WorldWideScience

Sample records for general design strategies

  1. Surveillance Monitoring Management for General Care Units: Strategy, Design, and Implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Susan P; Taenzer, Andreas H; Karon, Nancy; Blike, George

    2016-07-01

    The growing number of monitoring devices, combined with suboptimal patient monitoring and alarm management strategies, has increased "alarm fatigue," which have led to serious consequences. Most reported alarm man- agement approaches have focused on the critical care setting. Since 2007 Dartmouth-Hitchcock (Lebanon, New Hamp- shire) has developed a generalizable and effective design, implementation, and performance evaluation approach to alarm systems for continuous monitoring in general care settings (that is, patient surveillance monitoring). In late 2007, a patient surveillance monitoring system was piloted on the basis of a structured design and implementation approach in a 36-bed orthopedics unit. Beginning in early 2009, it was expanded to cover more than 200 inpatient beds in all medicine and surgical units, except for psychiatry and labor and delivery. Improvements in clinical outcomes (reduction of unplanned transfers by 50% and reduction of rescue events by more than 60% in 2008) and approximately two alarms per patient per 12-hour nursing shift in the original pilot unit have been sustained across most D-H general care units in spite of increasing patient acuity and unit occupancy. Sample analysis of pager notifications indicates that more than 85% of all alarm conditions are resolved within 30 seconds and that more than 99% are resolved before escalation is triggered. The D-H surveillance monitoring system employs several important, generalizable features to manage alarms in a general care setting: alarm delays, static thresholds set appropriately for the prevalence of events in this setting, directed alarm annunciation, and policy-driven customization of thresholds to allow clinicians to respond to needs of individual patients. The systematic approach to design, implementation, and performance management has been key to the success of the system.

  2. Fault Management Design Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, John C.; Johnson, Stephen B.

    2014-01-01

    Development of dependable systems relies on the ability of the system to determine and respond to off-nominal system behavior. Specification and development of these fault management capabilities must be done in a structured and principled manner to improve our understanding of these systems, and to make significant gains in dependability (safety, reliability and availability). Prior work has described a fundamental taxonomy and theory of System Health Management (SHM), and of its operational subset, Fault Management (FM). This conceptual foundation provides a basis to develop framework to design and implement FM design strategies that protect mission objectives and account for system design limitations. Selection of an SHM strategy has implications for the functions required to perform the strategy, and it places constraints on the set of possible design solutions. The framework developed in this paper provides a rigorous and principled approach to classifying SHM strategies, as well as methods for determination and implementation of SHM strategies. An illustrative example is used to describe the application of the framework and the resulting benefits to system and FM design and dependability.

  3. A general design strategy for block copolymer directed self-assembly patterning of integrated circuits contact holes using an alphabet approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, He; Bao, Xin-Yu; Tiberio, Richard; Wong, H-S Philip

    2015-02-11

    Directed self-assembly (DSA) is a promising lithography candidate for technology nodes beyond 14 nm. Researchers have shown contact hole patterning for random logic circuits using DSA with small physical templates. This paper introduces an alphabet approach that uses a minimal set of small physical templates to pattern all contacts configurations on integrated circuits. We illustrate, through experiments, a general and scalable template design strategy that links the DSA material properties to the technology node requirements.

  4. Empathic design: Research strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the role of empathy within new product development from the perspective of human-centred design. The authors have developed a range of empathic design tools and strategies that help to identify authentic human needs.For products and services to be effective, they need to satisfy both functional and emotional needs of individuals. In addition, the individual user needs to feel that the product and/or service has been designed ‘just for them’, otherwise they may misuse, underuse or abandon the product/service. This becomes critical with a product such as a Zimmer frame (walker, when it fails to resonate with the patient due to any stigma the patient may perceive, and thus remains unused.When training young designers to consider the wider community (people unlike themselves during the design process, it has proven extremely valuable to take them outside their comfort zones, by seeking to develop empathy with the end user for whom they are designing. Empathic modelling offers designers the opportunity to develop greater insight and understanding, in order to support more effective design outcomes. Sensitising designers to the different ways that individuals complete daily tasks has helped to diminish the gap between themselves and others (e.g. people with disabilities.The authors intend for this paper to resonate with health care providers. Human-centred design can help to refocus the designer, by placing the individual end user’s needs at the heart of their decision-making.

  5. Empathic design: Research strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Joyce; McDonagh, Deana

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the role of empathy within new product development from the perspective of human-centred design. The authors have developed a range of empathic design tools and strategies that help to identify authentic human needs.For products and services to be effective, they need to satisfy both functional and emotional needs of individuals. In addition, the individual user needs to feel that the product and/or service has been designed 'just for them', otherwise they may misuse, underuse or abandon the product/service. This becomes critical with a product such as a Zimmer frame (walker), when it fails to resonate with the patient due to any stigma the patient may perceive, and thus remains unused.When training young designers to consider the wider community (people unlike themselves) during the design process, it has proven extremely valuable to take them outside their comfort zones, by seeking to develop empathy with the end user for whom they are designing. Empathic modelling offers designers the opportunity to develop greater insight and understanding, in order to support more effective design outcomes. Sensitising designers to the different ways that individuals complete daily tasks has helped to diminish the gap between themselves and others (e.g. people with disabilities).The authors intend for this paper to resonate with health care providers. Human-centred design can help to refocus the designer, by placing the individual end user's needs at the heart of their decision-making.

  6. The singular value filter: a general filter design strategy for PCA-based signal separation in medical ultrasound imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauldin, F William; Lin, Dan; Hossack, John A

    2011-11-01

    A general filtering method, called the singular value filter (SVF), is presented as a framework for principal component analysis (PCA) based filter design in medical ultrasound imaging. The SVF approach operates by projecting the original data onto a new set of bases determined from PCA using singular value decomposition (SVD). The shape of the SVF weighting function, which relates the singular value spectrum of the input data to the filtering coefficients assigned to each basis function, is designed in accordance with a signal model and statistical assumptions regarding the underlying source signals. In this paper, we applied SVF for the specific application of clutter artifact rejection in diagnostic ultrasound imaging. SVF was compared to a conventional PCA-based filtering technique, which we refer to as the blind source separation (BSS) method, as well as a simple frequency-based finite impulse response (FIR) filter used as a baseline for comparison. The performance of each filter was quantified in simulated lesion images as well as experimental cardiac ultrasound data. SVF was demonstrated in both simulation and experimental results, over a wide range of imaging conditions, to outperform the BSS and FIR filtering methods in terms of contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and motion tracking performance. In experimental mouse heart data, SVF provided excellent artifact suppression with an average CNR improvement of 1.8 dB with over 40% reduction in displacement tracking error. It was further demonstrated from simulation and experimental results that SVF provided superior clutter rejection, as reflected in larger CNR values, when filtering was achieved using complex pulse-echo received data and non-binary filter coefficients.

  7. A generalized strategy for designing (19)F/(1)H dual-frequency MRI coil for small animal imaging at 4.7 Tesla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Lingzhi; Hockett, Frank D; Chen, Junjie; Zhang, Lei; Caruthers, Shelton D; Lanza, Gregory M; Wickline, Samuel A

    2011-07-01

    To propose and test a universal strategy for building (19) F/(1) H dual-frequency RF coil that permits multiple coil geometries. The feasibility to design (19) F/(1) H dual-frequency RF coil based on coupled resonator model was investigated. A series capacitive matching network enables robust impedance matching for both harmonic oscillating modes of the coupled resonator. Two typical designs of (19) F/(1) H volume coils (birdcage and saddle) at 4.7T were implemented and evaluated with electrical bench test and in vivo (19) F/(1) H dual-nuclei imaging. For various combinations of internal resistances of the sample coil and secondary resonator, numerical solutions for the tunable capacitors to optimize impedance matching were obtained using a root-seeking program. Identical and homogeneous B1 field distribution at (19) F and (1) H frequencies were observed in bench test and phantom image. Finally, in vivo mouse imaging confirmed the sensitivity and homogeneity of the (19) F/(1) H dual-frequency coil design. A generalized strategy for designing (19) F/(1) H dual-frequency coils based on the coupled resonator approach was developed and validated. A unique feature of this design is that it preserves the B1 field homogeneity of the RF coil at both resonant frequencies. Thus it minimizes the susceptibility effect on image co-registration. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. Tectonic design strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beim, Anne

    2000-01-01

    as the poetics of construction, thus it may be considered as an essential activity in the development of the architectural design process.  Similar to the complex nature of the tectonic, the design process is an ongoing movement of interpretation, mediation, and decision making where the skills of the architect...

  9. Designing concepts and strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiib, Hans

    2012-01-01

    , that new developments often employ very modest research on the subject and often very little has been done in order to challenge traditional concepts and to invent new sustainable concepts for redevelopment. In order to avoid mistakes in urban redevelopment we need to learn from research and evaluation...... of the best planning practice. But what might be just as important is to learn from concept development practice, which can give us a comprehensive understanding of our complex cities and make us develop a way of experiencing the unique qualities of the architectural typologies at the site. Finally...... and strategies are briefly described in the article, and the adaption by city planners and developers has been critical reviewed....

  10. General strategy for fabricating thoroughly mesoporous nanofibers

    KAUST Repository

    Hou, Huilin; Wang, Lin; Gao, Fengmei; Wei, Guodong; Tang, Bin; Yang, Weiyou; Wu, Tao

    2014-01-01

    mesoporous nanofibers with high purity and uniformity. Here, we report a general, simple and cost-effective strategy, namely, foaming-assisted electrospinning, for producing mesoporous nanofibers with high purity and enhanced specific surface areas. As a

  11. General B factory design considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zisman, M.S.

    1992-12-01

    We describe the general considerations that go into the design of an asymmetric B factory collider. Justification is given for the typical parameters of such a facility, and the physics and technology challenges that arise from these parameter choices are discussed. Cost and schedule issues for a B factory are discussed briefly. A summary of existing proposals is presented, noting their similarities and differences

  12. General strategy for fabricating thoroughly mesoporous nanofibers

    KAUST Repository

    Hou, Huilin

    2014-12-03

    Recently, preparation of mesoporous fibers has attracted extensive attentions because of their unique and broad applications in photocatalysis, optoelectronics, and biomaterials. However, it remains a great challenge to fabricate thoroughly mesoporous nanofibers with high purity and uniformity. Here, we report a general, simple and cost-effective strategy, namely, foaming-assisted electrospinning, for producing mesoporous nanofibers with high purity and enhanced specific surface areas. As a proof of concept, the as-fabricated mesoporous TiO2 fibers exhibit much higher photocatalytic activity and stability than both the conventional solid counterparts and the commercially available P25. The abundant vapors released from the introduced foaming agents are responsible for the creation of pores with uniform spatial distribution in the spun precursor fibers. The present work represents a critically important step in advancing the electrospinning technique for generating mesoporous fibers in a facile and universal manner.

  13. Design of strategies to assess lumbar posture during work.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burdorf, A.; Riel, van M.

    1996-01-01

    Quantitative characterization of postural load on the back should describe exposure patterns among workers and factors affecting these exposure patterns. This article presents general guidelines for designing appropriate measurement strategies; how to obtain detailed data with an applicable

  14. General Principles for Brain Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josephson, Brian D.

    2006-06-01

    The task of understanding how the brain works has met with only limited success since important design concepts are not as yet incorporated in the analysis. Relevant concepts can be uncovered by studying the powerful methodologies that have evolved in the context of computer programming, raising the question of how the concepts involved there can be realised in neural hardware. Insights can be gained in regard to such issues through the study of the role played by models and representation. These insights lead on to an appreciation of the mechanisms underlying subtle capacities such as those concerned with the use of language. A precise, essentially mathematical account of such capacities is in prospect for the future.

  15. 40 CFR 240.203 - General design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General design. 240.203 Section 240.203 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES GUIDELINES FOR... design. ...

  16. Generalized multiscale finite element methods: Oversampling strategies

    KAUST Repository

    Efendiev, Yalchin R.; Galvis, Juan; Li, Guanglian; Presho, Michael

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we propose oversampling strategies in the generalized multiscale finite element method (GMsFEM) framework. The GMsFEM, which has been recently introduced in Efendiev et al. (2013b) [Generalized Multiscale Finite Element Methods, J. Comput. Phys., vol. 251, pp. 116-135, 2013], allows solving multiscale parameter-dependent problems at a reduced computational cost by constructing a reduced-order representation of the solution on a coarse grid. The main idea of the method consists of (1) the construction of snapshot space, (2) the construction of the offline space, and (3) construction of the online space (the latter for parameter-dependent problems). In Efendiev et al. (2013b) [Generalized Multiscale Finite Element Methods, J. Comput. Phys., vol. 251, pp. 116-135, 2013], it was shown that the GMsFEM provides a flexible tool to solve multiscale problems with a complex input space by generating appropriate snapshot, offline, and online spaces. In this paper, we develop oversampling techniques to be used in this context (see Hou and Wu (1997) where oversampling is introduced for multiscale finite element methods). It is known (see Hou and Wu (1997)) that the oversampling can improve the accuracy of multiscale methods. In particular, the oversampling technique uses larger regions (larger than the target coarse block) in constructing local basis functions. Our motivation stems from the analysis presented in this paper, which shows that when using oversampling techniques in the construction of the snapshot space and offline space, GMsFEM will converge independent of small scales and high contrast under certain assumptions. We consider the use of a multiple eigenvalue problems to improve the convergence and discuss their relation to single spectral problems that use oversampled regions. The oversampling procedures proposed in this paper differ from those in Hou and Wu (1997). In particular, the oversampling domains are partially used in constructing local

  17. Parametric Design Strategies for Collaborative Urban Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steinø, Nicolai; Yıldırım, Miray Baş; Özkar, Mine

    2013-01-01

    to the collaboration between professionals, participation by different non-professional stakeholders, such as residents, local authorities, non-governmental organizations and investors, is another important component of collaborative urban design processes. The involvement of community in decision making process...... implications of planning and design decisions, unless they are presented with relatively detailed architectural models, whether physical or virtual. This however, typically presents steep demands in terms of time and resources. As a foundation for our work with parametric urban design lies the hypothesis...... to solve different scripting challenges. The paper is organized into an introduction, three main sections and closing section with conclusions and perspectives. The first section of the paper gives a theoretical discussion of the notion of collaborative design and the challenges of collaborative urban...

  18. Iterative Prototyping of Strategy Implementation Workshop Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kryger, Anders

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate how a strategy implementation workshop design can be developed and tested while minimizing the time spent on developing the design. Design/methodology/approach: This multiple case study at a diesel engine company shows how iterative prototyping...... can be used to structure the design process of a strategy implementation workshop. Findings: Strategy implementation workshop design can be developed in resource-constrained environments through iterative prototyping of the workshop design. Each workshop iteration can generate value in its own right...... draw on his/her experience as well as add to his/her knowledge base. Originality/value: Introducing iterative prototyping in an organizational context can facilitate fast yet structured development of a rigorous workshop design. Strategy consultants are provided with empirical examples of how...

  19. Designing a fuzzy expert system for selecting knowledge management strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ameneh Khadivar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available knowledge management strategy is mentioned as one of the most important success factors for implementing knowledge management. The KM strategy selection is a complex decision that requires consideration of several factors. For evaluation and selection of an appropriate knowledge management strategy in organizations, many factors must be considered. The identified factors and their impact on knowledge management strategy are inherently ambiguous. In this study, an overview of theoretical foundations of research regarding the different knowledge management strategies has been done And factors influencing the knowledge management strategy selection have been extracted from conceptual frameworks and models. How these factors influence the knowledge management strategy selection is extracted through the fuzzy Delphi. Next a fuzzy expert system for the selection of appropriate knowledge management strategy is designed with respect to factors that have an impact on knowledge management strategy. The factors which influence the selection of knowledge management strategy include: general business strategy, organizational structure, cultural factors, IT strategy, strategic human resource management, social level, the types of knowledge creation processes and release it. The factors which influence the knowledge management strategy selection include: business strategy general, organizational structure, cultural factors, IT strategy, human resource management strategies, socialization level, knowledge types and its creation and diffusion processes. According to identified factors which affect the knowledge management strategy, the final strategy is recommended based on the range of human-oriented and system-oriented by keep the balance of explicit and implicit knowledge. The Designed system performance is tested and evaluated by the information related to three Iranian organization.

  20. Radiotracer design strategies for neurocardiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wieland, D.M.; Hutchins, G.D.

    1991-01-01

    Nuclear cardiologists have expended an inordinate amount of effort studying the open-quotes plumbingclose quotes of the heart but very little effort on the open-quotes wiringclose quotes. L. Rossi declared in 1988, open-quotes today's desultory information about basic changes in the heart's innervation, if compared with current knowledge about diseases of cardiac muscle and vessels, is largely attributable to an aura of forbidding technical difficulty.close-quote During the past three years, radiotracers have been developed for use in studies of cardiac nerve function by positron emission tomography (PET). The first clinical PET studies in this area were reported in 1990. This chapter discusses the strategies that led to the tracers presently available and the possible nature of future neuronal markers

  1. General Systems Theory and Instructional Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salisbury, David F.

    The use of general systems theory in the field of instructional systems design (ISD) is explored in this paper. Drawing on work by Young, the writings of 12 representative ISD writers and researchers were surveyed to determine the use of 60 general systems theory concepts by the individual authors. The average number of concepts used by these…

  2. Optimal strategies for pricing general insurance

    OpenAIRE

    Emms, P.; Haberman, S.; Savoulli, I.

    2006-01-01

    Optimal premium pricing policies in a competitive insurance environment are investigated using approximation methods and simulation of sample paths. The market average premium is modelled as a diffusion process, with the premium as the control function and the maximization of the expected total utility of wealth, over a finite time horizon, as the objective. In order to simplify the optimisation problem, a linear utility function is considered and two particular premium strategies are adopted...

  3. 10 CFR 626.4 - General acquisition strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General acquisition strategy. 626.4 Section 626.4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) SALES REGULATION PROCEDURES FOR ACQUISITION OF PETROLEUM FOR THE STRATEGIC PETROLEUM RESERVE § 626.4 General acquisition strategy. (a) Criteria for commencing acquisition. To reduce...

  4. A Strategy for Uncertainty Visualization Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    143–156, Magdeburg , Germany . [11] Thomson, J., Hetzler, E., MacEachren, A., Gahegan, M. and Pavel, M. (2005), A Typology for Visualizing Uncertainty...and Stasko [20] to bridge analytic gaps in visualization design, when tasks in the strategy overlap (and therefore complement) design frameworks

  5. Multimedia Matrix: A Cognitive Strategy for Designers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherry, Annette C.

    This instructional development project evaluates the effect of a matrix-based strategy to assist multimedia authors in acquiring and applying principles for effective multimedia design. The Multimedia Matrix, based on the Park and Hannafin "Twenty Principles and Implications for Interactive Multimedia" design, displays a condensed…

  6. Efficacy of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and feasibility of optimizing preventive strategies in patients at high cardiovascular risk: rationale, design and baseline characteristics of the Rischio and Prevenzione study, a large randomised trial in general practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The optimization of preventive strategies in patients at high risk of cardiovascular events and the evaluation of bottlenecks and limitations of transferring current guidelines to the real world of clinical practice are important limiting steps to cardiovascular prevention. Treatment with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids improves prognosis after myocardial infarction, but evidence of this benefit is lacking in patients at high cardiovascular risk, but without a history of myocardial infarction. Methods/design Patients were eligible if their general practitioner (GP considered them at high cardiovascular risk because of a cardiovascular disease other than myocardial infarction, or multiple risk factors (at least four major risk factors in non-diabetic patients and one in diabetics. Patients were randomly allocated to treatment with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (1 g daily or placebo in a double-blind study and followed up for five years by their GPs to assess the efficacy of the treatment in preventing cardiovascular mortality (including sudden death and hospitalization for cardiovascular reasons. The secondary, epidemiological, aim of the study is to assess whether it is feasible to adopt current guidelines in everyday clinical practice, with a view to optimizing all the available preventive strategies in people at high cardiovascular risk. A nation-wide network of 860 GPs admitted 12,513 patients to the study between February 2004 and March 2007. The mean age was 64 years and 62% were males. Diabetes mellitus plus one or more cardiovascular risk factors was the main inclusion criterion (47%. About 30% of patients were included because of a history of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, 21% for four or more risk factors, and less than 1% for other reasons. Discussion The Rischio and Prevenzione (R&P project provides a feasible model to test the efficacy of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid therapy in patients at high

  7. General method for designing wave shape transformers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hua; Qu, Shaobo; Xu, Zhuo; Wang, Jiafu

    2008-12-22

    An effective method for designing wave shape transformers (WSTs) is investigated by adopting the coordinate transformation theory. Following this method, the devices employed to transform electromagnetic (EM) wave fronts from one style with arbitrary shape and size to another style, can be designed. To verify this method, three examples in 2D spaces are also presented. Compared with the methods proposed in other literatures, this method offers the general procedure in designing WSTs, and thus is of great importance for the potential and practical applications possessed by such kinds of devices.

  8. General-purpose RFQ design program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wadlinger, E.A.

    1984-01-01

    We have written a general-purpose, radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) design program that allows maximum flexibility in picking design algorithms. This program optimizes the RFQ on any combination of design parameters while simultaneously satisfying mutually compatible, physically required constraint equations. It can be very useful for deriving various scaling laws for RFQs. This program has a friendly user interface in addition to checking the consistency of the user-defined requirements and is written to minimize the effort needed to incorporate additional constraint equations. We describe the program and present some examples

  9. A generalized scheme for designing multistable continuous ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, a generalized scheme is proposed for designing multistable continuous dynamical systems. The scheme is based on the concept of partial synchronization of states and the concept of constants of motion. The most important observation is that by coupling two mdimensional dynamical systems, multistable ...

  10. General Systems Theory and Instructional Systems Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salisbury, David F.

    1990-01-01

    Describes basic concepts in the field of general systems theory (GST) and identifies commonalities that exist between GST and instructional systems design (ISD). Models and diagrams that depict system elements in ISD are presented, and two matrices that show how GST has been used in ISD literature are included. (11 references) (LRW)

  11. DEFINING ASPECTS OF HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT STRATEGY WITHIN THE GENERAL STRATEGY OF THE MODERN ORGANIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanoil MUSCALU

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The field of human resources requires the presence and action of several categories of persons and managerial structures interested in the quality of human resources and the activities developed by them. Besides managers and employees there are also the shareholders, the unions, the customers, the different national or local agencies, the local community, etc., with major interests regarding decisions in the human resources area. In order to harmonize their activities and achieve an optimal perspective within the evolution of Human Resource Management, special attention is paid to the strategy of human resources management. According to many specialists, strategies in the field of Human Resource Management show, in the first place, that personnel function adopts a broader perspective and a more dynamic view of human resources, which enables its full integration within the other functions of the organization. In the second place, strategies in the field of Human Resource Management designate the assembly of long term objectives concerning human resources, the main modalities of achieving them and the necessary resources which guarantee that the organization’s structure, value and culture as well as the utilization of its personnel contribute to fulfilling the general objectives of the organization. Therefore, we approached in this paper the problems of grounding and elaborating the Human Resource Management strategy, and we outlined their specific traits, as these are necessary aspects in order to emphasise at the end of our paper the correlation between the strategy in the field of Human Resource Management and the general strategy of the organization. Taking into account specialists and practitioners’ increased interest in knowing, substantiating and implementing strategies in the area of Human Resource Management, we consider that the aspects presented in this paper are modern issues and a starting pointing in solving the great problems of

  12. Thermally adapted design strategy of colonial houses in Surabaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antaryama, I. G. N.; Ekasiwi, S. N. N.; Mappajaya, A.; Ulum, M. S.

    2018-03-01

    Colonial buildings, including houses, have been considered as a representation of climate-responsive architecture. The design was thought to be a hybrid model of Dutch and tropical architecture. It was created by way of reinventing tropical and Dutch architecture design principles, and expressed in a new form, i.e. neither resembling Dutch nor tropical building. Aside from this new image, colonial house does show good climatic responses. Previous researches on colonial house generally focus on qualitative assessment of climate performance of the building. Yet this kind of study tends to concentrate on building elements, e.g. wall, window, etc. The present study is designed to give more complete picture of architecture design strategy of the house by exploring and analysing thermal performance of colonial buildings and their related architecture design strategies. Field measurements are conducted during the dry season in several colonial building in Surabaya. Air temperature and humidity are both taken, representing internal and external thermal conditions of the building. These data are then evaluated to determine thermal performance of the house. Finally, various design strategies are examined in order to reveal their significant contributions to its thermal performance. Results of the study in Surabaya confirm findings of the previous researches that are conducted in other locations, which stated that thermal performance of the house is generally good. Passive design strategies such as mass effect and ventilation play an important role in determining performance of the building.

  13. Design Strategies for Aptamer-Based Biosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Kun; Liang, Zhiqiang; Zhou, Nandi

    2010-01-01

    Aptamers have been widely used as recognition elements for biosensor construction, especially in the detection of proteins or small molecule targets, and regarded as promising alternatives for antibodies in bioassay areas. In this review, we present an overview of reported design strategies for the fabrication of biosensors and classify them into four basic modes: target-induced structure switching mode, sandwich or sandwich-like mode, target-induced dissociation/displacement mode and competitive replacement mode. In view of the unprecedented advantages brought about by aptamers and smart design strategies, aptamer-based biosensors are expected to be one of the most promising devices in bioassay related applications. PMID:22399891

  14. Food design strategies to increase vegetable intake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oliviero, Teresa; Fogliano, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    Background: Public campaigns promoting consumption of fruits and vegetables had limited results as consumers habits are difficult to modify. The incorporation of fruits and vegetables into regularly eaten products is a food design strategy that leads to several advantages. Pasta is a staple food

  15. Algebraic Generalization Strategies Used by Kuwaiti Pre-Service Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alajmi, Amal Hussain

    2016-01-01

    This study reports on the algebraic generalization strategies used by elementary and middle/high school pre-service mathematics teachers in Kuwait. They were presented with 9 tasks that involved linear, exponential, and quadratic situations. The results showed that these pre-service teachers had difficulty in generalizing algebraic rules in all 3…

  16. Generalized Entanglement Entropies of Quantum Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zi-Wen; Lloyd, Seth; Zhu, Elton Yechao; Zhu, Huangjun

    2018-03-01

    The entanglement properties of random quantum states or dynamics are important to the study of a broad spectrum of disciplines of physics, ranging from quantum information to high energy and many-body physics. This Letter investigates the interplay between the degrees of entanglement and randomness in pure states and unitary channels. We reveal strong connections between designs (distributions of states or unitaries that match certain moments of the uniform Haar measure) and generalized entropies (entropic functions that depend on certain powers of the density operator), by showing that Rényi entanglement entropies averaged over designs of the same order are almost maximal. This strengthens the celebrated Page's theorem. Moreover, we find that designs of an order that is logarithmic in the dimension maximize all Rényi entanglement entropies and so are completely random in terms of the entanglement spectrum. Our results relate the behaviors of Rényi entanglement entropies to the complexity of scrambling and quantum chaos in terms of the degree of randomness, and suggest a generalization of the fast scrambling conjecture.

  17. General software design for multisensor data fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junliang; Zhao, Yuming

    1999-03-01

    In this paper a general method of software design for multisensor data fusion is discussed in detail, which adopts object-oriented technology under UNIX operation system. The software for multisensor data fusion is divided into six functional modules: data collection, database management, GIS, target display and alarming data simulation etc. Furthermore, the primary function, the components and some realization methods of each modular is given. The interfaces among these functional modular relations are discussed. The data exchange among each functional modular is performed by interprocess communication IPC, including message queue, semaphore and shared memory. Thus, each functional modular is executed independently, which reduces the dependence among functional modules and helps software programing and testing. This software for multisensor data fusion is designed as hierarchical structure by the inheritance character of classes. Each functional modular is abstracted and encapsulated through class structure, which avoids software redundancy and enhances readability.

  18. Using a general problem-solving strategy to promote transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef-Shalala, Amina; Ayres, Paul; Schubert, Carina; Sweller, John

    2014-09-01

    Cognitive load theory was used to hypothesize that a general problem-solving strategy based on a make-as-many-moves-as-possible heuristic could facilitate problem solutions for transfer problems. In four experiments, school students were required to learn about a topic through practice with a general problem-solving strategy, through a conventional problem solving strategy or by studying worked examples. In Experiments 1 and 2 using junior high school students learning geometry, low knowledge students in the general problem-solving group scored significantly higher on near or far transfer tests than the conventional problem-solving group. In Experiment 3, an advantage for a general problem-solving group over a group presented worked examples was obtained on far transfer tests using the same curriculum materials, again presented to junior high school students. No differences between conditions were found in Experiments 1, 2, or 3 using test problems similar to the acquisition problems. Experiment 4 used senior high school students studying economics and found the general problem-solving group scored significantly higher than the conventional problem-solving group on both similar and transfer tests. It was concluded that the general problem-solving strategy was helpful for novices, but not for students that had access to domain-specific knowledge. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  19. MSM actuators: design rules and control strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holz, Benedikt; Janocha, Hartmut [Laboratory of Process Automation (LPA), Saarland University, Saarbruecken (Germany); Riccardi, Leonardo; Naso, David [Department of Electronics and Electrical Science (DEE), Politecnico di Bari (Italy)

    2012-08-15

    Magnetic shape memory (MSM) alloys are comparatively new active materials which can be used for several industrial applications, ranging from precise positioning systems to advanced robotics. Beyond the material research, which deals with the basic thermo-magneto-mechanical properties of the crystals, the design as well as the control of the actuators displacement is an essential challenge. This paper addresses those two topics, trying to give to the reader a useful overview of existing results, but also presents new ideas. First, it introduces and discusses in details some possible designs, with a special emphasis on innovative actuator design concepts which are able to exploit the particular potentialities of MSM elements. The second focus of the paper is on the problem of designing a controller, i.e., an algorithm that allows to obtain a required performance from the actuator. The proposed control strategies try to take into account two main characteristics of MSM elements: the hysteresis and the temperature dependence. The effectiveness of the strategies is emphasized by experimental results performed on a commercially available MSM actuator demonstrator. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  20. Precommitted Investment Strategy versus Time-Consistent Investment Strategy for a General Risk Model with Diffusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidong Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We mainly study a general risk model and investigate the precommitted strategy and the time-consistent strategy under mean-variance criterion, respectively. A lagrange method is proposed to derive the precommitted investment strategy. Meanwhile from the game theoretical perspective, we find the time-consistent investment strategy by solving the extended Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equations. By comparing the precommitted strategy with the time-consistent strategy, we find that the company under the time-consistent strategy has to give up the better current utility in order to keep a consistent satisfaction over the whole time horizon. Furthermore, we theoretically and numerically provide the effect of the parameters on these two optimal strategies and the corresponding value functions.

  1. General approach to quality in design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osborne, W.J.

    1981-01-01

    Design engineers, either consciously or unconsciously, use quality work elements to achieve quality in design. these quality work elements are identified, classified as basic or optional, and explained. The rationale for applying them to the design of fusion devices is presented in terms of effects on performance and costs. Relevant quality terms are defined, and elements of the design quality system are described. Quality of design is the direct responsibility of the design engineer

  2. Multidimensional (OLAP) Analysis for Designing Dynamic Learning Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozeva, A.; Deliyska, B.

    2010-10-01

    Learning strategy in an intelligent learning system is generally elaborated on the basis of assessment of the following factors: learner's time for reaction, content of the learning object, amount of learning material in a learning object, learning object specification, e-learning medium and performance control. Current work proposes architecture for dynamic learning strategy design by implementing multidimensional analysis model of learning factors. The analysis model concerns on-line analytical processing (OLAP) of learner's data structured as multidimensional cube. Main components of the architecture are analysis agent for performing the OLAP operations on learner data cube, adaptation generator and knowledge selection agent for performing adaptive navigation in the learning object repository. The output of the analysis agent is involved in dynamic elaboration of learning strategy that fits best to learners profile and behavior. As a result an adaptive learning path for individual learner and for learner groups is generated.

  3. Biomedical engineering strategies in system design space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savageau, Michael A

    2011-04-01

    Modern systems biology and synthetic bioengineering face two major challenges in relating properties of the genetic components of a natural or engineered system to its integrated behavior. The first is the fundamental unsolved problem of relating the digital representation of the genotype to the analog representation of the parameters for the molecular components. For example, knowing the DNA sequence does not allow one to determine the kinetic parameters of an enzyme. The second is the fundamental unsolved problem of relating the parameters of the components and the environment to the phenotype of the global system. For example, knowing the parameters does not tell one how many qualitatively distinct phenotypes are in the organism's repertoire or the relative fitness of the phenotypes in different environments. These also are challenges for biomedical engineers as they attempt to develop therapeutic strategies to treat pathology or to redirect normal cellular functions for biotechnological purposes. In this article, the second of these fundamental challenges will be addressed, and the notion of a "system design space" for relating the parameter space of components to the phenotype space of bioengineering systems will be focused upon. First, the concept of a system design space will be motivated by introducing one of its key components from an intuitive perspective. Second, a simple linear example will be used to illustrate a generic method for constructing the design space in which qualitatively distinct phenotypes can be identified and counted, their fitness analyzed and compared, and their tolerance to change measured. Third, two examples of nonlinear systems from different areas of biomedical engineering will be presented. Finally, after giving reference to a few other applications that have made use of the system design space approach to reveal important design principles, some concluding remarks concerning challenges and opportunities for further development

  4. Combination microwave ovens: an innovative design strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinga, Wayne R; Eke, Ken

    2012-01-01

    Reducing the sensitivity of microwave oven heating and cooking performance to load volume, load placement and load properties has been a long-standing challenge for microwave and microwave-convection oven designers. Conventional design problem and solution methods are reviewed to provide greater insight into the challenge and optimum operation of a microwave oven after which a new strategy is introduced. In this methodology, a special load isolating and energy modulating device called a transducer-exciter is used containing an iris, a launch box, a phase, amplitude and frequency modulator and a coupling plate designed to provide spatially distributed coupling to the oven. This system, when applied to a combined microwave-convection oven, gives astounding performance improvements to all kinds of baked and roasted foods including sensitive items such as cakes and pastries, with the only compromise being a reasonable reduction in the maximum available microwave power. Large and small metal utensils can be used in the oven with minimal or no performance penalty on energy uniformity and cooking results. Cooking times are greatly reduced from those in conventional ovens while maintaining excellent cooking performance.

  5. A Fractual Mechanical Testing and Design Strategy for FRC Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stang, Henrik; Olesen, John Forbes

    1999-01-01

    A unified testing and design strategy for fibre reinforced concrete structures is summarised. The strategy is based on fracture mechanical concepts. Emphasis is placed on material characterisation and testing specifications.......A unified testing and design strategy for fibre reinforced concrete structures is summarised. The strategy is based on fracture mechanical concepts. Emphasis is placed on material characterisation and testing specifications....

  6. Nature-Inspired Design : Strategies for Sustainable Product Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Pauw, I.C.

    2015-01-01

    Product designers can apply different strategies, methods, and tools for sustainable product development. Nature-Inspired Design Strategies (NIDS) offer designers a distinct class of strategies that use ‘nature’ as a guiding source of knowledge and inspiration for addressing sustainability.

  7. Design strategies for pollution prevention in industries (life cycle design)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleemi, A.R.

    1997-01-01

    Pollution prevention and adoption of clean technologies in the industry are to be the proper strategies to flight against the growing industrial pollution in Pakistan. These strategies will not only reduce the existing pollution load and will also help to have sustainable industrial development in Pakistan in is well established that the concept of pollution prevention demands use of minimum, resources with maximum efficiency to achieve double benefits such as resource conservation and environmental protection. The application of cleaner production and waste minimization in thousand of industries in other part of world has proved beyond doubt that the use of cleaner technology is cheaper as compared to installation of waste treatment plants for end of pipe treatment. Waste treatment plants have been blamed not to solve any pollution problem, but only to transfer pollution from one environmental media to another. The adoption of waste treatment technologies have also created lot of other problems. Thousand of industries in the world have change their focus of activities from end of pipe treatment to pollution prevention techniques. It is the right time to start pollution prevention activities in industry. The design of a product system in the industry can be represented logically as a series of decision and choices made individually and collectively by design participant. The choices range from the selection of materials and manufacturing processes to choices relating to shape, from and function of a product. The product life cycle design provides a logical system for addressing pollution prevention because the full range of environmental consequence associated with the product can be considered and it is a powerful tool for identifying and maximizing the environmental benefits of pollution prevention. The life cycle assesment (LCA) concept suggests that decision making should be based on consideration of the cradle-to grave characteristics of the product, process

  8. Logistics Sourcing Strategies in Supply Chain Design

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Liwen

    2007-01-01

    A company's logistics sourcing strategy determines whether it structures and organizeslogistics within the company or company group or integrates logistics upstream and downstreamin the supply chain. First, three different types of logistics sourcing strategies in supply chaindesign are described and the theoretical background for the development of these strategies,including both transaction cost theory and network theory, is analyzed. Two special casesabout logistics sourcing strategy decis...

  9. Active living by design sustainability strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, M Katherine; Lee, Joanne J; Brennan, Laura K

    2012-11-01

    Despite substantial increases in improving the translation of health promotion research into practice, community initiatives still struggle with maintaining changes once grant funding has ended. Researchers, funders, and community practitioners are interested in practices that maintain and sustain their efforts. This qualitative study conducted a content analysis of evaluation findings from Active Living by Design (ALbD) to identify activities that community coalitions implemented to maintain their initiative and secure ongoing influence in communities. Investigators analyzed data from interviews, focus groups, and the Progress Reporting System to identify sustainability approaches clustering into five areas: partnership expansion, sustainable funding, permanent advisory committees, policy change, and institution/organization change. Partnership expansion occurred across sectors and disciplines and into broader geographic areas. Additional funding extended beyond grants to earned income streams and dedicated tax revenues. Permanent advisory committees were established to inform decision makers about a range of active living impacts. Policy changes in zoning and comprehensive plans ensured maintenance of health-promoting built environments. Sustainability through institution/organization changes led to allocation of dedicated staff and incorporation of active living values into agency missions. Active Living by Design partnerships defined and messaged their projects to align with policymakers' interests and broad partnership audiences. They found innovative supporters and adapted their original vision to include quality of life, nonmotorized transport, and other complementary efforts that expanded their reach and influence. These sustainability strategies altered awareness within communities, changed community decision-making processes, and created policy changes that have the potential to maintain environments that promote physical activity for years to come

  10. Design Strategies for Balancing Exertion Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mads Møller; Grønbæk, Kaj

    2016-01-01

    In sports, if players' physical and technical abilities are mismatched, the competition is often uninteresting for them. With the emergence of exertion games, this could be changing. Player balancing, known from video games, allows players with different skill levels to compete, however, it is un......In sports, if players' physical and technical abilities are mismatched, the competition is often uninteresting for them. With the emergence of exertion games, this could be changing. Player balancing, known from video games, allows players with different skill levels to compete, however......, it is unclear how balancing mechanisms should be applied in exertion games, where physical and digital elements are fused. In this paper, we present an exertion game and three approaches for balancing it; a physical, an explicit-digital and an implicit-digital balancing approach. A user study that compares...... these three approaches is used to investigate the qualities and challenges within each approach and explore how the player experience is affected by them. Based on these findings, we suggest four design strategies for balancing exertion games, so that players will stay engaged in the game and contain...

  11. Strategies for designing novel functional meat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arihara, Keizo

    2006-09-01

    In recent years, much attention has been paid to physiological functions of foods due to increasing concerns for health. Although there has been limited information of physiological functions of meat until recently, several attractive meat-based bioactive compounds, such as carnosine, anserine, l-carnitine, conjugated linoleic acid, have been studied. Emphasizing these activities is one possible approach for improving the health image of meat and developing functional meat products. This article provides potential benefits of representative meat-based bioactive compounds on human health and an overview of meat-based functional products. Strategies for designing novel functional meat products utilizing bioactive peptides and/or probiotic bacteria, is also discussed. This article focuses particularly on the possibility of meat protein-derived bioactive peptides, such as antihypertensive peptides. There are still some hurdles in developing and marketing novel functional meat products since such products are unconventional and consumers in many countries recognize meat and meat products to be bad for health. Along with accumulation of scientific data, there is an urgent need to inform consumers of the exact functional value of meat and meat products including novel functional foods.

  12. General and Specific Strategies Used to Facilitate Locomotor Maneuvers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengnan Wu

    Full Text Available People make anticipatory changes in gait patterns prior to initiating a rapid change of direction. How they prepare will change based on their knowledge of the maneuver. To investigate specific and general strategies used to facilitate locomotor maneuvers, we manipulated subjects' ability to anticipate the direction of an upcoming lateral "lane-change" maneuver. To examine specific anticipatory adjustments, we observed the four steps immediately preceding a maneuver that subjects were instructed to perform at a known time in a known direction. We hypothesized that to facilitate a specific change of direction, subjects would proactively decrease margin of stability in the future direction of travel. Our results support this hypothesis: subjects significantly decreased lateral margin of stability by 69% on the side ipsilateral to the maneuver during only the step immediately preceding the maneuver. This gait adaptation may have improved energetic efficiency and simplified the control of the maneuver. To examine general anticipatory adjustments, we observed the two steps immediately preceding the instant when subjects received information about the direction of the maneuver. When the maneuver direction was unknown, we hypothesized that subjects would make general anticipatory adjustments that would improve their ability to actively initiate a maneuver in multiple directions. This second hypothesis was partially supported as subjects increased step width and stance phase hip flexion during these anticipatory steps. These modifications may have improved subjects' ability to generate forces in multiple directions and maintain equilibrium during the onset and execution of the rapid maneuver. However, adapting these general anticipatory strategies likely incurred an additional energetic cost.

  13. Venous thromboprophylaxis in general surgery ward admissions: strategies for improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galante, Mariana; Languasco, Agustín; Gotta, Daniel; Bell, Soledad; Lancelotti, Tomás; Knaze, Viktoria; Saubidet, Cristián Lopez; Grand, Beatriz; Milberg, Matías

    2012-12-01

    To estimate the adherence to institutional venous thromboprophylaxis clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) in general surgery patients and to assess the effectiveness of a multi-strategy improvement intervention. A prospective before-after study. Two teaching hospitals located in the city of Buenos Aires, Argentina. Prescriptions belonging to patients admitted to the general surgery wards were evaluated. A multi-strategy intervention that included (i) simplification of institutional CPGs for venous thromboprophylaxis using a single drug at a single dose, based on the American College of Chest Physicians recommendations, (ii) distribution of pocket cards with an algorithm for the implementation of new recommendations to both, physicians and nurses, working in the general surgery units, (iii) educational talks, (iv) paper-based reminders and (v) audit and feedback. The adherence of the venous thromboprophylaxis prescription to the institutional recommendations. The prescriptions of 100 admitted patients before and 90 after the intervention were included in the analysis. The initial rate of adherence was 31%. After the intervention this rate rose to 71.1% (P< 0.001). The major improvement observed was the reduction in omitted prophylaxis in patients at risk of venous thromboembolism from 45 to 13.3% (P< 0.001). In the adjusted model, prescribing compliance with CPGs was five times more likely during the second stage than during the first stage (OR = 5.60, 95% CI = 2.92-10.74). Simple and economical interventions such as those described in this study can improve general surgeons compliance with the institutional and international guidelines, thus assuring patient safety and quality of health care.

  14. Rapid Prototyping: An Alternative Instructional Design Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripp, Steven D.; Bichelmeyer, Barbara

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the nature of instructional design and describes rapid prototyping as a feasible model for instructional system design (ISD). The use of prototyping in software engineering is described, similarities between software design and instructional design are discussed, and an example is given which uses rapid prototyping in designing a…

  15. Strategies for innovation in multicomponent reaction design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganem, Bruce

    2009-03-17

    By generating structural complexity in a single step from three or more reactants, multicomponent reactions (MCRs) make it possible to synthesize target compounds with greater efficiency and atom economy. The history of such reactions can be traced to the mid-19th century when Strecker first produced alpha-aminonitriles from the condensation of aldehydes with ammonia and hydrogen cyanide. Recently, academic chemists have renewed their interest in MCRs. In part, the pharmaceutical industry has fueled this resurgence because of the growing need to assemble libraries of structurally complex substances for evaluation as lead compounds in drug discovery and development programs. The application of MCRs to that increasingly important objective remains limited by the relatively small number of such reactions that can be broadly applied to prepare biologically relevant or natural-product-like molecular frameworks. We were interested in applying logic-based approaches, such as our single reactant replacement (SRR) approach, as a way both to improve known MCRs and to design new multiple-component routes to bioactive structures. This Account provides several examples that illustrate the use of SRR with known MCRs as starting points for synthetic innovation in this area. As part of our working hypothesis, we initially explored strategies for engineering improvements into known MCRs, either by increasing the dimensionality--that is, changing an n-component to an (n + 1)-component reaction--or broadening the scope of useful input structures, or both. By exhaustively applying retrosynthetic analysis to the cognate MCR to identify and exploit alternative entry points into the overall reaction manifold, we have devised several such re-engineered MCRs. Serendipitous findings have also augmented the yield of useful developments from our logic-inspired approach. In some cases, we have identified surprising links between different compound families that provide useful new entry points

  16. Wandering as a design strategy for infrastructuring

    OpenAIRE

    Van Reusel, Hanne

    2016-01-01

    The notion of design gradually diverges from its conceptualization as framed design projects that focus on the production of objects. It shifts to open-ended processes that are oriented toward the creation of services and the congregation of organizations. In the participatory design (PD) scene the emerging future-oriented design-after-design approach is understood as a process of ‘infrastructuring’. The co-design process of Recup’Kitchen is described as an example of an infrastructuring desi...

  17. Automatic CT simulation optimization for radiation therapy: A general strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hua; Yu, Lifeng; Anastasio, Mark A; Chen, Hsin-Chen; Tan, Jun; Gay, Hiram; Michalski, Jeff M; Low, Daniel A; Mutic, Sasa

    2014-03-01

    In radiation therapy, x-ray computed tomography (CT) simulation protocol specifications should be driven by the treatment planning requirements in lieu of duplicating diagnostic CT screening protocols. The purpose of this study was to develop a general strategy that allows for automatically, prospectively, and objectively determining the optimal patient-specific CT simulation protocols based on radiation-therapy goals, namely, maintenance of contouring quality and integrity while minimizing patient CT simulation dose. The authors proposed a general prediction strategy that provides automatic optimal CT simulation protocol selection as a function of patient size and treatment planning task. The optimal protocol is the one that delivers the minimum dose required to provide a CT simulation scan that yields accurate contours. Accurate treatment plans depend on accurate contours in order to conform the dose to actual tumor and normal organ positions. An image quality index, defined to characterize how simulation scan quality affects contour delineation, was developed and used to benchmark the contouring accuracy and treatment plan quality within the predication strategy. A clinical workflow was developed to select the optimal CT simulation protocols incorporating patient size, target delineation, and radiation dose efficiency. An experimental study using an anthropomorphic pelvis phantom with added-bolus layers was used to demonstrate how the proposed prediction strategy could be implemented and how the optimal CT simulation protocols could be selected for prostate cancer patients based on patient size and treatment planning task. Clinical IMRT prostate treatment plans for seven CT scans with varied image quality indices were separately optimized and compared to verify the trace of target and organ dosimetry coverage. Based on the phantom study, the optimal image quality index for accurate manual prostate contouring was 4.4. The optimal tube potentials for patient sizes

  18. Automatic CT simulation optimization for radiation therapy: A general strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Hua, E-mail: huli@radonc.wustl.edu; Chen, Hsin-Chen; Tan, Jun; Gay, Hiram; Michalski, Jeff M.; Mutic, Sasa [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri 63110 (United States); Yu, Lifeng [Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota 55905 (United States); Anastasio, Mark A. [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri 63110 (United States); Low, Daniel A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States)

    2014-03-15

    Purpose: In radiation therapy, x-ray computed tomography (CT) simulation protocol specifications should be driven by the treatment planning requirements in lieu of duplicating diagnostic CT screening protocols. The purpose of this study was to develop a general strategy that allows for automatically, prospectively, and objectively determining the optimal patient-specific CT simulation protocols based on radiation-therapy goals, namely, maintenance of contouring quality and integrity while minimizing patient CT simulation dose. Methods: The authors proposed a general prediction strategy that provides automatic optimal CT simulation protocol selection as a function of patient size and treatment planning task. The optimal protocol is the one that delivers the minimum dose required to provide a CT simulation scan that yields accurate contours. Accurate treatment plans depend on accurate contours in order to conform the dose to actual tumor and normal organ positions. An image quality index, defined to characterize how simulation scan quality affects contour delineation, was developed and used to benchmark the contouring accuracy and treatment plan quality within the predication strategy. A clinical workflow was developed to select the optimal CT simulation protocols incorporating patient size, target delineation, and radiation dose efficiency. An experimental study using an anthropomorphic pelvis phantom with added-bolus layers was used to demonstrate how the proposed prediction strategy could be implemented and how the optimal CT simulation protocols could be selected for prostate cancer patients based on patient size and treatment planning task. Clinical IMRT prostate treatment plans for seven CT scans with varied image quality indices were separately optimized and compared to verify the trace of target and organ dosimetry coverage. Results: Based on the phantom study, the optimal image quality index for accurate manual prostate contouring was 4.4. The optimal tube

  19. Design strategies for human relations in services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snelders, H.M.J.J.; Perik, E.M.; Secomandi, F.

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the degree of control that designers might have over human relations in services. For this purpose, a number of speculative service designs were devised to address work-related stress. We focus on three of the generated designs, where design interventions have made changes to

  20. Generalities about design and operation of microgrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Manuel Rey-López

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available La necesidad de nuevos sistemas de generación ha motivado el de sarrollo de las micro-redes. Este nuevo concepto traerá consigo significantes beneficios a las redes de transmisión y distribución como reduc ción de pérdidas, mayor grado de eficiencia y confiabilidad. Es te artículo presenta generalidades sobre las micro-redes, incluyendo su est ructura general y diferentes topologías; además se propone una metodología original para facilitar su diseño y evaluación. Finalmente, se analiza el diseño de la micro-red localizada en el Parque Tecno lógico de Guatiguará de la Universidad Industrial de Santander, incluyendo un anális is de operación para diferentes escenarios de operación y carga , la operación del sistema de almacenamiento, la interacción con la red eléctr ica y un balance energético para todo el sistema.

  1. Some Convergence Strategies for the Alternating Generalized Projection Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maricarmen Andrade

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we extend the application of the alternating projection algorithm to solve the problem of finding a point in the intersection of $n$ sets ($n\\geq2$, which are not all of them convex sets. Here we term such method as alternating generalized projection (AGP method. In particular, we are interested in addressing the problem of avoiding the so-called trap points, which may prevent an algorithm to obtain a feasible solution in two or more sets not all convex. Some strategies that allow us to reach the feasible solution are established and conjectured. Finally, we present simple numerical results that illustrate the efficiency of the iterative methods considered.

  2. General Parenting Strategies: Practical Suggestions for Common Child Behavior Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavan, Michael G; Saxena, Shailendra K; Rafiq, Naureen

    2018-05-15

    Parents often seek guidance from physicians on child behavior problems. Questions may range from general parenting strategies to managing specific child behaviors. Physicians and their staff can identify problematic parent-child interactions or behaviors within the office setting and assist parents by providing effective monitoring tools for behavior problems. Effective strategies for influencing a child's behavior include positive reinforcement to increase appropriate behavior, extinction (planned ignoring) for most low-level problematic behaviors, and time-out from reinforcement for more problematic behaviors. Written contracting provides parents the opportunity to communicate with their children about important behaviors and strengthens the commitment of each party to improve behavior. Parents should be cautioned about the use of punishment (e.g., scolding, taking away privileges or possessions) because it suppresses behavior only temporarily. Physicians should discourage physical or corporal punishment because it is related to negative parent-child relationships, increased aggressiveness, antisocial behavior, lower cognitive ability, lower self-esteem, mental health problems, and increased risk of physical abuse.

  3. Generation IV nuclear plant design strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altin, V.

    2007-01-01

    In this presentation Generation IV nuclear reactor design criteria are examined under the light of known nuclear properties of fissile and fertile nuclei. Their conflicting nature is elucidated along with the resulting inevitability of a multitude of designs. The designs selected as candidates for further development are evaluated with respect to their potential to serve the different design criteria, thereby revealing their more difficult aspects of realization and the strong research challenges lying ahead

  4. Engineering a General Education Program: Designing Mechanical Engineering General Education Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagette, Paul; Chen, Shih-Jiun; Baran, George R.; Samuel, Solomon P.; Kiani, Mohammad F.

