WorldWideScience

Sample records for general economy production

  1. Product Innovations in Emerging Economies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiao, Xiao; Sarker, Saonee; Rai, Sudhanshu

    2011-01-01

    , such as countries that are not considered “developed.” This study aims at examining how firms innovate in emerging economies. Specifically, we focus on the role of collaborative capacity in product innovations. Primary data collected from an ICT project in India has been used to test the relevant hypotheses......Studies on enterprise innovations have established the relationships between a number of determinants and enterprise innovativeness. However, such studies in general have been conducted in developed economies. Recent literature has called for broadening innovation-related research to other contexts...

  2. Approximate Cores of a General Class of Economies. Part II. Set-Up Costs and Firm Formation in Coalition Production Economies,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-02-01

    r AAI1Z 608 YALE UNIV NEW HAVEN CT C OWLES FOUNDATION FOR RESEARC --ETC F/G 513 APPROXIMATE CORES 6F A GENERAL CLASS OF ECONOMIES. PART It. SET--ETC(U...theoretic models of the economy in strategic form are institutional. Markets and firms and even money are assumed to exist. Cooperative game theory can be...groups. Alternatively we can define firms and firms- in-being, specify the manner of trade in the markets , define what is meant by entry and exit and

  3. Equilibrium in a Production Economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiarolla, Maria B., E-mail: maria.chiarolla@uniroma1.it [Universita di Roma ' La Sapienza' , Dipartimento di Metodi e Modelli per l' Economia, il Territorio e la Finanza, Facolta di Economia (Italy); Haussmann, Ulrich G., E-mail: uhaus@math.ubc.ca [University of British Columbia, Department of Mathematics (Canada)

    2011-06-15

    Consider a closed production-consumption economy with multiple agents and multiple resources. The resources are used to produce the consumption good. The agents derive utility from holding resources as well as consuming the good produced. They aim to maximize their utility while the manager of the production facility aims to maximize profits. With the aid of a representative agent (who has a multivariable utility function) it is shown that an Arrow-Debreu equilibrium exists. In so doing we establish technical results that will be used to solve the stochastic dynamic problem (a case with infinite dimensional commodity space so the General Equilibrium Theory does not apply) elsewhere.

  4. Equilibrium in a Production Economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiarolla, Maria B.; Haussmann, Ulrich G.

    2011-01-01

    Consider a closed production-consumption economy with multiple agents and multiple resources. The resources are used to produce the consumption good. The agents derive utility from holding resources as well as consuming the good produced. They aim to maximize their utility while the manager of the production facility aims to maximize profits. With the aid of a representative agent (who has a multivariable utility function) it is shown that an Arrow-Debreu equilibrium exists. In so doing we establish technical results that will be used to solve the stochastic dynamic problem (a case with infinite dimensional commodity space so the General Equilibrium Theory does not apply) elsewhere.

  5. Bounded Rationality of Generalized Abstract Fuzzy Economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available By using a nonlinear scalarization technique, the bounded rationality model M for generalized abstract fuzzy economies in finite continuous spaces is established. Furthermore, by using the model M, some new theorems for structural stability and robustness to (λ,ϵ-equilibria of generalized abstract fuzzy economies are proved.

  6. GENERAL OVERWIEV ON EU ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NICOLETA GEORGETA PANAIT

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The impact of the international economic crisis on new EU member states has proven to be more severe than the first estimates of the economic analysts. The situation is different for each Member State, the nature and the dimension of the challenges faced are not identical, and the pace of reform is not the same. The economic crisis has prompted intense and sustained action by the EU's national governments, the European Central Bank and the Commission. All have been working closely together to support growth and employment, ensure financial stability, and put in place a better governance system for the future. Sustainable development in the future is the common responsibility of all Member States and EU institutions, because our economies are closely interlinked, and the EU economic governance now reconfigured to provide more effective responses at the policy level, to give a good reaction to the present and the future challenges.

  7. Wage-productivity gap in OECD economies

    OpenAIRE

    Elgin, Ceyhun; Kuzubas, Tolga Umut

    2013-01-01

    The Walrasian theory of labor market equilibrium predicts that in the absence of any market frictions, workers earn a wage rate equal to their marginal productivity. However, this observation is not supported empirically for various economies. Based on the neoclassical tradition, the ratio of the marginal product of labor to real wages is generally defined as the Pigouvian exploitation rate. In this paper, the authors calculate this specific wage-productivity gap for the manufacturing sector ...

  8. Generalized product

    OpenAIRE

    Greco, Salvatore; Mesiar, Radko; Rindone, Fabio

    2014-01-01

    Aggregation functions on [0,1] with annihilator 0 can be seen as a generalized product on [0,1]. We study the generalized product on the bipolar scale [–1,1], stressing the axiomatic point of view. Based on newly introduced bipolar properties, such as the bipolar increasingness, bipolar unit element, bipolar idempotent element, several kinds of generalized bipolar product are introduced and studied. A special stress is put on bipolar semicopulas, bipolar quasi-copulas and bipolar copulas.

  9. Tourist product in experience economy

    OpenAIRE

    Stasiak Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    The turn of the 20th and 21st c. was marked by the development of experience economy, in which the basic commodities are not specific products, but the customers’ emotions, impressions and experiences. Tourism has always been a particular “holiday experience industry”. In recent years, however, the importance of the conscious creation of emotional tourism products has become even greater; we may observe continuous efforts to multiply and intensify tourism experience. The key activities to ach...

  10. Does the New Economy Create Higher Productivity?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dilling-Hansen, Mogens; Madsen, Erik Strøjer; Smith, Valdemar

    2002-01-01

    The rapid and continuous growth in the US in the 1990s and the simultaneous boom in the IT industry created the concept "The New Economy". What connects the two phenomena is that the IT industry alone is considered productive, and increased productivity in other industries, as a result of increased...

  11. Substitution effects in a generalized token economy with pigeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Leonardo F; Hackenberg, Timothy D

    2017-01-01

    Pigeons made repeated choices between earning and exchanging reinforcer-specific tokens (green tokens exchangeable for food, red tokens exchangeable for water) and reinforcer-general tokens (white tokens exchangeable for food or water) in a closed token economy. Food and green food tokens could be earned on one panel; water and red water tokens could be earned on a second panel; white generalized tokens could be earned on either panel. Responses on one key produced tokens according to a fixed-ratio schedule, whereas responses on a second key produced exchange periods, during which all previously earned tokens could be exchanged for the appropriate commodity. Most conditions were conducted in a closed economy, and pigeons distributed their token allocation in ways that permitted food and water consumption. When the price of all tokens was equal and low, most pigeons preferred the generalized tokens. When token-production prices were manipulated, pigeons reduced production of the tokens that increased in price while increasing production of the generalized tokens that remained at a fixed price. The latter is consistent with a substitution effect: Generalized tokens increased and were exchanged for the more expensive reinforcer. When food and water were made freely available outside the session, token production and exchange was sharply reduced but was not eliminated, even in conditions when it no longer produced tokens. The results join with other recent data in showing sustained generalized functions of token reinforcers, and demonstrate the utility of token-economic methods for assessing demand for and substitution among multiple commodities in a laboratory context. © 2016 Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  12. Ideas Production in Emerging Economies

    OpenAIRE

    Luintel, Kul B; Kahn, Mosahid

    2012-01-01

    We model 'new ideas' production in a panel of 17 emerging countries. Our results reveal: (i) ideas production is duplicative, (ii) externality associated with domestic knowledge stocks is of above unit factor proportionality, (iii) OECD countries raise the innovation-bar for emerging countries, (iv) there is no significant knowledge diffusion across emerging countries, and (v) growth in emerging countries appear far from a balanced growth path.

  13. Pricing decisions in an experimental dynamic stochastic general equilibrium economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noussair, C.N.; Pfajfar, D.; Zsiros, J.

    We construct experimental economies, populated with human subjects, with a structure based on a nonlinear version of the New Keynesian dynamic stochastic general equilibrium (DSGE) model. We analyze the behavior of firms’ pricing decisions in four different experimental economies. We consider how

  14. Impacts of biodiesel production on Croatian economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulisic, Biljana; Loizou, Efstratios; Rozakis, Stelios; Segon, Velimir

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to assess the direct and indirect impacts on a national economy from biodiesel (rapeseed methyl ester (RME)) production using input-output (I-O) analysis. Biodiesel development in Croatia is used as a case study. For Croatia, as for many other countries in Europe, biodiesel is a new activity not included in the existing I-O sectoral accounts. For this reason the I-O table has to be modified accordingly before being able to quantify the effect of an exogenous demand for biodiesel. Impacts in terms of output, income and employment lead to the conclusion that biodiesel production could have significant positive net impact on the Croatian economy despite the high level of subsidies for rapeseed growing

  15. Revamping Nigerian Economy through Cassava Production

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nneka Umera-Okeke

    2017-04-28

    The main kernel of this paper is on revamping Nigerian economy through cassava .... in his book Action Oriented Process of Indigenous Participatory Network (2000) .... https://www.reference.com/worldnew/national-economy on April 28, 2017.

  16. A product design framework for a circular economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Berg, M.R.; Bakker, C.A.

    2015-01-01

    The paper provides a circular economy framework from a product design perspective with tools to aid product designers in applying circular product design in practice. Design research for circular economy has so far mainly been limited to referring to existing fields of research such as design for

  17. The program of electricity production, an instrument of political economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiriet, Lucien

    1981-01-01

    The crisis of the western economies is now entering its 7th year. The structural factors of this depression probably prevail over the conjectural but explanations differ about it. In this article dealing with the progamm of electricity production, an instrument of political economy, the author first mentions what constitutes the present economic landscape in the world, the framework in which is necessarily placed the economical policy of the industrialised countries, among which France. The scrutiny of the way of action of the energetic policies in general, electrical and nuclear in particular, as an instrument of economical policy this depression, will then allow us to quantify and to appreciate this action at the national level [fr

  18. Knowledge Production in a Cooperative Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottey, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge here means something similar to but broader than science--it is reliable but not necessarily as systematic or explicit. A cooperative economy is contrasted with the competitive economy that has dominated political thinking almost everywhere for about half a century - the neo-liberal period. It is argued that the neo-liberal ideology and…

  19. MODERNIZATION OF NATIONAL ECONOMY THROUGH DEVELOPMENT OF REGIONAL PRODUCTION INFRASTRUCTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. G. Guilyadov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Any region’s economy comprises production and non-production spheres which are interconnected and equivalent. Key part of any regional production sphere is its production infrastructure whose value is double: it defines the level of regional economic development on one hand, andinterrelation with the whole national economy on the other hand. The greatest and most important regional production infrastructure elements are transportation infrastructure, information/communication infrastructure and communal infrastructure. Analysis and solution of issues related to development of the basic regional production infrastructure elements as suggested in the article will be very useful for modernization of the national economy.

  20. Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Haring, Ben

    2009-01-01

    The economy of ancient Egypt is a difficult area of study due to the lack of preservation of much data (especially quantitative data); it is also a controversial subject on which widely divergent views have been expressed. It is certain, however, that the principal production and revenues of Egyptian society as a whole and of its individual members was agrarian, and as such, dependent on the yearly rising and receding of the Nile. Most agricultural producers were probably self-sufficient tena...

  1. Straw for energy production. Technology - Environment - Economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikolaisen, L.; Nielsen, C.; Larsen, M.G.; Nielsen, V.; Zielke, U.; Kristensen, J.K.; Holm-Christensen, B.

    1998-12-31

    `Straw for Energy Production`, second edition, provides a readily accessible background information of special relevance to the use of straw in the Danish energy supply. Technical, environmental, and economic aspects are described in respect of boiler plants for farms, district heating plants, and combined heat and power plants (CHP). The individual sections deal with both well-known, tested technology and the most recent advances in the field of CHP production. This publication is designed with the purpose of reaching the largest possible numbers of people and so adapted that it provides a valuable aid and gives the non-professional, general reader a thorough knowledge of the subject. `Straw for Energy Production` is also available in German and Danish. (au)

  2. Product design and business model strategies for a circular economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bocken, N.M.P.; de Pauw, I.C.; Bakker, C.A.; van der Grinten, B.

    The transition within business from a linear to a circular economy brings with it a range of practical challenges for companies. The following question is addressed: What are the product design and business model strategies for
    companies that want to move to a circular economy model? This paper

  3. The Challenges of New Product Development in a Developing Economy

    OpenAIRE

    M. O. Oduola; A. M. Yakubu

    2017-01-01

    New Product Development (NPD) involves creating a new product from concept to the market. The product could be entirely new or rebranding. It is a critical focus of any production firm. The increase in volume of new competitive products is an indicator of any fast growing production concern. However the challenges that could affect development of a new product in a developing economy include, but not limited to the following: Inadequate infrastructural facilities, lack of funding, low technol...

  4. The Economy of Experience for the Promotion of Hotel Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana G. Zainullina

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work, an attempt is made to use the terminology and tools of the economy of experience as applied to the hotel product. The analysis of the concept of "economy of experience" is analyzed from the point of view of changing human preferences and the appearance of the so-called "market ofexperience". The postulate is advanced that in the modern economy the sale of any goods and services corresponds with the sale of the corresponding impressions from using them, therefore the most successful business projects are aimed not only at satisfying physiological needs, impressions. The object of exchange is not only goods and services, but also impressions, respectively, the emergence of a new exchange object calls for the development of technologies that make this object more attractive to the direct consumer and show the manufacturer what benefits it can receive from the production and sale of impressions. An attempt has been made to transfer the tools of the economy of impressions to the area of promotion of the hotel product. The hotel economy is a dynamically developing branch of the economy, its development is determined by global economic processes, cultural, historical, sport interactions both within the country and between countries. Along with tourism, the hotel industry is an integral part of the creative economy and the economy of experience, which is based on the desires and needs of a person in gaining new experience. Practice shows that the use of tools in the promotion of the hotel product that affect the receipt of new impressions, feelings and experiences creates a basis for attracting regular customers, on which 60% of the income of the hotel company depends.

  5. Product design in the circular economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Atlason, Reynir Smari; Giacalone, Davide; Parajuly, Keshav

    2017-01-01

    . To this end, a quantitative Kano survey (N = 146) was used to classify product features related to EoL and disposal methods according to users' preferences. An extension developed by the authors was also deployed to identify differences within user segments in terms of demographic (e.g., age, gender......L scenarios more than men, and were also more willing to pay a premium price for environmentally friendly e-products. These results suggest that gender may be the most important basis for user segmentation (e.g. in the context of product development), and that products targeted towards women are more likely...

  6. MANUFACTURING PRICES, PRODUCTIVITY, AND LABOR COSTS IN 5 ECONOMIES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANARK, B

    The United States continues to surge ahead of other major industrial economies in terms of lower prices, higher levels of labor productivity, and better unit labor cost performance; while the depreciation of the dollar plays an important role, real productivity gains are important as well.

  7. Wood for energy production. Technology - environment - economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serup, H.; Falster, H.; Gamborg, C.

    1999-01-01

    'Wood for Energy Production', 2nd edition, is a readily understood guide to the application of wood in the Danish energy supply. The first edition was named 'Wood Chips for Energy Production'. It describes the wood fuel from forest to consumer and provides a concise introduction to technological, environmental, and financial matters concerning heating systems for farms, institutions, district heating plants, and CHP plants. The individual sections deal with both conventional, well known technology, as well as the most recent technological advances in the field of CHP production. The purpose of this publication is to reach the largest possible audiance, and it is designed so that the layman may find its background information of special relevance. 'Wood for Energy Production' is also available in German and Danish. (au)

  8. Wood for energy production. Technology - environment - economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serup, H.; Falster, H.; Gamborg, C. [and others

    1999-10-01

    `Wood for Energy Production`, 2nd edition, is a readily understood guide to the application of wood in the Danish energy supply. The first edition was named `Wood Chips for Energy Production`. It describes the wood fuel from forest to consumer and provides a concise introduction to technological, environmental, and financial matters concerning heating systems for farms, institutions, district heating plants, and CHP plants. The individual sections deal with both conventional, well known technology, as well as the most recent technological advances in the field of CHP production. The purpose of this publication is to reach the largest possible audiance, and it is designed so that the layman may find its background information of special relevance. `Wood for Energy Production` is also available in German and Danish. (au)

  9. The Economy of Family Farming Production

    OpenAIRE

    Forero-Álvarez, Jaime

    2013-01-01

    Based on the authors’ own research, and on a review of literature on the subject, we propose a conceptualization of two types of family farming, peasants and capitalized non-peasants family farmers. The focus is placed on partial monetization of the production model. The existence of a monetary and a non-monetary dimension is the key to explaining the economic rationality of these two production models. As a way of explaining the economic efficiency of family farmers, the article concludes wi...

  10. The Economy of Family Farming Production

    OpenAIRE

    Forero-Álvarez, Jaime

    2013-01-01

    Based on the authors' own research, and on a review of literature on the subject, we propose a conceptualization of two types of family farming, peasants and capitalized non-peasants family farmers. The focus is placed on partial monetization of the production model. The existence of a monetary and a non-monetary dimension is the key to explaining the economic rationality of these two production models. As a way of explaining the economic efficiency of family farmers, the article concludes wi...

  11. US forest products in the global economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dave N Wear; Jeff Prestemon; Michaela O. Foster

    2015-01-01

    The United States’ shares of global industrial roundwood production and derivative products have declined precipitously since the 1990s. We evaluate the extent of these declines compared with those of major producing countries from 1961 to 2013. We find that the US global share of industrial roundwood peaked at 28% in 1999 but by 2013 was at 17%, with the decline...

  12. ECONOMIES OF SCALE AND PRODUCTION EFFICIENCY IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admin

    high rate of population growth of 2.83% (FOS, 1996). The apparent disparity between the rate of food production and demand for food in Nigeria has led to: (i) a food demand-supply gap thus leading to a widening gap between domestic food supply and the total food requirement; (ii) an increased food importation and (iii).

  13. KNOWLEDGE SOCIETY, GENERAL FRAMEWORK FOR KNOWLEDGE BASED ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragos CRISTEA

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper tries to present the existent relation between knowledge society and knowledge based economy. We will identify the main pillars of knowledge society and present their importance for the development of knowledge societies. Further, we will present two perspectives over knowledge societies, respectively science and learning perspectives, that directly affects knowledge based economies. At the end, we will conclude by identifying some important questions that must be answered regarding this new social paradigm.

  14. Equity Prices, Productivity Growth, and the 'New Economy'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jakob Brøchner; Davis, E. Philip

    The sharp increase in equity prices over the 1990s was widely attributed to permanently higher productivity growth derived from the New Economy. This paper establishes a rational expectations model of technology innovations and equity prices, which shows that under plausible assumptions...

  15. The Political Economy of Productivity: The Case of Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Patricio Navia; Nicolás Eyzaguirre; Jocelyn Olivari; Ignacio Briones; José Miguel Benavente; Cristóbal Aninat

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyzes the political economy of productivity-related policymaking in Chile following a political transaction cost model (Spiller and Tommasi, 2003; Murillo et al., 2008). The main findings indicate that i) the Chilean policymaking process (PMP) was successful in the 1990s in implementing productivityenhancing policies, but as the country moved to a higher stage of development, the PMP grew less adept at generating the more complex set of policies needed to increase productivity a...

  16. How important are dual economy effects for aggregate productivity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollrath, Dietrich

    2013-01-01

    This paper brings together development accounting techniques and the dual economy model to address the role that factor markets have in creating variation in aggregate total factor productivity (TFP). Development accounting research has shown that much of the variation in income across countries can be attributed to differences in TFP. The dual economy model suggests that aggregate productivity is depressed by having too many factors allocated to low productivity work in agriculture. Data show large differences in marginal products of similar factors within many developing countries, offering prima facie evidence of this misallocation. Using a simple two-sector decomposition of the economy, this article estimates the role of these misallocations in accounting for the cross-country income distribution. A key contribution is the ability to bring sector-specific data on human and physical capital stocks to the analysis. Variation across countries in the degree of misallocation is shown to account for 30–40% of the variation in income per capita, and up to 80% of the variation in aggregate TFP. PMID:23946553

  17. Equity prices, productivity growth and 'The New Economy'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jakob B.; Davis, E. Philip

    2006-01-01

    The sharp increase in equity prices over the 1990s was widely attributed to permanently higher productivity growth derived from the New Economy. This article establishes a rational expectations model of technology innovations and equity prices, which shows that under plausible assumptions......, productivity advances can only have temporary effects on the fundamentals of equity prices. Using historical data on productivity of R&D capital, patent capital and fixed capital for 11 OECD countries, empirical evidence gives strong support for the model by suggesting that technological innovations indeed...

  18. Impact of a carbon tax on the Chilean economy: A computable general equilibrium analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García Benavente, José Miguel

    2016-01-01

    In 2009, the government of Chile announced their official commitment to reduce national greenhouse gas emissions by 20% below a business-as-usual projection by 2020. Due to the fact that an effective way to reduce emissions is to implement a national carbon tax, the goal of this article is to quantify the value of a carbon tax that will allow the achievement of the emission reduction target and to assess its impact on the economy. The approach used in this work is to compare the economy before and after the implementation of the carbon tax by creating a static computable general equilibrium model of the Chilean economy. The model developed here disaggregates the economy in 23 industries and 23 commodities, and it uses four consumer agents (households, government, investment, and the rest of the world). By setting specific production and consumptions functions, the model can assess the variation in commodity prices, industrial production, and agent consumption, allowing a cross-sectoral analysis of the impact of the carbon tax. The benchmark of the economy, upon which the analysis is based, came from a social accounting matrix specially constructed for this model, based on the year 2010. The carbon tax was modeled as an ad valorem tax under two scenarios: tax on emissions from fossil fuels burned only by producers and tax on emissions from fossil fuels burned by producers and households. The abatement cost curve has shown that it is more cost-effective to tax only producers, rather than to tax both producers and households. This is due to the fact that when compared to the emission level observed in 2010, a 20% emission reduction will cause a loss in GDP of 2% and 2.3% respectively. Under the two scenarios, the tax value that could lead to that emission reduction is around 26 US dollars per ton of CO_2-equivalent. The most affected productive sectors are oil refinery, transport, and electricity — having a contraction between 7% and 9%. Analyzing the electricity

  19. CO2, energy and economy interactions: A multisectoral, dynamic, computable general equilibrium model for Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yoonyoung

    While vast resources have been invested in the development of computational models for cost-benefit analysis for the "whole world" or for the largest economies (e.g. United States, Japan, Germany), the remainder have been thrown together into one model for the "rest of the world." This study presents a multi-sectoral, dynamic, computable general equilibrium (CGE) model for Korea. This research evaluates the impacts of controlling COsb2 emissions using a multisectoral CGE model. This CGE economy-energy-environment model analyzes and quantifies the interactions between COsb2, energy and economy. This study examines interactions and influences of key environmental policy components: applied economic instruments, emission targets, and environmental tax revenue recycling methods. The most cost-effective economic instrument is the carbon tax. The economic effects discussed include impacts on main macroeconomic variables (in particular, economic growth), sectoral production, and the energy market. This study considers several aspects of various COsb2 control policies, such as the basic variables in the economy: capital stock and net foreign debt. The results indicate emissions might be stabilized in Korea at the expense of economic growth and with dramatic sectoral allocation effects. Carbon dioxide emissions stabilization could be achieved to the tune of a 600 trillion won loss over a 20 year period (1990-2010). The average annual real GDP would decrease by 2.10% over the simulation period compared to the 5.87% increase in the Business-as-Usual. This model satisfies an immediate need for a policy simulation model for Korea and provides the basic framework for similar economies. It is critical to keep the central economic question at the forefront of any discussion regarding environmental protection. How much will reform cost, and what does the economy stand to gain and lose? Without this model, the policy makers might resort to hesitation or even blind speculation. With

  20. Capital productivity in industrialised economies: Evidence from error-correction model and lagrange multiplier tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trofimov Ivan D.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper re-examines the “stylized facts” of the balanced growth in developed economies, looking specifically at capital productivity variable. The economic data is obtained from European Commission AMECO database, spanning 1961-2014 period. For a sample of 22 OECD economies, the paper applies univariate LM unit root tests with one or two structural breaks, and estimates error-correction and linear trend models with breaks. It is shown that diverse statistical patterns were present across economies and overall mixed evidence is provided as to the stability of capital productivity and balanced growth in general. Specifically, both upward and downward trends in capital productivity were present, while in several economies mean reversion and random walk patterns were observed. The data and results were largely in line with major theoretical explanations pertaining to capital productivity. With regard to determinants of the capital productivity movements, the structure of capital stock and the prices of capital goods were likely most salient.

  1. Reviving the carbohydrate economy via multi-product lignocellulose biorefineries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y-H Percival

    2008-05-01

    Before the industrial revolution, the global economy was largely based on living carbon from plants. Now the economy is mainly dependent on fossil fuels (dead carbon). Biomass is the only sustainable bioresource that can provide sufficient transportation fuels and renewable materials at the same time. Cellulosic ethanol production from less costly and most abundant lignocellulose is confronted with three main obstacles: (1) high processing costs (dollars /gallon of ethanol), (2) huge capital investment (dollars approximately 4-10/gallon of annual ethanol production capacity), and (3) a narrow margin between feedstock and product prices. Both lignocellulose fractionation technology and effective co-utilization of acetic acid, lignin and hemicellulose will be vital to the realization of profitable lignocellulose biorefineries, since co-product revenues would increase the margin up to 6.2-fold, where all purified lignocellulose co-components have higher selling prices (> approximately 1.0/kg) than ethanol ( approximately 0.5/kg of ethanol). Isolation of large amounts of lignocellulose components through lignocellulose fractionation would stimulate R&D in lignin and hemicellulose applications, as well as promote new markets for lignin- and hemicellulose-derivative products. Lignocellulose resource would be sufficient to replace significant fractionations (e.g., 30%) of transportation fuels through liquid biofuels, internal combustion engines in the short term, and would provide 100% transportation fuels by sugar-hydrogen-fuel cell systems in the long term.

  2. Pigeons' demand and preference for specific and generalized conditioned reinforcers in a token economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Lavinia; Hackenberg, Timothy D

    2015-11-01

    Pigeons' demand and preference for specific and generalized tokens was examined in a token economy. Pigeons could produce and exchange different colored tokens for food, for water, or for food or water. Token production was measured across three phases, which examined: (1) across-session price increases (typical demand curve method); (2) within-session price increases (progressive-ratio, PR, schedule); and (3) concurrent pairwise choices between the token types. Exponential demand curves were fitted to the response data and accounted for over 90% total variance. Demand curve parameter values, Pmax , Omax and α showed that demand was ordered in the following way: food tokens, generalized tokens, water tokens, both in Phase 1 and in Phase 3. This suggests that the preferences were predictable on the basis of elasticity and response output from the demand analysis. Pmax and Omax values failed to consistently predict breakpoints and peak response rates in the PR schedules in Phase 2, however, suggesting limits on a unitary conception of reinforcer efficacy. The patterns of generalized token production and exchange in Phase 3 suggest that the generalized tokens served as substitutes for the specific food and water tokens. Taken together, the present findings demonstrate the utility of behavioral economic concepts in the analysis of generalized reinforcement. © Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  3. Labour Protection and Productivity in EU Economies: 1995-2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pompei, Fabrizio

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study examines cross-national and sectoral differences in multifactor productivity growth in sixteen European countries from 1995 to 2005. The main aim is to ascertain the role of flexible employment contracts and collective labour relationships in explaining the ample differentials recorded in the European economy. We use the EU KLEMS database for growth accounting and a broad set of indicators of labour regulations, covering two distinct 'areas' of labour regulation: employment laws and collective relations laws. This comprehensive approach allows us to consider arrangements that regulate allocation of labour inputs (fixed-term and part-time contracts, hours worked and the payoff and decision rights of employees. We find that, since 1995, European countries have not followed similar patterns of growth. A large number of variations between European economies are caused by marked differentials in multifactor productivity and part of this heterogeneity is caused by sectoral diversities. We show that, in labour-intensive sectors such as services, fixed-term contracts, which imply shorter-term jobs and lower employment tenures, may discourage investment in skills and have detrimental effects on multifactor productivity increases. Employment protection reforms which slacken the rules of fixed-term contracts cause potential drawbacks in terms of low productivity gains. We also find that more stringent regulation of these practices, as well as a climate of collective relations, sustain long-term relationships and mitigate these negative effects

  4. Impacts Of External Price Shocks On Malaysian Macro Economy-An Applied General Equilibrium Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abul Quasem Al-Amin

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the impacts of external price shocks in the Malaysian economy. There are three simulations are carried out with different degrees of external shocks using Malaysian Social Accounting Matrix (SAM and Computable General Equilibrium (CGE analysis. The model results indicate that the import price shocks, better known as external price shocks by 15% decreases the domestic production of building and construction sector by 25.87%, hotels, restaurants and entertainment sector by 12.04%, industry sector by 12.02%, agriculture sector by 11.01%, and electricity and gas sector by 9.55% from the baseline. On the import side, our simulation results illustrate that as a result of the import price shocks by 15%, imports decreases significantly in all sectors from base level. Among the scenarios, the largest negative impacts goes on industry sectors by 29.67% followed by building and construction sector by 22.42%, hotels, restaurants and entertainment sector by 19.45%, electricity and gas sector by 13.%, agriculture sector by 12.63% and other service sectors by 11.17%. However significant negative impact goes to the investment and fixed capital investment. It also causes the household income, household consumption and household savings down and increases the cost of livings in the economy results in downward social welfare.

  5. Could small scale vegetable production contribute to a green economy in South Africa?

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Musvoto, Constansia D

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available and produces for sale. Some of the practices on these farms are compatible with a green economy, and with interventions that improve alignment with green economy principles, small scale vegetable production could contribute to a green economy and open up...

  6. The feasibility of biomass production for the Netherlands energy economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lysen, E.H.; Daey Ouwens, C.; Van Onna, M.J.G.; Blok, K.; Okken, P.A.; Goudriaan, J.

    1992-05-01

    The title study aims at providing a reliable overview of the technical and financial parameters for the available and potential methods of energy production through biomass. In the study the production of biomass has been separated as much as possible from the transport and the conversion of energy carriers such as fuels or electricity. The assessment of the feasibility is based upon data analysis in phase A of the study and subsequent interviews with key institutes and industries in the Netherlands in phase B. The problems in agriculture and environment justify an active policy with respect to the use of biomass for the Netherlands' energy economy. The developments and the programmes in other European countries and the USA, the fact that a good infrastructure is present in the Netherlands, and the possible spin-off for developing countries justify this conclusion. It is recommended to initiate a focused national programme in the field of biomass energy, properly coordinated with the present ongoing Energy from Waste programme (EWAB) and with ongoing international programmes. The programme should encompass both research and development, as well as a few demonstration projects. Research to reduce costs of biomass is important, largely through reaching higher yields. In view of the competitive kWh costs of combined biomass gasifier/steam and gas turbines systems, based upon energy and environmental considerations, development and demonstration of this system is appropriate. 14 figs., 24 tabs., 6 app., 99 refs

  7. Air pollution-induced health impacts on the national economy of China: demonstration of a computable general equilibrium approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Yue; Yang, Hongwei; Masui, Toshihiko

    2005-01-01

    At the present time, ambient air pollution is a serious public health problem in China. Based on the concentration-response relationship provided by international and domestic epidemiologic studies, the authors estimated the mortality and morbidity induced by the ambient air pollution of 2000. To address the mechanism of the health impact on the national economy, the authors applied a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model, named AIM/Material China, containing 39 production sectors and 32 commodities. AIM/Material analyzes changes of the gross domestic product (GDP), final demand, and production activity originating from health damages. If ambient air quality met Grade II of China's air quality standard in 2000, then the avoidable GDP loss would be 0.38%o of the national total, of which 95% was led by labor loss. Comparatively, medical expenditure had less impact on national economy, which is explained from the aspect of the final demand by commodities and the production activities by sectors. The authors conclude that the CGE model is a suitable tool for assessing health impacts from a point of view of national economy through the discussion about its applicability.

  8. Frictions, Persistence, and Central Bank Policy in an Experimental Dynamic Stochastic General Equilibrium Economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noussair, C.N.; Pfajfar, D.; Zsiros, J.

    2011-01-01

    New Keynesian dynamic stochastic general equilibrium models are the principal paradigm currently employed for central bank policymaking. In this paper, we construct experimental economies, populated with human subjects, with the structure of a New Keynesian DSGE model. We give individuals monetary

  9. Performing an Environmental Tax Reform in a regional Economy. A Computable General Equilibrium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andre, F.J.; Cardenete, M.A.; Velazquez, E.

    2003-01-01

    We use a Computable General Equilibrium model to simulate the effects of an Environmental Tax Reform in a regional economy (Andalusia, Spain).The reform involves imposing a tax on CO2 or SO2 emissions and reducing either the Income Tax or the payroll tax of employers to Social Security, and

  10. General Education vs. Vocational Training: Evidence from an Economy in Transition. NBER Working Paper No. 14155

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malamud, Ofer; Pop-Eleches, Cristian

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the relative benefits of general education and vocational training in Romania, a country which experienced major technological and institutional change during its transition from Communism to a market economy. To avoid the bias caused by non-random selection, we exploit a 1973 educational reform that shifted a large proportion…

  11. 32 CFR 728.51 - General provisions-the “Economy Act.”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General provisions-the âEconomy Act.â 728.51 Section 728.51 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY PERSONNEL MEDICAL AND DENTAL CARE FOR ELIGIBLE PERSONS AT NAVY MEDICAL DEPARTMENT FACILITIES Beneficiaries of Other Federal Agencies § 728.51 General provisions—th...

  12. Emission policies and the Nigerian economy. Simulations from a dynamic applied general equilibrium model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nwaobi, Godwin Chukwudum

    2004-01-01

    Recently, there has been growing concern that human activities may be affecting the global climate through growing atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases (GHG). Such warming could have major impacts on economic activity and society. For the Nigerian case, the study uses multisector dynamic applied general equilibrium model to quantify the economy-wide, distributional and environmental costs of policies to curb GHG emissions. The simulation results indicate effectiveness of carbon tax, tradable permit and backstop technology policies in curbing GHG emissions but with distorted economy-wide income distributional effects. However, the model was found to be sensitive to three key exogenous variable and parameters tested: lower GDP growth rate, changed interfuel substitution elasticity and autonomous energy efficiency factor. Unlike the first test, the last two tests only had improved environmental effect but stable economy wide effect. This then suggest that domestic energy conservation measures could be a second best alternative

  13. The world economy of petroleum products and the strategy of a petroleum company from exporting country: Cases of SONATRACH (Algeria), KPC (Kuwait), PEMEX (Mexico), PDVSA (Venezuela). First volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preure, M.

    1992-12-01

    This thesis contains 2 volumes. In this first volume, the author describes in a first part the world economy of petroleum and natural gas products: Historical aspects and relationships between the different actors; General structure of the world economy of petroleum and gas products and actual trends. In a second part, the relationships between petroleum products, national economic development and problem of technology conservation are studied. The cases of Algeria, Kuwait, Mexico and Venezuela are given. 258 refs., 103 tabs

  14. Soedra's ecological forest management plans. Effects on production and economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viklund, E.

    1998-01-01

    In 1995 SOEDRA Skog, Sweden's largest forest owners association, started making ecological forest management plans, Groena skogsbruksplaner. The ecological forest management plans are divided into different compartments in which the management is adapted to the present ecological conditions. The stands are divided into four different categories depending on the different values of nature conservation. The object of this study was to find an easy method to quantify and describe the effects of nature conservation on economy and forest production in SOEDRA:s ecological forest management plans. The developed and purposed method, called PLAN-metoden, does not consider the interests, measures beyond the period of the plan, or losses due to snow or wind. It calculates the difference between the purposed measures in the ecological management plan and an alternative with management according to the requirements of the present Forestry Act. The economic effects of nature conservation varies between a net profit of 0,3% and a cost of 9,1% when calculated with the cash-flow method. The average decrease of possible cutting of merchantable timber was 11,3% and varies between 3,1 and 32,9%. The average decrease of cutting possibilities was 12,9% and varies between a decrease of 0,7% and a decrease of 28,3% when calculated with a present value method. Mainly mature, well-stocked compartments, which are considered not to be managed in the future, give rise to high costs. Properties with unprofitable thinnings and costly scarification, regeneration and cleaning seem to be favoured by the nature conservation in the plans. The Ecological management plans are expected to be of great importance to the members of SOEDRA. The interest in nature conservation is larger than that of economical issues. In order to avoid unsatisfactory results the planning should be accomplished in close personal contact with the forest owner Examination paper 1998-1. 21 refs, 2 figs, 39 tabs

  15. FEATURES OF THE LOGISTICS MANAGEMENT OF PRODUCTION OF HIGH TECHNOLOGY PRODUCTS IN TURBULENCE CHANGING GLOBAL ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg M. Tolmachev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject / topic: The level of development of any country is currently determined by the proportion of high technologies in the GDP. Logistics – the basis for efficient management of modern knowledge-intensive production. Given the adverse conditions in the global economy, greatly enhanced the relevance of the study of logistical aspects in the management of high-tech products.Subject of research: The logistics management of production of high technology products in turbulence changing global economy. In this paper we apply scientific methods: the dialectic, comparisons and analogies, analysis and synthesis, deduction and induction, abstract , logical, historical and retrospective. The purpose of this article is to identify the characteristics and problems of logistics management of production of high technology products in the countries of the Customs Union and the Eastern Partnership. Also consider the role of clusters in the formation of innovation infrastructure in the countries of the Customs Union.Results: As part of the presentation was the author of the present article the urgency of application of CALS-technologies as a tool for organization and information support for the creation, production and operation of the product at the enterprises of the national economy.Conclusions / significance: Management of enterprises in the real sector of the economy in modern conditions should be based on synergies methodological principles of market and state regulation, with increased use of methods focused on the long term. By such methods, in particular, should include the methods of logistic management of production of high technology products. The importance of these technologies has increased steadily, and in modern conditions gets a new quality content that refl ects the phased development plan targeted action to ensure that the desired state of the enterprise as a socio-economic system. This in turn points to the need to ensure that new

  16. Process Reengineering of Cold Chain Logistics of Agricultural Products Based on Low-carbon Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Hong-xia; Shao, Ming

    2012-01-01

    Through the process analysis of cold chain logistics of agricultural products, we find that cold chain logistics of agricultural products contradict the development model of low-carbon economy to some extent. We apply the development idea of low-carbon economy, introduce the third-party logistics companies, establish distribution center of cold chain logistics of agricultural products, and strengthen information sharing, to reengineer the process of cold chain logistics of agricultural produc...

  17. Growth performance and economy of production of grower pigs fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    meal-based diets. ... International Journal of Tropical Agriculture and Food Systems ... Twenty-four landrace x large white grower pigs were used to study the effect of maize-cob- meal-based diets on the growth performance and economy of ...

  18. Market Economy under Rapid Globalization and Rising Productivity

    OpenAIRE

    Konov, Joshua Ioji

    2012-01-01

    Market economy of enhancing business laws in contracting, bonding, insuring, legal corporate structures , e.g. will marginalize the economic agents and tools that make market competition unfair, empower small and medium businesses and investors, and boost business activities, fiscal strength, employment, and capital transmission. Keynesian capital infusion will extend its market effect in such higher security marketplace.

  19. Personnel as a Factor of Production in Development of Regional Tourism Economy – a Conceptual Paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksander Panasiuk

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tourism economy appears in every sphere of economy: production of goods and services, their division, exchange and consumption; it also occurs in the majority of the national economy branches that directly or indirectly deal with meeting tourist demand. The majority of economic processes in tourism sector are realized by direct tourism economy and its representatives, tourist entrepreneurs. Territorial self- government units and tourist organizations play a significant role in formation of economic processes in tourism sector on the regional and local levels. The classic economy distinguishes three basic production factors: labor, land and capital. In the modern approaches they are completed with the fourth that has different names. Beginning with technical and organizational progress which is a logic extension of coexistence and cooperation of three basic factors, ending with information and knowledge – treated as the most modern factors of production in the so-called new economy. In the totality of activities of tourism economy entities, a special role should be ascribed to the personnel, namely human potential of tourism economy entities.

  20. Energy, economy and equity interactions in a CGE [Computable General Equilibrium] model for Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naqvi, Farzana

    1997-01-01

    In the last three decades, Computable General Equilibrium modelling has emerged as an established field of applied economics. This book presents a CGE model developed for Pakistan with the hope that it will lay down a foundation for application of general equilibrium modelling for policy formation in Pakistan. As the country is being driven swiftly to become an open market economy, it becomes vital to found out the policy measures that can foster the objectives of economic planning, such as social equity, with the minimum loss of the efficiency gains from the open market resource allocations. It is not possible to build a model for practical use that can do justice to all sectors of the economy in modelling of their peculiar features. The CGE model developed in this book focuses on the energy sector. Energy is considered as one of the basic needs and an essential input to economic growth. Hence, energy policy has multiple criteria to meet. In this book, a case study has been carried out to analyse energy pricing policy in Pakistan using this CGE model of energy, economy and equity interactions. Hence, the book also demonstrates how researchers can model the fine details of one sector given the core structure of a CGE model. (UK)

  1. The economy of palm oil production and marketing in Igala land ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The economy of palm oil production and marketing in Igala land. ... Palm oil processing and marketing constituted one of the major occupations of the people as men, women and even the young ones ... EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT

  2. Modelling future oil production, population and the economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laherrere, Jean

    2003-07-01

    Most published data on energy, population and the economy are unreliable. In many cases, authors have political motives, selectively choosing data from a wide range of uncertainty to give a desired image. In addition to the uncertainty of the measurements themselves, as in the case of population or the confidentiality of the oil reserves, they often indulge in manipulation. A so-called hedonistic factor distorts the calculation of GDP in the United States; and the definition of the Proved Reserves by the Securities and Exchange Commission gives rise to 'reserve growth'. OPEC misreports its oil reserves because its quotas depend upon the reported reserves, and the reserves were overestimated in the Soviet Union because economic and technical constraints were ignored. Our present culture of eternal growth makes the word 'decline' politically incorrect, but constant growth is unsustainable in a finite world. Growth is the Santa Claus of the modern age who is supposed to provide welfare and retirement for our children and us. All natural events, when measured over their full life, can be modelled under one or more cycles, as in the Fourier analysis. This cyclical nature corresponds with the finite nature of the Universe; everything that is born will die, whether we speak of the solar system, the Earth, or human species. What goes up must come down. The Russian population is already declining and Europe's will soon do so too. This basic understanding was recognised by the celebrated King Hubbert when he made his famous prediction in 1956 that US oil production would peak in 1970. But, in fact, he oversimplified by showing a single peak. In reality, US oil production had a secondary peak (93% of the first one) in 1985, reflecting the entry of Alaskan production, which itself peaked in 1988. A symmetrical oil cycle reflects a large number of independent producers, acting randomly, but in many cases economic and political factors disturb the

  3. Modelling future oil production, population and the economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laherrere, Jean

    2003-07-01

    Most published data on energy, population and the economy are unreliable. In many cases, authors have political motives, selectively choosing data from a wide range of uncertainty to give a desired image. In addition to the uncertainty of the measurements themselves, as in the case of population or the confidentiality of the oil reserves, they often indulge in manipulation. A so-called hedonistic factor distorts the calculation of GDP in the United States; and the definition of the Proved Reserves by the Securities and Exchange Commission gives rise to 'reserve growth'. OPEC misreports its oil reserves because its quotas depend upon the reported reserves, and the reserves were overestimated in the Soviet Union because economic and technical constraints were ignored. Our present culture of eternal growth makes the word 'decline' politically incorrect, but constant growth is unsustainable in a finite world. Growth is the Santa Claus of the modern age who is supposed to provide welfare and retirement for our children and us. All natural events, when measured over their full life, can be modelled under one or more cycles, as in the Fourier analysis. This cyclical nature corresponds with the finite nature of the Universe; everything that is born will die, whether we speak of the solar system, the Earth, or human species. What goes up must come down. The Russian population is already declining and Europe's will soon do so too. This basic understanding was recognised by the celebrated King Hubbert when he made his famous prediction in 1956 that US oil production would peak in 1970. But, in fact, he oversimplified by showing a single peak. In reality, US oil production had a secondary peak (93% of the first one) in 1985, reflecting the entry of Alaskan production, which itself peaked in 1988. A symmetrical oil cycle reflects a large number of independent producers, acting randomly, but in many cases economic and political factors disturb the pattern, giving one or more new

  4. Formalization of the General Model of the Green Economy at the Regional Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Mikhaylovich Potravny

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The subject-matter of the article is the research of the problems of economic and mathematical modelling of the green economy at the regional level. The purpose of the research is the substantiation and development of economic and mathematical tools for the modelling of economic and ecological systems at the regional level on the basis of the principles of the green economy. The hypothesis of the study is based on the thesis that in the conditions of the resource exhaustion and depletion of natural capital, the technogenic deposits as well as production waste and consumption can be considered as the resource base for modern production, whose use leads to the elimination of accumulated environmental damage and substitution of natural resources. In the article, the approaches to the system modelling problems are considered to develop the green economy at the level of the country and its regions. The relevance of the transition to a green economy is confirmed by the theoretical and practical research in the field of the cyclic development of socio-eco-economic systems. A number of formalized models and methods for solving current environmental-economic issues including the economic valuation of accumulated environmental damage, eco-economic assessment of the efficiency of natural resource substitution with resource-substitute are proposed as well as the choice of an optimal set of resources-substitutes taking into account the financial and natural resource constraints. The standard models of green growth are considered. These models take into account the exhaustion of natural resources, involvement of the resources of technogenic deposits in the economic circulation through the implementation of investment projects on the elimination of accumulated environmental damage. The results of the study may be used in the different regions of the country for the justification and implementation of investment projects in the framework of the Federal Target

  5. Consumer evaluation of imported organic food products in emerging economies in Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Pedersen, Susanne; Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica; Thøgersen, John

    2017-01-01

    Consumer evaluation of imported organic food products in emerging economies in Asia Introduction Consumers in emerging economies such as Thailand and China have started to demand organic food products – mainly due to food safety reasons (Ortega, Wang, Wu, & Hong, 2015; Roitner-Schobesberger, Darnhofer, Somsook, & Vogl, 2008; C. L. Wang, Li, Barnes, & Ahn, 2012; O. Wang, De Steur, Gellynck, & Verbeke, 2015). However, since the domestic organic markets are still not well-establi...

  6. Green Economy Performance and Green Productivity Growth in China’s Cities: Measures and Policy Implication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianglong Li

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Resource depletion and environmental degradation have become serious challenges for China’s sustainable development. This paper constructs indicators to assess China’s green economy performance and green productivity growth, in which economic expansion, resource conservation and environmental protection need to be incorporated simultaneously. For this purpose, we combine non-radial directional distance function and meta-frontier Malmquist productivity to develop the indicators. The methodology also allows for the decomposition of driving forces of China’s green economy. Moreover, the dataset employed in this paper allows for the evaluation of 275 cities in China during the period 2003–2012. The main findings are as follows. First, most of China’s cities did not perform efficiently in terms of the green economy, with an average score of only 0.233. Second, the growth rate of green productivity is slower than real GDP, and the green productivity growth in China is only moderate. Third, innovation is the main driving force of China’s green productivity growth, but the central region lags behind when it comes to green innovation. Fourth, artificial local protectionism and transport limitations impede the progress of cities that perform ineffectively in the green economy. Based on our empirical findings, we provide policy implications and suggestions for enhancing China’s green economy performance and productivity growth.

  7. Modular products: Smartphone design from a circular economy perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Schischke, Karsten; Proske, Marina; Nissen, Nils F.; Lang, Klaus-Dieter

    2016-01-01

    Currently a range of modular smartphones is emerging, including the Fairphone 2, Puzzlephone, Google's Project ARA, RePhone, LG's G5 and others. In an industry of perceived short product cycles a modular design concept might become crucial for longer product lifetimes. The paper provides an overview on latest product developments and assesses these against environmental criteria, including longevity, durability, upgradeability, repairability and Design for Recycling and Reuse. Modular product...

