shukuan; Su, Guozhen; Chen, Jincan

    2007-01-01

    The thermostatistic problems of a q-deformed ideal Fermi gas in any dimensional space and with a general energy spectrum are studied, based on the q-deformed Fermi-Dirac distribution. The effects of the deformation parameter q on the properties of the system are revealed. It is shown that q-deformation results in some novel characteristics different from those of an ordinary system. Besides, it is found that the effects of the q-deformation on the properties of the Fermi systems are very different for different dimensional spaces and different energy spectrums

  10. Energy Efficiency in Manufacturing Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Thiede, Sebastian

    2012-01-01

    Energy consumption is of great interest to manufacturing companies. Beyond considering individual processes and machines, the perspective on process chains and factories as a whole holds major potentials for energy efficiency improvements. To exploit these potentials, dynamic interactions of different processes as well as auxiliary equipment (e.g. compressed air generation) need to be taken into account. In addition, planning and controlling manufacturing systems require  balancing technical, economic and environmental objectives. Therefore, an innovative and comprehensive methodology – with a generic energy flow-oriented manufacturing simulation environment as a core element – is developed and embedded into a step-by-step application cycle. The concept is applied in its entirety to a wide range of case studies such as aluminium die casting, weaving mills, and printed circuit board assembly in order to demonstrate the broad applicability and the benefits that can be achieved.

  11. Boundary conditions, energies and gravitational heat in general relativity (a classical analysis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francaviglia, M; Raiteri, M

    2004-01-01

    The variation of the energy for a gravitational system is directly defined from the Hamiltonian field equations of general relativity. When the variation of the energy is written in a covariant form, it splits into two (covariant) contributions: one of them is the Komar energy, while the other is the so-called covariant ADM correction term. When specific boundary conditions are analysed one sees that the Komar energy is related to the gravitational heat while the ADM correction term plays the role of the Helmholtz free energy. These properties allow one to establish, inside a classical geometric framework, a formal analogy between gravitation and the laws governing the evolution of a thermodynamical system. The analogy applies to stationary spacetimes admitting multiple causal horizons as well as to AdS Taub-bolt solutions

  12. Technology assessment of wind energy conversion systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, B. W.; Merson, T. J.

    1980-09-01

    Environmental data for wind energy conversion systems (WECSs) have been generated in support of the Technology Assessment of Solar Energy (TASE) program. Two candidates have been chosen to characterize the WECS that might be deployed if this technology makes a significant contribution to the national energy requirements. One WECS is a large machine of 1.5-MW-rated capacity that can be used by utilities. The other WECS is a small machine that is characteristic of units that might be used to meet residential or small business energy requirements. Energy storage systems are discussed for each machine to address the intermittent nature of wind power. Many types of WECSs are being studied and a brief review of the technology is included to give background for choosing horizontal axis designs for this study. Cost estimates have been made for both large and small systems as required for input to the Strategic Environmental Assessment Simulation (SEAS) computer program. Material requirements, based on current generation WECSs, are discussed and a general discussion of environmental impacts associated with WECS deployment is presented.

  13. Total energy system in the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hijikata, K.

    1994-01-01

    The possibility of improving the thermal efficiency of energy systems from an exergy point of view is discussed. In total energy systems, we should employ multi-pass recycling consisting of thermal and chemical energies. The recycling system is supported by electrical energy, which is provided by a renewable energy source or by excess commercial electric power. This total energy system should be considered not only in one country, but all around the globe. (author). 6 figs., 4 tabs., 8 refs

  14. Advanced Grid Control Technologies Workshop Series | Energy Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    : Smart Grid and Beyond John McDonald, Director, Technical Strategy and Policy Development, General Control Technologies Workshop Series In July 2015, NREL's energy systems integration team hosted workshops the Energy Systems Integration Facility (ESIF) and included a technology showcase featuring projects

  15. Energy harvesting solar, wind, and ocean energy conversion systems

    CERN Document Server

    Khaligh, Alireza

    2009-01-01

    Also called energy scavenging, energy harvesting captures, stores, and uses ""clean"" energy sources by employing interfaces, storage devices, and other units. Unlike conventional electric power generation systems, renewable energy harvesting does not use fossil fuels and the generation units can be decentralized, thereby significantly reducing transmission and distribution losses. But advanced technical methods must be developed to increase the efficiency of devices in harvesting energy from environmentally friendly, ""green"" resources and converting them into electrical energy.Recognizing t

  16. The Island Smart Energy System and Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Zheng; Billanes, Joy Dalmacio; Jørgensen, Bo Nørregaard

    2017-01-01

    developing island smart energy systems with the integration of renewable energy resources can increase the energy supply and address the global island energy issues. The island smart energy system operates either in a single-island or in multi-islands. However the island characteristics and influ...

  17. Energy Systems Group. Annual Progress Report 1984

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grohnheit, Poul Erik; Larsen, Hans Hvidtfeldt; Villadsen, B.

    The report describes the work of the Energy Systems Group at Risø National Laboratory during 1984. The activities may be roughly classified as development and use of energy-economy models, energy systems analysis, energy technology assessment and energy planning. The report includes a list of staff...

  18. Energy Systems Group annual progress report 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grohnheit, P.E.; Larsen, H.; Villadsen, B.

    1985-02-01

    The report describes the work of the Energy Systems Group at Risoe National Laboratory during 1984. The activities may be roughly classified as development and use of energy-economy models, energy systems analysis, energy technology assessment and energy planning. The report includes a list of staff members. (author)

  19. Revisit ocean thermal energy conversion system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, J.C.; Krock, H.J.; Oney, S.K.

    2003-01-01

    The earth, covered more than 70.8% by the ocean, receives most of its energy from the sun. Solar energy is transmitted through the atmosphere and efficiently collected and stored in the surface layer of the ocean, largely in the tropical zone. Some of the energy is re-emitted to the atmosphere to drive the hydrologic cycle and wind. The wind field returns some of the energy to the ocean in the form of waves and currents. The majority of the absorbed solar energy is stored in vertical thermal gradients near the surface layer of the ocean, most of which is in the tropical region. This thermal energy replenished each day by the sun in the tropical ocean represents a tremendous pollution-free energy resource for human civilization. Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) technology refers to a mechanical system that utilizes the natural temperature gradient that exists in the tropical ocean between the warm surface water and the deep cold water, to generate electricity and produce other economically valuable by-products. The science and engineering behind OTEC have been studied in the US since the mid-seventies, supported early by the U.S. Government and later by State and private industries. There are two general types of OTEC designs: closed-cycle plants utilize the evaporation of a working fluid, such as ammonia or propylene, to drive the turbine-generator, and open-cycle plants use steam from evaporated sea water to run the turbine. Another commonly known design, hybrid plants, is a combination of the two. OTEC requires relatively low operation and maintenance costs and no fossil fuel consumption. OTEC system possesses a formidable potential capacity for renewable energy and offers a significant elimination of greenhouse gases in producing power. In addition to electricity and drinking water, an OTEC system can produce many valuable by-products and side-utilizations, such as: hydrogen, air-conditioning, ice, aquaculture, and agriculture, etc. The potential of these

  20. Energy Hub’s Structural and Operational Optimization for Minimal Energy Usage Costs in Energy Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanh Tung Ha

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The structural and optimal operation of an Energy Hub (EH has a tremendous influence on the hub’s performance and reliability. This paper envisions an innovative methodology that prominently increases the synergy between structural and operational optimization and targets system cost affordability. The generalized energy system structure is presented theoretically with all selective hub sub-modules, including electric heater (EHe and solar sources block sub-modules. To minimize energy usage cost, an energy hub is proposed that consists of 12 kinds of elements (i.e., energy resources, conversion, and storage functions and is modeled mathematically in a General Algebraic Modeling System (GAMS, which indicates the optimal hub structure’s corresponding elements with binary variables (0, 1. Simulation results contrast with 144 various scenarios established in all 144 categories of hub structures, in which for each scenario the corresponding optimal operation cost is previously calculated. These case studies demonstrate the effectiveness of the suggested model and methodology. Finally, avenues for future research are also prospected.

  1. Biomass in a sustainable energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boerjesson, Paal

    1998-04-01

    In this thesis, aspects of an increase in the utilization of biomass in the Swedish energy system are treated. Modern bioenergy systems should be based on high energy and land use efficiency since biomass resources and productive land are limited. The energy input, including transportation, per unit biomass produced is about 4-5% for logging residues, straw and short rotation forest (Salix). Salix has the highest net energy yield per hectare among the various energy crops cultivated in Sweden. The CO 2 emissions from the production and transportation of logging residues, straw and Salix, are equivalent to 2-3% of those from a complete fuel-cycle for coal. Substituting biomass for fossil fuels in electricity and heat production is, in general, less costly and leads to a greater CO 2 reduction per unit biomass than substituting biomass derived transportation fuels for petrol or diesel. Transportation fuels produced from cellulosic biomass provide larger and less expensive CO 2 emission reductions than transportation fuels from annual crops. Swedish CO 2 emissions could be reduced by about 50% from the present level if fossil fuels are replaced and the energy demand is unchanged. There is a good balance between potential regional production and utilization of biomass in Sweden. Future biomass transportation distances need not be longer than, on average, about 40 km. About 22 TWh electricity could be produced annually from biomass in large district heating systems by cogeneration. Cultivation of Salix and energy grass could be utilized to reduce the negative environmental impact of current agricultural practices, such as the emission of greenhouse gases, nutrient leaching, decreased soil fertility and erosion, and for the treatment of municipal waste and sludge, leading to increased recirculation of nutrients. About 20 TWh biomass could theoretically be produced per year at an average cost of less than 50% of current production cost, if the economic value of these

  2. Biomass in a sustainable energy system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boerjesson, Paal

    1998-04-01

    In this thesis, aspects of an increase in the utilization of biomass in the Swedish energy system are treated. Modern bioenergy systems should be based on high energy and land use efficiency since biomass resources and productive land are limited. The energy input, including transportation, per unit biomass produced is about 4-5% for logging residues, straw and short rotation forest (Salix). Salix has the highest net energy yield per hectare among the various energy crops cultivated in Sweden. The CO{sub 2} emissions from the production and transportation of logging residues, straw and Salix, are equivalent to 2-3% of those from a complete fuel-cycle for coal. Substituting biomass for fossil fuels in electricity and heat production is, in general, less costly and leads to a greater CO{sub 2} reduction per unit biomass than substituting biomass derived transportation fuels for petrol or diesel. Transportation fuels produced from cellulosic biomass provide larger and less expensive CO{sub 2} emission reductions than transportation fuels from annual crops. Swedish CO{sub 2} emissions could be reduced by about 50% from the present level if fossil fuels are replaced and the energy demand is unchanged. There is a good balance between potential regional production and utilization of biomass in Sweden. Future biomass transportation distances need not be longer than, on average, about 40 km. About 22 TWh electricity could be produced annually from biomass in large district heating systems by cogeneration. Cultivation of Salix and energy grass could be utilized to reduce the negative environmental impact of current agricultural practices, such as the emission of greenhouse gases, nutrient leaching, decreased soil fertility and erosion, and for the treatment of municipal waste and sludge, leading to increased recirculation of nutrients. About 20 TWh biomass could theoretically be produced per year at an average cost of less than 50% of current production cost, if the economic

  3. Generalized hidden symmetry for low-energy hadron phsics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaiser, N.; Meissner, U.G.

    1990-01-01

    We present a detailed study of an effective chiral meson lagrangian involving pseudoscalar, vector and axial-vector mesons. We employ the recently proposed technique to introduce vector and axial-vector mesons as composite gauge bosons of an extended hidden gauge symmetry of the non-linear σ-model. In particular, we write down the most general anomalous action (Wess-Zumino term) in accordance with low-energy theorems and chiral symmetry. The global flavor anomalies of QCD are given by the standard (5-dimensional) Wess-Zumino-Witten action of the pseudoscalar mesons, whereas all the processes violating natural parity for the vectors and axials are chirally (gauge) symmetric and therefore do not contribute to the Wess-Zumino anomaly equation. We find fourteen independent terms with a priori unknown (real) coefficients. We are able to fix some of these coefficients from anomalous hadronic and radiative vector/axial-vector meson decays. A comparison to the gauged Wess-Zumino action in the so-called massive Yang-Mills approach shows that both anomalous actions are indeed equivalent for a special choice of the unknown coefficients. We finally propose a realistic two-flavor chiral effective lagrangian incorporating pions, the vector mesons ρ and ω as well as the axial A 1 meson which should be used in skyrmion physics at energy scales up to about 1 GeV. (orig.)

  4. Integrating renewables into energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-03-01

    An analysis of renewable energy schemes was undertaken via case studies in China, India, Indonesia, Kenya, South Africa, Thailand and Zimbabwe, that provided an insight into the application of best practice for overcoming market, technical and financial barriers to the establishment of the sustainable markets required for the large-scale deployment of renewable energy technologies. The project showed clearly the need to select and target interventions according to the context. Lessons were extracted against a number of themes, as well as against the various technologies analysed and simple guides to the principles of best practice were derived under the following headings:- experience of gaining access to (micro) finance; the technical and non-technical issues raised when small, typically independent, generators seek access to central electricity grid systems; how to best undertake awareness raising and dissemination activities; promoting, building and operating biogas systems; promoting, building and operating solar (photovoltaic) home systems; promoting, building and operating grid connected wind power; promoting, building and operating solar hot water systems; promoting agricultural cogeneration using crop residues. (author)

  5. Integrated energy optimization with smart home energy management systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asare-Bediako, B.; Ribeiro, P.F.; Kling, W.L.

    2012-01-01

    Optimization of energy use is a vital concept in providing solutions to many of the energy challenges in our world today. Large chemical, mechanical, pneumatic, hydraulic, and electrical systems require energy efficiency as one of the important aspects of operating systems. At the micro-scale, the

  6. Power Management for Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovgaard, Tobias Gybel

    In this thesis, we consider the control of two different industrial applications that belong at either end of the electricity grid; a power consumer in the form of a commercial refrigeration system, and wind turbines for power production. Our primary studies deal with economic model predictive...... penetration of renewable, fossil-free energy sources such as solar and wind power. To facilitate such intermittent power producers, we must not only control the production of electricity, but also the consumption, in an ecient and exible manner. By enabling the use of thermal energy storage in supermarkets...... of temperature dependent efficiencies in the refrigeration cycle. -Nonlinear economic MPC with uncertain predictions and the implementation of very simple predictors that use entirely historical data of, e.g., electricity prices and outdoor temperatures. Economic MPC for wind turbines, including -Optimal steady...

  7. Integrated solar energy system optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, S. K.

    1982-11-01

    The computer program SYSOPT, intended as a tool for optimizing the subsystem sizing, performance, and economics of integrated wind and solar energy systems, is presented. The modular structure of the methodology additionally allows simulations when the solar subsystems are combined with conventional technologies, e.g., a utility grid. Hourly energy/mass flow balances are computed for interconnection points, yielding optimized sizing and time-dependent operation of various subsystems. The program requires meteorological data, such as insolation, diurnal and seasonal variations, and wind speed at the hub height of a wind turbine, all of which can be taken from simulations like the TRNSYS program. Examples are provided for optimization of a solar-powered (wind turbine and parabolic trough-Rankine generator) desalinization plant, and a design analysis for a solar powered greenhouse.

  8. Advanced Energy Efficient Roof System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jane Davidson

    2008-09-30

    Energy consumption in buildings represents 40 percent of primary U.S. energy consumption, split almost equally between residential (22%) and commercial (18%) buildings.1 Space heating (31%) and cooling (12%) account for approximately 9 quadrillion Btu. Improvements in the building envelope can have a significant impact on reducing energy consumption. Thermal losses (or gains) from the roof make up 14 percent of the building component energy load. Infiltration through the building envelope, including the roof, accounts for an additional 28 percent of the heating loads and 16 percent of the cooling loads. These figures provide a strong incentive to develop and implement more energy efficient roof systems. The roof is perhaps the most challenging component of the building envelope to change for many reasons. The engineered roof truss, which has been around since 1956, is relatively low cost and is the industry standard. The roof has multiple functions. A typical wood frame home lasts a long time. Building codes vary across the country. Customer and trade acceptance of new building products and materials may impede market penetration. The energy savings of a new roof system must be balanced with other requirements such as first and life-cycle costs, durability, appearance, and ease of construction. Conventional residential roof construction utilizes closely spaced roof trusses supporting a layer of sheathing and roofing materials. Gypsum board is typically attached to the lower chord of the trusses forming the finished ceiling for the occupied space. Often in warmer climates, the HVAC system and ducts are placed in the unconditioned and otherwise unusable attic. High temperature differentials and leaky ducts result in thermal losses. Penetrations through the ceilings are notoriously difficult to seal and lead to moisture and air infiltration. These issues all contribute to greater energy use and have led builders to consider construction of a conditioned attic. The

  9. Power management for energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gybel Hovgaard, T.

    2013-02-15

    In this thesis, we consider the control of two different industrial applications that belong at either end of the electricity grid; a power consumer in the form of a commercial refrigeration system, and wind turbines for power production. Our primary studies deal with economic model predictive control of a commercial multi-zone refrigeration system, consisting of several cooling units that share a common compressor, and is used to cool multiple areas or rooms, e.g., in supermarkets. For control of the commercial refrigeration application as well as the wind turbine application, we propose an economic optimizing model predictive controller, economic MPC. Our investigations are primarily concerned with: 1) modeling of the applications to suit the chosen control framework; 2) formulating the MPC controller laws to overcome challenges introduced by the industrial applications, and defining economic objectives that reect the real physics of the systems as well as our control objectives; 3) solving the involved, non-trivial optimization problems eciently in real-time; 4) demonstrating the feasibility and potential of the proposed methods by extensive simulation and comparison with existing control methods and evaluation of data from systems in actual operation. We demonstrate, i.a., substantial cost savings, on the order of 30 %, compared to a standard thermostat-based supermarket refrigeration system and show how our methods exhibit sophisticated demand response to real-time variations in electricity prices. Violations of the temperature ranges can be kept at a very low frequency of occurrence inspite of the presence of uncertainty. For the power output from wind turbines, ramp rates, as low a 3 % of the rated power per minute, can be effectively ensured with the use of energy storage and we show how the active use of rotor inertia as an additional energy storage can reduce the needed storage capacity by up to 30 % without reducing the power output. (Author)

  10. Energy and environmental evaluation of tri-generation energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chicco, G.; Mancarella, P.

    2008-01-01

    Tri generation facilities manufactured with various technologies represent an important alternative solution for the development more efficient energy systems and low environmental impact. Are described the issues related to modelling and energy and environmental evaluation [it

  11. Identifying The Most Applicable Renewable Energy Systems Of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasibeh Mousavi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available These years because of energy crisis all of country try to find a new way to reduce energy consumptions and obtain maximum use of renewable energy. Iran also is not an exception of this progress. Renewable energy is energy that is provided by renewable sources such as the sun or wind. In general renewable energies are not adaptable to every single community. Because of location and special climate conditions of Iran most applicable renewable energy systems in Iran are solar and wind energy. Main purpose of this paper is to review and identify most applicable renewable energy systems of Iran and also review on traditional and current methods that utilized to obtain maximum use of these renewable energies.

  12. Battery storage for supplementing renewable energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2009-01-18

    The battery storage for renewable energy systems section of the Renewable Energy Technology Characterizations describes structures and models to support the technical and economic status of emerging renewable energy options for electricity supply.

  13. 46 CFR 153.430 - Heat transfer systems; general.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Heat transfer systems; general. 153.430 Section 153.430... Temperature Control Systems § 153.430 Heat transfer systems; general. Each cargo cooling system required by... separated from all other cooling and heating systems; and (c) Allow manual regulation of the system's heat...

  14. Engineered Geothermal Systems Energy Return On Energy Investment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mansure, A J

    2012-12-10

    Energy Return On Investment (EROI) is an important figure of merit for assessing the viability of energy alternatives. Too often comparisons of energy systems use efficiency when EROI would be more appropriate. For geothermal electric power generation, EROI is determined by the electricity delivered to the consumer compared to the energy consumed to construct, operate, and decommission the facility. Critical factors in determining the EROI of Engineered Geothermal Systems (EGS) are examined in this work. These include the input energy embodied into the system. Embodied energy includes the energy contained in the materials, as well as, that consumed in each stage of manufacturing from mining the raw materials to assembling the finished system. Also critical are the system boundaries and value of the energy heat is not as valuable as electrical energy. The EROI of an EGS depends upon a number of factors that are currently unknown, for example what will be typical EGS well productivity, as well as, reservoir depth, temperature, and temperature decline rate. Thus the approach developed is to consider these factors as parameters determining EROI as a function of number of wells needed. Since the energy needed to construct a geothermal well is a function of depth, results are provided as a function of well depth. Parametric determination of EGS EROI is calculated using existing information on EGS and US Department of Energy (DOE) targets and is compared to the minimum EROI an energy production system should have to be an asset rather than a liability.

  15. The generalized Q-S synchronization between the generalized Lorenz canonical form and the Roessler system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Yunqing; Chen Yong

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the generalized Q-S synchronization between the generalized Lorenz canonical form and the Roessler system. Firstly, we transform an arbitrary generalized Lorenz system to the generalized Lorenz canonical form, and the relation between the parameter of the generalized Lorenz system and the parameter of the generalized Lorenz canonical form are shown. Secondly, we extend the scheme present by [Yan ZY. Chaos 2005;15:023902] to study the generalized Q-S synchronization between the generalized Lorenz canonical form and the Roessler system, the more general controller is obtained. By choosing different parameter in the generalized controller obtained here, without much extra effort, we can get the controller of synchronization between the Chen system and the Roessler system, the Lue system and the Roessler system, the classic Lorenz system and the Roessler system, the Hyperbolic Lorenz system and the Roessler system, respectively. Finally, numerical simulations are used to perform such synchronization and verify the effectiveness of the controller.

  16. Blockchain-Assisted Crowdsourced Energy Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Shen; Taha, Ahmad; Wang, Jianhui

    2018-01-01

    Crowdsourcing relies on people's contributions to meet product- or system-level objectives. Crowdsourcing-based methods have been implemented in various cyber-physical systems and realtime markets. This paper explores a framework for Crowdsourced Energy Systems (CES), where small-scale energy generation or energy trading is crowdsourced from distributed energy resources, electric vehicles, and shapable loads. The merits/pillars of energy crowdsourcing are discussed. Then, an operational model...