    2013-01-01

    The Department of Mechanical Engineering at our institution created two engineering courses for the General Education Program that count towards second level general science credit (traditional science courses are first level). The courses were designed for the general student population based upon the requirements of our General Education Program…

  5. The Green Studio Handbook: Environmental Strategies for Schematic Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison G. Kwok

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In design studio projects we often see schemes with inspired, yet unvalidated, gestural sketches related to wishful green strategies. Yellow and blue magic arrows represent hypotheses about the behavior of daylight and/or air flow in and about buildings. This paper provides an overview of The Green Studio Handbook, recently published as a resource for designers seeking clear guidelines for integrating green design strategies into the conceptual and schematic phases of design. The book contains a discussion of the integration of green strategies and how building form, orientation, and spatial layout are critical to the proper performance of certain green strategies; 40 green design strategies in six broad topic areas, each providing acatalog of information for common strategies that must be implemented at the schematic design phase; and nine case studies that show how various green strategies work together in a finished building. This paper provides excerpts of several design strategies and one case study and suggests a variety of ways that the book may be used.Keywords: green design, case studies, education, schematic design

  6. Collaborative Design Strategy: Knowledge exchange for roof design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeiler, W.; Quanjel, E.M.C.J.; Roozenburg, N.; Chen, L-L; Stappers, P.J.

    2011-01-01

    In the (Dutch) Building Industry sub optimal use of knowledge by participants during the design phase causes damage and failure costs, as well as it hinders innovative sustainable solutions. Therefore a design tool was developed to support design knowledge exchange between different design team

  7. Implementing E-Learning Designed Courses in General Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuangchalerm, Prasart; Sakkumduang, Krissada; Uhwha, Suleepornn; Chansirisira, Pacharawit

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to implement e-learning designed course for general education. The study employed 3 phases for developing e-learning course: contextual study, designing, and implementing. Two courses general education, 217 undergraduate students are participated the study. Research tool consisted of interview about e-learning form and…

  8. Directives and general design requirements for a small PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arrieta, L.A.

    1992-08-01

    A proposal of directives and general requirements for the development of a small PWR conceptual design is presented. These directives address the main safety, performance and economic design aspects. The purpose is to use this work as a base for a wide discussion, involving all project participants, culminating with the definition of the final directives and general requirements. (author)

  9. Integrated Design as an Evolutive Transdisciplinary Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Bujar Bajçinovci; Florina Jerliu

    2016-01-01

    New challenges should stimulate new research, in order to provide better and higher quality of life. The essence of transdisciplinary design consists of different professions closely related to architectural design aiming for better and qualitative solutions, which with new findings exceed the usual and conventional disciplinary boundaries. Incentive mechanism for lateral thinking in the design process is accomplished when all the team members overcome a conventional barrier, in creating fund...

  10. Developing an Integrated Design Strategy for Chip Layout Optimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wits, Wessel Willems; Jauregui Becker, Juan Manuel; van Vliet, Frank Edward; te Riele, G.J.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an integrated design strategy for chip layout optimization. The strategy couples both electric and thermal aspects during the conceptual design phase to improve chip performances; thermal management being one of the major topics. The layout of the chip circuitry is optimized

  11. Linking Design to Business Strategy Through Functional Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Jesper

    1997-01-01

    The paper discusses how designers, conducting design projects in specific organization's, can assure that the design of IT is appropriately linked to the organizations overall business strategy. A case study is presented in the form of a design project in a small public organization. Functional...... analysis was used as a means to clarify how a specific needed information system could support the organization's new business strategy. Using functional analysis in the design project had a powerful effect: it seriously challenged the organization's business strategy and revealed that the system...... to the relation between an organization's IT-projects and its business strategy and by suggesting that it is the responsibility of the designers, conducting design projects, to assure that this task is taken proper care of. Practical guidelines for this purpose are given....

  12. Design study of general aviation collision avoidance system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, M. R.; Moore, L. D.; Scott, W. V.

    1972-01-01

    The selection and design of a time/frequency collision avoidance system for use in general aviation aircraft is discussed. The modifications to airline transport collision avoidance equipment which were made to produce the simpler general aviation system are described. The threat determination capabilities and operating principles of the general aviation system are illustrated.

  13. Provocative design for unprovocative designers : Strategies for triggering personal dilemmas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ozkaramanli, D.; Desmet, P.M.A.; Lloyd, Peter; Bohemia, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Traditional design approaches stimulate the creation of products that make daily interactions more efficient, comfortable, and pleasant. In contrast, provocative design approaches, such as critical design, have a different focus: they aim to challenge the status quo through products that expose

  14. Strategies for Designing and Developing Services for Manufacturing Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Adrian; Matzen, Detlef; McAloone, Tim C.

    2009-01-01

    Product/service-systems (PSS) are in effect an approach to designing integrated products and services with a focus on both customer activities and product life cycle considerations. Literature offers a range of serviceoriented design strategies from product-oriented DfX approaches to more customer......-oriented approaches such as integrated solutions and service design. These design strategies are mapped out in relation to how applicable they are to different types of services. Case studies from two industrial companies are used to confront the existing literature in order to begin to understand how manufacturing...... companies may align their business strategies with their product and service development activities....

  15. Strategies for Designing and Developing Services for Manufacturing Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Adrian Ronald; Matzen, Detlef; McAloone, Tim C.

    2010-01-01

    Product/service-systems (PSS) are in effect an approach to designing integrated products and services with a focus on both customer- and product life cycleactivities . Literature offers a range of service-oriented design strategies from product-oriented DfX approaches to more customer...... manufacturing companies may align their product and service development activities with their business strategies.......-oriented approaches such as integrated solutions and service design. These design strategies are mapped out in relation to how applicable they are to different types of services. Case studies from two industrial companies are used to confront the existing literature in order to improve understanding of how...

  16. General-purpose heat source development. Phase II: conceptual designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snow, E.C.; Zocher, R.W.; Grinberg, I.M.; Hulbert, L.E.

    1978-11-01

    Basic geometric module shapes and fuel arrays were studied to determine how well they could be expected to meet the General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) design requirements. Seven conceptual designs were selected, detailed drawings produced, and these seven concepts analyzed. Three of these design concepts were selected as GPHS Trial Designs to be reanalyzed in more detail and tested. The geometric studies leading to the selection of the seven conceptual designs, the analyses of these designs, and the selection of the three trial designs are discussed

  17. Search strategies on the Internet: general and specific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottrill, Krys

    2004-06-01

    Some of the most up-to-date information on scientific activity is to be found on the Internet; for example, on the websites of academic and other research institutions and in databases of currently funded research studies provided on the websites of funding bodies. Such information can be valuable in suggesting new approaches and techniques that could be applicable in a Three Rs context. However, the Internet is a chaotic medium, not subject to the meticulous classification and organisation of classical information resources. At the same time, Internet search engines do not match the sophistication of search systems used by database hosts. Also, although some offer relatively advanced features, user awareness of these tends to be low. Furthermore, much of the information on the Internet is not accessible to conventional search engines, giving rise to the concept of the "Invisible Web". General strategies and techniques for Internet searching are presented, together with a comparative survey of selected search engines. The question of how the Invisible Web can be accessed is discussed, as well as how to keep up-to-date with Internet content and improve searching skills.

  18. Generalized pairing strategies-a bridge from pairing strategies to colorings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Győrffy Lajos

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we define a bridge between pairings and colorings of the hypergraphs by introducing a generalization of pairs called t-cakes for t ∈ ℕ, t ≥ 2. For t = 2 the 2-cakes are the same as the well-known pairs of system of distinct representatives, that can be turned to pairing strategies in Maker-Breaker hypergraph games, see Hales and Jewett [12]. The two-colorings are the other extremity of t-cakes, in which the whole ground set of the hypergraph is one big cake that we divide into two parts (color classes. Starting from the pairings (2-cake placement and two-colorings we define the generalized t-cake placements where we pair p elements by q elements (p, q ∈ ℕ, 1 ≤ p, q < t, p + q = t.

  19. Children's Generalization of Strategies: An Historical Perspective on Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Brian D.; And Others

    As an aid to contemporary research, this paper examines historical ideas about young children's use of strategies for memorization and the transfer of such strategies to different contexts. Discussion focuses on (1) current approaches to inducing transfer of strategies; (2) Thorndike and Woodworth's concept of identical elements; (3) Gestalt…

  20. appropriate strategies for designing contemporary art museums

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-07-16

    Jul 16, 2016 ... such as (aesthetic style designed for the set, easy access to the collections and availability of educational .... Thus, any decisions to encounter different cultures can help the ... effect of museum attraction on cultural tourism status in the ..... Making the space dynamic and attractive by providing adequate ...

  1. Nature inspired design : Strategies towards sustainability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Pauw, I.C.; Kandachar, P.V.; Karana, E.; Peck, D.P.; Wever, R.

    2010-01-01

    Current design practices focus on eco-efficiency as the main approach in the field of sustainable product development. This approach mainly aims at improving existing products and services. Environmental product performance can be greatly improved using ecoefficiency but in many cases the

  2. Strategies for Teaching Brainstorming in Design Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mentzer, Nathan; Farrington, Shawn; Tennenhouse, Jason

    2015-01-01

    Innovation has been an important aspect of economic and scientific success in the United States for decades. Hobday, Coffey, Saalfeld, and Colwell (2011) suggested that, in order to produce innovative ideas, one must have a design-thinking mentality. This article provides the readers with an example of brainstorming techniques that have been…

  3. Strategies for Optimal Design of Structural Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enevoldsen, I.; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    1992-01-01

    Reliability-based design of structural systems is considered. Especially systems where the reliability model is a series system of parallel systems are analysed. A sensitivity analysis for this class of problems is presented. Direct and sequential optimization procedures to solve the optimization...

  4. Interdisciplinary Information Design with an Empowerment Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barlach, Anders; Engberg, Axel; Pallesen, Bodil

    2006-01-01

    An innovative research into a model for ICT enabled Empowerment. By deliberate use of ICT and a feedback-focused communication model in a prototyping process, e-health information based on an empowerment strategy is evaluated. Overall a risk-driven spiral model is applied for Progress...... and Complexity handling in order to ensure success. The process model devised has a proactive approach to interdisciplinary teamwork, organisational web maturity, and the post-modern user's interaction with ICT. The research is performed and evaluated in cooperation with an interdisciplinary team of health......'s perspective. ORGANIZATIONAL LEVEL: Nursing Informatics becomes a tool in the interdisciplinary understanding, allowing the nurses to take responsibility for core nursing themes regarding the healthy and the diseased phases of the patients' lives. Iterative modelling ensuring the results is evident and derived...

  5. Amalgamating sustainable design strategies into architectural curricula

    OpenAIRE

    Elnokaly, Amira; Elseragy, Ahmed

    2009-01-01

    In the era of climate change, rising sea levels, the hole in the ozone layer and current food crisis, sustainability is no longer a matter of choice; it is a must. While the term sustainability manages to embed itself in all aspects of contemporary life, sustainability in the built environment requires special attention. Designs created by architects and planners play a fundamental part in shaping the way we live, behave and interact with our surroundings. Smith (2001) argued that...

  6. Reading Test-taking Strategies in General Training IELTS

    OpenAIRE

    Vahede Nosrati

    2015-01-01

    The significance of gaining a better understanding of how test-taking strategies are used has been recognized by researchers. Considering this fact, this study aimed at investigating the test-taking strategies which were employed by IELTS candidates in reading comprehension test. Besides, it tried to take into account the differences among strategies used for different tasks. In order to gather data, two instruments were employed: the think-aloud protocol, and an IELTS reading test. The obtai...

  7. Designing a sustainable strategy for malaria control?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mharakurwa Sungano

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Malaria in the 21st century is showing signs of declining over much of its distribution, including several countries in Africa where previously this was not thought to be feasible. Yet for the most part the strategies to attack the infection are similar to those of the 1950s. Three major Journals have recently drawn attention to the situation, stressing the importance of research, describing the successes and defining semantics related to control. But there is a need to stress the importance of local sustainability, and consider somewhat urgently how individual endemic countries can plan and implement the programmes that are currently financed, for the most part, by donor institutions. On an immediate basis research should be more focused on a data driven approach to control. This will entail new thinking on the role of local infrastructure and in training of local scientists in local universities in epidemiology and field malariology so that expanded control programmes can become operational. Donor agencies should encourage and facilitate development of career opportunities for such personnel so that local expertise is available to contribute appropriately.

  8. Design strategies for irregularly adapting parallel applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliker, Leonid; Biswas, Rupak; Shan, Hongzhang; Sing, Jaswinder Pal

    2000-01-01

    Achieving scalable performance for dynamic irregular applications is eminently challenging. Traditional message-passing approaches have been making steady progress towards this goal; however, they suffer from complex implementation requirements. The use of a global address space greatly simplifies the programming task, but can degrade the performance of dynamically adapting computations. In this work, we examine two major classes of adaptive applications, under five competing programming methodologies and four leading parallel architectures. Results indicate that it is possible to achieve message-passing performance using shared-memory programming techniques by carefully following the same high level strategies. Adaptive applications have computational work loads and communication patterns which change unpredictably at runtime, requiring dynamic load balancing to achieve scalable performance on parallel machines. Efficient parallel implementations of such adaptive applications are therefore a challenging task. This work examines the implementation of two typical adaptive applications, Dynamic Remeshing and N-Body, across various programming paradigms and architectural platforms. We compare several critical factors of the parallel code development, including performance, programmability, scalability, algorithmic development, and portability

  9. HIV-1 Eradication Strategies: Design and Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siliciano, Robert F.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review Recent developments have generated renewed interest in the possibility of curing HIV-1 infection. This review describes some of the practical challenges that will need to be overcome if curative strategies are to be successful. Recent findings The latent reservoir for HIV-1 in resting memory CD4+ T cells is the major barrier to curing the infection. The most widely discussed approach to curing the infection involves finding agents that reverse latency in resting CD4+ T cells, with the assumption that the cells will then die from viral cytopathic effects or be lysed by host cytolytic T lymphocytes (CTL). A major challenge is the development of in vitro models that can be used to explore mechanisms and identify latency reversing agents (LRA). Although several models have been developed, including primary cell models, none of them may fully capture the quiescent state of the cells that harbor latent HIV-1 in vivo. An additional problem is that LRA that do not cause T cell activation may not lead to the death of infected cells. Finally, measuring the effects of LRAs in vivo is complicated by the lack of correlation between different assays for the latent reservoir. Summary Progress on these practical issues is essential to finding a cure. PMID:23698561

  10. RAMI strategies in the IFMIF Test Facilities design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abal, Javier, E-mail: javier.abal@upc.edu [Fusion Energy Engineering Laboratory (FEEL), Technical University of Catalonia (UPC) Barcelona-Tech, Barcelona (Spain); Dies, Javier [Fusion Energy Engineering Laboratory (FEEL), Technical University of Catalonia (UPC) Barcelona-Tech, Barcelona (Spain); Arroyo, José Manuel [Laboratorio Nacional de Fusión por Confinamiento Magnético – CIEMAT, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Bargalló, Enric [Fusion Energy Engineering Laboratory (FEEL), Technical University of Catalonia (UPC) Barcelona-Tech, Barcelona (Spain); Casal, Natalia; García, Ángela [Laboratorio Nacional de Fusión por Confinamiento Magnético – CIEMAT, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Martínez, Gonzalo; Tapia, Carlos; De Blas, Alfredo [Fusion Energy Engineering Laboratory (FEEL), Technical University of Catalonia (UPC) Barcelona-Tech, Barcelona (Spain); Mollá, Joaquín; Ibarra, Ángel [Laboratorio Nacional de Fusión por Confinamiento Magnético – CIEMAT, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: • We have implemented fault tolerant design strategies so that the strong availability requirements are met. • The evolution to the present design of the signal and cooling lines inside the TTC has also been compared. • The RAMI analyses have demonstrated a strong capability in being a complementary tool in the design of IFMIF Test Facilities. -- Abstract: In this paper, a RAMI analysis of the different stages in Test Facilities (TF) design is described. The comparison between the availability results has been a milestone not only to evaluate the major unavailability contributors in the updates but also to implement fault tolerant design strategies when possible. These strategies encompass a wide range of design activities: from the definition of degraded modes of operation in the Test Facilities to specific modifications in the test modules in order to guarantee their fail safe operation.

  11. RAMI strategies in the IFMIF Test Facilities design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abal, Javier; Dies, Javier; Arroyo, José Manuel; Bargalló, Enric; Casal, Natalia; García, Ángela; Martínez, Gonzalo; Tapia, Carlos; De Blas, Alfredo; Mollá, Joaquín; Ibarra, Ángel

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • We have implemented fault tolerant design strategies so that the strong availability requirements are met. • The evolution to the present design of the signal and cooling lines inside the TTC has also been compared. • The RAMI analyses have demonstrated a strong capability in being a complementary tool in the design of IFMIF Test Facilities. -- Abstract: In this paper, a RAMI analysis of the different stages in Test Facilities (TF) design is described. The comparison between the availability results has been a milestone not only to evaluate the major unavailability contributors in the updates but also to implement fault tolerant design strategies when possible. These strategies encompass a wide range of design activities: from the definition of degraded modes of operation in the Test Facilities to specific modifications in the test modules in order to guarantee their fail safe operation

  12. Standalone General Purpose Data Logger Design and Implementation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper describes the design of a general purpose data logger that is compatible with a variety of transducers, potentially permitting the measurement and recording of a wide range of phenomena. The recorded data can be retrieved to a PC via an RS-232 serial port. The standalone general purpose data logger ...

  13. SENSORIAL STRATEGIES IN THE DESIGN OF PUBLIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PRALEA Jeni

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The present paper wishes to establish new criteria regarding the aesthetic revitalisation of public means of transport in the big cities of Romania, using the principles of sensorial design. Unlike France, country in which the public transport systems in big cities have been reconfigured and permanently improved by adopting new technical solutions, new materials and upholsteries, in Romania, the rough economic context from the last decades led to the purchase of used vehicles from the West; fact which gradually led to the increase of the aesthetic level of pollution in big cities. Taking into account that in the near-by future one cannot see any financial solutions for renewing the vehicle parks, in Iași, the TRAMCLUB NGO initiated the project “The aesthetic revitalisation of RATP [1] Iași public means of transport”, in partnership with RATP Iași and two private companies as sponsors. The project foresees the aesthetic integration of means of transport in the urban aesthetics through a chromatic unification and increasing the quality of the travel experience by adopting a unitary upholstery resistant to wear and with a high level of washability. With the support of the Faculty of Visual Arts and Design (“G. Enescu” University of Arts, Iași, a workshop for students of all study years was organised, with the purpose of choosing the best version of chairs reupholstering, in full accordance with the new visual identity.

  14. Generalized Synchronization of Nonlinear Chaotic Systems through Natural Bioinspired Controlling Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Yu Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel bioinspired control strategy design is proposed for generalized synchronization of nonlinear chaotic systems, combining the bioinspired stability theory, fuzzy modeling, and a novel, simple-form Lyapunov control function design of derived high efficient, heuristic and bioinspired controllers. Three main contributions are concluded: (1 apply the bioinspired stability theory to further analyze the stability of fuzzy error systems; the high performance of controllers has been shown in previous study by Li and Ge 2009, (2 a new Lyapunov control function based on bioinspired stability theory is designed to achieve synchronization without using traditional LMI method, which is a simple linear homogeneous function of states and the process of designing controller to synchronize two fuzzy chaotic systems becomes much simpler, and (3 three different situations of synchronization are proposed; classical master and slave Lorenz systems, slave Chen’s system, and Rossler’s system as functional system are illustrated to further show the effectiveness and feasibility of our novel strategy. The simulation results show that our novel control strategy can be applied to different and complicated control situations with high effectiveness.

  15. Design for experience where technology meets design and strategy

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Jinwoo

    2015-01-01

    Presents a strategic perspective and design methodology that guide the process of developing digital products and services that provide 'real experience' to users. Only when the material experienced runs its course to fulfilment is it then regarded as 'real experience' that is distinctively senseful, evaluated as valuable, and harmoniously related to others. Based on the theoretical background of human experience, the book focuses on these three questions: How can we understand the current dominant designs of digital products and services? What are the user experience factor

  16. Porter's contribution to more general and dynamic strategy frameworks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.A.J. van den Bosch (Frans)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction. Understanding why firms are successful is a very basic question in strategy both from a practitioner and a research perspective. In the strategy and management literature, however, we are confronted with different analytical frameworks, applicable at different levels

  17. Reading Test-taking Strategies in General Training IELTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahede Nosrati

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The significance of gaining a better understanding of how test-taking strategies are used has been recognized by researchers. Considering this fact, this study aimed at investigating the test-taking strategies which were employed by IELTS candidates in reading comprehension test. Besides, it tried to take into account the differences among strategies used for different tasks. In order to gather data, two instruments were employed: the think-aloud protocol, and an IELTS reading test. The obtained data were analyzed and interpreted qualitatively by the researcher. The findings indicated that candidates employed 15 different strategies which were categorized in 3 stages, pre-reading, reading, and post-reading stages. Furthermore, it was revealed that test-takers used certain strategies differently, depending on the type of the task. The findings provide a better understanding of strategy use among IELTS candidates and help teachers to improve their approaches toward teaching and learning goals. Keywords: Test-taking Strategy, Test-taker, Reading Comprehension, Language Learning Strategy, IELTS

  18. Reading Test-Taking Strategies in General Training IELTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosrati, Vahede

    2015-01-01

    The significance of gaining a better understanding of how test-taking strategies are used has been recognized by researchers. Considering this fact, this study aimed at investigating the test-taking strategies which were employed by IELTS candidates in reading comprehension test. Besides, it tried to take into account the differences among…

  19. Application and Design Characteristics of Generalized Training Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Edward L.

    This program identified applications and developed design characteristics for generalized training devices. The first of three sequential phases reviewed in detail new developments in Naval equipment technology that influence the design of maintenance training devices: solid-state circuitry, modularization, digital technology, standardization,…

  20. General-purpose heat source development. Phase I: design requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snow, E.C.; Zocher, R.W.

    1978-09-01

    Studies have been performed to determine the necessary design requirements for a 238 PuO 2 General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS). Systems and missions applications, as well as accident conditions, were considered. The results of these studies, along with the recommended GPHS design requirements, are given in this report

  1. Specific Cooperative Analysis and Design in General Hypermedia Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbæk, Kaj; Mogensen, Preben Holst

    1994-01-01

    activities. We demonstrate how these activities informed the general hypermedia framework and application design. Use scenarios and prototypes with example data from the users’ daily work were used as sources both to trigger design ideas and new insights regarding work practice. Mutual challenging...

  2. Bio-inspired Design Approached Antifouling Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzsimons, L.; Chapman, J.; Lawlor, A.; Regan, F.

    2012-04-01

    Biofouling exists as the undesirable accumulation of flora and fauna on a given substrate when immersed into an aquatic media. Its presence causes a range of deleterious effects for anyone faced in tackling the problem, which is more than often financially testing. Generally, the initial biofouling stage is stochastic and the attachment of microorganisms held fast in biofilm matrices is irreversible. Stability of the biofilm occurs when exopolymeric substances (EPS) are produced forming a protective surrounding, allowing the cohered microorganisms to colonise and thrive upon the surface. Therefore, if this initial stage of biofilm development can be prevented then it could be possible to prevent subsequent macro events that ensue. Environmental monitoring is one area that faces this challenge and forms the impetus of the work presented herein. In order to improve a monitoring device's lifetime, surface coatings with biocidal agents are applied to counteract these steps. This work shows the development of a range of novel materials, which demonstrate the ability to counteract and inhibit the initial stages of biofouling for monitoring devices. Natural bio-inspired surfaces have been developed using nano-functionalised coatings. All materials are tested in the field and positive results in reducing the biofouling challenge are demonstrated. The results from the deployment of antifouling materials, together with real-time, long-term water quality data from the test site are also shown.

  3. General aviation design synthesis utilizing interactive computer graphics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, T. L.; Smith, M. R.

    1976-01-01

    Interactive computer graphics is a fast growing area of computer application, due to such factors as substantial cost reductions in hardware, general availability of software, and expanded data communication networks. In addition to allowing faster and more meaningful input/output, computer graphics permits the use of data in graphic form to carry out parametric studies for configuration selection and for assessing the impact of advanced technologies on general aviation designs. The incorporation of interactive computer graphics into a NASA developed general aviation synthesis program is described, and the potential uses of the synthesis program in preliminary design are demonstrated.

  4. Implementation of static generalized perturbation theory for LWR design applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byron, R.F.; White, J.R.

    1987-01-01

    A generalized perturbation theory (GPT) formulation is developed for application to light water reactor (LWR) design. The extensions made to standard generalized perturbation theory are the treatment of thermal-hydraulic and fission product poisoning feedbacks, and criticality reset. This formulation has been implemented into a standard LWR design code. The method is verified by comparing direct calculations with GPT calculations. Data are presented showing that feedback effects need to be considered when using GPT for LWR problems. Some specific potential applications of this theory to the field of LWR design are discussed

  5. Strategy update in a design and consulting company

    OpenAIRE

    Kiviniemi, Juha

    2017-01-01

    The target company of the present thesis is a small engineering company specialising in electrical design. The company’s current development stage and changes in its operating environment call for a strategy up-date. The objective of this study was to formulate key conclusions based on an analysis of the company’s current strategy and its operating environment which will later act as an input to the company’s strategy process. The strategy process itself is left outside the scope of this...

  6. Designing Search UX Strategies for eCommerce Success

    CERN Document Server

    Nudelman, Greg

    2011-01-01

    Best practices, practical advice, and design ideas for successful ecommerce search A glaring gap has existed in the market for a resource that offers a comprehensive, actionable design patterns and design strategies for ecommerce search-but no longer. With this invaluable book, user experience designer and user researcher Greg Nudelman shares his years of experience working on popular ecommerce sites as he tackles even the most difficult ecommerce search design problems. Nudelman helps you create highly effective and intuitive ecommerce search design solutions and he takes a unique forward-thi

  7. Paradoxical cardiovascular effects of implementing adaptive emotion regulation strategies in generalized anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldao, Amelia; Mennin, Douglas S

    2012-02-01

    Recent models of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) have expanded on Borkovec's avoidance theory by delineating emotion regulation deficits associated with the excessive worry characteristic of this disorder (see Behar, DiMarco, Hekler, Mohlman, & Staples, 2009). However, it has been difficult to determine whether emotion regulation is simply a useful heuristic for the avoidant properties of worry or an important extension to conceptualizations of GAD. Some of this difficulty may arise from a focus on purported maladaptive regulation strategies, which may be confounded with symptomatic distress components of the disorder (such as worry). We examined the implementation of adaptive regulation strategies by participants with and without a diagnosis of GAD while watching emotion-eliciting film clips. In a between-subjects design, participants were randomly assigned to accept, reappraise, or were not given specific regulation instructions. Implementation of adaptive regulation strategies produced differential effects in the physiological (but not subjective) domain across diagnostic groups. Whereas participants with GAD demonstrated lower cardiac flexibility when implementing adaptive regulation strategies than when not given specific instructions on how to regulate, healthy controls showed the opposite pattern, suggesting they benefited from the use of adaptive regulation strategies. We discuss the implications of these findings for the delineation of emotion regulation deficits in psychopathology. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A Waterfall Design Strategy for Using Social Media for Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahern, Terence C.

    2016-01-01

    Using social media can create a rich learning environment that crosses all content areas. The key to creating this environment is for instructors and designers to match appropriate social media software with the intended learning outcome. This article describes an instructional design strategy that helps educators create learning activities that…

  9. Advanced Simulation and Computing Co-Design Strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ang, James A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hoang, Thuc T. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kelly, Suzanne M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); McPherson, Allen [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Neely, Rob [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-11-01

    This ASC Co-design Strategy lays out the full continuum and components of the co-design process, based on what we have experienced thus far and what we wish to do more in the future to meet the program’s mission of providing high performance computing (HPC) and simulation capabilities for NNSA to carry out its stockpile stewardship responsibility.

  10. Synchronization of generalized Henon map via backstepping design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Lilian; Wang Mao; Feng Rupeng

    2005-01-01

    This paper proposes a backstepping method to resolve the synchronization of discrete-time chaotic systems. The proposed scheme offers systematic design method for the synchronization of a class of discrete-time hyper-chaotic systems, which implies much complicated high-order chaotic systems can be used to improve the security in chaos communications. A well-known chaotic systems: generalized Henon map is considered as illustrative example to demonstrate the general applicability of backstepping design. Numerical simulations verify the effectiveness of the approach

  11. DESIGNING OF TOWN SKYLINE ON THE STAGE OF GENERAL LAYOUT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. N. Kishik

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available It is proposed to consider an aggregation of such active elements of town structure as multistoreyed dominants to be used as a basis for designing skyline of a large town on the stage of its general layout. Some interrelated principles, namely: spatial integration, subordination, nature consistence, succession are formulated for improvement of their spatial organization. Every principle takes down any general property of the network of vertical accents which is formed as a system. The obtained principles of the system organization of the multistoreyed dominants are checked while designing Grodno skyline. 

  12. Appropriate teaching and learning strategies for the architectural design process in pedagogic design studios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf M. Soliman

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The national qualification framework of a country requires a certain level of knowledge and complexity of skills for an academic degree to be recognized. For architectural programs, student workload is heavy on design courses. Therefore, each course must be carefully developed to ensure that students are not overloaded. Teaching and learning strategies have different implications for courses, which occasionally result in overloading the students. This research aims to study the three main pillars of teaching and learning strategies for each design phase in pedagogic design studios. The most appropriate model for each teaching and learning strategy, including a set of the three main pillars, is then identified for each design phase. A practical strategy for managing design studios is also determined. The aforementioned three pillars are as follows: teaching and learning methods, assigned tasks or study aspects, and design communication techniques. Two research methods, namely, a literature review and a survey among design educators, are adopted. The literature review examines aspects that contribute to the design process and its phases, teaching methods, design skills, communication methods, and studio management strategies. On the basis of the literature review, the background of developments and practices in the design education process are used as constructive tools to develop the survey for design educators. Through the survey, the pillars of teaching and learning strategies that are frequently practiced in design studios are evaluated. Results of this study are classified into three ranks using the nature break classification method for numerical values. Subsequently, three priority models that correspond to teaching and learning strategies, as well as to the required skills and capabilities, are established. A group-based strategy with an interdisciplinary approach is also determined to be the most suitable technique for managing the

  13. On Adaptive Extended Different Life Cycle of Product Design Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenwen, Jiang; Zhibin, Xie

    The article uses research ways of following the whole lifespan of product and enterprise's development course to research strategy of company's product design and development. It announces enterprises of different nature, enterprises at different developing stage will adopt different mode strategy. It also announces close causality between development course of company and central technology and product. The result indicated in different developing stages such as company development period, crisis predicament period, lasting steadies period, improving by payback period, issues steadies secondary period, declining go and live period, enterprise should pursue different mode product tactics of research and development such as shrinking strategy, consolidating strategy, innovation keeping forging ahead strategy. Enterprise should break regular management mode to introduce different research and development mode to promote enterprise's competitiveness effectively.

  14. An experiment designed to verify the general theory of relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surdin, Maurice

    1960-01-01

    The project for an experiment which uses the effect of gravitation on Maser-type clocks placed on the ground at two different heights and which is designed to verify the general theory of relativity. Reprint of a paper published in Comptes rendus des seances de l'Academie des Sciences, t. 250, p. 299-301, sitting of 11 January 1960 [fr

  15. On the System and Engineering Design of the General Purpose ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 13; Issue 5. On the System and Engineering Design of the General Purpose Electronic Digital Computer at TIFR. Rangaswamy Narasimhan. Classics Volume 13 Issue 5 May 2008 pp 490-501 ...

  16. What Should Instructional Designers Know about General Systems Theory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salisbury, David F.

    1989-01-01

    Describes basic concepts in the field of general systems theory (GST) and explains the relationship between instructional systems design (ISD) and GST. Benefits of integrating GST into the curriculum of ISD graduate programs are discussed, and a short bibliography on GST is included. (LRW)

  17. A General Chemistry Laboratory Course Designed for Student Discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obenland, Carrie A.; Kincaid, Kristi; Hutchinson, John S.

    2014-01-01

    We report a study of the general chemistry laboratory course at one university over four years. We found that when taught as a traditional laboratory course, lab experiences do not encourage students to deepen their understanding of chemical concepts. Although the lab instructor emphasized that the lab experiences were designed to enhance…

  18. Age differences in strategy shift: retrieval avoidance or general shift reluctance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, David J; Touron, Dayna R; Hertzog, Christopher

    2013-09-01

    Previous studies of metacognitive age differences in skill acquisition strategies have relied exclusively on tasks with a processing shift from an algorithm to retrieval strategy. Older adults' demonstrated reluctance to shift strategies in such tasks could reflect either a specific aversion to a memory retrieval strategy or a general, inertial resistance to strategy change. Haider and Frensch's (1999) alphabet verification task (AVT) affords a non-retrieval-based strategy shift. Participants verify the continuation of alphabet strings such as D E F G [4] L, with the bracketed digit indicating a number of letters to be skipped. When all deviations are restricted to the letter-digit-letter portion, participants can speed their responses by selectively attending to only that part of the stimulus. We adapted the AVT to include conditions that promoted shift to a retrieval strategy, a selective attention strategy, or both strategies. Item-level strategy reports were validated by eye movement data. Older adults shifted more slowly to the retrieval strategy but more quickly to the selective attention strategy than young adults, indicating a retrieval-strategy avoidance. Strategy confidence and perceived strategy difficulty correlated with shift to the two strategies in both age groups. Perceived speed of responses with each strategy specifically correlated with older adults' strategy choices, suggesting that some older adults avoid retrieval because they do not appreciate its efficiency benefits.

  19. Age Differences in Strategy Shift: Retrieval Avoidance or General Shift Reluctance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, David J.; Touron, Dayna R.; Hertzog, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies of metacognitive age differences in skill acquisition strategies have relied exclusively on tasks with a processing shift from an algorithm to retrieval strategy. Older adults’ demonstrated reluctance to shift strategies in such tasks could reflect either a specific aversion to a memory retrieval strategy or a general, inertial resistance to strategy change. Haider and Frensch’s (1999) alphabet verification task (AVT) affords a non-retrieval-based strategy shift. Participants verify the continuation of alphabet strings such as D E F G [4] L, with the bracketed digit indicating a number of letters to be skipped. When all deviations are restricted to the letter-digit-letter portion, participants can speed their responses by selectively attend only to that part of the stimulus. We adapted the AVT to include conditions which promoted shift to a retrieval strategy, a selective attention strategy, or both strategies. Item-level strategy reports were validated by eye movement data. Older adults shifted more slowly to the retrieval strategy but more quickly to the selective attention strategy than young adults, indicating a retrieval-strategy avoidance. Strategy confidence and perceived strategy difficulty correlated with shift to the two strategies in both age groups. Perceived speed of responses with each strategy specifically correlated with older adults’ strategy choices, suggesting that some older adults avoid retrieval because they do not appreciate its efficiency benefits. PMID:23088195

  20. Reinventing classics: the hidden design strategies of renowned chefs

    OpenAIRE

    Agogué , Marine; Hatchuel , Armand

    2015-01-01

    International audience; Reinventing classics is a well-used yet complex design pattern. Indeed, a reinterpreted classic needs to relate to the original object while simultaneously challenging the initial model and providing a new and fresh look to the well established classic. However, this design strategy remains understudied, and we aimed to contribute to the literature by addressing the lack of theoretical models for reinventing classics. Reinterpreting tradition is a key process for chefs...

  1. Supply chain implications of sustainable design strategies for electronics products

    OpenAIRE

    De Coster, R; Bateman, RJ; Plant, AVC

    2012-01-01

    Increasing legislative and consumer pressures on manufacturers to improve sustainability necessitates that manufacturers consider the overall life cycle and not be scope restricted in creating products. Product strategies to improve sustainability have design implications as many of the decisions made during the design stage will then determine the environmental performance of the final product. Coordination across the supply chain is potentially beneficial as products with improved energy ef...

  2. Instructional Design-Based Research on Problem Solving Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emre-Akdogan, Elçin; Argün, Ziya

    2016-01-01

    The main goal of this study is to find out the effect of the instructional design method on the enhancement of problem solving abilities of students. Teaching sessions were applied to ten students who are in 11th grade, to teach them problem solving strategies which are working backwards, finding pattern, adopting a different point of view,…

  3. Product design and business model strategies for a circular economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bocken, N.M.P.; de Pauw, I.C.; Bakker, C.A.; van der Grinten, B.

    The transition within business from a linear to a circular economy brings with it a range of practical challenges for companies. The following question is addressed: What are the product design and business model strategies for
    companies that want to move to a circular economy model? This paper

  4. Development of Mitigation Strategy for Beyond Design Basis External Events for NRC Design Certification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dong Hak; Lee, Jae Jong; Kim, Myung Ki [KHNP Central Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    In this study, how to develop FLEX strategy for beyond-design-basis external events for U. S. NRC design certification is examined. The development method of FLEX strategy for U. S. NRC design certification is examined. The applicants should make unit-specific FLEX strategy and establish the minimum coping capabilities consistent with unit-specific evaluation of the potential impacts and responses to BDBEEs. NEI 12-06 outlines the process to define and deploy the diverse and flexible mitigation strategies(FLEX strategy) that will increase defense-in-depth for beyond-design-basis scenarios to address the extended loss of alternating current (ac) power (ELAP) and loss of normal access to the ultimate heat sink (LUHS) occurring simultaneously at all units on a site. The order (EA-12-049) is issued to all reactor licensees, including holders of active, Construction Permit (CP) holders, and Combined License (COL) holders. Applicants for the new reactor design certification should prepare and submit FLEX strategy for NRC staff's review. Site-specific data related with the new reactor can't be determined during the new reactor design certification applications so that the unit-specific FLEX strategy should be developed.

  5. Development of Mitigation Strategy for Beyond Design Basis External Events for NRC Design Certification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dong Hak; Lee, Jae Jong; Kim, Myung Ki

    2013-01-01

    In this study, how to develop FLEX strategy for beyond-design-basis external events for U. S. NRC design certification is examined. The development method of FLEX strategy for U. S. NRC design certification is examined. The applicants should make unit-specific FLEX strategy and establish the minimum coping capabilities consistent with unit-specific evaluation of the potential impacts and responses to BDBEEs. NEI 12-06 outlines the process to define and deploy the diverse and flexible mitigation strategies(FLEX strategy) that will increase defense-in-depth for beyond-design-basis scenarios to address the extended loss of alternating current (ac) power (ELAP) and loss of normal access to the ultimate heat sink (LUHS) occurring simultaneously at all units on a site. The order (EA-12-049) is issued to all reactor licensees, including holders of active, Construction Permit (CP) holders, and Combined License (COL) holders. Applicants for the new reactor design certification should prepare and submit FLEX strategy for NRC staff's review. Site-specific data related with the new reactor can't be determined during the new reactor design certification applications so that the unit-specific FLEX strategy should be developed

  6. Diagnostic strategies for urinary tract infections in French general practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinouani, S; de Lary de Latour, H; Joseph, J-P; Letrilliart, L

    2017-10-01

    We aimed to describe the diagnostic management procedures for detection of urinary tract infections in general practice and their correlated factors. We analyzed data from the ECOGEN study on urinary tract infections, collected in France between November 2011 and April 2012. This national cross-sectional study was carried out in general practices. Data was coded according to the International Classification of Primary Care. A total of 340 consultations or home visits were held for urinary tract infections. The five most frequent diagnostic procedures were (in descending order) clinical examination (67.6%), urine cytobacteriological examination (UCBE) (47.9%), urine dipstick test (15.6%), blood test (8.5%), and imaging (6.5%). No urine dipstick test or UCBE was performed in 43% of cases. Factors correlated with diagnostic procedures were age and gender of patients, annual number of consultations held by family physicians, and duration of consultation. Family physicians did not comply with guidelines on diagnostic management for detection of urinary tract infections. We hypothesized that this non-compliance could be due to the family physicians' environment and characteristics, and to clinical practice guidelines. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Strategies and arguments of ergonomic design for sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marano, Antonio; Di Bucchianico, Giuseppe; Rossi, Emilio

    2012-01-01

    Referring to the discussion recently promoted by the Sub-Technical Committee n°4 "Ergonomics and design for sustainability", in this paper will be shown the early results of a theoretical and methodological study on Ergonomic design for sustainability. In particular, the research is based on the comparison between the common thematic structure characterizing Ergonomics, with the principles of Sustainable Development and with criteria adopted from other disciplines already oriented toward Sustainability. The paper identifies an early logical-interpretative model and describes possible and relevant Strategies of Ergonomic design for sustainability, which are connected in a series of specific Sustainable Arguments.

  8. The Reflective Citizen : General Design Education for a Sustainable Future

    OpenAIRE

    Digranes, Ingvild; Fauske, Laila Belinda

    2010-01-01

    With the Norwegian 2006 curriculum, the thoughts of a global responsibility in terms of a wide understanding of sustainability was introduced in general education in Art and Design education from 1st grade through lower secondary school (6-15 years). The focus of individual expression that dominated the subject during the charismatic paradigm of self-expression has in the documents to some extent been replaced by the focus on citizenship and user participation. The introduction, o...

  9. Optimal Designs for the Generalized Partial Credit Model

    OpenAIRE

    Bürkner, Paul-Christian; Schwabe, Rainer; Holling, Heinz

    2018-01-01

    Analyzing ordinal data becomes increasingly important in psychology, especially in the context of item response theory. The generalized partial credit model (GPCM) is probably the most widely used ordinal model and finds application in many large scale educational assessment studies such as PISA. In the present paper, optimal test designs are investigated for estimating persons' abilities with the GPCM for calibrated tests when item parameters are known from previous studies. We will derive t...

  10. Designing generalized conic concentrators for conventional optical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichhorn, W. L.

    1985-01-01

    Generalized nonimaging concentrators can be incorporated into conventional optical systems in situations where flux concentration rather than imaging is required. The parameters of the concentrator for maximum flux concentration depend on the design of the particular optical system under consideration. Rationale for determining the concentrator parameters is given for one particular optical system and the procedure used for calculation of these parameters is outlined. The calculations are done for three concentrators applicable to the optical system.

  11. A general strategy to construct small molecule biosensors in eukaryotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Justin; Jester, Benjamin W; Tinberg, Christine E; Mandell, Daniel J; Antunes, Mauricio S; Chari, Raj; Morey, Kevin J; Rios, Xavier; Medford, June I; Church, George M; Fields, Stanley; Baker, David

    2015-12-29

    Biosensors for small molecules can be used in applications that range from metabolic engineering to orthogonal control of transcription. Here, we produce biosensors based on a ligand-binding domain (LBD) by using a method that, in principle, can be applied to any target molecule. The LBD is fused to either a fluorescent protein or a transcriptional activator and is destabilized by mutation such that the fusion accumulates only in cells containing the target ligand. We illustrate the power of this method by developing biosensors for digoxin and progesterone. Addition of ligand to yeast, mammalian, or plant cells expressing a biosensor activates transcription with a dynamic range of up to ~100-fold. We use the biosensors to improve the biotransformation of pregnenolone to progesterone in yeast and to regulate CRISPR activity in mammalian cells. This work provides a general methodology to develop biosensors for a broad range of molecules in eukaryotes.

  12. A general strategy for the fabrication of high performance microsupercapacitors

    KAUST Repository

    Kurra, Narendra

    2015-06-04

    We propose a generic strategy for microsupercapacitor fabrication that integrates layers of reduced graphene oxide (rGO) and pseudocapacitive materials to create electrode heterostructures with significantly improved cycling stability and performance. Our approach involves a combination of photolithography and a simple transfer method of free-standing reduced graphene oxide film onto an Au/patterned photoresist bilayer. The resulting stack (rGO/Au/patterned resist/substrate) is then used for the electrochemical deposition of various pseudocapacitive materials before the final step of lift-off. To prove the viability of this method, we have successfully fabricated microsupercapacitors (MSCs) with the following interdigitated electrode heterostructures: MnO2/rGO, Co(OH)2/rGO and PANI/rGO. These MSCs show better performance and cycling stability compared to the single layer, (i.e., rGO-free) counterparts. The interdigitated electrode heterostructures result in MSCs with energy densities in the range of 3–12 mW h/cm3 and power densities in the range of 400–1200 mW/cm3, which is superior to the Li thin film batteries (E=10 mW h/cm3), carbon, and metal oxide based MSCs (E=1–6 mW h/cm3) while device energy densities are in the range of 1.3–5.3 mW h/cm3, corresponding power densities are in the range of 178–533 mW/cm3. These results can be explained by a facilitated nucleation model, where surface topology of the rGO film creates a favorable environment for the nucleation and growth of pseudocapacitive materials with strong interfacial contacts and enhanced surface area. This approach opens up a new avenue in fabricating MSCs involving a variety of heterostructures combining electrical double layer carbon type with Faradaic pseudocapacitive materials for enhanced electrochemical performance.

  13. A general strategy for the fabrication of high performance microsupercapacitors

    KAUST Repository

    Kurra, Narendra; Jiang, Qiu; Alshareef, Husam N.

    2015-01-01

    We propose a generic strategy for microsupercapacitor fabrication that integrates layers of reduced graphene oxide (rGO) and pseudocapacitive materials to create electrode heterostructures with significantly improved cycling stability and performance. Our approach involves a combination of photolithography and a simple transfer method of free-standing reduced graphene oxide film onto an Au/patterned photoresist bilayer. The resulting stack (rGO/Au/patterned resist/substrate) is then used for the electrochemical deposition of various pseudocapacitive materials before the final step of lift-off. To prove the viability of this method, we have successfully fabricated microsupercapacitors (MSCs) with the following interdigitated electrode heterostructures: MnO2/rGO, Co(OH)2/rGO and PANI/rGO. These MSCs show better performance and cycling stability compared to the single layer, (i.e., rGO-free) counterparts. The interdigitated electrode heterostructures result in MSCs with energy densities in the range of 3–12 mW h/cm3 and power densities in the range of 400–1200 mW/cm3, which is superior to the Li thin film batteries (E=10 mW h/cm3), carbon, and metal oxide based MSCs (E=1–6 mW h/cm3) while device energy densities are in the range of 1.3–5.3 mW h/cm3, corresponding power densities are in the range of 178–533 mW/cm3. These results can be explained by a facilitated nucleation model, where surface topology of the rGO film creates a favorable environment for the nucleation and growth of pseudocapacitive materials with strong interfacial contacts and enhanced surface area. This approach opens up a new avenue in fabricating MSCs involving a variety of heterostructures combining electrical double layer carbon type with Faradaic pseudocapacitive materials for enhanced electrochemical performance.

  14. A design strategy for magnetorheological dampers using porous valves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, W; Robinson, R; Wereley, N M

    2009-01-01

    To design a porous-valve-based magnetorheological (MR) damper, essential design parameters are presented. The key elements affecting the damper performance are identified using flow analysis in porous media and an empirical magnetic field distribution in the porous valve. Based on a known MR fluid, the relationship between the controllable force of the damper and the porous valve characteristics, i.e. porosity and tortuosity, is developed. The effect of the porosity and tortuosity on the field-off damping force is exploited by using semi-empirical flow analysis. The critical flow rate for the onset of nonlinear viscous damping force is determined. Using the above design elements, an MR damper using by-pass porous valve is designed and tested. The experimental damper force and equivalent damping are compared with the predicted results to validate this design strategy.

  15. A design strategy for magnetorheological dampers using porous valves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, W; Robinson, R; Wereley, N M [Smart Structures Laboratory, Alfred Gessow Rotorcraft Center, Department of Aerospace Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States)], E-mail: wereley@umd.edu

    2009-02-01

    To design a porous-valve-based magnetorheological (MR) damper, essential design parameters are presented. The key elements affecting the damper performance are identified using flow analysis in porous media and an empirical magnetic field distribution in the porous valve. Based on a known MR fluid, the relationship between the controllable force of the damper and the porous valve characteristics, i.e. porosity and tortuosity, is developed. The effect of the porosity and tortuosity on the field-off damping force is exploited by using semi-empirical flow analysis. The critical flow rate for the onset of nonlinear viscous damping force is determined. Using the above design elements, an MR damper using by-pass porous valve is designed and tested. The experimental damper force and equivalent damping are compared with the predicted results to validate this design strategy.

  16. Strategy Guideline: Modeling Enclosure Design in Above-Grade Walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lstiburek, J. [Building Science Corporation, Westford, MA (United States); Ueno, K. [Building Science Corporation, Westford, MA (United States); Musunuru, S. [Building Science Corporation, Westford, MA (United States)

    2016-02-24

    The Strategy Guideline describes how to model and interpret results of models for above grade walls. The Measure Guideline analyzes the failure thresholds and criteria for above grade walls. A library of above-grade walls with historically successful performance was used to calibrate WUFI (Warme Und Feuchte Instationar) software models. The information is generalized for application to a broad population of houses within the limits of existing experience.

  17. Design Requirements, Epistemic Uncertainty and Solution Development Strategies in Software Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ball, Linden J.; Onarheim, Balder; Christensen, Bo Thomas

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the potential involvement of “epistemic uncertainty” in mediating between complex design requirements and strategic switches in software design strategies. The analysis revealed that the designers produced an initial “first-pass” solution to the given design brief in a bre...... a view of software design as involving a mixed breadth-first and depth-first solution development approach, with strategic switching to depth-first design being triggered by requirement complexity and being mediated by associated feelings of uncertainty....

  18. Trends in observable passive solar design strategies for existing homes in the U.S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruzner, Kelly; Cox, Kristin; Machmer, Brian; Klotz, Leidy

    2013-01-01

    Passive design strategies are among the most cost-effective methods to reduce energy consumption in buildings. However, the prevalence of these strategies in existing U.S. homes is not well understood. To help address this issue, this research evaluated a nationally-representative sample of 1000 existing homes distributed geographically across the U.S. Using satellite images, each building was evaluated for three passive design strategies: orientation, roof color, and level of shading. Several statistically significant regional trends were identified. For example, existing homes in the High Plains, Ohio Valley, Northwest, and Southern regions show a statistically significant trend towards orientation in the East–West direction, an effective passive design strategy. Less intuitively, in terms of what would seem to be optimal passive design, buildings in the High Plains and Ohio Valley generally have lighter roof colors than buildings in the warmer Southwest region. At the national level, no statistically significant trends were found towards the passive design strategies evaluated. These trends give us no reason to believe they were a major consideration in the design of existing homes. Policy measures and education may be required to take advantage of the opportunity for cost-effective energy savings through more widespread passive solar design. - Highlights: ► GoogleMaps to examine implementation of cost-effective, observable passive solar strategies in U.S. houses. ► No national trends toward passive solar design in U.S.—a missed opportunity. ► Some regional passive solar trends in U.S. for house orientation, roof color

  19. Designing multiple ligands - medicinal chemistry strategies and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morphy, Richard; Rankovic, Zoran

    2009-01-01

    It has been widely recognised over the recent years that parallel modulation of multiple biological targets can be beneficial for treatment of diseases with complex etiologies such as cancer asthma, and psychiatric disease. In this article, current strategies for the generation of ligands with a specific multi-target profile (designed multiple ligands or DMLs) are described and a number of illustrative example are given. Designing multiple ligands is frequently a challenging endeavour for medicinal chemists, with the need to appropriately balance affinity for 2 or more targets whilst obtaining physicochemical and pharmacokinetic properties that are consistent with the administration of an oral drug. Given that the properties of DMLs are influenced to a large extent by the proteomic superfamily to which the targets belong and the lead generation strategy that is pursued, an early assessment of the feasibility of any given DML project is essential.

  20. Parameters Design for Logarithmic Quantizer Based on Zoom Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjing Yan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the problem of designing suitable parameters for logarithmic quantizer such that the closed-loop system is asymptotic convergent. Based on zoom strategy, we propose two methods for quantizer parameters design, under which it ensures that the state of the closed-loop system can load in the invariant sets after some certain moments. Then we obtain that the quantizer is unsaturated, and thus the quantization errors are bounded under the time-varying logarithm quantization strategy. On that basis, we obtain that the closed-loop system is asymptotic convergent. A benchmark example is given to show the usefulness of the proposed methods, and the comparison results are illustrated.

  1. Diabetes City: How Urban Game Design Strategies Can Help Diabetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knöll, Martin

    Computer Games are about to leave their “electronic shells” and enter the city. So-called Serious Pervasive Games (SPGs) [1] allow for hybrid - simultaneously physical and virtual - experiences, applying technologies of ubiquitous computing, communication and “intelligent” interfaces. They begin to focus on non-entertaining purposes. The following article a) presents game design strategies as a missing link between pervasive computing, Ambient Intelligence and user’s everyday life. Therefore it spurs a discussion how Pervasive Healthcare focusing on the therapy and prevention of chronic diseases can benefit from urban game design strategies. b) Moreover the article presents the development and work in progress of “DiabetesCity“ - an educational game prototype for young diabetics.

