WorldWideScience

Sample records for general criminal thinking

  1. Criminal thinking styles and emotional intelligence in Egyptian offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megreya, Ahmed M

    2013-02-01

    The Psychological Inventory of Criminal Thinking Styles (PICTS) has been applied extensively to the study of criminal behaviour and cognition. Increasingly growing evidence indicates that criminal thinking styles vary considerably among individuals, and these individual variations appear to be crucial for a full understanding of criminal behaviour. This study aimed to examine individual differences in criminal thinking as a function of emotional intelligence. A group of 56 Egyptian male prisoners completed the PICTS and Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-i). The correlations between these assessments were examined using a series of Pearson correlations coefficients, with Bonferroni correction. General criminal thinking, reactive criminal thinking and five criminal thinking styles (mollification, cutoff, power orientation, cognitive indolence and discontinuity) negatively correlated with emotional intelligence. On the other hand, proactive criminal thinking and three criminal thinking styles (entitlement, superoptimism and sentimentality) did not associate with emotional intelligence. Emotional intelligence is an important correlate of individual differences in criminal thinking, especially its reactive aspects. Practical implications of this suggestion were discussed. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Child maltreatment and adult criminal behavior: does criminal thinking explain the association?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuadra, Lorraine E; Jaffe, Anna E; Thomas, Renu; DiLillo, David

    2014-08-01

    Criminal thinking styles were examined as mediational links between different forms of child maltreatment (i.e., sexual abuse, physical abuse, and physical neglect) and adult criminal behaviors in 338 recently adjudicated men. Analyses revealed positive associations between child sexual abuse and sexual offenses as an adult, and between child physical abuse/neglect and endorsing proactive and reactive criminal thinking styles. Mediation analyses showed that associations between overall maltreatment history and adult criminal behaviors were accounted for by general criminal thinking styles and both proactive and reactive criminal thinking. These findings suggest a potential psychological pathway to criminal behavior associated with child maltreatment. Limitations of the study as well as research and clinical implications of the results are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Psycho-Sociological Review of Criminal Thinking Style

    OpenAIRE

    Boduszek, Daniel; Hyland, Philip

    2012-01-01

    Criminal thinking has been long established as a very important predictor of criminal behaviour, however far less research effort has been undertaken to understand what variables can predict the emergence of criminal thinking. Considering the importance of criminal thinking, we feel it necessary to conduct a systematic review of the literature on criminal thinking in order to bring together what is currently known regarding the factors that relate to, and predict, habitual criminal thinking s...

  4. Proactive and Reactive Composite Scales for the Psychological Inventory of Criminal Thinking Styles (PICTS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Glenn D.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to construct composite scales for the Psychological Inventory of Criminal Thinking Styles (PICTS) from the PICTS thinking style, factor, and content scales designed to provide general estimates of criminal thinking. The Entitlement thinking style scale, Self-Assertion/Deception factor scale, and Historical content…

  5. Measuring criminal thinking styles: The construct validity and utility of the PICTS in a Dutch prison sample

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bulten, B.H.; Nijman, H.L.I.; Staak, C.P.F. van der

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Criminal thinking and thinking styles are important areas in the assessment and treatment of offenders. The Psychological Inventory of Criminal Thinking Styles (PICTS: Walters, 2005) is designed to assess such criminal thinking styles. In the current study, the associations between criminal

  6. Relationships among race, education, criminal thinking, and recidivism: moderator and mediator effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Glenn D

    2014-02-01

    Moderator and mediator relationships linking variables from three different theoretical traditions-race (subcultural theory), education (life-course theory), and criminal thinking (social learning theory)-and recidivism were examined in 1,101 released male federal prison inmates. Preliminary regression analyses indicated that racial status (White, Black, Hispanic) moderated the relationship between criminal thinking, as measured by the General Criminal Thinking (GCT) score of the Psychological Inventory of Criminal Thinking Styles (PICTS), and recidivism. Further analysis, however, revealed that it was not racial status, per se, that moderated the relationship between the PICTS and recidivism, but educational attainment. Whereas the PICTS was largely effective in predicting recidivism in inmates with 12 or more years of education, it was largely ineffective in predicting recidivism in inmates with fewer than 12 years of education. When education and the GCT score were compared as possible mediators of the race-recidivism relationship only the GCT successfully mediated this relationship. Sensitivity testing showed that the GCT mediating effect was moderately robust to violations of the sequential ignorability assumption on which causal mediation analysis rests. Moderator and mediator analyses are potentially important avenues through which theoretical constructs can be integrated and assessment strategies devised.

  7. 28 CFR 3.2 - Assistant Attorney General, Criminal Division.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Assistant Attorney General, Criminal... Attorney General, Criminal Division. The Assistant Attorney General, Criminal Division, is authorized to exercise the power and authority of and to perform the functions vested in the Attorney General by the Act...

  8. Conceptualization and measurement of criminal thinking: initial validation of the Criminogenic Thinking Profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Damon; Tafrate, Raymond Chip

    2012-10-01

    This article describes two studies concerning the development of a new measure of criminal thinking, the CriminogenicThinking Profile (CTP), influenced by the construct of psychopathy, and traditional models of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT). An experimental item pool based on verbalizations from offenders served as the pilot version of the instrument. Principal components analysis of the items resulted in a 62-item, eight-factor scale that was internally consistent. In terms of content, six of the resulting factors were conceptually related to psychopathy, one to CBT, and one to neutralization theory. The factor structure and internal reliability was supported by a subsequent confirmatory factor analysis. Initial support for the CTP's convergent validity was indicated by its positive correlations with psychopathy and personality disorders associated with criminal, aggressive, and impulsive behaviors. The CTP's divergent validity was supported by its inverse correlations with indices of healthy personality functioning. The CTP offers a somewhat different constellation of thinking patterns than those found on previously published criminal thinking instruments. The utility of the CTP to identify relevant cognitive targets for offender treatment is a recommended area of future research.

  9. Predicting recidivism in sex offenders with the Psychological Inventory of Criminal Thinking Styles (PICTS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Glenn D; Deming, Adam; Casbon, Todd

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the Psychological Inventory of Criminal Thinking Styles (PICTS) was capable of predicting recidivism in 322 male sex offenders released from prison-based sex offender programs in a Midwestern state. The Static-99R and PICTS General Criminal Thinking (GCT), Reactive (R), and Entitlement (En) scores all correlated significantly with general recidivism, the Static-99R correlated significantly with violent recidivism, and the Static-99R score and PICTS GCT, Proactive (P), and En scores correlated significantly with failure to register as a sex offender (FTR) recidivism. Area under the curve effect size estimates varied from small to large, and Cox regression analyses revealed that the PICTS En score achieved incremental validity relative to the Static-99R in predicting general recidivism and the PICTS GCT, P, and En scores achieved incremental validity relative to the Static-99R in predicting FTR recidivism. It is speculated that the PICTS in general and the En scale in particular may have utility in risk management and treatment planning for sex offenders by virtue of their focus on antisocial thinking. © The Author(s) 2014.

  10. Partners or Partners in Crime? The Relationship Between Criminal Associates and Criminogenic Thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whited, William H; Wagar, Laura; Mandracchia, Jon T; Morgan, Robert D

    2017-04-01

    Meta-analyses examining the risk factors for recidivism have identified the importance of ties with criminal associates as well as thoughts and attitudes conducive to the continuance of criminal behavior (e.g., criminogenic thinking). Criminologists have theorized that a direct relationship exists between the association with criminal peers and the development of criminogenic thinking. The present study empirically explored the relationship between criminal associates and criminogenic thinking in 595 adult male inmates in the United States. It was hypothesized that the proportion of free time spent with and number of criminal associates would be associated with criminogenic thinking, as measured by two self-report instruments, the Measure of Offender Thinking Styles-Revised (MOTS-R) and the Psychological Inventory of Criminal Thinking Styles (PICTS). Hierarchal linear regression analyses demonstrated that the proportion of free time spent with criminal associates statistically predicted criminogenic thinking when controlling for demographic variables. The implications of these findings on correctional practice (including assessment and intervention) as well as future research are discussed.

