Harrison, Glenn W.; Jessen, Lasse J.; Lau, Morten
We compare several popular survey instruments for measuring gambling behavior and gambling propensity to assess if they differ in their classification of individuals in the general adult Danish population. We also examine correlations with standard survey instruments for alcohol use, anxiety......, depression and impulsivity. A feature of our design is that nobody was excluded on the basis of their response to a “trigger,” “gateway” or “diagnostic item” question about previous gambling history. Our sample consists of 8,405 adult Danes. We administered the Focal Adult Gambling Screen to all subjects...... and estimate prevalence of gambling problems using sample weights and controlling for sample selection. We find that 95.4% of the population has no detectable risk, 2.9% has an early risk, 0.8% has an intermediate risk, 0.7% has an advanced risk, and 0.2% can be classified as problem gamblers...
Aims: Little is known about specific Danish drinking patterns. This paper investigates how various socio-demographic factors are related to Danish alcohol consumption with special focus on age and sex. Methods: Data come from a national telephone survey of the Danish general population conducted...... in 2003 with a final sample size of 2,030 cases. Measures of beverage specific current drinking, overall drinking, daily drinking, heavy episodic drinking, mean consumption, volume per drinking occasion and frequency of drinking were analysed. Results: A little over 5% of the population are abstainers...... than age and sex, classical socioeconomic factors do not play a great a role in determining drinking patterns. Social integrative factors in particular influence women's drinking. Conclusions: With respect to the rest of Europe and North America, Danes consume high levels of alcohol with a large...
Nielsen, Ann; Munk, Christian; Liaw, Kai-Li
Men play an important role in transmission of human papillomavirus (HPV). Both in men and in women HPV causes great morbidity, such as cervical cancer, penile and anal cancer, and genital warts. The awareness of HPV and its consequences is essential to a successful vaccination program against HPV....... In this study, we assessed awareness of HPV in Danish men. A random sample of men aged 18-45 years from the general male population was invited to participate in the study. The participants filled in a self-administered questionnaire with questions concerning awareness of HPV, lifestyle, and sexual habits....... In the period from November 2006 to June 2007, more than 23 000 men were included in the study (participation rate approximately 71%). Overall, 10% of the participants reported to have heard of HPV. Comparison with an earlier study in Danish women showed lower awareness in men than in women (25%). Higher...
Fenger, R V; Linneberg, A; Tvede, M
The incidence of Clostridium difficile-associated infections is increasing, but it remains to be defined whether any change in the seroprevalence of C. difficile has also occurred. In a population-based study of the general adult population, 734 subjects, aged 15-69 years, were examined on two...... occasions 8 years apart (1990 and 1998) for the presence of antibodies against C. difficile in serum. The overall seroprevalence of C. difficile increased significantly from 19% in 1990 to 27% in 1998 (P... was about four times higher in 1998 than in 1990. In conclusion, the observed increase in seroprevalence suggests a higher exposure to C. difficile in the general Danish adult population....
Thuesen, B.; Husemoen, L.; Fenger, M.
Background and aimsDanish legislation regarding food fortification has been very restrictive and vitamin D deficiency is thought to be common in Denmark due to inadequate dietary intakes and the fact that in Denmark (latitude 56°N) vitamin D is only synthesized in the skin after exposure to solar...... radiation during summertime (April–September). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the vitamin D status of a general adult population in Denmark and, in addition, associations between vitamin D status and distinct lifestyle factors were studied. MethodsA random sample of 6784 persons from a general...... population aged 30–60years participated in a health examination in 1999–2001. Serum samples from all participants were stored and levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) were measured by HPLC in 2009. The method was compared to another HPLC method. Information on dietary intake of vitamin D and other...
Full Text Available Introduction. The aim of this study was to estimate the significance of TSH, thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb, and mild (subclinical hypothyroidism in women from The Danish General Suburban Population Study (GESUS on the number of children born, the number of pregnancies, and the number of spontaneous abortions. Methods. Retrospective cross sectional study of 11254 women participating in GESUS. Data included biochemical measurements and a self-administrated questionnaire. Results. 6.7% had mild (subclinical hypothyroidism and 9.4% prevalent hypothyroidism. In women with mild hypothyroidism TPOAb was significantly elevated and age at first child was older compared to controls. TSH and TPOAb were negatively linearly associated with the number of children born and the number of pregnancies in the full cohort in age-adjusted and multiadjusted models. TSH or TPOAb was not associated with spontaneous abortions. Mild (subclinical hypothyroidism was associated with a risk of not having children and a risk of not getting pregnant in age-adjusted and multiadjusted models. Prevalent hypothyroidism was not associated with the number of children born, the number of pregnancies, or spontaneous abortions. Conclusion. Impaired fertility is associated with TSH, TPOAb, and mild (subclinical hypothyroidism in a Danish population of women.
Kvetny, Jan; Ellervik, Christina; Bech, Per
BACKGROUND: The first phase of the Danish General Suburban Population Study (GESUS) including 8214 individuals was an attempt to evaluate the association between subclinical hypothyroidism without or with elevated peroxidase antibodies and depression. No such association was found. In the second...
Harrison, Glenn W; Jessen, Lasse J; Lau, Morten I; Ross, Don
We study Danish adult gambling behavior with an emphasis on discovering patterns relevant to public health forecasting and economic welfare assessment of policy. Methodological innovations include measurement of formative in addition to reflective constructs, estimation of prospective risk for developing gambling disorder rather than risk of being falsely negatively diagnosed, analysis with attention to sample weights and correction for sample selection bias, estimation of the impact of trigger questions on prevalence estimates and sample characteristics, and distinguishing between total and marginal effects of risk-indicating factors. The most significant novelty in our design is that nobody was excluded on the basis of their response to a 'trigger' or 'gateway' question about previous gambling history. Our sample consists of 8405 adult Danes. We administered the Focal Adult Gambling Screen to all subjects and estimate prospective risk for disordered gambling. We find that 87.6% of the population is indicated for no detectable risk, 5.4% is indicated for early risk, 1.7% is indicated for intermediate risk, 2.6% is indicated for advanced risk, and 2.6% is indicated for disordered gambling. Correcting for sample weights and controlling for sample selection has a significant effect on prevalence rates. Although these estimates of the 'at risk' fraction of the population are significantly higher than conventionally reported, we infer a significant decrease in overall prevalence rates of detectable risk with these corrections, since gambling behavior is positively correlated with the decision to participate in gambling surveys. We also find that imposing a threshold gambling history leads to underestimation of the prevalence of gambling problems.
Olson, Fredrik; Engborg, Jonathan; Grønhøj, Mette H.
BACKGROUND: High-sensitive troponin I (hs-TnI) is an individual predictor of future cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, the relationship between hs-TnI and coronary artery calcification (CAC) as determined by computed tomography (CT) has not previously been investigated in a general population...
Pecini, Redi; Cedergreen, Pernille Kallerup; Theilade, Simone
The prevalence of the Brugada-type electrocardiogram (ECG) in the Danish population is not known.......The prevalence of the Brugada-type electrocardiogram (ECG) in the Danish population is not known....
Prescott, E; Kjøller, Mette; Jacobsen, S
Epidemiologic studies of fibromyalgia have so far been based on rheumatologic and general practice settings, which are poor proxies for the underlying population. The study is based on a national health interview survey carried out by the Danish Institute for Clinical Epidemiology in 1990......%). Eight subjects, all female, met the 1990 American College of Rheumatism criteria for fibromyalgia. Dropouts were regarded as not having fibromyalgia. The prevalence of fibromyalgia in the Danish population between 18 and 79 years of age was found to be a minimum estimate of 0.66% (95% confidence limits...
Eliasen, Marie; Torben, Jørgensen; Schröder, Andreas Bak
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to identify and describe somatic symptom profiles in the general adult population in order to enable further epidemiological research within multiple somatic symptoms. METHODS: Information on 19 self-reported common somatic symptoms was achieved from a population....... The profiles were further described by their association with age, sex, chronic disease, and self-perceived health. RESULTS: We identified 10 different somatic symptom profiles defined by number, type, and site of the symptoms. The majority of the population (74.0%) had a profile characterized......, and self-perceived health. CONCLUSION: The identified somatic symptom profiles could be distinguished by number, type, and site of the symptoms. The profiles have the potential to be used in further epidemiological studies on risk factors and prognosis of somatic symptoms but should be confirmed in other...
Almind, G; Holstein, B E; Holst, E
The study describes health, social situation, and contact with general practitioners in a random sample of non-institutionalized persons 70-95 years old in Denmark. There was a strong correlation between health and contact with general practitioners. A small group, 3% of the respondents, had...... no health problems, but had been in contact with a general practitioner within the previous month. This group was characterized by a strong social network and a high degree of life satisfaction. Another small group, including 3% of the respondents, had extensive health problems, but had nevertheless...
Jensen, Tue S; Bendix, Tom; Sorensen, Joan S
BACKGROUND: Vertebral endplate signal changes (VESC) are more common among patients with low back pain (LBP) and/or sciatica than in people who are not seeking care for back pain. The distribution and characteristics of VESC have been described in people from clinical and non-clinical populations...
Watt, T; Groenvold, M; Bjorner, J B
-77 with an equal gender distribution (response rate 67%). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Five fatigue scales from the questionnaire Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory: General Fatigue, Physical Fatigue, Reduced Activity, Reduced Motivation and Mental Fatigue. RESULTS: Fatigue scores were skewed towards absence of fatigue....... The General Fatigue and Physical Fatigue scales showed the highest fatigue levels while the Reduced Motivation scale showed lowest levels. Gender differences in fatigue scores were small, but the variability among women was higher-that is, more women had high scores. A multiple linear regression analysis......, gender and/or whether the person was living alone. For example, General and Physical Fatigue decreased with age among healthy people, whereas scores on these scales increased with age among those with a somatic disease. CONCLUSIONS: Physical and mental diseases play essential parts for the level...
Noerholm, V; Groenvold, M; Watt, T
BACKGROUND: The main objective of this study was to investigate the construct validity of the WHOQOL-BREF by use of Rasch and Item Response Theory models and to examine the stability of the model across high/low scoring individuals, gender, education, and depressive illness. Furthermore......, the objective of the study was to estimate the reference data for the quality of life questionnaire WHOQOL-BREF in the general Danish population and in subgroups defined by age, gender, and education. METHODS: Mail-out-mail-back questionnaires were sent to a randomly selected sample of the Danish general...... population. The response rate was 68.5%, and the sample reported here contained 1101 respondents: 578 women and 519 men (four respondents did not indicate their genders). RESULTS: Each of the four domains of the WHOQOL-BREF scale fitted a two-parameter IRT model, but did not fit the Rasch model. Due...
Full Text Available Marie Eliasen,1 Torben Jørgensen,1–3 Andreas Schröder,4 Thomas Meinertz Dantoft,1 Per Fink,4 Chalotte Heinsvig Poulsen,1,5 Nanna Borup Johansen,1 Lene Falgaard Eplov,5 Sine Skovbjerg,1 Svend Kreiner2 1Research Centre for Prevention and Health, Centre for Health, The Capital Region of Denmark, Glostrup, 2Department of Public Health, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, 3Department of Clinical Medicine, Aalborg University, Aalborg, 4Research Clinic for Functional Disorders and Psychosomatics, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus C, 5Mental Health Centre Copenhagen, The Capital Region of Denmark, Hellerup, Denmark Purpose: The aim of this study was to identify and describe somatic symptom profiles in the general adult population in order to enable further epidemiological research within multiple somatic symptoms.Methods: Information on 19 self-reported common somatic symptoms was achieved from a population-based questionnaire survey of 36,163 randomly selected adults in the Capital Region of Denmark (55.4% women. The participants stated whether they had been considerably bothered by each symptom within 14 days prior to answering the questionnaire. We used latent class analysis to identify the somatic symptom profiles. The profiles were further described by their association with age, sex, chronic disease, and self-perceived health.Results: We identified 10 different somatic symptom profiles defined by number, type, and site of the symptoms. The majority of the population (74.0% had a profile characterized by no considerable bothering symptoms, while a minor group of 3.9% had profiles defined by a high risk of multiple somatic symptoms. The remaining profiles were more likely to be characterized by a few specific symptoms. The profiles could further be described by their associations with age, sex, chronic disease, and self-perceived health.Conclusion: The identified somatic symptom profiles could be distinguished by number, type, and site of
Juul, Jakob Søgaard; Andersen, Berit; Laurberg, Søren; Carlsen, Anders Helles; Olesen, Frede; Vedsted, Peter
To investigate the diagnostic activity in general practice and the cumulative incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC) in individuals invited to the Danish national screening programme for CRC. A historical population-based cohort study. The Danish CRC screening programme and general practice. The 376,198 individuals invited to the Danish CRC screening programme from 1 March to 31 December 2014. The diagnostic activity (consultations and haemoglobin measures) in general practice in the year preceding the screening invitation and the cumulated incidence of CRC in the year following the screening invitation. Screening participants had significantly higher diagnostic activity than non-participants. Individuals with a positive faecal immunochemical test (FIT) had higher diagnostic activity compared to individuals with a negative FIT, and a small increase in the months leading up to the invitation. Individuals with a screen-detected CRC had lower diagnostic activity than individuals with no CRC. In total, 308 (25.3%) of CRCs diagnosed in the invited population were diagnosed outside the screening programme. Non-participants with CRC more often had low socio-economic status, high comorbidity and stage IV CRC than participants with CRC. There was a tendency that participants and those with a positive FIT had a higher diagnostic activity the year before the screening. This was not seen for those with CRC detected through screening. CRC must still be diagnosed in general practice in the invited population and non-participants are of special interest as they have higher risk of late stage CRC. Key Points Current awareness:Individuals with colorectal cancer (CRC) in screening may be symptomatic and CRC may still occur outside screening in the invited population. Most important points:The majority of individuals with CRC in screening cannot be expected to be diagnosed on symptomatic presentation in general practice GPs have to be aware that CRC still occurs outside screening in
Aabenhus, Rune; Hansen, Malene Plejdrup; Siersma, Volkert Dirk
of routine electronic antibiotic prescriptions from Danish general practice. Subjects: All 975,626 patients who redeemed an antibiotic prescription at outpatient pharmacies during the 1-year study period (July 2012 to June 2013). Main outcome measures: Number of prescriptions per clinical indication. Number......Objective: To assess the availability and applicability of clinical indications from electronic prescriptions on antibiotic use in Danish general practice. Design: Retrospective cohort register-based study including the Danish National Prescription Register. Setting: Population-based study...... from electronic prescriptions are accessible and available to provide an overview of drug use, in casu antibiotic prescriptions, in Danish general practice. These clinical indications may be further explored in detail to assess rational drug use and congruence with guidelines, but validation...
Omland, Lars Haukali; Christensen, Peer Brehm; Krarup, Henrik Bygum
The increased mortality in HCV-infected individuals partly stems from viral damage to the liver and partly from risk-taking behaviours. We examined mortality in patients who cleared their HCV-infection, comparing it to that of the general population. We also addressed the question whether prognos...
Skovbjerg, Sine; Jørgensen, Torben; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars
with cold pressor pain (hand) for 2 minutes. Conditioning pain intensity was assessed using a visual analog scale and questionnaire data were collected. Female sex (P stress......Increased pressure pain sensitivity and impaired descending pain control have been associated with chronic pain, but knowledge on the variability in the adult general population is lacking. Pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) and descending pain control assessed using conditioned pain modulation (CPM...... (P ≤ .02), and high visual analog scale score (P ≤ .02) were associated with a larger CPM response. PERSPECTIVE: Data from this large population-based study provide new insight into the gender and age variation in pain sensitivity and CPM response. Decreased CPM potency and increased pain sensitivity...
Lemcke, Asja; Kjøller, Mette; Ekholm, Ola
AIMS: To describe the accumulated prevalence of HIV testing in the Danish population until and including the year 2000. METHODS: The study was based on nationally representative data from the Danish Health Interview Survey 2000. Multiple logistic regression analysis investigated the association...... between HIV testing and background variables, such as gender, age, marital status, educational level, and sexual orientation. RESULTS: Overall 28.5% of the Danish population aged over 16 years have "ever been tested for HIV". More females (29.4%) than males (27.6%) were tested; 12.6% might not be aware...... of their blood being HIV tested when donating blood. More males (17.1%) than females (13.8%) had donated blood after 1985. Although males 30-39 years old were the most tested, males 50-59 years old had the highest odds of having donated blood after 1985. Concerning education, the less education one had, the less...
Andreasen, Niels Peter; Falk, Knud; Møller, Søren
peregrine population has gradually increased – most rapidly since 2012 – to 19 known territorial pairs in 2016; some of them breeding on man-made structures (nest boxes at bridges and power plants). In this poster, we present detailed information on the reestablishment of the peregrine falcon in Denmark...... observed breeding in Demark: 3 from Sweden, 4 from Germany and 1 from Poland. Similarly, peregrines banded in Danish eyries have been observed as territorial or breeding in Sweden (2 cases) or at other locations in Denmark (5 cases). The reproduction measured as number of ‘young per successful pair......’ (reaching ringing age) and ‘young per occupied territory’ (“productivity”) is on average 2.2 and 1.3, respectively, for the entire period 2001-2016. The productivity of Danish peregrines is thus well above the critical limit (1.0 according to USFWS), where concerns may be raised. Not much is known about...
Sydenham, Rikke Vognbjerg; Plejdrup Hansen, Malene; Pedersen, Line Bjørnskov
1. Background & Aim The overall aim of the project is to describe antibiotic consumption in Danish general practice with emphasis on specific types of antibiotics. The project will shed light on the impact of microbiological diagnostic methods (MDM) on the choice of antibiotic and the project...... will explore how the GPs prescription behaviour is influenced by selected factors. Antibiotics are essential when treating potentially lethal infections. An increasing development of resistant bacteria is considered one of the primary threats to public health. The majority of antibiotics (90%) are prescribed...... from general practice. The prescription of broad-spectrum antibiotics can cause unnecessary side effects for the individual and increases the risk of development of bacteria resistant to antibiotic treatment. Both the prescription of broad-spectrum antibiotics and the level of resistant bacteria...
Klarskov, Pia; Bang, Lia E; Schultz-Larsen, Peter
To compare the effect of a conventional to an intensive blood pressure monitoring regimen on blood pressure in hypertensive patients in the general practice setting. Randomized controlled parallel group trial with 12-month follow-up. One hundred and ten general practices in all regions of Denmark....... One thousand forty-eight patients with essential hypertension. Conventional blood pressure monitoring ('usual group') continued usual ad hoc blood pressure monitoring by office blood pressure measurements, while intensive blood pressure monitoring ('intensive group') supplemented this with frequent...... a reduction of blood pressure. Clinical Trials NCT00244660....
Su, Guosheng; Nielsen, Ulrik Sander; Wiggans, G
Accuracy of genomic prediction depends on the information in the reference population. Achieving an adequate sized reference population is a challenge for genomic prediction in small cattle populations. One way to increase the size of reference population is to combine reference data from different...... populations. The objective of this study was to assess the gain of genomic prediction accuracy when including US Jersey bulls in the Danish Jersey reference population. The data included 1,262 Danish progeny-tested bulls and 1,157 US progeny-tested bulls. Genomic breeding values (GEBV) were predicted using...... a GBLUP model from the Danish reference population and the joint Danish-US reference population. The traits in the analysis were milk yield, fat yield, protein yield, fertility, mastitis, longevity, body conformation, feet & legs, and longevity. Eight of the nine traits benefitted from the inclusion of US...
Klarskov, Pia; Bang, Lia E; Schultz-Larsen, Peter; Gregers Petersen, Hans; Benee Olsen, David; Berg, Ronan M G; Abrahamsen, Henrik; Wiinberg, Niels
To compare the effect of a conventional to an intensive blood pressure monitoring regimen on blood pressure in hypertensive patients in the general practice setting. Randomized controlled parallel group trial with 12-month follow-up. One hundred and ten general practices in all regions of Denmark. One thousand forty-eight patients with essential hypertension. Conventional blood pressure monitoring ('usual group') continued usual ad hoc blood pressure monitoring by office blood pressure measurements, while intensive blood pressure monitoring ('intensive group') supplemented this with frequent home blood pressure monitoring and 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. Mean day- and night-time systolic and diastolic 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure. Change in systolic and diastolic office blood pressure and change in cardiovascular risk profile. Of the patients, 515 (49%) were allocated to the usual group, and 533 (51%) to the intensive group. The reductions in day- and night-time 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure were similar (usual group: 4.6 ± 13.5/2.8 ± 82 mmHg; intensive group: 5.6 ± 13.0/3.5 ± 8.2 mmHg; P = 0.27/P = 0.20). Cardiovascular risk scores were reduced in both groups at follow-up, but more so in the intensive than in the usual group (P = 0.02). An intensive blood pressure monitoring strategy led to a similar blood pressure reduction to conventional monitoring. However, the intensive strategy appeared to improve patients' cardiovascular risk profile through other effects than a reduction of blood pressure. Clinical Trials NCT00244660. © The Author 2018. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
OBJECTIVE: To describe Danish general practitioners' perception of their own role and to register their actual behaviour in the prevention of HIV/AIDS. DESIGN: Data collection was carried out by a) questionnaire and b) prospective registration of consultations dealing with HIV/AIDS in a two...... (94%) were of the opinion that GPs should play a central part in the prevention of HIV; 96% found that their knowledge was sufficient to advise on the prevention of HIV, and 90% thought that the GP should take the initiative to talk about HIV. The median number of consultations dealing with HIV......-week period in September 1992. SETTING: General practice, Denmark. SUBJECTS: One thousand general practitioners (GPs), selected at random, were asked to participate. The study population comprised 352 GPs who returned the questionnaire and participated in the prospective registration. RESULTS: Most of the GPs...
Andersen, Rolf Vaern; Tybjaerg-Hansen, Anne; Appleyard, Merete
The progression rate of iron overload in hereditary hemochromatosis in individuals in the general population is unknown. We therefore examined in the general population iron overload progression rate in C282Y homozygotes. Using a cohort study of the Danish general population, The Copenhagen City...... saturation and ferritin levels increased slightly in male and female C282Y homozygotes. None of the C282Y homozygotes developed clinically overt hemochromatosis. In conclusion, individuals in the general population with C282Y homozygosity at most demonstrate modest increases in transferrin saturation...
Juul, Therese; Petersen, Morten Aagaard; Holzner, Bernhard
PURPOSE: General population reference data are useful in the interpretation of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) results, but for the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire C30 (EORTC QLQ-C30), such data have been published for only seven...... countries. In 1992, Danish general population data were collected from women only for EORTC QLQ-C30 version 1. Since no Danish reference data exists for men and women for the QLQ-C30 version 3.0, the aims of this study were to generate such data and to investigate the associations between EORTC QLQ-C30...... subscales. CONCLUSION: This study is the first to present Danish general population reference values for the EORTC QLQ-C30 version 3.0. Age and morbidity are important potential confounders that must be taken into account in HRQoL studies....
Bertelsen, Mette; Jensen, Hanne; Larsen, Michael
Abstract Purpose: The aim of the present population-based cross-sectional study was to examine the prevalence and diagnostic spectrum of generalized retinal dystrophy in Danish children. Methods: The Danish Registry for the Blind and Partially Sighted Children comprises all visually impaired......: Of the 1,204,235 Danish children aged 0-17 years on 1 October 2011, 2017 children were registered as visually impaired. Of these, 153 cases were attributed to generalized retinal dystrophy, corresponding to a prevalence of 13 per 100,000 children. The age-specific prevalence increased prominently...... children residing in Denmark aged 0-17 years. Among registered children, the primary diagnosis of generalized retinal dystrophy was assessed by chart review, including fundus photographs and electroretinograms. Age-specific data for live children in Denmark were retrieved from Statistics Denmark. Results...
Prescott, E; Jacobsen, S; Kjøller, Mette
Clinical characteristics of fibromyalgia have so far been based mainly on patients identified in rheumatologic settings. This paper offers the clinical findings in fibromyalgia based on a national health interview survey, in which 123 persons fulfilled preset criteria for widespread pain. Clinical......, headache, difficulty in stair-climbing, and poorer self-evaluated health with more tender points was found. Contrary to that which was expected, fibromyalgia subjects did not suffer from sleep disturbances, irritable bowels or morning stiffness. Our findings indicate that clinical characteristics...... of fibromyalgia in the general population may differ from those found in rheumatological settings....
Jørgensen, Kevin; Rasmussen, Gitte; Thorup, Inger
Ochratoxin A is a common contaminant in Danish cereals, and surveillance of ochratoxin A in cereals has been a part of the Danish monitoring system since 1986. Occurrence of ochratoxin A is highly related to the climatic conditions during harvest. Rye is the crop which is most often contaminated...... and contains the highest levels of ochratoxin A. The result of the survey period from 1986 to 1992 (total of 1431 samples) together with food consumption data is the basis of intake calculations. Especially in years with wet weather during harvest, the daily intake of ochratoxin A for some individuals...... in the Danish population could reach levels which exceed the tolerable daily intake (TDI) for ochratoxin A of 5 ng/kg bw suggested by The Nordic Working Group on Food Toxicology and Risk Evaluation. A maximum limit of 5 mu g ochratoxin A per kg cereal would keep the daily intake below 5 ng/kg bw....
Aabenhus, Rune; Siersma, Volkert; Plejdrup Hansen, Malene
Objectives: Antibiotic consumption in the primary care sector is often perceived as synonymous with consumption in general practice despite the fact that few countries stratify the primary care sector by providers' medical specialty. We aimed to characterize and quantify antibiotic use in Danish...... general practice relative to the entire primary care sector. Methods: This was a registry-based study including all patients who redeemed an antibiotic prescription between July 2004 and June 2013 at a Danish community pharmacy. Antibiotic use was expressed as DDDs and treatments/1000 inhabitants....../day (DIDs and TIDs, respectively) and assessed according to antibiotic spectrum (narrow versus broad) and their anatomical therapeutic classification codes in total as well as in six age groups. Results: The contribution of general practice to the entire antibiotic use in the primary care sector declined...
Richter, Benedikte; Hesse, Ulrik; Hansen, Alastair B
To characterize and evaluate a Danish patient population with bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis (BPS/IC), using a working definition for BPS/IC incorporating six variables, and a set of criteria defined by the European Society for the Study of Interstitial Cystitis (ESSIC); to describe...... the clinical course and treatment intensity in relation to these variables....
Sørensen, Anders Christian; Norberg, Elise
In Denmark there are small populations of five Nordic sheep breeds, two of which are Danish in origin. The purpose of this study was to estimate trends in inbreeding for these breeds. All five breeds have been recording pedigrees for decades, so pedigree completeness is adequate. The rate of inbr...
Lundstrøm, Sanne Lykke
. The dissertation present the research study and a collection of three research papers prepared during the period from May 2010 to June 2014. Relational coordination and organisational social capital are measures of novel aspects of an organisation's performance. Relational coordination analyse the communication...... and relationship networks through which work is coordinated across functional and organisational boundaries. Previous studies have shown that relational coordination is positively associated with delivery of care for patients with chronic illness. Organisational social capital is used when analysing...... the psychosocial work environment in organisations, and is seen as a powerful resources for improving organisational performance. Relational coordination and organisational social capital may oer new insight and opportunities for general practice to learn. General practice provides cost-efficient, first...
Bruun Larsen, Lars; Søndergaard, Jens; Halling, Anders
Early detection of patients at risk seems to be effective for reducing the prevalence of lifestyle-related chronic diseases. We aim to test the feasibility of a novel intervention for early detection of lifestyle-related chronic diseases based on a population-based stratification using a combinat......Early detection of patients at risk seems to be effective for reducing the prevalence of lifestyle-related chronic diseases. We aim to test the feasibility of a novel intervention for early detection of lifestyle-related chronic diseases based on a population-based stratification using...
Skipper, Niels; Vejlin, Rune Majlund
driven. We use population-wide Danish register data including all prescriptions for seven blockbuster drugs from 1998-2008. At the outset, descriptive statistics suggest large variation in drug choice over doctors. Nonetheless, using a two-way fixed effects model we find that the primary determinants...... of brand drug use are unobserved patient characteristics and price effects, while observed and unobserved doctor characteristics in general explain only 0.7 % of the variation in drug choice. This is suggestive evidence that the doctors in the Danish setting with no incentives to push expensive brand drugs...
Benn, Marianne; Watts, Gerald F; Tybjaerg-Hansen, Anne
.0-17.4) in definite/probable FH compared with non-FH subjects, after adjusting for age, gender, body mass index, hypertension, metabolic syndrome and diabetes, and smoking. The corresponding adjusted odds ratio for coronary artery disease in FH subjects on cholesterol-lowering medication was 10.3 (7......Context: The diagnosis of familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) can be made using the Dutch Lipid Clinic Network criteria. This employs the personal and family history of premature coronary artery disease and hypercholesterolemia and the presence of a pathogenic mutation in the low-density lipoprotein...
Junge, Anne Gram; Kirkegaard, Pia; Thomsen, Janus Laust
Background: In 2006 an arranged preventive consultation (0106-service) was implemented in Danish general practice. The purpose of the consultation is an attempt to improve the systematic prevention of the main chronic lifestyle diseases. Aim: This study examines the GP's experiences...... with the arranged preventive consultation with focus on facilitators and barriers in the implementation of the consultation. Material & Method: Semi-structured interviews with 10 GPs and nurses in general practice. Results & Conclusions: Economically lucrative services are not an isolated motivation for the GPs....../nurses, but must be accompanied with a basic belief in the effect of preventive consultations in general practice. The better payment of the 0106-service is used to spend more time per consultation and it makes the GPs/nurses feel rewarded for the preventive work they perform. The consultation frames a social...
Bergholt, Thomas; Østberg, Birgitte; Legarth, Jesper
OBJECTIVE: To assess Danish obstetricians' and gynecologists' personal preference and general attitude towards elective cesarean section on maternal request in uncomplicated single cephalic pregnancies at term. DESIGN: Nation-wide anonymous postal questionnaire. POPULATION: Four hundred and fifty......-five obstetricians and gynecologists identified in the records of the Danish Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology from January 2000. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Personal preference on the mode of delivery and general attitude towards elective cesarean section on maternal request in an uncomplicated single cephalic...... and gynecologists would personally prefer vaginal delivery in uncomplicated pregnancies, but nearly 40% agree with the woman's right to request a cesarean section....
Kildemoes, Helle Wallach
expenditure among the elderly partly is due the high "costs of dying". Aims The aim of this study was to estimate the impact of the ageing Danish population on future total expenditures on out-of-hospital prescription drugs and to describe the association between age and drug expenditure among survivors......Background Population ageing is likely to place an increasing burden on future health care budgets. Several studies have demonstrated that the impact of ageing on future hospital expenditures will be overestimated when not accounting for proximity to death. This is because greater health care...... compared to that of decedents. Methods Taking expenditure during the last year of life and the changes in mortality rates into account, future drug expenditure was projected by multiplying estimated mean annual drug expenditure according to age, gender and survival status by the predicted future number...
Full Text Available Jens Georg HansenDepartment of Clinical Epidemiology, Aarhus University Hospital and Aalborg Hospital, Aalborg, DenmarkPurpose: To evaluate whether the ongoing debate over diagnostic problems and treatment choices for acute rhinosinusitis has had any influence on the management of the disease.Methods: We randomly selected 300 Danish general practitioners (GPs from the files of the Research Unit for General Practice at Aarhus University. Invitations to participate and a questionnaire were sent to the GPs by mail.Results: A total of 149 (49% GPs answered the questionnaire. When asked about symptoms, the highest priority was given to sinus pain and signs of tenderness. The most frequent examinations were objective examination of the ear-nose-throat (ENT, palpation of the maxillofacial area, and C-reactive protein point-of-care testing (or CRP rapid test. Nearly all GPs prescribed local vasoconstrictors, and in 70% of cases, antibiotics were prescribed. Phenoxymethylpenicillin was the preferred antibiotic. Use of the CRP rapid test, years in practice, or employment in an ENT department did not have a significant impact on the diagnostic certainty and antibiotic prescribing rate.Conclusion: The clinical diagnoses are based on a few symptoms, signs, and the CRP rapid test. Other examinations, including imaging techniques, are seldom used. Phenoxymethylpenicillin is the preferred antibiotic, and the GPs' diagnostic certainty was 70%.Keywords: general practice, acute rhinosinusitis, diagnosis, treatment, antibiotic
Bergholt, Thomas; Østberg, Birgitte; Legarth, Jesper
OBJECTIVE: To assess Danish obstetricians' and gynecologists' personal preference and general attitude towards elective cesarean section on maternal request in uncomplicated single cephalic pregnancies at term. DESIGN: Nation-wide anonymous postal questionnaire. POPULATION: Four hundred and fifty......-five obstetricians and gynecologists identified in the records of the Danish Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology from January 2000. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Personal preference on the mode of delivery and general attitude towards elective cesarean section on maternal request in an uncomplicated single cephalic...... indication. Obstetricians and gynecologists who had experienced a noninstrumental vaginal delivery themselves or practiced as a private gynecologist only, were less likely to agree with the woman's right to elective cesarean section on maternal request. CONCLUSION: The vast majority of Danish obstetricians...
Bergholt, Thomas; Østberg, Birgitte; Legarth, Jesper
OBJECTIVE: To assess Danish obstetricians' and gynecologists' personal preference and general attitude towards elective cesarean section on maternal request in uncomplicated single cephalic pregnancies at term. DESIGN: Nation-wide anonymous postal questionnaire. POPULATION: Four hundred and fifty......-five obstetricians and gynecologists identified in the records of the Danish Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology from January 2000. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Personal preference on the mode of delivery and general attitude towards elective cesarean section on maternal request in an uncomplicated single cephalic...... pregnancies at term. RESULTS: Of Danish specialists in obstetrics and gynecology, 1.1% would prefer an elective cesarean section in an uncomplicated pregnancy at 37 weeks of gestation with fetal weight estimation of 3.0 kg. This rose to 22.5% when the fetal weight estimation was 4.5 kg at 37 weeks. The main...
Sørensen, Lisbeth; Foldspang, Anders; Gulman, N.C.
Aim. To validate the Danish version of the GMS–AGECAT (A3), the Standardized Mini Mental State Examination (SMMSE) and the Geriatric Depression Scale-15 (GDS-15) by comparing them to clinical ICD-10 criteria in a Danish nursing home population. Methods. With a participation of 91%, the study...... to complete the SMMSE and 78% were able to complete the GDS-15. Conclusion. The Danish version of the GMS–AGECAT has relevant diagnostic and screening properties for organic disorders in Danish nursing home populations....
Nøjgaard, Camilla; Bendtsen, Flemming; Becker, Ulrik
We investigated mortality of patients with chronic pancreatitis (CP), compared with the Danish population and sought to determine whether clinical presentations of CP can be used in prognosis. We also investigated clinical factors associated with mortality and causes of death among these patients....
Jørgensen, Jeanette Therming; Andersen, John Sahl; Tjønneland, Anne; Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic
This study aims to describe the determinants related to gender differences in the GP utilization in Danish population aged 50-65 years. Cohort-based cross-sectional study. Danish general practice. Totally, 54,849 participants of the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health cohort (50-65 years). The sum of cohort members' face-to-face consultations with general practitioner (GP) at the cohort baseline year (1993-1997). We obtained data on GP visits from the Danish National Health Service Register at the cohort baseline (1993-1997), when information on lifestyle (smoking, body mass index (BMI), alcohol use, physical activity), medical conditions (somatic and mental), employment, education, gravidity, and hormone therapy (HT) use was collected by questionnaire. Women had on average 4.1 and men 2.8 consultations per year. In a crude model, women had 47% higher rate of GP visits than men (incidence rate ratio: 1.47; 95% Confidence Interval: 1.45-1.50), which remained unchanged after adjustment for lifestyle, socio-demographic and medical factors, but attenuated to 18% (1.18; 1.13-1.24) after adjustment for female factors (gravidity and post-menopausal HT. In a fully adjusted model, subjects with hypertension (1.63; 1.59-1.67), mental illness (1.63; 1.61-1.66), diabetes (1.56; 1.47-1.65), angina pectoris (1.28; 1.21-1.34), and unemployed persons (1.19; 1.18-1.21) had highest rates of GP visits. Gravidity and HT use explain a large proportion, but not all of the gender difference in GP utilization. Medical conditions (somatic and mental) and unemployment are the main determinants of GP utilization in men and women, while lifestyle has minor effect. Key points Female gender remained a dominant determinant of GP utilization, after adjustment for lifestyle, socio-demography, medical and gender specific factors, with females consulting their GP 18% more often than males. Female reproductive factors (use of postmenopausal hormone therapy and gravidity) explained a large proportion of
Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre; Bysted, Anette; Andersen, N. L.
Objective: To estimate the intake of ruminant trans fatty acids (TFA) in the Danish population aged 1 - 80 years. Design: Descriptive study. Subjects: A sex- and age-stratified random sample drawn from the Danish Civil Registration System. A total of 3098 participants (51% female) aged 1 - 80 yea...
Su, G; Ma, P; Nielsen, U S; Aamand, G P; Wiggans, G; Guldbrandtsen, B; Lund, M S
Small reference populations limit the accuracy of genomic prediction in numerically small breeds, such like Danish Jersey. The objective of this study was to investigate two approaches to improve genomic prediction by increasing size of reference population in Danish Jersey. The first approach was to include North American Jersey bulls in Danish Jersey reference population. The second was to genotype cows and use them as reference animals. The validation of genomic prediction was carried out on bulls and cows, respectively. In validation on bulls, about 300 Danish bulls (depending on traits) born in 2005 and later were used as validation data, and the reference populations were: (1) about 1050 Danish bulls, (2) about 1050 Danish bulls and about 1150 US bulls. In validation on cows, about 3000 Danish cows from 87 young half-sib families were used as validation data, and the reference populations were: (1) about 1250 Danish bulls, (2) about 1250 Danish bulls and about 1150 US bulls, (3) about 1250 Danish bulls and about 4800 cows, (4) about 1250 Danish bulls, 1150 US bulls and 4800 Danish cows. Genomic best linear unbiased prediction model was used to predict breeding values. De-regressed proofs were used as response variables. In the validation on bulls for eight traits, the joint DK-US bull reference population led to higher reliability of genomic prediction than the DK bull reference population for six traits, but not for fertility and longevity. Averaged over the eight traits, the gain was 3 percentage points. In the validation on cows for six traits (fertility and longevity were not available), the gain from inclusion of US bull in reference population was 6.6 percentage points in average over the six traits, and the gain from inclusion of cows was 8.2 percentage points. However, the gains from cows and US bulls were not accumulative. The total gain of including both US bulls and Danish cows was 10.5 percentage points. The results indicate that sharing reference
Vedsted, Peter; Olesen, Frede
inequalities in health or whether social factors in themselves determine the use of general practice. AIM: To examine if social factors are associated with frequent attendance in general practice after adjusting for physical and psychological health variables. DESIGN OF STUDY: Population-based cross......BACKGROUND: A lack of social support is associated with increased morbidity and mortality and a decreased effect of prevention. Frequent attenders to primary care are characterised by poorer social conditions than other patients in general practice, but we do not know whether this is due to social...... during the period November 1997-October 1998. A questionnaire about physical, psychological and social factors was sent to the patients. The associations between social factors and frequent attendance were adjusted for physical and psychological health and tendency towards somatisation. RESULTS: A total...
Breum, Solvej Østergaard; Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane; Trebbien, Ramona
in the Danish pig population functional and rapid subtyping assays are required. The conventional RT-PCR influenza subtyping assays developed by Chiapponi et al. (2003) have been implemented and used for typing of influenza viruses found positive in a pan influenza A real time RT-PCR assay. The H1 and N1 assays......Influenza viruses are endemic in the Danish pig population and the dominant circulating subtypes are H1N1, a Danish H1N2 reassortant, and H3N2. Here we present our current and future strategies for influenza virus subtyping. For diagnostic and surveillance of influenza subtypes circulating...... were specific when applied on Danish influenza positive samples, whereas the N2 assay consistently showed several unspecific PCR products. A subset of positive influenza samples detected by the real time RT-PCR screening assay could not be subtyped using these assays. Therefore, new influenza subtyping...
Boie, Sidsel; Glavind, Julie; Uldbjerg, Niels
experience is lacking. The Childbirth Experience Questionnaire (CEQ) was developed in Sweden in 2010 and validated in Swedish women, but never validated in a Danish setting, and population. The purpose of our study was to validate the CEQ as a reliable tool for measuring the childbirth experience in Danish......Title The Childbirth Experience Questionnaire (CEQ) - validation the use in a Danish population Introduction Childbirth experience is arguably as important as measuring birth outcomes such as mode of delivery or perinatal morbidity. A robust, validated, Danish tool for evaluating childbirth...... index of agreement between the two scores. Case description (mandatory for Clinical Report) Results (mandatory for Original Research) Face validity: All respondents stated that it was easy to understand and complete the questionnaire. Construct validity: Statistically significant higher CEQ scores were...
Tørring, Pernille M; Brusgaard, Klaus
University Hospital, Denmark HHT is an autosomal vascular disorder caused by mutations of either of three loci ENG, ACVLR1 or MADH4. HHT is characterised by recurrent nosebleeds, mucocutaneous telangiectases, and more severe visceral malformations. During the last decade the Danish HHT centre has...
Pertoldi, Cino; Pellegrino, Irene; Cucco, Maroc
Background: Danish populations of the little owl (Athene noctua) have experienced dramaticdeclines in size over the past century. Before 1960 the little owl population was abundantin Denmark (estimated N>2000), but between 1960 and 1980 the population declinedrapidly, and since 1980 the little ow...
Full Text Available Abstract Background We were unable to identify studies that have considered the diffusion of an e-learning programme among a large population of general practitioners. The aim of this study was to investigate the uptake of an e-learning programme introduced to General Practitioners as part of a nation-wide disseminated dementia guideline. Methods A prospective study among all 3632 Danish GPs. The GPs were followed from the launching of the e-learning programme in November 2006 and 6 months forward. Main outcome measures: Use of the e-learning programme. A logistic regression model (GEE was used to identify predictors for use of the e-learning programme. Results In the study period, a total of 192 different GPs (5.3% were identified as users, and 17% (32 had at least one re-logon. Among responders at first login most have learnt about the e-learning programme from written material (41% or from the internet (44%. A total of 94% of the users described their ability of conducting a diagnostic evaluation as good or excellent. Most of the respondents used the e-learning programme due to general interest (90%. Predictors for using the e-learning programme were Males (OR = 1.4, 95% CI 1.1; 2.0 and members of Danish College of General Practice (OR = 2.2, 95% CI 1.5; 3.1, whereas age, experience and working place did not seem to be influential. Conclusion Only few Danish GPs used the e-learning programme in the first 6 months after the launching. Those using it were more often males and members of Danish College of General Practice. Based on this study we conclude, that an active implementation is needed, also when considering electronic formats of CME like e-learning. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00392483.
Aabenhus, Rune; Hansen, Malene Plejdrup; Saust, Laura Trolle
Inappropriate use of antibiotics is contributing to the increasing rates of antimicrobial resistance. Several Danish guidelines on antibiotic prescribing for acute respiratory tract infections in general practice have been issued to promote rational prescribing of antibiotics, however it is unclear...... if these recommendations are followed. We aimed to characterise the pattern of antibiotic prescriptions for patients diagnosed with acute respiratory tract infections, by means of electronic prescriptions, labeled with clinical indications, from Danish general practice. Acute respiratory tract infections accounted for 456...... prescription patterns for acute respiratory tract infections by data linkage of clinical indications. The findings confirm that penicillin V is the most commonly prescribed antibiotic agent for treatment of patients with an acute respiratory tract infection in Danish general practice. However, second...
Würtz, Else Toft; Schlünssen, Vivi; Malling, Tine Halsen; Hansen, Jens Georg; Omland, Øyvind
The aim was to explore the impact of occupation on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in a cross-sectional population-based study among subjects aged 45 to 84 years. In a stratified sampling 89 general practitioners practices (GPP) in Denmark recruited 3106 males and 1636 females through the Danish Civil Registration System. COPD was defined by spirometry by the 2.5(th)-centile Lower Limit of Normal of FEV1 and FEV1/FVC. Information about smoking, occupational exposure and the respective occupations were obtained from questionnaires. Occupations followed the Danish adaptation of The International Standard Classification of Occupations, revision 1988 (DISCO-88). Exposure to vapour, gas, dust (organic and inorganic), and fume (VGDF) in each occupation (yes/no) was evaluated by two independent specialist in occupational medicine. Exposures were divided in no, low, medium, and high exposure as 0, occupation with VGDF exposure. Adjusted for smoking, age, sex, and GPP a dose-dependent association of COPD was found among workers in jobs with high organic dust exposure, with OR 1.56 (95% CI 1.09-2.24). Restricted to agriculture the OR was 1.59 (95% CI: 1.08-2.33). No association was observed for workers in jobs with inorganic dust, fume/gas, or vapour exposures. In summary, occupational organic dust exposure was associated to the prevalence of COPD.
Hansen, Malene Plejdrup; Bjerrum, Lars; Gahrn-Hansen, Bente
Background: In 2008, a set of 41 quality indicators for antibiotic treatment of respiratory tract infections (RTIs) in general practice were developed in an international setting as part of the European project HAPPY AUDIT. Objectives: To investigate Danish general practitioners' (GPs') assessment...... of a set of internationally developed quality indicators and to explore if there is an association between the GPs' assessment of the indicators and their practice characteristics as well as their antibiotic prescription pattern. Methods: A total of 102 Danish GPs were invited to assess the 41 quality...
Su, G; Guldbrandtsen, B; Gregersen, V R
or no effects, and a single prior distribution common for all SNP. It was found that, in general, the model with a common prior distribution of scaling factors had better predictive ability than any mixture prior models. Therefore, a common prior model was used to estimate SNP effects and breeding values......Abstract This study investigated the reliability of genomic estimated breeding values (GEBV) in the Danish Holstein population. The data in the analysis included 3,330 bulls with both published conventional EBV and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers. After data editing, 38,134 SNP markers...... were available. In the analysis, all SNP were fitted simultaneously as random effects in a Bayesian variable selection model, which allows heterogeneous variances for different SNP markers. The response variables were the official EBV. Direct GEBV were calculated as the sum of individual SNP effects...
Mørk, Trine; Andersen, Pernille Tanggaard; Taket, Ann
Thirty-five percent of Danish women experience sexual or physical violence in their lifetime. However, health care professionals are not in the practice of asking about intimate partner violence (IPV) in Denmark. It is currently unknown what hinders general practitioners from asking about partner...... violence and how Danish women would perceive such an inquiry. This aspect has not previously been explored in Denmark. An exploratory study was conducted to examine what hinders general practitioners (GPs) from asking and what Danish women’s views and attitudes are regarding being asked about IPV. Data...... were collected through individual and group interviews with a sample of three GPs and a diverse sample of 13 women, including both survivors of partner violence and those without any history of partner violence. An interpretative analysis was performed with the data. This study provides important...
Bundgaard, Anne; Andersen, Betina Ristorp; Rode, Line
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of polyhydramnios, the related maternal and perinatal morbidity, and to estimate the association between perinatal outcome and the degree of polyhydramnios in a Danish population. METHODS: The study population consisted of 168 w...
Waldorff, Frans Boch; Nicolaisdottir, Dagny Ros; Kousgaard, Marius Brostrøm
INTRODUCTION: The objective of this study was to analyse Danish general practitioners' (GPs) a priori attitudes and expectations towards a nationwide mandatory accreditation programme. METHODS: This study is based on a nationwide electronic survey comprising all Danish GPs (n = 3,403). RESULTS...... accreditation. FUNDING: The three Research Units for General Practice in Odense, Aarhus and Copenhagen initiated and funded this study. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The survey was recommended by the Danish Multipractice Committee (MPU 02-2015) and evaluated by the Danish Data Agency (2015-41-3684)....
Lauridsen, Sigurd; Norup, Michael; Rossel, Peter
survey of 600 randomly selected Danish GPs, of which 330 responded to the questionnaire. The Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS, version 14.0) was used to produce general descriptive statistics. Significance was calculated with the McNemar and the chi-square test. The main outcome measures...
Kirschner, Benny; Poll, Susanne; Rygaard, Carsten
The aim of this study was to explore the screening histories of all cervical cancers in a Danish screening population. The intention was to decide suboptimal sides of the screening program and to evaluate the significance of routine screening in the development of cervical cancer.......The aim of this study was to explore the screening histories of all cervical cancers in a Danish screening population. The intention was to decide suboptimal sides of the screening program and to evaluate the significance of routine screening in the development of cervical cancer....
Mielczarek, Artur Tomasz; Nguyen, Hien Thi Thu; Nielsen, Jeppe Lund; Nielsen, Per Halkjær
The enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) process is increasingly popular as a sustainable method for removal of phosphorus (P) from wastewater. This study consisted of a comprehensive three-year investigation of the identity and population dynamics of polyphosphate-accumulating organisms (PAOs) and glycogen-accumulating organisms (GAOs) in 28 Danish municipal wastewater treatment plants with nutrient removal. Fluorescence in situ hybridization was applied to quantify ten probe-defined populations of PAO and GAO that in total constituted a large fraction (30% on average) of the entire microbial community targeted by the EUBmix probes. Two PAO genera, Accumulibacter and Tetrasphaera, were very abundant in all EBPR plants (average of 3.7% and 27% of all bacteria, respectively), and their abundance was relatively stable in the Danish full-scale plants without clear temporal variations. GAOs were occasionally present in some plants (Competibacter in 11 plants, Defluviicoccus in 6 plants) and were consistent in only a few plants. This shows that these were not core species in the EBPR communities. The total GAO abundance was always lower than that of Accumulibacter. In plants without EBPR design, the abundance of PAO and GAO was significantly lower. Competibacter correlated in general with high fraction of industrial wastewater. In specific plants Accumulibacter correlated with high C/P ratio of the wastewater and Tetrasphaera with high organic loading. Interestingly, the relative microbial composition of the PAO/GAO species was unique to each plant over time, which gives a characteristic plant-specific "fingerprint". Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Nilbert, Mef; Wikman, Friedrik P; Hansen, Thomas V O
mutations in 164 families are considered pathogenic and an additional 50 variants from 76 families are considered to represent variants of unknown pathogenicity. The different MMR genes contribute to 40% (MSH2), 29% (MLH1), and 22% (MSH6) of the mutations and the Danish population thus shows a considerably...... higher frequency of MSH6 mutations than previously described. Although 69/88 (78%) pathogenic mutations were present in a single family, previously recognized recurrent/founder mutations were causative in 75/137 (55%) MLH1/MSH2 mutant families. In addition, the Danish MLH1 founder mutation c.1667......+2_1667_+8TAAATCAdelinsATTT was identified in 14/58 (24%) MLH1 mutant families. The Danish Lynch syndrome population thus demonstrates that MSH6 mutations and recurrent/founder mutations have a larger contribution than previously recognized, which implies that the MSH6 gene should be included in routine diagnostics...