  8. Roles Prioritization of Hydrogen Production Technologies for Promoting Hydrogen Economy in the Current State of China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Jingzheng; Gao, Suzhao; Tan, Shiyu

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen production technologies play an important role in the hydrogen economy of China. However, the roles of different technologies played in promoting the development of hydrogen economy are different. The role prioritization of various hydrogen production technologies is of vital importance...... information. The prioritization results by using the proposed method demonstrated that the technologies of coal gasification with CO2 capture and storage and hydropower-based water electrolysis were regarded as the two most important hydrogen production pathways for promoting the development of hydrogen...... for the stakeholders/decision-makers to plan the development of hydrogen economy in China and to allocate the finite R&D budget reasonably. In this study, DPSIR framework was firstly used to identify the key factors concerning the priorities of various hydrogen production technologies; then, a fuzzy group decision...

  9. The economy-wide impact of pandemic influenza on the UK: a computable general equilibrium modelling experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Richard D; Keogh-Brown, Marcus R; Barnett, Tony; Tait, Joyce

    2009-11-19

    To estimate the potential economic impact of pandemic influenza, associated behavioural responses, school closures, and vaccination on the United Kingdom. A computable general equilibrium model of the UK economy was specified for various combinations of mortality and morbidity from pandemic influenza, vaccine efficacy, school closures, and prophylactic absenteeism using published data. The 2004 UK economy (the most up to date available with suitable economic data). The economic impact of various scenarios with different pandemic severity, vaccination, school closure, and prophylactic absenteeism specified in terms of gross domestic product, output from different economic sectors, and equivalent variation. The costs related to illness alone ranged between 0.5% and 1.0% of gross domestic product ( pound8.4bn to pound16.8bn) for low fatality scenarios, 3.3% and 4.3% ( pound55.5bn to pound72.3bn) for high fatality scenarios, and larger still for an extreme pandemic. School closure increases the economic impact, particularly for mild pandemics. If widespread behavioural change takes place and there is large scale prophylactic absence from work, the economic impact would be notably increased with few health benefits. Vaccination with a pre-pandemic vaccine could save 0.13% to 2.3% of gross domestic product ( pound2.2bn to pound38.6bn); a single dose of a matched vaccine could save 0.3% to 4.3% ( pound5.0bn to pound72.3bn); and two doses of a matched vaccine could limit the overall economic impact to about 1% of gross domestic product for all disease scenarios. Balancing school closure against "business as usual" and obtaining sufficient stocks of effective vaccine are more important factors in determining the economic impact of an influenza pandemic than is the disease itself. Prophylactic absence from work in response to fear of infection can add considerably to the economic impact.

  10. Analyzing cost efficient production behavior under economies of scope : A nonparametric methodology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cherchye, L.J.H.; de Rock, B.; Vermeulen, F.M.P.

    2008-01-01

    In designing a production model for firms that generate multiple outputs, we take as a starting point that such multioutput production refers to economies of scope, which in turn originate from joint input use and input externalities. We provide a nonparametric characterization of cost-efficient

  11. Analyzing Cost Efficient Production Behavior Under Economies of Scope : A Nonparametric Methodology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cherchye, L.J.H.; de Rock, B.; Vermeulen, F.M.P.

    2006-01-01

    In designing a production model for firms that generate multiple outputs, we take as a starting point that such multi-output production refers to economies of scope, which in turn originate from joint input use and input externalities. We provide a nonparametric characterization of cost efficient

  12. Policy options for sustainable energy use in a general model of the UK economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barker, T.; Ekins, P.; Johnstone, N.

    1996-01-01

    A quantitative general economic model has been developed for options available in greenhouse gas abatement policy concerning energy use. It has been applied in three exercises to explore the effects of energy taxes on the United Kingdom economy. One of these examined the effect of the proposed European Commission carbon/energy tax; the second attempts to set out a policy framework which would enable the UK to reach the IPCC target of 60% reduction in CO 2 emissions by 2040 and explores the economic implications; the third compares the proposal of the UK government to levy VAT on domestic fuel with the EC carbon/energy tax. Additionally, estimates have been made of the secondary benefits of reducing CO 2 emissions. The results present a striking contrast to much of the literature. They include the conclusions that: the EC carbon/energy tax would have negligible macroeconomic effects on the UK economy providing revenues were recycled in such a way as to neutralise inflation; reduction of UK CO 2 emissions by 60% would not necessarily cause great economic disruption; the secondary benefits of reducing CO 2 emissions are of sufficient size to alter radically the benefit cost profile of carbon abatement; equity and efficiency should be regarded as complementary, not competing, objectives in the abatement of CO 2 emissions from the domestic sector. (UK)

  13. THE WORKFORCE AND ITS PRODUCTIVITY IN THE FOOD ECONOMY OF THE EU COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldona Mrówczyńska-Kamińska

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of the article is a comparative analysis of the workforce and its productivity in the food economy of the EU countries in the years 1995 and 2009. The first part of the article analyses the internal structure of the workforce in the food economy and its share in the national economy. In the following part the workforce productivity was estimated, taking into consideration the value of global output and gross value added per employee. The basic source materials used in this study were input-output tables for individual EU countries. The results of the calculations indicate that the internal structure of the workforce in the food economy, its share in the national economy, and the level of the workforce productivity in the EU countries differ considerably. The level of the labour productivity is much higher in the countries of Western and Northern Europe than in the countries of Central and Eastern Europe. It is mainly caused by a structural defect which is due to an excessive workforce in the agricultural sector EU member states.

  14. Economies of scale in biogas production and the significance of flexible regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lise Skovsgaard; Klinge Jacobsen, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    Biogas production is characterised by economies of scale in capital and operational costs of the plant and diseconomies of scale from transport of input materials. We analyse biogas in a Danish setting where most biogas is based on manure, we use a case study with actual distances, and find...... that the benefits of scale in capital and operational costs dominate the diseconomies of increasing transport distances to collect manure. To boost the yield it is common to use co-substrates in the biogas production. We investigate how costs and income changes, when sugar beet is added in this case study......, and demonstrate that transport cost can be critical in relation to co-substrates. Further we compare the new Danish support for upgraded biogas with the traditional support for biogas being used in Combined Heat and Power production in relation to scale economies. We argue that economies of scale is facilitated...

  15. Timing of product introduction in network economies under heterogeneous demand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Christian Dahl

    This paper studies the introduction of a new and incompatible technology in a spatial market with network externalities. In competition with an established network, the entrant chooses how long to do research and a level of product differentiation, which determine the adoption patterns of consumers...... level of product differentiation that should be chosen by the sponsor of the new technology in equilibrium. Third, the formal relationship between these variables are derived under compatibility.  Fourth, the entering firm's problem is solved by numerical methods to gain insight into the optimal linkage...... between research time and product design....

  16. Essays on the Indian economy : Competitive pressure, productivity and performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sahoo, A.

    2008-01-01

    India undertook a drastic economic reform program in 1991, with the significant objectives of removing existing inefficiencies and enhancing global competitiveness. A competitive environment is a prerequisite condition for gaining higher productivity. The main desired role of economic liberalization

  17. Wood for energy production. Technology - environment - economy[Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serup, H.; Falster, H.; Gamborg, C. [and others

    1999-07-01

    'Wood for Energy Production', 2nd edition, is a readily understood guide to the application of wood in the Danish energy supply. The first edition was named 'Wood Chips for Energy Production'. It describes the wood fuel from forest to consumer and provides a concise introduction to technological, environmental, and financial matters concerning heating systems for farms, institutions, district heating plants, and CHP plants. The individual sections deal with both conventional, well known technology, as well as the most recent technological advances in the field of CHP production. The purpose of this publication is to reach the largest possible audiance, and it is designed so that the layman may find its background information of special relevance. 'Wood for Energy Production' is also available in German and Danish. (au)

  18. The Impact of Regional and Sectoral Productivity Changes on the U.S. Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Caliendo, Lorenzo; Parro, Fernando; Rossi-Hansberg, Esteban; Sarte, Pierre-Daniel

    2014-01-01

    We study the impact of regional and sectoral productivity changes on the U.S. economy. To that end, we consider an environment that captures the effects of interregional and intersectoral trade in propagating disaggregated productivity changes at the level of a sector in a given U.S. state to the rest of the economy. The quantitative model we develop features pairwise interregional trade across all 50 U.S. states, 26 traded and non-traded industries, labor as a mobile factor, and structures a...

  19. Open and continuous fermentation: products, conditions and bioprocess economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Teng; Chen, Xiang-bin; Chen, Jin-chun; Wu, Qiong; Chen, Guo-Qiang

    2014-12-01

    Microbial fermentation is the key to industrial biotechnology. Most fermentation processes are sensitive to microbial contamination and require an energy intensive sterilization process. The majority of microbial fermentations can only be conducted over a short period of time in a batch or fed-batch culture, further increasing energy consumption and process complexity, and these factors contribute to the high costs of bio-products. In an effort to make bio-products more economically competitive, increased attention has been paid to developing open (unsterile) and continuous processes. If well conducted, continuous fermentation processes will lead to the reduced cost of industrial bio-products. To achieve cost-efficient open and continuous fermentations, the feeding of raw materials and the removal of products must be conducted in a continuous manner without the risk of contamination, even under 'open' conditions. Factors such as the stability of the biological system as a whole during long cultivations, as well as the yield and productivity of the process, are also important. Microorganisms that grow under extreme conditions such as high or low pH, high osmotic pressure, and high or low temperature, as well as under conditions of mixed culturing, cell immobilization, and solid state cultivation, are of interest for developing open and continuous fermentation processes. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. A paradigm shift needed for nuclear reactors. From economies of unit scale to economies of production scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Ning

    2009-01-01

    simultaneous inclusion of economies of production scale, will transform the nuclear energy industry from construction heavy to manufacturing centric. It will enable a global architecture optimized for the extremely high power density of the nuclear fuels, and a great expansion of the markets and applications of nuclear energy. (author)

  1. Nontimber Forest Products in the Rural Household Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erin O. Sills; Sharachchandra Lele; Thomas P. Holmes; Subhrendu K. Pattanayak

    2003-01-01

    Among the multiple outputs of forests, the category labeled nontimber forest products, or NTFPs, has drawn increased policy and research attention during the past 20 years. NTFPs have become recognized for their importance in the livelihoods of the many relatively poor households who live in or near forests, especially in the tropics. Policy concern about NTFPs takes...

  2. Biological Innovation and Productivity Growth in the Antebellum Cotton Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Alan L. Olmstead; Paul W. Rhode

    2008-01-01

    The Cliometrics literature on slave efficiency has generally focused on static questions. We take a decidedly more dynamic approach. Drawing on the records of 142 plantations with 509 crops years, we show that the average daily cotton picking rate increased about four-fold between 1801 and 1862. We argue that the development and diffusion of new cotton varieties were the primary sources of the increased efficiency. These finding have broad implications for understanding the South's preeminenc...

  3. Dual economies and international total factor productivity differences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chanda, Areendam; Dalgaard, Carl-Johan Lars

    2008-01-01

    This paper provides a framework that decomposes aggregate total factor productivity (TFP) into a component reflecting relative efficiency across sectors, and another component that reflects the absolute level of efficiency. A development accounting analysis suggests that as much as 85......% of the international variation in aggregate TFP can be attributed to variation in relative efficiency across sectors. Estimation results show that recent findings highlighting the importance of strong protection of property rights, financial development and geographical advantage for the level of TFP, can be explained...

  4. A dynamic general equilibrium analysis on fostering a hydrogen economy in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, Jeong Hwan; Cho, Gyeong-Lyeob

    2010-01-01

    Hydrogen is anticipated to become one of the major alternative energy technologies for a sustainable energy system. This study analyzes the dynamic economic impacts of building a hydrogen economy in Korea employing a dynamic Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) model. As a frontier technology, hydrogen is featured as having a slow diffusion rate due to option value, positive externality, resistance of old technology, and complementary vintages. Without government intervention, hydrogen-derived energy will supply up to 6.5% of final energy demand by 2040. Simulation outcomes show that as price subsidy rates increase by 10%, 20%, and 30%, hydrogen demand will increase by 9.2%, 15.2%, and 37.7%, respectively, of final energy demand by 2040. The output of the transportation sector will increase significantly, while demands for oil and electricity will decline. Demands for coal and LNG will experience little change. Household consumption will decline because of the increase of income taxes. Overall GDP will increase because of the increase in exports and investments. CO 2 emission will decline for medium and high subsidy rate cases, but increase for low subsidy cases. Ultimately, subsidy policy on hydrogen will not be an effective measure for mitigating CO 2 emission in Korea when considering dynamic general equilibrium effects. (author)

  5. The role of product designers in the transition towards the circular economy : A reality check

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sumter, D.X.; Bakker, C.A.; Balkenende, A.R.; Bakker, C.; Mugge, R.

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines the role of product designers in the transition towards the circular economy. Both scientific and grey literature show remarkable optimism when it comes to role strategic and coordinating role designers could play in this transition process. However, there has been little

  6. Product services for a resource-efficient and circular economy - A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tukker, A.

    2015-01-01

    Since the 1990s, Product Service Systems (PSS) have been heralded as one of the most effective instruments for moving society towards a resource-efficient, circular economy and creating a much-needed 'resource revolution'. This paper reviews the literature on PSS in the last decade and compares the

  7. The Consumer Production Journey: Marketing to Consumers as Co-Producers in the Sharing Economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.G.C. Dellaert (Benedict)

    2018-01-01

    textabstractNew digital technologies not only support consumers in better fulfilling their own consumption needs, but also enable them to create greater value for other consumers. These new consumer co- production activities, collectively referred to as the sharing economy, require firms to rethink

  8. Economic fluctuations in a small economy with two productive sectors under a floating exchange rate regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ustorgio Mora Mora

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a theoretical model of aggregate supply and demand in a small economy with two productive sectors, under a flexible exchange regime and imperfect capital mobility. Only one of the production sectors is assumed to produce an exportable commodity sold at world market prices, while the production of the other sector is assumed to supply the domestic market. This model helps to explain how the impact of both domestic (economic policy, productivity, etc. and foreign (changes in exchange terms shocks is spread. In every case studied, results show that real output increases consistently with those cases postulated by economic theory. Conversely, the effects on the price level, the exchange rate and the real interest rate are ambiguous. In terms of domestic shocks, fiscal or monetary policy may be seen as a way to stabilize or stimulate the economy but the costs involved raise the price level.

  9. Unravelling the argument for bioenergy production in developing countries: A world-economy perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Kuchler, Magdalena

    2010-01-01

    This paper offers a critical look at how energy security-, food and agriculture-, and climate change-oriented international organizations frame biomass energy production in developing countries, in particular, ethanol production in Brazil. Using the world-economy system as a theoretical lens, the paper raises a concern as to whether the way these global institutions frame bioenergy's role in developing regions manifests energy and ecological inequalities between the core and the periphery, as...

  10. Food production in solidarity economy: an issue that goes beyond laws

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone WESCHENFELDER

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Food production within the context of solidarity economy is an alternative way to offer employment and income for a significant part of the Brazilian population. The purpose of this study was to carry out a business diagnosis in order to evaluate the facilities, the production process and hygiene practices of seven solidarity economy enterprises located in the city of Novo Hamburgo, Southern Brazil, that work with food production and sales. Visits took place at the enterprises and a check-list was used to record data. Although food production happens in places with space and setting restrictions, it guarantees distinctive foods with aggregate value, where handlers follow the whole process, from raw materials selection to sales. Basic hygiene principles are followed, as they guarantee the production of food with quality, which contributes towards income generation for participating families. Specific laws that apply to the characteristics and needs of small-scale food production must be written in order to regulate solidarity economy enterprises.

  11. Economies of scale in biogas production and the significance of flexible regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skovsgaard, Lise; Jacobsen, Henrik Klinge

    2017-01-01

    Biogas production is characterised by economies of scale in capital and operational costs of the plant and diseconomies of scale from transport of input materials. We analyse biogas in a Danish setting where most biogas is based on manure, we use a case study with actual distances, and find that the benefits of scale in capital and operational costs dominate the diseconomies of increasing transport distances to collect manure. To boost the yield it is common to use co-substrates in the biogas production. We investigate how costs and income changes, when sugar beet is added in this case study, and demonstrate that transport cost can be critical in relation to co-substrates. Further we compare the new Danish support for upgraded biogas with the traditional support for biogas being used in Combined Heat and Power production in relation to scale economies. We argue that economies of scale is facilitated by the new regulation providing similar support to upgraded biogas fed into the natural gas grid, however in order to keep transport costs low, we suggest that the biogas plants should be allowed to use and combine as many co-substrates as possible, respecting the sustainability criteria regarding energy crops in Danish legislation. - Highlights: • For Denmark we find economies of scale in biogas production based on pure manure. • Adding sugar beet outweigh economy of scale due to increased transport costs. • We investigate the main risks associated with input prices, yield and output prices. • Biogas fed into the gas grid should receive similar support as directly used in CHP. • Regulation should allow large biogas plants with few restrictions on co-substrates.

  12. Transition towards a low carbon economy: A computable general equilibrium analysis for Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Böhringer, Christoph; Rutherford, Thomas F.

    2013-01-01

    In the transition to sustainable economic structures the European Union assumes a leading role with its climate and energy package which sets ambitious greenhouse gas emission reduction targets by 2020. Among EU Member States, Poland with its heavy energy system reliance on coal is particularly worried on the pending trade-offs between emission regulation and economic growth. In our computable general equilibrium analysis of the EU climate and energy package we show that economic adjustment cost for Poland hinge crucially on restrictions to where-flexibility of emission abatement, revenue recycling, and technological options in the power system. We conclude that more comprehensive flexibility provisions at the EU level and a diligent policy implementation at the national level could achieve the transition towards a low carbon economy at little cost thereby broadening societal support. - Highlights: ► Economic impact assessment of the EU climate and energy package for Poland. ► Sensitivity analysis on where-flexibility, revenue recycling and technology choice. ► Application of a hybrid bottom-up, top-down CGE model

  13. Some remarks on a generalized vector product

    OpenAIRE

    ACOSTA-HUMÁNEZ, PRIMITIVO; ARANDA, MOISÉS; NÚÑEZ, REINALDO

    2011-01-01

    Abstract. In this paper we use a generalized vector product to construct an exterior form ⊥ : , where Finally, for n = k - 1 we introduce the reversing operation to study this generalized vector product over palindromic and antipalindromic vectors. Resumen. En este art&íacute;culo usamos un producto vectorial generalizado para construir una forma exterior ⊥ : , en donde como es natural, Finalmente, para n = k - 1 introducimos la operación reversar para estudiar este producto vectorial gene...

  14. Production of biofuels and biomolecules in the framework of circular economy: A regional case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacquet, Nicolas; Haubruge, Eric; Richel, Aurore

    2015-12-01

    Faced to the economic and energetic context of our society, it is widely recognised that an alternative to fossil fuels and oil-based products will be needed in the nearest future. In this way, development of urban biorefinery could bring many solutions to this problem. Study of the implementation of urban biorefinery highlights two sustainable configurations that provide solutions to the Walloon context by promoting niche markets, developing circular economy and reducing transport of supply feedstock. First, autonomous urban biorefineries are proposed, which use biological waste for the production of added value molecules and/or finished products and are energetically self-sufficient. Second, integrated urban biorefineries, which benefit from an energy supply from a nearby industrial activity. In the Walloon economic context, these types of urban biorefineries could provide solutions by promoting niche markets, developing a circular economy model, optimise the transport of supply feedstock and contribute to the sustainable development. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. Microalgal hydrogen production: prospects of an essential technology for a clean and sustainable energy economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayro-Kaiser, Vinzenz; Nelson, Nathan

    2017-09-01

    Modern energy production is required to undergo a dramatic transformation. It will have to replace fossil fuel use by a sustainable and clean energy economy while meeting the growing world energy needs. This review analyzes the current energy sector, available energy sources, and energy conversion technologies. Solar energy is the only energy source with the potential to fully replace fossil fuels, and hydrogen is a crucial energy carrier for ensuring energy availability across the globe. The importance of photosynthetic hydrogen production for a solar-powered hydrogen economy is highlighted and the development and potential of this technology are discussed. Much successful research for improved photosynthetic hydrogen production under laboratory conditions has been reported, and attempts are underway to develop upscale systems. We suggest that a process of integrating these achievements into one system to strive for efficient sustainable energy conversion is already justified. Pursuing this goal may lead to a mature technology for industrial deployment.

  16. Measuring and improving productivity in general radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilt, Michelle A; Miranda, Rafael; Johnson, C Daniel; Love, Peggy Sue

    2010-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine a method of measuring productivity among general radiographers in a moderate-sized hospital and to improve and sustain productivity within that work area. The average times needed to perform the 13 most common examinations were measured. Performance of the various examinations was tracked and multiplied by the time allocated per procedure; this measure was divided by the length of the work shift to determine productivity. Productivity measures were shared among the work group, and decisions to improve productivity (eg, whether to fill open positions) were made by group members. Average time spent per examination type was calculated (range, 10 minutes to 1 hour 16 minutes). At baseline (February 2008), group productivity was 50%. Productivity increased during the first year of monitoring and was sustained through November 2009 (productivity range, 57%-63%). Yearly savings from not filling open positions were estimated to be $174,000. Productivity in a general radiology work area can be measured. Consensus among the work group helped increase productivity and assess progress. This methodology, if widely adopted, could be standardized and used to compare productivity across departments and institutions. Copyright © 2010 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The circular economy of seaweed as nutrient management instrument for biobased production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Marianne; Seghetta, Michele; Bruhn, Annette

    portfolio (processing and cascade utilization) are needed for a seaweed biorefinery industry to become economically viable. The break-even point for the MAB3 EP biorefinery system is obtained by an increase in the seaweed productivity of a factor 2 to 4. Development of seaweed cultivation technology......A comparative analysis of the environmental and economic performance of seaweed production and biorefinery systems were modelled within the project MAB3 (www.mab3.dk). A framework for integrated sustainability modelling of the circular economy of offshore seaweed production and biorefinery systems...

  18. Single/total-economy aspects of production and utilization of energy from renewable raw materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meinhold, K

    1982-01-01

    ''Biosprit (biologically produced gasohol) can compete with synthetically produced ethanol for use in commerce and industries but not fully so with petrol due to the present refinery selling prices. Nevertheless, a 10% admixture will increase the price of one litre of petrol only slightly. If the consumer is not meant to cover this price increase, it could be covered by a small proportion of those expenditures which will be saved through a changeover to biogasohol production and which have been payed for necessary export refunding so far. Even at present, there is a considerable benefit involved for the overall national economy if there was a changeover to biogasohol production. In terms of total economy, transitional or initial subsidization would be just as justified as it is with initial promotion by the government with the introduction of new technologies.

  19. Cobb-Douglas production function: the case of a converging economy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hájková, Dana; Hurník, J.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 57, 9-10 (2007), s. 465-476 ISSN 0015-1920 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC542 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : Cobb- Douglas production function * Czech economy Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.382, year: 2007 http://journal.fsv.cuni.cz/storage/1088_fau_9_10_2007_00000053.pdf

  20. INTEGRATION OF TRADE AND DISINTEGRATION OF PRODUCTION IN THE GLOBAL ECONOMY

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Feenstra

    2003-01-01

    The last few decades have seen a spectacular integration of the global economy through trade. The rising integration of world markets has brought with it a disintegration of the production process, however, in which manufacturing or services activities done abroad are combined with those performed at home. The author compares several different measures of foreign outsourcing and argues that they have all increased since the 1970s. He also considers the implications of globalization for employ...

  1. How did the US economy react to shale gas production revolution? An advanced time series approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilgili, Faik; Koçak, Emrah; Bulut, Ümit; Sualp, M. Nedim

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims at examining the impacts of shale gas revolution on industrial production in the US. To this end, this paper, first, throughout literature review, exposes the features of shale gas revolution in the US in terms of energy technology and energy markets. However, the potential influences of shale gas extraction on the US economy are not explicit in the existing literature. Thus, considering mainly the output of shale gas revolution on the US economy in this research, later, the paper conducts econometric models to reveal if there exists significant effect(s) of shale gas revolution on the US economy. Therefore, the paper employs unit root tests and cointegration tests by following relevant US monthly data from January 2008 to December 2013. Then, this paper observes long run impact of shale gas production on industrial production in the US through dynamic ordinary least squares estimation with dummy structural breaks and conducts Granger causality test based on vector error correction model. The dynamic ordinary least squares estimator explores that shale gas production has a positive effect on industrial production. Besides, the Granger causality test presents that shale gas production Granger causes industrial production in the long run. Based on the findings of the long run estimations, the paper yields that industrial production is positively related to shale gas production. Eventually, upon its findings, this paper asserts that (i) the shale gas revolution in the US has considerable positive effects on the US economy within the scope of the validity of the growth hypothesis, (ii) new technologies might be developed to mitigate the possible negative environmental effects of shale gas production, (iii) the countries having shale gas reserves, as in US, may follow energy policies to utilize their shale reserves more in the future to meet their energy demand and to increase their economic welfare. - Highlights: • Explores the US shale gas revolution

  2. Dengue endemic and its impact on the gross national product of BRAZILIAN'S economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montibeler, Everlam Elias; Oliveira, Daniel Ribeiro de

    2018-02-01

    In history disease has caused social and economic damage. Dengue is an illness typically found in the tropics that has affected more and more people. In Brazil, according to the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE), in 2013 at least 12.9% of the population (25.8 million) reported already having had dengue in their life. So, how wide are the economic impacts that dengue's contagion has on the gross national product? Using Leontief's method, it became possible to estimate the direct and indirect impact on the workforce and output by one country. Workforce absenteeism reduced the national productiveness and welfare state where we found maximum inoperability of 0.027% and a minimum of 0.002%. This paper develops a methodology for estimation of the impact dengue has incurred in each sector of an economy; designing a ranking with sectors that have been more affected and forecasting the propagation of the endemic throughout a region. This research measures the impact of dengue on economy, the result was that the total loss of the Brazilian economy in 2013 was around BRL 1,023,174,876.83; the importance of 0.02% of the Gross Domestic Product. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Long-run effects of falling cellulosic ethanol production costs on the US agricultural economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campiche, Jody L; Bryant, Henry L; Richardson, James W

    2010-01-01

    Renewable energy production has been expanding at a rapid pace. New advances in cellulosic ethanol technologies have the potential to displace the use of petroleum as a transportation fuel, and could have significant effects on both the agricultural economy and the environment. In this letter, the effects of falling cellulosic ethanol production costs on the mix of ethanol feedstocks employed and on the US agricultural economy are examined. Results indicate that, as expected, cellulosic ethanol production increases by a substantial amount as conversion technology improves. Corn production increases initially following the introduction of cellulosic technology, because producers enjoy new revenue from sales of corn stover. After cellulosic ethanol production becomes substantially cheaper, however, acres are shifted from corn production to all other agricultural commodities. Essentially, this new technology could facilitate the exploitation of a previously under-employed resource (corn stover), resulting in an improvement in overall welfare. In the most optimistic scenario considered, 68% of US ethanol is derived from cellulosic sources, coarse grain production is reduced by about 2%, and the prices of all food commodities are reduced modestly.

  4. Food security, wheat production and policy in South Africa: Reflections on food sustainability and challenges for a market economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francois de Wet

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The traditional concept of security has broadened over the past decades. Food security in South Africa is an imperative for human and non-human survival. In the contemporary political economy, there is a real nexus between globalisation, exploitation, the state, scarcity of resources, the market, peoples’ need to feel secure, notions of state responsibility and food production. Political economy and human security in theoretical debates and face-to-face politics are intrinsically linked. The notion of a ‘secure community’ changed. Food security and the right to quality living became a social imperative. Understanding current agricultural economics requires the ability to link security and access to food for all. In this case study, wheat production in South Africa is addressed against the interface of the global and the local including South Africa’s transition to a democratic and constitutional state with a Bill of Rights. The current security approach represents a more comprehensive understanding of what security is meant to be and include, amongst others, housing security, medical security, service delivery and food security, as set out in the Millennium Development Goals and the subsequent Sustainable Development Goals. The issue of food security is addressed here with particular reference to wheat production, related current government policies and the market economy. The authors chose to limit their socio-economic focus to a specific sector of the agricultural market, namely wheat, rather than discuss food security in South Africa in general. Wheat was chosen as a unit of analysis because as a crop, wheat used in bread is one of the staples for the majority of South Africans and given the current negative economic developments, wheat as a staple is likely to remain integral, if not increasing its status of dependability

  5. Production structure and international competition position of the German environmental protection economy; Produktionsstruktur und internationale Wettbewerbsposition der deutschen Umweltschutzwirtschaft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Legler, Harald; Schasse, Ulrich [Niedersaechsisches Institut fuer Wirtschaftsforschung e.V., Hannover (Germany)

    2009-06-15

    There exists a connection between the economic structural orientation and international competitiveness on the one hand as well as the environmental political requirements on the other hand. The environmental protection economy fits quite well the profile that Germany is demanded in the international change. Under this aspect, the authors of the contribution under consideration report on the production structure and on the international competition position of the German environmental protection economy. The authors report on (a) the production structure and production dynamics of the environmental protection industry; (b) German environmental protection economy in the international comparison; (c) Goods, building works and services for environmental protection in Germany.

  6. The Characteristics of Susceptibility of Innovative Products in the Domestic Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zyza Olena O.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at studying the characteristics of susceptibility of innovative products in the domestic economy. On the example of the mobile communications market, an analysis of the diffusion of innovations and their acceptance in the context of business cycle has been carried out. On the basis of the mentioned analysis has been determined that the difference between the time of invention of a new product or technology and the time of its application, as well as diffusion into the domestic economy, is connected with different trajectories of business cycle. A comparative analysis of competitive advantages in the implementation of innovation in Finland, Switzerland and Ukraine was carried out through the prism of the factors, which determine the competitiveness of innovations, and the factors, which are not conducive to the implementation of entrepreneurial activity. It has been determined that entrepreneurial activity in the leading countries is most hampered by economic factors, and in Ukraine – by social and political factors. The low innovative capacity compared with Finland and Switzerland in the domestic economy is associated with a weak innovation infrastructure.

  7. Decentralized and direct solar hydrogen production: Towards a hydrogen economy in MENA region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bensebaa, Farid; Khalfallah, Mohamed; Ouchene, Majid

    2010-09-15

    Hydrogen has certainly some advantages in spite of its high cost and low efficiency when compared to other energy vectors. Solar energy is an abundant, clean and renewable source of energy, currently competing with fossil fuel for water heating without subsidy. Photo-electrochemical, thermo-chemicals and photo-biological processes for hydrogen production processes have been demonstrated. These decentralised hydrogen production processes using directly solar energy do not require expensive hydrogen infrastructure for packaging and delivery in the short and medium terms. MENA region could certainly be considered a key area for a new start to a global deployment of hydrogen economy.

  8. Green Acquisitions And Lifecycle Management Of Industrial Products In The Circular Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popa, Vasile N.; Popa, Luminita I.

    2016-11-01

    The article addresses the issue of green acquisitions which occur within an industrial company focused on reducing inputs while maintaining output (substitution and efficiency). These processes characterize a circular economy oriented on resource efficiency (costs saved by reducing purchasing inputs). In our article, we focus on the industrial procurement practice which can help businesses save money and materials. Besides the possibility to negotiate prices, buyers can influence suppliers to offer products and services in an efficient manner in terms of green resources. The life cycle of industrial products is used to demonstrate the environmental advantages and disadvantages of various options for acquisitions and initiatives to totally reuse them.

  9. Public and Hidden Economies in Atuntaqui (Ecuador: The Challenge of Sustaining Cooperation in Textile Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudi Colloredo-Mansfeld

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In the 2000s, Atuntaqui’s quality improvement program, joint marketing investments, and cultural initatives were designed to leverage the power of strategic cooperation. Over the course of several development projects, however, social interactions became more inclusive and more contentious. In this paper, we introduce the idea of a public economy and contrast it with narrower social capital theories to account for the benefits of Atuntaqui’s move from hidden production to an open trade. With data from field research that spans seven years, this article documents how the pressures of rapid manufacturing growth and the missteps in managing civic projects have undermined public participation and closed off important features of the public economy. The paper concludes with observa­tion about how to revive more robust collaborations through diversification of local participants, strengthening of the chamber of commerce, and recognizing and including the large wave of new, smaller producers. 

  10. GLOBALIZATION OF ECONOMY AND GREATER CYCLES OF THE TOTAL REGIONAL PRODUCT, INFLATION AND UNEMPLOYMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.A. Belkin

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The process of synchronization of greater and small waves of real gross national product of the USA and a total regional product of the Chelyabinsk area is shown on the materials of economic statistics. The conclusion about defining influence of dynamics of real gross national product of the USA on the basic macroeconomic parameters of the Chelyabinsk area owing to high dependence of its economy on export of metal products is done from here. It is evidently shown, that the modern world economic crisis quite keeps within the theory of greater cycles of an economic conjuncture of N.D. Kondratyev. To greater cycles of a total regional product of the Chelyabinsk area there correspond return greater cycles of inflation and unemployment.

  11. Folk toys in Central Thailand: Product development for a creative economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanna Pichetpruth

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Folk toys in Central Thailand are a part of local Thai local wisdom. Creative folk toys are a part of cultural heritage and Thai creative and sustainable economic development. So, this research aimed to study 1 the indigenous folk toys in central Thailand, 2 the toy production problems and solution guidelines, and 3 the toy product development for the creative economy. The study employed a qualitative research method. The target group consisted of the selected communities in Nonthaburi Province, Ayutthaya Province and Suphanburi Province and folk toy sources. The informants were: 15 folk toy enterprise presidents, government officers and local experts as the key informants, 45 folk toy enterprise members as the causal informants and 45 customers as the general informants. Data were collected by means of interview, observation, focus group discussion and workshop from field study. Qualitative data were analyzed by inductive analysis method with triangular verification and the research results were presented by a descriptive analysis method. The research results revealed that folk toys in Central Thailand were derived from local indigenous knowledge that was created and transmitted through the generations for at least 700 years. Most of the folk toys in Central Thailand were produced by natural, local and easily found materials, using natural colors. The beauty, styles and quality of natural and man-made children’s toys were based on parental competency. Moreover, creation of folk toys is a form of Thai handicraft. Thai people truly believe that toys are symbols of parental love and attention and the tools to build up children’s growth in terms of lifestyle and creative mind. The findings show that folk toys in Central Thailand are made of special soil, wood, bamboo, lan leaf, tan leaf and coconut shell. Folk toys are categorized in four groups: 1 fun toys, such as krataewien, explosive bamboo, king drum, nangkop drum, rhythm coconut shell

  12. LARGE-SCALE PRODUCTION OF HYDROGEN BY NUCLEAR ENERGY FOR THE HYDROGEN ECONOMY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SCHULTZ, K.R.; BROWN, L.C.; BESENBRUCH, G.E.; HAMILTON, C.J.

    2003-01-01

    OAK B202 LARGE-SCALE PRODUCTION OF HYDROGEN BY NUCLEAR ENERGY FOR THE HYDROGEN ECONOMY. The ''Hydrogen Economy'' will reduce petroleum imports and greenhouse gas emissions. However, current commercial hydrogen production processes use fossil fuels and releases carbon dioxide. Hydrogen produced from nuclear energy could avoid these concerns. The authors have recently completed a three-year project for the US Department of Energy whose objective was to ''define an economically feasible concept for production of hydrogen, by nuclear means, using an advanced high-temperature nuclear reactor as the energy source''. Thermochemical water-splitting, a chemical process that accomplishes the decomposition of water into hydrogen and oxygen, met this objective. The goal of the first phase of this study was to evaluate thermochemical processes which offer the potential for efficient, cost-effective, large-scale production of hydrogen and to select one for further detailed consideration. The authors selected the Sulfur-Iodine cycle, In the second phase, they reviewed all the basic reactor types for suitability to provide the high temperature heat needed by the selected thermochemical water splitting cycle and chose the helium gas-cooled reactor. In the third phase they designed the chemical flowsheet for the thermochemical process and estimated the efficiency and cost of the process and the projected cost of producing hydrogen. These results are summarized in this paper

  13. Consumer evaluation of imported organic food products in emerging economies in Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Susanne; Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica; Thøgersen, John

    , product image and consumer purchase intention: Evidence from an emerging economy. International Business Review, 21(6), 1041-1051. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ibusrev.2011.11.010 Wang, O., De Steur, H., Gellynck, X., & Verbeke, W. (2015). Motives for consumer choice of traditional food and European......-country combinations in every product category (Pappu, Quester, & Cooksey, 2006, 2007). A country-of-origin-effect strong enough to drive purchasing decisions appears when a country’s equity is high and there is a good product-country match (S. A. Ahmed, d'Astous, & Petersen, 2011; Herz & Diamantopoulos, 2013; Roth......, preferences and purchase behaviour (Newman, Turri, Howlett, & Stokes, 2014). A wide range of contingencies and moderators of COO effects has been identified (Pharr, 2005; Verlegh & Steenkamp, 1999) – also for food products (Z. U. Ahmed et al., 2004; Chryssochoidis, Krystallis, & Perreas, 2007; Hoffmann, 2000...

  14. Generalized production planning problem under interval uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir A. Abass

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Data in many real life engineering and economical problems suffer from inexactness. Herein we assume that we are given some intervals in which the data can simultaneously and independently perturb. We consider the generalized production planning problem with interval data. The interval data are in both of the objective function and constraints. The existing results concerning the qualitative and quantitative analysis of basic notions in parametric production planning problem. These notions are the set of feasible parameters, the solvability set and the stability set of the first kind.

  15. Sunspot Equilibria in a Production Economy: Do Rational Animal Spirits Cause Overproduction?

    OpenAIRE

    Kajii, Atsushi

    2008-01-01

    We study a standard two period economy with one nominal bond and one firm. The input of the firm is done in the first period and financed with the nominal bond, and its profits are distributed to the shareholders in the second period. We show that a sunspot equilibrium exists around each efficient equilibrium. The interest rate is lower than optimal and there is over production in sunspot equilibria, under some conditions. But a sunspot equilibrium does not exist if the profit share can be tr...

  16. The consequences of product markets globalization for Ukraine’s national economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivashchenko Maryna

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The features of global commodity markets have been considered in the article. The purpose of the article is to identify the sources and consequences of commodity markets globalization observable in the world economy and to develop the recommendations as for the state and corporate governance in the context of global competition. The author’s attention is paid to transnational corporations that make up the most significant competition in the global commodity markets. The influence of transnational business on product markets has been investigated. The last is defined as a product of globalization on the one hand, and becomes a catalyst of globalization processes on the other hand. Also the place of Ukraine in global ratings has been traced. It has been proved that the most effective way of behavior of Ukrainian enterprises on the global commodity markets among all the possible variants is the way of innovation development. Despite the reduction of the government regulatory role in the global economy it has been recommended the adoption of effective management decisions to support of the domestic producers but not at the expense of a healthy global competition.

  17. Moneyless Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Das, Subhendu

    2012-01-01

    Moneyless economy (MLE) does not have any money in the economy. All products and services are free for all people. This means everybody must work, work for free, and get everything they want for free also. Any work that a society needs is considered legitimate. MLE is not socialism. MLE has the ability to provide a lifestyle that anyone wants. We show that it is possible to run the exact same economy that we have now, in the exact same way, and without money. Any government of any country can...

  18. Unravelling the argument for bioenergy production in developing countries. A world-economy perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuchler, Magdalena

    2010-01-01

    This paper offers a critical look at how energy security-, food and agriculture-, and climate change-oriented international organizations frame biomass energy production in developing countries, in particular, ethanol production in Brazil. Using the world-economy system as a theoretical lens, the paper raises a concern as to whether the way these global institutions frame bioenergy's role in developing regions manifests energy and ecological inequalities between the core and the periphery, as well as creates internal contradictions that perpetuate unequal exchange embedded in the system. Simultaneously, these organizations frame Brazil as a semi-peripheral state that, while successful in finding a niche concurring with the core's demand for cheap energy and cost-effective decarbonization strategies, is not necessarily a suitable role model for the periphery's socio-economic development. (author)

  19. Introduction to the General Theory of Defects of the Mixed Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Yakovlevich Rubinstein

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The author gives a new perspective on defects of the mixed economy in the context of nature and evolution of paternalism as one of elements of the theory of patronized goods. The researcher supplements standard market failures with ‘behavioral failure’, which is a direct consequence of irrational behavior of individuals, and ‘paternalistic failure’, which occurs as a result of erroneous actions of the state. The article also discusses the formation of paternalistic attitudes and reviews theoretical and applied aspects of liberalization of making political and economic decisions based on the development of civil society institutions and civic engagement aimed at reducing the risks of ‘government failures’ and welfare loss

  20. Trabalho imaterial, produção cultural colaborativa e economia da dádiva | Immaterial labour, collaborative cultural production and the economy of the gift

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clóvis Ricardo Montenegro de Lima

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Resumo Neste artigo discutem-se as relações entre trabalho imaterial, produção cultural colaborativa e  economia da dádiva na sociedade atual. O intelecto geral é relacionado com a inteligência coletiva das redes digitais. A produção colaborativa emerge como forma privilegiada do fazer artístico e cultural. Esta produção pode contribuir para promoção e preservação da diversidade cultural. A produção cultural colaborativa evidencia pluralismo econômico. A generalização do trabalho imaterial produz bens comuns. O comum cria a versão pós-industrial e de alta tecnologia da economia da dádiva Conclui-se que a cultura colaborativa tem grande potencial para promover diversidade cultural e economia da generosidade. Palavras-chave trabalho imaterial; produção colaborativa; cultura; economia da dádiva; produção cultural colaborativa. Abstract This article discusses the relationship between immaterial labor, collaborative cultural production and gift economy in society today. The general intellect is related to the collective intelligence of digital networks. The collaborative production emerges as the preferred way to artistic and cultural. This production may contribute to promotion and preservation of cultural diversity. The collaborative cultural production highlights pluralism economics. The spread of immaterial labor produces common assets. The common creates a post-industrial and high-tech version of the gift economy. It is concluded that the collaborative culture has great potential to promote cultural diversity and economy of generosity. Keywords immaterial labor; collaborative production; culture; gift economy; collaborative cultural production.

  1. Trade and production fragmentation : Central European economies in European Union networks of production and marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Kaminski, Bartlomiej; Ng, Francis

    2001-01-01

    Developments driven by trade liberalization and tehcnological progress mean that old development strategies, based on state intervention and trade protection, no longer work. Global competition has brought a growing emphasis on product standards, rapid innovation, adaptability, and speedy response. Technology has made possible the fragmentation of production. Firms that become part of glob...

  2. Unleashing the Power of the Circular Economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kok, L.; Wurpel, G.; Ten Wolde, A. [IMSA Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2013-04-15

    The concept of circular economy is an economic and industrial system that focuses on the reusability of products and raw materials, reduces value destruction in the overall system and aims at value creation within each tier of the system. This report for Circle Economy (CE) outlines the general direction and concrete steps that must be taken to accomplish a breakthrough to a circular economy. It also provides a knowledge base behind the concept, connecting it to sustainability.

  3. Sustainable cotton production and water economy through different planting methods and mulching techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasrullah, H.M.; Khan, M.B.; Ahmad, R.; Ahmad, S.; Hanif, M.; Nazeer, W

    2011-01-01

    Planting methods and mulching techniques are important factors which affect crop growth, development and yield by conserving soil and plant moisture. A multifactorial experiment was conducted to study the water economy involving different planting methods and mulching techniques in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) for two consecutive years (2004 and 2005) at the Agronomic Research Station, Khanewal. Two moisture stress tolerant cotton varieties (CIM-473 and CIM-499) were planted using four different planting methods i.e. 70c m spaced single row planting, 105 cm spaced double row strip planting, 70 cm spaced ridge planting and 140 cm spaced furrow beds (or bed and furrows) along four mulching practices i.e. cultural, straw, sheet and chemical for their individual and interactive effects on various parameters including water use efficiency. Positive interactive effects of furrow bed planting method (140 cm spaced) with plastic sheet/film mulching were observed for all the parameters i.e., highest seed cotton yield (3009 and 3332 kg ha/sup -1/), maximum water saving (up to 25.62% and 26.53%), highest water use efficiency up to 5.04 and 4.79 [macro mol (CO/sub 2/)/mmol (H/sub 2/O)], highest net income (Rs. 27224.2 and 50927.7 ha/sup -1/) with a cost-benefit ratio of 1.64 and 2.20 followed by maximum net income (Rs. 27382.2 and 47244.5 ha/sup -1/) with 1.64 and 2.10 cost-benefit ratio in case of plastic mulch and 2814 and 3007 kg ha/sup -1/ in ridge planting method during 2004 and 2005, respectively. It is concluded that cotton crop can be grown using bed and furrow planting method with plastic sheet/film mulching technique for sustainable cotton production and better water economy. (author)

  4. How to Assess Product Performance in the Circular Economy? Proposed Requirements for the Design of a Circularity Measurement Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Saidani , Michael; YANNOU , Bernard; Leroy , Yann; Cluzel , François

    2017-01-01

    International audience; Assessing product circularity performance is not straightforward. Meanwhile, it gains increasingly importance for businesses and industrial practitioners who are willing to effectively take benefits from circular economy promises. Thus, providing methods and tools to evaluate then enhance product performance—in the light of circular economy—becomes a significant but still barely addressed topic. Following a joint agreement on the need to measure product circularity per...

  5. An economy energy environment computable general equilibrium model for the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Leeuwen, M.; Visee, H.; Laroui, F.

    1995-01-01

    The title model can be used to study the effects of fiscal policy measures on economic and environmental indicators. The model consists of four major blocks: Production, Consumption, Foreign Trade and Environment. The Production block forms the core of the model and is based on a set of Constant Elasticity of Substitution production functions. The Consumption block uses information from the input-output table and prices of production factors to determine the domestic demand (Linear Expenditure System). Market equilibria are established depending on domestic prices determined by the marginal production costs and the market power of the sector. The Environment block calculates the emissions for SO2, NOx and CO2. In the model maximum levels for each pollutant can be imposed and environmental policy goals can be simulated. The sector classification used by the CGE-NL model is based on the 1990 input-output table. The 60 economic branches of the original table are aggregated into four broad categories: the tradables producing sectors which have no influence on export price; the tradables producing sectors which have some influence on the export price, the non-tradables producing sectors and the energy sectors. The first preliminary results show that without additional policy the environmental goals for emission of CO2, SO2 and NOx set by the Dutch government will not be met. A much higher increase in the price of oil than assumed in the base case scenario will have a positive effect on the reduction of the emissions mentioned. 2 figs., 13 tabs., 3 appendices, 33 refs

  6. The persistence of risk levels of general equity funds in an emerging market economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rousseau Lötter

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The persistence of risk levels of local General Equity unit trusts is evaluated. Variations in absolute and market-adjusted returns are measured to determine whether investors can use historical risk as a proxy for future risk levels. The General Equity funds are fairly homogenous, and different funds should exhibit stable risk levels if the fund managers’ investment mandates and investment styles remain stable over time. The results indicate a degree of absolute and market-adjusted risk stability over time. The market-adjusted risk and return relationship remained stable through the 2008 global crises, indicating that, on average, the fund managers maintained their benchmark-related risk exposures. Both the absolute and market-adjusted results indicate no statistically significant relationship between risk and return for the 2000 to 2012 period.

  7. The persistence of risk levels of general equity funds in an emerging market economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rousseau Lötter

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The persistence of risk levels of local General Equity unit trusts is evaluated. Variations in absolute and market-adjusted returns are measured to determine whether investors can use historical risk as a proxy for future risk levels. The General Equity funds are fairly homogenous, and different funds should exhibit stable risk levels if the fund managers’ investment mandates and investment styles remain stable over time. The results indicate a degree of absolute and market-adjusted risk stability over time. The market-adjusted risk and return relationship remained stable through the 2008 global crises, indicating that, on average, the fund managers maintained their benchmark-related risk exposures. Both the absolute and market-adjusted results indicate no statistically significant relationship between risk and return for the 2000 to 2012 period.