  11. The Japanese Criminal Thinking Inventory: Development, Reliability, and Initial Validation of a New Scale for Assessing Criminal Thinking in a Japanese Offender Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishi, Kaori; Takeda, Fumi; Nagata, Yuko; Suzuki, Junko; Monma, Takafumi; Asanuma, Tohru

    2015-11-01

    Using a sample of 116 Japanese men who had been placed under parole/probationary supervision or released from prison, the present study examined standardization, reliability, and validation of the Japanese Criminal Thinking Inventory (JCTI) that was based on the short form of the Psychological Inventory of Criminal Thinking Styles (PICTS), a self-rating instrument designed to evaluate cognitive patterns specific to criminal conduct. An exploratory factor analysis revealed that four dimensions adequately captured the structure of the JCTI, and the resultant 17-item JCTI demonstrated high internal consistency. Compared with the Japanese version of the Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire (BAQ), the JCTI showed a favorable pattern of criterion-related validity. Prior criminal environment and drug abuse as the most recent offense also significantly correlated with the JCTI total score. Overall, the JCTI possesses an important implication for offender rehabilitation as it identifies relevant cognitive targets and assesses offender progress. © The Author(s) 2014.

  12. On Training Generalized Thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, James V.

    A two-phased training study attempted (1) to accelerate the rate at which a total of 8 severely and profoundly retarded children (mean age 57 months) developed the Piagetian concept of object permanence and (2) to demonstrate generalization of the higher performance on object permanence scale to other scales of sensorimotor intelligence and to the…

  13. Substance abuse and criminal thinking: testing the countervailing, mediation, and specificity hypotheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Glenn D

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine (a) which of 2 dimensions of criminal thinking (proactive and/or reactive) correlates with prior substance abuse; (b) whether criminal thinking mediates the relationship between prior substance abuse and recidivism; (c) if a direct relationship exists between specific drugs of abuse and specific criminal thinking styles. First, the reconstructed Proactive (Prc) and Reactive (Rrc) Criminal Thinking scores from the Psychological Inventory of Criminal Thinking Styles (PICTS; Walters, 1995) were correlated with a dichotomous measure of prior substance abuse and a continuous measure of the number of substances abused in a sample of 2877 male federal prisoners (age: M = 34.96, SD = 9.89, range = 18-84; race: 63.6% Black, 17.3% White, 17.6% Hispanic, 1.4% other). The results indicated that only the Rrc score correlated significantly with prior substance abuse when the effect of the alternative measure (Prc in the case of Rrc and Rrc in the case of the Prc) was controlled through partial correlations. Second, reactive criminal thinking was found to mediate the relationship between a history of prior substance abuse and subsequent recidivism in a subsample of 1101 inmates who were released from prison during a 1- to 76-month follow-up. Third, both specific (alcohol with cutoff; marijuana with cognitive indolence) and global (heroin, cocaine, and amphetamine with cutoff, cognitive indolence, and discontinuity) drug-criminal thinking correlations were obtained. These results suggest that reactive criminal thinking plays a potentially important role in the drug-crime relationship.

  14. Predicting recidivism with the Psychological Inventory of Criminal Thinking Styles (PICTS) in community-supervised male and female federal offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Glenn D; Lowenkamp, Christopher T

    2016-06-01

    Higher order scores derived from the Psychological Inventory of Criminal Thinking Styles (PICTS; Walters, 1995) have been found to predict recidivism in released prison inmates with effect sizes in the low-moderate to medium range. The current study sought to determine whether the PICTS is capable of predicting general recidivism in a sample of 81,881 male and 14,519 female offenders on federal probation or supervised release. Results indicated that the PICTS General Criminal Thinking, Proactive, and Reactive scores and 6 of the 7 thinking style scales predicted recidivism in follow-ups of 6 or more months, 12 or more months, and 24 or more months with effect sizes in the low-moderate to medium range. The effect sizes were reduced to small and low-moderate, respectively, when age and prior arrests were controlled for in a series of partial correlations. It was also noted that the PICTS General Criminal Thinking score contributed significant diagnostic information to recidivism prediction in both males and females above and beyond the information provided by a comprehensive risk assessment procedure. These results indicate that the PICTS may be a useful adjunct to other risk assessment procedures in providing comprehensive risk prediction and management services to offenders under community supervision. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. An item response theory analysis of the Psychological Inventory of Criminal Thinking Styles: comparing male and female probationers and prisoners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Glenn D

    2014-09-01

    An item response theory (IRT) analysis of the Psychological Inventory of Criminal Thinking Styles (PICTS) was performed on 26,831 (19,067 male and 7,764 female) federal probationers and compared with results obtained on 3,266 (3,039 male and 227 female) prisoners from previous research. Despite the fact male and female federal probationers scored significantly lower on the PICTS thinking style scales than male and female prisoners, discrimination and location parameter estimates for the individual PICTS items were comparable across sex and setting. Consistent with the results of a previous IRT analysis conducted on the PICTS, the current results did not support sentimentality as a component of general criminal thinking. Findings from this study indicate that the discriminative power of the individual PICTS items is relatively stable across sex (male, female) and correctional setting (probation, prison) and that the PICTS may be measuring the same criminal thinking construct in male and female probationers and prisoners. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  16. Original article Criminal thinking styles of minors. Social and personality correlates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Rode

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background This paper presents an attempt to determine the predictors of criminal thinking styles of minors, based on the theory of Glenn Walters. The construct which is the subject of this study, that is, criminal thinking, is treated as a factor that initiates and supports anti-social behaviour. It manifests itself in eight thinking styles (patterns: mollification, cut-off, entitlement, sentimentality, power orientation, cognitive indolence, discontinuity, and superoptimism. Participants and procedure The study involved 114 people: 65 boys and 49 girls. The research group consisted of minors – boys and girls who were referred, by order of the court, to Diagnostic and Consultation Family Centres to receive a psychological opinion, the purpose of which was to determine the degree of demoralisation of the minor. The study was also attended by the guardians of minors. A criterion for including a minor in this study was committing an offence. Results For each criminal thinking style, a forward stepwise regression analysis was conducted. Variables describing minors and mothers were included in the regression model. The aim of this approach is to identify the configuration of predictors of criminal thinking styles. In each of the models the coefficient of determination, R2, and  coefficients were calculated. Conclusions The predictors of criminal thinking styles identified by the regression analysis show the complexity and heterogeneity of factors contributing to the emergence of these cognitive distortions. Predictors include both properties conditioning the psychosocial functioning of mothers and factors determining the personality of a minor (sense of control, low empathy, low self-esteem. There is a noticeable influence of factors attributable to the mothers – variables derived from the environment (demanding, rejecting, inconsistent attitude.

  17. Mediating the distal crime-drug relationship with proximal reactive criminal thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Glenn D

    2016-02-01

    This article describes the results of a study designed to test whether reactive criminal thinking (RCT) does a better job of mediating the crime → drug relationship than it does mediating the drug → crime relationship after the direct effects of crime on drug use/dependency and of drug use/dependency on crime have been rendered nonsignificant by control variables. All 1,170 male members of the Pathways to Desistance study (Mulvey, 2012) served as participants in the current investigation. As predicted, the total (unmediated) effects of crime on substance use/dependence and of substance use/dependence on crime were nonsignificant when key demographic and third variables were controlled, although the indirect (RCT-mediated) effect of crime on drug use was significant. Proactive criminal thinking (PCT), by comparison, failed to mediate either relationship. The RCT continued to mediate the crime → drug relationship and the PCT continued to not mediate either relationship when more specific forms of offending (aggressive, income) and substance use/dependence (drug use, substance-use dependency symptoms) were analyzed. This offers preliminary support for the notion that even when the total crime-drug effect is nonsignificant the indirect path from crime to reactive criminal thinking to drugs can still be significant. Based on these results, it is concluded that mediation by proximal reactive criminal thinking is a mechanism by which distal measures of crime and drug use/dependence are connected. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. General Principles of Transnationalised Criminal Justice?
    Exploratory Reflections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne L. Wade