Rosenberg, Niels Thomas; Nørby, Søren; Schwartz, Marianne
a national register of hereditary eye diseases at the National Eye Clinic (NEC), a tertiary low vision rehabilitation center for the entire Danish population. The assembling of LHON pedigrees was based on the reconstruction of published families and newly diagnosed cases from 1980 to 2012 identified...... in the files of NEC. Genealogic follow-up on the maternal ancestry of all affected individuals was performed to identify a possible relation to an already known maternal line. A full genotypic characterization of the nation-based LHON cohort is provided. RESULTS: Forty different lines were identified....... The number of live affected individuals with a verified mitochondrial DNA mutation was 104 on January 1, 2013, which translates to a prevalence rate of 1:54,000 in the Danish population. CONCLUSIONS: Haplogroup distribution as well as mutational spectrum of the Danish LHON cohort do not deviate from those...
Birke, H; Kurita, G P; Sjøgren, P
of benzodiazepine (BZD)/BZD-related drugs in the Danish population. METHODS: Data from the cross-sectional national representative Danish Health and Morbidity Surveys (2000, 2005, 2010, and 2013) were combined with The Danish National Prescription Registry at an individual level. The study populations varied...... prevalence of opioid use from 4.1% to 5.7% among CNCP individuals. Higher CNCP prevalence was related to female gender, no cohabitation partner, short education, non-Western origin, and overweight/obesity. In addition, women with CNCP, especially >65 years, became more frequent users of opioids and used...... higher doses than men. Concurrent use of BZD/BZD-related drugs decreased (13%) from 2010 to 2013, still one-third of long-term opioid user were co-medicated with these drugs. CONCLUSIONS: The use of opioids has increased in Denmark, especially among elderly women. The concurrent use of BZD...
Thomsen, Stine Brinkløv; Rathcke, Camilla Noelle; Skaaby, Tea
The inflammatory biomarker YKL-40 seems to play a role in atherosclerosis and is elevated in patients with obesity, cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the YKL-40 encoding gene, CHI3L1, are associated with inter-individual YKL-40 levels. One study...... of the differentiated lipid profile in a Danish general population....
Höglund, Johanna Karolina; Buitenhuis, A J; Guldbrandtsen, B
, it is of interest to validate which of the subtraits are affected by the QTL. Phenotypic and marker data were collected from 34 grandsire families from the Danish Holstein population. First, the trait data for "fertility treatments" were separated into their underlying subtraits: uterine infections, antibiotics...
Breum, Solvej Østergaard; Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane; Deus, Nilsa de
The objective of this study was to examine the prevalence of Hepatitis E virus (HEV) in the Danish pig population. Faecal samples from 97 pigs, 1–5 months of age were analysed for HEV RNA by a new PriProET real time RT-PCR assay. In addition, serum samples from 71 sow herds were screened...
Outzen, Malene; Tjønneland, Anne; Larsen, Erik Huusfeldt
Low-Se status may be associated with a higher risk of notably advanced prostate cancer. In a Danish population with a relatively low Se intake, we investigated the association between pre-diagnostic Se status and (1) the risk of total, advanced and high-grade prostate cancer and (2) all-cause and...
Pertoldi, Cino; Barker, Stuart F.; Madsen, Aksel Bo
A spatio-temporal study of genetic variation in the Danish pine marten (Martes martes) populations from the Jutland peninsula and from the island of Sealand was performed using 11 microsatellite markers. Samples obtained from 1892 to 2003 were subdivided into historical (prior to 1970) and recent...
Bilberg, Randi Marie; Andersen, Kjeld; Nielsen, Anette Søgaard
the characteristics of the Danish population in the Elderly-study. Methods The study is a randomized controlled study and has so far enrolled 716 participants from Germany, USA, and Denmark and 341 are from Denmark. Participants are 60+ years old and fulfil the DSM-5 criteria for alcohol use disorder. The exclusions...
Jensen, Allan; Sharif, Heidi; Frederiksen, Kirsten; Kj?r, Susanne Kr?ger
Objective To examine the effects of fertility drugs on overall risk of ovarian cancer using data from a large cohort of infertile women. Design Population based cohort study. Setting Danish hospitals and private fertility clinics. Participants 54?362 women with infertility problems referred to all Danish fertility clinics during 1963-98. The median age at first evaluation of infertility was 30 years (range 16-55 years), and the median age at the end of follow-up was 47 (range 18-81) years. In...
Lewandowska, Karolina; Kjær, Niels Kristian; Lillevang, Gunver
of study is to examine why and when Danish junior doctors choose family medicine as their future specialty. Method: We carried out two focus group interviews with medical doctors from two regions. An academic employee from the Danish College of Family Medicine mediated the interviews assisted by a family......Background and Aim: Continued supply of qualified general practitioners is essential for the vitality of the primary health care sector. In Denmark however we have observed a decline in the number of applicants for our family medicine specialist training program, leaving some posts vacant. The aim......-graduate training the structure of the postgraduate educational program, working conditions, respect for general practice, uncertainty about the future for general practice as a profession, when did I decide to choose family medicine. Out of these themes we identified factors, which influenced the choice...
Steffensen, Flemming Hald; Sørensen, Henrik Toft; Olesen, Frede
, compared with intermediate prescribing, was associated with female physicians (odds ratio (OR) 5.7; 95% CI 1.5-21.3), smaller list size (OR 0.1; 95% CI 0.0-0.8), a strong general restrictive attitude to pharmacotherapy (OR 0.07; 95% CI 0.01-0.68) and a tendency to lower diagnostic activity per patient (OR...
Adelborg, Kasper; Szépligeti, Szimonetta Komjáthiné; Holland-Bill, Louise; Ehrenstein, Vera; Horváth-Puhó, Erzsébet; Henderson, Victor W; Sørensen, Henrik Toft
To examine the risks of myocardial infarction, stroke (ischaemic and haemorrhagic), peripheral artery disease, venous thromboembolism, atrial fibrillation or atrial flutter, and heart failure in patients with migraine and in a general population comparison cohort. Nationwide, population based cohort study. All Danish hospitals and hospital outpatient clinics from 1995 to 2013. 51 032 patients with migraine and 510 320 people from the general population matched on age, sex, and calendar year. Comorbidity adjusted hazard ratios of cardiovascular outcomes based on Cox regression analysis. Higher absolute risks were observed among patients with incident migraine than in the general population across most outcomes and follow-up periods. After 19 years of follow-up, the cumulative incidences per 1000 people for the migraine cohort compared with the general population were 25 v 17 for myocardial infarction, 45 v 25 for ischaemic stroke, 11 v 6 for haemorrhagic stroke, 13 v 11 for peripheral artery disease, 27 v 18 for venous thromboembolism, 47 v 34 for atrial fibrillation or atrial flutter, and 19 v 18 for heart failure. Correspondingly, migraine was positively associated with myocardial infarction (adjusted hazard ratio 1.49, 95% confidence interval 1.36 to 1.64), ischaemic stroke (2.26, 2.11 to 2.41), and haemorrhagic stroke (1.94, 1.68 to 2.23), as well as venous thromboembolism (1.59, 1.45 to 1.74) and atrial fibrillation or atrial flutter (1.25, 1.16 to 1.36). No meaningful association was found with peripheral artery disease (adjusted hazard ratio 1.12, 0.96 to 1.30) or heart failure (1.04, 0.93 to 1.16). The associations, particularly for stroke outcomes, were stronger during the short term (0-1 years) after diagnosis than the long term (up to 19 years), in patients with aura than in those without aura, and in women than in men. In a subcohort of patients, the associations persisted after additional multivariable adjustment for body mass index and smoking
Hansen, Michael Møller; Mensberg, Karen-Lise Dons
The influence of founder effects on the genetic population structure of brown trout (Salmo trutta) was studied in a small Danish river system. Samples of trout from seven locations were analysed by allozyme electrophoresis and mitochondrial DNA restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis....... For comparison, allozyme data from other Danish trout populations and mtDNA data from two hatchery strains were included. Genetic differentiation among populations was found to be small but significant. Pairwise tests for homogeneity of allele and haplotype frequencies between samples showed that significance...... simulations of the influence of founder effects on mitochondrial DNA differentiation and variability showed that the observed divergence could be due either to natural founder effects or to a genetic contribution by hatchery trout. However, the allozyme results pointed towards natural founder effects...
Dammeyer, Jesper Herup
The aim of this study is to report on the characteristics of a population of 916 individuals with acquired deafblindness receiving national Danish counselling and rehabilitation services. Age, gender, prevalence, social status, and communication mode are some of the data included in this study....... Results show that 70% of the population was older than 79 years, 15% was between 65 and 79 years, and 15% of the population was younger than 65 years. Oral speech was used by 86%, sign language by 10%, and tactile sign language by 4%. Among individuals younger than 65 years, less than 50% was employed...... or in education. Results are discussed with respect to the organization of the Danish counselling and rehabilitation service system....
Dalsted, Rikke Juul; Guassora, Ann Dorrit; Thorsen, Thorkil
of coordination. The aim of the article is to discuss whether general practitioners (GPs) may play a coordinating role for individual patients in Danish cancer treatment? MATERIAL AND METHODS: This study is based on individual interviews and focus groups analyzed by meaning condensation. RESULTS: The GP......INTRODUCTION: Despite initiatives to integrate treatment and care across organisations, patient trajectories in Danish health-care are not well coordinated. Coordination among many health-care professionals is essential, and it is frequently suggested that a single person should perform the task......’s potential to coordinate patient trajectories was limited by lack of involvement of the GPs by other health-care professionals and lack of needed information. Furthermore, many patients do not regard their GP as a coordinator. Patients who contacted their GP during treatment typically had a close...
Bosch, Elena; Rosser, Zoë H; Nørby, Søren
Nineteen Y-chromosomal short tandem repeats (STRs), DYS19, DYS389-I, DYS389-II, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, DYS393, DYS385, DYS388, DYS434, DYS435, DYS436, DYS437, DYS438, DYS439, DYS460, DYS461 and DYS462 were typed in Inuit (n=70) and Danish (n=62) population samples.......Nineteen Y-chromosomal short tandem repeats (STRs), DYS19, DYS389-I, DYS389-II, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, DYS393, DYS385, DYS388, DYS434, DYS435, DYS436, DYS437, DYS438, DYS439, DYS460, DYS461 and DYS462 were typed in Inuit (n=70) and Danish (n=62) population samples....
Full Text Available Abstract Background About 30% of the Danish population has one or more chronic conditions, and general practitioners (GPs play a key role in effective chronic care management. However, little is known about these encounters in general practice. The aim was to describe the frequency of patients with one or more chronic conditions in general practice and how these consultations were experienced by the GPs. Methods All GPs in the Central Denmark Region were invited to register all contacts during one day in the 12‒month study period from December; 404 (46% accepted. For each patient contact, the GPs were asked to fill in a one‒page registration form covering information on chronic disease, reason for encounter, diagnosis, number of additional psychosocial problems raised by the patient during the consultation, time consumption, experienced burden of the consultation, referral to specialized care, and whether a nurse could have substituted the GP. Patients were categorized according to the number of chronic conditions (none, one, two, three or more and the categories compared with regard to the GP‒experienced burden of the contacts. Moreover, we examined which chronic conditions posed the the greatest challenge to the GPs. Results Patients aged 40 years or more had a total of 8,236 contacts. Among these patients 2,849 (34.6%; 95% CI 33.6‒35.6 had one and 2,596 (31.5%; CI 30.5‒32.5 had more than one chronic disease. The time consumption and the burden of their contacts tended to rise with the number of chronic conditions. Being present in 22.9% (CI 21.6‒24.3 of all face‒to‒face contacts, hypertension was the most common chronic condition. The burden of the contacts was experienced as particularly heavy for patients with depression and dementia due to more additional psychosocial problems and the time consumption. Conclusion General practitioners considered consultations with multimorbid patients demanding and not easily delegated to
Kay, L; Stigsby, B; Brasso, K
To describe voiding problems and the trouble they cause in a Danish population. Furthermore, to find symptoms specific for the ageing man, and thereby symptoms that might relate to an enlarged prostate....
Waltenburg, Hanne N.
Full text: Medical X-ray exposures are the largest source of man-made exposure to ionising radiation in developed countries. Therefore, there is an interest to determine the population dose from medical X-rays, for the population as a whole as well as for selected groups, for instance for different age groups. In order to determine these quantities, knowledge of the frequency of X-ray examinations for different age groups is needed. In Denmark, 95% of all hospitals are public, and more than 95% of all procedures in hospitals are carried out in the public hospitals. Dental X-ray procedures are frequent but contribute very little to the population dose. Excluding dental procedures, only a limited number of X-ray procedures (estimated to be around 5% of the total number) are carried out in private clinics outside the hospitals. To assess the frequencies of X-ray procedures, it is therefore a good approximation to assess only the frequencies of procedures carried out in public hospitals. All of these procedures are registered in a national database. The data stored includes a unique identifier for each patient, sex and year of birth of the patient and the name of the procedure. In addition, data on the age and sex distribution of the population is available from national registers. Due to the presence of the unique identifiers, it is possible to assess not only the total number of examinations carried out, but also the number of examinations for each patient. In 2004, 18% of the population underwent one or more X-ray examinations, with the number of examinations varying from 1 to 101. There are marked differences between the different age groups; with frequencies ranging from 7% for the group of 0 - 4 year olds to 45% for 90+ years. Among the persons examined, more than 50% undergo more than examination, while 9% undergo more than five examinations. The types of examinations also vary considerably for different age groups. E.g., CT examinations constitute 2% of all
Håkansson, Kåre; von Buchwald, Christian; Thomsen, Simon F
The cause of nonallergic rhinitis (NAR) and its relation to lower airway disease remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to perform a descriptive analysis of the occurrence of rhinitis in a Danish general population with focus on NAR and its association with smoking and lower airway disease....
Gerdes, Lars Ulrik; Brønnum-Hansen, H; Osler, M
Myocardial infarction incidence rate declined 3-5% per year during 1982-1992 in the Danish study population of the WHO MONICA Project. We examined whether smoking habits, alcohol intake, dietary habits and physical activity levels changed in the population during the same period. Data from 6695 men...... in 30-, 40- and 50-y-old women, but increased 0.9% per year in 60-y-old women. The percentages of heavy cigarette smoking men and women nevertheless remained constant and close to 30%. Total alcohol intake declined among 30-y-olds, but appeared constant in other age groups. However, among 60-y-old men...
Wu, Yili; Zhang, Dongfeng; Pang, Zengchang
Aim: Studies carried out in Western populations have shown age-related changes in multiple health domains together with gender-specific patterns. By focusing on five health domains, self-rated health, hand grip strength, sit-to-stand test, cognitive performance and depression, we examined the age....... Conclusion: Our cross population analysis identified significant gender and population differences suggesting endogenous biological, physical and social environmental determinants in age-related decline in general health. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2011; ••: ••-••....... trajectories in general health in a cross-sectional Chinese sample representing the world's largest ethnic population and compare with Danish data that represent Western populations in developed countries. Methods: Multiple regression models were fitted to compare patterns across genders and populations...
Burrowing polychaetes are typically the most numerous and active class among macrobenthic infauna in Danish estuaries. Their ecological role is well-recognized and has been often associated with their bioturbating activities. Construction and maintenance of galleries as well as ingestion and defe......Burrowing polychaetes are typically the most numerous and active class among macrobenthic infauna in Danish estuaries. Their ecological role is well-recognized and has been often associated with their bioturbating activities. Construction and maintenance of galleries as well as ingestion...... and defecation displace sediment particles. Ventilation of their burrow irrigates the sediment. These activities transform the environment for other species: from microbes to plants (MS5). Given the important relations between bioturbating polychaetes and their ecosystem, any significant changes in population...... of a key species may have consequent impact on the ecosystem. The introduction of non-native species is an important vector of change for the often species-poor benthic community of Danish estuaries. Non-native species may bring new functions but also interact with native fauna species. The work presented...
Kaiser, Caroline; Kristensen, Michael; Jensen, Karl-Martin Vagn
) were used. Pollen beetle populations were collected from 47 locations of Denmark with the help of the consultants and the farmers of the various regions in 2014. Further six populations were tested from Sweden and one from Germany. In the following year 2015, the monitoring continued to find out......The pollen beetle (Meligethes aeneus F.) is a serious pest in the northern countries in oilseed rape. To determine the present level of pyrethroid and neonicotinoid susceptibility of Danish pollen beetle populations, standardized methods recommended by IRAC (Insecticide Resistance Action Committee......, if the resistance level which was determined in 2014 was stable in selected regions. Therefore pollen beetle populations from 14 locations in Denmark and five locations in Germany have been tested. For all tests the standardised methods for pyrethroids, the Adult-vial-test No. 11 and the Adult-vials-test No. 21...
Sele, Lisa Maria Falk; Balasubramaniam, Kirubakaran; Elnegaard, Sandra
BACKGROUND: The first step in the diagnosis of lung cancer is for individuals in the general population to recognise respiratory alarm symptoms (RAS). Knowledge is sparse about RAS and factors associated with experiencing RAS in the general population. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence...... of RAS in the general population, and to analyse possible associations between lifestyle factors and experiencing RAS. METHODS: A web-based survey comprising 100 000 individuals randomly selected from the Danish Civil Registration System. Items regarding experience of RAS (prolonged coughing, shortness...
Nordenbaek, Claudia; Jorgensen, Meta; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm
Genetic epidemiological studies of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) based on twin pairs ascertained from the population and thoroughly assessed to obtain a high degree of diagnostic validity are few. All twin pairs aged 3-14 years in the nationwide Danish Twin Registry were approached. A three......-step procedure was used. Five items from the "Child Behaviour Checklist" (CBCL) were used in the first screening phase, while screening in the second phase included the "Social and Communication Questionnaire" and the "Autism Spectrum Screening Questionnaire". The final clinical assessment was based on "gold...
Mengel-From, Jonas; Wong, Terence H; Morling, Niels
BACKGROUND: Eye and hair colour is highly variable in the European population, and is largely genetically determined. Both linkage and association studies have previously been used to identify candidate genes underlying this variation. Many of the genes found were previously known as underlying...... mutant mouse phenotypes or human genetic disease, but others, previously unsuspected as pigmentation genes, have also been discovered. RESULTS: We assayed the hair of a population of individuals of Scottish origin using tristimulus colorimetry, in order to produce a quantitative measure of hair colour....... Cluster analysis of this data defined two groups, with overlapping borders, which corresponded to visually assessed dark versus red/light hair colour. The Danish population was assigned into categorical hair colour groups. Both cohorts were also assessed for eye colour. DNA from the Scottish group...
Søsted, H; Hesse, U; Menné, T
BACKGROUND: Contact allergy to hair dye ingredients is a well-known entity seen both in consumers using hair dyes and among hairdressers with occupational contact dermatitis. Surveys show that consumers with even severe adverse skin reactions to hair dyes only rarely contact the healthcare services....... The frequency of hair dye-induced skin reactions in the consumer population is unknown. OBJECTIVES: An epidemiological investigation with the aim of establishing the proportion of hair dye-induced skin reactions was performed in a population-based sample. METHODS: A representative random sample (n = 4000......) was taken of the Danish adult population. Personal interview questions were asked regarding adverse skin reactions to hair dyes, either compatible with a classical allergic eczematous reaction with redness, scaling and itching or a severe allergic reaction with oedema of the forehead and face. The response...
Jessen, Kasper; Søndergaard, Jens; Larsen, Pia Veldt
Background. The use of prostate-specific antigen test has markedly increased in Danish general practice in the last decade. Despite the national guidelines advice against PSA screening, opportunistic screening is supposed to be the primary reason for this increased number of PSA tests performed....... Aims. Based on the increase in the amount of PSA conducted, we aimed to analyse how GPs in Denmark use the PSA test. Methods. A self-administrated questionnaire concerning symptomatic and asymptomatic patient cases was developed based on the national and international guidelines and the extensive...... literature review, and an in-depth interview conducted with a GP was performed. Results. None of the GPs would do a PSA measurement for an asymptomatic 76-year-old man. For asymptomatic 55- and 42-year-old men, respectively, 21.9% and 18.6% of GPs would measure PSA. Patient request and concern could...
Vangkilde, Anders; Olsen, Line; Hoeffding, Louise K
OBJECTIVE: Cross-sectional studies have shown associations between 22q11.2 deletion syndrome and schizophrenia. However, large-scale prospective studies have been lacking. We, therefore, conducted the first large-scale population based study on the risk of being diagnosed with schizophrenia...... in persons identified with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. METHODS: Danish nationwide registers were linked to establish a cohort consisting of all Danish citizens born during 1955-2004 and the cohort was followed from January 1, 1994 until December 31, 2013. Data were analyzed using survival analyses...... and adjusted for calendar year, age, sex, and parental mental health history. RESULTS: A total of 156 individuals with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome were identified, out of which 6 individuals were diagnosed with schizophrenia spectrum disorders following identification with 22q11 deletion syndrome. Identified...
Loengaard, Katja; Bjorner, Jakob Bue; Fink, Per Klausen; Burr, Hermann; Rugulies, Reiner
Medically Unexplained Symptoms (MUS) are frequently encountered in general practice. However, little is known whether MUS affects labor market participation. We investigated the prospective association between MUS at baseline and risk of long-term sickness absence (LTSA), unemployment, and disability pensioning in a 5-year-follow-up study. In the Danish Work Environment Cohort Study 2005, 8187 randomly selected employees from the Danish general population answered a questionnaire on work and health. Responses were linked with national registers on prescribed medication and hospital treatment. Participants were classified with MUS if they: a) had reported three or more symptoms during the last month, and b) did not have a chronic condition, neither in the self-reported nor the register data. We assessed LTSA, unemployment, and disability pensioning by linking our data with National registers of social transfer payments. Of the 8187 participants, 272 (3.3%) were categorized with MUS. Compared to healthy participants, participants with MUS had an increased risk of LTSA (Rate ratio (RR) = 1.76, 95% CI = 1.28-2.42), and of unemployment (RR = 1.48, 95% CI = 1.02-2.15) during follow-up. MUS participants also showed an elevated RR with regard to risk of disability pensioning, however this association was not statistically significant (RR = 2.06, 95% CI = 0.77-5.52). MUS seem to have a negative effect on labor market participation defined by LTSA and unemployment, whereas it is more uncertain whether MUS affects risk of disability pensioning.
Jensen, Allan; Sharif, Heidi; Frederiksen, Kirsten; Kjaer, Susanne Krüger
To examine the effects of fertility drugs on overall risk of ovarian cancer using data from a large cohort of infertile women. Population based cohort study. Danish hospitals and private fertility clinics. 54,362 women with infertility problems referred to all Danish fertility clinics during 1963-98. The median age at first evaluation of infertility was 30 years (range 16-55 years), and the median age at the end of follow-up was 47 (range 18-81) years. Included in the analysis were 156 women with invasive epithelial ovarian cancer (cases) and 1241 subcohort members identified in the cohort during follow-up in 2006. Effect of four groups of fertility drugs (gonadotrophins, clomifene citrate, human chorionic gonadotrophin, and gonadotrophin releasing hormone) on overall risk of ovarian cancer after adjustment for potential confounding factors. Analyses within cohort showed no overall increased risk of ovarian cancer after any use of gonadotrophins (rate ratio 0.83, 95% confidence interval 0.50 to 1.37), clomifene (1.14, 0.79 to 1.64), human chorionic gonadotrophin (0.89, 0.62 to 1.29), or gonadotrophin releasing hormone (0.80, 0.42 to 1.51). Furthermore, no associations were found between all four groups of fertility drugs and number of cycles of use, length of follow-up, or parity. No convincing association was found between use of fertility drugs and risk of ovarian cancer.
Vase, Maja Ølholm; Friis, Søren; Bautz, Andrea; Bendix, Knud; Sørensen, Henrik Toft; d'Amore, Francesco
A potential link between breast implants and anaplastic large-cell lymphoma (ALCL) has been suggested. We examined lymphoma occurrence in a nationwide cohort of 19,885 Danish women who underwent breast implant surgery during 1973-2010. Standardized incidence ratios (SIR), with 95% confidence intervals (CI), for ALCL and lymphoma overall associated with breast implantation were calculated. During 179,246 person-years of follow-up, we observed 31 cases of lymphoma among cohort members. No cases of ALCL were identified. SIRs for ALCL and lymphoma overall were zero (95% CI, 0-10.3) and 1.20 (95% CI, 0.82-1.70), respectively. In our nationwide cohort study, we did not find an increased risk of lymphoma in general, or ALCL in particular, among Danish women who underwent breast implantation. However, our evaluation of ALCL risk was limited by the rarity of the disease. Our results do not support an association between breast implants and ALCL and are consistent with other studies on cancer risk and breast implants. ©2013 AACR.
Damgaard, C.; Giese, Nanna Henriette
Genetic variation of the barley powdery mildew fungus (Erysiphe graminis f.sp. hordei) was estimated in three Danish local populations. Genetic variation was estimated from the variation amongst clones of Egh, and was therefore an estimate of the maximum genetic variation in the local populations...
Jørgensen, M E; Glümer, C; Bjerregaard, P
pressure, triglyceride, and higher levels of HDL cholesterol than the Danish participants at any given level of obesity. Fasting glucose and fasting insulin levels within obesity categories were not different in the two populations. Adjustment for physical activity, smoking, school education, and alcohol......OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether the obesity observed among the Inuit of Greenland and in a general Danish population was associated with the same degree of metabolic disturbances. DESIGN: Comparison of data from two population-based cross-sectional surveys conducted in 1999-2001. SUBJECTS...... received a standard 75 g OGTT. s-Triglyceride, s-HDL cholesterol, fasting and 2 h p-glucose and s-insulin were analysed. Blood pressure was measured. Information on lifestyle factors was obtained by a questionnaire and interview. RESULTS: The Inuit had lower levels of 2-h glucose and insulin, blood...
Eliasen, Marie; Jørgensen, Torben; Schröder, Andreas
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to identify and describe somatic symptom profiles in the general adult population in order to enable further epidemiological research within multiple somatic symptoms. METHODS: Information on 19 self-reported common somatic symptoms was achieved from a population...
Thyssen, J P; Linneberg, A; Menné, T
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of sensitization to fragrance mix (FM) I and Myroxylon pereirae (MP, balsam of Peru) has decreased in recent years among Danish women with dermatitis. OBJECTIVES: This study investigated whether the decrease could be confirmed among women in the general population. Furt...... supported a recent decrease in the prevalence of FM I and MP sensitization in Denmark. The study also showed that fragrance sensitization was associated with self-reported cosmetic dermatitis and use of health care related to cosmetic dermatitis....
Guassora, Ann Dorrit; Tulinius, Anne Charlotte
in observation of their own consultations. RESULTS: Patients and GPs agreed that the GP should adopt an attitude of moral acceptance towards patients. Ideals of moral acceptance of patients in general practice consultations were challenged by the prevailing negative moral values associated with smoking......OBJECTIVE: To describe consultations in Danish general practice as a context for a mass strategy of smoking cessation advice. METHODS: The focus of the study was on consultations for health problems that were not related to smoking. Interviews with eleven patients and their six GPs were grounded....... A general aim of mutuality in the conversation in consultations could not always be achieved in smoking cessation advice. Achieving mutuality was especially a problem when smoking cessation advice was repeated at short intervals. CONCLUSION: Two elements of Danish general practice consultations were...
Glintborg, Dorte; Hass Rubin, Katrine; Nybo, Mads
OBJECTIVE: The prevalence of type 2 diabetes is increased in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), but the prevalence of other diseases is not clarified. We aimed to investigate morbidity and medicine prescriptions in PCOS. DESIGN: A National Register-based study. METHODS: Patients with PCOS (PCOS...... Denmark and an embedded cohort; PCOS Odense University Hospital (OUH)) and one control population. Premenopausal women with PCOS underwent clinical and biochemical examination (PCOS OUH, n=1217). PCOS Denmark (n=19 199) included women with PCOS in the Danish National Patient Register. Three age......-matched controls were included per patient (n=57 483). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Diagnosis codes and filled prescriptions. RESULTS: The mean (range) age of the PCOS Denmark group and controls was 30.6 (12-60) years. Patients in PCOS Denmark had higher Charlson index, higher prevalence of diabetes, dyslipidemia...
Hansen, Anders B.G.; Hvidtfeldt, Ulla Arthur; Grønbæk, Morten
, which included a personal interview of 14,566 individuals (response rate 66.7 %), and of 5,552 individuals who completed a self-administered questionnaire containing the Alcohol Use Disorder Test (AUDIT) (response rate 50.9%). Heavy drinkers were defined as consuming >14/21 drinks/week (women....... Results: In the Danish population, 20% were heavy drinkers (862,876 persons 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 672,002—1,195,069), 14% had harmful alcohol use (620,301 persons 95% CI: 439,221—944,992), 3% were dependent drinkers (147,528 persons 95% CI: 118,196—188,384). Being male was associated...
Jensen, Allan; Sharif, Heidi; Frederiksen, Kirsten
OBJECTIVE: To examine the effects of fertility drugs on overall risk of ovarian cancer using data from a large cohort of infertile women. DESIGN: Population based cohort study. SETTING: Danish hospitals and private fertility clinics. PARTICIPANTS: 54,362 women with infertility problems referred...... confounding factors. RESULTS: Analyses within cohort showed no overall increased risk of ovarian cancer after any use of gonadotrophins (rate ratio 0.83, 95% confidence interval 0.50 to 1.37), clomifene (1.14, 0.79 to 1.64), human chorionic gonadotrophin (0.89, 0.62 to 1.29), or gonadotrophin releasing...... hormone (0.80, 0.42 to 1.51). Furthermore, no associations were found between all four groups of fertility drugs and number of cycles of use, length of follow-up, or parity. CONCLUSION: No convincing association was found between use of fertility drugs and risk of ovarian cancer....
Friedrich, N; Jørgensen, Torben; Juul, A
study was to analyse the associations between anthropometric measures and IGF-I levels in a population-based sample. From the Danish cross-sectional Health2006 study 3,328 subjects (1,835 women; 1,493 men) aged 19-72 years were included in the analyses. Serum IGF-I levels were determined...... consumption, smoking and physical activity. Our large cross-sectional study suggests that IGF-I may serve as the link between obesity and mortality although any causal relation cannot be inferred and longitudinal analyses are needed to clarify the causal relation.......During the last decade several studies indicated that low insulin-like growth factor (IGF) I levels are related to higher risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality. Obesity represents one further main cardiovascular risk factor which might also be related to IGF-I. The objective of the present...
Vase, Maja Ølholm; Maksten, Eva Futtrup; Strandhave, Charlotte
Background: Posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) is a feared complication to organ transplantation, associated with substantial morbidity and inferior survival. Risk factors for PTLD include T cell–depleting induction therapy and primary infection or reactivation of Epstein-Barr virus....... Possible associations between certain HLA types and the risk of developing PTLD have been reported by other investigators; however, results are conflicting. Methods: We conducted a retrospective, population-based study on 4295 Danish solid organ transplant patients from the Scandiatransplant database...... can be clinically useful after transplantation in personalized monitoring schemes. Given the strong linkage disequilibrium in the HLA region, the associations must be interpreted carefully. The large size, virtually complete ascertainment of cases and no loss to follow-up remain important strengths...
Rasmussen, Lone Banke; Hansen, G. L.; Hansen, E.
of reduced production from the skin secondary to extensive covering, skin pigmentation and many hours spent indoors. It is concluded that the elderly and dark-skinned (veiled) women will benefit from an increased vitamin D supply. Four strategies to increase vitamin D supply were considered: dietary changes......A working group was established to evaluate the need for an increased vitamin D intake in the Danish population. Vitamin D is primarily important for calcium homeostasis, calcium absorption in the intestine and calcium content in bones, and thereby for the strength of the bones. Only a few foods...... biochemical signs of osteomalacia. Vitamin D deficiency increases the risk of osteoporosis. In Denmark, for instance, 13 000 admissions each year are caused by hip fractures alone, almost all among elderly people. Dark-skinned women often constitute a problem with respect to vitamin D sufficiency because...
Zimmermann, Esther; Ekholm, Ola; Grønbaek, Morten
AIM: To investigate predictors of changes in physical activity, in a prospective population-based study. METHODS: Data were from the Danish Health Interview Surveys in 1994 and 2000, and included persons between 16 and 64 years of age who answered the questions on physical activity and various...... interval (CI) 1.24-3.48, and OR 2.23, 95% CI 1.34-3.71), poor self-rated health (OR 2.11, 95% CI 1.25-3.58, and OR 1.75, 95% CI 1.10-2.80), and believing that one's own effort has no effect on health (OR 1.86, 95% CI 1.20-2.88, and OR 1.63, 95% CI 1.00-2.65). For men, further predictors for physical...
Cantor-Graae, Elizabeth; Pedersen, Carsten Bøcker
Background. Urban birth, a risk factor for schizophrenia, is more frequent among second-generation immigrants. The aim of the current study was to determine whether the increased risk for schizophrenia found in second-generation immigrants is explained by the degree of urbanization of birthplace...... for urbanization of birthplace and parental characteristics reduced these risks slightly. However, urbanization had a lesser effect in second-generation immigrants than in Danes. History of residence abroad was a risk factor for schizophrenia, regardless of whether parents were foreign-born or native Danes...... and/or factors related to parentage, such as geographic origin or history of residence abroad during upbringing.Method. Using data from the Danish Civil Registration System (CRS), we established a population-based cohort of 2.0 million Danes (persons born in Denmark). Schizophrenia in cohort members...
Glintborg, Dorte; Hass Rubin, Katrine; Nybo, Mads; Abrahamsen, Bo; Andersen, Marianne
The prevalence of type 2 diabetes is increased in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), but the prevalence of other diseases is not clarified. We aimed to investigate morbidity and medicine prescriptions in PCOS. A National Register-based study. Patients with PCOS (PCOS Denmark and an embedded cohort; PCOS Odense University Hospital (OUH)) and one control population. Premenopausal women with PCOS underwent clinical and biochemical examination (PCOS OUH, n=1217). PCOS Denmark (n=19 199) included women with PCOS in the Danish National Patient Register. Three age-matched controls were included per patient (n=57 483). Diagnosis codes and filled prescriptions. The mean (range) age of the PCOS Denmark group and controls was 30.6 (12-60) years. Patients in PCOS Denmark had higher Charlson index, higher prevalence of diabetes, dyslipidemia, and hypertension than controls. PCOS was associated with a two times increased risk of stroke and thrombosis, whereas the risk of other cardiovascular diseases was not increased. Thyroid disease, asthma, migraine, and depression were more prevalent in PCOS Denmark vs controls, whereas fractures were rarer. Infertility was increased in patients compared with controls, but the mean number of births was higher in PCOS. Medicine prescriptions within all diagnosis areas were significantly higher in PCOS patients than in controls.In PCOS OUH, polycystic ovaries (PCO) and irregular menses were associated with a more adverse metabolic risk profile, but individual Rotterdam criteria were not associated with cardiometabolic diagnoses. Cardiometabolic and psychiatric morbidity were significantly increased in a Danish population with PCOS. Medical diseases are frequent also in young patients with PCOS. © 2015 European Society of Endocrinology.
Research has shown a prevalence of psychosocial difficulties ranging from about 20% to 50% among children with hearing loss. This study evaluates the prevalence of psychosocial difficulties in a Danish population in relation to different explanatory variables. Five scales and questionnaires measuring sign language, spoken language, hearing…
Stahlhut, Michelle; Downs, Jenny; Aadahl, Mette
in a Danish population of females with RTT. Advancing age and lower walking skills were associated with higher levels of sedentary time. Implications for Rehabilitation Sedentary lifestyles in individuals with disabilities have a negative impact on health and quality of life. High levels of sedentary time...
Falstie-Jensen, Anne Mette; Nørgaard, Mette; Hollnagel, Erik
OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between compliance with hospital accreditation and length of stay (LOS) and acute readmission (AR). DESIGN: A nationwide population-based follow-up study from November 2009 to December 2012. SETTING: Public, non-psychiatric Danish hospitals. PARTICIPANTS: In-...
Individual and population doses within Danish territory are calculated from hypothetical, severe core-melt accidents at the Swedish nuclear plant at Barsebaeck. The fission product inventory of the Barsebaeck reactor is calculated. The release fractions for the accidents are taken from WASH-1400. Based on parametric studies, doses are calculated for very unfavourable, but not incredible weather conditions. The probability of such conditions in combination with wind direction towards Danish territory is estimated. Doses to bone marrow, lungs, GI-tract and thyroid are calculated based on dose models developed at Risoe. These doses are found to be consistent with doses calculated with the models used in WASH-1400. (author)
Dreisler, E; Stampe Sorensen, S; Ibsen, P H
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of endometrial polyps and to investigate associated abnormal uterine bleeding in a Danish population aged 20-74 years. METHODS: This was a study of a random selection of women from the Danish Civil Registration System: 1660 women were invited of whom 686 were...... verified polyps were asymptomatic. In asymptomatic premenopausal women the prevalence of polyps was 7.6%, while it was 13% in asymptomatic postmenopausal women. AUB, in particular intermenstrual bleeding, was more frequent among women without polyps (38%). By ultrasound examination, submucosal myomas were...
Kjaergaard, Alisa D; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Johansen, Julia S
. For this purpose, we performed cohort and Mendelian randomization studies in 96,099 individuals from the Danish general population. Plasma levels of YKL-40 were measured in 21,643 and CHI3L1 rs4950928 was genotyped in 94,568 individuals. From 1943 through 2011, 2,291 individuals developed gastrointestinal cancer...
Junge, Tina; Henriksen, Peter; Hansen, Sebrina; Østengaard, Lasse; Golightly, Yvonne M; Juul-Kristensen, Birgit
Several biomechanical factors, such as knee joint hypermobility (KJH), are suggested to play a role in the etiology of knee joint symptoms and knee osteoarthritis. Nevertheless, the prevalence or consequences of KJH solely or included in the classification of generalized joint hypermobility (GJHk) is unknown for a general population. Therefore, the objectives were to report the prevalence of self-reported GJHk and KJH, as well as the association of these conditions to knee joint symptoms, severity and duration of symptoms, and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in a Danish adult population. This study is a cross-sectional population-based survey of 2056 Danish adults. Respondents received online questionnaires of GJHk and KJH, knee joint symptoms, the severity and duration of these, as well as HRQoL. Total response rate was 49% (n = 1006). The prevalence of self-reported GJHk and KJH was 13% and 23%, mostly representing women. More than half of the respondents with GJHk and KJH had knee joint symptoms. The odds for reporting knee joint symptoms, severity of knee joint symptoms and duration of knee joint symptoms were twice as high for respondents with GJHk and KJH. Respondents with GJHk and KJH reported lower HRQoL. GJHk and KJH were frequently reported in the Danish adult population, mostly in women. Respondents with GJHk and KJH were two times more likely to report knee joint-related symptoms such as pain, reduced performance of usual activity and lower HRQoL. The impact of these conditions on HRQoL is comparable with knee osteoarthritis. © 2017 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.
Bertelsen, Pernille; Stub Petersen, Lone
This paper reports on selected findings from a Danish national survey of citizens' perception and use of information and communication technology (ICT) for their health care . Focus is on citizens' use of ICT and on communication with their General Practitioner (GP). It also focuses on citizens' experience of their GPs' ICT use and no use during medical consultations. The responsibility for medical service in Denmark is to a large extent handed over to the primary sector where the GP is the gatekeeper. Our data display that 65% of the adult citizens or their relatives have been using ICT to communicate with their GP. Twenty-two percent have experienced their GP use a computer screen to actively show them something while they have a consultation. Further, our data supports the assumption that the higher the education people have, the more likely they are to use ICT for their health care. The understanding of the use of ICT in communication with the GP is central to monitoring and developing an ICT that supports all citizens and considers new ways in which to enhance quality of care.
Matthiessen, Jeppe; Andersen, Elisabeth Wreford; Raustorp, Anders
Aims: To examine the development in pedometer-determined physical activity from 2007–2008 to 2011–2012 in the adult Danish population. Methods: The study population comprised two random samples of 18–75-year-old individuals who took part in cross-sectional studies in 2007–2008 (n=224) and 2011......–2012 (n=1515). Pedometer data (sealed Yamax SW 200) were obtained for seven consecutive days. Data for 1624 participants (48.2% men) were included in the analysis. An overall step-defined activity level was examined based on a graduated step index (sedentary, low active, somewhat active, active, highly.......1%) lower overall step-defined activity level was observed in 2011–2012 compared to 2007–2008. These changes were primarily due to a reduced level of activity among women. The proportion of individuals taking ⩾10,000 steps/day decreased non-significantly from 34.8% to 29.3%, whereas the proportion taking...
Petersen, Christina Bjørk; Thygesen, Lau Caspar; Helge, Jørn Wulff
AIMS: To examine time trends in leisure-time physical activity in the Danish population from 1987 to 2005. METHODS: Analyses were based on four national representative population surveys of 4752 respondents in 1987, 4667 in 1994, 16,688 in 2000, and 14,566 in 2005. Associations between leisure......-time physical activity (dichotomised into high versus low) and temporal changes according to year of birth, age, and calendar-year were estimated in an age-period-cohort logistic regression model. Time trends in socioeconomic differences in physical activity were analysed by testing interaction terms. RESULTS......: The odds ratio (OR) of being highly physically active in leisure time in 2005 compared to 1987 was 1.6 (95% CI: 1.3-1.9) among men and 1.8 (95% CI: 1.5-2.2) among women. The age- and calendar-year-adjusted probability of being highly physically active increased with year of birth. The OR of being highly...
Osler, Merete; Jorgensen, Torben; Gerdes, Lars Ulrik
of the study area. At the same time type A behaviours increased in both men and women, while there were no changes in reported personal problems. The proportion of women living alone increased, while the proportion of emotionally distressed decreased. In men there were no changes in cohabitation status...... or emotional distress. The changes in the psychosocial factors were the same in different educational groups. CONCLUSION: The socioeconomic position of the population improved at the individual and the community level during the study period. This was concurrent with the declining incidence of myocardial......AIM: Myocardial infarction incidence declined by 3-5% per year from 1982-92 in the Danish study population of the WHO MONICA project. This study examined whether psychosocial coronary risk factors changed in the population during this period. METHODS: Cross-sectional data from 6,695 Danish men...
Ross, C A; Joshi, S
The Dissociative Disorders Interview Schedule was administered to a random sample of 502 adults in the general population of Winnipeg, a midwestern Canadian city. Results showed that paranormal/extrasensory experiences were common in the general population. They were linked to a history of childhood trauma and to other dissociative symptom clusters. A factor analysis of the paranormal experiences identified three factors which together accounted for 44.0% of the combined variance of the scores. A model is proposed in which paranormal experiences are conceptualized as an aspect of normal dissociation. Like dissociation in general, paranormal experiences can be triggered by trauma, especially childhood physical or sexual abuse. Such experiences discriminate individuals with childhood trauma histories from those without at high levels of significance.
Forchhammer Mads C
Full Text Available Abstract Background Variation in carrying capacity and population return rates is generally ignored in traditional studies of population dynamics. Variation is hard to study in the field because of difficulties controlling the environment in order to obtain statistical replicates, and because of the scale and expense of experimenting on populations. There may also be ethical issues. To circumvent these problems we used detailed simulations of the simultaneous behaviours of interacting animals in an accurate facsimile of a real Danish landscape. The models incorporate as much as possible of the behaviour and ecology of skylarks Alauda arvensis, voles Microtus agrestis, a ground beetle Bembidion lampros and a linyphiid spider Erigone atra. This allows us to quantify and evaluate the importance of spatial and temporal heterogeneity on the population dynamics of the four species. Results Both spatial and temporal heterogeneity affected the relationship between population growth rate and population density in all four species. Spatial heterogeneity accounted for 23–30% of the variance in population growth rate after accounting for the effects of density, reflecting big differences in local carrying capacity associated with the landscape features important to individual species. Temporal heterogeneity accounted for 3–13% of the variance in vole, skylark and spider, but 43% in beetles. The associated temporal variation in carrying capacity would be problematic in traditional analyses of density dependence. Return rates were less than one in all species and essentially invariant in skylarks, spiders and beetles. Return rates varied over the landscape in voles, being slower where there were larger fluctuations in local population sizes. Conclusion Our analyses estimated the traditional parameters of carrying capacities and return rates, but these are now seen as varying continuously over the landscape depending on habitat quality and the mechanisms
Full Text Available There is a need for better understanding of various characteristics in hyperacusis in the general population. The objectives of the present study were to investigate individuals in the general population with hyperacusis regarding demographics, lifestyle, perceived general health and hearing ability, hyperacusis-specific characteristics and behavior, and comorbidity. Using data from a large-scale population-based questionnaire study, we investigated individuals with physician-diagnosed (n = 66 and self-reported (n = 313 hyperacusis in comparison to individuals without hyperacusis (n = 2995. High age, female sex, and high education were associated with hyperacusis, and that trying to avoid sound sources, being able to affect the sound environment, and having sough medical attention were common reactions and behaviors. Posttraumatic stress disorder, chronic fatigue syndrome, generalized anxiety disorder, depression, exhaustion, fibromyalgia, irritable bowel syndrome, migraine, hearing impairment, tinnitus, and back/joint/muscle disorders were comorbid with hyperacusis. The results provide ground for future study of these characteristic features being risk factors for development of hyperacusis and/or consequences of hyperacusis.
Sogaard, Ole S; Lohse, Nicolai; Gerstoft, Jan
). Risk factors were assessed by Poisson regression. Results. @nbsp; The study included 3516 persons with HIV infection and 328,738 persons without HIV infection, which provided 23,677 person-years and 2,944,760 person-years of observation, respectively. Incidence rates of pneumonia in HIV......-infected individuals decreased from 50.6 hospitalizations per 1000 person-years (95% confidence interval [CI], 42.9-59.7 hospitalizations per 1000 person-years) during 1995-1996 to 19.7 hospitalizations per 1000 person-years (95% CI, 16.2-23.8 hospitalizations per 1000 person-years) during 2005-2007. Compared......-infected population. Methods. @nbsp; This was an observational cohort study conducted during 1995-2007. Each member of a Danish population-based nationwide cohort of HIV-infected individuals was matched with up to 99 control individuals from the general population. Data on age, mortality, emigration, and hospital...
Meier, Sandra M; Bulik, Cynthia M; Thornton, Laura M; Mattheisen, Manuel; Mortensen, Preben B; Petersen, Liselotte
Anxiety disorders and anorexia nervosa are frequently acknowledged to be highly comorbid conditions, but still, little is known about the clinical and aetiological cohesion of specific anxiety diagnoses and anorexia nervosa. Using the comprehensive Danish population registers, we aimed to determine the risk of anorexia nervosa in patients with register-detected severe anxiety disorders. We also explored whether parental psychopathology was associated with offspring's anorexia nervosa. Anxiety disorders increased the risk of subsequent anorexia nervosa, with the highest risk observed in obsessive-compulsive disorder. Especially, male anxiety patients were at an increased risk for anorexia nervosa. Furthermore, an increased risk was observed in offspring of fathers with panic disorder. A diagnosis of an anxiety disorder, specifically obsessive-compulsive disorder, constitutes a risk factor for subsequent diagnosis of anorexia nervosa. These observations support the notion that anxiety disorders and anorexia nervosa share etiological mechanisms and/or that anxiety represents one developmental pathway to anorexia nervosa. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.
Storgaard, Rikke Lynge; Hansen, Henning Sten; Aadahl, Mette; Glümer, Charlotte
Sedentary behaviour is a risk factor for diabetes, cardiovascular disease etc., independently of level of physical activity. Availability of recreational green space is associated with physical activity, but is unknown in relation to sedentary behaviour. The aim of this study is to examine the association between availability of green space and sedentary leisure time in a Danish population. The study was based on a random sample of 49,806 adults aged 16 + who answered a questionnaire in 2010, including sedentary leisure time. Objective measures of density green were calculated for each respondent using Geographical Information System (GIS). A multilevel regression analysis, taking neighbourhood and individual factors into account, was performed. 65% of the respondents were sedentary in leisure time for more than 3h/day. We found that poor availability of forest and recreational facilities in the neighbourhood is associated with more sedentary leisure time; OR: 1.11 (95% CL: 1.04-1.19), after adjusting for individual, and neighbourhood, level characteristics. Among adult inhabitants, sedentary leisure time of more than 3h/day was more frequent in neighbourhoods with less green surroundings. Intervention efforts may benefit from emphasising the importance of having recreations options in residential areas to provide alternatives to sedentary activities.