  8. Water security for productive economies: Applying an assessment framework in southern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmatov, Bunyod; Lautze, Jonathan; Manthrithilake, Herath; Makin, Ian

    2017-08-01

    Achieving water security has emerged as a major objective in Africa, yet an analytical or diagnostic framework for assessing water security in African countries is not known to exist. This paper applies one key dimension of the 2016 Asian Development Bank's (ADB) Asian Water Development Outlook (AWDO) to assess levels of water security for productive economies in countries of the Southern African Development Community (SADC). Economic aspects of water security cover four areas: economic activities in the broad sense, agriculture, electricity, and industry. Water security in each area is measured through application of a set of indicators; results of indicator application are then aggregated to determine economic water security at a country-level. Results show that economic water security in SADC is greatest in the Seychelles and South Africa, and lowest in Madagascar and Malawi. Opportunities for strengthening economic water security in the majority of SADC countries exist through improving agricultural water productivity, strengthening resilience, and expanding sustainable electricity generation. More profoundly, this paper suggests that there is clear potential and utility in applying approaches used elsewhere to assess economic water security in southern Africa.

  9. Niklas Luhmann: An examination of the economy since the general systems theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez G, Luis Jair

    2008-01-01

    Economics, though it has an inherent characteristic of Social Science, has developed, in its conventional theory, leaning on mathematical modelling, in its intention to get closer to physical mathematical sciences and gained predicting ability, just as Walras said it since the XIX century. N. Luhmann (1927 - 1998), based on the General Systems Theory, recognizes a functional system in economics, that is to say, it operates in concrete and vital aspects for the reproduction of society as a whole. In this sense, economics, as all complex and self referring systems, is autopoietic, with operational closure, it makes sense when it operates and is autonomous. Despite its circular character, as Samuelson put it, Luhmann's systemic recognizes the opening in order to keep the self referring identity in agreement with the social environment, appearing then as an external referent. This aspect of the relation between the system and the environment is the one making self reference possible, and opens room for reflection, through which the system recognizes the operativity that identifies it and establishes its own limits as a system, in order to differentiate itself from the environment. From this perspective, Luhmann can say that the capitalist economics does not lean on extra social phenomena but in itself and builds internal references for external situations, that is to say, they are and they will keep on being dependant from the logic of monetary economics. Based on his communication theory as the operational focus of social systems, this author recognizes money as the proper symbolically generalized means of communication of economics

  10. General characteristics of hadron production at SPEAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lueth, V.

    1977-01-01

    A discussion is given of what was learned about hadron production since the discovery of the two narrow resonances psi(3095) and psi(3684). In particular, attention is payed to the difficulties related to the model dependence of the detector efficiency and effects of the heavy lepton production. Included are recent results on inclusive production of kaons, protons, and lambda hyperons and their implications for charm particle production. The parton model, the magnetic detector, total cross sections, charged multiplicity, inclusive momentum spectra, and inclusive K 0 and Λ 0 production are discussed. 42 references

  11. Hydrogen economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pahwa, P.K.; Pahwa, Gulshan Kumar

    2013-10-01

    In the future, our energy systems will need to be renewable and sustainable, efficient and cost-effective, convenient and safe. Hydrogen has been proposed as the perfect fuel for this future energy system. The availability of a reliable and cost-effective supply, safe and efficient storage, and convenient end use of hydrogen will be essential for a transition to a hydrogen economy. Research is being conducted throughout the world for the development of safe, cost-effective hydrogen production, storage, and end-use technologies that support and foster this transition. This book discusses hydrogen economy vis-a-vis sustainable development. It examines the link between development and energy, prospects of sustainable development, significance of hydrogen energy economy, and provides an authoritative and up-to-date scientific account of hydrogen generation, storage, transportation, and safety.

  12. IMPORTANCE OF MAKING STRATEGIC DECISIONS IN COUNTRIES IN TRANSITION AND CONNECTION WITH THE ENVIRONMENT AND SUSTAINABLE ECONOMY GENERALLY SPEAKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SLOBODAN POPOVIĆ

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The accession of a number of transition countries of the EU, such as the Republic of Serbia, essentially means the adoption of strategic decisions at the state level in the context of wider EU decision. The authors based their observations on the EU 2020 strategy, which is essentially defined as: smart, sustainable and inclusive growth. The EU has adopted the basic principles of 2010, with the main objective to economic growth throughout the EU based on knowledge, but with respect for the principles of environmental protection, increasing employment, and increase in other basic principles of economics of the company to the state. You could say that the entire system such observations cohesion productivity growth economies of EU member states and social cohesion and socially responsible behavior. This approach was incurred because there is a need of constant adjustment economies member changes at the global level. Notwithstanding the universal adaptation of all EU member states, however, one part remained reserved for a special adjustment of each member country (it depends on the specific characteristics of each country to adapt in accordance with national goals adopted by any government of a Member State specifically for your country, through national development plans, plans of adjustment and reform plans. The consequences of the Great Depression are highly visible and in early 2016, particularly in terms of rising unemployment, rising unemployment especially of young people in all old EU member states. The responsibility for this state of affairs is not only the governments of member states, but responsibility must be sought from the representatives of big business, trade unions, associations, non-governmental organizations and all other stakeholders who have imposed in the decision-making processes, and in a crisis to minimize its impact, because it does not response. At the end of the aforementioned macro effects should be seen in the

  13. An Elementary Treatment of General Inner Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graver, Jack E.

    2011-01-01

    A typical first course on linear algebra is usually restricted to vector spaces over the real numbers and the usual positive-definite inner product. Hence, the proof that dim(S)+ dim(S[perpendicular]) = dim("V") is not presented in a way that is generalizable to non-positive?definite inner products or to vector spaces over other fields. In this…

  14. Economic analysis of energy supply and national economy on the basis of general equilibrium models. Applications of the input-output decomposition analysis and the Computable General Equilibrium models shown by the example of Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, Jong-Hwan.

    1993-01-01

    Firstly, this study investigaties the causes of sectoral growth and structural changes in the Korean economy. Secondly, it develops the borders of a consistent economic model in order to investigate simultaneously the different impacts of changes in energy and in the domestic economy. This is done any both the Input-Output-Decomposition analysis and a Computable General Equilibrium model (CGE Model). The CGE Model eliminates the disadvantages of the IO Model and allows the investigation of the interdegenerative of the various energy sectors with the economy. The Social Accounting Matrix serves as the data basis of the GCE Model. Simulated experiments have been comet out with the help of the GCE Model, indicating the likely impact of an oil price shock in the economy-sectorally and generally. (orig.) [de

  15. The Sharing Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Reinhold, Stephan; Dolnicar, Sara

    2017-01-01

    Peer-to-peer accommodation networks in general, and Airbnb in specific, are frequently referred to as part of the sharing economy. This chapter provides an overview of key characteristics of the sharing economy, discusses how these characteristics relate to peer-to-peer accommodation, and positions peer-to-peer accommodation networks within the sharing economy.

  16. RPC Production at General Tecnica: a mass scale production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Della Volpe, D.; Morganti, S.

    2006-01-01

    The construction of LHC has deeply changed the RPC production. The enormous amount of detector needed and the strong requirements on gas volume quality had a deep impact on the production chain and on the QC and QA at the production site. This basically has brought the RPC from an almost hand-crafted detector to a medium scale mass product. The most critical aspects of the production chain have been modified and/or improved introducing new and more rigorous QC and QA procedures to guarantee the detector quality and improve the management of storage and the procurement on materials. Here it will be presented the work carried on in the last four year at the production site to improve and check the quality and the results achieved. Something like 10000 RPC were produced between 2002 and 2005. Also a preliminary and rough analysis on the efficiencies of the various phases in the chain production based on ATLAS production will be presented

  17. General-Purpose Monitoring during Speech Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ries, Stephanie; Janssen, Niels; Dufau, Stephane; Alario, F.-Xavier; Burle, Boris

    2011-01-01

    The concept of "monitoring" refers to our ability to control our actions on-line. Monitoring involved in speech production is often described in psycholinguistic models as an inherent part of the language system. We probed the specificity of speech monitoring in two psycholinguistic experiments where electroencephalographic activities were…

  18. The Gibbs entropy production in general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henneaux, M.

    1983-01-01

    The entropy production is analyzed in the case of homogeneous cosmological models of the Bianchi type. It is shown to vanish for class-A models and to be undefined for class-B ones, because of an ambiguity in the measure on the space of the true gravitational degrees of freedom. How this results extend to the full Einstein theory is discussed

  19. Gibbs entropy production in general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henneaux, M.

    1983-01-01

    The entropy production is analyzed in the case of homogeneous cosmological models of the Bianchi type. It is shown to vanish for class-A models and to be undefined for class-B ones, because of an ambiguity in the measure on the space of the true gravitational degrees of freedom. How this results extends to the full Einstein theory is discussed

  20. Engineering of the institutionalization of the circular economy at the level of casting production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vescan, M. M.; Soporan, V. F.; Crișan, D. M.; Lehene, T. R.; Pădurețu, S.; Samuila, V.

    2017-06-01

    This paper is motivated by the necessity of introducing the principles of circular economy at the level of different social - economic activities, and from this point of view one of the fields with a special potential is that of the manufacture of castings. Objective: to connect to the organizing and application of the methodology of the circular economy principles. The proposed method is an innovating one, being connected to the use of institutionalization engineering. Formulating the subject: The subject formulated to be solved aims at the introduction of new approaches, defined through institutionalization engineering, which proposes to set the correlation of actions between the specifics of the circular economy and the specific elements of the manufacture of castings. Research method: An institutional structuring operation was imposed for the optimization of the research method, in which different versions interact at the following levels: the level of public policies, the level of the regulatory framework, the level of technical solutions and the level of financing solutions and financial instruments. The determination of the optimal solution established in a dynamic context, favorable for the requirements of the different actors present within the process, appeals to the elements of critical thinking, specific for the engineer’s actions. Achievement of the research activity: The research activity structures a methodology of quantifying the contributions of each stage of the manufacturing process for castings at the fulfilling of the specific conditions of the circular economy, indicating the critical areas of action for more efficient actions of the circular economy, according to the market economy requirements, where there is a potential of implementing the technical solutions by quantizing the financial solutions and the opportunity of using the financial instruments. The major contribution of the research: The proposed methodology, with examples at the

  1. Herman and Chomsky's Propaganda Model: Production of Consent: Political Economy of Mass Media

    OpenAIRE

    Gadimov, Javanshir

    2016-01-01

    Rızanın İmalatı: Kitle Medyasının Ekonomi PolitiğiEdward S. Herman ve Noam ChomskyOrijinal Adı: Manufacturing Consent: The Political Economy of the Mass MediaÇeviri: Dr. Ender Abadoğluİstanbul: bgst Yayınları, 2012, 478 sayfa

  2. Development and growth of science-intensive production of lube oil additives in the transition to a market economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhurba, A.S.; Burlaka, G.G.; Pravikov, A.A.

    1992-01-01

    In the Soviet petroleum refining and petrochemical industry, preference with respect to science-intensive development should be given to lube oil additives as production objects which are characterized by high cost of scientific developments and which are major factors influencing scientific and technical progress in many branches of the economy. The role of additives is becoming much more significant because of dwindling resources of crude oils with high potential contents of lube fractions (18-20%); other factors are the phasing out of ecologically harmful technologies, unsatisfactory utilization of used oils, and so on. Under these conditions, the use of additives is essentially the only method for increasing the efficiency of lube oil production and improving the product quality, which, together with improved design and materials for the lubricating components and an improvement of the professional and cultural level of their operation, will logically bring forth a marked curtailment of lubricant consumption. Outside the USSR, additive production, thanks to its conversion into a rapidly progressing subbranch of the petroleum refining industry, has become the object of capital investment. Under conditions of a market economy, additive manufacture is characterized by a high level of specialization and concentration, various forms of cooperation, profitability, and competitiveness. Because of the existence of a branch network of retail and wholesale trade, production of lube oils and additives can be adjusted rapidly to meet the requirements of the domestic and world market

  3. On the Chronological Aspect of Productive Economy Origin in the Lower Volga Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vybornov Aleksandr A.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Lower Volga region territory plays a large part in studying the origin of producing economy. It is particularly important to determine the time of this process commencement. The researchers assumed the coexistence of the late Neolithic and Early Eneolithic monuments in this area. On that basis they highlighted the Neo-Eneolithic period. The researchers dated it to the middle of the 5 millennium BC. They associated this period and the emergence of producing economy at the territory under discussion. The weak point of this hypothesis was a small number of radiocarbon dates on this issue. Obtained after 2007, the radiocarbon dates on the Neolithic and Eneolithic monuments in the Lower Volga region demonstrate a 500-year chronological gap between them. That is why the hypothesis of the Neo-Eneolithic period is not confirmed. At the same time there is a reason to believe that the Late Neolithic and the Caspian Sea region culture coexisted during 5800-5500 BC. However, the referring of the Caspian Sea region culture to the Eneolithic suffers from the lack of evidence that its carriers were familiar with metal. There is also no evidence that they had cattle breeding. The situation changed after studying the Oroshaemoye I archaeological site in the Lower Volga region in 2014-2015. Cultural layer with materials from only the Caspian Sea region culture was found there. This increases the significance of the monument. The bones of domestic sheep and goats were found in this cultural layer. This is the first significant evidence of producing economy existing among the population of the Lower Volga region. AMS radiocarbon dates 4800 and 4700 BC were obtained from domestic sheep bones from this site. Thus, it is possible to make a reasoned conclusion that producing economy had being formed in the Lower Volga region among the carriers of the Caspian Sea region culture. This process can be reliably dated to the beginning of the 5 millennium BC.

  4. Studies and Investigation about the Attitude towards Sustainable Production, Consumption and Waste Generation in Line with Circular Economy in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Simina Lakatos

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available With a rapidly growing world population and the need to address the issue of consumption of global resource and its associated environmental impacts and other social and economic issues, the demand for a responsible consumption, production and prevention of waste generation become increasingly crucial. With this broad characterization of Sustainable Consumption and Production (SCP, businesses based on circular economy should become the norm. With this goal in mind, an online questionnaire survey was performed on a nationwide scale, to explore consumers’ behaviors and attitudes. It was distributed in all four of Romania’s macro-regions and reached 642 respondents. The purpose of the study has been to better understand consumers’ behavior regarding sustainable consumption and production and examine whether generations play a role in responsible consumer attitudes toward the products. Three generations (X, Y, and Z have been examined and compared. The results show that what extent those three generation agree with the environment and the benefits of reducing resource consumption, also waste generation, selective collection, recycling and reuse. However, most of them have not adopted and do not intend to adopt consumer patterns based on the circular economy. The findings provide empirical evidence and directions that could help marketers identify their consumer’s characteristics and market segments and develop consumer empowerment strategies on the Romanian market.

  5. Global impacts of U.S. bioenergy production and policy: A general equilibrium perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Samuel Garner

    The conversion of biomass to energy represents a promising pathway forward in efforts to reduce fossil fuel use in the transportation and electricity sectors. In addition to potential benefits, such as greenhouse gas reductions and increased energy security, bioenergy production also presents a unique set of challenges. These challenges include tradeoffs between food and fuel production, distortions in energy markets, and terrestrial emissions associated with changing land-use patterns. Each of these challenges arises from market-mediated responses to bioenergy production, and are therefore largely economic in nature. This dissertation directly addresses these opportunities and challenges by evaluating the economic impacts of U.S. bioenergy production and policy, focusing on both existing and future biomass-to-energy pathways. The analysis approaches the issue from a global, economy-wide perspective, reflecting two important facts. First, that large-scale bioenergy production connects multiple sectors of the economy due to the use of agricultural land resources for biomass production, and competition with fossil fuels in energy markets. Second, markets for both agricultural and energy commodities are highly integrated globally, causing domestic policies to have international effects. The reader can think of this work as being comprised of three parts. Part I provides context through an extensive review of the literature on the market-mediated effects of conventional biofuel production (Chapter 2) and develops a general equilibrium modeling framework for assessing the extent to which these phenomenon present a challenge for future bioenergy pathways (Chapter 3). Part II (Chapter 4) explores the economic impacts of the lignocellulosic biofuel production targets set in the U.S. Renewable Fuel Standard on global agricultural and energy commodity markets. Part III (Chapter 5) extends the analysis to consider potential inefficiencies associated with policy

  6. The Belgian Minister of Economy, Energy, Foreign Trade and Science Policy, Marc Verwilghen, with CERN's Director-General, Robert Aymar.

    CERN Multimedia

    Michel Blanc

    2005-01-01

    Marc Verwilghen, Belgian Minister of Economy, Energy, Foreign Trade and Science Policy, came to CERN on 8 April 2005, where he visited the CMS assembly hall and underground cavern, as well as the hall where the LHC superconducting magnets are being tested.

  7. Synergies between agriculture and bioenergy in Latin American countries: A circular economy strategy for bioenergy production in Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega-Quezada, Cristhian; Blanco, María; Romero, Hugo

    2017-10-25

    This study quantifies the synergies between agriculture and bioenergy considering biodiesel production as part of a set of systemic initiatives. We present a case study in Ecuador taking into account the recent government measures aimed at developing the bioenergy sector. Four scenarios have been evaluated through a newly designed systemic scheme of circular-economy initiatives. These scenarios encompass three production pathways covering three energy crops: palm oil (PO), microalgae in open ponds (M1) and microalgae in laminar photobioreactors (M2). We have applied Benefit-Cost Analysis (BCA) methodology considering the Net Present Value (NPV) and the Benefit-Cost Ratio (BCR) as the main evaluation criteria. In terms of private investment, biodiesel production from PO is more attractive than from M2. However, regarding efficiency and effectiveness of public funds, M2 is superior to PO because the public BCR and NPV are higher, and the pressure on agricultural land is lower. Moreover, M2 as part of a systemic approach presents a better carbon balance. These findings show that, under a systemic approach based on circular economy, strategies like the one analyzed in this study are economically feasible and may have a promising future. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Poverty, Obesity, Diabetes: Are They the By-Products of Liberalization of Global Economy?

    OpenAIRE

    Rehman, Sharaf N.

    2016-01-01

    The paper briefly describes the causes of a global rise in obesity and diabetes. In so doing, it establishes links between (1) poverty and obesity, and (2) obesity and diabetes. The paper also presents data from a survey (N=147) conducted in a depressed economy in Texas where cases of obesity and diabetes are among the highest in the US. The paper argues for a paradigm shift in viewing the role of policymakers in regards to food and pharmaceutical industries, both locally and globally.

  9. A dynamic general disequilibrium model of a sequential monetary production economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raberto, Marco; Teglio, Andrea; Cincotti, Silvano

    2006-01-01

    A discrete, deterministic, economic model, based on the framework of non-Walrasian or disequilibrium economics, is presented. The main feature of this approach is the presence of non-clearing markets, where not all demands and supplies are satisfied and some agents may be rationed. The model is characterized by three agents (i.e., a representative firm, a representative consumer, and a central bank), three commodities (i.e., goods, labour and money, each homogeneous) and three markets for their exchange. The imbalance between demand and supply in each market determines the dynamics of price, nominal wage and nominal interest rate. The central bank provides the money supply according to an operating target interest rate that is fixed accordingly to Taylor's rule. The model has been studied by means of computer simulations. Results pointed out the presence of business cycles that can be controlled by proper policies of the central bank

  10. Collaborative Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    collaborative economy and tourism Dianne Dredge and Szilvia Gyimóthy PART I - Theoretical explorations 2.Definitions and mapping the landscape in the collaborative economy Szilvia Gyimóthy and Dianne Dredge 3.Business models of the collaborative economy Szilvia Gyimóthy 4.Responsibility and care...... in the collaborative economy Dianne Dredge 5.Networked cultures in the collaborative economy Szilvia Gyimóthy 6.Policy and regulatory perspectives in the collaborative economy Dianne Dredge PART II - Disruptions, innovations and transformations 7.Regulating innovation in the collaborative economy: An examination...... localities of tourism Greg Richards 11.Collaborative economy and destination marketing organizations: A systems approach Jonathan Day 12.Working within the Collaborative Tourist Economy: The complex crafting of work and meaning Jane Widtfeldt Meged and Mathilde Dissing Christensen PART - III Encounters...

  11. Cooperativism in the social economy and instrument of citizen participation: the need for insertion in the Ecuadorian banana production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osvaldo Domínguez Junco

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Ecuadorian cooperative legislation dates from 1937, but it was in the fifties to sixties that took real presence at the national level, with the creation of most of cooperative organizations. The research presented addressed the importance of cooperatives in the social economy, being an instrument of civic participation and an example of teamwork, focusing the study on the need to incorporate the organization in banana production, especially of small and medium producer, being an export line highlighted in the country and especially in the province of El Oro, "called the capital of bananas". A documentary investigation was conducted and the empirical method of interviewing producers was used to understand the vision regarding the effectiveness of the work collective in banana production under the principles of cooperation.

  12. New Product Development in an Emerging Economy: Analysing the Role of Supplier Involvement Practices by Using Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanagi Kanapathy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The research question is whether the positive relationship found between supplier involvement practices and new product development performances in developed economies also holds in emerging economies. The role of supplier involvement practices in new product development performance is yet to be substantially investigated in the emerging economies (other than China. This premise was examined by distributing a survey instrument (Jayaram’s (2008 published survey instrument that has been utilised in developed economies to Malaysian manufacturing companies. To gauge the relationship between the supplier involvement practices and new product development (NPD project performance of 146 companies, structural equation modelling was adopted. Our findings prove that supplier involvement practices have a significant positive impact on NPD project performance in an emerging economy with respect to quality objectives, design objectives, cost objectives, and “time-to-market” objectives. Further analysis using the Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo algorithm, yielding a more credible and feasible differentiation, confirmed these results (even in the case of an emerging economy and indicated that these practices have a 28% impact on variance of NPD project performance. This considerable effect implies that supplier involvement is a must have, although further research is needed to identify the contingencies for its practices.

  13. FROM CIRCULAR ECONOMY TO BLUE ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iustin-Emanuel, ALEXANDRU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Addressing the subject of this essay is based on the background ideas generated by a new branch of science - Biomimicry. According to European Commissioner for the Environment, "Nature is the perfect model of circular economy". Therefore, by imitating nature, we are witnessing a process of cycle redesign: production-consumption-recycling. The authors present some reflections on the European Commission's decision to adopt after July 1, 2014 new measures concerning the development of more circular economies. Starting from the principles of Ecolonomy, which is based on the whole living paradigm, this paper argues for the development within each economy of entrepreneurial policies related to the Blue economy. In its turn, Blue economy is based on scientific analyses that identify the best solutions in a business. Thus, formation of social capital will lead to healthier and cheaper products, which will stimulate entrepreneurship. Blue economy is another way of thinking economic practice and is a new model of business design. It is a healthy, sustainable business, designed for people. In fact, it is the core of the whole living paradigm through which, towards 2020, circular economy will grow more and more.

  14. Alabama's forest products industry: performance and contribution to the State's economy, 1970 to 1980.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilbur R. Maki; Con H Schallau; Bennett B. Foster; Clair H. Redmond

    1986-01-01

    Employment and earnings in Alabama's forest products industry, like those of most Southern States, grew significantly between 1970 and 1980. The forest products industry accounted for a larger share of the State's economic base. in 1980 than in 1970. Of the 13 Southern States, only 5 had more forest products industry employment than Alabama. Moreover, during...

  15. OPEC and non-OPEC oil production and the global economy

    OpenAIRE

    Ratti, Ronald A.; Vespignani, Joaquin L.

    2014-01-01

    Hamilton identifies 1973 to 1996 as “the age of OPEC” and 1997 to the present as “a new industrial age.” During 1974-1996 growth in non-OPEC oil production Granger causes growth in OPEC oil production. OPEC oil production decreases significantly with positive shocks to non-OPEC oil production in the earlier period, but does not do so in the “new industrial age”. In the “new industrial age” OPEC oil production rises significantly with an increase in oil prices, unlike during “the age of OPEC” ...

  16. THE NEW ECONOMY AND THE ECONOMY OF TOURISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIRELA MAZILU

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Together with the Internet, e-business and the new economy era, in general, fundamental transformation of the social and economic structure take place. In parallel, the assaults on the standard economic science amplify, in the sense of some conceptual reformulations and of some reinterpretations of the economic phenomena and laws. Besides the classical factors of production, work and capital, information is added, either as a distinct factor or as a detached one of the two mentioned. Also, the empiric findings regarding the so-called tertiarisation of the economy or the increase of the share of the services sector in the total of the national economy, as well as the so-called intangible investments in the total of the investment funds, have lead to numerous attempts of redefining what we call today a "modern economy". Other factors with major influence, regarding the adjustment of the economic science to the new trends from the real economy, refer to the following: the liberalisation of the international exchanges and the globalisation; the growth of the importance of the so-called free time (including here the household activities and the ones unfolded in the interest of the community, entertainment, but also the time destined to the development of the degree of culture and education on one's own and the fluidisation of the limits of differentiation between this and the work activity in the formal sector as well as the informal one; the more rapid dynamic of the financial and banking markets than the so-called classic productive sector of the economy; the extension of the use of computers and of the means and techniques of communication, in the activity of the companies as well as in the households, and the impact on the structure of the time and the financial budget of the population etc. All these have an impact on the tourism unfolding.

  17. Are Cellulose Nanofibers a Solution for a More Circular Economy of Paper Products?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Aguilar, Marc; Tarrés, Quim; Pèlach, M Àngels; Mutjé, Pere; Fullana-I-Palmer, Pere

    2015-10-20

    This paper presents the study of the feasibility of incorporating lignocellulosic nanofibers (LCNF) to paper in order to maintain the relevant physical properties and increase the number of cycles that paper can be recycled in the technosphere in a more circular economy. For that purpose, the effect of mechanical refining in recycling processes was compared with that of the novel LCNF addition. In this sense, the behavior of a bleached kraft hardwood pulp when recycled was investigated, as well as the effects of each methodology. Since there are many issues to be considered when trying to replace a technology, the present paper analyses its feasibility from a technical and environmental point of view. Technically, LCNF present greater advantages against mechanical refining, such as higher mechanical properties and longer durability of the fibers. A preliminary life cycle assessment showed that the environmental impacts of both systems are very similar; however, changing the boundary conditions to some feasible future scenarios, led to demonstrate that the CNF technology may improve significantly those impacts.

  18. Consumer Surplus in the Digital Economy: Estimating the Value of Increased Product Variety at Online Booksellers

    OpenAIRE

    Brynjolfsson, Erik; Smith, Michael D.; Yu, (Jeffrey) Hu

    2003-01-01

    We present a framework and empirical estimates that quantify the economic impact of increased product variety made available through electronic markets. While efficiency gains from increased competition significantly enhance consumer surplus, for instance, by leading to lower average selling prices, our present research shows that increased product variety made available through electronic markets can be a significantly larger source of consumer surplus gains. One reason for increased product...

  19. The relative labour productivity contribution of different age-skill categories for a developing economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhardus van Zyl

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: The article dealt with the estimation, computation and interpretation of the relative productivity contributions of different age-skill categories. Research purpose: The aim of the article was to estimate and compute, (1 relative productivity contributions and (2 relative productivity contribution–employee remuneration cost levels for different age-skill categories. Motivation for the study: The research was deemed necessary given the current debate on relative productivity levels and possible changes to the retirement age in the South African labour market. No real research in this regard has been published regarding the South African labour market situation. Research design, approach and method: A less restrictive production function was used, allowing for the simultaneous estimation and final computation of relative labour contribution levels of different age-skill categories. Main findings: The lower-skilled segment produced significantly smaller productivity contributions and the relative productivity contribution–employee remuneration cost ratios of the 55 years and older age group were superior in the higher-skilled segment but, at the same time, the lowest in the lower-skilled segment. Practical/managerial implications: It is recommended that human resource practitioners (given the perceived rigidity of labour legislation implement and maintain structures that promote higher productivity levels for all age-skill categories in the workplace. Contribution/value-add: An estimation procedure, which can be applied to the measurement of the relative productivity contribution of different age-skill categories, has been established.

  20. The relative labour productivity contribution of different age-skill categories for a developing economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhardus van Zyl

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: The article dealt with the estimation, computation and interpretation of the relative productivity contributions of different age-skill categories.Research purpose: The aim of the article was to estimate and compute, (1 relative productivity contributions and (2 relative productivity contribution–employee remuneration cost levels for different age-skill categories.Motivation for the study: The research was deemed necessary given the current debate on relative productivity levels and possible changes to the retirement age in the South African labour market. No real research in this regard has been published regarding the South African labour market situation.Research design, approach and method: A less restrictive production function was used, allowing for the simultaneous estimation and final computation of relative labour contribution levels of different age-skill categories.Main findings: The lower-skilled segment produced significantly smaller productivity contributions and the relative productivity contribution–employee remuneration cost ratios of the 55 years and older age group were superior in the higher-skilled segment but, at the same time, the lowest in the lower-skilled segment.Practical/managerial implications: It is recommended that human resource practitioners (given the perceived rigidity of labour legislation implement and maintain structures that promote higher productivity levels for all age-skill categories in the workplace.Contribution/value-add: An estimation procedure, which can be applied to the measurement of the relative productivity contribution of different age-skill categories, has been established.

  1. Polymorphic Uncertain Linear Programming for Generalized Production Planning Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinbo Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A polymorphic uncertain linear programming (PULP model is constructed to formulate a class of generalized production planning problems. In accordance with the practical environment, some factors such as the consumption of raw material, the limitation of resource and the demand of product are incorporated into the model as parameters of interval and fuzzy subsets, respectively. Based on the theory of fuzzy interval program and the modified possibility degree for the order of interval numbers, a deterministic equivalent formulation for this model is derived such that a robust solution for the uncertain optimization problem is obtained. Case study indicates that the constructed model and the proposed solution are useful to search for an optimal production plan for the polymorphic uncertain generalized production planning problems.

  2. Six-term exact sequences for smooth generalized crossed products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gabriel, Olivier; Grensing, Martin

    2013-01-01

    We define smooth generalized crossed products and prove six-term exact sequences of Pimsner–Voiculescu type. This sequence may, in particular, be applied to smooth subalgebras of the quantum Heisenberg manifolds in order to compute the generators of their cyclic cohomology. Further, our results...... include the known results for smooth crossed products. Our proof is based on a combination of arguments from the setting of (Cuntz–)Pimsner algebras and the Toeplitz proof of Bott periodicity....

  3. Product Family Approach in E-Waste Management: A Conceptual Framework for Circular Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keshav Parajuly

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available As the need for a more circular model is being increasingly pronounced, a fundamental change in the end-of-life (EoL management of electrical and electronic products (e-products is required in order to prevent the resource losses and to promote the reuse of products and components with remaining functionality. However, the diversity of product types, design features, and material compositions pose serious challenges for the EoL managers and legislators alike. In order to address these challenges, we propose a framework that is based on the ‘product family’ philosophy, which has been used in the manufacturing sector for a long time. For this, the product families can be built based on intrinsic and extrinsic attributes of e-products as well as of the EoL management system. Such an approach has the potential to improve the current EoL practices and to support designers in making EoL thinking operational during the product design stage. If supported by a better EoL collection, presorting and testing platform, and a family-centric approach for material recovery, such a framework carries the potential to avoid the losses occurring in today’s e-waste management system. This, in turn, could facilitate a smooth transition towards a circular model for the electrical and electronic industry.

  4. The transition from industrial (traditional to new (information economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilić Bogdan B.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available At the end of 20th century a new economy and a new information society emerged, as a result of achieving the third and the transition to the fourth scientific and technological revolution. The basis of this new economy lies in the transition from the industrial production to the production based on information and technology. The new economy contributes to changing the character of the factors of production, the structure of the value produced the motives of production, the workers’ position (robots replacing slaves etc. Besides labor, capital, land and entrepreneurship, information appears to be the fifth and the most important factor of production. The Internet is becoming the foundation of the new economy and contributes to changing the way people learn and do research, as well as to reducing the burden of administration, changing the way of competition, reducing operating costs crossing national borders and leading to the process of globalization of the world economy into an integral entity. Some basic characteristics of this new economy are the following: the information basis of production, rapid changes of products, flexible production systems, network organization of production, integration, services backed by products, skills and knowledge generalization, education, knowledge and talent becoming the most important factor of the socio-economic growth and development, etc. The new economy leads to a number of advantages when compared to the traditional one. However, it also has a number of negative consequences: pollution indebtedness of underdeveloped countries, widening the gap between the development level of regions, countries and individuals, growing inflation unemployment etc. But the new economy is objectively conditioned and the task of each national economy is to determine the most favorable way of its incorporation into this new economy (globalization.

  5. Sustainable Production of Second-Generation Biofuels. Potential and perspectives in major economies and developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisentraut, A

    2010-02-15

    The paper focuses on opportunities and risks presented by second-generation biofuels technologies in eight case study countries: Brazil, Cameroon, China, India, Mexico, South Africa, Tanzania and Thailand. The report begins by exploring the state of the art of second-generation technologies and their production, followed by projections of future demand and a discussion of drivers of that demand. The report then delves into various feedstock options and the global potential for bioenergy production. The final chapter offers a look at the potential for sustainable second-generation biofuel production in developing countries including considerations of economic, social and environmental impacts. Key findings of the report include that: second-generation biofuels produced from agricultural and forestry residues can play a crucial role in the transport sector without competing with food production; the potential for second-generation biofuels should be mobilized in emerging and developing countries where a large share of global residues is produced; less-developed countries will first need to invest in agricultural production and infrastructure in order to improve the framework conditions for the production of second-generation biofuels; financial barriers to production exist in many developing countries; and the suitability of second-generation biofuels against individual developing countries' needs should be evaluated.

  6. Sustainable Production of Second-Generation Biofuels. Potential and perspectives in major economies and developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisentraut, A.

    2010-02-01

    The paper focuses on opportunities and risks presented by second-generation biofuels technologies in eight case study countries: Brazil, Cameroon, China, India, Mexico, South Africa, Tanzania and Thailand. The report begins by exploring the state of the art of second-generation technologies and their production, followed by projections of future demand and a discussion of drivers of that demand. The report then delves into various feedstock options and the global potential for bioenergy production. The final chapter offers a look at the potential for sustainable second-generation biofuel production in developing countries including considerations of economic, social and environmental impacts. Key findings of the report include that: second-generation biofuels produced from agricultural and forestry residues can play a crucial role in the transport sector without competing with food production; the potential for second-generation biofuels should be mobilized in emerging and developing countries where a large share of global residues is produced; less-developed countries will first need to invest in agricultural production and infrastructure in order to improve the framework conditions for the production of second-generation biofuels; financial barriers to production exist in many developing countries; and the suitability of second-generation biofuels against individual developing countries' needs should be evaluated.

  7. Sustainable Production of Second-Generation Biofuels. Potential and perspectives in major economies and developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisentraut, A.

    2010-02-15

    The paper focuses on opportunities and risks presented by second-generation biofuels technologies in eight case study countries: Brazil, Cameroon, China, India, Mexico, South Africa, Tanzania and Thailand. The report begins by exploring the state of the art of second-generation technologies and their production, followed by projections of future demand and a discussion of drivers of that demand. The report then delves into various feedstock options and the global potential for bioenergy production. The final chapter offers a look at the potential for sustainable second-generation biofuel production in developing countries including considerations of economic, social and environmental impacts. Key findings of the report include that: second-generation biofuels produced from agricultural and forestry residues can play a crucial role in the transport sector without competing with food production; the potential for second-generation biofuels should be mobilized in emerging and developing countries where a large share of global residues is produced; less-developed countries will first need to invest in agricultural production and infrastructure in order to improve the framework conditions for the production of second-generation biofuels; financial barriers to production exist in many developing countries; and the suitability of second-generation biofuels against individual developing countries' needs should be evaluated.

  8. Increasing water productivity, nitrogen economy, and grain yield of rice by water saving irrigation and fertilizer-N management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Omar; Hussain, Saddam; Rizwan, Muhammad; Riaz, Muhammad; Bashir, Saqib; Lin, Lirong; Mehmood, Sajid; Imran, Muhammad; Yaseen, Rizwan; Lu, Guoan

    2018-06-01

    The looming water resources worldwide necessitate the development of water-saving technologies in rice production. An open greenhouse experiment was conducted on rice during the summer season of 2016 at Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, China, in order to study the influence of irrigation methods and nitrogen (N) inputs on water productivity, N economy, and grain yield of rice. Two irrigation methods, viz. conventional irrigation (CI) and "thin-shallow-moist-dry" irrigation (TSMDI), and three levels of nitrogen, viz. 0 kg N ha -1 (N 0 ), 90 kg N ha -1 (N 1 ), and 180 kg N ha -1 (N 2 ), were examined with three replications. Study data indicated that no significant water by nitrogen interaction on grain yield, biomass, water productivity, N uptake, NUE, and fertilizer N balance was observed. Results revealed that TSMDI method showed significantly higher water productivity and irrigation water applications were reduced by 17.49% in TSMDI compared to CI. Thus, TSMDI enhanced root growth and offered significantly greater water saving along with getting more grain yield compared to CI. Nitrogen tracer ( 15 N) technique accurately assessed the absorption and distribution of added N in the soil crop environment and divulge higher nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) influenced by TSMDI. At the same N inputs, the TSMDI was the optimal method to minimize nitrogen leaching loss by decreasing water leakage about 18.63%, which are beneficial for the ecological environment.

  9. Optimized collection of EoL electronic products for Circular economy: A techno-economic assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angouria-Tsorochidou, Elisavet; Cimpan, Ciprian; Parajuly, Keshav

    2018-01-01

    The relevance of a circular model is widely accepted for the lifecycle management of electrical and electronic products (e-products), given the low recovery rates of valuable resources in current end-of-life (EoL) practices focused on recycling. However, missing insight into the technical...... and business potential for alternative EoL options (reuse, repair and remanufacturing) holds stakeholders from implementing circular strategies. In this context, our study first mapped by means of material flow analysis (MFA) the life cycle stages of e-products in Denmark and then performed a preliminary...

  10. The political economy of maize production and poverty reduction in Zambia: analysis of the last 50 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanjra, Munir A; Culas, Richard J

    2011-01-01

    Poverty and food security are endemic issues in much of sub-Saharan Africa. To eradicate extreme poverty and hunger in the region remains a key Millennium Development Goal. Many African governments have pursued economic reforms and agricultural policy interventions in order to accelerate economic growth that reduces poverty faster. Agricultural policy regimes in Zambia in the last 50 years (1964–2008) are examined here to better understand their likely impact on food security and poverty, with an emphasis on the political economy of maize subsidy policies. The empirical work draws on secondary sources and an evaluation of farm household data from three villages in the Kasama District of Zambia from 1986/87 and 1992/93 to estimate a two-period econometric model to examine the impact on household welfare in a pre- and post-reform period. The analysis shows that past interventions had mixed effects on enhancing the production of food crops such as maize. While such reforms were politically popular, it did not necessarily translate into household-level productivity or welfare gains in the short term. The political economy of reforms needs to respond to the inherent diversity among the poor rural and urban households. The potential of agriculture to generate a more pro-poor growth process depends on the creation of new market opportunities that most benefit the rural poor. The state should encourage private sector investments for addressing infrastructure constraints to improve market access and accelerate more pro-poor growth through renewed investments in agriculture, rural infrastructure, gender inclusion, smarter subsidies and regional food trade. However, the financing of such investments poses significant challenges. There is a need to address impediments to the effective participation of public private investors to generate more effective poverty reduction and hunger eradication programmes. This article also explores the opportunities for new public

  11. Energy input for tomato production what economy says, and what is good for the environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houshyar, Ehsan; Dalgaard, Tommy; Tarazkar, Mohammad Hassan

    2015-01-01

    The central Fars province is the main tomato producer region in Southwest Iran. This study was undertaken to evaluate the energy consumption patterns of tomato production, corresponding GHG emissions, and relationships between inputs and output by a Cobb–Douglass econometric model. The changes...... productivities (MPPs), however, indicated that tomato yield is most sensitive to machinery and chemicals energy inputs in the C1 and C2, respectively, which should be considered first to increase in order to achieve productivity enhancement. The result displayed that higher energy consumption according...... to the econometric models and MPPs may lead to much higher CO2 emissions compared to the current average emissions particularly when MPP is low. Hence, it is suggested that production types with the highest MPPs should be considered if change in energy inputs is desired. In addition, it is recommended that “green...

  12. Collaborative Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    that are emerging from them, and how governments are responding to these new challenges. In doing so, the book provides both theoretical and practical insights into the future of tourism in a world that is, paradoxically, becoming both increasingly collaborative and individualized. Table of Contents Preface 1.The...... collaborative economy and tourism Dianne Dredge and Szilvia Gyimóthy PART I - Theoretical explorations 2.Definitions and mapping the landscape in the collaborative economy Szilvia Gyimóthy and Dianne Dredge 3.Business models of the collaborative economy Szilvia Gyimóthy 4.Responsibility and care...... in the collaborative economy Dianne Dredge 5.Networked cultures in the collaborative economy Szilvia Gyimóthy 6.Policy and regulatory perspectives in the collaborative economy Dianne Dredge PART II - Disruptions, innovations and transformations 7.Regulating innovation in the collaborative economy: An examination...

  13. Collaborative Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    collaborative economy and tourism Dianne Dredge and Szilvia Gyimóthy PART I - Theoretical explorations 2.Definitions and mapping the landscape in the collaborative economy Szilvia Gyimóthy and Dianne Dredge 3.Business models of the collaborative economy Szilvia Gyimóthy 4.Responsibility and care...... and similar phenomena are among these collective innovations in tourism that are shaking the very bedrock of an industrial system that has been traditionally sustained along commercial value chains. To date there has been very little investigation of these trends, which have been inspired by, amongst other...... in the collaborative economy Dianne Dredge 5.Networked cultures in the collaborative economy Szilvia Gyimóthy 6.Policy and regulatory perspectives in the collaborative economy Dianne Dredge PART II - Disruptions, innovations and transformations 7.Regulating innovation in the collaborative economy: An examination...

  14. A Dynamic Economy with Costly Price Adjustment

    OpenAIRE

    Leif Danziger

    1998-01-01

    This paper studies a general-equilibrium model of a dynamic economy with menu costs. Each firm's productivity is exposed to idiosyncratic and aggregate productivity shocks around a trend, and the money supply to monetary shocks around a trend. All consumption, pricing, and production decisions are based on optimizing behavior. There exists a staggered Markov perfect equilibrium with prices determined by a two-sided (s,S) markup strategy. The paper analyzes the optimal markup strategy and inve...

  15. Climate Change Consequences for Iowa'S Economy, Infrastructure, and Emergency Services

    OpenAIRE

    Swenson, David A.

    2011-01-01

    This is Chapter 6 in the state-mandated Regent's institution collaborative report, "Climate Change Impacts on Iowa, 2010: Report to the Governor and the Iowa General Assembly."Iowa's climate is changing, and that means Iowa's economy is changing. A changing Iowa economy will have consequences for agriculture, food production, Iowa's vaunted insurance agency, general energy use, Iowa's households, Iowa governments, and disaster services. This chapter profiles near and longer term consequences ...

  16. Arithmetical and geometrical means of generalized logarithmic and exponential functions: Generalized sum and product operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arruda, Tiago Jose; Silva Gonzalez, Rodrigo; Sangaletti Tercariol, Cesar Augusto; Souto Martinez, Alexandre

    2008-01-01

    One-parameter generalizations of the logarithmic and exponential functions have been obtained as well as algebraic operators to retrieve extensivity. Analytical expressions for the successive applications of the sum or product operators on several values of a variable are obtained here. Applications of the above formalism are considered

  17. The opportunity cost of family labor in the economy of the dairy production in Michoacan, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randy Alexis Jiménez Jiménez

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to analyze associated factors with the variation of the profit margin and the influence of the opportunity cost of family labor in the economic profit of the family dairy in the municipality of Maravatio, Michoacan. Productive economic information was obtained through the use of questionnaires, semi-structured interviews and direct observation, using the methodology of Participatory Action Research. The opportunity cost of workforce was established on the basis of the work options for the family members involved in the activity; the options were classified into three types: local, regional, and foreign, according to the location of the job opportunities. In order to determine the influence of family labor in earning, it was used a multiple regression model with inclusion of step-by-step variables. The livestock feed represented the highest index of determination of the profit margin variation with the 68 %. Family labor is one of the variables that have an adverse impact on the profitability of the production units, it represented 26% of the variation of economic gain, with a negative linear relation of -1.05 (P ≤0.001. The best labor alternatives for producers, when emigrating, show that family labor is not the productive factor allowing them to have earnings; however, the dairy activity provides productive and economic sustenance for people with a local and regional opportunity cost.

  18. Creative Industries and Regional Productivity Growth in the Developing Economy : Evidence from Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fahmi, Fikri Zul; Koster, Sierdjan

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines the degree to which creative industries stimulate regional productivity growth in a developing country, Indonesia. The Indonesian government promotes long-established traditional craft businesses as creative industries, but they pay less attention to new knowledge creation and

  19. International production in developing economies, changes in key factors for management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenhuis, H.J.; de Bruijn, E.J.; Xie, M.; Durrani, T.S.; Tang, H.K.

    2004-01-01

    Many manufacturing companies have become involved in international production. The primary reasons for moving manufacturing offshore are access to low labor cost, access to markets and/or access to skilled labor. However, many companies fail when operating in international markets. Historically

  20. Membranes in the biobased economy : electrodialysis of amino acids for the production of biochemicals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kattan Readi, O.M.

    2013-01-01

    The depletion of fossil fuels, increasing oil prices and CO2 emissions, rise the need for green alternatives for the production of energy, fuels and chemicals. Emerging sustainable technologies based on renewable resources promote the shift of conventional refineries toward biorefinery concepts.

  1. Country Image and Brand Perception of Hybrid Products from Emerging Economies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iacob, Andrea Ioana

    in the evaluation of unknown brand. Data were collected using a questionnaire that was administered to 243 students at Aalborg University. The results show that the student respondents do find the country of origins important when forming their brand perception or assessing the product; and they also ranked...

  2. Balancing Disassembly Line in Product Recovery to Promote the Coordinated Development of Economy and Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Liu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available For environmentally conscious and sustainable manufacturing, many more manufacturers are acting to recycle and remanufacture their post-consumed products. The most critical process of remanufacturing is disassembly, since it allows for the selective extraction of the valuable components and materials from returned products to reduce the waste disposal volume. It is, therefore, important to design and balance the disassembly line to work efficiently due to its vital role in effective resource usage and environmental protection. Considering the disassembly precedence relationships and sequence-dependent parts removal time increments, this paper presents an improved discrete artificial bee colony algorithm (DABC for solving the sequence-dependent disassembly line balancing problem (SDDLBP. The performance of the proposed algorithm was tested against nine other approaches. Computational results evidently indicate the superior efficiency of the proposed algorithm for addressing the environmental and economic concerns while optimizing the multi-objective SDDLBP.

  3. Cascading biomethane energy systems for sustainable green gas production in a circular economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, David M; McDonagh, Shane; Murphy, Jerry D

    2017-11-01

    Biomethane is a flexible energy vector that can be used as a renewable fuel for both the heat and transport sectors. Recent EU legislation encourages the production and use of advanced, third generation biofuels with improved sustainability for future energy systems. The integration of technologies such as anaerobic digestion, gasification, and power to gas, along with advanced feedstocks such as algae will be at the forefront in meeting future sustainability criteria and achieving a green gas supply for the gas grid. This paper explores the relevant pathways in which an integrated biomethane industry could potentially materialise and identifies and discusses the latest biotechnological advances in the production of renewable gas. Three scenarios of cascading biomethane systems are developed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Municipal Solid Waste Management in a Low Income Economy Through Biogas and Bioethanol Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miezah, Kodwo; Obiri-Danso, Kwasi; Kádár, Zsófia

    2017-01-01

    The biodegradable fraction of municipal solid wastes generated from households in Ghana has favourable characteristics worth considering for bioenergy production. The suitability of this biodegradable portion for biogas and bioethanol production was assessed in this study. The assessment...... was performed on both untreated and hydrothermally treated unsorted and sorted fractions of the waste using standard methods for biomass conversion to bioenergy. Compositional analysis of the waste indicated that unsorted biodegradable municipal solid wastes (BMSW) consisted of 38.7 % dry matter (DM) glucan, 8.......3 % DM hemicellulose, 10.1 % DM lignin and 7.6 % DM ash. The sorted fractions with the highest glucan but least lignin and hemicellulose were the pool of cassava, yam and plantain peeling wastes (CYPPW) with 84 % DM glucan much of which was starch, 5.6 % DM lignin and 0.5 % DM hemicellulose. The highest...