  17. Multidimensional generalized-ensemble algorithms for complex systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsutake, Ayori; Okamoto, Yuko

    2009-06-07

    We give general formulations of the multidimensional multicanonical algorithm, simulated tempering, and replica-exchange method. We generalize the original potential energy function E(0) by adding any physical quantity V of interest as a new energy term. These multidimensional generalized-ensemble algorithms then perform a random walk not only in E(0) space but also in V space. Among the three algorithms, the replica-exchange method is the easiest to perform because the weight factor is just a product of regular Boltzmann-like factors, while the weight factors for the multicanonical algorithm and simulated tempering are not a priori known. We give a simple procedure for obtaining the weight factors for these two latter algorithms, which uses a short replica-exchange simulation and the multiple-histogram reweighting techniques. As an example of applications of these algorithms, we have performed a two-dimensional replica-exchange simulation and a two-dimensional simulated-tempering simulation using an alpha-helical peptide system. From these simulations, we study the helix-coil transitions of the peptide in gas phase and in aqueous solution.

  18. Bio energy: Bio energy in the Energy System of the Future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finden, Per; Soerensen, Heidi; Wilhelmsen, Gunnar

    2001-01-01

    This is Chapter 7, the final chapter, of the book ''Bio energy - Environment, technique and market''. Its main sections are: (1) Factors leading to changes in the energy systems, (2) The energy systems of the future, globally, (3) The future energy system in Norway and (4) Norwegian energy policy at the crossroads

  19. A generalized model for estimating the energy density of invertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Daniel A.; Csargo, Isak J.; Von Eschen, Aaron; Thul, Megan D.; Baker, James M.; Hayer, Cari-Ann; Howell, Jessica; Krause, Jacob; Letvin, Alex; Chipps, Steven R.

    2012-01-01

    Invertebrate energy density (ED) values are traditionally measured using bomb calorimetry. However, many researchers rely on a few published literature sources to obtain ED values because of time and sampling constraints on measuring ED with bomb calorimetry. Literature values often do not account for spatial or temporal variability associated with invertebrate ED. Thus, these values can be unreliable for use in models and other ecological applications. We evaluated the generality of the relationship between invertebrate ED and proportion of dry-to-wet mass (pDM). We then developed and tested a regression model to predict ED from pDM based on a taxonomically, spatially, and temporally diverse sample of invertebrates representing 28 orders in aquatic (freshwater, estuarine, and marine) and terrestrial (temperate and arid) habitats from 4 continents and 2 oceans. Samples included invertebrates collected in all seasons over the last 19 y. Evaluation of these data revealed a significant relationship between ED and pDM (r2  =  0.96, p cost savings compared to traditional bomb calorimetry approaches. This model should prove useful for a wide range of ecological studies because it is unaffected by taxonomic, seasonal, or spatial variability.

  20. A Sustainable Energy System in Latvia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lotte Holmberg

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents some of the problems in the Latvian energy system, the Latvian economy and how a sustainable restructuring of the energy system with renewable energy, co-generation and the production of energy technology can help solve some of the problems....

  1. Energy systems Diagnosis in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girod, J.

    1991-01-01

    Energy systems diagnosis is necessary to allow evaluation of energy balance by administration and political authorities of a country. First, the author describes the principle stages of energetic diagnosis. Then this work is divided into three parts: First part: Energy consumption diagnosis in several districts (families, utilities, agriculture, transport, industry) Second part: Energy supplies diagnosis (energy markets). Third part: Interactions between energy consumption and energy supply. 28 figs.; 52 tabs.; 107 refs

  2. SMES for wind energy systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul Antony, Anish

    simulation results the utility of SMES in voltage sag mitigation for momentary interruptions. The 1MJ SMES mitigates voltage sags for a useful duration ~50 seconds. In conclusion (Chapter 7), we believe that in this dissertation, we have documented the design of SMES for both momentary and sustained interruptions in wind turbines. We have put forth some novel and relevant hypotheses, developed and performed suitable simulation studies to validate these hypotheses. By doing so, we have been able to expand our knowledge in our quest to grasp the underlying mechanisms of storage systems in wind energy integration. Although the resulting analysis has allowed us to gain valuable insight, we feel that it is only the tip of the iceberg, and that many yet unknown discoveries are to be made. We remain hopeful that the future of SMES for wind energy will only look brighter from here onward. (Abstract shortened by UMI.).

  3. Generalized Bekenstein-Hawking system: logarithmic correction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakraborty, Subenoy

    2014-01-01

    The present work is a generalization of the recent work [arXiv.1206.1420] on the modified Hawking temperature on the event horizon. Here the Hawking temperature is generalized by multiplying the modified Hawking temperature by a variable parameter α representing the ratio of the growth rate of the apparent horizon to that of event horizon. It is found that both the first and the generalized second law of thermodynamics are valid on the event horizon for any fluid distribution. Subsequently, the Bekenstein entropy is modified on the event horizon and the thermodynamical laws are examined. Finally, an interpretation of the parameters involved is presented. (orig.)

  4. Two sustainable energy system analysis models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Goran Krajacic, Neven Duic; da Graca Carvalho, Maria

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a comparative study of two energy system analysis models both designed with the purpose of analysing electricity systems with a substantial share of fluctuating renewable energy....

  5. Potential of renewable energy systems in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Wen; Lund, Henrik; Mathiesen, Brian Vad

    2011-01-01

    Along with high-speed economic development and increasing energy consumption, the Chinese Government faces a growing pressure to maintain the balance between energy supply and demand. In 2009, China has become both the largest energy consumer and CO2 emitting country in the world. In this case...... system has demonstrated the possibility of converting into a 100% renewable energy system. This paper discusses the perspective of renewable energy in China firstly, and then analyses whether it is suitable to adopt similar methodologies applied in other countries as China approaches a renewable energy...... system. The conclusion is that China’s domestic renewable energy sources are abundant and show the possibility to cover future energy demand; the methodologies used to analyse a 100% renewable energy system are applicable in China. Therefore, proposing an analysis of a 100% renewable energy system...

  6. Prognostication of regional energy system development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grigoriy Borisovich Korovin

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes practice and development of new methodological approaches to forecasting the development of regional energy systems. It is shown that the energy complex is involved in a variety of forward and backward linkages as an element of socio-economic systems, and the quality and availability of energy resources largely determines the structure and pace of economic, social and environmental development of the region. Analysis of existing current practice of territorial and sectoral forecasting implemented in Russia and abroad, suggests that such practice is inadequate in its theoretical and methodological elaboration. This is confirmed by the frequent discrepancy between actual results and plans, as well as their regular revision. The methods are mostly based on extrapolation of existing tendencies and not taking into account many factors and emerging trends related to the complexity and openness of the social and economic systems. Post-industrial level of civilization is characterized by fast development of technology; knowledge, information, technological and institutional innovation become the main resources. The greatest importance is attached to such development properties as instability, various orderliness, nonlinearity, interactions etc. Current approaches to forecasting the future are described by a number of theories that are generally called self-organization theory, taking into account these singularities. These concepts should be included in the theoretical basis for the development and implementation of regional development forecasts. Using the synergetic approach assumes that, along with organizational processes, processes of self-organization and self-development are very important in the system, they are characterized by spontaneous, unexpected formations and emerging structures. The development of such systems can generate stable and efficient new structure. The presence of crisis is an integral feature of complex

  7. A systems approach to reduce urban rail energy consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    González-Gil, A.; Palacin, R.; Batty, P.; Powell, J.P.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • An insightful overview of energy usage in urban rail systems is given. • The principal measures to reduce urban rail energy consumption are appraised. • A methodology is proposed to help implement energy saving schemes in urban rail. • Regenerative braking is shown to offer the greatest energy saving potential. - Abstract: There is increasing interest in the potential of urban rail to reduce the impact of metropolitan transportation due to its high capacity, reliability and absence of local emissions. However, in a context characterised by increasing capacity demands and rising energy costs, and where other transport modes are considerably improving their environmental performance, urban rail must minimise its energy use without affecting its service quality. Urban rail energy consumption is defined by a wide range of interdependent factors; therefore, a system wide perspective is required, rather than focusing on energy savings at subsystem level. This paper contributes to the current literature by proposing an holistic approach to reduce the overall energy consumption of urban rail. Firstly, a general description of this transport mode is given, which includes an assessment of its typical energy breakdown. Secondly, a comprehensive appraisal of the main practices, strategies and technologies currently available to minimise its energy use is provided. These comprise: regenerative braking, energy-efficient driving, traction losses reduction, comfort functions optimisation, energy metering, smart power management and renewable energy micro-generation. Finally, a clear, logical methodology is described to optimally define and implement energy saving schemes in urban rail systems. This includes general guidelines for a qualitative assessment and comparison of measures alongside a discussion on the principal interdependences between them. As a hypothetical example of application, the paper concludes that the energy consumption in existing urban

  8. Generalized Lorenz models and their routes to chaos. II. Energy-conserving horizontal mode truncations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, D.; Musielak, Z.E.

    2007-01-01

    All attempts to generalize the three-dimensional Lorenz model by selecting higher-order Fourier modes can be divided into three categories, namely: vertical, horizontal and vertical-horizontal mode truncations. The previous study showed that the first method allowed only construction of a nine-dimensional system when the selected modes were energy-conserving. The results presented in this paper demonstrate that a five-dimensional model is the lowest-order generalized Lorenz model that can be constructed by the second method and that its route to chaos is the same as that observed in the original Lorenz model. It is shown that the onset of chaos in both systems is determined by a number of modes that describe the vertical temperature difference in a convection roll. In addition, a simple rule that allows selecting modes that conserve energy for each method is derived

  9. Design study of general aviation collision avoidance system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, M. R.; Moore, L. D.; Scott, W. V.

    1972-01-01

    The selection and design of a time/frequency collision avoidance system for use in general aviation aircraft is discussed. The modifications to airline transport collision avoidance equipment which were made to produce the simpler general aviation system are described. The threat determination capabilities and operating principles of the general aviation system are illustrated.

  10. Federal Tax Incentives for Energy Storage Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Katherine H [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Elgqvist, Emma M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Settle, Donald E [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-01-16

    Investments in renewable energy are more attractive due to the contribution of two key federal tax incentives. The investment tax credit (ITC) and the Modified Accelerated Cost Recovery System (MACRS) depreciation deduction may apply to energy storage systems such as batteries depending on who owns the battery and how the battery is used. The guidelines in this fact sheet apply to energy storage systems installed at the same time as the renewable energy system.

  11. 100% Renewable energy systems, climate mitigation and economic growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vad Mathiesen, Brian; Lund, Henrik; Karlsson, Kenneth Bernard

    2011-01-01

    that implementing energy savings, renewable energy and more efficient conversion technologies can have positive socio-economic effects, create employment and potentially lead to large earnings on exports. If externalities such as health effects are included, even more benefits can be expected. 100% Renewable energy......Greenhouse gas mitigation strategies are generally considered costly with world leaders often engaging in debate concerning the costs of mitigation and the distribution of these costs between different countries. In this paper, the analyses and results of the design of a 100% renewable energy...... system by the year 2050 are presented for a complete energy system including transport. Two short-term transition target years in the process towards this goal are analysed for 2015 and 2030. The energy systems are analysed and designed with hour-by-hour energy system analyses. The analyses reveal...

  12. Career Directions--Renewable Energy Systems Integrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleeman, Stephen R.

    2012-01-01

    Renewable energy systems are beginning to appear everywhere. Solar modules are creating "blue roofs" that convert the energy from the sun into household electricity. Solar thermal systems on roofs can generate hot water. Wind turbines catch breezes to provide even more electricity. Recommendations for saving energy, specifying systems for…

  13. An enterprise energy-information system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swords, B.; Coyle, E. [School of Control Systems and Electrical Engineering, Dublin Institute of Technology, Kevin St., Dublin 8 (Ireland); Norton, B. [President, Dublin Institute of Technology, Aungier St., Dublin 2 (Ireland)

    2008-01-15

    This paper outlines the background, development, and assessment of a prototype enterprise energy information system (EEIS) that supports strategic energy-management by providing comprehensive energy monitoring and targeting, integrating with energy modelling software and enterprise business databases, and supporting measurement and verification (M and V). The EEIS prototype system was developed and assessed in an industrial site and a third-level education institution with colleges throughout Dublin. The industrial site provided the opportunity for the EEIS to meet the requirements of a large energy intensive site, and to integrate with energy modelling software. The higher education establishment accommodated the development of a networked energy-information system. (author)

  14. Renewable energy delivery systems and methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Howard Andrew

    2013-12-10

    A system, method and/or apparatus for the delivery of energy at a site, at least a portion of the energy being delivered by at least one or more of a plurality of renewable energy technologies, the system and method including calculating the load required by the site for the period; calculating the amount of renewable energy for the period, including obtaining a capacity and a percentage of the period for the renewable energy to be delivered; comparing the total load to the renewable energy available; and, implementing one or both of additional and alternative renewable energy sources for delivery of energy to the site.

  15. The relation between energy efficiency and general objectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmberg, John; Naessen, Jonas; Sprei, Frances

    2006-09-01

    Three overall objectives for energy efficiency programs are discussed: Reduction of negative externalities, esp. climatic change; Phase-out of nuclear power while limiting electricity imports; and creating welfare gains by correcting market failures of energy efficiency programs (rebound effects)

  16. Environment taxation and greenhouse gases (general tax on energy polluting activities and emissions trading)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parayre, P.; Bruhnes, P.; Huglo, Ch.

    2000-12-01

    This document brings together 11 expert testimonies about the French general tax on polluting activities (GTPA). Content: 1 - the GTPA today and in 2001: the first year GTPA, the GTPA 2001 in the water sector, the everyday formal procedures linked with GTPA, the contentious aspects of GTPA; 2 - the eco-tax or energy-GTPA: European framework of energy products taxing, enforcement and implementation of the energy-GTPA in France; 3 - the negotiable emission permits: negotiable permits for companies with a strong energy intensity, functioning of emission permits in a global strategy, the position of the European Commission about negotiable permits and the perspectives in this domain at the community level; 4 - towards a reduction of greenhouse gases: the Goeteborg protocol, the consequences of La Haye's COP6, the position of a type-sector, an efficient system for the abatement of greenhouse gases by the producing sector. (J.S.)

  17. Automotive mechatronic systems. General developments and examples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isermann, R. [Technische Univ. Darmstadt (Germany). Inst. fuer Automatisierungstechnik, FG Regelungstechnik und Prozessautomatisierung

    2006-08-15

    Automobiles are showing an increasing integration of mechanics with digital electronics and information processing. This integration is between the components (hardware) and by the information-driven functions (software), resulting in integrated systems called mechatronic systems. Their development involves finding an optimal balance between the basic mechanical structure, sensor and actuator implementation, communication, automatic information processing and overall control. This contribution summarizes some ongoing developments for mechatronic systems in automobiles, shows design approaches and examples and considers the various embedded control functions and systems integrity. Some examples of automotive mechatronic systems are shown in more detail. Great progress can be observed in braking systems (ABS, ESP), the first brake-by-wire electro-hydraulic brake system (EHB), steering systems (electrical power steering, active front steering) and active suspension systems. (orig.)

  18. Paul Scherrer Institut Scientific Report 2001. Volume V: General Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wokaun, A.; Daum, C.

    2002-03-01

    acceleration, thereby supplementing the fuel cells. By the time of printing of this volume, the power train has been implemented into a vehicle, and was successfully tested on the road over the Simplon mountain pass. During a Year of Gas phase and Aerosol Measurements, the 'Atmospheric Chemistry' Lab's mobile emission laboratory has been regularly sampling a route comprising downtown and rural areas in the canton of Zurich. Interesting trends on the generation and transport of ultrafine aerosol particles, as well as ozone generation, are emerging from the data. Towards the end of the year, the aerosol group succeeded in finalizing a smog chamber, which will represent a powerful laboratory tool for investigating the generation and surface chemistry of aerosol particles. These studies supplement the field work carried out both on roadside and at the high-alpine station at the Jungfraujoch. Pollutant flows into ecosystems are studied using stable isotopes of carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen as tracers. Particular attention was paid to the carbon uptake by plants and canopies under conditions of elevated CO 2 concentrations, as established in field experiments or existing close to natural CO 2 springs. Besides a strong signature of the meteorological conditions, clear evidence for the down-regulation of photosynthesis was found under conditions where plentiful CO 2 is available - a fact that might be highly relevant for assessing the CO 2 binding capacity of forest sinks. Technological learning must be quantitatively assessed, and included in bottom-up engineering models of the energy system, to obtain a faithful prediction of the optimum energy mix under a set of CO 2 emission constraints. The systems analysis group has applied this concept to study expected changes in the stock of motorized individual vehicles, and the interaction of learning with market-based instruments as emission trading. A list of scientific publications in 2000 is also provided

  19. Potential of renewable energy systems in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Wen; Lund, Henrik; Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Zhang, Xiliang

    2011-01-01

    Along with high-speed economic development and increasing energy consumption, the Chinese Government faces a growing pressure to maintain the balance between energy supply and demand. In 2009, China has become both the largest energy consumer and CO 2 emitting country in the world. In this case, the inappropriate energy consumption structure should be changed. As an alternative, a suitable infrastructure for the implementation of renewable energy may serve as a long-term sustainable solution. The perspective of a 100% renewable energy system has been analyzed and discussed in some countries previously. In this process, assessment of domestic renewable energy sources is the first step. Then appropriate methodologies are needed to perform energy system analyses involving the integration of more sustainable strategies. Denmark may serve as an example of how sustainable strategies can be implemented. The Danish system has demonstrated the possibility of converting into a 100% renewable energy system. This paper discusses the perspective of renewable energy in China firstly, and then analyses whether it is suitable to adopt similar methodologies applied in other countries as China approaches a renewable energy system. The conclusion is that China's domestic renewable energy sources are abundant and show the possibility to cover future energy demand; the methodologies used to analyse a 100% renewable energy system are applicable in China. Therefore, proposing an analysis of a 100% renewable energy system in China is not unreasonable. (author)

  20. Evaluation of two typical distributed energy systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Miaomiao; Tan, Xiu

    2018-03-01

    According to the two-natural gas distributed energy system driven by gas engine driven and gas turbine, in this paper, the first and second laws of thermodynamics are used to measure the distributed energy system from the two parties of “quantity” and “quality”. The calculation results show that the internal combustion engine driven distributed energy station has a higher energy efficiency, but the energy efficiency is low; the gas turbine driven distributed energy station energy efficiency is high, but the primary energy utilization rate is relatively low. When configuring the system, we should determine the applicable natural gas distributed energy system technology plan and unit configuration plan according to the actual load factors of the project and the actual factors such as the location, background and environmental requirements of the project. “quality” measure, the utilization of waste heat energy efficiency index is proposed.

  1. Annual report 2005 General Direction of the Energy and raw materials; Rapport annuel 2005 Direction Generale de L'Energie et des Matieres Premieres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This 2005 annual report of the DGEMP (General Direction of the Energy and the raw Materials), takes stock on the energy bill and accounting of the France. The first part presents the electric power, natural gas and raw materials market in France. The second part is devoted to the diversification of the energy resources with a special attention to the renewable energies and the nuclear energy. The third part discusses the energy and raw materials prices and the last part presents the international cooperation in the energy domain. (A.L.B.)

  2. Hybrid Energy System Modeling in Modelica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William R. Binder; Christiaan J. J. Paredis; Humberto E. Garcia

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, a Hybrid Energy System (HES) configuration is modeled in Modelica. Hybrid Energy Systems (HES) have as their defining characteristic the use of one or more energy inputs, combined with the potential for multiple energy outputs. Compared to traditional energy systems, HES provide additional operational flexibility so that high variability in both energy production and consumption levels can be absorbed more effectively. This is particularly important when including renewable energy sources, whose output levels are inherently variable, determined by nature. The specific HES configuration modeled in this paper include two energy inputs: a nuclear plant, and a series of wind turbines. In addition, the system produces two energy outputs: electricity and synthetic fuel. The models are verified through simulations of the individual components, and the system as a whole. The simulations are performed for a range of component sizes, operating conditions, and control schemes.

  3. Energy Management Systems to Reduce Electrical Energy Consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Oriti, Giovanna

    2015-01-01

    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY An energy management system comprises an electrical energy storage element such as a battery, renewable electrical energy sources such as solar and wind, a digital signal processing controller and a solid state power converter to interface the elements together. This hardware demonstration in the lab at the Naval Postgraduate School will focus on solid state power conversion methods to improve the reliability and efficiency of electrical energy consumption by Navy facilit...

  4. Evolution paths of a general control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Speckert, G.C.

    1983-01-01

    Large systems are built by teams of people who communicate through a set of design tools to produce an information model which describes the system. The model can be analyzed for consistency and completeness. A system building methodology based upon this information model can be used for the construction, operation, and maintenance of the system. Operational procedure knowledge derived from operating experience can be used for autonomous operation. Advancing computer technology is improving the engineering tools available in each of these areas. A unified set of such tools provides the maximum amount of computer assistance to the system builders

  5. Definition of Nonequilibrium Entropy of General Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Mei, Xiaochun

    1999-01-01

    The definition of nonequilibrium entropy is provided for the general nonequilibrium processes by connecting thermodynamics with statistical physics, and the principle of entropy increment in the nonequilibrium processes is also proved in the paper. The result shows that the definition of nonequilibrium entropy is not unique.

  6. Energy Signal Tool for Decision Support in Building Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henze, G. P.; Pavlak, G. S.; Florita, A. R.; Dodier, R. H.; Hirsch, A. I.

    2014-12-01

    A prototype energy signal tool is demonstrated for operational whole-building and system-level energy use evaluation. The purpose of the tool is to give a summary of building energy use which allows a building operator to quickly distinguish normal and abnormal energy use. Toward that end, energy use status is displayed as a traffic light, which is a visual metaphor for energy use that is either substantially different from expected (red and yellow lights) or approximately the same as expected (green light). Which light to display for a given energy end use is determined by comparing expected to actual energy use. As expected, energy use is necessarily uncertain; we cannot choose the appropriate light with certainty. Instead, the energy signal tool chooses the light by minimizing the expected cost of displaying the wrong light. The expected energy use is represented by a probability distribution. Energy use is modeled by a low-order lumped parameter model. Uncertainty in energy use is quantified by a Monte Carlo exploration of the influence of model parameters on energy use. Distributions over model parameters are updated over time via Bayes' theorem. The simulation study was devised to assess whole-building energy signal accuracy in the presence of uncertainty and faults at the submetered level, which may lead to tradeoffs at the whole-building level that are not detectable without submetering.

  7. Power electronics for renewable energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iov, Florin; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2009-01-01

    sources from the conventional, fossil (and short term) based energy sources to renewable energy resources. Another is to use high efficient power electronics in power generation, power transmission/distribution and end-user application. This paper discuss some of the most emerging renewable energy sources......, wind energy and photovoltaics, which by means of power electronics are changing from being minor energy sources to be acting as important power sources in the energy system....