Torp-Pedersen, Tobias; Boyd, Heather A; Skotte, Line
, overall and by subtype, among children 7 years or younger. Design, Setting, and Participants: This population-based cohort study was conducted with data from 96 842 children enrolled in the Danish National Birth Cohort. Main Outcomes and Measures: Age-specific incidence and cumulative incidence and median...... identified in the cohort. We found an overall cumulative strabismus incidence of 2.56% (95% CI, 2.42-2.69) at 7 years. The overall incidence was similar among boys and girls. Two hundred sixteen participants (16.5%) (95% CI, 14.5-18.6) had congenital esotropia, 177 (13.5%) (95% CI, 11.7-15.5) had fully...... accommodative esotropia, 252 (19.3%) (95% CI, 17.1-21.5) had partially accommodative esotropia, and 181 (13.8%) (95% CI, 12.0-15.8) had exotropia. The esotropia:exotropia ratio was 5.4:1 (95% CI, 3.4:1 to 7.5:1). Age-specific incidence curves for congenital esotropia, fully accommodative esotropia, partially...
Aabenhus, Rune; Hansen, Malene Plejdrup; Saust, Laura Trolle; Bjerrum, Lars
Inappropriate use of antibiotics is contributing to the increasing rates of antimicrobial resistance. Several Danish guidelines on antibiotic prescribing for acute respiratory tract infections in general practice have been issued to promote rational prescribing of antibiotics, however it is unclear if these recommendations are followed. We aimed to characterise the pattern of antibiotic prescriptions for patients diagnosed with acute respiratory tract infections, by means of electronic prescriptions, labeled with clinical indications, from Danish general practice. Acute respiratory tract infections accounted for 456,532 antibiotic prescriptions issued between July 2012 and June 2013. Pneumonia was the most common indication with 178,354 prescriptions (39%), followed by acute tonsillitis (21%) and acute otitis media (19%). In total, penicillin V accounted for 58% of all prescriptions, followed by macrolides (18%) and amoxicillin (15%). The use of second-line agents increased with age for all indications, and comprised more than 40% of the prescriptions in patients aged >75 years. Women were more often prescribed antibiotics regardless of clinical indication. This is the first Danish study to characterise antibiotic prescription patterns for acute respiratory tract infections by data linkage of clinical indications. The findings confirm that penicillin V is the most commonly prescribed antibiotic agent for treatment of patients with an acute respiratory tract infection in Danish general practice. However, second-line agents like macrolides and amoxicillin with or without clavulanic acid are overused. Strategies to improve the quality of antibiotic prescribing especially for pneumonia, acute otitis media and acute rhinosinusitis are warranted. TRACKING THE OVERUSE OF ANTIBIOTICS: Better adherence to guidelines for prescribing antibiotics for different respiratory tract infections are warranted in Danish general practice. The over-use of antibiotics, particularly so
Gonzalez-Quintela, A; Dam Laursen, A S; Vidal, C
-gal-specific (s)IgE and its associated factors in the general adult population from two separated (Northern and Southern) European regions (Denmark and Spain, respectively). METHODS: Cross-sectional study of 2297 and 444 randomly selected adults from 11 municipalities in Denmark and one in Spain. Alpha-gal s.......1% in the Danish and Spanish series, respectively. The prevalence of sIgE ≥ 0.35 kUA /L was 1.8% and 2.2% in Denmark and Spain, respectively. Alpha-gal sIgE positivity was associated with pet ownership in both series and, particularly, cat ownership (data available in the Danish series). Alpha-gal sIgE positivity...
Paulsen, Maja Skov; Andersen, Morten; Thomsen, Janus L
Patients with hypertension are primarily treated in general practice. However, major studies of patients with hypertension are rarely based on populations from primary care. Knowledge of blood pressure (BP) control rates in patients with diabetes and/or cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), who have...... additional comorbidities, is lacking. We aimed to investigate the association of comorbidities with BP control using a large cohort of hypertensive patients from primary care practices....
Winthereik, Anna; Neergaard, Mette; Vedsted, Peter; Jensen, Anders
Objective General practitioners (GPs) are pivotal in end-of-life (EOL) care. This study aimed to assess GP-reported provision of EOL care and to assess associations with GP characteristics. Design Population-based questionnaire study. Setting Central Denmark Region with approximately 1.3 million inhabitants. Subjects All 843 active GPs in the Central Denmark Region were sent a questionnaire by mail. Main outcome measures Responses to 18 items concerning four aspects: provision of EOL care to ...
Prior, Anders; Vestergaard, Mogens; Larsen, Karen Kjær; Fenger-Grøn, Morten
Mental stress is common in the general population. Mounting evidence suggests that mental stress is associated with multimorbidity, suboptimal care and increased mortality. Delivering healthcare in a biopsychosocial context is key for general practitioners (GPs), but it remains unclear how persons with high levels of perceived stress are managed in primary care. We aimed to describe the association between perceived stress and primary care services by focusing on mental health-related activities and markers of elective/acute care while accounting for mental-physical multimorbidity. Population-based cohort study. Primary healthcare in Denmark. 118 410 participants from the Danish National Health Survey 2010 followed for 1 year. Information on perceived stress and lifestyle was obtained from a survey questionnaire. Information on multimorbidity was obtained from health registers. General daytime consultations, out-of-hours services, mental health-related services and chronic care services in primary care obtained from health registers. Perceived stress levels were associated with primary care activity in a dose-response relation when adjusted for underlying conditions, lifestyle and socioeconomic factors. In the highest stress quintile, 6.8% attended GP talk therapy (highest vs lowest quintile, adjusted incidence rate ratios (IRR): 4.96, 95% CI 4.20 to 5.86), 3.3% consulted a psychologist (IRR: 6.49, 95% CI 4.90 to 8.58), 21.5% redeemed an antidepressant prescription (IRR: 4.62, 95% CI 4.03 to 5.31), 23.8% attended annual chronic care consultations (IRR: 1.22, 95% CI 1.16 to 1.29) and 26.1% used out-of-hours services (IRR: 1.47, 95% CI 1.51 to 1.68). For those with multimorbidity, stress was associated with more out-of-hours services, but not with more chronic care services. Persons with high stress levels generally had higher use of primary healthcare, 4-6 times higher use of mental health-related services (most often in the form of psychotropic drug
Dupont, Nana Hee; Fertner, Mette Ely; Kristensen, Charlotte Sonne
Transparent calculation methods are crucial when investigating trends in antimicrobial consumption over time and between populations. Until 2011, one single standardized method was applied when quantifying the Danish pig antimicrobial consumption with the unit "Animal Daily Dose" (ADD). However...... assignment methods, Denmark has also experienced a shift in the production pattern, towards a larger export of live pigs. The aims of this paper were to (1) describe previous and current ADD assignment methods used by the major Danish institutions and (2) to illustrate how ADD assignment method and choice...... DANMAP and DVFA were only identical for 48 % of antimicrobial products approved for use in pigs. From 2007 to 2013, the total number of ADDs per year increased by 9 % when using the new DVFA ADD-values, but decreased by 2 and 7 % when using the new DANMAP ADD-values or the old VetStat ADD...
Class, Quetzal A.; Mortensen, Preben B.; Henriksen, Tine B.; Dalman, Christina; D’Onofrio, Brian M.; Khashan, Ali S.
Objectives Preconception maternal bereavement may be associated with an increased risk for infant mortality, though these previously reported findings have not been replicated. We sought to examine if the association could be replicated and explore if risk extended into childhood. Methods Using a Danish population-based sample of offspring born 1979–2009 (N=1,865,454), we predicted neonatal (0–28 days), post-neonatal infant (29–364 days), and early childhood (1–5 years) mortality following maternal bereavement in the preconception (6–0 months before pregnancy) and prenatal (between conception and birth) periods. Maternal bereavement was defined as death of a first degree relative of the mother. Analyses were conducted using logistic and log-linear Poisson regression that were adjusted for offspring, mother, and father sociodemographic and health factors. Results We identified 6,541 (0.004%) neonates, 3,538 (0.002%) post-neonates, and 2,132 (0.001%) children between the ages of 1 to 5 years who died. After adjusting for covariates, bereavement during the preconception period was associated with an increased odds of neonatal (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.87, 95% CI: 1.53–2.30) and post-neonatal infant mortality (aOR=1.52, 95% CI: 1.15–2.02). Associations were timing-specific (6 months prior to pregnancy only) and consistent across sensitivity analyses. Bereavement during the prenatal period was not consistently associated with increased risk of offspring mortality, however this may reflect relatively low statistical power. Conclusions Results support and extend previous findings linking bereavement during the preconception period with increased odds of early offspring mortality. The period immediately prior to pregnancy may be a sensitive period with potential etiological implications and ramifications for offspring mortality. PMID:26374948
Andersen, Stine Linding; Olsen, Jørn; Laurberg, Peter
Hypothyroidism is a common endocrine disease. The frequency of pregnancy loss in women with known hypothyroidism as opposed to women with a later diagnosis of hypothyroidism has not been evaluated and compared with other common endocrine diseases. Population-based cohort study using Danish nationwide registers. All pregnancies in Denmark, 1997-2008, resulting in live birth (n = 732 533), spontaneous abortion (n = 112 487) or stillbirth (n = 2937) were identified together with information on maternal hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism and diabetes. Cox model was used to estimate adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) with 95% confidence interval (95%CI) for spontaneous abortion and stillbirth, reference: no hypo- or hyperthyroidism or diabetes (n = 824 310). We identified 4951 pregnancies where maternal hypothyroidism was diagnosed before the pregnancy (group 1) and 2464 pregnancies where maternal hypothyroidism was diagnosed in the 2-year period after the pregnancy (group 2). In group 1, 825 pregnancies (16·7%) resulted in spontaneous abortion which was more frequent than in nonexposed (13·2%), (aHR 1·19 (95%CI 1·12-1·27)), and of the same magnitude as in hyperthyroidism (17·2%, P = 0·5) and diabetes (17·5%, P = 0·2) diagnosed before the pregnancy. In group 2, the frequency was 12·2% (aHR 0·92 (0·84-1·02)). In group 2, 16 pregnancies (0·65%) resulted in stillbirth which was more frequent than in nonexposed (0·36%), (aHR 1·81 (1·11-2·97)), of the same magnitude as in hyperthyroidism (0·82%, P = 0·5) and less frequent than in diabetes (2·9%, P hyperthyroidism and in particular diabetes. We hypothesize that undetected or insufficiently treated maternal disease in the pregnancy may be of causal importance. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Li, Xiujin; Buitenhuis, Albert Johannes; Lund, Mogens Sandø
is highly consistent between the Chinese and Danish Holstein populations, such that a joint genome-wide association study (GWAS) can be performed. In this study, a joint GWAS was performed for 16 milk FA traits based on data of 784 Chinese and 371 Danish Holstein cows genotyped by a high-density bovine...... different effects in the 2 populations. Ten FA were influenced by a quantitative trait loci (QTL) region including DGAT1. Both C14:1 and the C14 index were influenced by a QTL region including SCD1 in the combined population. Other QTL regions also showed significant associations with the studied FA....... A large region (14.9–24.9 Mbp) in BTA26 significantly influenced C14:1 and the C14 index in both populations, mostly likely due to the SNP in SCD1. A QTL region (69.97–73.69 Mbp) on BTA9 showed a significantly different effect on C18:0 between the 2 populations. Detection of these important SNP...
Nybo, Mads; Benn, Marianne; Mogelvang, Rasmus
, the impact of hemoglobin status on proBNP concentrations has not been established in the general population. METHODS: In the 4th examination in the Copenhagen City Heart Study, we performed a nested case-control study of 6238 individuals from a Danish general population. Of these, 3497 randomly selected...... participants also underwent an echocardiographic examination. The population was stratified into groups depending on health and hemoglobin status. Correlations between hemoglobin and proBNP concentrations were examined by simple and multiple regression analyses, adjusted for variables known to influence...... the proBNP plasma concentration. RESULTS: The mean proBNP concentration was increased 1.7-fold in the group with anemia vs the nonanemic group [mean (SD) 42 (45) pmol/L vs 25 (29) pmol/L, P hemoglobin on pro...
Starhof, Charlotte; Korbo, Lise; Lassen, Christina Funch
Background: Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a rare, sporadic and progressive neurodegenerative disorder. We aimed to describe the clinical features of Danish probable MSA patients, evaluate their initial response to dopaminergic therapy and examine mortality. Methods: From the Danish National...... the criteria for probable MSA. We recorded clinical features, examined differences by MSA subtype and used Kaplan-Meier survival analysis to examine mortality. Results: The mean age at onset of patients with probable MSA was 60.2 years (range 36-75 years) and mean time to wheelchair dependency was 4.7 years...
Kjaergaard, Alisa D; Johansen, Julia S; Bojesen, Stig E
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: We tested the hypothesis that observationally and genetically elevated YKL-40 is associated with elevated lipids and lipoproteins and with increased risk of ischemic vascular disease. METHODS: We conducted cohort and Mendelian randomization studies in 96 110 individuals from...... the Danish general population, with measured plasma levels of YKL-40 (n=21 647), plasma lipids and lipoproteins (n=94 461), and CHI3L1 rs4950928 genotype (n=94 579). RESULTS: From 1977 to 2013, 3256 individuals developed ischemic stroke, 5629 ischemic cerebrovascular disease, 4183 myocardial infarction...
Ravn, Lasse Steen; Benn, Marianne; Nordestgaard, Børge
Objectives The renin-angiotensin system may play a role in the pathogenesis of atrial fibrillation, and renin-angiotensin system blockers reduce the risk of atrial fibrillation. We hypothesized that polymorphisms in the angiotensinogen and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) genes encoding proteins...... in this system predict risk of atrial fibrillation. Methods and results We genotyped 9235 individuals from the Danish general population, The Copenhagen City Heart Study, for the a-20c, g-6a, T174M, and M235T polymorphisms in the angiotensinogen gene and the insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism in the ACE gene...
Holmes, Ashley C; Riis, Anders H; Erichsen, Rune; Fedirko, Veronika; Ostenfeld, Eva Bjerre; Vyberg, Mogens; Thorlacius-Ussing, Ole; Lash, Timothy L
Recurrence is a common outcome among patients that have undergone an intended curative resection for colorectal cancer. However, data on factors that influence colorectal cancer recurrence are sparse. We report descriptive characteristics of both colon and rectal cancer recurrence in an unselected population. We identified 21,152 patients with colorectal cancer diagnosed between May 2001 and December 2011 and registered with the Danish Colorectal Cancer Group. Recurrences were identified in 3198 colon and 1838 rectal cancer patients during follow-up. We calculated the frequency, proportion, and incidence rates of colon and rectal cancer recurrence within descriptive categories, and the cumulative five- and ten-year incidences of recurrence, treating death as a competing risk. We used a Cox proportional hazard model to calculate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Recurrence risk was highest in the first three years of follow-up. Patients colon: 7.2 per 100 person-years; 95% CI: 6.5-7.9; rectum: 8.1 per 100 person-years; 95% CI: 7.2-9.0) and patients diagnosed with stage III cancer (colon HR: 5.70; 95% CI: 4.61-7.06; rectal HR: 7.02; 95% CI: 5.58-8.82) had increased risk of recurrence. Patients diagnosed with stage III cancer from 2009 to 2011 had a lower incidence of recurrence than those diagnosed with stage III cancer in the years before. Cumulative incidences of colon and rectal cancer recurrence were similar for both cancer types among each descriptive category. In this population, increases in colorectal cancer recurrence risk were associated with younger age and increasing stage at diagnosis. Cumulative incidence of recurrence did not differ by cancer type. Descriptive characteristics of colon and rectal cancer recurrence may help to inform patient-physician decision-making, and could be used to determine adjuvant therapies or tailor surveillance strategies so that recurrence may be identified early, particularly within the first 3 years of
Rajkumar, Anto P; Horsdal, Henriette Thisted; Wimberley, Theresa; Cohen, Dan; Mors, Ole; Børglum, Anders D; Gasse, Christiane
Diabetes mellitus contributes to excessive cardiovascular deaths and reduced life expectancy in schizophrenia. This population-based cohort study investigated the endogenous risk for diabetes in antipsychotic-naive schizophrenia and evaluated the risks added by starting antipsychotic treatment in people with schizophrenia. The study followed all people born in Denmark on or after Jan. 1, 1977, until Jan. 1, 2013 (N=2,736,510). The Danish Psychiatric Central Research Register ascertained schizophrenia diagnoses. The Danish National Prescription Registry provided data on prescriptions of antipsychotics. Diabetes was ascertained from the Danish National Patient Register and Danish National Prescription Registry. The authors estimated the endogenous and antipsychotic-related risks for diabetes by using Cox proportional hazards regression models, while accounting for potential confounders. Of the cohort members, 14,118 (0.52%) developed diabetes, and 8,945 (0.33%) developed schizophrenia during follow-up (49,582,279 person-years). The adjusted hazard ratio for diabetes was 3.07 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.71-5.41) in antipsychotic-naive schizophrenia compared with the general population. The risk for diabetes after starting antipsychotic treatment was significantly higher (adjusted hazard ratio, 3.64; 95% CI, 1.95-6.82) than the risk in antipsychotic-naive schizophrenia, after adjustment for family history of diabetes and other potential confounders. First-line treatment with either first-generation antipsychotics (adjusted hazard ratio, 3.06; 95% CI, 1.32-7.05) or second-generation antipsychotics (adjusted hazard ratio, 3.44; 95% CI, 1.73-6.83) increased the risk for diabetes without a statistically significant difference. Appropriate sensitivity analyses limited to type 2 diabetes corroborated these results. Schizophrenia confers a high endogenous risk for diabetes, and the risk is further increased by both first-generation and second-generation antipsychotics
Ulrich, M; Høst, A; Kamper, J
Growth standards of birth weight, birth length and birth head circumference were constructed based on a population of Danish newborn boys and girls in gestational weeks twenty-five to forty-three. Study populations were residents of the municipality of Odense for later gestational ages and reside......Growth standards of birth weight, birth length and birth head circumference were constructed based on a population of Danish newborn boys and girls in gestational weeks twenty-five to forty-three. Study populations were residents of the municipality of Odense for later gestational ages...... and residents of the county of Funen for early gestational ages. Strict selection criteria were employed....
Taastrom, H.M.; Jacobsen, Lene
Otter spraints from five Danish freshwater localities were analysed. In all localities fish was the main prey (76-99% of estimated bulk), especially in winter. Depending on locality, the prey fish mainly consisted of cyprinids (Cyprinidae), percids (Percidae) or salmonids (Salmonidae). Seasonal v...
Didriksen, M.; Allen, R. P.; Burchell, B. J.
the Cambridge–Hopkins RLS questionnaire, the 12-item short-form standardized health survey (SF-12), the Major Depression Inventory (MDI), body mass index, smoking status, alcohol consumption, and education were available for 24,707 participants enrolled in the Danish Blood Donor Study from May 1, 2015...
Jensen, Henry; Vinter, Mette Marianne; Lehmann Knudsen, Janne
’s pathway progresses, the GP’s role is often limited as the majority of cancer patients do not contact their GP during treatment. It has been suggested that GPs could play a more comprehensive role in the initial cancer trajectory. Aim To investigate Danish cancer patients’ evaluation of their GP...... difference between men and women (plistening to their anxiety, 77.7% (76.1;79.2) found the GP good or better, again with a statistically significant difference between men and women (p
Dalsted, R.J.; Guassora, A.D.; Thorsen, T.
INTRODUCTION: Despite initiatives to integrate treatment and care across organisations, patient trajectories in Danish health-care are not well coordinated. Coordination among many health-care professionals is essential, and it is frequently suggested that a single person should perform the task....... In the majority of cases, GPs had no access to information or were not informed about hospital decisions affecting the patients' trajectories, and they were therefore unable to perform a coordinating role. CONCLUSION: GPs only played a minor or no role at all as coordinators of individual cancer patient...
Franz, Matthias; Popp, Kerstin; Schaefer, Ralf; Sitte, Wolfgang; Schneider, Christine; Hardt, Jochen; Decker, Oliver; Braehler, Elmar
The Toronto-Alexithymia-Scale (TAS-20) is used worldwide as a valid measurement of alexithymia. Until now, population-based standardization and cut-off values of the German TAS-20 version have not been available. This study provides these by means of a representative German sample and by investigating the factorial structure of the TAS-20. Data were generated from a representative random sample of the German general population (1,859 subjects aged between 20 and 69). The TAS-20 sum score was normally distributed. The mean value was 49.5 (SD=9.3) in men and 48.2 (SD=9.2) in women. Divorce, single and low social status were associated with enhanced sum scores. Ten percent of the population exceeded the TAS-20 sum score threshold of >or=61. The 66th percentile reached 53 for men and 52 for women. Factor analysis identified three factors that match the scales of the English original version. An additional fourth factor ("importance of emotional introspection") was extracted. Total explanation of variance by these four factors was 52.27%. The sum score of the German TAS-20 version is suited for the standardized measure of alexithymia. For selecting alexithymic individuals in experimental studies, the cut-off >or=61 is possibly too restrictive. Therefore, we propose the 66th percentile for the identification of high alexithymics. The TAS-20 sum score is associated with important socio-demographic variables. The factorial structure is reliable; the fourth factor ("importance of emotional introspection") provides differentiation of content and allows for enhanced explanation of variance.
Kulas Søborg, Marie-Louise; Leganger, Julie; Quitzau Mortensen, Laura
Objectives.: The aim of this study was to investigate national prevalence, general demographic characteristics and survival of Danish patients with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS). Method.: A population-based cohort study was conducted using a database consisting of the entire Danish population alive...
Johansen, J D; Andersen, T F; Thomsen, L K
. Further, it was determined whether risk of self-reported 1st-time rash from scented products had increased during the past 15 years compared to the preceding period. The sample consisted of 1537 persons, 801 female and 736 male, above the age of 15 years. The participants were interviewed person......Fragrances are used in many types of cosmetic and household products, which are an important part of everyday life in modern society. The aim of the current investigation was to describe the frequency of self-reported rash due to scented products in a random sample of the adult Danish population...
Dammeyer, Jesper Herup
Research has shown a prevalence of psychosocial difficulties ranging from about 20 to 50 percent among children with hearing loss. This study evaluates the prevalence of psychosocial difficulties in a Danish population in relation to different explanatory variables. Five scales and questionnaires...... disabilities, the prevalence was three times greater compared to children without additional disabilities. If sign-language and/or oral language abilities are good, the children do not have a substantially higher level of psychosocial difficulties than do hearing children. This study documents the importance...
Bo, Anne; Friis, Karina; Osborne, Richard H; Maindal, Helle Terkildsen
Health literacy is a multidimensional concept covering a range of cognitive and social skills necessary for participation in health care. Knowledge of health literacy levels in general populations and how health literacy levels impacts on social health inequity is lacking. The primary aim of this study was to perform a population-based assessment of dimensions of health literacy related to understanding health information and to engaging with healthcare providers. Secondly, the aim was to examine associations between socio-economic characteristics with these dimensions of health literacy. A population-based survey was conducted between January and April 2013 in the Central Denmark Region. Postal invitations were sent to a random sample of 46,354 individuals >25 years of age. Two health literacy dimensions were selected from the Health Literacy Questionnaire (HLQ™): i) Understanding health information well enough to know what to do (5 items), and ii) Ability to actively engage with health care providers (5 items). Response options ranged from 1 (very difficult) to 4 (very easy). We investigated the level of perceived difficulty of each task, and the associations between the two dimensions and socio-economic characteristics. A total of 29,473 (63.6%) responded to the survey. Between 8.8%, 95% CI: 8.4-9.2 and 20.2%, 95% CI: 19.6-20.8 of the general population perceived the health literacy tasks as difficult or very difficult at the individual item level. On the scale level, the mean rating for i) understanding health information was 3.10, 95% CI: 3.09-3.10, and 3.07, 95% CI: 3.07-3.08 for ii) engagement with health care providers. Low levels of the two dimensions were associated with low income, low education level, living alone, and to non-Danish ethnicity. Associations with sex and age differed by the specific health literacy dimension. Estimates on two key dimensions of health literacy in a general population are now available. A substantial proportion of the
Hallager, Sofie; Brehm Christensen, Peer; Ladelund, Steen
Background: Knowledge about mortality rates (MRs) in patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC) with cirrhosis is limited. This study aimed to estimate all-cause MRs among patients with CHC with or without cirrhosis in Denmark compared with the general population. Methods: Patients registered...... in the Danish Database for Hepatitis B and C with CHC and a liver fibrosis assessment were eligible for inclusion. Liver fibrosis was assessed by means of liver biopsy, transient elastography, and clinical cirrhosis. Up to 20 sex- and age-matched individuals per patient were identified in the general population....... Data were extracted from nationwide registries. Results: A total of 3410 patients with CHC (1014 with cirrhosis), and 67 315 matched individuals were included. Adjusted MR ratios (MRRs) between patients with or without cirrhosis and their comparison cohorts were 5.64 (95% confidence interval [CI], 4...
Priskorn, L; Holmboe, Sarah; Jacobsen, R
The fertility rate has recently declined in many parts of the World, including Europe. To a large extent, this change can be explained by the socio-economic development. However, increasing fertility problems and widespread occurrence of poor semen quality could in part explain the few births....... The objective of this registry based study was to investigate birth cohort related trends in fertility and childlessness among Danish men. The study population comprised all 1 616 677 men in Denmark born from 1945 to 1980 of whom 1 359 975 (84.1%) were native Danes. Data were obtained from Statistics Denmark...... and contained information from The National Danish Birth Registry and The Danish In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) Registry. For consecutive birth cohorts of native Danish men cumulative fertility rates at age 45 declined from 1.91 children per man in the 1945 birth cohort to 1.71 for men born in 1960...
Sørensen, Holger J; Nielsen, Philip R; Pedersen, Carsten B
Recent findings suggest that maternal iron deficiency may increase the risk of schizophrenia-spectrum disorder in offspring. We initiated this study to determine whether maternal prepartum anemia influences offspring risk of schizophrenia. We conducted a population-based study with individual...... a 1.60-fold (95% confidence interval = 1.16-2.15) increased risk of schizophrenia. Although the underlying mechanisms are unknown and independent replication is needed, our findings suggest that maternal iron deficiency increases offspring risk of schizophrenia....... record linkage of the Danish Civil Registration System, the Danish Psychiatric Central Register, and the Danish National Hospital Register. In a cohort of 1 115 752 Danish singleton births from 1978 to 1998, cohort members were considered as having a maternal history of anemia if the mother had received...
Sørensen, Holger J; Nielsen, Philip R; Pedersen, Carsten B
Recent findings suggest that maternal iron deficiency may increase the risk of schizophrenia-spectrum disorder in offspring. We initiated this study to determine whether maternal prepartum anemia influences offspring risk of schizophrenia. We conducted a population-based study with individual...... a 1.60-fold (95% confidence interval = 1.16-2.15) increased risk of schizophrenia. Although the underlying mechanisms are unknown and independent replication is needed, our findings suggest that maternal iron deficiency increases offspring risk of schizophrenia....... record linkage of the Danish Civil Registration System, the Danish Psychiatric Central Register, and the Danish National Hospital Register. In a cohort of 1 115 752 Danish singleton births from 1978 to 1998, cohort members were considered as having a maternal history of anemia if the mother had received...
Kronborg, Christian; Pedersen, Line Bjørnskov; Fournaise, Anders; Kronborg, Christel Nøhr
Increases in public expenditures to general practitioner (GP) services and specialist care have spurred debate over whether to implement user fees for healthcare services such as GP consultations in Denmark. The objective of this study was to examine Danish patients' attitudes towards user fees and their willingness to pay (WTP) for a consultation, and to investigate how user charges may impact patients' behaviour. A questionnaire survey was conducted in a GP clinic. A total of 343 individual persons answered the questionnaire. One hundred and seventy (50%) persons were not willing to pay for a consultation. Among patients reporting positive WTP values, the mean WTP was 137 (standard deviation 140) Danish kroner (DKK). Patients who were 65 years old or older were more likely to be willing to pay for a GP consultation than patients under the age of 65 years. Furthermore, patients with a personal annual income of more than 200,000 DKK were more likely to be willing to pay for a consultation than other income groups. With respect to patients with a positive WTP value, their own assessment of the seriousness of the consultation and their self-assessed health influenced the amount they would be willing to pay. Finally, we observed a stated willingness to substitute GP consultations with alternatives that are free of charge. About half of the patients with an appointment for a GP consultation are willing to pay for the consultation. User charges may potentially influence the patients' behaviour. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01784731.
Fuglede, Niels; Langballe, Oline; Svendsen, Anne Louise
The authors report on the incidence rates of breast cancer overall and by histology in a population of unscreened women constituting approximately 80% of the total population of women in Denmark from 1973-2002, utilizing the files of the nationwide Danish Cancer Registry. The age-specific incidence...... no disproportionate changes by histology in any age group from 1988-2002. Thus, previous reports of a disproportionate increase in lobular breast cancer could not be confirmed in a non-screened population, whereas important changes over the past decade in the age-specific incidence pattern of breast cancer particular...... rates of breast cancer increased throughout the period, and further, marked changes in the age-specific incidence pattern were observed, where the plateau and change of slope around the age of 46-48 in 1973-1981 shifted to around age 64-66 years in 1994-2002. Age-period-cohort modeling indicated...
McDonald, Cameron Keith; Ankarfeldt, Mikkel Z; Capra, Sandra; Bauer, Judy; Raymond, Kyle; Heitmann, Berit Lilienthal
Higher protein intake, and particularly higher leucine intake, is associated with attenuated loss of lean body mass (LBM) over time in older individuals. Dietary leucine is thought to be a key mediator of anabolism. This study aimed to assess this relationship over 6 years among younger and older adult Danes. Dietary leucine intake was assessed at baseline and after 6 years in men and women, aged 35-65 years, participating in the Danish cohort of the WHO-MONICA (Multinational MONItoring of trends and determinants in CArdiovascular disease) study (n 368). Changes in LBM over the 6 years were measured by bioelectrical impedance using equations developed for this Danish population. The association between leucine and LBM changes was examined using multivariate linear regression and ANCOVA analyses adjusted for potential confounders. After adjustment for baseline LBM, sex, age, energy intake and physical activity, leucine intake was associated with LBM change in those older than 65 years (n 79), with no effect seen in those younger than 65 years. Older participants in the highest quartile of leucine intake (7·1 g/d) experienced LBM maintenance, whereas lower intakes were associated with LBM loss over 6 years (for trend: β=0·434, P=0·03). Sensitivity analysis indicated no effect modification of sex or the presence of CVD. Greater leucine intake in conjunction with adequate total protein intake was associated with long-term LBM retention in a healthy older Danish population. This study corroborates findings from laboratory investigations in relation to protein and leucine intakes and LBM change. A more diverse and larger sample is needed for confirmation of these results.
Simony, Ane; Carreon, Leah Y; Højmark, Karen
STUDY DESIGN: Clinical, radiological and genetic determination of zygosity of twin pairs from the Danish Twin Registry who self-reported having Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis (AIS). OBJECTIVE: To establish concordance rates of AIS. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: The aetiology of and the true mode...... reported. METHODS: All 46,418 twins registered in the Danish Twin Registry born from 1931 to 1982 were sent a survey, which included questions about scoliosis. The survey was returned by 34,944 individuals (75.3%) representing 23,204 pairs. From this study, 548 individuals representing 274 complete twin...... pairs where at least one twin self-reported having scoliosis were invited to a clinical and radiological examination. Zygosity was established by genetic testing. RESULTS: 182 individuals (33.2%) of the original cohort agreed to participate, 128 of whom had scoliosis by self-report. There were 91 twin...
Jensen, Tina Kold; Swan, Shanna H; Skakkebaek, Niels E
The authors examined the association between semen quality and caffeine intake among 2,554 young Danish men recruited when they were examined to determine their fitness for military service in 2001-2005. The men delivered a semen sample and answered a questionnaire including information about...... caffeine intake from various sources, from which total caffeine intake was calculated. Moderate caffeine and cola intakes (101-800 mg/day and semen quality. High cola (>14 0.5-L bottles...
Schiøtz, P O; Høiby, N; Morling, N
The C3 types of human serum are reported for a material of 113 Danish cystic fibrosis patients, age 0-30 years. The frequency of the C3F gene was 0.2832 which was significantly higher (p less than 0.0005) than the frequency found in a control group of 224 healthy babies (C3F = 0.1585). It also di...
Luisa Maria Roberta Tedesco
Full Text Available Background. The objectives of the study were to document knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of women regarding cardiovascular diseases (CVDs and the determinants associated. Materials and Methods. The cross-sectional survey was conducted among a random sample of 830 women older than 18 years from the general population in Italy. Results. Almost all participants reported having heard about CVDs, and among them 89.4% and 74.7% identified smoking and high cholesterol level as risk factors. Only 26.5% identified the main CVDs risk factors. Women more knowledgeable were married and better educated and self-perceived a worse health status. Only 23% knew the main CVDs preventive measures and this knowledge was significantly higher in women who are unemployed, who are more educated, who have received information about CVDs from physicians, and who know the main risk factors. Respondents with lower education, those with at least three children, those who self-perceived a worse health status, and those who need information were most likely to have a positive attitude toward the perceived risk of developing CVDs. Women with two or three children or more were at high risk profiles 49% and 56% lower than women with one child. Conclusions. Educational programs are needed among women as support to improve knowledge and appropriate behavior about CVDs.
Sibilitz, Kirstine L; Benn, Marianne; Nordestgaard, Børge G
OBJECTIVE: We tested the hypothesis that moderately elevated plasma creatinine levels and decreased levels of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) are associated with increased risk of myocardial infarction, ischemic heart disease, and early death in the general population. METHODS: We...... studied 10,489 individuals with a plasma creatinine measurement and calculated eGFR from the Danish general population, of which 1498 developed myocardial infarction, 3001 ischemic heart disease, and 7573 died during 32 years follow-up. RESULTS: Cumulative incidences of myocardial infarction and ischemic...... heart disease as a function of age increased with increasing levels of creatinine, and survival decreased (log-rank trends: creatinine levels
Weischer, Maren; Juul, Klaus; Zacho, Jeppe
OBJECTIVE: We tested the hypotheses that Prothrombin G20210A heterozygosity associate with increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE), ischemic heart disease (IHD), and ischemic cerebrovascular disease (ICVD) in the general population and re-tested risk of IHD and ICVD in two case......-control studies. METHODS: 9231 individuals from the Danish general population were followed for VTE (VTE=DVT+PE), deep venous thrombosis (DVT), pulmonary embolism (PE), IHD, myocardial infarction (MI), ICVD, and ischemic stroke (IS) for a median of 24 years. Case-control studies included 2461 IHD cases and 867...
Christiansen, Erik; Juul Larsen, Kim; Agerbo, Esben
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the Danish epidemiological long-term incidence rates for suicide attempts in the general population of children and adolescents, and to analyze the impact from single and multiple risk factors on the risk of suicide attempts. METHOD: We used longitudinal register data from ...... on the increase in the period studied. Individuals exposed to multiple risk factors are at the highest risk for suicide attempts, and when spotted or in contact with authorities they should be given proper care and treatment to prevent suicide attempts and death.......OBJECTIVE: To estimate the Danish epidemiological long-term incidence rates for suicide attempts in the general population of children and adolescents, and to analyze the impact from single and multiple risk factors on the risk of suicide attempts. METHOD: We used longitudinal register data from...... a total cohort of all individuals born between 1983 and 1989 and living in Denmark to calculate incidence rates. From the cohort, we identified all who have attempted suicide, and matched 50 controls to each case. A nested case-control design was used to estimate the impact from risk factors on the risk...
Çolak, Yunus; Afzal, Shoaib; Nordestgaard, Børge G.
Background: COPD can be diagnosed early using spirometry, but spirometry use is only recommended in symptomatic smokers, even though early stages of COPD can be asymptomatic. We investigated the prognosis of individuals with asymptomatic and symptomatic, undiagnosed COPD in the general population...... of COPD are needed. Funding:The Danish Lung Association, the Danish Cancer Society, Herlev and Gentofte Hospital, Copenhagen University Hospital, and University of Copenhagen.......Background: COPD can be diagnosed early using spirometry, but spirometry use is only recommended in symptomatic smokers, even though early stages of COPD can be asymptomatic. We investigated the prognosis of individuals with asymptomatic and symptomatic, undiagnosed COPD in the general population......%) were at high risk of having COPD. 3699 (11%) of these participants met the COPD criteria and 2903 (78%) were undiagnosed, of whom 2052 (71%) were symptomatic. During a median follow-up of 6·1 years (IQR 4·9), we recorded 800 exacerbations, 2038 cases of pneumonia, and 2789 deaths in the 32 518...
Jessica E Miller
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: In a large population-based cohort in Denmark to examine if maternal use of antibiotics during pregnancy, as a marker of infection, increases the risk of febrile seizures in childhood in a large population-based cohort in Denmark. METHODS: All live-born singletons born in Denmark between January 1, 1996 and September 25, 2004 and who were alive on the 90(th day of life were identified from the Danish National Birth Registry. Diagnoses of febrile seizures were obtained from the Danish National Hospital Register and maternal use of antibiotics was obtained from the National Register of Medicinal Product Statistics. Hazard ratios (HR and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI were estimated by Cox proportional hazard regression models. RESULTS: We followed 551,518 singletons for up to 5 years and identified a total of 21,779 children with a diagnosis of febrile seizures. Slightly increased hazard ratios were observed among most exposure groups when compared to the unexposed group, ex. HR 1.08 95% CI: 1.05-1.11 for use of any systemic antibiotic during pregnancy. CONCLUSION: We found weak associations between the use of pharmacologically different antibiotics during pregnancy and febrile seizures in early childhood which may indicate that some infections, or causes or effects of infections, during pregnancy could affect the fetal brain and induce susceptibility to febrile seizures.
Gerdes, L U; Brønnum-Hansen, H; Madsen, Mette
Data from 6695 men and women of ages 30, 40, 50, and 60 years, examined in the Danish WHO MONICA surveys in 1982-84, in 1986-87, and in 1991-92, were analyzed to estimate secular trends in body height and weight, blood pressure, and serum total, HDL-, and LDL-cholesterol, and triglyceride. Body...... height increased 0.1% per year, and body mass index increased 0.4% per year in women. Diastolic blood pressure increased 0.4% per year in women and 0.6% per year in 60-year-old men. HDL cholesterol declined 0.4% per year. Body mass indices in men, diastolic blood pressures in men age......, systolic blood pressures, total- and LDL cholesterol and triglyceride did not change. The levels of biological risk factors in the Danish WHO MONICA study population did not show trends during the 1980s that help explain the declining incidence of myocardial infarction in the population....
Sloboda, John A; Wise, Karen J; Peretz, Isabelle
the general population, whose purpose is to discriminate "true" from "false" amusics. Such discrimination is essential to achieve a better understanding of the variety of causes of low musical achievement.
Prescott, E; Jacobsen, S; Kjøller, M
Clinical characteristics of fibromyalgia have so far been based mainly on patients identified in rheumatologic settings. This paper offers the clinical findings in fibromyalgia based on a national health interview survey, in which 123 persons fulfilled preset criteria for widespread pain. Clinical......, headache, difficulty in stair-climbing, and poorer self-evaluated health with more tender points was found. Contrary to that which was expected, fibromyalgia subjects did not suffer from sleep disturbances, irritable bowels or morning stiffness. Our findings indicate that clinical characteristics...... of fibromyalgia in the general population may differ from those found in rheumatological settings....
Winthereik, Anna; Neergaard, Mette; Vedsted, Peter; Jensen, Anders
Objective General practitioners (GPs) are pivotal in end-of-life (EOL) care. This study aimed to assess GP-reported provision of EOL care and to assess associations with GP characteristics. Design Population-based questionnaire study. Setting Central Denmark Region with approximately 1.3 million inhabitants. Subjects All 843 active GPs in the Central Denmark Region were sent a questionnaire by mail. Main outcome measures Responses to 18 items concerning four aspects: provision of EOL care to patients with different diagnosis, confidence with being a key worker, organisation of EOL care and EOL skills (medical and psychosocial). Results In total, 573 (68%) GPs responded. Of these, 85% often/always offered EOL care to cancer patients, which was twice as often as to patients with non-malignancies (34–40%). Moreover, 76% felt confident about being a key worker, 60% had a proactive approach, and 58% talked to their patients about dying. Only 9% kept a register of patients with EOL needs, and 19% had specific EOL procedures. GP confidence with own EOL skills varied; from 55% feeling confident using terminal medications to 90% feeling confident treating nausea/vomiting. Increasing GP age was associated with increased confidence about being a key worker and provision of EOL care to patients with non-malignancies. In rural areas, GPs were more confident about administering medicine subcutaneously than in urban areas. Conclusion We found considerable diversity in self-reported EOL care competences. Interventions should focus on increasing GPs’ provision of EOL care to patients with non-malignancies, promoting better EOL care concerning organisation and symptom management. KEY POINTSGPs are pivotal in end-of-life (EOL) care, but their involvement has been questioned. Hence, GPs’ perceived competencies were explored.GPs were twice as likely to provide EOL care for patients with cancer than for patients with non-malignancies.EOL care was lacking clear organisation in
After a general introduction of Danish Hymnody an analysis of 4 Danish Hymns from Thomas Kingo to K.L. Aastrup, followed by a presentation of "Songs from Denmark"......After a general introduction of Danish Hymnody an analysis of 4 Danish Hymns from Thomas Kingo to K.L. Aastrup, followed by a presentation of "Songs from Denmark"...
Køster, Brian; Thorgaard, Camilla; Philip, Anja; Clemmensen, Inge H
In Denmark, the incidence of melanoma has been increasing since the 1960s. Intermittent exposure to ultraviolet radiation and a history of sunburn and sunbed use are known risk factors. We describe the association between use of protective measures, sun-related behaviour and experience of sunburn in the Danish population three months after the start of the campaign. A population-based sample of 3,499 persons aged 15-59 years completed a questionnaire that included items on exposure to ultraviolet radiation. We examined the relations between sunburn and sun-related behaviour by logistic regression analysis. Within the previous 12 months, 35% of the study population had experienced sunburn. Sunburn became less frequent with age (odds ratio (OR) 4.44; 15-19 vs. 50-59) and skin type (OR 2.57; I vs. III). Sunburn was negatively associated with shade and clothing and positively with use of sunscreens. We found no significant difference in sunscreen use between intentional tanners who experienced sunburn and those who did not. A larger fraction of unintentional tanners with sunburn than those who were not sunburnt had used sunscreen. Sunscreen was used to prolong the time spent in the sun by 66% of sunburnt people; however, we found no association between duration of sun exposure and sunscreen use. Future campaigns to reduce the prevalence of sunburn in the Danish population must especially target young persons and intentional tanning, and they should emphasize that sunscreen cannot be used to extend the time spent in the sun and that shade and clothing provide the best protection against sunburn.
that the way people live their everyday lives plays a crucial role in understanding why they choose whether to perform an energy renovation. This study is based on an anthropological investigation of ten Danish families and their decision-making process while receiving free energy advice, which, in many cases......, ended as an energy renovation project in the home. During the study, gender emerged as a significant factor in two ways. First, energy renovations were perceived differently by men and women as a consequence of their different everyday practices. Second, there was a cultural norm about the division...... that contains different gender practices and cultural influences....
Tolstrup, Janne Schurmann; Kjaer, Susanne Krüger; Holst, Claus
and the Danish Infertility Cohort Register. Main outcome measures were hazard ratios of infertility according to alcohol intake at baseline estimated in a multivariate Cox proportional hazards model. RESULTS: During a mean follow-up of 4.9 years, 368 women had experienced infertility. Alcohol intake at baseline...... was unassociated with infertility among younger women, but was a significant predictor for infertility among women above age 30. In this age group, the adjusted hazard ratio for consuming seven or more drinks per week was 2.26 (95% confidence interval: 1.19-4.32) compared with women consuming less than one drink...
Full Text Available This article presents one of the most important issues of the current context, the ageing of the population, with major consequences on the financial stability of the nation. This restructure of the population (that change the shape of the population pyramid , as a result, on the one hand, of the reducing in the fertility rate, on the other hand, increasing in life expectancy and last but not least, due to migration, unbalance national budgets, generating negative effects in economic, financial and social terms.
This anthology, No. 4 in the Danish Urban Studies Series, presents in English recent significant research on Denmark's urban development during the Age of Absolutism, 1660-1848, and features 13 articles written by leading Danish urban historians. The years of Absolutism were marked by a general...
Full Text Available Objective. To acquire more data about the epidemiologic characteristics of constipation in different kinds of populations in China. Methods. Using “constipation” and “China” as search terms; relevant papers were searched from January 1995 to April 2014. Data on prevalence, gender, diagnostic criteria, geographical area, educational class, age, race, and physician visit results were extracted and analyzed. Results. 36 trials were included. Prevalence rates of constipation in elderly population (18.1% and pediatric population (18.8% were significantly higher than that in general population (8.2%. Prevalence of constipation defined by non-Rome criteria was higher than that by Rome criteria in general population. Prevalence rates of constipation were different for different geographical area. People with less education were predisposed to constipation. In pediatric population, prevalence of constipation was the lowest in children aged 2–6 years. Prevalence of constipation in ethnic minorities was higher than that in Han people. People with constipation were predisposed to FD, haemorrhoid, and GERD. Only 22.2% patients seek medical advice in general population. Conclusions. In China, prevalence of constipation was lower compared with most of other countries. The factors including female gender, diagnostic criteria, geographical area, age, educational class, and race seemed to have major effects on prevalence of constipation.
Freiberg, J.J.; Tybjaerg-Hansen, A.; Jensen, J.S.
Context The role of triglycerides in the risk of ischemic stroke remains controversial. Recently, a strong association was found between elevated levels of nonfasting triglycerides, which indicate the presence of remnant lipoproteins, and increased risk of ischemic heart disease. Objective To test...... the hypothesis that increased levels of nonfasting triglycerides are associated with ischemic stroke in the general population. Design, Setting, and Participants The Copenhagen City Heart Study, a prospective, Danish population - based cohort study initiated in 1976, with follow- up through July 2007....... Participants were 13 956 men and women aged 20 through 93 years. A cross- sectional study included 9637 individuals attending the 1991- 1994 examination of the prospective study. Main Outcome Measures Prospective study: baseline levels of nonfasting triglycerides, other risk factors at baseline and at follow...
Population cycles are one of nature's great mysteries. For almost a hundred years, innumerable studies have probed the causes of cyclic dynamics in snowshoe hares, voles and lemmings, forest Lepidoptera and grouse. Even though cyclic species have very different life histories, similarities in mechanisms related to their dynamics are apparent. In addition to high reproductive rates and density-related mortality from predators, pathogens or parasitoids, other characteristics include transgenerational reduced reproduction and dispersal with increasing-peak densities, and genetic similarity among populations. Experiments to stop cyclic dynamics and comparisons of cyclic and noncyclic populations provide some understanding but both reproduction and mortality must be considered. What determines variation in amplitude and periodicity of population outbreaks remains a mystery. PMID:29563267
Laan, van der M.J.; Laan, van der P.
We give an introduction to the logistic and generalized logistic distributions. These generalized logistic distributions Type-I, Type-II and Type-III are indexed by a real valued parameter. They have been derived as mixtures with the standard logistic distribution and for discrete values of the
Fristrup, Claus; Detlefsen, Sönke; Palnæs Hansen, Carsten
: Death is monitored using data from the Danish Civil Registry. This registry monitors the survival status of the Danish population, and the registration is virtually complete. All data in the database are audited by all participating institutions, with respect to baseline characteristics, key indicators......AIM OF DATABASE: The Danish Pancreatic Cancer Database aims to prospectively register the epidemiology, diagnostic workup, diagnosis, treatment, and outcome of patients with pancreatic cancer in Denmark at an institutional and national level. STUDY POPULATION: Since May 1, 2011, all patients...... with microscopically verified ductal adenocarcinoma of the pancreas have been registered in the database. As of June 30, 2014, the total number of patients registered was 2,217. All data are cross-referenced with the Danish Pathology Registry and the Danish Patient Registry to ensure the completeness of registrations...
Remmen, Line Nørgaard; Herttua, Kimmo; Riss-Jepsen, Jørgen
. Highest levels of fatigue were observed among fishermen at Danish seiners (mean 10.21), and fatigue scores decreased with more days at sea. However, none of these results were significant. Adjusted analyses showed that physical workload was significantly related to general fatigue (b = 0.20, 95% CI: 0...... was additionally significantly associated to the levels of physical and mental fatigue. Fishermen had a lower average score for all fatigue dimensions compared to those seen in general Danish working population. Prospective studies are required to assess whether the identified associations are causal....
Arentoft, Johanne Louise; Hoppe, Camilla; Andersen, Elisabeth Wreford
Diet is recognised as one modifiable lifestyle factor for ischaemic heart disease (IHD). We aimed at investigating the associations between adherence to the Danish Food-Based Dietary Guidelines (FBDG) indicated by a Dietary Quality Index (DQI) and selected cardiometabolic risk factors in a cross-...
Køster, B; Søndergaard, J; Nielsen, J B; Olsen, A; Bentzen, J
An important feature of questionnaire validation is reliability. To be able to measure a given concept by questionnaire validly, the reliability needs to be high. The objectives of this study were to examine reliability of attitude and knowledge and behavioral consistency of sunburn in a developed questionnaire for monitoring and evaluating population sun-related behavior. Sun related behavior, attitude and knowledge was measured weekly by a questionnaire in the summer of 2013 among 664 Danes. Reliability was tested in a test-retest design. Consistency of behavioral information was tested similarly in a questionnaire adapted to measure behavior throughout the summer. The response rates for questionnaire 1, 2 and 3 were high and the drop out was not dependent on demographic characteristic. There was at least 73% agreement between sunburns in the measurement week and the entire summer, and a possible sunburn underestimation in questionnaires summarizing the entire summer. The participants underestimated their outdoor exposure in the evaluation covering the entire summer as compared to the measurement week. The reliability of scales measuring attitude and knowledge was high for majority of scales, while consistency in protection behavior was low. To our knowledge, this is the first study to report reliability for a completely validated questionnaire on sun-related behavior in a national random population based sample. Further, we show that attitude and knowledge questions confirmed their validity with good reliability, while consistency of protection behavior in general and in a week's measurement was low.