  5. Cascading biomethane energy systems for sustainable green gas production in a circular economy

    OpenAIRE

    Wall, David M.; McDonagh, Shane; Murphy, Jerry D.

    2017-01-01

    Biomethane is a flexible energy vector that can be used as a renewable fuel for both the heat and transport sectors. Recent EU legislation encourages the production and use of advanced, third generation biofuels with improved sustainability for future energy systems. The integration of technologies such as anaerobic digestion, gasification, and power to gas, along with advanced feedstocks such as algae will be at the forefront in meeting future sustainability criteria and achieving a green ga...

  6. The emerging "fans economy" marketing mode in digital consuming products industry in China

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Chao

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to identify the new marketing mode in the consuming products industry and to discuss its feasibility to apply the emerging marketing mode into other industries or countries. The new marketing mode is called the “Fans economy” marketing mode. The objectives of the thesis are comparing the new marketing mode with the traditional one rather than challenging it, so that the thesis can make the analysis about the advantages and the disadvantages of the new marketing ...

  7. Knowledge Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Kerr, Aphra; O Riain, Sean

    2009-01-01

    We examine a number of key questions regarding this knowledge economy. First, we look at the origin of the concept as well as early attempts to define and map the knowledge economy empirically. Second, we examine a variety of perspectives on the socio-spatial organisation of the knowledge economy and approaches which link techno-economic change and social-spatial organisation. Building on a critique of these perspectives, we then go on to develop a view of a knowledge economy that is conteste...

  8. CURRENT TRENDS IN THE KNOWLEDGE ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciprian Ionel HRETCANU

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we discuss various aspects of the current economy known as the knowledge economy. Also we will review two indicators of this new economy, because these indicators presents a general plan on access, use and degree of diffusion of knowledge. Then, based on these indicators and taking into account other aspects, we outline the structure relations between "new economy" and "digital economy". Finally we present the main types of business existing in the digital economy.

  9. Towards a sustainable bio-based economy: Redirecting primary metabolism to new products with plant synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Patrick M

    2018-08-01

    Humans have domesticated many plant species as indispensable sources of food, materials, and medicines. The dawning era of synthetic biology represents a means to further refine, redesign, and engineer crops to meet various societal and industrial needs. Current and future endeavors will utilize plants as the foundation of a bio-based economy through the photosynthetic production of carbohydrate feedstocks for the microbial fermentation of biofuels and bioproducts, with the end goal of decreasing our dependence on petrochemicals. As our technological capabilities improve, metabolic engineering efforts may expand the utility of plants beyond sugar feedstocks through the direct production of target compounds, including pharmaceuticals, renewable fuels, and commodity chemicals. However, relatively little work has been done to fully realize the potential in redirecting central carbon metabolism in plants for the engineering of novel bioproducts. Although our ability to rationally engineer and manipulate plant metabolism is in its infancy, I highlight some of the opportunities and challenges in applying synthetic biology towards engineering plant primary metabolism. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Generalized Enhanced Multivariance Product Representation for Data Partitioning: Constancy Level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tunga, M. Alper; Demiralp, Metin

    2011-01-01

    Enhanced Multivariance Product Representation (EMPR) method is used to represent multivariate functions in terms of less-variate structures. The EMPR method extends the HDMR expansion by inserting some additional support functions to increase the quality of the approximants obtained for dominantly or purely multiplicative analytical structures. This work aims to develop the generalized form of the EMPR method to be used in multivariate data partitioning approaches. For this purpose, the Generalized HDMR philosophy is taken into consideration to construct the details of the Generalized EMPR at constancy level as the introductory steps and encouraging results are obtained in data partitioning problems by using our new method. In addition, to examine this performance, a number of numerical implementations with concluding remarks are given at the end of this paper.

  11. The EU anti-dumping policy against non-market economies - The choice of an analogue country and the quality of products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller; Rutkowski, Aleksander Jerzy

    2003-01-01

    This paper uses the theory of international trade in vertically differentiated products in order to evaluate if the EU, since 1992, in its anti-dumping policy against the two non-market economies, Russia and China, has calculated higher dumping margins, when the level of economic development and ...

  12. A VIEWPOINT ON ECONOMY STUDENTS' PERCEPTIONS REGARDING THE PROMOTION PROCESS OF TOURISM PRODUCTS USING ONLINE MARKETING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia, MUHCINA

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Among the tools that are used in promotional activity in tourism, the online marketing opens the possibility to promptly create offers, meet buyers' demands, and strengthen customer relationships. The online marketers consider that the Internet is a modern technology that allows firms to connect business partners, to identify more rapidly the consumers' needs, to understand and answer on individual demand. The aim of this paper is to emphasize the importance of online marketing in the process of promotion and distribution of tourism products, starting from an empirical research conducted among economic sciences faculty students. The results of this work may provide a partial image of the young people's opinion about online marketing as a tool of marketing communication, and may be approached as a modest guide for tourism marketers in the process of creating, promoting and distributing tourism offers.

  13. Performance and economy of production of broilers fed Siam weed (Chromolaena odorata) leaf meal (SWLM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiwuba, P C; Ogbuewu, I P; Nwachukwuguru, K

    2018-03-06

    A 49-day feeding trial was conducted to determine the effect of Siam weed leaf meal (SWLM)-based diets on growth, organ, and carcass weight characteristics and economics of production of broilers. Proximate biochemical composition of SWLM and the appropriate inclusion level of SWLM for optimum productivity were also determined. Ninety-six-day-old Chi broiler chicks were randomly divided into 4 groups of 24 birds, and each group replicated three times. Each group was assigned to one experimental diet in a completely randomized design marked T1 (0%), T2 (4%), T3 (8%), and T4 (12%). Proximate biochemical results revealed that SWLM is rich in protein (20.52%) and minerals (9.29%). Birds on diets T1 and T2 had similar (p > 0.05) final live weights (FLW), which were higher (p  0.05) differences in the dressing percentage, but there were significant differences in the carcass weight between birds on diet T4 and the other three diets. Similarly, pancreas and spleen had similar (p > 0.05) weights across the treatments. There was significant difference (p < 0.05) between birds on diets T1 and T4 in gizzard weight. Cost-benefit ratio was influenced (p < 0.05) with T4 birds having better income of US$1 per US$10.18 invested. It is concluded that SWLM is rich in essential nutrients and therefore suitable for inclusion in broiler diets at level not beyond 2% for best final live weight, daily weight gain, and thigh weight.

  14. The world economy of petroleum products and the strategy of a petroleum company from exporting country: Cases of SONATRACH (Algeria), KPC (Kuwait), PEMEX (Mexico), PDVSA (Venezuela). Second volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preure, M.

    1992-12-01

    This thesis contains 2 volumes. In this second volume, the author describes the industrial and technological developments and the strategy of petroleum companies in exporting countries. The main industrial strategies studied are national integration strategy in a planned economy (case of Algeria) or in a controlled-liberal economy (case of Mexico) and international integration strategies to the lower part of petroleum industry and external growth (cases of Kuwait and Venezuela). Technological strategies studied are development of a national engineering, information, research programs/ development and innovation. The last chapter takes stock of research and development programs for petroleum products (case of Mexico) . 258 refs., 103 tabs

  15. Sustainable degrowth through more amateur economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jørgen

    2010-01-01

    (back) from the prof. economy to the amateur economy will be less productive than the prof. economy in terms of output per man hour, but often more 'productive' in generating satisfaction and happiness in the process. Such a shift can create more ultimate benefit (happiness), but less product output......By a simple descriptive model is illustrated how the role of labor input tothe economy will have to revised in a degrowth economy. A destinction is made btween the Professional (GDP) economy, driven by money, and the Amateur economy (voluntary) driven by love. Shifting some economic activities...

  16. Circular economy: To be or not to be in a closed product loop? A Life Cycle Assessment of aluminium cans with inclusion of alloying elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niero, Monia; Olsen, Stig Irving

    2016-01-01

    Packaging, representing the second largest source of aluminium scrap at global level, deserves a key role in the transition towards the circular economy. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of aluminium products has been typically based on one life cycle considering pure aluminium flows and neglecting...... the presence of alloying elements and impurities. However, this simplification undermines the potentials of using LCA to quantify the environmental performances of products in multiple loops, as required in the circular economy. This study aims to investigate the effects of including the actual alloy...... composition in the LCA of aluminium can production and recycling, in order to understand whether a can-to-can (i.e. closed product loop) recycling should be promoted or not. Mass balance of the main alloying elements (Mn, Si, Cu, Fe) was carried out at increasing levels of recycling rate, corresponding...

  17. Antimatter Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Norm

    2004-05-01

    The Antimatter Economy will bring every country into the 21st century without destroying our environment and turn the Star Trek dream into reality by using antimatter from comets. At the April 2002 joint meeting of the American Physical Society and American Astronomical Society, I announced that comets were composed of antimatter, there were 109 antimatter elements, and the Periodic Table of Elements had been updated to include the antimatter elements. When matter and antimatter come together, energy is produce according to Einstein's equation of mass times the speed of light squared or E = mc2. Antimatter energy creates incredible opportunities for humanity. People in spacecraft will travel to the moon in hours, planets in days, and stars in weeks. Antimatter power will replace fossil plants and produce hydrogen from off-peak electrical power. Hydrogen will supplant gas in cars, trucks, and other vehicles. The billions of ton of coal, billions of barrels of oil, and trillions of cubic feet of natural gas will be used to make trillions of dollars of products to bring countries into the 21st century. Within this millennium, the Worlds Gross National Product will increase from 30 trillion to 3,000 trillion plus 1,500 trillion from space commercialization bringing the Total Gross National Product to 4,500 trillion. Millions of businesses and billions of jobs will be created. However, the real benefits will come from taking billions of people out of poverty and empowering them to pursue their dreams of life, liberty and pursuit of happiness. Please visit www.AntimatterEnergy.com.

  18. Smoke screen? The globalization of production, transnational lobbying and the international political economy of plain tobacco packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Louise; Eckhardt, Jappe

    2017-01-01

    In 2012 Australia became the first country in the world to introduce plain tobacco packaging in an effort to reduce tobacco consumption. This move was vehemently opposed by the tobacco industry, which challenged it on several levels: nationally, bilaterally and multilaterally at the World Trade Organization (WTO). The political behavior of the tobacco companies in this case is puzzling both in terms of scale, operating at multiple levels at the same time and in terms of the countries mobilized in their defence. WTO litigation is typically the result of Multi National Enterprises (MNEs) lobbying their own government, but here third countries were mobilized. Lobbying in third country contexts, with the objective of accessing multilateral dispute settlement systems, has been little studied. We thus know very little about the driving factors behind such activities, how target governments are selected and what lobbying strategies are used. This paper draws on emerging research on transnational lobbying and a case study of the PP case to explore these issues in detail and, by doing so, aims to further our theoretical understanding of the political economy of international trade in the context of increasing regime complexity and globalization of production.

  19. Smoke screen? The globalization of production, transnational lobbying and the international political economy of plain tobacco packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Louise; Eckhardt, Jappe

    2017-01-01

    In 2012 Australia became the first country in the world to introduce plain tobacco packaging in an effort to reduce tobacco consumption. This move was vehemently opposed by the tobacco industry, which challenged it on several levels: nationally, bilaterally and multilaterally at the World Trade Organization (WTO). The political behavior of the tobacco companies in this case is puzzling both in terms of scale, operating at multiple levels at the same time and in terms of the countries mobilized in their defence. WTO litigation is typically the result of Multi National Enterprises (MNEs) lobbying their own government, but here third countries were mobilized. Lobbying in third country contexts, with the objective of accessing multilateral dispute settlement systems, has been little studied. We thus know very little about the driving factors behind such activities, how target governments are selected and what lobbying strategies are used. This paper draws on emerging research on transnational lobbying and a case study of the PP case to explore these issues in detail and, by doing so, aims to further our theoretical understanding of the political economy of international trade in the context of increasing regime complexity and globalization of production. PMID:28630533

  20. General Equilibrium in a Segmented Market Economy with Convex Transaction Cost: Existence, Efficiency, Commodity and Fiat Money

    OpenAIRE

    Starr, Ross M.

    2002-01-01

    This study derives the monetary structure of transactions, the use of commodity or fiat money, endogenously from transaction costs in a segmented market general equilibrium model. Market segmentation means there are separate budget constraints for each transaction: budgets balance in each transaction separately. Transaction costs imply differing bid and ask (selling and buying) prices. The most liquid instruments are those with the lowest proportionate bid/ask spread in equilibrium. Exist...

  1. The Placenta Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kroløkke, Charlotte; Dickinson, Elizabeth; Foss, Karen A.

    2018-01-01

    This article examines the human placenta not only as a scientific, medical and biological entity but as a consumer bio-product. In the emergent placenta economy, the human placenta is exchanged and gains potentiality as food, medicine and cosmetics. Drawing on empirical research from the United......, in the emergent bio-economy, the dichotomy between the inner and the outer body is deconstructed, while the placenta gains clinical and industrial as well as affective value....

  2. Generalization of binary tensor product schemes depends upon four parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashir, R.; Bari, M.; Mustafa, G.

    2018-01-01

    This article deals with general formulae of parametric and non parametric bivariate subdivision scheme with four parameters. By assigning specific values to those parameters we get some special cases of existing tensor product schemes as well as a new proposed scheme. The behavior of schemes produced by the general formulae is interpolating, approximating and relaxed. Approximating bivariate subdivision schemes produce some other surfaces as compared to interpolating bivariate subdivision schemes. Polynomial reproduction and polynomial generation are desirable properties of subdivision schemes. Capability of polynomial reproduction and polynomial generation is strongly connected with smoothness, sum rules, convergence and approximation order. We also calculate the polynomial generation and polynomial reproduction of 9-point bivariate approximating subdivision scheme. Comparison of polynomial reproduction, polynomial generation and continuity of existing and proposed schemes has also been established. Some numerical examples are also presented to show the behavior of bivariate schemes. (author)

  3. A general enantioselective route to the chamigrene natural product family

    KAUST Repository

    White, David E.

    2010-06-01

    Described in this report is an enantioselective route toward the chamigrene natural product family. The key disconnections in our synthetic approach include sequential enantioselective decarboxylative allylation and ring-closing olefin metathesis to form the all-carbon quaternary stereocenter and spirocyclic core present in all members of this class of compounds. The generality of this strategy is demonstrated by the first total syntheses of elatol and the proposed structure of laurencenone B, as well as the first enantioselective total syntheses of laurencenone C and α-chamigrene. A brief exploration of the substrate scope of the enantioselective decarboxylative allylation/ring-closing metathesis sequence with fully substituted vinyl chlorides is also presented.

  4. A general enantioselective route to the chamigrene natural product family

    KAUST Repository

    White, David E.; Stewart, Ian C.; Seashore-Ludlow, Brinton A.; Grubbs, Robert H.; Stoltz, Brian M.

    2010-01-01

    Described in this report is an enantioselective route toward the chamigrene natural product family. The key disconnections in our synthetic approach include sequential enantioselective decarboxylative allylation and ring-closing olefin metathesis to form the all-carbon quaternary stereocenter and spirocyclic core present in all members of this class of compounds. The generality of this strategy is demonstrated by the first total syntheses of elatol and the proposed structure of laurencenone B, as well as the first enantioselective total syntheses of laurencenone C and α-chamigrene. A brief exploration of the substrate scope of the enantioselective decarboxylative allylation/ring-closing metathesis sequence with fully substituted vinyl chlorides is also presented.

  5. Pricing Participating Products under a Generalized Jump-Diffusion Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tak Kuen Siu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a model for valuing participating life insurance products under a generalized jump-diffusion model with a Markov-switching compensator. It also nests a number of important and popular models in finance, including the classes of jump-diffusion models and Markovian regime-switching models. The Esscher transform is employed to determine an equivalent martingale measure. Simulation experiments are conducted to illustrate the practical implementation of the model and to highlight some features that can be obtained from our model.

  6. Generalized infimum and sequential product of quantum effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yuan; Sun Xiuhong; Chen Zhengli

    2007-01-01

    The quantum effects for a physical system can be described by the set E(H) of positive operators on a complex Hilbert space H that are bounded above by the identity operator I. For A, B(set-membership sign)E(H), the operation of sequential product A(convolution sign)B=A 1/2 BA 1/2 was proposed as a model for sequential quantum measurements. A nice investigation of properties of the sequential product has been carried over [Gudder, S. and Nagy, G., 'Sequential quantum measurements', J. Math. Phys. 42, 5212 (2001)]. In this note, we extend some results of this reference. In particular, a gap in the proof of Theorem 3.2 in this reference is overcome. In addition, some properties of generalized infimum A sqcap B are studied

  7. Nuclides Economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, Evgeny; Subbotin, Stanislav

    2007-01-01

    Traditionally the subject of discussion about the nuclear technology development is focused on the conditions that facilitate the nuclear power deployment. The main objective of this work is seeking of methodological basis for analysis of the coupling consequences of nuclear development. Nuclide economy is the term, which defines a new kind of society relations, dependent on nuclear technology development. It is rather closed to the setting of problems then to the solving of them. Last year Dr. Jonathan Tennenbaum published in Executive Intelligence Review Vol. 33 no 40 the article entitled as 'The Isotope Economy' where main interconnections for nuclear energy technologies and their infrastructure had been explained on the popular level. There he has given several answers and, therefore, just here we will try to expand this concept. We were interested by this publication because of similarity of our vision of resource base of technologies development. The main paradigm of 'Isotope economy' was expresses by Lyndon H. LaRouche: 'Instead of viewing the relevant resources of the planet as if they were a fixed totality, we must now assume responsibility of man's creating the new resources which will be more than adequate to sustain a growing world population at a constantly improved standard of physical per-capita output, and personal consumption'. We also consider the needed resources as a dynamic category. Nuclide economy and nuclide logistics both are needed for identifying of the future development of nuclear power as far we follow the holistic analysis approach 'from cave to grave'. Thus here we try to reasoning of decision making procedures and factors required for it in frame of innovative proposals development and deployment. The nuclear power development is needed in humanitarian scientific support with maximally deep consideration of all inter-disciplinary aspects of the nuclear power and nuclear technologies implementation. The main objectives for such

  8. SOCIAL ECONOMY EFFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florina Oana Virlanuta

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The social economy combines profitability with social inclusion. Social innovation is the first step in the creation of a social enterprise. Social economy development is a process underway, innovative in terms of relating the individual to the production processes, the concept of citizenship, production areas and modalities. The concern for sustainable development, analysis of economic and financial crisis, the issue of the relationship between the individual and the production process open up many opportunities for development that can influence public policies on employment and social cohesion.

  9. Biogas plants with 300 GWh yearly production - system, technology and economy; Biogasanlaeggningar med 300 GWh aarsproduktion - system, teknik och ekonomi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benjaminsson, Johan; Linne, Marita [BioMil AB, Lund (Sweden)

    2007-09-15

    Systems, techniques and economy have been analysed for biogas plants with more than 300 GWh annual energy productions. There is so far no such concept in Sweden but in Germany, a so called biogas park with 450 GWh annual biogas production will be set in operation by autumn 2007. Substratum for 300 GWh gas production are crops which corresponds to a acreage need of 6,000-11,000 hectares for silage crops such as maize or grass. If the gas production is based on corn, the acreage need is about 14 000 hectares. That means that biogas production from silage gives a higher energy outcome per hectare in comparison to grain. According to calculations, grain affects the gas price more than silage. However, grain is easy available at the world market which can be related to digestion of silage that means long term contracts with farmers nearby the biogas plant in addition to a complex logistic system for supply. The grain price by end of 2006 affects the gas price with about 0,38 kr/kWh. Large scale harvesting and transportation of silage in addition to a system for different crops to be harvested and transported directly to the digestion chamber admit reduced handling cost. Silage is expected to affect the gas price with about 0,28 kr/kWh. The price development of grain and silage can be expected to follow each other. The grain prices for 2008 seems to be higher than the notations for 2006/2007. Developed technique for digestion of grain admits 6 kg DMo/m{sup 3} chamber volume, 24 hours. That means reduced size of the digestion chamber in comparison to conventional digestion technique. In Germany where silage is the main substratum, two stage digestion with a first laying chamber admits 4 kg DMo/m{sup 3} chamber volume, 24 hours and DM-content of 12 %. The specific digestion cost for crops is about 0,13 kr/kWh. Huge amounts of digestion residue have to be handled. Dewatering makes sense since the digestion process needs additional water. The phosphorous solid fraction can

  10. Iran's Economy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ilias, Shayerah

    2008-01-01

    .... To the extent that U.S. sanctions and other efforts to change Iranian state policy target aspects of Iran ssssssss economy as a means of influence, it is important to evaluate Iran's economic structure, strengths, and vulnerabilities...

  11. Iran's Economy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ilias, Shayerah

    2008-01-01

    .... To the extent that U.S. sanctions and other efforts to change Iranian state policy target aspects of Iran's economy as a means of influence, it is important to evaluate Iran's economic structure, strengths, and vulnerabilities...

  12. Cambodia's economy

    OpenAIRE

    Ear, Sophal

    2008-01-01

    "This presentation is adapted from a Harvard KSG workshop held earlier this year on the Political Economy of "Binding Constraints to Growth" Cambodia Pilot for which I served as an External Panelist/Resource Person."

  13. Mobile economy

    OpenAIRE

    Turowski, Klaus

    2004-01-01

    Mobile economy : Transaktionen, Prozesse, Anwendungen und Dienste ; 4. Workshop Mobile Commerce, 02.-03. Februar 2004, Univ. Augsburg / K. Turowski ... (Hrsg.). - Bonn : Ges. für Informatik, 2004. - 189 S. : Ill., graph. Darst. - (GI-Edition : Proceedings ; 42)

  14. TRIGA International - History of Training Research Isotope production General Atomics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    TRIGA conceived at GA in 1956 by a distinguished group of scientists including Edward Teller and Freeman Dyson. First TRIGA reactor Mk-1 was commissioned on 3 may 1958 at G.A. Characteristic feature of TRIGA reactors is inherent safety: Sitting can be confinement or conventional building. TRIGA reactors are the most prevalent in the world: 67 reactors in 24 countries. Steady state powers up to 14 MWt, pulsing up to 22,000 MWt. To enlarge the scope of its manufactured products, CERCA engaged in a Joint Venture with General Atomics, and in July 1995 a new Company was founded: TRIGA INTERNATIONAL SAS (50% GA, 50% CERCA; Head Office: Paris (France); Sales offices: GA San Diego (Ca, USA) and CERCA Lyon (France); Manufacturing plant: CERCA Romans. General Atomics ID: founded in 1955 at San Diego, California, by General Dynamics; status: Privately held corporation; owners: Neal and Linden Blue; business: High technology research, design, manufacturing, and production for industry and Government in the U.S. and overseas; locations: U.S., Germany, Japan, Australia, Thailand, Morocco; employees: 5,000. TRIGA's ID: CERCA is a subsidiary of AREVA, born in November 05, 1957. Activities: fuel manufacture for research reactor, equipment and components for high-energy physics, radioactive sources and reference sources; plants locations: Romans and Pierrelatte (France); total strength: 180. Since the last five years TRIGA has manufactured and delivered more than 800 fuel elements with a door to door service. TRIGA International has the experience to manufacture all types of TRIGA fuel: standard fuel elements, instrumented fuel elements, fuel followed control rods, geometry: 37.3 mm (1.47 in.), 35.8 mm (1.4 in), 13 mm (0.5 in), chemical Composition: U w% 8.5, 12, 20, 30 and 45 w/o, erbium and no erbium. TRIGA International is on INL's approved vendor list (ISO 9000/NQA) and is ready to meet any TRIGA fuel needs either in the US or worldwide

  15. Signs of political economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Lamizet

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Like any political system, economy is a system of signs and representations. The Semiotics of economy elaborates its analytical methods to interpret such signs, which give meaning to the economy by representing its performances in public debate and in the media. Four major features distinguish the Semiotics of political economy from other semiotic forms or other systems of information and political representation. First of all, the relationship between the signification of the economy and the real or the imaginary phenomena to which they refer always pertains to the order of values. The second characteristic of economic signs is the significance of the state of lack they express. The third characteristic of signs of the economy is the form of sign production, which can be designated by the concept of emission of signs and their diffusion. Finally, as all signs, the economic sign is arbitrary. In the field of Economics, such arbitrariness does not imply that the Subject is free to superimpose whatever value to the signs themselves, but refers to the rupture between the world and its possible transformation. The very meaning of the word economy is here at stake. Oikos, in Greek (the term from which the word economy is derived refers to a known, familiar space. Economy transforms the real, natural world into a symbolic social world, into a world of relations with others whom we recognise and whose actions are relatively predictable. It might be useful to consider the contemporary issue of debt, its implications and its multiple meanings, which includes both the ethical and moral dimension of the condemnation of debt as well as the imaginary political dimension based on the expression of an idea of independence.

  16. The Collaborative Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avital, Michel; Andersson, Magnus; Nickerson, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    An economy based on the exchange of capital, assets and services between individuals has grown significantly, spurred by proliferation of internet-based platforms that allow people to share underutilized resources and trade with reasonably low transaction costs. The movement toward this economy...... of “sharing” translates into market efficiencies that bear new products, reframe established services, have positive environmental effects, and may generate overall economic growth. This emerging paradigm, entitled the collaborative economy, is disruptive to the conventional company-driven economic paradigm...... as evidenced by the large number of peer-to-peer based services that have captured impressive market shares sectors ranging from transportation and hospitality to banking and risk capital. The panel explores economic, social, and technological implications of the collaborative economy, how digital technologies...

  17. An Interaction of Economy and Environment in Dynamic Computable General Equilibrium Modelling with a Focus on Climate Change Issues in Korea : A Proto-type Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joh, Seung Hun; Dellink, Rob; Nam, Yunmi; Kim, Yong Gun; Song, Yang Hoon [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    2000-12-01

    In the beginning of the 21st century, climate change is one of hottest issues in arena of both international environment and domestic one. During the COP6 meeting held in The Hague, over 10,000 people got together from the world. This report is a series of policy study on climate change in context of Korea. This study addresses on interactions of economy and environment in a perfect foresight dynamic computable general equilibrium with a focus on greenhouse gas mitigation strategy in Korea. The primary goal of this study is to evaluate greenhouse gas mitigation portfolios of changes in timing and magnitude with a particular focus on developing a methodology to integrate the bottom-up information on technical measures to reduce pollution into a top-down multi-sectoral computable general equilibrium framework. As a non-Annex I country Korea has been under strong pressure to declare GHG reduction commitment. Of particular concern is economic consequences GHG mitigation would accrue to the society. Various economic assessment have been carried out to address on the issue including analyses on cost, ancillary benefit, emission trading, so far. In this vein, this study on GHG mitigation commitment is a timely answer to climate change policy field. Empirical results available next year would be highly demanded in the situation. 62 refs., 13 figs., 9 tabs.

  18. Environmental issues elimination through circular economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Špirková, M.; Pokorná, E.; Šujanová, J.; Samáková, J.

    2016-01-01

    Environmental efforts of European Union are currently going towards circular economy. Tools like Extended Producer Responsibility and Eco-design were established. The circular economy deals with resources availability issue on one hand and waste management on the other hand. There are few pioneering companies all over the world with some kind of circular economy practice. Generally the concept is not very wide-spread. The paper aims to evaluate possibility of transition towards circular economy in Slovak industrial companies. They need to have an active approach to material treatment of their products after usage stage. Innovation is another important pre-condition for the transition. Main problem of current cradle to grave system is landfilling of valuable materials after one cycle of usage. Their potential value for next manufacturing cycles is lost. Companies may do not see connection between waste management and material resource prices and volatility of supplies. Municipalities are responsible for municipal waste collection and treatment in Slovakia. The circular economy operates by cradle to cradle principle. Company manages material flow until the material comes back to the beginning of manufacturing process by itself or by another partners. Stable material supplies with quite low costs are provided this way. It is necessary to deal with environmental problems in phase of product design. Questionnaire survey results show on one hand low involvement of industrial companies in waste management area, however on the other hand they are open to environmental innovations in future.

  19. Environmental issues elimination through circular economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Špirková, M., E-mail: marta.spirkova@stuba.sk; Pokorná, E.; Šujanová, J.; Samáková, J. [Paulínska 16, 917 24 Trnava, Slovakia, Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava, Faculty of Materials Science and Technology in Trnava (Slovakia)

    2016-04-21

    Environmental efforts of European Union are currently going towards circular economy. Tools like Extended Producer Responsibility and Eco-design were established. The circular economy deals with resources availability issue on one hand and waste management on the other hand. There are few pioneering companies all over the world with some kind of circular economy practice. Generally the concept is not very wide-spread. The paper aims to evaluate possibility of transition towards circular economy in Slovak industrial companies. They need to have an active approach to material treatment of their products after usage stage. Innovation is another important pre-condition for the transition. Main problem of current cradle to grave system is landfilling of valuable materials after one cycle of usage. Their potential value for next manufacturing cycles is lost. Companies may do not see connection between waste management and material resource prices and volatility of supplies. Municipalities are responsible for municipal waste collection and treatment in Slovakia. The circular economy operates by cradle to cradle principle. Company manages material flow until the material comes back to the beginning of manufacturing process by itself or by another partners. Stable material supplies with quite low costs are provided this way. It is necessary to deal with environmental problems in phase of product design. Questionnaire survey results show on one hand low involvement of industrial companies in waste management area, however on the other hand they are open to environmental innovations in future.

  20. Environmental issues elimination through circular economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Špirková, M.; Pokorná, E.; Šujanová, J.; Samáková, J.

    2016-04-01

    Environmental efforts of European Union are currently going towards circular economy. Tools like Extended Producer Responsibility and Eco-design were established. The circular economy deals with resources availability issue on one hand and waste management on the other hand. There are few pioneering companies all over the world with some kind of circular economy practice. Generally the concept is not very wide-spread. The paper aims to evaluate possibility of transition towards circular economy in Slovak industrial companies. They need to have an active approach to material treatment of their products after usage stage. Innovation is another important pre-condition for the transition. Main problem of current cradle to grave system is landfilling of valuable materials after one cycle of usage. Their potential value for next manufacturing cycles is lost. Companies may do not see connection between waste management and material resource prices and volatility of supplies. Municipalities are responsible for municipal waste collection and treatment in Slovakia. The circular economy operates by cradle to cradle principle. Company manages material flow until the material comes back to the beginning of manufacturing process by itself or by another partners. Stable material supplies with quite low costs are provided this way. It is necessary to deal with environmental problems in phase of product design. Questionnaire survey results show on one hand low involvement of industrial companies in waste management area, however on the other hand they are open to environmental innovations in future.

  1. A general product measurability theorem with applications to variational inequalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth L. Kuttler

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This work establishes the existence of measurable weak solutions to evolution problems with randomness by proving and applying a novel theorem on product measurability of limits of sequences of functions. The measurability theorem is used to show that many important existence theorems within the abstract theory of evolution inclusions or equations have straightforward generalizations to settings that include random processes or coefficients. Moreover, the convex set where the solutions are sought is not fixed but may depend on the random variables. The importance of adding randomness lies in the fact that real world processes invariably involve randomness and variability. Thus, this work expands substantially the range of applications of models with variational inequalities and differential set-inclusions.

  2. The Political Economy of State Governance in Global Production Networks:Change, Crisis and Contestation in the South African Fruit Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Phillips, Nicola Jane; Alford, Matthew

    2017-01-01

    Within the global value chain (GVC) and global production network (GPN) literatures, one of the most vibrant areas of debate focuses on dynamics of governance. However, the evolution of these debates has been underpinned by a persistent firm-centrism, with insufficient attention paid to states, public authority and politics. Building on a renewed interest in these themes in the recent literature, we contribute to a growing demand for a more robust political economy of governance in GVC/GPN de...

  3. Approaches about the social and solidarity economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odalys Labrador Machín

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The topic of the Social and Solidarity Economy, from its own emergence, has been approached by diverse authors, closely associated to this debate divergent points of view have arisen, become the theoretical and methodological references of this definition, as a basis for its practical realization, in a context in which neoliberal globalization has conditioned the search for viable alternatives to alleviate the contradictions it generates. Although, generally speaking, the Social and Solidarity Economy is understood as the interrelation of companies and participative associative organizations, constituted by cooperatives, mutuals, savings banks, employee funds, community enterprises, associations, dedicated to production, distribution and consumption of goods and services, non-profit and in solidarity. The different places and contexts in which it develops, gives this sector particularities and, therefore, the need for a broad and divergent analysis. The present work proposes an evaluation of different criteria about the Social and Solidarity Economy in the current international context.

  4. The food industry and provincial economies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Greg; Li, Duo

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses the significance of the food industry for the Zhejiang provincial economy and for provincial economies generally. It is suggested that the strong ties between the food industry and provincial economies in China means that the food industry can be a key influence in the economic development of regional China. Moreover, the geographically diffuse nature of the food industry in China gives the industry a strategic significance in countering regional inequality within and between provinces, a by-product of China's rapid growth over the past 25 years. For these reasons, change in the food industry, whether it has its origins in the introduction of western fast foods, or in environmental, technological or economic trends, not only assumes significance for the health of the Chinese people (as other papers presented to the International Cuisine and Health Workshop at Hangzhou have pointed out), but also for the wealth of the nation and the way that wealth is distributed.

  5. Barter Economies and Centralized Merchants

    OpenAIRE

    Jose Noguera

    2000-01-01

    The main goal of this essay is to analyze the emergence of a barter economy, and the rise of centralized merchants and a barter redistribution system out of a primitive barter system. The environment is a spatial general equilibrium model where exchange is costly. Since exchange becomes more complicated as the scope of the economy increases, we prove that, after the economy reaches a critical size, the cost of trade expansion surpasses its benefits. This imposes limitations on the scope of th...

  6. General productivity code: productivity optimization of gaseous diffusion cascades. The programmer's guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tunstall, J.N.

    1975-05-01

    The General Productivity Code is a FORTRAN IV computer program for the IBM System 360. With its model of the productivity of gaseous diffusion cascades, the program is used to determine optimum cascade performance based on specified operating conditions and to aid in the calculation of optimum operating conditions for a complex of diffusion cascades. This documentation of the program is directed primarily to programmers who will be responsible for updating the code as requested by the users. It is also intended to be an aid in training new Productivity Code users and to serve as a general reference manual. Elements of the mathematical model, the input data requirements, the definitions of the various tasks (Instructions) that can be performed, and a detailed description of most FORTRAN variables and program subroutines are presented. A sample problem is also included. (auth)

  7. Product and labor market imperfections and scale economies: Micro-evidence on France, Japan and the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dobbelaere, S.; Kiyota, K.; Mairesse, M.

    2012-01-01

    Allowing for three labor market settings, this paper relies on an extension of Hall's econometric framework for simultaneously estimating price-cost mark-ups and scale economies. Using an unbalanced panel of 17,653 firms over the period 1986-2001 in France, 8,725 firms over the period 1994-2006 in

  8. Human economy and natural economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masullo Andrea

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The decline of economy is due to its dependency from a virtual value, the currency, the coin, that in the recent phase of consumerism is so far from real value: human capital and natural capital. If human economy wants to continue to produce wellbeing, it must accept to be a subset of natural economy, intercept flux of matter produced by its circular mechanisms, put constraints in it, i.e. machines and structures, to direct it temporarily for our advantage, and finally release it to the same original flux, in an still usable state. In this way it will assume a function no more parasitic but symbiotic. It will be connected to natural cycles without destroying it, recovering the co-evolutionary link between nature and culture, building an economic web suited to the ecological web; thus we will have a mosaic characterised by biodiversity, technological diversity, and cultural diversity, able to produce a durable prosperity.

  9. Population and the Colombian economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, T G

    1983-01-01

    Colombia is the only one of the 6 most populous Latin American countries that is currently free of major economic crisis requiring an agreement with the International Monetary Fund. The difference in the economic performances of these countries is relative, since the rate of growth in the Colombian economy was only 1.5% in 1982. Yet, Colombia seems to have weathered the international recession better than most. The crisis atmosphere in the rest of Latin America, triggered by overall economic decline, high rates of inflation, and an indebtedness that soaks up much of export earnings to service it, is lacking in Colombia or present in lesser degree. If Colombia can strengthen its political performance and tighten national unity, it could move through the 1980s with considerable confidence and success in economic development. Colombia differs little from other major Latin American countries with regard to traditionalism and modernization. Most Colombians are secularized. Colombia is far ahead of most comparable Latin American countries in fertility control. The lower rate of population increase defines the extent to which the economy must provide education, health, food, and jobs. 2 other factors are essential for understanding the current situation in Colombia and its prospects for the 1980s. Government policy in the 1970s opted for an austerity program while the other countries were growing rapidly, in large part through borrowed resources. A 2nd factor is the prospect of attaining autonomy in energy production. These special characteristics--population, public policy, and energy--are discussed. Since the mid 1960s Colombia has functioned with 3 family planning programs. Their existence makes contraception easily available to the population generally. In 1960 Colombia had a higher total fertility rate (TFR) 7.0, than either Venezuela (6.6) or Brazil (5.3), but by 1976 its TFR was down to 4.1, while Venezuela's (4.8) and Brazil's (4.3) were now higher. On balance

  10. Entrepreneurship in the network economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velthuijsen, Hugo; de Graaf, Frank Jan; Zhang, Henry; Zhao, Ruimei

    2009-01-01

    The network economy typically signifies a notion from the information society where new products and services are developed by collaborating individuals and/or businesses organised in virtual networks. The network economy has important characteristics in common with Northern European governance

  11. New Economy - New Policy Rules?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bullard, J.; Schaling, E.

    2000-01-01

    The U.S. economy appears to have experienced a pronounced shift toward higher productivity over the last five years or so. We wish to understand the implications of such shifts for the structure of optimal monetary policy rules in simple dynamic economies. Accordingly, we begin with a standard

  12. PROBLEM ASSESSMENT OF THE LEVEL INVESTMENT ACTIVITY IN THE NATIONAL ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana ANDREEVA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article the fundamental importance of the investment sphere, forming of factors of production and defining the competitiveness of the national economy, as well as some of the problems of evaluation of the level of investment made in the national economy, the problems of attracting foreign direct investment, as the most important conditions for sustainable growth of the national economies. The special attention in the article is paid to the methods of factor analysis of the investment climate, as well as the General trends of changes in the business environment, as basic conditions for improving the level of investment activity of the national economy.

  13. Thermodynamic Product Relations for Generalized Regular Black Hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradhan, Parthapratim

    2016-01-01

    We derive thermodynamic product relations for four-parametric regular black hole (BH) solutions of the Einstein equations coupled with a nonlinear electrodynamics source. The four parameters can be described by the mass (m), charge (q), dipole moment (α), and quadrupole moment (β), respectively. We study its complete thermodynamics. We compute different thermodynamic products, that is, area product, BH temperature product, specific heat product, and Komar energy product, respectively. Furthermore, we show some complicated function of horizon areas that is indeed mass-independent and could turn out to be universal.

  14. Regulating the sharing economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristofer Erickson

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this introductory essay, we explore definitions of the ‘sharing economy’, a concept indicating both social (relational, communitarian and economic (allocative, profit-seeking aspects which appear to be in tension. We suggest combining the social and economic logics of the sharing economy to focus on the central features of network enabled, aggregated membership in a pool of offers and demands (for goods, services, creative expressions. This definition of the sharing economy distinguishes it from other related peer-to-peer and collaborative forms of production. Understanding the social and economic motivations for and implications of participating in the sharing economy is important to its regulation. Each of the papers in this special issue contributes to knowledge by linking the social and economic aspects of sharing economy practices to regulatory norms and mechanisms. We conclude this essay by suggesting future research to further clarify and render intelligible the sharing economy, not as a contradiction in terms but as an empirically observable realm of socio-economic activity.

  15. The Impact of Productivity Increasing in Indonesian Maritim Sector: General Equilibrium Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widyastutik Widyastutik

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The increase in productivity in the maritime sector will realize the maritime sector as a prime mover. This study aims to analyze the impact of the maritime sector productivity improvement on the performance of the economy. This research simulates increased productivity in the maritime sector (consisting of the fisheries, oil, gas sub-sector and marine transport services sector using the Global Trade Analysis Project (GTAP version 8. Simulation analysis showed an increase in productivity in the maritime sector has a positive impact on welfare, real GDP, and trade balance of Indonesia. However, the impact of the increase in productivity is not followed by an increase in output in all sectors. This indicates that if the increase in productivity occurs only in the maritime sector alone without being followed by an increase in productivity in other sectors, the sectoral performance is not optimal.DOI: 10.15408/sjie.v5i2.3403

  16. On the hazard accumulation of actinide waste in a Pu-fueled LMFBR power economy with and without by-product actinide recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anselmi, L.; Caruso, K.; Hage, W.; Schmidt, E.

    1979-01-01

    The actinide waste arisings in terms of hazard potential for ingestion and inhalation are given for a Pu-fueled LMFBR Power Economy as function of decay time. The data were assessed for two simplified fuel cycles, one considering the recycling of by-product actinides and the other their complete discharge to the high-level waste. Two durations of nuclear power and several loss fractions of actinides to the waste were considered. The major contributors in form of chemical elements or isotopes to the actinide waste hazard built up during the nuclear power duration were identified for various decay intervals

  17. [VOCs tax policy on China's economy development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chang-Xin; Wang, Yu-Fei; Wang, Hai-Lin; Hao, Zheng-Ping; Wang, Zheng

    2011-12-01

    In this paper, environmental tax was designed to control volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emissions. Computable general equilibrium (CGE) model was used to explore the impacts of environmental tax (in forms of indirect tax) on the macro-economy development at both national and sector levels. Different levels of tax were simulated to find out the proper tax rate. It is found out that imposing environmental tax on high emission sectors can cause the emission decreased immediately and can lead to negative impacts on macro-economy indicators, such as GDP (gross domestic products), total investment, total product and the whole consumption etc. However, only the government income increased. In addition, the higher the tax rate is, the more pollutants can be reduced and the worse economic effects can be caused. Consequently, it is suggested that, the main controlling policies of VOCs abatement should be mandatory orders, and low environmental tax can be implemented as a supplementary.

  18. Social Capital, Economic Growth and Transition Economies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    1998-01-01

    transactions to take place without third-party enforcement. Theory and lessons from empirical evidence lead to three general recommendations for building social capital in the future: First, the state must withdraw and minimize its role in the economy so to leave room for voluntary organization and free......Summary: What does social capital mean and how can it be built? Social capital is considered as a new production factor which must be added to the conventional concepts of human and physical capital. Social capital is productive because it increases the level of trust in a society and allows more......-trade. Second, state withdrawal should be combined with efforts to increase economic growth and gain popular support for the implementation of reforms. Third, voluntary groups, beneficial to the economy, should not be institutionalized to prevent them from turning into harmful rent-seeking groups....

  19. An integrated production-inventory model for food products adopting a general raw material procurement policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauza, G.; Prasetyo, H.; Amanto, B. S.

    2018-05-01

    Studies on an integrated production-inventory model for deteriorating items have been done extensively. Most of the studies define deterioration as physical depletion of some inventories over time. This definition may not represent the deterioration characteristics of food products. The quality of food production decreases over time while the quantity remains the same. Further, in the existing models, the raw material is replenished several times (or at least once) within one production cycle. In food industries, however, a food company, for several reasons (e.g., the seasonal raw materials, discounted price, etc.) sometimes will get more benefit if it orders raw materials in a large quantity. Considering this fact, this research, therefore, is aimed at developing a more representative inventory model by (i) considering the quality losses in food and (ii) adopting a general raw material procurement policy. A mathematical model is established to represent the proposed policy in which the total profit of the system is the objective function. To evaluate the performance of the model, a numerical test was conducted. The numerical test indicates that the developed model has better performance, i.e., the total profit is 2.3% higher compared to the existing model.

  20. Oil and the world economy: some possible futures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumhof, Michael; Muir, Dirk

    2014-01-13

    This paper, using a six-region dynamic stochastic general equilibrium model of the world economy, assesses the output and current account implications of permanent oil supply shocks hitting the world economy. For modest-sized shocks and conventional production technologies, the effects are modest. But for larger shocks, for elasticities of substitution that decline as oil usage is reduced to a minimum, and for production functions in which oil acts as a critical enabler of technologies, output growth could drop significantly. Also, oil prices could become so high that smooth adjustment, as assumed in the model, may become very difficult.

  1. Economies of scope in Danish primary care practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Troels; Rose Olsen, Kim

    2011-01-01

    between GP services and overall economies of scope. Data: Cross-section data for a sample of 331 primary care practices with 1-8 GPs from the year 2006. This is a unique combined dataset consisting of survey and register data. Results: We find a trend towards cost complementarities between the production......Aim: We analyze total operating costs and activities in Danish General Practice units to assess whether there are unexploited economies of scope in the production of primary care services. Methods: We apply stochastic frontier analysis to derive cost functions and associated cost complementarities...

  2. 9 CFR 113.450 - General requirements for antibody products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Rivanol or card tests. Reactors to these supplemental tests shall not be used for production. Nonreactors... Rivanol or card tests. Reactors to these supplemental tests shall not be used for production. Nonreactors... bacterial count. One milliliter of each rehydrated sample, undiluted or diluted as prescribed in the Outline...

  3. Worker health is good for the economy: union density and psychosocial safety climate as determinants of country differences in worker health and productivity in 31 European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dollard, Maureen F; Neser, Daniel Y

    2013-09-01

    Work stress is recognized globally as a social determinant of worker health. Therefore we explored whether work stress related factors explained national differences in health and productivity (gross domestic product (GDP)). We proposed a national worker health productivity model whereby macro market power factors (i.e. union density), influence national worker health and GDP via work psychosocial factors and income inequality. We combined five different data sets canvasing 31 wealthy European countries. Aggregated worker self-reported health accounted for 13 per cent of the variance in national life expectancy and in national gross domestic product (GDP). The most important factors explaining worker self-reported health and GDP between nations were two levels of labor protection, macro-level (union density), and organizational-level (psychosocial safety climate, PSC, i.e. the extent of management concern for worker psychological health). The majority of countries with the highest levels of union density and PSC (i.e., workplace protections) were Social Democratic in nature (i.e., Sweden, Finland, Denmark, Norway). Results support a type of society explanation that social and economic factors (e.g., welfare regimes, work related policies) in concert with political power agents at a national level explain in part national differences in workplace protection (PSC) that are important for worker health and productivity. Attention should be given across all countries, to national policies to improve worker health, by bolstering national and local democratic processes and representation to address and implement policies for psychosocial risk factors for work stress, bullying and violence. Results suggest worker health is good for the economy, and should be considered in national health and productivity accounting. Eroding unionism may not be good for worker health or the economy either. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Sector- and economy-wide effects of terminating the use of anti-microbial growth promoters in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Lars-Bo; Jensen, Hans Grinsted; Lawson, Lartey

    2006-01-01

    calculates economy-wide effects of the removal of AGP using the Agricultural Applied General Equilibrium (AAGE) model of the Danish economy. The results show that the long-term effects are a moderate decline in the production and export of pig meat, and a positive indirect effect on other industries...