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article sets out to explore the premise of general principles in what is labelled transnationalised criminal justice (encompassing the substantive and procedural law as well as the institutions of transnational criminal law and European criminal law. Whilst there can be no denying that these are diverse and divergent areas of law in many ways, their fundamental common denominator of seeking to convict individuals whilst subjecting these to arrest, detention and deprivation of other rights across borders, is taken as a baseline around which certain general principles may gravitate. The current state of executive over-reach within transnationalised criminal justice structures is studied, particularly in relation to the European criminal justice context. This over-reach is explored utilising the theoretical framework of social contract theory. It is suggested that the transfer of investigative and prosecutorial powers to transnationalised contexts undertaken by the relevant executives without seeking to temper this assignment with mechanisms to secure the rights of individuals which counter-balance these, as required by the constitutional traditions of their country, can be regarded as in breach of the social contract. Using this thought experiment, this article provides a framework with which to identify the deficits of transnationalised criminal law.  The way in which such deficits undermine the legitimacy of the institutions created by states to operate the mechanisms of transnationalised criminal justice as well as the fundamental values of their own constitutions is, however, demonstrated as concrete. The latter are identified as mechanisms for deducing the general principles of transnationalised criminal justice (albeit via difficult international negotiation. If the supranationalisation of criminal justice powers is not to be regarded as a tool undermining constitutional values and effectively allowing executives acting in an

  19. Effect of a brief cognitive behavioural intervention on criminal thinking and prison misconduct in male inmates: Variable-oriented and person-oriented analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Glenn D

    2017-12-01

    There is some consensus on the value of cognitive-behaviourally informed interventions in the criminal justice system, but uncertainty about which components are of critical value. To test the hypothesis that change in prisoners - criminal thinking and institutional misconduct - will both follow completion of a brief cognitive behavioural intervention. A one-group pre-test-post-test quasi-experimental design was used to assess change on the General Criminal Thinking (GCT) scale of the Psychological Inventory of Criminal Thinking Styles among 219 male prisoners completing a 10-week cognitive behavioural intervention, referred to as 'Lifestyle Issues'. Institutional misconduct was measured for 1 year prior to completion of the course and 2 years subsequently. Using variable-oriented analysis, post-test GCT scores were compared with change in prison conduct, controlling for the pre-test thinking scores. Calculations were repeated by using person-oriented analysis. Prisoners who displayed a drop in GCT scores between pre-test and post-test levels were significantly more likely to show a reduction in prison misconduct, whereas prison misconduct was likely to escalate among those who displayed a rise in criminal thinking scores from pre-test to post-test. These findings must still be regarded as preliminary, but taken together with other work and with cognitive behavioural theory, they suggest that development of more prosocial thinking and abilities may have an early beneficial effect on institutional behaviour. Their measurement may offer a practical way in which men could be assessed for readiness to return to the community. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. 76 FR 76037 - Office of the Attorney General; Assumption of Concurrent Federal Criminal Jurisdiction in Certain...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-06

    ... Office of the Attorney General; Assumption of Concurrent Federal Criminal Jurisdiction in Certain Areas of Indian Country AGENCY: Office of the Attorney General, Department of Justice. ACTION: Final rule... concurrent criminal jurisdiction within the tribe's Indian country, and for the Attorney General to decide...

  1. Criminal groups and criminal subculture

    OpenAIRE

    Romanova N.M.

    2013-01-01

    The paper provides a classification of criminal groups, structured by the following parameters: a) operation mode (secret/open), b) law-enforcement and administrative support (presence/absence). We describe four types of criminal groups: a) legitimized criminal organization, b) secret criminal organization engaged in illegal business, c) secret general crime group, and d) general crime group operating openly. The four types differ in the content of criminal subculture. Modern criminal subcult...

  2. Individuals with Mental Retardation and the Criminal Justice System: The View from States' Attorneys General.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAfee, James K.; Gural, Michele

    1988-01-01

    Results of a survey of state attorneys general (N=46) found that, with few exceptions, identification of persons with mental retardation in criminal justice is neither systematic nor probable. Protections lie in statutes pertaining to mental illness rather than to mental retardation. (Author/DB)

  3. Bioethics against disappearance of a man a prism of general and criminal-law theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trajković Marko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bioethics, as a meeting point, engrossed with its fight against the disappearance of the man, both general and criminal-law theory. Actually, its 'care' for the man is an issue that comes before general and criminal-law theory. While the forms of disappearance of the man are very diverse and very often so refined that they cannon sometimes be recognized, the fight against the disappearance of the man must be open, clear and uncompromising. What is the role of law in this fight? The role imposed itself. Even if the law did not want to take part in the fight, it found itself in the middle of the battlefield because human life is protected from beginning to the end by legal norms that should emerge from the best writings of general and criminal-law theory. However, self-sufficiency of law and mere legal positivism are a true obstacle in this battle. This pressure and the lack of questionings are the first step on the road to disappearance of the man, because a man that asks questions is the man that exists. He and his boldness are a barrier to voluntarism. The lack of boldness of the man opens the gates to his disappearance. This boldness has not been taken away from him in the field of bioethics, which is neither secular nor religious, but rather unique as the man is unique.

  4. Redesigning a General Education Science Course to Promote Critical Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Matthew P.; Gillespie, B. Marcus; Harris, Kevin R.; Koether, Steven D.; Shannon, Li-Jen Y.; Rose, Lori A.

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies question the effectiveness of a traditional university curriculum in helping students improve their critical thinking and scientific literacy. We developed an introductory, general education (gen ed) science course to overcome both deficiencies. The course, titled Foundations of Science, differs from most gen ed science offerings in that it is interdisciplinary; emphasizes the nature of science along with, rather than primarily, the findings of science; incorporates case studies, such as the vaccine-autism controversy; teaches the basics of argumentation and logical fallacies; contrasts science with pseudoscience; and addresses psychological factors that might otherwise lead students to reject scientific ideas they find uncomfortable. Using a pretest versus posttest design, we show that students who completed the experimental course significantly improved their critical-thinking skills and were more willing to engage scientific theories the general public finds controversial (e.g., evolution), while students who completed a traditional gen ed science course did not. Our results demonstrate that a gen ed science course emphasizing the process and application of science rather than just scientific facts can lead to improved critical thinking and scientific literacy. PMID:26231561

  5. Redesigning a General Education Science Course to Promote Critical Thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Matthew P; Gillespie, B Marcus; Harris, Kevin R; Koether, Steven D; Shannon, Li-Jen Y; Rose, Lori A

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies question the effectiveness of a traditional university curriculum in helping students improve their critical thinking and scientific literacy. We developed an introductory, general education (gen ed) science course to overcome both deficiencies. The course, titled Foundations of Science, differs from most gen ed science offerings in that it is interdisciplinary; emphasizes the nature of science along with, rather than primarily, the findings of science; incorporates case studies, such as the vaccine-autism controversy; teaches the basics of argumentation and logical fallacies; contrasts science with pseudoscience; and addresses psychological factors that might otherwise lead students to reject scientific ideas they find uncomfortable. Using a pretest versus posttest design, we show that students who completed the experimental course significantly improved their critical-thinking skills and were more willing to engage scientific theories the general public finds controversial (e.g., evolution), while students who completed a traditional gen ed science course did not. Our results demonstrate that a gen ed science course emphasizing the process and application of science rather than just scientific facts can lead to improved critical thinking and scientific literacy. © 2015 M. P. Rowe, B. M. Gillespie, et al. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2015 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  6. The protection of fundamental human rights in criminal process General report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brants, C.; Franken, Stijn

    2009-01-01

    This contribution examines the effect of the uniform standards of human rights in international conventions on criminal process in different countries and identifies factors inherent in national systems that influence the scope of international standards and the way in which they are implemented in

  7. Critical Thinking Skills among Elementary School Students: Comparing Identified Gifted and General Education Student Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kettler, Todd

    2014-01-01

    Education reform efforts, including the current adoption of Common Core State Standards, have increased attention to teaching critical thinking skills to all students. This study investigated the critical thinking skills of fourth-grade students from a school district in Texas, including 45 identified gifted students and 163 general education…