  2. The avian egg exhibits general allometric invariances in mechanical design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juang, Jia-Yang; Chen, Pin-Yi; Yang, Da-Chang; Wu, Shang-Ping; Yen, An; Hsieh, Hsin-I

    2017-10-27

    The avian egg exhibits extraordinary diversity in size, shape and color, and has a key role in avian adaptive radiations. Despite extensive work, our understanding of the underlying principles that guide the "design" of the egg as a load-bearing structure remains incomplete, especially over broad taxonomic scales. Here we define a dimensionless number C, a function of egg weight, stiffness and dimensions, to quantify how stiff an egg is with respect to its weight after removing geometry-induced rigidity. We analyze eggs of 463 bird species in 36 orders across five orders of magnitude in body mass, and find that C number is nearly invariant for most species, including tiny hummingbirds and giant elephant birds. This invariance or "design guideline" dictates that evolutionary changes in shell thickness and Young's modulus, both contributing to shell stiffness, are constrained by changes in egg weight. Our analysis illuminates unique reproductive strategies of brood parasites, kiwis, and megapodes, and quantifies the loss of safety margin for contact incubation due to artificial selection and environmental toxins. Our approach provides a mechanistic framework for a better understanding of the mechanical design of the avian egg, and may provide clues to the evolutionary origin of contact incubation of amniote eggs.

  3. Maintaining Department of Energy facilities general design criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metzler, J.F.

    1985-01-01

    A General Design Criteria (GDC) Planning Board has been established in the Department of Energy to streamline the improvement and maintenance of the GDC Manual. This Planning Board, composed of a membership from field organizations and Headquarters programmatic offices, started work on 15 enhancements to the GDC Manual. One of those enhancements details natural phenomena hazards criteria. In the past year the Planning Board submitted a major recommendation which has been implemented into what is known as the GDC Improvements project. The result of this project pledges to dramatically increase the GDC Manual's utilization and effectiveness

  4. Design optimization of general arrangement in Korean next generation reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S. H.; Jung, D. W.; Choi, Y. B.; Cho, S. J.

    1999-01-01

    In order to optimize the general arrangement(GA) of Korean Next Generation Reactor (KNGR), field opinions in domestic nuclear power plants have been collected, and the bench marking on UCN No.1,2 which were estimated to be the most excellent in view of operability and maintenance has been accomplished. Through this work, design optimization items for GA were reviewed. Major items to be selected for optimization are summarized as follows; 'Expanding the compound building function and the mezzanine floor concept in the auxiliary building', 'Including the diesel generator building to the auxiliary building', 'Change of the equipment removal method in the auxiliary building'. With these GA design optimization, the auxiliary building boundary will be improved as a complete rectangular type. The power block volume except the changing effect to the single containment structure will be reduced to about 10% in comparison with that of in KNGR phase II

  5. Design and Promotion Strategy of Marketing Platform of Aquatic Auction based on Internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jianliang

    For the online trade and promotion of aquatic products and related materials through the network between supply and demand, the design content and effective promotional strategies of aquatic auctions online marketing platform is proposed in this paper. Design elements involve the location of customer service, the basic function of the platform including the purchase of general orders, online auctions, information dissemination, and recommendation of fine products, human services, and payment preferences. Based on network and mobile e-commerce transaction support, the auction platform makes the transaction of aquatic products well in advance. The results are important practical value for the design and application of online marketing platform of aquatic auction.

  6. LETTER TO THE EDITOR: Mixed population Minority Game with generalized strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferies, P.; Hart, M.; Johnson, N. F.; Hui, P. M.

    2000-11-01

    We present a quantitative theory, based on crowd effects, for the market volatility in a Minority Game played by a mixed population. Below a critical concentration of generalized strategy players, we find that the volatility in the crowded regime remains above the random coin-toss value regardless of the `temperature' controlling strategy use. Our theory yields good agreement with numerical simulations.

  7. General health and religious coping strategies in patients suffering from asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Hassan Adeli

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Asthma is a chronic respiratory disease characterized by reversible contraction of airways. Coping strategies can reduce the negative impact of the disease in individuals or cause incompatible behaviors by negative effect. This study aimed to evaluate the religious coping strategies in asthma patients and the relationship of religious coping and general health. Methods: The study included 102 asthmatic patients referred to the pulmonary clinic of Shahid Beheshti hospital of Qom. Brief religious coping strategy questionnaire and the general health questionnaire were used in this study. Results: The mean positive religious coping strategy was 26.24±9.89 and 60% of the patients had higher than average scores. The mean negative religious coping strategy was 10.56±3.99 and 35% of patients had a mean score higher than average scores. The mean total general health score was 23.91±11.9. Conclusion: The study results showed that asthmatic patients are at greater risk of depression and a negative correlation exists between positive religious coping and general health scores. It can be concluded that in asthmatic patients, depression should be suspected sooner. Also, during the course of treatment and in cases of resistant to treatment, this issue should be considered. It can be concluded that the patients who use more positive coping strategies and have a strong spiritual beliefs may have higher mental health that leads to higher physical health and a better response to treatment. Religious coping strategies; general health; depression.

  8. A proposal of optimal sampling design using a modularity strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simone, A.; Giustolisi, O.; Laucelli, D. B.

    2016-08-01

    In real water distribution networks (WDNs) are present thousands nodes and optimal placement of pressure and flow observations is a relevant issue for different management tasks. The planning of pressure observations in terms of spatial distribution and number is named sampling design and it was faced considering model calibration. Nowadays, the design of system monitoring is a relevant issue for water utilities e.g., in order to manage background leakages, to detect anomalies and bursts, to guarantee service quality, etc. In recent years, the optimal location of flow observations related to design of optimal district metering areas (DMAs) and leakage management purposes has been faced considering optimal network segmentation and the modularity index using a multiobjective strategy. Optimal network segmentation is the basis to identify network modules by means of optimal conceptual cuts, which are the candidate locations of closed gates or flow meters creating the DMAs. Starting from the WDN-oriented modularity index, as a metric for WDN segmentation, this paper proposes a new way to perform the sampling design, i.e., the optimal location of pressure meters, using newly developed sampling-oriented modularity index. The strategy optimizes the pressure monitoring system mainly based on network topology and weights assigned to pipes according to the specific technical tasks. A multiobjective optimization minimizes the cost of pressure meters while maximizing the sampling-oriented modularity index. The methodology is presented and discussed using the Apulian and Exnet networks.

  9. Designing equitable antiretroviral allocation strategies in resource-constrained countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David P Wilson

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Recently, a global commitment has been made to expand access to antiretrovirals (ARVs in the developing world. However, in many resource-constrained countries the number of individuals infected with HIV in need of treatment will far exceed the supply of ARVs, and only a limited number of health-care facilities (HCFs will be available for ARV distribution. Deciding how to allocate the limited supply of ARVs among HCFs will be extremely difficult. Resource allocation decisions can be made on the basis of many epidemiological, ethical, or preferential treatment priority criteria.Here we use operations research techniques, and we show how to determine the optimal strategy for allocating ARVs among HCFs in order to satisfy the equitable criterion that each individual infected with HIV has an equal chance of receiving ARVs. We present a novel spatial mathematical model that includes heterogeneity in treatment accessibility. We show how to use our theoretical framework, in conjunction with an equity objective function, to determine an optimal equitable allocation strategy (OEAS for ARVs in resource-constrained regions. Our equity objective function enables us to apply the egalitarian principle of equity with respect to access to health care. We use data from the detailed ARV rollout plan designed by the government of South Africa to determine an OEAS for the province of KwaZulu-Natal. We determine the OEAS for KwaZulu-Natal, and we then compare this OEAS with two other ARV allocation strategies: (i allocating ARVs only to Durban (the largest urban city in KwaZulu-Natal province and (ii allocating ARVs equally to all available HCFs. In addition, we compare the OEAS to the current allocation plan of the South African government (which is based upon allocating ARVs to 17 HCFs. We show that our OEAS significantly improves equity in treatment accessibility in comparison with these three ARV allocation strategies. We also quantify how the size of the

  10. AGROECOLOGY: PRINCIPLES AND STRATEGIES FOR THE DESIGN OF SUSTAINABLE AGROECOSYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Carlos Canuto

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The theme of this paper is the debate on principles and strategies for designing sustainable agricultural systems. The paper builds on a broad approach to principles, moving to the more specific approach to strategies and finalizing with a micro-scale perspective on the practice of drawings and the consequences of each possible option. The objective is first of all to put to the debate the dialectic between conceptual plurality and unity in Agroecology. The problem in focus is to situate more clearly what are sustainable agroecosystems and, as a consequence, how to connect principles and strategies to make them viable. Regarding the theoretical reference, we use the classic authors of Agroecology and some critical articles on the conceptual question. The methodology that gives foundation to the approach is based on the author's theoretical and practical experience, with a qualitative, subjective and intuitive character. The results are only the presentation of ideas in order to contribute to the conceptual debate now in vogue and also to glimpse, on a smaller scale, the practical issue of sustainable agroecosystems designs.

  11. Strategy Guideline. Modeling Enclosure Design in Above-Grade Walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lstiburek, J. [Building Science Corporation, Westford, MA (United States); Ueno, K. [Building Science Corporation, Westford, MA (United States); Musunuru, S. [Building Science Corporation, Westford, MA (United States)

    2016-02-01

    The Strategy Guideline, written by the U.S. Department of Energy's research team Building Science Corporation, 1) describes how to model and interpret results of models for above-grade walls, and 2) analyzes the failure thresholds and criteria for above-grade walls. A library of above-grade walls with historically successful performance was used to calibrate WUFI (Wärme und Feuchte instationär) software models. The information is generalized for application to a broad population of houses within the limits of existing experience.

  12. Paradigms for adaptive statistical information designs: practical experiences and strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sue-Jane; Hung, H M James; O'Neill, Robert

    2012-11-10

    design. We highlight the substantial risk of planning the sample size for confirmatory trials when information is very uninformative and stipulate the advantages of adaptive statistical information designs for planning exploratory trials. Practical experiences and strategies as lessons learned from more recent adaptive design proposals will be discussed to pinpoint the improved utilities of adaptive design clinical trials and their potential to increase the chance of a successful drug development. Published 2012. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  13. DESIGNING STRATEGIES FOR IMPROVING TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT IN MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfian Nur Ubay

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This research was aimed at designing strategies for improving total quality management at CV XYZ and PT HIJ. The research locations were selected intentionally with the consideration that the company is a middle class company that started to apply a study in line with the research topic. The experts were chosen using an approach method. This research used a descriptive approach and quantitative analysis through questionnaires using purposive sampling. The stages began with data processing, i.e. testing the questionnaire quality through validity and reliability tests, making a causality diagram, evaluating the implementation levels of each company by giving evaluation scales based on the existing condition, making House of Quality (HOQ using QFD methods, and then analyzing the problem solutions produced from the QFD methods with 5W + IH analysis, and finally determining the improvement priorities using Fuzzy AHP methods. The results were the strategies for improving total quality management /TQM of CV XYZ, namely the factor that plays the most important role was improving the quality management performance. The actor that has the competence to carry out the TQM improvement is the director. The prioritized goal to be achieved is a commitment to improve the quality of goods and services.  The prioritized strategy used in improving TQM is carrying out SOP consistently.Keywords: strategies, improvement, TQM, manufacturing company, fuzzy AHPABSTRAKPenelitian ini bertujuan merancang strategi peningkatan manajemen mutu terpadu pada CV XYZ dan PT HIJ. Pemilihan lokasi penelitian dilakukan secara sengaja dengan pertimbangan bahwa perusahaan tersebut merupakan perusahaan kelas menengah yang mulai menerapkan kajian sesuai dengan topik penelitian. Penentuan pakar dilakukan dengan metode pendekatan secara sengaja. Adapun penelitian ini menggunakan pendekatan deskriptif dan analisa kuantitatif dengan menyebarkan kuesioner secara sengaja (purposive sampling

  14. Weight-Loss Strategies Used by the General Population: How Are They Perceived?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julia, Chantal; Péneau, Sandrine; Andreeva, Valentina A.; Méjean, Caroline; Fezeu, Léopold; Galan, Pilar; Hercberg, Serge

    2014-01-01

    Background The rising prevalence of obesity and the social pressure for thinness increase the prevalence of dieting. However, little is known about the overall perception of dieting strategies actually used by the general population. Objectives Our main objective was to investigate perceptions of weight-loss practices in an observational study in order to identify the most favourable strategy. Design Adults from the ongoing Nutrinet-Santé cohort study who had reported engaging in dieting in the three previous years were included in the study. For each diet, detailed information was collected on types of diets, circumstances and perception of the diet, and outcomes. Perceptions were compared across diets using sex-specific mixed effects models. Result Among the 48 435 subjects who had completed the respective questionnaire, 12 673 (26.7%, 87.8% of women) had followed at least one weight-loss diet in the previous three years. Diet plans prescribed by health professionals and diets conforming to official dietary recommendations were the most favourably perceived among all assessed weight-loss strategies. Alternatively, commercial diet plans and self-imposed dietary restrictions were more negatively perceived (Odds ratios (OR) for adherence difficulty 1.30 (95% confidence interval (0.99;1.7)) in men and OR 1.92 (1.76;2.10) in women compared to official nutritional guidelines; OR 1.06 (0.82;1.38) in men and OR 1.39 (1.26;1.54) in women respectively) compared to official nutritional guidelines. Conclusion Official dietary recommendations could be useful tools for maintaining a dietary balance while following a weight-loss diet. PMID:24852440

  15. Learning strategies and general cognitive ability as predictors of gender- specific academic achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffing, Stephanie; Wach, F-Sophie; Spinath, Frank M; Brünken, Roland; Karbach, Julia

    2015-01-01

    Recent research has revealed that learning behavior is associated with academic achievement at the college level, but the impact of specific learning strategies on academic success as well as gender differences therein are still not clear. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate gender differences in the incremental contribution of learning strategies over general cognitive ability in the prediction of academic achievement. The relationship between these variables was examined by correlation analyses. A set of t-tests was used to test for gender differences in learning strategies, whereas structural equation modeling as well as multi-group analyses were applied to investigate the incremental contribution of learning strategies for male and female students' academic performance. The sample consisted of 461 students (mean age = 21.2 years, SD = 3.2). Correlation analyses revealed that general cognitive ability as well as the learning strategies effort, attention, and learning environment were positively correlated with academic achievement. Gender differences were found in the reported application of many learning strategies. Importantly, the prediction of achievement in structural equation modeling revealed that only effort explained incremental variance (10%) over general cognitive ability. Results of multi-group analyses showed no gender differences in this prediction model. This finding provides further knowledge regarding gender differences in learning research and the specific role of learning strategies for academic achievement. The incremental assessment of learning strategy use as well as gender-differences in their predictive value contributes to the understanding and improvement of successful academic development.

  16. Design strategy for terahertz quantum dot cascade lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, Benjamin A; Williams, Benjamin S

    2016-10-31

    The development of quantum dot cascade lasers has been proposed as a path to obtain terahertz semiconductor lasers that operate at room temperature. The expected benefit is due to the suppression of nonradiative electron-phonon scattering and reduced dephasing that accompanies discretization of the electronic energy spectrum. We present numerical modeling which predicts that simple scaling of conventional quantum well based designs to the quantum dot regime will likely fail due to electrical instability associated with high-field domain formation. A design strategy adapted for terahertz quantum dot cascade lasers is presented which avoids these problems. Counterintuitively, this involves the resonant depopulation of the laser's upper state with the LO-phonon energy. The strategy is tested theoretically using a density matrix model of transport and gain, which predicts sufficient gain for lasing at stable operating points. Finally, the effect of quantum dot size inhomogeneity on the optical lineshape is explored, suggesting that the design concept is robust to a moderate amount of statistical variation.

  17. The Problem Solver and The Artisan Designer: Strategies for Utilizing Design Idea Archives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Inie, Nanna; Endo, Allison; Dow, Steven

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an extensive qualitative study investigating how professional designers utilize personal idea archives. While we know that designers archive creative ideas in different formats and on different platforms, we know little about if and how designers utilize...... these idea archives in their daily practice. Through a series of interviews (n=20) and walkthroughs of design idea archives, we identified two archetypal strategies. The Problem Solver is concerned with the task at hand, keeps relevant ideas around, and discards them when the ideas have served their purpose...

  18. Different generalizations of the elderly in design of welfare technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ertner, Marie

    2016-01-01

    ’ into design, is that it shows how Science and Technology Studies (STS) can be useful in order to better recognize differences between different enactments of an imagined user, in this case the elderly. The contribution of the paper to STS is a discussion of how I as an STS-informed ethnographer was invited......This article explores problems of representing the elderly in a User Driven Innovation (UDI) project developing Welfare Technology. Drawing on Helen Verran’s concept of the dual logics of generalization I attend to differences in enactments of the elderly. I engage with situations where the objects...... to participate in a User Driven Innovation project. Based on my reflections on this role, the paper reflects on the ethnographic account as a tool with particular qualities and limitations when inhabiting a position as mediator between users and an innovation project....

  19. Towards a strategy of reliable fusion first-wall design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, J.H.

    1981-05-01

    Fusion first walls are subject to a large number of possible failure mechanisms, including erosion due to sputtering, arcing, blistering and vaporization and crack growth due to thermal and magnetic stresses. Each of these failure mechanisms is poorly characterized and has the potential of being severe. A strategy for designing reliably in the face of great uncertainty is discussed. Topological features beneficial to reactor availability are identified. The integration of limiter pumping with rf wave launching is discussed, as a means of simplifying reactor design. The concept of a sewer limiter is introduced, as a possible long-life limiter topology. The concept of flexible armor is discussed, as a means of extending maximum life

  20. Optimal Design of Gravitational Sewer Networks with General Cellular Automata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hadi Afshar

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a Cellular Automata method is applied for the optimal design of sewer networks. The solution of sewer network optimization problems requires the determination of pipe diameters and average pipe cover depths, minimizing the total cost of the sewer network subject to operational constraints. In this paper, the network nodes and upstream and downstream pipe cover depths are considered as CA cells and cell states, respectively, and the links around each cell are taken into account as neighborhood. The proposed method is a general and flexible method for the optimization of sewer networks as it can be used to optimally design both gravity and pumped network due to the use of pipe nodal cover depths as the decision variables. The proposed method is tested against two  gravitational sewer networks and the  comparison of results with other methods such as  Genetic algorithm, Cellular Automata, Ant Colony Optimization Algorithm and Particle Swarm Optimization show the efficiency and effectiveness of the proposed method.

  1. Integrated design strategy for product life-cycle management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, G. Patrick

    2001-02-01

    Two major trends suggest new considerations for environmentally conscious manufacturing (ECM) -- the continuation of dematerialization and the growing trend toward goods becoming services. A diversity of existing research could be integrated around those trends in ways that can enhance ECM. Major research-based achievements in information, computation, and communications systems, sophisticated and inexpensive sensing capabilities, highly automated and precise manufacturing technologies, and new materials continue to drive the phenomenon of dematerialization - the reduction of the material and energy content of per capita GDP. Knowledge is also growing about the sociology, economics, mathematics, management and organization of complex socio-economic systems. And that has driven a trend towards goods evolving into services. But even with these significant trends, the value of material, energy, information and human resources incorporated into the manufacture, use and disposal of modern products and services often far exceeds the benefits realized. Multi-disciplinary research integrating these drivers with advances in ECM concepts could be the basis for a new strategy of production. It is argued that a strategy of integrating information resources with physical and human resources over product life cycles, together with considering products as streams of service over time, could lead to significant economic payoff. That strategy leads to an overall design concept to minimize costs of all resources over the product life cycle to more fully capture benefits of all resources incorporated into modern products. It is possible by including life cycle monitoring, periodic component replacement, re-manufacture, salvage and human factor skill enhancement into initial design.

  2. Strategy revealing phenotypic differences among synthetic oscillator designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomnitz, Jason G; Savageau, Michael A

    2014-09-19

    Considerable progress has been made in identifying and characterizing the component parts of genetic oscillators, which play central roles in all organisms. Nonlinear interaction among components is sufficiently complex that mathematical models are required to elucidate their elusive integrated behavior. Although natural and synthetic oscillators exhibit common architectures, there are numerous differences that are poorly understood. Utilizing synthetic biology to uncover basic principles of simpler circuits is a way to advance understanding of natural circadian clocks and rhythms. Following this strategy, we address the following questions: What are the implications of different architectures and molecular modes of transcriptional control for the phenotypic repertoire of genetic oscillators? Are there designs that are more realizable or robust? We compare synthetic oscillators involving one of three architectures and various combinations of the two modes of transcriptional control using a methodology that provides three innovations: a rigorous definition of phenotype, a procedure for deconstructing complex systems into qualitatively distinct phenotypes, and a graphical representation for illuminating the relationship between genotype, environment, and the qualitatively distinct phenotypes of a system. These methods provide a global perspective on the behavioral repertoire, facilitate comparisons of alternatives, and assist the rational design of synthetic gene circuitry. In particular, the results of their application here reveal distinctive phenotypes for several designs that have been studied experimentally as well as a best design among the alternatives that has yet to be constructed and tested.

  3. A Minimum Shuffle Core Design Strategy for ESBWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karve, A.A.; Fawcett, R.M.

    2008-01-01

    The Economic Simplified Boiling Water Reactor (ESBWR) is GEH's next evolution of advanced BWR technology. There are 1132 fuel bundles in the core and the thermal power is 4500 MWt. Similar to conventional plants there is an outage after a specified period of operation, when the plant shuts down. During the outage a specified fraction of fuel bundles are discharged from the core, it is loaded with the same fraction of fresh fuel, and fuel is shuffled to obtain an optimum core design that meets the goals for a successful operation of the next cycle. The discharge, load, and the associated shuffles are time-consuming and expensive tasks that impact the overall outage schedule and costs. Therefore, there is an incentive to keep maneuvers to a minimum and to perform them more efficiently. The benefits for a large core, such as the ESBWR with 1132 fuel bundles, are escalated. This study focuses on a core reload design strategy to minimize the total number of shuffles during an outage. A traditional equilibrium cycle is used as a reference basis, which sets the reference number of shuffles. In the minimum shuffle core design however, a set of two equilibrium cycles (N and N+1, referred to as a 'bi- equilibrium' cycle) is envisioned where the fresh fuel of cycle N (that becomes the once-burnt fuel of cycle N+1) ideally does not move in the two cycles. The cost of fuel efficiency is determined for obtaining such a core loading by comparing it to the traditional equilibrium cycle. There are several additional degrees of freedom when designing a bi-equilibrium cycle that could be utilized, and the potential benefits of these flexibilities are assessed. In summary, the feasibility of a minimum shuffle fuel cycle and core design for an ESBWR is studied. The cost of fuel efficiency is assessed in comparison to the traditional design. (authors)

  4. Interactive Spacecraft Trajectory Design Strategies Featuring Poincare Map Topology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlei, Wayne R.

    Space exploration efforts are shifting towards inexpensive and more agile vehicles. Versatility regarding spacecraft trajectories refers to the agility to correct deviations from an intended path or even the ability to adapt the future path to a new destination--all with limited spaceflight resources (i.e., small DeltaV budgets). Trajectory design methods for such nimble vehicles incorporate equally versatile procedures that allow for rapid and interactive decision making while attempting to reduce Delta V budgets, leading to a versatile trajectory design platform. A versatile design paradigm requires the exploitation of Poincare map topology , or the interconnected web of dynamical structures, existing within the chaotic dynamics of multi-body gravitational models to outline low-Delta V transfer options residing nearby to a current path. This investigation details an autonomous procedure to extract the periodic orbits (topology nodes) and correlated asymptotic flow structures (or the invariant manifolds representing topology links). The autonomous process summarized in this investigation (termed PMATE) overcomes discontinuities on the Poincare section that arise in the applied multi-body model (the planar circular restricted three-body problem) and detects a wide variety of novel periodic orbits. New interactive capabilities deliver a visual analytics foundation for versatile spaceflight design, especially for initial guess generation and manipulation. Such interactive strategies include the selection of states and arcs from Poincare section visualizations and the capabilities to draw and drag trajectories to remove dependency on initial state input. Furthermore, immersive selection is expanded to cull invariant manifold structures, yielding low-DeltaV or even DeltaV-free transfers between periodic orbits. The application of interactive design strategies featuring a dense extraction of Poincare map topology is demonstrated for agile spaceflight with a simple

  5. The Implementation of Physics Problem Solving Strategy Combined with Concept Map in General Physics Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidayati, H.; Ramli, R.

    2018-04-01

    This paper aims to provide a description of the implementation of Physic Problem Solving strategy combined with concept maps in General Physics learning at Department of Physics, Universitas Negeri Padang. Action research has been conducted in two cycles where each end of the cycle is reflected and improved for the next cycle. Implementation of Physics Problem Solving strategy combined with concept map can increase student activity in solving general physics problem with an average increase of 15% and can improve student learning outcomes from 42,7 in the cycle I become 62,7 in cycle II in general physics at the Universitas Negeri Padang. In the future, the implementation of Physic Problem Solving strategy combined with concept maps will need to be considered in Physics courses.

  6. Design and Printing Strategies in 3D Bioprinting of Cell-Hydrogels: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jia Min; Yeong, Wai Yee

    2016-11-01

    Bioprinting is an emerging technology that allows the assembling of both living and non-living biological materials into an ideal complex layout for further tissue maturation. Bioprinting aims to produce engineered tissue or organ in a mechanized, organized, and optimized manner. Various biomaterials and techniques have been utilized to bioprint biological constructs in different shapes, sizes and resolutions. There is a need to systematically discuss and analyze the reported strategies employed to fabricate these constructs. We identified and discussed important design factors in bioprinting, namely shape and resolution, material heterogeneity, and cellular-material remodeling dynamism. Each design factors are represented by the corresponding process capabilities and printing parameters. The process-design map will inspire future biomaterials research in these aspects. Design considerations such as data processing, bio-ink formulation and process selection are discussed. Various printing and crosslinking strategies, with relevant applications, are also systematically reviewed. We categorized them into 5 general bioprinting strategies, including direct bioprinting, in-process crosslinking, post-process crosslinking, indirect bioprinting and hybrid bioprinting. The opportunities and outlook in 3D bioprinting are highlighted. This review article will serve as a framework to advance computer-aided design in bioprinting technologies. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Design and implementation of a generalized laboratory data model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nhan Mike

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Investigators in the biological sciences continue to exploit laboratory automation methods and have dramatically increased the rates at which they can generate data. In many environments, the methods themselves also evolve in a rapid and fluid manner. These observations point to the importance of robust information management systems in the modern laboratory. Designing and implementing such systems is non-trivial and it appears that in many cases a database project ultimately proves unserviceable. Results We describe a general modeling framework for laboratory data and its implementation as an information management system. The model utilizes several abstraction techniques, focusing especially on the concepts of inheritance and meta-data. Traditional approaches commingle event-oriented data with regular entity data in ad hoc ways. Instead, we define distinct regular entity and event schemas, but fully integrate these via a standardized interface. The design allows straightforward definition of a "processing pipeline" as a sequence of events, obviating the need for separate workflow management systems. A layer above the event-oriented schema integrates events into a workflow by defining "processing directives", which act as automated project managers of items in the system. Directives can be added or modified in an almost trivial fashion, i.e., without the need for schema modification or re-certification of applications. Association between regular entities and events is managed via simple "many-to-many" relationships. We describe the programming interface, as well as techniques for handling input/output, process control, and state transitions. Conclusion The implementation described here has served as the Washington University Genome Sequencing Center's primary information system for several years. It handles all transactions underlying a throughput rate of about 9 million sequencing reactions of various kinds per month and

  8. Diseño de estrategia pedagógica para el desarrollo de la competencia investigativa del médico en especialización en medicina general integral Design of pedagogic strategy for the development of research competence of the physician in comprehensive general medicine specialty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilia Victoria Escobar Yéndez

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available La universidad debe preservar, desarrollar y promover la cultura de la humanidad a través de sus procesos sustantivos y vínculo con la sociedad, lo cual puede lograr a través de la investigación científica, que constituye además una función esencial de la salud pública, donde el quehacer investigativo se interrelaciona dialécticamente con los procesos de formación de pregrado y posgrado para ese fin. Según los referentes teóricos revisados para esta obra, la función investigativa presenta insuficiencias durante la formación posgraduada del médico en especialización en medicina general integral, lo cual limita la correcta aplicación del método científico y la calidad de su desempeño profesional en la Atención Primaria de Salud. En la tesis doctoral de la autora se construyó un modelo pedagógico de formación de competencia investigativa para el posgrado como aporte teórico y se elaboró una estrategia pedagógica sustentada en este como aporte práctico para el desarrollo de la competencia investigativa del médico en esa etapa de especialización, cuyo diseño se expone en el presente trabajo con la finalidad de proponer la formación posgraduada por competencia investigativa en dicha especialidad, que representa la base estratégica del sistema nacional de salud cubano y contribuye al cumplimiento de sus objetivos, teniendo en cuenta que la competencia investigativa, el desempeño profesional y el perfeccionamiento del modo de actuación, devienen categorías que interactúan dialécticamente para cumplir mejor el encargo social del sistema sanitario de Cuba.

  9. Nash equilibria in quantum games with generalized two-parameter strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flitney, Adrian P.; Hollenberg, Lloyd C.L.

    2007-01-01

    In the Eisert protocol for 2x2 quantum games [J. Eisert, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 83 (1999) 3077], a number of authors have investigated the features arising from making the strategic space a two-parameter subset of single qubit unitary operators. We argue that the new Nash equilibria and the classical-quantum transitions that occur are simply an artifact of the particular strategy space chosen. By choosing a different, but equally plausible, two-parameter strategic space we show that different Nash equilibria with different classical-quantum transitions can arise. We generalize the two-parameter strategies and also consider these strategies in a multiplayer setting

  10. Optimal design of a general warm standby system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, Won Young; Cha, Ji Hwan

    2010-01-01

    Redundancy or standby is a technique that has been widely applied to improving system reliability and availability in the stage of system design. In this paper, we consider a standby system with two units in which the first unit (unit 1) starts its operation under active state and the other unit (unit 2) is under cold standby state at the starting point. After a specified time s (switching time), the state of unit 2 is changed to warm standby state and, as soon as the operating unit 1 fails, the state of unit 2 is changed to active state. If unit 1 fails before time s, the system fails. Units can fail at both active and warm standby states. A general method for modeling the standby system is adopted and system performance measures (system reliability and mean life) based on the proposed model are derived. Three models - a perfect switching model and two imperfect switching models - are considered in this paper. Two imperfect switching models include an imperfect switching probability and a preliminary warm-up period which is required for the change from cold standby state to warm standby state. We consider the problem of determining the optimal switching time which maximizes the expected system life and related allocation problem is also discussed. Some numerical examples are studied.

  11. High-Payoff Space Transportation Design Approach with a Technology Integration Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCleskey, C. M.; Rhodes, R. E.; Chen, T.; Robinson, J.

    2011-01-01

    A general architectural design sequence is described to create a highly efficient, operable, and supportable design that achieves an affordable, repeatable, and sustainable transportation function. The paper covers the following aspects of this approach in more detail: (1) vehicle architectural concept considerations (including important strategies for greater reusability); (2) vehicle element propulsion system packaging considerations; (3) vehicle element functional definition; (4) external ground servicing and access considerations; and, (5) simplified guidance, navigation, flight control and avionics communications considerations. Additionally, a technology integration strategy is forwarded that includes: (a) ground and flight test prior to production commitments; (b) parallel stage propellant storage, such as concentric-nested tanks; (c) high thrust, LOX-rich, LOX-cooled first stage earth-to-orbit main engine; (d) non-toxic, day-of-launch-loaded propellants for upper stages and in-space propulsion; (e) electric propulsion and aero stage control.

  12. Design strategy for control of inherently safe reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chisholm, G.H.

    1984-01-01

    Reactor power plant safety is assured through a combination of engineered barriers to radiation release (e.g., reactor containment) in combination with active reactor safety systems to shut the reactor down and remove decay heat. While not specifically identified as safety systems, the control systems responsible for continuous operation of plant subsystems are the first line of defense for mitigating radiation releases and for plant protection. Inherently safe reactors take advantage of passive system features for decay-heat removal and reactor shutdown functions normally ascribed to active reactor safety systems. The advent of these reactors may permit restructuring of the present control system design strategy. This restructuring is based on the fact that authority for protection against unlikely accidents is, as much as practical, placed upon the passive features of the system instead of the traditional placement upon the PPS. Consequently, reactor control may be simplified, allowing the reliability of control systems to be improved and more easily defended

  13. Design of Mobile Learning strategies through blended learning enviroment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Boude Figueredo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of an investigation that developed in the municipality of Fusagasuga in late 2013 by the University of La Sabana are presented, whose objective was to determine the contribution of a process of teacher training in the design of strategies for mobile learning. A methodological level a qualitative study, with exploratory scope, was conducted through a case study. In it, 245 teachers participated in 13 educational institu-tions. The main results show that teachers recognize the importance of using mobile devices to support the development of their teaching practices, and promote the participation of their students as well as some aspects that hinder and facilitate the development of this type of training processes. The main conclusion is that although the use of devices is increasingly in classrooms, this use does not respond to a didactic planning by the teacher.

  14. Mechanism Design of Fashion Virtual Enterprise under Monitoring Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Huang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Designing a revenue sharing contract to prevent the moral hazard is one of the most important issues in virtual enterprise (VE. As the partners’ productive effort level cannot be observed by the owner and other partners, there is usually moral hazard problem in VE. To mitigate the moral hazard, the owner sets the monitoring effort with monitoring cost. Considering a risk-neutral owner and multiple downside risk-averse partners, the owner’s problem of determining the monitoring effort and incentive intensity to maximize his profit while the partners determine their productive effort to maximize their profit is addressed. The principal agent based model of this problem is proposed. By solving the model, the optimal strategy of owner and partner is derived. By comparing with the no monitoring scenario, we find that implementing suitable monitoring strategy can reduce the moral hazard effectively. Finally, by analyzing the partners’ risk attitude, the result reveals that the lower the risk level of the partner is, the more the owner wants. These results suggest that VE should not only focus on the risk attitude but also on monitoring.

  15. Specific or general exercise strategy for subacromial impingement syndrome-does it matter?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shire, Alison R; Stæhr, Thor A B; Overby, Jesper B

    2017-01-01

    Background Exercise is frequently suggested as a treatment option for patients presenting with symptoms of subacromial impingement syndrome. Some would argue implementing a specific exercise strategy with special focus on correction of kinematic deficits would be superior to general exercise stra...

  16. Strategies for Controlling Item Exposure in Computerized Adaptive Testing with the Generalized Partial Credit Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Laurie Laughlin

    2004-01-01

    Choosing a strategy for controlling item exposure has become an integral part of test development for computerized adaptive testing (CAT). This study investigated the performance of six procedures for controlling item exposure in a series of simulated CATs under the generalized partial credit model. In addition to a no-exposure control baseline…

  17. General inspection strategy for fault diagnosis-minimizing the inspection costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinertsen, Rune; Wang Xiaozhong

    1995-01-01

    In this paper, a general inspection strategy for system fault diagnosis is presented. The procedure presented in this paper, is an improvement of methods described in papers by , and . This general strategy provides the optimal inspection procedure when the inspections require unequal effort and the minimum cut set probabilities are unequal. This feature makes the procedure described in this paper more useful for practical applications than the most recent procedure presented in the paper by Najmus-Saqib and Ishaque, which requires the minimum cut set probabilities to be equal. The inspection strategy described in this paper is based on first inspecting the basic event that will provide the maximum information gain per unit cost invested. The information gain is measured by the decrease of Shannon entropy. A detailed tutorial example is presented

  18. Relationships between the generalized functional method and other methods of nonimaging optical design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortz, John; Shatz, Narkis

    2011-04-01

    The recently developed generalized functional method provides a means of designing nonimaging concentrators and luminaires for use with extended sources and receivers. We explore the mathematical relationships between optical designs produced using the generalized functional method and edge-ray, aplanatic, and simultaneous multiple surface (SMS) designs. Edge-ray and dual-surface aplanatic designs are shown to be special cases of generalized functional designs. In addition, it is shown that dual-surface SMS designs are closely related to generalized functional designs and that certain computational advantages accrue when the two design methods are combined. A number of examples are provided. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  19. Interpretive Management: What General Managers Can Learn from Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, Richard K.; Piore, Michael J.; Malek, Kamal M.

    1998-01-01

    An analytical management approach reflects a traditional perspective and an interpretive approach involves a perspective suited to rapidly changing, unpredictable markets. Both approaches are valid, but each serves different purposes and calls for different strategies and skills. (JOW)

  20. Rational design of diagnostic and vaccination strategies for tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibele Borsuk

    Full Text Available The development of diagnostic tests which can readily differentiate between vaccinated and tuberculosis-infected individuals is crucial for the wider utilization of bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG as vaccine in humans and animals. BCG_0092 is an antigen that elicits specific delayed type hypersensitivity reactions similar in size and morphological aspects to that elicited by purified protein derivative, in both animals and humans infected with the tubercle bacilli. We carried out bioinformatics analyses of the BCG_0092 and designed a diagnostic test by using the predicted MHC class I epitopes. In addition, we performed a knockout of this gene by homologous recombination in the BCG vaccine strain to allow differentiation of vaccinated from infected individuals. For that, the flanking sequences of the target gene (BCG_0092were cloned into a suicide vector. Spontaneous double crossovers, which result in wild type revertants or knockouts were selected using SacB. BCG_0092 is present only in members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. Eight predicted MHC class I epitopes with potential for immunological diagnosis were defined, allowing the design of a specific diagnostic test. The strategy used to delete the (BCG_0092 gene from BCG was successful. The knockout genotype was confirmed by PCR and by Southern blot. The mutant BCG strain has the potential of inducing protection against tuberculosis without interfering with the diagnostic test based on the use of selected epitopes from BCG_0092.

  1. Metal Organic Frameworks: Explorations and Design Strategies for MOF Synthesis

    KAUST Repository

    AbdulHalim, Rasha

    2016-11-27

    Metal-Organic Frameworks (MOFs) represent an emerging new class of functional crystalline solid-state materials. In the early discovery of this now rapidly growing class of materials significant challenges were often encountered. However, MOFs today, with its vast structural modularity, reflected by the huge library of the available chemical building blocks, and exceptional controlled porosity, stand as the most promising candidate to address many of the overbearing societal challenges pertaining to energy and environmental sustainability. A variety of design strategies have been enumerated in the literature which rely on the use of predesigned building blocks paving the way towards potentially more predictable structures. The two major design strategies presented in this work are the molecular building block (MBB) and supermolecular building block (SBB) -based approaches for the rationale assembly of functional MOF materials with the desired structural features. In this context, we targeted two highly connected MOF platforms, namely rht-MOF and shp-MOF. These two MOF platforms are classified based on their topology, defined as the underlying connectivity of their respective net, as edge transitive binodal nets; shp being (4,12)-connected net and rht being (3,24)-connected net. These highly connected nets were deliberately targeted due to the limited number of possible nets for connecting their associated basic building units. Two highly porous materials were designed and successfully constructed; namely Y-shp-MOF-5 and rht-MOF-10. The Y-shp-MOF-5 features a phenomenal water stability with an exquisite behavior when exposed to water, positioning this microporous material as the best adsorbent for moisture control applications. The shp-MOF platform proved to be modular to ligand functionalization and thus imparting significant behavioral changes when hydrophilic and hydrophobic functionalized ligands were introduced on the resultant MOF. On the other hand, rht

  2. A preliminary study for the implementation of general accident management strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Soo Hyung; Kim, Soo Hyung; Jeong, Young Hoon; Chang, Soon Heung [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    To enhance the safety of nuclear power plants, implementation of accident management has been suggested as one of most important programs. Specially, accident management strategies are suggested as one of key elements considered in development of the accident management program. In this study, generally applicable accident management strategies to domestic nuclear power plants are identified through reviewing several accident management programs for the other countries and considering domestic conditions. Identified strategies are as follows; 1) Injection into the Reactor Coolant System, 2) Depressurize the Reactor Coolant System, 3) Depressurize the Steam Generator, 4) Injection into the Steam Generator, 5) Injection into the Containment, 6) Spray into the Containment, 7) Control Hydrogen in the Containment. In addition, the systems and instrumentation necessary for the implementation of each strategy are also investigated. 11 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs. (Author)

  3. A preliminary study for the implementation of general accident management strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Soo Hyung; Kim, Soo Hyung; Jeong, Young Hoon; Chang, Soon Heung [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-12-31

    To enhance the safety of nuclear power plants, implementation of accident management has been suggested as one of most important programs. Specially, accident management strategies are suggested as one of key elements considered in development of the accident management program. In this study, generally applicable accident management strategies to domestic nuclear power plants are identified through reviewing several accident management programs for the other countries and considering domestic conditions. Identified strategies are as follows; 1) Injection into the Reactor Coolant System, 2) Depressurize the Reactor Coolant System, 3) Depressurize the Steam Generator, 4) Injection into the Steam Generator, 5) Injection into the Containment, 6) Spray into the Containment, 7) Control Hydrogen in the Containment. In addition, the systems and instrumentation necessary for the implementation of each strategy are also investigated. 11 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs. (Author)

  4. A preliminary study for the implementation of general accident management strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Soo Hyung; Kim, Soo Hyung; Jeong, Young Hoon; Chang, Soon Heung

    1997-01-01

    To enhance the safety of nuclear power plants, implementation of accident management has been suggested as one of most important programs. Specially, accident management strategies are suggested as one of key elements considered in development of the accident management program. In this study, generally applicable accident management strategies to domestic nuclear power plants are identified through reviewing several accident management programs for the other countries and considering domestic conditions. Identified strategies are as follows; 1) Injection into the Reactor Coolant System, 2) Depressurize the Reactor Coolant System, 3) Depressurize the Steam Generator, 4) Injection into the Steam Generator, 5) Injection into the Containment, 6) Spray into the Containment, 7) Control Hydrogen in the Containment. In addition, the systems and instrumentation necessary for the implementation of each strategy are also investigated

  5. Economic evaluation of an implementation strategy for the management of low back pain in general practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Cathrine Elgaard; Riis, Allan; Petersen, Karin Dam; Jensen, Martin Bach; Pedersen, Kjeld Møller

    2017-05-01

    In connection with the publication of a clinical practice guideline on the management of low back pain (LBP) in general practice in Denmark, a cluster randomised controlled trial was conducted. In this trial, a multifaceted guideline implementation strategy to improve general practitioners' treatment of patients with LBP was compared with a usual implementation strategy. The aim was to determine whether the multifaceted strategy was cost effective, as compared with the usual implementation strategy. The economic evaluation was conducted as a cost-utility analysis where cost collected from a societal perspective and quality-adjusted life years were used as outcome measures. The analysis was conducted as a within-trial analysis with a 12-month time horizon consistent with the follow-up period of the clinical trial. To adjust for a priori selected covariates, generalised linear models with a gamma family were used to estimate incremental costs and quality-adjusted life years. Furthermore, both deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were conducted. Results showed that costs associated with primary health care were higher, whereas secondary health care costs were lower for the intervention group when compared with the control group. When adjusting for covariates, the intervention was less costly, and there was no significant difference in effect between the 2 groups. Sensitivity analyses showed that results were sensitive to uncertainty. In conclusion, the multifaceted implementation strategy was cost saving when compared with the usual strategy for implementing LBP clinical practice guidelines in general practice. Furthermore, there was no significant difference in effect, and the estimate was sensitive to uncertainty.

  6. Designing a fuzzy expert system for selecting knowledge management strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Ameneh Khadivar; Shohreh Nasri Nasr Abadi; Elham Fallah

    2014-01-01

    knowledge management strategy is mentioned as one of the most important success factors for implementing knowledge management. The KM strategy selection is a complex decision that requires consideration of several factors. For evaluation and selection of an appropriate knowledge management strategy in organizations, many factors must be considered. The identified factors and their impact on knowledge management strategy are inherently ambiguous. In this study, an overview of theoretical found...

  7. Convexity of Ruin Probability and Optimal Dividend Strategies for a General Lévy Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuancun Yin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the optimal dividends problem for a company whose cash reserves follow a general Lévy process with certain positive jumps and arbitrary negative jumps. The objective is to find a policy which maximizes the expected discounted dividends until the time of ruin. Under appropriate conditions, we use some recent results in the theory of potential analysis of subordinators to obtain the convexity properties of probability of ruin. We present conditions under which the optimal dividend strategy, among all admissible ones, takes the form of a barrier strategy.

  8. Convexity of Ruin Probability and Optimal Dividend Strategies for a General Lévy Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, Kam Chuen; Shen, Ying

    2015-01-01

    We consider the optimal dividends problem for a company whose cash reserves follow a general Lévy process with certain positive jumps and arbitrary negative jumps. The objective is to find a policy which maximizes the expected discounted dividends until the time of ruin. Under appropriate conditions, we use some recent results in the theory of potential analysis of subordinators to obtain the convexity properties of probability of ruin. We present conditions under which the optimal dividend strategy, among all admissible ones, takes the form of a barrier strategy. PMID:26351655

  9. Resource Entity Action : A Generalized Design Pattern for RTS games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbadi, Mohamed; Di Giacomo, Francesco; Orsini, Renzo; Plaat, Aske; Spronck, P.H.M.; Maggiore, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    In Real-Time Strategy (RTS) games, players develop an army in real time, then attempt to take out one or more opp onents. Despite the existence of basic similarities among the many dierent RTS games, engines of these games are often built ad ho c, and co de re-use among dierent titles is minimal. We

  10. Model-free adaptive sliding mode controller design for generalized ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    L M WANG

    2017-08-16

    Aug 16, 2017 ... The main contribution of this paper is that a control strategy is provided for ... differential equation provides a new mathematical tool, ... methods of synchronization and GPS, which only use ... the effectiveness of the proposed method by numerical ...... [24] M Anthony and P L Bartlett, Neural network learning.

  11. Llewellyn Smith, Director-General designate of CERN, discusses LHC

    CERN Multimedia

    Sweet, William N

    1992-01-01

    Christopher Llewellyn Smith was nominated by the Committee of Council to be Director General of CERN. He aims to pave the way for the Large Hadron Collider and utilize to the full the Large Electron-Positron machine.

  12. A simple observer design of the generalized Lorenz chaotic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Y.-J.

    2010-01-01

    In this Letter, the generalized Lorenz chaotic system is considered and the state observation problem of such a system is investigated. Based on the time-domain approach, a simple observer for the generalized Lorenz chaotic system is developed to guarantee the global exponential stability of the resulting error system. Moreover, the guaranteed exponential convergence rate can be correctly estimated. Finally, a numerical example is given to show the effectiveness of the obtained result.

  13. Generalized BICM-T transceivers: Constellation and multiplexer design

    KAUST Repository

    Malik, Muhammad Talha

    2013-09-01

    Recently, it has been shown that the performance of bit-interleaved coded modulation (BICM) using convolutional codes in nonfading channels can be significantly improved if the coded bits are not interleaved at all. This particular BICM design is referred to as BICM trivial (BICM-T) and is shown to be asymptotically as good as Ungerboeck\\'s one dimensional (1D) trellis coded modulation (TCM). This BICM-T design and analysis considered a simple case of rate 1/2 channel encoder with equally spaced 16-ary quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) constellation where the code rate matches with the modulation order as required in TCM transmission. In this paper, we consider and analyze a new BICM-T design that uses a non equally spaced signal constellation in conjunction with a bit level multiplexer. With this design and analysis, one can not only exploit the full benefit of BICM-T design by jointly optimizing different transceiver\\'s modules but also enjoys the same design flexibility as the traditional BICM to independently choose the code rate and the modulation order. The presented numerical results for 64-ary QAM with rate 1/3 code shows that the considered design can offer gains up to 2.5 dB over the traditional optimal BICM design for a target bit error rate (BER) of 10-6. © 2013 IEEE.

  14. Generalized design formulas for low energy electromagnetic quads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liska, D.J.

    1994-06-01

    This technical note is the result of the quadrupole magnet design efforts that went into the development of proposals for large high-powered linear accelerators such as the Accelerator for Production of Tritium (APT), Accelerator for Base Conversion (of Plutonium) (ABC), and Accelerator for Treatment of (radioactive) Waste (ATW). In all these applications it was necessary to develop designs for numerous (hundreds) of electromagnetic quadrupoles (EMQs). EMQs are required since long-term reliability, radiation damage potential, and large aperture dictate against the use of permanent magnet quadrupoles (PMQs) for these powerful machines. One object of the magnet design effort was to provide a quick, reliable, and easy means of converting raw physics requirements (magnetic impulse, focal length, and boretube aperture) into realistic electrical, cooling, facility interface, and mechanical specifications and configurations--in other words, to easily convert physics requirements to a reliable design that could be drawn on paper, shown to vendors, and presented to peer review committees as a well-developed and believable concept. The empirical formulas that were derived have been gathered together in this technical note. They will be useful for other designers interested in an easy way of coming up with a rather complete mechanical as well as electrical and magnetic design for EMQs. Included are lab tests of designs derived from these formulas and comparisons with other real EMQ designs. These demonstrate the good accuracy of the empirical formulas

  15. How to design education on mental disorders for general ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Design: Participatory action research was used to adapt the WHO programme. There were 3 phases to the study. Firstly a co-operative inquiry group of 10 GPs adapted the WHO materials. Secondly the findings of the inquiry were incorporated into the design of a web-based distance education programme. Thirdly the ...

  16. Constructing General Orthogonal Fractional Factorial Split-Plot Designs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sartono, B.; Goos, P.; Schoen, E.

    2015-01-01

    While the orthogonal design of split-plot fractional factorial experiments has received much attention already, there are still major voids in the literature. First, designs with one or more factors acting at more than two levels have not yet been considered. Second, published work on nonregular

  17. The Strategy Blueprint: A Strategy Process Computer-Aided Design Tool

    OpenAIRE

    Aldea, Adina Ioana; Febriani, Tania Rizki; Daneva, Maya; Iacob, Maria Eugenia

    2017-01-01

    Strategy has always been a main concern of organizations because it dictates their direction, and therefore determines their success. Thus, organizations need to have adequate support to guide them through their strategy formulation process. The goal of this research is to develop a computer-based tool, known as ‘the Strategy Blueprint’, consisting of a combination of nine strategy techniques, which can help organizations define the most suitable strategy, based on the internal and external f...

  18. Conceptual strategy for design, implementation, and validation of a biomarker-based biomonitoring capability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCarthy, J.F.; Halbrook, R.S.; Shugart, L.R.

    1991-12-01

    This document describes a strategy for defining specific objectives for biomarker studies and for designing and implementing a biomonitoring study that focuses on these objectives. In researching this subject, it became clear to the authors that the subject of biomarkers created a great deal of interest among scientists and regulators but that general acceptance of biomarkers as a tool for environmental protection was hampered by lack of a clear notion of how to develop and apply this approach. We intend this document to be a user's guide'' that lays out a logical scheme for applying biomarkers in environmental monitoring. In addition, laboratory and field research components needed to develop and validate fundamental understanding and interpretation of biomarker responses are also described, as is a strategy for evolution of a biomarker-based biomonitoring capability. The document is divided into sections intended to lead the reader to an understanding of how biomarkers can be developed and applied.

  19. Conceptual strategy for design, implementation, and validation of a biomarker-based biomonitoring capability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCarthy, J.F.; Halbrook, R.S.; Shugart, L.R.

    1991-12-01

    This document describes a strategy for defining specific objectives for biomarker studies and for designing and implementing a biomonitoring study that focuses on these objectives. In researching this subject, it became clear to the authors that the subject of biomarkers created a great deal of interest among scientists and regulators but that general acceptance of biomarkers as a tool for environmental protection was hampered by lack of a clear notion of how to develop and apply this approach. We intend this document to be a ``user`s guide`` that lays out a logical scheme for applying biomarkers in environmental monitoring. In addition, laboratory and field research components needed to develop and validate fundamental understanding and interpretation of biomarker responses are also described, as is a strategy for evolution of a biomarker-based biomonitoring capability. The document is divided into sections intended to lead the reader to an understanding of how biomarkers can be developed and applied.