  5. Plutonium economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traube, K.

    1984-01-01

    The author expresses his opinion on the situation, describes the energy-economic setting, indicates the alternatives: fuel reprocessing or immediate long-term storage, and investigates the prospects for economic utilization of the breeder reactors. All the facts suggest that the breeder reactor will never be able to stand economic competition with light-water reactors. However, there is no way to prove the future. It is naive to think that every doubt could and must be removed before stopping the development of breeder reactors - and thus also the reprocessing of the fuel of light-water reactors. On the basis of the current state of knowledge an unbiased cost-benefit-analysis can only lead to the recommendation to stop construction immediately. But can 'experts', who for years or even decades have called for and supported the development of breeder reactors be expected to make an unbiased analysis. Klaus Traube strikes the balance of the state Germany's nuclear economy is in: although there is no chance of definitively abandoning that energy-political cul-de-sac, no new adventures must be embarked upon. Responsible handling of currently used nuclear technology means to give up breeder technology and waive plutonium economy. It is no supreme technology with the aid of which structural unemployment or any other economic problem could be solved. (orig.) [de

  6. Changing role of non-timber forest products (NTFP) in rural household economy: the case of Sinharaja World Heritage site in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senaratne, Athula; Abeygunawardena, Piyasena; Jayatilake, Wijaya

    2003-11-01

    This paper examines the modified patterns of utilizing non-timber forest products (NTFP) and associated behavioral changes around tropical forest areas in the context of conservation-related objectives and other commercially driven objectives. Our study introduces a conceptual framework based on the household production theory and tests empirically the hypotheses drawn at Sinharaja World Heritage in Sri Lanka. The results show that conditions introduced by forest conservation programs and the spread of small-scale commercial tea cultivation are transforming the economy around Sinharaja. The process is an economically rational one where resident communities decide upon their actions based on the opportunity cost of time involved with NTFP in the absence of observable prices. Although the process, overall, has led to a decline in the role of NTFP in the household economy, its impact over different NTFP are not uniform, leaving sustained demand for certain NTFP. This situation calls for a multifaceted approach in forest management programs to address the various household needs fulfilled by NTFP-based activities.

  7. The impacts of oil price fluctuations on the economy of sub-Saharan African countries, importers of oil products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sacko, I.

    1997-01-01

    This work comprises three parts. The first part aims at presenting the energy situation of sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries grouped in five regions. Because of the demographic pressure and of the petroleum shocks, the commercial energy consumption is growing up rapidly and the energy prices are high for the end-users (because the energy is imported and paid in dollars, and the fiscality share is increased by governments in the case of prices drop in the international market). The important problem of wood fuel is considered, together with the energy-economic growth relations and the determining factors of the energy demand in SSA. Some econometric relations are tested. The second part analyzes the mechanisms generated by petroleum shocks and counter-shocks, and stresses first on the transfers induced by these fluctuations. Then, it presents some macro-economical models which try to integrate the effects of a petroleum shock and makes some calculations based on a decomposition of imports and exports global and partial coefficients. Some important conclusions are inferred from this study: 1 - the second petroleum shock strikes more seriously the oil importing SSA countries because they do not benefit from a favorable international context, like during the first shock (also because the second shock is accompanied by a dollar shock); 2 - the absence of symmetry in oil shocks-counter-shocks; 3 - the crisis of SSA countries is not only of petroleum origin but is also linked with the drop of the export incomes (which itself is partially explained by the impact of petroleum shocks on the industrialized economies), with their bad insertion in the world economy, and with unsuitable domestic economies. The third part proposes some solutions to attenuate the energy and economical difficulties of these countries. It is necessary to implement an energy planning mainly based on the mastery of the demand and on a better management of local resources. The policies of

  8. [Contents of general flavonoides in Epimedium acuminatum Franch. and its differently-processed products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, H L; Wang, J K; Zhang, L L; Wu, Z Y

    2000-04-01

    Determining and comparing the contents of general flavonoides in four kinds of differently-processed products of Epimedium acuminatum. Determining the contents by ultraviolet spectrophotometry. The contents were found in the following seguence: unprocessed product, clearly-fried product, alcohol-broiled product, salt-broiled product, sheep-fat-broiled product. The average recovery rate was 96.01%, with a 0.74% RSD(n = 5). Heating causes the contents of general flavonoides in the processed products to decrease. These processed products are still often used in clinical treatment, for the reason that the adjuvant features certain coordinating and promoting functions. The study is to be pursued further.

  9. The NNP and Sustainability in Open Economy: Highlights on Recent World Economy and on Open Economy of Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Mohajan, Haradhan

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the theory of the net national product and, emphasizes on social welfare and sustainable accounting in open economy. It is observed that the world economy following an egalitarian path, the aggregate capital gains being positive is equivalent to the interest rate tending to decrease. This is important for the concept of net national product in open economies. Martin Weitzman gives a foundation for net national product as the stationary equivalent of a wealth maximizing pa...

  10. ICT Innovation in Emerging Economies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiao, Xiao; B. Califf, Christopher; Sarker, Saonee

    2013-01-01

    ICT innovation is known to significantly elevate a country’s growth and to enhance productivity. It is now well-acknowledged that emerging economies are beginning to innovate at a rapid rate despite some of the challenges they face. Given that these countries with such economies now comprise...... economies, what needs to be studied, and how they should be studied. We attempt to contribute in this area by: (1) providing a comprehensive framework of existing research on ICT innovation in emerging economies, (2) highlighting the gaps that have been left behind, and (3) providing specific guidelines...... to future researchers, including a research model summarizing the salient issues that need examination. We believe that our study makes an important contribution to research on ICT innovation in emerging economies, and can be a useful resource for future researchers interested in this topic....

  11. Perspectives on Eco Economics. Circular Economy and Smart Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Balaceanu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of sustainable development principles in contemporary economic thinking has generated the conceptual remodeling that expresses the new mechanisms of the economy. Thus, the concept of circular economy meet the theoretical representation of an economic system oriented towards the re-use of waste as raw materials and limiting the production of waste that cannot come back into the economic circuit. Circular economy is one that involves even its concept of operation, recovery and regeneration, as much as possible of resources, aiming to preserve, at the highest level, the value and usefulness of products, components and raw materials, distinguishing between technical and biological cycles. In this way, we can find solutions for two major issues affecting today's economy: the limited nature of resources and the pollution generated by the waste resulting from economic activities.

  12. Inefficient equilibria in transition economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei Guriev

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper studies a general equilibrium in an economy where all market participants face a bid-ask spread. The spread may be caused by indirect business taxes, middlemen rent-seeking, delays in payments or liquidity constraints or price uncertainty. Wherever it comes from the spread causes inefficiency of the market equilibrium. We discuss some institutions that can decrease the inefficiency. One is second currency (barter exchange in the inter-firm transactions. It is shown that the general equilibrium in an economy with second currency is effective though is still different from Arrow–Debreu equilibrium. Another solution can be introduction of mutual trade credit. In the economy with trade credit there are multiple equilibria that are more efficient than original bid-ask spread but still not as efficient as Arrow–Debreu one, too. The implications for firms' integration and applicability to Russian economy are discussed.

  13. Status rent in new developing economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandrova Natal'ja

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The status rent and conditions of its appearance are characterized in new developing economy by the position of new political economy. The bases of the general theory of rent were laid by classicists of political economy (F. Cene, A. Smith, J. Anderson, J. Mill, T. Maltus, D. Ricardo, K. Marx. They differentiated the rare rent (natural, absolute rent and differential land rent. Neoclassicists widened the definition of rent understanding it as income from any productive factor not only from land. Mostly, investigators of rent keep to two main postulates. Firstly, it is over profit, the income of special kind connected with using of exclusive, limited or rare goods for some time. Secondly, the rent is owned by the owners of these goods. These statements belonging to the natural rent can be used for the analysis of others, unnatural kinds of rent. The status rent belongs here. Let us analyze the status rent from the position of new political economy. As old political economy the new one also has its object - economic relations in the society and it call for the opening of deep, important processes of economic life. But by contrast with old political economy the new one, firstly, is based on other methodology (institutional economy, the theory of social choice, system approach; secondly, it studies economic relations not as static (the position of different classes, but as dynamic in economic behavior; thirdly, it is not confrontational: economic relations are understood not as antagonistic with non-avoidance of social cataclysm but as conflict-compromising; fourthly, it operates not only with social aggregates (class, country, social group, but it is also directed to a person, his/her freedom of choice in economic behavior; and, finally, fifthly, it overcomes the past careful marking out of other sciences, and, on the contrary, strives for an interdisciplinary approach in the stream of modern institutionalism including the problems of sociology

  14. MARKETING IMPLICATION IN WINE ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ştefan MATEI

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The wine, a very complex product in viticulture, has proved its tremendous importance not only to the individual but rational nutrition and increasing national income of a country cultivators (evidenced by the upward trend of the share of crop production horticulture and viticulture in the global economy agricultural. More interesting is, given the continued growth in the number of scientific publications and their quality (at least since the 1980s - where "wine" is the centerpiece of these studies - we can not but be witnessing a growing interest more to this "potion" and found that the growing popularity of wine in the science reveals the emergence of a new academic field, ie "wine economy" (or wine-economy. This study aims to make a foray into "wine economy" and to outline some of the implications of marketing in this area.

  15. The real new economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Diana

    2003-10-01

    During the soar-and-swoon days of the late 1990s, many people believed that information technology, and the Internet in particular, were "changing everything" in business. A fundamental change did happen in the 1990s, but it was less about technology than about competition. Under director Diana Farrell, the McKinsey Global Institute has conducted an extensive study of productivity and its connection to corporate IT spending and use during that period. The study revealed that information technology is important--but not central--to the fate of industries and individual companies. So if information technology was not the primary factor in the productivity surge, what was? The study points to competition and innovation. In those industries that saw increases in competitive intensity, managers were forced to innovate aggressively to protect their revenues and profits. Those innovations--in products, business practices, and technology--led to the gains in productivity. In fact, a critical dynamic of the new economy--the real new economy--is the virtuous cycle of competition, innovation, and productivity growth. Managers can innovate in many ways, but during the 1990s, information technology was a particularly powerful tool, for three reasons: First, IT enabled the development of attractive new products and efficient new business processes. Second, it facilitated the rapid industrywide diffusion of innovations. And third, it exhibited strong scale economies--its benefits multiplied rapidly as its use expanded. This article reveals surprising data on how various industries in the United States and Europe were affected by competition, innovation, and information technology in the 1990s and offers insights about how managers can get more from their IT investments.

  16. General characteristics of Bc-mesons. Production mechanisms and decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gershtein, S.S.; Likhoded, A.K.; Slabospitsky, S.R.

    1989-01-01

    Using Martin potential, independent of b- and c-quark flavour, the mass spectrum of B c (bc-bar)-mesons and widths of electromagnetic transition between them are calculated. The estimations of the production cross section at e + e - colliders, in hadronic and neutrino interactions are obtained. A real possibility to observed B c mesons at LEP and also at hadron colliders (σ(B c )/σ(bb-bar)∼10 -3 ) has been pointed out. The importance of observing the annihilation decay channels of B c -mesons: B c →τν τ (Br(B c →τν τ )=1.5-2%), and B c →ΦD s , B C →DK etc, has been emphasized. 25 refs.; 16 figs.; 5 tabs

  17. Assessment of Concentration in the Economy of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaustova Viktoriia Ye.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The article is dedicated to the generalization of theoretical aspects of economic concentration and assessment of concentration in Ukraine’s economy. It is proved that in the world there is a stable trend towards the spread of concentration processes both at the level of economies in general and individual industries and business entities, and it occurs predominantly within TNCs. The main stages of the development of TNCs are considered, and it is shown that modern TNCs are large corporations that are the main players in the market. The genesis of the theory of concentration in economy is considered. The views of scientists on the interpretation of the concept “concentration” are studied. It is proved that it is used in different meanings and with respect to different levels of economy and objects of consideration, and there is a wide diversity of basic criteria that determine the essential signs of this concept. The interpretation of the concept “concentration of the country’s economy” is proposed. The existing approaches to assessment of concentration in economy are analyzed. The trends in the development of concentration processes in Ukraine’s economy and the factors that are determined by them are analyzed. There investigated the distribution of industries of Ukraine’s economy in terms of net income of the largest corporations, dynamics of net income of the largest corporations, dynamics of distribution of industries of Ukraine’s economy in terms of profits of large companies, dynamics of net profit of the largest corporations of the top 10 industries of Ukraine’s economy, dynamics of the GDP of Ukraine and main indicators of the largest national corporations. The concentration of Ukraine’s economy is assessed, and it is determined that the most highly concentrated spheres are production of electronics and computers, the automotive industry, media, production of personal goods and software, provision of business

  18. Exploring the connections between green economy and informal economy in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne Smit

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The notion of an inclusive green economy in the context of sustainable development and poverty eradication requires an approach that engages with the informal economy. However, the informal economy is generally ignored or undervalued in discussions on the green economy. This paper set out to bolster this argument by identifying the ways in which the green economy and the informal economy may be connected by establishing the extent to which policies and plans relating to green economy connect with the informal economy, and recognising several informal green activities. The barriers and opportunities for connecting the two spheres were also explored as well as possible ways in which such activities may be supported at different levels of organisation. In the case of South Africa, many informal green activities that contribute to sustainable livelihoods are recognised. However, issues pertaining to procedure, process and participation hinder the transition to a truly inclusive green economy.

  19. COMPETITIVENESS FOR SUSTAINABLE ECONOMIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelu Eugen POPESCU

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The current economic environment puts pressure on all national economies which struggle to improve their competitiveness and innovativeness in a sustainable way. This article aims to present the current state of the competitiveness by reviewing the main literature and worldwide researches, in order to provide a brief overview of the determinants that drive productivity and economic success at global and national level, taking into consideration the entrepreneurial activity for a country’s competitiveness and economic growth. The paper identifies the ways in which efficiency driven countries can improve their policies and get a better return on their investments, underlining a set of competitiveness enhancing policies (measures that can be implemented by public and private institutions in order to strengthen the economic fundamentals of the economies.

  20. 29 CFR 780.216 - Nursery activities generally and Christmas tree production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Nursery activities generally and Christmas tree production... Nursery activities generally and Christmas tree production. (a) The employees of a nursery who are engaged... horticultural commodities such as the following are employed in agriculture: (1) Planting seedlings in a nursery...

  1. Electricity economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edelmann, E.

    1976-01-01

    Following a summarizing survey of the development of consumption, production, trade and power in the year 1975, an extensive bibliography is given which forms the foundations for the survey. (UA/LH) [de

  2. Waste-to-Chemicals for a Circular Economy: The Case of Urea Production (Waste-to-Urea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonetti, Elena; Iaquaniello, Gaetano; Salladini, Annarita; Spadaccini, Luca; Perathoner, Siglinda; Centi, Gabriele

    2017-03-09

    The economics and environmental impact of a new technology for the production of urea from municipal solid waste, particularly the residue-derived fuel (RdF) fraction, is analyzed. Estimates indicate a cost of production of approximately €135 per ton of urea (internal rate of return more than 10 %) and savings of approximately 0.113 tons of CH 4 and approximately 0.78 tons of CO 2 per ton of urea produced. Thus, the results show that this waste-to-urea (WtU) technology is both economically valuable and environmentally advantageous (in terms of saving resources and limiting carbon footprint) for the production of chemicals from municipal solid waste in comparison with both the production of urea with conventional technology (starting from natural gas) and the use of RdF to produce electrical energy (waste-to-energy). A further benefit is the lower environmental impact of the solid residue produced from RdF conversion. The further benefit of this technology is the possibility to realize distributed fertilizer production. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. The Underground Economy and GDP Estimation in Developing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The estimation of gross domestic product (GDP) in most developing countries portrays a lot of meaning; most often it is very low. This could be true or false. The existence of underground economy in this economies tend to undermine the estimation of GDP in developing economies, because the size of such economy is ...

  4. Translation, the Knowledge Economy, and Crossing Boundaries in Contemporary Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yun-Shiuan

    2016-01-01

    Significant developments in the global economy and information technology have been accompanied by a transformation in the nature and process of knowledge production and dissemination. Concepts such as the knowledge economy or creative economy have been formulated to accommodate the new and complex developments in knowledge, creativity, economy,…

  5. The effects of oil price on regional economies with different production structures: A case study from Korea using a structural VAR model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Chuhwan; Chung, Mo; Lee, Sukgyu

    2011-01-01

    This study analyzes the effects of oil price fluctuations on regional macroeconomic variables with a structural VAR model. We classified fifteen metropolitan cities and provinces of Korea into four major regions (Capital, Central, Honam, and Gyeongsang) and examined the effects of oil price fluctuations on the economy of these regions. The results in the short- and long-term lag structures show a negative response to industrial production and price. The Capital region is less affected by oil price fluctuations than the other three provincial regions. We concluded that the government should focus on creating an industrial environment to accumulate production factors and technologies in oil price-sensitive regions. - Highlights: ► We examined the effects of oil price shocks on four major economic areas of South Korea. ► We used structural VAR analysis. ► We showed that the production structure of a region influences the impact of oil price shocks. ► We inference that the government should focus on creating an industrial environment.

  6. Allocation base of general production costs as optimization of prime costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levytska I.O.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Qualified management aimed at optimizing financial results is the key factor in today's society. Effective management decisions depend on the necessary information about the costs of production process in all its aspects – their structure, types, accounting policies of reflecting costs. General production costs, the so-called indirect costs that are not directly related to the production process, but provide its functioning in terms of supporting structural divisions and create the necessary conditions of production, play a significant role in calculating prime costs of goods (works, services. However, the accurate estimate of prime costs of goods (works, services should be determined with the value of indirect costs (in other words, general production costs, and properly determined with the base of their allocation. The choice of allocation base of general production costs is the significant moment, depending on the nature of business, which must guarantee fair distribution regarding to the largest share of direct expenses in the total structure of production costs. The study finds the essence of general production costs based on the analysis of key definitions of leading Ukrainian economists. The optimal allocation approach of general production costs is to calculate these costs as direct production costs within each subsidiary division (department separately without selecting a base as the main one to the their total amount.

  7. The political economy of productive sectors: Explaining regulatory initiatives in the fisheries and dairy sectors in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Anne Mette

    of regulation of the fisheries resource. In contrast, Ugandan milk production has boomed since the mid 1990s, and while the quality of the milk used to be highly questionable due to practices such as diluting milk and boiling it in sauce-pans, quality has gradually improved due to regulatory initiatives...

  8. Primary Food Processing : Cornerstone of plant-based food production and the bio-economy in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Logatcheva, K.; Galen, van M.A.

    2015-01-01

    This report describes the supply chains and special characteristics of plant-based primary food processors; producers of (wheat) flour, starches, vegetable oils and fats, sugar, and cocoa. The production value, direct employment in the industry, and indirect employment in farming were calculated.

  9. Effects of different dry period lengths on production and economy in the dairy herd estimated by stochastic simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, J.T.; Enevoldsen, Carsten; Kristensen, T.

    1993-01-01

    exhibited two different rates of voluntary culling for reproductive failure and milk production, and the feeding regimes consisted of grass silage ad lib. and either 8 or 12 kg of concentrates/day in the first 24 weeks of lactation. The economic result was studied under a herd size and a milk quota...

  10. Ethanol production in the Southern High Plains of Texas: Impacts on the economy and scarce water resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    The establishment of new biorefineries in an effort to increase energy security in the United States has generated positive impacts by creating jobs and generating economic output. However, communities and local and state leaders are concerned about whether ethanol production is an effective use o...

  11. Losing Chlordimeform Use in Cotton Production. Its Effects on the Economy and Pest Resistance. Agricultural Economic Report Number 587.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osteen, Craig; Suguiyama, Luis

    This report examines the economic implications of losing chlordimeform use on cotton and considers chlordimeform's role in managing the resistance of bollworms and tobacco budworms to synthetic pyrethroids. It estimates changes in prices, production, acreage, consumer expenditures, aggregate producer returns, regional crop effects, and returns to…

  12. Imperatives for an agricultural green economy in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constansia Musvoto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Globally, there are social, economic and environmental challenges related to sustainable development; these challenges include climate change, the need to feed a rapidly increasing population, high rates of poverty and environmental degradation. These challenges have forced us to rethink the way in which development takes place, resulting in the emergence of the concept of a �green economy�. A green economy results in improved human well-being and social equity, while significantly reducing risks to the environment. It is based on principles which integrate social, economic and environmental considerations. South Africa has adopted the principle of green economic growth, and agriculture is one of the sectors that will drive this growth. Agriculture could address some of the sustainable development problems, but there are challenges related to resource availability, environmental impacts of agriculture and climate change. For agriculture to support a green economy it has to be productive, contribute to economic growth and not undermine the environment, social and cultural systems. The information base and policies required to support a green economy in general, and/or an agriculture-supported green economy have not yet been developed, as the green economy is an emerging concept in South Africa as well as globally. The generation of such information requires analysis and synthesis of green economy principles and agricultural imperatives into generic principles and practices for facilitating agriculture�s contribution to the green economy. In this paper, we conduct this analysis and synthesis and highlight the defining aspects of an agricultural green economy.

  13. Considerations Regarding the Expert Systems in the Economy and the Use Method of the Production Systems Based on Rules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenia IANCU

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available As it is known, the expert systems- particularlyreferring to the ones in the economical area, represent a currentissue of our days, them being approached by all the economicalbranches. Starting from these aspects, we wish to present somenecessary principles and considerations regarding the expertsystems, representation of the facts, systems based onproduction rules. The objective of this paper is aimed toidentifying the exigencies of the production system based onrules.

  14. Alternative raw materials in the production of food of animal origin balance between quality, safety and economy

    OpenAIRE

    Zhikov, M.

    2017-01-01

    An overview of the main substances applied in food of animal origin in order to return a certain amount of basic animal products in them. To discuss the benefits and harm to the consumer than food use of machine-deboned meat, vegetable fat, milk and blood proteins, gelatin, soy protein, starch, vegetable fiber and others. Indicated economic and technological reasons for their incorporation. Discuss possibilities for change in public opinion and future restrictions on their use. Available limi...

  15. Collaborative Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    things, de-industrialization processes and post-capitalist forms of production and consumption, postmaterialism, the rise of the third sector and collaborative governance. Addressing that gap, this book explores the character, depth and breadth of these disruptions, the creative opportunities for tourism...... that are emerging from them, and how governments are responding to these new challenges. In doing so, the book provides both theoretical and practical insights into the future of tourism in a world that is, paradoxically, becoming both increasingly collaborative and individualized. Table of Contents Preface 1.The......This book employs an interdisciplinary, cross-sectoral lens to explore the collaborative dynamics that are currently disrupting, re-creating and transforming the production and consumption of tourism. House swapping, ridesharing, voluntourism, couchsurfing, dinner hosting, social enterprise...

  16. Biochar: Promoting citizen driven carbon capture economies by developing science-inspired products that create a pull in the biochar market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood-Nowotny, Rebecca; Ziss, Elisabeth

    2017-04-01

    Prevention of catastrophic climate change requires push-pull mechanisms to attain critical mass engagement in reducing global carbon emissions or through large scale carbon capture, which is currently administered through international carbon trading schemes. Unfortunately the formal carbon trading market appears to be in disarray, as there is crisis of trust in the system; as a result the carbon credit prices are low and investment in solutions has almost ground to a halt. However there is still a public and commercial demand for trustworthy carbon credit products; consequently a vibrant and growing market. With this in mind we wanted to develop high value carbon-based substitution products for glass house production that that could have significant peripheral benefits to create market pull mechanisms. We systematically tested a variety biochar based products in hydroponic growing systems and commercial nursery scenarios, to determine their potential as substitute products. Results suggested that the high pH of the raw-biochar produced rendered it unsuitable for hydroponic production. Blending and buffering of the biochar for plant production was investigated and showed greater promise with comparable production potential. In another arm of horticultural production millions of cubic metres of peat are used across Europe each year. Biochar has a number of comparable properties to peat, it holds water, forms air pockets or pores to provide oxygen to plant roots and allows for drainage, it is light and most importantly it is sterile. In combination with other horticultural media such as compost, biochar blends could be a viable alternative to peat. Although there has been an explosion of research into the effect of biochar as a soil amendment, most of these publications deal with the impact of biochar on the carbon sequestration capacity of soils however few address the peripheral benefits of biochar on soil water holding capacity specifically in a horticultural

  17. The Methanol Economy Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olah, George [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Prakash, G. K. [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2014-02-01

    The Methanol Economy Project is based on the concept of replacing fossil fuels with methanol generated either from renewable resources or abundant natural (shale) gas. The full methanol cycle was investigated in this project, from production of methanol through bromination of methane, bireforming of methane to syngas, CO2 capture using supported amines, co-electrolysis of CO2 and water to formate and syngas, decomposition of formate to CO2 and H2, and use of formic acid in a direct formic acid fuel cell. Each of these projects achieved milestones and provided new insights into their respective fields.

  18. Kronecker product of Sp(2n) representations using generalized Young tableaux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girardi, G.; Sciarrino, A.; Sorba, P.

    1981-09-01

    Using generalized Young tableaux, we obtain an explicit formula for the reduction of the Kronecker product of irreducible representation of the symplectic groups. This extends a previous work devoted to the case of orthogonal groups

  19. A report on the development of China's market economy 2005

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiaoxi

    2006-01-01

    This paper dicusses on the issue of the development of China's market economy from six aspects.(1)Basic Content and Conclusions on the development of China's market economy.(2)Further progress in building market-oriented economy in China.(3)Assessment of the degree of market economy development in China.(4)New progress in 2004 in developing market economy in China.(5)A general analysis of twelve key questions concerning market economy.(6)Resolution of the"non-market economy"issue:a win-win option.

  20. Four Approaches to the Creative Economy: General Overview Keturi požiūriai į kūrybos ekonomiką: bendroji apžvalga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasa Levickaitė

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available

    The article presents the concept of the creative economy as a new economic phenomenon in the globalized environment. Four approaches on the new occurrence are presented. According to John Howkins theory, the fifteen creative industries (listed by the author are the core of the creative economy. Both creativity and economy aren’t new, but brand new are its interaction and scope. A wide definition of creativity has formed Richard Florida’s theory of the developing creative class, which is a group of professionals, researchers and artists whose presence creates socioeconomic and cultural dynamism in cities especially. Richard Caves characterizes creative industries on the basis of seven economic properties and presents an idea that creative industries as such aren’t unique but the sectors of creative industries driven by creativity generate new approaches to business processes, the demand-supply chain and covers both economic and social indicators of the country development. Charles Landry has proposed a creative city concept, which states that cities are dependent on one resource only – its people. Creativity changes place, natural resources, market access, and becomes the key to dynamism of city development. A creative city defines a metropolis with variety of cultural activities glued to urban economical and social functioning. Key activities highly influencing rapid growth of the creative industries worldwide are related to both technology and economy. Digital revolutions and economic environments where revolutions took place, changes in technology and communications altogether have formed new conditions for development of creative economy as a new economic phenomenon.

    Article in English

    Straipsnyje pristatoma kūrybos ekonomikos koncepcija, kūrybos ekonomikos reiškinys analizuojamas globalioje aplinkoje. Pateikiama keturių požiūrių į kūrybos ekonomiką apžvalga: Johno Howkinso (2007 teorija remiasi paties

  1. Biogas production in Denmark - Assessments of the operational and societal economy; Biogasproduktion i Danmark - Vurderinger af drifts- og samfundsoekonomi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobsen, Brian H.; Laugesen, F.M.; Dubgaard, A.; Bojesen, M.

    2013-06-15

    In the mid 1990's, the increase in the biogas production came from 20 centralised biogas plants. Since then the increase in biogas production has come mainly from farm biogas plants and it is estimated that around 8% of all slurry today is used to produce biogas. With the energy agreement from 2012 and a new political ambition of using up to 50% of all slurry and manure in the production of biogas, new targets, as well as a new framework have been set up for the future biogas production in Denmark. The aim of this report is to assess the business and socio-economics of biogas in Denmark under the new conditions given by the 2012 energy agreement. It is the aim to highlight many of the different parameters which, in effect, decides the economic outcome. Furthermore, it is the aim to look at the socio-economic gains and costs related to biogas production, including the positive side effects which come from biogas. The analysis of farm biogas indicates that the business profit is positive of around 0.4 million DKK per year, while the result for the organic plant is a deficit of around 4 million DKK per year despite the assumption that the farms are located relatively near the biogas plant. In the socio-economic analysis, the value of replaced natural gas is included as well as the value of increased fertiliser value and reduced nitrogen leaching. In the calculations, a net tax factor of 35% has been used to change the factor prices to consumer prices. A tax distortion factor (dead weight loss factor) of 20% has been used to account for the subsidies given and the change in taxation required. This is done even though the Danish PSO levy ensures that the subsidies given do actually affect the price of the energy bought by the consumer. The interest is set at 4.25% following the recommendation by the Ministry of Finance and The Environment Agency. The analyses show that the direct socio-economic costs are 39.5 million DKK and that the tax distortion effect costs 5

  2. Foreword. The Knowledge Economy: The Present Future

    OpenAIRE

    Constantin Bratianu

    2017-01-01

    All the statistics and evaluations show that the Knowledge Economy is our future. However, a close look at the developed economies demonstrates that the Knowledge Economy is already here, shaping our present time. Although there are many definitions of this new economic framework, their core content stresses the importance of data, information, and knowledge in the production of goods and delivering services in creating value for society. For instance, Powell and Snellman (2004, p.1999) defin...

  3. Organisational determinants of production and efficiency in general practice: a population-based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose Olsen, Kim; Gyrd-Hansen, Dorte; Sørensen, Torben Højmark

    2013-01-01

    Shortage of general practitioners (GPs) and an increased political focus on primary care have enforced the interest in efficiency analysis in the Danish primary care sector. This paper assesses the association between organisational factors of general practices and production and efficiency. We a...

  4. Certain new unified integrals associated with the product of generalized Bessel functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveen Agarwal

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Our focus to presenting two very general integral formulas whose integrands are the integrand given in the Oberhettinger's integral formula and a finite product of the generalized Bessel function of the first kind, which are expressed in terms of the generalized Lauricella functions. Among a large number of interesting and potentially useful special cases of our main results, some integral formulas involving such elementary functions are also considered.

  5. Energy taxes and wages in a general equilibrium model of production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, H.

    2000-01-01

    Energy taxes are responsible for a good deal of observed differences in energy prices across states and countries. They alter patterns of production and income distribution. The present paper examines the potential of energy taxes to lower wages in a general equilibrium model of production with capital, labour and energy inputs. (Author)

  6. 6 CFR 5.45 - Procedure when testimony or production of documents is sought; general.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Procedure when testimony or production of... Procedure when testimony or production of documents is sought; general. (a) If official information is... requiring oral testimony, and identification of potentially relevant documents. (c) The appropriate...

  7. Analysis Of Agricultural Productivity And Growth On Safta (South Asian Free Trade Agreement And Its Imact On Economy Of Pakistan By Using CGE Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazir Ahmed GOPANG

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This research explore the opportunities and analyzing the cost andbenefit on Pak-India trade on South Asian Free Trade Agreement (SAFTAand its possible impact on the welfare of both countries. Pak-India trade on SAFTA create opportunities for the both countries in export Laid growth. In First Scenario when normal trading relation will be restores and given MFN(Most Favored Nations status given to each other to attack the trade between two countries. The Global trade analysis GTAP model is used to analyze the possible impact of SAFTA on Pakistan in a multi country, multi sector applied General equilibrium frame work. After employing the simplified static analysis framework, the analysis based on simulations revealsthat current demand for Pakistani Basmati Rice and other consumer items like leather and cotton-made garments will expand after the FTA and consumer surplus will increase. The export of Rice, leather and cotton-made garments may be conducted by two scenarios, i.e. when normal trading relations between Pakistan and India will be restored and when there will be a free trade between Pakistan and India in the presence of South Asian Free Trade Agreement (SAFTA. Results based on this research reveal that on SAFTA, grounds, there will be net export benefi ts in Pakistan’s economy.

  8. Economy in utilizing electron beam accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Masao

    1980-01-01

    As the typical industrialized processes using electron beam irradiation, the following items may be given: the manufacture of cables covered with cross-linking polyethylene or PVC, heat-contracting material, cross-linking polyethylene foam, etc., and the curing of coatings or surface finishes. The results of investigating economy in these processes are described. First, the running cost of electron beam irradiation equipments is calculated. The result shows that, in general, the unit cost of the equipments becomes small with increasing output, therefore the selection of large power equipments may be advantageous for economy. Other important factors concerning the equipments are the reliability and lifetime which are being improved every year and the improvement of the operational efficiency of the equipments. Next, the comparison of cost was made for each industrialized process of the cables covered with cross-linking polyethylene, polyethylene foam, and the curing of coatings. In general, the processing cost is smaller and the depreciation cost is larger in electron beam irradiation process as compared with conventional processes. In addition, since the productive capacity is larger in electron beam process it is preponderant when the amount of production is large. In the industrialized examples, unique processes or features which are not obtainable by other methods are attained. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  9. Working in the informal economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidder, T

    2000-07-01

    Informal ways of working are widespread and central to the economy and markets. This paper explores what informal economy is and how it could be more valuable for men and women. The informal economy is a mix of the following activities: 1) subsistence work which includes agriculture, marginal economic projects, and unpaid work in the home; 2) informal work which includes unregistered businesses, and illegal or criminal activities; 3) casual production, a sub-contracted or ¿off-the-books¿ work which deprives workers of the benefits tied to recognized employment; and 4) community work and barter. It is shown that more women, when compared to men, work and live on the border between the household and the market economy. Usually men do more technical or mechanized production while women tend to do activities within traditional women's roles. Men and women often have different understanding of what work is. Men consistently underestimate the women's contribution to the household income. To improve this critical issue of gender differences, rules, norms, and laws that cause problems must be identified, and then work can begin with both men and women to change laws and policies, as well as ideas and beliefs about women's contribution to the economy.

  10. FISPRO: a simplified computer program for general fission product formation and decay calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiacoletti, R.J.; Bailey, P.G.

    1979-08-01

    This report describes a computer program that solves a general form of the fission product formation and decay equations over given time steps for arbitrary decay chains composed of up to three nuclides. All fission product data and operational history data are input through user-defined input files. The program is very useful in the calculation of fission product activities of specific nuclides for various reactor operational histories and accident consequence calculations

  11. Economy, employment and productivity in the metropolis of Mexico / Economía, empleo y productividad en las metrópolis de México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edel Cadena Vargas

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the economy, employment, and productivity of 56 metropolitan zones from Mexico. Concludes that, through statistical analysis, this kind of cities keep being a big attraction focus of population, but its economical activities decrease or damages gradually. For that, if this tendency to stagnation continues, in the short term will be a gloomy future to the metropolis for this country. Este artículo analiza la evolución de la economía, empleo y productividad de las 56 zonas metropolitanas de México, de 1989 a 2004. Concluye, a través del análisis estadístico, que este tipo de ciudades siguen siendo un gran foco de atracción de la población, pero sus actividades económicas disminuyen gradualmente o se deterioran. Por ello, de continuar esta tendencia al estancamiento, se vislumbra a corto plazo un futuro sombrío para las metrópolis de este país.

  12. Cascading of Biomass. 13 Solutions for a Sustainable Bio-based Economy. Making Better Choices for Use of Biomass Residues, By-products and Wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odegard, I.; Croezen, H.; Bergsma, G.

    2012-08-15

    Smarter and more efficient use of biomass, referred to as cascading, can lead to an almost 30% reduction in European greenhouse gas emissions by 2030 compared with 2010. As the title study makes clear, cascading of woody biomass, agricultural and industrial residues and other waste can make a significant contribution to a greening of the economy. With the thirteen options quantitatively examined annual emissions of between 330 and 400 Mt CO2 can be avoided by making more efficient use of the same volume of biomass as well as by other means. 75% of the potential CO2 gains can be achieved with just four options: (1) bio-ethanol from straw, for use as a chemical feedstock; (2) biogas from manure; (3) biorefining of grass; and (4) optimisation of paper recycling. Some of the options make multiple use of residues, with biomass being used to produce bioplastics that, after several rounds of recycling, are converted to heat and power at the end of their life, for example. In other cases higher-grade applications are envisaged: more efficient use of recyclable paper and wood waste, in both economic and ecological terms, using them as raw materials for new paper and chipboard rather than as an energy source. Finally, by using smart technologies biomass can be converted to multiple products.

  13. A report on the development of China¡¯s market economy 2005

    OpenAIRE

    LI Xiaoxi

    2006-01-01

    This paper dicusses on the issue of the development of China s market economy from six aspects. (1) Basic Content and Conclusions on the development of China s market economy. (2) Further progress in building market-oriented economy in China. (3) Assessment of the degree of market economy development in China. (4) New progress in 2004 in developing market economy in China. (5) A general analysis of twelve key questions concerning market economy. (6) Resolution of the non-market economy issue:...

  14. UNDERGROUND ECONOMY, INFLUENCES ON NATIONAL ECONOMIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CEAUȘESCU IONUT

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of research is to improve the understanding of nature underground economy by rational justification of the right to be enshrined a reality that, at least statistically, can no longer be neglected. So, we propose to find the answer to the question: has underground economy to stand-alone?

  15. Economies of vertical integration in the Swiss electricity sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fetz, Aurelio; Filippini, Massimo [Department of Management, Technology and Economics, ETH Zurich (Switzerland); Department of Economics, University of Lugano (Switzerland)

    2010-11-15

    Over the last two decades, several European nations have introduced reforms to their electricity sector. Generally, these reforms require a legal and functional unbundling of vertically integrated companies. These unbundling processes may reduce the possibilities that exist to fruitfully exploit the advantages of vertical integration. The goal of this paper is to empirically analyze the presence of economies of scale and vertical integration in the Swiss electricity sector. Economies of vertical integration between electricity production and distribution result from reduced transaction costs, better coordination of highly specific and interdependent investments and less financial risk. Different econometric specifications for panel data, including a random effects and a random-coefficients model, have been used to estimate a quadratic multi-stage cost function for a sample of electricity companies. The empirical results reflect the presence of considerable economies of vertical integration and economies of scale for most of the companies considered in the analysis. Moreover, the results suggest a variation in economies of vertical integration across companies due to unobserved heterogeneity. (author)

  16. Agglomeration Economies in Classical Music

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borowiecki, Karol Jan

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates agglomeration effects for classical music production in a wide range of cities for a global sample of composers born between 1750 and 1899. Theory suggests a trade-off between agglomeration economies (peer effects) and diseconomies (peer crowding). I test this hypothesis...

  17. Certain fractional integral formulas involving the product of generalized Bessel functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baleanu, D; Agarwal, P; Purohit, S D

    2013-01-01

    We apply generalized operators of fractional integration involving Appell's function F 3(·) due to Marichev-Saigo-Maeda, to the product of the generalized Bessel function of the first kind due to Baricz. The results are expressed in terms of the multivariable generalized Lauricella functions. Corresponding assertions in terms of Saigo, Erdélyi-Kober, Riemann-Liouville, and Weyl type of fractional integrals are also presented. Some interesting special cases of our two main results are presented. We also point out that the results presented here, being of general character, are easily reducible to yield many diverse new and known integral formulas involving simpler functions.

  18. Certain Fractional Integral Formulas Involving the Product of Generalized Bessel Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baleanu, D.; Agarwal, P.; Purohit, S. D.

    2013-01-01

    We apply generalized operators of fractional integration involving Appell's function F 3(·) due to Marichev-Saigo-Maeda, to the product of the generalized Bessel function of the first kind due to Baricz. The results are expressed in terms of the multivariable generalized Lauricella functions. Corresponding assertions in terms of Saigo, Erdélyi-Kober, Riemann-Liouville, and Weyl type of fractional integrals are also presented. Some interesting special cases of our two main results are presented. We also point out that the results presented here, being of general character, are easily reducible to yield many diverse new and known integral formulas involving simpler functions. PMID:24379745

  19. Nuclear energy in the hydrogen economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertel, E.; Lee, K.S.; Nordborg, C.

    2004-01-01

    In the framework of a sustainable development, the hydrogen economy is envisaged as an alternative scenario in substitution to the fossil fuels. After a presentation of the hydrogen economy advantages, the author analyzes the nuclear energy a a possible energy source for hydrogen production since nuclear reactors can produce both the heat and electricity required for it. (A.L.B.)

  20. Understanding the New Economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrell, Louis R.

    2001-01-01

    Asserts that while the Nasdaq bubble did burst, the new economy is real and that failure to understand the rules of the digital economy can lead to substandard investment portfolio performance. Offers guidelines for higher education institutional investors. (EV)

  1. ENTREPRENEURSHIP EDUCATION AND THE ECONOMY VICIOUS CIRCLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MEDAR LUCIAN ION

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Education for sustainable development, involves training honest, active, social and creative persons for ensuring the link between environment, society, economy and politics. Trained entrepreneurs in sustainable development, are the engine system which can bring an economic prosperity. Lack of entrepreneurial education in the last 25 years has led accentuated conditions to avoiding economic development in all reference fields where added value can be achieved. Running away from excessive taxation led to the establishment of vicious circles in the economy. Vicious circles of the economy can be found in saving, tax policy, productive investment and the informal economy. Through this study will present the importance of entrepreneurship education in the real economy and some specifications to exit entrepreneurs from vicious circles of the economy.

  2. The (APolitical Economy of Bitcoin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilis Kostakis

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The still raging financial crisis of 2007–2008 has enabled the emergence of several alternative practices concerning the production, circulation and use of money. This essay explores the political economy of the Bitcoin ecosystem. Specifically, we examine the context in which this digital currency is emerging as well as its nature, dynamics, advantages, and disadvantages. We conclude that Bitcoin, a truly interesting experiment, exemplifies "distributed capitalism" and should be mostly seen as a technological innovation. Rather than providing pragmatic answers and solutions to the current views on the financial crisis, Bitcoin provides some useful and timely questions about the principles and bases of the dominant political economy.

  3. Foreword. The Knowledge Economy: The Present Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin Bratianu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available All the statistics and evaluations show that the Knowledge Economy is our future. However, a close look at the developed economies demonstrates that the Knowledge Economy is already here, shaping our present time. Although there are many definitions of this new economic framework, their core content stresses the importance of data, information, and knowledge in the production of goods and delivering services in creating value for society. For instance, Powell and Snellman (2004, p.1999 define the knowledge economy as “production and services based on knowledge-intensive activities that contribute to an accelerated pace of technical and scientific advance, as well as a rapid obsolescence. The key component of the knowledge economy is a greater reliance on intellectual capabilities than on physical inputs or natural resources”. In the knowledge economy, knowledge becomes a strategic resource (Davenport & Prusak, 2000; Nonaka & Takeuchi, 1995 and knowledge strategies contribute directly to the competitive advantage (Bratianu & Bolisani, 2015. In this new economy, data, information, and knowledge are the driving forces of development and the knowledge economy is the engine of the global economy growth...

  4. Knowledge Based Economy Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Madalina Cristina Tocan

    2012-01-01

    The importance of knowledge-based economy (KBE) in the XXI century is evident. In the article the reflection of knowledge on economy is analyzed. The main point is targeted to the analysis of characteristics of knowledge expression in economy and to the construction of structure of KBE expression. This allows understanding the mechanism of functioning of knowledge economy. The authors highlight the possibility to assess the penetration level of KBE which could manifest itself trough the exist...

  5. Accounting concept of inventories in postindustrial economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pravdyuk N.L.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The accounting of inventories has undergone significant changes over a relatively short period of time. It has changed the scientific picture of their definition and classification, measurement and write-offs reflected in the financial statements. However, these changes happen without proper interpretation and system analysis. And, at least in general terms the inventories are conducted in Ukraine according to IFRS; this causes some obstacles to the objective reflection of working capital of enterprises, and the transparency of disclosure and is not conducive to the formation of a proper investment climate. It is established that the information provision inventory control must meet the requirements of the postindustrial economy by the complicating and deepening the complexity of accounting, the introduction of new forms and their synthesis with the current one, a gradual reorganization to ensure the needs of consumers and enterprise evaluation. The results of the study have substantiated the fundamentals of accounting concepts in the postindustrial economy in the part of the circulating capital, which forms inventories. The information support of inventory management should be implemented in a hierarchical way, when it first and foremost analyzes the working capital, and further deals with inventories and stocks as its subordinate components. The author considers the material goods to be a broader concept than reserves, because they have a dual nature both estimated as the share of negotiable assets, and as the physical component of material costs. The paper gives the definition of this category of symbiosis, which is based on P(CBU 9. The general structure of the current inventories are of significant importance, which has differences in industries, the dominant of which is agriculture, industry, construction, trade, material production. The postindustrial economy caused the questions of differentiation of concepts "production" and "material

  6. Assessing energy efficiencies, economy, and global warming potential (GWP) effects of major crop production systems in Iran: a case study in East Azerbaijan province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadzadeh, Arash; Mahdavi Damghani, Abdolmajid; Vafabakhsh, Javad; Deihimfard, Reza

    2017-07-01

    Efficient use of energy in farming systems is one of the most important implications for decreasing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and mitigating global warming (GW). This paper describes the energy use patterns, analyze the economics, and report global warming potential effects of major crop production systems in East Azerbaijan province, Iran. For this purpose, 110 farmers whose main activity was major crop production in the region, including wheat, barley, carrot, tomato, onion, potato, alfalfa, corn silage, canola, and saffron, were surveyed. Some other data was obtained from the Ministry of Agriculture Jihad of Iran. Results showed that, in terms of total energy input, onion (87,556 Mj ha -1 ) and potato (80,869 Mj ha -1 ) production systems were more energy-intensive than other crops. Among the studied crops, the highest values of net return (6563.8 $ ha -1 ) and benefit/cost ratio (1.95) were related to carrot and corn silage production systems, respectively. Studies have also shown that onion and saffron production systems emit the highest (5332.6 kg CO2eq ha -1 ) and lowest (646.24 kg CO 2 eq ha -1 ) CO 2 eq. emission, respectively. When it was averaged across crops, diesel fuel accounted for the greatest GHG contribution with 43% of the total, followed by electric power (28%) and nitrogen fertilizer (21%). In the present study, eco-efficiency was calculated as a ratio of the gross production value and global warming potential effect for the studied crops. Out of all the studied crops, the highest values of eco-efficiency were calculated to be 8.65 $ kg CO 2 eq -1 for the saffron production system followed by the carrot (3.65 $ kg CO 2 eq -1 ) production. Generally, from the aspect of energy balance and use efficiency, the alfalfa production system was the best; however, from an economical point of view, the carrot production system was better than the other crops.

  7. The symbolic economy of drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentacker, Antoine

    2016-02-01

    This essay reviews four recent studies representing a new direction in the history of pharmaceuticals and pharmaceutical science. To this end, it introduces the notion of a symbolic economy of drugs, defined as the production, circulation, and reception of signs that convey information about drugs and establish trust in them. Each of the studies under review focuses on one key signifier in this symbolic economy, namely the brand, the patent, the clinical trial, and the drug itself. Drawing on Pierre Bourdieu's theory of the economy of symbolic goods, I conceptualize these signifiers as symbolic assets, that is, as instruments of communication and credit, delivering knowledge, carrying value, and producing authority. The notion of a symbolic economy is offered with a threefold intention. First, I introduce it in order to highlight the implications of historical and anthropological work for a broader theory of the economy of drugs, thus suggesting a language for interdisciplinary conversations in the study of pharmaceuticals. Second, I deploy it in an attempt to emphasize the contributions of the recent scholarship on drugs to a critical understanding of our own contemporary ways of organizing access to drugs and information about drugs. Finally, I suggest ways in which it might be of use to scholars of other commodities and technologies.

  8. 77 FR 38553 - Proposed Modification to Regulation Concerning the Use of Market Economy Input Prices in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-28

    ... Regulation Concerning the Use of Market Economy Input Prices in Nonmarket Economy Proceedings AGENCY: Import... states that the Department normally will use the price that a nonmarket economy (``NME'') producer pays to a market economy supplier when a factor of production is purchased from a market economy supplier...