  8. Developing Pre-Algebraic Thinking in Generalizing Repeating Pattern Using SOLO Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Lim Hooi; Yew, Wun Thiam

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, researchers discussed the application of the generalization perspective in helping the primary school pupils to develop their pre-algebraic thinking in generalizing repeating pattern. There are two main stages of the generalization perspective had been adapted, namely investigating and generalizing the pattern. Since the Biggs and…

  9. Community-based inquiry improves critical thinking in general education biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quitadamo, Ian J; Faiola, Celia L; Johnson, James E; Kurtz, Martha J

    2008-01-01

    National stakeholders are becoming increasingly concerned about the inability of college graduates to think critically. Research shows that, while both faculty and students deem critical thinking essential, only a small fraction of graduates can demonstrate the thinking skills necessary for academic and professional success. Many faculty are considering nontraditional teaching methods that incorporate undergraduate research because they more closely align with the process of doing investigative science. This study compared a research-focused teaching method called community-based inquiry (CBI) with traditional lecture/laboratory in general education biology to discover which method would elicit greater gains in critical thinking. Results showed significant critical-thinking gains in the CBI group but decreases in a traditional group and a mixed CBI/traditional group. Prior critical-thinking skill, instructor, and ethnicity also significantly influenced critical-thinking gains, with nearly all ethnicities in the CBI group outperforming peers in both the mixed and traditional groups. Females, who showed decreased critical thinking in traditional courses relative to males, outperformed their male counterparts in CBI courses. Through the results of this study, it is hoped that faculty who value both research and critical thinking will consider using the CBI method.

  10. Criminal Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langsted, Lars Bo; Garde, Peter; Greve, Vagn

    <> book contains a thorough description of Danish substantive criminal law, criminal procedure and execution of sanctions. The book was originally published as a monograph in the International Encyclopaedia of Laws/Criminal Law....... book contains a thorough description of Danish substantive criminal law, criminal procedure and execution of sanctions. The book was originally published as a monograph in the International Encyclopaedia of Laws/Criminal Law....

  11. Systems and complexity thinking in general practice: part 1 - clinical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturmberg, Joachim P

    2007-03-01

    Many problems encountered in general practice cannot be sufficiently explained within the Newtonian reductionist paradigm. Systems and complexity thinking - already widely adopted in most nonmedical disciplines - describes and explores the contextual nature of questions posed in medicine, and in general practice in particular. This article briefly describes the framework underpinning systems and complexity sciences. A case study illustrates how systems and complexity thinking can help to better understand the contextual nature of patient presentations, and how different approaches will lead to different outcomes.

  12. Learning to improve: using writing to increase critical thinking performance in general education biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quitadamo, Ian J; Kurtz, Martha J

    2007-01-01

    Increasingly, national stakeholders express concern that U.S. college graduates cannot adequately solve problems and think critically. As a set of cognitive abilities, critical thinking skills provide students with tangible academic, personal, and professional benefits that may ultimately address these concerns. As an instructional method, writing has long been perceived as a way to improve critical thinking. In the current study, the researchers compared critical thinking performance of students who experienced a laboratory writing treatment with those who experienced traditional quiz-based laboratory in a general education biology course. The effects of writing were determined within the context of multiple covariables. Results indicated that the writing group significantly improved critical thinking skills whereas the non-writing group did not. Specifically, analysis and inference skills increased significantly in the writing group but not the non-writing group. Writing students also showed greater gains in evaluation skills; however, these were not significant. In addition to writing, prior critical thinking skill and instructor significantly affected critical thinking performance, whereas other covariables such as gender, ethnicity, and age were not significant. With improved critical thinking skill, general education biology students will be better prepared to solve problems as engaged and productive citizens.

  13. General practitioners’ level of knowledge about their rights and criminal liabilities according to legislation in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baki Derhem

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background . To know legal regulations and to comply with them while providing health care is indispensable for physicians to work in a proper way. Ignorance of the criminal laws may not be an excuse according to Turkish Criminal Code. There is an obligation for physicians to know the law, as well as all citizens. Physicians should possess the scope of competences regarding medicolegal regulations at least. Objectives . The aim of this study is to investigate the knowledge and behaviors of GPs regarding their rights, criminal liabilities and common rules of law that are regulated by legislation. We also aimed to determine how the answers were influenced by sociodemographic factors, educational status of participants and if the participants received any punishment. Material and methods . A total number of 381 physicians working at primary health care services located in Ankara were interviewed face-to-face. We used a 38-item questionnaire that was developed according to current legislation. The collected data was analyzed using SPSS software (Version 11.5. The chi-square test was used in order to compare knowledge-based questions with sociodemographic factors. The Mann-Whitney U test was used for assessing whether the number of correct answers differs with socio-demographic factors or not. A p-value of 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results . 21.8 percent of the participants were FM specialists, and 78.2% of them were GPs. The mean age of physicians was 46.9 ± 7.6. The median score for correct responses in 18 knowledge-based questions was 8 (min–max: 3–14. In comparison with the working experience with correct answers, there was a statistically significant difference between 1–5 years of experience and 11–15 years and ≥ 16 years (p < 0.001. There was a significant difference in correct answers between the two groups, which were separated according to whether or not they received punishment as a result of a legal

  14. The protection of fundamental human rights in criminal process
    General report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chrisje Brants

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This contribution examines the effect of the uniform standards of human rights in international conventions on criminal process in different countries and identifies factors inherent in national systems that influence the scope of international standards and the way in which they are implemented in a national context. Three overreaching issues influence the reception of international fundamental rights and freedoms in criminal process: constitutional arrangements, legal tradition and culture, and practical circumstances. There is no such thing as the uniform implementation of convention standards; even in Europe where the European Convention on Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms and the case law of the European Court play a significant role, there is still much diversity in the actual implementation of international norms due to the influence of legal traditions which form a counterforce to the weight of convention obligations. An even greater counterforce is at work in practical circumstances that can undermine international norms, most especially global issues of security, crime control and combating terrorism. Although convention norms are still in place, there is a very real risk that they are circumvented or at least diluted in order to increase effective crime control.

  15. Adolescents' Suicidal Thinking and Reluctance to Consult General Medical Practitioners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Coralie J.; Deane, Frank P.; Marshall, Kellie L.; Dalley, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Appropriate help-seeking is widely recognized as a protective factor, and vital for early treatment and prevention of mental health problems during adolescence. General medical practitioners (GPs), that is, family doctors, provide a vital role in the identification of adolescents with mental health problems and the provision of treatment as well…

  16. Adolescents' suicidal thinking and reluctance to consult general medical practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Coralie J; Deane, Frank P; Marshall, Kellie L; Dalley, Andrew

    2010-04-01

    Appropriate help-seeking is widely recognized as a protective factor, and vital for early treatment and prevention of mental health problems during adolescence. General medical practitioners (GPs), that is, family doctors, provide a vital role in the identification of adolescents with mental health problems and the provision of treatment as well as access to other specialists in mental health care services. The current study examined the association between suicidal ideation and intentions to seek help from a GP for suicidal thoughts, emotional problems and physical health problems, using a sample of 590 Australian high school students that was 56.7% female and aged 13-18 years (M = 15.56 years, SD = .66 years). Higher levels of suicidal ideation and general psychological distress were related to lower intentions to seek help from a GP for suicidal and physical problems. The results suggest that even at subclinical levels, increases in suicidal ideation or psychological distress may lead to help avoidance. School personnel and other gatekeepers need to be aware of this trend in order to be more assertive in encouraging and supporting appropriate help-seeking for mental health problems. School health promotion programs should consider including information to explicitly address the help-negation process.