Jensen, Tina Kold; Swan, Shanna H; Skakkebaek, Niels E
The authors examined the association between semen quality and caffeine intake among 2,554 young Danish men recruited when they were examined to determine their fitness for military service in 2001-2005. The men delivered a semen sample and answered a questionnaire including information about...... caffeine intake from various sources, from which total caffeine intake was calculated. Moderate caffeine and cola intakes (101-800 mg/day and 14 0.5-L bottles....../week) and/or caffeine (>800 mg/day) intake was associated with reduced sperm concentration and total sperm count, although only significant for cola. High-intake cola drinkers had an adjusted sperm concentration and total sperm count of 40 mill/mL (95% confidence interval (CI): 32, 51) and 121 mill (95% CI...
Ahlström, Malin G; Menné, Torkil; Thyssen, Jacob P
BACKGROUND: Nickel in metallic items has been regulated in Denmark since 1990; however, 10% of young Danish women are still sensitized to nickel. There is a need for continuous surveillance of the effect of regulation. OBJECTIVES: To identify current self-reported metallic exposures leading...... reactions within 30 min of contact were reported by 30.7% of patients. CONCLUSIONS: Nickel exposures that led to the implementation of a nickel regulation seem to persist. The durations of contact with metallic items to fall under the current REACH regulation of nickel correspond well with the results...... to dermatitis in nickel-allergic patients, and the minimum contact time needed for dermatitis to occur. METHODS: A questionnaire was sent to all patients who reacted positively to nickel sulfate 5% pet. within the last 5 years at the Department of Dermatology and Allergy, Gentofte Hospital. RESULTS...
Glintborg, Dorte; Rubin, Katrine Hass; Nybo, Mads
, or dyslipidemia. PCOS Denmark (N = 18,112) included women with PCOS in the Danish National Patient Register. PCOS Odense University Hospital (OUH, N = 1165) was an embedded cohort including premenopausal women with PCOS and clinical and biochemical examination. Three age-matched controls were included per patient...... in PCOS Denmark (N = 52,769). The main study outcome was CVD events including hypertension and dyslipidemia defined according to nationwide in- and outpatient hospital contact diagnosis codes and/or inferred from filled medicine prescriptions. RESULTS: The age at inclusion was median (quartiles) 29 (23...... Denmark regarding risk of CVD. Age, BMI, blood pressure, lipid status, and glycemic status predicted development of CVD in PCOS OUH. CONCLUSION: The event rate of CVD including hypertension and dyslipidemia was higher in PCOS compared to controls. The risk of developing CVD must be considered even...
Pagh, Sussie; Hansen, Mette Sif; Jensen, Birger
For the first time, temporal variability in body size and sexual dimorphism is revealed in foxes Vulpes vulpes from the same geographical area at over time. The weights and lengths of 552 Danish foxes were documented during three different periods: 1965–1977, 2012–2014 and the winter of 2015...... of 2012–2014, no difference in body fat measured by rump fat thickness (RFT) was found between age groups and genders in contrast to 2015/2016, when RFT was significantly (p ...–1977 and compared to 2015/2016, compared to 2012–2014, when population density was high (the mean weight: 6.8 kg). However, no significant differences were found in the weight of females. Hence, sexual dimorphism ranged from 7.6 to 3.6 in adult foxes in low and high-density periods, respectively. During the winters...
Knudsen, Stine; Jennum, Poul J; Alving, Jørgen
STUDY OBJECTIVES: The International Classification of Sleep Disorders (ICSD-2) criteria for low CSF hypocretin-1 levels (CSF hcrt-1) still need validation as a diagnostic tool for narcolepsy in different populations because inter-assay variability and different definitions of hypocretin deficiency...... complicate direct comparisons of study results. DESIGN AND PARTICIPANTS: Interviews, polysomnography, multiple sleep latency test, HLA-typing, and CSF hcrt-1 measurements in Danish patients with narcolepsy with cataplexy (NC) and narcolepsy without cataplexy (NwC), CSF hcrt-1 measurements in other......). MEASUREMENTS AND RESULTS: In Danes, low CSF hcrt-1 was present in 40/46 NC, 3/14 NwC and 0/106 controls (P sleep latency, more sleep...
Research has shown a prevalence of psychosocial difficulties ranging from about 20% to 50% among children with hearing loss. This study evaluates the prevalence of psychosocial difficulties in a Danish population in relation to different explanatory variables. Five scales and questionnaires measuring sign language, spoken language, hearing abilities, and psychosocial difficulties were given to 334 children with hearing loss. Results show that the prevalence of psychosocial difficulties was 3.7 times greater compared with a group of hearing children. In the group of children with additional disabilities, the prevalence was 3 times greater compared with children without additional disabilities. If sign language and/or oral language abilities are good, the children do not have a substantially higher level of psychosocial difficulties than do hearing children. This study documents the importance of communication-no matter the modality or degree of hearing loss-for the psychosocial well-being of hearing-impaired children.
Lafferty, Kevin D.; DeLeo, Giulio; Briggs, Cheryl J.; Dobson, Andrew P.; Gross, Thilo; Kuris, Armand M.
Food-web dynamics arise from predator-prey, parasite-host, and herbivore-plant interactions. Models for such interactions include up to three consumer activity states (questing, attacking, consuming) and up to four resource response states (susceptible, exposed, ingested, resistant). Articulating these states into a general model allows for dissecting, comparing, and deriving consumer-resource models. We specify this general model for 11 generic consumer strategies that group mathematically into predators, parasites, and micropredators and then derive conditions for consumer success, including a universal saturating functional response. We further show how to use this framework to create simple models with a common mathematical lineage and transparent assumptions. Underlying assumptions, missing elements, and composite parameters are revealed when classic consumer-resource models are derived from the general model.
Richter, B.; Hesse, U.; Hansen, Alastair Bierre
OBJECTIVE To characterize and evaluate a Danish patient population with bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis (BPS/IC), using a working definition for BPS/IC incorporating six variables, and a set of criteria defined by the European Society for the Study of Interstitial Cystitis (ESSIC...
Christensen, Ulla; Lund, Rikke; Damsgaard, Mogens Trab
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the cross-sectional association between cynical hostility and high symptom load in a Danish population-based study. Furthermore, the aim was to investigate to what extent health risk behaviors mediated this association. METHODS: Data were based on a postal questionnaire...
Manganese Exposure in the General Population in a Mining District (Mexico) ... in a population living close to a mine and mineral processing plant in Mexico ... Call for proposals: Innovations for the economic inclusion of marginalized youth.
Full Text Available An important feature of questionnaire validation is reliability. To be able to measure a given concept by questionnaire validly, the reliability needs to be high.The objectives of this study were to examine reliability of attitude and knowledge and behavioral consistency of sunburn in a developed questionnaire for monitoring and evaluating population sun-related behavior.Sun related behavior, attitude and knowledge was measured weekly by a questionnaire in the summer of 2013 among 664 Danes. Reliability was tested in a test-retest design. Consistency of behavioral information was tested similarly in a questionnaire adapted to measure behavior throughout the summer.The response rates for questionnaire 1, 2 and 3 were high and the drop out was not dependent on demographic characteristic. There was at least 73% agreement between sunburns in the measurement week and the entire summer, and a possible sunburn underestimation in questionnaires summarizing the entire summer. The participants underestimated their outdoor exposure in the evaluation covering the entire summer as compared to the measurement week. The reliability of scales measuring attitude and knowledge was high for majority of scales, while consistency in protection behavior was low.To our knowledge, this is the first study to report reliability for a completely validated questionnaire on sun-related behavior in a national random population based sample. Further, we show that attitude and knowledge questions confirmed their validity with good reliability, while consistency of protection behavior in general and in a week's measurement was low. Keywords: Questionnaire, Validation, Reliability, Skin cancer, Prevention, Ultraviolet radiation
Hansen, Ann-Brit E; Gerstoft, Jan; Kronborg, Gitte
significantly increased after HAART-exposure, IRR of 1.8 (95% CI; 1.5-2.1). The increased risk in HAART-exposed patients was not associated with CD4 cell count, prior AIDS, tenofovir or efavirenz exposure, but with comorbidity and smoking. CONCLUSIONS:: HIV-infected patients had increased risk of fracture......OBJECTIVE:: To compare fracture risk in persons with and without HIV-infection and to examine the influence of HAART initiation on risk of fracture. DESIGN:: Population-based nationwide cohort study using Danish registries. METHODS:: Outcome measures were time to first fracture at any site, time...... to first low-energy and high-energy fracture in HIV-infected patients (n¿=¿5,306) compared with a general population control cohort (n¿=¿26,530) matched by sex and age during the study period 1995 to 2009. Cox regression analyses were used to estimate incidence rate ratios (IRR). RESULTS:: HIV-infected...
Lambek, Rikke; Trillingsgaard, Anegen
The five to fifteen (FTF) is a parent questionnaire developed to assess ADHD, its common comorbid conditions and associated problems in children and adolescents. The present study examined (1) the psychometric properties of scores on the new teacher version of the FTF, (2) competing models of the FTF subdomain structure and (3) the psychometric properties and utility of scores on the newly developed FTF impact questions. Parents (n=4258) and teachers (n=1298) of Danish children and adolescents (ages 5 to 17 years), selected using simple random sampling, completed the FTF. In the largest study of the FTF to date, parent and teacher scores had acceptable psychometric properties. The FTF subdomains were organized into six domains labelled cognitive skills, motor/perception, emotion/socialization/behaviour, attention, literacy skills and activity control and analysis of these domains may provide additional information when applying the FTF in the future. The impact questions yielded information above and beyond that provided by symptom count alone and appeared to increase the ability of the FTF to identify at risk children and adolescents. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hunt, Gary L.
Are pre-medical students different than the other students in a General physics class? They often appear to be different, based on how often they seek help from the instructor or how nervous they are about 2 points on a lab report. But are these students different in a measurable characteristic? The purpose of this study is to better understand the characteristics of the students in the introductory physics classes. This is the first step toward improving the instruction. By better understanding the students the classroom, the organization and pedagogy can be adjusted to optimize student learning. The characteristics to be investigated during this study are: · student epistemological structure, · student attitudes, · science course preparation prior to this course, · study techniques used, · physics concepts gained during the class · performance in the class. The data will be analyzed to investigate differences between groups. The groups investigated will be major, gender, and traditional/nontraditional students.
Hempler, Nana Folmann; Ekholm, Ola; Willaing, Ingrid
Poor social support and lack of social network are well-established risk factors for morbidity and mortality in general populations. Good social relations, such as social support and network contacts, are associated with better self-management and fewer psychosocial problems in persons with type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to investigate whether persons with type 2 diabetes have poorer social relations than the general population. We conducted a cross-sectional survey in three settings: a specialist diabetes clinic (SDC) (n = 1084), a web panel (WP) consisting of persons with type 2 diabetes (n = 1491) and a sample from the 2010 Danish Health and Morbidity Survey, representative of the general population (n = 15,165). We compared social relations using multivariate logistic regression. Compared to the general population, persons with type 2 diabetes more often lived without a partner (SDC, OR 1.75, 95% CI 1.49-2.06; WP, OR 1.64, 95% CI 1.43-1.87), met with family less than once a month (SDC, OR 1.78, 95% CI 1.40-2.27; WP, OR 2.35, 95% CI 1.94-2.84) and were less certain they could count on help from others in case of illness (WP, OR 1.23, 95% CI 1.08-1.41). Our findings suggest that persons with type 2 diabetes have poorer social relations than the general population. From a public health point of view, special attention is needed with regards to strengthening existing networks and establishing alternative networks among persons with type 2 diabetes.
Sørensen, Mette; Andersen, Anne-Marie N; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole
in their residence during pregnancy. The mothers were also asked about smoking habits and alcohol consumption during pregnancy, pre-pregnancy weight, height, parity and occupation. Information on birth weight and gestational age was obtained from national registers. We found that 45% of the mothers had been exposed......Occupational exposure to organic solvents during pregnancy has been associated with reduced fetal growth. Though organic solvents in the form of paint fumes are also found in the home environment, no studies have investigated the effect of such exposure in a general population. We studied...... associations between residential exposure to paint fumes during pregnancy and fetal growth within the Danish National Birth Cohort which consecutively recruited pregnant women from 1996 to 2002 from all over Denmark. Around the 30th pregnancy week, 19,000 mothers were interviewed about use of paint...
Ravn, Lasse S; Benn, Marianne; Nordestgaard, Børge G
OBJECTIVES: The renin-angiotensin system may play a role in the pathogenesis of atrial fibrillation, and renin-angiotensin system blockers reduce the risk of atrial fibrillation. We hypothesized that polymorphisms in the angiotensinogen and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) genes encoding...... in the ACE gene; rare allele frequencies were 0.16, 0.40, 0.12, 0.41, and 0.49, respectively. Participants had sinus rhythm at inclusion. During 26 years of follow-up, 968 individuals developed atrial fibrillation. Multifactorially adjusted hazard ratios for atrial fibrillation for a-20c ac and cc versus aa...... proteins in this system predict risk of atrial fibrillation. METHODS AND RESULTS: We genotyped 9235 individuals from the Danish general population, The Copenhagen City Heart Study, for the a-20c, g-6a, T174M, and M235T polymorphisms in the angiotensinogen gene and the insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism...
Beich, A.; Gannik, D.; Saelan, H.
AIMS: Recommendations for routine alcohol screening and brief counselling intervention in primary health care rest on results from intervention efficacy studies. By conducting a pragmatic controlled trial (PCT), we aimed at evaluating the effectiveness of the WHO recommendations for screening......-14 months. Outcome measures focused on patients' acceptance of screening and intervention and their self-reported alcohol consumption. RESULTS: Patient acceptance of screening and intervention -10.3% (N = 794) of the target population (N = 7, 691) explicitly refused screening. All intervention group...
Fernández del Río, Elena; López Durán, Ana; Martinez, Ursula; Becoña, Elisardo
Background: There is consistent evidence about the relationship between smoking and mental health. This study compares the relationship between tobacco use and personality disorders (PDs) in Spanish adults from general and clinical population, taking into account nicotine dependence (ND), and the presence of any mental disorder. Method: The sample was made up of 1,079 smokers (519 from general population, 560 from clinical population). PDs were assessed by means of the Inter...
Olesen, C; Sorensen, HT; de Jong-van den Berg, L; Olsen, J; Steffensen, FH
Aim. To assess the current prescribing pattern for 15,756 primiparae before, during, and after their pregnancies with reference to fetal and neonatal risk. Method. A prescription database study with linkage to The Danish Medical Birth Registry from 1991 to 1996. The drug subsidy system in Danish
Aabenhus, Rune; Siersma, Volkert Dirk; Sandholdt, Håkon
practice-related factors driving high antibiotic prescribing rates. Results: We included 98% of general practices in Denmark (n = 1962) and identified a 10% group of high prescribers who accounted for 15% of total antibiotic prescriptions and 18% of critically important antibiotic prescriptions. Once case...... prescriptions issued over the phone compared with all antibiotic prescriptions; and a high number of consultations per 1000 patients. We also found that a low number of consultations per 1000 patients was associated with a reduced likelihood of being a high prescriber of antibiotics. Conclusions: An apparent...
Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli; Sørensen, Tina Brandt; Højmark, Torben Brunse; Olsen, Kim Rose; Vedsted, Peter
The general practitioner (GP) is often the first healthcare contact for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). To determine whether participating in a standardised educational programme delivered in the GP's own practice is associated with adherence to COPD guidelines. A nationwide register-based observational before and after study was undertaken with a control group of propensity-matched practices (follow-up period 6 months). COPD was defined as age 40+ years and at least two prescriptions for inhaled medication. The educational programme consisted of a 3-hr teaching lesson with a respiratory specialist and five visits by a representative from the sponsoring pharmaceutical company focusing on assessment and management of patients including written algorithms. A one-to-one propensity-matched control group of practices was selected. Register data were used to compare the rate of spirometry testing, preventive consultations, and influenza vaccinations provided to COPD patients and the rate of spirometry testing in non-COPD individuals, assumed to reflect diagnostic activity. Data for 102 participating GP practices were analysed. Participating clinics had a significant increase in preventive consultations and influenza vaccinations (peducation of GPs and their staff delivered in the GPs' own practices may improve adherence to COPD guidelines, not least for clinics with a high potential for improvement.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The etiology of type-2 diabetes is only partly known, and a possible role of prenatal stress in programming offspring for insulin resistance has been suggested by animal models. Previously, we found an association between prenatal stress and type-1 diabetes. Here we examine the association between prenatal exposure to maternal bereavement during preconception and pregnancy and development of type-2 diabetes in the off-spring. METHODS: We utilized data from the Danish Civil Registration System to identify singleton births in Denmark born January 1(st 1979 through December 31(st 2008 (N = 1,878,246, and linked them to their parents, grandparents, and siblings. We categorized children as exposed to bereavement during prenatal life if their mothers lost an elder child, husband or parent during the period from one year before conception to the child's birth. We identified 45,302 children exposed to maternal bereavement; the remaining children were included in the unexposed cohort. The outcome of interest was diagnosis of type-2 diabetes. We estimated incidence rate ratios (IRRs from birth using log-linear poisson regression models and used person-years as the offset variable. All models were adjusted for maternal residence, income, education, marital status, sibling order, calendar year, sex, and parents' history of diabetes at the time of pregnancy. RESULTS: We found children exposed to bereavement during their prenatal life were more likely to have a type-2 diabetes diagnosis later in life (aIRR: 1.31, 1.01-1.69. These findings were most pronounced when bereavement was caused by death of an elder child (aIRR: 1.51, 0.94-2.44. Results also indicated the second trimester of pregnancy to be the most sensitive period of bereavement exposure (aIRR:2.08, 1.15-3.76. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggests that fetal exposure to maternal bereavement during preconception and the prenatal period may increase the risk for developing type-2 diabetes in
Ernst, Anja; Jacobsen, Bent Ascanius; Østergaard, Mette
Three CAspase Recruitment Domain (CARD15) mutations have shown to predispose to Crohn's disease in Caucasian populations. The aim of this study was to investigate the mutation frequency in patients with inflammatory bowel disease and in healthy controls in Denmark....
Laursen, Thomas Munk; Nordentoft, Merete
Persons with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder have much higher heart disease mortality rates than the general population. The objective was to compare the general population with persons with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder or other psychiatric disorders in terms of rates of somatic...... significantly among persons with schizophrenia: compared with the general population, the rise in the mortality rate ratio equalled 1.12 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.08-1.15) every second year. This was not the case for persons with bipolar disorder [1.02 (0.98-1.05), not significant] or other psychiatric...... disorders [1.00 (0.99-1.01), not significant]. The entire period saw a lower hospitalization rate and fewer invasive cardiac procedures among persons with schizophrenia than among the general population. The higher mortality (with increasing trends) from heart disease in persons with schizophrenia compared...
Gabel, Pernille; Larsen, Mette Bach; Nielsen, Pernille Bjørnholt; Svendstrup, Dorte Brandt; Andersen, Berit
Potential barriers to breast cancer screening adherence include patient satisfaction, as well as pain, feeling obliged to participate, and other concerns that might compromise the level of satisfaction. The present study aimed to assess the overall satisfaction of Danish citizens with their breast cancer screening experiences, as well as their level of discomfort, concerns, and feelings of obligation to participate. Furthermore, we analyzed the associations between overall satisfaction and the remaining outcomes. Questionnaires were mailed to 3000 women in the Central Denmark Region who received screening examination results in the fall of 2013. The questionnaire assessed satisfaction (overall, telephone hot-line, and web-based self-service), discomfort (pain and boundaries of modesty), concerns (at invitation, while waiting for results, and after receiving results), and feelings of obligation to participate. Background information was retrieved from Statistics Denmark. Pearson's chi-square test was used to test differences in outcomes and demographic characteristic distributions between respondents and non-respondents and highly satisfied vs. less satisfied participants. Prevalence ratios (PR) with 95% CI were assessed using Poisson regression with robust variance, to estimate associations between satisfaction and the remaining outcomes. Among the participants, 70.3% and 29.4%, respectively, reported really good and good impressions of the screening program. Lower satisfaction was associated with feeling pain (prevalence ratio (PR), 0.82), feeling that modesty boundaries were transgressed (PR, 0.79), experiencing screening-induced concerns (PR, 0.84), and feeling obliged to participate (PR, 0.96). Of the participants, 36.2% and 12.9%, respectively, felt very much and moderately obliged to participate. A total of 72.6% reported no screening-induced concerns, including 73.3% of those with negative screening results and 38.1% of those with positive screening results
Jørgensen, Marie B; Rasmussen, Charlotte D N; Carneiro, Isabella G
hundred and fifty-one cleaners, consisting of 166 Danes (88% women) and 179 immigrants (74% women) (6 with unknown ethnicity), from 9 workplaces in Denmark participated in the study. Health and work ability were obtained by objective (e.g., BMI and blood pressure) and self-reported measures (e.g., work......PURPOSE: It is unknown whether immigrants working in the cleaning industry have a poorer health and work ability than cleaners from the native population. The main aim was to investigate differences in objective and self-reported health measures between immigrant and Danish cleaners. METHODS: Three...... ability, self-rated health, and musculoskeletal symptoms). In order to investigate differences between Danish and immigrant cleaners, logistic regression analyses and General Linear Models were performed. RESULTS: When controlling for age, sex, workplace, job seniority, and smoking, more Danish compared...
Varbo, Anette; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Tybjaerg-Hansen, Anne
Current guidelines on stroke prevention have recommendations on desirable cholesterol levels, but not on nonfasting triglycerides. We compared stepwise increasing levels of nonfasting triglycerides and cholesterol for their association with risk of ischemic stroke in the general population....
Bjerrum, Søren Solborg; la Cour, Morten
To study the epidemiology of patients with endogenous endophthalmitis in Denmark. Retrospective and prospective case series of 59 eyes in patients with endogenous endophthalmitis in Denmark between 2000 and 2016. The age of the patients ranged from 28 to 90 years with a median of 66 years. Sixty-two percent of the eyes had a final VA (visual acuity) ≤ 0.1 while 8% had a final VA ≥ 1.0. Positive cultures were obtained in 51% of the cases from the blood and in 43% from the vitreous. Streptococcus species and Staphylococcus aureus were the most commonly identified microorganisms. The sources of endogenous endophthalmitis were diverse and were not identified in 36% of the patients. Diabetes (36%) was the most predisposing medical illness. A total of 15% of the patients died within the first year after surgery for endophthalmitis and half of the patients died during follow up. The mortality of patients was 22.6 times higher compared to a Danish background population. Culture positive patients had a higher mortality compared to culture negative patients. Endogenous endophthalmitis is a heterogeneous condition which is reflected in the age, the visual outcome and the mortality of the patients. The epidemiology of the disease is very different in Scandinavia compared to Asia. The visual prognosis remains grave and the majority of the eyes lose useful vision.
Wulff, R.; Koch Holst, A.; Nielsen, T.L.; Andersen, M.; Hagen, C.; Brixen, K.
Purpose: To determine reference values for vertebral heights in healthy young Danish males using morphometric X-ray absorptiometry (MXA). Material and Methods: A population-based study group of 487 males aged between 20 and 30 years (mean 25 years) from the county of Funen, Denmark, were recruited. Using a Hologic QDR 4500 (dual energy X-ray absorptiometry) DXA-scanner, MXA scans covering the vertebrae from T4 to L4 were acquired for each subject. Anterior (Ha), middle (Hm), and posterior (Hp) heights of the thoracic (T4-T12) and lumbar (L1-L4) vertebral bodies were measured. Moreover, wedge, mid-wedge, crush I, and crush II ratios were calculated. Results: No correlation between vertebral dimensions and crush indices on the one hand and age or weight on the other were found. Body height, however, correlated significantly with the cumulated vertebral heights. Reference data for vertebral dimensions, wedge, mid-wedge, crush I, and crush II are tabulated. Conclusion: The anterior, middle, and posterior heights of the vertebral bodies of T4 to L4 can be measured reproducible with MXA. In young men, the cumulative vertebral heights correlated with body height but not with age. Moreover, the wedge and crush indices were unrelated of both age and height
Rose Olsen, Kim; Gyrd-Hansen, Dorte; Sørensen, Torben Højmark
Shortage of general practitioners (GPs) and an increased political focus on primary care have enforced the interest in efficiency analysis in the Danish primary care sector. This paper assesses the association between organisational factors of general practices and production and efficiency. We a...
Nabe-Nielsen, Jacob; Sibly, Richard M.; Tougaard, Jakob
Ships and wind turbines generate noise, which can have a negative impact on marine mammal popu- lations by scaring animals away. Effective modelling of how this affects the populations has to take account of the location and timing of disturbances. Here we construct an individual-based model of har...
Molecular genetic analysis of the calcium sensing receptor gene in patients clinically suspected to have familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia: phenotypic variation and mutation spectrum in a Danish population
Nissen, Peter H; Christensen, Signe E; Heickendorff, Lene
CONTEXT: The autosomal dominantly inherited condition familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia (FHH) is characterized by elevated plasma calcium levels, relative or absolute hypocalciuria, and normal to moderately elevated plasma PTH. The condition is difficult to distinguish clinically from primary...... hyperparathyroidism and is caused by inactivating mutations in the calcium sensing receptor (CASR) gene. OBJECTIVE: We sought to define the mutation spectrum of the CASR gene in a Danish FHH population and to establish genotype-phenotype relationships regarding the different mutations. DESIGN AND PARTICIPANTS...
Devantier, Torben Albert; Nørgaard, Bjarne Linde; Sand, Niels Peter
BACKGROUND: Depression is associated with coronary artery disease, and atherosclerosis seems to play a central role in this relation. In several studies, multislice computed tomography (CT) has been applied for detection and quantification of coronary artery calcification (CAC) in relation...... to depression. To our knowledge, only one previous study has investigated the relation between CAC and depression in an unselected population. METHODS: A total of 617 persons were randomly selected from the background population. The participants underwent CT of the heart and were screened for depression by use...... of the Major Depression Inventory questionnaire. Quantification of CAC was performed using the Agatston method. The Mann-Whitney U test, Spearman's correlational analysis, and logistic regression were used to assess the association between depression and CAC. RESULTS: The median Agatston score...
Jørgensen, Marianne Johansson
and often lead to unsafe sex. 3) Low self-esteem increases the risk of ignoring crossing of one’s personal boundaries and thereby resulting in promiscuous sexual behavior. 4) Increased sexual experience was found to be associated with lack of condom use. Surprisingly, the informants did not consider drug...... and used to describe important points of interest regarding sexual behavior in the young population....
Khashan, Ali S
OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of prenatal exposure to severe life events on risk of affective disorders in the offspring. METHODS: In a cohort of 1.1 million Danish births from May 1978 until December 1997, mothers were considered exposed if one (or more) of their close relatives died or was diagnosed with serious illness up to 6 months before conception or during pregnancy. Offspring were followed up from their 10th birthday until their death, migration, onset of affective disorder or 31 December 2007; hospital admissions were identified by linkage to the Central Psychiatric Register. Log-linear Poisson regression was used for data analysis. RESULTS: The risk of affective disorders was increased in male offspring whose mothers were exposed to severe life events during the second trimester (adjusted RR 1.55 [95% CI 1.05-2.28]). There was an increased risk of male offspring affective disorders in relation to maternal exposure to death of a relative in the second trimester (adjusted RR 1.74 [95% CI 1.06-2.84]) or serious illness in a relative before pregnancy (adjusted RR 1.44 [95% CI 1.02-2.05]). There was no evidence for an association between prenatal exposure to severe life events and risk of female offspring affective disorders. CONCLUSIONS: Our population-based study suggests that prenatal maternal exposure to severe life events may increase the risk of affective disorders in male offspring. These findings are consistent with studies of populations exposed to famine and earthquake disasters which indicate that prenatal environment may influence the neurodevelopment of the unborn child.
Full Text Available Aim: To assess attitudes of general population and medical doctors towards alcohol addiction. Material and Method: 99 medical doctors who worked university hospitals, public hospitals or health centers and 101 people who selected from the community to represent the overall population enrolled in our study. All the participants were asked to anonymously complete a questinnaire about stigmatization, including questions assessing social distance, dangerousness and skillfullness. Results: Contrary to expectattions, there were not statistically significant differences in the attitudes of general poupulation and physicians towards alcohol dependences (all scales, p>0.05.Discussion: Both medical doctors and general population appear to have negative thoughts about alcohol dependence. New education strategies is developed in the field of general medical education and psychiatry in order to change negative attitudes towards alkohol addiction.
Yazdanyar, S.; Nordestgaard, B.G.
from two large Danish general population cohorts followed for 31 years: the Copenhagen City Heart Study (n = 10 597) and the Copenhagen General Population Study (n = 32 999). We examined the risk of cardiovascular disease (2743 and 3890, respectively, in the two studies) and cancer (2144 and 3241......, respectively) by NOD2/CARD15 genotype using Cox and logistic regressions in both studies. To maximize statistical power, the three NOD2/CARD15 genetic variants were analysed together as follows: noncarriers for all three variants, heterozygotes for one of the three variants and homozygotes for one of the three...... variants pooled with compound heterozygotes for two variants. Results. Multifactorially adjusted hazard ratios for cardiovascular disease and cancer in NOD2/CARD15 heterozygotes or homozygotes/compound heterozygotes versus noncarries did not differ from 1.0 in the Copenhagen City Heart Study...
Jepsen, Peter; Ott, Peter; Andersen, Per Kragh
The clinical course of alcoholic cirrhosis, a condition with a high mortality, has not been well described. We examined prevalence, risk, chronology, and mortality associated with three complications of cirrhosis: ascites, variceal bleeding, and hepatic encephalopathy. We followed a population......-risks methods. At diagnosis of alcoholic cirrhosis, 24% of patients had no complications, 55% had ascites alone, 6% had variceal bleeding alone, 4% had ascites and variceal bleeding, and 11% had hepatic encephalopathy. One-year mortality was 17% among patients with no initial complications, 20% following...... variceal bleeding alone, 29% following ascites alone, 49% following ascites and variceal bleeding (from the onset of the later of the two complications), and 64% following hepatic encephalopathy. Five-year mortality ranged from 58% to 85%. The risk of complications was about 25% after 1 year and 50% after...
Kristensen, Michael; Huang, Jing; Qiao, Chuan-Ling
Anti-cholinesterase resistance is in many cases caused by modified acetylcholinesterase (MACE). A comparison was made of toxicological data and AChE activity gathered from 21 field populations and nine laboratory strains of houseflies, Musca domestica L., to elucidate the best way of generating...... data to provide advice for management strategies and gathering information for resistance risk assessment on the organophosphates azamethiphos and dimethoate and the carbamate methomyl, which have been the primary insecticides used against adult houseflies in Denmark. Cluster analysis was performed...... and > 2000 houseflies were assigned to one of three phenotypes based on total acetylcholinesterase activity as well as inhibition by azamethiphos, methomyl or omethoate. A cluster, i.e. a phenotype, with high total AChE activity and high sensitivity to azamethiphos and less sensitivity to inhibition...
Andersen, Stine Linding; Olsen, Jørn; Wu, Chun Sen; Laurberg, Peter
Objectives Pregnancy loss in women suffering from hyperthyroidism has been described in case reports, but the risk of pregnancy loss caused by maternal hyperthyroidism in a population is unknown. We aimed to evaluate the association between maternal hyperthyroidism and pregnancy loss in a population-based cohort study. Study Design All pregnancies in Denmark from 1997 to 2008 leading to hospital visits (n = 1,062,862) were identified in nationwide registers together with information on maternal hyperthyroidism for up to 2 years after the pregnancy [hospital diagnosis/prescription of antithyroid drug (ATD)]. The Cox proportional hazards model was used to estimate adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) for spontaneous abortion (gestational age hyperthyroidism was diagnosed before/during the pregnancy (n = 5,229), spontaneous abortion occurred more often both in women treated before the pregnancy alone [aHR 1.28 (95% CI 1.18-1.40)] and in women treated with ATD in early pregnancy [1.18 (1.07-1.31)]. When maternal hyperthyroidism was diagnosed and treated for the first time in the 2-year period after the pregnancy (n = 2,361), there was a high risk that the pregnancy under study had terminated with a stillbirth [2.12 (1.30-3.47)]. Conclusions Both early (spontaneous abortion) and late (stillbirth) pregnancy loss were more common in women suffering from hyperthyroidism. Inadequately treated hyperthyroidism in early pregnancy may have been involved in spontaneous abortion, and undetected high maternal thyroid hormone levels present in late pregnancy may have attributed to an increased risk of stillbirth. PMID:25538898
Tolstrup, J.S.; Gronbaek, M.; Tybjaerg-Hansen, A.
the Copenhagen City Heart Study. Biochemical tests for the detection of liver damage were specific for alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST)-to-ALT ratio (AST/ALT), gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (gamma-GT), albumin, bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase, coagulation factors, and erythrocyte...... volume. RESULTS: Increasing alcohol intake was associated with increasing erythrocyte volume, AST/ALT, and levels of ALT, gamma-GT, albumin, bilirubin, coagulation factors, and with decreasing levels of alkaline phosphatase. Multifactorially adjusted hazard ratios for alcoholic liver disease overall were...
Ellervik, Christina; Kvetny, Jan; Christensen, Kaj Sparle
to describe the prevalence of antidepressants received by the respondents in the GESUS study and the correspondence to their subjective well-being on the WHO-5 questionnaire. Methods: To evaluate the validity (scalability) of the MDI and the WHO-5 in the GESUS study we performed the non-parametric Mokken...
Bergholdt, Helle Kirstine Mørup; Nordestgaard, Børge Grønne; Varbo, Anette
Meta-analyses have suggested no association between milk intake and mortality. Since only few studies have been conducted, we investigated the association between the lactase persistent genetic variant LCT-13910 C/T (rs4988235), a proxy for long-term low and high intake of milk, and mortality. We...
Larsen, Pia Bükmann; Linneberg, Allan René; Hansen, Torben
calculated with and without the inclusion of persons who were prediabetic, according to two definitions (The World Health Organization (WHO) and American Diabetes Association (ADA)). To ensure the correctness of calibration, the control pools were analyzed by a reference laboratory. The reference intervals...
Kristensen, Nadja B; Madsen, Mia L; Hansen, Tue H; Allin, Kristine H; Hoppe, Camilla; Fagt, Sisse; Lausten, Mia S; Gøbel, Rikke J; Vestergaard, Henrik; Hansen, Torben; Pedersen, Oluf
Since information about macro- and micronutrient intake among vegans is limited we aimed to determine and evaluate their dietary and supplementary intake. Seventy 18-61 years old Danish vegans completed a four-day weighed food record from which their daily intake of macro- and micronutrients was assessed and subsequently compared to an age-range-matched group of 1,257 omnivorous individuals from the general Danish population. Moreover, the vegan dietary and supplementary intake was compared to the 2012 Nordic Nutrition Recommendations (NNR). Dietary intake differed significantly between vegans and the general Danish population in all measured macro- and micronutrients (p vegans the intake of macro- and micronutrients (including supplements) did not reach the NNR for protein, vitamin D, iodine and selenium. Among vegan women vitamin A intake also failed to reach the recommendations. With reference to the NNR, the dietary content of added sugar, sodium and fatty acids, including the ratio of PUFA to SFA, was more favorable among vegans. At the macronutrient level, the diet of Danish vegans is in better accordance with the NNR than the diet of the general Danish population. At the micronutrient level, considering both diet and supplements, the vegan diet falls short in certain nutrients, suggesting a need for greater attention toward ensuring recommended daily intake of specific vitamins and minerals.
Bartels, Else Marie; Robertson, Samuel; Danneskiold-Samsøe, Bente
The Copenhagen City Heart Study (CCHS) and measurements of Isokinetic muscle strength from a sub-study of randomly selected healthy participants from CCHS. Methods: 126 women and 63 men were studied. All participants completed a questionnaire regarding their lifestyle, including physical activity, alcohol intake...... in the lower extremities (p = 0.03) for women, and lower extremities (p = 0.03) and trunk (p = 0.007) for men. Alcohol Intake was in general not correlated to muscle strength. No clear effect of smoking was seen on muscle strength. Conclusion: Our results show that physical activity during leisure...... and smoking habits. Isokinetic muscle strength was measured over the upper extremities (UE), trunk, and lower extremities (LE). Multivariate analyses including all of the variables were carried out. Results: The level of daily physical activity during leisure was positively correlated to muscle strength...
Bartels, Else Marie; Robertson, Samuel; Danneskiold-Samsøe, Bente
The Copenhagen City Heart Study (CCHS) and measurements of Isokinetic muscle strength from a sub-study of randomly selected healthy participants from CCHS. Methods: 126 women and 63 men were studied. All participants completed a questionnaire regarding their lifestyle, including physical activity, alcohol intake...... in the lower extremities (p = 0.03) for women, and lower extremities (p = 0.03) and trunk (p = 0.007) for men. Alcohol Intake was in general not correlated to muscle strength. No clear effect of smoking was seen on muscle strength. Conclusions: Our results show that physical activity during leisure...... and smoking habits. Isokinetic muscle strength was measured over the upper extremities (UE), trunk, and lower extremities (LE). Multivariate analyses including all of the variables were carried out. Results: The level of daily physical activity during leisure was positively correlated to muscle strength...
Sample, Christine; Fryxell, John; Bieri, Joanna; Federico, Paula; Earl, Julia; Wiederholt, Ruscena; Mattsson, Brady; Flockhart, Tyler; Nicol, Sam; Diffendorfer, James E.; Thogmartin, Wayne E.; Erickson, Richard A.; Norris, D. Ryan
Variation in movement across time and space fundamentally shapes the abundance and distribution of populations. Although a variety of approaches model structured population dynamics, they are limited to specific types of spatially structured populations and lack a unifying framework. Here, we propose a unified network-based framework sufficiently novel in its flexibility to capture a wide variety of spatiotemporal processes including metapopulations and a range of migratory patterns. It can accommodate different kinds of age structures, forms of population growth, dispersal, nomadism and migration, and alternative life-history strategies. Our objective was to link three general elements common to all spatially structured populations (space, time and movement) under a single mathematical framework. To do this, we adopt a network modeling approach. The spatial structure of a population is represented by a weighted and directed network. Each node and each edge has a set of attributes which vary through time. The dynamics of our network-based population is modeled with discrete time steps. Using both theoretical and real-world examples, we show how common elements recur across species with disparate movement strategies and how they can be combined under a unified mathematical framework. We illustrate how metapopulations, various migratory patterns, and nomadism can be represented with this modeling approach. We also apply our network-based framework to four organisms spanning a wide range of life histories, movement patterns, and carrying capacities. General computer code to implement our framework is provided, which can be applied to almost any spatially structured population. This framework contributes to our theoretical understanding of population dynamics and has practical management applications, including understanding the impact of perturbations on population size, distribution, and movement patterns. By working within a common framework, there is less chance
Gundtoft, Per Hviid; Varnum, Claus; Pedersen, Alma Becic
AIM OF DATABASE: The aim of the Danish Hip Arthroplasty Register (DHR) is to continuously monitor and improve the quality of treatment of primary and revision total hip arthroplasty (THA) in Denmark. STUDY POPULATION: The DHR is a Danish nationwide arthroplasty register established in January 1995...
Huizinga, W.; Poot, D. H. J.; Roshchupkin, G.; Bron, E. E.; Ikram, M. A.; Vernooij, M. W.; Rueckert, D.; Niessen, W. J.; Klein, S.
Both normal aging and neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease cause morphological changes of the brain. To better distinguish between normal and abnormal cases, it is necessary to model changes in brain morphology owing to normal aging. To this end, we developed a method for analyzing and visualizing these changes for the entire brain morphology distribution in the general aging population. The method is applied to 1000 subjects from a large population imaging study in the elderly, from which 900 were used to train the model and 100 were used for testing. The results of the 100 test subjects show that the model generalizes to subjects outside the model population. Smooth percentile curves showing the brain morphology changes as a function of age and spatiotemporal atlases derived from the model population are publicly available via an interactive web application at agingbrain.bigr.nl.
Jensen, Vibeke Myrup; Rasmussen, Astrid Würtz
to adults continuing education and training stem from administrative education reports. Therefore, for cohorts born 1945-1990, 97 percent of the Danish population has a valid education identifier. For the immigrant population born in the same cohorts the coverage is 85-90 percent. Despite a higher level......Collection of systematic information on education is a long established practice in Denmark. Since 1910, the Danish Ministry of Education's annual reports collects information about individual-level test scores in e.g. compulsory schooling. Today, several registers from compulsory schooling...
Jensen, Vibeke Myrup; Würtz Rasmussen, Astrid
to adults continuing education and training stem from administrative education reports. Therefore, for cohorts born 1945-1990, 97 percent of the Danish population has a valid education identifier. For the immigrant population born in the same cohorts the coverage is 85-90 percent. Despite a higher level......Collection of systematic information on education is a long established practice in Denmark. Since 1910, the Danish Ministry of Education’s annual reports collects information about individual-level test scores in e.g. compulsory schooling. Today, several registers from compulsory schooling...
Jensen, Vibeke Myrup; Rasmussen, Astrid Würtz
Collection of systematic information on education is a long established practice in Denmark. Since 1910, the Danish Ministry of Education’s annual reports collects information about individual-level test scores in e.g. compulsory schooling. Today, several registers from compulsory schooling...... to adults continuing education and training stem from administrative education reports. Therefore, for cohorts born 1945-1990, 97 percent of the Danish population has a valid education identifier. For the immigrant population born in the same cohorts the coverage is 85-90 percent. Despite a higher level...
Hyams, Inger Louise Berling
Despite the number of internationally successful Danish architects like Jacobsen, Utzon and in recent years Ingels just to name a few, Danish architecture has always leaned greatly on international architectural history and theory. This is only natural for a small nation. However, since the begin...
The elderly population size is increasing worldwide due to falling birth rates and increasing life expectancy. It has been hypothesized that as the elderly dependency ratio (the ratio of those over the age of 65 years to those under 65) increases, there will be fewer younger people available to care for older people and this, in turn, will increase the burden on younger carers with increased levels of psychiatric morbidity leading to an increase in general population suicide rates. A cross-national study examining the relationship between elderly dependency ratios and general population suicide rates was conducted using data from the World Health Organization and the United Nations websites. The main findings were of a significant and independent positive correlation between elderly dependency ratios and general population suicide rates in both genders. The contribution of cross-national differences in psychiatric morbidity in younger carers on general population suicide rates requires further study. The prevalence of psychiatric morbidity in younger carers of older people should be examined by: (i) cross-national studies using standardized measures of psychiatric morbidity that are education-free, culture-fair and language-fair; and (ii) within-country longitudinal studies with changing elderly dependency ratios over time.
Leite, B.B.; Ribeiro, N.C. [Servico de Radiologia, Hospital de Curry Cabral, Rua da Beneficencia, 8, 1069-166 Lisboa (Portugal)
Multidetector computerized tomography (MDCT) appeared in the early 1990s, as a technological evolution of computerized tomography. As one would expect, the evolution continues and, each year, more powerful equipments appear, with new medical applications. However, the general use of this technique has lead to the dramatic increase on the general population irradiation. Special concern is required regarding the most vulnerable groups, like the pediatric population, the pregnant and the young female. Due to a larger awareness of this irradiation risks, some initiatives have been developed, coming from different areas, aiming to maximize the benefit to risk ratio of MDCT. (author)
Blume, Peter Erik
and furthermore a brief account of Danish legal history is provided. The following chapters concern: • Legal institutions, • Statute and Statutory Law • Legal Decisions • Legal Literature and Legal Knowledge • Other National Legal Sources • External Influences on Danish Law......This book describes how legal method is used within the Danish legal system. Its target group is foreign lawyers and law students who have an interest in knowing how Danish law commonly is determined and applied. In the first chapters legal method and legal sources in general are defined...
Andersen, Vibeke; Ernst, Anja; Sventoraityte, Jurgita; Kupcinskas, Limas; Jacobsen, Bent A; Krarup, Henrik B; Vogel, Ulla; Jonaitis, Laimas; Denapiene, Goda; Kiudelis, Gediminas; Balschun, Tobias; Franke, Andre
Differences in the genetic architecture of inflammatory bowel disease between different European countries and ethnicities have previously been reported. In the present study, we wanted to assess the role of 11 newly identified UC risk variants, derived from a recent European UC genome wide association study (GWAS) (Franke et al., 2010), for 1) association with UC in the Nordic countries, 2) for population heterogeneity between the Nordic countries and the rest of Europe, and, 3) eventually, to drive some of the previous findings towards overall genome-wide significance. Eleven SNPs were replicated in a Danish sample consisting of 560 UC patients and 796 controls and nine missing SNPs of the German GWAS study were successfully genotyped in the Baltic sample comprising 441 UC cases and 1156 controls. The independent replication data was then jointly analysed with the original data and systematic comparisons of the findings between ethnicities were made. Pearson's χ2, Breslow-Day (BD) and Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel (CMH) tests were used for association analyses and heterogeneity testing. The rs5771069 (IL17REL) SNP was not associated with UC in the Danish panel. The rs5771069 (IL17REL) SNP was significantly associated with UC in the combined Baltic, Danish and Norwegian UC study sample driven by the Norwegian panel (OR = 0.89, 95% CI: 0.79-0.98, P = 0.02). No association was found between rs7809799 (SMURF1/KPNA7) and UC (OR = 1.20, 95% CI: 0.95-1.52, P = 0.10) or between UC and all other remaining SNPs. We had 94% chance of detecting an association for rs7809799 (SMURF1/KPNA7) in the combined replication sample, whereas the power were 55% or lower for the remaining SNPs.Statistically significant PBD was found for OR heterogeneity between the combined Baltic, Danish, and Norwegian panel versus the combined German, British, Belgian, and Greek panel (rs7520292 (P = 0.001), rs12518307 (P = 0.007), and rs2395609 (TCP11) (P = 0.01), respectively).No SNP reached genome
Full Text Available Abstract Background Differences in the genetic architecture of inflammatory bowel disease between different European countries and ethnicities have previously been reported. In the present study, we wanted to assess the role of 11 newly identified UC risk variants, derived from a recent European UC genome wide association study (GWAS (Franke et al., 2010, for 1 association with UC in the Nordic countries, 2 for population heterogeneity between the Nordic countries and the rest of Europe, and, 3 eventually, to drive some of the previous findings towards overall genome-wide significance. Methods Eleven SNPs were replicated in a Danish sample consisting of 560 UC patients and 796 controls and nine missing SNPs of the German GWAS study were successfully genotyped in the Baltic sample comprising 441 UC cases and 1156 controls. The independent replication data was then jointly analysed with the original data and systematic comparisons of the findings between ethnicities were made. Pearson's χ2, Breslow-Day (BD and Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel (CMH tests were used for association analyses and heterogeneity testing. Results The rs5771069 (IL17REL SNP was not associated with UC in the Danish panel. The rs5771069 (IL17REL SNP was significantly associated with UC in the combined Baltic, Danish and Norwegian UC study sample driven by the Norwegian panel (OR = 0.89, 95% CI: 0.79-0.98, P = 0.02. No association was found between rs7809799 (SMURF1/KPNA7 and UC (OR = 1.20, 95% CI: 0.95-1.52, P = 0.10 or between UC and all other remaining SNPs. We had 94% chance of detecting an association for rs7809799 (SMURF1/KPNA7 in the combined replication sample, whereas the power were 55% or lower for the remaining SNPs. Statistically significant PBD was found for OR heterogeneity between the combined Baltic, Danish, and Norwegian panel versus the combined German, British, Belgian, and Greek panel (rs7520292 (P = 0.001, rs12518307 (P = 0.007, and rs2395609 (TCP11 (P = 0
Hansen, Ann-Brit E; Gerstoft, Jan; Kronborg, Gitte; Larsen, Carsten S; Pedersen, Court; Pedersen, Gitte; Obel, Niels
To compare fracture risk in persons with and without HIV infection and to examine the influence of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) initiation on risk of fracture. Population-based nationwide cohort study using Danish registries. Outcome measures were time to first fracture at any site, time to first low-energy and high-energy fracture in HIV-infected patients (n = 5306) compared with a general population control cohort (n = 26 530) matched by sex and age during the study period 1995-2009. Cox regression analyses were used to estimate incidence rate ratios (IRRs). HIV-infected patients had increased risk of fracture [IRR 1.5, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.4-1.7] compared with population controls. The relative risk was lower in HIV-monoinfected patients (IRR 1.3, 95% CI 1.2-1.4) than in HIV/hepatitis C virus (HCV)-coinfected patients (IRR 2.9, 95% CI 2.5-3.4).Both HIV-monoinfected and HIV/HCV-coinfected patients had increased risk of low-energy fracture, IRR of 1.6 (95% CI 1.4-1.8) and 3.8 (95% CI 3.0-4.9). However, only HIV/HCV-coinfected patients had increased risk of high-energy fracture, IRR of 2.4 (95% CI 2.0-2.9). Among HIV-monoinfected patients the risk of low-energy fracture was only significantly increased after HAART exposure, IRR of 1.8 (95% CI 1.5-2.1). The increased risk in HAART-exposed patients was not associated with CD4 cell count, prior AIDS, tenofovir or efavirenz exposure, but with comorbidity and smoking. HIV-infected patients had increased risk of fracture compared with population controls. Among HIV-monoinfected patients the increased risk was observed for low-energy but not for high-energy fractures, and the increased risk of low-energy fracture was only observed in HAART-exposed patients.