  9. Open Wilson lines and generalized star product in noncommutative scalar field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiem, Youngjai; Sato, Haru-Tada; Rey, Soo-Jong; Yee, Jung-Tay

    2002-01-01

    Open Wilson line operators and a generalized star product have been studied extensively in noncommutative gauge theories. We show that they also show up in noncommutative scalar field theories as universal structures. We first point out that the dipole picture of noncommutative geometry provides an intuitive argument for the robustness of the open Wilson lines and generalized star products therein. We calculate the one-loop effective action of noncommutative scalar field theory with a cubic self-interaction and show explicitly that the generalized star products arise in the nonplanar part. It is shown that, at the low-energy, large noncommutativity limit, the nonplanar part is expressible solely in terms of the scalar open Wilson line operator and descendants

  10. An Interaction of Economy and Environment in Dynamic Computable General Equilibrium Modeling with a Focus on Climate Change Issue in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joh, S.H.; Chang, K.G.; Kim, Y.G.; Kang, S.I. [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea); Rob, D. [Wageningen University, Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2001-12-01

    In this study, the economic cost; of carbon taxes imposed on fossil fuels associated with climate change issue in Korea were analyzed based on the model of a small open-economy forward-looking dynamic CGE over the years 1998-2047. As a primary policy instrument, carbon taxes are imposed on coal, oil, and gas from year 2013 through 2047 from 100,000 Korean Won/ton of Carbon (TC) to KW400,000. The primary findings through this study are as follows: First, the primary economic indicators reflecting the results of sensitivity analysis through the study estimated that in the year 2025 at a carbon tax rate of 100,000KW/TC, the EVs span from -0.217% to -0.167% and the GDP changes from -0.195% to -0.432%, while the results from a rate of 400,000KW/TC were found to be -0.472% to -0.575% for EVs and -0.708% to - 1.525% for GDPs. Second, the reduction of emissions attributed to carbon tax rates of 100,000KW/TC equal 17(25) million TC which is 1.19(1.78) times the 2000 level in the year 2015(2035). In terms of GDP, the corresponding economic costs of the abatement are 1,261 billion Korean Won in 2015 and 4,551 KW in 2035. Third, the changes in GDP, resulting from sensitivity analysis, are almost identical with a tax rate of 100,000KW/TC and annual growth rate or 2{approx}3%. Thus, the change in GDP with a 3%(2%) growth rate were calculated to be -0.025%(-0.023%) in 2005, -0.176%(-0.176%) in 2015, -0.292%(-0.294%) in 2025, -0.347%(-0.350%) in 2035, and -0.371%(-0.374%) in 2045. In comparison to other Korean studies on carbon tax simulations, the results of this study found that there was no significant difference of the economic cost assessments in terms of GDP loss, overall; however, with increasing tax rates, the reduction in emissions in the present study were found to be less than those of previous ones. The following policy recommendations are suggested based on the results from this study: First, the carbon tax approach should be utilized to a limited extent. In the

  11. Paraguay: population and the economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, T G

    1986-01-01

    Paraguay's political conflicts and development experiences have been accompanied by compensatory population movements; however, economic and population policies of the past are not adequate to address the current economic challenges. The principal structural problem is dependence on international commodity prices. Since late 1984, the international prices for soya and cotton have declined more than 50%; these 2 products account for 83% of official exports. The external debt has grown significantly in the past 5 years and is increasingly difficult to service. A major problem the government faces in servicing the debt and maintaining economic growth is its inability to get control of foreign exchange. Much of Paraguay's external trade is contraband, with the dollars passing into the black market. As a result of the illegal economy, government earnings have been insufficient to cover expenses. Unemployment stands at 12% because of general economic decline, cuts in government expenditure, and the reduction of investment in hydroelectricity. Occupation of new land, the classic solution by the Paraguayan peasantry, is no longer a viable option since all land is now utilized. About 20-25% of Paraguayans live outside the country, expecially in Argentina. In 1986, a commission drafted an Adjustment Plan that recommended a devaluation of the official gurani rate, tax increases, higher tariffs for public services, and incentives to invest in priority areas; however, this plan has not been implemented to date.

  12. 28 CFR 16.22 - General prohibition of production or disclosure in Federal and State proceedings in which the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General prohibition of production or... Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PRODUCTION OR DISCLOSURE OF MATERIAL OR INFORMATION Production or Disclosure in Federal and State Proceedings § 16.22 General prohibition of production or...

  13. Generalized coherent state approach to star products and applications to the fuzzy sphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexanian, G.; Pinzul, A.; Stern, A.

    2001-01-01

    We construct a star product associated with an arbitrary two-dimensional Poisson structure using generalized coherent states on the complex plane. From our approach one easily recovers the star product for the fuzzy torus, and also one for the fuzzy sphere. For the latter we need to define the 'fuzzy' stereographic projection to the plane and the fuzzy sphere integration measure, which in the commutative limit reduce to the usual formulae for the sphere

  14. Hydrogen economy and nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knapp, V.

    2004-01-01

    Global energy outlooks based on present trends, such as WETO study, give little optimism about fulfilling Kyoto commitments in controlling CO2 emissions and avoiding unwanted climate consequences. Whilst the problem of radioactive waste has a prominence in public, in spite of already adequate technical solutions of safe storage for future hundreds and thousands of years, there s generally much less concern with influence of fossil fuels on global climate. In addition to electricity production, process heat and transportation are approximately equal contributors to CO2 emission. Fossil fuels in transportation present also a local pollution problem in congested regions. Backed by extensive R and D, hydrogen economy is seen as the solution, however, often without much thought where from the hydrogen in required very large quantities may come. With welcome contributions from alternative sources, nuclear energy is the only source of energy capable of producing hydrogen in very large amounts, without parallel production of CO2. Future high temperature reactors could do this most efficiently. In view of the fact that nuclear weapon proliferation is not under control, extrapolation from the present level of nuclear power to the future level required by serious attempts to reduce global CO2 emission is a matter of justified concern. Finding the sites for many hundreds of new reactors would, alone, be a formidable problem in developed regions with high population density. What is generally less well understood and not validated is that the production of nuclear hydrogen allows the required large increases of nuclear power without the accompanied increase of proliferation risks. Unlike electricity, hydrogen can be economically shipped or transported by pipelines to places very far from the place of production. Thus, nuclear production of hydrogen can be located and concentrated at few remote, controllable sites, far from the population centers and consumption regions. At such

  15. Fuel economy handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Short, W [ed.

    1979-01-01

    An overview of the UK's energy situation from 1950 to 2020 is presented. Problems are discussed and recommendations are made. A strong argument is presented for energy conservation, greater use of nuclear energy, and restrained production of North Sea oil. Specific recommendations are made for financial and operational considerations of (1) new or replacement boiler plants; (2) space heating of factories, offices and similar buildings; and (3) possible use of various fuels including duel-fuel economics and use of wastes. Tariffs and charges are discussed as well as services (e.g. compressed air, cooling water, sources of waste, etc.). Standby considerations (peak load lopping, turbines-engines, parallel or sectioned operation, etc.) and heat distribution (steam, condensate return and uses) are discussed. Throughout, the emphasis is on fuel economy. Savings in process such as recovering waste heat and the storage of heat are considered. For small industrial furnaces, intermittent heating, heat recovery, and the importance of furnace loading are discussed. (MJJ)

  16. Modeling of similar economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey B. Kuznetsov

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective to obtain dimensionless criteria ndash economic indices characterizing the national economy and not depending on its size. Methods mathematical modeling theory of dimensions processing statistical data. Results basing on differential equations describing the national economy with the account of economical environment resistance two dimensionless criteria are obtained which allow to compare economies regardless of their sizes. With the theory of dimensions we show that the obtained indices are not accidental. We demonstrate the implementation of the obtained dimensionless criteria for the analysis of behavior of certain countriesrsquo economies. Scientific novelty the dimensionless criteria are obtained ndash economic indices which allow to compare economies regardless of their sizes and to analyze the dynamic changes in the economies with time. nbsp Practical significance the obtained results can be used for dynamic and comparative analysis of different countriesrsquo economies regardless of their sizes.

  17. Dismantling the Cold War economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markusen, A.; Yudkin, J.

    1992-01-01

    End-of-the-Cold-War economic realities include political jockeying over the future of weapons systems, a paucity of meaningful conversion efforts, and a suspicion that a weak economy will be unable to compensate for the loss of jobs and purchasing power as defense budgets are reduced. The authors of this book present three interrelated hypotheses: The first is that the existence of a large military production sector has depleted the civilian economy of key resources and has preempted creation of the kind of broad-base civilian-oriented industrial policies needed for economic revitalization. The second is that a large military production sector creates barriers to the movement of resources. The third is that economic depletion and the barriers to moving resources to civilian production make conversion planning essential. This book explains why conversion is difficult, but offers only a few pages of specific conversion proposals

  18. Report on the behalf of the finance, general economy and budget control commission on the finance bill for 2012: Appendix 14: ecology, sustainable development and planning. Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrez, G.

    2011-01-01

    The author first addresses aspect of the finance bill concerning past decisions and the past energy production context and policy: the after-mining management, measure in favour of Lorraine, an electricity cost which misses out the plant dismantling financing. Then, he addresses the policy in favour of renewable energies: renewal of hydroelectric concessions, tax support for energy sobriety. He comments the on-going audit of AREVA and EDF, and notably addresses the EPR construction issue (in Finland) and the purchase of UraMin by AREVA

  19. Innovative Economy as the Objective Necessity of the Contemporary Development of an Economic System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gotsuliak Liudmyla V.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article considers substance and main features of innovation economy, discloses the basic principles of its building, its signs and indicators. The results of transition to innovative economy both in the developed countries and in the so-called newly industrializing countries have been studied and are visualized. Thus, formation of the innovation economy in the era of postindustrial society, generally based on science and knowledge, stipulates that embedding in the production of the results of research and development, as well as informational and other new technologies, not only can be able to radically change the mechanism of interaction between countries, regions, individual enterprises, but also can entail changing our view of the laws and basics of functioning and developing of economic systems on different levels. The sine qua non conditions for efficiency of innovation economy, conditions for scientific-technological breakthrough and civilized existence of our country in the 21st century have been disclosed.

  20. Political Economies of Health: A Consideration for International Nursing Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Michael A.; Drummond, John S.

    2008-01-01

    This article introduces and explores the concept of political economy. In particular it focuses upon the political economy of health while also considering the implications for international nursing studies in the context of health care more generally. Political economy is not only about budgets, resources and policy. It is also about particular…

  1. 40 CFR 610.42 - Fuel economy measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fuel economy measurement. 610.42... ECONOMY RETROFIT DEVICES Test Procedures and Evaluation Criteria General Vehicle Test Procedures § 610.42 Fuel economy measurement. (a) Fuel consumption will be measured by: (1) The carbon balance method, or...

  2. Agrofuels capitalism: a view from political economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.N.F. White (Benjamin); A. Dasgupta (Anirban)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThis article considers the global expansion of agrofuels feedstock production from a political economy perspective. It considers and dismisses the environmental and pro-poor developmental justifications attached to agrofuels. To local populations and direct producers, the specific

  3. Hazardous Waste Cleanup: Caribe General Electric Product in Rio Piedras, Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Caribe General Electric Product facility (GE Río Piedras) covers approximately 4 acres and is situated on the northern coastal plain in a relatively flat industrial/urban area of Río Piedras with an elevation between 20 and 40 feet above mean sea leve

  4. Happy degrowth through more amateur economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jørgen

    2013-01-01

    to a brief historical overview of the role of work, including turning points in the 1930s in the United States, when work sharing was displaced by work creation through consumerism, and, in the post-war economy when GDP became the dominant economic indicator. The paper proposes the aim of a happy...... and sustainable degrowth for affluent countries, implying the transfer of some activities from the professional economy to the less ‘labor’ productive amateur economy. This will tend to reduce overall labor productivity and hence resource throughput, but increase satisfaction and happiness. A key element...

  5. Foundations of a Marxist Theory of the Political Economy of Information: Trade Secrets and Intellectual Property, and the Production of Relative Surplus Value and the Extraction of Rent-Tribute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakob Rigi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to sketch a preliminary outline of a Marxist theory of the political economy of information. It defines information as a symbolic form that can be digitally copied. This definition is purely formal and disregards epistemological, ideological, and functional aspects. The article argues that the value of information defined in this sense tends to zero and therefore the price of information is rent. However, information plays a central role in the production of relative surplus value on the one hand, and the distribution of the total social surplus value in forms of surplus profits and rents, on the other. Thus, the hegemony of information technologies in contemporary productive forces has not made Marx’s theory of value irrelevant. On the contrary, the political economy of information can only be understood in the light of this theory. The article demonstrates that the capitalist production and distribution of surplus value at the global level forms the foundation of the political economy of information.

  6. Leadership and the Nigerian Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor E. Dike

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The Nigerian economy is largely oil-based. Some people would rather say it is a mono-product economy. The economy has been in dire straits over the years, because of a combination of the neglect of education, especially technical and vocational education and science-based technology education, poor leadership and governance, corruption, as well as poor monetary and fiscal policies. All these have made a review of the poor investment in human capital development and infrastructure and institutions that drive the Nigerian economy and national development rather compelling. The political leaders have always raised the people’s hope by painting glowing pictures of their development plans and how they would stimulate the economy and improve the people’s living conditions. Thus, they swore that they would give priority attention to human capital development and national development, and empower the citizens, particularly the poorly educated, unskilled, and unemployed youths, with relevant human skills capital and entrepreneurial skills to enable them to contribute profoundly to national development. Yet the political leaders have, over the years, failed to adequately fund education and strengthen the infrastructure and institutions that would drive the economy and create employment for the teeming population. Both the new-breed politicians, like the old politicians before them, are promising to transform the nation into an industrialized society and the people cannot hold their expectations. The reality though is that Nigeria cannot become an industrialized society without investing abundantly in human capital development (education and health, leadership, and technological capabilities, which means investing in the future development of the nation.

  7. labour and healthy lifestyles in a developing economy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    LUCY

    economy. KEYWORDS: Labour, Healthy Lifestyles and Developing Economy ... sanitation, mechanism for coping with stress, use of alcohol ... to enhance or manage the economy. ... strategies that would improve their health status. ... results in improved productivity. ... hazardous conditions coupled with occupational stress ...

  8. The Political Economy of Extraterritoriality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul B. Stephan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Near the end of the 2009 Term the Supreme Court decided Morrison v. Australia National Bank, Ltd., the strongest anti-extraterritoriality opinion it has produced in modern times. Not only is Congress presumed generally to prefer only territorial regulation, but lower courts that had carved out exceptions from this principle over a long period of time must now revisit their positions. Again this year in Kiobel v. Royal Dutch Shell Co. the Court relied on an aggressive use of the presumption against extraterritoriality to cut back on an important field of private litigation. The Court appears to have embraced two related stances: The imposition of barriers to extraterritorial regulation generally advances welfare, and the lower courts cannot be trusted to determine those instances where an exception to this rule might be justified. Implicit in the Court's position are intuitions about the political economy of both legislation and litigation. I want to use the occasion of the Morrison and Kiobel decisions to consider the political economy of extraterritorial regulation by the United States. International lawyers for the most part have analyzed state decisions to exercise prescriptive jurisdiction over extraterritorial transactions in terms of a welfare calculus that determines the likely costs and benefits to the state as a whole. Fewer studies have considered the political economy of the decision whether to regulate foreign transactions. No work of which I am aware has considered the political economy of deciding the extraterritorial question through litigation. This paper seeks to fill these gaps by sketching out what political economy suggests both about extraterritoriality and the role of courts as arbiters of extraterritoriality.

  9. LABOUR RELATIONS IN POSTINDUSTRIAL ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuriy Rostislavovitch Chistyakov

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with inadequacy of present-day labour relations in economy. Out of date form of labour relations makes workforce dependable, causes social inequality, prevents economical development. The article gives results of theoretical and empiric research. The mechanism of guaranteed reproduction of labour to be realized as social partnership is offered.Purpose: the purpose is to give critical estimation of present-day labour relations in postindustrial economy.Method of studies: monographic, general theoretic economic analysis, correlation statistic analysisResults: a new modern adequate alternative form of labour relations guarantying the reproduction of labour is introducedField of application: industrial regulation both in economics in general and concrete businesses; motivation of workers.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-8-29

  10. The Political Economy of Capital Income and Profit Taxation in a Small Open Economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huizinga, H.P.; Nielsen, S.B.

    1996-01-01

    This paper considers the political economy of the mix of profit, investment and saving taxation in a small open economy where agents generally differ in their shares of profit and other income.In this setting, capital income taxation can have the dual role of financing government spending and of

  11. Youth and the New Economy=Les jeunes et la nouvelle economie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Community Perspectives Series, 2002

    2002-01-01

    This Community Perspective Series document includes statements about young people in the new economy of Toronto made by three participants in the October 2000 annual general meeting of the Toronto Training Board. "A Hitchhiker's Guide to the New Economy" (Olivia Chow) suggests that training programs available to young people are…

  12. Growing a market economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basu, N.; Pryor, R.J.

    1997-09-01

    This report presents a microsimulation model of a transition economy. Transition is defined as the process of moving from a state-enterprise economy to a market economy. The emphasis is on growing a market economy starting from basic microprinciples. The model described in this report extends and modifies the capabilities of Aspen, a new agent-based model that is being developed at Sandia National Laboratories on a massively parallel Paragon computer. Aspen is significantly different from traditional models of the economy. Aspen`s emphasis on disequilibrium growth paths, its analysis based on evolution and emergent behavior rather than on a mechanistic view of society, and its use of learning algorithms to simulate the behavior of some agents rather than an assumption of perfect rationality make this model well-suited for analyzing economic variables of interest from transition economies. Preliminary results from several runs of the model are included.

  13. The Sharing Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avital, Michel; Carroll, John M.; Hjalmarsson, Anders

    2015-01-01

    The sharing economy is spreading rapidly worldwide in a number of industries and markets. The disruptive nature of this phenomenon has drawn mixed responses ranging from active conflict to adoption and assimilation. Yet, in spite of the growing attention to the sharing economy, we still do not know...... much about it. With the abundant enthusiasm about the benefits that the sharing economy can unleash and the weekly reminders about its dark side, further examination is required to determine the potential of the sharing economy while mitigating its undesirable side effects. The panel will join...... the ongoing debate about the sharing economy and contribute to the discourse with insights about how digital technologies are critical in shaping this turbulent ecosystem. Furthermore, we will define an agenda for future research on the sharing economy as it becomes part of the mainstream society as well...

  14. Informing General CSCW Product Development through Cooperative Design in Specific Work Domains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbæk, Kaj; Mogensen, Preben Holst

    1997-01-01

    sharing of materials in the engineering domain. In our project, a single engineering company (Great Belt Link Ltd.) was chosen as the user organization. The paper summarizes the process from observational studies, over a future workshop and cooperative prototyping activities, to a pilot installation. We...... describe how these activities informed the general hypermedia framework and application design. Use scenarios and prototypes with example data from the users‘ daily work were used as sources both to trigger design ideas and new insights regarding work practice. Common participants in specific activities...... and general development activities supported transfer of work domain knowledge into general features of the product being developed. Mutual challenging characterized the interaction between specific cooperative analysis and design activities and general development activities. Prototypes, scenarios, materials...

  15. Tax incentives in emerging economies

    OpenAIRE

    Brodzka, Alicja

    2013-01-01

    Emerging economies have introduced tax incentives for various reasons. In some countries in transition, such instruments may be seen as a counterweight to the investment disincentives inherent in the general tax system. In other countries, the incentives are intended to offset other disadvantages that investors may face, such as a lack of infrastructure, complicated and antiquated laws, bureaucratic complexities and weak administration. The article brings closer the issue of tax incentives of...

  16. Some Remarks on the Effects of Productivity on Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zsolt Gilányi

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Standard economic models predict that a ceteris paribus increase in the overall productivity results in an increased production if the economy departs from an equilibrium state. We show that this result is valid under specific conditions In other cases, even if the initial conditions of an economic system are so that the economy converges into (or starts from an equilibrium state, the increase of overall productivity generally results, in the long run, in the collapse of the economy due to the unbalanced change in the money holdings. Hence, in general, an appropriate expansive monetary policy should accompany the increase of productivity.

  17. A.V. CHAYANOV ON THE WAY TO THE THEORY OF NON-CAPITALIST ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А А Крамар

    2018-12-01

    Full Text Available Alexander V. Chayanov (1888-1937 is a famous Russian economist, theorist of the organization of economy, a brilliant representative of the generation of the “golden age” of the economic science in Russia. One of the key elements of his scientific legacy is the theory of non-capitalist forms of economy, and one of its aspects - international agrarian studies of the features of the organization of agriculture in different countries. The organizational-production school developed a theory of labor economy and came close to the general theory of non-capitalist forms of economy; however, its studies were inter-rupted by the repressions of the 1920s. The article considers the international studies of A.V. Chayanov to clarify and develop some findings of the today’s scholars (I.A. Kuznetsov, A.M. Nikulin, T.A. Savinova. The author proposes a new interpretation of the organizational-production school as having a dualistic character. The works of Alexander N. Chelintsev (1874-1962, Nicholay P. Makarov (1886-1980 and other colleagues of A.V. Chayanov from the organizational-production school focused on both theoretical issues such as the fundamental laws of functioning and development of agriculture, and practical issues of scientific management of an individual farm and agriculture in general. The author considers the orga-nizational-production school as dualistic: it studies both theory and management of peasant economy at micro- and macro-levels proceeding from the analysis of the individual farm structure to the issues of the optimal production location and optimal management of ‘a mass of peasant farms’. The system approach to the organization of economy, cooperation, zoning and economic policy developed by the organizational-production school is still relevant for the contemporary use.

  18. Hawaii hydrogen energy economy: production and distribution of hydrogen and oxygen in the district of north Kohala, the Big Island of Hawaii: a global prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russel, G.

    1993-01-01

    This paper shows how a community which is totally oil dependent can be transformed into a hydrogen fuel based economy by using the concept of setting hydrogen zones, with the use of off-peak hydro-electrical power and renewable energies. An existing hydro-electric plant in Hawaii could serve as a local prototype. 2 figs

  19. Succinic acid production derived from carbohydrates: An energy and greenhouse gas assessment of a platform chemical toward a bio-based economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cok, B.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/371750679; Tsiropoulos, I.; Roes, A.L.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/303022388; Patel, M.K.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/18988097X

    2014-01-01

    Bio-based succinic acid has the potential to become a platform chemical, i.e. a key building block for deriving both commodity and high-value chemicals, which makes it an attractive compound in a bio-based economy. A few companies and industrial consortia have begun to develop its industrial

  20. Economy and Grace

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Else Marie Wiberg

    2015-01-01

    Luther develops his idea the grace of God in tandem with his idea of economy, and a society characterized by ethical and social values such as love of neighbour and caring for the poor. Hence, the reformer's search for a gracious God is developed along with his criticism of the current indulgence...... doctrine and the emerging 'oeconomia moderna'. Thus, building on a simul gratia et oeconomia, grace and economy simultaneously, Luther's reformation theology can be perceived as te intersection of an economy of grace and a horizontal social economy (works of love) in quotidian life that together constitute...

  1. Circular economy and nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    This article first recalls what circular economy is, and its main principles (sustainable supply, eco-design, industrial and territorial ecology, economy of function rather than of possession, extension of product lifetime, recycling). It outlines its different benefits: improved resilience, inclusion of all actors of the territory, creation of local jobs, a global vision. In the next part, the nuclear industry is presented as a pioneer in this respect through various trends and developments: closure of the fuel cycle and saving of uranium and energy in the upstream part, reduction of wastes in the downstream part, exploitation of plants on a longer term, management of the production of conventional wastes, reduction of energy consumption, evolution of the doctrine in terms of management of very low level radioactive wastes

  2. Relational coordination is associated with productivity in general practice: a survey and register based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundstrøm, Sanne Lykke; Edwards, Kasper; Reventlow, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the association between relational coordination among the practice team in general practice and number of consultations performed in a general practice per staff, i.e. a proxy of productivity. We measured relational coordination using the Relational Coordination Survey...... and combined the results with register data. We found that relational coordination was statistically significant associated with number of consultation per staff per year. We later divided consultations in to three types: Face-to-face, Email and phone consultations. We found a statistically significant...... associating between relational coordination and with number of face-to-face consultation per staff per year....

  3. Biogas production in Oestfold. Analysis of climate utility and economy in a value chain perspective; Biogassproduksjon i Oestfold. Analyse av klimanytte og oekonomi i et verdikjedeperspektiv

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnoey, Silje; Moeller, Hanne; Modahl, Ingunn Saur; Soerby, Ivar; Hanssen, Ole Joergen

    2013-03-01

    Waste management is an important issue. How we choose to deal with food waste that occurs, affects climate through emissions from all phases of waste management. One way of handling waste is to produce biogas from it. General results of the project 'the continuation of biogas model' has shown that the use of food waste as a substrate for biogas production in interaction with manure and great climate benefit. In order to assess the development of biogas production specifically for Oestfold, the general model was used for analysis with specific Oestfold data.The project's goal is that through the development of Oestfoldforskning's present climate and economic models will be carried out analyzes where these models will be tested with specific data of hypothetical case.These analyzes will form the basis for a strategic decision on the location and design of biogas plants in Oestfold. It should be noted that this report only will present greenhouse gas emissions, which represent an environmental indicator, and that the result of greenhouse gas emissions may not be directly transferable to other environmental indicators. Shortened version. (eb)

  4. Definition of the generalized criterion of estimation of ecological purity of textile products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gintibidze, N.; Valishvili, T.

    2009-01-01

    One of actual problems is the estimation of hygienic and ecological properties of fabrics on the basis of the data on the properties of initial fiber. In the present article, the definition of generalized criterion of the estimation of ecological purity of textile products is discussed. The estimation is based on the International Standard EKO-TEX-100, regulating the contents of inorganic and organic compounds in textile production. The determination of all listed substances is made according to appropriate techniques for each parameter. The quantity of substances is determined and compared with norms. The judgement about ecological purity is made by separate parameters. There is no uniform parameter which could estimate the degree of ecological purity of textile products. For calculating the generalized criterion of estimation of ecological purity of textile products, it is offered to estimate each criterion by the points corresponding to each factor. The textile product is recognized as ecologically pure (environment friendly) if the total estimate is more than 1. (author)

  5. GDP and efficiency of Russian economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borodachev, Sergey M.

    2018-01-01

    The goal is to study GDP (gross domestic product) as an unobservable characteristic of the Russian national economy state on the basis of more reliable observed data on gross output (systems output) and final consumption (systems control). To do this, the dynamic Leontief model is presented in a system-like form and its parameters and GDP dynamics are estimated by the Kalman filter (KF). We consider that all previous year's investments affect the growth of the gross output by the next year. The weights of these investments in the sum are equal to unity and decrease in geometric progression. The estimation of the model parameters was carried out by the maximum likelihood method. The original data on the gross output and final consumption in the period from 1995 to 2015 years where taken from the Rosstat website, where maximally aggregated economy of Russia is reflected in the system of national accounts. The growth of direct costs and capital expenditures at gross output increase has been discovered, which indicates the extensive character of the development of the economy. Investments are being absorbed 2 - 4 years; any change of them causes a surge of commissioned fixed assets fluctuation with a period of 2 years. Then these parameter values were used in the KF to estimate the states of the system. The emerging tendency of the transition of GDP growth to its fall means that the rate of growth of final consumption is higher than the rate of GDP growth. In general, the behavior of the curve of Rosstat GDP obviously follows the declared investments, whereas in the present calculation it is closer to the behavior of final consumption. Estimated GDP and investments that really increased it were significantly less after the crisis of 2008-2009 years than officially published data.

  6. Real economy versus virtual economy - New challenges for nowadays society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Associates Professon Dr. Veronica Adriana Popescu

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In the paper Real Economy versus Virtual Economy – New Challenges for Nowadays Society our goal is to present the importance of both real economy and virtual economy.At the begging of our research, we have presented the main views of some specialists concerning both virtual and real economy. After that we have compared the two types of economies and we have stressed the most important aspects connected to them. The main reason why we have decided to approach this complex subject is due to the increasing interest in the virtual economy matters and the relation that this particular type of economy develops with the real economy.

  7. General concept of a gas engine for a hybrid vehicle, operating on methanol dissociation products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tartakovsky, L.; Aleinikov, Y.; Fainberg, V.; Garbar, A.; Gutman, M.; Hetsroni, G.; Schindler, Y.; Zvirin, Y.

    1998-01-01

    The paper presents a general concept of a hybrid propulsion system, based on an SI internal combustion engine fueled by methanol dissociation products (MDP). The proposed hybrid propulsion scheme is a series hybrid, which allows the engine to be operated in an on-off mode at constant optimal regime. The engine is fed by gaseous products of methanol dissociation (mainly hydrogen and carbon monoxide) emerging from an on-board catalytic reformer. The general scheme and base operation features of the propulsion system are described. The benefits that may be achieved by combining the well-known idea of on-board methanol dissociation with the hybrid vehicle concept are discussed. The proposed scheme is compared with those of systems operating on gasoline, liquid methanol, hydrogen and also with the multi-regime (not hybrid) engine fed by MDP

  8. A General and Intuitive Approach to Understand and Compare the Torque Production Capability of AC Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Dong; Lu, Kaiyuan; Rasmussen, Peter Omand

    2014-01-01

    Electromagnetic torque analysis is one of the key issues in the analysis of electric machines. It plays an important role in machine design and control. The common method described in most of the textbooks is to calculate the torque in the machine variables and then transform them to the dq......-frame, through complicated mathematical manipulations. This is a more mathematical approach rather than explaining the physics behind torque production, which even brings a lot of difficulties to specialist. This paper introduces a general and intuitive approach to obtain the dq-frame torque equation of various...... AC machines. In this method, torque equation can be obtained based on the intuitive physical understanding of the mechanism behind torque production. It is then approved to be applicable for general case, including rotor saliency and various types of magnetomotive force sources. As an application...

  9. Strategic Outsourcing under Economies of Scale

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Yutian; Sen, Debapriya

    2010-01-01

    Economies of scale in upstream production can lead both disintegrated downstream firms as well as its vertically integrated rival to outsource offshore for intermediate goods, even if offshore production has moderate cost disadvantage compared to in-house production of the vertically integrated firm.

  10. Regional energy rebound effect: The impact of economy-wide and sector level energy efficiency improvement in Georgia, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Xuewei; Moreno-Cruz, Juan; Crittenden, John C.

    2015-01-01

    Rebound effect is defined as the lost part of ceteris paribus energy savings from improvements on energy efficiency. In this paper, we investigate economy-wide energy rebound effects by developing a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model for Georgia, USA. The model adopts a highly disaggregated sector profile and highlights the substitution possibilities between different energy sources in the production structure. These two features allow us to better characterize the change in energy use in face of an efficiency shock, and to explore in detail how a sector-level shock propagates throughout the economic structure to generate aggregate impacts. We find that with economy-wide energy efficiency improvement on the production side, economy-wide rebound is moderate. Energy price levels fall very slightly, yet sectors respond to these changing prices quite differently in terms of local production and demand. Energy efficiency improvements in particular sectors (epicenters) induce quite different economy-wide impacts. In general, we expect large rebound if the epicenter sector is an energy production sector, a direct upstream/downstream sector of energy production sectors, a transportation sector or a sector with high production elasticity. Our analysis offers valuable insights for policy makers aiming to achieve energy conservation through increasing energy efficiency. - Highlights: • We developed a CGE model to investigate economy-wide energy rebound in Georgia, USA. • The CGE model has detailed treatment for different energy inputs for production. • The model has a highly disaggregated sector profile helpful for policy making. • We compared the economy-wide impact shocks in different epicenter sectors. • We analyzed why epicenters generate dramatically different economy-wide impacts.

  11. 39 CFR 3.9 - Establishment of rates and classes of competitive products of general applicability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Establishment of rates and classes of competitive products of general applicability. 3.9 Section 3.9 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE THE BOARD OF... demonstrating compliance with the standards of 39 U.S.C. 3633(a). (b) Pursuant to § 6.6(f) of these bylaws, the...

  12. DEVELOPMENT OF THE ALGORITHM FOR CHOOSING THE OPTIMAL SCENARIO FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE REGION'S ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. S. Borisova

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: the article deals with the development of an algorithm for choosing the optimal scenario for the development of the regional economy. Since the "Strategy for socio-economic development of the Lipetsk region for the period until 2020" does not contain scenarios for the development of the region, the algorithm for choosing the optimal scenario for the development of the regional economy is formalized. The scenarios for the development of the economy of the Lipetsk region according to the indicators of the Program of social and economic development are calculated: "Quality of life index", "Average monthly nominal wage", "Level of registered unemployment", "Growth rate of gross regional product", "The share of innovative products in the total volume of goods shipped, works performed and services rendered by industrial organizations", "Total volume of atmospheric pollution per unit GRP" and "Satisfaction of the population with the activity of executive bodies of state power of the region". Based on the calculation of development scenarios, the dynamics of the values of these indicators was developed in the implementation of scenarios for the development of the economy of the Lipetsk region in 2016–2020. Discounted financial costs of economic participants for realization of scenarios of development of economy of the Lipetsk region are estimated. It is shown that the current situation in the economy of the Russian Federation assumes the choice of a paradigm for the innovative development of territories and requires all participants in economic relations at the regional level to concentrate their resources on the creation of new science-intensive products. An assessment of the effects of the implementation of reasonable scenarios for the development of the economy of the Lipetsk region was carried out. It is shown that the most acceptable is the "base" scenario, which assumes a consistent change in the main indicators. The specific economic

  13. Economy Profile of Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2017-01-01

    Doing Business 2018 is the 15th in a series of annual reports investigating the regulations that enhance business activity and those that constrain it. This economy profile presents the Doing Business indicators for Argentina. Doing Business presents quantitative indicators on business regulation and the protection of property rights that can be compared across 190 economies; for 2018 Arge...

  14. Economy Profile of Estonia

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2017-01-01

    Doing Business 2018 is the 15th in a series of annual reports investigating the regulations that enhance business activity and those that constrain it. This economy profile presents the Doing Business indicators for Estonia. Doing Business presents quantitative indicators on business regulation and the protection of property rights that can be compared across 190 economies; for 2018 Estonia ...

  15. Economy Profile of Australia

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2017-01-01

    Doing Business 2018 is the 15th in a series of annual reports investigating the regulations that enhance business activity and those that constrain it. This economy profile presents the Doing Business indicators for Australia. Doing Business presents quantitative indicators on business regulation and the protection of property rights that can be compared across 190 economies; for 2018 Aust...

  16. Economy Profile of Bolivia

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2017-01-01

    Doing Business 2018 is the 15th in a series of annual reports investigating the regulations that enhance business activity and those that constrain it. This economy profile presents the Doing Business indicators for Bolivia. Doing Business presents quantitative indicators on business regulation and the protection of property rights that can be compared across 190 economies; for 2018 Bolivia ...

  17. Free variable economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelofsen, F.

    2009-01-01

    Several authors have recently argued that semantic interpretation is subject to economy constraints. In particular, Fox (1999) argued that the interpretation of pronouns is subject to BINDING ECONOMY, which favors local binding over non-local binding. The present paper points out a problem for

  18. Entropy Production and Equilibrium Conditions of General-Covariant Spin Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Muschik

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In generalizing the special-relativistic one-component version of Eckart’s continuum thermodynamics to general-relativistic space-times with Riemannian or post-Riemannian geometry as presented by Schouten (Schouten, J.A. Ricci-Calculus, 1954 and Blagojevic (Blagojevic, M. Gauge Theories of Gravitation, 2013 we consider the entropy production and other thermodynamical quantities, such as the entropy flux and the Gibbs fundamental equation. We discuss equilibrium conditions in gravitational theories, which are based on such geometries. In particular, thermodynamic implications of the non-symmetry of the energy-momentum tensor and the related spin balance equations are investigated, also for the special case of general relativity.

  19. The Political Economy of Energy Innovation

    OpenAIRE

    Dasgupta, Shouro; De Cian, Enrica; Verdolini, Elena

    2017-01-01

    This paper empirically investigates the effects of environmental policy, institutions, political orientation, and lobbying on energy innovation and finds that they significantly affect the incentives to innovate and create cleaner energy efficient technologies. We conclude that political economy factors may act as barriers even in the presence of stringent environmental policy, implying that, to move towards a greener economy, countries should combine environmental policy with a general stren...

  20. Swiss economy and the future energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leuenberger, A.F.

    1997-01-01

    Lecture of the president of the Swiss Trade and Industry Association at their premises on the occasion of the Annual General meeting of the SVA. The lecture dealt with the subject of economic growth and the difficulties faced by this growth in Switzerland. He formulated energy-political theories in respect of provision security, market economy, free choice between suppliers, economy-friendly energy laws, keeping the nuclear energy option open

  1. Competition and Outsourcing with Scale Economies

    OpenAIRE

    Gérard P. Cachon; Patrick T. Harker

    2002-01-01

    Scale economies are commonplace in operations, yet because of analytical challenges, relatively little is known about how firms should compete in their presence. This paper presents a model of competition between two firms that face scale economies; (i.e., each firm's cost per unit of demand is decreasing in demand). A general framework is used, which incorporates competition between two service providers with price- and time-sensitive demand (a queuing game), and competition between two reta...

  2. Guide for preparing annual reports on radiation-safety testing of electronic products (general)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-10-01

    For manufacturers of electronic products other than those for which a specific guide has been issued, the guide replaces the Guide for the Filing of Annual Reports (21 CFR Subchapter J, Section 1002.11), HHS Publication FDA 82-8127. The electronic product (general) annual reporting guide is applicable to the following products: products intended to produce x radiation (accelerators, analytical devices, therapy x-ray machines); microwave diathermy machines; cold-cathode discharge tubes; and vacuum switches and tubes operating at or above 15,000 volts. To carry out its responsibilities under Public Law 90-602, the Food and Drug Administration's Center for Devices and Radiological Health (CDRH) has issued a series of regulations contained in Title 21 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR). Part 1002 of 21 CFR deals with records and reports. Section 1002.61 categorizes electronic products into Groups A through C. Section 1002.30 requires manufacturers of products in Groups B and C to establish and maintain certain records, while Section 1002.11 requires such manufacturers to submit an Annual Report summarizing the contents of the required records. Section 1002.7 requires that reports conform to reporting guides issued by CDRH unless an acceptable justification for an alternate format is provided

  3. General description and production lines of the Egyptian fuel manufacturing pilot plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zidan, W.I.; Elseaidy, I.M.

    1999-01-01

    The Egyptian Fuel Manufacturing Pilot Plant, FMPP, is a new facility, producing an MTR-type fuel elements required for the Egyptian Second Research Reactor, ETRR-2, as well as other plates or elements for an external clients with the same type and enrichment percent or lower, (LEU). General description is presented. The production lines in FMPP, which begin from uranium hexaflouride (UF 6 , 19.7±0.2 % U 235 by wt), aluminum powder, and nuclear grade 6061 aluminium alloy in sheets, bars, and rods with the different heat treatments and dimensions as a raw materials, are processed through a series of the manufacturing, inspection, and quality control plan to produce the final specified MTR-type fuel elements. All these processes and the product control in each step are presented. The specifications of the final product are presented. (author)

  4. Basic Research Needs for the Hydrogen Economy. Report of the Basic Energy Sciences Workshop on Hydrogen Production, Storage and Use, May 13-15, 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dresselhaus, M; Crabtree, G; Buchanan, M; Mallouk, T; Mets, L; Taylor, K; Jena, P; DiSalvo, F; Zawodzinski, T; Kung, H; Anderson, I S; Britt, P; Curtiss, L; Keller, J; Kumar, R; Kwok, W; Taylor, J; Allgood, J; Campbell, B; Talamini, K

    2004-02-01

    The coupled challenges of a doubling in the world's energy needs by the year 2050 and the increasing demands for ''clean'' energy sources that do not add more carbon dioxide and other pollutants to the environment have resulted in increased attention worldwide to the possibilities of a ''hydrogen economy'' as a long-term solution for a secure energy future.

  5. De Nederlandse economie tijdens de Tweede Wereldoorlog bekeken vanuit een Vlaams/Belgisch perspectief

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Buyst

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available H.A.M. Klemann, Nederland 1938-1948. Economie en samenleving in jaren van oorlog en bezettingThe Netherlands economy during World War II viewed from a Flemish/Belgian perspectiveHein Klemann’s book provides a general overview of the performance of the Dutch economy during World War II. It also deals with exploitation by the German war machine, production for the black market, price controls, and monetary and fiscal policies. The reconstructed macro-economic data, such as the evolution of real wages, is sometimes prone to serious methodological flaws. For other variables, such as agricultural production in 1945 and international trade, it is clear that more research is necessary to produce reliable indicators. Despite these critical remarks, Klemann’s book offers a valuable synthesis, and other countries, such as Belgium, can use it as a source of inspiration.

  6. Generalización del método de correlaciones canónicas aplicado a un problema de economía (Generalization of the canonical correlation method applied to an economy problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Luis Azor Hernández

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Resumen. El Análisis de Correlaciones Canónicas (CCA desarrollado por Hotelling entre 1935 y 1936 es un método utilizado para estudiar las relaciones existentes entre dos conjuntos de variables. En 1968 Carroll introdujo una generalización de este método que permite analizar simultáneamente más de dos conjuntos de datos. Otra extensión de CCA es el Análisis de Correlaciones Canónicas Funcional que estudia las relaciones entre dos conjuntos de variables cuando estas transcurren en el tiempo. En este artículo se analiza, mediante estos métodos, la relación entre las ventas y el número de empleados en un problema de la economía mexicana English abstract. Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA developed by Hotelling between 1935 and 1936 is a method used to study the relationships between two sets of variables. In 1968 Carroll introduced a generalization of this method to simultaneously analyze more than two datasets. Another extension of CCA is Functional Canonical Correlation Analysis that studies the relationships between two sets of variables when they pass in time. In this article, the relationship between sales and the number of employees in a problem of the Mexican economy is analyzed through these methods.

  7. Business environment factors and business performance: the case of Macedonia – a developing economy

    OpenAIRE

    Marjanova Jovanov, Tamara; Temjanovski, Riste

    2015-01-01

    One of the key elements of economic development is the private business sector i.e. entrepreneurs with strong and durable competitive advantage. Entrepreneurs are being recognized as the driving force of higher employment rates, improved standard of living, production of value-added products and services, increased innovation, and in general, as the creator of strong economies. The main goal of this analysis is to prove that some specific factors of the internal (customer orientation degree t...

  8. Managing innovation systems in transition economies

    OpenAIRE

    Baković, Tomislav

    2010-01-01

    Successfully managing innovations has become the basic precondition for the development of both companies and national economies. At the national level governments are forming innovation systems whose primary goal is to create conditions at which science and technology can flourish and then transfer their findings trough private sector into new revolutionary products and services. Unfortunately not all countries have the same preconditions for creating such systems and transition economies du...

  9. A general equilibrium view of global rebound effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Taoyuan

    2010-01-01

    How do energy efficiency gains affect energy consumption? The effects are generally called 'rebound effects' in the literature. Previous studies have extensively focused on only part of the global economy to study rebound effects, e.g. energy consumption by households, one industry, or one country. However, since the global economy is highly connected among countries, these studies may lead to misleading conclusions if the rebound effects in the rest of the economy are significant. Recently Saunders (2008) analyzes the demand side by taking the global economy as a whole. Wei (2007) also provides a general analysis by using Cobb-Douglas production functions for the global economy. The present article expands Wei (2007) general analysis to explore the rebound effects from an economist's viewpoint by taking the global economy as a whole and applying general forms of production functions. The analysis provides new insights related to rebound effects: we highlight the role of energy supply as a determinant of rebound. We show that the substitution between energy resources and other productive resources is more relevant to long term rebound. We predict that long term rebound may be lower than short term rebound. And we also discover that super-conservation can happen in both the short term and the long term.

  10. Availability Cascades & the Sharing Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Netter, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    attention. This conceptual paper attempts to explain the emergent focus on the sharing economy and associated business and consumption models by applying cascade theory. Risks associated with this behavior will be especially examined with regard to the sustainability claim of collaborative consumption......In search of a new concept that will provide answers to as to how modern societies should not only make sense but also resolve the social and environmental problems linked with our modes of production and consumption, collaborative consumption and the sharing economy are increasingly attracting....... With academics, practitioners, and civil society alike having a shared history in being rather fast in accepting new concepts that will not only provide business opportunities but also a good conscience, this study proposes a critical study of the implications of collaborative consumption, before engaging...

  11. Heroes of the knowledge economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørberg, Jakob Williams

    they themselves envisage their futures. The thesis looks behind the mirror cabinet of policy making and aims to better grasp the work and personal investments of Indian youth in creating the imaginaries we rely on globally, when we envision the global knowledge economy. The thesis is as such an account......The Indian engineering student has both nationally and globally come to symbolize the advent of a global knowledge economy. Indian engineering students are depicted in policy documents and popular media as important protagonists that will take India into the this promising future. This thesis...... is a study of these Indian ‘heroes’. It is based on ethnographic fieldwork in an iconic site for their production, the top Indian engineering university, the Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, and it aims to understand how students engage in the creation of both their own and national – even global...

  12. ECONOMY AND SOCIAL ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg BOGOMOLOV

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Market reforms in the post-socialist countries have brought into sharp focus the problem of interconnection and interaction between the economy and the social environment. The economy is inseparable from politics and the operation of the political system, from the state of the social consciousness, the moral and cultural level of the population and from many other aspects of human life and behavior, in short, from everything that can be described by the concept of social environment. Society in every country is a single organism with closely interconnected and interacting parts and systems. Their conjugation and mutual influence are not always apparent and are often overlooked. It is quite easy to see how changes in policy affect the economy and then trace the feedback effect of the economy on policy. It is more difficult to discern the direct and feedback relationship of the economy with administrative relations, with the state of culture, science, morals and public opinion. Meanwhile, an underestimation of these mutual influences is a frequent cause of failures in socio-economic transformation. It is to be regretted that the reforms in Russia were accompanied by a dangerous disruption not only of the economy, but also of the entire system of social relations. What was primary here and what was secondary? In order to answer this question the paper takes a theoretical look at the problem of interaction between the economy and the social environment.

  13. www.FuelEconomy.gov

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — FuelEconomy.gov provides comprehensive information about vehicles' fuel economy. The official U.S. government site for fuel economy information, it is operated by...

  14. 78 FR 46799 - Use of Market Economy Input Prices in Nonmarket Economy Proceedings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-02

    ...The Department of Commerce (``Department'') is modifying its regulation which states that the Department normally will use the price that a nonmarket economy (``NME'') producer pays to a market economy supplier when a factor of production is purchased from a market economy supplier and paid for in market economy currency, in the calculation of normal value (``NV'') in antidumping proceedings involving NME countries. The rule establishes a requirement that the input at issue be produced in one or more market economy countries, and a revised threshold requiring that ``substantially all'' (i.e., 85 percent) of an input be purchased from one or more market economy suppliers before the Department uses the purchase price paid to value the entire factor of production. The Department is making this change because it finds that a market economy input price is not the best available information for valuing all purchases of that input when market economy purchases of an input do not account for substantially all purchases of the input.

  15. Modulated molecular beam mass spectrometry: A generalized expression for the ''reaction product vector'' for linear systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, H.; Weinberg, W.H.

    1977-01-01

    A generalized expression is developed that relates the ''reaction product vector'', epsilon exp(-iphi), to the kinetic parameters of a linear system. The formalism is appropriate for the analysis of modulated molecular beam mass spectrometry data and facilitates the correlation of experimental results to (proposed) linear models. A study of stability criteria appropriate for modulated molecular beam mass spectrometry experiments is also presented. This investigation has led to interesting inherent limitations which have not heretofore been emphasized, as well as a delineation of the conditions under which stable chemical oscillations may occur in the reacting system

  16. Exclusive neutrino production of a charmed vector meson and transversity gluon generalized parton distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pire, B.; Szymanowski, L.