  17. Transnational Cooperation in Criminal Matters and the Guarantee of a Fair Trial: Approaches to a General Principle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Gless

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The right to a fair trial has grown in importance over the past few decades as criminal procedures and human rights law have aligned themselves more and more closely. A core aspect of our current European understanding of a ‘fair criminal trial’ is the so-called ‘equality of arms’, which requires that each party be given a reasonable opportunity to present his case under conditions that do not place him at a substantial disadvantage vis-à-vis his opponent. In cases which affect more than one jurisdiction – either because an alleged crime causes damage in different countries, evidence is located abroad or for some other reason – the accused and his defence lawyer may be left without any such a guarantee in the legal ‘black hole’ between the protections that are normally offered by each of the jurisdictions involved, albeit separately.The situation is not one of a dramatic alteration of legal frameworks; instead, it is the small encroachments caused by transnational cooperation that matter and which can be summed up on the basis that domestic and foreign prosecution authorities have, effectively, closed the circuit between them. These authorities are now embedded in formal networks which would have, for instance, the possibility to forum shop (i.e. to choose the ‘best place’ to prosecute. The emerging EU legal framework that has been built on mutual recognition and installing new central agencies has added to the problems faced by the defence. Moreover, the existing legal regimes designed to protect do not grant ‘equality of arms’ in the space between jurisdictions: national law usually provides few answers and international law, including the likes of the ECHR or the EU Charter on Fundamental Rights, do not offer many solutions, either.This article therefore argues that an aspiring ‘right to a fair trial’ or, rather, an entitlement to equality of arms as a general principle of transnational criminal justice that would

  18. A Learning Trajectory in 6-Year-Olds' Thinking about Generalizing Functional Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanton, Maria; Brizuela, Bárbara M.; Gardiner, Angela Murphy; Sawrey, Katie; Newman-Owens, Ashley

    2015-01-01

    The study of functions is a critical route into teaching and learning algebra in the elementary grades, yet important questions remain regarding the nature of young children's understanding of functions. This article reports an empirically developed learning trajectory in first-grade children's (6-year-olds') thinking about generalizing functional…

  19. Einstein's creative thinking and the general theory of relativity: a documented report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothenberg, A

    1979-01-01

    A document written by Albert Einstein has recently come to light in which the eminent scientist described the actual sequence of his thoughts leading to the development of the general theory of relativity. The key creative thought was an instance of a type of creative cognition the author has previously designated "Janusian thinking," Janusian thinking consists of actively conceiving two or more opposite or antithetical concepts, ideas, or images simultaneously. This form of high-level secondary process cognition has been found to operate widely in art, science, and other fields.

  20. Fostering Creative Thinking Within the U.S. Army Command and General Staff Officers’ Course Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-10

    are often displayed as a pyramid to aid in visualization (Reeves 2011). Synthesis, considered a higher order thinking skill, is most applicable to...FOSTERING CREATIVE THINKING WITHIN THE U.S. ARMY COMMAND AND GENERAL STAFF OFFICERS’ COURSE CURRICULUM A thesis presented...From - To) AUG 2015 – JUN 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Fostering Creative Thinking within the U.S. Army Command and General Staff Officers’ Course

  1. Childhood abuse and criminal behavior: testing a general strain theory model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Stephen J; McNulty, Thomas L

    2013-10-01

    This article draws on general strain theory (GST) to develop and test a model of the childhood abuse-crime relationship. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health),(1) we find that early childhood physical and sexual abuse are robust predictors of offending in adolescence, for the full sample and in equations disaggregated by gender. GST is partially supported in that the effects of childhood physical abuse on offending for both females and males are mediated by an index of depression symptoms, whereas the effect of sexual abuse among females appears to be mediated largely by closeness to mother. The effect of childhood sexual abuse among males, however, is more robust than among females and it persists despite controls for low self-control, ties to delinquent peers, school attachment, and closeness to mother. Theoretical implications of the findings are discussed.

  2. Criminal Compliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Antonella Andretta

    2015-10-01

    The article discusses the concepts of both compliance and criminal compliance, its main components and structure as well as the main rules relating to its global application, and finally his emergence in the Ecuadorian legal system.

  3. Rethinking Conceptual Definitions of the Criminal Career and Serial Criminality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelstein, Arnon

    2016-01-01

    Since Cesare Lombroso's days, criminology seeks to define, explain, and categorize the various types of criminals, their behaviors, and motives. This aim has theoretical as well as policy-related implications. One of the important areas in criminological thinking focuses chiefly on recidivist offenders who perform large numbers of crimes and/or commit the most dangerous crimes in society (rape, murder, arson, and armed robbery). These criminals have been defined as "habitual offenders," "professional criminals," "career criminals," and "serial offenders." The interest in these criminals is a rational one, given the perception that they present a severe threat to society. The main challenge in this area of research is a conceptual problem that has significant effects across the field. To this day, scholars have reused and misused titles to define and explain different concepts. The aim of this article is 3-fold. First, to review the concepts of criminal career, professional crime, habitual offenses, and seriality with a critical attitude on confusing terms. Second, to propose the redefinition of concepts mentioned previously, mainly on the criminal career. Third, to propose a theoretical model to enable a better understanding of, and serve as a basis for, further research in this important area of criminology. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. Tourist criminality

    OpenAIRE

    Jakovlev, Zlatko; Koteski, Cane; Dimitrov, Nikola

    2015-01-01

    In this book expert processed chapters on the development of tourism, the conditions for the development of tourism, the definition of tourism, positive and negative effects of tourism, the necessity of defining tourism criminality and its component elements, narrower and wider tourist criminality , theories of crime, the structure of tourism crime, property crime in tourism, forest fires, sexual offenses, other tourist crimes stakeholders of tourism offenses, victims of tourist crime prevent...

  5. Interpreter in Criminal Cases: Allrounders First!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frid, Arthur

    1974-01-01

    The interpreter in criminal cases generally has had a purely linguistic training with no difference from the education received by his colleague interpreters. The position of interpreters in criminal cases is vague and their role depends to a large extent on individual interpretation of officials involved in the criminal procedure. Improvements on…

  6. Systems and complexity thinking in the general practice literature: an integrative, historical narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturmberg, Joachim P; Martin, Carmel M; Katerndahl, David A

    2014-01-01

    Over the past 7 decades, theories in the systems and complexity sciences have had a major influence on academic thinking and research. We assessed the impact of complexity science on general practice/family medicine. We performed a historical integrative review using the following systematic search strategy: medical subject heading [humans] combined in turn with the terms complex adaptive systems, nonlinear dynamics, systems biology, and systems theory, limited to general practice/family medicine and published before December 2010. A total of 16,242 articles were retrieved, of which 49 were published in general practice/family medicine journals. Hand searches and snowballing retrieved another 35. After a full-text review, we included 56 articles dealing specifically with systems sciences and general/family practice. General practice/family medicine engaged with the emerging systems and complexity theories in 4 stages. Before 1995, articles tended to explore common phenomenologic general practice/family medicine experiences. Between 1995 and 2000, articles described the complex adaptive nature of this discipline. Those published between 2000 and 2005 focused on describing the system dynamics of medical practice. After 2005, articles increasingly applied the breadth of complex science theories to health care, health care reform, and the future of medicine. This historical review describes the development of general practice/family medicine in relation to complex adaptive systems theories, and shows how systems sciences more accurately reflect the discipline's philosophy and identity. Analysis suggests that general practice/family medicine first embraced systems theories through conscious reorganization of its boundaries and scope, before applying empirical tools. Future research should concentrate on applying nonlinear dynamics and empirical modeling to patient care, and to organizing and developing local practices, engaging in community development, and influencing

  7. Faculty Approaches to Assessing Critical Thinking in the Humanities and the Natural and Social Sciences: Implications for General Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas, Mark C.; Labig, Chalmer E., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    An analysis of interviews, focus-group discussions, assessment instruments, and assignment prompts revealed that within general education, faculty assessed critical thinking as faceted using methods and criteria that varied epistemically across disciplines. Faculty approaches were misaligned with discipline-general institutional approaches.…

  8. Handedness, criminality, and sexual offending.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogaert, A F

    2001-01-01

    A very large database was used to investigate whether men with a history of criminality and/or sexual offending have a higher incidence of nonright-handedness (NRH) relative to a control sample of nonoffender men. The sample (N>8000) comprised interviews by investigators at the Kinsey Institute for Sex and Reproduction in Indiana. The general offender group and a subsample of sex offenders (e.g. pedophiles) had a significantly higher rate of NRH relative to the control (nonoffender) men. In addition, evidence was found that the general criminality/NRH relationship might result from increased educational difficulties that some nonright-handers experience. In contrast, education was unrelated to the handedness/pedophilia relationship, suggesting that there may be a different mechanism underlying the handedness/pedophile relationship than the handedness/(general) criminality relationship. Finally, as a cautionary note, it is stressed that the effects are small and that NRH should not be used as a marker of criminality.