  8. Energy Efficiency of Distributed Environmental Control Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khalifa, H. Ezzat; Isik, Can; Dannenhoffer, John F. III

    2011-02-23

    s thermal dissatisfaction below a given threshold. The DECS energy usage was calculated using the simplified thermal model. OSFA control; providing a uniform temperature to the entire building, and occupant-selected HIYW control with a thermostat at each workstation were implemented for 3 cities representing 3 different climatic regions and control scenarios. It is shown that optimization allows DECS to deliver a higher level of individual and population thermal comfort while achieving annual energy savings between 14 and 26% compared to OSFA. The optimization model also allowed us to study the influence of the partitions’ thermal resistance and the variability of internal loads at each office. These influences didn’t make significant changes in the optimized energy consumption relative to OSFA. The results show that it is possible to provide thermal comfort for each occupant while saving energy compared to OSFA Furthermore, to simplify the implementation of this approach, a fuzzy logic system has been developed to generalize the overall optimization strategy. Its performance was almost as good as the gradient system. The fuzzy system provided thermal comfort to each occupant and saved energy compared to OSFA. The energy savings of the fuzzy system were not as high as for the gradient-optimized system, but the fuzzy system avoided complete connectivity, and the optimization did not have to be repeated for each population. 3. We employed a detailed CFD model of adjacent occupied cubicles to extend the thermal-circuit model in three significant ways: (a) relax the “office wall” requirement by allowing energy to flow between zones via advection as well as conduction, (b) improve the comfort model to account both for radiation as well as convection heat transfer, and (c) support ventilation systems in which the temperature is stratified, such as in underfloor air distribution systems. Initially, three-dimensional CFD simulations of several cubicle configurations, with

  9. Electric vehicle energy management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaoui, Chakib

    This thesis investigates and analyzes novel strategies for the optimum energy management of electric vehicles (EVs). These are aimed to maximize the useful life of the EV batteries and make the EV more practical in order to increase its acceptability to market. The first strategy concerns the right choice of the batteries for the EV according to the user's driving habits, which may vary. Tests conducted at the University of Massachusetts Lowell battery lab show that the batteries perform differently from one manufacturer to the other. The second strategy was to investigate the fast chargeability of different batteries, which leads to reduce the time needed to recharge the EV battery pack. Tests were conducted again to prove that only few battery types could be fast charged. Test data were used to design a fast battery charger that could be installed in an EV charging station. The third strategy was the design, fabrication and application of an Electric Vehicle Diagnostic and Rejuvenation System (EVDRS). This system is based on Mosfet Controlled Thyristors (MCTs). It is capable of quickly identifying any failing battery(s) within the EV pack and rejuvenating the whole battery pack without dismantling them and unloading them. A novel algorithm to rejuvenate Electric Vehicle Sealed Lead Acid Batteries is described. This rejuvenation extends the useful life of the batteries and makes the EV more competitive. The fourth strategy was to design a thermal management system for EV, which is crucial to the safe operation, and the achievement of normal/optimal performance of, electric vehicle (EV) batteries. A novel approach for EV thermal management, based on Pettier-Effect heat pumps, was designed, fabricated and tested in EV. It shows the application of this type of technology for thermal management of EVs.

  10. Towards a General Definition of Biometric Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Mirko Cubrilo; Miroslav Baca; Markus Schatten

    2009-01-01

    A foundation for closing the gap between biometrics in the narrower and the broader perspective is presented trough a conceptualization of biometric systems in both perspectives. A clear distinction between verification, identification and classification systems is made as well as shown that there are additional classes of biometric systems. In the end a Unified Modeling Language model is developed showing the connections between the two perspectives.

  11. Studies on energy system for an energy-saving society; Sho energy gata shakai ni okeru energy system kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    The system to which new energy technology and energy saving technology were introduced was constructed for case studies of urban areas including core cities and the peripheral areas, and the quantitative analysis was conducted on environmental effects, etc. In the energy supply system model, the following element technologies were all considered: cogeneration system, sewage water heat, river water heat, the photovoltaic power generation, energy storage/heat storage/cold heat storage, adsorption type refrigerator, etc. Also considered were power interchange between clusters, system power buying/power selling, heat interchange or no heat interchange, etc. As a result, it was found that when constructing the energy system which synthetically takes into account thermoelectric ratios, rates of simultaneous loads, ratios of daytime/nighttime in the energy supply and demand in the urban area, the energy saving effect multiplicatively increases, and the energy system using cogeneration and unused energy such as refuse and sewage in the urban area and river water brings an energy saving effect of 32% especially in the concentrated cluster. 83 figs., 45 tabs.

  12. Models of Energy Saving Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgård, Jørgen Stig

    1999-01-01

    only. The need for including also the economic policy in the energy planning is illustrated with what is termed the efficiency pittfall. This points towards difficulties in imaging an integrated resource planning combined with a liberalized market. The three variable parameters, population, energy...... service level and technology are demonstrated as the main determinants of future energy consumption. In the concluding remarks, the main flaws of present energy policy and some visions of the future are discussed....

  13. Frames and generalized shift-invariant systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ole

    2004-01-01

    With motivation from the theory of Hilbert-Schmidt operators we review recent topics concerning frames in L 2 (R) and their duals. Frames are generalizations of orthonormal bases in Hilbert spaces. As for an orthonormal basis, a frame allows each element in the underlying Hilbert space...... to be written as an unconditionally convergent infinite linear combination of the frame elements; however, in contrast to the situation for a basis, the coefficients might not be unique. We present the basic facts from frame theory and the motivation for the fact that most recent research concentrates on tight...... frames or dual frame pairs rather than general frames and their canonical dual. The corresponding results for Gabor frames and wavelet frames are discussed in detail....

  14. Power Electronics for Renewable Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choi, U. M.; Lee, K. B.; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2012-01-01

    The use of renewable energy sources are increased because of the depletion of natural resources and the increasing pollution level from energy production. The wind energy and the solar energy are most widely used among the renewable energy sources. Power electronics is needed in almost all kinds...... of renewable energy system. It controls the renewable source and interfaces with the load effectively, which can be grid-connected or van work in stand-alone mode. In this presentation, overview of wind and photovoltaic energy systems are introduced. Next, the power electronic circuits behind the most common...

  15. Energy technology sources, systems and frontier conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Ohta, Tokio

    1994-01-01

    This book provides a concise and technical overview of energy technology: the sources of energy, energy systems and frontier conversion. As well as serving as a basic reference book for professional scientists and students of energy, it is intended for scientists and policy makers in other disciplines (including practising engineers, biologists, physicists, economists and managers in energy related industries) who need an up-to-date and authoritative guide to the field of energy technology.Energy systems and their elemental technologies are introduced and evaluated from the view point

  16. Identification of wind energy systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Veen, G.J.

    2013-01-01

    In the next decades wind energy is expected to secure a firm share of the total energy production capacity in many countries. To increase competitiveness of wind power with other power sources it is essential to lower the cost of wind energy. Given the design of a turbine, this objective can be

  17. Energy Use in Food System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dutilh, C.; Blonk, H.; Linnemann, A.R.

    2014-01-01

    Nature generates the raw materials for food, fuelled by energy from the sun. However, before food can be consumed, (mineral) energy is required for cultivation, transportation, preparation and conservation purposes. This paper presents and discusses the energy requirements for various categories of

  18. Ingerop - Energy activities and industry - General brochure 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    Ingerop is a leading player in France and a major player internationally in engineering and consulting in sustainable mobility, energy transition and living environment and in major issues of today and tomorrow. The industrial engineering provided by Ingerop in France and for export, provides a response to customer expectations, integrating more and more the theme of sustainable development. Faced with a growing demand for electricity both in the world and in Europe Ingerop made the energy sector its priority development. The controlled use of energy (energy efficiency, renewable energy) is an ongoing challenge for Ingerop. The group continues its development in nuclear energy by extending its remit from the upstream phases for new construction projects abroad until the decommissioning phases in France and abroad. Ingerop continues its development in nuclear energy by extending its remit from the upstream phases for new construction projects abroad to decommissioning in France and abroad. Ingerop strengthens its expertise in new energy with new projects in biomass boilers and heat networks. The group has profound geothermal skills in heating networks or fatal energy recovery, permitting them to intervene with local authorities such as farmers, from feasibility studies to commissioning and assisting project management with technical studies. The expertise acquired by the group Ingerop in the 1990's, through the construction of fifty data centers on behalf of SFR, enables a significant experience going back twenty years. Furthermore, development continued on the design of more energy-efficient projects and ensuring increasingly high reliability. This brochure presents Ingerop's skills and main references in its four domains of intervention: energy industry (operation in nuclear environment, conventional power plants, new energy technologies, data centers), other industries, infrastructures, and building industry

  19. Integrated electrofuels and renewable energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridjan, Iva

    energy into chemical energy by means of electrolysers, thus connecting fluctuating renewable energy to the vast amount of fuel storage already available in today’s energy systems. The conducted research indicates that electrofuels for heavy-duty transportation are technically and economically viable...... in energy systems and could play an important role in future energy systems. The cross-sector approach in the fuel production, by redirecting the excess electricity to the transport sector, is creating the flexibility and storage buffer for fluctuating electricity. The key concern in the short term should...

  20. Energy analysis of a supermarket refrigeration system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jakob Munch; Jakobsen, Arne; Rasmussen, Bjarne D.

    1999-01-01

    From 1995 to 1998, an energy test method for supermarket refrigeration systems was developed in a project financed by the Danish Energy Agency. The purpose of the energy test method is to provide the means for evaluating the energy efficiency of these systems. The test method requires measurements...... of air temperatures and energy consumption to be carried out on the selected supermarket refrigeration system. In addition to the measurements required by the method, more measurements of individual energy consumptions have been carried in the case described in this paper. The purpose of the additional...

  1. The fusion-hydrogen energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, L.O.

    1994-01-01

    This paper will describe the structure of the system, from energy generation and hydrogen production through distribution to the end users. It will show how stationary energy users will convert to hydrogen and will outline ancillary uses of hydrogen to aid in reducing other forms of pollution. It will show that the adoption of the fusion hydrogen energy system will facilitate the use of renewable energy such as wind and solar. The development of highly efficient fuel cells for production of electricity near the user and for transportation will be outlined. The safety of the hydrogen fusion energy system is addressed. This paper will show that the combination of fusion generation combined with hydrogen distribution will provide a system capable of virtually eliminating the negative impact on the environment from the use of energy by humanity. In addition, implementation of the energy system will provide techniques and tools that can ameliorate environmental problems unrelated to energy use. (Author)

  2. Power Systems Integration Laboratory | Energy Systems Integration Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    | NREL Power Systems Integration Laboratory Power Systems Integration Laboratory Research in the Energy System Integration Facility's Power Systems Integration Laboratory focuses on the microgrid applications. Photo of engineers testing an inverter in the Power Systems Integration Laboratory

  3. Energy Systems in the Era of Energy Vectors A Key to Define, Analyze and Design Energy Systems Beyond Fossil Fuels

    CERN Document Server

    Orecchini, Fabio

    2012-01-01

    What lies beyond the era of fossil fuels? While most answers focus on different primary energy resources, Energy Systems in the Era of Energy Vectors provides a completely new approach. Instead of providing a traditional consumption analysis of classical primary energy resources such as oil, coal, nuclear power and gas, Energy Systems in the Era of Energy Vectors describes and assesses energy technologies, markets and future strategies, focusing on their capacity to produce, exchange, and use energy vectors. Special attention is given to the renewable energy resources available in different areas of the world and made exploitable by the integration of energy vectors in the global energy system. Clear definitions of energy vectors and energy systems are used as the basis for a complete explanation and assessment of up-to-date, available technologies for energy resources, transport and storage systems, conversion and use. The energy vectors scheme allows the potential realisation of a worldwide sustainable ener...

  4. Energy storage for power systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ter-Gazarian, Andrei

    2011-01-01

    The supply of energy from primary sources is not constant and rarely matches the pattern of demand from consumers. Electricity is also difficult to store in significant quantities. Therefore, secondary storage of energy is essential to increase generation capacity efficiency and to allow more substantial use of renewable energy sources that only provide energy intermittently. Lack of effective storage has often been cited as a major hurdle to substantial introduction of renewable energy sources into the electricity supply network.This 2nd edition, without changing the existing structure of the

  5. Energy Systems Integration News | Energy Systems Integration Facility |

    Science.gov (United States)

    NREL January 2018 Blockchain concept demonstrated Blockchain to Enable Energy Market in BlockCypher Partnership NREL is partnering with BlockCypher, a blockchain Web services provider, to demonstrate how blockchain technology can support distributed energy markets. For some, the language and

  6. Rethinking Participation in Smart Energy System Planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammers, Imke; Arentsen, Maarten J.

    2017-01-01

    While the technical layout of smart energy systems is well advanced, the implementation of these systems is slowed down by the current decision-making practice regarding such energy infrastructures. We call for a reorganisation of the decision-making process on local energy planning and address the

  7. The intelligent energy system for tomorrow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, Hans; Morthorst, Poul Erik; Bindslev, Henrik; Sonderberg Petersen, Leif

    2010-09-15

    In a future energy system non-fossil fuels have taken the lead, end-use technologies are highly efficient and closely interlinked to supply through intelligent energy systems. Climate change issues, security of supply and economic development need to be pursued concurrently. This calls for flexible and intelligent energy system infrastructures that effectively accommodate large amounts of fluctuating renewable energy and let the end-user interact with the supply through advanced ICT. The second important characteristic is intelligent integration of the entire transport sector. The third key area is advanced energy storage facilities in the system and the introduction of super-grids.

  8. Energy Systems Integration: A Convergence of Ideas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroposki, B.; Garrett, B.; MacMillan, S.; Rice, B.; Komomua, C.; O' Malley, M.; Zimmerle, D.

    2012-07-01

    Energy systems integration (ESI) enables the effective analysis, design, and control of these interactions and interdependencies along technical, economic, regulatory, and social dimensions. By focusing on the optimization of energy from all systems, across all pathways, and at all scales, we can better understand and make use of the co-benefits that result to increase reliability and performance, reduce cost, and minimize environmental impacts. This white paper discusses systems integration and the research in new control architectures that are optimized at smaller scales but can be aggregated to optimize energy systems at any scale and would allow replicable energy solutions across boundaries of existing and new energy pathways.

  9. Solar energy thermally powered electrical generating system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, William R. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A thermally powered electrical generating system for use in a space vehicle is disclosed. The rate of storage in a thermal energy storage medium is controlled by varying the rate of generation and dissipation of electrical energy in a thermally powered electrical generating system which is powered from heat stored in the thermal energy storage medium without exceeding a maximum quantity of heat. A control system (10) varies the rate at which electrical energy is generated by the electrical generating system and the rate at which electrical energy is consumed by a variable parasitic electrical load to cause storage of an amount of thermal energy in the thermal energy storage system at the end of a period of insolation which is sufficient to satisfy the scheduled demand for electrical power to be generated during the next period of eclipse. The control system is based upon Kalman filter theory.

  10. Modular Energy Storage System for Alternative Energy Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Janice [Magna Electronics Inc., Auburn Hills, MI (United States); Ervin, Frank [Magna Electronics Inc., Auburn Hills, MI (United States)

    2012-05-15

    An electrical vehicle environment was established to promote research and technology development in the area of high power energy management. The project incorporates a topology that permits parallel development of an alternative energy delivery system and an energy storage system. The objective of the project is to develop technologies, specifically power electronics, energy storage electronics and controls that provide efficient and effective energy management between electrically powered devices in alternative energy vehicles plugin electric vehicles, hybrid vehicles, range extended vehicles, and hydrogen-based fuel cell vehicles. In order to meet the project objectives, the Vehicle Energy Management System (VEMS) was defined and subsystem requirements were obtained. Afterwards, power electronics, energy storage electronics and controls were designed. Finally, these subsystems were built, tested individually, and integrated into an electric vehicle system to evaluate and optimize the subsystems performance. Phase 1 of the program established the fundamental test bed to support development of an electrical environment ideal for fuel cell application and the mitigation of many shortcomings of current fuel cell technology. Phase 2, continued development from Phase 1, focusing on implementing subsystem requirements, design and construction of the energy management subsystem, and the integration of this subsystem into the surrogate electric vehicle. Phase 2 also required the development of an Alternative Energy System (AES) capable of emulating electrical characteristics of fuel cells, battery, gen set, etc. Under the scope of the project, a boost converter that couples the alternate energy delivery system to the energy storage system was developed, constructed and tested. Modeling tools were utilized during the design process to optimize both component and system design. This model driven design process enabled an iterative process to track and evaluate the impact

  11. Generalized oscillator systems and their parabosonic interpretation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macfarlane, A J [Cambridge Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics

    1994-12-31

    The Fock space description of various bosonic oscillator systems are carried out. All descriptions are based on a single creation - annihilation pair. Special attention is paid to the q-deformed Calogero-Vasiliev oscillator. 23 refs.

  12. Environmentally-adapted local energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moe, N; Oefverholm, E [NUTEK, Stockholm (Sweden); Andersson, Owe [EKAN Gruppen (Sweden); Froste, H [Swedish Environmental Protection Agency, Stockholm (Sweden)

    1997-10-01

    Energy companies, municipalities, property companies, firms of consultants, environmental groups and individuals are examples of players working locally to shape environmentally adapted energy systems. These players have needed information making them better able to make decisions on cost-efficient, environmentally-adapted energy systems. This book answers many of the questions they have put. The volume is mainly based on Swedish handbooks produced by the Swedish National Board for Industrial and Technical Development, NUTEK, together with the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency. These handbooks have been used in conjunction with municipal energy planning, local Agenda 21 work, to provide a basis for deciding on concrete local energy systems. The contents in brief: -The book throws new light on the concept of energy efficiency; -A section on the environment compares how air-polluting emissions vary with different methods of energy production; -A section contains more than 40 ideas for measures which can be profitable, reduce energy consumption and the impact on the environment all at the same time; -The book gives concrete examples of new, alternative and environmentally-adapted local energy systems. More efficient use of energy is included as a possible change of energy system; -The greatest emphasis is laid upon alternative energy systems for heating. It may be heating in a house, block of flats, office building or school; -Finally, there are examples of environmentally-adapted local energy planning.

  13. Energy Doubler cryoloop temperature monitor system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pucci, G.; Howard, D.

    1981-10-01

    The Cryoloop Temperature Monitor System is a fully electronic system designed to monitor temperature at key points in the Energy Doubler cryoloop system. It is used for cryoloop diagnostics, temperature studies, and cooldown valve control

  14. Improving energy efficiency in industrial energy systems an interdisciplinary perspective on barriers, energy audits, energy management, policies, and programs

    CERN Document Server

    Thollander, Patrik

    2012-01-01

    Industrial energy efficiency is one of the most important means of reducing the threat of increased global warming. Research however states that despite the existence of numerous technical energy efficiency measures, its deployment is hindered by the existence of various barriers to energy efficiency. The complexity of increasing energy efficiency in manufacturing industry calls for an interdisciplinary approach to the issue. Improving energy efficiency in industrial energy systems applies an interdisciplinary perspective in examining energy efficiency in industrial energy systems, and discuss

  15. Nuclear Energy: General aspects of risk assessment and public acceptance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischerhof, Hans.

    1977-01-01

    While the peaceful uses of nuclear energy have progressed greatly in many countries and nuclear energy for electricity generation is greatly in demand also in developing countries, progress in this field is being threatened by minorities in those very countries which were originally responsible for this development. The paper analyses the various reasons behind this public opposition. The fear of nuclear war cannot be dispelled despite Government declarations promoting prohibition of the use of nuclear energy for military purposes and the numerous parties to the non-proliferation treaty. However, there is no cogent reason for transferring this mistrust to the peaceful uses of this source of energy. Also, hostility to technology is gaining ground in many countries and large groups of people are not prepared to accept the minimalised risks of nuclear energy. It is recommended that industry and politicians should pay more attention than in the past to the psychological question of acceptance of nuclear energy and lawyers have an important role to play in this context. They should co-operate more in gaining acceptance for the undeniable even if improbable remaining risks and integrate nuclear energy even closer into established law. (NEA) [fr

  16. Introduction to wind energy systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, H.-J.

    2017-07-01

    This article presents the basic concepts of wind energy and deals with the physics and mechanics of operation. It describes the conversion of wind energy into rotation of turbine, and the critical parameters governing the efficiency of this conversion. After that it presents an overview of various parts and components of windmills. The connection to the electrical grid, the world status of wind energy use for electricity production, the cost situation and research and development needs are further aspects which will be considered.

  17. Vacuum polarization energy for general backgrounds in one space dimension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Weigel

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available For field theories in one time and one space dimensions we propose an efficient method to compute the vacuum polarization energy of static field configurations that do not allow a decomposition into symmetric and anti-symmetric channels. The method also applies to scenarios in which the masses of the quantum fluctuations at positive and negative spatial infinity are different. As an example we compute the vacuum polarization energy of the kink soliton in the ϕ6 model. We link the dependence of this energy on the position of the soliton to the different masses.

  18. Building a generalized distributed system model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukkamala, R.

    1993-01-01

    The key elements in the 1992-93 period of the project are the following: (1) extensive use of the simulator to implement and test - concurrency control algorithms, interactive user interface, and replica control algorithms; and (2) investigations into the applicability of data and process replication in real-time systems. In the 1993-94 period of the project, we intend to accomplish the following: (1) concentrate on efforts to investigate the effects of data and process replication on hard and soft real-time systems - especially we will concentrate on the impact of semantic-based consistency control schemes on a distributed real-time system in terms of improved reliability, improved availability, better resource utilization, and reduced missed task deadlines; and (2) use the prototype to verify the theoretically predicted performance of locking protocols, etc.