Full Text Available Kristian Antonsen,1 Charlotte Vallentin Rosenstock,2 Lars Hyldborg Lundstrøm2 1Board of Directors, Copenhagen University Hospital, Bispebjerg and Frederiksberg Hospital, Capital Region of Denmark, Denmark; 2Department of Anesthesiology, Copenhagen University Hospital, Nordsjællands Hospital-Hillerød, Capital Region of Denmark, Denmark Aim of database: The aim of the Danish Anaesthesia Database (DAD is the nationwide collection of data on all patients undergoing anesthesia. Collected data are used for quality assurance, quality development, and serve as a basis for research projects. Study population: The DAD was founded in 2004 as a part of Danish Clinical Registries (Regionernes Kliniske Kvalitetsudviklings Program [RKKP]. Patients undergoing general anesthesia, regional anesthesia with or without combined general anesthesia as well as patients under sedation are registered. Data are retrieved from public and private anesthesia clinics, single-centers as well as multihospital corporations across Denmark. In 2014 a total of 278,679 unique entries representing a national coverage of ~70% were recorded, data completeness is steadily increasing. Main variable: Records are aggregated for determining 13 defined quality indicators and eleven defined complications all covering the anesthetic process from the preoperative assessment through anesthesia and surgery until the end of the postoperative recovery period. Descriptive data: Registered variables include patients' individual social security number (assigned to all Danes and both direct patient-related lifestyle factors enabling a quantification of patients' comorbidity as well as variables that are strictly related to the type, duration, and safety of the anesthesia. Data and specific data combinations can be extracted within each department in order to monitor patient treatment. In addition, an annual DAD report is a benchmark for departments nationwide. Conclusion: The DAD is covering the
Purpose: To assess the awareness level of the Jordanian general population regarding the definition, risk factors, signs and symptoms, and consequences of stroke. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study. The questionnaire was handed to participants by trained students, the participants were chosen randomly from ...
Hoekstra, R.A.; Bartels, M.; Verweij, C.J.H.; Boomsma, D.I.
Objective: To explore genetic and environmental influences on individual differences in autistic traits in early adulthood and to test if there is assortative mating (non-random partner choice) for autistic traits in the general population. Design: Twin family study using structural equation
This thesis set out to investigate the relation between sleep and psychopathology. We examined two groups; bipolar patients and adolescents from the general population that are both characterized by mood fluctuations and are vulnerable for disturbances in sleep-wake pattern. Using wearables
Dreijer, Bjørn; Møller, Morten H; Bartholdy, Jens
Post-operative urine retention is a frequent and serious complication. The aims of this study were to evaluate the prevalence of post-operative urinary retention in a general surgical population and to identify the perioperative risk factors for developing this condition....
Lee, Myung Kyung; Yun, Young Ho
The purposes of this study were to compare the working situation of cancer survivors and the general (cancer-free) population and investigate characteristics associated with the increased likelihood of unemployment between the two groups. We selected 1927 cancer survivors from the 2008 Korean Community Health Survey data less than 65 years of age and used propensity score matching to randomly select 1924 individuals from the general population who closely resembled the cancer survivors. Compared to the general population, cancer survivors were less likely to be engaged in paid work, particularly as permanent workers, and were more likely to work regular hours. Additionally, they tended to do less work that involved lifting or moving heavy objects and uncomfortable postures and were more willing to express their emotions. An increased probability of unemployment among cancer survivors was associated with being over 50 years old, being female, having a lower monthly income, having multiple comorbidities, belonging to a nuclear family, being a National Basic Livelihood Act beneficiary, and having a recent diagnosis. Cancer survivors may want to pursue flexible occupations and improve their working situation. Further, they perceive their workplace more positively compared to the general population. Respecting the cancer survivor's choice to find flexible working conditions that suit their health needs and status, health-care providers involved in managing work-related issues among cancer survivors should be aware of the interaction between work-related concerns and post-cancer disease management.
Haupt, Thomas H; Kallemose, Thomas; Ladelund, Steen
.001). An unhealthy diet and alcohol abstinence in men were also associated with higher suPAR levels. Physical activity in leisure time had a modest impact on suPAR levels in univariate analysis, but not in the final adjusted model. In conclusion, smoking and morbid obesity were strongly associated with higher serum...... data were collected from 5,538 participants in the Danish population-based Inter99 study. Their suPAR levels were measured using a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In the final adjusted model, smoking and morbid obesity were strongly associated with higher suPAR levels (P ... suPAR levels in this general population. Diet and alcohol consumption also seemed to impact suPAR levels. Lifestyle changes are likely to affect suPAR since ex-smokers had suPAR levels comparable to those of never-smokers....
Vestmar, Marie Aare; Andersson, Ehm A; Christensen, Charlotte Riis
. Association with quantitative metabolic traits comprised 8720 non-diabetic individuals. RESULTS: p.R270H showed reduced surface expression of FFAR4. Ligand-independent activity was eliminated and strongly impaired through the Gq and Gi signalling pathways, respectively. The ligand-induced maximal signalling...... reactive protein; hs-CRP) and liver function (alanine aminotransferase) in the Danish population (p>0.05). CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrate that p.R270H of FFAR4 impairs Gq and Gi signalling of FFAR4 in vitro; however, this impaired signalling for p.R270H does not translate into associations with human...
Ewertz, M.; Kempel, M.M.; During, M.
patients in Denmark. PATIENTS AND METHODS: To evaluate the results of this treatment, we performed a nationwide population-based follow-up study of patients aged less than 75 years treated in Denmark from 1989 to 1998 based on the database of Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group. RESULTS: At 15 years...... of follow-up, the Kaplan-Meier estimate of overall survival was 69% among 3 758 patients who received the recommended treatment. Within the first 10 years of follow-up, the cumulative incidences of loco-regional recurrences, distant metastases or other malignant disease, or death as a first event were 9...
Pedersen, J W; Gentry-Maharaj, A; Fourkala, E-O
Background:Recent reports from cancer screening trials in high-risk populations suggest that autoantibodies can be detected before clinical diagnosis. However, there is minimal data on the role of autoantibody signatures in cancer screening in the general population.Methods:Informative p53 peptides...... preclinical disease and may be of value in cancer screening. In colorectal cancer screening in particular, where the current need is to improve compliance, it suggests that p53 autoantibodies may contribute towards risk stratification.British Journal of Cancer advance online publication, 20 November 2012; doi...
Sørensen, Tina; Jespersen, Hans Søe Riis; Vinberg, Maj
a questionnaire regarding their use of alcohol and other drugs of abuse. The questionnaire was based on the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT), supplemented by questions regarding use of tobacco and illicit drugs. The results were compared with those uses in the general population. Results: In total...... equivalents. Compared to the general population, the psychiatric patients had higher odds of being current smokers and having used illicit drugs within the past month. Women with psychiatric disorders were twice as likely to binge drink on a monthly basis. No significant difference was found in the patients......’ AUDIT scores compared to the general population. Conclusions: Our findings demonstrate a substantial and problematic use of tobacco and illicit drugs among Danish psychiatric patients, greater than in the general population....
A closer look at the Muhammad cartoon crisis illuminates some of the key issues that were, and continue to be, at stake for the various actors in the public contestations over the legitimate place of Muslims (and the Islamic tradition) in Danish society. Using a conceptual framework developed...... by Axel Honneth, I suggest in this article that the cartoon crisis is part of an ongoing struggle for recognition in Denmark, through which the terms by which Muslims residing in Denmark are recognized as legitimate citizens/residents of Danish society are negotiated—and on which Muslims may recognize...... the demands of Danish majority society as legitimate. As much as the cartoon affair was an event that, as Palle Weis (2006) writes, “suddenly” ruptured Danish society in 2005, it was therefore also part of a process that continues to shape social actors and their relationships....
Özcan, Cengiz; Juel, Knud; Lassen, Jens Flensted
AIM: The Danish Heart Registry (DHR) seeks to monitor nationwide activity and quality of invasive diagnostic and treatment strategies in patients with ischemic heart disease as well as valvular heart disease and to provide data for research. STUDY POPULATION: All adult (≥15 years) patients...... undergoing coronary angiography (CAG), percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), coronary artery bypass grafting, and heart valve surgery performed across all Danish hospitals were included. MAIN VARIABLES: The DHR contains a subset of the data stored in the Eastern and Western Denmark Heart Registries (EDHR...
Lange, Peter; Møgelvang, Rasmus; Marott, Jacob Louis
Although there are a number of studies on the coexistence of heart disease and COPD among patients acutely admitted to hospital, this relationship has not been accurately described in the general population. Especially data on the prevalence of both reduced lung function and impaired left.......4% for moderate COPD (GOLD stage 2) and 2.5% for severe and very severe COPD (GOLD stages 3+4). Individuals with COPD were older and had a higher prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors and a higher prevalence of cardiovascular diseases. Among the echocardiographical findings, only the presence of left...... ventricular hyperthrophy was significantly more frequent among individuals with COPD (17.7%) than among participants without COPD (12.1%.), yet this relationship was no longer significant after statistical adjustment for age and gender. In the general population, subjects with COPD have a higher prevalence...
Gjerding, Allan Næs
on public services, and install economic incentives for the behaviour of private households. The paper then digs into the proposals of the commission that are broadly grouped into five policy target areas con-cerning (1) the ageing of the population, (2) the incentives for labour market participation, (3......The paper deals with the main report of the Danish Welfare Commission and the one-hundred-and-nine proposals on the structure of the future Danish welfare state that the com-mission has put forward. Following upon a brief review of the discussion on the work of the Danish Welfare Commission......) competitiveness in the global economy, (4) behavioural regulation of the use of public bene-fits and services, and (5) management within tight budgets of an increasing demand on health and care. Finally, the concluding section sums up the discussion and elaborates on the debate on the Welfare Commission’s work...
Löfgren, Hans O.
Introduction Numerous preventive programmes have emerged, and need to be investigated to determine their effects on the normal population. Earlier studies have shown a decrease in depressive symptoms, positive effects on children’s disruptive behaviour problems, and an improvement in parental competence. About a fifth of the parents in previous studies had problem-oriented (targeted) reasons for enrolment, whereas the rest of the parents had general (universal) reasons. The results of those s...
Kristensen, Lene Juel; Birkebæk, Niels; Mose, Anne
AND METHOD: A total of 786 children and adolescents (8-17 years) recruited through the Danish Registry of Childhood Diabetes completed subscales of the Beck's Youth Inventories (BYI-Y), while 910 caregivers completed the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). The participants also completed...... questionnaires assessing adherence and quality of life. BYI-Y and SDQ responses were compared with results from normative samples. RESULTS: Children with diabetes generally reported a lower level of symptoms of depression and anxiety, while older adolescents in most cases were comparable to the normative samples...
Rubin, K H; Abrahamsen, B; Hermann, A P
.5% of those with more than 40 km to the nearest scanner had a history of DXA. Logistic regression analysis showed that distance, fracture risk, oral glucocorticoids, low-energy fracture, conditions associated with secondary osteoporosis, low BMI, history of falls, age 65–79 years, spouse status, and income......To determine the relationship between risk factors and use of DXA scans. Our study showed a relatively high use of DXA in low-risk women and the relatively low coverage in women with multiple risk factors. Moreover, distance to DXA clinics, age, and socio-economic factors are associated...... with the use of DXA. Introduction To determine the relationship between risk factors for fracture and use of DXA scans in Danish women in relation to distance to DXA clinics and socio-economic factors. Methods From the Danish National Civil Register we randomly selected 5,000 women aged 40–90 years living...
Schepers, E; Bodar, L; van Os, J; Lousberg, R
There is evidence that experimentally elicited auditory illusions in the general population index risk for psychotic symptoms. As little is known about underlying cortical mechanisms of auditory illusions, an experiment was conducted to analyze processing of auditory illusions in a general population sample. In a follow-up design with two measurement moments (baseline and 6 months), participants (n = 83) underwent the White Noise task under simultaneous recording with a 14-lead EEG. An auditory illusion was defined as hearing any speech in a sound fragment containing white noise. A total number of 256 speech illusions (SI) were observed over the two measurements, with a high degree of stability of SI over time. There were 7 main effects of speech illusion on the EEG alpha band-the most significant indicating a decrease in activity at T3 (t = -4.05). Other EEG frequency bands (slow beta, fast beta, gamma, delta, theta) showed no significant associations with SI. SIs are characterized by reduced alpha activity in non-clinical populations. Given the association of SIs with psychosis, follow-up research is required to examine the possibility of reduced alpha activity mediating SIs in high risk and symptomatic populations.
Rasmussen, Line; Kronborg, Gitte; Larsen, Carsten S
Recent studies have suggested that statins possess diverse immune modulatory and anti-inflammatory properties. As statins might attenuate inflammation, statin therapy has been hypothesized to reduce mortality in HIV-infected individuals. We therefore used a Danish nationwide cohort of HIV......-infected individuals to estimate the impact of statin use on mortality before and after a diagnosis of cardiovascular disease, chronic kidney disease or diabetes....
Johannesen, Jesper; Svensson, Jannet; Bergholdt, Regine
High S-ACE levels have been shown to predispose to increased risk of hypoglycemia, however; some inconsistency relates to the risk of the ACE genotype. We investigated the association between S-ACE level at diagnosis and ACE genotype to long-term risk of severe hypoglycemia in more than 1000 chil...... children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes being part of the Danish Registry of Childhood diabetes over a 10-yr period....
Christensen, Ann; Søgaard, Rikke
In 2002, the Danish tax law was changed, giving employees a tax exemption on supplemental, employer-paid health insurance. This might have conflicted with one of the key foundations of the healthcare system, namely equal access for equal needs. The aim of this study was to investigate determinants for employer-paid health insurance coverage. Because the policy change affected only people who were part of the labour force and because the public sector at that time had no tradition of providing fringe benefits, the analysis was restricted to the private labour force. The analysis was based on data from a range of Danish person-level and company-level registers (explanatory variables). These data were combined with information on insurance status obtained from the trade organisation for insurance (dependent variable). A logistic regression was performed to estimate the odds of having employer-paid health insurance coverage. The individuals who were most likely to be insured were those employed in foreign companies as mid-level managers within the field of building and construction. Other important variables were the number of persons employed in a company, gender, ethnicity, region of residence, years of education, and annual income. Both company and individual characteristics were found to be important and significant predictors for employer-paid health insurance coverage. The Danish tax exemption on private health insurance in the years 2002-12 thus seems to have led to inequality in employer-paid health insurance coverage.
Ravn Sørensen, Anders
In this article, I analyse the political debate leading up to the Danish euro referendum in 2000. I show how the euro-positive government unintentionally reinforced the arguments of the euro-sceptics by framing the euro as something belonging to the nation-state. I argue that this paradoxical...... campaign strategy stems from the Danish conceptualisation of nation and state and from the close connection between national currencies and feelings of community and citizenship more general. The analysis confirms the suggestion made by Gilbert that new monetary organisation, such as European Monetary...
Dalsgaard, Else-Marie; Christensen, Jesper O; Skriver, Mette Vinter; Borch-Johnsen, Knut; Lauritzen, Torsten; Sandbaek, Annelli
To examine attendance, number of people with T2DM and costs of three different stepwise screening strategies for T2DM in general practice (GP). Diabetes risk questionnaires were mailed to individuals aged 40-69 years from 45 general practices in 2001-2002 and individuals at high risk for T2DM, were asked to contact their GP to arrange a screening test. In 2005-2006, 26 general practices were randomised into two different opportunistic screening programmes (OP-direct and OP-subsequent) and risk questionnaires were distributed to individuals aged 40-69 years during GP consultations. In the OP-direct approach, high-risk individuals were offered to start the screening during the actual consultation while high-risk individuals in the OP-subsequent approach, were invited to a screening test at a later date. We report attendance, number of people with T2DM and costs of each screening approach. The mail-distributed approach identified 0.8% of the target population with T2DM, the OP-direct approach and the OP-subsequent approach, 0.9% and 0.5% respectively. Cost per person with T2DM was in the mail-distributed approach: € 1058, OP-direct approach: € 707 and the OP-subsequent approach: € 727. This study indicates that opportunistic screening identifies the same level of unknown diabetes as a mail-distributed approach but with lower costs. Copyright © 2010 Primary Care Diabetes Europe. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Eriksen, Jørgen; Ekholm, Ola; Sjøgren, Per
A 6-year follow-up study of a cross-section of the adult Danish population, based on data from the Danish Health and Morbidity Surveys in 1994 and 2000 is presented. The pain populations were identified through the pain intensity verbal rating scale (VRS) included in the Short Form 36. The 2000...... survey also included a question on duration of pain (>6 months). Using this as the 'gold standard', a validation study was performed, which identified the highest accuracy (85%) at the VRS cut-off level: no pain, very mild, or mild pain (control group) versus moderate, severe, or very severe pain (pain.......2-2.0], short education (OR 1.5, CI 1.0-2.2), poor self-rated health (OR 3.3, CI 2.4-4.7), and having at least one long-standing disease (OR 2.6, CI 2.0-3.4). Significant predictors for pain recovery were male gender, younger age, cohabitation status, good self-rated health, good mental health, having no long...
Jørgensen, Marit Eika; Kristensen, Jette K.; Husted, Gitte Reventlov
Aim of the database: The aim of the Danish Adult Diabetes Registry (DADR) is to provide data from both the primary health care sector (general practice [GP]) and the secondary sector (specialized outpatient clinics) to assess the quality of treatment given to patients with diabetes. The indicators...... represent process and outcome indicators selected from the literature. Study population: The total diabetes population in Denmark is estimated to be ∼300,000 adult diabetes patients. Approximately 10% have type 1 diabetes, which is managed mainly in the secondary sector, and 90% have type 2 diabetes......, glucose-, blood pressure-, and lipid-lowering treatment (yes/no), insulin pump treatment (yes/ no), and date of last eye and foot examination. Descriptive data: In 2014, the annual report included data regarding over 38,000 patients from outpatient clinics, which is assumed to have included almost all...
Lilia M. Ladino
Full Text Available We analyze the dynamics of a generalized discrete time population model of a two-stage species with recruitment and capture. This generalization, which is inspired by other approaches and real data that one can find in literature, consists in considering no restriction for the value of the two key parameters appearing in the model, that is, the natural death rate and the mortality rate due to fishing activity. In the more general case the feasibility of the system has been preserved by posing opportune formulas for the piecewise map defining the model. The resulting two-dimensional nonlinear map is not smooth, though continuous, as its definition changes as any border is crossed in the phase plane. Hence, techniques from the mathematical theory of piecewise smooth dynamical systems must be applied to show that, due to the existence of borders, abrupt changes in the dynamic behavior of population sizes and multistability emerge. The main novelty of the present contribution with respect to the previous ones is that, while using real data, richer dynamics are produced, such as fluctuations and multistability. Such new evidences are of great interest in biology since new strategies to preserve the survival of the species can be suggested.
Kjaergaard, Alisa D; Bojesen, Stig E; Nordestgaard, Børge G
BACKGROUND: We tested the hypothesis that observationally and genetically increased YKL-40 concentrations are associated with alcoholic liver and pancreas damage and disease. METHODS: We performed cohort and mendelian randomization in 86,258 individuals from the Danish general population......, with measured concentrations of plasma YKL-40 (n = 21 646) and CHI3L1 rs4950928 genotype (n = 84 738). RESULTS: Increased YKL-40 was associated with increased alanine aminotransferase, bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase, γ-glutamyl transferase, erythrocyte mean corpuscular volume, C-reactive protein...... alcoholic liver disease, 4.1 (1.7-10) for alcoholic pancreatitis, and 3.4 (1.9-6.1) for any pancreatitis. CHI3L1 rs4950928 genotype explained 14% of the variation in plasma YKL-40 concentrations but was not associated with alcoholic liver and pancreas damage or disease. A doubling in YKL-40 concentrations...
Reilev, Mette; Lykkegaard, Jesper; Halling, Anders
Exacerbation frequency is central in treatment strategies for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. However, whether chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients from the general population with frequent exacerbations continue to have frequent exacerbations over an extended period of time is c...... considerably over time. This could hold implications for COPD treatment and challenge assumptions made about disease progression....... is currently unknown. In this study, we aimed to investigate the stability of the frequent exacerbator in a population-based setting. To this end, we conducted a nationwide register-based descriptive study with a 10-year follow-up period of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients with at least one...... obstructive pulmonary disease treatment guidelines and their practical application. CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE LUNG DISEASE: VARIATIONS IN DISEASE PROGRESSION: Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) who suffer from frequent exacerbations do not necessarily persist with such severity over time...
Löwe, Bernd; Decker, Oliver; Müller, Stefanie; Brähler, Elmar; Schellberg, Dieter; Herzog, Wolfgang; Herzberg, Philipp Yorck
The 7-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale (GAD-7) is a practical self-report anxiety questionnaire that proved valid in primary care. However, the GAD-7 was not yet validated in the general population and thus far, normative data are not available. To investigate reliability, construct validity, and factorial validity of the GAD-7 in the general population and to generate normative data. Nationally representative face-to-face household survey conducted in Germany between May 5 and June 8, 2006. Five thousand thirty subjects (53.6% female) with a mean age (SD) of 48.4 (18.0) years. The survey questionnaire included the GAD-7, the 2-item depression module from the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-2), the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and demographic characteristics. Confirmatory factor analyses substantiated the 1-dimensional structure of the GAD-7 and its factorial invariance for gender and age. Internal consistency was identical across all subgroups (alpha = 0.89). Intercorrelations with the PHQ-2 and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale were r = 0.64 (P < 0.001) and r = -0.43 (P < 0.001), respectively. As expected, women had significantly higher mean (SD) GAD-7 anxiety scores compared with men [3.2 (3.5) vs. 2.7 (3.2); P < 0.001]. Normative data for the GAD-7 were generated for both genders and different age levels. Approximately 5% of subjects had GAD-7 scores of 10 or greater, and 1% had GAD-7 scores of 15 or greater. Evidence supports reliability and validity of the GAD-7 as a measure of anxiety in the general population. The normative data provided in this study can be used to compare a subject's GAD-7 score with those determined from a general population reference group.
Eriksen, K. T.; Sørensen, M.; Autrup, H.
Danish cohort. At enrollment, blood samples were collected and information on lifestyle, including dietary and smoking habits, obtained. Previously, bulky DNA adducts were measured in 245 individuals who developed lung cancer and 255 control members of the cohort. Of these 500 individuals, data on 375...... of bulky DNA adduct levels were analyzed by univariate and multivariate regression analyses. Women tended to have higher adduct levels than men. Living in central Copenhagen and surface darkness of fried meat and fish were associated with quantitative higher adduct levels. No significant associations were...
Thygesen, Lau Caspar; Hvidt, Niels Christian; Hansen, Helle Ploug; Hoff, Andreas; Ross, Lone; Johansen, Christoffer
American Seventh-day Adventists have been reported to have lower cancer mortality and incidence than the general population. Adventists do not consume tobacco, alcohol or pork, and many adhere to a lacto-ovo-vegetarian lifestyle. Baptists discourage excessive use of alcohol and tobacco. In this study, we investigated whether the incidence of cancer in a large cohort of Danish Adventists and Baptists was different compared to the general Danish population. We followed 11,580 Danish Adventists and Baptists in the nationwide Danish Cancer Registry, which contains information on cases of cancer for 1943-2008. Cancer incidence in the cohort was compared with that in the general Danish population as standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs), and within-cohort comparisons were made with a Cox model. Lower cancer incidences were observed for both Seventh-day Adventist men (SIR, 66; 95% CI, 60-72) and women (85; 80-91). The same result was observed for Baptists although not as low. The differences were most pronounced for smoking-related cancers such as those of the buccal cavity and lung (SIR, 20; 13-30 for Seventh-day Adventist men and 33; 22-49 for Seventh-day Adventist women). The incidences of other lifestyle-related cancers, such as of stomach, rectum, liver and cervix, were also decreased. In general, the SIRs were lower for men than for women, and Adventists had lower hazard rates than Baptists. Our findings point to the benefits of compliance with public health recommendations and indicate that lifestyle changes in the population might change the cancer risks of individuals. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
(General Practitioner) setting as in the acute setting. Supporting this use is a very strong prognostic value of the natriuretic peptides. This has been shown in as well heart failure as acute coronary syndromes, but also in the general population and in high-risk groups as patients with diabetes......, hypertension and coronary artery disease. This has of course raised interest for the use of the natriuretic peptides as a risk marker and for screening for heart failure with reduced systolic function in these populations. In symptomatic persons and in high risk populations, the natriuretic peptides have...... demonstrated a high sensitivity for ruling out the disease, if the right decision limits are choosen. Thus the number of normal echocardiographies can be reduced. More recently, the use in screening asymptomatic persons for left ventricular systolic dysfunction has gained more interest. In the unselected...
Audelin, A.M.; Lohse, N.; Obel, N.
BACKGROUND: Newer antiretroviral treatment regimens for HIV carry a lower risk of inducing drug resistance mutations. We estimated changes in incidence rates (IRs) of new mutations in HIV-infected individuals receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). METHODS: Population-based data...... were obtained from the Danish HIV Cohort Study and the Danish HIV Sequence Database. We included treatment-naive patients initiating HAART after December 1997 and computed time to first drug resistance mutation, identified as new mutations detected within 1 year after a 60-day period of treatment.......077). The IR of PI resistance decreased from 7.5 (1.4-21.8) in 1999 to 2.9 (0.7-11.4) in 2002-2003 (P=0.148). The IRs were low for specific resistance mutations, except for M184V (IR 5.6 [4.0-7.9]) and K103N (IR 8.2 [5.6-12.0]). CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of acquired drug resistance has decreased among HIV...
Copenhaver, E.D.; Houser, B.S.
Radiation protection training for the general employee at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory has undergone a great deal of restructuring in the last two years. The number of personnel totally dedicated to nuclear facilities is less than a fifth of our employees and the percentage of contracted employees who are dedicated radiation workers is much smaller. However, the aging of our facilities and increasing emphasis on environmental control means that everyone needs to understand the basics of radiation protection. In accordance with changing DOE guidelines and internal ORNL policies, greater emphasis has been placed on keeping training focused on current issues, training the total workforce, and requiring some type of testing or feedback mechanism. This report describes efforts to instill respect, but not fear, of radiation in the work environment. Flexible tools are being developed to meet this objective for several diverse general employee populations. Continuing efforts include consideration of computer-based training for retraining, developing additional modules for specialized groups and jobs, and testing/documentation appropriate to each population segment. 6 refs
Sun, C; Madsen, P; Nielsen, U S
Comparisons between a sire model, a sire-dam model, and an animal model were carried out to evaluate the ability of the models to predict breeding values of fertility traits, based on data including 471,742 records from the first lactation of Danish Holstein cows, covering insemination years from...... the results suggest that the animal model, rather than the sire model, should be used for genetic evaluation of fertility traits......Comparisons between a sire model, a sire-dam model, and an animal model were carried out to evaluate the ability of the models to predict breeding values of fertility traits, based on data including 471,742 records from the first lactation of Danish Holstein cows, covering insemination years from...... 1995 to 2004. The traits in the analysis were days from calving to first insemination, calving interval, days open, days from first to last insemination, number of inseminations per conception, and nonreturn rate within 56 d after first service. The correlations between sire estimated breeding value...
Sandahl, K.; Svensson, J.; Johannesen, J.
Objective: Type 1 Diabetes (T1D) has been associated with a higher mortality compared to the general population. The aims of the present study are to determine the mortality rate in a Danish cohort of patients diagnosed with diabetes in childhood and compare these to the general population. Metho...
Hannemann, Anke; Rettig, Rainer; Dittmann, Kathleen; Völzke, Henry; Endlich, Karlhans; Nauck, Matthias; Wallaschofski, Henri
Increasing evidence suggests that aldosterone promotes renal damage. Since data on the association between aldosterone and renal function in the general population are sparse, we chose to address this issue. We investigated the associations between the plasma aldosterone concentration (PAC) or the aldosterone-to-renin ratio (ARR) and the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) in a sample of adult men and women from Northeast Germany. A study population of 1921 adult men and women who participated in the first follow-up of the Study of Health in Pomerania was selected. None of the subjects used drugs that alter PAC or ARR. The eGFR was calculated according to the four-variable Modification of Diet in Renal Disease formula. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) was defined as an eGFR < 60 ml/min/1.73 m2. Linear regression models, adjusted for sex, age, waist circumference, diabetes mellitus, smoking status, systolic and diastolic blood pressures, serum triglyceride concentrations and time of blood sampling revealed inverse associations of PAC or ARR with eGFR (ß-coefficient for log-transformed PAC -3.12, p < 0.001; ß-coefficient for log-transformed ARR -3.36, p < 0.001). Logistic regression models revealed increased odds for CKD with increasing PAC (odds ratio for a one standard deviation increase in PAC: 1.35, 95% confidence interval: 1.06-1.71). There was no statistically significant association between ARR and CKD. Our study demonstrates that PAC and ARR are inversely associated with the glomerular filtration rate in the general population.
Tofteng, Charlotte L; Bach-Mortensen, Pernille; Bojesen, Stig E
OBJECTIVE: Integrin alphavbeta3 is essential for mature osteoclast function and therefore important for the development of osteoporosis and osteoporotic fractures. Integrin alphavbeta3 antagonists have antiresorptive effects in bone. We tested the hypothesis that the Leu33Pro polymorphism...... in the integrin beta3-subunit associates with risk of hip fracture. METHODS: We included 9233 men and women selected at random to represent the Danish general population as participants in the Copenhagen City Heart Study. First-ever hip fractures (n=267) were registered during 25 years follow-up. Log...
Osler, Merete; Jorgensen, Torben; Gerdes, Lars Ulrik
or emotional distress. The changes in the psychosocial factors were the same in different educational groups. CONCLUSION: The socioeconomic position of the population improved at the individual and the community level during the study period. This was concurrent with the declining incidence of myocardial...... and women aged 30, 40, 50, and 60 years, were examined in 1982-84, 1986-87, and 1991-92. Data from Social Registers were used to analyse trends in community social structure. RESULTS: From 1982 to 1992 an increase in individuals' school education and social class followed an increase in the general welfare...... of the study area. At the same time type A behaviours increased in both men and women, while there were no changes in reported personal problems. The proportion of women living alone increased, while the proportion of emotionally distressed decreased. In men there were no changes in cohabitation status...
Renata Marques de Oliveira
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To estimate the degree of tobacco addiction and identify independently associated factors by comparing the psychiatric population of secondary and tertiary care with the general population of the primary healthcare network. Method: This is a cross-sectional epidemiological study, conducted in a municipality of São Paulo, with 134 smokers of a Mental Health Outpatient Unit (MHOU, a Psychiatric Hospital (PH, and a Primary Healthcare Unit (PHU. Data were collected by means of individual interviews, recorded on a mobile device. Data were statistically processed using Stata/12 Results: Of the 134 participants, 54.5% were women. While 49.1% of the psychiatric population (MHOU/PH had medium/high nicotine addiction, 58.3% of smokers of the general population had very low/low dependency. The Poisson regression model indicated a higher prevalence of smokers with high dependence among men (PR = 1.41, people aged 49 years or less (15 - 29 years, PR = 4.06, 30 - 39 PR = 2.96 years, 40 - 49 years PR = 1.84, with severe mental disorders (PR = 3.05, with anxiety disorders/other (PR = 3.98, and with high suicide risk (PR = 1.55. Conclusion: Nicotine dependence was greater in the psychiatric population than in the general population. The independent factors associated with severe dependence were sex, age group, diagnosis, and current risk of suicide. These results trigger reflection among nurses on the need to focus more attention on a neglected subject in mental health services.
Jørgensen, Peter Holmberg; Lausten, Gunnar Schwarz; Pedersen, Alma B
AIM: The aim of the database is to gather information about sarcomas treated in Denmark in order to continuously monitor and improve the quality of sarcoma treatment in a local, a national, and an international perspective. STUDY POPULATION: Patients in Denmark diagnosed with a sarcoma, both...... skeletal and ekstraskeletal, are to be registered since 2009. MAIN VARIABLES: The database contains information about appearance of symptoms; date of receiving referral to a sarcoma center; date of first visit; whether surgery has been performed elsewhere before referral, diagnosis, and treatment; tumor...... of Diseases - tenth edition codes and TNM Classification of Malignant Tumours, and date of death (after yearly coupling to the Danish Civil Registration System). Data quality and completeness are currently secured. CONCLUSION: The Danish Sarcoma Database is population based and includes sarcomas occurring...
Jensen, Allan; Sharif, Heidi; Kjaer, Susanne K
and 1998. In a case-cohort study, rate ratios and 95% confidence intervals were used to assess the effects of 4 groups of fertility drugs on overall risk of uterine cancer after adjustment for potentially confounding factors. Through mid-2006, 83 uterine cancers were identified. Ever use of any fertility......Some epidemiologic studies have indicated that uterine cancer risk may be increased after use of fertility drugs. To further assess this association, the authors used data from a large cohort of 54,362 women diagnosed with infertility who were referred to Danish fertility clinics between 1965...... drug was not associated with uterine cancer risk (rate ratio (RR) = 1.10, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.69, 1.76). However, ever use of gonadotropins (follicle-stimulating hormone and human menopausal gonadotropin) increased uterine cancer risk (RR = 2.21, 95% CI: 1.08, 4.50); the risk was primarily...
Bentzen, J; Poulsen, P; Vaag, A
on parameters associated with the insulin resistance syndrome in Danish twins. METHODS: The effect of the polymorphism on lipid, glucose and insulin measures was studied in 548 same sex twins aged 55-74 years. RESULTS: The codon 2488 polymorphism influenced fasting triglyceride levels, as well as insulin......, as measured at 120 min in an oral glucose tolerance test. Subjects with the genotype T2488T had 14% higher triglyceride levels (P = 0.02) and 31% higher insulin levels (P = 0.004) than subjects with genotype C2488C. In twins discordant for genotype, the T-allele was associated with higher levels......AIMS: The apolipoprotein B codon 2488 polymorphism has been associated with the metabolism of lipoproteins in subjects with Type 2 diabetes. However, no data are available on the influence of the polymorphism on insulin or glucose metabolism. This study examines the impact of the polymorphism...
Christensen, Ann Demant; Søgaard, Rikke
AIM: In 2002, the Danish tax law was changed, giving employees a tax exemption on supplemental, employer-paid health insurance. This might have conflicted with one of the key foundations of the healthcare system, namely equal access for equal needs. The aim of this study was to investigate...... determinants for employer-paid health insurance coverage. Because the policy change affected only people who were part of the labour force and because the public sector at that time had no tradition of providing fringe benefits, the analysis was restricted to the private labour force. METHOD: The analysis...... employer-paid health insurance coverage. RESULTS: The individuals who were most likely to be insured were those employed in foreign companies as mid-level managers within the field of building and construction. Other important variables were the number of persons employed in a company, gender, ethnicity...
Andersen, Vibeke; Ernst, Anja; Sventoraityte, Jurgita
the combined Baltic, Danish, and Norwegian panel versus the combined German, British, Belgian, and Greek panel (rs7520292 (P = 0.001), rs12518307 (P = 0.007), and rs2395609 (TCP11) (P = 0.01), respectively). No SNP reached genome-wide significance in the combined analyses of all the panels. Conclusions......Background: Differences in the genetic architecture of inflammatory bowel disease between different European countries and ethnicities have previously been reported. In the present study, we wanted to assess the role of 11 newly identified UC risk variants, derived from a recent European UC genome...... wide association study (GWAS) (Franke et al., 2010), for 1) association with UC in the Nordic countries, 2) for population heterogeneity between the Nordic countries and the rest of Europe, and, 3) eventually, to drive some of the previous findings towards overall genome-wide significance. Methods...
Varsavsky, Mariela; Rozas Moreno, Pedro; Becerra Fernández, Antonio; Luque Fernández, Inés; Quesada Gómez, José Manuel; Ávila Rubio, Verónica; García Martín, Antonia; Cortés Berdonces, María; Naf Cortés, Silvia; Romero Muñoz, Manuel; Reyes García, Rebeca; Jódar Gimeno, Esteban; Muñoz Torres, Manuel
To provide recommendations based on evidence on the management of vitaminD deficiency in the general population. Members of the Bone Metabolism Working Group of the Spanish Society of Endocrinology. Recommendations were formulated using the GRADE system (Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation) to describe both the strength of recommendations and the quality of evidence. A systematic search was made in MEDLINE (Pubmed) using the term VitaminD and the name of each issue. Papers in English and Spanish with publication date before 17 March 2016 were included. Recommendations were jointly discussed by the Working Group. This document summarizes the data about vitaminD deficiency in terms of prevalence, etiology, screening indications, adequate levels and effects of supplementation on bone and non-skeletal health outcomes. Copyright © 2017 SEEN. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Gustavsen, S; Søndergaard, H B; Oturai, D B; Laursen, B; Laursen, J H; Magyari, M; Ullum, H; Larsen, M H; Sellebjerg, F; Oturai, A B
Epidemiological studies suggest an important role for environmental factors in developing multiple sclerosis (MS). Furthermore several studies have indicated that the effect of environmental factors may be especially pronounced in adolescents. Recently only one study investigated and found that shift work at young age is associated with an increased risk of developing MS. In this study we focused on the effect of shift work in the vulnerable period between 15-19 years. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between shift work at young age and the risk of developing MS. We performed a large case-control study including 1723 patients diagnosed with MS and 4067 controls. MS patients were recruited from the Danish Multiple Sclerosis Biobank and controls from The Danish Blood Donor Study. Information on working patterns and lifestyle factors was obtained using a comprehensive lifestyle-environmental factor questionnaire with participants enrolled between 2009 and 2014. Logistic regression models were used to investigate the association between shift work at age 15-19 years and the subsequent risk of MS and were controlled for effects due to established MS risk factors. We found a statistically significant association when total numbers of night shifts were compared with non-shift workers. For every additional 100 night shifts the odds ratio (OR) for MS was 1.20 (95% confidence interval (CI), 1.08-1.34, p=0.001). Increasing intensity of shift work also increased MS risk. For every additional night per month the OR was 1.04 (95% CI, 1.01-1.06, p=0.002). Duration of shift work in years was not associated with risk of MS. This study supports a statistically significant association between shift work at age 15-19 years and MS risk. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Perunovic, Zoran; Christiansen, Thomas Bøhm
The paper explores several dimensions of Danish industry’s innovative performance with respect to the paradigm of the fifth generation innovation model that was suggested by Rothwell [Int. Market. Rev. 11 (1994) 7]. These dimensions include a general status of innovativeness in Danish companies...... manufacturing companies demonstrate an innovative performance close to the fourth generation of innovation, which is slightly different than it is perceived publicly....
Full Text Available Background: Benzodiazepines can be classified as one of the most frequently prescribed categories of medication. This medication category is distinguished by a high risk of tolerance and dependence, in the case of long-term, excessive use. Aim: The aim of our study was to analyse the use of benzodiazepines in the general population, municipality of Berane, Montenegro, during the previous year. Methods: Research was based on the analysis of 1000 prescriptions of benzodiazepines, issued by physicians in Primary Health Care. The diagnostic manual utilised for the purpose of this research was International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10. The survey was conducted for a period of 40 days during January and February 2015. Results: The study was performed in the general population, age from 18 to 98 years (621 females and 379 males. The average age of all participants in the study was 64.1±13.1 years. Analysis of data confirmed that the most frequently prescribed from the group of benzodiazepines were: diazepam (42.2%, bromazepam (30.3%, lorazepam (16.4%, alprazolam (6.4%, nitrazepam (2.6% and clonazepam (2.1%. The significant statistical difference (x2=58.664; p<0.001 was found between female patients who used benzodiazepines in 62.1% of cases, compared to male patients who used benzodiazepines in 37.9% of cases. It was confirmed that benzodiazepines were usually prescribed for 17 different diagnoses, mostly for diagnoses from the group I, viz. cluster-diseases of the circulatory system (39.7%, group F-mental and behavioural disorders (31.1% and group E-endocrine, nutritional and metabolic diseases (7.7%. Conclusion: Studies about drug utilisation provide plenty of useful information which can be further used with the aim of achieving more rational prescribing and more effective patient treating.
Rodgers, B; Pickles, A; Power, C; Collishaw, S; Maughan, B
The Malaise Inventory is a commonly used self-completion scale for assessing psychiatric morbidity. There is some evidence that it may represent two separate psychological and somatic subscales rather than a single underlying factor of distress. This paper provides further information on the factor structure of the Inventory and on the reliability and validity of the total scale and two sub-scales. Two general population samples completed the full Inventory: over 11,000 subjects from the National Child Development Study at ages 23 and 33, and 544 mothers of adolescents included in the Isle of Wight epidemiological surveys. The internal consistency of the full 24-item scale and the 15-item psychological subscale were found to be acceptable, but the eight-item somatic sub-scale was less reliable. Factor analysis of all 24 items identified a first main general factor and a second more purely psychological factor. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis indicated that the validity of the scale held for men and women separately and for different socio-economic groups, by reference to external criteria covering current or recent psychiatric morbidity and service use, and that the psychological sub-scale had no greater validity than the full scale. This study did not support the separate scoring of a somatic sub-scale of the Malaise Inventory. Use of the 15-item psychological sub-scale can be justified on the grounds of reduced time and cost for completion, with little loss of reliability or validity, but this approach would not significantly enhance the properties of the Inventory by comparison with the full 24-item scale. Inclusion of somatic items may be more problematic when the full scale is used to compare particular sub-populations with different propensities for physical morbidity, such as different age groups, and in these circumstances it would be a sensible precaution to utilise the 15-item psychological sub-scale.
Bertelsen, Mette; Jensen, Hanne; Bregnhøj, Jesper F
of this study was to examine the prevalence and diagnostic spectrum of generalized retinal dystrophy in the Danish population. METHODS: A population-based cross-sectional study with data from the Danish Retinitis Pigmentosa Registry that comprises all patients in Denmark with generalized retinal......PURPOSE: Generalized retinal dystrophy is a frequent cause of visual impairment and blindness in younger individuals and a subject of new clinical intervention trials. Nonetheless, there are few nation-wide population-based epidemiological data of generalized retinal dystrophy. The purpose...... and chorioretinal dystrophies from the 19th century to the present. Among 3076 registered cases, the primary diagnosis of generalized retinal dystrophy was assessed by chart review, including fundus photographs and electroretinograms. Demographic data on the Danish population were retrieved from Statistics Denmark...
Terrien, Sarah; Stefaniak, Nicolas; Blondel, Marine; Mouras, Harold; Morvan, Yannick; Besche-Richard, Chrystel
Theory of Mind (ToM) is the ability to assign a set of mental states to yourself and others. In bipolar disorders, alteration of social relationship can be explained by the impairment of the functioning of ToM. Deficit in ToM could be a trait marker of bipolar disorder and people in the general population with high hypomanic personality scores would be more likely to develop bipolar disorders. This study examined 298 participants. Measures of hypomanic personality were evaluated using the Hypomanic Personality Scale. ToM was explored using the Yoni task. Participants also completed the BDI-II. Forward multiple regressions were performed to examine the effect of components of the HPS on the total score in the ToM task. In the women's group, no subscales of the HPS were included in the model. Conversely, the analyses performed on men revealed that the mood vitality and excitement subscale was a significant predictor of ToM abilities. Our study is the first to show the impact of certain dimensions of hypomanic personality on performance in ToM in a male sample. This result supports the idea that deficits in ToM can be a trait marker of bipolar disorder in a healthy male population. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Andersen, N.S.; Siegismund, H.R.; Meyer, V.
Gene flow from sugar beets to sea beets occurs in the seed propagation areas in southern Europe. Some seed propagation also takes place in Denmark, but here the crop-wild gene flow has not been investigated. Hence, we studied gene flow to sea beet populations from sugar beet lines used in Danish ...
Olsen, E M; Petersen, J; Skovgaard, A M; Weile, B; Jørgensen, T; Wright, C M
Background Failure to thrive (FTT) in early childhood is associated with subsequent developmental delay and is recognised to reflect relative undernutrition. Although the concept of FTT is widely used, no consensus exists regarding a specific definition, and it is unclear to what extent different anthropometric definitions concur. Objective To compare the prevalence and concurrence of different anthropometric criteria for FTT and test the sensitivity and positive predictive values of these in detecting children with “significant undernutrition”, defined as the combination of slow conditional weight gain and low body mass index (BMI). Methods Seven criteria of FTT, including low weight for age, low BMI, low conditional weight gain and Waterlow's criterion for wasting, were applied to a birth cohort of 6090 Danish infants. The criteria were compared in two age groups: 2–6 and 6–11 months of life. Results 27% of infants met one or more criteria in at least one of the two age groups. The concurrence among the criteria was generally poor, with most children identified by only one criterion. Positive predictive values of different criteria ranged from 1% to 58%. Most single criteria identified either less than half the cases of significant undernutrition (found in 3%) or included far too many, thus having a low positive predictive value. Children with low weight for height tended to be relatively tall. Conclusions No single measurement on its own seems to be adequate for identifying nutritional growth delay. Further longitudinal population studies are needed to investigate the discriminating power of different criteria in detecting significant undernutrition and subsequent outcomes. PMID:16531456
Souza José Carlos
Full Text Available The insomnia prevalence in general population was determined by means of 408 home interviews of adults, in a representative sample of Campo Grande city, Brazil. The random sample was stratified by sex, age and economic social status. Insomnia subtypes evaluated were the disorders of sleep initiation (DSI, sleep maintenance (DSM and early awakening (DEA. A structured questionnaire was used with the consent from the interviewed subjects. Statistics used chi-square, and Fisher tests; and inferences based on binomial distribution parameters; the significance level was 5% and confidence interval (CI was 95%.The general prevalence of insomnia was 19.1% (sd=2.0%, mostly women (p=0.0015, and people of less years of schooling (p=0.0317, subtype DSI (14.2%, p=0.0043, and chronic (p=0.7022. Hypnotic drugs were used by 6.9%(sd=1.3% in the last month. Use in the last 2 years, 70.3% mostly insomniacs (p<0.0001, women (p=0.0372 and people over 30 years of age (p=0.0536.
Jakobsen, Erik; Rasmussen, Torben Riis
AIM OF DATABASE: The Danish Lung Cancer Registry (DLCR) was established by the Danish Lung Cancer Group. The primary and first goal of the DLCR was to improve survival and the overall clinical management of Danish lung cancer patients. STUDY POPULATION: All Danish primary lung cancer patients since...... 2000 are included into the registry and the database today contains information on more than 50,000 cases of lung cancer. MAIN VARIABLES: The database contains information on patient characteristics such as age, sex, diagnostic procedures, histology, tumor stage, lung function, performance...... the results are commented for local, regional, and national audits. Indicator results are supported by descriptive reports with details on diagnostics and treatment. CONCLUSION: DLCR has since its creation been used to improve the quality of treatment of lung cancer in Denmark and it is increasingly used...
Daugaard, Gedske; Kier, Maria Gry Gundgaard; Bandak, Mikkel
AIM: The nationwide Danish Testicular Cancer database consists of a retrospective research database (DaTeCa database) and a prospective clinical database (Danish Multidisciplinary Cancer Group [DMCG] DaTeCa database). The aim is to improve the quality of care for patients with testicular cancer (TC......) in Denmark, that is, by identifying risk factors for relapse, toxicity related to treatment, and focusing on late effects. STUDY POPULATION: All Danish male patients with a histologically verified germ cell cancer diagnosis in the Danish Pathology Registry are included in the DaTeCa databases. Data...... collection has been performed from 1984 to 2007 and from 2013 onward, respectively. MAIN VARIABLES AND DESCRIPTIVE DATA: The retrospective DaTeCa database contains detailed information with more than 300 variables related to histology, stage, treatment, relapses, pathology, tumor markers, kidney function...
Full Text Available Gedske Daugaard,1 Maria Gry Gundgaard Kier,1 Mikkel Bandak,1 Mette Saksø Mortensen,1 Heidi Larsson,2 Mette Søgaard,2 Birgitte Groenkaer Toft,3 Birte Engvad,4 Mads Agerbæk,5 Niels Vilstrup Holm,6 Jakob Lauritsen1 1Department of Oncology 5073, Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, 2Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, 3Department of Pathology, Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, 4Department of Pathology, Odense University Hospital, Odense, 5Department of Oncology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, 6Department of Oncology, Odense University Hospital, Odense, Denmark Aim: The nationwide Danish Testicular Cancer database consists of a retrospective research database (DaTeCa database and a prospective clinical database (Danish Multidisciplinary Cancer Group [DMCG] DaTeCa database. The aim is to improve the quality of care for patients with testicular cancer (TC in Denmark, that is, by identifying risk factors for relapse, toxicity related to treatment, and focusing on late effects. Study population: All Danish male patients with a histologically verified germ cell cancer diagnosis in the Danish Pathology Registry are included in the DaTeCa databases. Data collection has been performed from 1984 to 2007 and from 2013 onward, respectively. Main variables and descriptive data: The retrospective DaTeCa database contains detailed information with more than 300 variables related to histology, stage, treatment, relapses, pathology, tumor markers, kidney function, lung function, etc. A questionnaire related to late effects has been conducted, which includes questions regarding social relationships, life situation, general health status, family background, diseases, symptoms, use of medication, marital status, psychosocial issues, fertility, and sexuality. TC survivors alive on October 2014 were invited to fill in this questionnaire including 160 validated questions
Register-based follow-up of social benefits and other transfer payments: accuracy and degree of completeness in a Danish interdepartmental administrative database compared with a population-based survey
Hjøllund, Niels Henrik Ingvar; Andersen, Johan Hvid; Larsen, F. B.