  20. RosettaAntibodyDesign (RAbD): A general framework for computational antibody design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adolf-Bryfogle, Jared; Kalyuzhniy, Oleks; Kubitz, Michael; Weitzner, Brian D; Hu, Xiaozhen; Adachi, Yumiko; Schief, William R; Dunbrack, Roland L

    2018-04-01

    A structural-bioinformatics-based computational methodology and framework have been developed for the design of antibodies to targets of interest. RosettaAntibodyDesign (RAbD) samples the diverse sequence, structure, and binding space of an antibody to an antigen in highly customizable protocols for the design of antibodies in a broad range of applications. The program samples antibody sequences and structures by grafting structures from a widely accepted set of the canonical clusters of CDRs (North et al., J. Mol. Biol., 406:228-256, 2011). It then performs sequence design according to amino acid sequence profiles of each cluster, and samples CDR backbones using a flexible-backbone design protocol incorporating cluster-based CDR constraints. Starting from an existing experimental or computationally modeled antigen-antibody structure, RAbD can be used to redesign a single CDR or multiple CDRs with loops of different length, conformation, and sequence. We rigorously benchmarked RAbD on a set of 60 diverse antibody-antigen complexes, using two design strategies-optimizing total Rosetta energy and optimizing interface energy alone. We utilized two novel metrics for measuring success in computational protein design. The design risk ratio (DRR) is equal to the frequency of recovery of native CDR lengths and clusters divided by the frequency of sampling of those features during the Monte Carlo design procedure. Ratios greater than 1.0 indicate that the design process is picking out the native more frequently than expected from their sampled rate. We achieved DRRs for the non-H3 CDRs of between 2.4 and 4.0. The antigen risk ratio (ARR) is the ratio of frequencies of the native amino acid types, CDR lengths, and clusters in the output decoys for simulations performed in the presence and absence of the antigen. For CDRs, we achieved cluster ARRs as high as 2.5 for L1 and 1.5 for H2. For sequence design simulations without CDR grafting, the overall recovery for the native

  1. General design safety principles for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    This Safety Guide provides the safety principles and the approach that have been used to implement the Code in the Safety Guides. These safety principles and the approach are tied closely to the safety analyses needed to assist the design process, and are used to verify the adequacy of nuclear power plant designs. This Guide also provides a framework for the use of other design Safety Guides. However, although it explains the principles on which the other Safety Guides are based, the requirements for specific applications of these principles are mostly found in the other Guides

  2. Optimization strategies for cask design and container loading in long term spent fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-12-01

    As delays are incurred in implementing reprocessing and in planning for geologic repositories, storage of increasing quantities of spent fuel for extended durations is becoming a growing reality. Accordingly, effective management of spent fuel continues to be a priority topic. In response, the IAEA has organized a series of meetings to identify cask loading optimisation issues in preparation for a technical publication on Optimization Strategies for Cask/Container Loading in Long Term Spent Fuel Storage. This publication outlines the optimisation process for cask design, licensing and utilization, describing three principal groups of optimization activities in terms of relevant technical considerations such as criticality, shielding, structural design, operations, maintenance and retrievability. The optimization process for cask design, licensing, and utilization is outlined. The general objectives for the design of storage casks, including storage casks that are intended to be transportable, are summarized. The nature of optimization within the design process is described. The typical regulatory and licensing process is outlined, focusing on the roles of safety regulations, the regulator, and the designer/applicant in the optimization process. Based on the foregoing, a description of the three principal groups of optimization activities is provided. The subsequent chapters of this document then describe the specific optimization activities within these three activity groups, in each of the several design disciplines

  3. Damage control strategy for the treatment of perforated diverticulitis with generalized peritonitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, M; Agha, A; Heitland, W; Gundling, F; Steiner, P; Iesalnieks, I

    2016-08-01

    The best surgical strategy for the management of perforated diverticulitis with generalized peritonitis of the sigmoid colon is not clearly defined. The aim of this retrospective cohort study was to evaluate the value of a damage control strategy. All patients who underwent emergency laparotomy for perforated diverticular disease of the sigmoid colon with generalized peritonitis between 2010 and 2015 were included. The damage control strategy (study group), included a two- stage procedure: limited resection of the diseased colonic segment, closure of proximal colon and distal stump, and application of an abdominal vacuum at the initial surgery followed by second-look laparotomy 24-48 h later At this point a choice was made between anastomosis and Hartmann's procedure. The control group consisted of patients receiving definitive reconstruction (anastomosis or Hartmann's procedure) at the initial operation. Thirty-seven patients were included in the study. Damage control strategy was applied in 19 patients and the control group consisted of 18 patients. Both groups were comparable in terms of demographics, severity of peritonitis, and comorbidities. The overall postoperative mortality was 11 % (n = 4). There were no statistically significant differences between both groups regarding postoperative morbidity and mortality; however, a significantly higher proportion of patients in the control group had a stoma after the initial hospital stay (83 vs. 47 %, p = 0.038). This difference was still significant after adjustment for sex, age, Mannheim Peritonitis Index, American Society of Anesthesiologists class and presence of septic shock at presentation. At the end of the follow-up period, 15 of 17 survivors in the study group and 13 of 16 survivors in the control group had their intestinal continuity restored (p = 0.66). Damage control strategy in patients with generalized peritonitis due to perforated diverticulitis leads to a significantly reduced stoma rate

  4. Reflecting Societal Values in Designing Flood Risk Management Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adamson Mark

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2006, the Office of Public Works (OPW began the National Catchment-based Flood Risk Assessment and Management (CFRAM Programme through a series of pilot studies. A Multi-Criteria Analysis (MCA Framework was developed through the pilot studies that integrated a number of objectives related to a wide range of potential impacts and benefits into the core of process of appraising and selecting suitable flood risk management measures for a given area or location, and then for prioritising national investments for different schemes and projects. This MCA Framework, that provides a systematic process of developing a non-monetised but numerical indicator of benefit and impact, has since been implemented nationally in the preparation of the Flood Risk Management Plans (FRMPs. A key feature of the MCA is that it should represent societal values. To this end, nationally representative quantitative research was undertaken to determine global weights that reflect the perceived importance of each of the objectives for reducing economic, social and environmental / cultural risks in flood management strategies. Saaty’s Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP, in conjunction with a pair-wise comparison of criteria relating to these risks, was utilised to determine weights. In excess of 1,000 structured interviews were completed where the relative importance of these objectives were assessed using a seven-point scale. The weighting given to each of the 13 specific objectives identified broadly followed expectations, with risk to people followed by risk to homes and properties being respectively the first and second most important, although some were given greater or less weighting than expected. The national application of the MCA Framework, using the weighted objectives based on this process, through the CFRAM Programme has generally lead to the identification of appropriate and, based on local consultation, acceptable options for each community.

  5. General multimode polarization splitter design in uniaxial media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Poliane A.; Silva, Daniely G.; Gabrielli, Lucas H.; Spadoti, Danilo H.; Junqueira, Mateus A. F. C.

    2018-03-01

    Quasiconformal transformation optics is used to design two-dimensional polarization beam splitters. The resulting media present inhomogeneous uniaxial permittivity and nonmagnetic response. The compact devices are theoretically designed and investigated for symmetrical and asymmetrical geometries, with footprint of 64 and 110 μm2, respectively. The polarization splitter performance is evaluated for the fundamental mode and third mode, exhibiting an insertion loss closer to 0 dB and extinction ratio above 40 dB over a broad wavelength range.

  6. Designing A General Deep Web Harvester by Harvestability Factor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khelghati, Mohammadreza; van Keulen, Maurice; Hiemstra, Djoerd

    2014-01-01

    To make deep web data accessible, harvesters have a crucial role. Targeting different domains and websites enhances the need of a general-purpose harvester which can be applied to different settings and situations. To develop such a harvester, a large number of issues should be addressed. To have

  7. Analysis and design of generalized BICM-T system

    KAUST Repository

    Malik, Muhammad Talha; Hossain, Md Jahangir; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2014-01-01

    -T). In this paper, we analyze a generalized BICM-T system that uses a nonequally spaced signal constellation in conjunction with a bit-level multiplexer in an additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) channel. As such, one can exploit the full benefit of BICM

  8. Teaching strategies to promote concept learning by design challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Breukelen, Dave; Van Meel, Adrianus; De Vries, Marc

    2017-07-01

    Background: This study is the second study of a design-based research, organised around four studies, that aims to improve student learning, teaching skills and teacher training concerning the design-based learning approach called Learning by Design (LBD).

  9. Computational Strategies for the Architectural Design of Bending Active Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamke, Martin; Nicholas, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Active bending introduces a new level of integration into the design of architectural structures, and opens up new complexities for the architectural design process. In particular, the introduction of material variation reconfigures the design space. Through the precise specification...

  10. General method for final focus system design for circular colliders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo de Maria

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Colliders use final focus systems to reduce the transverse beam sizes at the interaction point in order to increase collision event rates. The maximum focal strength (gradient of the quadrupoles, and the maximum beam size in them, together limit the beam size reduction that is possible. The goal of a final focus system design is to find the best compromise between quadrupole aperture and quadrupole gradient, for the magnet technology that is used. This paper develops a design method that identifies the intrinsic limitations of a final focus system, validates the results of the method against realistic designs, and reports its application to the upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider final focus.

  11. An Overview of U.S. SFR General Design Criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sofu, Tanju

    2013-01-01

    • Safety philosophy guiding the design, construction, and operation of nuclear facilities in the U.S. is based on the principle of defense-in-depth (DiD): – Main DiD objective is to protect the health and safety of the public and plant operating personnel; – Fundamentally implemented by multiple, successive barriers to guard against the escape of radioactivity from nuclear facilities; – Extended and applied to all aspects of design, construction, and operation, so that all safety critical functions are achieved by multiple systems/procedures/processes that are diverse and independent. • In design process, DiD principle has fostered the development of guidelines for identifying the system configurations and functional requirements that are important for safety

  12. Identifying Instructional Strategies Used to Design Mobile Learning in a Corporate Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson-Butler, Uletta

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative embedded multiple case study was to describe what instructional strategies corporate instructional designers were using to design mobile learning and to understand from their experiences which instructional strategies they believed enhance learning. Participants were five instructional designers who were actively…

  13. Some General Principles in Cryogenic Design, Implementation, and Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dipirro, Michael James

    2015-01-01

    Brief Course Description: In 2 hours only the most basic principles of cryogenics can be presented. I will concentrate on the differences between a room temperature thermal analysis and cryogenic thermal analysis, namely temperature dependent properties. I will talk about practical materials for thermal contact and isolation. I will finish by describing the verification process and instrumentation used that is unique to cryogenic (in general less than 100K) systems.

  14. On generalizations of network design problems with degree bounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bansal, N.; Khandekar, R.; Könemann, J.; Nagarajan, V.; Peis, B.

    2013-01-01

    Iterative rounding and relaxation have arguably become the method of choice in dealing with unconstrained and constrained network design problems. In this paper we extend the scope of the iterative relaxation method in two directions: (1) by handling more complex degree constraints in the minimum

  15. On generalizations of network design problems with degree bounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Bansal (Nikhil); R. Khandekar; J. Könemann (Jochen); V. Nagarajan; B. Peis

    2013-01-01

    htmlabstractIterative rounding and relaxation have arguably become the method of choice in dealing with unconstrained and constrained network design problems. In this paper we extend the scope of the iterative relaxation method in two directions: (1) by handling more complex degree constraints in

  16. How to design education on mental disorders for general ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: This study looks at how the WHO programme Mental Disorders in Primary Care should be adapted for GPs in the South African context in order to positively impact the recognition and management of mental disorders. Design: Participatory action research was used to adapt the WHO programme. There were 3 ...

  17. Evolution of general design requirements for french pressurized water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gros, G.; Jalouneix, J.; Rollinger, F.

    1988-10-01

    The design of French pressurized water reactors is based first on deterministic principles, using the well-known defense in depth concept. This safety approach, basically reflected current American practice at that time, which consisted notably in designing engineered safeguard systems capable of limiting the consequences of accidents assumed to be credible despite the preventive measures taken. Further reflections have led to complete this approach, resulting in modifications to regulatory practice, mainly related to better practical assimilation of the problems arising during plant unit operation and reactor control after an accident and to the determination to enhance the overall consistency of the safety approach. As regards system redundancy, it should be noted that common cause failures can result in the total loss of a redundant system. System redundancy aspects will be dealt with in Chapter 2. As regards study of design basis accidents, attention was focused on the human intervention stage following automatic activation of protection and safeguard systems. This resulted, for all plant units, in the revision of operating procedures, accompanied by examination of the means required for their implementation. These subjects will be discussed in Chapter 3. Finally, as regards equipment classification, the range of equipment subjected to particular requirements, formerly limited to design basis safety classified equipment, was enlarged to include important for safety equipment. This subject will be dealt with in Chapter 5

  18. Design management of general contractor under nuclear power project EPC mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su Shaojian

    2013-01-01

    Design management has not yet formed a theoretical system recognized, general contractor design managers under nuclear power project EPC Mode lack the clear theory basis. This paper aims to discuss Design management from the angle of general contractor under nuclear power project EPC mode, Gives the concept of design management Clearly, by Combining the characteristics of nuclear power project, Gives the specific content and meaning of the design management of nuclear power project. (authors)

  19. Teaching Strategies to Promote Concept Learning by Design Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Breukelen, Dave; Van Meel, Adrianus; De Vries, Marc

    2017-01-01

    Background: This study is the second study of a design-based research, organised around four studies, that aims to improve student learning, teaching skills and teacher training concerning the design-based learning approach called Learning by Design (LBD). Purpose: LBD uses the context of design challenges to learn, among other things, science.…

  20. Leadership style and choice of strategy in conflict management among Israeli nurse managers in general hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendel, Tova; Fish, Miri; Galon, Vered

    2005-03-01

    To identify conflict mode choices of head nurses in general hospitals and examine the relationship between leadership style, choice of strategy in handling conflicts and demographic characteristics. Nurse managers deal with conflicts daily. The choice of conflict management mode is associated with managerial effectiveness. The ability to creatively manage conflict situations, towards constructive outcomes is becoming a standard requirement. Head nurses (N = 60) in five general hospitals in central Israel were surveyed, using a 3-part questionnaire: The Thomas-Kilmann Conflict Mode Instrument, the Multi-factor Leadership Questionnaire, Form 5X-Short (MLQ 5X) and demographic data. Head nurses perceive themselves significantly more as transformational leaders than as transactional leaders. Compromise was found to be the most commonly used conflict management strategy. Approximately half of the nurses surveyed used only one mode in conflict management. Transformational leadership significantly affected the conflict strategy chosen. Head nurses tend to choose a conflict-handling mode which is concerned a form of a Lose-Lose approach. Preparation in conflict management should start from undergraduate education.

  1. Passive Design Strategies to Enhance Natural Ventilation in Buildings "Election of Passive Design Strategies to Achieve Natural Ventilation in Iraqi Urban Environment with Hot Arid Climate"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghada M.Ismael Abdul Razzaq Kamoona

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available the natural ventilation in buildings is one of effective strategies for achieving energy efficiency in buildings by employing methods and ways of passive design, as well as its efficiency in providing high ranges of thermal comfort for occupants in buildings and raises their productivity. Because the concept of natural ventilation for many people confined to achieve through the windows and openings only, become necessary to provide this research to demonstrate the various passive design strategies for natural ventilation. Then, research problem: Insufficient knowledge about the importance and mechanism of the application of passive design strategies for natural ventilation in buildings. The research objective is: Analysis of passive design strategies to achieve natural ventilation in buildings, for the purpose of the proper selection of them to Iraqi urban environment. Accordingly, the research included two parts: First, the theoretical part, which dealt with the conceptual framework of natural ventilation and deriving the most important aspects in it, in order to adopted as a base for the practical part of the research. Second: the practical part, which analyzed examples of buildings projects that employed various design strategies for natural ventilation, according to the theoretical framework that has been drawn. The main conclusion is, Necessity to adopt various passive design strategies for natural ventilation in Iraqi urban environment with hot dry climate, as they have a significant impact in reducing the energy consumption for the purposes of ventilation and cooling, as well as for its efficiency in improving air quality in indoor environments of buildings.

  2. General Systems Theory: Application To The Design Of Speech Communication Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Raymond K.

    1971-01-01

    General systems theory can be applied to problems in the teaching of speech communication courses. The author describes general systems theory as it is applied to the designing, conducting and evaluation of speech communication courses. (Author/MS)

  3. Generalized outcome-based strategy classification: comparing deterministic and probabilistic choice models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilbig, Benjamin E; Moshagen, Morten

    2014-12-01

    Model comparisons are a vital tool for disentangling which of several strategies a decision maker may have used--that is, which cognitive processes may have governed observable choice behavior. However, previous methodological approaches have been limited to models (i.e., decision strategies) with deterministic choice rules. As such, psychologically plausible choice models--such as evidence-accumulation and connectionist models--that entail probabilistic choice predictions could not be considered appropriately. To overcome this limitation, we propose a generalization of Bröder and Schiffer's (Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, 19, 361-380, 2003) choice-based classification method, relying on (1) parametric order constraints in the multinomial processing tree framework to implement probabilistic models and (2) minimum description length for model comparison. The advantages of the generalized approach are demonstrated through recovery simulations and an experiment. In explaining previous methods and our generalization, we maintain a nontechnical focus--so as to provide a practical guide for comparing both deterministic and probabilistic choice models.

  4. NATURAL VENTILATION: A PASSIVE DESIGN STRATEGY IN DESIGNING HOTEL LOBBIES – CASES FROM TROPICAL MALAYSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Malik Abdul Rahman

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available When the Malaysian government increased electricity tariff by up to 12% in early 2006 and also another increase in early July 2008, most commercial buildings were affected by the move. The hardest hit would be the hotel industry as they are among the economic forefronts of the nation. Already burdened with the rigorous efforts of filling their rooms with guests, they now have to re-strategize to sustain business. Energy bills to pay for cooling have always been the biggest burden. Cooling the air is an intangible and a never-ending wasteful activity. Cold room for food is on for 24 hours for obvious reasons. To overcome this, one strategy was considered to be part and parcel of the overall building design so as to contribute to the reduction of the high dependency of energy consumption for cooling. The challenge here is to reduce electricity consumption without compromising the comfort of the guests and also reduce the overhead costs to give a more competitive edge in hotel room rates. Among other passive design elements this paper considers two natural ventilation occurrences and locations that can be relied upon for Malaysian hotel designs.

  5. Blind Channel Equalization Using Constrained Generalized Pattern Search Optimization and Reinitialization Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Tatkeu

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available We propose a global convergence baud-spaced blind equalization method in this paper. This method is based on the application of both generalized pattern optimization and channel surfing reinitialization. The potentially used unimodal cost function relies on higher- order statistics, and its optimization is achieved using a pattern search algorithm. Since the convergence to the global minimum is not unconditionally warranted, we make use of channel surfing reinitialization (CSR strategy to find the right global minimum. The proposed algorithm is analyzed, and simulation results using a severe frequency selective propagation channel are given. Detailed comparisons with constant modulus algorithm (CMA are highlighted. The proposed algorithm performances are evaluated in terms of intersymbol interference, normalized received signal constellations, and root mean square error vector magnitude. In case of nonconstant modulus input signals, our algorithm outperforms significantly CMA algorithm with full channel surfing reinitialization strategy. However, comparable performances are obtained for constant modulus signals.

  6. Blind Channel Equalization Using Constrained Generalized Pattern Search Optimization and Reinitialization Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaouche, Abdelouahib; Dayoub, Iyad; Rouvaen, Jean Michel; Tatkeu, Charles

    2008-12-01

    We propose a global convergence baud-spaced blind equalization method in this paper. This method is based on the application of both generalized pattern optimization and channel surfing reinitialization. The potentially used unimodal cost function relies on higher- order statistics, and its optimization is achieved using a pattern search algorithm. Since the convergence to the global minimum is not unconditionally warranted, we make use of channel surfing reinitialization (CSR) strategy to find the right global minimum. The proposed algorithm is analyzed, and simulation results using a severe frequency selective propagation channel are given. Detailed comparisons with constant modulus algorithm (CMA) are highlighted. The proposed algorithm performances are evaluated in terms of intersymbol interference, normalized received signal constellations, and root mean square error vector magnitude. In case of nonconstant modulus input signals, our algorithm outperforms significantly CMA algorithm with full channel surfing reinitialization strategy. However, comparable performances are obtained for constant modulus signals.

  7. Parameter-Invariant Hierarchical Exclusive Alphabet Design for 2-WRC with HDF Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Uřičář

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Hierarchical eXclusive Code (HXC for the Hierarchical Decode and Forward (HDF strategy in the Wireless 2-Way Relay Channel (2-WRC has the achievable rate region extended beyond the classical MAC region. Although direct HXC design is in general highly complex, a layered approach to HXC design is a feasible solution. While the outer layer code of the layered HXC can be any state-of-the-art capacity approaching code, the inner layer must be designed in such a way that the exclusive property of hierarchical symbols (received at the relay will be provided. The simplest case of the inner HXC layer is a simple signal space channel symbol memoryless mapper called Hierarchical eXclusive Alphabet (HXA. The proper design of HXA is important, especially in the case of parametric channels, where channel parametrization (e.g. phase rotation can violate the exclusive property of hierarchical symbols (as seen by the relay, resulting in significant capacity degradation. In this paper we introduce an example of a geometrical approach to Parameter-Invariant HXA design, and we show that the corresponding hierarchical MAC capacity region extends beyond the classical MAC region, irrespective of the channel pametrization.

  8. A general solution strategy of modified power method for higher mode solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Peng; Lee, Hyunsuk; Lee, Deokjung

    2016-01-01

    A general solution strategy of the modified power iteration method for calculating higher eigenmodes has been developed and applied in continuous energy Monte Carlo simulation. The new approach adopts four features: 1) the eigen decomposition of transfer matrix, 2) weight cancellation for higher modes, 3) population control with higher mode weights, and 4) stabilization technique of statistical fluctuations using multi-cycle accumulations. The numerical tests of neutron transport eigenvalue problems successfully demonstrate that the new strategy can significantly accelerate the fission source convergence with stable convergence behavior while obtaining multiple higher eigenmodes at the same time. The advantages of the new strategy can be summarized as 1) the replacement of the cumbersome solution step of high order polynomial equations required by Booth's original method with the simple matrix eigen decomposition, 2) faster fission source convergence in inactive cycles, 3) more stable behaviors in both inactive and active cycles, and 4) smaller variances in active cycles. Advantages 3 and 4 can be attributed to the lower sensitivity of the new strategy to statistical fluctuations due to the multi-cycle accumulations. The application of the modified power method to continuous energy Monte Carlo simulation and the higher eigenmodes up to 4th order are reported for the first time in this paper. -- Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Modified power method is applied to continuous energy Monte Carlo simulation. •Transfer matrix is introduced to generalize the modified power method. •All mode based population control is applied to get the higher eigenmodes. •Statistic fluctuation can be greatly reduced using accumulated tally results. •Fission source convergence is accelerated with higher mode solutions.

  9. Matrix precipitation: a general strategy to eliminate matrix interference for pharmaceutical toxic impurities analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaojing; Xiong, Xuewu; Cao, Ji; Luan, Baolei; Liu, Yongjun; Liu, Guozhu; Zhang, Lei

    2015-01-30

    Matrix interference, which can lead to false positive/negative results, contamination of injector or separation column, incompatibility between sample solution and the selected analytical instrument, and response inhibition or even quenching, is commonly suffered for the analysis of trace level toxic impurities in drug substance. In this study, a simple matrix precipitation strategy is proposed to eliminate or minimize the above stated matrix interference problems. Generally, a sample of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) is dissolved in an appropriate solvent to achieve the desired high concentration and then an anti-solvent is added to precipitate the matrix substance. As a result, the target analyte is extracted into the mixed solution with very less residual of APIs. This strategy has the characteristics of simple manipulation, high recovery and excellent anti-interference capability. It was found that the precipitation ratio (R, representing the ability to remove matrix substance) and the proportion of solvent (the one used to dissolve APIs) in final solution (P, affecting R and also affecting the method sensitivity) are two important factors of the precipitation process. The correlation between R and P was investigated by performing precipitation with various APIs in different solvent/anti-solvent systems. After a detailed mathematical reasoning process, P=20% was proved to be an effective and robust condition to perform the precipitation strategy. The precipitation method with P=20% can be used as a general strategy for toxic impurity analysis in APIs. Finally, several typical examples are described in this article, where the challenging matrix interference issues have been resolved successfully. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. General features of the neutronics design code EQUICYCLE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jirlow, K.

    1978-10-01

    The neutronics code EQUICYCLE has been developed and improved over a long period of time. It is expecially adapted to survey type design calculations of large fast power reactors with particular emphasis on the nuclear parameters for a realistic equilibrium fuel cycle. Thus the code is used to evaluate the breeding performance, the power distributions and the uranium and plutonium mass balance for realistic refuelling schemes. In addition reactivity coefficients can be calculated and the influence of burnup could be assessed. The code is two-dimensional and treats the reactor core in R-Z geometry. The basic ideas of the calculating scheme are successive iterative improvement of cross-section sets and flux spectra and use of the mid-cycle flux for burning the fuel according to a specified refuelling scheme. Normally given peak burn-ups and maximum power densities are used as boundary conditions. The code is capable of handling the unconventional, so called heterogeneous cores. (author)

  11. Generalized fragment picking in Rosetta: design, protocols and applications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominik Gront

    Full Text Available The Rosetta de novo structure prediction and loop modeling protocols begin with coarse grained Monte Carlo searches in which the moves are based on short fragments extracted from a database of known structures. Here we describe a new object oriented program for picking fragments that greatly extends the functionality of the previous program (nnmake and opens the door for new approaches to structure modeling. We provide a detailed description of the code design and architecture, highlighting its modularity, and new features such as extensibility, total control over the fragment picking workflow and scoring system customization. We demonstrate that the program provides at least as good building blocks for ab-initio structure prediction as the previous program, and provide examples of the wide range of applications that are now accessible.

  12. The Strategy Blueprint : A Strategy Process Computer-Aided Design Tool

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aldea, Adina Ioana; Febriani, Tania Rizki; Daneva, Maya; Iacob, Maria Eugenia

    2017-01-01

    Strategy has always been a main concern of organizations because it dictates their direction, and therefore determines their success. Thus, organizations need to have adequate support to guide them through their strategy formulation process. The goal of this research is to develop a computer-based

  13. Analysis and design of generalized BICM-T system

    KAUST Repository

    Malik, Muhammad Talha

    2014-09-01

    The performance of bit-interleaved coded modulation (BICM) using convolutional codes in nonfading channels can be significantly improved if the coded bits are not interleaved at all. This particular BICM system is referred to as BICM trivial (BICM-T). In this paper, we analyze a generalized BICM-T system that uses a nonequally spaced signal constellation in conjunction with a bit-level multiplexer in an additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) channel. As such, one can exploit the full benefit of BICM-T by jointly optimizing different system modules to further improve its performance. We also investigate the performance of the considered BICM-T system in the Gaussian mixture noise (GMN) channel because of its practical importance. The presented numerical results show that an optimized BICM-T system can offer gains up to 1.5 dB over a non-optimized BICM-T system in the AWGN channel for a target bit error rate of $10^{-6}$. The presented results for the GMN channel interestingly reveal that if the strength of the impulsive noise component, i.e., the noise component due to some ambient phenomenon in the GMN, is below a certain threshold level, then the BICM-T system performs significantly better as compared to traditional BICM system.

  14. Gerald: a general environment for radiation analysis and design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyle, Ch.; Oliveira, P.I.E. de; Oliveira, C.R.E. de; Adams, M.L.; Galan, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: This paper describes the status of the GERALD interactive workbench for the analysis of radiation transport problems. GERALD basically guides the user through the various steps that are necessary to solve a radiation transport problem, and is aimed at education, research and industry. The advantages of such workbench are many: quality assurance of problem setup, interaction of the user with problem solution, preservation of theory and legacy research codes, and rapid proto-typing and testing of new methods. The environment is of general applicability catering for analytical, deterministic and stochastic analysis of the radiation problem and is not tied to one specific solution method or code. However, GERALD is being developed as a portable, modular, open source framework which renders itself quite naturally to the coupling of existing computational tools through specifically developed plug-ins. By offering a common route for setting up, solving and analyzing radiation transport problems GERALD offers the possibility of methods intercomparison and validation. Such flexible radiation transport environment will also facilitate the coupling of radiation physics methods to other physical phenomena and their application to other areas of application such as medical physics and the environment. (authors)

  15. A General Multidisciplinary Turbomachinery Design Optimization system Applied to a Transonic Fan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemnem, Ahmed Mohamed Farid

    The blade geometry design process is integral to the development and advancement of compressors and turbines in gas generators or aeroengines. A new airfoil section design capability has been added to an open source parametric 3D blade design tool. Curvature of the meanline is controlled using B-splines to create the airfoils. The curvature is analytically integrated to derive the angles and the meanline is obtained by integrating the angles. A smooth thickness distribution is then added to the airfoil to guarantee a smooth shape while maintaining a prescribed thickness distribution. A leading edge B-spline definition has also been implemented to achieve customized airfoil leading edges which guarantees smoothness with parametric eccentricity and droop. An automated turbomachinery design and optimization system has been created. An existing splittered transonic fan is used as a test and reference case. This design was more general than a conventional design to have access to the other design methodology. The whole mechanical and aerodynamic design loops are automated for the optimization process. The flow path and the geometrical properties of the rotor are initially created using the axi-symmetric design and analysis code (T-AXI). The main and splitter blades are parametrically designed with the created geometry builder (3DBGB) using the new added features (curvature technique). The solid model creation of the rotor sector with a periodic boundaries combining the main blade and splitter is done using MATLAB code directly connected to SolidWorks including the hub, fillets and tip clearance. A mechanical optimization is performed with DAKOTA (developed by DOE) to reduce the mass of the blades while keeping maximum stress as a constraint with a safety factor. A Genetic algorithm followed by Numerical Gradient optimization strategies are used in the mechanical optimization. The splittered transonic fan blades mass is reduced by 2.6% while constraining the maximum

  16. Top-Management Decision Making and Strategies : An Approach to a Theory of Leadership-Initiated Strategies(General Contribution)

    OpenAIRE

    藤田, 東久夫; Tokuo, FUJITA; 株式会社サトー; Sato Corporation

    2006-01-01

    The article clarifies the relationship between top-management decisions and strategies. Whereas prior theoretical treatments of top-management strategies are both logical and managerial, the author recognizes the ad hoc nature of top-management decisions, which rely upon intuition and inspiration, and proposes a theory of strategies that emerge through top-management leadership. This theory of leadership-initiated strategies sees a balance between leadership and management functions as essent...

  17. Automatic control of the NMB level in general anaesthesia with a switching total system mass control strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Miguel; Mendonça, Teresa; Rocha, Paula; Rabiço, Rui

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents a model based switching control strategy to drive the neuromuscular blockade (NMB) level of patients undergoing general anesthesia to a predefined reference. A single-input single-output Wiener system with only two parameters is used to model the effect of two different muscle relaxants, atracurium and rocuronium, and a switching controller is designed based on a bank of total system mass control laws. Each of such laws is tuned for an individual model from a bank chosen to represent the behavior of the whole population. The control law to be applied at each instant corresponds to the model whose NMB response is closer to the patient's response. Moreover a scheme to improve the reference tracking quality based on the analysis of the patient's response, as well as, a comparison between the switching strategy and the Extended Kalman Kilter (EKF) technique are presented. The results are illustrated by means of several simulations, where switching shows to provide good results, both in theory and in practice, with a desirable reference tracking. The reference tracking improvement technique is able to produce a better reference tracking. Also, this technique showed a better performance than the (EKF). Based on these results, the switching control strategy with a bank of total system mass control laws proved to be robust enough to be used as an automatic control system for the NMB level.

  18. Designing an undergraduate laboratory course in general chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vianna José F.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available From an analysis of a learning model based on the theory of information processing four hypothesis were developed for improving the design of laboratory courses. Three of these hypotheses concerned specific procedures to minimise the load on students' working memories (or working spaces and the fourth hypothesis was concerned with the value of mini-projects in enhancing meaningful learning of the knowledge and skills underpinning the set experiments. A three-year study of a first year undergraduate chemistry laboratory course at a Scottish university has been carried out to test these four hypotheses. This paper reports the results of the study relevant to the three hypotheses about the burden on students' working spaces. It was predicted from the learning model that the load on students working space should be reduced by appropriate changes to the written instructions and the laboratory organisation and by the introduction of prelab-work and prelab-training in laboratory techniques. It was concluded from research conducted over the three years period that all these hypothesised changes were effective both in reducing the load on students' working spaces and in improving their attitudes to the laboratory course.

  19. A general approach for optimal kinematic design of 6-DOF parallel ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Optimal kinematic design of parallel manipulators is a challenging problem. In this work, an attempt has been made to present a generalized approach of kinematic design for a 6-legged parallel manipulator, by considering only the minimally required design parameters. The same approach has been used to design a ...

  20. Fluorescence signalling of the transition metal ions: Design strategy ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    strategy based on the choice of the fluorophore component. N B SANKARAN, S ... skill for the development of fluorosensors of this kind. Further, the ... salts of the transition metal ions have been used for studying the influence of the metal ions.

  1. Designing supply chain strategy by using shared information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wong, Chee Yew

    2006-01-01

    of retailer demands, and allocated inventories along the supply chain to ensure high fill-rates to its customers (the toy retailers). However, this supply chain strategy was ineffective. It generated high mismatch of supply and demand, and consequently high costs on obsolete inventory, markdown and lost sales...

  2. Enhancing the Design and Analysis of Flipped Learning Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Martin; Bokosmaty, Rena; Brown, Melanie; Browne, Chris; Gao, Qi; Hanson, Julie; Kupatadze, Ketevan

    2017-01-01

    There are numerous calls in the literature for research into the flipped learning approach to match the flood of popular media articles praising its impact on student learning and educational outcomes. This paper addresses those calls by proposing pedagogical strategies that promote active learning in "flipped" approaches and improved…

  3. Design and modeling of reservoir operation strategies for sediment management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sloff, C.J.; Omer, A.Y.A.; Heynert, K.V.; Mohamed, Y.A.

    2015-01-01

    Appropriate operation strategies that allow for sediment flushing and sluicing (sediment routing) can reduce rapid storage losses of (hydropower and water-supply) reservoirs. In this study we have shown, using field observations and computational models, that the efficiency of these operations

  4. A hybrid approach to designing inbound-resupply strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dullaert, Wout; Vernimmen, Bert; Raa, Birger; Witlox, Frank

    A new hybrid approach was developed to determine the optimal inbound-resupply strategy when suppliers ship goods to receivers. The optimal reorder level was calculated on the basis of a simulation of the distribution of demand and the lead time of the various sourcing alternatives. An evolutionary

  5. Designing a Knowledge Mobilization Strategy: Leading through Influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Steven

    2015-01-01

    As district leaders consider professional learning opportunities for educators, mobilizing new thought and actions across an entire system is a vexing challenge. Classroom-based learning may unfortunately be viewed as juxtaposed to district-based learning. It becomes essential for district leaders to develop knowledge mobilization strategies which…

  6. Designing Instructional Strategies which Facilitate Learning for Mastery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Lorin W.; Jones, Beau Fly

    The "state of the craft" of instruction within the context of the mastery learning model is discussed. Little has been said in the past about specific instructional strategies that are applicable to particular instructional units or objectives, or to the daily classroom life of teachers. This paper is organized into six major sections. The first…

  7. Outcomes of a systematically designed strategy for the implementation of sex education in Dutch secondary schools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiefferink, C.H.; Poelman, J.; Linthorst, M.; Vanwesenbeeck, I.; Wijngaarden, J.C.M. van; Paulussen, T.G.W.M.

    2005-01-01

    This study examines the effects of a systematically designed innovation strategy on teachers' implementation of a sex education curriculum and its related determinants. A quasi-experimental group design was used to assess the effectiveness of the innovation strategy. Teachers filled in

  8. Design of a general-purpose European compound screening library for EU-OPENSCREEN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Dragos; Lisurek, Michael; Rupp, Bernd; Kühne, Ronald; Specker, Edgar; von Kries, Jens; Rognan, Didier; Andersson, C David; Almqvist, Fredrik; Elofsson, Mikael; Enqvist, Per-Anders; Gustavsson, Anna-Lena; Remez, Nikita; Mestres, Jordi; Marcou, Gilles; Varnek, Alexander; Hibert, Marcel; Quintana, Jordi; Frank, Ronald

    2014-10-01

    This work describes a collaborative effort to define and apply a protocol for the rational selection of a general-purpose screening library, to be used by the screening platforms affiliated with the EU-OPENSCREEN initiative. It is designed as a standard source of compounds for primary screening against novel biological targets, at the request of research partners. Given the general nature of the potential applications of this compound collection, the focus of the selection strategy lies on ensuring chemical stability, absence of reactive compounds, screening-compliant physicochemical properties, loose compliance to drug-likeness criteria (as drug design is a major, but not exclusive application), and maximal diversity/coverage of chemical space, aimed at providing hits for a wide spectrum of drugable targets. Finally, practical availability/cost issues cannot be avoided. The main goal of this publication is to inform potential future users of this library about its conception, sources, and characteristics. The outline of the selection procedure, notably of the filtering rules designed by a large committee of European medicinal chemists and chemoinformaticians, may be of general methodological interest for the screening/medicinal chemistry community. The selection task of 200K molecules out of a pre-filtered set of 1.4M candidates was shared by five independent European research groups, each picking a subset of 40K compounds according to their own in-house methodology and expertise. An in-depth analysis of chemical space coverage of the library serves not only to characterize the collection, but also to compare the various chemoinformatics-driven selection procedures of maximal diversity sets. Compound selections contributed by various participating groups were mapped onto general-purpose self-organizing maps (SOMs) built on the basis of marketed drugs and bioactive reference molecules. In this way, the occupancy of chemical space by the EU-OPENSCREEN library could

  9. How Domain-General and Domain-Specific Knowledge Interact to Produce Strategy Choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegler, Robert S.

    1989-01-01

    Reviews evidence that children use diverse cognitive strategies; discusses the adaptive value of using diverse strategies; describes models of strategy choice based on rational calculations; and presents an overview of the distributions of associations model of children's strategy choice. (RH)

  10. Advanced Energy Efficiency Design Strategies In Retail Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayter, S.; Torcellini, P.

    2000-08-17

    This paper presents two US retail building projects that were designed and constructed using the energy design process. These buildings, the BigHorn Center in Silverthorne, Colorado, and the Zion National Park Visitor Center in Springdale, Utah, were both completed and occupied during the spring of 2000.

  11. Advanced Strategy Guideline. Air Distribution Basics and Duct Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arlan Burdick

    2011-12-01

    This report discusses considerations for designing an air distribution system for an energy efficient house that requires less air volume to condition the space. Considering the HVAC system early in the design process will allow adequate space for equipment and ductwork and can result in cost savings.

  12. Strategies for economic design of unbraced steel frames

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenhuis, C.M.; Weynand, K.; Gresnigt, A.M.

    1998-01-01

    In frame design for optimal economy, beam and column properties, as well as the properties of the joints, should be selected in such a way that economy can be achieved during fabrication. A method by which an impression of the possible layout of rigid joints can be obtained in a very early design

  13. Test Information Targeting Strategies for Adaptive Multistage Testing Designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luecht, Richard M.; Burgin, William

    Adaptive multistage testlet (MST) designs appear to be gaining popularity for many large-scale computer-based testing programs. These adaptive MST designs use a modularized configuration of preconstructed testlets and embedded score-routing schemes to prepackage different forms of an adaptive test. The conditional information targeting (CIT)…

  14. In Situ Hot-Spot Assembly as a General Strategy for Probing Single Biomolecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huiqiao; Li, Qiang; Li, Mingmin; Ma, Sisi; Liu, Dingbin

    2017-05-02

    Single-molecule detection using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) has attracted increasing attention in chemical and biomedical analysis. However, it remains a major challenge to probe single biomolecules by means of SERS hot spots owing to the small volume of hot spots and their random distribution on substrates. We here report an in situ hot-spot assembly method as a general strategy for probing single biomolecules. As a proof-of-concept, this proposed strategy was successfully used for the detection of single microRNA-21 (miRNA-21, a potential cancer biomarker) at the single-cell level, showing great capability in differentiating the expression of miRNA-21 in single cancer cells from normal cells. This approach was further extended to single-protein detection. The versatility of the strategy opens an exciting avenue for single-molecule detection of biomarkers of interest and thus holds great promise in a variety of biological and biomedical applications.

  15. Experiential avoidance as a generalized psychological vulnerability: comparisons with coping and emotion regulation strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashdan, Todd B; Barrios, Velma; Forsyth, John P; Steger, Michael F

    2006-09-01

    Extending previous work, we conducted two studies concerning the toxic influences of experiential avoidance (EA) as a core mechanism in the development and maintenance of psychological distress, and disruption of pleasant, engaging, and spontaneous activity. Of particular interest was whether EA accounted for relationships between coping and emotion regulation strategies on anxiety-related pathology (Study 1) and psychological distress and hedonic functioning over the course of a 21-day monitoring period (Study 2). In Study 1, EA mediated the effects of maladaptive coping, emotional responses styles, and uncontrollability on anxiety-related distress (e.g., anxiety sensitivity, trait anxiety, suffocation fears, and body sensation fears). In Study 2, EA completely mediated the effects of two emotion regulation strategies (i.e., suppression and reappraisal) on daily negative and positive experiences and was associated with diminished daily positive affective experiences and healthy life appraisals, diminished frequency of positive events and more frequent negative life events, and greater negative affective experiences. The present data show that cognitive reappraisal, a primary process of traditional cognitive-behavior therapy, was much less predictive of the quality of psychological experiences and events in everyday life compared with EA. Further consideration of experiential avoidance as a generalized diathesis and toxic process will be useful in improving our understanding of the etiology, phenomenology, and treatment of anxiety conditions, general human suffering, and disruptions in hedonic capacity.

  16. Rapid E-learning Development Strategies and a Multimedia Project Design Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sözcü, Ömer Faruk; Ipek, Ismail

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to discuss e-learning design strategies which can be used for multimedia projects as a design model. Recent advances in instructional technologies have been found to be very important in the design of training courses by using rapid instructional design (ID) approaches. The approaches were developed to use in training…

  17. 77 FR 45282 - NRC Position on the Relationship Between General Design Criteria and Technical Specification...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-31

    ... Position on the Relationship Between General Design Criteria and Technical Specification Operability AGENCY... relationship between the general design criteria (GDC) for nuclear power plants and technical specification... Communications Branch, Division of Policy and Rulemaking, Office Nuclear Reactor Regulation, Mail Stop: OWFN-12-D...

  18. Overlapping research and design phases through participatory strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casciola, Lara Clare; Vasco, Maria Crucera; Grøndal, Esben

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the implications, with regard to service design education, of a project in the second semester of the Service Systems Design Master’s program at Aalborg University in Copenhagen. The learning objective of this project is to develop student capabilities in the design and deploy......This paper explores the implications, with regard to service design education, of a project in the second semester of the Service Systems Design Master’s program at Aalborg University in Copenhagen. The learning objective of this project is to develop student capabilities in the design...... and deployment of service concepts within a systemic environment. Topics introduced as part of the program’s curriculum in this semester that contribute to engaging students in this type of thinking include both technical (production systems, IT systems) and social (user participation and social innovation......) aspects. As the case study is discussed, note will be taken of the influence of this educational approach in the design team’s choices throughout the project process. Through this exploration, a discussion can be held on the opportunities and challenges presented to students as they attempt to combine...

  19. Optimal Energy Control Strategy Design for a Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Zou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A heavy-duty parallel hybrid electric truck is modeled, and its optimal energy control is studied in this paper. The fundamental architecture of the parallel hybrid electric truck is modeled feed-forwardly, together with necessary dynamic features of subsystem or components. Dynamic programming (DP technique is adopted to find the optimal control strategy including the gear-shifting sequence and the power split between the engine and the motor subject to a battery SOC-sustaining constraint. Improved control rules are extracted from the DP-based control solution, forming near-optimal control strategies. Simulation results demonstrate that a significant improvement on the fuel economy can be achieved in the heavy-duty vehicle cycle from the natural driving statistics.

  20. Designing a Minimal Intervention Strategy to Control Taenia solium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightowlers, Marshall W; Donadeu, Meritxell

    2017-06-01

    Neurocysticercosis is an important cause of epilepsy in many developing countries. The disease is a zoonosis caused by the cestode parasite Taenia solium. Many potential intervention strategies are available, however none has been able to be implemented and sustained. Here we predict the impact of some T. solium interventions that could be applied to prevent transmission through pigs, the parasite's natural animal intermediate host. These include minimal intervention strategies that are predicted to be effective and likely to be feasible. Logical models are presented which reflect changes in the risk that age cohorts of animals have for their potential to transmit T. solium. Interventions that include a combined application of vaccination, plus chemotherapy in young animals, are the most effective. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Metal-Organic Frameworks: Building Block Design Strategies for the Synthesis of MOFs.

    KAUST Repository

    Luebke, Ryan

    2014-09-01

    A significant and ongoing challenge in materials chemistry and furthermore solid state chemistry is to design materials with the desired properties and characteristics. The field of Metal-Organic Frameworks (MOFs) offers several strategies to address this challenge and has proven fruitful at allowing some degree of control over the resultant materials synthesized. Several methodologies for synthesis of MOFs have been developed which rely on use of predetermined building blocks. The work presented herein is focused on the utilization of two of these design principles, namely the use of molecular building blocks (MBBs) and supermolecular building blocks (SBBs) to target MOF materials having desired connectivities (topologies). These design strategies also permit the introduction of specific chemical moieties, allowing for modification of the MOFs properties. This research is predominantly focused on two platforms (rht-MOFs and ftw-MOFs) which topologically speaking are edge transitive binodal nets; ftw being a (4,12)-connected net and rht being a (3,24)-connected net. These highly connected nets (at least one node having connectivity greater than eight) have been purposefully targeted to increase the predictability of structural outcome. A general trend in topology is that there is an inverse relationship between the connectivity of the node(s) and the number of topological outcomes. Therefore the key to this research (and to effective use of the SBB and MBB approaches) is identification of conditions which allow for reliable formation of the targeted MBBs and SBBs. In the case of the research presented herein: a 12-connected Group IV or Rare Earth based hexanuclear MBB and a 24-connected transition metal based SBB were successfully targeted and synthesized. These two synthetic platforms will be presented and used as examples of how these design methods have been (and can be further) utilized to modify existing materials or develop new materials for gas storage and

  2. Advanced Strategy Guideline: Air Distribution Basics and Duct Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burdick, A.

    2011-12-01

    This report discusses considerations for designing an air distribution system for an energy efficient house that requires less air volume to condition the space. Considering the HVAC system early in the design process will allow adequate space for equipment and ductwork and can result in cost savings. Principles discussed that will maximize occupant comfort include delivery of the proper amount of conditioned air for appropriate temperature mixing and uniformity without drafts, minimization of system noise, the impacts of pressure loss, efficient return air duct design, and supply air outlet placement, as well as duct layout, materials, and sizing.

  3. Appropriate strategies for designing contemporary art museums with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences ... of attracting more people in sociocultural spaces of the country ( case study: Sari, Mazandaran) ... So the assumption that qualitative factors such as (aesthetic style designed for the set, easy ...

  4. CODP Co operative design process - from urban strategy to detail

    OpenAIRE

    Thunberg, Pär; Philipson, Olof

    2012-01-01

    This project investigates the cooperation between architect and engineer. The context of the investigation is the design of buildings for a sustainable society. The goal of the project is to further the development of the sustainable built society by increasing the knowledge of the interdisciplinary cooperation between these two fields. The focus is a close cooperation already from the start of a project. By involving both fields in the early design stages it is thought that the knowledge and...

  5. Strategies for Establishing Service Oriented Design in Organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Aier, Stephan

    2012-01-01

    Service orientation is a broadly discussed design paradigm for information systems engineering. Only recently there have been several contributions to individual dimensions of service orientation like service definition, service modeling, service management or service governance. However, a combination of useful solutions for partial problems might not constitute an effective overall approach to service orientation. We argue that the establishment of service orientation is a wicked [design] p...

  6. DESIGN AND LICENSING TRENDS OF THE GENERAL EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMS IN LATVIA

    OpenAIRE

    Mihailovs, Ivans Jānis; Krūmiņa, Aira Aija

    2016-01-01

    The general education program designing and licensing trends in Latvia in the period from 2010 to 2014 are analyzed in the article. Based on the general education program licensing data, it found that there isn’t a trend to license author’s program in primary education, while the secondary level of education author's programs are designed and licensed more often. The fact that primary education is more licensed programs in mathematics, science and technology, but in general secondary educatio...

  7. European DEMO design strategy and consequences for materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federici, G.; Biel, W.; Gilbert, M. R.; Kemp, R.; Taylor, N.; Wenninger, R.

    2017-09-01

    Demonstrating the production of net electricity and operating with a closed fuel-cycle remain unarguably the crucial steps towards the exploitation of fusion power. These are the aims of a demonstration fusion reactor (DEMO) proposed to be built after ITER. This paper briefly describes the DEMO design options that are being considered in Europe for the current conceptual design studies as part of the Roadmap to Fusion Electricity Horizon 2020. These are not intended to represent fixed and exclusive design choices but rather ‘proxies’ of possible plant design options to be used to identify generic design/material issues that need to be resolved in future fusion reactor systems. The materials nuclear design requirements and the effects of radiation damage are briefly analysed with emphasis on a pulsed ‘low extrapolation’ system, which is being used for the initial design integration studies, based as far as possible on mature technologies and reliable regimes of operation (to be extrapolated from the ITER experience), and on the use of materials suitable for the expected level of neutron fluence. The main technical issues arising from the plasma and nuclear loads and the effects of radiation damage particularly on the structural and heat sink materials of the vessel and in-vessel components are critically discussed. The need to establish realistic target performance and a development schedule for near-term electricity production tends to favour more conservative technology choices. The readiness of the technical (physics and technology) assumptions that are being made is expected to be an important factor for the selection of the technical features of the device.

  8. Fuel lattice design using heuristics and new strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz S, J. J.; Castillo M, J. A.; Torres V, M.; Perusquia del Cueto, R. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, Ocoyoacac 52750, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Pelta, D. A. [ETS Ingenieria Informatica y Telecomunicaciones, Universidad de Granada, Daniel Saucedo Aranda s/n, 18071 Granada (Spain); Campos S, Y., E-mail: juanjose.ortiz@inin.gob.m [IPN, Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas, Unidad Profesional Adolfo Lopez Mateos, Edif. 9, 07738 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2010-10-15

    This work show some results of the fuel lattice design in BWRs when some allocation pin rod rules are not taking into account. Heuristics techniques like Path Re linking and Greedy to design fuel lattices were used. The scope of this work is to search about how do classical rules in design fuel lattices affect the heuristics techniques results and the fuel lattice quality. The fuel lattices quality is measured by Power Peaking Factor and Infinite Multiplication Factor at the beginning of the fuel lattice life. CASMO-4 code to calculate these parameters was used. The analyzed rules are the following: pin rods with lowest uranium enrichment are only allocated in the fuel lattice corner, and pin rods with gadolinium cannot allocated in the fuel lattice edge. Fuel lattices with and without gadolinium in the main diagonal were studied. Some fuel lattices were simulated in an equilibrium cycle fuel reload, using Simulate-3 to verify their performance. So, the effective multiplication factor and thermal limits can be verified. The obtained results show a good performance in some fuel lattices designed, even thought, the knowing rules were not implemented. A fuel lattice performance and fuel lattice design characteristics analysis was made. To the realized tests, a dell workstation was used, under Li nux platform. (Author)

  9. Fuel lattice design using heuristics and new strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortiz S, J. J.; Castillo M, J. A.; Torres V, M.; Perusquia del Cueto, R.; Pelta, D. A.; Campos S, Y.