  9. Criminal law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, J.M. da.

    1979-01-01

    Facts concerning the application of atomic energy are presented and those aspects which should be under tutelage, the nature and guilt of the nuclear offenses and the agent's peril are presented. The need of a specific chapter in criminal law with adequate legislation concerning the principles of atomic energy is inferred. The basis for the future elaboration this legislation are fixed. (A.L.S.L.) [pt

  10. Criminal law and psychology: Connection points

    OpenAIRE

    Drakić Dragiša

    2014-01-01

    In the paper the author discovers and analyzes areas which represent points of connection between criminal law and psychology, the areas in which cooperation between these two fields of science is possible and desirable. This article is divided into several sections. Firstly, the author talks about the emergence of psychology as a science and its definition. In the sections that follow the author offers analysis of initial contact between ways of thinking in primeval criminal law and psycholo...

  11. The SP Theory of Intelligence as a Foundation for the Development of a General, Human-Level Thinking Machine

    OpenAIRE

    Wolff, J Gerard

    2016-01-01

    This paper summarises how the "SP theory of intelligence" and its realisation in the "SP computer model" simplifies and integrates concepts across artificial intelligence and related areas, and thus provides a promising foundation for the development of a general, human-level thinking machine, in accordance with the main goal of research in artificial general intelligence. The key to this simplification and integration is the powerful concept of "multiple alignment", borrowed and adapted from...

  12. Integrating Critical Thinking in the Curriculum of the Command and General Staff College

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Doyle, Brian J

    2008-01-01

    .... Students must take a "critical thinking test" both before and after the block of core instruction, and numerous graphic training aids line the classroom walls in an attempt to reinforce these ideas...

  13. Minor and major depression in the general population: does dysfunctional thinking play a role?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaf, LE.; Huibers, M.J.H.; Cuijpers, P.; Arntz, A.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Although most research suggests that minor depression is part of a depression continuum, conflicting results have also been found. Moreover, little is known about dysfunctional thinking in minor depression and how this varies along the continuum. Especially, research on the form of

  14. Intelligence and Personality as Predictors of Divergent Thinking: The Role of General, Fluid and Crystallised Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batey, Mark; Chamorro-Premuzic, Tomas; Furnham, Adrian

    2009-01-01

    Two studies examined the relationships between measures of intelligence, personality and divergent thinking (DT) in student samples. Study one investigated the incremental validity of measures of IQ and fluid intelligence with the Big Five Personality Inventory with regards to DT. Significant relationships of DT to fluid intelligence, Extraversion…

  15. Encouraging Higher-Order Thinking in General Chemistry by Scaffolding Student Learning Using Marzano's Taxonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo, Santiago; Dubas, Justin M.

    2016-01-01

    An emphasis on higher-order thinking within the curriculum has been a subject of interest in the chemical and STEM literature due to its ability to promote meaningful, transferable learning in students. The systematic use of learning taxonomies could be a practical way to scaffold student learning in order to achieve this goal. This work proposes…

  16. CLASSIFICATION OF CRIMINAL GROUPS

    OpenAIRE

    Natalia Romanova

    2013-01-01

    New types of criminal groups are emerging in modern society.  These types have their special criminal subculture. The research objective is to develop new parameters of classification of modern criminal groups, create a new typology of criminal groups and identify some features of their subculture. Research methodology is based on the system approach that includes using the method of analysis of documentary sources (materials of a criminal case), method of conversations with themembers of the...

  17. Victim-induced criminality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fooner, M

    1966-09-02

    In summary, there are certain issues that need to be dealt with if a coherent system of victim compensation is to be created. 1) Is the victim's entitlement to compensation qualified by his behavior in connection with the crime? If a Texas tycoon visits a clip joint, flashes a fat roll of bills, and gets hit on the head and rolled, is he entitled to compensation? If a man enters into a liaison with another's wife and gets shot by the husband, should his dependents be compensated? If a woman goes walking alone in a disreputable neighborhood and is assaulted, is she entitled to compensation? Unless the answer to such questions is a flat "yes," the adjudication of victim compensation as a "right" would be embarkation upon a vast sea of confusion. On the surface it may seem simpler to bypass the issue of "right" and declare for victim compensation as a matter of social policy-a logical extension of the welfare state approach. But the apparent simplicity may quickly prove illusory, in light of the second issue. 2) Is the victim's entitlement to compensation on the basis of indigency to be qualified by the requirement that an offender be apprehended and his guilt determined by a court? There are two levels to this problem. First, if a severely injured man reports to police that he has been mugged and robbed and if the police cannot apprehend a suspect, how is the administrator of compensation to know that the man is in fact the victim of a crime? The administrator of compensation must determine whether the episode was a criminal act or an argument-and who started it, and who precipitated the violence. What shall be the role of the witnesses, and of investigators? More important is the second level of the problem: How will law-enforcement of ficials and the courts evaluate the testimony of the victim if compensation of the victim may be at stake? In the evaluation of proposals for victim compensation, criminologists may need to think very hard about such questions and

  18. Criminal sanctions for legal enties: An instrument of crime control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovašević Dragan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Although contemporary criminal law accepts the system of subjective criminal liability for a committed crime, numerous European legal documents as well as criminal laws, especially those that have been adopted lately, envisage exceptions from this system. Thus, a new form of criminal liability is being introduced: objective liability based on the causation. One of the forms of objective liability is the criminal liability of legal entities, which has been considered disputable for a long time. Obviously, legal entities cannot be held accountable for all types of criminal offences. They cannot be held liable on the grounds of legal provisions regarding mental competence and culpability (as the elements of subjective criminal liability, nor can they be imposed all types of criminal sanctions recognized in criminal legislation in general. In their new or revised criminal legislation, many countries have recognized and inagurated the objective criminal liability of legal persons for committed criminal offences alongside with the predominant system of subjective liability (based on the perpetrator's mental competence and culpability. It is indisputable that some legal entities (such as state authorities cannot be prosecuted and held liable in criminal proceedings; consequently, there are some exemptions from criminal liability (particularly when it comes to the state and state bodies, but it does not exclude criminal liability of responsible officials (natural persons for causing the consequences of a criminal offence. Due to the specific character of legal and contractual capacity of legal entities, law in general and criminal legislations in particular prescribe special legal grounds for establishing criminal liability of legal entities, which differ from the subjective liability of a natural person (perceived as a conscious and reasonable human being acting on his/her own free will where the consequence of a criminal offence is a result of one

  19. Criminal Network Investigation: Processes, Tools, and Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Rasmus Rosenqvist

    important challenge for criminal network investigation, despite the massive attention it receives from research and media. Challenges such as the investigation process, the context of the investigation, human factors such as thinking and creativity, and political decisions and legal laws are all challenges...... that could mean the success or failure of criminal network investigations. % include commission reports as indications of process related problems .. to "play a little politics" !! Information, process, and human factors, are challenges we find to be addressable by software system support. Based on those......Criminal network investigations such as police investigations, intelligence analysis, and investigative journalism involve a range of complex knowledge management processes and tasks. Criminal network investigators collect, process, and analyze information related to a specific target to create...