    2017-12-01

    We calculate at the leading order in αs the QCD amplitude for exclusive neutrino production of a D* or Ds* charmed vector meson on a nucleon. We work in the framework of the collinear QCD approach where generalized parton distributions (GPDs) factorize from perturbatively calculable coefficient functions. We include O (mc) terms in the coefficient functions and the O (mD) term in the definition of heavy meson distribution amplitudes. The show that the analysis of the angular distribution of the decay D(s) *→D(s )π allows us to access the transversity gluon GPDs.

  17. General scheme of research reactor mainly for production of fission 99Mo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Feng; Liu Xingmin; Wu Xiaochun; Sun Zheng; Guo Chunqiu; Yi Dayong

    2012-01-01

    On the basis of the analysis for current circumstance and development tendency of research reactor mainly for 99 Mo production in the world, the design idea of this sort of research reactor was proposed. By the optimization and basic design, the general design parameters of the reactor were analyzed and testified. The evaluation of output activities of 99 Mo and the analysis of economics were conducted on the basically assumption. It is argued that the economics of this reactor is improved dramatically while the safety is ensured by the analysis. (authors)

  18. Exploring the Sharing Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Netter, Sarah

    Despite the growing interest on the part of proponents and opponents - ranging from business, civil society, media, to policy-makers alike - there is still limited knowledge about the working mechanisms of the sharing economy. The thesis is dedicated to explore this understudied phenomenon...... and to provide a more nuanced understanding of the micro- and macro-level tensions that characterize the sharing economy. This thesis consists of four research papers, each using different literature, methodology, and data sets. The first paper investigates how the sharing economy is diffused and is ‘talked......-level tensions experience by sharing platforms by looking at the case of mobile fashion reselling and swapping markets. The final paper combines the perspectives of different sharing economy stakeholders and outlines some of the micro and macro tensions arising in and influencing the organization of these multi...

  19. Research Award: Networked Economies

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Office 2004 Test Drive User

    2015-08-06

    year, paid, ... the areas of democracy, human rights and economic growth. ... Networked Economies is seeking a Research Award Recipient to explore research questions ... such as engineering or computer/information science;.

  20. Livelihoods and the economy

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    better lives. IDRC's support for economic research has helped governments steer national eco-nomies toward growth, level the playing field for busi- ... special treatment and accounting stan- dards were ... part alongside men in all activities,.

  1. Political Economy of Finance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perotti, E.

    2013-01-01

    This survey reviews how a recent political economy literature helps explaining variation in governance, competition, funding composition and access to credit. Evolution in political institutions can account for financial evolution, and appear critical to explain rapid changes in financial structure,

  2. Collaborative Economy and Tourism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dredge, Dianne; Gyimóthy, Szilvia

    2017-01-01

    The digital collaborative economy is one of the most fascinating developments to have claimed our attention in the last decade. Not only does it defy clear definition, but its historical links back to non-monetised sharing and gift economies and its contemporary foundations in monetising idling...... or spare capacity make it difficult to theorise. In this chapter, we lay the foundation for a social science approach to the exploration of the collaborative economy and its relationship with tourism. We argue that “collaborative” and “economy” should be conceptualised in a broad and inclusive manner...... in order to avoid narrow theorisations and blinkered accounts that focus only on digitally-mediated, monetised transactions. A balance between individual and collective dimensions of the collaborative economy is also necessary if we are to understand its societal implications....

  3. The Effects: Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutrient pollution has diverse and far-reaching effects on the U.S. economy, impacting tourism, property values, commercial fishing, recreational businesses and many other sectors that depend on clean water.

  4. Productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spring, Martin; Johnes, Geraint; Hald, Kim Sundtoft

    Productivity is increasingly critical for developed economies. It has always been important: as Paul Krugman puts it, “Productivity isn’t everything, but in the long run it is almost everything. A country’s ability to improve its standard of living over time depends almost entirely on its ability...... to raise its output per worker”(Krugman, 1994). Analyses of productivity have, by and large, been the preserve of economists. Operations Management (OM) is rooted in a similar concern for the efficient use of scarce resources; Management Accounting (MA) is concerned with the institutionalised measurement...... and management of productivity. Yet the three perspectives are rarely connected. This paper is a sketch of a literature review seeking to identify, contrast and reconcile these three perspectives. In so doing, it aims to strengthen the connections between policy and managerial analyses of productivity....

  5. Shadow Economy and Poverty

    OpenAIRE

    Nikopour, Hesam; Shah Habibullah, Muzafar

    2010-01-01

    This study attempts to investigate the relationship between shadow economy and poverty by explaining the mechanism through which shadow economy affects poverty via its impact on government size and economic growth, and using the human poverty index (HPI) for developing and developed countries. In order to achieve this objective, the three-way interaction model is utilized using data of 139 developing and 23 developed countries separately during 1999-2007. For developing countries the dynamic ...

  6. Observing the economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, Stan

    2009-07-01

    In "The (unfortunate) complexity of the economy" (April pp28-32) Jean-Philippe Bouchaud presents clear evidence that traditional assumptions of rational markets have to be abandoned. The old investor slogan "buy on promise, sell on rumour" quickly magnifies a downturn into a crisis, which triggers two questions. If physics-based models are applied (beyond understanding and prediction) to actual market decisions, does this make the economy more or less stable? And, is this cause for stronger regulation?

  7. Corruption and the economy

    OpenAIRE

    Tanzi Vito

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses on the economic and not on the political impact of corruption. Corruption delegitimizes the working of a market economy, as well as the outcomes of political processes. This paper highlights ways in which corruption, by distorting economic decisions and the working of the market economy, inevitably reduces a country’s rate of growth. The paper also discusses some of the channels through which corruption distorts various economic decisions. Finally, the paper reports o...

  8. The Dutch Economy 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-09-01

    In the series 'The Dutch Economy' the Dutch Statistical Office describes and analyzes annual developments in enterprises, households and governments, and with respect to employment and the environment. One of the subjects is 'Economy and Environment' with the sub-topics 'Resources and Energy', 'Emissions' and 'Environmental Taxes'. Furthermore, in articles on specific themes current economic issues are discussed. One of those themes has the title 'Share of renewable energy in the Netherlands is still small'. [nl

  9. Token economy for schizophrenia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McMonagle, T

    2000-01-01

    A token economy is a behavioural therapy technique in which the desired change is achieved by means of tokens administered for the performance of predefined behaviours according to a program. Though token economy programmes were widespread in the 1970s they became largely restricted to wards where long-stay patients from institutions are prepared for transfer into the community and were particularly aimed at changing negative symptoms of schizophrenia - poor motivation, poor attention and social withdrawal.

  10. Regulating the sharing economy

    OpenAIRE

    Erickson, Kristofer; Sorensen, Inge

    2016-01-01

    In this introductory essay, we explore definitions of the ‘sharing economy’, a concept indicating both social (relational, communitarian) and economic (allocative, profit-seeking) aspects which appear to be in tension. We suggest combining the social and economic logics of the sharing economy to focus on the central features of network enabled, aggregated membership in a pool of offers and demands (for goods, services, creative expressions). This definition of the sharing economy distinguishe...

  11. Global Impact of Energy Use in Middle East Oil Economies: A Modeling Framework for Analyzing Technology-Energy-Environment-Economy Chain

    OpenAIRE

    Hodjat Ghadimi

    2007-01-01

    To explore choices of improving energy efficiency in energy-rich countries of the Middle East, this study lays out an integrated modeling framework for analyzing the technology-energy-environment-economy chain for the case of an energy exporting country. This framework consists of an input output process-flow model (IOPM) and a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model. The former investigates the micro-level production processes and sectoral interdependencies to show how alternative technol...

  12. Economies Evolve by Energy Dispersal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanley Salthe

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Economic activity can be regarded as an evolutionary process governed by the 2nd law of thermodynamics. The universal law, when formulated locally as an equation of motion, reveals that a growing economy develops functional machinery and organizes hierarchically in such a way as to tend to equalize energy density differences within the economy and in respect to the surroundings it is open to. Diverse economic activities result in flows of energy that will preferentially channel along the most steeply descending paths, leveling a non-Euclidean free energy landscape. This principle of 'maximal energy dispersal‘, equivalent to the maximal rate of entropy production, gives rise to economic laws and regularities. The law of diminishing returns follows from the diminishing free energy while the relation between supply and demand displays a quest for a balance among interdependent energy densities. Economic evolution is dissipative motion where the driving forces and energy flows are inseparable from each other. When there are multiple degrees of freedom, economic growth and decline are inherently impossible to forecast in detail. Namely, trajectories of an evolving economy are non-integrable, i.e. unpredictable in detail because a decision by a player will affect also future decisions of other players. We propose that decision making is ultimately about choosing from various actions those that would reduce most effectively subjectively perceived energy gradients.

  13. Mobilizing the regional eco-economy: evolving webs of agri-food and rural development in the UK

    OpenAIRE

    Terry Marsden

    2010-01-01

    The paper traces the emergence of the regional eco-economy with reference to a new conceptual model called the rural web. These webs are embedded into the fabric of regional systems of production and consumption and provide a key driver for both rural development generally and eco-economic development more specifically. Relocalized agri-food networks are playing a key integrating role in mobilizing the web and the regional eco-economy more generally. The web concept is used to (i) assess the ...

  14. Circular economy and waste to energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rada, E. C.; Ragazzi, M.; Torretta, V.; Castagna, G.; Adami, L.; Cioca, L. I.

    2018-05-01

    Waste management in European Union has long being regulated by the 4Rs principle, i.e. reduction, reuse, recycling, recovery, with landfill disposal as the last option. This vision recently led the European Union (especially since 2015) to the introduction of virtuous goals based on the rejection of linear economy in favour of circular economy strongly founded on materials recovery. In this scenario, landfill disposal option will disappear, while energy recovery may appear controversial when not applied to biogas production from anaerobic digestion. The present work aims to analyse the effects that circular economy principles introduced in the European Union context will have on the thermochemical waste treatment plants design. Results demonstrate that indirect combustion (gasification + combustion) along with integrated vitrification of the non-combustible fraction of treated waste will have a more relevant role in the field of waste treatment than in the past, thanks to the compliance of this option with the principles of circular economy.

  15. Single Higgs-boson production through γγ scattering within the general 2HDM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernal, Nicolas; Lopez-Val, David; Sola, Joan

    2009-01-01

    The production of a single neutral Higgs boson h through (loop-induced) γγ collisions is explored in the context of the linear colliders within the general Two-Higgs-Doublet Model (2HDM). Two different mechanisms are analyzed: on the one hand, the scattering γγ→h of two real photons in a γγ collider; on the other, the more traditional mechanism of virtual photon fusion, e + e - →e + e - γ*γ*→e + e - +h. Owing to the peculiar properties of the Higgs boson self-interactions within the general 2HDM, we find that the overall production rates can be boosted up significantly, provided the charged Higgs mass is not too heavy. For example, if M H ± ≥100 GeV and, in addition, M h 0 falls in the ballpark of the LEP bound on the SM Higgs mass up to a few hundred GeV, the cross-sections may typically render γγ→h >∼0.1-1 pb and σ(e + e - →e + e - h 0 )≤0.01 pb - in both cases well above the SM prediction. Although for M H ± >300 GeV the rates become virtually insensitive to the Higgs boson self-couplings, a significant tail of non-SM effects produced by the combined contribution of the Yukawa couplings and gauge bosons could still reveal a smoking gun.

  16. Economy and greenhouse effect. The money and the weather

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekeland, I.; Brandouy, O.

    2007-01-01

    The economy theory of the growth is not really adapted to the environment: the future generations will be richer as us concerning the industry but not the environment. On the economy sector, many financial products appear to facing the climatic change and the carbon emissions reductions. The author presents these new products and their consequences in a social justice framework. (A.L.B.)

  17. The Growth Points of Regional Economy and Regression Estimation for Branch Investment Multipliers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Pavlovna Goridko

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The article develops the methodology of using investment multipliers to identify growth points for a regional economy. The paper discusses various options for the assessment of multiplicative effects caused by investments in certain sectors of the economy. All calculations are carried out on the example of economy of the Republic of Tatarstan for the period 2005–2015. The instrument of regression modeling using the method of least squares, permits to estimate sectoral and cross-sectoral investment multipliers in the economy of the Republic of Tatarstan. Moreover, this method allows to assess the elasticity of gross output of regional economy and its individual sectors depending on investment in various sectors of the economy. Calculations results allowed to identify three growth points of the economy of the Republic of Tatarstan. They are mining industry, manufacturing industry and construction. The success of a particular industry or sub-industry in a country or a region should be measured not only by its share in macro-system’s gross output or value added, but also by the multiplicative effect that investments in the industry have on the development of other industries, on employment and on general national or regional product. In recent years, the growth of the Russian was close to zero. Thus, it is crucial to understand the structural consequences of the increasing investments in various sectors of the Russian economy. In this regard, the problems solved in the article are relevant for a number of countries and regions with a similar economic situation. The obtained results can be applied for similar estimations of investment multipliers as well as multipliers of government spending, and other components of aggregate demand in various countries and regions to identify growth points. Investments in these growth points will induce the greatest and the most evident increment of the outcome from the macro-system’s economic activities.

  18. The external sector of the Serbian economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ristanović Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to show the external sector of the Serbian economy, its features and peculiarities, as well as anomalies that afflicted it for years. In the analysis, data acquired from the Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia will be used, as well as the official international methodology. The text will include the analysis of the structure of the external sector, market share, competitive position of Serbian economy and export products according to sectors of the economy and factor intensity. Since 2000, the structure of production and exports of the Serbian economy shows low comparative advantages and competitive position throughout the world. Unfavorable structure of the sectors, departments and the product groups affected the deepening of external imbalances and high foreign trade deficit. Exports of technology of predominantly low intensity, resources, and labor-intensive products, common for Serbian economy, represent no guarantee of economic growth in the long term. The causes of external imbalances should be sought in the absence of adequate export strategy, as well as in high speed of liberalization of foreign trade flows and exchange rate policy.

  19. Fusion power economy of scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolan, T.J.

    1993-01-01

    In the next 50 yr, the world will need to develop hundreds of gigawatts of non-fossil-fuel energy sources for production of electricity and fuels. Nuclear fusion can probably provide much of the required energy economically, if large single-unit power plants are acceptable. Large power plants are more common than most people realize: There are already many multiple-unit power plants producing 2 to 5 GW(electric) at a single site. The cost of electricity (COE) from fusion energy is predicted to scale as COE ∼ COE 0 (P/P 0 ) -n , where P is the electrical power, the subscript zero denotes reference values, and the exponent n ∼ 0.36 to 0.7 in various designs. The validity ranges of these scalings are limited and need to be extended by future work. The fusion power economy of scale derives from four interrelated effects: improved operations and maintenance costs; scaling of equipment unit costs; a geometric effect that increases the mass power density; and reduction of the recirculating power fraction. Increased plasma size also relaxes the required confinement parameters: For the same neutron wall loading, larger tokamaks can use lower magnetic fields. Fossil-fuel power plants have a weaker economy of scale than fusion because the fuel costs constitute much of their COE. Solar and wind power plants consist of many small units, so they have little economy of scale. Fission power plants have a strong economy of scale but are unable to exploit it because the maximum unit size is limited by safety concerns. Large, steady-state fusion reactors generating 3 to 6 GW(electric) may be able to produce electricity for 4 to 5 cents/kW·h, which would be competitive with other future energy sources. 38 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs

  20. LINS Curve in Romanian Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilian Dobrescu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents theoretical considerations and empirical evidence to test the validity of the Laffer in Narrower Sense (LINS curve as a parabola with a maximum. Attention is focused on the so-called legal-effective tax gap (letg. The econometric application is based on statistical data (1990-2013 for Romania as an emerging European economy. Three cointegrating regressions (fully modified least squares, canonical cointegrating regression and dynamic least squares and three algorithms, which are based on instrumental variables (two-stage least squares, generalized method of moments, and limited information maximum likelihood, are involved.

  1. Attention for speaking: domain-general control from the anterior cingulate cortex in spoken word production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitoria ePiai

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Accumulating evidence suggests that some degree of attentional control is required to regulate and monitor processes underlying speaking. Although progress has been made in delineating the neural substrates of the core language processes involved in speaking, substrates associated with regulatory and monitoring processes have remained relatively underspecified. We report the results of an fMRI study examining the neural substrates related to performance in three attention-demanding tasks varying in the amount of linguistic processing: vocal picture naming while ignoring distractors (picture-word interference, PWI; vocal colour naming while ignoring distractors (Stroop; and manual object discrimination while ignoring spatial position (Simon task. All three tasks had congruent and incongruent stimuli, while PWI and Stroop also had neutral stimuli. Analyses focusing on common activation across tasks identified a portion of the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex that was active in incongruent trials for all three tasks, suggesting that this region subserves a domain-general attentional control function. In the language tasks, this area showed increased activity for incongruent relative to congruent stimuli, consistent with the involvement of domain-general mechanisms of attentional control in word production. The two language tasks also showed activity in anterior-superior temporal gyrus. Activity increased for neutral PWI stimuli (picture and word did not share the same semantic category relative to incongruent (categorically related and congruent stimuli. This finding is consistent with the involvement of language-specific areas in word production, possibly related to retrieval of lexical-semantic information from memory. The current results thus suggest that in addition to engaging language-specific areas for core linguistic processes, speaking also engages the anterior cingulate cortex, a region that is likely implementing domain-general

  2. A generalized business cycle model with delays in gross product and capital stock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hattaf, Khalid; Riad, Driss; Yousfi, Noura

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A generalized business cycle model is proposed and rigorously analyzed. • Well-posedness of the model and local stability of the economic equilibrium are investigated. • Direction of the Hopf bifurcation and stability of the bifurcating periodic solutions are determined. • A special case and some numerical simulations are presented. - Abstract: In this work, we propose a delayed business cycle model with general investment function. The time delays are introduced into gross product and capital stock, respectively. We first prove that the model is mathematically and economically well posed. In addition, the stability of the economic equilibrium and the existence of Hopf bifurcation are investigated. Our main results show that both time delays can cause the macro-economic system to fluctuate and the economic equilibrium to lose or gain its stability. Moreover, the direction of the Hopf bifurcation and the stability of the bifurcating periodic solutions are determined by means of the normal form method and center manifold theory. Furthermore, the models and results presented in many previous studies are improved and generalized.

  3. General analysis of the intermediate vector boson production in hadron collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rekalo, M.P.

    1981-01-01

    Polarization states of intermediate vector W(Z) bosons produced in inclusive hadron-hadron collisions, a 1 +a 2 →W(Z)+X, where a 1 a 2 are some nonpolarized hadrons, X is a nondetected particle assembly are studied in general. Since spatial parity in these processes is not preserved, polarized W(Z) boson production must be determined by 9 real structural functions, 4 of which characterize the effects of invariance violation in relation to spatial reflections. Three structural functions (P-odd) for pole W(Z) production mechanisms in the quantum chromodynamics should exactly equal zero (with regard to the gluon errors). The relation of the W(Z) matrix elements with the structural functions in different coordinate systems used while discussing the angular distributions of W(Z) boson decay products is established. Decription of the W(Z) polarization properties is analyzed in terms of the 4-vector of spin and tenzor of quadrupole polarization [ru

  4. Oxidation products are increased in patients affected by non-segmental generalized vitiligo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccaro, Mario; Bagnato, Gianluca; Cristani, Mariateresa; Borgia, Francesco; Spatari, Giovanna; Tigano, Valeria; Saja, Antonina; Guarneri, Fabrizio; Cannavò, Serafinella P; Gangemi, Sebastiano

    2017-08-01

    Several lines of evidence support the relevance of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in vitiligo, but the exact role of glycation and oxidation of macromolecules needs to be better addressed. To investigate the involvement of advanced oxidation protein products (AOPPs) and advanced glycation end-products (AGEs), we performed a case-control association study by spectrofluorimetry and spectrophotometry, in 47 patients with non-segmental generalized vitiligo and 47 age- and sex-matched controls. Significantly higher levels of both AOPPs (p vitiligo patients compared to healthy controls. In vitiligo patients, AGEs and AOPPs serum levels were directly associated with extension, duration of vitiligo, and disease activity. ROS, and in particular AGEs and AOPPs, could represent one of the main biomarkers to assess the onset and progression of vitiligo, due to the potential role as direct inducers of cell damage and also as autoimmunity triggers. Further longitudinal studies involving larger cohorts of patients are required to elucidate the role of oxidation products in the pathogenesis of vitiligo.

  5. An economy-wide evaluation of new power generation in South Africa: The case of Medupi and Kusile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohlmann, Jessika; Bohlmann, Heinrich; Inglesi-Lotz, Roula; Heerden, Jan van

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the role that the building of two new power stations, Medupi and Kusile, will play in facilitating future economic activity in South Africa. We use a dynamic computable general equilibrium (CGE) model to estimate the economy-wide effects of these new power stations. Our simulation results also provide insight into how much the local economy has lost due to inadequate electricity supply in the period leading up to the construction of Medupi and Kusile. We find that the decision to build additional power generation capacity was necessary and justified, and that the failure to sooner recognise the need for expansion of the country's electricity generation capacity and subsequent delays in commissioning Medupi and Kusile, likely cost the economy over R110bn in lost production. Additional analysis, in which a further two-year delay in the construction of Medupi and Kusile is simulated, shows that such an event will cause the economy to perform below baseline projections up to 2022. - Highlights: • We analyse the impact of new electricity generation in the South African economy. • We use UPGEM, a dynamic CGE model specifically designed for the local economy. • Without new electricity generation, GDP is 3.15 per cent lower by 2019, relative to the base. • Inadequate electricity supply since 2008 has cost the South African economy R110bn. • A two-year delay in construction will result in lower GDP up to 2022.

  6. STATE INTERVENTION IN THE ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea-Elena, BURDUF (MIERLARU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Starting from the deffinition of protectionism, an economic policy of restraining trade between states through methods such as tariffs on imported goods, restrictive quotas, and a variety of other government regulations designed to allow, according to proponents fair competition between imports and goods and service produced domestically, I am compelled to find Manoilescu's vision of economy. Was this system of political and economic measures of protection of national products from similar foreign products Manoilescu's vision? In the spirit of clasical protectionist doctrine, Manoilescu thought that the focal point of economy was the national economy, the sum of production assets and a conglomerate of individual traders. Amongst national production assets the foremost is the labour, capital and the others having only secondary importance in direct comparison. After the great depression of 1929, his book, The theory of protectionism and international exchanges , was the basis for justifying protectionism in Brazil while in Romania he had to face hostility from authorities, making it impossible for him, even if for several months in 1931 he was the Governor of the National Bank, to apply his vision to end the economic crisis in Romania. M. Manoilescu analyzed the state's economic role and how this is reflected in modern economic science. He saw the state as having the role of setting certain convergent common goals for the whole society and to set rules that removes free will in economic decisions, thus creating the premises for a regulated economic space, based on the transition from little rationale of firms to big rationale of national economy. He demonstrated the necessity of state intervetionism, he has shared the conviction that through the alignment of the Romanian economic strategy to the one from the developed countries the lagging behind of Romania could be surpassed. M. Manoilescu took the occidental type economic policies of the time

  7. Composition and production rate of pharmaceutical and chemical waste from Xanthi General Hospital in Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voudrias, Evangelos; Goudakou, Lambrini; Kermenidou, Marianthi; Softa, Aikaterini

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We studied pharmaceutical and chemical waste production in a Greek hospital. ► Pharmaceutical waste comprised 3.9% w/w of total hazardous medical waste. ► Unit production rate for total pharmaceutical waste was 12.4 ± 3.90 g/patient/d. ► Chemical waste comprised 1.8% w/w of total hazardous medical waste. ► Unit production rate for total chemical waste was 5.8 ± 2.2 g/patient/d. - Abstract: The objective of this work was to determine the composition and production rates of pharmaceutical and chemical waste produced by Xanthi General Hospital in Greece (XGH). This information is important to design and cost management systems for pharmaceutical and chemical waste, for safety and health considerations and for assessing environmental impact. A total of 233 kg pharmaceutical and 110 kg chemical waste was collected, manually separated and weighed over a period of five working weeks. The total production of pharmaceutical waste comprised 3.9% w/w of the total hazardous medical waste produced by the hospital. Total pharmaceutical waste was classified in three categories, vial waste comprising 51.1%, syringe waste with 11.4% and intravenous therapy (IV) waste with 37.5% w/w of the total. Vial pharmaceutical waste only was further classified in six major categories: antibiotics, digestive system drugs, analgesics, hormones, circulatory system drugs and “other”. Production data below are presented as average (standard deviation in parenthesis). The unit production rates for total pharmaceutical waste for the hospital were 12.4 (3.90) g/patient/d and 24.6 (7.48) g/bed/d. The respective unit production rates were: (1) for vial waste 6.4 (1.6) g/patient/d and 13 (2.6) g/bed/d, (2) for syringe waste 1.4 (0.4) g/patient/d and 2.8 (0.8) g/bed/d and (3) for IV waste 4.6 (3.0) g/patient/d and 9.2 (5.9) g/bed/d. Total chemical waste was classified in four categories, chemical reagents comprising 18.2%, solvents with 52.3%, dyes and tracers with 18.2% and

  8. Changing the paradigm of management of innovative activity in the conditions of transformation of economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. O. Lukina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the approaches to the development of innovation management as a management type from the traditional management, represented by Taylor's, A. Fayolle, G. Hemelom and others. There was a connection transformation of the economy and changes in the management of enterprises, aimed at the competitiveness of the market. Under the terms of the transformation of the economy the author has in mind the following factors: the knowledge economy and the new economy, forecastng and strategic planning at the enterprise and the economy in general, mass marketing and the development of global markets, non-stop process of development of knowledge, forming goal of a competitive economy. Under the innovative activity of the author understands the system of creation, dissemination and use of new types of products, actively or market, providing competitive state of the enterprise. Abstract Innovational management stages: the classic theory justifying the application of new knowledge in organizations, transforming them into new products, management by objectives, technology development and cost reduction, human capital theory, management personnel training school. Emphasizes the principles of school education, such as the complexity and unpredictability of the environment, the impossibility of planning control, since it must be continuously updated study is necessary to all the staff, including managers as a potential strategy, learning involves retrospektive thinking, allows us to analyze the previous steps organization. Abstract forms of knowledge are needed in innovation in the transformation of the economy: group, individual, and others, be implied in the innovation process. In addition, a group distinguished knowledge in the innovation of the type of trainin g, according to the method of scientific activities, as well as sources of information.

  9. Digitalizing the Circular Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuter, Markus A.

    2016-12-01

    metallurgical reactors and plants for both primary and secondary materials processing. (4) Big-data analysis and process control of industrial metallurgical systems, processes, and reactors by the application of, among others, artificial intelligence techniques and computer-aided engineering. (5) Minerals processing and process metallurgical theory, technology, simulation, and analytical tools, which are all key enablers of the CE. (6) Visualizing the results of all the tools used for estimating the RE of the CE system in a form that the consumer and general public can understand. (7) The smart integration of tools and methods that quantify RE and deliver sustainable solutions, named in this article as circular economy engineering. In view of space limitations, this message will be colored in by various publications also with students and colleagues, referring to (often commercial) software that acts as a conduit to capture and formalize the research of the large body of work in the literature by distinguished metallurgical engineers and researchers and realized in innovative industrial solutions. The author stands humbly on the shoulders of these developments and their distinguished developers. This award lecture article implicitly also refers to work done while working for Ausmelt (Australia), Outotec (Finland and Australia), Mintek (South Africa), and Anglo American Corporation (South Africa), honoring the many colleagues the author has worked with over the years.

  10. Generalized Kutta–Joukowski theorem for multi-vortex and multi-airfoil flow with vortex production — A general model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bai Chenyuan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available By using a special momentum approach and with the help of interchange between singularity velocity and induced flow velocity, we derive in a physical way explicit force formulas for two-dimensional inviscid flow involving multiple bound and free vortices, multiple airfoils, and vortex production. These force formulas hold individually for each airfoil thus allowing for force decomposition, and the contributions to forces from singularities (such as bound and image vortices, sources, and doublets and bodies out of an airfoil are related to their induced velocities at the locations of singularities inside this airfoil. The force contribution due to vortex production is related to the vortex production rate and the distance between each pair of vortices in production, thus frame-independent. The formulas are validated against a number of standard problems. These force formulas, which generalize the classic Kutta–Joukowski theorem (for a single bound vortex and the recent generalized Lagally theorem (for problems without a bound vortex and vortex production to more general cases, can be used to identify or understand the roles of outside vortices and bodies on the forces of the actual body, optimize arrangement of outside vortices and bodies for force enhancement or reduction, and derive analytical force formulas once the flow field is given or known.

  11. Petroleum and the economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohi, D.R.

    1992-01-01

    In re-examining the effect of energy price shocks on the economy, this article applies several tests to show that the apparent coincidence between price shocks and poor economic performance may be misleading. For example, whereas macroeconomic analysis graphs of employment and GNP clearly indicate an apparent correlation between the 1979 petroleum price hike and economic downturn in the USA, Great Britain and Germany, Japan's performance stayed fairly constant during that period. Additional sectoral analyses of the performances of the western economies show that the impacts of the '74 and '79 oil price shocks were not equally distributed across the different industrial sectors of the various nations. The paper argues that a deeper understanding of the energy-economy relationship is required to reduce these ambiguities

  12. Experimenting with alternative economies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Longhurst, Noel; Avelino, Flor; Wittmayer, Julia

    2016-01-01

    Neoliberalism is a powerful narrative that has shaped processes of urban economic development across the globe. This paper reports on four nascent ‘new economic’ narratives which represent fundamentally different imaginaries of the urban economy. Experiments informed by these narratives challenge...... the dominant neoliberal logic in four key dimensions: What is the purpose of economic development? What are the preferred distributive mechanisms? Who governs the economy? What is the preferred form of economic organisation? The emergence of these experiments illustrates that cities are spaces where counter...

  13. Inverting the moral economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olwig, Mette Fog; Noe, Christine; Kangalawe, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Governments, donors and investors often promote land acquisitions for forest plantations as global climate change mitigation via carbon sequestration. Investors’ forestry thereby becomes part of a global moral economy imaginary. Using examples from Tanzania we critically examine the global moral...... economy’s narrative foundation, which presents trees as axiomatically ‘green’, ‘idle’ land as waste and economic investments as benefiting the relevant communities. In this way the traditional supposition of the moral economy as invoked by the economic underclass to maintain the basis of their subsistence...

  14. Inverting the moral economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olwig, Mette Fog; Noe, Christine; Kangalawe, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Governments, donors and investors often promote land acquisitions for forest plantations as global climate change mitigation via carbon sequestration. Investors’ forestry thereby becomes part of a global moral economy imaginary. Using examples from Tanzania we critically examine the global moral...... economy’s narrative foundation, which presents trees as axiomatically ‘green’, ‘idle’ land as waste and economic investments as benefiting the relevant communities. In this way the traditional supposition of the moral economy as invoked by the economic underclass to maintain the basis of their subsistence...

  15. General Principles for the welfare of animals in production systems: the underlying science and its application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, David; Duncan, Ian J H; Edwards, Sandra A; Grandin, Temple; Gregory, Neville G; Guyonnet, Vincent; Hemsworth, Paul H; Huertas, Stella M; Huzzey, Juliana M; Mellor, David J; Mench, Joy A; Spinka, Marek; Whay, H Rebecca

    2013-10-01

    In 2012, the World Organisation for Animal Health adopted 10 'General Principles for the Welfare of Animals in Livestock Production Systems' to guide the development of animal welfare standards. The General Principles draw on half a century of scientific research relevant to animal welfare: (1) how genetic selection affects animal health, behaviour and temperament; (2) how the environment influences injuries and the transmission of diseases and parasites; (3) how the environment affects resting, movement and the performance of natural behaviour; (4) the management of groups to minimize conflict and allow positive social contact; (5) the effects of air quality, temperature and humidity on animal health and comfort; (6) ensuring access to feed and water suited to the animals' needs and adaptations; (7) prevention and control of diseases and parasites, with humane euthanasia if treatment is not feasible or recovery is unlikely; (8) prevention and management of pain; (9) creation of positive human-animal relationships; and (10) ensuring adequate skill and knowledge among animal handlers. Research directed at animal welfare, drawing on animal behaviour, stress physiology, veterinary epidemiology and other fields, complements more established fields of animal and veterinary science and helps to create a more comprehensive scientific basis for animal care and management. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Political economy of climate change, ecological destruction and uneven development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Hara, Phillip Anthony

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze climate change and ecological destruction through the prism of the core general principles of political economy. The paper starts with the principle of historical specificity, and the various waves of climate change through successive cooler and warmer periods on planet Earth, including the most recent climate change escalation through the open circuit associated with the treadmill of production. Then we scrutinize the principle of contradiction associated with the disembedded economy, social costs, entropy and destructive creation. The principle of uneven development is then explored through core-periphery dynamics, ecologically unequal exchange, metabolic rift and asymmetric global (in)justice. The principles of circular and cumulative causation (CCC) and uncertainty are then related to climate change dynamics through non-linear transformations, complex interaction of dominant variables, and threshold effects. Climate change and ecological destruction are impacting on most areas, especially the periphery, earlier and more intensely than previously thought likely. A political economy approach to climate change is able to enrich the analysis of ecological economics and put many critical themes in a broad context. (author)

  17. Theoretical Aspects of the Technological Leadership of National Economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dovgal Еlеna A.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The main theoretical approaches to forming and defining the essence of the technological leadership of national economies have been considered. At present the global nature of the technological development factor is the main engine of development of economies in most world countries. Changes and improvement of all the elements of productive forces occur and innovations or new developments appear as a result of technological development. Different approaches to defining the essence of the technological leadership have been considered, the stages of its development, theoretical concepts of different scientific schools regarding the impact of the factor of technological development on the overall economic process of national economies have been analyzed. Characteristics of technological modes have been summarized and their influence on the formation of the technological leadership of the world countries has been revealed. The main approaches to identifying the technological leadership of various countries on the basis of calculation of international indices have been considered. The prospect for further research of the problem is a comprehensive study of determinants that reflect the technological leadership and give a general assessment of qualitative characteristics of the formation of its components

  18. Efficient energy-saving targets for APEC economies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, J.-L.; Kao, C.-H.

    2007-01-01

    Energy-saving target ratios (ESTR) for 17 APEC economies during 1991-2000 are computed in a total-factor framework. All nominal variables are transformed into real variables by the purchasing power parity (PPP) at the 1995 price level. The data envelopment analysis (DEA) approach is used to find the energy-saving target (EST) for APEC economies without reducing their maximum potential gross domestic productions (GDPs) in each year. Energy, labor, and capital are the three inputs, while GDP is the single output. Our major findings are as follows: (1) China has the largest EST up to almost half of its current usage. (2) Hong Kong, the Philippines, and the United States have the highest energy efficiency. (3) The energy efficiency generally increases for APEC economies except for Canada and New Zealand. (4) Chile, Mexico, and Taiwan have significantly improved their energy efficiency in the last 5 years. (5) An inverted U-shape relation exists between per capita EST and per capita GDP. (6) ESTR has a positive relation with the value-added percentage of GDP of the industry sector and a negative relation with that of the service sector

  19. Product of the powers of generalized Nakagami-m variates and performance of cascaded fading channels

    KAUST Repository

    Yilmaz, Ferkan

    2009-11-01

    In this paper, we analyze the fading statistics of a generic fading distribution, termed the N-product Generalized Nakagami-m (GNM) distribution (N*GNM distribution), constructed as the product of the power of N statistically independent and non-identically distributed GNM random variables, for the purpose of modeling the cascaded fading channels. In particular, using the Fox\\'s H function, we derive the probability density function, the cumulative distribution function, the moment generating function and the moments of such channels in closed-form. These derived results are a convenient tool to statistically model the cascaded GNM fading channels and to analyze the performance of digital communication systems over these kinds of channels. As such, generic closed-form expressions for the amount of fading, the outage probability, the capacity, the outage capacity and the average bit error probabilities of digital communications systems over cascaded GNM fading channels are presented. Numerical and simulation results, performed to verify the correctness of the proposed formulation, are in perfect agreement.

  20. Single Higgs-boson production at a photon-photon collider: General 2HDM versus MSSM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-Val, David, E-mail: lopez@thphys.uni-heidelberg.de [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Heidelberg, Philosophenweg 16, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Sola, Joan, E-mail: sola@ecm.ub.es [High Energy Physics Group, Dept. ECM, and Institut de Ciencies del Cosmos Univ. de Barcelona, Av. Diagonal 647, E-08028 Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain)

    2011-08-19

    We revisit the production of a single Higgs boson from direct {gamma}{gamma}-scattering at a photon collider. We compute the total cross-section {sigma}({gamma}{gamma}{yields}h) (for h=h{sup 0},H{sup 0},A{sup 0}), and the strength of the effective g{sub h}{sup 0}{sub {gamma}{gamma}} coupling normalized to the Standard Model (SM), for both the general Two-Higgs-Doublet Model (2HDM) and the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM). In both cases the predicted production rates for the CP-even (odd) states render up to 10{sup 4} (10{sup 3}) events per 500 fb{sup -1} of integrated luminosity, in full consistency with all the theoretical and phenomenological constraints. Depending on the channel the maximum rates can be larger or smaller than the SM expectations, but in most of the parameter space they should be well measurable. We analyze how these departures depend on the dynamics underlying each of the models, supersymmetric and non-supersymmetric, and highlight the possible distinctive phenomenological signatures. We demonstrate that this process could be extremely useful to discern non-supersymmetric Higgs bosons from supersymmetric ones. Furthermore, in the MSSM case, we show that {gamma}{gamma}-physics could decisively help to overcome the serious impasse afflicting Higgs boson physics at the infamous 'LHC wedge'.

  1. Problems of Transition from a Planned to a Market Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Krelle, Wilhelm

    2000-01-01

    The paper shows that a transition from a planned to a market economy implies an important change of the structure of production, i. e. a reallocation of resources which takes time and induces sufferings for some people. These sufferings may be reduced by subsidization of some sectors, with some negative effects on GDP and growth if subsidization exceeds a certain size. The time tillthe economy in transition reaches an ``old" market economy (asymptotically or totally) is estimated by different...

  2. Statistical dynamics of regional populations and economies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Jie; Wang, Xu-Ming; Hao, Rui; Wang, Peng

    Quantitative analysis of human behavior and social development is becoming a hot spot of some interdisciplinary studies. A statistical analysis on the population and GDP of 150 cities in China from 1990 to 2013 is conducted. The result indicates the cumulative probability distribution of the populations and that of the GDPs obeying the shifted power law, respectively. In order to understand these characteristics, a generalized Langevin equation describing variation of population is proposed, which is based on the correlations between population and GDP as well as the random fluctuations of the related factors. The equation is transformed into the Fokker-Plank equation to express the evolution of population distribution. The general solution demonstrates a transition of the distribution from the normal Gaussian distribution to a shifted power law, which suggests a critical point of time at which the transition takes place. The shifted power law distribution in the supercritical situation is qualitatively in accordance with the practical result. The distribution of the GDPs is derived from the well-known Cobb-Douglas production function. The result presents a change, in supercritical situation, from a shifted power law to the Gaussian distribution. This is a surprising result-the regional GDP distribution of our world will be the Gaussian distribution one day in the future. The discussions based on the changing trend of economic growth suggest it will be true. Therefore, these theoretical attempts may draw a historical picture of our society in the aspects of population and economy.

  3. A hydrogen economy: opportunities and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tseng, P.; Lee, J.; Friley, P.

    2005-01-01

    A hydrogen economy, the long-term goal of many nations, can potentially confer energy security, along with environmental and economic benefits. However, the transition from a conventional petroleum-based energy system to a hydrogen economy involves many uncertainties, such as the development of efficient fuel-cell technologies, problems in hydrogen production and its distribution infrastructure, and the response of petroleum markets. This study uses the US MARKAL model to simulate the impacts of hydrogen technologies on the US energy system and to identify potential impediments to a successful transition. Preliminary findings highlight possible market barriers facing the hydrogen economy, as well as opportunities in new R and D and product markets for bioproducts. Quantitative analysis also offers insights on policy options for promoting hydrogen technologies. (author)

  4. A geometrical imaging of the real gap between economies of China and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseiny, Ali

    2017-08-01

    GDP of China is about 10 trillion dollars and GDP of the United States is about 18 trillion dollars. Suppose that we know for the coming years, economy of the US will experience a real growth rate equal to %3 and economy of China will experience a real growth as of %6. Now, the question is how long does it take for economy of China to catch the economy of the United States. The early impression is that the desired time is the answer of the equation 10 × 1 . 06X = 18 × 1 . 03X. The correct answer however is quite different. GDP is not a simple number and the gap between two countries cannot be addressed simply through their sizes. It is rather a geometrical object. Countries pass different paths in the space of production. The gaps between GDP of different countries depend on the path that each country passes through and local metric. To address distance between economies of China and of the US we need to know their utility preferences and the path that China passes to reach the US size. The true gap then can be found if we calculate local metric along this path. It resembles impressions about measurements in the General Theory of Relativity. Path dependency of measurements is an old known fact in economy. It is widely discussed in the Index Number Theory. Our aim is to stick to the geometrical view presented in the General Relativity to provide a fast impression about the matter for physicists. We show that different elements in the general relativity have their own counterparts in economics. We claim that national agencies who provide aggregate data resemble falling observers into a curved space time. It is while the World Bank or international organizations are outside observers.

  5. Composition and production rate of pharmaceutical and chemical waste from Xanthi General Hospital in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voudrias, Evangelos; Goudakou, Lambrini; Kermenidou, Marianthi; Softa, Aikaterini

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this work was to determine the composition and production rates of pharmaceutical and chemical waste produced by Xanthi General Hospital in Greece (XGH). This information is important to design and cost management systems for pharmaceutical and chemical waste, for safety and health considerations and for assessing environmental impact. A total of 233 kg pharmaceutical and 110 kg chemical waste was collected, manually separated and weighed over a period of five working weeks. The total production of pharmaceutical waste comprised 3.9% w/w of the total hazardous medical waste produced by the hospital. Total pharmaceutical waste was classified in three categories, vial waste comprising 51.1%, syringe waste with 11.4% and intravenous therapy (IV) waste with 37.5% w/w of the total. Vial pharmaceutical waste only was further classified in six major categories: antibiotics, digestive system drugs, analgesics, hormones, circulatory system drugs and "other". Production data below are presented as average (standard deviation in parenthesis). The unit production rates for total pharmaceutical waste for the hospital were 12.4 (3.90) g/patient/d and 24.6 (7.48) g/bed/d. The respective unit production rates were: (1) for vial waste 6.4 (1.6) g/patient/d and 13 (2.6) g/bed/d, (2) for syringe waste 1.4 (0.4) g/patient/d and 2.8 (0.8) g/bed/d and (3) for IV waste 4.6 (3.0) g/patient/d and 9.2 (5.9) g/bed/d. Total chemical waste was classified in four categories, chemical reagents comprising 18.2%, solvents with 52.3%, dyes and tracers with 18.2% and solid waste with 11.4% w/w of the total. The total production of chemical waste comprised 1.8% w/w of the total hazardous medical waste produced by the hospital. Thus, the sum of pharmaceutical and chemical waste was 5.7% w/w of the total hazardous medical waste produced by the hospital. The unit production rates for total chemical waste for the hospital were 5.8 (2.2) g/patient/d and 1.1 (0.4) g/exam/d. The respective

  6. Europe - the first hydrogen economy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, D.

    1999-01-01

    An examination of the state of research relating to hydrogen production and utilization indicates that interest in hydrogen from major companies in Europe has increased by several orders of magnitude in recent years. Of the three major areas where a hydrogen economy could be expected to start, namely, Japan, the United States and Europe, the latter may have advantages in diversity of resources, attitudes towards environmental issues and specific fiscal and regulatory structures. Examples of ongoing research and development projects in Europe include Norway's hydrogen combustion turbine to run on hydrogen from decarbonised natural gas, a project in the Netherlands involving mixing hydrogen and methane in the natural gas grid and a variety of projects involving liquid hydrogen refuelling, hydrogen aircraft, hydrogen fuelling stations and fuel cell vehicle development. There are also ongoing projects in carbon sequestration and hydrogen production for power generation and vehicle use. The author's main contention is that the combination of natural surroundings, environmental problems and attitudes, and business and government frameworks strongly suggest that Europe may be the first to have a hydrogen-based economy. 8 refs

  7. GENERAL SURGERY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    could cripple the global economy. Greater attention ... Africa and 5.7 general surgeons per 100 000 in the US.12 One of the key ... 100 000 insured population working in the private sector, which is comparable with the United States (US).

  8. Political Economy in Applied Linguistics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, David

    2017-01-01

    This state-of-the-art review is based on the fundamental idea that political economy should be adopted as a frame for research and discussion in applied linguistics as part of a general social turn which has taken hold in the field over the past three decades. It starts with Susan Gal's (1989) early call for such a move in sociolinguistics and…

  9. Ecology and economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menard, M.; Bischoff, J.

    1980-01-01

    The green movement challenges workers' unions and socialists. Who are the 'Greens', and what do they want. Where do their theoretical fundamentals come from. Will an ecological economy be able to function. Are the 'Greens' leftists or dreamers fighting against progress. Arguments for trade unionists and socialists in the ecological controversy. (orig.) [de

  10. The Danish Negotiated Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Ove K.

    2012-01-01

    Denmark is characterised by a number of distinct traits: a small and open economy, a stable democratic political system, a high proportion of organised wage earners covered by collective agreements, a political culture marked by social partnership, and a long tradition of institutionalised class...

  11. Operant Conditioning - Token Economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Jacqueline; McBurney, Raymond D.

    Described is an Operant Conditioning-Token Economy Program, teaching patients to be responsible for their own behavior, to make choices, and to be motivated to change. The program was instigated with mentally ill patients in a state hospital and was later used with institutionalized mentally handicapped groups. After two years, only four of the…

  12. Japan's plutonium economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hecht, M.M.

    1994-01-01

    Japan's plutonium economy is based on the most efficient use of nuclear energy, as envisioned under the Atoms for Peace program of the 1950s and 1960s. The nuclear pioneers assumed that all nations would want to take full advantage of atomic energy, recycling waste into new fuel to derive as much energy as possible from this resource

  13. Airline Safety and Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    This video documents efforts at NASA Langley Research Center to improve safety and economy in aircraft. Featured are the cockpit weather information needs computer system, which relays real time weather information to the pilot, and efforts to improve techniques to detect structural flaws and corrosion, such as the thermal bond inspection system.

  14. Radical Circular Economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, M.; Mohammadi, S.; Slob, N.

    2015-01-01

    Recently the Circular Economy (CE) concept has gained momentum in the Netherlands, propounding that environmental impact reduction can provide a significant positive economical impulse. The government, larger parts of the industry as a whole, as well as the construction industry, has warmly received

  15. The Hidden STEM Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothwell, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Workers in STEM (science, technology, engineering, and math) fields play a direct role in driving economic growth. Yet, because of how the STEM economy has been defined, policymakers have mainly focused on supporting workers with at least a bachelor's (BA) degree, overlooking a strong potential workforce of those with less than a BA. This report…

  16. An entropic framework for modeling economies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caticha, Ariel; Golan, Amos

    2014-08-01

    We develop an information-theoretic framework for economic modeling. This framework is based on principles of entropic inference that are designed for reasoning on the basis of incomplete information. We take the point of view of an external observer who has access to limited information about broad macroscopic economic features. We view this framework as complementary to more traditional methods. The economy is modeled as a collection of agents about whom we make no assumptions of rationality (in the sense of maximizing utility or profit). States of statistical equilibrium are introduced as those macrostates that maximize entropy subject to the relevant information codified into constraints. The basic assumption is that this information refers to supply and demand and is expressed in the form of the expected values of certain quantities (such as inputs, resources, goods, production functions, utility functions and budgets). The notion of economic entropy is introduced. It provides a measure of the uniformity of the distribution of goods and resources. It captures both the welfare state of the economy as well as the characteristics of the market (say, monopolistic, concentrated or competitive). Prices, which turn out to be the Lagrange multipliers, are endogenously generated by the economy. Further studies include the equilibrium between two economies and the conditions for stability. As an example, the case of the nonlinear economy that arises from linear production and utility functions is treated in some detail.