    2010-10-01

    This work show some results of the fuel lattice design in BWRs when some allocation pin rod rules are not taking into account. Heuristics techniques like Path Re linking and Greedy to design fuel lattices were used. The scope of this work is to search about how do classical rules in design fuel lattices affect the heuristics techniques results and the fuel lattice quality. The fuel lattices quality is measured by Power Peaking Factor and Infinite Multiplication Factor at the beginning of the fuel lattice life. CASMO-4 code to calculate these parameters was used. The analyzed rules are the following: pin rods with lowest uranium enrichment are only allocated in the fuel lattice corner, and pin rods with gadolinium cannot allocated in the fuel lattice edge. Fuel lattices with and without gadolinium in the main diagonal were studied. Some fuel lattices were simulated in an equilibrium cycle fuel reload, using Simulate-3 to verify their performance. So, the effective multiplication factor and thermal limits can be verified. The obtained results show a good performance in some fuel lattices designed, even thought, the knowing rules were not implemented. A fuel lattice performance and fuel lattice design characteristics analysis was made. To the realized tests, a dell workstation was used, under Li nux platform. (Author)

  10. Investigation of Architectural Strategies in Relation to Daylight and Integrated Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael; Iversen, Anne; Bjerregaard Jensen, Lotte

    2012-01-01

    his paper investigates the use of daylight in three architecturally successful buildings. The aim is to discuss the challenges and opportunities of architectural daylight strategies in relation to integrated design. All these buildings were designed with the focus on a strategy of using daylight...... to create well-lit, exciting spaces and spatial sequences. The original ideas, thoughts, and decisions behind the designs and daylight strategy are compared with answers in questionnaires from test subjects who have experienced the space and lighting conditions created. The results indicate...... that the architectural daylight strategies formulated by the architects and engineers at the beginning of the design process are actually experienced by the “users” in the existing buildings. The architectural daylight strategy was different in each of the three libraries, and analysis of the results shows that daylight...

  11. Small Column Ion Exchange Design and Safety Strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huff, T.; Rios-Armstrong, M.; Edwards, R.; Herman, D.

    2011-01-01

    Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) is a transformational technology originally developed by the Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Management (EM-30) office and is now being deployed at the Savannah River Site (SRS) to significantly increase overall salt processing capacity and accelerate the Liquid Waste System life-cycle. The process combines strontium and actinide removal using Monosodium Titanate (MST), Rotary Microfiltration, and cesium removal using Crystalline Silicotitanate (CST, specifically UOP IONSIV(reg s ign)IE-911 ion exchanger) to create a low level waste stream to be disposed in grout and a high level waste stream to be vitrified. The process also includes preparation of the streams for disposal, e.g., grinding of the loaded CST material. These waste processing components are technically mature and flowsheet integration studies are being performed including glass formulations studies, application specific thermal modeling, and mixing studies. The deployment program includes design and fabrication of the Rotary Microfilter (RMF) assembly, ion-exchange columns (IXCs), and grinder module, utilizing an integrated system safety design approach. The design concept is to install the process inside an existing waste tank, Tank 41H. The process consists of a feed pump with a set of four RMFs, two IXCs, a media grinder, three Submersible Mixer Pumps (SMPs), and all supporting infrastructure including media receipt and preparation facilities. The design addresses MST mixing to achieve the required strontium and actinide removal and to prevent future retrieval problems. CST achieves very high cesium loadings (up to 1,100 curies per gallon (Ci/gal) bed volume). The design addresses the hazards associated with this material including heat management (in column and in-tank), as detailed in the thermal modeling. The CST must be size reduced for compatibility with downstream processes. The design addresses material transport into and out of the grinder and

  12. Design strategies for self-assembly of discrete targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madge, Jim; Miller, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    Both biological and artificial self-assembly processes can take place by a range of different schemes, from the successive addition of identical building blocks to hierarchical sequences of intermediates, all the way to the fully addressable limit in which each component is unique. In this paper, we introduce an idealized model of cubic particles with patterned faces that allows self-assembly strategies to be compared and tested. We consider a simple octameric target, starting with the minimal requirements for successful self-assembly and comparing the benefits and limitations of more sophisticated hierarchical and addressable schemes. Simulations are performed using a hybrid dynamical Monte Carlo protocol that allows self-assembling clusters to rearrange internally while still providing Stokes-Einstein-like diffusion of aggregates of different sizes. Our simulations explicitly capture the thermodynamic, dynamic, and steric challenges typically faced by self-assembly processes, including competition between multiple partially completed structures. Self-assembly pathways are extracted from the simulation trajectories by a fully extendable scheme for identifying structural fragments, which are then assembled into history diagrams for successfully completed target structures. For the simple target, a one-component assembly scheme is most efficient and robust overall, but hierarchical and addressable strategies can have an advantage under some conditions if high yield is a priority

  13. From value chain to value constellation: designing interactive strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Normann, R; Ramírez, R

    1993-01-01

    In today's fast-changing competitive environment, strategy is no longer a matter of positioning a fixed set of activities along that old industrial model, the value chain. Successful companies increasingly do not just add value, they reinvent it. The key strategic task is to reconfigure roles and relationships among a constellation of actors--suppliers, partners, customers--in order to mobilize the creation of value by new combinations of players. What is so different about this new logic of value? It breaks down the distinction between products and services and combines them into activity-based "offerings" from which customers can create value for themselves. But as potential offerings grow more complex, so do the relationships necessary to create them. As a result, a company's strategic task becomes the ongoing reconfiguration and integration of its competencies and customers. The authors provide three illustrations of these new rules of strategy. IKEA has blossomed into the world's largest retailer of home furnishings by redefining the relationships and organizational practices of the furniture business. Danish pharmacies and their national association have used the opportunity of health care reform to reconfigure their relationships with customers, doctors, hospitals, drug manufacturers, and with Danish and international health organizations to enlarge their role, competencies, and profits. French public-service concessionaires have mastered the art of conducting a creative dialogue between their customers--local governments in France and around the world--and a perpetually expanding set of infrastructure competencies.

  14. Effective strategy making: Co-designing scenarios as a tool for effective strategic planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Vogelij

    2015-08-01

    -producing, as making together a product and collaboration towards a strategy, defined as a common exploration of possibilities. The interactions of the participants in the strategy making process, potentially creating trust and enhancing social cohesion, may be more important than the resulting concept for a development strategy. Therefore our attention focused on the way strategies are made in the black box of specific processes. The interactions aiming at co-ownership and collaboration are central in this novel ’interactions approach’. The resulting strategy does not necessarily contain (infra structural projects; a spatial strategy concerns a selected localised policy and argumentative framework for future development. Societal relevance Being a planning consultant with over forty years of experience in practice, the author highly values practical applicability in society. Understanding of practice-related factors for effectiveness of strategy making is important because effective public management saves costs for society; a framework expressing the aimed-for direction of development provides clarity for private initiatives; an agreed strategy helps to coordinate sector policies; several EU and national subsidies for projects require a locally agreed structural frame. Because a development vision concerns the direction of an envisaged development, its effectiveness is defined in terms of performance of the argumentative framework based on the story lines developed in the discussions during the strategy making process. Our search aims at identifying recommendations for enhanced chances for performing strategies in praxis. Approach A theoretical frame was composed based on literature in the fields of planning theory, policy analysis and design. Research questions were formulated concerning the importance of the process related variables: open process management, coownership, co-design, the application of scenarios and visualizations. Concerning the importance of the place

  15. Active Learning Methods and Technology: Strategies for Design Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coorey, Jillian

    2016-01-01

    The demands in higher education are on the rise. Charged with teaching more content, increased class sizes and engaging students, educators face numerous challenges. In design education, educators are often torn between the teaching of technology and the teaching of theory. Learning the formal concepts of hierarchy, contrast and space provide the…

  16. Four Papers on Contemporary Software Design Strategies for Statistical Methodologists

    OpenAIRE

    Carey, Vincent; Cook, Dianne

    2014-01-01

    Software design impacts much of statistical analysis and, as technology changes, dramatically so in recent years, it is exciting to learn how statistical software is adapting and changing. This leads to the collection of papers published here, written by John Chambers, Duncan Temple Lang, Michael Lawrence, Martin Morgan, Yihui Xie, Heike Hofmann and Xiaoyue Cheng.

  17. Using Pull Strategy for Curricula Design on Entrepreneurship Education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hammer, M.H.M.; Van der Meer, J.D.

    2013-01-01

    Universities are deeply involved in stimulating their students in entrepreneurship where they focus on designing programs based on existing knowledge form pedagogics and didactical concepts. Although the Total Entrepreneurial Activity is increasing, the results are not satisfying in all cases. The

  18. Designing from Heritage : Strategies for Conservation and Conversion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, M.C.; de Jonge, W.

    2017-01-01

    This book – the third in the Rondeltappe series – reflects the philosophy and didactic approach of Heritage and Architecture (H&A) section of the Faculty of Architecture and the Built Environment (Delft University of Technology). H&A has three chairs: Design, Cultural Value and Technology.

  19. Procurement strategy formation : (re-)designing rail infrastructure project alliances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plantinga, Henrico; Dorée, André

    2016-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to provide insights into the reasoning behind the development of new procurement approaches by public sector clients. Design/methodology/approach – A case study approach focuses on a procurement development process by a public sector client. It investigates the

  20. Designing and Deploying Programming Courses: Strategies, Tools, Difficulties and Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xinogalos, Stelios

    2016-01-01

    Designing and deploying programming courses is undoubtedly a challenging task. In this paper, an attempt to analyze important aspects of a sequence of two courses on imperative-procedural and object-oriented programming in a non-CS majors Department is made. This analysis is based on a questionnaire filled in by fifty students in a voluntary…

  1. A general exit strategy of monoheme cytochromes c and c2 in electron transfer complexes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    De March, Matteo; Brancatelli, Giovanna; Demitri, Nicola; De Zorzi, Rita; Hickey, Neal; Geremia, Silvano

    2015-09-01

    Using our previously reported maps of the electrostatic surface of horse heart ferri- and ferro-cyt c, comparisons were made between the complementary electrostatic surfaces of three cyt c peroxidase-cyt c complexes and the photosynthetic reaction center-cyt c complex, considering both iron oxidation states. The results obtained were consistent with a sliding mechanism for the electron shuttle on the surface of the protein complexes, promoted by the change in iron oxidation state. This mechanism was found to be in agreement with theoretical and NMR studies reported in the literature. Importantly, the analysis also provided a rationale for recognition of nonproductive associations. As we have previously reported the same conclusion on examination of redox partners of cyt c in the mitochondrial respiratory pathway, our hypothesis is that the proposed mechanism could represent a general exit strategy of monoheme cyts c and c2 in electron transfer complexes. © 2015 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  2. General description and attendance strategy for the radioactive accident in Goiana, 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tauhata, L.; Binns, D.A.C.

    1989-01-01

    In mid-September 1987, a capsule containing 50.9 TBq (1375 Ci) of Cs-137 used for radiotherapy was broken open in Goiania, Brazil, and the accident only detected on September 29. During this period fragments of source and materials contaminated by it were manipulated and transported by several people to various places, giving rise to a rapid spread of contamination. This event resulted in the death of 4 people, acute radiation exposure and high level internal and external contamination of many people, places and soils. A general description of the strategy used to localize contaminated areas and persons, attendance to the public and decontamination of areas is presented. Technical procedures and equipment used for scanning and monitoring are described, as well as the initial difficulties related to radioactive waste disposal near the site. (author)

  3. A general strategy toward the rational synthesis of metal tungstate nanostructures using plasma electrolytic oxidation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Yanan; Liu, Baodan; Zhai, Zhaofeng; Liu, Xiaoyuan; Yang, Bing; Liu, Lusheng; Jiang, Xin

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: A general strategy for the rational synthesis of tungstate nanostructure has been developed based on plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) technology (up). Using this method, ZnWO 4 and NiWO 4 nanostructures with controllable morphologies and superior crystallinity can be easily obtained (down), showing obvious advantage in comparison with conventional hydrothermal and sol–gel methods. - Highlights: • Plasma electrolyte oxidation (PEO) method has been used for the rational synthesis of tungstate nanostructures. • ZnWO 4 nanoplates have strong mechanical adhesion with porous TiO 2 film substrate. • The morphology and dimensional size of ZnWO 4 nanostructures can be selectively tailored by controlling the annealing temperature and growth time. • The PEO method can be widely applied to the growth of various metal oxides. - Abstract: A new method based on conventional plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) technology has been developed for the rational synthesis of metal tungstate nanostructures. Using this method, ZnWO 4 and NiWO 4 nanostructures with controllable morphologies (nanorods, nanosheets and microsheets) and superior crystallinity have been synthesized. It has been found that the morphology diversity of ZnWO 4 nanostructures can be selectively tailored through tuning the electrolyte concentration and annealing temperatures, showing obvious advantages in comparison to traditional hydrothermal and sol–gel methods. Precise microscopy analyses on the cross section of the PEO coating and ZnWO 4 nanostructures confirmed that the precursors initially precipitated in the PEO coating and its surface during plasma discharge process are responsible for the nucleation and subsequent growth of metal tungstate nanostructures by thermal annealing. The method developed in this work represents a general strategy toward the rational synthesis of metal oxide nanostructures and the formation mechanism of metal tungstate nanostructures fabricated by

  4. A general strategy toward the rational synthesis of metal tungstate nanostructures using plasma electrolytic oxidation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Yanan; Liu, Baodan, E-mail: baodanliu@imr.ac.cn; Zhai, Zhaofeng; Liu, Xiaoyuan; Yang, Bing; Liu, Lusheng; Jiang, Xin, E-mail: xjiang@imr.ac.cn

    2015-11-30

    Graphical abstract: A general strategy for the rational synthesis of tungstate nanostructure has been developed based on plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) technology (up). Using this method, ZnWO{sub 4} and NiWO{sub 4} nanostructures with controllable morphologies and superior crystallinity can be easily obtained (down), showing obvious advantage in comparison with conventional hydrothermal and sol–gel methods. - Highlights: • Plasma electrolyte oxidation (PEO) method has been used for the rational synthesis of tungstate nanostructures. • ZnWO{sub 4} nanoplates have strong mechanical adhesion with porous TiO{sub 2} film substrate. • The morphology and dimensional size of ZnWO{sub 4} nanostructures can be selectively tailored by controlling the annealing temperature and growth time. • The PEO method can be widely applied to the growth of various metal oxides. - Abstract: A new method based on conventional plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) technology has been developed for the rational synthesis of metal tungstate nanostructures. Using this method, ZnWO{sub 4} and NiWO{sub 4} nanostructures with controllable morphologies (nanorods, nanosheets and microsheets) and superior crystallinity have been synthesized. It has been found that the morphology diversity of ZnWO{sub 4} nanostructures can be selectively tailored through tuning the electrolyte concentration and annealing temperatures, showing obvious advantages in comparison to traditional hydrothermal and sol–gel methods. Precise microscopy analyses on the cross section of the PEO coating and ZnWO{sub 4} nanostructures confirmed that the precursors initially precipitated in the PEO coating and its surface during plasma discharge process are responsible for the nucleation and subsequent growth of metal tungstate nanostructures by thermal annealing. The method developed in this work represents a general strategy toward the rational synthesis of metal oxide nanostructures and the formation mechanism of

  5. A general framework of persistence strategies for biological systems helps explain domains of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liudmila S Yafremava

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The nature and cause of the division of organisms in superkingdoms is not fully understood. Assuming that environment shapes physiology, here we construct a novel theoretical framework that helps identify general patterns of organism persistence. This framework is based on Jacob von Uexküll’s organism-centric view of the environment and James G. Miller’s view of organisms as matter-energy-information processing molecular machines. Three concepts describe an organism's environmental niche: scope, umwelt and gap. Scope denotes the entirety of environmental events and conditions to which the organism is exposed during its lifetime. Umwelt encompasses an organism's perception of these events. The gap is the organism's blind spot, the scope that is not covered by umwelt. These concepts bring organisms of different complexity to a common ecological denominator. Ecological and physiological data suggest organisms persist using three strategies: flexibility, robustness and economy. All organisms use umwelt information to flexibly adapt to environmental change. They implement robustness against environmental perturbations within the gap generally through redundancy and reliability of internal constituents. Both flexibility and robustness improve survival. However, they also incur metabolic matter-energy processing costs, which otherwise could have been used for growth and reproduction. Lineages evolve unique tradeoff solutions among strategies in the space of what we call a persistence triangle. Protein domain architecture and other evidence support the preferential use of flexibility and robustness properties. Archaea and Bacteria gravitate toward the triangle’s economy vertex, with Archaea biased toward robustness. Eukarya trade economy for survivability. Protista occupy a saddle manifold separating akaryotes from multicellular organisms. Plants and the more flexible Fungi share an economic stratum, and Metazoa are locked in a positive feedback

  6. Design strategies for integration of green roofs in sustainable housing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avi Friedman

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Green roofs are the integration of plant material and its supporting structures in buildings. Such an approach provides a habitat for local flora and fauna, helps manage storm water, reduces heat demand in winter and the cooling load in the summer, enhances the aesthetic values of dwellings, provides the occupants with comfort and amenities and strengthens environmental responsibility. Because roofs represent approximately 40 percent to 50 percent of the surfaces in urban areas, green roofs have an important role in drainage and as a result water management as well. In fact, when a green roof is installed on 50 percent or more of the roof’s surface, it guarantees 2 points and can contribute 7 additional points toward LEED certification - almost 20 percent of the required rating. This paper classifies green roofs and offers strategies for their integration in residential buildings and examines their benefits, construction principles and applications.

  7. Hoechst tagging: a modular strategy to design synthetic fluorescent probes for live-cell nucleus imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Akinobu; Takigawa, Kazumasa; Kurishita, Yasutaka; Kuwata, Keiko; Ishida, Manabu; Shimoda, Yasushi; Hamachi, Itaru; Tsukiji, Shinya

    2014-06-11

    We report a general strategy to create small-molecule fluorescent probes for the nucleus in living cells. Our strategy is based on the attachment of the DNA-binding Hoechst compound to a fluorophore of interest. Using this approach, simple fluorescein, BODIPY, and rhodamine dyes were readily converted to novel turn-on fluorescent nucleus-imaging probes.

  8. A strategy for quantum algorithm design assisted by machine learning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bang, Jeongho; Lee, Jinhyoung; Ryu, Junghee; Yoo, Seokwon; Pawłowski, Marcin

    2014-01-01

    We propose a method for quantum algorithm design assisted by machine learning. The method uses a quantum–classical hybrid simulator, where a ‘quantum student’ is being taught by a ‘classical teacher’. In other words, in our method, the learning system is supposed to evolve into a quantum algorithm for a given problem, assisted by a classical main-feedback system. Our method is applicable for designing quantum oracle-based algorithms. We chose, as a case study, an oracle decision problem, called a Deutsch–Jozsa problem. We showed by using Monte Carlo simulations that our simulator can faithfully learn a quantum algorithm for solving the problem for a given oracle. Remarkably, the learning time is proportional to the square root of the total number of parameters, rather than showing the exponential dependence found in the classical machine learning-based method. (paper)

  9. A strategy for quantum algorithm design assisted by machine learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, Jeongho; Ryu, Junghee; Yoo, Seokwon; Pawłowski, Marcin; Lee, Jinhyoung

    2014-07-01

    We propose a method for quantum algorithm design assisted by machine learning. The method uses a quantum-classical hybrid simulator, where a ‘quantum student’ is being taught by a ‘classical teacher’. In other words, in our method, the learning system is supposed to evolve into a quantum algorithm for a given problem, assisted by a classical main-feedback system. Our method is applicable for designing quantum oracle-based algorithms. We chose, as a case study, an oracle decision problem, called a Deutsch-Jozsa problem. We showed by using Monte Carlo simulations that our simulator can faithfully learn a quantum algorithm for solving the problem for a given oracle. Remarkably, the learning time is proportional to the square root of the total number of parameters, rather than showing the exponential dependence found in the classical machine learning-based method.

  10. An automated supernova search and the design strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colgate, S.A.

    1987-01-01

    The design considerations for an automated supernova search are reviewed. If supernova are to be found a week after explosion well before light maximum of both Types I and II, and if a rate of finding of 52 per year is justified, then one needs to keep roughly 5000 galaxies under surveillance out of a full set of 15,000 galaxies at ≅50 Mpc distance. For detection at 1% of Type I maximum light requires a 30-inch telescope, 10 photoelectrons per pixel threshold, a 128 x 128 pixel photodetector operating with a 3-second integration time, and 2 seconds to slew and settle ≅1 0 . A system designed to perform this function in real-time is described. 7 refs

  11. Key elements for designing a strategy to generate social and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For example, with the growth of social media (O'Brien, 2011), the number ... three tourism journals for the past 20 years. This goes .... The festival. Vision, mission, motivation of the festival .... designer of Boom, the festival is “a space for an experience” to “gather ... as expected: e.g. an app to support car-sharing. In spite of ...

  12. A normative probabilistic design of a fair governmental decision strategy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kárný, Miroslav; Kracík, Jan

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 12, 2-3 (2004), s. 1-15 ISSN 1057-9214 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IBS1075351; GA ČR GA102/03/0049 Grant - others:ESF(FR) TED Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1075907 Keywords : fully probabilistic design * E-democracy * multiple participant decision making Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/historie/karny-0106249.pdf

  13. Using Learning Analytics to Characterize Student Experimentation Strategies in Engineering Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Camilo; Goldstein, Molly Hathaway; Purzer, Senay; Magana, Alejandra J.

    2016-01-01

    Engineering design is a complex process both for students to participate in and for instructors to assess. Informed designers use the key strategy of conducting experiments as they test ideas to inform next steps. Conversely, beginning designers experiment less, often with confounding variables. These behaviours are not easy to assess in…

  14. Nature-inspired design strategies in sustainable product development : A case study of student projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Pauw, I.C.; Karana, E.; Kandachar, P.V.

    2012-01-01

    In design practice, Nature-Inspired Design Strategies (NIDS) can be applied when developing sustainable products. However, knowledge on how this actually helps designers is lacking. This study explores the effects of applying Cradle to Cradle and Biomimicry in student projects, as compared to using

  15. Demonstrating Empathy: A Phenomenological Study of Instructional Designers Making Instructional Strategy Decisions for Adult Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vann, Linda S.

    2017-01-01

    Instructional designers are tasked with making instructional strategy decisions to facilitate achievement of learning outcomes as part of their professional responsibilities. While the instructional design process includes learner analysis, that analysis alone does not embody opportunities to assist instructional designers with demonstrations of…

  16. SSV Launch Monitoring Strategies: HGDS Design Implementation Through System Maturity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoemaker, Marc D.; Crimi, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    With over 500,000 gallons of liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen, it is of vital importance to monitor the space shuttle vehicle (SSV) from external tank (ET) load through launch. The Hazardous Gas Detection System (HGDS) was installed as the primary system responsible for monitoring fuel leaks within the orbiter and ET. The HGDS was designed to obtain the lowest possible detection limits with the best resolution while monitoring the SSV for any hydrogen, helium, oxygen, or argon as the main requirement. The HGDS is a redundant mass spectrometer used for real-time monitoring during Power Reactant Storage and Distribution (PRSD) load and ET load through launch or scrub. This system also performs SSV processing leak checks of the Tail Service Mast (TSM) umbilical quick disconnects (QD's), Ground Umbilical Carrier Plate (GUCP) QD's and supports auxiliary power unit (APU) system tests. From design to initial implementation and operations, the HGDS has evolved into a mature and reliable launch support system. This paper will discuss the operational challenges and lessons learned from facing design deficiencies, validation and maintenance efforts, life cycle issues, and evolving requirements

  17. Design Strategy of Information Construction Based on User Participation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Jundong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the design of the Internet products, the information construction is one of the important factors to determine that whether a product is friendly. It is a challenge for every information architect to discover new innovations on the basis of established user habits. In practice, we often found that the development of many new functions did not meet the needs of users and many functions would be improved by users themselves, the fact of which shows the strong desire of users to participate in the development of products. Therefore, this article proposes an information architecture method based on the “users’ partially involved”, that is, when the main framework of a product is determined and the detailed architecture of part of the functions is proposed by users themselves, builders will help users to dig and organize their requirements and eventually integrate them into the design of architecture. In order to verify the effectiveness of this method, the article takes the virtual products for social service based on "surrounding geographic information" as an example. A comparison experiment was conducted on the effectiveness of the design of user-participant information architecture, and the experimental results were evaluated.

  18. BARRIER DESIGN STRATEGIES TO CONTROL NOISE INGRESS INTO DOMESTIC BUILDINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina E. Mediastika

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Noise source for buildings adjacent to streets is traffic-generated predominantly. Where people are mostly spend their time indoors, it is important for buildings to have screening or blocking to control noise intrusion into living spaces. But this blocking should also permit airflow. This is important for middle to low-cost domestic buildings, which do not employ conditioned ventilation. A common feature of Indonesian buildings, fence, is studied to perform noise barrier. The fence -a barrier to be- should obey three factors: position, dimension, and material. All these three factors were studied to seek compromised design for acoustic performance and natural ventilation purpose. Domestic building situated in the urban area of Yogyakarta was studying to see the most possible design of the barrier to be. There are two calculation methods employed to investigate the proposed design. The study shows that it is possible to gain minimum of 10 dB noise reduction by placing windows within the shadow effect of approximately 1.5 height fence-barrier.

  19. 2009 Melbourne metropolitan sewerage strategy: a portfolio of decentralised and on-site concept designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, V; Jackson, D W; Khalifé, M

    2010-01-01

    The bulk and retail water companies of the greater Melbourne area are developing the 2009 Metropolitan Sewerage Strategy to provide sustainable sewerage services to 2060. The objective of the strategy is to establish long term principles and near term actions to produce a robust sewage management system for Melbourne. Melbourne's existing sewerage system is largely centralised and discharges to two major treatment plants. Several small satellite treatment plants service local urban areas generally more distant from the centralised system. Decentralised and on-site wastewater systems are options for future sewage management and could play a role in local recycling. A portfolio of 18 on-site and decentralised concept designs was developed, applicable to the full range of urban development types in Melbourne. The concepts can be used in evaluation of metropolitan system configurations as part of future integrated water cycle planning. The options included secondary and tertiary treatment systems incorporating re-use of water for non potable uses, urine separation, black and greywater separation and composting toilets. On-site and cluster treatment systems were analysed. Each option is described by its indicative capital and operating costs, energy use and water and nutrient balances. This paper summarises and compares the portfolio mix of decentralized and on-site options in Melbourne's context.

  20. Human Pathogens on Plants: Designing a Multidisciplinary Strategy for Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Jacqueline; Leach, Jan E; Eversole, Kellye; Tauxe, Robert

    2014-10-15

    Recent efforts to address concerns about microbial contamination of food plants and resulting foodborne illness have prompted new collaboration and interactions between the scientific communities of plant pathology and food safety. This article provides perspectives from scientists of both disciplines and presents selected research results and concepts that highlight existing and possible future synergisms for audiences of both disciplines. Plant pathology is a complex discipline that encompasses studies of the dissemination, colonization, and infection of plants by microbes such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, and oomycetes. Plant pathologists study plant diseases as well as host plant defense responses and disease management strategies with the goal of minimizing disease occurrences and impacts. Repeated outbreaks of human illness attributed to the contamination of fresh produce, nuts and seeds, and other plant-derived foods by human enteric pathogens such as Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. have led some plant pathologists to broaden the application of their science in the past two decades, to address problems of human pathogens on plants (HPOPs). Food microbiology, which began with the study of microbes that spoil foods and those that are critical to produce food, now also focuses study on how foods become contaminated with pathogens and how this can be controlled or prevented. Thus, at the same time, public health researchers and food microbiologists have become more concerned about plant-microbe interactions before and after harvest. New collaborations are forming between members of the plant pathology and food safety communities, leading to enhanced research capacity and greater understanding of the issues for which research is needed. The two communities use somewhat different vocabularies and conceptual models. For example, traditional plant pathology concepts such as the disease triangle and the disease cycle can help to define

  1. Human pathogens on plants: designing a multidisciplinary strategy for research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Jacqueline; Leach, Jan E; Eversole, Kellye; Tauxe, Robert

    2013-04-01

    Recent efforts to address concerns about microbial contamination of food plants and resulting foodborne illness have prompted new collaboration and interactions between the scientific communities of plant pathology and food safety. This article provides perspectives from scientists of both disciplines and presents selected research results and concepts that highlight existing and possible future synergisms for audiences of both disciplines. Plant pathology is a complex discipline that encompasses studies of the dissemination, colonization, and infection of plants by microbes such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, and oomycetes. Plant pathologists study plant diseases as well as host plant defense responses and disease management strategies with the goal of minimizing disease occurrences and impacts. Repeated outbreaks of human illness attributed to the contamination of fresh produce, nuts and seeds, and other plant-derived foods by human enteric pathogens such as Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. have led some plant pathologists to broaden the application of their science in the past two decades, to address problems of human pathogens on plants (HPOPs). Food microbiology, which began with the study of microbes that spoil foods and those that are critical to produce food, now also focuses study on how foods become contaminated with pathogens and how this can be controlled or prevented. Thus, at the same time, public health researchers and food microbiologists have become more concerned about plant-microbe interactions before and after harvest. New collaborations are forming between members of the plant pathology and food safety communities, leading to enhanced research capacity and greater understanding of the issues for which research is needed. The two communities use somewhat different vocabularies and conceptual models. For example, traditional plant pathology concepts such as the disease triangle and the disease cycle can help to define

  2. Attitudes toward strategies to increase organ donation: views of the general public and health professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnieh, Lianne; Klarenbach, Scott; Gill, John S; Caulfield, Tim; Manns, Braden

    2012-12-01

    The acceptability of financial incentives for organ donation is contentious. This study sought to determine (1) the acceptability of expense reimbursement or financial incentives by the general public, health professionals involved with organ donation and transplantation, and those with or affected by kidney disease and (2) for the public, whether financial incentives would alter their willingness to consider donation. Web-based survey administered to members of the Canadian public, health professionals, and people with or affected by kidney disease asking questions regarding acceptability of strategies to increase living and deceased kidney donation and willingness to donate a kidney under various financial incentives. Responses were collected from 2004 members of the Canadian public October 11-18, 2011; responses from health professionals (n=339) and people with or affected by kidney disease (n=268) were collected during a 4-week period commencing October 11, 2011. Acceptability of one or more financial incentives to increase deceased and living donation was noted in >70% and 40% of all groups, respectively. Support for monetary payment for living donors was 45%, 14%, and 27% for the public, health professionals, and people with or affected by kidney disease, respectively. Overall, reimbursement of funeral expenses for deceased donors and a tax break for living donors were the most acceptable. The general public views regulated financial incentives for living and deceased donation to be acceptable. Future research needs to examine the impact of financial incentives on rates of deceased and living donors.

  3. Design Strategy of Information Construction Based on User Participation

    OpenAIRE

    Gao Jundong

    2017-01-01

    In the design of the Internet products, the information construction is one of the important factors to determine that whether a product is friendly. It is a challenge for every information architect to discover new innovations on the basis of established user habits. In practice, we often found that the development of many new functions did not meet the needs of users and many functions would be improved by users themselves, the fact of which shows the strong desire of users to participate i...

  4. Conceptual Design of Operation Strategies for Hybrid Electric Aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Hoelzen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Ambitious targets to reduce emissions caused by aviation in the light of an expected ongoing rise of the air transport demand in the future drive the research of propulsion systems with lower CO2 emissions. Regional hybrid electric aircraft (HEA powered by conventional gas turbines and battery powered electric motors are investigated to test hybrid propulsion operation strategies. Especially the role of the battery within environmentally friendly concepts with significantly reduced carbon footprint is analyzed. Thus, a new simulation approach for HEA is introduced. The main findings underline the importance of choosing the right power-to-energy-ratio of a battery according to the flight mission. The gravimetric energy and power density of the electric storages determine the technologically feasibility of hybrid concepts. Cost competitive HEA configurations are found, but do not promise the targeted CO2 emission savings, when the well-to-wheel system is regarded with its actual costs. Sensitivity studies are used to determine external levers that favor the profitability of HEA.

  5. An introduction to modeling longitudinal data with generalized additive models: applications to single-case designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Kristynn J; Shadish, William R; Steiner, Peter M

    2015-03-01

    Single-case designs (SCDs) are short time series that assess intervention effects by measuring units repeatedly over time in both the presence and absence of treatment. This article introduces a statistical technique for analyzing SCD data that has not been much used in psychological and educational research: generalized additive models (GAMs). In parametric regression, the researcher must choose a functional form to impose on the data, for example, that trend over time is linear. GAMs reverse this process by letting the data inform the choice of functional form. In this article we review the problem that trend poses in SCDs, discuss how current SCD analytic methods approach trend, describe GAMs as a possible solution, suggest a GAM model testing procedure for examining the presence of trend in SCDs, present a small simulation to show the statistical properties of GAMs, and illustrate the procedure on 3 examples of different lengths. Results suggest that GAMs may be very useful both as a form of sensitivity analysis for checking the plausibility of assumptions about trend and as a primary data analysis strategy for testing treatment effects. We conclude with a discussion of some problems with GAMs and some future directions for research on the application of GAMs to SCDs. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Design and Engineering Strategies for Synthetic Antimicrobial Peptides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tossi, Alessandro

    Thousands of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) of prokaryotic, fungal, plant, or animal origin have been identified, and their potential as lead compounds for the design of novel therapeutic agents in the treatment of infection, for stimulating the immune system, or in countering septic shock has been widely recognized. Added to this is their possible use in prophylaxis of infectious diseases for animal or plant protection, for disinfection of surgical instruments or industrial surfaces, and for food preservation among other commercially important applications. Since the early eighties, AMPs have been subject to a vast number of studies aimed at understanding what determines their potency and spectrum of activities against bacterial or fungal pathogens, and at maximizing these while limiting cytotoxic activities toward host cells. Much research has also been directed toward understanding specific mechanisms of action underlying the antimicrobial activity and selectivity, to be able to redesign the peptides for optimal performance. A central theme in the mode of action of many AMPs is their dynamic interaction with biological membranes, which involves various properties of these peptides such as, among others, surface hydrophobicity and polarity, charge, structure, and induced conformational variations. These features are often intimately interconnected so that engineering peptides to independently adjust any one property in particular is not an easy task. However, solid-phase peptide synthesis allows the use of a large repertoire of nonproteinogenic amino acids that can be used in the rational design of peptides to finely tune structural and physicochemical properties and precisely probe structure-function relationships.

  7. Examining nicotine craving during abstinence among adolescent smokers: the roles of general perceived stress and temptation-coping strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleinjan, M.; Visser, A.F.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the effects of general perceived stress and temptation-coping strategies on the occurrence of nicotine craving among 125 daily-smoking adolescents. General perceived stress was measured at baseline. Craving was assessed at baseline and directly after a 24-hour period of

  8. Identification of influencing factors and strategies to improve communication between general practitioners and community nurses: a qualitative focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieuwboer, Minke S; Perry, Marieke; van der Sande, Rob; Maassen, Irma T H M; Olde Rikkert, Marcel G M; van der Marck, Marjolein A

    2018-02-26

    As the number of patients with complex healthcare needs grows, inter-professional collaboration between primary care professionals must be constantly optimized. General practitioners (GPs) and community nurses (CNs) are key professions in primary care; however, poor GP-CN communication is common, and research into the factors influencing its quality is limited. To explore patient-related GP-CN communication and facilitating and hindering factors, and to identify strategies to enhance this communication. A qualitative focus group design was used to identify the facilitating and hindering factors and strategies for improvement. In a Dutch primary care setting, 6 mono-professional focus group interviews (3 meetings of 13 GPs; 3 meetings of 18 CNs) were organized between June 2015 and April 2016, recorded and transcribed verbatim. Two independent researchers performed the coding of these interviews, identifying their categories and themes. Results show that, despite the regular contact between GPs and CNs, communication was generally perceived as poor in effectiveness and efficiency by both professions. Mutual trust was considered the most important facilitating factor for effective communication. Profession-specific factors (e.g. differences in responsibility and profession-specific language) and organizational factors (e.g. lack of shared care plans, no in-person communication, lack of time) may be of influence on communication. Participants' suggestions for improvement included organizing well-structured and reimbursed team meetings and facilitating face-to-face contact. GP-CN patient-related communication benefits most from trusting inter-personal relationships. Inter-professional training programmes should address both professional and organizational factors and should be evaluated for their effect on quality of care.

  9. Technical regulations on the general design and safety criteria for design and construction of nuclear reactors of May 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-05-01

    These Technical Regulations published on 5th September 1975 were made in implementation of Section 33 of Decree No 7/9141 on the procedure for the licensing of nuclear installations. They serve as a guide to licensing authorities, project designers and operators in the nuclear field and therefore provide general criteria for safety standards, engineering codes, siting considerations, design bases for overall environmental radiation protection, and also deal with reactor core design, instrumentation, control, alarm systems, including an emergency core cooling system. Finally, the safe design of fuel elements must be ensured and fuel storage and handling techniques complied with. (NEA) [fr

  10. Peptide/protein-polymer conjugates: synthetic strategies and design concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier, Marc A; Klok, Harm-Anton

    2008-06-21

    This feature article provides a compilation of tools available for preparing well-defined peptide/protein-polymer conjugates, which are defined as hybrid constructs combining (i) a defined number of peptide/protein segments with uniform chain lengths and defined monomer sequences (primary structure) with (ii) a defined number of synthetic polymer chains. The first section describes methods for post-translational, or direct, introduction of chemoselective handles onto natural or synthetic peptides/proteins. Addressed topics include the residue- and/or site-specific modification of peptides/proteins at Arg, Asp, Cys, Gln, Glu, Gly, His, Lys, Met, Phe, Ser, Thr, Trp, Tyr and Val residues and methods for producing peptides/proteins containing non-canonical amino acids by peptide synthesis and protein engineering. In the second section, methods for introducing chemoselective groups onto the side-chain or chain-end of synthetic polymers produced by radical, anionic, cationic, metathesis and ring-opening polymerization are described. The final section discusses convergent and divergent strategies for covalently assembling polymers and peptides/proteins. An overview of the use of chemoselective reactions such as Heck, Sonogashira and Suzuki coupling, Diels-Alder cycloaddition, Click chemistry, Staudinger ligation, Michael's addition, reductive alkylation and oxime/hydrazone chemistry for the convergent synthesis of peptide/protein-polymer conjugates is given. Divergent approaches for preparing peptide/protein-polymer conjugates which are discussed include peptide synthesis from synthetic polymer supports, polymerization from peptide/protein macroinitiators or chain transfer agents and the polymerization of peptide side-chain monomers.

  11. Metal-Organic Frameworks: Building Block Design Strategies for the Synthesis of MOFs.

    KAUST Repository

    Luebke, Ryan

    2014-01-01

    A significant and ongoing challenge in materials chemistry and furthermore solid state chemistry is to design materials with the desired properties and characteristics. The field of Metal-Organic Frameworks (MOFs) offers several strategies

  12. Design and validation of general biology learning program based on scientific inquiry skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahyani, R.; Mardiana, D.; Noviantoro, N.

    2018-03-01

    Scientific inquiry is highly recommended to teach science. The reality in the schools and colleges is that many educators still have not implemented inquiry learning because of their lack of understanding. The study aims to1) analyze students’ difficulties in learning General Biology, 2) design General Biology learning program based on multimedia-assisted scientific inquiry learning, and 3) validate the proposed design. The method used was Research and Development. The subjects of the study were 27 pre-service students of general elementary school/Islamic elementary schools. The workflow of program design includes identifying learning difficulties of General Biology, designing course programs, and designing instruments and assessment rubrics. The program design is made for four lecture sessions. Validation of all learning tools were performed by expert judge. The results showed that: 1) there are some problems identified in General Biology lectures; 2) the designed products include learning programs, multimedia characteristics, worksheet characteristics, and, scientific attitudes; and 3) expert validation shows that all program designs are valid and can be used with minor revisions. The first section in your paper.

  13. Predictive Sampling of Rare Conformational Events in Aqueous Solution: Designing a Generalized Orthogonal Space Tempering Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chao; Li, Xubin; Wu, Dongsheng; Zheng, Lianqing; Yang, Wei

    2016-01-12

    In aqueous solution, solute conformational transitions are governed by intimate interplays of the fluctuations of solute-solute, solute-water, and water-water interactions. To promote molecular fluctuations to enhance sampling of essential conformational changes, a common strategy is to construct an expanded Hamiltonian through a series of Hamiltonian perturbations and thereby broaden the distribution of certain interactions of focus. Due to a lack of active sampling of configuration response to Hamiltonian transitions, it is challenging for common expanded Hamiltonian methods to robustly explore solvent mediated rare conformational events. The orthogonal space sampling (OSS) scheme, as exemplified by the orthogonal space random walk and orthogonal space tempering methods, provides a general framework for synchronous acceleration of slow configuration responses. To more effectively sample conformational transitions in aqueous solution, in this work, we devised a generalized orthogonal space tempering (gOST) algorithm. Specifically, in the Hamiltonian perturbation part, a solvent-accessible-surface-area-dependent term is introduced to implicitly perturb near-solute water-water fluctuations; more importantly in the orthogonal space response part, the generalized force order parameter is generalized as a two-dimension order parameter set, in which essential solute-solvent and solute-solute components are separately treated. The gOST algorithm is evaluated through a molecular dynamics simulation study on the explicitly solvated deca-alanine (Ala10) peptide. On the basis of a fully automated sampling protocol, the gOST simulation enabled repetitive folding and unfolding of the solvated peptide within a single continuous trajectory and allowed for detailed constructions of Ala10 folding/unfolding free energy surfaces. The gOST result reveals that solvent cooperative fluctuations play a pivotal role in Ala10 folding/unfolding transitions. In addition, our assessment

  14. Trusted Service Scheduling and Optimization Strategy Design of Service Recommendation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaona Xia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available More and more Web services raise the demands of personalized service recommendation; there exist some recommendation technologies, which improve the qualities of service recommendation by using service ranking and collaborative filtering. However, privacy and security are also important issues in service scheduling process; social relationships have been the key factors of interpersonal communication; service selection based on user preferences has become an inevitable trend. Starting from user demand preferences, this paper analyzes social topology and service demand information and obtains trusted social relationships; then we construct the fusion model of service historical preferences and potential ones; according to social service recommendation demands, TSRSR algorithm has completed designing. Through experiments, TSRSR algorithm is much better than the others, which can effectively improve potential preferences’ learning. Furthermore, the research results of this paper have more significance to study the security and privacy of service recommendation.

  15. Design strategies for organic semiconductors beyond the molecular formula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henson, Zachary B; Müllen, Klaus; Bazan, Guillermo C

    2012-09-01

    Organic semiconducting materials based on polymers and molecular systems containing an electronically delocalized structure are the basis of emerging optoelectronic technologies such as plastic solar cells and flexible transistors. For isolated molecules, guidelines exist that rely on the molecular formula to tailor the frontier (highest occupied or lowest unoccupied) molecular orbital energy levels and optical absorption profiles. Much less control can be achieved over relevant properties, however, as one makes the transition to the ensemble behaviour characteristic of the solid state. Polymeric materials are also challenging owing to the statistical description of the average number of repeat units. Here we draw attention to the limitations of molecular formulae as predictive tools for achieving properties relevant to device performances. Illustrative examples highlight the relevance of organization across multiple length scales, and how device performances--although relevant for practical applications--poorly reflect the success of molecular design.

  16. Design Strategies for Ultra-high Efficiency Photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warmann, Emily Cathryn

    While concentrator photovoltaic cells have shown significant improvements in efficiency in the past ten years, once these cells are integrated into concentrating optics, connected to a power conditioning system and deployed in the field, the overall module efficiency drops to only 34 to 36%. This efficiency is impressive compared to conventional flat plate modules, but it is far short of the theoretical limits for solar energy conversion. Designing a system capable of achieving ultra high efficiency of 50% or greater cannot be achieved by refinement and iteration of current design approaches. This thesis takes a systems approach to designing a photovoltaic system capable of 50% efficient performance using conventional diode-based solar cells. The effort began with an exploration of the limiting efficiency of spectrum splitting ensembles with 2 to 20 sub cells in different electrical configurations. Incorporating realistic non-ideal performance with the computationally simple detailed balance approach resulted in practical limits that are useful to identify specific cell performance requirements. This effort quantified the relative benefit of additional cells and concentration for system efficiency, which will help in designing practical optical systems. Efforts to improve the quality of the solar cells themselves focused on the development of tunable lattice constant epitaxial templates. Initially intended to enable lattice matched multijunction solar cells, these templates would enable increased flexibility in band gap selection for spectrum splitting ensembles and enhanced radiative quality relative to metamorphic growth. The III-V material family is commonly used for multijunction solar cells both for its high radiative quality and for the ease of integrating multiple band gaps into one monolithic growth. The band gap flexibility is limited by the lattice constant of available growth templates. The virtual substrate consists of a thin III-V film with the desired

  17. A Rule-Based Local Search Algorithm for General Shift Design Problems in Airport Ground Handling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Tommy

    We consider a generalized version of the shift design problem where shifts are created to cover a multiskilled demand and fit the parameters of the workforce. We present a collection of constraints and objectives for the generalized shift design problem. A local search solution framework with mul......We consider a generalized version of the shift design problem where shifts are created to cover a multiskilled demand and fit the parameters of the workforce. We present a collection of constraints and objectives for the generalized shift design problem. A local search solution framework...... with multiple neighborhoods and a loosely coupled rule engine based on simulated annealing is presented. Computational experiments on real-life data from various airport ground handling organization show the performance and flexibility of the proposed algorithm....

  18. Design Protocols and Analytical Strategies that Incorporate Structural Reliability Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Stephen F.

    1997-01-01

    Ceramic matrix composites (CMC) and intermetallic materials (e.g., single crystal nickel aluminide) are high performance materials that exhibit attractive mechanical, thermal and chemical properties. These materials are critically important in advancing certain performance aspects of gas turbine engines. From an aerospace engineer's perspective the new generation of ceramic composites and intermetallics offers a significant potential for raising the thrust/weight ratio and reducing NO(x) emissions of gas turbine engines. These aspects have increased interest in utilizing these materials in the hot sections of turbine engines. However, as these materials evolve and their performance characteristics improve a persistent need exists for state-of-the-art analytical methods that predict the response of components fabricated from CMC and intermetallic material systems. This need provided the motivation for the technology developed under this research effort. Continuous ceramic fiber composites exhibit an increase in work of fracture, which allows for "graceful" rather than catastrophic failure. When loaded in the fiber direction, these composites retain substantial strength capacity beyond the initiation of transverse matrix cracking despite the fact that neither of its constituents would exhibit such behavior if tested alone. As additional load is applied beyond first matrix cracking, the matrix tends to break in a series of cracks bridged by the ceramic fibers. Any additional load is born increasingly by the fibers until the ultimate strength of the composite is reached. Thus modeling efforts supported under this research effort have focused on predicting this sort of behavior. For single crystal intermetallics the issues that motivated the technology development involved questions relating to material behavior and component design. Thus the research effort supported by this grant had to determine the statistical nature and source of fracture in a high strength, Ni

  19. Variation in treatment strategies of Swiss general practitioners for subclinical hypothyroidism in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner, Christine; den Elzen, Wendy P J; Blum, Manuel R; Coslovsky, Michael; Streit, Sven; Frey, Peter; Herzig, Lilli; Haller, Dagmar M; Mooijaart, Simon P; Bischoff, Thomas; Rosemann, Thomas; Gussekloo, Jacobijn; Rodondi, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    As the best management of subclinical hypothyroidism is controversial, we aimed to assess variations in treatment strategies depending on different Swiss regions, physician and patient characteristics. We performed a case-based survey among general practitioners (GPs) in different Swiss regions, which consisted of eight hypothetical cases presenting a female patient with subclinical hypothyroidism and nonspecific complaints differing by age, vitality status and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) concentration. A total of 262 GPs participated in the survey. There was considerable variation in the levothyroxine starting dose chosen by GPs, ranging from 25 µg to 100 µg. Across the Swiss regions, GPs in the Bern region were significantly more inclined to treat, with a higher probability of initiating treatment (60%, p = 0.01) and higher mean starting doses (45 µg, p treatment rate and other physician characteristics. GPs were more reluctant to initiate treatment in 85-year-old than in 70-year-old women (odds ratio [OR] 0.77, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.63-0.94), and more likely to treat women with a TSH of 15 mU/l than those with a TSH of 6mU/l (OR 8.71, 95% CI 6.21-12.20). There are strong variations in treatment strategies for elderly patients with subclinical hypothyroidism across different Swiss regions, including use of higher starting doses than the recommended 25 µg in the Swiss guidelines, which recommend a starting dose of 25 µg. These variations likely reflect the current uncertainty about the benefits of treatment, which arise from the current lack of evidence from adequately powered clinical trials.

  20. Nonrandom Intrafraction Target Motions and General Strategy for Correction of Spine Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Lijun; Sahgal, Arjun; Hossain, Sabbir; Chuang, Cynthia; Descovich, Martina; Huang, Kim; Gottschalk, Alex; Larson, David A.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To characterize nonrandom intrafraction target motions for spine stereotactic body radiotherapy and to develop a method of correction via image guidance. The dependence of target motions, as well as the effectiveness of the correction strategy for lesions of different locations within the spine, was analyzed. Methods and Materials: Intrafraction target motions for 64 targets in 64 patients treated with a total of 233 fractions were analyzed. Based on the target location, the cases were divided into three groups, i.e., cervical (n = 20 patients), thoracic (n = 20 patients), or lumbar-sacrum (n = 24 patients) lesions. For each case, time-lag autocorrelation analysis was performed for each degree of freedom of motion that included both translations (x, y, and z shifts) and rotations (roll, yaw, and pitch). A general correction strategy based on periodic interventions was derived to determine the time interval required between two adjacent interventions, to overcome the patient-specific target motions. Results: Nonrandom target motions were detected for 100% of cases regardless of target locations. Cervical spine targets were found to possess the highest incidence of nonrandom target motion compared with thoracic and lumbar-sacral lesions (p < 0.001). The average time needed to maintain the target motion to within 1 mm of translation or 1 deg. of rotational deviation was 5.5 min, 5.9 min, and 7.1 min for cervical, thoracic, and lumbar-sacrum locations, respectively (at 95% confidence level). Conclusions: A high incidence of nonrandom intrafraction target motions was found for spine stereotactic body radiotherapy treatments. Periodic interventions at approximately every 5 minutes or less were needed to overcome such motions.

  1. Tailoring DNA vaccines: designing strategies against HER2 positive cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina eMarchini

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The crucial role of HER2 in epithelial transformation and its selective overexpression on cancer tissues makes it an ideal target for cancer immunotherapies such as passive immunotherapy with Trastuzumab. There are, however, a number of concerns regarding the use of monoclonal antibodies which include resistance, repeated treatments, considerable costs and side effects that make active immunotherapies against HER2 desirable alternative approaches. The efficacy of anti-HER2 DNA vaccination has been widely demonstrated in transgenic cancer-prone mice, which recapitulate several features of human breast cancers. Nonetheless, the rational design of a cancer vaccine able to trigger a long lasting immunity, and thus prevent tumor recurrence in patients, would require the understanding of how tolerance and immunosuppression regulate antitumor immune responses and, at the same time, the identification of the most immunogenic portions of the target protein. We herein retrace the findings that led to our most promising DNA vaccines that, by encoding human/rat chimeric forms of HER2, are able to circumvent peripheral tolerance. Preclinical data obtained with these chimeric DNA vaccines have provided the rationale for their use in an ongoing phase I clinical trial (EudraCT 2011-001104-34.

  2. Establishing Design Strategies and an Assessment Tool of Home Appliances to Promote Sustainable Behavior for the New Poor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jui-Che Tu

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Environmental benefits related to home appliance life cycles depend on how these products are used. Designing home appliances that promote sustainable behavior is an effective way to reduce environmental impacts. This study aimed to increase relevant opportunities for promoting sustainable behavior practices on the new poor through home appliances, which is rarely discussed in the fields of design for sustainable behavior (DfSB and product design. In particular, relevant assessment tools or indicators are lacking in DfSB, and people’s use of home appliances is generally unsustainable. Therefore, repertory grid technology was used to understand the perceptions of the new poor, develop an assessment tool, and construct design strategies for home appliances that promote sustainable behavior. Data were collected from the new poor and from designers. Through cluster and principal component analyses, three strategy types were proposed that corresponded to different product features, suggestions, and guidance. In addition, the effectiveness and potential of an assessment tool were demonstrated using the Wilcoxon rank test. The findings could be used by designers, retailers, and green marketers to propose effective product design programs that promote sustainable behavior of the new poor during product use.

  3. Strategies and Shoes: Can We Ever Have Enough? Teaching and Using Reading Comprehension Strategies in General and Vocational Programmes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brevik, Lisbeth M.

    2017-01-01

    This qualitative study examines a reading comprehension strategy use in English as a second language in upper-secondary schools one year after teachers participated in a professional development course. The data comprises observations, teacher narratives, and student interviews. A key finding is that the teachers used a repertoire of strategies…

  4. Simple plant-based design strategies for volatile organic pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narayanan, M.; Erickson, L.E.; Davis, L.C.