-related transfer payment and 98.2% for self-support. Among persons with a record of sickness benefit, 52.4% reported no transfer payment. CONCLUSION: The DREAM database is feasible for follow-up of social and economic consequences of disease. Respondents may be unaware of payments transferred by the public......BACKGROUND: Social consequences of disease may be subject to register based follow-up. A Danish database, DREAM, allows weekly follow-up of any public transfer payment. This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility of the register for use in public health research. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The DREAM...... database includes information on all public transfer payments administered by Danish ministries, municipalities, and Statistics Denmark for all Danish citizens on a weekly basis since 1991. The DREAM database was compared with self-reported information on sources of income in a population survey from 2001...
Bender, Anne Mette Flenstrup; Kawachi, Ichiro; Jørgensen, Torben
BACKGROUND: Participation in population-based preventive health check has declined over the past decades. More research is needed to determine factors enhancing participation. The objective of this study was to examine the association between two measures of neighborhood level social capital...... on participation in the health check phase of a population-based lifestyle intervention. METHODS: The study population comprised 12,568 residents of 73 Danish neighborhoods in the intervention group of a large population-based lifestyle intervention study - the Inter99. Two measures of social capital were applied......; informal socializing and voting turnout. RESULTS: In a multilevel analysis only adjusting for age and sex, a higher level of neighborhood social capital was associated with higher probability of participating in the health check. Inclusion of both individual socioeconomic position and neighborhood...
Thorsteinsson, Kristina; Ladelund, Steen; Jensen-Fangel, Søren; Katzenstein, Terese L; Johansen, Isik Somuncu; Pedersen, Gitte; Junge, Jette; Helleberg, Marie; Storgaard, Merete; Lebech, Anne-Mette
Women living with HIV (WLWH) are at increased risk of invasive cervical cancer (ICC). International HIV guidelines suggest cervical screening twice the first year after HIV diagnosis and thereafter annually. Adherence to the HIV cervical screening program in Denmark is unknown. We studied women from a population-based, nationwide HIV cohort in Denmark and a cohort of age-matched females from the general population. Screening behaviour was assessed from 1999-2010. Adjusted odds ratios (OR's) for screening attendance in the two cohorts and potential predictors of attendance to guidelines were estimated. Pathology specimens were identified from The Danish Pathology Data Bank. We followed 1143 WLWH and 17,145 controls with no prior history of ICC for 9,509 and 157,362 person-years. The first year after HIV diagnosis 2.6% of WLWH obtained the recommended two cervical cytologies. During the different calendar intervals throughout the study period between 29-46% of WLWH followed the HIV cervical screening guidelines. Adjusted OR's of attendance to the general population screening program for WLWH aged 30, 40 and 50 years, compared to controls, were 0.69 (95% CI: 0.56-0.87), 0.67 (0.55-0.80) and 0.84 (0.61-1.15). Predictors of attendance to the HIV cervical screening program were a CD4 count > 350 cells/μL and HIV RNA < 500 copies/mL. Calendar period after 2002 and HIV RNA < 500 copies/mL predicted attendance to the general population cervical screening program. The majority of WLWH do not follow the HIV guidelines for cervical screening. We support the idea of cytology as part of an annual review and integration of HIV care and cervical screening in a single clinic setting.
Witt, Andreas; Brown, Rebecca C; Plener, Paul L; Brähler, Elmar; Fegert, Jörg M
Child maltreatment and its consequences are considered a major public health problem. So far, there is only one study from Germany reporting prevalence rates on different types of maltreatment. A representative sample of the German general population was examined for experiences of child maltreatment using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) between September and November 2016. A total of 2510 (53.3% female) participants between 14 and 94 years (M = 48.8 years) were enrolled. Besides the CTQ, a range of sociodemographic information was collected. The interrelatedness of different types of maltreatment was examined using configuration analysis and predictors for maltreatment were identified by performing binary logistic regression analyses. Overall, 2.6% (f: 3.9%, m: 1.2%) of all participants reported severe emotional abuse, 3.3% (f: 3.4%, m: 3.3%) severe physical abuse, 2.3% (f: 3.7%, m: 0.7%) severe sexual abuse, 7.1% (f: 8.1%, m: 5.9%) severe emotional neglect and 9% (f: 9.2%, m: 8.9%) severe physical neglect. Women were more likely to report at least moderate sexual and emotional abuse than men. The largest difference between age groups was reported for physical neglect, with participants aged over 70 years reporting the highest rates. Participants who reported childhood maltreatment were more likely to be unemployed or have lower educational outcomes. The most common combination of maltreatment types were physical and emotional neglect, all five types of maltreatment combined and physical and emotional neglect and physical abuse combined. Child maltreatment, especially physical neglect is common in the German population. Women seem to be at greater risk for sexual and emotional abuse than men. Knowledge about different types of maltreatment based on the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) can help to put findings of future studies into an epidemiological and societal context.
Elnegaard, Sandra; Andersen, Rikke Sand; Pedersen, Anette Fischer
leading to GP contacts. CONCLUSION: Prevalence of symptoms and GP contacts are common in this overview of 44 different self-reported symptoms. For almost 2/3 of the reported symptoms no gender differences were found concerning the proportion leading to GP contacts. An enhanced understanding of healthcare...... population may increase our knowledge of this complex field. The primary objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of self-reported symptoms and the proportion of individuals reporting GP contact, in a large Danish nationwide cohort. A secondary objective was to explore gender differences in GP...
Pedersen, Agnes Nadelmann
and 2) sick elderly people resident at home and in institutions. The majority of the elderly enjoy generally good health. The diet-related diseases are the same as those affecting the rest of the population, and they are caused by an excessively high energy content of a diet which is poorly balanced...... in terms of macro-nutrients. While Danes receive adequate supplies of most vitamins and minerals, their fat intake is too high. Danish nutritional recommendations for healthy pensioners include a daily vitamin D intake of 10 microgrammes. Sick pensioners or small-eaters should follow the dietary...
Okano, Justin T; Robbins, Danielle; Palk, Laurence; Gerstoft, Jan; Obel, Niels; Blower, Sally
Worldwide, approximately 35 million individuals are infected with HIV; about 25 million of these live in sub-Saharan Africa. WHO proposes using treatment as prevention (TasP) to eliminate HIV. Treatment suppresses viral load, decreasing the probability an individual transmits HIV. The elimination threshold is one new HIV infection per 1000 individuals. Here, we test the hypothesis that TasP can substantially reduce epidemics and eliminate HIV. We estimate the impact of TasP, between 1996 and 2013, on the Danish HIV epidemic in men who have sex with men (MSM), an epidemic UNAIDS has identified as a priority for elimination. We use a CD4-staged Bayesian back-calculation approach to estimate incidence, and the hidden epidemic (the number of HIV-infected undiagnosed MSM). To develop the back-calculation model, we use data from an ongoing nationwide population-based study: the Danish HIV Cohort Study. Incidence, and the hidden epidemic, decreased substantially after treatment was introduced in 1996. By 2013, incidence was close to the elimination threshold: 1·4 (median, 95% Bayesian credible interval [BCI] 0·4-2·1) new HIV infections per 1000 MSM and there were only 617 (264-858) undiagnosed MSM. Decreasing incidence and increasing treatment coverage were highly correlated; a treatment threshold effect was apparent. Our study is the first to show that TasP can substantially reduce a country's HIV epidemic, and bring it close to elimination. However, we have shown the effectiveness of TasP under optimal conditions: very high treatment coverage, and exceptionally high (98%) viral suppression rate. Unless these extremely challenging conditions can be met in sub-Saharan Africa, the WHO's global elimination strategy is unlikely to succeed. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Mielczarek, A T; Saunders, A M; Larsen, P; Albertsen, M; Stevenson, M; Nielsen, J L; Nielsen, P H
Since 2006 more than 50 Danish full-scale wastewater treatment plants with nutrient removal have been investigated in a project called 'The Microbial Database for Danish Activated Sludge Wastewater Treatment Plants with Nutrient Removal (MiDas-DK)'. Comprehensive sets of samples have been collected, analyzed and associated with extensive operational data from the plants. The community composition was analyzed by quantitative fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) supported by 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing and deep metagenomics. MiDas-DK has been a powerful tool to study the complex activated sludge ecosystems, and, besides many scientific articles on fundamental issues on mixed communities encompassing nitrifiers, denitrifiers, bacteria involved in P-removal, hydrolysis, fermentation, and foaming, the project has provided results that can be used to optimize the operation of full-scale plants and carry out trouble-shooting. A core microbial community has been defined comprising the majority of microorganisms present in the plants. Time series have been established, providing an overview of temporal variations in the different plants. Interestingly, although most microorganisms were present in all plants, there seemed to be plant-specific factors that controlled the population composition thereby keeping it unique in each plant over time. Statistical analyses of FISH and operational data revealed some correlations, but less than expected. MiDas-DK (www.midasdk.dk) will continue over the next years and we hope the approach can inspire others to make similar projects in other parts of the world to get a more comprehensive understanding of microbial communities in wastewater engineering.
Østergaard, Mette; Ernst, Anja; Labouriau, Rodrigo S.
=0.006) and 1.39 ((0.99-1.92) p=0.054), respectively, and for UC of 2.63 ((1.33-5.26) p=0.005) and 1.28 ((0.96-1.51) p=0.093), respectively, assuming complete dominance. No association was found for BCRP or other MDR1 SNPs, or for selected MDR1 haplotypes. No effect-modification of smoking habit......OBJECTIVE: Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) are characterized by an impaired mucosal defence to normal constituents of the intestinal flora and a dysregulated inflammatory response. The purpose of the study was to investigate whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes....../A, C3435T and G-rs3789243-A (intron 3) were assessed in a Danish case-control study comprising 373 CD and 541 UC patients and 796 healthy controls. RESULTS: Carriers of the homozygous COX-2 and MDR1 intron 3 variant had a relatively high risk of CD, odds ratio (95% CI) (OR (95% CI))=2.86 ((1.34-5.88) p...
Jensen, Allan; Sharif, Heidi; Kjaer, Susanne K
Some epidemiologic studies have indicated that uterine cancer risk may be increased after use of fertility drugs. To further assess this association, the authors used data from a large cohort of 54,362 women diagnosed with infertility who were referred to Danish fertility clinics between 1965 and 1998. In a case-cohort study, rate ratios and 95% confidence intervals were used to assess the effects of 4 groups of fertility drugs on overall risk of uterine cancer after adjustment for potentially confounding factors. Through mid-2006, 83 uterine cancers were identified. Ever use of any fertility drug was not associated with uterine cancer risk (rate ratio (RR) = 1.10, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.69, 1.76). However, ever use of gonadotropins (follicle-stimulating hormone and human menopausal gonadotropin) increased uterine cancer risk (RR = 2.21, 95% CI: 1.08, 4.50); the risk was primarily observed after 10 years of follow-up. Furthermore, uterine cancer risk increased with number of cycles of use for clomiphene (for > or =6 cycles, RR = 1.96, 95% CI: 1.03, 3.72) and human chorionic gonadotropin (for > or =6 cycles, RR = 2.18, 95% CI: 1.16, 4.08) but not for other gonadotropins. Use of gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogs was not associated with risk. Gonadotropins, and possibly clomiphene and human chorionic gonadotropin, may increase the risk of uterine cancer, with higher doses and longer follow-up leading to greater risk.
Jørgensen, Kristian Tore; Nielsen, Nete Munk; Pedersen, Bo Vestergaard
The risk of some female predominant autoimmune diseases (ADs) has previously been shown to be higher in women who experience hyperemesis, gestational hypertensive disorders and idiopathic pregnancy losses. This study assessed the association between such pregnancy-related experiences and the subs......The risk of some female predominant autoimmune diseases (ADs) has previously been shown to be higher in women who experience hyperemesis, gestational hypertensive disorders and idiopathic pregnancy losses. This study assessed the association between such pregnancy-related experiences...... and the subsequent risk of female predominant and other ADs. Our study cohort comprised 1.6 million Danish women born since 1955 for whom we had information about hyperemesis, gestational hypertensive disorders and pregnancy losses and subsequent hospital contacts for 31 ADs between 1982 and 2008. Ratios of first...... hospitalization rates (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using Poisson regression, adjusting for age, birth cohort, calendar period, marital status and childbirths. During 27.0 million person-years of follow-up 51,732 women were hospitalized with one or more ADs. Overall, compared...
Mygind-Klavsen, Bjarne; Grønbech Nielsen, Torsten; Maagaard, Niels
Danish Hip Arthroscopy Registry (DHAR) was initiated in 2012 as a web-based prospective registry. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and report the epidemiologic and perioperative data of the first 2000 procedures in a Danish hip arthroscopy population and to describe the development of DHAR...... was 0.65 and HAGOS sub-scores were 51 (pain), 49 (symptoms), 53 (ADL), 35 (sport), 20 (physical activity) and 29, respectively. We conclude that patients undergoing hip arthroscopy report considerable pain, loss of function, reduced level of activity and reduced quality-of-life prior to surgery....... The problems with development and maintaining a large clinical registry are described and further studies are needed to validate data completeness. We consider the development of a national clinical registry for hip arthroscopy as a successful way of developing and maintaining a valuable clinical...
Furihata, Ryuji; Kaneita, Yoshitaka; Jike, Maki; Ohida, Takashi; Uchiyama, Makoto
The objective of this study was to investigate napping habits and their associated factors in the Japanese adult general population. The cross-sectional survey was conducted in November 2007 for subjects selected randomly from among 300 districts throughout Japan. Data from 7664 people (3527 men and 4137 women), aged 20-99 years, were analyzed. Participants completed a self-administered questionnaire on frequency and duration of napping. The percentage of responders for high-frequency napping, four or more days per week, was 21.2% among men and 17.1% among women. The percentage of responders for long-duration napping, 2 h or more per one nap, was 2.9% among men and 2.6% among women. Multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed that men, older age, smoking, insomnia symptoms, long sleep duration, excessive daytime sleepiness, and having sufficient rest obtained by sleep were positively associated with high-frequency napping, whereas alcohol drinking showed a negative association. Older age was negatively associated with long-duration napping whereas living in a large community, smoking, long sleep duration, excessive daytime sleepiness, and psychological stress showed a positive association. These findings provide important data for future studies aimed at improvement of sleep habits. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Background: Hepatitis C virus is encountered sporadically in Bangladesh. It results in a wide range liver diseases, with asymptomatic acute hepatitis rarely at one end to HCC at the other end of the spectrum. Methods: 1018 individuals of different age groups and sex with varied religious, educational and social backgrounds were tested for anti-HCV by ELISA. Before testing, blood samples were preserved at -20°C. The study was conducted in a semi-urban location on the outskirts of Dhaka. Results: 0.88% tested positive for anti HCV. None of them tested positive for HBsAg. There was a male predominance and those who tested positive were mostly between 17 and 50 years of age. Major risk factors for exposure to HBV appeared to be injudicious use of injectable medications, treatment by unqualified, traditional practitioners, mass-vaccination against cholera and smallpox, barbers and body piercing. Conclusion: HCV remains an important cause of morbidity and mortality in Bangladesh. Key words: HCV; prevalence; general population; Bangladesh.DOI: 10.3329/bsmmuj.v2i1.3705 BSMMU J 2009; 2(1: 14-17
Full Text Available The objective of this study is to examine the association between impulsivity and weight status in a large sample of the adult general population in France, and the influence of gender on this relationship. A total of 11,929 men and 39,114 women participating in the NutriNet-Santé cohort were selected in this cross-sectional analysis. The Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11 was used to assess impulsivity. Weight and height were self-reported. The association between impulsivity and BMI was estimated using logistic regressions adjusted for socio-demographic and lifestyle factors. Individuals with high impulsivity levels (BIS-11 total score >71 were more likely to be obese (Odds Ratio (OR = 1.80, 95% Confidence Interval (CI: 1.39, 2.33 in men; OR = 1.30, 95% CI: 1.15, 1.48 in women compared to individuals in the average range of impulsivity. The strongest associations between impulsivity and obesity were observed in men, where highly impulsive participants were more likely to be class III obese (BMI > 40 kg/m2 (OR = 3.57, 95% CI: 1.86, 6.85. This large sample analysis supports the existence of a relationship between impulsivity and weight status and the importance of psychological factors in the prevention of obesity.
Bénard, Marc; Camilleri, Géraldine M; Etilé, Fabrice; Méjean, Caroline; Bellisle, France; Reach, Gérard; Hercberg, Serge; Péneau, Sandrine
The objective of this study is to examine the association between impulsivity and weight status in a large sample of the adult general population in France, and the influence of gender on this relationship. A total of 11,929 men and 39,114 women participating in the NutriNet-Santé cohort were selected in this cross-sectional analysis. The Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11) was used to assess impulsivity. Weight and height were self-reported. The association between impulsivity and BMI was estimated using logistic regressions adjusted for socio-demographic and lifestyle factors. Individuals with high impulsivity levels (BIS-11 total score >71) were more likely to be obese (Odds Ratio (OR) = 1.80, 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.39, 2.33 in men; OR = 1.30, 95% CI: 1.15, 1.48 in women) compared to individuals in the average range of impulsivity. The strongest associations between impulsivity and obesity were observed in men, where highly impulsive participants were more likely to be class III obese (BMI > 40 kg/m²) (OR = 3.57, 95% CI: 1.86, 6.85). This large sample analysis supports the existence of a relationship between impulsivity and weight status and the importance of psychological factors in the prevention of obesity.
Grønvold, Mogens; Adsersen, Mathilde; Hansen, Maiken Bang
Aims: The aim of the Danish Palliative Care Database (DPD) is to monitor, evaluate, and improve the clinical quality of specialized palliative care (SPC) (ie, the activity of hospital-based palliative care teams/departments and hospices) in Denmark. Study population: The study population is all...... patients were registered in DPD during the 5 years 2010–2014. Of those registered, 96% had cancer. Conclusion: DPD is a national clinical quality database for SPC having clinically relevant variables and high data and patient completeness....
Gradel, Kim Oren; Schønheyder, Henrik Carl; Arpi, Magnus
% of the Danish population). The database also includes data on comorbidity from the Danish National Patient Registry, vital status from the Danish Civil Registration System, and clinical data on 31% of nonselected records in the database. Use of the unique civil registration number given to all Danish residents......The Danish Collaborative Bacteraemia Network (DACOBAN) research database includes microbiological data obtained from positive blood cultures from a geographically and demographically well-defined population serviced by three clinical microbiology departments (1.7 million residents, 32...... enables linkage to additional registries for specific research projects. The DACOBAN database is continuously updated, and it currently comprises 39,292 patients with 49,951 bacteremic episodes from 2000 through 2011. The database is part of an international network of population-based bacteremia...
Laursen, Thomas M; Trabjerg, Betina B; Mors, Ole; Børglum, Anders D; Hougaard, David M; Mattheisen, Manuel; Meier, Sandra M; Byrne, Enda M; Mortensen, Preben B; Munk-Olsen, Trine; Agerbo, Esben
It is unknown whether an increased genetic liability to schizophrenia influences the risk of dying early. The aim of the study was to determine whether the genetic predisposition to schizophrenia is associated with the risk of dying early and experience a suicide attempt. Case control study, Denmark. The main measure was the mortality rate ratios (MRR) for deaths and odds ratios (OR) for multiple suicide attempts, associated with one standard deviations increase of the polygenic risk-score for schizophrenia (PRS). We replicated the high mortality MRR=9.01 (95% CI: 3.56-22.80), and high risk of multiple suicide attempts OR=33.16 (95% CI: 20.97-52.43) associated with schizophrenia compared to the general population. However, there was no effect of the PRS on mortality MRR=1.00 (95% CI 0.71-1.40) in the case-control setup or in cases only, MRR=1.05 (95% CI 0.73-1.51). Similar, no association between the PRS and multiple suicide attempts was found in the adjusted models, but in contrast, family history of mental disorders was associated with both outcomes. A genetic predisposition for schizophrenia, measured by PRS, has little influence on the excess mortality or the risk of suicide attempts. In contrast there is a strong significant effect of family history of mental disorders. Our findings could reflect that the common variants detected by recent PRS only explain a small proportion of risk of schizophrenia, and that future, more powerful PRS instruments may be able to predict excess mortality within this disorder. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Building materials as any other materials of natural occurrence contain small concentrations of natural radioactive elements. This natural radioactivity affects people inside buildings. This publiccation refers measurements of the Danish building materials, and radiation doses originating from this source affecting the Danish population are related to the other components of background radioactivity. (EG)
Ohayon, M M; Lemoine, P
Insomnia is a frequent symptom in the general population; numerous studies have proven this. In the past years, classifications have gradually given more emphasis to daytime repercussions of insomnia and to their consequences on social and cognitive functioning. They are now integrated in the definition of insomnia and are used to quantify its severity. If the daytime consequences of insomnia are well known at the clinical level, there are few epidemiological data on this matter. The aim of this study was to assess the daytime repercussions of insomnia complaints in the general population of France. A representative sample (n=5,622) aged 15 or older was surveyed by telephone with the help of the sleep-EVAL expert system, a computer program specially designed to evaluate sleep disorders and to manage epidemiological investigations. Interviews have been completed for 80.8% of the solicited subjects (n=5,622). The variables considered comprised insomnia and its daytime repercussions on cognitive functioning, affective tone, daytime sleepiness and diurnal fatigue. Insomnia was found in 18.6% of the sample. The prevalence was higher in women (22.4%) than in men (14.5%, psleep. Nearly 75% of insomnia complainers reported having a disrupted sleep or waking up too early in the morning and about 40% said they had a non-restorative sleep. Repercussions on daytime functioning were reported by most insomnia subjects (67%). Repercussions on cognitive functioning changed according age, number of insomnia symptoms and the use of a psychotropic medication. A decreased efficiency was more likely to be reported by subjects between 15 and 44 years of age (OR: 2.9), those using a psychotropic (OR: 1.5), those reporting at least three insomnia symptoms (OR: 1.4) and women (OR: 1.4). The highest probability of the appearance of concentration difficulties was found in subjects younger than 65 Years, having a depressive disorder and using a psychotropic (15-44 years: OR 19.1; 45-64 years
Riegels Melchior, Marie; Skov, Lise; Csaba, Fabian
emanate from Denmark and secure growth, jobs and exports even outside the fashion business has taken hold among policymakers, and compelled the government to embrace fashion as a national project. In investigating the emergence and rising stature of Danish fashion, particular at home, we first establish...... a theoretical frame for understanding the cultural economic policy and the motives, principles and strategies behind it. Then – drawing inspiration from Michel Callon’s “sociology of translation” with its moments of translation: problematization, interessement, enrolment and mobilization – we identify...... the actors and analyze their strategic roles and interrelationship through various phases of the development of Danish fashion. Callon’s actor network theory (ANT) is based on the principle of “generalized symmetry” – originally using a single repertoire to analyze both society and nature. We adapt...
Ugelvig, Line V; Nielsen, Per S; Boomsma, Jacobus J
structure over the last 77 years from museum specimens. We also tested amplification efficiency in such historical samples as a function of repeat length and sample age. Low population numbers in the 1980s did not affect genetic diversity, but considerable turnover of alleles has characterized...... between dispersal, effective population size, and long-term genetic erosion of these endangered butterflies remains unknown. Using non-destructive sampling, we investigated the genetic diversity of the last extant population of M. arion in Denmark, which experienced critically low numbers in the 1980s....... Results: Using nine microsatellite markers, we show that the population is genetically impoverished compared to nearby populations in Sweden, but less so than monitoring programs suggested. Ten additional short repeat microsatellites were used to reconstruct changes in genetic diversity and population...
Stallknecht, Sandra Elkjær; Strandberg-Larsen, Katrine; Hestbæk, Lise; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo
This study aims to describe the patterns in low back, mid back, and neck pain complaints in young adolescents from the Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC) and to investigate the co-occurrence of spinal pain and stress and general well-being, respectively. Cross-sectional data from the 11-year follow-up of DNBC were used. As part of a web-based survey, a total of 45,371 young adolescents between 10 and 14 years old completed the Young Spine Questionnaire, the Stress in Children Questionnaire, and a one-item question on general well-being. Associations between spinal pain and, respectively, stress and general well-being were estimated by means of multiple logistic regression models. Almost one fifth of boys and one quarter of girls reported spinal pain. Compared with adolescents who reported no stress, adolescents reporting medium and high values of stress had odds ratios (OR) of 2.19 (95% CI 2.08-2.30) and 4.73 (95% CI 4.28-5.23), respectively, of reporting spinal pain (adjusted for age, gender, and maternal education). Adolescents who reported poor general well-being had an OR of 2.50 (95% CI 2.31-2.72) for reporting spinal pain compared to adolescents with good general well-being. Spinal pain is a common complaint among young adolescents and co-occurs with stress and poor general well-being. The mutual dependency between the factors remained to be explained. What is Known: • The prevalence of spinal pain increases rapidly during childhood and adolescence, but different measurement instruments result in great variation in the estimates of spinal pain in children and adolescents. • Some studies have shown that different psychosocial measures are associated with spinal pain in children and adolescents. What is New: • Spinal pain, as measured by the newly developed and validated Young Spine Questionnaire, is a common complaint in young adolescents aged 10-14 years. • Spinal pain in young adolescents co-occurs with stress and poor general well-being.
Schmidt, K W; Fouchard, J R; Krasnik, A; Zoffmann, H; Jacobsen, H L; Kreiner, S
An anonymous self-administered questionnaire was distributed to (1) male members of the Danish Gay and Lesbian Association (2) through a gay magazine and (3) to readers of a gay pornographic magazine. For the purpose of this study sexual practices were classified into three categories taking into account the HIV-status of the respondent and his partner(s): safe sex (mutual masturbation, sex with condoms, sex without condoms between two HIV-positives), potentially safe sex (oral-genital sex without condoms irrespective of HIV-status, anal-genital sex without condoms between two HIV-negatives), unsafe sex (anal-genital sex without condoms between discordant partners or partners of unknown HIV status). Of the 2058 respondents 29.7% had had unsafe sex in the last 12 months. Multivariate analysis by recursive graphical models showed that sexual practice was directly related (that is conditionally dependent given the rest of the variables) to having a steady partner. Among men without a steady partner sexual practice was also directly related to age and number of partners showing an increase in unsafe sex with number of partners and a decrease with age. Thus of the men 16-19 years of age 43.5% had had unsafe sex irrespective of number of partners vs 5.7% of men older than 44 years and with one to two partners. Sexual practice was not directly related to any other demographic or psychosocial factor in the study. The adopted classification of sexual practice preclude that the high occurrence of unsafe sex could be explained by unsafe sex taking place among partners of concordant HIV status. The results emphasize the need for further preventive efforts to reduce transmission of HIV among homosexual men.
Thorsteinsson, K; Ladelund, S; Jensen-Fangel, S; Katzenstein, T L; Johansen, I Somuncu; Pedersen, G; Junge, J; Helleberg, M; Storgaard, M; Obel, N; Lebech, A-M
Women living with HIV (WLWH) are reportedly at increased risk of invasive cervical cancer (ICC). A recent publication found that WLWH in Denmark attend the national ICC screening programme less often than women in the general population. We aimed to estimate the incidence of cervical dysplasia and ICC in WLWH in Denmark compared with that in women in the general population. We studied a nationwide cohort of WLWH and a cohort of 15 age-matched women per WLWH from the general population for the period 1999-2010. Pathology samples were obtained from The Danish Pathology Data Bank, which contains nationwide records of all pathology specimens. The cumulative incidence and hazard ratios (HRs) for time from inclusion to first cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN)/ICC and time from first normal cervical cytology result to first CIN/ICC were estimated. Sensitivity analyses were performed to include prior screening outcome, screening intensity and treatment of CIN/ICC in the interpretation of results. We followed 1140 WLWH and 17 046 controls with no prior history of ICC or hysterectomy for 9491 and 156 865 person-years, respectively. Compared with controls, the overall incidences of CIN1 or worse (CIN1+), CIN2+ and CIN3+, but not ICC, were higher in WLWH and predicted by young age and a CD4 count < 200 cells/μL. In women with normal baseline cytology, incidences of CIN1+ and CIN2+ were higher in WLWH. However, when we compared subgroups of WLWH and controls where women in both groups were adherent to the national ICC screening programme and had a normal baseline cytology, incidences of CIN and ICC were comparable. Overall, WLWH developed more cervical disease than controls. Yet, in WLWH and controls adherent to the national ICC screening programme and with normal baseline cytology, incidences of CIN and ICC were comparable. © 2015 British HIV Association.
Brandes, Axel; Overgaard, Mikkel; Plauborg, Liane
with a mean age of 74.811.2 years. The mean CHADS(2) and CHA(2)DS(2)-VASc scores were 1.9 +/- 1.3 and 3.5 +/- 1.8, respectively. Of the patients, 12.4% and 4.04%, respectively, were at truly low risk, with a CHADS(2) and CHA(2)DS(2)-VASc score 0 (P ... proportion of patients with nonvalvular AF do not receive guideline-adherent antithrombotic treatment in primary care. MethodsWe performed a cross-sectional survey of antithrombotic treatment using data of AF patients from general practices. ResultsSixty-four general practitioners enrolled 1743 patients......) score. Applying the CHA(2)DS(2)-VASc score, this proportion was only 53.4%. Antiplatelet drug treatment was in adherence to the guidelines (CHADS(2) and CHA(2)DS(2)-VASc score of 1) in only 31% and 12% of the patients, respectively. ConclusionsAntithrombotic treatment of AF patients is in general well...
van Gastel, Maatje D A; Meijer, Esther; Scheven, Lieneke E; Struck, Joachim; Bakker, Stephan J L; Gansevoort, Ron T
Vasopressin plays an important role in maintaining volume homeostasis. However, recent studies suggest that vasopressin also may play a detrimental role in the progression of chronic kidney disease. It therefore is of interest to identify factors that influence vasopressin concentration, particularly modifiable ones. Cross-sectional analyses. Data used are from participants in a large general-population cohort study (Prevention of Renal and Vascular Endstage Disease [PREVEND]). Patients with a missing copeptin value (n=888), nonfasting blood sample (n=495), missing or assumed incorrect 24-hour urine collection (n=388), or heart failure (n=20) were excluded, leaving 6,801 participants for analysis. Identification of lifestyle- and diet-related factors that are associated with copeptin concentration. Copeptin concentration as surrogate for vasopressin. Copeptin was measured by an immunoluminometric assay as a surrogate for vasopressin. Associations were assessed in uni- and multivariable linear regression analyses. Median copeptin concentration was 4.7 (IQR, 2.9-7.6) pmol/L. When copeptin was studied as a dependent variable, the final stepwise backward model revealed associations with higher copeptin concentrations for lower 24-hour urine volume (P firm conclusions on cause-effect relationships. Important lifestyle- and diet-related factors associated with copeptin concentration are current smoking, alcohol use, protein and potassium intake, and particularly fluid and sodium intake. These data form a rationale to investigate whether intervening on these factors results in a lower vasopressin concentration with concomitant beneficial renal effects. Copyright © 2015 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Boomsma Jacobus J
Full Text Available Abstract Background Fragmentation of terrestrial ecosystems has had detrimental effects on metapopulations of habitat specialists. Maculinea butterflies have been particularly affected because of their specialized lifecycles, requiring both specific food-plants and host-ants. However, the interaction between dispersal, effective population size, and long-term genetic erosion of these endangered butterflies remains unknown. Using non-destructive sampling, we investigated the genetic diversity of the last extant population of M. arion in Denmark, which experienced critically low numbers in the 1980s. Results Using nine microsatellite markers, we show that the population is genetically impoverished compared to nearby populations in Sweden, but less so than monitoring programs suggested. Ten additional short repeat microsatellites were used to reconstruct changes in genetic diversity and population structure over the last 77 years from museum specimens. We also tested amplification efficiency in such historical samples as a function of repeat length and sample age. Low population numbers in the 1980s did not affect genetic diversity, but considerable turnover of alleles has characterized this population throughout the time-span of our analysis. Conclusions Our results suggest that M. arion is less sensitive to genetic erosion via population bottlenecks than previously thought, and that managing clusters of high quality habitat may be key for long-term conservation.
Buch, Martin Sandberg; Edwards, Adrian; Eriksson, Tina
The Maturity Matrix is a group-based formative self-evaluation tool aimed at assessing the degree of organisational development in general practice and providing a starting point for local quality improvement. Earlier studies of the Maturity Matrix have shown that participants find the method a useful way of assessing their practice's organisational development. However, little is known about participants' views on the resulting efforts to implement intended changes. To explore users' perspectives on the Maturity Matrix method, the facilitation process, and drivers and barriers for implementation of intended changes. Observation of two facilitated practice meetings, 17 semi-structured interviews with participating general practitioners (GPs) or their staff, and mapping of reasons for continuing or quitting the project. General practices in Denmark Main outcomes: Successful change was associated with: a clearly identified anchor person within the practice, a shared and regular meeting structure, and an external facilitator who provides support and counselling during the implementation process. Failure to implement change was associated with: a high patient-related workload, staff or GP turnover (that seemed to affect small practices more), no clearly identified anchor person or anchor persons who did not do anything, no continuous support from an external facilitator, and no formal commitment to working with agreed changes. Future attempts to improve the impact of the Maturity Matrix, and similar tools for quality improvement, could include: (a) attention to matters of variation caused by practice size, (b) systematic counselling on barriers to implementation and support to structure the change processes, (c) a commitment from participants that goes beyond participation in two-yearly assessments, and (d) an anchor person for each identified goal who takes on the responsibility for improvement in practice.
Kroon, Jojanneke S.; Wohlfarth, Tamar D.; Dieleman, Jeanne; Sutterland, Arjen L.; Storosum, Jitschak G.; Denys, Damiaan; de Haan, Lieuwe; Sturkenboom, Mirjam C. J. M.
To estimate the incidence rates (IRs) of bipolar I and bipolar II disorders in the general population according to sociodemographic population characteristics. A cohort study (during the years 1996-2007) was conducted in a general practitioners research database with a longitudinal electronic record
Lane, Mary Turner; Wileman, Ralph E.
This book is written to assist anyone who wants to learn about, teach, or plan curricula for population education. A structure is provided that educators can use for first graders or for high school students. Chapter 1 identifies the population phenomenon and the need to study it. Chapter 2 gives the elements of the structure: goals,…
Yttri, Janne Elin; Christensen, Kaare; Knudsen, Lisbeth
Abstract Objective: The aim of the study was to compare the reproduction pattern among Danish women born with isolated oral clefts with the Danish background population. Design and setting: A nationwide population based historic cohort-study based on three registers: The Danish Facial Cleft...... Register, The Danish Civil Registration System and the Fertility of Women and Couples Dataset. Participants: Through linkages of the registers, number of children and the exact age at childbirth of all Danish women born with an oral cleft during 1950 through 1988 (N=1,931) were obtained. These data were...
Bahrami, Golnosh; Vaeth, Michael; Wenzel, Ann; Isidor, Flemming
The aim of this study was to compare the marginal bone level of two randomly selected population samples from 1997/1998 and 2007/2008, with special emphasis on the role of smoking habits and gender. Two cross-sectional randomly selected population samples [1997/1998 (N = 616) and 2007/2008 (N = 396)] were analysed with respect to the marginal bone level. The marginal bone level was measured in full-mouth intraoral radiographs. Information on smoking was gathered using questionnaires. Multiple regression analysis was used in order to adjust for correlating factors (gender, age, smoking habits and number of teeth). After adjusting for confounding factors, the population sample from 2007/2008 had on average a slightly, but statistically significantly, more reduced average marginal bone level (0.15 mm) than the population sample from 1997/1998. Men had more reduced marginal bone level than women (0.12 mm). Smokers in both population samples had more reduced marginal bone level than non-smokers (0.39 mm and 0.12 mm for 1997/1998; 0.65 mm and 0.16 mm for 2007/2008). In these populations, sampled 10 years apart, the 2007/2008 population sample had a slightly more reduced marginal bone level than the 1997/1998 population sample. Men had more reduced marginal bone level than women, and smoking is considered a major risk factor for a reduced marginal bone level.
Vejbjerg, P.; Knudsen, N.; Perrild, H.
of iodine status in the population. Methods: Two identical cross-sectional studies were performed before (1997-1998, n=4649) and after (2004-2005, n=3570) the initiation of the Danish iodization programme in two areas with mild and moderate iodine deficiency. Serum Tg was measured from blood samples....... Thyroid volume was measured by ultrasonography. Results: Before iodization, the median serum Tg was considerably higher in moderate than in mild iodine deficiency. Iodization led to a lower serum Tg in all examined age groups. The marked pre-iodization difference in Tg level between the regions......Objective: The iodine status of a population is traditionally evaluated by either urinary iodine (UT) excretion or by some measure of thyroid volume and the prevalence of goitre. In this prospective study of a mandatory iodization programme, we aimed to evaluate serum thyroglobulin (Tg) as a marker...
Christensen, Lisa Bøge; Hede, Børge; Fiehn, Nils-Erik
Objectives To identify and analyze determinants for oral-health-related quality of life among adults admitted to a Danish research program on general health and lifestyle (DANHES 2007-2008) Materials and methods Study population of the present (dental) study: 4402 volunteers invited among...
Deleuran, Thomas; Vilstrup, Hendrik; Overgaard, Søren
and knee. METHODS: In Danish healthcare databases we identified all residents over 60 years diagnosed with cirrhosis in 1994-2011, and for each of them we sampled five age- and gender-matched reference persons from the general population. We excluded everyone with risk factors for secondary osteoarthritis...
Waldorff, Frans Boch; Nicolaisdottir, Dagny Ros; Kousgaard, Marius Brostrøm
: A total of 1,906 (56%) GPs completed the questionnaire. In all, 861 (45%) had a negative attitude towards accreditation, whereas 429 (21%) were very positive or posi-tive. The negative attitudes towards accreditation were associated with being older, male and with working in a singlehanded practice.......018 (95% CI: 0.013-0.025)), more likely to agree that it would affect job satisfaction negatively (OR = 21.88 (95% CI: 16.10-29.72)), and they were generally less satisfied with their present job situation (OR = 2.51 (95% CI: 1.85-3.41)). CONCLUSION: Almost half of the GPs had negative attitudes towards....... A regional difference was observed as well. GPs with negative expectations were more likely to agree that accreditation was a tool meant for external control (odds ratio (OR) = 1.87 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.18-2.95)), less likely to agree that accreditation was a tool for quality improvement (OR = 0...
Leboeuf-Yde, Charlotte; Nielsen, Jan; Kyvik, Kirsten O
, aged 20 to 71 years, representative of the general Danish population. Identical questions on pain were asked for the lumbar, thoracic and cervical regions. RESULTS: Low back pain was most common, followed by neck pain with thoracic pain being least common. Pain for at least 30 days in the past year......BACKGROUND: It is unclear to what extent spinal pain varies between genders and in relation to age. It was the purpose of this study to describe the self-reported prevalence of 1) pain ever and pain in the past year in each of the three spinal regions, 2) the duration of such pain over the past...... year, 3) pain radiating from these areas, and 4) pain in one, two or three areas. In addition, 5) to investigate if spinal pain reporting is affected by gender and 6) to see if it increases gradually with increasing age. METHOD: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2002 on 34,902 twin individuals...
Andersen, Stine Linding; Olsen, Jørn; Carlé, Allan; Laurberg, Peter
Hyperthyroidism in women of reproductive age is predominantly caused by Graves' disease. Pregnancy associated changes in the immune system may influence the onset of disease, but population-based incidence rates in and around pregnancy have not been reported. The objective of the study was to estimate the incidence of maternal hyperthyroidism (defined by redeemed prescription of antithyroid drugs) in and around pregnancy and to compare this with the incidence of other autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). This was a population-based cohort study. The study used the Danish nationwide registers. The participants were women who gave birth to singleton liveborn children in Denmark from 1999 to 2008 (n = 403,958). Incidence rates (IR) of maternal hyperthyroidism during a 4-year period beginning 2 years before and ending 2 years after the date when the mother was giving birth for the first time in the study period were measured. Altogether 3673 women (0.9%) were identified with an onset of hyperthyroidism from 1997 to 2010, and the overall IR of maternal hyperthyroidism was 65.0/100,000/year. The IR of hyperthyroidism in and around pregnancy varied widely and was high in the first 3 months of pregnancy [incidence rate ratio (IRR) vs the remaining study period: 1.50 (95% CI 1.09-2.06)), very low in the last 3 months of pregnancy (0.26 (0.15-0.44)], and reached the highest level 7-9 months postpartum [3.80 (2.88-5.02)]. The incidence variation in and around pregnancy was different for RA and IBD. These are the first population-based data on the incidence of hyperthyroidism in and around pregnancy. The incidence of hyperthyroidism was high in early pregnancy and postpartum, whereas such particular pattern was not observed for other diseases of autoimmune origin.
Full Text Available Abstract Campylobacter infections are the main cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in Denmark. While primarily foodborne, Campylobacter infections are also to some degree acquired through other sources which may include contact with animals or the environment, locally contaminated drinking water and more. We analyzed Campylobacter cases for clustering in space and time for the large Danish island of Funen in the period 1995–2003, under the assumption that infections caused by 'environmental' factors may show persistent clustering while foodborne infections will occur randomly in space. Input data were geo-coded datasets of the addresses of laboratory-confirmed Campylobacter cases and of the background population of Funen County. The dataset had a spatial extent of 4.900 km2. Data were aggregated into units of analysis (so-called features of 5 km by 5 km times 1 year, and the Campylobacter incidence calculated. We used a modified form of local Moran's I to test if features with similar incidence rates occurred next to each other in space and time, and compared the observed clusters with simulated clusters. Because clusters may be caused by a high tendency among local GPs to submit stool samples, we also analyzed a dataset of all submitted stool samples for comparison. The results showed a significant persisting clustering of Campylobacter incidence rates in the Western part of Funen. Results were visualized using the Netlogo software. The underlying causes of the observed clustering are not known and will require further examination, but may be partially explained by an increased rate of stool samples submissions by physicians in the area. We hope, by this approach, to have developed a tool which will allow for analyses of geographical clusters which may in turn form a basis for further epidemiological examinations to cast light on the sources of infection.
Baumann, Sophie; Godtfredsen, Nina Skavlan; Lange, Peter
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have reported an association between low birth weight and low adult lung function, but findings have not been consistent. The aim of this study was to investigate whether birth weight is associated with both the level and the decline in adult lung function in general...... population. METHODS: The Danish Inter99 study is a population-based intervention study in adults aged 30-60 years, providing information on birth weight and lung function on 4428 participants. Of these, 2931 participants performed spirometry at baseline and at five-year follow-up. Multiple linear regression...... models were used to examine the association between birth weight and forced expiratory volume in first second (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC) and age-related decline in these variables. Analyses were conducted stepwise including sex, age, adult height, abdominal circumference, birth height, mother...
Full Text Available Ann-Dorthe Zwisler,1 Henriette Knold Rossau,1 Anne Nakano,2,3 Sussie Foghmar,4 Regina Eichhorst,5 Eva Prescott,6 Charlotte Cerqueira,7 Anne Merete Boas Soja,4 Gunnar H Gislason,8–10 Mogens Lytken Larsen,5 Ulla Overgaard Andersen,11 Ida Gustafsson,4 Kristian K Thomsen,12 Lene Boye Hansen,13 Signe Hammer,14 Lone Viggers,15 Bo Christensen,16 Birgitte Kvist,17 Cecilie Lindström Egholm,18 Ole May19 On behalf of the Working Group of Preventive Cardiology and Rehabilitation, Danish Society of Cardiology, and the Working Group of Cardiac Clinical Registries, Danish Society of Cardiology 1Danish Centre for Rehabilitation and Palliative Care, Odense University Hospital and University of Southern Denmark, Odense, 2Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Aarhus University Hospital, 3Registry Support Centre (West – Clinical Quality Improvement & Health Informatics, Aarhus, 4Department of Cardiology, Copenhagen University Hospital, Hvidovre, 5Department of Cardiology, Aalborg University Hospital, Aalborg, 6Department of Cardiology, Bispebjerg Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, 7Registry Support Centre (East – Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Research Centre for Prevention and Health, the Capital Region of Denmark, Glostrup, 8Department of Cardiology, Copenhagen University Hospital Gentofte, Hellerup, 9The Danish Heart Foundation, Copenhagen, 10The National Institute of Public Health, University of Southern Denmark, 11Department of Cardiology, Holbaek Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, 12Department of Cardiology, Hospital of Southwest Jutland, Esbjerg, 13Department of Cardiology, Gentofte Hospital, Gentofte, 14Department of Occupational Therapy and Physiotherapy, Herlev Hospital, Herlev, 15Department of Nutrition, Regional Hospital West Jutland, Holstebro, 16Department of General Medicine, School of Public Health, Aarhus University, Aarhus, 17Department of Health Care and Prevention, Municipality of Frederikshavn, Frederikshavn, 18
Lauenborg, Jeannet; Hansen, Torben; Jensen, Dorte Møller
To study the incidence of diabetes among women with previous diet-treated gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in the light of the general increasing incidence of overweight and diabetes and to identify risk factors for the development of diabetes.......To study the incidence of diabetes among women with previous diet-treated gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in the light of the general increasing incidence of overweight and diabetes and to identify risk factors for the development of diabetes....
Baandrup, Lone; Cerqueira, Charlotte; Haller, Lea
Aim of database: To systematically monitor and improve the quality of treatment and care of patients with schizophrenia in Denmark. In addition, the database is accessible as a resource for research. Study population: Patients diagnosed with schizophrenia and receiving mental health care...... to the data for use in specific research projects by applying to the steering committee. Conclusion: The Danish Schizophrenia Registry represents a valuable source of informative data to monitor and improve the quality of care of patients with schizophrenia in Denmark. However, continuous resources and time...
Antonsen, Kristian; Rosenstock, Charlotte Vallentin; Lundstrøm, Lars Hyldborg
AIM OF DATABASE: The aim of the Danish Anaesthesia Database (DAD) is the nationwide collection of data on all patients undergoing anesthesia. Collected data are used for quality assurance, quality development, and serve as a basis for research projects. STUDY POPULATION: The DAD was founded in 2004....... In addition, an annual DAD report is a benchmark for departments nationwide. CONCLUSION: The DAD is covering the anesthetic process for the majority of patients undergoing anesthesia in Denmark. Data in the DAD are increasingly used for both quality and research projects....
Tanvig, M; Wehberg, S; Vinter, C A
OBJECTIVES: To examine the impact of maternal pregestational body mass index (BMI) and smoking on neonatal abdominal circumference (AC) and weight at birth. To define reference curves for birth AC and weight in offspring of healthy, nonsmoking, normal weight women. DESIGN: Population-based study....
Rasmussen, Line D; Engsig, Frederik Neess; Christensen, Hanne
OBJECTIVE:: To assess the risk of cerebrovascular events (CVE) in HIV-infected individuals and evaluate the impact of proven risk factors, injection drug abuse (IDU), immunodeficiency, highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and family-related risk factors. DESIGN:: Nationwide, population...
Osler, M; Gerdes, L U; Davidsen, M
The decline in cardiovascular mortality in Denmark during the 1980s has been greatest in the highest socioeconomic groups of the population. This study examines whether the increased social inequality in cardiovascular mortality has been accompanied by a different trend in cardiovascular risk...
Bone Microarchitecture and Estimated Strength in 499 Adult Danish Women and Men: A Cross-Sectional, Population-Based High-Resolution Peripheral Quantitative Computed Tomographic Study on Peak Bone Structure
Hansen, Stinus; Shanbhogue, V.; Folkestad, L.
High-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT) allows in vivo assessment of cortical and trabecular bone mineral density (BMD), geometry, and microarchitecture at the distal radius and tibia in unprecedented detail. In this cross-sectional study, we provide normative and de...... and descriptive HR-pQCT data from a large population-based sample of Danish Caucasian women and men (n = 499) aged 20-80 years. In young adults (...
Lumi, N.; Mankin, R. [Institute of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Tallinn University, 25 Narva Road, 10120 Tallinn (Estonia)
The stochastic dynamics of a population growth model, similar to the Von Foerster model for human population, is studied. The influence of fluctuating environment on the carrying capacity is modeled as a multiplicative dichotomous noise. It is established that an interplay between nonlinearity and environmental fluctuations can cause single unidirectional discontinuous transitions of the mean population size versus the noise amplitude, i.e., an increase of noise amplitude can induce a jump from a state with a moderate number of individuals to that with a very large number, while by decreasing the noise amplitude an opposite transition cannot be effected. An analytical expression of the mean escape time for such transitions is found. Particularly, it is shown that the mean transition time exhibits a strong minimum at intermediate values of noise correlation time, i.e., the phenomenon of stochastic resonance occurs. Applications of the results in ecology are also discussed.
Schurink, B.; Tielemans, M.M.; Aaldering, B.R.; Eikendal, T.; Jaspers Focks, J.; Laheij, R.J.F.; Jansen, J.B.M.J.; Rossum, L.G.M. van; Oijen, M.G.H. van
BACKGROUND: Gastrointestinal symptoms are frequently reported adverse effects of antidepressants, but antidepressants are also a treatment modality in functional gastrointestinal disorders. We aimed to assess the association between antidepressant use and gastrointestinal symptoms in the general
Christiansen, Christian Fynbo; Møller, Morten Hylander; Nielsen, Henrik
AIM OF DATABASE: The aim of this database is to improve the quality of care in Danish intensive care units (ICUs) by monitoring key domains of intensive care and to compare these with predefined standards. STUDY POPULATION: The Danish Intensive Care Database (DID) was established in 2007...... and standardized mortality ratios for death within 30 days after admission using case-mix adjustment (initially using age, sex, and comorbidity level, and, since 2013, using SAPS II) for all patients and for patients with septic shock. DESCRIPTIVE DATA: The DID currently includes 335,564 ICU admissions during 2005...
Høiberg, M P; Rubin, Katrine Hass; Hermann, Pernille
INTRODUCTION: A diagnostic gap exists in the current dual photon X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) based diagnostic approach to osteoporosis. Other diagnostic devices have been developed, but no comprehensive review concerning the applicability of these diagnostic devices for population-based screening...... have been performed. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A systematic review of Embase, Medline and the Cochrane Central Register for Controlled Trials was performed for population-based studies that focused on technical methods that could either indicate bone mineral density (BMD) by DXA, substitute for DXA...