  20. Exploring parenting as a predictor of criminogenic thinking in college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Rose; Mandracchia, Jon T; Nicholson, Bonnie; Dahlen, Eric

    2014-09-01

    Crime-promoting cognitions and attitudes, globally labeled as criminogenic thinking, are shown to perpetuate maladaptive and antisocial behavior in criminals and nonoffenders. In the nonoffender population, these thinking patterns may not lead to illegal behavior, but can result in irresponsible or maladaptive behavioral consequences. Theories suggest that early childhood parent-child interactions may be partly responsible for the development of criminogenic thinking. While the relationship between parenting and antisocial behavior is well documented, the connection between parenting and the development of criminogenic thinking styles has not yet been explored. The current study examined the nature of the relationship between exposure to parenting behaviors and subsequent criminogenic thoughts in a nonoffender, college population. The sample included 119 undergraduates. Results indicate that parenting may affect general criminogenic thinking as well as specific types of criminogenic thinking styles. Relevance and importance of the findings with regard to clinical work and parenting are also discussed. © The Author(s) 2013.

  1. 30 CFR 208.14 - Civil and criminal penalties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil and criminal penalties. 208.14 Section... MANAGEMENT SALE OF FEDERAL ROYALTY OIL General Provisions § 208.14 Civil and criminal penalties. Failure to abide by the regulations in this part may result in civil and criminal penalties being levied on that...

  2. 33 CFR 1.07-90 - Criminal penalties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Criminal penalties. 1.07-90... GENERAL PROVISIONS Enforcement; Civil and Criminal Penalty Proceedings § 1.07-90 Criminal penalties. (a... death. (2) Marine Boards (46 CFR part 4). (3) Violations of port security regulations (33 CFR parts 6...

  3. The Inextricable Link between Age and Criminal History in Sentencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushway, Shawn D.; Piehl, Anne Morrison

    2007-01-01

    In sentencing research, significant negative coefficients on age research have been interpreted as evidence that actors in the criminal justice system discriminate against younger people. This interpretation is incomplete. Criminal sentencing laws generally specify punishment in terms of the number of past events in a defendant's criminal history.…

  4. Murder in French criminal law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovašević Dragan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The most dangerous forms and aspects of violent crime are criminal offences against life and bodily integrity of others, which are generally designated as acts of homicide. The most prominent among these criminal offences is the crime of murder. Due to the significance, legal nature, characteristics and consequences of this criminal act, all contemporary legislations prescribe the most severe measures and types of punishment for the commission of this crime. There are three types of murder: 1 ordinary (common murder, 2 murder committed under mitigating circumstances, and 3 murder committed under aggravating circumstances, which is as a rule punishable by the most severe punishment. All contemporary criminal legislations, including French legislation, recognize various types and forms of murder, depending on the classification criteria. The most prominent forms of murder are those involving various motives that induce the perpetrators to cause death to another person. In this paper, the author examines the concept, contents, characteristics, forms and elements of the crime of murder in French criminal law, discussing the theoretical and practical aspects of this issue.

  5. Anxiety Sensitivity Dimensions and Generalized Anxiety‏ ‏Severity: The ‎Mediating Role of Experiential Avoidance and Repetitive‏ ‏Negative Thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvaneh‏ ‏ Mohammadkhani

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Generalized anxiety disorder is one of the most common anxiety disorders in the general ‎population. Several studies suggest that anxiety sensitivity is a vulnerability factor in generalized ‎anxiety severity. However, some other studies suggest that negative repetitive thinking and ‎experiential avoidance as response factors can explain this relationship. Therefore, this study ‎aimed to investigate the mediating role of experiential avoidance and negative repetitive thinking ‎in the relationship between anxiety sensitivity and generalized anxiety severity.‎Method: This was a cross-sectional and correlational study. A sample of 475 university students was ‎selected through stratified sampling method. The participants completed Anxiety Sensitivity ‎Inventory-3, Acceptance and Action Questionnaire-II, Perseverative Thinking Questionnaire, and ‎Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7-item Scale. Data were analyzed by Pearson correlation, multiple ‎regression analysis and path analysis.‎Results: The results revealed a positive relationship between anxiety sensitivity, particularly cognitive ‎anxiety sensitivity, experiential avoidance, repetitive thinking and generalized anxiety severity. In ‎addition, findings showed that repetitive thinking, but not experiential avoidance, fully mediated ‎the relationship between cognitive anxiety sensitivity and generalized anxiety severity. α Level ‎was p<0.005.‎Conclusion: Consistent with the trans-diagnostic hypothesis, anxiety sensitivity predicts generalized anxiety‏ ‏severity, but its effect is due to the generating repetitive negative thought.‎

  6. Personality correlates of criminals: A comparative study between normal controls and criminals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Sudhinta

    2016-01-01

    Background: Personality is a major factor in many kinds of behavior, one of which is criminal behavior. To determine what makes a criminal “a criminal,” we must understand his/her personality. This study tries to identify different personality traits which link criminals to their personality. Materials and Methods: In the present study, 37 male criminals of district jail of Dhanbad (Jharkhand) and 36 normal controls were included on a purposive sampling basis. Each criminal was given a personal datasheet and Cattel's 16 personality factors (PFs) scale for assessing their sociodemographic variables and different personality traits. Objective: The objective of this study was to examine the relation between personality traits and criminal behavior, and to determine whether such factors are predictive of future recidivism. Results: Results indicated high scores on intelligence, impulsiveness, suspicion, self-sufficient, spontaneity, self-concept control factors, and very low scores on emotionally less stable on Cattel's 16 PFs scale in criminals as compared with normal. Conclusion: Criminals differ from general population or non criminals in terms of personality traits. PMID:28163407

  7. Criminal Justice in America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croddy, Marshall; And Others

    An introduction to criminal law, processes, and justice is provided in this high school level text. Content is divided into six chapters, each treating a particular aspect of criminal procedure and the social and political issues surrounding it. Chapter 1 considers the criminal, the effects of crime on its victims, and legislation to aid victims.…

  8. ‘The Very Foundations of Any System of Criminal Justice’: Criminal Responsibility in the Australian Model Criminal Code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlie Loughnan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The Model Criminal Code (MCC was intended to be a Code for all Australian jurisdictions. It represents a high point of faith in the value and possibility of systematising, rationalising and modernising criminal law. The core of the MCC is Chapter 2, the ‘general principles of criminal responsibility’, which outlines the ‘physical’ and ‘fault’ elements of criminal offences, and defines concepts such as recklessness. This paper assesses the MCC as a criminal law reform project and explores questions of how the MCC came into being, and why it took shape in certain ways at a particular point in time. The paper tackles these questions from two different perspectives—‘external’ and ‘internal’ (looking at the MCC from the ‘outside’ and the ‘inside’. I make two main arguments. First, I argue that, driven by a ‘top down’ law reform process, the MCC came into being at a time when changes in crime and criminal justice were occurring, and that it may be understood as an attempt to achieve stability in a time of change. Second, I argue that the significance of the principles of criminal responsibility, which formed the central pivot of the MCC, lies on the conceptual level—in relation to the language through which the criminal law is thought about, organised and reformed.

  9. Framing in criminal investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Failures in criminal investigation may lead to wrongful convictions. Insight in the criminal investigation process is needed to understand how these investigative failures may rise and how measures can contribute to the prevention of this kind of failures. Some of the main findings of an empirical study of the criminal investigation process in four cases of major investigations are presented here. This criminal investigation process is analyzed as a process of framing, using Goffman's framing (Goffman, 1975) and interaction theories (Goffman, 1990). It shows that in addition to framing, other substantive and social factors affect the criminal investigation. PMID:29046594

  10. Page | 14 STATES' CRIMINAL JURISDICTION UNDER ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fr. Ikenga

    The criminal jurisdiction of a State's courts under international law is primarily territorial.25 Only under ..... Attorney General of the Government .... also P. Sands, ''After Pinochet : the role of national courts'' in P. Sands (ed) From Nuremberg to ...