  19. Energy Systems Integration News | Energy Systems Integration Facility |

    Science.gov (United States)

    distributed energy resourcessolar panels, wind turbines, microgrids, and battery storagethat use smart ) panels respond to changes in solar conditions. In addition to the design and construction of the new

  20. Instrument validation system of general application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filshtein, E.L.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the Instrument Validation System (IVS) as a software system which has the capability of evaluating the performance of a set of functionally related instrument channels to identify failed instruments and to quantify instrument drift. Under funding from Combustion Engineering (C-E), the IVS has been developed to the extent that a computer program exists whose use has been demonstrated. The initial development work shows promise for success and for wide application, not only to power plants, but also to industrial manufacturing and process control. Applications in the aerospace and military sector are also likely

  1. Energy field of thermodynamic syste'ms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volchenkova, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    To reveal the qualitative and quantitative rules, regulating the properties of macro- and microsystems consideration is being given to the dependence of system enthalpy on environmental conditions. It was concluded that the dependence of material system enthalpy on temperature represents the energy field, containing the energy boundaries of phase states, described by exponential functions, in which the elements are arranged monotonically in the sequence of change of interatomic bonds, correlated with their physicomechanical properties; energy boundaries of phase states at that emanate from a single point, which is a reference a single point, which a reference one for the whole material system and determining its energy state in initial position. The presented energy field of thermodynamic systems enables to consider the change of their physicomechanical properties and energy state in dynamic process, depending on environmental parameters. Energy characteristics of single-component systems (W, Re, Hf, Nb, Mo etc) are given

  2. Dark energy cosmology with generalized linear equation of state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babichev, E; Dokuchaev, V; Eroshenko, Yu

    2005-01-01

    Dark energy with the usually used equation of state p = wρ, where w const 0 ), where the constants α and ρ 0 are free parameters. This non-homogeneous linear equation of state provides the description of both hydrodynamically stable (α > 0) and unstable (α < 0) fluids. In particular, the considered cosmological model describes the hydrodynamically stable dark (and phantom) energy. The possible types of cosmological scenarios in this model are determined and classified in terms of attractors and unstable points by using phase trajectories analysis. For the dark energy case, some distinctive types of cosmological scenarios are possible: (i) the universe with the de Sitter attractor at late times, (ii) the bouncing universe, (iii) the universe with the big rip and with the anti-big rip. In the framework of a linear equation of state the universe filled with a phantom energy, w < -1, may have either the de Sitter attractor or the big rip

  3. Enthalpy restoration in geothermal energy processing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Hugh B.

    1983-01-01

    A geothermal deep well energy extraction system is provided of the general type in which solute-bearing hot water is pumped to the earth's surface from a relatively low temperature geothermal source by transferring thermal energy from the hot water to a working fluid for driving a primary turbine-motor and a primary electrical generator at the earth's surface. The superheated expanded exhaust from the primary turbine motor is conducted to a bubble tank where it bubbles through a layer of sub-cooled working fluid that has been condensed. The superheat and latent heat from the expanded exhaust of the turbine transfers thermal energy to the sub-cooled condensate. The desuperheated exhaust is then conducted to the condenser where it is condensed and sub-cooled, whereupon it is conducted back to the bubble tank via a barometric storage tank. The novel condensing process of this invention makes it possible to exploit geothermal sources which might otherwise be non-exploitable.

  4. 49 CFR 659.21 - System security plan: general requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false System security plan: general requirements. 659.21... State Oversight Agency § 659.21 System security plan: general requirements. (a) The oversight agency shall require the rail transit agency to implement a system security plan that, at a minimum, complies...

  5. 46 CFR 154.1200 - Mechanical ventilation system: General.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mechanical ventilation system: General. 154.1200 Section... CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Design, Construction and Equipment Cargo Area: Mechanical Ventilation System § 154.1200 Mechanical ventilation system: General. (a...

  6. NHIES: Energy systems in the period of transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haefele, W.; Walbeck, M.; Martinsen, D.; Bundschuh, V.

    1990-01-01

    The concept of Novel Horizontally Integrated Energy Systems (NHIES), which assigns a decisive role to nuclear process heat generation, is explained in this chapter. The survey includes a system analysis and an outline of NHIES computed scenarios and models. The competitiveness of NHIES technology, its integration into the MARNES model as well as general and fundamental considerations and scenarios are discussed. (DG) [de

  7. An energy systems engineering approach to the optimal design of energy systems in commercial buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Pei; Pistikopoulos, Efstratios N. [Centre for Process Systems Engineering (CPSE), Department of Chemical Engineering, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Li, Zheng [Department of Thermal Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2010-08-15

    Energy consumption in commercial buildings accounts for a significant proportion of worldwide energy consumption. Any increase in the energy efficiency of the energy systems for commercial buildings would lead to significant energy savings and emissions reductions. In this work, we introduce an energy systems engineering framework towards the optimal design of such energy systems with improved energy efficiency and environmental performance. The framework features a superstructure representation of the various energy technology alternatives, a mixed-integer optimization formulation of the energy systems design problem, and a multi-objective design optimization solution strategy, where economic and environmental criteria are simultaneously considered and properly traded off. A case study of a supermarket energy systems design is presented to illustrate the key steps and potential of the proposed energy systems engineering approach. (author)

  8. An energy systems engineering approach to the optimal design of energy systems in commercial buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Pei; Pistikopoulos, Efstratios N.; Li Zheng

    2010-01-01

    Energy consumption in commercial buildings accounts for a significant proportion of worldwide energy consumption. Any increase in the energy efficiency of the energy systems for commercial buildings would lead to significant energy savings and emissions reductions. In this work, we introduce an energy systems engineering framework towards the optimal design of such energy systems with improved energy efficiency and environmental performance. The framework features a superstructure representation of the various energy technology alternatives, a mixed-integer optimization formulation of the energy systems design problem, and a multi-objective design optimization solution strategy, where economic and environmental criteria are simultaneously considered and properly traded off. A case study of a supermarket energy systems design is presented to illustrate the key steps and potential of the proposed energy systems engineering approach.

  9. An energy systems engineering approach to the optimal design of energy systems in commercial buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Pei [Centre for Process Systems Engineering (CPSE), Department of Chemical Engineering, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Pistikopoulos, Efstratios N., E-mail: e.pistikopoulos@imperial.ac.u [Centre for Process Systems Engineering (CPSE), Department of Chemical Engineering, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Li Zheng [Department of Thermal Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2010-08-15

    Energy consumption in commercial buildings accounts for a significant proportion of worldwide energy consumption. Any increase in the energy efficiency of the energy systems for commercial buildings would lead to significant energy savings and emissions reductions. In this work, we introduce an energy systems engineering framework towards the optimal design of such energy systems with improved energy efficiency and environmental performance. The framework features a superstructure representation of the various energy technology alternatives, a mixed-integer optimization formulation of the energy systems design problem, and a multi-objective design optimization solution strategy, where economic and environmental criteria are simultaneously considered and properly traded off. A case study of a supermarket energy systems design is presented to illustrate the key steps and potential of the proposed energy systems engineering approach.

  10. General aspects concerning the nuclear energy and the public opinion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glodeanu, F.; Bilegan, I.; Chirica, T.

    1993-01-01

    The nuclear power successfully competes, from technical and economic point of view all the other energy sources, having a much less environmental impact. Its expansion is limited in our days by the acceptance of local communities. Thus, for the success of a nuclear power project, the public information becomes a strategic option of the company management, and the Romanian Energy Authority - RENEL is now implementing the first steps of its programme aiming at this objective. (author). 23 refs

  11. Hydrogen based energy storage for solar energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanhanen, J.; Hagstroem, M.; Lund, P. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Advanced Energy Systems

    1998-10-01

    The main technical constraint in solar energy systems which operate around the year is the lack of suitable long-term energy storage. Conventional solutions to overcome the problem of seasonal storage in PV power systems are to use oversized batteries as a seasonal energy storage, or to use a diesel back-up generator. However, affordable lead-acid batteries are not very suitable for seasonal energy storage because of a high self-discharge rate and enhanced deterioration and divergence of the single cells during prolonged periods of low state of charge in times of low irradiation. These disadvantages can be avoided by a back-up system, e.g. a diesel generator, which car supply energy to the loads and charge the battery to the full state of charge to avoid the above mentioned disadvantages. Unfortunately, diesel generators have several disadvantages, e.g. poor starting reliability, frequent need for maintenance and noise

  12. Herbaceous energy crops: a general survey and a microeconomic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caserta, G.

    1995-01-01

    Liquid fuels (bioethanol and biooil) derived from herbaceous crops are considered beneficial for the environment and human health especially if they are used as fuels for motor vehicles. The choice of the most suited crop to be cultivated for liquid biofuel production depends on many factors; the most important being the economic convenience for farmers to cultivate the new energy crop in place of the traditional ones. In order to analyse the conditions which favour the cultivation and selling of specific energy crops, a simple methodology is proposed, based on the calculation of the ''threshold price'' of the energy crop products. The ''threshold price'' is the minimum price at which the primary products of the energy crop, i.e., roots, tubers, seeds, etc., must be sold in order to obtain a gross margin equal to that usually obtained from the traditional crop which is replaced by the energy crop. As a case-study, this methodology has been applied to twelve Italian provinces where the cultivation of six energy crops, both in productive lands and set-aside lands, is examined. The crops considered are sugar beet, sweet sorghum and topinambour, useful for bioethanol production; and rapeseed, sunflower and soya, which are usually employed for the production of biooil. (Author)

  13. Energy Prices and Internal Costs in Croatian Energy System Restructuring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potocnik, V. , Magdic, M.

    1995-01-01

    After social and political changes in 1990, energy prices in Croatia have been getting closer to the West European averages, faster than in the most European countries in transition. The energy prices for industry are almost at the West European level, while the energy prices of electricity and natural gas for households and those of the gasoline are well behind. If the population purchasing power parity (PPP) is taken into account, these relations change. While the internalization of external energy costs is under way in the developed world, it has not practically started yet in Croatia. The Croatian energy system restructuring shall require gradual adjustment of energy prices, together with multistage internalization of external energy costs. (author). 6 refs., 3 tabs., 2 figs

  14. The impact of increased efficiency in the industrial use of energy: A computable general equilibrium analysis for the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allan, Grant; Hanley, Nick; McGregor, Peter; Swales, Kim; Turner, Karen

    2007-01-01

    The conventional wisdom is that improving energy efficiency will lower energy use. However, there is an extensive debate in the energy economics/policy literature concerning 'rebound' effects. These occur because an improvement in energy efficiency produces a fall in the effective price of energy services. The response of the economic system to this price fall at least partially offsets the expected beneficial impact of the energy efficiency gain. In this paper we use an economy-energy-environment computable general equilibrium (CGE) model for the UK to measure the impact of a 5% across the board improvement in the efficiency of energy use in all production sectors. We identify rebound effects of the order of 30-50%, but no backfire (no increase in energy use). However, these results are sensitive to the assumed structure of the labour market, key production elasticities, the time period under consideration and the mechanism through which increased government revenues are recycled back to the economy

  15. Financial overview of integrated community energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croke, K. G.; Hurter, A. P.; Lerner, E.; Breen, W.; Baum, J.

    1977-01-01

    This report is designed to analyze the commercialization potential of various concepts of community-scale energy systems that have been termed Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). A case analysis of alternative ICES concepts applied to a major metropolitan development complex is documented. The intent of this study is twofold: (1) to develop a framework for comparing ICES technologies to conventional energy supply systems and (2) to identify potential problems in the commercialization of new systems approaches to energy conservation. In brief, the ICES Program of the ERDA Office of Energy Conservation is intended to identify the opportunities for energy conservation in the community context through analysis, development, and/or demonstration of: location and design of buildings, building complexes, and infrastructure links; engineering and systems design of existing, emerging, and advanced energy production and delivery technologies and systems; regulatory designs for public planning, administration, and regulation of energy-conserving community development and energy services; and financial planning for energy-conserving community development and energy supply systems.

  16. Energy system impacts of desalination in Jordan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Poul Alberg; Lund, Henrik; Mathiesen, Brian Vad

    2014-01-01

    and Multi Stage Flash (MSF) desalination driven by Cogeneration of Heat and Power (CHP). The two systems impact the energy systems in different ways due to the technologies’ particular characteristics. The systems are analyses in the energy systems analysis model EnergyPLAN to determine the impacts......Climate change mitigation calls for energy systems minimising end-use demands, optimising the fuel efficiency of conversion systems, increasing the use of renewable energy sources and exploiting synergies wherever possible. In parallel, global fresh water resources are strained due to amongst...... others population and wealth increase and competitive water uses from agriculture and industry is causing many nations to turn to desalination technologies. This article investigates a Jordanian energy scenario with two different desalination technologies; reverse osmosis (RO) driven by electricity...

  17. An energy saving system for hospital laundries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katsanis, J.S.; Tsarabaris, P.T.; Polykrati, A.D.; Proios, A.N. [National Technical Univ. of Athens, Athens (Greece). School of Electrical and Computer Engineering; Koufakis, E.I. [Public Power Corp. S.A., Crete (Greece)

    2009-07-01

    Hospital laundries are one of the largest consumers of water and electrical and thermal energy. This paper examined the energy savings achieved by a system using the hot wastewater from the washing process. Hospital laundries consume thermal energy using steam, which is produced in boilers by burning diesel oil or natural gas. Electrical energy for the mechanical drives, ventilation and also the lighting required in the laundry area are big consumers of energy. The paper presented the proposed system and discussed the parameters of the system and system dimensioning. The paper also provided and discussed an interpretation of steam and energy savings. The proposed system was considered to be economically viable, simple in its construction, installation and operation. From the application of the suggested system, the cost savings resulted in a satisfactory payback period for the capital invested of approximately three to five years. 14 refs., 4 tabs., 2 figs.

  18. Energy transition. To put an end to generally accepted ideas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-03-01

    In a set of brief texts, this publication shows that many commonly heard statements regarding energy are wrong. These wrong statements are: Germany has replaced its nuclear by coal which is even more polluting and harmful for the climate; Renewable energies will never cover all our electricity needs, and we'll still need nuclear or gas when wind turbines and solar arrays do not produce; French people are largely opposed to renewable energies, notably those located at the proximity of wind energy projects; Doing without nuclear is depriving of an electricity which is lastingly cheaper than that of our neighbours; Closing nuclear and coal plants will automatically increase unemployment, that which is unacceptable in these times of crisis; Renewable energies will have negative impacts on landscapes as territories will be covered with wind turbines and solar arrays; Renewable energies are harmful for the environment (wind turbine kill huge amounts of birds, and solar arrays use rare earth materials); Ecologists always want to create more additional taxes; Car is necessary, notably in rural areas where there is no public transports; Pollution peaks are mainly caused by pollution coming from Germany and by chimneys and farmers, and cars are not responsible for that; Eating organic food is much more expensive; Helping countries of the South to struggle against climate change is an expense France cannot afford; France almost does not emit greenhouse gases in comparison with China and the USA, and thus, why should we make efforts when other countries do not make them?; Thanks to nuclear, France is more energetically independent; Nuclear does not emit greenhouse gases, it's a clean energy

  19. Sustainable energy systems: Limitations and challenges based on exergy analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Woudstra, N.

    2012-01-01

    General There is a general understanding that the so-called “developed countries” have to change their way of life including their energy supply into a more sustainable way. But even in the case of unanimity with regard to the direction, there are still many opinions about the way to follow. This thesis discusses problems and possibilities of more sustainable energy systems first of all for the energy supply of the Netherlands. The “trias energetica” is used to distinguish the steps that have...

  20. Energy storage systems: power grid and energy market use cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komarnicki Przemysław

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Current power grid and market development, characterized by large growth of distributed energy sources in recent years, especially in Europa, are according energy storage systems an increasingly larger field of implementation. Existing storage technologies, e.g. pumped-storage power plants, have to be upgraded and extended by new but not yet commercially viable technologies (e.g. batteries or adiabatic compressed air energy storage that meet expected demands. Optimal sizing of storage systems and technically and economically optimal operating strategies are the major challenges to the integration of such systems in the future smart grid. This paper surveys firstly the literature on the latest niche applications. Then, potential new use case and operating scenarios for energy storage systems in smart grids, which have been field tested, are presented and discussed and subsequently assessed technically and economically.

  1. Energy accounting in nuclear power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Symonds, J.L.; Essam, P.; Stocks, K.

    1976-01-01

    Energy analysis is a systematic way of tracing and accounting for the flows of energy through an industrial system and apportioning a quantity of the primary energy input to each of the goods and services sent out. The application of energy accounting to nuclear power stations and their growth in generating systems is discussed. Misunderstandings arising from discrepancies and weaknesses in some published simple analyses of hypothetical growth situations are outlined. Results of a more complex energy flow analysis are used to demonstrate that current nuclear energy programs are running at an energy profit. Large fossil fuel savings will occur in a real electrical grid system under anticipated nuclear power growth rates. These savings will give a new dimension in planning the use of fossil energy resources which will still be needed for transport and industrial processes, such as steelmaking, for some time to come. (author)

  2. Energy accounting in nuclear power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Symonds, J.L.; Essam, P.; Stocks, K.

    1975-10-01

    Energy analysis is a systematic way of tracing and accounting for the flows of energy through an industrial system and apportioning a quantity of the primary energy input of the goods and services sent out. The application of energy accounting to nuclear power stations and their growth in generating systems is discussed. Misunderstandings arising from discrepancies and weaknesses in some published simple analyses of hypothetical growth situations are outlined. Results of a more complex energy flow analysis are used to demonstrate that current nuclear energy programs are running at an energy profit. Large fossil fuel savings will occur in a real electrical grid system under anticipated nuclear power growth rates. These savings will give a new dimension in planning the use of fossil energy resources which will still be needed for transport and industrial processes, such as steel-making, for some time to come. (author)

  3. Center for Efficiency in Sustainable Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abraham, Martin [Youngstown State Univ., OH (United States)

    2016-01-31

    The main goal of the Center for Efficiency in Sustainable Energy Systems is to produce a methodology that evaluates a variety of energy systems. Task I. Improved Energy Efficiency for Industrial Processes: This task, completed in partnership with area manufacturers, analyzes the operation of complex manufacturing facilities to provide flexibilities that allow them to improve active-mode power efficiency, lower standby-mode power consumption, and use low cost energy resources to control energy costs in meeting their economic incentives; (2) Identify devices for the efficient transformation of instantaneous or continuous power to different devices and sections of industrial plants; and (3) use these manufacturing sites to demonstrate and validate general principles of power management. Task II. Analysis of a solid oxide fuel cell operating on landfill gas: This task consists of: (1) analysis of a typical landfill gas; (2) establishment of a comprehensive design of the fuel cell system (including the SOFC stack and BOP), including durability analysis; (3) development of suitable reforming methods and catalysts that are tailored to the specific SOFC system concept; and (4) SOFC stack fabrication with testing to demonstrate the salient operational characteristics of the stack, including an analysis of the overall energy conversion efficiency of the system. Task III. Demonstration of an urban wind turbine system: This task consists of (1) design and construction of two side-by-side wind turbine systems on the YSU campus, integrated through power control systems with grid power; (2) preliminary testing of aerodynamic control effectors (provided by a small business partner) to demonstrate improved power control, and evaluation of the system performance, including economic estimates of viability in an urban environment; and (3) computational analysis of the wind turbine system as an enabling activity for development of smart rotor blades that contain integrated sensor

  4. Solar Energy Systems for Ohioan Residential Homeowners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luckett, Rickey D.

    Dwindling nonrenewable energy resources and rising energy costs have forced the United States to develop alternative renewable energy sources. The United States' solar energy industry has seen an upsurge in recent years, and photovoltaic holds considerable promise as a renewable energy technology. The purpose of this case study was to explore homeowner's awareness of the benefits of solar energy. Disruptive-innovation theory was used to explore marketing strategies for conveying information to homeowners about access to new solar energy products and services. Twenty residential homeowners were interviewed face-to-face to explore (a) perceived benefits of solar energy in their county in Ohio, and (b) perceptions on the rationale behind the marketing strategy of solar energy systems sold for residential use. The study findings used inductive analyses and coding interpretation to explore the participants' responses that revealed 3 themes: the existence of environmental benefits for using solar energy systems, the expensive cost of equipment associated with government incentives, and the lack of marketing information that is available for consumer use. The implications for positive social change include the potential to enable corporate leaders, small business owners, and entrepreneurs to develop marketing strategies for renewable energy systems. These strategies may promote use of solar energy systems as a clean, renewable, and affordable alternative electricity energy source for the 21st century.

  5. Addressing the main challenges of energy security in the twenty-first century – Contributions of the conferences on Sustainable Development of Energy, Water and Environment Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markovska, Natasa; Duić, Neven; Mathiesen, Brian Vad

    2016-01-01

    Climate change and fossil fuel reserve depletion both pose challenges for energy security and for wellbeing in general. The top ten among them include: Decarbonising the world economy; Enhancing the energy efficiency and energy savings in buildings; Advancing the energy technologies; Moving towards...... energy systems based on variable renewables; Electrifying the transport and some industrial processes; Liberalizing and extending the energy markets; Integrating energy sectors to Smart Energy Systems; Making the cities and communities smart; Diversifying the energy sources; and Building more...

  6. General engineering ethics and multiple stress of atomic energy engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Kunihiko

    1999-01-01

    The factors, by which the modern engineering ethics has been profoundly affected, were classified to three categories, namely mental blow, the destruction of human function and environment damage. The role of atomic energy engineering in the ethic field has been shown in the first place. It is pointed out that it has brought about the mental blow by the elucidation of universal truth and discipline and the functional disorder by the power supply. However, the direct effect of radiation to the human kinds is only a part of the stresses comparing to the accumulation of the social stress which should be taken into account of by the possibility of disaster and the suspicion of the atomic energy politics. An increase in the multiple stresses as well as the restriction of criticism will place obstacles on the promotion of atomic energy. (author)

  7. General engineering ethics and multiple stress of atomic energy engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeda, Kunihiko [Shibaura Inst. of Tech., Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-08-01

    The factors, by which the modern engineering ethics has been profoundly affected, were classified to three categories, namely mental blow, the destruction of human function and environment damage. The role of atomic energy engineering in the ethic field has been shown in the first place. It is pointed out that it has brought about the mental blow by the elucidation of universal truth and discipline and the functional disorder by the power supply. However, the direct effect of radiation to the human kinds is only a part of the stresses comparing to the accumulation of the social stress which should be taken into account of by the possibility of disaster and the suspicion of the atomic energy politics. An increase in the multiple stresses as well as the restriction of criticism will place obstacles on the promotion of atomic energy. (author)

  8. Calculations of energy consumption in ventilation systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreslins, Andris; Ramata, Anna [Riga Technical University (Latvia)], e-mail: kreslins@rbf.rtu.lv, email: Anna.Ramata@rtu.lv

    2011-07-01

    Energy cost is an important economic factor in the food industry production process. With the rising price of energy, a reduction in energy consumption would greatly impact production and the end product. The aim of this study was to develop a methodology for optimizing energy consumption. A comparison between a traditional ventilation system and a mechanical system was carried out; the necessary enthalpy for heating the air supply and thermal energy consumption were calculated and compared for both systems during the heating season, from October to April, using climatological data for Latvia. Results showed that energy savings of 46% to 87% can be achieved by applying the methodology in the design of industrial buildings; in addition, a well-designed ventilation system increases the workers' productivity. This study presented a methodology which can optimize energy consumption in the food industry sector.