Østergaard, Lars; Grøntved, Anders; Bjørkelund Børrestad, Line Anita
Previous studies have been inconclusive concerning the effect of active transport on BMI. Our objective was to investigate the association between travel mode and BMI in a large community-based sample of Danish adolescents.......Previous studies have been inconclusive concerning the effect of active transport on BMI. Our objective was to investigate the association between travel mode and BMI in a large community-based sample of Danish adolescents....
Cole, Stephen R.; Stuart, Elizabeth A.
Properly planned and conducted randomized clinical trials remain susceptible to a lack of external validity. The authors illustrate a model-based method to standardize observed trial results to a specified target population using a seminal human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) treatment trial, and they provide Monte Carlo simulation evidence supporting the method. The example trial enrolled 1,156 HIV-infected adult men and women in the United States in 1996, randomly assigned 577 to a highly active antiretroviral therapy and 579 to a largely ineffective combination therapy, and followed participants for 52 weeks. The target population was US people infected with HIV in 2006, as estimated by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Results from the trial apply, albeit muted by 12%, to the target population, under the assumption that the authors have measured and correctly modeled the determinants of selection that reflect heterogeneity in the treatment effect. In simulations with a heterogeneous treatment effect, a conventional intent-to-treat estimate was biased with poor confidence limit coverage, but the proposed estimate was largely unbiased with appropriate confidence limit coverage. The proposed method standardizes observed trial results to a specified target population and thereby provides information regarding the generalizability of trial results. PMID:20547574
Hak, E; Hermens, R P; van Essen, G A; Kuyvenhoven, M M; de Melker, R A
BACKGROUND: Although the effectiveness of influenza vaccination in high-risk groups has been proven, vaccine coverage continues to be less than 50% in The Netherlands. To improve vaccination rates, data on the organizational factors, which should be targeted in population-based prevention of
Svensson, E; Haaijer-Ruskamp, FM; Lundborg, CS
To assess the extent of antibiotic self-medication in a Swedish population, a postal questionnaire was distributed to 1000 randomly selected subjects. The antibiotics used were in all but 3 cases reported to have been obtained with a prescription. Thus, prescribers are the primary target for
Heitmann, B.L.; Strøger, U.; Mikkelsen, K.L.
group, except for an increasing trend among men aged 50 years and above. CONCLUSION: Although the overall Danish trend for obesity prevalence, similar to trends world-wide, showed a marked increase, the trend was very heterogeneous and generally neither uniform nor significantly positive; the changes......OBJECTIVE: To examine to what extent the obesity epidemic is a general phenomenon in adults by assessing the secular change, by birth cohort and age, in the prevalence of obesity and median body mass index (BMI) in Danish men and women measured between 1964 and 1994. DESIGN: Multiple cross......-sectional population surveys. SETTING: The greater Copenhagen area of Denmark. SUBJECTS: The study included 17,065 men (30 336 observations) and 13,417 women (24,065 observations), aged 20-84 years. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Trends in median BMI and prevalence of obesity estimated from measured height and weight in 10...
Høeg, Tracy B; Moldow, Birgitte; Ellervik, Christina
and older from a Danish rural municipality received a complete general health examination and an ophthalmological interview and examination. This study included a comprehensive ophthalmologic interview, measurement of best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) in each eye, Hirschberg's test for strabismus and two...... 45-degree retinal fundus photographs of each eye. A complete ophthalmologic examination was performed when indicated. RESULTS: The prevalence of monocular visual impairment (MVI) was 4.26% (95% CI, 3.66-4.95, n = 163). Amblyopia was the most common cause, accounting for 33%. The prevalence...
Olsen, Line; Sparsø, Thomas; Weinsheimer, Shantel M
BACKGROUND: Although the pathogenic nature of copy number variants (CNVs) on chromosome 22q11.2 has been recognised for decades, unbiased estimates of their population prevalence, mortality, disease risks, and diagnostic trajectories are absent. We aimed to provide the true population prevalence ...
Brännström, K Jonas; Lantz, Johannes; Nielsen, Lars Holme
reported results from American studies. Generally, significant differences were seen between test conditions using different types of noise within ears in each population. Significant differences were seen for ANL across populations, also when the non-semantic ISTS was used as speech signal. Conclusions......Abstract Objective: Acceptable noise level (ANL) has been established as a method to quantify the acceptance of background noise while listening to speech presented at the most comfortable level. The aim of the present study was to generate Danish, Swedish, and a non-semantic version of the ANL...... test and investigate normal-hearing Danish and Swedish subjects' performance on these tests. Design: ANL was measured using Danish and Swedish running speech with two different noises: Speech-weighted amplitude-modulated noise, and multitalker speech babble. ANL was also measured using the non...
Pedersen, Elsebet Frydendal
A review on the Danish situation on womens entry and participation as tradeswomen in the Danish Construction Industry.......A review on the Danish situation on womens entry and participation as tradeswomen in the Danish Construction Industry....
Ritesh Bhandarkar; Ajit Shah
Abstract: Background: Adversity early in life has been suggested as a protective factor for elderly suicides. However, studies examining this relationship in general population suicide rates are scarce. Methods: The relationship between general population suicide rates and four proxy measures of adversity earlier in life was examined using data from the World Health Organization and the United Nations data banks. Results: General population suicide rates were negatively correlated with the pe...
Rudkjøbing, Andreas; Olejaz, Maria; Birk, Hans Okkels
that it generally provides high quality services and patient satisfaction with primary care and hospital services is high. Nevertheless, despite a raft of policies aimed at integrating health services, the Danish system still suffers from a lack of coordination of care. Although Denmark’s health information systems...
Larsen, J.B.; Saxe, H.
Results from Danish experimental field and chamber studies indicate that in general the projected climatic changes are likely to promote tree growth especially for those trees, which have their northern limit in southern Scandinavia. The only major species which will experience a setback, is Norway Spruce - unfortunately however so far the most common commercially planted tree in Denmark. (LN)
Benn, M; Stene, MC; Nordestgaard, BG
demonstrated to affect low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels. OBJECTIVE: We tested the hypothesis that nonsynonymous SNPs in three important functional domains of APOB and APOB tag SNPs predict levels of LDL cholesterol and apolipoprotein B and risk of ischemic heart disease. DESIGN......: This was a prospective study with 25 yr 100% follow up, The Copenhagen City Heart Study. SETTING: The study was conducted in the Danish general population. PARTICIPANTS: Participants included 9185 women and men aged 20-80+ yr. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Levels of LDL cholesterol and apolipoprotein B and risk of ischemic......Q (0.09), E4154K (0.17), and N4311S (0.21). SNPs were associated with increases (T71I, Ivs181708g>t, T2488Tc>t, R3611) or decreases (Ivs4+171c>a, A591V, Ivs18+379a>c, P2712L, E4154, N4311S) in LDL cholesterol from -4.7 to +8.2% (-0.28 to 0.30 mmol/liter; P
Ahern, Thomas P; Cronin-Fenton, Deirdre P; Lash, Timothy L
-/TAM - group. Pak1 cytoplasmic intensity was not associated with breast cancer recurrence in either group (ER+/TAM + ORadj for strong vs. no cytoplasmic staining = 0.91, 95% CI 0.57, 1.5; ER-/TAM - ORadj for strong vs. no cytoplasmic staining = 0.74, 95% CI 0.39, 1.4). Associations between Pak1 nuclear......Background Adjuvant tamoxifen therapy approximately halves the risk of estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) breast cancer recurrence, but many women do not respond to therapy. Observational studies nested in clinical trial populations suggest that overexpression or nuclear localization of p21-activated...... by immunohistochemical staining of primary breast tumors from recurrence cases and matched controls from two breast cancer populations; women diagnosed with ER-positive tumors who received at least one year of tamoxifen therapy (ER+/TAM+), and women diagnosed with ER-negative tumors who survived for at least one year...
Hargreave, Marie; Andersen, Tina Veje; Nielsen, Ann; Munk, Christian; Liaw, Kai-Li; Kjaer, Susanne K
Widespread use of and serious adverse effects associated with use of analgesics accentuates the need to consider factors related to analgesic use. The objective of this study was to describe continuous regular analgesics use and examine factors associated with a continuous regular analgesic use. The study was based on data from two surveys and included a random sample of women and men aged 18-45 years from the general Danish population. Information on analgesics use, self-rated health, demographic and lifestyle factors was collected using a self-administered questionnaire. A total of 28,000 women and 33 000 men were invited to participate and 22,199 women (response-rate 81.4%) and 23,080 men (response-rate 71.0%), respectively, were included in the study. Data were analyzed using multivariate logistic regression. We found that 27% of the women and 18% of the men reported a regular monthly use of at least seven analgesic tablets during the last year (continuous regular analgesics use). Besides poor self-rated health we found in both sexes that increasing age, poor self-rated fitness, and smoking were related to a continuous regular analgesics use. Nulliparity, low level of education, overweight/obesity, binge drinking, and abstinence were associated with a continuous regular analgesics use for women, while underweight and marital/cohabiting status were associated with a continuous regular analgesics use only for men. Regular monthly analgesic use during the last year was generally prevalent. Besides self-rated health, several socio-demographic and lifestyle factors were associated with a continuous regular analgesic use, although with some gender differences.
Horsdal, Henriette Thisted; Wimberley, Theresa; Benros, Michael Eriksen
-time schizophrenia diagnosis and a baseline C-reactive protein measurement (a commonly available marker of systemic inflammation) from 2000 to 2012. We defined treatment resistance as the earliest observed instance of either clozapine initiation or hospital admission due to schizophrenia after having received......OBJECTIVE: Schizophrenia is associated with increased levels of inflammatory markers. However, it remains unclear whether inflammatory markers are associated with treatment-resistant schizophrenia. METHODS: We conducted a population-based follow-up study among individuals with a first...... (4.0 vs. 3.1 mg/L, p = .13) was observed among the 52 (13.3%) treatment-resistant individuals. Increased levels of C-reactive protein (above 3 mg/L) at baseline were not associated with treatment resistance (adjusted hazard ratio = 0.99, 95% confidence interval [0.56, 1.73]). CONCLUSIONS: C...
Erlangsen, Annette; Canudas-Romo, V.; Conwell, Yeates
OBJECTIVE: The objective of the present study was to examine if the change in the suicide rate is associated with individuals' use of antidepressants as has been suggested by ecological studies. DESIGN: Decomposition of suicide rates by antidepressant treatment group. SETTING: Population......-based record linkage. PARTICIPANTS: All individuals aged 50 years and older living in Denmark between 1 January 1996 and 31 December 2000 (N = 2,100,808). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Suicide rates are calculated according to current antidepressant treatment status (no treatment, tricyclic antidepressants (TCA......), selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI), other antidepressants). The change in the suicide rate during 1996-2000 was decomposed by treatment group. RESULTS: Only one in five older adults dying by suicide was in treatment at the time of death. Whereas the male suicide rate declined by 9.7 suicides per...
the risk of clinic diseases e.g. diabetes, atherosclerosis, stroke and cardiovascular disease. Metabolic phenotypes, similar to most complex traits, can be influenced by both genetic and environmental factors as well as their interplay. Many family and twin studies have demonstrated both genetic...... and environmental factors play important role in the variation of metabolic phenotypes and intra-individual change over time. Although both genetic and environmental factors are involved the development of metabolic disorders, the role of environment should be emphasized as the expression or function of gene can...... be regulated to adapt to existing environmental circumstance. In other words, adaptive evolution in populations under distinct environmental and cultural circumstances could have resulted in varying genetic basis of metabolic factors and development of metabolic disorders or diseases. Thus, it can...
Giometto, A.; Formentin, Marco; Rinaldo, A.; Cohen, J.; Maritan, A.
Roč. 112, č. 25 (2015), s. 7755-7760 ISSN 0027-8424 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP201/12/2613 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : fluctuation scaling * multiplicative growth * power law * environmental stochasticity * Markovian environment Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 9.423, year: 2015 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2015/SI/formentin-0444162.pdf
Kollas, J.; Yadigaroglu, G.
A new national regulation for nuclear power plant siting is described. The main body of the regulation is similar in contents to the IAEA Code of Practice in siting, but exceeds its scope in certain areas and covers all aspects of the impact of the plant on the population and the environment of the region, including non-radiological effects. The regulation is accompanied by appendices which refer to site suitability criteria with respect to the radiological consequences from the operational states of the plant and with respect to accidents, including core-melt accidents; these reflect the particular geographic and demographic situation of Greece
Sørensen, Karsten Engsig
The article analysis the first Danish East India Company incorporated in 1616, which was the first Danish Stock Company and which has impacts even on modern Danish company la......The article analysis the first Danish East India Company incorporated in 1616, which was the first Danish Stock Company and which has impacts even on modern Danish company la...
Zimnicki, Katherine M
Preoperative teaching and stoma site marking are supported by research and professional organizations as interventions that can reduce the incidence of problematic stomas and improve patient outcomes. This study investigated the translation of this research into practice in the acute care surgery population. A retrospective chart review using convenience sampling was conducted at a large urban hospital in the Midwestern United States. Thirty patients underwent a surgical procedure that resulted in the creation of a fecal ostomy over a 5-month period. Descriptive statistical analysis examined the reason for surgery, preoperative length of stay (LOS), the percentage of patients who received preoperative teaching and stoma marking and the relationship between preoperative LOS and the use of preoperative teaching and stoma marking. Twenty-one of 30 patients were admitted to hospital 24 hours or more before surgery. No participants were admitted urgently. Three (14%) of those admitted for more than 24 hours received preoperative marking or teaching. There was no significant relationship between preoperative LOS and preoperative teaching and stoma marking. The opportunity exists to promote successful adaptation in this surgical population through the implementation of the evidence-based interventions of preoperative teaching and stoma marking. Additional study is needed to determine barriers to their use as well as to develop effective implementation strategies.
Iversen, Martin Jes; Sløk-Madsen, Stefan Kirkegaard
marked by large-scale redistribution and a very active public sector. The purpose of this book project is to analyze development of Danish capitalism in the 20th century. The first of our hypothesis state that the phases of Danish capitalism and the general corporate strategies reflected each other...... how the corporate strategies shaped and was shaped by the changing nature of Danish capitalism. Such a work as this is important as it bears testimony to the changing nature of market institutions. A descriptive and analytic exercise such as proposed here have only to a limited extent been carried out...... in the Danish language, and never in a compiled, comprehensive, and connected work. The English language situation for understanding Danish capitalism is even more dire, which leads to increasing, and likely reinforcing, stereotypes and myths about “the fairytale country”....
Løngaard, Katja; Bjorner, Jacob Bue; Fink, Per
follow-up. MUS participants also showed an elevated RR with regard to risk of disability pensioning, however this association was not statistically significant (RR = 2.06, 95% CI = 0.77-5.52). CONCLUSION: MUS seem to have a negative effect on labor market participation defined by LTSA and unemployment......BACKGROUND: Medically Unexplained Symptoms (MUS) are frequently encountered in general practice. However, little is known whether MUS affects labor market participation. We investigated the prospective association between MUS at baseline and risk of long-term sickness absence (LTSA), unemployment...... treatment. Participants were classified with MUS if they: a) had reported three or more symptoms during the last month, and b) did not have a chronic condition, neither in the self-reported nor the register data. We assessed LTSA, unemployment, and disability pensioning by linking our data with National...
Johansen, J D; Andersen, T F; Thomsen, L K
. Further, it was determined whether risk of self-reported 1st-time rash from scented products had increased during the past 15 years compared to the preceding period. The sample consisted of 1537 persons, 801 female and 736 male, above the age of 15 years. The participants were interviewed person......-to-person to obtain a general health profile, and in this connection, questions were asked concerning rash related to the use of scented products. 28.6% (440/1537) had on some occasion experienced rash from scented products, 10.6% had experienced rash within the year prior to interview. A multivariate analysis showed...... that women had a significantly increased risk of reporting rash from scented products compared to men (odds ratio: 1.56, pyears had a significantly increased risk of reporting rash from scented products compared to older age groups...
Staalsø, Jonatan Myrup; Nielsen, Morten; Edsen, Troels BS
OBJECTIVE: The intron 16 insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism in the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene has been associated with rupture of intracranial aneurysms, but the effect of haplotypes within ACE has not been studied. This study investigated whether ACE haplotypes including the I...... C/G, rs4305 C/T, rs4311 C/T, rs4331 T/C, rs4343 C/T) in the ACE gene were genotyped along with the I/D polymorphism. Haplotypes were estimated using the PHASE software. RESULTS: Fifty-five haplotypes were identified with 3 of these having a frequency above 5%: ACCCCIT (41.6±0.4%), TGTTTDC (32.......1±0.5%), and ACCTTDC (9.5±0.2%). No significant difference in distribution of alleles, genotypes, haplotypes, or haplotype pairs between the 2 populations was found. Specifically, we could not reproduce previously reported associations between the ACE I genotype and intracranial aneurysms. When subdivided into groups...
Grantzau, Trine; Mellemkjær, Lene; Overgaard, Jens
Background and purpose: To analyze the long-term risk of second primary solid non-breast cancer in a national population-based cohort of 46,176 patients treated for early breast cancer between 1982 and 2007. Patients and methods: All patients studied were treated according to the national guidelines of the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group. The risk of second primary cancers was estimated by Standardised incidence ratios (SIRs) and multivariate Cox regression models were used to estimate adjusted hazard ratios (HR) among irradiated women compared to non-irradiated. All irradiated patients were treated on linear accelerators. Second cancers were a priori categorized into two groups; radiotherapy-associated- (oesophagus, lung, heart/mediastinum, pleura, bones, and connective tissue) and non-radiotherapy-associated sites (all other cancers). Results: 2358 second cancers had occurred during the follow-up. For the radiotherapy-associated sites the HR among irradiated women was 1.34 (95% CI 1.11–1.61) with significantly increased HRs for the time periods of 10–14 years (HR 1.55; 95% CI 1.08–2.24) and ⩾15 years after treatment (HR 1.79; 95% CI 1.14–2.81). There was no increased risk for the non-radiotherapy-associated sites (HR 1.04; 95% CI 0.94–1.1). The estimated attributable risk related to radiotherapy for the radiotherapy-associated sites translates into one radiation-induced second cancer in every 200 women treated with radiotherapy. Conclusions: Radiotherapy treated breast cancer patients have a small but significantly excess risk of second cancers
Evaluation of five DNA extraction methods for purification of DNA from atherosclerotic tissue and estimation of prevalence of Chlamydia pneumoniae in tissue from a Danish population undergoing vascular repair
Lindholt Jes S
Full Text Available Abstract Background To date PCR detection of Chlamydia pneumoniae DNA in atherosclerotic lesions from Danish patients has been unsuccessful. To establish whether non-detection was caused by a suboptimal DNA extraction method, we tested five different DNA extraction methods for purification of DNA from atherosclerotic tissue. Results The five different DNA extraction methods were tested on homogenate of atherosclerotic tissue spiked with C. pneumoniae DNA or EB, on pure C. pneumoniae DNA samples and on whole C. pneumoniae EB. Recovery of DNA was measured with a C. pneumoniae-specific quantitative real-time PCR. A DNA extraction method based on DNA-binding to spin columns with a silica-gel membrane (DNeasy Tissue kit showed the highest recovery rate for the tissue samples and pure DNA samples. However, an automated extraction method based on magnetic glass particles (MagNA Pure performed best on intact EB and atherosclerotic tissue spiked with EB. The DNeasy Tissue kit and MagNA Pure methods and the highly sensitive real-time PCR were subsequently used on 78 atherosclerotic tissue samples from Danish patients undergoing vascular repair. None of the samples were positive for C. pneumoniae DNA. The atherosclerotic samples were tested for inhibition by spiking with two different, known amounts of C. pneumoniae DNA and no samples showed inhibition. Conclusion As a highly sensitive PCR method and an optimised DNA extraction method were used, non-detection in atherosclerotic tissue from the Danish population was probably not caused by use of inappropriate methods. However, more samples may need to be analysed per patient to be completely certain on this. Possible methodological and epidemiological reasons for non-detection of C. pneumoniae DNA in atherosclerotic tissue from the Danish population are discussed. Further testing of DNA extraction methods is needed as this study has shown considerable intra- and inter-method variation in DNA recovery.
This article critically examines emergence of Danishness via an autoethnography of passing as Danish. Drawing on feminist scholarship, the author conceptualizes passing as an embodied, affective and discursive relation; simultaneously spontaneous and laboured, fleeting and solid, emergent and con...
Han, Kyu-Tae; Kim, Sun Jung; Lee, Seo Yoon; Park, Eun-Cheol
After the WHO recommended HPV vaccination of the general population in 2009, government support of HPV vaccination programs was increased in many countries. However, this policy was not implemented in Korea due to perceived low cost-effectiveness. Thus, the aim of this study was to analyze the cost-utility of HPV vaccination programs targeted to high risk populations as compared to vaccination programs for the general population. Each study population was set to 100,000 people in a simulation study to determine the incremental cost-utility ratio (ICUR), then standard prevalence rates, cost, vaccination rates, vaccine efficacy, and the Quality-Adjusted Life-Years (QALYs) were applied to the analysis. In addition, sensitivity analysis was performed by assuming discounted vaccination cost. In the socially vulnerable population, QALYs gained through HPV vaccination were higher than that of the general population (General population: 1,019, Socially vulnerable population: 5,582). The results of ICUR showed that the cost of HPV vaccination was higher for the general population than the socially vulnerable population. (General population: 52,279,255 KRW, Socially vulnerable population: 9,547,347 KRW). Compared with 24 million KRW/QALYs as the social threshold, vaccination of the general population was not cost-effective. In contrast, vaccination of the socially vulnerable population was strongly cost-effective. The results suggest the importance and necessity of government support of HPV vaccination programs targeted to socially vulnerable populations because a targeted approach is much more cost-effective. The implementation of government support for such vaccination programs is a critical strategy for decreasing the burden of HPV infection in Korea.
Thygesen, Lau Caspar; Gimsing, Louise NØrreslet; Bautz, Andrea; Hvidt, Niels Christian; Johansen, Christoffer
Limited knowledge of the influence of lifestyle risk factors and religious living on chronic neurological diseases exists. Seventh-day Adventists (SDA) do not consume tobacco, alcohol, or pork, and many adhere to lacto-ovo-vegetarian diet, and Baptists discourage excessive use of alcohol and tobacco. We investigated whether the incidence of four common chronic neurological illnesses: dementia, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and epilepsy in a large cohort of Danish Adventists and Baptists was different compared to the general Danish population. Three of the illnesses are neurodegenerative, whereas epilepsy can occur at any age. We compared hospital admission rates for some major neurological diseases among members of the Danish Religious Societies Health Study comprising 6,532 SDA and 3,720 Baptists with the general Danish population. Standardized incidence ratios (SIR) stratified by sex, age, and calendar time were calculated. SIR of dementia or Alzheimer's disease was significantly decreased for members of both communities (SDA, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.67-#x2013;0.90 and Baptists, 0.59; 0.47-#x2013;0.73). The SIRs of Parkinson's disease and epilepsy were not significantly different compared to the general population. We observe reduced incidence for dementia or Alzheimer's disease in a large cohort of members of two religious communities characterized by lifestyle recommendations. More studies are needed to disentangle the interaction between such lifestyle and other components of the religious belief system.
Khashan, A S
BACKGROUND: Adverse pregnancy outcomes have been associated with maternal celiac disease (CD). In this study, we investigate the effect of treated and untreated maternal CD on infant birthweight and preterm birth. METHODS: A population-based cohort study consisted of all singleton live births in Denmark between 1 January 1979 and 31 December 2004 was used. A total of 1,504,342 babies were born to 836,241 mothers during the study period. Of those, 1105 babies were born to women with diagnosed CD and 346 were born to women with undiagnosed CD. Women with diagnosed CD were considered as treated with a gluten free diet while women with undiagnosed CD were considered as untreated. The outcome measures were: birthweight, small for gestational age (SGA: birthweight <10th centile), very small for gestational age (VSGA: birthweight <5th centile) and preterm birth. We compared these measures in treated and untreated women with those of a reference group (no history of CD). RESULTS: Women with untreated CD delivered smaller babies [difference = -98 g (95% CI: -130, -67)], with a higher risk of SGA infants [OR = 1.31 (95% CI: 1.06, 1.63)], VSGA infants [OR = 1.54 (95% CI: 1.17, 2.03)] and preterm birth [OR = 1.33 (95% CI: 1.02, 1.72)] compared with women without CD. Women with treated CD had no increased risk of reduced mean birthweight, risk of delivering SGA and VSGA infants or preterm birth compared with women without CD. CONCLUSION: Untreated maternal CD increases the risk of reduced birthweight, the risk of delivering SGA and VSGA infants and preterm birth. Diagnosis and presumed treatment of maternal CD with a gluten-free diet appeared to result in a birthweight and preterm birth rate similar to those in women without CD.
Jespersen, Christina G; Nørgaard, Mette; Friis, Søren; Skriver, Charlotte; Borre, Michael
Conflicting evidence has suggested that statins possess chemopreventive properties against prostate cancer (PCa). Therefore, we examined the association between statin use and risk of PCa in a Denmark-based case-control study. We identified 42,480 patients diagnosed with incident PCa during 1997-2010 from a national cancer registry. Five age-matched population controls (n=212,400) were selected for each case using risk-set sampling. Statin use from 1996 to the index date was obtained from the National Prescription Registry. Odds ratios (ORs) adjusted for age, comorbidity, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug use, and educational level for PCa associated with statin use, were computed using conditional logistic regression. Analyses were stratified by duration of statin use (0-1, 2-4, 5-9, or ≥10 years), stage of PCa (localized or advanced), and type of statin used (lipophilic or hydrophilic). In total, 7915 patients (19%) and 39,384 controls (19%) redeemed statin prescriptions prior to the index date. Overall, statin users had a 6% lower risk of PCa compared with non-users [adjusted OR (ORa), 0.94; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.91-0.97]. Risk estimates did not differ substantially by duration or type of statin used. Slightly larger statin use-associated risk reductions were observed for advanced PCa (ORa, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.85-0.96) and with statin use ≥10 years (ORa, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.65-0.95). Statin use was associated with a risk reduction overall (6%) and, specifically with advanced PCa (10%). Differences in diagnostic measures and residual confounding by socioeconomic parameters may have influenced our results. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
The effects of Danish cultural traditions on dental education in Denmark are described, as well as the system's current structure and developing issues. Some Danish ideas for future exports of dental education programs and dental personnel are also discussed.......The effects of Danish cultural traditions on dental education in Denmark are described, as well as the system's current structure and developing issues. Some Danish ideas for future exports of dental education programs and dental personnel are also discussed....
Ribe, Anette Riisgaard; Laursen, Thomas Munk; Charles, Morten; Katon, Wayne; Fenger-Grøn, Morten; Davydow, Dimitry; Chwastiak, Lydia; Cerimele, Joseph M; Vestergaard, Mogens
Although schizophrenia is associated with several age-related disorders and considerable cognitive impairment, it remains unclear whether the risk of dementia is higher among persons with schizophrenia compared with those without schizophrenia. To determine the risk of dementia among persons with schizophrenia compared with those without schizophrenia in a large nationwide cohort study with up to 18 years of follow-up, taking age and established risk factors for dementia into account. This population-based cohort study of more than 2.8 million persons aged 50 years or older used individual data from 6 nationwide registers in Denmark. A total of 20 683 individuals had schizophrenia. Follow-up started on January 1, 1995, and ended on January 1, 2013. Analysis was conducted from January 1, 2015, to April 30, 2015. Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) and cumulative incidence proportions (CIPs) of dementia for persons with schizophrenia compared with persons without schizophrenia. During 18 years of follow-up, 136 012 individuals, including 944 individuals with a history of schizophrenia, developed dementia. Schizophrenia was associated with a more than 2-fold higher risk of all-cause dementia (IRR, 2.13; 95% CI, 2.00-2.27) after adjusting for age, sex, and calendar period. The estimates (reported as IRR; 95% CI) did not change substantially when adjusting for medical comorbidities, such as cardiovascular diseases and diabetes mellitus (2.01; 1.89-2.15) but decreased slightly when adjusting for substance abuse (1.71; 1.60-1.82). The association between schizophrenia and dementia risk was stable when evaluated in subgroups characterized by demographics and comorbidities, although the IRR was higher among individuals younger than 65 years (3.77; 3.29-4.33), men (2.38; 2.13-2.66), individuals living with a partner (3.16; 2.71-3.69), those without cerebrovascular disease (2.23; 2.08-2.39), and those without substance abuse (1.96; 1.82-2.11). The CIPs (95% CIs) of developing
After an introduction to the use of the word artifact as it is defined by Brian Malley in his work on the Bible as artifact, follows a section on The Danish Hymnbook as Artifac, a section on The Danish Hymnbook between Artifact and Text, and a section on The Danish Hymnbook as Text. The article e...
Thompson, Margaret J J; Raynor, Alex; Cornah, Deborah; Stevenson, Jim; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J S
To collect mothers' reports of the range of behaviours used by them in the management of their children's difficult behaviour. A cross-sectional study using an interview with both semi-structured and open-ended question routes. SAMPLING FRAME: The population of mothers with 10-year-old children living in the New Forest region of Hampshire, UK. Mothers (n=67), selected from the sampling frame, were interviewed about the range of parenting behaviours they used in the management of their children's difficult behaviour. Mothers reported a wide range of behaviours. Both authoritative (e.g. reasoning was mentioned by 42%) and authoritarian (e.g. the use of physical punishment was mentioned by 37%) behaviours were mentioned frequently. Although the different behaviours within these domains were intercorrelated, there was little overlap between the two domains. The use of praise for good behaviour seemed to be independent of other behaviours. There was no association between mothers' parenting behaviours and the behaviour problems of their children. These data suggest that parenting takes many forms, with variations of behaviour across the 'normal' range being unlikely to represent a significant risk to children's development. Public funding for parenting education should be targeted at those children who are at significant risk from extreme forms of parenting.
The authors present the first Polish neurootologic survey of epidemiology of dizziness in the general population. This condition is common in the general population, and this study indicates its prevalence in 16.4% of the inhabitants of the town and district of Bytów. It is recommendable that epidemiological studies should be carried out.
Oshiro, Azusa; Poudyal, Amod K.; Poudel, Krishna C.; Jimba, Masamine; Hokama, Tomiko
Comparative studies are lacking on intimate partner violence (IPV) between urban poor and general populations. The objective of this study is to identify the prevalence and risk factors of physical IPV among the general and poor populations in urban Nepal. A cross-sectional study was conducted by structured questionnaire interview. Participants…
Rumpf, H.J.; Vermulst, A.A.; Bischof, A.; Kastirke, N.; Gürtler, D.; Bischof, G.; Meerkerk, G.J.; John, U.; Meyer, C.
Background: Prevalence studies of Internet addiction in the general population are rare. In addition, a lack of approved criteria hampers estimation of its occurrence. Aims: This study conducted a latent class analysis (LCA) in a large general population sample to estimate prevalence. Methods: A
Frikke-Schmidt, Ruth; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Jensen, Gorm B
on lipid traits in 9,259 individuals from the general population. Heterozygosity for ABCA1 mutations was identified in 10% of individuals with low HDL-C only. Three of 6 nonsynonymous SNPs (V771M, V825I, and R1587K) were associated with increases or decreases in HDL-C in women in the general population...
Koolschijn, P. Cédric M. P.; Geurts, Hilde M.; van der Leij, Andries R.; Scholte, H. Steven
There is accumulating evidence that autistic-related traits in the general population lie on a continuum, with autism spectrum disorders representing the extreme end of this distribution. Here, we tested the hypothesis of a possible relationship between autistic traits and brain morphometry in the general population. Participants completed the…
Christoffersen, Mette; Frikke-Schmidt, Ruth; Schnohr, Peter
To test the hypothesis that xanthelasmata and arcus corneae, individually and combined, predict risk of ischaemic vascular disease and death in the general population.......To test the hypothesis that xanthelasmata and arcus corneae, individually and combined, predict risk of ischaemic vascular disease and death in the general population....
Varbo, Anette; Freiberg, Jacob J; Nordestgaard, Børge G
BACKGROUND: Increased nonfasting remnant cholesterol, like increased LDL cholesterol, is causally associated with increased risk for ischemic heart disease (IHD). We tested the hypothesis that extreme concentrations of nonfasting remnant and LDL cholesterol are equal contributors to the risk of IHD......, myocardial infarction (MI), and all-cause mortality. METHODS: We compared stepwise increasing concentrations of nonfasting remnant and LDL cholesterol for association with risk of IHD, MI, and all-cause mortality in approximately 90 000 individuals from the Danish general population. During up to 22 years...... of complete follow-up, 4435 participants developed IHD, 1722 developed MI, and 8121 died. RESULTS: Compared with participants with nonfasting remnant cholesterol cholesterol of 0.5-0.99 mmol/L (19.3-38.2 mg/dL) to 2...
Rode, Line; Bojesen, Stig E; Weischer, Maren
,568 individuals including 32,823 ever smokers from the Danish general population, of whom 3430 died during 10 years of follow-up. All had telomere length measured, detailed information on smoking history, and CHRNA3 rs1051730 genotype, which is associated with tobacco consumption, determined. In a Mendelian...... randomization study, we conducted observational, genetic, and mediation analyses. RESULTS: First, tobacco consumption was 21.1 pack-years in non-carriers, 22.8 in heterozygotes and 24.8 in homozygotes (P-trend....12 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.09, 1.15] per doubling in tobacco consumption. In Mendelian randomization analysis, the hazard ratio was 1.08 (1.02, 1.14) per minor CHRNA3 allele in ever smokers. Third, in observational analysis telomeres shortened with -13 base pairs (-18, -8) per doubling...
Paulsen, Niels Herluf; Bønløkke Carlsen, Bjarke; Dahl, Jordi Sanchez
BACKGROUND: Aortic valve calcification (AVC) measured on non-contrast computed tomography (CT) has shown correlation to severity of aortic valve stenosis (AS) and mortality in patients with known AS. The aim of this study was to determine the association of CT verified AVC and subclinical...... AS in a general population undergoing CT. METHODS: CT scans from 566 randomly selected male participants (age 65-74) in the Danish cardiovascular screening study (DANCAVAS) were analyzed for AVC. All participants with a moderately or severely increased AVC score (≥300 arbitrary units (AU)) and a matched control...... ICD leads 16 individuals were excluded from the AVC scoring. Moderate or severe increased AVC was observed in 10.7% (95% CI: 8.4-13.7). Echocardiography was performed in 101 individuals; 32.7% (95% CI: 21.8 to 46.0) with moderate or high AVC score had moderate or severe AS, while none with no or low...
AIM OF DATABASE: The Danish Neuro-Oncology Registry (DNOR) was established by the Danish Neuro-Oncology Group as a national clinical database. It was established for the purpose of supporting research and development in adult patients with primary brain tumors in Denmark. STUDY POPULATION: DNOR has...... advantage of reporting indicators is the related multidisciplinary discussions giving a better understanding of what actually is going on, thereby facilitating the work on adjusting the national guidelines in the Danish Neuro-Oncology Group. CONCLUSION: The establishment of DNOR has optimized the quality...
Mielczarek, Artur Tomasz; Saunders, Aaron Marc; Larsen, Poul
Since 2006 more than 50 Danish full-scale wastewater treatment plants with nutrient removal have been investigated in a project called ‘The Microbial Database for Danish Activated Sludge Wastewater Treatment Plants with Nutrient Removal (MiDas-DK)’. Comprehensive sets of samples have been collected......, analyzed and associated with extensive operational data from the plants. The community composition was analyzed by quantitative fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) supported by 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing and deep metagenomics. MiDas-DK has been a powerful tool to study the complex activated sludge...
Myung, Woojae; Won, Hong-Hee; Fava, Maurizio; Mischoulon, David; Yeung, Albert; Lee, Dongsoo; Kim, Doh Kwan; Jeon, Hong Jin
Although evidence suggests that there is an increase in suicide rates in the general population following celebrity suicide, the rates are heterogeneous across celebrities and countries. It is unclear which is the more vulnerable population according to the effect sizes of celebrity suicides to general population. All suicide victims in the general population verified by the Korea National Statistical Office and suicides of celebrity in South Korea were included for 7 years from 2005 to 2011. Effect sizes were estimated by comparing rates of suicide in the population one month before and after each celebrity suicide. The associations between suicide victims and celebrities were examined. Among 94,845 suicide victims, 17,209 completed suicide within one month after 13 celebrity suicides. Multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed that suicide victims who died after celebrity suicide were significantly likely to be of age 20-39, female, and to die by hanging. These qualities were more strongly associated among those who followed celebrity suicide with intermediate and high effect sizes than lower. Younger suicide victims were significantly associated with higher effect size, female gender, white collar employment, unmarried status, higher education, death by hanging, and night-time death. Characteristics of celebrities were significantly associated with those of general population in hanging method and gender. Individuals who commit suicide after a celebrity suicide are likely to be younger, female, and prefer hanging as method of suicide, which are more strongly associated in higher effect sizes of celebrity suicide.
Full Text Available Peter Holmberg Jørgensen,1 Gunnar Schwarz Lausten,2 Alma B Pedersen3 1Tumor Section, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, 2Tumor Section, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, 3Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark Aim: The aim of the database is to gather information about sarcomas treated in Denmark in order to continuously monitor and improve the quality of sarcoma treatment in a local, a national, and an international perspective. Study population: Patients in Denmark diagnosed with a sarcoma, both skeletal and ekstraskeletal, are to be registered since 2009. Main variables: The database contains information about appearance of symptoms; date of receiving referral to a sarcoma center; date of first visit; whether surgery has been performed elsewhere before referral, diagnosis, and treatment; tumor characteristics such as location, size, malignancy grade, and growth pattern; details on treatment (kind of surgery, amount of radiation therapy, type and duration of chemotherapy; complications of treatment; local recurrence and metastases; and comorbidity. In addition, several quality indicators are registered in order to measure the quality of care provided by the hospitals and make comparisons between hospitals and with international standards. Descriptive data: Demographic patient-specific data such as age, sex, region of living, comorbidity, World Health Organization's International Classification of Diseases – tenth edition codes and TNM Classification of Malignant Tumours, and date of death (after yearly coupling to the Danish Civil Registration System. Data quality and completeness are currently secured. Conclusion: The Danish Sarcoma Database is population based and includes sarcomas occurring in Denmark since 2009. It is a valuable tool for monitoring sarcoma incidence and quality of treatment and its improvement, postoperative
Ropenus, Stephanie; Klinge Jacobsen, Henrik
a deeper look at Danish energy policy in general and at the electricity sector in particular. What are the major objectives of Danish energy policy? What is the logic behind an integrated approach that encompasses all energy sectors? How has market integration evolved in the Nordic countries? How does...... the offshore wind tendering system work? What are the principles underlying grid expansion within Denmark? What types of consumer participation schemes exist? This paper aims to explore some of the lessons learned from the Danish experience. At the same time, this paper can serve as an introductory overview...
Full Text Available Peter Lange,1,2 Sandra Søgaard Tøttenborg,1 Anne Dichmann Sorknæs,3 Jørgen Steen Andersen,4 Mette Søgaard,5 Henrik Nielsen,5 Reimar Wernich Thomsen,5 Katrine Abildtrup Nielsen6 1Section of Social Medicine, Department of Public Health, University of Copenhagen, 2Lung Diseases Department, Respiratory Medicine Section, Lung Diseases Department, Hvidovre Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, 3Medical Department, Odense Universitetshospital–Svendborg Hospital, Svendborg, 4Danish College of General Practitioners, Copenhagen, 5Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Aarhus University Hospital, 6Registry Support Centre of Clinical Quality and Health Informatics (West, Århus, Denmark Aim of database: The Danish Register of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (DrCOPD is a nationwide database aiming to describe the quality of treatment of all patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD in Denmark. Study population: DrCOPD comprises data on all patients with a diagnosis of COPD. In the hospital setting, both in- and outpatients are included. In the setting of the general practice (GP, DrCOPD aims to include all patients with a COPD diagnosis who attend an annual control visit for COPD. Main variables: DrCOPD includes information on forced expiratory volume in 1 second, smoking status, body mass index, dyspnea, treatment modalities such as rehabilitation, smoking cessation, medical treatment, and the use of noninvasive ventilation during hospitalization due to exacerbations. The outcome variables include frequency of readmission and death 30 days after discharge from hospital. Descriptive data: Since 2008, the registration in the Danish hospitals has gradually become more comprehensive. In 2014, ~90% of 16,106 eligible patients had complete data sets that showed an improvement in the processes describing quality of care, including increased offering of smoking cessation, rehabilitation, and correct treatment with inhaled
Normand, Sebastien; Flora, David B.; Toplak, Maggie E.; Tannock, Rosemary
Recent factor analytic studies in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) have shown that hierarchical models provide a better fit of ADHD symptoms than correlated models. A hierarchical model includes a general ADHD factor and specific factors for inattention, and hyperactivity/impulsivity. The aim of this 12-month longitudinal study was…
Mouridsen, Svend Erik; Rich, Bente; Isager, Torben
We compared the prevalence and types of fractures in a clinical sample of 118 individuals diagnosed as children with infantile autism (IA) with 336 matched controls from the general population. All participants were screened through the nationwide Danish National Hospital Register. The average observation time was 30.3 years (range 27.3-30.4…
Full Text Available Hans Friis-Andersen1,2, Thue Bisgaard2,3 1Surgical Department, Horsens Regional Hospital, Horsens, Denmark; 2Steering Committee, Danish Hernia Database, 3Surgical Gastroenterological Department 235, Copenhagen University Hospital, Hvidovre, Denmark Aim of database: To monitor and improve nation-wide surgical outcome after groin hernia repair based on scientific evidence-based surgical strategies for the national and international surgical community. Study population: Patients ≥18 years operated for groin hernia. Main variables: Type and size of hernia, primary or recurrent, type of surgical repair procedure, mesh and mesh fixation methods. Descriptive data: According to the Danish National Health Act, surgeons are obliged to register all hernia repairs immediately after surgery (3 minute registration time. All institutions have continuous access to their own data stratified on individual surgeons. Registrations are based on a closed, protected Internet system requiring personal codes also identifying the operating institution. A national steering committee consisting of 13 voluntary and dedicated surgeons, 11 of whom are unpaid, handles the medical management of the database. Results: The Danish Inguinal Hernia Database comprises intraoperative data from >130,000 repairs (May 2015. A total of 49 peer-reviewed national and international publications have been published from the database (June 2015. Conclusion: The Danish Inguinal Hernia Database is fully active monitoring surgical quality and contributes to the national and international surgical society to improve outcome after groin hernia repair. Keywords: nation-wide, recurrence, chronic pain, femoral hernia, surgery, quality improvement
Rasmussen, Mette; Tønnesen, Hanne
Background: The Danish Smoking Cessation Database (SCDB) was established in 2001 as the first national healthcare register within the field of health promotion. Aim of the database: The aim of the SCDB is to document and evaluate smoking cessation (SC) interventions to assess and improve their qu......‐free. The database is increasingly used in register-based research.......Background: The Danish Smoking Cessation Database (SCDB) was established in 2001 as the first national healthcare register within the field of health promotion. Aim of the database: The aim of the SCDB is to document and evaluate smoking cessation (SC) interventions to assess and improve...... their quality. The database was also designed to function as a basis for register-based research projects. Study population The population includes smokers in Denmark who have been receiving a face-to-face SC intervention offered by an SC clinic affiliated with the SCDB. SC clinics can be any organisation...
Agerbo, Esben; Sullivan, Patrick F; Vilhjálmsson, Bjarni J; Pedersen, Carsten B; Mors, Ole; Børglum, Anders D; Hougaard, David M; Hollegaard, Mads V; Meier, Sandra; Mattheisen, Manuel; Ripke, Stephan; Wray, Naomi R; Mortensen, Preben B
Schizophrenia has a complex etiology influenced both by genetic and nongenetic factors but disentangling these factors is difficult. To estimate (1) how strongly the risk for schizophrenia relates to the mutual effect of the polygenic risk score, parental socioeconomic status, and family history of psychiatric disorders; (2) the fraction of cases that could be prevented if no one was exposed to these factors; (3) whether family background interacts with an individual's genetic liability so that specific subgroups are particularly risk prone; and (4) to what extent a proband's genetic makeup mediates the risk associated with familial background. We conducted a nested case-control study based on Danish population-based registers. The study consisted of 866 patients diagnosed as having schizophrenia between January 1, 1994, and December 31, 2006, and 871 matched control individuals. Genome-wide data and family psychiatric and socioeconomic background information were obtained from neonatal biobanks and national registers. Results from a separate meta-analysis (34,600 cases and 45,968 control individuals) were applied to calculate polygenic risk scores. Polygenic risk scores, parental socioeconomic status, and family psychiatric history. Odds ratios (ORs), attributable risks, liability R2 values, and proportions mediated. Schizophrenia was associated with the polygenic risk score (OR, 8.01; 95% CI, 4.53-14.16 for highest vs lowest decile), socioeconomic status (OR, 8.10; 95% CI, 3.24-20.3 for 6 vs no exposures), and a history of schizophrenia/psychoses (OR, 4.18; 95% CI, 2.57-6.79). The R2 values were 3.4% (95% CI, 2.1-4.6) for the polygenic risk score, 3.1% (95% CI, 1.9-4.3) for parental socioeconomic status, and 3.4% (95% CI, 2.1-4.6) for family history. Socioeconomic status and psychiatric history accounted for 45.8% (95% CI, 36.1-55.5) and 25.8% (95% CI, 21.2-30.5) of cases, respectively. There was an interaction between the polygenic risk score and family history
Full Text Available Prevalence of generalised anxiety disorders is widespread in Great Britain. Previous small-scale research has shown variations in minor tranquiliser prescribing, identifying several potential predictors of prescribing volume. Objective: This study aimed to investigate the relationship between general practice minor tranquiliser prescribing rates and practice population and general practice characteristics for all general practices in England.Methods: Multiple regression analysis of minor tranquiliser prescribing volumes during 2004/2005 for 8,291 English general practices with general practice and population variables obtained from the General Medical Services (GMS statistics, Quality and Outcomes Framework (QOF, 2001 Census and 2004 Index of Multiple Deprivation (IMD. Results: The highest rates of minor tranquiliser prescribing were in areas with the greatest local deprivation while general practices situated in areas with larger proportions of residents of black ethnic origin had lower rates of prescribing. Other predictors of increased prescribing were general practices with older general practitioners and general practices with older registered practice populations.Conclusion: Our findings show that there is wide variation of minor tranquilisers prescribing across England which has implications regarding access to treatment and inequity of service provision. Future research should determine the barriers to equitable prescribing amongst general practices serving larger populations of black ethnic origin.
Arboe, Bente; Josefsson, Pär; Jørgensen, Judit
AIM OF DATABASE: The Danish National Lymphoma Registry (LYFO) was established in order to monitor and improve the diagnostic evaluation and the quality of treatment of all lymphoma patients in Denmark. STUDY POPULATION: The LYFO database was established in 1982 as a seminational database including...... all lymphoma patients referred to the departments of hematology. The database became nationwide on January 1, 2000. MAIN VARIABLES: The main variables include both clinical and paraclinical variables as well as details of treatment and treatment evaluation. Up to four forms are completed for each......-100 years) and a male/female ratio of 1.23:1. Patients can be registered with any of 42 different subtypes according to the World Health Organization classifications. CONCLUSION: LYFO is a nationwide database for all lymphoma patients in Denmark and includes detailed information. This information is used...
Videbech, Poul Bror Hemming; Deleuran, Anette
AIM OF DATABASE: The purpose of the Danish Depression Database (DDD) is to monitor and facilitate the improvement of the quality of the treatment of depression in Denmark. Furthermore, the DDD has been designed to facilitate research. STUDY POPULATION: Inpatients as well as outpatients...... with depression, aged above 18 years, and treated in the public psychiatric hospital system were enrolled. MAIN VARIABLES: Variables include whether the patient has been thoroughly somatically examined and has been interviewed about the psychopathology by a specialist in psychiatry. The Hamilton score as well...... as an evaluation of the risk of suicide are measured before and after treatment. Whether psychiatric aftercare has been scheduled for inpatients and the rate of rehospitalization are also registered. DESCRIPTIVE DATA: The database was launched in 2011. Every year since then ~5,500 inpatients and 7,500 outpatients...
discuss the political agreement.90 The Defence Chief of Staff is interviewed in the same paper along the same lines, where he provides an in- depth ...DRIVING DANISH DEFENCE TOWARDS POLITICAL GOALS A thesis presented to the Faculty of the U.S. Army Command and General Staff...4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Driving Danish Defence Towards Political Goals 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6
Loch, Alexandre Andrade; Hengartner, Michael Pascal; Guarniero, Francisco Bevilacqua; Lawson, Fabio Lorea; Wang, Yuan-Pang; Gattaz, Wagner Farid; Rössler, Wulf
Findings on stigmatizing attitudes toward individuals with schizophrenia have been inconsistent in comparisons between mental health professionals and members of the general public. In this regard, it is important to obtain data from understudied sociocultural settings, and to examine how attitudes toward mental illness vary in such settings. Nationwide samples of 1015 general population individuals and 1414 psychiatrists from Brazil were recruited between 2009 and 2010. Respondents from the general population were asked to identify an unlabeled schizophrenia case vignette. Psychiatrists were instructed to consider "someone with stabilized schizophrenia". Stereotypes, perceived prejudice and social distance were assessed. For the general population, stigma determinants replicated findings from the literature. The level of the vignette's identification constituted an important correlate. For psychiatrists, determinants correlated in the opposite direction. When both samples were compared, psychiatrists showed the highest scores in stereotypes and perceived prejudice; for the general population, the better they recognized the vignette, the higher they scored in those dimensions. Psychiatrists reported the lowest social distance scores compared with members of the general population. Knowledge about schizophrenia thus constituted an important determinant of stigma; consequently, factors influencing stigma should be further investigated in the general population and in psychiatrists as well. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Fung, Tak; Keenan, Kevin
The estimation of population allele frequencies using sample data forms a central component of studies in population genetics. These estimates can be used to test hypotheses on the evolutionary processes governing changes in genetic variation among populations. However, existing studies frequently do not account for sampling uncertainty in these estimates, thus compromising their utility. Incorporation of this uncertainty has been hindered by the lack of a method for constructing confidence intervals containing the population allele frequencies, for the general case of sampling from a finite diploid population of any size. In this study, we address this important knowledge gap by presenting a rigorous mathematical method to construct such confidence intervals. For a range of scenarios, the method is used to demonstrate that for a particular allele, in order to obtain accurate estimates within 0.05 of the population allele frequency with high probability (> or = 95%), a sample size of > 30 is often required. This analysis is augmented by an application of the method to empirical sample allele frequency data for two populations of the checkerspot butterfly (Melitaea cinxia L.), occupying meadows in Finland. For each population, the method is used to derive > or = 98.3% confidence intervals for the population frequencies of three alleles. These intervals are then used to construct two joint > or = 95% confidence regions, one for the set of three frequencies for each population. These regions are then used to derive a > or = 95%% confidence interval for Jost's D, a measure of genetic differentiation between the two populations. Overall, the results demonstrate the practical utility of the method with respect to informing sampling design and accounting for sampling uncertainty in studies of population genetics, important for scientific hypothesis-testing and also for risk-based natural resource management.