    1999-12-31

    Vegetation which enhances in-situ biodegradation of organic compounds can play a key role in the bioremediation of such contaminants in polluted soils and groundwater. Plants may act directly on some contaminants by degrading them, but their main effect is to enhance microbial populations in the thizosphere. Microbially mediated transformations are thus indirectly facilitated by root exudates which nourish the indigenous microorganisms. Plants may also be viewed as a solar driven pump-and-treat system which can contain a plume and reduce the spread of contaminated water. Laboratory investigations carried out in a growth chamber with alfalfa plants provide evidence for the (microbially mediated) biodegradation of organic compounds such as toluene, phenol and TCE. Alfalfa plants tolerate concentrations of these organics in contaminated water up to 100 mg/L. They facilitate transfer of the contaminants from the saturated to the vadose zone. For volatile organic compounds such as TCE, vegetation provides a controlled release of compounds and hence assures dilution of the TCE evapotranspired into the atmosphere from contaminated soils. Using a range of calculated plausible scenarios, it is shown that intermedia transfer caused by volatilization associated with plants is most unlikely to lead to exceedance of standards for gas phase contamination, for most volatile contaminants. Possible action level exceedances might occur with highly toxic substances including vinyl chloride and carbon tetrachloride, if they re present in ground water at levels above kilogram amounts in a single plume of a few hectares, and released by vigorously growing plants under hot dry conditions. Information needed for the calculation and design of plant-based bioremediation systems for typical sites is discussed in this paper.

  5. RosettaAntibodyDesign (RAbD): A general framework for computational antibody design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adolf-Bryfogle, Jared; Kalyuzhniy, Oleks; Kubitz, Michael; Hu, Xiaozhen; Adachi, Yumiko; Schief, William R.

    2018-01-01

    A structural-bioinformatics-based computational methodology and framework have been developed for the design of antibodies to targets of interest. RosettaAntibodyDesign (RAbD) samples the diverse sequence, structure, and binding space of an antibody to an antigen in highly customizable protocols for the design of antibodies in a broad range of applications. The program samples antibody sequences and structures by grafting structures from a widely accepted set of the canonical clusters of CDRs (North et al., J. Mol. Biol., 406:228–256, 2011). It then performs sequence design according to amino acid sequence profiles of each cluster, and samples CDR backbones using a flexible-backbone design protocol incorporating cluster-based CDR constraints. Starting from an existing experimental or computationally modeled antigen-antibody structure, RAbD can be used to redesign a single CDR or multiple CDRs with loops of different length, conformation, and sequence. We rigorously benchmarked RAbD on a set of 60 diverse antibody–antigen complexes, using two design strategies—optimizing total Rosetta energy and optimizing interface energy alone. We utilized two novel metrics for measuring success in computational protein design. The design risk ratio (DRR) is equal to the frequency of recovery of native CDR lengths and clusters divided by the frequency of sampling of those features during the Monte Carlo design procedure. Ratios greater than 1.0 indicate that the design process is picking out the native more frequently than expected from their sampled rate. We achieved DRRs for the non-H3 CDRs of between 2.4 and 4.0. The antigen risk ratio (ARR) is the ratio of frequencies of the native amino acid types, CDR lengths, and clusters in the output decoys for simulations performed in the presence and absence of the antigen. For CDRs, we achieved cluster ARRs as high as 2.5 for L1 and 1.5 for H2. For sequence design simulations without CDR grafting, the overall recovery for the

  6. Strategies in architectural design and urban planning in the context of energy efficiency in buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuksanović Dušan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Some of the design concepts in architecture and urban planning, created on demands of energy efficiency, that apply in early stages of design process a schematic design, i.e. in the phase of creating the basis of architectural or planning solution, are analyzed in this paper. These design strategies have a role to be comprehensive enough to provide application of their key potentials, but at the same time they need to remain simple enough and not burden a designer with inadequate number of information. Design models for passive heating, passive cooling and natural lighting that refer to the buildings mainly have been considered, together with the principles for the settlements or building groups. Guiding a design concept towards the one of described design principles e.g. their application within the diurnal and seasonal cycles, depends on local climatic conditions and type of building (residential, commercial or educational. The presentation of a model is followed by the explanation of the phenomena of impacts/influences (climate program and answers (the concept, passive components related to a certain strategy, and by the illustration of a strategy on a realized object (case study. Issues of design strategies on energy efficiency are considered through different levels, e.g. through spatial organization, form and added components of buildings, as well as structure and characteristics of elements of external structures - facades and roofs.

  7. Study protocol of an economic evaluation of an enhanced implementation strategy for the treatment of low back pain in general practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Cathrine; Riis, Allan; Pedersen, Kjeld Møller

    2014-01-01

    on the design of the health economic evaluation. Methods/design: The economic evaluation is carried out alongside a cluster randomised controlled trial consisting of 60 general practices in the North Denmark Region. An expected 1,200 patients between the age of 18 and 65 years with a low back pain diagnosis...... include all relevant additional costs of the extended implementation strategy compared to usual implementation. The economic evaluation will be performed from both a societal perspective and a health sector perspective with a 12-month time horizon. Discussion: It is expected that the extended...

  8. 77 FR 38124 - Inspector General; Line of Succession Designation, No. 23-C, Revision 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-26

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Inspector General; Line of Succession Designation, No. 23-C, Revision 5 This document replaces and supersedes ``Delegation of Authority and Line of Succession No. 23-C, Revision 4.'' Line of Succession Designation, No. 23-C, Revision 5: Effective immediately, the Inspector...

  9. Peer Mentor Program for the General Chemistry Laboratory Designed to Improve Undergraduate STEM Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damkaci, Fehmi; Braun, Timothy F.; Gublo, Kristin

    2017-01-01

    We describe the design and implementation of an undergraduate peer mentor program that can overlay an existing general chemistry laboratory and is designed to improve STEM student retention. For the first four freshman cohorts going through the program, year-to-year retention improved by a four-year average of 20% for students in peer-mentored…

  10. Generalized Simulation Model for a Switched-Mode Power Supply Design Course Using MATLAB/SIMULINK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Wei-Hsin; Wang, Shun-Chung; Liu, Yi-Hua

    2012-01-01

    Switched-mode power supplies (SMPS) are becoming an essential part of many electronic systems as the industry drives toward miniaturization and energy efficiency. However, practical SMPS design courses are seldom offered. In this paper, a generalized MATLAB/SIMULINK modeling technique is first presented. A proposed practical SMPS design course at…

  11. General design methodology applied to the research domain of physical programming for computer illiterate

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Smith, Andrew C

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The authors discuss the application of the 'general design methodology‘ in the context of a physical computing project. The aim of the project was to design and develop physical objects that could serve as metaphors for computer programming elements...

  12. Green Goggles: Designing and Teaching a General Chemistry Course to Nonmajors Using a Green Chemistry Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    A novel course using green chemistry as the context to teach general chemistry fundamentals was designed, implemented and is described here. The course design included an active learning approach, with major course graded components including a weekly blog entry, exams, and a semester project that was disseminated by wiki and a public symposium.…

  13. Guiding Design of University STEM Courses Based on Gifted Status and Strategies for Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawthorne Allen, A. M.

    2016-12-01

    Starting from general population statistics and the self-selection of STEM majors by students, it can be concluded that science classes have a population of students trending towards the gifted, regardless of academic institution and admissions selectivity. On average, upper level and graduate STEM courses have an increasingly larger fraction of gifted students. I propose that the average level of giftedness of the students within a course serves as an overriding characteristic that is more significant than other demographic variables. Using this model when designing a STEM course can lead to more successful learning outcomes. In 1991, the Columbus Group defined giftedness as "asynchronous development in which advanced cognitive abilities and heightened intensity combine to create inner experiences and awareness than are qualitatively different from the norm." These gifted characteristics are fundamentally innate lifelong traits that persist beyond K-12 designations and into our college classrooms. As this broader understanding of giftedness has emerged, myths and stereotypes in prior literature have also become clearer. Understanding and naming these myths can better impact our teaching effectiveness. While the diversity of gifted populations makes generalization difficult, gifted individuals can be described as having the following: asynchronous development, increased perceptivity, high sensitivity, perfectionism, and intensity. Several levels of giftedness have been identified on the basis of IQ scores or innate characteristics from birth. In addition, students who are twice-exceptional are yet another subpopulation present in our classes. If the average gifted level of STEM majors is higher than the norm population for a typical level of education, then understanding the characteristics of the subpopulations and the impact on classroom dynamics is essential. This directly impacts our STEM teaching pedagogy and style if productive learning outcomes are to be

  14. Assessment of off-design performance of a small-scale combined cooling and power system using an alternative operating strategy for gas turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Wei; Chen, Qiang; Lin, Ru-mou; Jin, Hong-guang

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We develop an off-design model for a CCP system driven by gas turbine. • An alternative operating strategy is proposed to improve the system performance. • Off-design performance of the combined cooling and power system (CCP) is enhanced. • Effects of both the different operating strategy are analyzed and compared. • Performance enhancement mechanism of the proposed operating strategy is presented. - Abstract: A small-scale combined cooling and power (CCP) system usually serves district air conditioning apart from power generation purposes. The typical system consists of a gas turbine and an exhaust gas-fired absorption refrigerator. The surplus heat of the gas turbine is recovered to generate cooling energy. In this way, the CCP system has a high overall efficiency at the design point. However, the CCP system usually runs under off-design conditions because the users’ demand varies frequently. The operating strategy of the gas turbine will affect the thermodynamic performance of itself and the entire CCP system. The operating strategies for gas turbines include the reducing turbine inlet temperature (TIT) and the compressor inlet air throttling (IAT). A CCP system, consisting of an OPRA gas turbine and a double effects absorption refrigerator, is investigated to identify the effects of different operating strategies. The CCP system is simulated based on the partial-load model of gas turbine and absorption refrigerator. The off-design performance of the CCP system is compared under different operating strategies. The results show that the IAT strategy is the better one. At 50% rated power output of the gas turbine, the IAT operating strategy can increase overall system efficiency by 10% compared with the TIT strategy. In general, the IAT operating strategy is suited for other gas turbines. However, the benefits of IAT should be investigated in the future, when different gas turbine is adopted. This study may provide a new operating

  15. A model of human decision making in complex systems and its use for design of system control strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasmussen, J.; Lind, M.

    1982-04-01

    The paper describes a model of operators' decision making in complex system control, based on studies of event reports and performance in control rooms. This study shows how operators base their decisions on knowledge of system properties at different levels of abstraction depending on their preception of the system's immediate control requirements. These levels correspond to the abstraction hierarchy including system purpose, functions, and physical details, which is generally used to describe a formal design process. In emergency situations the task of the operator is to design a suitabel control strategy for systems recovery, and the control systems designer should provide a man-machine interface, supporting the operator in identification of his task and in communication with the system at the level of abstraction corresponding to the immedite control requirement. A formalized representation of system properties in a multilevel flow model is described to provide a basis for an integrated control system design. (author)

  16. Entrepreneurship and response strategies to challenges in engineering and design education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Ulrik; Pineda, Andres Felipe Valderrama

    2012-01-01

    Entrepreneurship is one of the contemporary expectations to engineers and their training at engineering schools. But what is entrepreneurship? We propose three different conceptualizations of entrepreneurship in engineering and design programs. They are: (1) the technology-driven promotion response...... centered in technological development; (2) the business selection response strategy centered in business skills (which should be additional to the technical skills); and (3) the design intervention response strategy focused on a network approach to technology, business and society. These conceptualizations...... are response strategies from engineering communities, professors and institutions to perceived challenges. We argue that all engineering educators deal in one way or another with the three response strategies when approaching issues of curricular design, academicreform and the international accreditation...

  17. Model-based Organization Manning, Strategy, and Structure Design via Team Optimal Design (TOD) Methodology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Levchuk, Georgiy; Chopra, Kari; Paley, Michael; Levchuk, Yuri; Clark, David

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes a quantitative Team Optimal Design (TOD) methodology and its application to the design of optimized manning for E-10 Multi-sensor Command and Control Aircraft. The E-10 (USAF, 2002...

  18. Design of low-cost general purpose microcontroller based neuromuscular stimulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koçer, S; Rahmi Canal, M; Güler, I

    2000-04-01

    In this study, a general purpose, low-cost, programmable, portable and high performance stimulator is designed and implemented. For this purpose, a microcontroller is used in the design of the stimulator. The duty cycle and amplitude of the designed system can be controlled using a keyboard. The performance test of the system has shown that the results are reliable. The overall system can be used as the neuromuscular stimulator under safe conditions.

  19. Informing General CSCW Product Development through Cooperative Design in Specific Work Domains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbæk, Kaj; Mogensen, Preben Holst

    1997-01-01

    sharing of materials in the engineering domain. In our project, a single engineering company (Great Belt Link Ltd.) was chosen as the user organization. The paper summarizes the process from observational studies, over a future workshop and cooperative prototyping activities, to a pilot installation. We...... describe how these activities informed the general hypermedia framework and application design. Use scenarios and prototypes with example data from the users‘ daily work were used as sources both to trigger design ideas and new insights regarding work practice. Common participants in specific activities...... and general development activities supported transfer of work domain knowledge into general features of the product being developed. Mutual challenging characterized the interaction between specific cooperative analysis and design activities and general development activities. Prototypes, scenarios, materials...

  20. Educational strategies for architectural design management : the design of a new curriculum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, M.; Halman, J.I.M.

    1996-01-01

    This paper is about the design of a new curriculum on Architectural Design Management Systems. This curriculum is embedded in the Stan Ackermans lnstitute(SAI). The SAI is a school for continuing post graduate education on technological design. First some recent developments in the building industry

  1. Unileg Thermoelectric Generator Design for Oxide Thermoelectrics and Generalization of the Unileg Design Using an Idealized Metal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wijesooriyage, Waruna Dissanayaka; Rosendahl, Lasse; Brown, David R.

    2015-01-01

    the optimal area ratio for conductor and semiconductor given by the RCA. The results are further confirmed by finite-element analysis using COMSOL Multiphysics software. Furthermore, the U-TEG design is generalized by using an idealized metal with zero Seebeck coefficient. Even though the idealized metal has...

  2. A review of different behavior modification strategies designed to reduce sedentary screen behaviors in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steeves, Jeremy A; Thompson, Dixie L; Bassett, David R; Fitzhugh, Eugene C; Raynor, Hollie A

    2012-01-01

    Previous research suggests that reducing sedentary screen behaviors may be a strategy for preventing and treating obesity in children. This systematic review describes strategies used in interventions designed to either solely target sedentary screen behaviors or multiple health behaviors, including sedentary screen behaviors. Eighteen studies were included in this paper; eight targeting sedentary screen behaviors only, and ten targeting multiple health behaviors. All studies used behavior modification strategies for reducing sedentary screen behaviors in children (aged 1-12 years). Nine studies only used behavior modification strategies, and nine studies supplemented behavior modification strategies with an electronic device to enhance sedentary screen behaviors reductions. Many interventions (50%) significantly reduced sedentary screen behaviors; however the magnitude of the significant reductions varied greatly (-0.44 to -3.1 h/day) and may have been influenced by the primary focus of the intervention, number of behavior modification strategies used, and other tools used to limit sedentary screen behaviors.

  3. A general solution to the material performance index for bending strength design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgess, S.C.; Pasini, D.; Smith, D.J.; Alemzadeh, K.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a general solution to the material performance index for the bending strength design of beams. In general, the performance index for strength design is ρ f q /ρ where σ f is the material strength, ρ is the material density and q is a function of the direction of scaling. Previous studies have only solved q for three particular cases: proportional scaling of width and height (q=2/3), constrained height (q=1) and constrained width (q=1/2). This paper presents a general solution to the exponent q for any arbitrary direction of scaling. The index is used to produce performance maps that rank relative material performance for particular design cases. The performance index and the performance maps are applied to a design case study

  4. Usability Design Strategies for Children: Developing Children's Learning and Knowledge in Decreasing Their Dental Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahaya, Wan Ahmad Jaafar Wan; Salam, Sobihatun Nur Abdul

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an example of how usability design strategies for children can be designed into educational material using CD-ROM based multimedia application for assisting parents and teachers to develop children's learning and knowledge in decreasing as well as motivate children aged 7-9 years old to reduce their anxious feelings towards…

  5. Reasoning Strategies in the Context of Engineering Design with Everyday Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worsley, Marcelo; Blikstein, Paulo

    2016-01-01

    "Making" represents an increasingly popular label for describing a form of engineering design. While making is growing in popularity, there are still open questions about the strategies that students are using in these activities. Assessing and improving learning in making/ engineering design contexts require that we have a better…

  6. Evolutionary Agent-based Models to design distributed water management strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliani, M.; Castelletti, A.; Reed, P. M.

    2012-12-01

    There is growing awareness in the scientific community that the traditional centralized approach to water resources management, as described in much of the water resources literature, provides an ideal optimal solution, which is certainly useful to quantify the best physically achievable performance, but is generally inapplicable. Most real world water resources management problems are indeed characterized by the presence of multiple, distributed and institutionally-independent decision-makers. Multi-Agent Systems provide a potentially more realistic alternative framework to model multiple and self-interested decision-makers in a credible context. Each decision-maker can be represented by an agent who, being self-interested, acts according to local objective functions and produces negative externalities on system level objectives. Different levels of coordination can potentially be included in the framework by designing coordination mechanisms to drive the current decision-making structure toward the global system efficiency. Yet, the identification of effective coordination strategies can be particularly complex in modern institutional contexts and current practice is dependent on largely ad-hoc coordination strategies. In this work we propose a novel Evolutionary Agent-based Modeling (EAM) framework that enables a mapping of fully uncoordinated and centrally coordinated solutions into their relative "many-objective" tradeoffs using multiobjective evolutionary algorithms. Then, by analysing the conflicts between local individual agent and global system level objectives it is possible to more fully understand the causes, consequences, and potential solution strategies for coordination failures. Game-theoretic criteria have value for identifying the most interesting alternatives from a policy making point of view as well as the coordination mechanisms that can be applied to obtain these interesting solutions. The proposed approach is numerically tested on a

  7. Conceptual design strategy for liquid-metal-wall inertial-fusion reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monsler, M.J.; Meier, W.R.

    1981-02-01

    The liquid-metal-wall chamber has emerged as an attractive reactor concept for inertial fusion energy conversion. The principal feature of this concept is a thick, free-flowing blanket of liquid metal used to protect the structure of the reactor. The development and design of liquid-metal-wall chambers over the past decade provides a basis for formulating a conceptual design strategy for such chambers. Both the attractive and unattractive features of a LMW chamber are enumerated, and a design strategy is formulated which accommodates the engineering constraints while minimizing the liquid-metal flow rate.

  8. Conceptual design strategy for liquid-metal-wall inertial-fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monsler, M.J.; Meier, W.R.

    1981-02-01

    The liquid-metal-wall chamber has emerged as an attractive reactor concept for inertial fusion energy conversion. The principal feature of this concept is a thick, free-flowing blanket of liquid metal used to protect the structure of the reactor. The development and design of liquid-metal-wall chambers over the past decade provides a basis for formulating a conceptual design strategy for such chambers. Both the attractive and unattractive features of a LMW chamber are enumerated, and a design strategy is formulated which accommodates the engineering constraints while minimizing the liquid-metal flow rate

  9. US general aviation: The ingredients for a renaissance. A vision and technology strategy for US industry, NASA, FAA, universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Bruce

    1993-01-01

    General aviation today is a vital component in the nation's air transportation system. It is threatened for survival but has enormous potential for expansion in utility and use. This potential for expansion is fueled by new satellite navigation and communication systems, small computers, flat panel displays, and advanced aerodynamics, materials and manufacturing methods, and propulsion technologies which create opportunities for new levels of environmental and economic acceptability. Expanded general aviation utility and use could have a large impact on the nation's jobs, commerce, industry, airspace capacity, trade balance, and quality of life. This paper presents, in viewgraph form, a general overview of U.S. general aviation. Topics covered include general aviation shipment and billings; airport and general aviation infrastructure; cockpit, airplane, and airspace technologies; market demand; air traffic operations and aviation accidents; fuel efficiency comparisons; and general aviation goals and strategy.

  10. Design strategy for the combined system of shunt passive and series active filters

    OpenAIRE

    Fujita, Hideki; Akagi, Hirofumi

    1991-01-01

    A design strategy for the combined power filter for a three-phase twelve-pulse thyristor rectifier is proposed. The shunt passive filter, which can minimize the output voltage of the series active filter, is designed and tested in a prototype model. A specially designed shunt passive filter makes it possible to reduce the required rating of the series active filter to 60% compared with a conventional shunt passive filter

  11. Case-based learning in VTLE: An effective strategy for improving learning design

    OpenAIRE

    Guàrdia Ortiz, Lourdes; Sangrà, Albert; Maina, Marcelo Fabián

    2014-01-01

    This article presents preliminary research from an instructional design perspective on the design of the case method as an integral part of pedagogy and technology. Key features and benefits using this teaching and learning strategy in a Virtual Teaching and Learning Environment (VTLE) are identified, taking into account the requirements of the European Higher Education Area (EHEA) for a competence-based curricula design. The implications of these findings for a learning object appro...

  12. Design for experience in the fashion industry: coping strategies in the era of homogenization

    OpenAIRE

    PETERMANS, Ann; Kent, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to focus on how the globalised fashion industry impacts on the way that strategies of clothing brands are translated into the design of their retail environments. The first research question explores the conceptualisation of retail environments by retailers, designers and planners so that they can continue to be perceived as ‘unique’ by customers. The second asks whether retailers, designers and planners can manage the trend towards homogenization in the near future. ...

  13. Primary energy implications of different design strategies for an apartment building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tettey, Uniben Yao Ayikoe; Dodoo, Ambrose; Gustavsson, Leif

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we explored the effects of different design strategies on final and primary energy use for production and operation of a newly constructed apartment building. We analysed alternatives of the building “As built” as well as to energy efficiency levels of the Swedish building code and passive house criteria. Our approach is based on achieving improved versions of the building alternatives from combination of design strategies giving the lowest space heating and cooling demand and primary energy use, respectively. We found that the combination of design strategies resulting in the improved building alternatives varies depending on the approach. The improved building alternatives gave up to 19–34% reduction in operation primary energy use compared to the initial alternatives. The share of production primary energy use of the improved building alternatives was 39–54% of the total primary energy use for production, space heating, space cooling and ventilation over 50-year lifespan, compared to 31–42% for the initial alternatives. This study emphasises the importance of incorporating appropriate design strategies to reduce primary energy use for building operation and suggests that combining such strategies with careful choice of building frame materials could result in significant primary energy savings in the built environment. - Highlights: • Primary energy implications of different design strategies were analysed. • The improved building alternatives had 19–34% lower operation primary energy use. • The improved building alternatives had higher production primary energy use. • Still, the improved building alternatives had lower overall primary energy use. • Design strategies should be combined with careful building frame material choice.

  14. Generalized requirements and decompositions for the design of test parts for micro additive manufacturing research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thompson, Mary Kathryn; Clemmensen, Line Katrine Harder

    2015-01-01

    The design of experimental test parts to characterize micro additive manufacturing (AM) processes is challenging due to the influence of the manufacturing and metrology processes. This work builds on the lessons learned from a case study in the literature to derive generalized requirements and high...... level decompositions for the design of test parts and the design of experiments to characterize micro additive manufacturing processes. While the test parts and the experiments described are still work in progress, the generic requirements derived from them can serve as a starting point for the design...... of other micro additive manufacturing related studies and their decompositions can help structure future work....

  15. Generalized design of high performance shunt active power filter with output LCL filter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Yi; Loh, Poh Chiang; Wang, Peng

    2012-01-01

    parameters, interactions between resonance damping and harmonic compensation, bandwidth design of the closed-loop system, and active damping implementation with fewer current sensors. These described design concerns, together with their generalized design procedure, are applied to an analytical example......This paper concentrates on the design, control, and implementation of an LCL-filter-based shunt active power filter (SAPF), which can effectively compensate for harmonic currents produced by nonlinear loads in a three-phase three-wire power system. With an LCL filter added at its output...

  16. What can Design Bring to Strategy? Designing Thinking as a Tool for Innovation and Change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kathryn Best

    2011-01-01

    This publication by Kathryn Best accompanied the Lector’s inauguration as head of the research group Cross-media, Brand, Reputation & Design Management (CBRD) in January 2011. The book outlines current debates around the Creative Industries, business and design education and the place of ’well

  17. Nanocrystal conversion chemistry: A unified and materials-general strategy for the template-based synthesis of nanocrystalline solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasquez, Yolanda; Henkes, Amanda E.; Chris Bauer, J.; Schaak, Raymond E.

    2008-01-01

    The concept of nanocrystal conversion chemistry, which involves the use of pre-formed nanoparticles as templates for chemical transformation into derivative solids, has emerged as a powerful approach for designing the synthesis of complex nanocrystalline solids. The general strategy exploits established synthetic capabilities in simple nanocrystal systems and uses these nanocrystals as templates that help to define the composition, crystal structure, and morphology of product nanocrystals. This article highlights key examples of 'conversion chemistry' approaches to the synthesis of nanocrystalline solids using a variety of techniques, including galvanic replacement, diffusion, oxidation, and ion exchange. The discussion is organized according to classes of solids, highlighting the diverse target systems that are accessible using similar chemical concepts: metals, oxides, chalcogenides, phosphides, alloys, intermetallic compounds, sulfides, and nitrides. - Graphical abstract: Nanocrystal conversion chemistry uses pre-formed nanoparticles as templates for chemical transformation into derivative solids, helping to define the composition, crystal structure, and morphology of product nanocrystals that have more complex features than their precursor templates. This article highlights the application of this concept to diverse classes of solids, including metals, oxides, chalcogenides, phosphides, alloys, intermetallics, sulfides, and nitrides

  18. Frontiers in biomaterials the design, synthetic strategies and biocompatibility of polymer scaffolds for biomedical application

    CERN Document Server

    Cao, Shunsheng

    2014-01-01

    Frontiers in Biomaterials: The Design, Synthetic Strategies and Biocompatibility of Polymer Scaffolds for Biomedical Application, Volume 1" highlights the importance of biomaterials and their interaction with biological system. The need for the development of biomaterials as scaffold for tissue regeneration is driven by the increasing demands for materials that mimic functions of extracellular matrices of body tissues.This ebook covers the latest challenges on the biocompatibility of scaffold overtime after implantation and discusses the requirement of innovative technologies and strategies f

  19. Comprehension with Instructional Media for Middle School Science: Holistic Performative Design Strategy and Cognitive Load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Matthew Owen

    This study identifies three distinct levels of text-image integration in page design in a linear relationship of lesser to greater integration: prose primary, prose subsumed, and fully integrated strategies. Science textbook pages were redesigned according to these holistic design strategies for 158 7th-grade students. There were three separate treatment tests, as well as a pre-test and post-test, and pilot tests with both undergraduate students and the subjects themselves. Subjects found the fully integrated strategy to produce the most visually interesting designs and the prose primary strategy to produce the least interesting, with prose subsumed definitively in between (according to 95% confidence intervals). The strategy employed significantly altered interest in science subject matter in one of three treatments (ANOVA, P=0.0446), where a Student's t-test revealed that the prose subsumed strategy produced higher interest in subject matter than prose primary. The strategy employed significantly altered comprehension of abstract relationships in one of three treatments (ANOVA, P=0.0202), where a Student's t-test revealed that the fully integrated strategy resulted in greater comprehension than prose primary. For the same treatment condition significant differences were found through ANOVA for factual-level knowledge (P=0.0289) but not conceptual-level knowledge ( P=0.0586). For factual-level knowledge prose primary resulted in lesser comprehension than both prose subsumed and fully integrated. Comprehension is defined according to cognitive load theory. No strategy impact on perception of task difficulty was found. This study was approved by North Carolina State University's Institutional Review Board and Wake County Public School System's Research Review Committee.

  20. Building communication strategy on health prevention through the human-centered design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine de Mello Freire

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available It has been identified a latent need for developing efficient communication strategies for prevention of diseases and also, design as a potential agent to create communications artifacts that are able to promote self-care. In order to analyze a design process that develops this kind of artifact, an action research in IAPI Health Center in Porto Alegre was done. The action’s goal was to design a strategy to promote self-care to prevent cervical cancer. The process was conducted from the human centered design approach - HCD, which seeks to create solutions desirable for people and feasible for organizations from three main phases: a Hear, in which inspirations are originated from stories collected from people; b Create, which aims to translate these knowledge into prototypes; and, c Deliver, where the prototypes are tested and developed with users. Communication strategies were supported by design studies about visual-verbal rhetoric. As results, this design approach has shown adequate to create communication strategies targeted at self-care behaviors, aiming to empower users to change their behavior.

  1. Design Driven Innovation as a Differentiation Strategy - in the Context of Automotive Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mosarrat Farhana

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Though, in the automotive industry, technology is considered as a source of innovation and development, emerging change in consumer perception has brought industry focus on design. Evolution of this industry is closely related to the convergence of technology and design. In such context, implication of design driven innovation strategy in the automotive industry has potential to be explored and to create sustained competitive advantage through balancing customers’ need, technological opportunities and product meaning. The aim of this paper is to give a holistic view of design driven innovation as a differentiation strategy in the automotive industry and its implication for strategic management through some relevant research reviews and empirical information. On the contrary, this research lacks detailed description on industry practice to provide greater breadth, since it attempts to correlate the strategic concept of design with the dynamic capability of a firm in that particular industry.

  2. Nonlinear Observer Design of the Generalized Rössler Hyperchaotic Systems via DIL Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeong-Jeu Sun

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The generalized Rössler hyperchaotic systems are presented, and the state observation problem of such systems is investigated. Based on the differential inequality with Lyapunov methodology (DIL methodology, a nonlinear observer design for the generalized Rössler hyperchaotic systems is developed to guarantee the global exponential stability of the resulting error system. Meanwhile, the guaranteed exponential decay rate can be accurately estimated. Finally, numerical simulations are provided to illustrate the feasibility and effectiveness of proposed approach.

  3. Adaptive fuzzy bilinear observer based synchronization design for generalized Lorenz system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baek, Jaeho; Lee, Heejin; Kim, Seungwoo; Park, Mignon

    2009-01-01

    This Letter proposes an adaptive fuzzy bilinear observer (FBO) based synchronization design for generalized Lorenz system (GLS). The GLS can be described to TS fuzzy bilinear generalized Lorenz model (FBGLM) with their states immeasurable and their parameters unknown. We design an adaptive FBO based on TS FBGLM for synchronization. Lyapunov theory is employed to guarantee the stability of error dynamic system via linear matrix equalities (LMIs) and to derive the adaptive laws to estimate unknown parameters. Numerical example is given to demonstrate the validity of our proposed adaptive FBO approach for synchronization.

  4. Coping with Workplace Violence against General Practitioners and Nurses in Heilongjiang Province, China: Social Supports and Prevention Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Siqi; Qu, Lijun; Liu, He; Gao, Lijun; Jiao, Mingli; Liu, Jinghua; Liang, Libo; Zhao, Yanming; Wu, Qunhong

    2016-01-01

    The study's objectives were to: 1) use social support theory to examine factors influencing healthcare workers' opinions about workplace violence (WPV) prevention strategies, and 2) to determine the types of support that general practitioners (GPs) and general nurses sought and expected to use after WPV exposure. A cross-sectional survey was used to assess a sample of 448 GPs and 412 general nurses from 90 township hospitals located in Heilongjiang province, China. Results revealed that workers exposed to physical, psychological or both WPV types had a strong opinion about the necessity of improving diagnosis/treatment competence, developing violence prevention guidelines and plans, using protective equipment, and reinforcing staff by providing back-up support. The last two strategies were also selected by tertiary hospital workers in our previous study. In addition, workers with high anxiety selected the following prevention strategies as most effective: improving doctor-patient communication skills; installing cameras on wards; keeping work areas bright; improvements in violence reporting, statistics, and interventions; security patrols in the key departments; reinforcing staff; and correcting inaccurate media perspectives and reports. The last four strategies were also selected by tertiary hospital workers. All respondents expected to receive organisational and social support. In conclusion, these prevention strategies should be tailored to the different requirements of specific populations. Furthermore, it is necessary for organisations, the public, and policymakers to provide powerful support in WPV prevention.

  5. Coping with Workplace Violence against General Practitioners and Nurses in Heilongjiang Province, China: Social Supports and Prevention Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, He; Gao, Lijun; Jiao, Mingli; Liu, Jinghua; Liang, Libo; Zhao, Yanming; Wu, Qunhong

    2016-01-01

    The study’s objectives were to: 1) use social support theory to examine factors influencing healthcare workers’ opinions about workplace violence (WPV) prevention strategies, and 2) to determine the types of support that general practitioners (GPs) and general nurses sought and expected to use after WPV exposure. A cross-sectional survey was used to assess a sample of 448 GPs and 412 general nurses from 90 township hospitals located in Heilongjiang province, China. Results revealed that workers exposed to physical, psychological or both WPV types had a strong opinion about the necessity of improving diagnosis/treatment competence, developing violence prevention guidelines and plans, using protective equipment, and reinforcing staff by providing back-up support. The last two strategies were also selected by tertiary hospital workers in our previous study. In addition, workers with high anxiety selected the following prevention strategies as most effective: improving doctor-patient communication skills; installing cameras on wards; keeping work areas bright; improvements in violence reporting, statistics, and interventions; security patrols in the key departments; reinforcing staff; and correcting inaccurate media perspectives and reports. The last four strategies were also selected by tertiary hospital workers. All respondents expected to receive organisational and social support. In conclusion, these prevention strategies should be tailored to the different requirements of specific populations. Furthermore, it is necessary for organisations, the public, and policymakers to provide powerful support in WPV prevention. PMID:27326460

  6. Coping with Workplace Violence against General Practitioners and Nurses in Heilongjiang Province, China: Social Supports and Prevention Strategies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siqi Zhao

    Full Text Available The study's objectives were to: 1 use social support theory to examine factors influencing healthcare workers' opinions about workplace violence (WPV prevention strategies, and 2 to determine the types of support that general practitioners (GPs and general nurses sought and expected to use after WPV exposure. A cross-sectional survey was used to assess a sample of 448 GPs and 412 general nurses from 90 township hospitals located in Heilongjiang province, China. Results revealed that workers exposed to physical, psychological or both WPV types had a strong opinion about the necessity of improving diagnosis/treatment competence, developing violence prevention guidelines and plans, using protective equipment, and reinforcing staff by providing back-up support. The last two strategies were also selected by tertiary hospital workers in our previous study. In addition, workers with high anxiety selected the following prevention strategies as most effective: improving doctor-patient communication skills; installing cameras on wards; keeping work areas bright; improvements in violence reporting, statistics, and interventions; security patrols in the key departments; reinforcing staff; and correcting inaccurate media perspectives and reports. The last four strategies were also selected by tertiary hospital workers. All respondents expected to receive organisational and social support. In conclusion, these prevention strategies should be tailored to the different requirements of specific populations. Furthermore, it is necessary for organisations, the public, and policymakers to provide powerful support in WPV prevention.

  7. A multifaceted implementation strategy versus passive implementation of low back pain guidelines in general practice: a cluster randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riis, Allan; Jensen, Cathrine Elgaard; Bro, Flemming; Maindal, Helle Terkildsen; Petersen, Karin Dam; Bendtsen, Mette Dahl; Jensen, Martin Bach

    2016-10-21

    Guidelines are often slowly adapted into clinical practice. However, actively supporting healthcare professionals in evidence-based treatment may speed up guideline implementation. Danish low back pain (LBP) guidelines focus on primary care treatment of LBP, to reduce referrals from primary care to secondary care. The primary aim of this project was to reduce secondary care referral within 12 weeks by a multifaceted implementation strategy (MuIS). In a cluster randomised design, 189 general practices from the North Denmark Region were invited to participate. Practices were randomised (1:1) and stratified by practice size to MuIS (28 practices) or a passive implementation strategy (PaIS; 32 practices). Included were patients with LBP aged 18 to 65 years who were able to complete questionnaires, had no serious underlying pathology, and were not pregnant. We developed a MuIS including outreach visits, quality reports, and the STarT Back Tool for subgrouping patients with LBP. Both groups were offered the usual dissemination of guidelines, guideline-concordant structuring of the medical record, and a new referral opportunity for patients with psycho-social problems. In an intention-to-treat analysis, the primary and secondary outcomes pertained to the patient, and a cost-effectiveness analysis was performed from a healthcare sector perspective. Patients and the assessment of outcomes were blinded. Practices and caregivers delivering the interventions were not blinded. Between January 2013 and July 2014, 60 practices were included, of which 54 practices (28 MuIS, 26 PaIS) included 1101 patients (539 MuIS, 562 PaIS). Follow-up data for the primary outcome were available on 100 % of these patients. Twenty-seven patients (5.0 %) in the MuIS group were referred to secondary care vs. 59 patients (10.5 %) in the PaIS group. The adjusted odds ratio (AOR) was 0.52 [95 % CI 0.30 to 0.90; p = 0.020]. The MuIS was cost-saving £-93.20 (£406.51 vs. £499.71 per patient

  8. A New Generalized Discontinuous-PWM Strategy for Active Power Filters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asiminoaei, Lucian; Rodriguez, Pedro; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2007-01-01

    losses in any operating point. This paper proposes a new discontinuous pulse width modulation strategy applied to shunt active power filters. The proposed modulation strategy detects the current vector position relative to the inverter voltage reference and determines instantaneously the optimum clamped...

  9. Piloting Blended Strategies to Resolve Laboratory Capacity Issues in a First-Semester General Chemistry Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burchett, Shayna; Hayes, Jack; Pfaff, Annalise; Satterfield, Emmalou T.; Skyles, Amy; Woelk, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    Laboratory capacity is an issue that has plagued education for more than a century. New buildings, late night classes, and virtual laboratories have offered transitory relief at great expense. Missouri University of Science and Technology is employing blended strategies to increase capacity and student success. Blended strategies expand learning…

  10. Online Reading Comprehension Strategies among Fifth- and Sixth-Grade General and Special Education Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsin-Yuan

    2010-01-01

    The present study targeted the online reading strategies of upper-elementary and middle school students with and without learning disabilities in the U.S. and in Taiwan. Several aspects of the comprehension process were studied, including: (1) Internet navigation strategies and behaviours, (2) sensitivity to the organisational structure of…

  11. Designing System Reforms: Using a Systems Approach to Translate Incident Analyses into Prevention Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goode, Natassia; Read, Gemma J. M.; van Mulken, Michelle R. H.; Clacy, Amanda; Salmon, Paul M.

    2016-01-01

    Advocates of systems thinking approaches argue that accident prevention strategies should focus on reforming the system rather than on fixing the “broken components.” However, little guidance exists on how organizations can translate incident data into prevention strategies that address the systemic causes of accidents. This article describes and evaluates a series of systems thinking prevention strategies that were designed in response to the analysis of multiple incidents. The study was undertaken in the led outdoor activity (LOA) sector in Australia, which delivers supervised or instructed outdoor activities such as canyoning, sea kayaking, rock climbing and camping. The design process involved workshops with practitioners, and focussed on incident data analyzed using Rasmussen's AcciMap technique. A series of reflection points based on the systemic causes of accidents was used to guide the design process, and the AcciMap technique was used to represent the prevention strategies and the relationships between them, leading to the creation of PreventiMaps. An evaluation of the PreventiMaps revealed that all of them incorporated the core principles of the systems thinking approach and many proposed prevention strategies for improving vertical integration across the LOA system. However, the majority failed to address the migration of work practices and the erosion of risk controls. Overall, the findings suggest that the design process was partially successful in helping practitioners to translate incident data into prevention strategies that addressed the systemic causes of accidents; refinement of the design process is required to focus practitioners more on designing monitoring and feedback mechanisms to support decisions at the higher levels of the system. PMID:28066296

  12. Impact of Text-Mining and Imitating Strategies on Lexical Richness, Lexical Diversity and General Success in Second Language Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çepni, Sevcan Bayraktar; Demirel, Elif Tokdemir

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to find out the impact of "text mining and imitating" strategies on lexical richness, lexical diversity and general success of students in their compositions in second language writing. The participants were 98 students studying their first year in Karadeniz Technical University in English Language and Literature…

  13. Design of General-purpose Industrial signal acquisition system in a large scientific device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Bin; Yang, Lei

    2018-02-01

    In order to measure the industrial signal of a large scientific device experiment, a set of industrial data general-purpose acquisition system has been designed. It can collect 4~20mA current signal and 0~10V voltage signal. Through the practical experiments, it shows that the system is flexible, reliable, convenient and economical, and the system has characters of high definition and strong anti-interference ability. Thus, the system fully meets the design requirements..

  14. A methodology for the sustainable design and implementation strategy of CO2 utilization processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roh, Kosan; Frauzem, Rebecca; Nguyen, Tuan B. H.

    2016-01-01

    design and analysis is discussed as only limited amounts of process data is available for determining the optimal processing path and in the third stage the issue of implementation strategy is considered. As examples, two CO2 utilization methods for methanol production, combined reforming and direct...... synthesis are considered. Methanol plants employing such methods are developed using synthesis-design and simulation tools and their evaluation indicators are calculated under various implementation strategies. It is demonstrated that integrating or replacing an existing conventional methanol plant...

  15. Utility of Army Design Methodology in U.S. Coast Guard Counter Narcotic Interdiction Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-09

    including suggestions for reducing this burden to Department of Defense, Washington Headquarters Services, Directorate for Information Operations...or functionality of the strategy itself. It is important to note, the interrogative process of FAS generally takes place after risk has been evaluated...confiscated 52 these fully submersible vessels in mid construction, however credible data suggests fully submersible vessels are in operation and

  16. Designing self-monitoring warm-up strategy with blog-based learning system to support knowledge building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Chan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Preparing lessons before class is widely recognized as an effective means of increasing student motivation for classroom activities and learning outcome. However, the unclear status of lesson preparation generally discourages teachers and students from maintaining this effective learning strategy. This study applied the self-explanation theory and reading comprehension strategies to design a lesson warm-up mechanism that scaffolds knowledge building. A set of corresponding supporting tools were developed into a blog-based learning system (BBLS to implement the warm-up process. Results of a teaching experiment reveal positive effects of the tools on learning achievement, recall of old knowledge, connection between old and new knowledge, and understanding of new knowledge.

  17. Life cycle design and design management strategies in fashion apparel manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutia, R.; Mendes, FD; Ventura, A.

    2017-10-01

    The generation of solid textile waste in the process of development and clothing production is an error that causes serious damages to the environment and must be minimized. The greatest volume of textile residues is generated by the department of cut, such as textiles parings and snips that are not used in the productive process. (MILAN et al, 2007). One way to conceive new products environmently conscious is turned to the adoption of a methodology based on Life Cycle Design (LCD) and Design Management.

  18. Modeling in the quality by design environment: Regulatory requirements and recommendations for design space and control strategy appointment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djuris, Jelena; Djuric, Zorica

    2017-11-30

    Mathematical models can be used as an integral part of the quality by design (QbD) concept throughout the product lifecycle for variety of purposes, including appointment of the design space and control strategy, continual improvement and risk assessment. Examples of different mathematical modeling techniques (mechanistic, empirical and hybrid) in the pharmaceutical development and process monitoring or control are provided in the presented review. In the QbD context, mathematical models are predominantly used to support design space and/or control strategies. Considering their impact to the final product quality, models can be divided into the following categories: high, medium and low impact models. Although there are regulatory guidelines on the topic of modeling applications, review of QbD-based submission containing modeling elements revealed concerns regarding the scale-dependency of design spaces and verification of models predictions at commercial scale of manufacturing, especially regarding real-time release (RTR) models. Authors provide critical overview on the good modeling practices and introduce concepts of multiple-unit, adaptive and dynamic design space, multivariate specifications and methods for process uncertainty analysis. RTR specification with mathematical model and different approaches to multivariate statistical process control supporting process analytical technologies are also presented. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Licensing topical report: interpretation of general design criteria for high-temperature gas-cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orvis, D.D.; Raabe, P.H.

    1980-01-01

    This Licensing Topical Report presents a set of General Design Criteria (GDC) which is proposed for applicability to licensing of graphite-moderated, high-temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGRs). Modifications as necessary to reflect HTGR characteristics and design practices have been made to the GDC derived for applicability to light-water-cooled reactors and presented in Appendix A of Part 50, Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, including the Introduction, Definitions, and Criteria. It is concluded that the proposed set of GDC affords a better basis for design and licensing of HTGRs

  20. Computational Fragment-Based Drug Design: Current Trends, Strategies, and Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Yuemin; Xie, Xiang-Qun Sean

    2018-04-09

    Fragment-based drug design (FBDD) has become an effective methodology for drug development for decades. Successful applications of this strategy brought both opportunities and challenges to the field of Pharmaceutical Science. Recent progress in the computational fragment-based drug design provide an additional approach for future research in a time- and labor-efficient manner. Combining multiple in silico methodologies, computational FBDD possesses flexibilities on fragment library selection, protein model generation, and fragments/compounds docking mode prediction. These characteristics provide computational FBDD superiority in designing novel and potential compounds for a certain target. The purpose of this review is to discuss the latest advances, ranging from commonly used strategies to novel concepts and technologies in computational fragment-based drug design. Particularly, in this review, specifications and advantages are compared between experimental and computational FBDD, and additionally, limitations and future prospective are discussed and emphasized.

  1. Vernacular design based on sustainable disaster’s mitigation communication and education strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansoor, Alvanov Zpalanzani

    2015-01-01

    Indonesia is located between three active tectonic plates, which are prone to natural disasters such as earthquake, volcanic eruption, and also giant tidal wave-tsunami. Adequate infrastructure plays an important role in disaster mitigation, yet without good public awareness, the mitigation process won’t be succeeded. The absence of awareness can lead to infrastructure mistreatment. Several reports on lack of understanding or misinterpretation of disaster mitigation especially from rural and coastal communities need to be solved, especially from communication aspects. This is an interdisciplinary study on disaster mitigation communication design and education strategy from visual communication design studies paradigm. This paper depicts research results which applying vernacular design base to elaborate sustainable mitigation communication and education strategy on various visual media and social campaigns. This paper also describes several design approaches which may becomes way to elaborate sustainable awareness and understanding on disaster mitigation among rural and coastal communities in Indonesia

  2. A strategy for reducing turnaround time in design optimization using a distributed computer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Katherine C.; Padula, Sharon L.; Rogers, James L.

    1988-01-01

    There is a need to explore methods for reducing lengthly computer turnaround or clock time associated with engineering design problems. Different strategies can be employed to reduce this turnaround time. One strategy is to run validated analysis software on a network of existing smaller computers so that portions of the computation can be done in parallel. This paper focuses on the implementation of this method using two types of problems. The first type is a traditional structural design optimization problem, which is characterized by a simple data flow and a complicated analysis. The second type of problem uses an existing computer program designed to study multilevel optimization techniques. This problem is characterized by complicated data flow and a simple analysis. The paper shows that distributed computing can be a viable means for reducing computational turnaround time for engineering design problems that lend themselves to decomposition. Parallel computing can be accomplished with a minimal cost in terms of hardware and software.

  3. Novel design methods and control strategies for oil and gas offshore power systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pierobon, Leonardo

    content), or when the thermal stresses on the working fluid should be minimized. Additionally, the controller is demonstrated to improve the dynamic flexibility of the plant compared to the reference controller designed by the gas turbine manufacturer.The model predictive control can reduce the frequency......This doctoral thesis is devoted to the research of innovative design methods and control strategies for power systems supplying future and existing oshore oil and gas facilities.The author uses these methods to address five research challenges: i) the definitionof the optimal waste heat recovery...... technology, ii) the identification of the best working fluid to design ecient, light and cost-competitive waste heat recovery units, iii) the integration of dynamic criteria in the project phase to discard infeasible designs, iv) the development of a novel control strategy to optimally operate the power...

  4. Vernacular design based on sustainable disaster’s mitigation communication and education strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mansoor, Alvanov Zpalanzani, E-mail: nova.zp@gmail.com, E-mail: alvanov@fsrd.itb.ac.id [Visual Communication Design Study Program, Faculty of Art and Design, Institut Teknologi Bandung Jalan Ganesa No. 10, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia)

    2015-04-24

    Indonesia is located between three active tectonic plates, which are prone to natural disasters such as earthquake, volcanic eruption, and also giant tidal wave-tsunami. Adequate infrastructure plays an important role in disaster mitigation, yet without good public awareness, the mitigation process won’t be succeeded. The absence of awareness can lead to infrastructure mistreatment. Several reports on lack of understanding or misinterpretation of disaster mitigation especially from rural and coastal communities need to be solved, especially from communication aspects. This is an interdisciplinary study on disaster mitigation communication design and education strategy from visual communication design studies paradigm. This paper depicts research results which applying vernacular design base to elaborate sustainable mitigation communication and education strategy on various visual media and social campaigns. This paper also describes several design approaches which may becomes way to elaborate sustainable awareness and understanding on disaster mitigation among rural and coastal communities in Indonesia.

  5. Vernacular design based on sustainable disaster's mitigation communication and education strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansoor, Alvanov Zpalanzani

    2015-04-01

    Indonesia is located between three active tectonic plates, which are prone to natural disasters such as earthquake, volcanic eruption, and also giant tidal wave-tsunami. Adequate infrastructure plays an important role in disaster mitigation, yet without good public awareness, the mitigation process won't be succeeded. The absence of awareness can lead to infrastructure mistreatment. Several reports on lack of understanding or misinterpretation of disaster mitigation especially from rural and coastal communities need to be solved, especially from communication aspects. This is an interdisciplinary study on disaster mitigation communication design and education strategy from visual communication design studies paradigm. This paper depicts research results which applying vernacular design base to elaborate sustainable mitigation communication and education strategy on various visual media and social campaigns. This paper also describes several design approaches which may becomes way to elaborate sustainable awareness and understanding on disaster mitigation among rural and coastal communities in Indonesia.

  6. Canister storage building compliance assessment DOE Order 6430.1A, General Design Criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BLACK, D.M.

    1999-01-01

    This document presents the Project's position on compliance with DOE Order 6430.1A ''General Design Criteria.'' No non-compliances are shown. The compliance statements have been reviewed and approved by DOE. Open items are scheduled to be closed prior to project completion

  7. Linking Brief Functional Analysis to Intervention Design in General Education Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishuin, Tifanie

    2009-01-01

    This study focused on the utility and applicability of brief functional analysis in general education settings. The purpose of the study was to first identify the environmental variables maintaining noncompliance through a brief functional analysis, and then to design and implement a functionally equivalent intervention. The participant exhibited…

  8. 49 CFR 213.305 - Designation of qualified individuals; general qualifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... college level engineering program, supplemented by special on the job training emphasizing the techniques... engineering program, supplemented by special on the job training emphasizing the techniques to be employed in... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Designation of qualified individuals; general...

  9. General strategy for the protection of organs at risk in IMRT therapy of a moving body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abolfath, Ramin M.; Papiez, Lech

    2009-01-01

    We investigated protection strategies of organs at risk (OARs) in intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). These strategies apply to delivery of IMRT to moving body anatomies that show relative displacement of OAR in close proximity to a tumor target. We formulated an efficient genetic algorithm which makes it possible to search for global minima in a complex landscape of multiple irradiation strategies delivering a given, predetermined intensity map to a target. The optimal strategy was investigated with respect to minimizing the dose delivered to the OAR. The optimization procedure developed relies on variability of all parameters available for control of radiation delivery in modern linear accelerators, including adaptation of leaf trajectories and simultaneous modification of beam dose rate during irradiation. We showed that the optimization algorithms lead to a significant reduction in the dose delivered to OAR in cases where organs at risk move relative to a treatment target.

  10. General strategy for the protection of organs at risk in IMRT therapy of a moving body

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abolfath, Ramin M.; Papiez, Lech [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas 75390 (United States)

    2009-07-15

    We investigated protection strategies of organs at risk (OARs) in intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). These strategies apply to delivery of IMRT to moving body anatomies that show relative displacement of OAR in close proximity to a tumor target. We formulated an efficient genetic algorithm which makes it possible to search for global minima in a complex landscape of multiple irradiation strategies delivering a given, predetermined intensity map to a target. The optimal strategy was investigated with respect to minimizing the dose delivered to the OAR. The optimization procedure developed relies on variability of all parameters available for control of radiation delivery in modern linear accelerators, including adaptation of leaf trajectories and simultaneous modification of beam dose rate during irradiation. We showed that the optimization algorithms lead to a significant reduction in the dose delivered to OAR in cases where organs at risk move relative to a treatment target.

  11. Implementing Universal Design Strategies in Municipalities - A Multidisciplinary Approach to Universal Design and Public Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Roger

    2016-01-01

    Based on a national program, the regional authorities stimulated each of the 18 municipalities in Telemark 2012-15 to plan and build promenades with universal design. The cooperation between different disciplines was an important factor for good results. The project continues from 2016.