  9. DGP cosmological model with generalized Ricci dark energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilera, Yeremy [Universidad de Santiago, Departamento de Matematicas y Ciencia de la Computacion, Santiago (Chile); Avelino, Arturo [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA (United States); Cruz, Norman [Universidad de Santiago, Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencia, Santiago (Chile); Lepe, Samuel [Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Valparaiso, Facultad de Ciencias, Instituto de Fisica, Valparaiso (Chile); Pena, Francisco [Universidad de La Frontera, Departamento de Ciencias Fisicas, Facultad de Ingenieria y Ciencias, Temuco (Chile)

    2014-11-15

    The brane-world model proposed by Dvali, Gabadadze and Porrati (DGP) leads to an accelerated universe without cosmological constant or other form of dark energy for the positive branch (element of = +1). For the negative branch (element of = -1) we have investigated the behavior of a model with an holographic Ricci-like dark energy and dark matter, where the IR cutoff takes the form αH{sup 2} + βH, H being the Hubble parameter and α, β positive constants of the model. We perform an analytical study of the model in the late-time dark energy dominated epoch, where we obtain a solution for r{sub c}H(z), where r{sub c} is the leakage scale of gravity into the bulk, and conditions for the negative branch on the holographic parameters α and β, in order to hold the conditions of weak energy and accelerated universe. On the other hand, we compare the model versus the late-time cosmological data using the latest type Ia supernova sample of the Joint Light-curve Analysis (JLA), in order to constrain the holographic parameters in the negative branch, as well as r{sub c}H{sub 0} in the positive branch, where H{sub 0} is the Hubble constant. We find that the model has a good fit to the data and that the most likely values for (r{sub c}H{sub 0}, α, β) lie in the permitted region found from an analytical solution in a dark energy dominated universe. We give a justification to use a holographic cutoff in 4D for the dark energy in the 5-dimensional DGP model. Finally, using the Bayesian Information Criterion we find that this model is disfavored compared with the flat ΛCDM model. (orig.)

  10. Energy system impacts of desalination in Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poul Alberg Østergaard

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Climate change mitigation calls for energy systems minimising end-use demands, optimising the fuel efficiency of conversion systems, increasing the use of renewable energy sources and exploiting synergies wherever possible. In parallel, global fresh water resources are strained due to amongst others population and wealth increase and competitive water uses from agriculture and industry is causing many nations to turn to desalination technologies. This article investigates a Jordanian energy scenario with two different desalination technologies; reverse osmosis (RO driven by electricity and Multi Stage Flash (MSF desalination driven by Cogeneration of Heat and Power (CHP. The two systems impact the energy systems in different ways due to the technologies’ particular characteristics. The systems are analyses in the energy systems analysis model EnergyPLAN to determine the impacts on energy system performance. Results indicate that RO and MSF are similar in fuel use. While there is no use of waste heat from condensing mode plants, efficiencies for CHP and MSF are not sufficiently good to results in lower fuel usage than RO. The Jordanian energy system is somewhat inflexible giving cause to Critical Excess Electricity Production (CEEP even at relatively modest wind power penetrations. Here RO assists the energy system in decreasing CEEP – and even more if water storage is applied.

  11. Generalized Least Energy of Separation for Desalination and Other Chemical Separation Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karan H. Mistry

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Increasing global demand for fresh water is driving the development and implementation of a wide variety of seawater desalination technologies driven by different combinations of heat, work, and chemical energy. This paper develops a consistent basis for comparing the energy consumption of such technologies using Second Law efficiency. The Second Law efficiency for a chemical separation process is defined in terms of the useful exergy output, which is the minimum least work of separation required to extract a unit of product from a feed stream of a given composition. For a desalination process, this is the minimum least work of separation for producing one kilogram of product water from feed of a given salinity. While definitions in terms of work and heat input have been proposed before, this work generalizes the Second Law efficiency to allow for systems that operate on a combination of energy inputs, including fuel. The generalized equation is then evaluated through a parametric study considering work input, heat inputs at various temperatures, and various chemical fuel inputs. Further, since most modern, large-scale desalination plants operate in cogeneration schemes, a methodology for correctly evaluating Second Law efficiency for the desalination plant based on primary energy inputs is demonstrated. It is shown that, from a strictly energetic point of view and based on currently available technology, cogeneration using electricity to power a reverse osmosis system is energetically superior to thermal systems such as multiple effect distillation and multistage flash distillation, despite the very low grade heat input normally applied in those systems.

  12. Risk management and energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlevaro, F.; Romerio, F.

    1992-01-01

    In five sessions the following topics were dealt with: risk problems, risk analysis and evaluation tools, risks in industrial societies, risks of energy production, technological risks, ethics and political-social consensus. figs., tabs., refs

  13. Energy analysis of power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Next to economic viability, the holistic energy balance of electricity generation options' is a factor of major importance. All aspects of the energy balance, i. e. all expenditures and all revenues, are compared in a life cycle analysis. This turns out to be a complex task, especially because of the large number of input quantities to be determined, including the balancing limits to be taken into account. The article presents in detail the findings of analyses of energy balances for various types of nuclear power plants as well as electricity generation in fossil-fired power plants, and for renewable energies. The analyses and their databases are discussed. Moreover, the findings are presented for the energetic amortization periods and the amounts of CO 2 emissions specific to the respective generating technologies. (orig.)

  14. Energy taxes and wages in a general equilibrium model of production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, H.

    2000-01-01

    Energy taxes are responsible for a good deal of observed differences in energy prices across states and countries. They alter patterns of production and income distribution. The present paper examines the potential of energy taxes to lower wages in a general equilibrium model of production with capital, labour and energy inputs. (Author)

  15. A study of the linear free energy model for DNA structures using the generalized Hamiltonian formalism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yavari, M., E-mail: yavari@iaukashan.ac.ir [Islamic Azad University, Kashan Branch (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    We generalize the results of Nesterenko [13, 14] and Gogilidze and Surovtsev [15] for DNA structures. Using the generalized Hamiltonian formalism, we investigate solutions of the equilibrium shape equations for the linear free energy model.

  16. Dissipation, generalized free energy, and a self-consistent nonequilibrium thermodynamics of chemically driven open subsystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Hao; Qian, Hong

    2013-06-01

    Nonequilibrium thermodynamics of a system situated in a sustained environment with influx and efflux is usually treated as a subsystem in a larger, closed "universe." A question remains with regard to what the minimally required description for the surrounding of such an open driven system is so that its nonequilibrium thermodynamics can be established solely based on the internal stochastic kinetics. We provide a solution to this problem using insights from studies of molecular motors in a chemical nonequilibrium steady state (NESS) with sustained external drive through a regenerating system or in a quasisteady state (QSS) with an excess amount of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), adenosine diphosphate (ADP), and inorganic phosphate (Pi). We introduce the key notion of minimal work that is needed, W(min), for the external regenerating system to sustain a NESS (e.g., maintaining constant concentrations of ATP, ADP and Pi for a molecular motor). Using a Markov (master-equation) description of a motor protein, we illustrate that the NESS and QSS have identical kinetics as well as the second law in terms of the same positive entropy production rate. The heat dissipation of a NESS without mechanical output is exactly the W(min). This provides a justification for introducing an ideal external regenerating system and yields a free-energy balance equation between the net free-energy input F(in) and total dissipation F(dis) in an NESS: F(in) consists of chemical input minus mechanical output; F(dis) consists of dissipative heat, i.e. the amount of useful energy becoming heat, which also equals the NESS entropy production. Furthermore, we show that for nonstationary systems, the F(dis) and F(in) correspond to the entropy production rate and housekeeping heat in stochastic thermodynamics and identify a relative entropy H as a generalized free energy. We reach a new formulation of Markovian nonequilibrium thermodynamics based on only the internal kinetic equation without further

  17. Facilitating energy transition through energy commons : An application of socio-ecological systems framework for integrated community energy systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Acosta, Cristina; Ortega, Mariana; Bunsen, Till; Koirala, B.P.; Ghorbani, A.

    2018-01-01

    Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES) are an emerging local energy system focusing on the collective use of distributed energy resources (DER). These socio-technical systems (STSs) have a high potential to advance the transition towards socially inclusive, environmentally-friendly energy

  18. Facilitating energy transition through energy commons : An application of socio-ecological systems framework for integrated community energy systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Acosta, Cristina; Ortega, Mariana; Bunsen, Till; Koirala, Binod Prasad; Ghorbani, Amineh

    2018-01-01

    Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES) are an emerging local energy system focusing on the collective use of distributed energy resources (DER). These socio-technical systems (STSs) have a high potential to advance the transition towards socially inclusive, environmentally-friendly energy

  19. Energy database system of NEDO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Noburu

    1990-01-01

    As to the offer of technical information and others to foreign countries by Japan, the state of more import than export has been criticized internationally. The NEDO energy data base explained in this report is to make the international contribution of information, and based on the Energy Technology Data Exchange Agreement concluded between 13 countries taking part in the IEA and France, the participating countries offer their own technical information on energy, the operating organization collects them and makes the data base, and NEDO systematizes it for distribution. The IEA and the activities of exchanging information, the course of starting the Energy Technology Data Exchange Agreement and its contents, and the works of NEDO based on the Agreement are described. As for the literatures which are not sold on the market, their texts are exchanged. As to the composition of the data base, according to the example in 1988, about 1/3 were directly related to energy, and the rest 2/3 were indirectly related to energy technology. The features of the data base and the method of its utilization are explained. (K.I.)

  20. Assessing District Energy Systems Performance Integrated with Multiple Thermal Energy Storages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaie, Behnaz

    The goal of this study is to examine various energy resources in district energy (DE) systems and then DE system performance development by means of multiple thermal energy storages (TES) application. This study sheds light on areas not yet investigated precisely in detail. Throughout the research, major components of the heat plant, energy suppliers of the DE systems, and TES characteristics are separately examined; integration of various configurations of the multiple TESs in the DE system is then analysed. In the first part of the study, various sources of energy are compared, in a consistent manner, financially and environmentally. The TES performance is then assessed from various aspects. Then, TES(s) and DE systems with several sources of energy are integrated, and are investigated as a heat process centre. The most efficient configurations of the multiple TESs integrated with the DE system are investigated. Some of the findings of this study are applied on an actual DE system. The outcomes of this study provide insight for researchers and engineers who work in this field, as well as policy makers and project managers who are decision-makers. The accomplishments of the study are original developments TESs and DE systems. As an original development the Enviro-Economic Function, to balance the economic and environmental aspects of energy resources technologies in DE systems, is developed; various configurations of multiple TESs, including series, parallel, and general grid, are developed. The developed related functions are discharge temperature and energy of the TES, and energy and exergy efficiencies of the TES. The TES charging and discharging behavior of TES instantaneously is also investigated to obtain the charging temperature, the maximum charging temperature, the charging energy flow, maximum heat flow capacity, the discharging temperature, the minimum charging temperature, the discharging energy flow, the maximum heat flow capacity, and performance

  1. Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program (GFSSP) Version 6 - General Purpose Thermo-Fluid Network Analysis Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumdar, Alok; Leclair, Andre; Moore, Ric; Schallhorn, Paul

    2011-01-01

    GFSSP stands for Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program. It is a general-purpose computer program to compute pressure, temperature and flow distribution in a flow network. GFSSP calculates pressure, temperature, and concentrations at nodes and calculates flow rates through branches. It was primarily developed to analyze Internal Flow Analysis of a Turbopump Transient Flow Analysis of a Propulsion System. GFSSP development started in 1994 with an objective to provide a generalized and easy to use flow analysis tool for thermo-fluid systems.

  2. Energy-momentum distribution: A crucial problem in general relativity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sharif, M.; Fatima, T.

    2005-01-01

    This paper is aimed to elaborate the problem of energy–momentum in general relativity. In this connection, we use the prescriptions of Einstein, Landau–Lifshitz, Papapetrou and Möller to compute the energy–momentum densities for two exact solutions of Einstein field equations. The space–times under

  3. Generalized projective synchronization of a unified chaotic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Jianping; Li Changpin

    2005-01-01

    In the present paper, a simple but efficient control technique of the generalized projective synchronization is applied to a unified chaotic system. Numerical simulations show that this method works very well, which can also be applied to other chaotic systems

  4. Programming models for energy-aware systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Haitao

    Energy efficiency is an important goal of modern computing, with direct impact on system operational cost, reliability, usability and environmental sustainability. This dissertation describes the design and implementation of two innovative programming languages for constructing energy-aware systems. First, it introduces ET, a strongly typed programming language to promote and facilitate energy-aware programming, with a novel type system design called Energy Types. Energy Types is built upon a key insight into today's energy-efficient systems and applications: despite the popular perception that energy and power can only be described in joules and watts, real-world energy management is often based on discrete phases and modes, which in turn can be reasoned about by type systems very effectively. A phase characterizes a distinct pattern of program workload, and a mode represents an energy state the program is expected to execute in. Energy Types is designed to reason about energy phases and energy modes, bringing programmers into the optimization of energy management. Second, the dissertation develops Eco, an energy-aware programming language centering around sustainability. A sustainable program built from Eco is able to adaptively adjusts its own behaviors to stay on a given energy budget, avoiding both deficit that would lead to battery drain or CPU overheating, and surplus that could have been used to improve the quality of the program output. Sustainability is viewed as a form of supply and demand matching, and a sustainable program consistently maintains the equilibrium between supply and demand. ET is implemented as a prototyped compiler for smartphone programming on Android, and Eco is implemented as a minimal extension to Java. Programming practices and benchmarking experiments in these two new languages showed that ET can lead to significant energy savings for Android Apps and Eco can efficiently promote battery awareness and temperature awareness in real

  5. Sustainable Energy, Water and Environmental Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Poul Alberg; Duic, Neven

    2014-01-01

    This issue presents research results from the 8th Conference on Sustainable Development of Energy, Water and Environment Systems – SDEWES - held in Dubrovnik, Croatia in 2013. Topics covered here include the energy situation in the Middle East with a focus in Cyprus and Israel, energy planning me...

  6. Smart and usable home energy management systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Dam, S.S.

    2009-01-01

    This paper reviews research into Home Energy Management Systems (HEMS). These are intermediary products that can visualize, manage, and/or monitor the energy use of other products or whole households. HEMS have lately received increasing attention for their possible role in conserving energy within

  7. Combined solar collector and energy storage system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, R. N. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A combined solar energy collector, fluid chiller and energy storage system is disclosed. A movable interior insulated panel in a storage tank is positionable flush against the storage tank wall to insulate the tank for energy storage. The movable interior insulated panel is alternately positionable to form a solar collector or fluid chiller through which the fluid flows by natural circulation.

  8. Energy Systems Integration: Demonstrating Distributed Resource Communications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-01-01

    Overview fact sheet about the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and Schneider Electric Integrated Network Testbed for Energy Grid Research and Technology Experimentation (INTEGRATE) project at the Energy Systems Integration Facility. INTEGRATE is part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Grid Modernization Initiative.

  9. An exponential observer for the generalized Rossler chaotic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Y.-J.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the generalized Rossler chaotic system is considered and the state observation problem of such a system is investigated. Based on the time-domain approach, a state observer for the generalized Rossler chaotic system is developed to guarantee the global exponential stability of the resulting error system. Moreover, the guaranteed exponential convergence rate can be arbitrarily pre-specified. Finally, a numerical example is provided to illustrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the obtained result.

  10. A simple observer of the generalized Chen chaotic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Y.-J.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the generalized Chen chaotic system is considered and the state observation problem of such a system is investigated. Based on the time-domain approach, a simple observer for the generalized Chen chaotic system is proposed to guarantee the global exponential stability of the resulting error system. Furthermore, the guaranteed exponential convergence rate can be correctly estimated. Finally, a numerical example is provided to illustrate the use of the main result.

  11. A simple observer design of the generalized Lorenz chaotic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Y.-J.

    2010-01-01

    In this Letter, the generalized Lorenz chaotic system is considered and the state observation problem of such a system is investigated. Based on the time-domain approach, a simple observer for the generalized Lorenz chaotic system is developed to guarantee the global exponential stability of the resulting error system. Moreover, the guaranteed exponential convergence rate can be correctly estimated. Finally, a numerical example is given to show the effectiveness of the obtained result.

  12. Five paradox on energy system management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frisch, J.R.

    1995-01-01

    Five paradox are detailed on energy management: internationalization of energy questions but always regional management is present, short term problems must be solved but without forgetting long term problems in environment, the third paradox is : we have time but we are in a hurry, we have reserves but ten, twenty or thirty years are necessary to adapt our energy system; the fourth paradox is : we cannot manage energy by managing only energy, for example : finances system development and environment importance. The last and fifth paradox is : the market, yes, but state too, as regulative force

  13. Distributed Sensor Coordination for Advanced Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tumer, Kagan [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States)

    2013-07-31

    The ability to collect key system level information is critical to the safe, efficient and reliable operation of advanced energy systems. With recent advances in sensor development, it is now possible to push some level of decision making directly to computationally sophisticated sensors, rather than wait for data to arrive to a massive centralized location before a decision is made. This type of approach relies on networked sensors (called “agents” from here on) to actively collect and process data, and provide key control decisions to significantly improve both the quality/relevance of the collected data and the associating decision making. The technological bottlenecks for such sensor networks stem from a lack of mathematics and algorithms to manage the systems, rather than difficulties associated with building and deploying them. Indeed, traditional sensor coordination strategies do not provide adequate solutions for this problem. Passive data collection methods (e.g., large sensor webs) can scale to large systems, but are generally not suited to highly dynamic environments, such as advanced energy systems, where crucial decisions may need to be reached quickly and locally. Approaches based on local decisions on the other hand cannot guarantee that each agent performing its task (maximize an agent objective) will lead to good network wide solution (maximize a network objective) without invoking cumbersome coordination routines. There is currently a lack of algorithms that will enable self-organization and blend the efficiency of local decision making with the system level guarantees of global decision making, particularly when the systems operate in dynamic and stochastic environments. In this work we addressed this critical gap and provided a comprehensive solution to the problem of sensor coordination to ensure the safe, reliable, and robust operation of advanced energy systems. The differentiating aspect of the proposed work is in shifting the focus

  14. Energy Systems Modelling Research and Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller Andersen, Frits; Alberg Østergaard, Poul

    2015-01-01

    This editorial introduces the seventh volume of the International Journal of Sustainable Energy Planning and Management. The volume presents part of the outcome of the project Energy Systems Modelling Research and Analysis (ENSYMORA) funded by the Danish Innovation Fund. The project carried out b...... by 11 university and industry partners has improved the basis for decision-making within energy planning and energy scenario making by providing new and improved tools and methods for energy systems analyses.......This editorial introduces the seventh volume of the International Journal of Sustainable Energy Planning and Management. The volume presents part of the outcome of the project Energy Systems Modelling Research and Analysis (ENSYMORA) funded by the Danish Innovation Fund. The project carried out...

  15. Nuclear Hybrid Energy Systems: Challenges and Opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. Sabharwall; S.B. Sitton; S.J. Yoon; C. Stoots

    2014-07-01

    With growing demand of energy and costs of the fossil fuels, coupled with the environmental concerns have resulted in an increased interest in alternative energy sources. Nuclear hybrid energy systems (NHES) are being considered which incorporates renewable energy sources such as solar and wind energy combined with nuclear reactor and energy storage to meet the peak hours demand imposed on the grid, along with providing process heat for other potential industrial applications. This concept could potentially satisfy various energy demands and improve reliability, robustness and resilience for the entire system as a whole, along with economic and net efficiency gains. This paper provides a brief understanding of potential NHES system and architecture along with the challenges

  16. Client-Controlled Case Information: A General System Theory Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitch, Dale

    2004-01-01

    The author proposes a model for client control of case information via the World Wide Web built on principles of general system theory. It incorporates the client into the design, resulting in an information structure that differs from traditional human services information-sharing practices. Referencing general system theory, the concepts of…

  17. Thermal Distribution System | Energy Systems Integration Facility | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thermal Distribution System Thermal Distribution System The Energy Systems Integration Facility's . Photo of the roof of the Energy Systems Integration Facility. The thermal distribution bus allows low as 10% of its full load level). The 60-ton chiller cools water with continuous thermal control

  18. Proceedings of the General Committee for solar thermal energy 2017

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loyen, Richard; Gibert, Francois; Porcheyre, Edwige; Laplagne, Valerie; Lambertucci, Stefano; Hauser, Eva; Delmas, Pierre; Mozas, Kevin; Servier, Gerard; Girard, Jean-Paul; Haim, Philippe; Gendron, Marc; Haas, Benjamin; Leclech, Rodrigue; Eberhardt, Mathieu; Bettwy, Fabrice; Berthomieu, Nadine; Barais, Claire; Mingant, Sylvie; Daniel, Charles; GODIN, Olivier; PELe, Charles; Benabdelkarim, Mohamed; Brottier, Laetitia; Cholin, Xavier; Mugnier, Daniel; Marchal, David; Khebchache, Bouzid

    2017-10-01

    The contributions of this conference first proposed an overview of the status and perspectives of the solar thermal energy sector with a presentation of the present situation and perspectives for the French market, and an overview of situations and initiatives in neighbouring European countries. A second session addressed the possible new economical and marketing models able to face challenges of solar thermal energy in 2018 with focuses on heat kWh purchase, on supply portage through a global operator contract (design-realisation-exploitation-maintenance contracts or CREM contracts, energy performance contracts or CPE), and on issues related to building renovation (solar-gas synergy) and to new buildings (regulatory evolution, E+C label). The third session proposed examples of local good practices: development of solar thermal networks in Auvergne-Rhone-Alpes with the development of these networks and a support to commissioners, ADEME's support with patrimony-rehabilitation contracts, and the solar policy implemented by the Brest metropole. A technological focus was then proposed. It addressed communications about the SOCOL approach, concentration-based solar technology (technology, applications, realisations), and solar heating (assets in new and renovated buildings). Before a synthesis, two interventions addressed the production of solar electron and calories, and works performed on the increase of the solar coverage rate

  19. Implementation of Renewable Energy Systems in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Niels I

    1997-01-01

    Denmark has been one of the first countries in the world to commit itself to a sustainable energy development. This has been substantiated by two official action plans from 1990 and 1996 with emphasis on energy efficiency and supply systems based on renewable energy. In year 2005, renewable energy...... sources are planned to cover 12-14% and in year 2030 about 35% of total Danish energy demand. This paper reviews the experiences with implementation of renewable energy in Denmark with a focus on wind power and biomass....

  20. An energy storage and regeneration system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2006-01-01

      The present invention relates to a method and a system for storing excess energy produced by an electric power plant during periods of lower energy demand than the power plant production capacity. The excess energy is stored by hydrolysis of water and storage of hydrogen and oxygen in underground...... caverns. When the energy demand exceeds the power production capacity of the plant, the stored gases are burned and the thermal energy is converted into electricity in gas turbine generators. The regenerated electrical power is then used to supplement the output of the electric power plant to meet...... the higher level of energy demand....

  1. Microelectronic circuit design for energy harvesting systems

    CERN Document Server

    Di Paolo Emilio, Maurizio

    2017-01-01

    This book describes the design of microelectronic circuits for energy harvesting, broadband energy conversion, new methods and technologies for energy conversion. The author also discusses the design of power management circuits and the implementation of voltage regulators. Coverage includes advanced methods in low and high power electronics, as well as principles of micro-scale design based on piezoelectric, electromagnetic and thermoelectric technologies with control and conditioning circuit design. Provides a single-source reference to energy harvesting and its applications; Serves as a practical guide to microelectronics design for energy harvesting, with application to mobile power supplies; Enables readers to develop energy harvesting systems for wearable/mobile electronics.