  17. Productive whole-class discussions: A qualitative analysis of peer leader behaviors in general chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckart, Teresa Mcclain

    The intention of this research was to describe behaviors and characteristics of General Chemistry I peer leaders using a pedagogical reform method referred to as Peer-led Guided Inquiry (PLGI), and to discuss the ways in which these peer leaders created productive whole-class discussions. This reform technique engaged students to work on guided inquiry activities while working cooperatively in small groups, led by undergraduate peer leaders. These sessions were video recorded and transcribed. The data was evaluated using grounded theory methods of analysis. This study examined the dialog between students and peer leaders, paying specific attention to question types and observed patterns of interactions. The research took shape by examining the kinds of questions asked by peer leaders and the purposes these questions served. In addition to looking at questions, different kinds of behaviors displayed by peer leaders during their small group sessions were also observed. A close examination of peer leader questions and behaviors aided in developing an answer to the overall research question regarding what factors are associated with productive whole-class discussions. Five major categories of peer leader behaviors evolved from the data and provided a means to compare and contrast productive whole-class discussions. While no category single-handedly determined if a discussion was good or bad, there was a tendency for peer leaders who exhibited positive traits in at least three of the following categories to have consistently better whole-class discussions: Procedural Practices, Supervisory Qualities, Questioning Techniques, Feedback/Responses, and Interpersonal Skills. Furthermore, each of the major categories is tied directly to Interpersonal, Communication, and Leadership skills and their interactions with each other. This study also addressed applications that each of these categories has on instructional practices and their need in peer leader training. In addition

  18. Boundedness and compactness of a new product-type operator from a general space to Bloch-type spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevo Stević

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We characterize the boundedness and compactness of a product-type operator, which, among others, includes all the products of the single composition, multiplication, and differentiation operators, from a general space to Bloch-type spaces. We also give some upper and lower bounds for the norm of the operator.

  19. Economy of wood supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imponen, V.

    1993-01-01

    Research and development of wood fuels production was vigorous in the beginning of the 1980's. Techniques and working methods used in combined harvesting and transportation of energy and merchantable wood were developed in addition to separate energy wood delivery. After a ten year silent period the research on this field was started again. At present the underutilization of forest supplies and the environmental effects of energy production based on fossil fuels caused the rebeginning of the research. One alternative for reduction of the price of wood fuels at the utilization site is the integration of energy and merchantable wood deliveries together. Hence the harvesting and transportation devices can be operated effectively, and the organizational costs are decreased as well. The wood delivery costs consist of the stumpage price, the harvesting and transportation costs, and of general expenses. The stumpage price form the largest cost category (over 50 %) of the industrial merchantable wood delivery, and the harvesting and transportation costs in the case of thinningwood delivery. Forest transportation is the largest part of the delivery costs of logging residues. The general expenses, consisting of the management costs and the interest costs of the capital bound to the storages, form a remarkable cost category in delivery of low-rank wood for energy or conversion purposes. The costs caused by the harvesting of thinningwood, the logging residues, chipping and crushing, the lorry transportation are reviewed in this presentation

  20. Challenges in Building a Sustainable Biobased Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mussatto, Solange I.

    2017-01-01

    for the production of fuels, chemicals, energy and materials is therefore recognized as a need by numerous industries and policy makers in countries around the world. In addition, a biobased economy has the potential to generate new jobs and even new industries, creating new opportunities for entrepreneurship...

  1. Location of slaughterhouses under economies of scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Broek, J.J.J.; Schütz, P.; Stougie, L.; Tomasgard, A.

    2006-01-01

    The facility location problem described in this paper comes from an industrial application in the slaughterhouse industry of Norway. Investigations show that the slaughterhouse industry experiences economies of scale in the production facilities. We examine a location-allocation problem focusing on

  2. The transportation economy : just in time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this project was to produce a short educational video, targeted at middle school and high school students, illustrating the critical role transportation plays in our modern economy. This report documents the production of a 6.5-minute ...

  3. Energy sustainability performance of the regional economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. I. Danilov

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The results of the study of the dynamics of energy intensity of gross regional product of the Sverdlovsk region for the period 1996 - 2003 years. and projections for the period up to 2015. The principal possibility of growth performance of the regional economy, without a significant increase in the consumption of primary fuel.

  4. Availability Cascades and the Sharing Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Netter, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    As scholars search for a new concept that will provide answers on how modern societies should make sense of and resolve the social and environmental problems linked to our modes of production and consumption, the sharing economy is attracting increased attention. To better understand this emergent...

  5. Pyranose dehydrogenase ligand promiscuity: a generalized approach to simulate monosaccharide solvation, binding, and product formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael M H Graf

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The flavoenzyme pyranose dehydrogenase (PDH from the litter decomposing fungus Agaricus meleagris oxidizes many different carbohydrates occurring during lignin degradation. This promiscuous substrate specificity makes PDH a promising catalyst for bioelectrochemical applications. A generalized approach to simulate all 32 possible aldohexopyranoses in the course of one or a few molecular dynamics (MD simulations is reported. Free energy calculations according to the one-step perturbation (OSP method revealed the solvation free energies (ΔGsolv of all 32 aldohexopyranoses in water, which have not yet been reported in the literature. The free energy difference between β- and α-anomers (ΔGβ-α of all d-stereoisomers in water were compared to experimental values with a good agreement. Moreover, the free-energy differences (ΔG of the 32 stereoisomers bound to PDH in two different poses were calculated from MD simulations. The relative binding free energies (ΔΔGbind were calculated and, where available, compared to experimental values, approximated from Km values. The agreement was very good for one of the poses, in which the sugars are positioned in the active site for oxidation at C1 or C2. Distance analysis between hydrogens of the monosaccharide and the reactive N5-atom of the flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD revealed that oxidation is possible at HC1 or HC2 for pose A, and at HC3 or HC4 for pose B. Experimentally detected oxidation products could be rationalized for the majority of monosaccharides by combining ΔΔGbind and a reweighted distance analysis. Furthermore, several oxidation products were predicted for sugars that have not yet been tested experimentally, directing further analyses. This study rationalizes the relationship between binding free energies and substrate promiscuity in PDH, providing novel insights for its applicability in bioelectrochemistry. The results suggest that a similar approach could be applied to study

  6. Integration of Forest Fuel Handling in the Ordinary Forestry. Studies on Forestry, Technology and Economy of Forest Fuel Production in Lithuania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Lars [Regional Forestry Board of Vaermland-Oerebro, Karlstad (Sweden); Budrys, Renatas [Lithuanian Forest Research Inst. (Lithuania)

    2002-07-01

    During the year 2000, The Swedish Forest Administration and Forest Department, Ministry of Environment in Lithuania, started a bilateral co-operation project, named: 'Swedish Lithuanian Wood Fuel Development Project', financed by the Swedish Energy Agency. The project was divided into 2 phases. The first phase objectives were to make a feasibility study in the eastern part of Lithuania and to identify the present conditions for the utilization of wood fuel within seven state forest enterprises and to define a demonstration and experimental area for the phase 2. The purpose of this work was to find solutions for creating horizontal and vertical integration in the handling of forest fuels in ordinary forestry and supply systems. The aim would be to give specific recommendations on which methods are the most suitable and profitable and on what type of equipment to use for various conditions and by the means of demonstrations to show how to integrate the positive results into the ordinary forestry activities. Different kinds of activities have been carried out to ensure capacity building and development on other levels within the system. 3 activity groups were established and have been working side by side with the appointed team leaders for each activity group from the institutions leading in the specific area within the forest sector in Lithuania. Swedish specialists from the Swedish Forest Administration were involved into the project and the activity groups as well. Lithuanian Forest Research Institute was involved into the project with research support. Additional to the project a mobile drum wood chipper was purchased from Sweden. 3 separate investigations have been conducted, one by Kaunas Univ. of Tech. on the analysis and estimation of material balance in Lithuania saw milling industry, another by Forest Economy Centre on wood fuel produced in industry in Lithuania and the third one by Lithuanian Energy Institute and AF international on Bio fuel

  7. Trade typhoon over Japan: Turbulence metaphor and spatial production cycles feedback loops of the Japanese economy, 1980–85–90

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sonis

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the turbulence similitude between whirlpool structure of atmosphere disturbances and the spatial production cycles. Such an analogy leads to the production cycles feedback loops superposition analysis of trade feedbacks reflecting the economic phenomena of horizontal and vertical trade specifications. Moreover, the visualization of this process is achieved with the help of coloring the different permutation matrices presenting the hierarchy of production cycles feedback loops. In this manner the qualitative presentation of Japan inter-regional and inter-industry trade, 1980–85–90, is visualized and interpreted.

  8. Trade policy and quality leadership in transition economies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moraga-González, José Luis; Viaene, Jean Marie

    Trade policy and quality leadership in transition economies are analyzed in a duopoly model of trade and vertical product differentiation. We first show that the incidence of trade liberalization is sensitive to whether firms in transition economies are producers of low or high quality. Second, we

  9. Asia and South America: A Quasi-Common Economy Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Canuto, Otaviano; Sharma, Manu

    2011-01-01

    The Asian style of regional integration may be seen as a 'quasi-common economy' that eschews a formal linkup in political or monetary terms, but manages to generate similar results by strong physical integration and distributed chains of production and service delivery. This note proposes the Asian quasi-common economy as a benchmark for South America's regional integration efforts because...

  10. The Influence of the Economy on Hospitality Industry in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Influence of the Economy on Hospitality Industry in Nigeria. ... Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management ... contributions of the hospitality industry (represented by Hotels and Restaurants) to the Nigerian economy (represented by the Gross Domestic Products – GDP) and the GDP itself from 1980 ...

  11. Formal-informal economy linkages: What implications for poverty in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The findings have implications for poverty analysis in South Africa. Policy which views poverty as being located outside the mainstream of the economy – in the so-called 'second' economy – is misleading. Instead, an integrated approach which views poverty as linked to and a product of the trajectory and growth patterns of ...

  12. Learning in Organizations: A corporate curriculum for the knowledge economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessels, Joseph

    2001-01-01

    This paper elaborates on the argument that the economy is transforming into a knowledge economy. Therefore, individuals, teams and companies need to develop the necessary competencies to be able to participate in a working life that is mainly based on knowledge productivity. The traditional

  13. Energy economy and industrial ecology in the Brazilian cement sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavares, Marina Elisabete Espinho; Schaeffer, Roberto

    1999-01-01

    The article discusses the following issues of the Brazilian cement sector: the Brazilian cement main types specification, cement quantities evolution produced in Brazil from 1987 to 1997, energy conservation in the cement production process with additives, energy economy cost estimates from the utilization of additives, and several technologies energy economy cost used in the industrial sector

  14. Radiating residues from production and consumption. On the political economy of radioactive waste; Strahlende Hinterlassenschaften aus Produktion und Konsumtion. Zur Politischen Oekonomie des Atommuells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunnengraeber, Achim; Mez, Lutz

    2014-09-15

    The contribution on radiating residues from production and consumption discusses the following issues: (1) Endless production of waste - not only from NPP operation but in every phase of the fuel cycle starting with uranium mining. (2) Paradoxes and polarizations: the discrepancy between the continuous production of nuclear waste and the unsolved question of final disposal is accompanying the whole nuclear energy age: the experiences show that neither technical nor geological barriers can guarantee the safe retention of fission products from the environment. (3) Private goods, public bads: the NPP owner tend to reach highest profit but want to shift the cost for waste disposal to the public; the situation in Germany is discussed in detail. (4) Conclusions and the final repository governance: the ongoing search for a final repository site in Germany demonstrates the development of the waste problem to a wicked problem.

  15. The "local economy" effect of social transfers : an empirical assessment of the impactof th Bolsa Familia program on local productive structure and economic growth

    OpenAIRE

    Rougier, E.; Combarnous, F.; Fauré, Yves-André

    2018-01-01

    Social transfers impact local economic growth through local demand multiplier and local productive structures. Using original data on productive structures, growth determinants and Bolsa Familia conditional transfers (BFP) for the 184 municipalities of the Brazilian state of Ceará during 2003–10, we show that the positive impact of the transfers on local growth is in fact conditional on the direction of local economic structure transformation. Indeed, transfers did spur light manufactur...

  16. Millennials and the Sharing Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ranzini, Giulia; Newlands, Gemma; Anselmi, Guido

    Report from the EU H2020 Research Project Ps2Share: Participation, Privacy, and Power in the Sharing Economy......Report from the EU H2020 Research Project Ps2Share: Participation, Privacy, and Power in the Sharing Economy...

  17. The collaborative Economy and Tourism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dredge, Dianne; Gyimóthy, Szilvia

    2015-01-01

    House swapping, ridesharing, voluntourism, couchsurfing, dinner hosting and similar innovations epitomize the collaborative economy. The rise of the collaborative economy, also known as collaborative consumption, the sharing economy and peer-to-peer consumption, has been fuelled by a range of soc...... for a balanced assessment of such claims. Highlighting these claims allows us to pursue a more reflective research agenda and leads to a more informed, evidence-based assessment of the collaborative economy and tourism.......House swapping, ridesharing, voluntourism, couchsurfing, dinner hosting and similar innovations epitomize the collaborative economy. The rise of the collaborative economy, also known as collaborative consumption, the sharing economy and peer-to-peer consumption, has been fuelled by a range...... experiences; and higher levels of consumer risk-taking balanced against mechanisms such as peer-to-peer feedback designed to engender trust between producers and consumers. This paper explores and critically assesses the collaborative economy and its implications for tourism industrial systems. It achieves...

  18. Generalized hypercube graph $\\Q_n(S$, graph products and self-orthogonal codes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pani Seneviratne

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A generalized hypercube graph $\\Q_n(S$ has $\\F_{2}^{n}=\\{0,1\\}^n$ as the vertex set and two vertices being adjacent whenever their mutual Hamming distance belongs to $S$, where $n \\ge 1$ and $S\\subseteq \\{1,2,\\ldots, n\\}$. The graph $\\Q_n(\\{1\\}$ is the $n$-cube, usually denoted by $\\Q_n$.We study graph boolean products $G_1 = \\Q_n(S\\times \\Q_1, G_2 = \\Q_{n}(S\\wedge \\Q_1$, $G_3 = \\Q_{n}(S[\\Q_1]$ and show that binary codes from neighborhood designs of $G_1, G_2$ and $G_3$ are self-orthogonal for all choices of $n$ and $S$. More over, we show that the class of codes $C_1$ are self-dual. Further we find subgroups of the automorphism group of these graphs and use these subgroups to obtain PD-sets for permutation decoding. As an example we find a full error-correcting PD set for the binary $[32, 16, 8]$ extremal self-dual code.

  19. Oil price fluctuations and Singapore economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youngho Chang; Joonfong Wong

    2003-01-01

    This study finds that the impact of an oil price shock on the Singapore economy is marginal. Both impulse response and variance decomposition analysis provide reasonable grounds to believe that the impact only had an insignificant adverse effect on Singapore's gross domestic product (GDP), inflation and unemployment rates. Further analysis on two oil vulnerability measures supports the finding: the declining trend of oil intensity in Singapore since 1989 and the declining shares of the Singapore's expenditure on oil consumption as a percentage of its nominal GDP. This study identifies, however, that the impact of an oil price shock on the Singapore economy should not be considered negligible even though it is small. (Author)

  20. Oil price fluctuations and Singapore economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang Youngho; Wong, Joon Fong

    2003-01-01

    This study finds that the impact of an oil price shock on the Singapore economy is marginal. Both impulse response and variance decomposition analysis provide reasonable grounds to believe that the impact only had an insignificant adverse effect on Singapore's gross domestic product (GDP), inflation and unemployment rates. Further analysis on two oil vulnerability measures supports the finding: the declining trend of oil intensity in Singapore since 1989 and the declining shares of the Singapore's expenditure on oil consumption as a percentage of its nominal GDP. This study identifies, however, that the impact of an oil price shock on the Singapore economy should not be considered negligible even though it is small

  1. WORLD ECONOMY POST-CRYSIS DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergiu GARSTEA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Once the acute phases of the financial and euro crises were over, it was clear that it would take time for advanced economies to recover. The history of past financial crises gave a clear warning that recovery would typically be long and painful. The aim is to investigate the state of the world economy to make some conclusions for the less advanced countries, like Moldova. Research methodology involves analytical, comparative, foresight, induction and deduction methods. New development and planning institutions presume the rejection of forms of bureaucratic centralism and base on network forms of organization of the subject and the process of production, trade and services.

  2. Knowledge Economy and its Effects in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prof. Ph. D. Laura Cismas

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge economy implies that the rationality of individuals is limited because they make and adapt their choices in an environment affected by risk and uncertainty. The first part of this paper proposes an analysis of the knowledge economy, based on its interdisciplinary nature. Thus, classical theories adapt to visions that pertain to the dynamics of human interactions, the restructuring of the social network theory, the general equilibrium theory and the game theory.The research part of this paper identifies and explains the link between innovation and knowledge, as well as its effects on the Romanian economy’s competitiveness and innovation. The conclusions illustrate that the consolidation of knowledge-based economy in Romania implies setting certain priorities, such as: investing in education, developing entrepreneurship, creating an innovative and efficient system made up of companies, research centers and universities, which enables new technologies to be absorbed, adapted and created for the society.

  3. Privatization Framework: Political Economy Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Bastian, Indra

    2009-01-01

    Privatization has been recognized as a worldwide phenomenon. In this pa-per, a political economy approach is developed to analyze privatization. The ap-proach assumes that political economy and privatization overlap in people’s need. So, the framework of political economy in privatization is based on the ‘need’ phi-losophy. Government and private sectors are contrasted in this respect, leading to a conclusion on privatization as a method to manage the economy. Keywords: privatization, politic...

  4. Are transition economy workers underpaid?

    OpenAIRE

    Adamchik, Vera A.; Brada, Josef C.; King, Arthur E.

    2009-01-01

    We examine the extent to which workers in transition and developed market economies are able to obtain wages that fully reflect their skills and labor force characteristics. We find that workers in two transition economies, the Czech Republic and Poland, are able to better attain the maximum wage available than are workers in a sample of developed market economies. This greater wage-setting efficiency in the transition economies ap-pears to be more the result of social and demographic charact...

  5. Introduction Of Techno-Economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Woo Hui

    2001-08-01

    This book gives descriptions of science, technology and techno-economy, invention and science and technology in the Twenty-First century, theory and model of technological innovation, technology and economy technology and industry, technology and business, spread and transfer of technique, technology and international economy, science, technique and culture, science, technology and government, development of technology in Korea and developing countries, and conclusion on the past and the future of techno-economy.

  6. Health Information Economy: Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Kamal; Roudbari, Masoud; Sadoughi, Farahnaz

    2015-04-19

    Health Information Economy (HIE) is one of the broader, more complex, and challenging and yet important topics in the field of health science that requires the identification of its dimensions for planning and policy making. The aim of this study was to determine HIE concept dimensions. This paper presents a systematic methodology for analyzing the trends of HIE. For this purpose, the main keywords of this area were identified and searched in the databases and from among 4775 retrieved sources, 12 sources were studied in the field of HIE. Information Economy (IE) in the world has passed behind four paradigms that involve the information evaluation perspective, the information technology perspective, the asymmetric information perspective and information value perspective. In this research, the fourth perspective in the HIE was analyzed. The main findings of this research were categorized in three major groups, including the flow of information process in the field of health (production. collection, processing and dissemination), and information applications in the same field (education, research, health industry, policy, legislation, and decision-making) and the underlying fields. According to the findings, HIE has already developed a theoretical and conceptual gap that due to its importance in the next decade would be one of the research approaches to health science.

  7. Health Information Economy: Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Kamal; Roudbari, Masoud; Sadoughi, Farahnaz

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Health Information Economy (HIE) is one of the broader, more complex, and challenging and yet important topics in the field of health science that requires the identification of its dimensions for planning and policy making. The aim of this study was to determine HIE concept dimensions. Methods: This paper presents a systematic methodology for analyzing the trends of HIE. For this purpose, the main keywords of this area were identified and searched in the databases and from among 4775 retrieved sources, 12 sources were studied in the field of HIE. Results: Information Economy (IE) in the world has passed behind four paradigms that involve the information evaluation perspective, the information technology perspective, the asymmetric information perspective and information value perspective. In this research, the fourth perspective in the HIE was analyzed. The main findings of this research were categorized in three major groups, including the flow of information process in the field of health (production. collection, processing and dissemination), and information applications in the same field (education, research, health industry, policy, legislation, and decision-making) and the underlying fields. Conclusion: According to the findings, HIE has already developed a theoretical and conceptual gap that due to its importance in the next decade would be one of the research approaches to health science. PMID:26153182

  8. 9 CFR 113.100 - General requirements for inactivated bacterial products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... instances, the guinea pig safety test provided in § 113.38 shall be conducted in place of the mouse safety... Outline of Production, an inactivated bacterial product shall meet the applicable requirements in this... in poultry as defined in the specific Standard Requirement or Outline of Production for the product...

  9. Corruption and the economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanzi Vito

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the economic and not on the political impact of corruption. Corruption delegitimizes the working of a market economy, as well as the outcomes of political processes. This paper highlights ways in which corruption, by distorting economic decisions and the working of the market economy, inevitably reduces a country’s rate of growth. The paper also discusses some of the channels through which corruption distorts various economic decisions. Finally, the paper reports on some actions that have been taken by countries in their attempt to reduce corruption stressing that the fight against corruption cannot rely on a magic bullet but has to be fought on many fronts.

  10. Green economy and related concepts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loiseau, Eleonore; Saikku, Laura; Antikainen, Riina; Droste, Nils; Hansjürgens, Bernd; Pitkänen, Kati; Leskinen, Pekka; Kuikman, Peter; Thomsen, Marianne

    2016-01-01

    For the last ten years, the notion of a green economy has become increasingly attractive to policy makers. However, green economy covers a lot of diverse concepts and its links with sustainability are not always clear. In this article, we focus on definitions of green economy and related concepts

  11. Knowledge Economy and Research Innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastalich, Wendy

    2010-01-01

    The "knowledge economy" has been received with considerable scepticism by scholars within the fields of political economy, social and political philosophy, and higher education. Key arguments within this literature are reviewed in this article to suggest that, despite policy claims, "knowledge economy" does not describe a "new" mode of economic…

  12. Popular Education in Solidarity Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Melo Neto, José Francisco; da Costa, Francisco Xavier Pereira

    2015-01-01

    This article seeks to show the relation between popular education and solidarity economy in experiences of solidarity economy enterprises in Brazil. It is based on diverse experiences which have occurred in various sectors of this economy, highlighting those experiences which took place in João Pessoa with the creation of a Cooperative of Workers…

  13. A green hydrogen economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, W.W. II [Clark Communications, Beverly Hills, CA (United States). Green Hydrogen Scientific Advisory Committee; Rifkin, J. [The Foundation on Economic Trends (United States)

    2006-11-15

    This paper is the result of over a dozen scholars and practitioners who strongly felt that a hydrogen economy and hence the future is closer than some American politicians and bureaucrats state. Moreover, when seen internationally, there is strong evidence, the most recent and obvious ones are the proliferation of hybrid vehicles, that for any nation-state to be energy independent it must seek a renewable or green hydrogen future in the near term. The State of California has once again taken the lead in this effort for both an energy-independent future and one linked strongly to the hydrogen economy. Then why a hydrogen economy in the first instance? The fact is that hydrogen most likely will not be used for refueling of vehicles in the near term. The number of vehicles to make hydrogen commercially viable will not be in the mass market by almost all estimates until 2010. However, it is less than a decade away. The time frame is NOT 30-40 years as some argue. The hydrogen economy needs trained people, new ventures and public-private partnerships now. The paper points out how the concerns of today, including higher costs and technologies under development, can be turned into opportunities for both the public and private sectors. It was not too long ago that the size of a mobile phone was that of a briefcase, and then almost 10 years ago, the size of a shoe box. Today, they are not only the size of a man's wallet but also often given away free to consumers who subscribe or contract for wireless services. While hydrogen may not follow this technological commercialization exactly, it certainly will be on a parallel path. International events and local or regional security dictate that the time for a hydrogen must be close at hand. (author)

  14. A green hydrogen economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, Woodrow W.; Rifkin, Jeremy

    2006-01-01

    This paper is the result of over a dozen scholars and practitioners who strongly felt that a hydrogen economy and hence the future is closer than some American politicians and bureaucrats state. Moreover, when seen internationally, there is strong evidence, the most recent and obvious ones are the proliferation of hybrid vehicles, that for any nation-state to be energy independent it must seek a renewable or green hydrogen future in the near term. The State of California has once again taken the lead in this effort for both an energy-independent future and one linked strongly to the hydrogen economy. Then why a hydrogen economy in the first instance? The fact is that hydrogen most likely will not be used for refueling of vehicles in the near term. The number of vehicles to make hydrogen commercially viable will not be in the mass market by almost all estimates until 2010. However, it is less than a decade away. The time frame is NOT 30-40 years as some argue. The hydrogen economy needs trained people, new ventures and public-private partnerships now. The paper points out how the concerns of today, including higher costs and technologies under development, can be turned into opportunities for both the public and private sectors. It was not too long ago that the size of a mobile phone was that of a briefcase, and then almost 10 years ago, the size of a shoe box. Today, they are not only the size of a man's wallet but also often given away free to consumers who subscribe or contract for wireless services. While hydrogen may not follow this technological commercialization exactly, it certainly will be on a parallel path. International events and local or regional security dictate that the time for a hydrogen must be close at hand

  15. Economy of the Arctic “Islands”: The Case of Nenets and Chukotka Autonomous Okrugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Nikolayevich Pelyasov

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the economy of Arctic «islands». These territories of the Russian Arctic are unavailable by transport all the year round and have considerable specificity in comparison with the other regions of the Russian and North European Arctic. The authors consider the economy of Arctic «islands» on the example of the Nenets and Chukotka Autonomous Areas. Despite the significant similarity in the economic and social parameters, after careful study, two regions show considerable internal differences. In order to identify dissimilarity, in the comparative analysis, we use the theoretical idea of the Arctic economy as a unity of three sectors — the traditional one, corporate (market one and transfer (state one. Each sector has the key contradictions, structures and its trajectory of evolution. The comparison of traditional sectors reveals significant landscape diversity of Chukotka in comparison with the Nenets tundra. The corporate sector of the Nenets Autonomous Okrug economy is significantly younger than in Chukotka, due to the fact that oil and gas development is relatively new practice for the region. On the other hand, because of the mining development of Chukotka gold, which started in 1960-s, it can be considered as an old industrial region. The level of the profitability of gold production is significantly lower than of the Nenets oil production. Therefore, we propose to include the economy of the Nenets Autonomous Okrug to the rental model, and Chukotka economy to the transfer model. The difference of transfer sectors of two areas is the result of not only the difference in the power of the regional budgets, but also of the urban settlement structure which is centralized in the Nenets Autonomous Okrug and polycentric in Chukotka. It means that the public health and culture in the Nenets Autonomous Okrug are dated generally for the capital of Naryan-Mar, and social facilities in Chukotka are significantly decentralized and

  16. Social Economy and Responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Abramuszkinová Pavlíková

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Given the importance of entrepreneurial activities as an engine of economic growth and poverty alleviation, the issue of business development and entrepreneurial activities, has received increasing attention from a number of interested parties worldwide and also in the Czech Republic. The focus of this paper is on a social economy, a social responsibility and social enterprises. The development of the social economy framework will be introduced in the European context and specifically in the Czech Republic. A case study of a Czech social entrepreneur will be introduced based on qualitative research, namely the biographical narrative method.Social enterprises can support activities of various target groups, such as economic activities of mentally and physically handicapped people, which often operate in economically and socially marginalized situations, including stereotyped images. They give them a chance to become active members of society. In this way they can help to reduce the poverty on a local level. The aim of this paper is to introduce a social entrepreneurship as important part of social economy development in the Czech Republic.

  17. KNOWLEDGE ECONOMY – THE ECONOMY OF THE FUTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanoil Muscalu

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available In these times with strong changes, a so called “knowledge revolution” is on the way andthis designates the evolution from the primarily physical labor based economy to a predominantly knowledgeeconomy.The entire world is dealing, în the dawn of this new century, the 21st one, with a series of majorchanges: social, economic and technological. Consequently, if the 2nd industrial revolution was initiated în theindustry based on intensive production labor “by the pioneers of automobiles such as Ford, it is clear that the3rd revolution will take place în the economic sector of the knowledge based services.”

  18. Solar emergy evaluation for Chinese economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Z.F.; Jiang, M.M.; Chen, B.; Zhou, J.B.; Chen, G.Q.; Li, S.C.

    2010-01-01

    A unified evaluation integrating various forms of energy sources and natural resources, products and services, and imports and exports is carried out systematically at the national scale for the booming Chinese economy 1978-2005, based on the ecological measure of solar emergy. The development of the economy is shown heavily dependent on the consumption of nonrenewable natural resources. Of the total resources use, the indigenous resources contribute the most, along with the increasing imports of nonrenewable resources. The development of the Chinese economy is characterized with the recovery stage during 1978-1981, transformation stage during 1981-1991, steady growth stage during 1991-2000, and accelerated increase stage after 2000, with specific distinctive systems indications.

  19. Knowledge based economy in European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ecaterina Stănculescu

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays we assist at a fundamental change from the economy based mainly on resources to the one based mostly on knowledge. The concept has been launched in the last decade of the past century. The knowledge became a production agent and a value creation instrument for whatever country and of course for an entire community like European Union which is constantly concerned by its development and competitiveness. This paper presents the principal characteristics of the present EU preoccupations with the expansion of a knowledge based economy through the 2020 European Development Strategy for smart, sustainable and inclusive economy, and especially for the Framework Programs (Framework Programme 7 and Competitiveness and Innovation Framework Programme.

  20. Globalization and the financialization of the economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Bucur

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The defining with profound implications on the economy and society is represented the globalization. In this context, we have noticed the increasing influence of the financial markets on the economy, the tendency to remove the finances from the real economy requirements, the growing role of external financing using more volatile capital goods, increased competition regarding the access to financing, the significant increase of power of the international capital markets whose characteristic is represented by the increased instability, the implications of the investors’ obsession with an excessive profitableness of their own funds and the expansion of using sophisticated financial products. Realities of today’s financial markets, which are the subject of numerous studies and analysis, have contributed to the association of the arguments that are contesting the thesis on the virtues of self-regulation markets and promoting a new paradigm, within which finances should subordinate the requirements of a balanced and sustained economic growth.

  1. Honeywell: Comfort and economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lukaszewski, J.

    1995-12-31

    The presentation of the Company starts with having it ranked among the ones operating on the customers` market or those acting on the professional market. But it is not so. Honeywell is beyond such simple criteria. We are a company supplying products, systems and services related with generally conceived automatic control engineering, yet the operational range does comprise so many apparently diversified fields, for instance automatic control in aeronautics, heavy power engineering, building of apartment buildings, detached houses, heat engineering and some others. Nevertheless, our targets are always the same: maximum increase in efficiency and reliability of the process lines controlled by our systems as well as securing the best comfort of work and rest for people who stay in the buildings controlled by our devices. Simultaneously, the utilization of energy sources and the natural environment resources must be as sensible as possible.

  2. Linguistic validation of the US Spanish work productivity and activity impairment questionnaire, general health version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawlicki, Mary C; Reilly, Margaret C; Popielnicki, Ana; Reilly, Kate

    2006-01-01

    There are no measures of health-related absenteeism and presenteeism validated for use in the large and increasing US Spanish-speaking population. Before using a Spanish translation of an available English-language questionnaire, the linguistic validity of the Spanish version must be established to ensure its conceptual equivalence to the original and its cultural appropriateness. The objective of this study was to evaluate the linguistic validity of the US Spanish version of the Work Productivity and Activity Impairment questionnaire, General Health Version (WPAI:GH). A US Spanish translation of the US English WPAI:GH was created through a reiterative process of creating harmonized forward and back translations by independent translators. Spanish-speaking and English-speaking subjects residing in the US self-administered the WPAI:GH in their primary language and were subsequently debriefed by a bilingual (Spanish-English) interviewer. US Spanish subjects (N = 31) and English subjects (N = 35), stratified equally by educational level, with and without a high school degree participated in the study. The WPAI-GH item comprehension rate was 98.6% for Spanish and 99.6% for English. Response revision rates during debriefing were 1.6% for Spanish and 0.5% for English. Responses to hypothetical scenarios indicated that both language versions adequately differentiate sick time taken for health and non-health reasons and between absenteeism and presenteeism. Linguistic validity of the US Spanish translation of the WPAI:GH was established among a diverse US Spanish-speaking population, including those with minimal education.

  3. Research productivity in Australian general practice: what has changed since the 1990s?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askew, Deborah A; Schluter, Philip J; Gunn, Jane M

    2008-07-21

    The Primary Health Care Research, Evaluation and Development (PHCRED) Strategy aims to improve Australia's output of high-quality research from primary care. We compared publication rates from general practice, medicine and surgery for the period 2000-2007, and found that general practice publications increased since 1990-1999 from 1.0 to 3.0 publications per 1000 general practitioners per year. However, general practice publication rates have plateaued since 2000, and represent only 2%-5% of the equivalent rates for medicine and surgery. This finding suggests that more time and sustained investment in PHCRED are essential to see tangible outputs from funded research in general practice.

  4. Accounting for graduate medical education production of primary care physicians and general surgeons: timing of measurement matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petterson, Stephen; Burke, Matthew; Phillips, Robert; Teevan, Bridget

    2011-05-01

    Legislation proposed in 2009 to expand GME set institutional primary care and general surgery production eligibility thresholds at 25% at entry into training. The authors measured institutions' production of primary care physicians and general surgeons on completion of first residency versus two to four years after graduation to inform debate and explore residency expansion and physician workforce implications. Production of primary care physicians and general surgeons was assessed by retrospective analysis of the 2009 American Medical Association Masterfile, which includes physicians' training institution, residency specialty, and year of completion for up to six training experiences. The authors measured production rates for each institution based on physicians completing their first residency during 2005-2007 in family or internal medicine, pediatrics, or general surgery. They then reassessed rates to account for those who completed additional training. They compared these rates with proposed expansion eligibility thresholds and current workforce needs. Of 116,004 physicians completing their first residency, 54,245 (46.8%) were in primary care and general surgery. Of 683 training institutions, 586 met the 25% threshold for expansion eligibility. At two to four years out, only 29,963 physicians (25.8%) remained in primary care or general surgery, and 135 institutions lost eligibility. A 35% threshold eliminated 314 institutions collectively training 93,774 residents (80.8%). Residency expansion thresholds that do not account for production at least two to four years after completion of first residency overestimate eligibility. The overall primary care production rate from GME will not sustain the current physician workforce composition. Copyright © by the Association of American medical Colleges.

  5. Efficiency and productivity terms for water management: A matter of contextual relativism versus general absolutism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Halsema, van G.E.; Vincent, L.F.

    2012-01-01

    Growing water scarcity and increasing demands for agricultural products generate much debate about improving the agricultural sector's water use efficiency and productivity. Agricultural engineering traditions feed this debate with notions such as agricultural yield gaps and low water use

  6. Circular economy and nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    Circular economy means no production of waste through re-using and recycling. As other industries, nuclear industry has committed itself to a policy of sustainability and resource preservation. EDF has developed a 5 point strategy: 1) the closure of the fuel cycle through recycling, 2) operating nuclear power plants beyond 40 years, 3) reducing the volume of waste, 4) diminishing the consumption of energy through the implementation of new processes (for instance the enrichment through centrifugation uses 50 times less power than gaseous diffusion enrichment) and 5) making evolve the prevailing doctrine concerning the management of very low level radioactive waste: making possible the re-use of slightly contaminated steel scrap or concrete instead of storing them in dedicated disposal centers. (A.C.)

  7. A nuclear based hydrogen economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandquist, G.M.; Tamm, G.; Kunze, J.

    2005-01-01

    Exhausting demands are being imposed upon the world's ability to extract and deliver oil to the nations demanding fluid fossil fuels. This paper analyzes these issues and concludes that there must be no delay in beginning the development of the 'hydrogen economy' using nuclear energy as the primary energy source to provide both the fluid fuel and electrical power required in the 21st century. Nuclear energy is the only proven technology that is abundant and available worldwide to provide the primary energy needed to produce adequate hydrogen fluid fuel supplies to replace oil. Most importantly, this energy transition can be accomplished in an economical and technically proven manner while lowering greenhouse gas emissions. Furthermore, a similar application of using wind and solar to produce hydrogen instead of electricity for the grid can pave the way for the much larger production scales of nuclear plants producing both electricity and hydrogen. (authors)

  8. Assessing the relationship between total factor productivity and foreign direct investment in an economy with a skills shortage: the case of South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Bonga-Bonga, Lumengo; Phume, Maphelane

    2017-01-01

    This paper assesses the relationship between total factor productivity (TFP) and foreign direct investment (FDI) in a country with skills shortage. South Africa is used as a case study. Literature is inconclusive on how FDI should affect TFP. This paper shows that it is important to account for the interactivity between FDI and human capital when assessing the effects of FDI on TFP. Moreover, the empirical results show that, contrary to countries with abundance of skills, in countries with sk...

  9. Comparison between response dynamics in transition economies and developed economies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenenbaum, Joel; Horvatić, Davor; Bajić, Slavica Cosović; Pehlivanović, Bećo; Podobnik, Boris; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2010-10-01

    In developed economies, the sign of the price increment influences the volatility in an asymmetric fashion—negative increments tend to result in larger volatility (increments with larger magnitudes), while positive increments result in smaller volatility. We explore whether this asymmetry extends from developed economies to European transition economies and, if so, how such asymmetry changes over time as these transition economies develop and mature. We analyze eleven European transition economies and compare the results with those obtained by analyzing U.S. market indices. Specifically, we calculate parameters that quantify both the volatility asymmetry and the strength of its dependence on prior increments. We find that, like their developed economy counterparts, almost all transition economy indices exhibit a significant volatility asymmetry, and the parameter γ characterizing asymmetry fluctuates more over time for transition economies. We also investigate how the association between volatility and volatility asymmetry varies by type of market. We test the hypothesis of a negative correlation between volatility and volatility asymmetry. We find that, for developed economies, γ experiences local minima during (i) “Black Monday” on October 19, 1987, (ii) the dot-com bubble crash in 2002, and (iii) the 2007-2009 global crisis while for transition economies, γ experiences local maxima during times of economic crisis.

  10. Economy-wide impacts of biofuels in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timilsina, Govinda R.; Chisari, Omar O.; Romero, Carlos A.

    2013-01-01

    Argentina is one of the world's largest biodiesel producers and the largest exporter, using soybeans as feedstock. Using a computable general equilibrium model that explicitly represents the biofuel industry, this study carries out several simulations on two sets of issues: (i) international markets for biofuel and feedstock, such as an increase in prices of soybean, soybean oil, and biodiesel, and (ii) domestic policies related to biofuels, such as an introduction of biofuel mandates. Both sets of issues can have important consequences to the Argentinean economy. The simulations indicate that increases in international prices of biofuels and feedstocks would increase Argentina's gross domestic product and social welfare. Increases in international prices of ethanol and corn also can benefit Argentina, but to a lesser extent. The domestic mandates for biofuels, however, would cause small losses in economic output and social welfare because they divert part of biodiesel and feedstock from exports to lower-return domestic consumption. An increase in the export tax on either feedstock or biodiesel also would lead to a reduction in gross domestic product and social welfare, although government revenue would rise. - Highlights: ► Argentina is one of the largest biodiesel producer and exporter using soybeans. ► Economy-wide impacts are assessed using a CGE model for Argentina. ► Policies simulated are feedstock and biodiesel price change, and domestic mandates. ► Increases in international prices of biofuels and feedstock benefit the country. ► Domestic mandates for biofuels cause small losses in economic output

  11. Metal and engineering industry in the Finnish economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeenpaeae, I.; Viitanen, M.; Juutinen, A.

    1996-01-01

    The study analyses quantitatively the position, internal structures and environmental aspects of the metal sector (basic metal industry, mechanical engineering, electronics and electrotechnics) in the recent past of the Finnish economy. The changes in the sector by the year 2005 are assessed by means of a macroeconomic simulation model as well. The future development of the metal sector by the year 2005 was assessed by the FMS model system, for which a detailed metal sector sub-model was constructed. The scenario of the general development of the Finnish economy was tuned so that it corresponds as closely as possible to the recent basic projections of the economy made by the government authorities. Three scenarios for the metal sector were constructed: base scenario, rapid and slow growth scenarios. In the base scenario the production volume of the metal sector grows by 6 per cent annually between 1994-2005 while the annual growth rate of the whole industry is 4 per cent and that of the GDP 3 per cent. In the rapid growth scenario, the growth rate of the metal sector goes up to 10 per cent and in the slow growth scenario down to 3 per cent. In the assessment of environmental effects of the metal sector are included energy consumption, emissions into the air, use on natural resources, waste formation and recycling of metals. Although the production volume of the metal sector almost doubles between 1990 - 2000, the consumption of primary energy grows only about one fourth and that of the electricity by 50 per cent

  12. Financial Intermediation, Competition, and Risk : A General Equilibrium Exposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Di Nicolo, G.; Lucchetta, M.

    2010-01-01

    We study a simple general equilibrium model in which investment in a risky technology is subject to moral hazard and banks can extract market power rents. We show that more bank competition results in lower economy-wide risk, lower bank capital ratios, more efficient production plans and

  13. Similarities of Water-soluble Vitamin Components among Non-prescription Pharmaceutical Vitamin Products Generally Available on the Domestic Market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Keiichiro; Kojina, Moeko; Aiba, Tetsuya

    2017-01-01

    Similarities among non-prescription pharmaceutical vitamin products generally available in community pharmacies were examined based on their vitamin components, and a chart was constructed to differentiate products to assist in appropriate product choice. In the analysis of the similarities, two hundred and seventy-six data entries on vitamin products were extracted from the database on the package inserts of the pharmaceutical products provided by the Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Agency, and they were reviewed for the amounts of vitamins they contained, in which the B vitamins, or vitamin B 1 , B 2 , B 6 , B 12 , and niacin, were considered as well as vitamins C and E. Pantothenic acid and L-Cysteine that are frequently used in combination with those vitamins are also taken into consideration. The data entries were then processed by classical multi-dimensional scaling to evaluate the inter-product similarities. As a result, it was shown that the products categorized as pharmaceutical nutrients and tonics containing vitamins (NTcV) are similar to one another, reflecting the fact that they are less characteristic regarding their vitamin components. As for the products in other categories, they were generally found to be featured for their unique content of vitamin components, and thereby, each category includes products with a wide range of variation. It was also indicated that some products categorized as vitamin B 1 , B 2 , and C products are less distinguishable from those categorized as NTcV. These findings will assist pharmacists to decide on an appropriate product for a customer following consultation.

  14. Chances for a circular economy in the Netherlands; Kansen voor de circulaire economie in Nederland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bastein, T.; Roelofs, E.; Rietveld, E.; Hoogendoorn, A.

    2013-06-15

    The concept of circular economy is an economic and industrial system that focuses on the reusability of products and raw materials, reduces value destruction in the overall system and aims at value creation within each tier of the system. In this report the (economic) opportunities are quantified as much as possible, and impacts on employment and the environmental are addressed. The study focuses specifically on the Dutch economy. The analysis starts by means of two detailed case studies: the use of biomass wastes and the circular economy that may arise in the metal-electronics industry [Dutch] Het begrip 'circulaire economie' is een economisch en industrieel systeem dat zich richt op de herbruikbaarheid van producten en grondstoffen, waarde vernietiging in het totale systeem minimaliseert en waarde creatie in iedere schakel van het systeem nastreeft. In dit rapport worden de (economische) kansen zoveel mogelijk gekwantificeerd, waarbij effecten op werkgelegenheid en milieudruk aan bod komen. De studie richt zich nadrukkelijk op de gehele Nederlandse economie. De analyse start aan de hand van twee gedetailleerde case studies: de benutting van reststromen uit biomassa en de circulaire economie die kan ontstaan t.b.v. producten uit de metaalelektro-sector.

  15. The content and features of transport servicing of region economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. P. Paristova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Development of a transport complex of the region and transport servicing becomes more and more urgent every year and exerts the increasing impact on development of the region in general. In article basic provisions of transport servicing of economy of the region are determined. On the basis of a research of approaches to determination of transport servicing the author's understanding of this process is provided. The system of transport servicing of the region is considered as set of elements of transport infrastructure through which interaction the needs for cargo transfer and passengers in the region are satisfied. It is the open system having the isolated internal environment and interacting with the external environment. At the same time the internal environment consists of elements between which communication is much stronger, than with the elements constituting the external environment. In market conditions the urgent problem of uncertainty of the external environment influences in turn a condition and development of system of transport servicing of the region, changing external and internal conditions of its functioning. The characteristic of system of transport servicing of the region is provided. Methods of regulation of transport servicing are determined. Features of transport servicing of economy of the region are marked out: need of updating of a property, plant and equipment on transport and development of transport infrastructure; insufficient development of strategic planning of transport as single complex within transport system and in a general context of development of productive forces; the low investment and innovative activity in a motor transportation industry caused by reducing internal and foreign investments, decrease in financing from the government budget. The research of a condition of standard legal support of development of a transport complex in the Voronezh region is conducted, the analysis of the strategic and

  16. Characterization of the Small and Median Companies in the Textile Sector of the Ecuadorian Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Lilián Basantes–Avalos

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The small and median companies perform a fundamental role in the economy of latinoamerican countries, and Ecuador is not the exception, because of its incidence in the generation of employment and economic development. Historically, Ecuador has been a textile country by excellence, and with the years has been consolidated like one of the manufactured industries most importants of the country. However, the sector has to deal with adverse condition in the last decade. For such reason, the manufacturers have the challenge of improve the production techniques to promote a better quality offer and recognition, capable of competing with foreign products of similar characteristics. In this context, this paper has the intent to characterize the small and median companies of Ecuador in general and the textile sector as a particularity, its current situation, the importance of the Ecuadorian economy, such as their problems and opportunities. 

  17. Financial Economy and Financial System: Basis of Structural Interconnection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khorosheva Olena I.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the article lies in identification of grounds of interconnection of the financial economy and financial system. The study was conducted with consideration of main provisions of the theory of finance and concept of financial economy, which is a set of means used in the process of reproduction of finance by their owner for formation and / or maintenance of the own system of values in the viable state. For the first time ever the structure of the financial system is identified as an aggregate of financial economies and financial market. The article justifies a necessity of expansion of boundaries of perception of the state financial economy, which is offered to include public financial economy of the state level and the set of financial economies of the state as a subject of economic activity. Such an approach forms a base for justification of the synthesis of participation of the state in financial relations as the owner and as the basic macro-economic regulator. Prospects of further study in this direction are: development of classification of financial economies; revelation of specific features of impact of shadow finance on development of the national financial economy; and assessment of possibilities of inclusion of structured financial products into the system of values of financial economies in Ukraine.

  18. An Evaluation of the Revenue side as a source of fiscal consolidation in high debt economies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banerjee, Ritwik

    Unsustainable levels of debt in some European economies are causing considerable strain in the Euro area. Successful debt consolidation in high debt economies is one of the most important important objective for the European policy makers. I use a dynamic general equilibrium closed economy model...

  19. 40 CFR 600.006-86 - Data and information requirements for fuel economy vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... fuel economy vehicles. 600.006-86 Section 600.006-86 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year Automobiles-General Provisions § 600.006-86 Data and...

  20. 40 CFR 600.006-89 - Data and information requirements for fuel economy vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... fuel economy vehicles. 600.006-89 Section 600.006-89 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year Automobiles-General Provisions § 600.006-89 Data and...