  12. Virginia Space Grant Consortium Management of National General Aviation Design Competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    This report summarizes the management of the National General Aviation Design Competition on behalf of NASA, the FAA and the Air Force by the Virginia Space Grant Consortium (VSGC) for the time period October 1, 2000 through September 30, 2001. This was the VSGC's seventh and final year of managing the Competition, which the Consortium originally designed, developed and implemented for NASA and the FAA. The competition is now being managed in-house by NASA. Awards to winning university teams were presented at a ceremony held at AirVenture 2001, the Experimental Aircraft Association's Annual Convention and Fly-In at Oshkosh, Wis. by NASA and FAA officials. The competition called for individuals or teams of undergraduate and graduate students from U.S. engineering schools to participate in a major national effort to rebuild the U.S. general aviation sector. Participants were challenged to meet the engineering goals of the Advanced General Aviation Transport Experiment (AGATE) project. For the purpose of the contest, general aviation aircraft are typically defined as single or twin engine (turbine or piston), single-pilot, fixed-wing aircraft for 2 - 6 passengers. The competition seeks to raise student awareness of the importance of general aviation by having students address design challenges for a small aircraft transportation system. NASA, AFRL and the FAA hope to stimulate breakthroughs in technology and their application in the general aviation marketplace. National goals for revitalizing the industry offer excellent, open-ended design challenges with real world applications for the Innovative Design Category. Both individual and team submissions were encouraged. University faculty advisors and students consistently cite the value of this kind of educational experience for their engineering students. Eight proposals were submitted for the 2001 Competition for the Innovative Design Category. Eleven faculty members and 124 students participated. Since inception

  13. Strategies of design, development and activation of the Nova control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holloway, F.W.

    1983-01-01

    Nova and Novette are large complex experimental laser facilities which require extensive and sophisticated control systems for their successful operation. Often, in major controls projects, certain invisible aspects of the project, such as overall strategy, management, resources and historical constraints, have a more profound effect upon success than any specific hardware/software design. The design and performance of the Nova/Novette laser control system will be presented with special emphasis upon these often controversial aspects

  14. Reasoning Strategies in the Context of Engineering Design with Everyday Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Worsley, Marcelo; Blikstein, Paulo

    2017-01-01

    ‘‘Making’’ represents an increasingly popular label for describing a form of engineering design. While making is growing in popularity, there are still open questions about the strategies that students are using in these activities. Assessing and improving learning in making/ engineering design contexts require that we have a better understanding of where students’ ideas are coming from and a better way to characterize student progress in open-ended learning environments. In this article, we ...

  15. Strategies of design, development and activation of the Nova control system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holloway, F.W.

    1983-06-30

    Nova and Novette are large complex experimental laser facilities which require extensive and sophisticated control systems for their successful operation. Often, in major controls projects, certain invisible aspects of the project, such as overall strategy, management, resources and historical constraints, have a more profound effect upon success than any specific hardware/software design. The design and performance of the Nova/Novette laser control system will be presented with special emphasis upon these often controversial aspects.

  16. A conceptual design strategy for liquid-metal-wall inertial fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monsler, M.J.; Meier, W.R.

    1981-01-01

    The liquid-metal-wall chamber has emerged as an attractive reactor concept for inertial fusion energy conversion. The principal feature of this concept is a thick, free-flowing blanket of liquid metal used to protect the structure of the reactor. The development and design of liquid-metal-wall chambers over the past decade are reviewed from the perspective of formulating a conceptual design strategy for such chambers. The basis for the design strategy is set by enumerating both the attractive and unattractive features of a LMW chamber. Past concepts are then reviewed to identify conceptual design approaches and physical configurations that enhance the positive aspects and minimize the negative aspects. A detailed description of the engineering considerations is given, including such topics as the selection of a liquid metal, control of radiation damage, selection of structural material, control of tritium breeding and extraction, control of wall stress, and designing for a given rep-rate. Finally, a design strategy is formulated which accomodates the engineering constraints while minimizing the liquid-metal flow rate. (orig.)

  17. Design of comprehensive general maintenance service system of aerial reconnaissance camera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Xu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aiming at the problem of lack of security equipment for airborne reconnaissance camera and universal difference between internal and external field and model, the design scheme of comprehensive universal system based on PC-104 bus architecture and ARM wireless test module is proposed is proposed using the ATE design. The scheme uses the "embedded" technology to design the system, which meets the requirements of the system. By using the technique of classified switching, the hardware resources are reasonably extended, and the general protection of the various types of aerial reconnaissance cameras is realized. Using the concept of “wireless test”, the test interface is extended to realize the comprehensive protection of the aerial reconnaissance camera and the field. The application proves that the security system works stably, has good generality, practicability, and has broad application prospect.

  18. Design method of general-purpose driving circuit for CCD based on CPLD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yong; Tang Benqi; Xiao Zhigang; Wang Zujun; Huang Shaoyan

    2005-01-01

    It is very important for studying the radiation damage effects and mechanism systematically about CCD to develop a general-purpose test platform. The paper discusses the design method of general-purpose driving circuit for CCD based on CPLD and the realization approach. A main controller has being designed to read the data file from the outer memory, setup the correlative parameter registers and produce the driving pulses according with parameter request strictly, which is based on MAX7000S by using MAX-PLUS II software. The basic driving circuit module has being finished based on this method. The output waveform of the module is the same figure as the simulation waveform. The result indicates that the design method is feasible. (authors)

  19. How are things adding up? Neural differences between arithmetic operations are due to general problem solving strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschentscher, Nadja; Hauk, Olaf

    2014-05-15

    A number of previous studies have interpreted differences in brain activation between arithmetic operation types (e.g. addition and multiplication) as evidence in favor of distinct cortical representations, processes or neural systems. It is still not clear how differences in general task complexity contribute to these neural differences. Here, we used a mental arithmetic paradigm to disentangle brain areas related to general problem solving from those involved in operation type specific processes (addition versus multiplication). We orthogonally varied operation type and complexity. Importantly, complexity was defined not only based on surface criteria (for example number size), but also on the basis of individual participants' strategy ratings, which were validated in a detailed behavioral analysis. We replicated previously reported operation type effects in our analyses based on surface criteria. However, these effects vanished when controlling for individual strategies. Instead, procedural strategies contrasted with memory retrieval reliably activated fronto-parietal and motor regions, while retrieval strategies activated parietal cortices. This challenges views that operation types rely on partially different neural systems, and suggests that previously reported differences between operation types may have emerged due to invalid measures of complexity. We conclude that mental arithmetic is a powerful paradigm to study brain networks of abstract problem solving, as long as individual participants' strategies are taken into account. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. ASIT--A Problem Solving Strategy for Education and Eco-Friendly Sustainable Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Steve

    2009-01-01

    There is growing recognition of the role teaching and learning experiences in technology education can contribute to Education for Sustainable Development. It appears, however, that in the Technology Education classroom little or no change has been achieved to the practice of designing and problem solving strategies oriented towards sustainable…

  1. User-Centered Design Strategies for Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Gonzalez, Ricardo, Ed.

    2016-01-01

    In today's society, educational opportunities have evolved beyond the traditional classroom setting. Most universities have implemented virtual learning environments in an effort to provide more opportunities for potential or current students seeking alternative and more affordable learning solutions. "User-Centered Design Strategies for…

  2. Linking Serious Game Narratives with Pedagogical Theories and Pedagogical Design Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Troyer, Olga; Van Broeckhoven, Frederik; Vlieghe, Joachim

    2017-01-01

    Narrative-based serious games present pedagogical content and interventions through an interactive narrative. To ensure effective learning in such kind of serious games, designers are not only faced with the challenge of creating a compelling narrative, but also with the additional challenge of incorporating suitable pedagogical strategies.…

  3. Design and Implementation of Cancellation Tasks for Visual Search Strategies and Visual Attention in School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tsui-Ying; Huang, Ho-Chuan; Huang, Hsiu-Shuang

    2006-01-01

    We propose a computer-assisted cancellation test system (CACTS) to understand the visual attention performance and visual search strategies in school children. The main aim of this paper is to present our design and development of the CACTS and demonstrate some ways in which computer techniques can allow the educator not only to obtain more…

  4. Designing efficient nitrous oxide sampling strategies in agroecosystems using simulation models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debasish Saha; Armen R. Kemanian; Benjamin M. Rau; Paul R. Adler; Felipe Montes

    2017-01-01

    Annual cumulative soil nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions calculated from discrete chamber-based flux measurements have unknown uncertainty. We used outputs from simulations obtained with an agroecosystem model to design sampling strategies that yield accurate cumulative N2O flux estimates with a known uncertainty level. Daily soil N2O fluxes were simulated for Ames, IA (...

  5. A balancing act? The implications of mixed strategies for performance measurement system design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, H.C.; Groot, T.L.C.M.; Schoute, M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines how firms design performance measurement systems (PMSs) to support the pursuit of mixed strategies. In particular, we examine the implications of firms' joint strategic emphasis on both low cost and differentiation for their use of performance measurement and incentive

  6. A low-power multi port register file design using a low-swing strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Hao; Liu Yan; Hua Siliang; Wang Donghui; Hou Chaohuan

    2012-01-01

    A low-power register file is designed by using a low-swing strategy and modified NAND address decoders. The proposed low-swing strategy is based on the feedback scheme and uses dynamic logic to reduce the active feedback power. This method contains two parts: WRITE and READ strategy. In the WRITE low-swing scheme, the modified memory cell is used to support low-swing WRITE. The modified NAND decoder not only dissipates less power, but also enables a great deal of area reduction. Compared with the conventional single-ended register file, the low-swing strategy saves 34.5% and 51.15% bit-line power in WRITE and READ separately. The post simulation results indicate a 39.4% power improvement when the twelve ports are all busy. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  7. Development strategy and conceptual design of China Lead-based Research Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Yican; Bai, Yunqing; Song, Yong; Huang, Qunying; Zhao, Zhumin; Hu, Liqin

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • China LEAd-based Reactor (CLEAR) proposed by Institute of Nuclear Energy Safety Technology (INEST) is selected as the ADS reference reactor. • The Chinese ADS development program consists of three stages, and during the first stage, a 10 MW th lead-based research reactor named CLEAR-I will be built with subcritical and critical dual-mode operation capability for validation of ADS transmutation system and lead cooled fast reactor technology. • Major design principles of CLEAR-I are oriented at technology feasibility, safety reliability, experiment flexibility and technology continuity. Followed by the development strategy and design principles, CLEAR-I design options and conceptual design scenarios are presented. - Abstract: Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) launched an engineering project to develop an Accelerator Driven System (ADS) for nuclear waste transmutation since 2011, and China LEAd-based Reactor (CLEAR) proposed by Institute of Nuclear Energy Safety Technology (INEST) is selected as the ADS reference reactor. In this paper, the development strategy and conceptual design of China Lead-based Research Reactor are proposed. The Chinese ADS development program consists of three stages, and during the first stage, a 10 MW th lead-based research reactor named CLEAR-I will be built with subcritical and critical dual-mode operation capability for validation of ADS transmutation system and lead cooled fast reactor technology. Major design principles of CLEAR-I are oriented at technology feasibility, safety reliability, experiment flexibility and technology continuity. Followed by the development strategy and design principles, CLEAR-I design options and conceptual design scenarios are presented.

  8. Strategy, leadership and change: the North York General Hospital transformation journey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamson, Bonnie; Kwolek, Susan

    2008-01-01

    Improvements in the emergency department and general internal medicine will serve as a case study to examine how North York General Hospital cultural transformation efforts led to improvements in these departments, and why we believe this approach will enable the organization to sustain these improvements over time.

  9. Durable past - sustainable future; Heritage-based design; Designing from Heritage. Strategies for Conservation and Conversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irmgard van Koningsbruggen

    2018-06-01

    elkaar. De opleidingsnaam vanaf 2004, ‘rMIT ’, weerspiegelde deze koers van versmelten. De ontwerpopgave werd verbonden met onderzoek van de cultuurhistorische waarde van gebouw en omgeving en met dat van technologiespecialisten die zich concentreren op materialen (en hun schade, duurzaamheid en energietransitie. Dit leidde tot de drie leerstoelgebieden Design, Cultural Value en Technology en de huidige naam voor deze masteropleiding: Heritage & Architecture. In een gelijkbenige ‘leerstoeldriehoek’ werd de versmelting verbeeld.

  10. A New, General Strategy for Fabricating Highly Concentrated and Viscoplastic Suspensions Based on a Structural Approach To Modulate Interparticle Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Shunsuke; Kamada, Fuminori; Kobashi, Kazufumi; Futaba, Don N; Hata, Kenji

    2018-01-24

    We report a general strategy to fabricate highly concentrated, viscoplastic and stable suspensions by designing the particle surface structure to control the interparticle attractive forces. Unlike conventional methods, where the choice of solvent is critical in balancing interparticle interactions, suspensions showing excellent stability and viscoplastic properties were made using various solvents. We demonstrated this approach using highly sparse agglomerates of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as the particles. Our results revealed that the essential feature of the CNT agglomerate to fabricate these suspensions was high porosity with a spacing size much smaller than the overall size, which was only possible using long single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs). In this way, the agglomerate surface was characterized by fine network of CNT bundles. These suspensions exhibited solid-like behavior at rest (characterized by a high yield stress of c.a. 100 Pa) and a liquid-like behavior when subjected to a stress (characterized by a significant drop of an apparent viscosity to 1 Pa·s at a shear rate of 1000 s -1 ). Furthermore, in contrast to conventionally fabricated suspensions, these "CNT pastes" exhibited exceptional stability at rest, under flow, and at extremely high concentrations during the drying process, with only a weakly observable dependence on solvent type. As a result, highly uniform micrometer-thick SWNT films were successfully fabricated by dried blade-coated films of these pastes. Finally, we developed a simple, semiempirical model and clarified the importance of the CNT agglomerate microstructure (the ratio of spacing size/particle size and porosity) on tailoring the cohesive forces between particles to fabricate stable viscoplastic suspensions.

  11. Design of intelligent comfort control system with human learning and minimum power control strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, J.; Du, R.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the design of an intelligent comfort control system by combining the human learning and minimum power control strategies for the heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) system. In the system, the predicted mean vote (PMV) is adopted as the control objective to improve indoor comfort level by considering six comfort related variables, whilst a direct neural network controller is designed to overcome the nonlinear feature of the PMV calculation for better performance. To achieve the highest comfort level for the specific user, a human learning strategy is designed to tune the user's comfort zone, and then, a VAV and minimum power control strategy is proposed to minimize the energy consumption further. In order to validate the system design, a series of computer simulations are performed based on a derived HVAC and thermal space model. The simulation results confirm the design of the intelligent comfort control system. In comparison to the conventional temperature controller, this system can provide a higher comfort level and better system performance, so it has great potential for HVAC applications in the future

  12. Reliability-based design optimization using a generalized subset simulation method and posterior approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yuan-Zhuo; Li, Hong-Shuang; Yao, Wei-Xing

    2018-05-01

    The evaluation of the probabilistic constraints in reliability-based design optimization (RBDO) problems has always been significant and challenging work, which strongly affects the performance of RBDO methods. This article deals with RBDO problems using a recently developed generalized subset simulation (GSS) method and a posterior approximation approach. The posterior approximation approach is used to transform all the probabilistic constraints into ordinary constraints as in deterministic optimization. The assessment of multiple failure probabilities required by the posterior approximation approach is achieved by GSS in a single run at all supporting points, which are selected by a proper experimental design scheme combining Sobol' sequences and Bucher's design. Sequentially, the transformed deterministic design optimization problem can be solved by optimization algorithms, for example, the sequential quadratic programming method. Three optimization problems are used to demonstrate the efficiency and accuracy of the proposed method.

  13. Design and performance of General Electric boiling water reactor main steam line isolation valves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rockwell, D.A.; van Zylstra, E.H.

    1976-08-01

    An extensive test program has been completed by the General Electric Company in cooperation with the Commonwealth Edison Company on the basic design type of large main steam line isolation valves used on General Electric Boiling Water Reactors. Based on a total of 40 tests under simulated accident conditions covering a wide range of mass flows, mixture qualities, and closing times, it was concluded that the commercially available valves of this basic type will close completely and reliably as required. Analytical methods to predict transient effects in the steam line and valve after postulated breaks were refined and confirmed by the test program

  14. A general parallelization strategy for random path based geostatistical simulation methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariethoz, Grégoire

    2010-07-01

    The size of simulation grids used for numerical models has increased by many orders of magnitude in the past years, and this trend is likely to continue. Efficient pixel-based geostatistical simulation algorithms have been developed, but for very large grids and complex spatial models, the computational burden remains heavy. As cluster computers become widely available, using parallel strategies is a natural step for increasing the usable grid size and the complexity of the models. These strategies must profit from of the possibilities offered by machines with a large number of processors. On such machines, the bottleneck is often the communication time between processors. We present a strategy distributing grid nodes among all available processors while minimizing communication and latency times. It consists in centralizing the simulation on a master processor that calls other slave processors as if they were functions simulating one node every time. The key is to decouple the sending and the receiving operations to avoid synchronization. Centralization allows having a conflict management system ensuring that nodes being simulated simultaneously do not interfere in terms of neighborhood. The strategy is computationally efficient and is versatile enough to be applicable to all random path based simulation methods.

  15. Strategic Choices of Finnish Universities in the Light of General Strategy Frameworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luoma, Mikko; Risikko, Tanja; Erkkilä, Paula

    2016-01-01

    This study examines university strategies from the content perspective. Since the early 1980s, the pressure to adopt strategic management in universities and other higher education institutions has increased because of issues including reduced public funding, pressures and possibilities for internationalization, developments in teaching…

  16. Design for a Crane Metallic Structure Based on Imperialist Competitive Algorithm and Inverse Reliability Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xiao-Ning; Zhi, Bo

    2017-07-01

    Uncertainties in parameters such as materials, loading, and geometry are inevitable in designing metallic structures for cranes. When considering these uncertainty factors, reliability-based design optimization (RBDO) offers a more reasonable design approach. However, existing RBDO methods for crane metallic structures are prone to low convergence speed and high computational cost. A unilevel RBDO method, combining a discrete imperialist competitive algorithm with an inverse reliability strategy based on the performance measure approach, is developed. Application of the imperialist competitive algorithm at the optimization level significantly improves the convergence speed of this RBDO method. At the reliability analysis level, the inverse reliability strategy is used to determine the feasibility of each probabilistic constraint at each design point by calculating its α-percentile performance, thereby avoiding convergence failure, calculation error, and disproportionate computational effort encountered using conventional moment and simulation methods. Application of the RBDO method to an actual crane structure shows that the developed RBDO realizes a design with the best tradeoff between economy and safety together with about one-third of the convergence speed and the computational cost of the existing method. This paper provides a scientific and effective design approach for the design of metallic structures of cranes.

  17. Designing, implementing and monitoring social impact mitigation strategies: Lessons from Forest Industry Structural Adjustment Packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loxton, Edwina A.; Schirmer, Jacki; Kanowski, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Social impact mitigation strategies are implemented by the proponents of policies and projects with the intent of reducing the negative, and increasing the positive social impacts of their activities, and facilitating the achievement of policy/project goals. Evaluation of mitigation strategies is critical to improving their future success and cost-effectiveness. This paper evaluates two Forest Industry Structural Adjustment Packages (FISAP) implemented in Australia in the 1990s to 2000s as part of broader policy changes that reduced access to timber from publicly owned native forests. It assesses the effectiveness of the structure, design, implementation and monitoring of the FISAPs, and highlights the interactions between these four elements and their influence on social impacts. The two FISAPs were found to be effective in terms of reducing negative impacts, encouraging positive impacts and contributing towards policy goals, although they did not mitigate negative impacts in all cases, and sometimes interacted with external factors and additional policy changes to contribute to significant short and long term negative impacts. -- Highlights: ► Mitigation strategies aim to reduce negative and enhance positive social impacts ► Mitigation strategy design, implementation, and monitoring are critical to success ► Effective mitigation enhanced the capacity of recipients to respond to change ► Mitigation strategies influenced multiple interacting positive and negative impacts ► Success required good communication, transparency, support, resources and timing

  18. Study protocol of an economic evaluation of an extended implementation strategy for the treatment of low back pain in general practice: a cluster randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Cathrine Elgaard; Riis, Allan; Pedersen, Kjeld Møller; Jensen, Martin Bach; Petersen, Karin Dam

    2014-10-08

    In Denmark, guidelines on low back pain management are currently being implemented; in association with this, a clinical trial is conducted. A health economic evaluation is carried out alongside the clinical trial to assess the cost-effectiveness of an extended implementation strategy to increase the general practitioners' adherence to the guidelines. In addition to usual dissemination, the extended implementation strategy is composed of visits from a guideline facilitator, stratification tools, and feedback on guideline adherence. The aim of this paper is to provide the considerations on the design of the health economic evaluation. The economic evaluation is carried out alongside a cluster randomised controlled trial consisting of 60 general practices in the North Denmark Region. An expected 1,200 patients between the age of 18 and 65 years with a low back pain diagnosis will be enrolled. The economic evaluation comprises both a cost-effectiveness analyses and a cost-utility analysis. Effectiveness measures include referral to secondary care, health-related quality of life measured by EQ-5D-5L, and disability measured by the Roland Morris disability questionnaire. Cost measures include all relevant additional costs of the extended implementation strategy compared to usual implementation. The economic evaluation will be performed from both a societal perspective and a health sector perspective with a 12-month time horizon. It is expected that the extended implementation strategy will reduce the number of patients referred to secondary care. It is hypothesised that the additional upfront cost of extended implementation will be counterbalanced by improvements in clinical practice and patient-related outcomes, thereby rendering the extended implementation strategy cost-effective. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01699256.

  19. How is emotional awareness related to emotion regulation strategies and self-reported negative affect in the general population?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subic-Wrana, Claudia; Beutel, Manfred E; Brähler, Elmar; Stöbel-Richter, Yve; Knebel, Achim; Lane, Richard D; Wiltink, Jörg

    2014-01-01

    The Levels of Emotional Awareness Scale (LEAS) as a performance task discriminates between implicit or subconscious and explicit or conscious levels of emotional awareness. An impaired awareness of one's feeling states may influence emotion regulation strategies and self-reports of negative emotions. To determine this influence, we applied the LEAS and self-report measures for emotion regulation strategies and negative affect in a representative sample of the German general population. A short version of the LEAS, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (ERQ), assessing reappraisal and suppression as emotion regulation strategies, were presented to N = 2524 participants of a representative German community study. The questionnaire data were analyzed with regard to the level of emotional awareness. LEAS scores were independent from depression, but related to self-reported anxiety. Although of small or medium effect size, different correlational patters between emotion regulation strategies and negative affectivity were related to implict and explict levels of emotional awareness. In participants with implicit emotional awareness, suppression was related to higher anxiety and depression, whereas in participants with explicit emotional awareness, in addition to a positive relationship of suppression and depression, we found a negative relationship of reappraisal to depression. These findings were independent of age. In women high use of suppression and little use of reappraisal were more strongly related to negative affect than in men. Our first findings suggest that conscious awareness of emotions may be a precondition for the use of reappraisal as an adaptive emotion regulation strategy. They encourage further research in the relation between subconsious and conscious emotional awareness and the prefarance of adaptive or maladaptive emotion regulation strategies The correlational trends found in a representative

  20. Software design of a general purpose data acquisition and control executive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labiak, W.G.; Minor, E.G.

    1981-01-01

    The software design of an executive which performs general purpose data acquisition, monitoring, and control is presented. The executive runs on a memory-based mini or micro-computer and communicates with a disk-based computer where data analysis and display are done. The executive design stresses reliability and versatility, and has yielded software which can provide control and monitoring for widely different hardware systems. Applications of this software on two major fusion energy experiments at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory will be described

  1. Performance Assessment Strategies: A computational framework for conceptual design of large roofs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michela Turrin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Using engineering performance evaluations to explore design alternatives during the conceptual phase of architectural design helps to understand the relationships between form and performance; and is crucial for developing well-performing final designs. Computer aided conceptual design has the potential to aid the design team in discovering and highlighting these relationships; especially by means of procedural and parametric geometry to support the generation of geometric design, and building performance simulation tools to support performance assessments. However, current tools and methods for computer aided conceptual design in architecture do not explicitly reveal nor allow for backtracking the relationships between performance and geometry of the design. They currently support post-engineering, rather than the early design decisions and the design exploration process. Focusing on large roofs, this research aims at developing a computational design approach to support designers in performance driven explorations. The approach is meant to facilitate the multidisciplinary integration and the learning process of the designer; and not to constrain the process in precompiled procedures or in hard engineering formulations, nor to automatize it by delegating the design creativity to computational procedures. PAS (Performance Assessment Strategies as a method is the main output of the research. It consists of a framework including guidelines and an extensible library of procedures for parametric modelling. It is structured on three parts. Pre-PAS provides guidelines for a design strategy-definition, toward the parameterization process. Model-PAS provides guidelines, procedures and scripts for building the parametric models. Explore-PAS supports the solutions-assessment based on numeric evaluations and performance simulations, until the identification of a suitable design solution. PAS has been developed based on action research. Several case studies

  2. Variation in Research Designs Used to Test the Effectiveness of Dissemination and Implementation Strategies: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzucca, Stephanie; Tabak, Rachel G; Pilar, Meagan; Ramsey, Alex T; Baumann, Ana A; Kryzer, Emily; Lewis, Ericka M; Padek, Margaret; Powell, Byron J; Brownson, Ross C

    2018-01-01

    The need for optimal study designs in dissemination and implementation (D&I) research is increasingly recognized. Despite the wide range of study designs available for D&I research, we lack understanding of the types of designs and methodologies that are routinely used in the field. This review assesses the designs and methodologies in recently proposed D&I studies and provides resources to guide design decisions. We reviewed 404 study protocols published in the journal Implementation Science from 2/2006 to 9/2017. Eligible studies tested the efficacy or effectiveness of D&I strategies (i.e., not effectiveness of the underlying clinical or public health intervention); had a comparison by group and/or time; and used ≥1 quantitative measure. Several design elements were extracted: design category (e.g., randomized); design type [e.g., cluster randomized controlled trial (RCT)]; data type (e.g., quantitative); D&I theoretical framework; levels of treatment assignment, intervention, and measurement; and country in which the research was conducted. Each protocol was double-coded, and discrepancies were resolved through discussion. Of the 404 protocols reviewed, 212 (52%) studies tested one or more implementation strategy across 208 manuscripts, therefore meeting inclusion criteria. Of the included studies, 77% utilized randomized designs, primarily cluster RCTs. The use of alternative designs (e.g., stepped wedge) increased over time. Fewer studies were quasi-experimental (17%) or observational (6%). Many study design categories (e.g., controlled pre-post, matched pair cluster design) were represented by only one or two studies. Most articles proposed quantitative and qualitative methods (61%), with the remaining 39% proposing only quantitative. Half of protocols (52%) reported using a theoretical framework to guide the study. The four most frequently reported frameworks were Consolidated Framework for Implementing Research and RE-AIM ( n  = 16 each), followed by

  3. Variation in Research Designs Used to Test the Effectiveness of Dissemination and Implementation Strategies: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Mazzucca

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe need for optimal study designs in dissemination and implementation (D&I research is increasingly recognized. Despite the wide range of study designs available for D&I research, we lack understanding of the types of designs and methodologies that are routinely used in the field. This review assesses the designs and methodologies in recently proposed D&I studies and provides resources to guide design decisions.MethodsWe reviewed 404 study protocols published in the journal Implementation Science from 2/2006 to 9/2017. Eligible studies tested the efficacy or effectiveness of D&I strategies (i.e., not effectiveness of the underlying clinical or public health intervention; had a comparison by group and/or time; and used ≥1 quantitative measure. Several design elements were extracted: design category (e.g., randomized; design type [e.g., cluster randomized controlled trial (RCT]; data type (e.g., quantitative; D&I theoretical framework; levels of treatment assignment, intervention, and measurement; and country in which the research was conducted. Each protocol was double-coded, and discrepancies were resolved through discussion.ResultsOf the 404 protocols reviewed, 212 (52% studies tested one or more implementation strategy across 208 manuscripts, therefore meeting inclusion criteria. Of the included studies, 77% utilized randomized designs, primarily cluster RCTs. The use of alternative designs (e.g., stepped wedge increased over time. Fewer studies were quasi-experimental (17% or observational (6%. Many study design categories (e.g., controlled pre–post, matched pair cluster design were represented by only one or two studies. Most articles proposed quantitative and qualitative methods (61%, with the remaining 39% proposing only quantitative. Half of protocols (52% reported using a theoretical framework to guide the study. The four most frequently reported frameworks were Consolidated Framework for Implementing Research and RE

  4. Design of driving control strategy of torque distribution for two - wheel independent drive electric vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chuanwei; Zhang, Dongsheng; Wen, Jianping

    2018-02-01

    In order to coordinately control the torque distribution of existing two-wheel independent drive electric vehicle, and improve the energy efficiency and control stability of the whole vehicle, the control strategies based on fuzzy control were designed which adopt the direct yaw moment control as the main line. For realizing the torque coordination simulation of the two-wheel independent drive vehicle, the vehicle model, motor model and tire model were built, including the vehicle 7 - DOF dynamics model, motion equation, torque equation. Finally, in the Carsim - Simulink joint simulation platform, the feasibility of the drive control strategy was verified.

  5. Energy efficiency design strategies for buildings with grid-connected photovoltaic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yimprayoon, Chanikarn

    The building sector in the United States represents more than 40% of the nation's energy consumption. Energy efficiency design strategies and renewable energy are keys to reduce building energy demand. Grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) systems installed on buildings have been the fastest growing market in the PV industry. This growth poses challenges for buildings qualified to serve in this market sector. Electricity produced from solar energy is intermittent. Matching building electricity demand with PV output can increase PV system efficiency. Through experimental methods and case studies, computer simulations were used to investigate the priorities of energy efficiency design strategies that decreased electricity demand while producing load profiles matching with unique output profiles from PV. Three building types (residential, commercial, and industrial) of varying sizes and use patterns located in 16 climate zones were modeled according to ASHRAE 90.1 requirements. Buildings were analyzed individually and as a group. Complying with ASHRAE energy standards can reduce annual electricity consumption at least 13%. With energy efficiency design strategies, the reduction could reach up to 65%, making it possible for PV systems to meet reduced demands in residential and industrial buildings. The peak electricity demand reduction could be up to 71% with integration of strategies and PV. Reducing lighting power density was the best single strategy with high overall performances. Combined strategies such as zero energy building are also recommended. Electricity consumption reductions are the sum of the reductions from strategies and PV output. However, peak electricity reductions were less than their sum because they reduced peak at different times. The potential of grid stress reduction is significant. Investment incentives from government and utilities are necessary. The PV system sizes on net metering interconnection should not be limited by legislation existing in

  6. The design and analysis of a teaching and learning strategy in Biophysics Course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Aiziczon

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the design and analysis of a teaching and learning strategy of Biophysics in the Medical career, in the mark of the Ausubelian Significant Learning Model, to overtake the Model of Transmission-Reception of knowledge. It is an integrative Module constructed from our previous theoretical Model and based on the authors' previous works (AIZICZON; CUDMANI, 2004, 2005, 2007. We analyze applications of conceptual maps strategy and the previous organizing in Medical Education (AUSUBEL, 1981; MOREIRA, 1983, 1999 promoting the integration of concepts allowing the progressive differentiation and the integrative reorganization as well as the formative evaluation. In this work we analyze the experience with teachers.

  7. Strategy paper. Remedial design/remedial action 100 Area. Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donahoe, R.L.

    1995-10-01

    This strategy paper identifies and defines the approach for remedial design and remedial action (RD/RA) for source waste sites in the 100 Area of the Hanford Site, located in southeastern Washington State. This paper provides the basis for the US Department of Energy (DOE) to assess and approve the Environmental Restoration Contractor's (ERC) approach to RD/RA. Additionally, DOE is requesting review/agreement from the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) on the strategy presented in this document in order to expedite remedial activities

  8. A Review of Different Behavior Modification Strategies Designed to Reduce Sedentary Screen Behaviors in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy A. Steeves

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous research suggests that reducing sedentary screen behaviors may be a strategy for preventing and treating obesity in children. This systematic review describes strategies used in interventions designed to either solely target sedentary screen behaviors or multiple health behaviors, including sedentary screen behaviors. Eighteen studies were included in this paper; eight targeting sedentary screen behaviors only, and ten targeting multiple health behaviors. All studies used behavior modification strategies for reducing sedentary screen behaviors in children (aged 1–12 years. Nine studies only used behavior modification strategies, and nine studies supplemented behavior modification strategies with an electronic device to enhance sedentary screen behaviors reductions. Many interventions (50% significantly reduced sedentary screen behaviors; however the magnitude of the significant reductions varied greatly (−0.44 to −3.1 h/day and may have been influenced by the primary focus of the intervention, number of behavior modification strategies used, and other tools used to limit sedentary screen behaviors.

  9. The Impact of Different Instructional Strategies on Students' Understanding about the Cell Cycle in a General Education Biology Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamurthy, Sanjana

    This study investigated the impact of different instructional strategies on students' understanding about the cell cycle in a general education biology course. Although several studies have documented gains in students' cell cycle understanding after instruction, these studies generally use only one instructional method, often without a comparison group. The goal of this study was to learn more about students' misconceptions about the cell cycle and how those ideas change after three different evidence-based learning experiences in undergraduate general education. Undergraduate students in six laboratory sections (n = 24; N = 144) in a large public institution in the western United States were surveyed pre- and post-instruction using a 14-item valid and reliable survey of cell cycle knowledge. Cronbach's alpha for the standard scoring convention was 0.264 and for the alternate scoring convention was 0.360, documenting serious problems with inconsistent validity and reliability of the survey. Operating as though the findings are at least a proxy for actual cell cycle knowledge, score comparisons by groups of interest were explored, including pre- and post-instruction differences among demographic groups of interest and three instructional settings: a bead modeling activity, a role-playing game, and 5E instructional strategy. No significant differences were found across groups of interest or by strategy, but some significant item-level differences were found. Implications and discussion of these shifts is noted in lieu of the literature.

  10. BODY WORK MODELING AND GENERAL DESIGN FOR A RADIO CONTROLLED CAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DOROBANŢU Bogdan

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the general design of a small radio controlled car with its main systems and also the process and phases of modeling the body work for this kind of car. The modeling started from the sketch of a real car, a Porsche 997, shaping the clay to its final form looking like a mixture of Nissan GTR and Porsche Cayenne but keeping the proportions of the 997 to a scale of 1:14.

  11. Design of a general purpose (RS-232C) analog-to-digital data converter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, Q.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to design a general purpose hardware that interfaces analog devices with any desirable computer supporting the RS-232 interface. The hardware incorporates bidirectional data transmission at 1,200 bps, 2,400 bps, 4800 bps, 9,600 bps, 19,200 pbs and 38400 bps. The communication / processing software has been written in C language that incorporates the idea of the potability of the software from one environment to the other. (author)

  12. General Creighton Abrams’ Conduct of Design in Operational Art during the Vietnam War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-17

    Conduct of Design in Operational Art during the Vietnam War. 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S...Unexamined Victories and Final Tragedy of America’s Last Years in Vietnam (New York: Harcourt Brace & Company, 1999), 30. 4 Edward C. Cardon , BG...appropriate solution from his assumption of command in 1968 until 1971. Brigadier General Edward C. Cardon best encapsulated the essence of

  13. Assessment of Passive vs. Active Strategies for a School Building Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Eun Kang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a simulation study to reduce heating and cooling energy demand of a school building in Seoul Metropolitan Area, Korea. The aim of this study was to estimate the impact of passive vs. active approaches on energy savings in buildings using EnergyPlus simulation. By controlling lighting, the energy saving of the original school building design was found most significant, and increased by 32% when the design was improved. It is noteworthy that energy saving potential of each room varies significantly depending on the rooms’ thermal characteristics and orientation. Thus, the analysis of energy saving should be introduced at the individual space level, not at the whole building level. Additionally, the simulation studies should be involved for rational decision-making. Finally, it was concluded that priority should be given to passive building design strategies, such as building orientation, as well as control and utilization of solar radiation. These passive energy saving strategies are related to urban, architectural design, and engineering issues, and are more beneficial in terms of energy savings than active strategies.

  14. Design and implementation of a general and automatic test platform base on NI PXI system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Long

    2018-05-01

    Aiming at some difficulties of test equipment such as the short product life, poor generality and high development cost, a general and automatic test platform base on NI PXI system is designed in this paper, which is able to meet most test requirements of circuit boards. The test platform is devided into 5 layers, every layer is introduced in detail except for the "Equipment Under Test" layer. An output board of a track-side equipment, which is an important part of high speed train control system, is taken as an example to make the functional circuit test by the test platform. The results show that the test platform is easy to realize add-on functions development, automatic test, wide compatibility and strong generality.

  15. Gathering Requirements for Teacher Tools: Strategies for Empowering Teachers Through Co-Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matuk, Camillia; Gerard, Libby; Lim-Breitbart, Jonathan; Linn, Marcia

    2016-02-01

    Technology can enhance teachers' practice in multiple ways. It can help them better understand patterns in their students' thinking, manage class progress at individual and group levels, and obtain evidence to inform modifications to curriculum and instruction. Such technology is most effective when it is aligned with teachers' goals and expectations. Participatory methods, which involve teachers closely in the design process, are widely recommended for establishing accurate design requirements that address users' needs. By collaborating with researchers, teachers can contribute their professional expertise to shape the tools of their practice, and ultimately ensure their sustained use. However, there is little guidance available for maintaining effective teacher-researcher design partnerships. We describe four strategies for engaging teachers in designing tools intended to support and enhance their practice within a web-based science learning environment: discussing physical artifacts, reacting to scenarios, customizing prototypes, and writing user stories. Using design artifacts and documents of teachers' reflections, we illustrate how we applied these techniques over 5 years of annual professional development workshops, and examine their affordances for eliciting teachers' ideas. We reflect on how these approaches have helped inform technology refinements and innovations. We moreover discuss the further benefits these strategies have had in encouraging teachers to reflect on their own practice and on the roles of technology in supporting it; and in allowing researchers to gain a deeper understanding of the relationship between technology, teaching, and design.

  16. Communicating cardiovascular disease risk: an interview study of General Practitioners' use of absolute risk within tailored communication strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonner, Carissa; Jansen, Jesse; McKinn, Shannon; Irwig, Les; Doust, Jenny; Glasziou, Paul; McCaffery, Kirsten

    2014-05-29

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention guidelines encourage assessment of absolute CVD risk - the probability of a CVD event within a fixed time period, based on the most predictive risk factors. However, few General Practitioners (GPs) use absolute CVD risk consistently, and communication difficulties have been identified as a barrier to changing practice. This study aimed to explore GPs' descriptions of their CVD risk communication strategies, including the role of absolute risk. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of 25 GPs in New South Wales, Australia. Transcribed audio-recordings were thematically coded, using the Framework Analysis method to ensure rigour. GPs used absolute CVD risk within three different communication strategies: 'positive', 'scare tactic', and 'indirect'. A 'positive' strategy, which aimed to reassure and motivate, was used for patients with low risk, determination to change lifestyle, and some concern about CVD risk. Absolute risk was used to show how they could reduce risk. A 'scare tactic' strategy was used for patients with high risk, lack of motivation, and a dismissive attitude. Absolute risk was used to 'scare' them into taking action. An 'indirect' strategy, where CVD risk was not the main focus, was used for patients with low risk but some lifestyle risk factors, high anxiety, high resistance to change, or difficulty understanding probabilities. Non-quantitative absolute risk formats were found to be helpful in these situations. This study demonstrated how GPs use three different communication strategies to address the issue of CVD risk, depending on their perception of patient risk, motivation and anxiety. Absolute risk played a different role within each strategy. Providing GPs with alternative ways of explaining absolute risk, in order to achieve different communication aims, may improve their use of absolute CVD risk assessment in practice.

  17. A randomized trial of three marketing strategies to disseminate a screening and brief alcohol intervention programme to general practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lock, C A; Kaner, E F; Heather, N; McAvoy, B R; Gilvarry, E

    1999-09-01

    Research findings are of little benefit to patients or society if they do not reach the audience they are intended to influence. A dissemination strategy is needed to target new findings at its user group and encourage a process of consideration and adoption or rejection. To evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of different marketing strategies for the dissemination of a screening and brief alcohol intervention (SBI) programme to general practitioners (GPs). Seven hundred and twenty-nine GPs, one per practice, from the former Northern and Yorkshire Regional Health Authority were randomly assigned to one of three marketing strategies: postal marketing (mailing a promotional brochure to GPs), telemarketing (following a script to market the programme over the telephone), and personal marketing (following the same script during face-to-face marketing at GPs' practices). GPs who took up the programme were asked if they would agree to use it. Outcome measures included the proportions of GPs who took up the programme and agreement to use it. Of the 614 GPs eligible for the study, 321 (52%) took the programme. There was a significant difference in the proportions of GPs from the three marketing strategies who took the programme (82% telemarketing, 68% personal marketing, and 22% postal marketing). Of the 315 GPs who took the programme and were eligible to use it, 128 (41%) agreed to use the programme for three months. GPs in the postal marketing group were more likely to agree to use the programme (55% postal marketing, 44% personal marketing, and 34% telemarketing). Personal marketing was the most effective overall dissemination strategy; however, economic analysis revealed that telemarketing was the most cost-effective strategy. Costs for dissemination per GP were: 13 Pounds telemarketing, 15 Pounds postal marketing, and 88 Pounds personal marketing. Telemarketing appeared to be the most cost-effective strategy for dissemination of SBI to GPs.

  18. Distrust As a Disease Avoidance Strategy: Individual Differences in Disgust Sensitivity Regulate Generalized Social Trust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarøe, Lene; Osmundsen, Mathias; Petersen, Michael Bang

    2016-01-01

    pathogens influence people's propensity to interact and cooperate with others, as measured by individual differences in generalized social trust. While extant studies on pathogen avoidance have argued that such motivations should prompt people to avoid interactions with outgroups specifically, we argue...... social trust. We furthermore compare the effects of pathogen disgust sensitivity on generalized social trust and outgroup prejudice and explore whether generalized social trust to some extent constitutes a pathway between pathogen avoidance motivations and prejudice.......Throughout human evolutionary history, cooperative contact with others has been fundamental for human survival. At the same time, social contact has been a source of threats. In this article, we focus on one particular viable threat, communicable disease, and investigate how motivations to avoid...

  19. A multifaceted implementation strategy versus passive implementation of low back pain guidelines in general practice: a cluster randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan Riis

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Guidelines are often slowly adapted into clinical practice. However, actively supporting healthcare professionals in evidence-based treatment may speed up guideline implementation. Danish low back pain (LBP guidelines focus on primary care treatment of LBP, to reduce referrals from primary care to secondary care. The primary aim of this project was to reduce secondary care referral within 12 weeks by a multifaceted implementation strategy (MuIS. Methods In a cluster randomised design, 189 general practices from the North Denmark Region were invited to participate. Practices were randomised (1:1 and stratified by practice size to MuIS (28 practices or a passive implementation strategy (PaIS; 32 practices. Included were patients with LBP aged 18 to 65 years who were able to complete questionnaires, had no serious underlying pathology, and were not pregnant. We developed a MuIS including outreach visits, quality reports, and the STarT Back Tool for subgrouping patients with LBP. Both groups were offered the usual dissemination of guidelines, guideline-concordant structuring of the medical record, and a new referral opportunity for patients with psycho-social problems. In an intention-to-treat analysis, the primary and secondary outcomes pertained to the patient, and a cost-effectiveness analysis was performed from a healthcare sector perspective. Patients and the assessment of outcomes were blinded. Practices and caregivers delivering the interventions were not blinded. Results Between January 2013 and July 2014, 60 practices were included, of which 54 practices (28 MuIS, 26 PaIS included 1101 patients (539 MuIS, 562 PaIS. Follow-up data for the primary outcome were available on 100 % of these patients. Twenty-seven patients (5.0 % in the MuIS group were referred to secondary care vs. 59 patients (10.5 % in the PaIS group. The adjusted odds ratio (AOR was 0.52 [95 % CI 0.30 to 0.90; p = 0.020]. The MuIS was cost

  20. Development the conceptual design of Knowledge Based System for Integrated Maintenance Strategy and Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milana; Khan, M. K.; Munive, J. E.

    2014-07-01

    The importance of maintenance has escalated significantly by the increasing of automation in manufacturing process. This condition switches traditional maintenance perspective of inevitable cost into the business competitive driver. Consequently, maintenance strategy and operation decision needs to be synchronized to business and manufacturing concerns. This paper shows the development of conceptual design of Knowledge Based System for Integrated Maintenance Strategy and Operation (KBIMSO). The framework of KBIMSO is elaborated to show the process of how the KBIMSO works to reach the maintenance decision. By considering the multi-criteria of maintenance decision making, the KB system embedded with GAP and AHP to support integrated maintenance strategy and operation which is novel in this area. The KBIMSO is useful to review the existing maintenance system and give reasonable recommendation of maintenance decisions in respect to business and manufacturing perspective.

  1. Development the conceptual design of Knowledge Based System for Integrated Maintenance Strategy and Operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milana; Khan, M K; Munive, J E

    2014-01-01

    The importance of maintenance has escalated significantly by the increasing of automation in manufacturing process. This condition switches traditional maintenance perspective of inevitable cost into the business competitive driver. Consequently, maintenance strategy and operation decision needs to be synchronized to business and manufacturing concerns. This paper shows the development of conceptual design of Knowledge Based System for Integrated Maintenance Strategy and Operation (KBIMSO). The framework of KBIMSO is elaborated to show the process of how the KBIMSO works to reach the maintenance decision. By considering the multi-criteria of maintenance decision making, the KB system embedded with GAP and AHP to support integrated maintenance strategy and operation which is novel in this area. The KBIMSO is useful to review the existing maintenance system and give reasonable recommendation of maintenance decisions in respect to business and manufacturing perspective

  2. Evolutionary optimization and game strategies for advanced multi-disciplinary design applications to aeronautics and UAV design

    CERN Document Server

    Periaux, Jacques; Lee, Dong Seop Chris

    2015-01-01

    Many complex aeronautical design problems can be formulated with efficient multi-objective evolutionary optimization methods and game strategies. This book describes the role of advanced innovative evolution tools in the solution, or the set of solutions of single or multi disciplinary optimization. These tools use the concept of multi-population, asynchronous parallelization and hierarchical topology which allows different models including precise, intermediate and approximate models with each node belonging to the different hierarchical layer handled by a different Evolutionary Algorithm. The efficiency of evolutionary algorithms for both single and multi-objective optimization problems are significantly improved by the coupling of EAs with games and in particular by a new dynamic methodology named “Hybridized Nash-Pareto games”. Multi objective Optimization techniques and robust design problems taking into account uncertainties are introduced and explained in detail. Several applications dealing with c...

  3. The ITER neutral beam test facility: Designs of the general infrastructure, cryosystem and cooling plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cordier, J.J.; Hemsworth, R.; Chantant, M.; Gravil, B.; Henry, D.; Sabathier, F.; Doceul, L.; Thomas, E.; Houtte, D. van; Zaccaria, P.; Antoni, V.; Bello, S. Dal; Marcuzzi, D.; Antipenkov, A.; Day, C.; Dremel, M.; Mondino, P.L.

    2005-01-01

    The CEA Association is involved, in close collaboration with ENEA, FZK, IPP and UKAEA European Associations, in the first ITER neutral beam (NB) injector and the ITER neutral beam test facility design (EFDA task ref. TW3-THHN-IITF1). A total power of about 50 MW will have to be removed in steady state on the neutral beam test facility (NBTF). The main purpose of this task is to make progress with the detailed design of the first ITER NB injector and to start the conceptual design of the ITER NBTF. The general infrastructure layout of a generic site for the NBTF includes the test facility itself equipped with a dedicated beamline vessel [P.L. Zaccaria, et al., Maintenance schemes for the ITER neutral beam test facility, this conference] and integration studies of associated auxiliaries such as cooling plant, cryoplant and forepumping system

  4. An object-oriented class design for the generalized finite element method programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorival Piedade Neto

    Full Text Available The Generalized Finite Element Method (GFEM is a numerical method based on the Finite Element Method (FEM, presenting as its main feature the possibility of improving the solution by means of local enrichment functions. In spite of its advantages, the method demands a complex data structure, which can be especially benefited by the Object-Oriented Programming (OOP. Even though the OOP for the traditional FEM has been extensively described in the technical literature, specific design issues related to the GFEM are yet little discussed and not clearly defined. In the present article it is described an Object-Oriented (OO class design for the GFEM, aiming to achieve a computational code that presents a flexible class structure, circumventing the difficulties associated to the method characteristics. The proposed design is evaluated by means of some numerical examples, computed using a code implemented in Python programming language.

  5. Conceptual development of a complete LWR reload design methodology based on generalized perturbation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, J.R.

    1986-01-01

    A new approach for the physics design and analysis of LWR reload cores is developed and demonstrated through several practical applications. The new design philosophy uses first- and second-order response derivatives to predict the important reactor performance characteristics (power peaking, reactivity coefficients, etc.) for any number of possible material configurations (assembly shuffling and burnable poison loadings). The response derivatives are computed using generalized perturbation theory (GPT) techniques. This report describes in detail an idealized GPT-based design system. The idealized system would contain individual modules to generate the required first-order and higher-order sensitivity data. It would also contain at least two major application codes; one for core design optimization and the other for evaluation of several safety parameters of interest in off-normal situations. This ideal system would be fully automated, user-friendly, and quite flexible in its ability to provide a variety of design and analysis capabilities. Information gained form these three studies gives a good foundation for the development of a complete integrated design package

  6. Nuclear power plant control room ventilation system design for meeting general criterion 19

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, K.G.; Campe, K.M.

    1975-01-01

    The requirement for protection of control room personnel against radiation is specified in General Design Criterion 19 of Appendix A, 10 CFR Part 50. The evaluation of a control room design, especially its emergency ventilation system, with respect to radiation protection primarily consists of determining the radiation doses to control room personnel under accident conditions. The accident dose assessment involves modeling and evaluation of radiological source terms, atmospheric transport of airborne activity, and protection features of the control room ventilation system. Some of the assumptions and conservatisms used in the dose analyses are based on the technical review experience of existing or proposed control room designs. A review of over 50 control room designs has revealed a great variety of design concepts, not all of which seem to have been based on radiation protection criteria. A summary of the basic control room protection requirements, design features, dose acceptance criteria, and an outline of the methods used by the Regulatory staff for accident dose evaluation are presented. (U.S.)

  7. Taking the stairs instead: The impact of workplace design standards on health promotion strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Tye

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBackground Comprehensive health promotion in Western Australia has been conducted from the point of views of policy development, promotion, education and service delivery. Much of this recent work has been focused on supporting workplaces – but there has yet to be any real focus on the design of the actual physical workplace environment from a health promotion perspective. Aims This paper is aimed at highlighting the gap in health promotion knowledge by addressing how the disciplines of architecture and health promotion can work together to challenge the regulations that dictate design practice and ultimately bridge that gap for long-term change. The overarching aim is to undertake further evidenced-based research that will inform best practice in the planning and design of workplaces to reduce sedentary behaviour and increase opportunities for physical activity. Method Within this wide objective this paper focuses in particular on the idea of stairs-versus-lift movement strategies within office buildings. By examining building design guidelines from a health promotion perspective we expose a central dichotomy, where health promotion posters say “Take the stairs instead” whereas the language of building design suggests that the lift is best. Results From a design point of view, the National Codes of Construction (NCC, formally known as the Building Codes of Australia (BCA, the essential technical regulation for all building design and construction, primarily addresses the concepts of ‘egress’ and ‘travel distance’ for escape in the event of fire, and building access in terms of universal access. Additionally, The Property Council of Australia’s Guide to Office Building Quality prioritises lift performance criteria along with the quality and experience of lift use as a major grading factor. There is no provision in either set of standards for staircase quality and experience. Conclusion The stairs, despite being promoted

  8. Strategies of Energy Efficiency Design in Traditional Kangbaiwan Mansion in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Xiaoqing

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The building sector is one of the highest energy consuming sectors in the world as well as in China, it is urgent to seek an energy efficiency way of sustainable architecture development. From the perspective of tradition, this paper focus on strategies of energy efficiency design that contained in excellent vernacular dwellings. On the basis of analyzing an example of Kangbaiwan Mansion, it illustrates the advantage of environment ecosystem, and summarizes the physical and cultural characteristic of its buildings, especially the climate-adapting overall arrangement and sustainable strategies of natural ventilation and passive solar gain, which can be a fertile source of modern energy efficiency architecture design as well as a proper way of inheriting the outstanding traditional culture.