  2. Generalized Path Analysis and Generalized Simultaneous Equations Model for Recursive Systems with Responses of Mixed Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Tien-Lung; Shau, Wen-Yi; Hu, Fu-Chang

    2006-01-01

    This article generalizes linear path analysis (PA) and simultaneous equations models (SiEM) to deal with mixed responses of different types in a recursive or triangular system. An efficient instrumental variable (IV) method for estimating the structural coefficients of a 2-equation partially recursive generalized path analysis (GPA) model and…

  3. Proceedings of the 3. General Congress on Nuclear Energy. v. 9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The Proceedings of the 3. General Congress on Nuclear Energy (CGEN), present about 200 contributed papers. The topics covered by the meeting are: reactor physics and operation; risk analysis, safety analysis, nuclear power plants construction; thermohydraulics; nuclear power plants control and instrumentation; equipment and system design, radioactive management; fuel cycle; design and fabrication of fuel elements, science and technology materials; instrumentation for radiation detection and dosimetry; shielding, radiation protection, licensing, safeguards, social and environmental impacts; radioisotopes production and application; radiochemistry, radioecology; nuclear medicine and radiobiology. In this volume the contributed papers emphasize the topics shielding, radiation protection, licensing, safeguards and social and environmental impacts. (M.I.A.)

  4. Improved production operating efficiencies through automation: Wascana Energy`s SCADA system implementation in southeast Saskatchewan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knudsen, R; Foord, T; Bartle, A

    1996-12-31

    Supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems covering Wascana Energy`s whole southeast Saskatchewan operating area were implemented in 1994-95. The benefits of this automation were described. Operations practices were reviewed and a brief description of the system was provided. Main features of the system described included data storage/retrieval, data display, alarm group organization, alarm call out monitoring, dynagraph display, and the Microsoft SQL server computer. Automation was found to significantly change the operator`s traditional role and altered operation practices in general. SCADA systems were found to improve operating efficiencies and production performance significantly, when properly implemented and utilized. 6 refs., 3 figs.

  5. ADVANCES IN ZERO ENERGY TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad, Othman

    2017-01-01

    Hyperloop mass transportation systems are activelydeveloped at the moment. They represent the forefront development of the ZeroEnergy Transportation systems where air drag is minimized by travelling in avacuum and friction is reduced by non-contact bearings. Hyperloop supportersare confident that the cost of their transportation systems would be lowcompared to existing transportation systems because of the low loss andtherefore low energy consumption as well as other cost-saving techniquesdoc...

  6. Comparative risk assessment of total energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soerensen, B.

    1982-01-01

    The paper discusses a methodology for total impact assessment of energy systems, ideally evaluating all the impacts that a given energy system has on the society in which it is imbedded or into which its introduction is being considered. Impacts from the entire energy conversion chain ('fuel cycle' if the system is fuel-based), including energy storage, transport and transmission, as well as the institutions formed in order to manage the system, should be compared on the basis of the energy service provided. A number of impacts are considered, broadly classified as impacts on satisfaction of biological needs, on health, on environment, on social relations and on the structure of society. Further considerations include impacts related to cost and resilience, and, last but not least, impacts on global relations. The paper discusses a number of published energy studies in the light of the comparative impact assessment methodology outlined above. (author)

  7. Biodigester as an energy storage system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borges Neto, M.R.; Lopes, L.C.N. [Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology of Sertao Pernambucano (IFSertao-PE), Petrolina, PE (Brazil)], Emails: rangel@cefetpet.br; Pinheiro Neto, J.S.; Carvalho, P.C.M. [Federal University of Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. of Electrical Engineering], Emails: neto@tbmtextil.com.br, carvalho@dee.ufc.br; Silveira, G.C.; Moreira, A.P.; Borges, T.S.H. [Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology of Ceara (IFCE), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil)], Emails: gcsilveira@cefet-ce.br, apmoreira@ifce.edu.br, thatyanys@yahoo.com.br

    2009-07-01

    Electricity supply for rural and remote areas is becoming an increasing priority to developing countries. The high initial cost of renewable energy based unities usually needs an energy storage system; due its operational and even replacement cost contributes to a higher final cost. The choice of energy storage systems depends on the sort and size of adopted power supply. This paper has a main goal to introduce a renewable energy based storage system weakly explored in Brazil: biogas from anaerobic digestion. It also brings a review of the main energy storage systems applied to electrical energy generation. As reference an experiment with an adapted Indian digester of 5 m{sup 3} that produced nearly 2m{sup 3} of biogas daily. The obtained biogas met the consumption of at least 4 typical Brazilian low income households with installed load of 500 W each and was enough to replace the use of 420 Ah lead-acid batteries. (author)

  8. Wind energy systems information user study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belew, W.W.; Wood, B.L.; Marle, T.L.; Reinhardt, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    This report describes the results of a series of telephone interviews with potential users of information on wind energy conversion. These interviews, part of a larger study covering nine different solar technologies, attempted to identify: the type of information each distinctive group of information users needed, and the best way of getting information to that group. Groups studied include: wind energy conversion system researchers; wind energy conversion system manufacturer representatives; wind energy conversion system distributors; wind turbine engineers; utility representatives; educators; county agents and extension service agents; and wind turbine owners.

  9. Restructuring the Energy System. Report of the Energy Commission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The commission was instructed to examine the current energy policy programs for restructuring and developing the energy system (i.e. phasing out nuclear power and moving to renewable sources) and to analyze the needs for changes; to propose measures for ensuring an efficient electricity supply under the new conditions of a liberalized electricity market; and to present proposals for a schedule for reorganizing the energy system. The report gives a full picture of the Swedish energy system including supply, consumption, prices, environmental impacts, R and D, and international aspects. The commission concludes that one nuclear power plant can be closed during the 1990's without upsetting the power balances. Phasing out all nuclear plants by year 2010 will create problems with the price levels of electricity supply, and will conflict with the CO 2 reduction objective. The proposals for economic control measures for performing the restructuring include: An environmental bonus (or investment support) for environmentally sound electricity production financed by an electricity tax, a tax on nuclear power increasing with the age of the reactors, a reorganization fund to finance new and environmentally acceptable electricity production. Also, energy research should be allotted greater resources, in particular for new technology for electricity production. The commission points towards the possibilities for reducing energy consumption, and especially electricity consumption. Space heating should gradually move away from electric heating. Examples are given on measures for improving energy efficiency and problems with financing such measures should be studied

  10. Energy accounting and optimization for mobile systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Mian

    Energy accounting determines how much a software process contributes to the total system energy consumption. It is the foundation for evaluating software and has been widely used by operating system based energy management. While various energy accounting policies have been tried, there is no known way to evaluate them directly simply because it is hard to track every hardware use by software in a heterogeneous multi-core system like modern smartphones and tablets. In this thesis, we provide the ground truth for energy accounting based on multi-player game theory and offer the first evaluation of existing energy accounting policies, revealing their important flaws. The proposed ground truth is based on Shapley value, a single value solution to multi-player games of which four axiomatic properties are natural and self-evident to energy accounting. To obtain the Shapley value-based ground truth, one only needs to know if a process is active during the time under question and the system energy consumption during the same time. We further provide a utility optimization formulation of energy management and show, surprisingly, that energy accounting does not matter for existing energy management solutions that control the energy use of a process by giving it an energy budget, or budget based energy management (BEM). We show an optimal energy management (OEM) framework can always outperform BEM. While OEM does not require any form of energy accounting, it is related to Shapley value in that both require the system energy consumption for all possible combination of processes under question. We provide a novel system solution that meet this requirement by acquiring system energy consumption in situ for an OS scheduler period, i.e.,10 ms. We report a prototype implementation of both Shapley value-based energy accounting and OEM based scheduling. Using this prototype and smartphone workload, we experimentally demonstrate how erroneous existing energy accounting policies can

  11. Hydrogen based energy storage for solar energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanhanen, J.P.; Hagstroem, M.T.; Lund, P.H. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Dept. of Engineering Physics and Mathematics; Leppaenen, J.R.; Nieminen, J.P. [Neste Oy (Finland)

    1998-12-31

    Hydrogen based energy storage options for solar energy systems was studied in order to improve their overall performance. A 1 kW photovoltaic hydrogen (PV-H2) pilot-plant and commercial prototype were constructed and a numerical simulation program H2PHOTO for system design and optimisation was developed. Furthermore, a comprehensive understanding of conversion (electrolysers and fuel cells) and storage (metal hydrides) technologies was acquired by the project partners. The PV-H{sub 2} power system provides a self-sufficient solution for applications in remote locations far from electric grids and maintenance services. (orig.)

  12. Expected energy production evaluation for photovoltaic systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Yi; Østergaard, Jacob; Peng, Wang

    2011-01-01

    A photovoltaic (PV) system consists of many solar panels, which are connected in series, parallel or a combination of both. Energy production for the PV system with various configurations is different. In this paper, a methodology is developed to evaluate and analyze the expected energy production...

  13. Energy system impacts of desalination in Jordan

    OpenAIRE

    Poul Alberg Østergaard; Henrik Lund; Brian Vad Mathiesen

    2014-01-01

    Climate change mitigation calls for energy systems minimising end-use demands, optimising the fuel efficiency of conversion systems, increasing the use of renewable energy sources and exploiting synergies wherever possible. In parallel, global fresh water resources are strained due to amongst others population and wealth increase and competitive water uses from agriculture and industry is causing many nations to turn to desalination technologies. This article investigatesa Jordanian energy sc...

  14. Energy consumption in the food supply system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamp, Andreas; Østergård, Hanne; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Historically, productivity gains have been possible by the application of energy intensive technologies. In the future, new technologies and practices based on energy from renewable resources are central for the development of our food supply system and they will contribute in two different ways....... As the energy sector increasingly bases energy supply on renewable sources, the energy requirements of the food sector will automatically substitute renewable energy for non-renewable energy in all stages of food supply. In principle, the food sector does not need to change if renewable energy is sufficient...... and available as the energy carriers that we are used to today. We may think of this as passive adaptation. A passive adaptation strategy may support a development towards the image ‘high input – high output’. The food sector, however, may also actively adapt to a future without fossil fuels and change...

  15. Modelling energy systems for developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urban, F.; Benders, R.M.J.; Moll, H.C.

    2007-01-01

    Developing countries' energy use is rapidly increasing, which affects global climate change and global and regional energy settings. Energy models are helpful for exploring the future of developing and industrialised countries. However, energy systems of developing countries differ from those of industrialised countries, which has consequences for energy modelling. New requirements need to be met by present-day energy models to adequately explore the future of developing countries' energy systems. This paper aims to assess if the main characteristics of developing countries are adequately incorporated in present-day energy models. We first discuss these main characteristics, focusing particularly on developing Asia, and then present a model comparison of 12 selected energy models to test their suitability for developing countries. We conclude that many models are biased towards industrialised countries, neglecting main characteristics of developing countries, e.g. the informal economy, supply shortages, poor performance of the power sector, structural economic change, electrification, traditional bio-fuels, urban-rural divide. To more adequately address the energy systems of developing countries, energy models have to be adjusted and new models have to be built. We therefore indicate how to improve energy models for increasing their suitability for developing countries and give advice on modelling techniques and data requirements

  16. Sustainable automotive energy system in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xiliang (ed.) [Tsinghua Univ. Beijing (China). China Automotive Energy Research Center

    2013-06-01

    The latest research available on automotive energy system analysis in China. Thorough introduction on automotive energy system in China. Provides the broad perspective to aid in planning sustainable road transport in China. Sustainable Automotive Energy System in China aims at identifying and addressing the key issues of automotive energy in China in a systematic way, covering demography, economics, technology and policy, based on systematic and in-depth, multidisciplinary and comprehensive studies. Five scenarios of China's automotive energy development are created to analyze the possible contributions in the fields of automotive energy, vehicle fuel economy improvement, electric vehicles, fuel cell vehicles and the 2nd generation biofuel development. Thanks to this book, readers can gain a better understanding of the nature of China's automotive energy development and be informed about: (1) the current status of automotive energy consumption, vehicle technology development, automotive energy technology development and policy; (2) the future of automotive energy development, fuel consumption, propulsion technology penetration and automotive energy technology development, and (3) the pathways of sustainable automotive energy transformation in China, in particular, the technological and the policy-related options. This book is intended for researchers, engineers and graduates students in the low-carbon transportation and environmental protection field.

  17. Controlling general projective synchronization of fractional order Rossler systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shao Shiquan

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposed a method to achieve general projective synchronization of two fractional order Rossler systems. First, we construct the fractional order Rossler system's corresponding approximation integer order system. Then, a control method based on a partially linear decomposition and negative feedback of state errors was utilized on the integer order system. Numerical simulations show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  18. Client-controlled case information: a general system theory perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitch, Dale

    2004-07-01

    The author proposes a model for client control of case information via the World Wide Web built on principles of general system theory. It incorporates the client into the design, resulting in an information structure that differs from traditional human services information-sharing practices. Referencing general system theory, the concepts of controller and controlled system, as well as entropy and negentropy, are applied to the information flow and autopoietic behavior as they relate to the boundary-maintaining functions of today's organizations. The author's conclusions synthesize general system theory and human services values to lay the foundation for an information-sharing framework for human services in the 21st century.

  19. Generalized projective synchronization of chaotic systems via adaptive learning control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun-Ping, Sun; Jun-Min, Li; Hui-Lin, Wang; Jiang-An, Wang

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, a learning control approach is applied to the generalized projective synchronisation (GPS) of different chaotic systems with unknown periodically time-varying parameters. Using the Lyapunov–Krasovskii functional stability theory, a differential-difference mixed parametric learning law and an adaptive learning control law are constructed to make the states of two different chaotic systems asymptotically synchronised. The scheme is successfully applied to the generalized projective synchronisation between the Lorenz system and Chen system. Moreover, numerical simulations results are used to verify the effectiveness of the proposed scheme. (general)

  20. General Astrophysics with TPF: Not Just Dark Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchner, Marc

    2006-01-01

    Besides searching for Earth-LIke Planets, TPF can study Jupiters, Neptunes, and all sorts of exotic planets. It can image debris-disks, YSO disks, AGN disks, maybe even AGB disks. And you are probably aware that a large optical space telescope like TPF-C or TPF-O can be a fantastic tool for studying the equation of state of the Dark Energy. I will review some of the future science of TPF-C, TPF-I and TPF-O, focusing on the applications of TPF to the study of objects in our Galaxy: especially circumstellar disks and planets other than exo-Earths.

  1. Thermal energy systems design and analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Penoncello, Steven G

    2015-01-01

    IntroductionThermal Energy Systems Design and AnalysisSoftwareThermal Energy System TopicsUnits and Unit SystemsThermophysical PropertiesEngineering DesignEngineering EconomicsIntroductionCommon Engineering Economics NomenclatureEconomic Analysis Tool: The Cash Flow DiagramTime Value of MoneyTime Value of Money ExamplesUsing Software to Calculate Interest FactorsEconomic Decision MakingDepreciation and TaxesProblemsAnalysis of Thermal Energy SystemsIntroductionNomenclatureThermophysical Properties of SubstancesSuggested Thermal Energy Systems Analysis ProcedureConserved and Balanced QuantitiesConservation of MassConservation of Energy (The First Law of Thermodynamics)Entropy Balance (The Second Law of Thermodynamics)Exergy Balance: The Combined LawEnergy and Exergy Analysis of Thermal Energy CyclesDetailed Analysis of Thermal Energy CyclesProblemsFluid Transport in Thermal Energy SystemsIntroductionPiping and Tubing StandardsFluid Flow FundamentalsValves and FittingsDesign and Analysis of Pipe NetworksEconomi...

  2. Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program, Version 6.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumdar, A. K.; LeClair, A. C.; Moore, R.; Schallhorn, P. A.

    2016-01-01

    The Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program (GFSSP) is a general purpose computer program for analyzing steady state and time-dependent flow rates, pressures, temperatures, and concentrations in a complex flow network. The program is capable of modeling real fluids with phase changes, compressibility, mixture thermodynamics, conjugate heat transfer between solid and fluid, fluid transients, pumps, compressors, and external body forces such as gravity and centrifugal. The thermofluid system to be analyzed is discretized into nodes, branches, and conductors. The scalar properties such as pressure, temperature, and concentrations are calculated at nodes. Mass flow rates and heat transfer rates are computed in branches and conductors. The graphical user interface allows users to build their models using the 'point, drag, and click' method; the users can also run their models and post-process the results in the same environment. Two thermodynamic property programs (GASP/WASP and GASPAK) provide required thermodynamic and thermophysical properties for 36 fluids: helium, methane, neon, nitrogen, carbon monoxide, oxygen, argon, carbon dioxide, fluorine, hydrogen, parahydrogen, water, kerosene (RP-1), isobutene, butane, deuterium, ethane, ethylene, hydrogen sulfide, krypton, propane, xenon, R-11, R-12, R-22, R-32, R-123, R-124, R-125, R-134A, R-152A, nitrogen trifluoride, ammonia, hydrogen peroxide, and air. The program also provides the options of using any incompressible fluid with constant density and viscosity or ideal gas. The users can also supply property tables for fluids that are not in the library. Twenty-four different resistance/source options are provided for modeling momentum sources or sinks in the branches. These options include pipe flow, flow through a restriction, noncircular duct, pipe flow with entrance and/or exit losses, thin sharp orifice, thick orifice, square edge reduction, square edge expansion, rotating annular duct, rotating radial duct

  3. Energy Production System Management - Renewable energy power supply integration with Building Automation System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figueiredo, Joao; Martins, Joao

    2010-01-01

    Intelligent buildings, historically and technologically, refers to the integration of four distinctive systems: Building Automation Systems (BAS), Telecommunication Systems, Office Automation Systems and Computer Building Management Systems. The increasing sophisticated BAS has become the 'heart and soul' of modern intelligent buildings. Integrating energy supply and demand elements - often known as Demand-Side Management (DSM) - has became an important energy efficiency policy concept. Nowadays, European countries have diversified their power supplies, reducing the dependence on OPEC, and developing a broader mix of energy sources maximizing the use of renewable energy domestic sources. In this way it makes sense to include a fifth system into the intelligent building group: Energy Production System Management (EPSM). This paper presents a Building Automation System where the Demand-Side Management is fully integrated with the building's Energy Production System, which incorporates a complete set of renewable energy production and storage systems.

  4. Self-consistent nuclear energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, A.; Fujiie, Y.

    1995-01-01

    A concept of self-consistent energy systems (SCNES) has been proposed as an ultimate goal of the nuclear energy system in the coming centuries. SCNES should realize a stable and unlimited energy supply without endangering the human race and the global environment. It is defined as a system that realizes at least the following four objectives simultaneously: (a) energy generation -attain high efficiency in the utilization of fission energy; (b) fuel production - secure inexhaustible energy source: breeding of fissile material with the breeding ratio greater than one and complete burning of transuranium through recycling; (c) burning of radionuclides - zero release of radionuclides from the system: complete burning of transuranium and elimination of radioactive fission products by neutron capture reactions through recycling; (d) system safety - achieve system safety both for the public and experts: eliminate criticality-related safety issues by using natural laws and simple logic. This paper describes the concept of SCNES and discusses the feasibility of the system. Both ''neutron balance'' and ''energbalance'' of the system are introduced as the necessary conditions to be satisfied at least by SCNES. Evaluations made so far indicate that both the neutron balance and the energy balance can be realized by fast reactors but not by thermal reactors. Concerning the system safety, two safety concepts: ''self controllability'' and ''self-terminability'' are introduced to eliminate the criticality-related safety issues in fast reactors. (author)

  5. A Generalization of Electromagnetic Fluctuation-Induced Casimir Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Zheng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Intermolecular forces responsible for adhesion and cohesion can be classified according to their origins; interactions between charges, ions, random dipole—random dipole (Keesom, random dipole—induced dipole (Debye are due to electrostatic effects; covalent bonding, London dispersion forces between fluctuating dipoles, and Lewis acid-base interactions are due to quantum mechanical effects; pressure and osmotic forces are of entropic origin. Of all these interactions, the London dispersion interaction is universal and exists between all types of atoms as well as macroscopic objects. The dispersion force between macroscopic objects is called Casimir/van der Waals force. It results from alteration of the quantum and thermal fluctuations of the electrodynamic field due to the presence of interfaces and plays a significant role in the interaction between macroscopic objects at micrometer and nanometer length scales. This paper discusses how fluctuational electrodynamics can be used to determine the Casimir energy/pressure between planar multilayer objects. Though it is confirmation of the famous work of Dzyaloshinskii, Lifshitz, and Pitaevskii (DLP, we have solved the problem without having to use methods from quantum field theory that DLP resorted to. Because of this new approach, we have been able to clarify the contributions of propagating and evanescent waves to Casimir energy/pressure in dissipative media.

  6. A hybrid energy efficient building ventilation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calay, Rajnish Kaur; Wang, Wen Chung

    2013-01-01

    The present paper presents a high performance cooling/heating ventilation system using a rotary heat exchanger (RHE), together with a reverse-cycle heat pump (RCHP) that can be integrated with various heat sources. Energy consumption in the building sector is largely dominated by the energy consumed in maintaining comfortable conditions indoors. For example in many developed countries the building heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems consume up to 50% of the total energy consumed in buildings. Therefore energy efficient HVAC solutions in buildings are critical for realising CO 2 targets at local and global level. There are many heating/cooling concepts that rely upon renewable energy sources and/or use natural low temperature heat sources in the winter and heat sinks in the summer. In the proposed system, waste energy from the exhaust air stream is used to precondition the outdoor air before it is supplied into the building. The hybrid system provides heating in the winter and cooling in the summer without any need for additional heating or cooling devices as required in conventional systems. Its performance is better than a typical reheat or air conditioning system in providing the same indoor air quality (IAQ) levels. It is shown that an energy saving up to 60% (heat energy) is achieved by using the proposed hybrid system in building ventilation applications. -- Highlights: • Hybrid ventilation system: the hybrid ventilation system uses a rotating regenerator and a reversible heat pump. • Heat recovery: heat recovery from exhaust air stream by rotary wheel type heat exchanger. • Reversible cycle heat pump (RCHP): additional heating or cooling of the supply air is provided by the RCHP. • Energy efficiency: energy savings of up to 60% using the proposed system are achievable

  7. Generalized Gibbs distribution and energy localization in the semiclassical FPU problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hipolito, Rafael; Danshita, Ippei; Oganesyan, Vadim; Polkovnikov, Anatoli

    2011-03-01

    We investigate dynamics of the weakly interacting quantum mechanical Fermi-Pasta-Ulam (qFPU) model in the semiclassical limit below the stochasticity threshold. Within this limit we find that initial quantum fluctuations lead to the damping of FPU oscillations and relaxation of the system to a slowly evolving steady state with energy localized within few momentum modes. We find that in large systems this state can be described by the generalized Gibbs ensemble (GGE), with the Lagrange multipliers being very weak functions of time. This ensembles gives accurate description of the instantaneous correlation functions, both quadratic and quartic. Based on these results we conjecture that GGE generically appears as a prethermalized state in weakly non-integrable systems.