Full Text Available The estimation of population allele frequencies using sample data forms a central component of studies in population genetics. These estimates can be used to test hypotheses on the evolutionary processes governing changes in genetic variation among populations. However, existing studies frequently do not account for sampling uncertainty in these estimates, thus compromising their utility. Incorporation of this uncertainty has been hindered by the lack of a method for constructing confidence intervals containing the population allele frequencies, for the general case of sampling from a finite diploid population of any size. In this study, we address this important knowledge gap by presenting a rigorous mathematical method to construct such confidence intervals. For a range of scenarios, the method is used to demonstrate that for a particular allele, in order to obtain accurate estimates within 0.05 of the population allele frequency with high probability (> or = 95%, a sample size of > 30 is often required. This analysis is augmented by an application of the method to empirical sample allele frequency data for two populations of the checkerspot butterfly (Melitaea cinxia L., occupying meadows in Finland. For each population, the method is used to derive > or = 98.3% confidence intervals for the population frequencies of three alleles. These intervals are then used to construct two joint > or = 95% confidence regions, one for the set of three frequencies for each population. These regions are then used to derive a > or = 95%% confidence interval for Jost's D, a measure of genetic differentiation between the two populations. Overall, the results demonstrate the practical utility of the method with respect to informing sampling design and accounting for sampling uncertainty in studies of population genetics, important for scientific hypothesis-testing and also for risk-based natural resource management.
Political parties have as their main assignment the creation of linkage between citizens and government. They provide one of several channels of participation in modern democracies. Yet, the general trend across the Western world is that party membership figures decline. The purpose of this article...... is to report on the state of Danish party membership; the numbers and participation. The claim of the article is that total membership figures hide evidence of membership renewal and increases, and that mere party membership figures are insufficient when evaluating political parties as channels...... of participation. Instead, membership figures at party level as well as the participation of party members need to be taken into account in order to assess parties as channels of participation. This is supported by the analyses reported here which show that even though membership figures are declining, parties...
Frikke-Schmidt, Ruth; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Jensen, Gorm B
Homozygosity for mutations in ABC transporter A1 (ABCA1) causes Tangier disease, a rare HDL-deficiency syndrome. Whether heterozygosity for genetic variation in ABCA1 also contributes to HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) levels in the general population is presently unclear. We determined whether mutations...... or single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in ABCA1 were overrepresented in individuals with the lowest 1% (n=95) or highest 1% (n=95) HDL-C levels in the general population by screening the core promoter and coding region of ABCA1. For all nonsynonymous SNPs identified, we determined the effect of genotype...... on lipid traits in 9,259 individuals from the general population. Heterozygosity for ABCA1 mutations was identified in 10% of individuals with low HDL-C only. Three of 6 nonsynonymous SNPs (V771M, V825I, and R1587K) were associated with increases or decreases in HDL-C in women in the general population...
Masaki Ota, MD
Conclusions: Far-field LA potentials are often recorded in the CS during sequential LA and CSM activation in the general population. The timing of LA potentials in CS recordings reflected the direction of conduction across the CSM.
Conclusion: Younger and educated females had better awareness of the association between periodontal diseases and PTLBW. Hence, efforts to educate the general female population on this association could contribute toward the reduction of the risk of PTLBW.
Dalbøge, Annett; Hansson, Gert-Åke; Frost, Poul; Andersen, Johan Hviid; Heilskov-Hansen, Thomas; Svendsen, Susanne Wulff
We recently constructed a general population job exposure matrix (JEM), The Shoulder JEM, based on expert ratings. The overall aim of this study was to convert expert-rated job exposures for upper arm elevation and repetitive shoulder movements to measurement scales. The Shoulder JEM covers all Danish occupational titles, divided into 172 job groups. For 36 of these job groups, we obtained technical measurements (inclinometry) of upper arm elevation and repetitive shoulder movements. To validate the expert-rated job exposures against the measured job exposures, we used Spearman rank correlations and the explained variance[Formula: see text] according to linear regression analyses (36 job groups). We used the linear regression equations to convert the expert-rated job exposures for all 172 job groups into predicted measured job exposures. Bland-Altman analyses were used to assess the agreement between the predicted and measured job exposures. The Spearman rank correlations were 0.63 for upper arm elevation and 0.64 for repetitive shoulder movements. The expert-rated job exposures explained 64% and 41% of the variance of the measured job exposures, respectively. The corresponding calibration equations were y=0.5%time+0.16×expert rating and y=27°/s+0.47×expert rating. The mean differences between predicted and measured job exposures were zero due to calibration; the 95% limits of agreement were ±2.9% time for upper arm elevation >90° and ±33°/s for repetitive shoulder movements. The updated Shoulder JEM can be used to present exposure-response relationships on measurement scales. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/
Østgård, Lene Sofie Granfeldt; Nørgaard, Jan Maxwell; Raaschou-Jensen, Klas Kræsten
AIM OF DATABASE: The main aim of the Danish National Acute Leukemia Registry (DNLR) was to obtain information about the epidemiology of the hematologic cancers acute myeloid leukemia (AML), acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), and myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). STUDY POPULATION: The registry...... was established in January 2000 by the Danish Acute Leukemia Group and has been expanded over the years. It includes adult AML patients diagnosed in Denmark since 2000, ALL patients diagnosed since 2005, and MDS patients diagnosed since 2010. The coverage of leukemia patients exceeds 99%, and the coverage of MDS...... years. To ensure this high coverage, completeness, and quality of data, linkage to the Danish Civil Registration System and the Danish National Registry of Patients, and several programmed data entry checks are used. CONCLUSION: The completeness and positive predictive values of the leukemia data have...
Frikke-Schmidt, Ruth; Nordestgaard, BG; Jensen, Gorm B
We tested the hypothesis that 6 nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in ATP-Binding-Cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) affect risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD) in the general population.......We tested the hypothesis that 6 nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in ATP-Binding-Cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) affect risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD) in the general population....
Ellervik, Christina; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne; Nordestgaard, Børge G
There is evidence for increased mortality in patients with clinically overt hereditary hemochromatosis. Whether increased transferrin saturation (TS), as a proxy for iron overload is associated with increased mortality in the general population is largely unknown.......There is evidence for increased mortality in patients with clinically overt hereditary hemochromatosis. Whether increased transferrin saturation (TS), as a proxy for iron overload is associated with increased mortality in the general population is largely unknown....
Žaliūnienė, Rūta; Aleksejūnienė, Jolanta; Brukienė, Vilma; Pečiulienė, Vytautė
Objective: The aim of this study was to examine if patients with hemophilia were at increased risk for dental decay as compared to the general population. Materials and methods: Census sampling was used in this case–control study to recruit cases (patients with hemophilia) and a control group individuals recruited randomly from the general population, which were matched with cases based on gender, age and place of residence. Clinical examinations included dental health and salivary assessm...
Žaliūnienė, Rūta; Aleksejūnienė, Jolanta; Brukienė, Vilma; Pečiulienė, Vytautė
Objective: The aim of this study was to examine if patients with hemophilia were at increased risk for dental decay as compared to the general population. Materials and methods: Census sampling was used in this case–control study to recruit cases (patients with hemophilia) and a control group individuals recruited randomly from the general population, which were matched with cases based on gender, age and place of residence. Clinical examinations included dental health and salivary assessment...
Hinz, A; Kittel, J; Karoff, M; Schwarz, R
Objective: The aim of this study was to test age and sex effects on anxiety and depression using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale HADS. Method: Sample 1 consisted of 2037 subjects of the German general population, and sample 2 comprised 2696 cardiologic patients. Results: In the group of the general population we observed a linear increase of depression and (to a lower extent) of anxiety with age. In contrast to that, the patients reached their anxiety and depression maxima in the ra...
Sekiya, Noriyasu; Kuroda, Yujiro; Nakajima, Kasumi; Iwamitsu, Yumi; Kanai, Yoshiaki; Miyashita, Mitsunori; Kotani, Midori; Kitazawa, Yutaka; Yamashita, Hideomi; Nakagawa, Keiichi
This study aimed to investigate views on life and death among physicians, nurses, cancer patients, and the general population in Japan and examine factors affecting these views. We targeted 3,140 physicians, 470 nurses, 450 cancer patients, and 3,000 individuals from the general population. We used the Death Attitudes Inventory (DAI) to measure attitudes toward life and death. The collection rates were 35% (1,093/3,140), 78% (366/470), 69% (310/450), and 39% (1,180/3,000) for physicians, nurses, patients, and the general population, respectively. We found that age, sex, social role (i.e., physician, nurse, cancer patient, and general population) were significantly correlated with DAI subscales. Compared with general population, attitudes toward death of physicians, nurses and cancer patients differed significantly even after adjusted their age and sex. Our study is the first to analyze differences in views on life and death among physicians, nurses, cancer patients, and the general population in Japan.
Diepgen, Thomas L.; Naldi, Luigi; Bruze, Magnus; Cazzaniga, Simone; Schuttelaar, Marie-Louise; Elsner, Peter; Goncalo, Margarida; Ofenloch, Robert; Svensson, Ake
Population-based studies on contact allergy to p-phenylenediamine (PPD) are scarce. A cross-sectional study was performed to assess the prevalence of contact allergy to PPD and its risk factors in the general population of 5 European countries. A total of 10,425 subjects were interviewed, and a
Rosbrook, Ainslie; Whittingham, Koa
The high prevalence of anxiety disorders and depression within the autism spectrum disorder (ASD) population is widely recognised. This study examined the role of three potential mediating variables in the relationship between autistic traits and depressive/anxious symptomatology in the general population. Participants included 231 university…
van Vliet, Nicolien A.; van der Spoel, Evie; Beekman, Marian
(TSH), free thyroxine (fT4) and free triiodothyronine (fT3) were measured. In nonagenarians from long-lived families and from the general population, associations between thyroid parameters and mortality were similar. We found no interaction between study population and parameters of thyroid status...
Slavenburg, S.; Verduyn-Lunel, F.M.; Hermsen, J.T.; Melchers, W.J.G.; Morsche, R.H.M. te; Drenth, J.P.H.
BACKGROUND: Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) is transmitted by blood-blood contact and this leads to high HCV prevalence in risk populations such as haemophilia patients and intravenous drug users. The prevalence in the general Dutch population is unknown, although it appears to be very low in
Rauh, Simone P; Heymans, Martijn W; Koopman, Anitra D M
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: To develop a prediction model that can predict HbA1c levels after six years in the non-diabetic general population, including previously used readily available predictors. METHODS: Data from 5,762 initially non-diabetic subjects from three population-based cohorts (Hoorn Study, I...
Lange, B; Holst, R; Thilsing, T
The European Position Paper on Rhinosinusitis and Nasal Polyps describes methods to perform population-based and clinical studies on Chronic Rhinosinusitis in a standardized way and it also describes how to clinical investigate CRS. The aim of this cross sectional study was to evaluate Quality...... of life and objective findings in persons with Chronic Rhinosinusitis recruited from the general population....
de Knegt, Victoria Elizabeth; Kristiansen, Gitte Qvist; Schønning, Kristian
BACKGROUND: We aimed to evaluate the relevance of dual target real-time polymerase chain (PCR) assays targeting the rtxA and cpn60 genes of the paediatric pathogen Kingella kingae. We also studied for the first time the clinical and epidemiological features of K. kingae infections in a Danish pop......-value: peak in autumn. CONCLUSION: Dual target-specific real-time PCR markedly improved the detection of K. kingae in clinical specimens when compared to culture methods....
Beier, Sofie; Ejlers, Steen
The talk will focus on Danish type designers and their work on Æ (AE), Ø (Oslash) and Å (Aring). These 'anomalies' found in the Danish written language, often causes difficulties for type designers. The counters of Ø/ø sometimes appear overcrowded, the uppercase Æ can result in an uncomfortably o......' attempt to create the optimal variation of these letters, we will give a brief introduction to the Danish typography tradition ranging from the early 20th Century and up until today....
Pisinger, Charlotta; Godtfredsen, Nina; Jørgensen, Torben
% CI: 1.7-8.0), respectively, compared with unchanged smoking habits. It was also significantly more likely not to report phlegm at 1-year follow-up for those who had quit (OR: 7.1; 95% CI: 2.8-18.0), whereas SR was not significantly associated with termination of phlegm (OR: 2.5; 95% CI: 0.9-6.4) when......Background: Chronic cough can be the first sign of chronic obstructive disease. A few, and mostly selected, studies exploring the effect of reduced daily tobacco consumption have shown a small effect on pulmonary symptoms. Aim: The aim of this study was to examine if smoking reduction (SR) (>= 50......% of daily tobacco consumption) or smoking cessation (SC) had an effect on chronic cough and phlegm. Methods: A total of 2408 daily smokers were included in a Danish population-based intervention study, Inter99. In the analyses, we included smokers with self-reported chronic cough or phlegm at baseline who...
Cai, Rui; Richardus, Jan Hendrik; Looman, Caspar W N; de Vlas, Sake J
The objective of this review was to investigate whether Chinese population groups that do not belong to classical high risk groups show an increasing trend of engaging in high-risk sexual behaviors. We systematically searched the English and Chinese literature on sexual risk behaviors published between January 1980 and March 2012 in PubMed and the China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI). We included observational studies that focused on population groups other than commercial sex workers (CSWs) and their clients, and men who have sex with men (MSM) and quantitatively reported one of the following indicators of recent high-risk sexual behavior: premarital sex, commercial sex, multiple sex partners, condom use or sexually transmitted infections (STIs). We used generalized linear mixed model to examine the time trend in engaging in high-risk sexual behaviors. We included 174 observational studies involving 932,931 participants: 55 studies reported on floating populations, 73 on college students and 46 on other groups (i.e. out-of-school youth, rural residents, and subjects from gynecological or obstetric clinics and premarital check-up centers). From the generalized linear mixed model, no significant trends in engaging in high-risk sexual behaviors were identified in the three population groups. Sexual risk behaviors among certain general population groups have not increased substantially. These groups are therefore unlikely to incite a STI/HIV epidemic among the general Chinese population. Because the studied population groups are not necessarily representative of the general population, the outcomes found may not reflect those of the general population.
Aastrup, Jesper; Bjerre, Mogens; Kornum, Niels
This paper presents an overview of the Danish retail market. A detailed picture of the Danish grocery sector is provided, and we highlight issues from the specialty sectors of fashion and DIY as well as patterns of internationalisation among Danish retailers. We further profile the Danish consumer...... in terms of consumption patterns and demographic changes as well as some specific consumer tendencies with a special emphasis on sustainability issues. E-commerce is taken up as a special theme, both profiling the consumer side and the retailer side. This part is exemplified with books and groceries...
Gammelgaard, Britta; Bentzen, Eric; Aagaard Andreassen, Mette
compatible survey. The International Manufacturing Strategy Survey (IMSS) doesbring up the question of supply chain management, but unfortunately, we did not have access to thedatabase. Data from the members of the SCOR-model, in the form of benchmarked performance data,may exist, but are nonetheless...... not public. The survey is a cooperative project "Benchmarking DanishIndustries" with CIP/Aalborg University, the Danish Technological University, the DanishTechnological Institute and Copenhagen Business School as consortia partners. The project has beenfunded by the Danish Agency for Trade and Industry...
Lustig, Daniel C.; Strauser, David R.
Access to health insurance is one of the critical aspects of securing employment for people with disabilities. This study investigated whether vocational rehabilitation consumers secured employment with an employer who offered health insurance at similar rates to workers in the general population. In general, the results show that vocational…
Ullebo, Anne Karin; Breivik, Kyrre; Gillberg, Christopher; Lundervold, Astri J.; Posserud, Maj-Britt
Objective: To examine whether a bifactor model with a general ADHD factor and domain specific factors of inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity was supported in a large general population sample of children. We also explored the utility of forming subscales based on the domain-specific factors. Methods: Child mental health questionnaires were…
Laan, van der M.J.; Laan, van der P.
We give an introduction to the logistic and generalized logistic distributions. We obtain exact results for the probability of correct selection from Type-I and Type-II generalized logistic populations which only differ in their location parameter. Some open problems are formulated.
Lemos, J.A. de; Hildebrandt, P.
Screening of general populations with amino-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptides (NT-proBNP) holds promise for the detection of significant underlying cardiac structural and functional abnormalities, as well as for the early detection of the propensity to develop future cardiovascular events....... In comparative studies to date, NT-proBNP performs at least as well as BNP in the detection of heart disease and prognostication in the general population. In some studies and subgroups, NT-proBNP appears to outperform BNP in population screening. More needs to be learned about noncardiac sources of NT...
José Marcelo Soriano Viana
Full Text Available Estimation of general and specific combining ability effects in a diallel analysis of cross-pollinating populations, including the selfed parents, is presented in this work. The restrictions considered satisfy the parametric values of the GCA and SCA effects. The method is extended to self-pollinating populations (suitable for other species, without the selfed parents. The analysis of changes in population means due to inbreeding (sensitivity to inbreeding also permits to assess the predominant direction of dominance deviations and the relative genetic variability in each parent population. The methodology was used to select popcorn populations for intra- and inter-population breeding programs and for hybrid production, developed at the Federal University of Viçosa, MG, Brazil. Two yellow pearl grain popcorn populations were selected.
Bonsaksen, Tore; Lerdal, Anners; Heir, Trond; Ekeberg, Øivind; Skogstad, Laila; Grimholt, Tine K; Schou-Bredal, Inger
General self-efficacy (GSE) refers to optimistic self-beliefs of being able to perform and control behaviors, and is linked with various physical and mental health outcomes. Measures of self-efficacy are commonly used in health research with clinical populations, but are less explored in relationship to sociodemographic characteristics in general populations. This study investigated GSE in relation to sociodemographic characteristics in the general population in Norway. As part of a larger national survey, the GSE scale was administered to a general population sample, and 1787 out of 4961 eligible participants (response rate 36%) completed the scale. Group comparisons were conducted using independent t-tests and one-way analyses of variance. Linear regression analysis was used to examine factors independently associated with GSE. GSE was lower for older compared to younger participants ( p employment were independently associated with higher GSE. Age moderated the associations between gender and employment on one hand, and GSE on the other. The association between being male and having higher GSE was more pronounced in younger age, as was the association between being employed and having higher GSE. Male gender and being employed were related to higher GSE among persons in the general population in Norway, and these associations were stronger among persons of younger age. The findings are considered fairly representative for the Norwegian population.
Ingeholm, Peter; Gögenur, Ismail; Iversen, Lene H
AIM OF DATABASE: The aim of the database, which has existed for registration of all patients with colorectal cancer in Denmark since 2001, is to improve the prognosis for this patient group. STUDY POPULATION: All Danish patients with newly diagnosed colorectal cancer who are either diagnosed......, and other pathological risk factors. DESCRIPTIVE DATA: The database has had >95% completeness in including patients with colorectal adenocarcinoma with >54,000 patients registered so far with approximately one-third rectal cancers and two-third colon cancers and an overrepresentation of men among rectal...... diagnosis, surgical interventions, and short-term outcomes. The database does not have high-resolution oncological data and does not register recurrences after primary surgery. The Danish Colorectal Cancer Group provides high-quality data and has been documenting an increase in short- and long...
Nguyen-Nielsen, Mary; Høyer, Søren; Friis, Søren
variables include Gleason scores, cancer staging, prostate-specific antigen values, and therapeutic measures (active surveillance, surgery, radiotherapy, endocrine therapy, and chemotherapy). DESCRIPTIVE DATA: In total, 22,332 patients with prostate cancer were registered in DAPROCAdata as of April 2015......AIM OF DATABASE: The Danish Prostate Cancer Database (DAPROCAdata) is a nationwide clinical cancer database that has prospectively collected data on patients with incident prostate cancer in Denmark since February 2010. The overall aim of the DAPROCAdata is to improve the quality of prostate cancer...... care in Denmark by systematically collecting key clinical variables for the purposes of health care monitoring, quality improvement, and research. STUDY POPULATION: All Danish patients with histologically verified prostate cancer are included in the DAPROCAdata. MAIN VARIABLES: The DAPROCAdata...
Ekelund, Charlotte K; Petersen, Olav B; Jørgensen, Finn S
OBJECTIVE: To describe the establishment and organization of the Danish Fetal Medicine Database and to report national results of first-trimester combined screening for trisomy 21 in the 5-year period 2008-2012. DESIGN: National register study using prospectively collected first-trimester screening...... data from the Danish Fetal Medicine Database. POPULATION: Pregnant women in Denmark undergoing first-trimester screening for trisomy 21. METHODS: Data on maternal characteristics, biochemical and ultrasonic markers are continuously sent electronically from local fetal medicine databases (Astraia Gmbh...... software) to a central national database. Data are linked to outcome data from the National Birth Register, the National Patient Register and the National Cytogenetic Register via the mother's unique personal registration number. First-trimester screening data from 2008 to 2012 were retrieved. MAIN OUTCOME...
Friis-Andersen, Hans; Bisgaard, Thue
AIM OF DATABASE: To monitor and improve nation-wide surgical outcome after groin hernia repair based on scientific evidence-based surgical strategies for the national and international surgical community. STUDY POPULATION: Patients ≥18 years operated for groin hernia. MAIN VARIABLES: Type and size...... access to their own data stratified on individual surgeons. Registrations are based on a closed, protected Internet system requiring personal codes also identifying the operating institution. A national steering committee consisting of 13 voluntary and dedicated surgeons, 11 of whom are unpaid, handles...... the medical management of the database. RESULTS: The Danish Inguinal Hernia Database comprises intraoperative data from >130,000 repairs (May 2015). A total of 49 peer-reviewed national and international publications have been published from the database (June 2015). CONCLUSION: The Danish Inguinal Hernia...
Jensen, Christian Gaden; Niclasen, Janni; Vangkilde, Signe Allerup; Petersen, Anders; Hasselbalch, Steen Gregers
The Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS) measures perceived degree of inattentiveness in different contexts and is often used as a reversed indicator of mindfulness. MAAS is hypothesized to reflect a psychological trait or disposition when used outside attentional training contexts, but the long-term test-retest reliability of MAAS scores is virtually untested. It is unknown whether MAAS predicts psychological health after controlling for standardized socioeconomic status classifications. First, MAAS translated to Danish was validated psychometrically within a randomly invited healthy adult community sample (N = 490). Factor analysis confirmed that MAAS scores quantified a unifactorial construct of excellent composite reliability and consistent convergent validity. Structural equation modeling revealed that MAAS scores contributed independently to predicting psychological distress and mental health, after controlling for age, gender, income, socioeconomic occupational class, stressful life events, and social desirability (β = 0.32-.42, ps health. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Hvilsom, Gitte B; Hölmich, Lisbet R; Frederiksen, Kirsten Skovsgaard
Few studies have been conducted on the socioeconomic position of women undergoing breast reconstruction, and none have been conducted in the Danish population. We investigated the association between educational level and breast reconstruction in a nationwide cohort of Danish women with breast...
Aadahl, Mette; Zacho, Morten; Linneberg, Allan René
. Altogether, 795 eligible participants (response rate 35.8%) performed the watt max and the Danish step test. Correlation and agreement between the two VO(2max) test results was explored by Pearson's rho, Bland-Altman plots, Kappa(w), and gamma coefficients.Results: The correlation between VO(2max) (ml......Introduction: There is a need for simple and feasible methods for estimation of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) in large study populations, as existing methods for valid estimation of maximal oxygen consumption are generally time consuming and relatively expensive to administer. The Danish step...
Bjerregaard, Beth; Larsen, Ole B
The National Board of Health, Denmark in 1997 published guidelines for reporting of pathology data and the Danish Pathology Register (DPR) was established.......The National Board of Health, Denmark in 1997 published guidelines for reporting of pathology data and the Danish Pathology Register (DPR) was established....
Degn, Hans-Peter; Krogager, Stinne Gunder Strøm
In recent years, Danish television drama series have become an internationally acclaimed export success. This article analyses the development on the domestic market lying behind this international recognition. A change in production dogmas has formed the characteristics of these successful Danish...... the characteristics of these productions and the development of their audience profiles across age, gender and educational level....
On a number of Danish (including Icelandic) 17th and 18th century autobiographical accounts of slavery in the Maghreb.......On a number of Danish (including Icelandic) 17th and 18th century autobiographical accounts of slavery in the Maghreb....
Bonke, Sten; Jørgensen, Tom Rydahl
This report investigates the occurrence of foundation failures within the context of the Danish construction technology framework. The report comprises a definition/typology section on the basis of which Danish regulatory and administrative procedures in relation to foundation failures are reviewed....
The status of Danish technology for solar heating systems for hot water supply as well as R&D work in the field is presented.......The status of Danish technology for solar heating systems for hot water supply as well as R&D work in the field is presented....
Mygind-Klavsen, Bjarne; Lund, Bent; Nielsen, Torsten Grønbech
PURPOSE: Predictors of outcome after femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) surgery are not well-documented. This study presents data from the Danish Hip Arthroscopy Registry (DHAR) for such analyses. The purpose of this study was to identify predictors of poor outcome after FAI surgery in a Danish FAI...
Petersen, Liselotte; Sørensen, Thorkild I A
The Danish Adoption Register was established in 1963-1964 to explore the genetic and environmental contribution to familial aggregation of schizophrenia.......The Danish Adoption Register was established in 1963-1964 to explore the genetic and environmental contribution to familial aggregation of schizophrenia....
The article outlines the major changes in the discourse on cleaner technology and on pollution prevention, together with policy instuments applied in the Danish industry.......The article outlines the major changes in the discourse on cleaner technology and on pollution prevention, together with policy instuments applied in the Danish industry....
Zaidi, H.A.; Qazi, F.U.R.; Jat, S.A.
To compare aesthetic perception of smile between general population and dentists by varying lengths of maxillary lateral incisors. Introduction: Patient perception and expectation of their smile plays a very important role when providing an anterior tooth restoration. The aim of conducting the study was to compare the perception of esthetic smile between general population and dentists by varying length of maxillary lateral incisors. Design: Cross sectional study. Materials and Methods: A photograph of a female smile from frontal view was digitally altered to produce images with varying lengths of maxillary lateral incisor. These images were arranged in descending order; from most attractive to least attractive by the participants. The participants of the study included two groups; first group comprised of Dental Surgeons where as second group consisted of general population. Results: Evaluation of the results showed a significant difference in aesthetic perception of smile between the Dentist and general population. Conclusion: Perception of aesthetics is not similar between the dentists and the general population. (author)
Vanesa C. Góngora
Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate the association between personal values and self-esteem in general population and clinical population. The sample was composed of a group of patients with a diagnosis of anxiety disorders and/or depression (n = 60 and a comparison group, paired by sex and age, of general population (n = 60. The Portrait Values Questionnaire of Schwartz (PVQ and the Autoe Self-esteem Scale were used. T-tests were performed to compare the scores of both instruments between the two groups. The clinical sample scored significantly lower in Self-esteem, Self- direction, Hedonism, and Openness to Change. For this reason, Pearson correlations were calculated in differential groups (clinical and general between the PVQ and the Self-esteem Scale. In the general population group self-esteem was associated to one value: Self-direction. In the clinical group, self-esteem was associated mainly to Self- direction, but also to Hedonism, Power and Security; and to the axis Self-promotion and Openness to Change. Both in the clinical and general population samples it was found a significant association between the interest in having independent thought, freedom of action and exploring with higher levels of self-esteem.
Shah, Ajit; Bhandarkar, Ritesh
Adversity early in life has been suggested as a protective factor for elderly suicides. However, studies examining this relationship in general population suicide rates are scarce. The relationship between general population suicide rates and four proxy measures of adversity earlier in life was examined using data from the World Health Organization and the United Nations data banks. General population suicide rates were negatively correlated with the percentage of children under the age of 5 years who were underweight, the percentage of children under the age of 5 years who were under height, the percentage of infants with low birth weight babies, and the percentage of the general population that was undernourished. The only independent predictor general population suicide rates in both sexes, on multiple regression analysis, was the Gini coefficient (a measure of income inequality). Income inequality may lead to low birth weight, undernourishment, underweight and under height because income inequality results in poor access to healthcare and nutrition. These adversities may increase child mortality rates and reduce life expectancy. Those surviving into adulthood in countries with greater adversity early in life may be at reduced risk of suicide because of selective survival of those at reduced risk of suicide due to constitutional or genetic factors and development of greater tolerance to hardship in adulthood.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Adversity early in life has been suggested as a protective factor for elderly suicides. However, studies examining this relationship in general population suicide rates are scarce. METHODS: The relationship between general population suicide rates and four proxy measures of adversity earlier in life was examined using data from the World Health Organization and the United Nations data banks. RESULTS: General population suicide rates were negatively correlated with the percentage of children under the age of 5 years who were underweight, the percentage of children under the age of 5 years who were under height, the percentage of infants with low birth weight babies, and the percentage of the general population that was undernourished. The only independent predictor general population suicide rates in both sexes, on multiple regression analysis, was the Gini coefficient (a measure of income inequality. CONCLUSIONS: Income inequality may lead to low birth weight, undernourishment, underweight and under height because income inequality results in poor access to healthcare and nutrition. These adversities may increase child mortality rates and reduce life expectancy. Those surviving into adulthood in countries with greater adversity early in life may be at reduced risk of suicide because of selective survival of those at reduced risk of suicide due to constitutional or genetic factors and development of greater tolerance to hardship in adulthood.
Mallow, Peter J; Pandya, Bhavik; Horblyuk, Ruslan; Kaplan, Harold S
The primary objective of this study was to quantify the differences in the prevalence rate and costs of hospital medical errors between the general population and an elderly population aged ≥65 years. Methods from an actuarial study of medical errors were modified to identify medical errors in the Premier Hospital Database using data from 2009. Visits with more than four medical errors were removed from the population to avoid over-estimation of cost. Prevalence rates were calculated based on the total number of inpatient visits. There were 3,466,596 total inpatient visits in 2009. Of these, 1,230,836 (36%) occurred in people aged ≥ 65. The prevalence rate was 49 medical errors per 1000 inpatient visits in the general cohort and 79 medical errors per 1000 inpatient visits for the elderly cohort. The top 10 medical errors accounted for more than 80% of the total in the general cohort and the 65+ cohort. The most costly medical error for the general population was postoperative infection ($569,287,000). Pressure ulcers were most costly ($347,166,257) in the elderly population. This study was conducted with a hospital administrative database, and assumptions were necessary to identify medical errors in the database. Further, there was no method to identify errors of omission or misdiagnoses within the database. This study indicates that prevalence of hospital medical errors for the elderly is greater than the general population and the associated cost of medical errors in the elderly population is quite substantial. Hospitals which further focus their attention on medical errors in the elderly population may see a significant reduction in costs due to medical errors as a disproportionate percentage of medical errors occur in this age group.
Huang, Chuanfeng; Zhang, Jing; Ding, Chunguang; Liu, Cuilan; Wang, Gang; Song, Xinkui; Huang, Hanlin; Zhu, Baoli; Shao, Hua; Zhao, Chunxiang; Han, Changcheng; Peng, Shanzhuo; Jiang, Xianlong; Yu, Shanfa; Ji, Hongrong; Zhang, Xiaoxi; Sun, Ran; Zheng, Yuxin; Yan, Huifang
To assess the levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons monohydroxy metabolites in urine of general population in China among 8 provinces, provide the baseline of the metabolites in the general population. From 2009 to 2010, 18 120 subjects of general population aged 6-60 years old were recruited from 24 areas among 8 provinces in east, west and central areas of China mainland by cluster random sampling. The information of the living environment and health condition were collected by questionnaire and spot urine samples were collected, 4 680 urine samples were analysed by high performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry, and monohydroxy metabolites distribution in urine among groups of gender and ages were analysed. Geometric means (GM) of 2-naphthol, 1-naphthol, 3-phenanthrol and 1-hydroxypyrene concentration in urine (95%CI) were 1.85 (1.75-1.95), 1.55 (1.50-1.61), 0.57 (0.54-0.59) and 0.82 (0.78-0.85) µg/L, respectively;and median are 2.44, population were significantly different (P population aged 6-12, 13-16, 17-20, 21-30, 31-45 and 46-60 years old were 1.60, 1.56, 1.69, 2.23, 1.91 and 1.86 µg/L (χ(2) = 17.90, P population were different, it provided a basic data for the further study of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons biomonitoring in the population.
Kristen E. Dybala
Full Text Available https://doi.org/10.15447/sfews.2017v15iss1art8Quantitative population objectives are necessary to successfully achieve conservation goals of secure or robust wildlife populations. However, existing methods for setting quantitative population objectives commonly require extensive species-specific population viability data, which are often unavailable or are based on estimates of historical population sizes, which may no longer represent feasible objectives. Conservation practitioners require an alternative, science-based method for setting long-term quantitative population objectives. We reviewed conservation biology literature to develop a general conceptual framework that represents conservation biology principles and identifies key milestones a population would be expected to pass in the process of becoming a recovered or robust population. We then synthesized recent research to propose general hypotheses for the orders of magnitude at which most populations would be expected to reach each milestone. The framework is structured as a hierarchy of four population sizes, ranging from very small populations at increased risk of inbreeding depression and extirpation (< 1,000 adults to large populations with minimized risk of extirpation (> 50,000 adults, along with additional modifiers describing steeply declining and resilient populations. We also discuss the temporal and geographic scales at which this framework should be applied. To illustrate the application of this framework to conservation planning, we outline our use of the framework to set long-term population objectives for a multi-species regional conservation plan, and discuss additional considerations in applying this framework to other systems. This general framework provides a transparent, science-based method by which conservation practitioners and stakeholders can agree on long-term population objectives of an appropriate magnitude, particularly when the alternative approaches are
Bjorner, J B; Damsgaard, M T; Watt, T
We used general population data (n = 4084) to examine data completeness, response consistency, tests of scaling assumptions, and reliability of the Danish SF-36 Health Survey. We compared traditional multitrait scaling analyses to analyses using polychoric correlations and Spearman correlations...... with chronic diseases excepted). Concerning correlation methods, we found interesting differences indicating advantages of using methods that do not assume a normal distribution of answers as an addition to traditional methods....
Thygesen, Lau Caspar; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg; Johansen, Christoffer; Ross, Lone; Kessing, Lars Vedel; Hvidt, Niels Christian
Previous studies suggest that religious practice can have a positive effect on mental health, but may also have potential for harm. In Denmark, unique possibilities are available for studying the influence of religious practice on mental health: Denmark is characterized as a secular society and it is possible to follow members of religious societies in nationwide registers. In this study, we follow a cohort of Danish Seventh-day Adventists (SDA) and Baptists in a nationwide psychiatry register and compare the incidence in this cohort with the general population. We followed a cohort of 5,614 SDA and 3,663 Baptists in the Danish Psychiatric Central Register, which contained information on psychiatric hospitalizations from 1970 to 2009. Psychiatric disease incidence in the cohort was compared with that in the general Danish population as standardized incidence ratios and within-cohort comparisons were made with a Cox model. The cohort had decreased incidence of abuse disorders compared to the general population. Furthermore, among Baptists, decreased incidence of unipolar disorders among men and decreased incidence of schizophrenia among women were observed. Surprisingly, we observed an increased incidence rate of unipolar disorder among women. In this nationwide cohort study with 40 years of follow-up, we observed increased incidence rates of unipolar disorders among women and decreased rates of alcohol- and drug-related psychiatric disorders compared to the general Danish population. We have no mechanistic explanation for the increased incidence of unipolar disorders among women, but discuss several hypotheses that could explain this observation.
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Literature suggests that good quality health care access can have a positive impact on the health of people with serious mental illness (SMI, but literature relating to patterns of access by this group is equivocal. AIM: This study was designed to explore health care access patterns in a group of people with SMI and to compare them with a general New Zealand population group, in order for health providers to understand how they might contribute to positive health outcomes for this group. METHODS: The study surveyed 404 mental health consumers aged 18-65 years receiving care from one district health board in Auckland about their patterns of health care access. Results were compared with those from the New Zealand Health Survey of the general population. RESULTS: Findings suggest that the SMI consumer respondents had poorer physical health than the general population respondents, accessed health care services in more complex ways and were more particular about who they accessed for their care than the general population respondents. There was some concern from SMI consumers around discrimination from health care providers. The study also suggested that some proactive management with SMI consumers for conditions such as metabolic syndrome was occurring within the health care community. DISCUSSION: The first point of access for SMI consumers with general health problems is not always the family general practitioner and so other health professionals may sometimes need to consider the mental and physical health of such consumers in a wider context than their own specialism.
Kaerlev, Linda; Jensen, Anker; Hannerz, Harald
: Surveillance of seamen's health gives useful information. The elevated SHCR for HIV infection among non-officers has not declined despite preventive information campaigns. Tuberculosis among fishermen may be due to infection on shore. Skin diseases had very high SHCRs, not due to cutaneous oil exposure.......OBJECTIVES: A systematic overview of time trends in hospital contacts among Danish seafarers and fishermen by job title and analyses on skin and infectious diseases. METHODS: Occupational cohorts with hospital contacts 1994-1998 and 1999-2003. Standardized hospital contact ratios (SHCR) were...
Lund, Henrik; Hvelplund, Frede; Østergaard, Poul Alberg
In a normal wind year, Danish wind turbines generate the equivalent of approx. 20 percent of the Danish electricity demand. This paper argues that only approx. 1 percent of the wind power production is exported. The rest is used to meet domestic Danish electricity demands. The cost of wind power...... misleading. The cost of CO2 reduction by use of wind power in the period 2004-2008 was only 20 EUR/ton. Furthermore, the Danish wind turbines are not paid for by energy taxes. Danish wind turbines are given a subsidy via the electricity price which is paid by the electricity consumers. In the recent years...... is paid solely by the electricity consumers and the net influence on consumer prices was as low as 1-3 percent on average in the period 2004-2008. In 2008, the net influence even decreased the average consumer price, although only slightly. In Denmark, 20 percent wind power is integrated by using both...
Chopin, Kimberly Renée
-up approachto determining language use. This research has implications for other institutions which are affected by similar language issues. It adds to existing work on English-medium instruction in higher education, and adds to discussions on domain loss and the language of education inuniversities.......Universities in Denmark are becoming increasingly internationalized, and areincreasingly using English as a language of research, teaching, and administration. At the same time, the Danish language is seen by some as being under threat, and Danish public discourse has focused on what role...... the Danish language may play in higher education in Denmark. This study investigates both trends through a focus on recently implemented language policies at one Danish university faculty which mandate that graduate instruction becarried out only in English, and undergraduate instruction only in Danish...
Rotar Pavlič, Danica
Abstract Introduction Globally, the number of immigrants is rising every year, so that the number of immigrants worldwide is estimated at 200 million. In Slovenia, immigrants comprise 6.5% of the overall population. Immigrants bring along to a foreign country their cultural differences and these differences can affect immigrants’ overall health status and lead to chronic health conditions. The aim of this study was to identify patients’ perception of general practitioners’ (GPs’) attitudes toward immigrants in Slovenia. Methods This study was based on the Qualicopc questionnaire. We used the questions that targeted patients’ experience with the appointment at their GP on the day that the study was carried out. Results There were no differences in GPs’ accessibility based on groups included in our study (p>0.05). Compared to the non-immigrant population, first-generation immigrants answered that their GPs were impolite (p=0.018) and that they did not take enough time for them (p=0.038). In addition, they also experienced more difficulties understanding their GP’s instructions (p<0.001). Second-generation immigrants experienced more negative behaviour from GPs, and first-generation immigrants had more difficulties understanding GPs’ instructions. Conclusion There may be some differences in patients’ perception of GPs’ attitudes towards immigrants in comparison with the general Slovenian population. However, based on the perception of the immigrants that do benefit from the medical care it is not possible to judge the GPs’ attitudes towards immigrants as worse compared to their attitude towards the non-immigrant population. Indeed, there may be other reasons why the patients answered the way they did. PMID:27703534
Hempler, Nana Folmann; Ekholm, Ola; Willaing, Ingrid
with type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to investigate whether persons with type 2 diabetes have poorer social relations than the general population. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional survey in three settings: a specialist diabetes clinic (SDC) (n = 1084), a web panel (WP) consisting.......08-1.41). Conclusions: Our findings suggest that persons with type 2 diabetes have poorer social relations than the general population. From a public health point of view, special attention is needed with regards to strengthening existing networks and establishing alternative networks among persons with type 2 diabetes.......Aims: Poor social support and lack of social network are well-established risk factors for morbidity and mortality in general populations. Good social relations, such as social support and network contacts, are associated with better self-management and fewer psychosocial problems in persons...
Ingebrigtsen, Truls S; Marott, Jacob L; Nordestgaard, Børge G
OBJECTIVE: We tested the hypothesis that use of and adherence to maintenance medication is low among individuals in the general population who have chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) , even in cases of severe and very severe COPD. DESIGN AND PARTICIPANTS: We identified 5,812 individuals...... with COPD from the Copenhagen General Population Study, and classified them according to the Global Initiative for Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) airflow limitation grades 1-4. Dispensing of fixed-dose combinations of inhaled corticosteroids with long-acting beta2-agonists, long-acting anti...... for COPD in the general population was associated with the severity of COPD as defined by GOLD, but even in severe and very severe COPD, use and adherence was low....
Salazar, Amy M
Higher education is associated with substantial adult life benefits, including higher income and improved quality of life, among others. The current study compared adult outcomes of 250 foster care alumni college graduates with two samples of general population graduates to explore the role higher education plays in these young adults' lives. Outcomes compared include employment, income, housing, public assistance, physical and mental health, happiness, and other outcomes that are often found to be related to educational attainment. Foster care alumni college graduates were very similar to general population college graduates for individual income and rate of employment. However, foster care alumni graduates were behind general population graduates on factors such as self-reported job security, household earnings, health, mental health, financial satisfaction, home ownership, happiness, and public assistance usage. Results have implications for policy and practice regarding the most effective means of supporting postcollege stability of youths with foster care experience.
Bender, Anne Mette; Kawachi, Ichiro; Jørgensen, Torben; Pisinger, Charlotta
Participation in population-based preventive health check has declined over the past decades. More research is needed to determine factors enhancing participation. The objective of this study was to examine the association between two measures of neighborhood level social capital on participation in the health check phase of a population-based lifestyle intervention. The study population comprised 12,568 residents of 73 Danish neighborhoods in the intervention group of a large population-based lifestyle intervention study - the Inter99. Two measures of social capital were applied; informal socializing and voting turnout. In a multilevel analysis only adjusting for age and sex, a higher level of neighborhood social capital was associated with higher probability of participating in the health check. Inclusion of both individual socioeconomic position and neighborhood deprivation in the model attenuated the coefficients for informal socializing, while voting turnout became non-significant. Higher level of neighborhood social capital was associated with higher probability of participating in the health check phase of a population-based lifestyle intervention. Most of the association between neighborhood social capital and participation in preventive health checks can be explained by differences in individual socioeconomic position and level of neighborhood deprivation. Nonetheless, there seems to be some residual association between social capital and health check participation, suggesting that activating social relations in the community may be an avenue for boosting participation rates in population-based health checks. ClinicalTrials.gov (registration no. NCT00289237 ).
The results on the concentrations of thorium, uranium and plutonium in human tissues of world-wide general populations are summarized. The majority of thorium and uranium are accumulated in the skeleton, whereas, plutonium is divided between two major organs: the liver and skeleton. However, there is a wide variation in the fractions of plutonium in the liver and the skeleton of the different populations. (author) 44 refs.; 15 figs
Robinson, Elise B; St Pourcain, Beate; Anttila, Verneri
Almost all genetic risk factors for autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) can be found in the general population, but the effects of this risk are unclear in people not ascertained for neuropsychiatric symptoms. Using several large ASD consortium and population-based resources (total n > 38,000), we...... and developmental traits, the severe tail of which can result in diagnosis with an ASD or other neuropsychiatric disorder. A continuum model should inform the design and interpretation of studies of neuropsychiatric disease biology....
Gianfranco DOMENIGHETTI; Barbara D'AVANZO; Brigitte BISIG
Objectives. To investigate at national level the association between health and the social distress in which the whole employed population is plunged as a consequence of job insecurity. Design. Cross-sectional study. Setting. Switzerland. Subjects. Individuals working full or part time as employees drawn from a random sample (N=2024) of the Swiss general population interviewed by phone. Main outcome measures. Prevalence rates of ten self reported health and health related behaviour indicators...
Yen, Chia-Feng; Chiu, Tzu-Ying; Liou, Tsan-Hon; Chi, Wen-Chou; Liao, Hua-Fang; Liang, Chung-Chao; Escorpizo, Reuben
Based on the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF) and the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0 (WHODAS 2.0), The Functioning Disability Evaluation Scale-Adult version (FUNDES-Adult) began development in 2011. The FUNDES-Adult was designed to assess the difficulty level of an individual's activities and participation in daily life. There is a lack of research regarding the profile of activity and participation for the general adult population. The purposes of this study were to establish activity and participation norms for the general adult population in Taiwan and to describe, discuss, and compare the activity and participation profile with other population. A population-based survey was administered in 2013 using a computer-assisted telephone interviewing system (CATI system). Using probability proportional to size (PPS) sampling and systematic sampling with random digit dialing (RDD), 1500 adults from Taiwan's general population were selected to participate in the survey. The FUNDES-Adult with six domains and two dimensions (performance and capability) was used to obtain data on activities and participation levels. A higher domain score indicated higher participation restriction. Approximately 50% of the respondents were male, and the average age of the respondents was 45.23 years. There were no significant differences in the demographic features between the sample and the population. Among the six domains, the self-care domain score was the lowest (least restriction) and the participation domain score was the highest (most restriction). Approximately 90% of the sample scored were less than 15, and only 0.1% scored more than 80. This is the first cross-national population-based survey to assess norms of activity and participation relevant to the general population of Taiwan. As such, the results of this survey can be used as a reference for comparing the activity and participation (AP) functioning of
Pedram, Pardis; Wadden, Danny; Amini, Peyvand; Gulliver, Wayne; Randell, Edward; Cahill, Farrell; Vasdev, Sudesh; Goodridge, Alan; Carter, Jacqueline C.; Zhai, Guangju; Ji, Yunqi; Sun, Guang
Background ?Food addiction? shares a similar neurobiological and behavioral framework with substance addiction. However whether, and to what degree, ?food addiction? contributes to obesity in the general population is unknown. Objectives to assess 1) the prevalence of ?food addiction? in the Newfoundland population; 2) if clinical symptom counts of ?food addiction? were significantly correlated with the body composition measurements; 3) if food addicts were significantly more obese than contr...
Full Text Available Based on the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF and the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0 (WHODAS 2.0, The Functioning Disability Evaluation Scale-Adult version (FUNDES-Adult began development in 2011. The FUNDES-Adult was designed to assess the difficulty level of an individual’s activities and participation in daily life. There is a lack of research regarding the profile of activity and participation for the general adult population. The purposes of this study were to establish activity and participation norms for the general adult population in Taiwan and to describe, discuss, and compare the activity and participation profile with other population. Method: A population-based survey was administered in 2013 using a computer-assisted telephone interviewing system (CATI system. Using probability proportional to size (PPS sampling and systematic sampling with random digit dialing (RDD, 1500 adults from Taiwan’s general population were selected to participate in the survey. The FUNDES-Adult with six domains and two dimensions (performance and capability was used to obtain data on activities and participation levels. A higher domain score indicated higher participation restriction. Results: Approximately 50% of the respondents were male, and the average age of the respondents was 45.23 years. There were no significant differences in the demographic features between the sample and the population. Among the six domains, the self-care domain score was the lowest (least restriction and the participation domain score was the highest (most restriction. Approximately 90% of the sample scored were less than 15, and only 0.1% scored more than 80. This is the first cross-national population-based survey to assess norms of activity and participation relevant to the general population of Taiwan. As such, the results of this survey can be used as a reference for comparing the activity and
Dielissen, Patrick W; Teunissen, Doreth AM; Lagro-Janssen, Antoine LM
Background The focus of Chlamydia trachomatis screening and testing lies more on women than on men. The study aim was to establish by systematic review the prevalence of urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis infection in men and women in the general population. Methods Electronic databases and reference lists were searched from 2000 to 2013 using the key words “Chlamydia trachomatis”, “population-based study” and “disease prevalence”. Reference lists were checked. Studies were included in the anal...