  9. Distrust As a Disease Avoidance Strategy: Individual Differences in Disgust Sensitivity Regulate Generalized Social Trust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarøe, Lene; Osmundsen, Mathias; Petersen, Michael Bang

    2016-01-01

    Throughout human evolutionary history, cooperative contact with others has been fundamental for human survival. At the same time, social contact has been a source of threats. In this article, we focus on one particular viable threat, communicable disease, and investigate how motivations to avoid pathogens influence people's propensity to interact and cooperate with others, as measured by individual differences in generalized social trust. While extant studies on pathogen avoidance have argued that such motivations should prompt people to avoid interactions with outgroups specifically, we argue that these motivations should prompt people to avoid others more broadly. Empirically, we utilize two convenience samples and a large nationally representative sample of US citizens to demonstrate the existence of a robust and replicable effect of individual differences in pathogen disgust sensitivity on generalized social trust. We furthermore compare the effects of pathogen disgust sensitivity on generalized social trust and outgroup prejudice and explore whether generalized social trust to some extent constitutes a pathway between pathogen avoidance motivations and prejudice.

  10. A general strategy to endow natural fusion-protein-derived peptides with potent antiviral activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonello Pessi

    Full Text Available Fusion between the viral and target cell membranes is an obligatory step for the infectivity of all enveloped virus, and blocking this process is a clinically validated therapeutic strategy.Viral fusion is driven by specialized proteins which, although specific to each virus, act through a common mechanism, the formation of a complex between two heptad repeat (HR regions. The HR regions are initially separated in an intermediate termed "prehairpin", which bridges the viral and cell membranes, and then fold onto each other to form a 6-helical bundle (6HB, driving the two membranes to fuse. HR-derived peptides can inhibit viral infectivity by binding to the prehairpin intermediate and preventing its transition to the 6HB.The antiviral activity of HR-derived peptides differs considerably among enveloped viruses. For weak inhibitors, potency can be increased by peptide engineering strategies, but sequence-specific optimization is time-consuming. In seeking ways to increase potency without changing the native sequence, we previously reported that attachment to the HR peptide of a cholesterol group ("cholesterol-tagging" dramatically increases its antiviral potency, and simultaneously increases its half-life in vivo. We show here that antiviral potency may be increased by combining cholesterol-tagging with dimerization of the HR-derived sequence, using as examples human parainfluenza virus, Nipah virus, and HIV-1. Together, cholesterol-tagging and dimerization may represent strategies to boost HR peptide potency to levels that in some cases may be compatible with in vivo use, possibly contributing to emergency responses to outbreaks of existing or novel viruses.

  11. LS1 general planning and strategy for the LHC, LHC injectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foraz, K.

    2012-01-01

    The goal of Long Shutdown 1 (LS1) is to perform the full maintenance of equipment and the necessary consolidation and upgrade activities in order to ensure reliable LHC operation at nominal performance from mid-2014. LS1 is scheduled to last 20 months. LS1 not only concerns the LHC but also its injectors. To ensure resources will be available an analysis is in progress to detect conflict/overload and decide what is compulsory, what we can afford, and what can be postponed until LS2. The strategy, time key drivers, constraints, and draft schedule are presented here. (author)

  12. LS1 general planning and strategy for the LHC, LHC injectors

    CERN Document Server

    Foraz, K

    2012-01-01

    The goal of Long Shutdown 1 (LS1) is to perform the full maintenance of equipment, and the necessary consolidation and upgrade activities in order to ensure reliable LHC operation at nominal performance from mid 2014. LS1 not only concerns LHC but also its injectors. To ensure resources will be available an analysis is in progress to detect conflict/overload and decide what is compulsary, what we can afford, and what can be postponed to LS2. The strategy, time key drivers, constraints, and draft schedule will be presented here.

  13. Systems consultation: protocol for a novel implementation strategy designed to promote evidence-based practice in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quanbeck, Andrew; Brown, Randall T; E Zgierska, Aleksandra; A Johnson, Roberta; Robinson, James M; Jacobson, Nora

    2016-01-27

    Adoption of evidence-based practices takes place at a glacial place in healthcare. This research will pilot test an innovative implementation strategy - systems consultation -intended to speed the adoption of evidence-based practice in primary care. The strategy is based on tenets of systems engineering and has been extensively tested in addiction treatment. Three innovations have been included in the strategy - translation of a clinical practice guideline into a checklist-based implementation guide, the use of physician peer coaches ('systems consultants') to help clinics implement the guide, and a focus on reducing variation in practices across prescribers and clinics. The implementation strategy will be applied to improving opioid prescribing practices in primary care, which may help ultimately mitigate the increasing prevalence of opioid abuse and addiction. The pilot test will compare four intervention clinics to four control clinics in a matched-pairs design. A leading clinical guideline for opioid prescribing has been translated into a checklist-based implementation guide in a systematic process that involved experts who wrote the guideline in consultation with implementation experts and primary care physicians. Two physicians with expertise in family and addiction medicine are serving as the systems consultants. Each systems consultant will guide two intervention clinics, using two site visits and follow-up communication by phone and email, to implement the translated guideline. Mixed methods will be used to test the feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary effectiveness of the implementation strategy in an evaluation that meets standards for 'fully developed use' of the RE-AIM framework (Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation, Maintenance). The clinic will be the primary unit of analysis. The systems consultation implementation strategy is intended to generalize to the adoption of other clinical guidelines. This pilot test is intended to prepare

  14. A Strategy for Material-specific e-Textile Interaction Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gowrishankar, Ramyah; Bredies, Katharina; Ylirisku, Salu

    2017-01-01

    The interaction design of e-Textile products are often characterized by conventions adopted from electronic devices rather than developing interactions that can be specific to e-Textiles. We argue that textile materials feature a vast potential for the design of novel digital interactions....... Especially the shape-reformation capabilities of textiles may inform the design of expressive and aesthetically rewarding applications. In this chapter, we propose ways in which the textileness of e-Textiles can be better harnessed. We outline an e-Textile Interaction Design strategy that is based...... on defining the material-specificity of e-Textiles as its ability to deform in ways that match the expectations we have of textile materials. It embraces an open-ended exploration of textile-related interactions (for e.g. stretching, folding, turning-inside-out etc.) and their potential for electronic...

  15. Simulation based design strategy for EMC compliance of components in hybrid vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maass, Uwe; Ndip, Ivan; Hoene, Eckard; Guttowski, Stephan [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Zuverlaessigkeit und Mikrointegration (IZM), Berlin (Germany); Tschoban, Christian; Lang, Klaus-Dieter [Technische Univ. Berlin (Germany)

    2012-11-01

    The design of components for the power train of hybrid vehicles needs to take into account EMC compliance standards related to hazardous electromagnetic fields. Using a simulation based design strategy allows for virtual EMC tests in parallel to the mechanical / electrical power design and thus reduces (re-)design time and costs. Taking as an example a high-voltage battery for a hybrid vehicle the emitted magnetic fields outside the battery are examined. The simulation stategy is based on 3D EM simulations using a full-wave and an eddy current solver. The simulation models are based on the actual CAD data from the mechanical construction resulting in and a high geometrical aspect ratio. The impact of simulation specific aspects such as boundary conditions and excitation is given. It was found that using field simulations it is possible to identify noise sources and coupling paths as well as aid the construction of the battery. (orig.)

  16. Institutional capacity for designing and implementing agricultural and rural development policies and strategies in Nigeria:

    OpenAIRE

    Adebayo, Kolawole; Babu, Suresh Chandra; Rhoe, Valerie

    2009-01-01

    This study assessed the capacity for designing and implementing agricultural and rural development policies, strategies, and programs in Nigeria. Data for this study were derived from initial consultations at the Federal Ministry of Agriculture and Water Resources (FMAWR), Federal Ministry of Women affairs and Social Development (FMWASD), and the Federal Ministry of Environment (FMEnv) early in 2008. Two consultation workshops were also held, one for relevant staff in the ministries, parastat...

  17. Design a Smart Control Strategy to Implement an Intelligent Energy Safety and Management System

    OpenAIRE

    Jing-Min Wang; Ming-Ta Yang

    2014-01-01

    The energy saving and electricity safety are today a cause for increasing concern for homes and buildings. Integrating the radio frequency identification (RFID) and ZigBee wireless sensor network (WSN) mature technologies, the paper designs a smart control strategy to implement an intelligent energy safety and management system (IESMS) which performs energy measuring, controlling, monitoring, and saving of the power outlet system. The presented RFID and billing module is used to identify user...

  18. Designing a community engagement strategy for Limerick Smarter travel using focus groups and precedent studies

    OpenAIRE

    Cullinane, Kathleen Clair

    2012-01-01

    peer-reviewed This research aims to create a rational basis for designing and implementing a plan for Limerick Smarter Travel. This plan will pay particular attention to community engagement. This research establishes a rationale for a community engagement strategy. Precedent studies also provide direct guidance for this rationale. The objective of the plan is to develop a local culture of Smarter Travel in Limerick communities using best international practice, and thereby achieving behav...

  19. Development strategy and process models for phased automation of design and digital manufacturing electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korshunov, G. I.; Petrushevskaya, A. A.; Lipatnikov, V. A.; Smirnova, M. S.

    2018-03-01

    The strategy of quality of electronics insurance is represented as most important. To provide quality, the processes sequence is considered and modeled by Markov chain. The improvement is distinguished by simple database means of design for manufacturing for future step-by-step development. Phased automation of design and digital manufacturing electronics is supposed. The MatLab modelling results showed effectiveness increase. New tools and software should be more effective. The primary digital model is proposed to represent product in the processes sequence from several processes till the whole life circle.

  20. Robust Control Mixer Method for Reconfigurable Control Design Using Model Matching Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Zhenyu; Blanke, Mogens; Verhagen, Michel

    2007-01-01

    A novel control mixer method for recon¯gurable control designs is developed. The proposed method extends the matrix-form of the conventional control mixer concept into a LTI dynamic system-form. The H_inf control technique is employed for these dynamic module designs after an augmented control...... system is constructed through a model-matching strategy. The stability, performance and robustness of the reconfigured system can be guaranteed when some conditions are satisfied. To illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method, a robot system subjected to failures is used to demonstrate...

  1. Variation of Student Numerical and Figural Reasoning Approaches by Pattern Generalization Type, Strategy Use and Grade Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Mouhayar, Rabih; Jurdak, Murad

    2016-01-01

    This paper explored variation of student numerical and figural reasoning approaches across different pattern generalization types and across grade level. An instrument was designed for this purpose. The instrument was given to a sample of 1232 students from grades 4 to 11 from five schools in Lebanon. Analysis of data showed that the numerical…

  2. General and Modular Strategy for Designing Potent, Selective, and Pharmacologically Compliant Inhibitors of Rhomboid Proteases

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tichá, Anežka; Stanchev, Stancho; Vinothkumar, K. R.; Mikles, David C.; Pachl, Petr; Began, Jakub; Škerle, Jan; Švehlová, Kateřina; Nguyen, M. T. N.; Verhelst, S. H. L.; Johnson, D. C.; Bachovchin, D. A.; Lepšík, Martin; Majer, Pavel; Stříšovský, Kvido

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 12 (2017), s. 1523-1536 ISSN 2451-9448 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LK11206; GA MŠk LO1302; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1304; GA ČR(CZ) GBP208/12/G016 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 304154 - Rhomboid substrates Grant - others:EMBO(DE) 2329 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : alpha-ketoamide inhibitors * activity-based probes * intramembrane protease Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry OBOR OECD: Biochemistry and molecular biology http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2451945617303513?via%3Dihub

  3. An integral design strategy combining optical system and image processing to obtain high resolution images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiaoyang; Wang, Lin; Yang, Ying; Gong, Rui; Shao, Xiaopeng; Liang, Chao; Xu, Jun

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, an integral design that combines optical system with image processing is introduced to obtain high resolution images, and the performance is evaluated and demonstrated. Traditional imaging methods often separate the two technical procedures of optical system design and imaging processing, resulting in the failures in efficient cooperation between the optical and digital elements. Therefore, an innovative approach is presented to combine the merit function during optical design together with the constraint conditions of image processing algorithms. Specifically, an optical imaging system with low resolution is designed to collect the image signals which are indispensable for imaging processing, while the ultimate goal is to obtain high resolution images from the final system. In order to optimize the global performance, the optimization function of ZEMAX software is utilized and the number of optimization cycles is controlled. Then Wiener filter algorithm is adopted to process the image simulation and mean squared error (MSE) is taken as evaluation criterion. The results show that, although the optical figures of merit for the optical imaging systems is not the best, it can provide image signals that are more suitable for image processing. In conclusion. The integral design of optical system and image processing can search out the overall optimal solution which is missed by the traditional design methods. Especially, when designing some complex optical system, this integral design strategy has obvious advantages to simplify structure and reduce cost, as well as to gain high resolution images simultaneously, which has a promising perspective of industrial application.

  4. A general synthesis strategy for the multifunctional 3D polypyrrole foam of thin 2D nanosheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Jiangli; Mo, Maosong; Liu, Zhuming; Ye, Dapeng; Cheng, Zhihua; Xu, Tong; Qu, Liangti

    2018-05-01

    A 3D macroporous conductive polymer foam of thin 2D polypyrrole (PPy) nanosheets is developed by adopting a novel intercalation of guest (monomer Py) between the layers of the lamellar host (3D vanadium oxide foam) template-replication strategy. The 3D PPy foam of thin 2D nanosheets exhibits diverse functions including reversible compressibility, shape memory, absorption/adsorption and mechanically deformable supercapacitor characteristics. The as-prepared 3D PPy foam of thin nanosheets is highly light weight with a density of 12 mg·cm-3 which can bear the large compressive strain up to 80% whether in wet or dry states; and can absorb organic solutions or extract dye molecules fast and efficiently. In particular, the PPy nanosheet-based foamas a mechanically deformable electrode material for supercapacitors exhibits high specific capacitance of 70 F·g-1 at a fast charge-discharge rate of 50 mA·g-1, superior to that of any other typical pure PPy-based capacitor. We envision that the strategy presented here should be applicable to fabrication of a wide variety of organic polymer foams and hydrogels of low-dimensional nanostructures and even inorganic foams and hydrogels of low-dimensional nanostructures, and thus allow for exploration of their advanced physical and chemical properties.

  5. Optimal Sizing and Control Strategy Design for Heavy Hybrid Electric Truck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Zou

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the complexity of the hybrid powertrain, the control is highly involved to improve the collaborations of the different components. For the specific powertrain, the components' sizing just gives the possibility to propel the vehicle and the control will realize the function of the propulsion. Definitely the components' sizing also gives the constraints to the control design, which cause a close coupling between the sizing and control strategy design. This paper presents a parametric study focused on sizing of the powertrain components and optimization of the power split between the engine and electric motor for minimizing the fuel consumption. A framework is put forward to accomplish the optimal sizing and control design for a heavy parallel pre-AMT hybrid truck under the natural driving schedule. The iterative plant-controller combined optimization methodology is adopted to optimize the key parameters of the plant and control strategy simultaneously. A scalable powertrain model based on a bilevel optimization framework is built. Dynamic programming is applied to find the optimal control in the inner loop with a prescribed cycle. The parameters are optimized in the outer loop. The results are analysed and the optimal sizing and control strategy are achieved simultaneously.

  6. Analysis of the optimal design strategy of a magnetorheological smart structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Likang; Duan Fubin; Eriksson, Anders

    2008-01-01

    The exploration of magnetorheological (MR) fluid applications involves many fields. During the phase of theory analysis and experimental investigations, most of the research has been in developing primary products, and the design method is becoming important in MR device design. To establish general design guidelines, not with the usual MR smart structure design method which just complies with the presented yield stress of smart materials, in this paper, an MR smart structure design method is presented according to the whole requirement of smart structure characteristics. In other words, the smart structure design method does not just execute its optimization according to the presented MR fluid features, and it can customize or select the properties of MR fluid obeying the whole system requirements. Besides the usual magnetic circuit design analysis, the MR fluid physical content, such as the volume fraction of particles, was incorporated into the design parameters of the products. At the same time, by utilizing the structural parameters, the response time of MR devices was considered by analyzing the time constant of electromagnetic coils inside the MR devices too. Additionally, the power consumption relevant to transient useful power was analyzed for structure design. Finally, based on the computation of the magnetic field in a finite element (COMSOL multiphysics), all these factors were illustrated in an MR fluid valve based on the results of a magnetic circuit design

  7. Designs, Techniques, and Reporting Strategies in Geography Education: A Review of Research Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadrozny, Joann; McClure, Caroline; Lee, Jinhee; Jo, Injeong

    2016-01-01

    A wide variety of research is being completed and published in geography education. The purpose of this article is to provide a general overview of the different types of methodologies, research designs, and techniques used by geography education researchers. Analyzing three geography education journals, we found 191 research articles published…

  8. An Exploratory Study of Self-Regulated Learning Strategies in a Design Project by Students in Grades 9-12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawanto, Oenardi; Butler, Deborah; Cartier, Sylvie; Santoso, Harry; Lawanto, Kevin; Clark, David

    2013-01-01

    This exploratory study evaluated self-regulated learning (SRL) strategies of 27 students in grades 9-12 during an engineering design project. The specific focus of the study was on student task interpretation and its relation to planning and cognitive strategies in design activities. Two research questions guided the study: (1) To what degree was…

  9. Reducing antibiotic prescribing in Australian general practice: time for a national strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Mar, Christopher B; Scott, Anna Mae; Glasziou, Paul P; Hoffmann, Tammy; van Driel, Mieke L; Beller, Elaine; Phillips, Susan M; Dartnell, Jonathan

    2017-11-06

    In Australia, the antibiotic resistance crisis may be partly alleviated by reducing antibiotic use in general practice, which has relatively high prescribing rates - antibiotics are mostly prescribed for acute respiratory infections, for which they provide only minor benefits. Current surveillance is inadequate for monitoring community antibiotic resistance rates, prescribing rates by indication, and serious complications of acute respiratory infections (which antibiotic use earlier in the infection may have averted), making target setting difficult. Categories of interventions that may support general practitioners to reduce prescribing antibiotics are: regulatory (eg, changing the default to "no repeats" in electronic prescribing, changing the packaging of antibiotics to facilitate tailored amounts of antibiotics for the right indication and restricting access to prescribing selected antibiotics to conserve them), externally administered (eg, academic detailing and audit and feedback on total antibiotic use for individual GPs), interventions that GPs can individually implement (eg, delayed prescribing, shared decision making, public declarations in the practice about conserving antibiotics, and self-administered audit), supporting GPs' access to near-patient diagnostic testing, and public awareness campaigns. Many unanswered clinical research questions remain, including research into optimal implementation methods. Reducing antibiotic use in Australian general practice will require a range of approaches (with various intervention categories), a sustained effort over many years and a commitment of appropriate resources and support.

  10. Strategies of Transition to Sustainable Agriculture in Iran II- Inputs Replacement and Designing Agroecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Koocheki

    2018-02-01

    , natural resources could be used more efficiently. Eliminate the use of nonrenewable off farm human inputs that have the potential to harm the environment or the health of farmers, farm workers, or consumers. Mitigation and adaptation strategies in relation to climate change and quantization of transition period from common to sustainable agriculture to reduce economic risks for farmers were regarded in the agro-ecosystem design. Conclusion In general, although different studies were performed in the replacement of ecological inputs instead of common inputs in Iran, needed policy is necessary to transfer findings of these researches to fields. Although the complete studies were not carried out about designing agro-ecosystem, the existence of enough results for two previous steps (increasing inputs efficiency and its replacement could be basic for this step. Therefore, deep researches and studies based on site potential in the ecosystem level should be done in the final step of transition to sustainable agriculture.

  11. A clinical trial design using the concept of proportional time using the generalized gamma ratio distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phadnis, Milind A; Wetmore, James B; Mayo, Matthew S

    2017-11-20

    Traditional methods of sample size and power calculations in clinical trials with a time-to-event end point are based on the logrank test (and its variations), Cox proportional hazards (PH) assumption, or comparison of means of 2 exponential distributions. Of these, sample size calculation based on PH assumption is likely the most common and allows adjusting for the effect of one or more covariates. However, when designing a trial, there are situations when the assumption of PH may not be appropriate. Additionally, when it is known that there is a rapid decline in the survival curve for a control group, such as from previously conducted observational studies, a design based on the PH assumption may confer only a minor statistical improvement for the treatment group that is neither clinically nor practically meaningful. For such scenarios, a clinical trial design that focuses on improvement in patient longevity is proposed, based on the concept of proportional time using the generalized gamma ratio distribution. Simulations are conducted to evaluate the performance of the proportional time method and to identify the situations in which such a design will be beneficial as compared to the standard design using a PH assumption, piecewise exponential hazards assumption, and specific cases of a cure rate model. A practical example in which hemorrhagic stroke patients are randomized to 1 of 2 arms in a putative clinical trial demonstrates the usefulness of this approach by drastically reducing the number of patients needed for study enrollment. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Appraisal of the implementation status of appendix general design criteria, of the 10CFR50 in the design of the Juragua NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Aleman, Carlos; Mitjans Sanchez, Guillermo

    1996-01-01

    The work intends to reflect in a general manner the state of accomplishment of the general design requirements for NPP in the US and other parts of the world contained in 10CFR50 appendix A in the design solutions adopted for the Juragua plant with reactors VVER-440 V-318

  13. A general soft-enveloping strategy in the templating synthesis of mesoporous metal nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Jixiang; Zhang, Lingling; Li, Jiang; Lu, Lu; Ma, Chuansheng; Cheng, Shaodong; Li, Zhiyuan; Xiong, Qihua; You, Hongjun

    2018-02-06

    Metal species have a relatively high mobility inside mesoporous silica; thus, it is difficult to introduce the metal precursors into silica mesopores and suppress the migration of metal species during a reduction process. Therefore, until now, the controlled growth of metal nanocrystals in a confined space, i.e., mesoporous channels, has been very challenging. Here, by using a soft-enveloping reaction at the interfaces of the solid, liquid, and solution phases, we successfully control the growth of metallic nanocrystals inside a mesoporous silica template. Diverse monodispersed nanostructures with well-defined sizes and shapes, including Ag nanowires, 3D mesoporous Au, AuAg alloys, Pt networks, and Au nanoparticle superlattices are successfully obtained. The 3D mesoporous AuAg networks exhibit enhanced catalytic activities in an electrochemical methanol oxidation reaction. The current soft-enveloping synthetic strategy offers a robust approach to synthesize diverse mesoporous metal nanostructures that can be utilized in catalysis, optics, and biomedicine applications.

  14. Librarian co-authors correlated with higher quality reported search strategies in general internal medicine systematic reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rethlefsen, Melissa L; Farrell, Ann M; Osterhaus Trzasko, Leah C; Brigham, Tara J

    2015-06-01

    To determine whether librarian and information specialist authorship was associated with better reported systematic review (SR) search quality. SRs from high-impact general internal medicine journals were reviewed for search quality characteristics and reporting quality by independent reviewers using three instruments, including a checklist of Institute of Medicine Recommended Standards for the Search Process and a scored modification of the Peer Review of Electronic Search Strategies instrument. The level of librarian and information specialist participation was significantly associated with search reproducibility from reported search strategies (Χ(2) = 23.5; P Librarian co-authored SRs had significantly higher odds of meeting 8 of 13 analyzed search standards than those with no librarian participation and six more than those with mentioned librarian participation. One-way ANOVA showed that differences in total search quality scores between all three groups were statistically significant (F2,267 = 10.1233; P librarian or information specialist co-authors are correlated with significantly higher quality reported search strategies. To minimize bias in SRs, authors and editors could encourage librarian engagement in SRs including authorship as a potential way to help improve documentation of the search strategy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Structuring energy supply and demand networks in a general equilibrium model to simulate global warming control strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, S.; Veselka, T.D.; Cirillo, R.R.

    1991-01-01

    Global warming control strategies which mandate stringent caps on emissions of greenhouse forcing gases can substantially alter a country's demand, production, and imports of energy products. Although there is a large degree of uncertainty when attempting to estimate the potential impact of these strategies, insights into the problem can be acquired through computer model simulations. This paper presents one method of structuring a general equilibrium model, the ENergy and Power Evaluation Program/Global Climate Change (ENPEP/GCC), to simulate changes in a country's energy supply and demand balance in response to global warming control strategies. The equilibrium model presented in this study is based on the principle of decomposition, whereby a large complex problem is divided into a number of smaller submodules. Submodules simulate energy activities and conversion processes such as electricity production. These submodules are linked together to form an energy supply and demand network. Linkages identify energy and fuel flows among various activities. Since global warming control strategies can have wide reaching effects, a complex network was constructed. The network represents all energy production, conversion, transportation, distribution, and utilization activities. The structure of the network depicts interdependencies within and across economic sectors and was constructed such that energy prices and demand responses can be simulated. Global warming control alternatives represented in the network include: (1) conservation measures through increased efficiency; and (2) substitution of fuels that have high greenhouse gas emission rates with fuels that have lower emission rates. 6 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs

  16. Lifetime design strategy for binary geothermal plants considering degradation of geothermal resource productivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budisulistyo, Denny; Wong, Choon Seng; Krumdieck, Susan

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A new lifetime strategy for binary plants considering thermal resource degradations. • The net present value and energy return on investment are selected as indicators. • The results indicate that the design based on point 2 has the best revenue. • Improving plant performance by parameters adjustments and adaptable designs. - Abstract: This work proposes a lifetime design strategy for binary geothermal plants which takes into account heat resource degradation. A model of the resource temperature and mass flow rate decline over a 30 year plant life is developed from a survey of data. The standard approach to optimise a basic subcritical cycle of n-pentane working fluid and select component sizes is used for the resource characteristics in years 1, 7, 15 and 30. The performances of the four plants designed for the different resource conditions are then simulated over the plant life to obtain the best lifetime design. The net present value and energy return on investment are selected as the measures of merit. The production history of a real geothermal well in the Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand, is used as a case study for the lifetime design strategy. The results indicate that the operational parameters (such as mass flow rate of n-pentane, inlet turbine pressure and air mass flow rate) and plant performance (net power output) decrease over the whole plant life. The best lifetime plant design was at year 7 with partly degraded conditions. This condition has the highest net present value at USD 6,894,615 and energy return on investment at 4.15. Detailed thermo-economic analysis was carried out with the aim of improving the plant performance to overcome the resource degradation in two ways: operational parameters adjustments and adaptable designs. The results shows that mass flow rates of n-pentane and air cooling should be adjusted to maintain the performance over the plant life. The plant design can also be adapted by installing a recuperator

  17. Radical covalent organic frameworks: a general strategy to immobilize open-accessible polyradicals for high-performance capacitive energy storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Fei; Xu, Hong; Chen, Xiong; Wu, Dingcai; Wu, Yang; Liu, Hao; Gu, Cheng; Fu, Ruowen; Jiang, Donglin

    2015-06-01

    Ordered π-columns and open nanochannels found in covalent organic frameworks (COFs) could render them able to store electric energy. However, the synthetic difficulty in achieving redox-active skeletons has thus far restricted their potential for energy storage. A general strategy is presented for converting a conventional COF into an outstanding platform for energy storage through post-synthetic functionalization with organic radicals. The radical frameworks with openly accessible polyradicals immobilized on the pore walls undergo rapid and reversible redox reactions, leading to capacitive energy storage with high capacitance, high-rate kinetics, and robust cycle stability. The results suggest that channel-wall functional engineering with redox-active species will be a facile and versatile strategy to explore COFs for energy storage. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Complex Dynamical Behaviors in a Predator-Prey System with Generalized Group Defense and Impulsive Control Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shunyi Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A predator-prey system with generalized group defense and impulsive control strategy is investigated. By using Floquet theorem and small amplitude perturbation skills, a local asymptotically stable prey-eradication periodic solution is obtained when the impulsive period is less than some critical value. Otherwise, the system is permanent if the impulsive period is larger than the critical value. By using bifurcation theory, we show the existence and stability of positive periodic solution when the pest eradication lost its stability. Numerical examples show that the system considered has more complicated dynamics, including (1 high-order quasiperiodic and periodic oscillation, (2 period-doubling and halving bifurcation, (3 nonunique dynamics (meaning that several attractors coexist, and (4 chaos and attractor crisis. Further, the importance of the impulsive period, the released amount of mature predators and the degree of group defense effect are discussed. Finally, the biological implications of the results and the impulsive control strategy are discussed.

  19. A Global Multi-Objective Optimization Tool for Design of Mechatronic Components using Generalized Differential Evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Michael Møller; Nørgård, Christian; Roemer, Daniel Beck

    2016-01-01

    This paper illustrates how the relatively simple constrained multi-objective optimization algorithm Generalized Differential Evolution 3 (GDE3), can assist with the practical sizing of mechatronic components used in e.g. digital displacement fluid power machinery. The studied bi- and tri-objectiv......This paper illustrates how the relatively simple constrained multi-objective optimization algorithm Generalized Differential Evolution 3 (GDE3), can assist with the practical sizing of mechatronic components used in e.g. digital displacement fluid power machinery. The studied bi- and tri...... different optimization control parameter settings and it is concluded that GDE3 is a reliable optimization tool that can assist mechatronic engineers in the design and decision making process....

  20. Passive solar design strategies: Remodeling guidelines for conserving energy at home

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    The idea of passive solar is simple, but applying it effectively does require information and attention to the details of design and construction. Some passive solar techniques are modest and low-cost, and require only small changes in remodeler's typical practice. At the other end of the spectrum, some passive solar systems can almost eliminate a house's need for purchased heating (and in some cases, cooling) energy -- but probably at a relatively high first cost. In between are a broad range of energy-conserving passive solar techniques. Whether or not they are cost-effective, practical and attractive enough to offer a market advantage to any individual remodeler depends on very specific factors such as local costs, climate, and market characteristics. Passive solar design strategies: Remodeling Guidelines For Conserving Energy At Homes is written to help give remodelers the information they need to make these decisions. Passive Solar Design Strategies is a package in three basic parts: The Guidelines contain information about passive solar techniques and how they work, and provides specific examples of systems which will save various percentages of energy; The Worksheets offer a simple, fill-in-the-blank method to pre-evaluate the performance of a specific design; The Worked Example demonstrates how to complete the worksheets for a typical residence.

  1. Passive solar design strategies: Remodeling guidelines for conserving energy at home. [Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-12-31

    The idea of passive solar is simple, but applying it effectively does require information and attention to the details of design and construction. Some passive solar techniques are modest and low-cost, and require only small changes in remodeler`s typical practice. At the other end of the spectrum, some passive solar systems can almost eliminate a house`s need for purchased heating (and in some cases, cooling) energy -- but probably at a relatively high first cost. In between are a broad range of energy-conserving passive solar techniques. Whether or not they are cost-effective, practical and attractive enough to offer a market advantage to any individual remodeler depends on very specific factors such as local costs, climate, and market characteristics. Passive solar design strategies: Remodeling Guidelines For Conserving Energy At Homes is written to help give remodelers the information they need to make these decisions. Passive Solar Design Strategies is a package in three basic parts: The Guidelines contain information about passive solar techniques and how they work, and provides specific examples of systems which will save various percentages of energy; The Worksheets offer a simple, fill-in-the-blank method to pre-evaluate the performance of a specific design; The Worked Example demonstrates how to complete the worksheets for a typical residence.

  2. Passive solar design strategies: Remodeling guidelines for conserving energy at home

    Science.gov (United States)

    The idea of passive solar is simple, but applying it effectively does require information and attention to the details of design and construction. Some passive solar techniques are modest and low-cost, and require only small changes in remodeler's typical practice. At the other end of the spectrum, some passive solar systems can almost eliminate a house's need for purchased heating (and in some cases, cooling) energy - but probably at a relatively high first cost. In between are a broad range of energy-conserving passive solar techniques. Whether or not they are cost-effective, practical, and attractive enough to offer a market advantage to any individual remodeler depends on very specific factors such as local costs, climate, and market characteristics. Passive Solar Design Strategies: Remodeling Guidelines For Conserving Energy At Home is written to help give remodelers the information they need to make these decisions. Passive Solar Design Strategies is a package in three basic parts: the guidelines contain information about passive solar techniques and how they work, and provides specific examples of systems which will save various percentages of energy; the worksheets offer a simple, fill-in-the-blank method to pre-evaluate the performance of a specific design; and the worked example demonstrates how to complete the worksheets for a typical residence.

  3. Dealing with sickness certification – a survey of problems and strategies among general practitioners and orthopaedic surgeons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilsson Gunnar

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to get sickness benefit a sick-listed person need a medical certificate issued by a physician; in Sweden after one week of self-certification. Physicians experience sick-listing tasks as problematic and conflicts may arise when patients regard themselves unable to work due to complaints that are hard to objectively verify for the physician. Most GPs and orthopaedic surgeons (OS deal regularly with sick-listing issues in their daily practice. The aim of this study was to explore perceived problems and coping strategies related to tasks of sickness certification among general practitioners (GP and orthopaedic surgeons (OS. Methods A cross-sectional study about sickness certification in two Swedish counties, with 673 participating GPs and 149 OSs, who answered a comprehensive questionnaire. Frequencies together with crude and adjusted (gender and working years Odds ratios were calculated. Results A majority of the GPs and OSs experienced problems in sickness certification every week. To assess the patient's work ability, to handle situations when they and the patient had different opinions about the need for sickness absence, and to issue prolongation certificates when the previous was issued by another physician were reported as problematic by a majority in both groups. Both GPs and OSs prolonged sickness certifications due to waiting times in health care or at Social Insurance Office (SIO. To handle experienced problems they used different strategies; OSs issued sickness certificates without personal appointment more often than the GPs, who on the other hand reported having contact with SIO more often than the OSs. A higher rate of GPs experienced support from management and had a common strategy for handling sickness certification at the clinic than the OSs. Conclusion Most GPs and OSs handled sickness certification weekly and reported a variety of problems in relation to this task, generally GPs to a higher extent

  4. Deorbitalization strategies for meta-generalized-gradient-approximation exchange-correlation functionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejia-Rodriguez, Daniel; Trickey, S. B.

    2017-11-01

    We explore the simplification of widely used meta-generalized-gradient approximation (mGGA) exchange-correlation functionals to the Laplacian level of refinement by use of approximate kinetic-energy density functionals (KEDFs). Such deorbitalization is motivated by the prospect of reducing computational cost while recovering a strictly Kohn-Sham local potential framework (rather than the usual generalized Kohn-Sham treatment of mGGAs). A KEDF that has been rather successful in solid simulations proves to be inadequate for deorbitalization, but we produce other forms which, with parametrization to Kohn-Sham results (not experimental data) on a small training set, yield rather good results on standard molecular test sets when used to deorbitalize the meta-GGA made very simple, Tao-Perdew-Staroverov-Scuseria, and strongly constrained and appropriately normed functionals. We also study the difference between high-fidelity and best-performing deorbitalizations and discuss possible implications for use in ab initio molecular dynamics simulations of complicated condensed phase systems.

  5. Awareness of the general public relations strategy for nuclear power generation in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chano-Ok

    1989-02-01

    Ten years has passed since the first nuclear power plant was established in Korea. During the period, the total nuclear power generation capacity has increased to 5,716,000 kW, and additional two 950,000 kW plants currently under construction will start operating in 1988 and 1989, respectively. As of the end of 1987, nuclear power generation accounted for 53.1 % of the total power generated in the nation. The average utilization rate of the plants increased continuously from 46.3 % ten years ago up to 79.7 % in 1987. Public opinion polls were conducted in August and October of 1986, the year when the Chernobyl accident took place. The first survey covered 2,000 residents in urban and rural areas while the second one covered a total 1,000 nuclear-related engineers, scientists, administrative officials, businessmen, journalists and writers. The surveys have shown that 74.4 % of the general public agree on the construction of more nuclear power plants. The corresponding figure was 75 % for engineers and 50 % for journalists and writers. However, 73 % of the respondents who are for their construction did not want such a plant to be constructed near their residences. Concerning the safety of these plants, 79.5 % of the experts gave a positive reply while the corresponding figure was only 48.3 % for the general public. It is concluded that more active public relations activities are required in the future. (Nogami, K.).

  6. Awareness of the general public relations strategy for nuclear power generation in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chano-Ok

    1989-01-01

    Ten years has passed since the first nuclear power plant was established in Korea. During the period, the total nuclear power generation capacity has increased to 5,716,000 kW, and additional two 950,000 kW plants currently under construction will start operating in 1988 and 1989, respectively. As of the end of 1987, nuclear power generation accounted for 53.1 % of the total power generated in the nation. The average utilization rate of the plants increased continuously from 46.3 % ten years ago up to 79.7 % in 1987. Public opinion polls were conducted in August and October of 1986, the year when the Chernobyl accident took place. The first survey covered 2,000 residents in urban and rural areas while the second one covered a total 1,000 nuclear-related engineers, scientists, administrative officials, businessmen, journalists and writers. The surveys have shown that 74.4 % of the general public agree on the construction of more nuclear power plants. The corresponding figure was 75 % for engineers and 50 % for journalists and writers. However, 73 % of the respondents who are for their construction did not want such a plant to be constructed near their residences. Concerning the safety of these plants, 79.5 % of the experts gave a positive reply while the corresponding figure was only 48.3 % for the general public. It is concluded that more active public relations activities are required in the future. (Nogami, K.)

  7. Effectiveness of a multifaceted implementation strategy compared to usual care on low back pain guideline adherence among general practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suman, Arnela; Schaafsma, Frederieke G; van de Ven, Peter M; Slottje, Pauline; Buchbinder, Rachelle; van Tulder, Maurits W; Anema, Johannes R

    2018-05-11

    To improve patient care, and to reduce unnecessary referrals for diagnostic imaging and medical specialist care for low back pain, an evidence-based guideline for low back pain was developed in the Netherlands in 2010. The current study evaluated the effect of a multifaceted implementation strategy on guideline adherence among Dutch general practitioners. The implementation strategy included a multidisciplinary training, provision of educational material and an interactive website for healthcare professionals, supported by a multimedia eHealth intervention for patients with low back pain. Adherence was measured using performance indicators based on 3 months data extracted from the contacts with patients with low back pain recorded in the electronic medical records of participating general practitioners. Performance indicators were compared between two groups: a usual care group and an implementation group. Performance indicators were referrals to consultations with medical specialists, to diagnostic imaging, and to psychosocial and/or occupational physician consultations, and inquiries about psychosocial and occupational risk factors. The electronic medical records of 5130 patient contacts for LBP were analysed; 2453 patient contacts in the usual care group and 2677 patient contacts in the implementation group. Overall, rates of referral and of recorded inquiries regarding psychosocial and occupational risk factors remained low in both groups over time. The only statistically significant difference found was a reduction in the number of referrals to neurologists in the implementation group (from 100 (7%) to 50 (4%)) compared to the usual care group (from 48 (4%) to 50 (4%), (p strategy did not result in improved guideline adherence among general practitioners, and it is not recommended for widespread use. However, baseline referral rates in participating practices were already low, possibly leaving only little room for improvement. Inquiries for psychosocial and

  8. General conceptual design study for a high-level radioactive waste repository in a granite formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    The object of the general conceptual design study for a high level radioactive wastes repository in a deep lying granite formation is to ensure that technology available in 1980 is suitable for building, operating and finally closing such a repository. It is feasible to build and operate a 1000 m deep repository, located in a granite batholith, receiving 30000 AVM canisters (after 30 years surface cooling), the disposal rate being 1000 canisters per year. Cost of the operation amounts to 1,3% of the corresponding amount of electricity. The building, operating and final closing phases will take 81 years

  9. How to Measure Quality of Service Using Unstructured Data Analysis: A General Method Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucie Sperková,

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to design a general method usable for measuring the quality of the service from the customer’s point of view with the help of content analytics. Large amount of unstructured data is created by customers of the service. This data can provide a valuable feedback from the service usage. Customers talk among themselves about their experiences and feelings from consumption of the service. The design of the method is based on a systematic literature review in the area of the service quality and unstructured data analysis. Analytics and quality measurement models are collected and critically evaluated regarding their potential use for measuring IT service quality. The method can be used by IT service provider to measure and monitor service quality based on World-of-Mouth in order to continual service improvement.

  10. A General Ligand Design for Gold Catalysis allowing Ligand-Directed Anti Nucleophilic Attack of Alkynes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanzhao; Wang, Zhixun; Li, Yuxue; Wu, Gongde; Cao, Zheng; Zhang, Liming

    2014-01-01

    Most homogenous gold catalyses demand ≥0.5 mol % catalyst loading. Due to the high cost of gold, these reactions are unlikely to be applicable in medium or large scale applications. Here we disclose a novel ligand design based on the privileged biphenyl-2-phosphine framework that offers a potentially general approach to dramatically lowering catalyst loading. In this design, an amide group at the 3’ position of the ligand framework directs and promotes nucleophilic attack at the ligand gold complex-activated alkyne, which is unprecedented in homogeneous gold catalysis considering the spatial challenge of using ligand to reach antiapproaching nucleophile in a linear P-Au-alkyne centroid structure. With such a ligand, the gold(I) complex becomes highly efficient in catalyzing acid addition to alkynes, with a turnover number up to 99,000. Density functional theory calculations support the role of the amide moiety in directing the attack of carboxylic acid via hydrogen bonding. PMID:24704803

  11. A system-of-systems modeling methodology for strategic general aviation design decision-making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Henry Thome

    General aviation has long been studied as a means of providing an on-demand "personal air vehicle" that bypasses the traffic at major commercial hubs. This thesis continues this research through development of a system of systems modeling methodology applicable to the selection of synergistic product concepts, market segments, and business models. From the perspective of the conceptual design engineer, the design and selection of future general aviation aircraft is complicated by the definition of constraints and requirements, and the tradeoffs among performance and cost aspects. Qualitative problem definition methods have been utilized, although their accuracy in determining specific requirement and metric values is uncertain. In industry, customers are surveyed, and business plans are created through a lengthy, iterative process. In recent years, techniques have developed for predicting the characteristics of US travel demand based on travel mode attributes, such as door-to-door time and ticket price. As of yet, these models treat the contributing systems---aircraft manufacturers and service providers---as independently variable assumptions. In this research, a methodology is developed which seeks to build a strategic design decision making environment through the construction of a system of systems model. The demonstrated implementation brings together models of the aircraft and manufacturer, the service provider, and most importantly the travel demand. Thus represented is the behavior of the consumers and the reactive behavior of the suppliers---the manufacturers and transportation service providers---in a common modeling framework. The results indicate an ability to guide the design process---specifically the selection of design requirements---through the optimization of "capability" metrics. Additionally, results indicate the ability to find synergetic solutions, that is solutions in which two systems might collaborate to achieve a better result than acting

  12. Design and control strategy for a hybrid green energy system for mobile telecommunication sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okundamiya, Michael S.; Emagbetere, Joy O.; Ogujor, Emmanuel A.

    2014-07-01

    The rising energy costs and carbon footprint of operating mobile telecommunication sites in the emerging world have increased research interests in green technology. The intermittent nature of most green energy sources creates the problem of designing the optimum configuration for a given location. This study presents the design analysis and control strategy for a cost effective and reliable operation of the hybrid green energy system (HGES) for GSM base transceiver station (BTS) sites in isolated regions. The design constrains the generation and distribution of power to reliably satisfy the energy demand while ensuring safe operation of the system. The overall process control applies the genetic algorithm-based technique for optimal techno-economic sizing of system's components. The process simulation utilized meteorological data for 3 locations (Abuja, Benin City and Sokoto) with varying climatic conditions in Nigeria. Simulation results presented for green GSM BTS sites are discussed and compared with existing approaches.

  13. Application of Evolution Strategies to the Design of Tracking Filters with a Large Number of Specifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús García Herrero

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the application of evolution strategies to the design of interacting multiple model (IMM tracking filters in order to fulfill a large table of performance specifications. These specifications define the desired filter performance in a thorough set of selected test scenarios, for different figures of merit and input conditions, imposing hundreds of performance goals. The design problem is stated as a numeric search in the filter parameters space to attain all specifications or at least minimize, in a compromise, the excess over some specifications as much as possible, applying global optimization techniques coming from evolutionary computation field. Besides, a new methodology is proposed to integrate specifications in a fitness function able to effectively guide the search to suitable solutions. The method has been applied to the design of an IMM tracker for a real-world civil air traffic control application: the accomplishment of specifications defined for the future European ARTAS system.

  14. Formation Design Strategy for SCOPE High-Elliptic Formation Flying Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuda, Yuichi

    2007-01-01

    The new formation design strategy using simulated annealing (SA) optimization is presented. The SA algorithm is useful to survey a whole solution space of optimum formation, taking into account realistic constraints composed of continuous and discrete functions. It is revealed that this method is not only applicable for circular orbit, but also for high-elliptic orbit formation flying. The developed algorithm is first tested with a simple cart-wheel motion example, and then applied to the formation design for SCOPE. SCOPE is the next generation geomagnetotail observation mission planned in JAXA, utilizing a formation flying techonology in a high elliptic orbit. A distinctive and useful heuristics is found by investigating SA results, showing the effectiveness of the proposed design process.

  15. An Integrated Mixed Methods Research Design: Example of the Project Foreign Language Learning Strategies and Achievement: Analysis of Strategy Clusters and Sequences

    OpenAIRE

    Vlčková Kateřina

    2014-01-01

    The presentation focused on an so called integrated mixed method research design example on a basis of a Czech Science Foundation Project Nr. GAP407/12/0432 "Foreign Language Learning Strategies and Achievement: Analysis of Strategy Clusters and Sequences". All main integrated parts of the mixed methods research design were discussed: the aim, theoretical framework, research question, methods and validity threats. Prezentace se zaměřovala na tzv. integrovaný vícemetodový výzkumný design na...

  16. Generalization of the Right Acute Stroke Prevention Strategies in Reducing in-Hospital Delays.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Huang

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to reduce the door-to-needle (DTN time of intravenous thrombolysis (IVT in acute ischemic stroke (AIS through a comprehensive, hospital-based implementation strategy. The intervention involved a systemic literature review, identifying barriers to rapid IVT treatment at our hospital, setting target DTN time intervals, and building an evolving model for IVT candidate selection. The rate of non-in-hospital delay (DTN time ≤ 60 min was set as the primary endpoint. A total of 348 IVT cases were enrolled in the study (202 and 146 in the pre- and post-intervention group, respectively. The median age was 61 years in both groups; 25.2% and 26.7% of patients in the pre- and post-intervention groups, respectively, were female. The post-intervention group had higher rates of dyslipidemia and minor stroke [defined as National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS ≤ 3]; less frequent atrial fibrillation; higher numbers of current smokers, heavy drinkers, referrals, and multi-model head imaging cases; and lower NIHSS scores and blood sugar level (all P 0.05. These findings indicate that it is possible to achieve a DTN time ≤ 60 min for up to 60% of hospitals in the current Chinese system, and that this logistical change can yield a notable improvement in the outcome of IVT patients.

  17. Molecular Mechanisms of Diabetic Retinopathy, General Preventive Strategies, and Novel Therapeutic Targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safi, Sher Zaman; Kumar, Selva; Ismail, Ikram Shah Bin

    2014-01-01

    The growing number of people with diabetes worldwide suggests that diabetic retinopathy (DR) and diabetic macular edema (DME) will continue to be sight threatening factors. The pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy is a widespread cause of visual impairment in the world and a range of hyperglycemia-linked pathways have been implicated in the initiation and progression of this condition. Despite understanding the polyol pathway flux, activation of protein kinase C (KPC) isoforms, increased hexosamine pathway flux, and increased advanced glycation end-product (AGE) formation, pathogenic mechanisms underlying diabetes induced vision loss are not fully understood. The purpose of this paper is to review molecular mechanisms that regulate cell survival and apoptosis of retinal cells and discuss new and exciting therapeutic targets with comparison to the old and inefficient preventive strategies. This review highlights the recent advancements in understanding hyperglycemia-induced biochemical and molecular alterations, systemic metabolic factors, and aberrant activation of signaling cascades that ultimately lead to activation of a number of transcription factors causing functional and structural damage to retinal cells. It also reviews the established interventions and emerging molecular targets to avert diabetic retinopathy and its associated risk factors. PMID:25105142

  18. The PennBMBI: Design of a General Purpose Wireless Brain-Machine-Brain Interface System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xilin; Zhang, Milin; Subei, Basheer; Richardson, Andrew G; Lucas, Timothy H; Van der Spiegel, Jan

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, a general purpose wireless Brain-Machine-Brain Interface (BMBI) system is presented. The system integrates four battery-powered wireless devices for the implementation of a closed-loop sensorimotor neural interface, including a neural signal analyzer, a neural stimulator, a body-area sensor node and a graphic user interface implemented on the PC end. The neural signal analyzer features a four channel analog front-end with configurable bandpass filter, gain stage, digitization resolution, and sampling rate. The target frequency band is configurable from EEG to single unit activity. A noise floor of 4.69 μVrms is achieved over a bandwidth from 0.05 Hz to 6 kHz. Digital filtering, neural feature extraction, spike detection, sensing-stimulating modulation, and compressed sensing measurement are realized in a central processing unit integrated in the analyzer. A flash memory card is also integrated in the analyzer. A 2-channel neural stimulator with a compliance voltage up to ± 12 V is included. The stimulator is capable of delivering unipolar or bipolar, charge-balanced current pulses with programmable pulse shape, amplitude, width, pulse train frequency and latency. A multi-functional sensor node, including an accelerometer, a temperature sensor, a flexiforce sensor and a general sensor extension port has been designed. A computer interface is designed to monitor, control and configure all aforementioned devices via a wireless link, according to a custom designed communication protocol. Wireless closed-loop operation between the sensory devices, neural stimulator, and neural signal analyzer can be configured. The proposed system was designed to link two sites in the brain, bridging the brain and external hardware, as well as creating new sensory and motor pathways for clinical practice. Bench test and in vivo experiments are performed to verify the functions and performances of the system.

  19. IDENTIFYING PRODUCT AND PRICE STRATEGIES FOR DESIGNING TRANSACTIONAL BANKING PACKAGES ADDRESSED TO SMES (CONSIDERATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuca Simona-Mihaela

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The current paper has the aim to provide guidelines for designing efficient product and price strategies, through proposed business cases which could be used especially for banking products addressed to SMEs. While identifying the optimal product and price strategy and designing the product catalogue structure, the marketing specialist should definitely consider existing portfolio behaviour and estimate the growing potential (if possible, overall portfolio, with focus on accurately defining the additional impact of the newly proposed product/ products. A business case contains estimations for results to be generated by products to be launched or optimized. This paper presents complex schemes for business case scenarios for migration of existing portfolio to the new products, but also considers new clients acquisition based on important features of the products. The pricing strategy is not a simple task to manage. Especially when speaking about transactional packages (for which the price is lower than separate services included, some segments or clusters may generate loss to the bank if they already used the services at a higher price than the one of the package. Therefore, the decision of setting up specific prices needs to be based on an accurate and complex analysis, as presented in current paper. The assumptions used in a business case need to be relevant for the entire process of designing and launching a product, therefore they can always be adjusted for better calculation of the impact. No matter if the assumptions and prices remain as in the initial proposal or not, the steps to be followed are the same. Segmentation also plays an important role in designing the product strategy, since the target for a product or product catalogue can be represented by a segment, a sub segment or a cluster of many segments. Not always the initial segmentation represents the clustering for the product strategy. Sometimes, behaviour of existing clients

  20. Study on general design of dual-DMD based infrared two-band scene simulation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yue; Qiao, Yang; Xu, Xi-ping

    2017-02-01

    Mid-wave infrared(MWIR) and long-wave infrared(LWIR) two-band scene simulation system is a kind of testing equipment that used for infrared two-band imaging seeker. Not only it would be qualified for working waveband, but also realize the essence requests that infrared radiation characteristics should correspond to the real scene. Past single-digital micromirror device (DMD) based infrared scene simulation system does not take the huge difference between targets and background radiation into account, and it cannot realize the separated modulation to two-band light beam. Consequently, single-DMD based infrared scene simulation system cannot accurately express the thermal scene model that upper-computer built, and it is not that practical. To solve the problem, we design a dual-DMD based, dual-channel, co-aperture, compact-structure infrared two-band scene simulation system. The operating principle of the system is introduced in detail, and energy transfer process of the hardware-in-the-loop simulation experiment is analyzed as well. Also, it builds the equation about the signal-to-noise ratio of infrared detector in the seeker, directing the system overall design. The general design scheme of system is given, including the creation of infrared scene model, overall control, optical-mechanical structure design and image registration. By analyzing and comparing the past designs, we discuss the arrangement of optical engine framework in the system. According to the main content of working principle and overall design, we summarize each key techniques in the system.