  8. Energy Management of Smart Distribution Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Bananeh

    Electric power distribution systems interface the end-users of electricity with the power grid. Traditional distribution systems are operated in a centralized fashion with the distribution system owner or operator being the only decision maker. The management and control architecture of distribution systems needs to gradually transform to accommodate the emerging smart grid technologies, distributed energy resources, and active electricity end-users or prosumers. The content of this document concerns with developing multi-task multi-objective energy management schemes for: 1) commercial/large residential prosumers, and 2) distribution system operator of a smart distribution system. The first part of this document describes a method of distributed energy management of multiple commercial/ large residential prosumers. These prosumers not only consume electricity, but also generate electricity using their roof-top solar photovoltaics systems. When photovoltaics generation is larger than local consumption, excess electricity will be fed into the distribution system, creating a voltage rise along the feeder. Distribution system operator cannot tolerate a significant voltage rise. ES can help the prosumers manage their electricity exchanges with the distribution system such that minimal voltage fluctuation occurs. The proposed distributed energy management scheme sizes and schedules each prosumer's ES to reduce the electricity bill and mitigate voltage rise along the feeder. The second part of this document focuses on emergency energy management and resilience assessment of a distribution system. The developed emergency energy management system uses available resources and redundancy to restore the distribution system's functionality fully or partially. The success of the restoration maneuver depends on how resilient the distribution system is. Engineering resilience terminology is used to evaluate the resilience of distribution system. The proposed emergency energy

  9. International Energy Agency Ocean Energy Systems Task 10 Wave Energy Converter Modeling Verification and Validation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wendt, Fabian F.; Yu, Yi-Hsiang; Nielsen, Kim

    2017-01-01

    This is the first joint reference paper for the Ocean Energy Systems (OES) Task 10 Wave Energy Converter modeling verification and validation group. The group is established under the OES Energy Technology Network program under the International Energy Agency. OES was founded in 2001 and Task 10 ...

  10. Energy efficiency information systems. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    It is well known that different cultures and countries are receptive in different ways to information transfer. Modern information technology, including computers, videos, and telecommunications, can provide a very useful tool for the dissemination of information. At the same time, however, the use of new media involves many new and varied challenges. It is important therefore that the new dissemination methods are developed and utilised in the most effective way depending on the subjects distinctive character, needs and traditions. This workshop was designed to gather experts from all the CADDET member countries, to share knowledge, experiences and ideas about the use of new methods of information exchange and training in the field of energy efficiency. The workshop was divided into four plenary sessions: dissemination of information on energy efficient technologies; training technologies and effective learning; computer-based training tools on energy efficiency; databases and network resources. Two discussion groups followed the plenary sessions, to concentrate on: different aspects of information exchange; and different aspects of state-of-the-art training tools. The workshop was attended by 44 participants from 17 countries, and included 14 speakers

  11. Generalized thermalization for integrable system under quantum quench.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muralidharan, Sushruth; Lochan, Kinjalk; Shankaranarayanan, S

    2018-01-01

    We investigate equilibration and generalized thermalization of the quantum Harmonic chain under local quantum quench. The quench action we consider is connecting two disjoint harmonic chains of different sizes and the system jumps between two integrable settings. We verify the validity of the generalized Gibbs ensemble description for this infinite-dimensional Hilbert space system and also identify equilibration between the subsystems as in classical systems. Using Bogoliubov transformations, we show that the eigenstates of the system prior to the quench evolve toward the Gibbs Generalized Ensemble description. Eigenstates that are more delocalized (in the sense of inverse participation ratio) prior to the quench, tend to equilibrate more rapidly. Further, through the phase space properties of a generalized Gibbs ensemble and the strength of stimulated emission, we identify the necessary criterion on the initial states for such relaxation at late times and also find out the states that would potentially not be described by the generalized Gibbs ensemble description.

  12. Greener energy systems energy production technologies with minimum environmental impact

    CERN Document Server

    Jeffs, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Recent years have seen acceleration in the development of cleaner energy systems. In Europe and North America, many old coal-fired power plants will be shut down in the next few years and will likely be replaced by combined cycle plants with higher-efficiency gas turbines that can start up and load quickly. With the revival of nuclear energy, designers are creating smaller nuclear reactors of a simpler integrated design that could expand the application of clean, emission-free energy to industry. And a number of manufacturers now offer hybrid cars with an electric motor and a gasoline engine t

  13. Assessing reliability in energy supply systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCarthy, Ryan W.; Ogden, Joan M.; Sperling, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    Reliability has always been a concern in the energy sector, but concerns are escalating as energy demand increases and the political stability of many energy supply regions becomes more questionable. But how does one define and measure reliability? We introduce a method to assess reliability in energy supply systems in terms of adequacy and security. It derives from reliability assessment frameworks developed for the electricity sector, which are extended to include qualitative considerations and to be applicable to new energy systems by incorporating decision-making processes based on expert opinion and multi-attribute utility theory. The method presented here is flexible and can be applied to any energy system. To illustrate its use, we apply the method to two hydrogen pathways: (1) centralized steam reforming of imported liquefied natural gas with pipeline distribution of hydrogen, and (2) on-site electrolysis of water using renewable electricity produced independently from the electricity grid

  14. An energy management system for off-grid power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zelazo, Daniel [Universitaet Stuttgart, Institute for Systems Theory and Automatic Control, Stuttgart (Germany); Dai, Ran; Mesbahi, Mehran [University of Washington, Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2012-06-15

    Next generation power management at all scales will rely on the efficient scheduling and operation of both generating units and loads to maximize efficiency and utility. The ability to schedule and modulate the demand levels of a subset of loads within a power system can lead to more efficient use of the generating units. These methods become increasingly important for systems that operate independently of the main utility, such as microgrid and off-grid systems. This work extends the principles of unit commitment and economic dispatch problems to off-grid power systems where the loads are also schedulable. We propose a general optimization framework for solving the energy management problem in these systems. An important contribution is the description of how a wide range of sources and loads, including those with discrete states, non-convex, and nonlinear cost or utility functions, can be reformulated as a convex optimization problem using, for example, a shortest path description. Once cast in this way, solution are obtainable using a sub-gradient algorithm that also lends itself to a distributed implementation. The methods are demonstrated by a simulation of an off-grid solar powered community. (orig.)

  15. Skyrmion vibrational energies together with a generalized mass term

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, Merlin C.; Marleau, Luc

    2009-01-01

    We study various properties of a one-parameter mass term for the Skyrme model, originating from the works of Kopeliovich, Piette and Zakrzewski [V. B. Kopeliovich, B. Piette, and W. J. Zakrzewski, Phys. Rev. D 73, 014006 (2006).], through the use of axially symmetric solutions obtained numerically by simulated-annealing. These solutions allow us to observe asymptotic behaviors of the B=2 binding energies that differ to those previously obtained [B. Piette and W. J. Zakrzewski, Phys. Rev. D 77, 074009 (2008).]. We also decipher the characteristics of three distinct vibrational modes that appear as eigenstates of the vibrational Hamiltonian. This analysis further examine the assertion that the one-parameter mass term offers a better account of baryonic matter than the traditional mass term.

  16. Correspondence between the President of the Atomic Energy Organization of Iran and the Director General

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-09-01

    The document includes 5 attachments: the letter of 9 April 1984 from the President of the Atomic Energy Organization of Iran to the Director General, the letter of 11 May 1984 from the Director General to the President of the Atomic Energy Organization of Iran, the text of the telex of 27 May 1984 from the President of the Atomic Energy Organization of Iran to the Director General, the text of the telex of 28 May 1984 from the Director General to the President of the Atomic Energy Organization of Iran and the text of the telex from 30 May 1984 from the President of the Atomic Energy Organization of Iran to the Director General refering to ''Military attack on Iran's Bushehr Nuclear Power Plant''

  17. Design of atomic energy information network system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Y. T.; Lee, E. J.; Han, K. W.; Lee, H. C.; Chang, J. H.

    2004-01-01

    As the 21 st century is expected to induce a Knowledge based society, responding to this kind of change on our own initiative could be achieved by establishing networks among atomic energy agencies with the Atomic Energy Portal Site in a pivotal role. Thus, enabling the knowledge information from each agency to be easily shared and utilized. Furthermore, it can contribute to further researches by providing accumulated knowledge in the atomic energy, such as research output and past achievements, and by avoiding the repetition of researches on the same subjects. It could also provide remote educational data to researchers and industrial experts in atomic energy, as well as atomic energy information for general public consistently, so that we can promote our confidence in atomic energy

  18. Complex energy system management using optimization techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bridgeman, Stuart; Hurdowar-Castro, Diana; Allen, Rick; Olason, Tryggvi; Welt, Francois

    2010-09-15

    Modern energy systems are often very complex with respect to the mix of generation sources, energy storage, transmission, and avenues to market. Historically, power was provided by government organizations to load centers, and pricing was provided in a regulatory manner. In recent years, this process has been displaced by the independent system operator (ISO). This complexity makes the operation of these systems very difficult, since the components of the system are interdependent. Consequently, computer-based large-scale simulation and optimization methods like Decision Support Systems are now being used. This paper discusses the application of a DSS to operations and planning systems.

  19. Energy sources for future. Change to a sustainable energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, C.

    2005-01-01

    Can Germany give up gasoline and power from coal or nuclear energy and how much does it cost? The book does away with all common misunderstandings due to renewable energy sources and describes a compatible model for a sustainable energy mixing in future. Nevertheless fossil fuels are not denounced but seen as a platform for the advanced system. The author explains first why objections to renewable energy sources base on bad information, and pursues quite an other argumentation as such authors emphasizing the potential of these energy sources. Than he shows in detail the possibility of the optimal energy mixing for biomass, solar power, wind power, geothermal energy, hydropower and energy efficiency. The environment will reward us for this and instead buying expensive resources from foreign countries we will create work places at home. The number of big power plants - taking into account safety risks - will decrease and small units of on-site power generation feeded with this renewable sources will play more and more an important role. (GL) [de

  20. Renewable energy for sustainable electrical energy system in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallah, Subhash; Bansal, N.K.

    2010-01-01

    Present trends of electrical energy supply and demand are not sustainable because of the huge gap between demand and supply in foreseeable future in India. The path towards sustainability is exploitation of energy conservation and aggressive use of renewable energy systems. Potential of renewable energy technologies that can be effectively harnessed would depend on future technology developments and breakthrough in cost reduction. This requires adequate policy guidelines and interventions in the Indian power sector. Detailed MARKAL simulations, for power sector in India, show that full exploitation of energy conservation potential and an aggressive implementation of renewable energy technologies lead to sustainable development. Coal and other fossil fuel (gas and oil) allocations stagnated after the year 2015 and remain constant up to 2040. After the year 2040, the requirement for coal and gas goes down and carbon emissions decrease steeply. By the year 2045, 25% electrical energy can be supplied by renewable energy and the CO 2 emissions can be reduced by 72% as compared to the base case scenario. (author)

  1. Policies for 100% Renewable Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvelplund, Frede

    2014-01-01

    The official Danish energy policy goal is both to increase the wind power share of electricity consumption from 33% in 2014 to 50% by 2020 and to have a 100% renewable energy based energy system by 2050. This is a huge technological change from stored, scarce and polluting fossil fuels...... to fluctuating, abundant and clean energy sources. “Stored” fossil fuels can be used when needed; fluctuating energy sources must be captured when available and transformed to meet the energy needs of society in the right amounts and at the right time. We are amidst this change. Renewable energy has come of age...... and is no longer a minor technology experimenting in the corner of the energy scene, but has become a large new technology taking away considerable market shares from the old fossil fuel technologies....

  2. Solar Energy Grid Integration Systems -- Energy Storage (SEGIS-ES).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanley, Charles J.; Ton, Dan T. (U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, D.C.); Boyes, John D.; Peek, Georgianne Huff

    2008-07-01

    This paper describes the concept for augmenting the SEGIS Program (an industry-led effort to greatly enhance the utility of distributed PV systems) with energy storage in residential and small commercial applications (SEGIS-ES). The goal of SEGIS-ES is to develop electrical energy storage components and systems specifically designed and optimized for grid-tied PV applications. This report describes the scope of the proposed SEGIS-ES Program and why it will be necessary to integrate energy storage with PV systems as PV-generated energy becomes more prevalent on the nation's utility grid. It also discusses the applications for which energy storage is most suited and for which it will provide the greatest economic and operational benefits to customers and utilities. Included is a detailed summary of the various storage technologies available, comparisons of their relative costs and development status, and a summary of key R&D needs for PV-storage systems. The report concludes with highlights of areas where further PV-specific R&D is needed and offers recommendations about how to proceed with their development.

  3. Entropy, pumped-storage and energy system finance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakatsanis, Georgios

    2015-04-01

    Pumped-storage holds a key role for integrating renewable energy units with non-renewable fuel plants into large-scale energy systems of electricity output. An emerging issue is the development of financial engineering models with physical basis to systematically fund energy system efficiency improvements across its operation. A fundamental physically-based economic concept is the Scarcity Rent; which concerns the pricing of a natural resource's scarcity. Specifically, the scarcity rent comprises a fraction of a depleting resource's full price and accumulates to fund its more efficient future use. In an integrated energy system, scarcity rents derive from various resources and can be deposited to a pooled fund to finance the energy system's overall efficiency increase; allowing it to benefit from economies of scale. With pumped-storage incorporated to the system, water upgrades to a hub resource, in which the scarcity rents of all connected energy sources are denominated to. However, as available water for electricity generation or storage is also limited, a scarcity rent upon it is also imposed. It is suggested that scarcity rent generation is reducible to three (3) main factors, incorporating uncertainty: (1) water's natural renewability, (2) the energy system's intermittent components and (3) base-load prediction deviations from actual loads. For that purpose, the concept of entropy is used in order to measure the energy system's overall uncertainty; hence pumped-storage intensity requirements and generated water scarcity rents. Keywords: pumped-storage, integration, energy systems, financial engineering, physical basis, Scarcity Rent, pooled fund, economies of scale, hub resource, uncertainty, entropy Acknowledgement: This research was funded by the Greek General Secretariat for Research and Technology through the research project Combined REnewable Systems for Sustainable ENergy DevelOpment (CRESSENDO; grant number 5145)

  4. An Empirical Model for Energy Storage Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosewater, David Martin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Scott, Paul [TransPower, Poway, CA (United States)

    2016-03-17

    Improved models of energy storage systems are needed to enable the electric grid’s adaptation to increasing penetration of renewables. This paper develops a generic empirical model of energy storage system performance agnostic of type, chemistry, design or scale. Parameters for this model are calculated using test procedures adapted from the US DOE Protocol for Uniformly Measuring and Expressing the Performance of Energy Storage. We then assess the accuracy of this model for predicting the performance of the TransPower GridSaver – a 1 MW rated lithium-ion battery system that underwent laboratory experimentation and analysis. The developed model predicts a range of energy storage system performance based on the uncertainty of estimated model parameters. Finally, this model can be used to better understand the integration and coordination of energy storage on the electric grid.

  5. Energy Flexibility in the Power System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Billanes, Joy Dalmacio; Ma, Zheng; Jørgensen, Bo Nørregaard

    2017-01-01

    Energy flexibility can address the challenges of large scale integration of renewable energy resources and thereby increasing imbalance in the power system. Flexible power system can provide reliable supply, low electricity cost and sustainability. Various situations and factors influence...... the adoption of the flexibility solutions, such as flexible electricity generation, demand-response, and electricity storage. This paper tries to analyze the current energy flexibility solutions and the factors that can influence the energy flexibility adoption. This paper takes Philippines as case study...... to provide an overview of the current condition of the Philippines’ power system and discuss the energy flexibility in the Philippines’ power system. A further discussion and recommendation is conducted in the end of the paper....

  6. Energy-efficient fault-tolerant systems

    CERN Document Server

    Mathew, Jimson; Pradhan, Dhiraj K

    2013-01-01

    This book describes the state-of-the-art in energy efficient, fault-tolerant embedded systems. It covers the entire product lifecycle of electronic systems design, analysis and testing and includes discussion of both circuit and system-level approaches. Readers will be enabled to meet the conflicting design objectives of energy efficiency and fault-tolerance for reliability, given the up-to-date techniques presented.

  7. Paul Scherrer Institut Scientific Report 2001. Volume V: General Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wokaun, A; Daum, C [eds.

    2002-03-01

    Major advances in 'Energy and Materials Cycles' have been achieved in the removal of heavy metals from the solid residues of municipal waste incineration. It has been conclusively shown that the oxidation/reduction conditions established during the thermal treatment of filter ash have a decisive influence on the evaporation of groups of heavy metals. With respect to biomass gasification, studies have been carried out with respect to the best way of extracting pure hydrogen from the low calorific value gas that is typically obtained from a biomass gasifier. The overarching goal of the laboratory 'High Temperature Solar Technology' is the use of solar energy for the production of solar fuels, or for the reduction of CO{sub 2} emissions in large scale industrial processes that are conventionally carried out with the use of fossil fuels. In a short-term project targeted at the solar production of lime, highly encouraging results (98% degree of calcination, adjustable reactivity of the lime) have been obtained in a 10 kW prototype reactor. Hybrid processes, in which the calorific value of fossil fuels is upgraded by solar energy, represent the medium-term strategy. In this context, the successful operation of the SYNMET reactor, in which zinc oxide is reacted with methane to produce zinc and synthesis gas, represents an important milestone. The physical sciences group has come up with a novel scheme in which sulfides, rather than oxides, are used as starting materials. Copper sulfide Cu{sub 2}S has been identified as a promising raw material, from which metallic copper would be produced in a solar reduction step. For the use of a catalytic combustor upstream of the main burning chamber of the gas turbine, it is crucial to know the stream wise distance over the catalyst where homogeneous ignition is initiated. The combustion-group working at this concept has made great advances in matching the observed ignition distances with theory. In addition, the influence of

  8. Paul Scherrer Institut Scientific Report 2001. Volume V: General Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wokaun, A.; Daum, C. (eds.)

    2002-03-01

    Major advances in 'Energy and Materials Cycles' have been achieved in the removal of heavy metals from the solid residues of municipal waste incineration. It has been conclusively shown that the oxidation/reduction conditions established during the thermal treatment of filter ash have a decisive influence on the evaporation of groups of heavy metals. With respect to biomass gasification, studies have been carried out with respect to the best way of extracting pure hydrogen from the low calorific value gas that is typically obtained from a biomass gasifier. The overarching goal of the laboratory 'High Temperature Solar Technology' is the use of solar energy for the production of solar fuels, or for the reduction of CO{sub 2} emissions in large scale industrial processes that are conventionally carried out with the use of fossil fuels. In a short-term project targeted at the solar production of lime, highly encouraging results (98% degree of calcination, adjustable reactivity of the lime) have been obtained in a 10 kW prototype reactor. Hybrid processes, in which the calorific value of fossil fuels is upgraded by solar energy, represent the medium-term strategy. In this context, the successful operation of the SYNMET reactor, in which zinc oxide is reacted with methane to produce zinc and synthesis gas, represents an important milestone. The physical sciences group has come up with a novel scheme in which sulfides, rather than oxides, are used as starting materials. Copper sulfide Cu{sub 2}S has been identified as a promising raw material, from which metallic copper would be produced in a solar reduction step. For the use of a catalytic combustor upstream of the main burning chamber of the gas turbine, it is crucial to know the stream wise distance over the catalyst where homogeneous ignition is initiated. The combustion-group working at this concept has made great advances in matching the observed ignition distances with theory. In addition, the

  9. Energy Innovation Systems Indicator Report 2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klitkou, Antje; Borup, Mads; Iversen, Eric

    This report is the first report in a series of reports on energy innovation system indicators produced as part of the activities in the “EIS Strategic research alliance for Energy Innovation Systems and their dynamics – Denmark in global competition”. The work is based on a number of existing......). The report received also valuable input from a project commissioned by IPTS. This project addressed co-operation patterns and knowledge flows in patent documents in the fields of wind energy, photovoltaic energy and concentrating solar power (Iversen and Patel, 2010). The results relevant for this project...

  10. Environmental health risk assessment: Energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krewski, D.; Somers, E.; Winthrop, S.O.

    1984-01-01

    Most industrialized nations have come to rely on a variety of systems for energy production, both of a conventional and non-conventional nature. In the paper, the spectrum of energy systems currently in use in Canada is outlined along with their potential health risks. Several examples of environmental health studies involving both outdoor and indoor air pollution related to energy production in Canada are reported. The limitations of current technologies for assessing health risks are discussed and possible approaches to managing energy related health risks are indicated. (author)

  11. Kinetic Storage as an Energy Management System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Tabares, L.

    2007-01-01

    The possibility of storing energy is increasingly important and necessary. The reason is that storage modifies the basic equation of the energy production balance which states that the power produced should equal the power consumed. When there is a storage device in the grid, this equation is modified such that, in the new balance, the energy produced should equal the algebraic sum of the energy consumed and the energy stored (positive in storage phase and negative when released). This means that the generation profile can be uncoupled from the consumption profile, with the resulting improvement of efficiency. Even small-sized storage systems can be very effective. (Author) 10 refs

  12. Photovoltaic energy systems. Program summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1982-01-01

    The ongoing research, development, and demonstration efforts of the Photovoltaics Program are highlighted and each of the US Department of Energy's current photovoltaics projects initiated or renewed during fiscal year 1981 is described, including its title, directing organization, project engineer, contractor, principal investigator, contract period, funding, and objectives. The Photovoltaics Program is briefly summarized, including the history and organization and highlights of the research and development and of planning, assessment, and integration. Also summarized is the Federal Photovoltaic Utilization Program. An exhaustive bibliography is included. (LEW)

  13. Advanced energy conversion & mechatronics systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lomonova, E.A.

    2015-01-01

    Ultra-high precision systems are encountered in high-tech industrial applications including semiconductor lithography equipment, pick-and-place machines for the manufacturing of electronic components, microsurgery equipment, MRI equipment and calibration devices in electron microscopes. The

  14. Annual report 2005 General Direction of the Energy and raw materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This 2005 annual report of the DGEMP (General Direction of the Energy and the raw Materials), takes stock on the energy bill and accounting of the France. The first part presents the electric power, natural gas and raw materials market in France. The second part is devoted to the diversification of the energy resources with a special attention to the renewable energies and the nuclear energy. The third part discusses the energy and raw materials prices and the last part presents the international cooperation in the energy domain. (A.L.B.)

  15. Manifestations of dark energy in the solar system

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Křížek, Michal; Somer, L.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 1 (2015), s. 59-72 ISSN 0202-2893 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-02067S Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : dark energy * solar system Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.909, year: 2015 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1134%2FS0202289315010090

  16. Stability properties of a general class of nonlinear dynamical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gléria, I. M.; Figueiredo, A.; Rocha Filho, T. M.

    2001-05-01

    We establish sufficient conditions for the boundedness of the trajectories and the stability of the fixed points in a class of general nonlinear systems, the so-called quasi-polynomial vector fields, with the help of a natural embedding of such systems in a family of generalized Lotka-Volterra (LV) equations. A purely algebraic procedure is developed to determine such conditions. We apply our method to obtain new results for LV systems, by a reparametrization in time variable, and to study general nonlinear vector fields, originally far from the LV format.

  17. Stability properties of a general class of nonlinear dynamical systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gleria, I.M. [Filho Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Brasilia, Campus Universitario Darcy Ribeiro, Brasilia (Brazil). E-mail: iram@ucb.br; Figueiredo, A. [Filho Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Brasilia, Campus Universitario Darcy Ribeiro, Brasilia (Brazil). E-mail: annibal@helium.fis.unb.br; Rocha, T.M. [Filho Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Brasilia, Campus Universitario Darcy Ribeiro, Brasilia (Brazil). E-mail: marciano@helium.fis.unb.br

    2001-05-04

    We establish sufficient conditions for the boundedness of the trajectories and the stability of the fixed points in a class of general nonlinear systems, the so-called quasi-polynomial vector fields, with the help of a natural embedding of such systems in a family of generalized Lotka-Volterra (LV) equations. A purely algebraic procedure is developed to determine such conditions. We apply our method to obtain new results for LV systems, by a reparametrization in time variable, and to study general nonlinear vector fields, originally far from the LV format. (author)

  18. Generalized Synchronization of Time-Delayed Discrete Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jing Jianyi; Min Lequan

    2009-01-01

    This paper establishes two theorems for two time-delayed (chaotic) discrete systems to achieve time-delayed generalized synchronization (TDGS). These two theorems uncover the general forms of two TDGS systems via a prescribed transformation. As examples, we convert the Lorenz three-dimensional chaotic map to an equal time-delayed system as the driving system, and construct the TDGS driven systems according to the Theorems 1 and 2. Numerical simulations demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed theorems. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  19. Generalized decompositions of dynamic systems and vector Lyapunov functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, M.; Siljak, D. D.

    1981-10-01

    The notion of decomposition is generalized to provide more freedom in constructing vector Lyapunov functions for stability analysis of nonlinear dynamic systems. A generalized decomposition is defined as a disjoint decomposition of a system which is obtained by expanding the state-space of a given system. An inclusion principle is formulated for the solutions of the expansion to include the solutions of the original system, so that stability of the expansion implies stability of the original system. Stability of the expansion can then be established by standard disjoint decompositions and vector Lyapunov functions. The applicability of the new approach is demonstrated using the Lotka-Volterra equations.

  20. Future UK markets for stand-alone renewable energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paish, O.

    1999-01-01

    A study to identify and quantify the market for stand-alone renewable energy supplies of power (photovoltaics, wind and micro-hydro electricity systems) was described. The study focused on small systems, generally less than a few kW installed capacity. It was suggested that in the UK, the emphasis on grid-connected renewable energy technologies (RETs) has blurred the fact that it is 'off-grid' renewable systems that can offer more immediate real commercial markets for the renewables business. With the likelihood of a significant increase in demand for renewables world wide over the next ten years, the UK needs to make a special effort to become involved

  1. Simulation of embedded systems for energy consumption estimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lafond, S.

    2009-07-01

    Technology developments in semiconductor fabrication along with a rapid expansion of the market for portable devices, such as PDAs and mobile phones, make the energy consumption of embedded systems a major problem. Indeed the need to provide an increasing number of computational intensive applications and at the same time to maximize the battery life of portable devices can be seen as incompatible trends. System simulation is a flexible and convenient method for analyzinging and exploring the performance of a system or sub-system. At the same time, the increasing use of computational intensive applications strengthens the need to maximize the battery life of portable devices. As a consequence, the simulation of embedded systems for energy consumption estimation is becoming essential in order to study and explore the influence of system design choices on the system energy consumption. The original publications presented in the second part of this thesis propose several frameworks for evaluating the effects of particular system and software architectures on the system energy consumption. From a software point of view Java and C based applications are studied, and from a hardware perspective systems using general purpose processor and heterogeneous platforms with dedicated hardware accelerators are analyzed. Papers 1 and 2 present a framework for estimating the energy consumption of an embedded Java Virtual Machine and show how an accurate energy consumption model of Java opcodes can be obtained. Paper 3 evaluates the cost-effectiveness of Forward Error Correction algorithms in terms of energy consumption and demonstrates that a substantial energy saving is achievable in a DVB-H receiver when a FEC algorithm is used for file downloading scenarios. Paper 4 and 5 present the simulation of heterogeneous platforms and point out the drawback of different mechanisms used to synchronize a hardware accelerator used as a peripheral device. Paper 6 shows that the use of a multi

  2. Energy efficient residential house wall system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldawi, Fayez; Date, Abhijit; Alam, Firoz; Khan, Iftekhar; Alghamdi, Mohammed

    2013-01-01

    The energy consumption and greenhouse gas emission by the residential housing sector are considered to be one of the largest in economically developed countries. The larger energy consumption and greenhouse gas emission not only put additional pressure on finite fossil fuel resources but also cause global warming and climate change. Additionally, the residential housing sector will be consuming more energy as the house demand and average house floor area are progressively increasing. With currently used residential house wall systems, it is hard to reduce energy consumption for ongoing house space heating and cooling. A smart house wall envelope with optimal thermal masses and insulation materials is vital for reducing our increasing energy consumption. The major aim of this study is to investigate thermal performance and energy saving potential of a new house wall system for variable climate conditions. The thermal performance modelling was carried out using commercially developed software AccuRate ® . The findings indicate that a notable energy savings can be accomplished if a smart house wall system is used. -- Highlights: • Smart house wall system. • Thermal performance modelling and star energy rating. • Energy savings and greenhouse gas reduction

  3. Energy efficiency of milkmaid systems in Uruguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LLanos, E.; Astigarraga, L.; Jacques, R.; Picasso, V.

    2013-01-01

    Reducing fossil fuel consumption and increasing energy efficiency of agricultural systems may result in environmental and economic benefits. The aim of this study was to analyze dairy production systems from an energy perspective, to identify the main variables affecting energy efficiency and fossil energy consumption, through a model of inputs and outputs. The model included as inputs energy costs of food, labor, electricity, agrochemicals, fuels and machinery, and as outputs dairy and meat production. We analyzed a database of 30 dairy farms from southern Uruguay, from the Cooperative Nacional de Product ores de Leche (Conaprole), organized in three strata based on their dairy productivity per hectare. The fossil energy use was 2.40, 3.63 y 3.80 MJ.l-1 for productivity strata low, medium and high respectively (P<0.01). Energy efficiency averages were 1.40, 0.90 y 0.86 for the same strata (P<0.01). Fossil energy of agrochemicals and fuel accounted for more than 80% of the energy consumed in the three strata. The greater the percentage of concentrate in the diet, the lower energy efficiency (P<0.01). These results suggest the existence of a negative relationship between the intensification of dairy production and energy efficiency

  4. Wind Energy Conversion Systems Technology and Trends

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    Wind Energy Conversion System covers the technological progress of wind energy conversion systems, along with potential future trends. It includes recently developed wind energy conversion systems such as multi-converter operation of variable-speed wind generators, lightning protection schemes, voltage flicker mitigation and prediction schemes for advanced control of wind generators. Modeling and control strategies of variable speed wind generators are discussed, together with the frequency converter topologies suitable for grid integration. Wind Energy Conversion System also describes offshore farm technologies including multi-terminal topology and space-based wind observation schemes, as well as both AC and DC based wind farm topologies. The stability and reliability of wind farms are discussed, and grid integration issues are examined in the context of the most recent industry guidelines. Wind power smoothing, one of the big challenges for transmission system operators, is a particular focus. Fault ride th...

  5. Energy-Aware Cognitive Radio Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Bedeer, Ebrahim

    2016-01-15

    The concept of energy-aware communications has spurred the interest of the research community in the most recent years due to various environmental and economical reasons. It becomes indispensable for wireless communication systems to shift their resource allocation problems from optimizing traditional metrics, such as throughput and latency, to an environmental-friendly energy metric. Although cognitive radio systems introduce spectrum efficient usage techniques, they employ new complex technologies for spectrum sensing and sharing that consume extra energy to compensate for overhead and feedback costs. Considering an adequate energy efficiency metric—that takes into account the transmit power consumption, circuitry power, and signaling overhead—is of momentous importance such that optimal resource allocations in cognitive radio systems reduce the energy consumption. A literature survey of recent energy-efficient based resource allocations schemes is presented for cognitive radio systems. The energy efficiency performances of these schemes are analyzed and evaluated under power budget, co-channel and adjacent-channel interferences, channel estimation errors, quality-of-service, and/or fairness constraints. Finally, the opportunities and challenges of energy-aware design for cognitive radio systems are discussed.

  6. Towards generalized synchronization of strictly different chaotic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Femat, R. [Matematicas Aplicadas y Sistemas Computacionales, IPICYT, Apdo. Postal 3-90, 78291 Tangamanga, San Luis Potosi S.L.P. (Mexico)]. E-mail: rfemat@ipicyt.edu.mx; Kocarev, L. [Institute for Nonlinear Science, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093-0402 (United States)]. E-mail: lkocarev@ucsd.edu; Gerven, L. van [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Technische Universiteit Eindhoven (Netherlands); Monsivais-Perez, M.E. [Matematicas Aplicadas y Sistemas Computacionales, IPICYT, Camino a la Presa San Jose 2055, 78216 Lomas 4a Sec., San Luis Potosi S.L.P. (Mexico)

    2005-07-11

    This contribution addresses the problem of the generalized synchronization (GS) in different chaotic systems, and departs from chaotic systems in a triangular from, which can be derived from Lie derivatives. A state-feedback (full knowledge of both master and slave systems) scheme is designed, which achieves GS. The work includes illustrative examples; moreover an experimental setup is used to corroborate the obtained results.

  7. Energy from sugarcane bagasse under electricity rationing in Brazil: a computable general equilibrium model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scaramucci, Jose A.; Perin, Clovis; Pulino, Petronio; Bordoni, Orlando F.J.G.; Cunha, Marcelo P. da; Cortez, Luis A.B.

    2006-01-01

    In the midst of the institutional reforms of the Brazilian electric sectors initiated in the 1990s, a serious electricity shortage crisis developed in 2001. As an alternative to blackout, the government instituted an emergency plan aimed at reducing electricity consumption. From June 2001 to February 2002, Brazilians were compelled to curtail electricity use by 20%. Since the late 1990s, but especially after the electricity crisis, energy policy in Brazil has been directed towards increasing thermoelectricity supply and promoting further gains in energy conservation. Two main issues are addressed here. Firstly, we estimate the economic impacts of constraining the supply of electric energy in Brazil. Secondly, we investigate the possible penetration of electricity generated from sugarcane bagasse. A computable general equilibrium (CGE) model is used. The traditional sector of electricity and the remainder of the economy are characterized by a stylized top-down representation as nested CES (constant elasticity of substitution) production functions. The electricity production from sugarcane bagasse is described through a bottom-up activity analysis, with a detailed representation of the required inputs based on engineering studies. The model constructed is used to study the effects of the electricity shortage in the preexisting sector through prices, production and income changes. It is shown that installing capacity to generate electricity surpluses by the sugarcane agroindustrial system could ease the economic impacts of an electric energy shortage crisis on the gross domestic product (GDP)

  8. Stochastic Modelling of Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Kaae

    2001-01-01

    is that the model structure has to be adequate for practical applications, such as system simulation, fault detection and diagnosis, and design of control strategies. This also reflects on the methods used for identification of the component models. The main result from this research is the identification......In this thesis dynamic models of typical components in Danish heating systems are considered. Emphasis is made on describing and evaluating mathematical methods for identification of such models, and on presentation of component models for practical applications. The thesis consists of seven...... research papers (case studies) together with a summary report. Each case study takes it's starting point in typical heating system components and both, the applied mathematical modelling methods and the application aspects, are considered. The summary report gives an introduction to the scope...

  9. Planning for rural energy system: Part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devadas, V.

    2001-01-01

    This paper discusses the central importance of energy inputs in development, and presents the complex interactions within subsystems that contribute a Rural Energy System. This paper also brings about the importance of the primary data for realistic renewable energy planning at the micro level in a given rural system. Factors that render secondary data somewhat inadequate for such applications are discussed. The differences between energy related data from secondary and primary sources in respect of representative villages in Kanyakumari District of Tamil Nadu, India, are detailed. A rural system model for computing the output from various components of a rural system is also presented. This projection is made by making use of a set of technical coefficients, which relate the inputs to the outputs from individual segments of the rural production system. While some of the technical coefficients are developed based on previously published data, a large number have been quantified on the basis of careful survey. The usefulness of the model is discussed. The paper also presents a Linear Programming Model for optimum resource allocation in a rural system. The objective function of the Linear Programming Model is maximizing the revenue of the rural system where in optimum resource allocation is made subject to a number of energy and non-energy related relevant constraints. The model also quantifies the major yields as well as the byproducts of different sectors of the rural economic system. (Author)

  10. Miniature photovoltaic energy system for lighting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awais, M.

    1999-01-01

    In this project a miniature photovoltaic energy system has been designed and developed, that may be used in remote areas and villages for lighting purposes. System sizing is the important part of the project because it affects the cost of the system. Therefore, first of all system sizing has been done. For conversion of dc voltage of the battery into ac voltage, an inverter has been designed. To charge the battery when the sun is not shining, a standby system has been developed using a bicycle and dynamo. To indicate the battery's state of charge and discharge, a battery monitoring circuit has also been developed. Similarly, to protect the battery from over discharging, a battery protection circuit has been designed. In order to measure how much energy is going from standby system to the battery, an efficient dc electronic energy meter has been designed and developed. The working of the overall system has been tested and found to give good performance. (author)

  11. Efficiency analysis of a cogeneration and district energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosen, Marc A.; Le, Minh N.; Dincer, Ibrahim

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents an efficiency analysis, accounting for both energy and exergy considerations, of a design for a cogeneration-based district energy system. A case study is considered for the city of Edmonton, Canada, by the utility Edmonton Power. The original concept using central electric chillers, as well as two variations (one considering single-effect and the other double-effect absorption chillers) are examined. The energy- and exergy-based results differ markedly (e.g., overall energy efficiencies are shown to vary for the three configurations considered from 83% to 94%, and exergy efficiencies from 28% to 29%, respectively). For the overall processes, as well as individual subprocesses and selected combinations of subprocesses, the exergy efficiencies are generally found to be more meaningful and indicative of system behaviour than the energy efficiencies

  12. Seasonal energy storage - PV-hydrogen systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leppaenen, J. [Neste Oy/NAPS (Finland)

    1998-10-01

    PV systems are widely used in remote areas e.g. in telecommunication systems. Typically lead acid batteries are used as energy storage. In northern locations seasonal storage is needed, which however is too expensive and difficult to realise with batteries. Therefore, a PV- battery system with a diesel backup is sometimes used. The disadvantages of this kind of system for very remote applications are the need of maintenance and the need to supply the fuel. To overcome these problems, it has been suggested to use hydrogen technologies to make a closed loop autonomous energy storage system

  13. Design and installation of earth energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loggia, S; Adragna, M; Coyle, S; Foley, C; Hawryn, S; Martin, A; McConnell, J [eds.

    2002-07-01

    This first edition of the Canadian Standards Association (CSA) Standard C448 Series, replaces CSA Standards CAN/CSA-C445-M92 entitled Design and Installation of Earth Energy Heat Pump Systems for Residential and Other Small Buildings, as well as C447-94 entitled Design and Installation of Earth Energy Heat Pump Systems for Commercial and Institutional Buildings. This standard document consists of three parts: (C448.1) Design and installation of earth energy systems for commercial and institutional buildings; (C448.2) Design and installation of earth energy systems for residential and small buildings; and, (C448.3) Design and installation of underground thermal energy storage systems for commercial and institutional buildings. In C448.1, the requirements applicable to any system falling within the scope of the C448 series were included. Alternative requirements for houses and small buildings were added in C448.2. It was noted that either standard may be implemented. The standards applicable to the intentional storage of energy in the earth for later use were presented in C448.3. This latter section includes a brief introduction on underground thermal energy storage (UTES). tabs.

  14. Army Energy and Water Reporting System Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deprez, Peggy C.; Giardinelli, Michael J.; Burke, John S.; Connell, Linda M.

    2011-09-01

    There are many areas of desired improvement for the Army Energy and Water Reporting System. The purpose of system is to serve as a data repository for collecting information from energy managers, which is then compiled into an annual energy report. This document summarizes reported shortcomings of the system and provides several alternative approaches for improving application usability and adding functionality. The U.S. Army has been using Army Energy and Water Reporting System (AEWRS) for many years to collect and compile energy data from installations for facilitating compliance with Federal and Department of Defense energy management program reporting requirements. In this analysis, staff from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory found that substantial opportunities exist to expand AEWRS functions to better assist the Army to effectively manage energy programs. Army leadership must decide if it wants to invest in expanding AEWRS capabilities as a web-based, enterprise-wide tool for improving the Army Energy and Water Management Program or simply maintaining a bottom-up reporting tool. This report looks at both improving system functionality from an operational perspective and increasing user-friendliness, but also as a tool for potential improvements to increase program effectiveness. The authors of this report recommend focusing on making the system easier for energy managers to input accurate data as the top priority for improving AEWRS. The next major focus of improvement would be improved reporting. The AEWRS user interface is dated and not user friendly, and a new system is recommended. While there are relatively minor improvements that could be made to the existing system to make it easier to use, significant improvements will be achieved with a user-friendly interface, new architecture, and a design that permits scalability and reliability. An expanded data set would naturally have need of additional requirements gathering and a focus on integrating

  15. Balmorel open source energy system model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiese, Frauke; Bramstoft, Rasmus; Koduvere, Hardi

    2018-01-01

    As the world progresses towards a cleaner energy future with more variable renewable energy sources, energy system models are required to deal with new challenges. This article describes design, development and applications of the open source energy system model Balmorel, which is a result...... of a long and fruitful cooperation between public and private institutions within energy system research and analysis. The purpose of the article is to explain the modelling approach, to highlight strengths and challenges of the chosen approach, to create awareness about the possible applications...... of Balmorel as well as to inspire to new model developments and encourage new users to join the community. Some of the key strengths of the model are the flexible handling of the time and space dimensions and the combination of operation and investment optimisation. Its open source character enables diverse...

  16. Risks of disaster in the energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kristoferson, L.; Kjellstroem, B.; Svenningsson, P.J.

    1986-10-01

    The perception of environmental effects and risks is discussed concerning the difficulties to making objective comparisons between different energy sources. Risks may influence the choice of strategies of the replacement of nuclear electric power in the Swedish energy system. Risks for major accidents and disasters to occur at a small level of probability are presented concerning the existing or future energy sources. The choice of strategies is discussed by means of calculated examples

  17. General solution for first order elliptic systems in the plane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mshimba, A.S.

    1990-01-01

    It is shown that a system of 2n real-valued partial differential equations of first order, which under certain assumptions can be transformed to the so-called 'complex normal form', admits a general solution. 15 refs

  18. JIT supply chain; an investigation through general system theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O P Mishra

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper explains theoretical approach of the four theories of General system Theory (GST developed by Yourdon (1989 [Yourdon, E. (1989. Modern Structured Analysis. Yourdon Press, Prentice-Hall International, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey. Senge] while applying it in information technology and subsequently used by caddy (2007 [Caddy I.N., & Helou, M.M. (2007. Supply chains and their management: Application of general systems theory. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 14, 319–327.] in field of supply chain and management. JIT philosophy in core activities of supply chain i.e. procurement, production processes, and logistics are discussed through general system theory. The growing structure of the supply chain poses the implication restrictions and requires a heavy support system, many times a compromise is done while implementing JIT. The study would be useful to understand the general trends generated naturally regarding the adoption of the JIT philosophy in the supply chain.

  19. Generalized synchronization and coherent structures in spatially extended systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basnarkov, Lasko; Duane, Gregory S.; Kocarev, Ljupco

    2014-01-01

    We study the synchronization of a coupled pair of one-dimensional Kuramoto–Sivashinsky systems, with equations augmented by a third-space-derivative term. With two different values of a system parameter, the two systems synchronize in the generalized sense. The phenomenon persists even in the extreme case when one of the equations is missing the extra term. Master–slave synchronization error is small, so the generalized synchronization relationship is useful for predicting the state of the master from that of the slave, or conversely, for controlling the slave. The spatial density of coupling points required to bring about generalized synchronization appears to be related to the wavelength of traveling wave solutions, and more generally to the width of coherent structures in the separate systems

  20. Multireference Density Functional Theory with Generalized Auxiliary Systems for Ground and Excited States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zehua; Zhang, Du; Jin, Ye; Yang, Yang; Su, Neil Qiang; Yang, Weitao

    2017-09-21

    To describe static correlation, we develop a new approach to density functional theory (DFT), which uses a generalized auxiliary system that is of a different symmetry, such as particle number or spin, from that of the physical system. The total energy of the physical system consists of two parts: the energy of the auxiliary system, which is determined with a chosen density functional approximation (DFA), and the excitation energy from an approximate linear response theory that restores the symmetry to that of the physical system, thus rigorously leading to a multideterminant description of the physical system. The electron density of the physical system is different from that of the auxiliary system and is uniquely determined from the functional derivative of the total energy with respect to the external potential. Our energy functional is thus an implicit functional of the physical system density, but an explicit functional of the auxiliary system density. We show that the total energy minimum and stationary states, describing the ground and excited states of the physical system, can be obtained by a self-consistent optimization with respect to the explicit variable, the generalized Kohn-Sham noninteracting density matrix. We have developed the generalized optimized effective potential method for the self-consistent optimization. Among options of the auxiliary system and the associated linear response theory, reformulated versions of the particle-particle random phase approximation (pp-RPA) and the spin-flip time-dependent density functional theory (SF-TDDFT) are selected for illustration of principle. Numerical results show that our multireference DFT successfully describes static correlation in bond dissociation and double bond rotation.