  11. Mentally disordered criminal offenders in the Swedish criminal system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svennerlind, Christer; Nilsson, Thomas; Kerekes, Nóra; Andiné, Peter; Lagerkvist, Margareta; Forsman, Anders; Anckarsäter, Henrik; Malmgren, Helge

    2010-01-01

    Historically, the Swedish criminal justice system conformed to other Western penal law systems, exempting severely mentally disordered offenders considered to be unaccountable. However, in 1965 Sweden enforced a radical penal law abolishing exceptions based on unaccountability. Mentally disordered offenders have since then been subjected to various forms of sanctions motivated by the offender's need for care and aimed at general prevention. Until 2008, a prison sentence was not allowed for offenders found to have committed a crime under the influence of a severe mental disorder, leaving forensic psychiatric care the most common sanction in this group. Such offenders are nevertheless held criminally responsible, liable for damages, and encumbered with a criminal record. In most cases, such offenders must not be discharged without the approval of an administrative court. Two essentially modern principles may be discerned behind the "Swedish model": first, an attempted abolishment of moral responsibility, omitting concepts such as guilt, accountability, atonement, and retribution, and, second, the integration of psychiatric care into the societal reaction and control systems. The model has been much criticized, and several governmental committees have suggested a re-introduction of a system involving the concept of accountability. This review describes the Swedish special criminal justice provisions on mentally disordered offenders including the legislative changes in 1965 along with current proposals to return to a pre-1965 system, presents current Swedish forensic psychiatric practice and research, and discusses some of the ethical, political, and metaphysical presumptions that underlie the current system. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Intelligence Makes People Think like Economists: Evidence from the General Social Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplan, Bryan; Miller, Stephen C.

    2010-01-01

    Education is by far the strongest predictor of whether a non-economist will share the economic beliefs of the average economist. (Caplan, 2001) Is the effect of education as large as it seems? Or is education largely a proxy for cognitive ability? Using data from the General Social Survey (GSS), we show that the estimated effect of education…

  13. Creative Thinking in Music: Developing a Model for Meaningful Learning in Middle School General Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menard, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Creativity can be experienced in many roles of musicianship: performing, improvising, and composing. Yet, activities that encourage creative thought in our music classrooms can be a challenge to implement. A strong music education curriculum for middle school general music is important; as this may be the last time we reach students who do not…

  14. Criminal Justice Transitions

    OpenAIRE

    McAra, Lesley; McVie, Susan

    2007-01-01

    This report explores transitions into the adult criminal justice system amongst a large cohort of young people who were involved in the Edinburgh Study of Youth Transitions and Crime. It includes: a description of patterns of criminal convictions and disposals for young people up to age 19 (on average); an examination of the characteristics and institutional histories of cohort members with a criminal record as compared with youngsters with no such record; and an exploration of the profile of...

  15. Criminal aspects domestic violence

    OpenAIRE

    Smetanová, Kristina

    2013-01-01

    Smetanová, Kristina. Criminal aspects of domestic violence The topic of this thesis is the criminal aspects of domestic violence. The aim of the thesis is to describe this dangerous and complicated social problem and focus on outlining the possibilities of protection under Czech criminal law. The thesis consists of eight chapters. The first chapter explains what the domestic violence is and which sources, types and characters does it have.The second chapter shows who can be the violent person...

  16. Psychology and criminal justice

    OpenAIRE

    Adler, Joanna R.

    2013-01-01

    This chapter is designed to give the reader a flavour of a few areas in which psychology has been applied to criminal justice. It begins by providing some historical context and showing the development of some applications of psychology to criminal justice. The chapter is broadly split into 3 sections: Pre Trial; Trial; and Post Trial. In most of this chapter, the areas considered assess how psychology has had an influence on the law and how psychologists work within criminal justice settings...

  17. COMPUTATIONAL THINKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeniy K. Khenner

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The aim of the research is to draw attention of the educational community to the phenomenon of computational thinking which actively discussed in the last decade in the foreign scientific and educational literature, to substantiate of its importance, practical utility and the right on affirmation in Russian education.Methods. The research is based on the analysis of foreign studies of the phenomenon of computational thinking and the ways of its formation in the process of education; on comparing the notion of «computational thinking» with related concepts used in the Russian scientific and pedagogical literature.Results. The concept «computational thinking» is analyzed from the point of view of intuitive understanding and scientific and applied aspects. It is shown as computational thinking has evolved in the process of development of computers hardware and software. The practice-oriented interpretation of computational thinking which dominant among educators is described along with some ways of its formation. It is shown that computational thinking is a metasubject result of general education as well as its tool. From the point of view of the author, purposeful development of computational thinking should be one of the tasks of the Russian education.Scientific novelty. The author gives a theoretical justification of the role of computational thinking schemes as metasubject results of learning. The dynamics of the development of this concept is described. This process is connected with the evolution of computer and information technologies as well as increase of number of the tasks for effective solutions of which computational thinking is required. Author substantiated the affirmation that including «computational thinking » in the set of pedagogical concepts which are used in the national education system fills an existing gap.Practical significance. New metasubject result of education associated with

  18. Organisational aspects of dental practices: do dental students think like patients or like general dental practitioners?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonneveld, R E; Brands, W G; Bronkhorst, E M; Welie, J V M; Truin, G J

    2013-02-01

    In view of transparency in health care, the widespread desire for more patient-centred care, and in an attempt to facilitate educational programmes that effectively respond to these changes, two research questions are formulated: (i) How do dental students rate the importance of various organisational aspects of dental practices compared with dental patients and general dental practitioners (GDPs), and what prescripts, defined as specific operational responsibilities of GDPs in these matters, do dental students propose? and (ii) In doing so, do students resemble patients or GDPs? In two survey studies, dental students (n = 198), patients (n = 3127) and GDPs (n = 303) were asked to rate by questionnaire the importance of 41 organisational aspects of a general dental practice and proposed specific operational responsibilities ('prescripts'). Seven of 41 aspects were rated as important by the majority of the students. Although in a different rank order, three aspects were predominantly selected by all three groups: continuing education, accessibility by telephone and Dutch-speaking GDP. For most aspects, significant differences were found between the prescripts proposed by students and those proposed by patients, and few differences were found between students and GDPs. The findings do not permit the general conclusion that the views of dental students resemble those of patients or GPDs. Looking at the overall rank order, the three respondent groups showed a great resemblance although significant differences were found for specific aspects. With regard to the proposed prescripts, students showed realistic views and the majority wants to participate in continuing education and work with protocols and guidelines. In this, they tend to resemble GDPs more than they resemble patients. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  19. Evolutionary thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Tam

    2014-01-01

    Evolution as an idea has a lengthy history, even though the idea of evolution is generally associated with Darwin today. Rebecca Stott provides an engaging and thoughtful overview of this history of evolutionary thinking in her 2013 book, Darwin's Ghosts: The Secret History of Evolution. Since Darwin, the debate over evolution—both how it takes place and, in a long war of words with religiously-oriented thinkers, whether it takes place—has been sustained and heated. A growing share of this debate is now devoted to examining how evolutionary thinking affects areas outside of biology. How do our lives change when we recognize that all is in flux? What can we learn about life more generally if we study change instead of stasis? Carter Phipps’ book, Evolutionaries: Unlocking the Spiritual and Cultural Potential of Science's Greatest Idea, delves deep into this relatively new development. Phipps generally takes as a given the validity of the Modern Synthesis of evolutionary biology. His story takes us into, as the subtitle suggests, the spiritual and cultural implications of evolutionary thinking. Can religion and evolution be reconciled? Can evolutionary thinking lead to a new type of spirituality? Is our culture already being changed in ways that we don't realize by evolutionary thinking? These are all important questions and Phipps book is a great introduction to this discussion. Phipps is an author, journalist, and contributor to the emerging “integral” or “evolutionary” cultural movement that combines the insights of Integral Philosophy, evolutionary science, developmental psychology, and the social sciences. He has served as the Executive Editor of EnlightenNext magazine (no longer published) and more recently is the co-founder of the Institute for Cultural Evolution, a public policy think tank addressing the cultural roots of America's political challenges. What follows is an email interview with Phipps. PMID:26478766

  20. The International Criminal Court

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Ciara Therése

    This article considers whether acts of international terrorism can and should be prosecuted before the International Criminal Court as crimes against humanity.......This article considers whether acts of international terrorism can and should be prosecuted before the International Criminal Court as crimes against humanity....

  1. The principle of guilt as a basis for criminal sanctions justification review in the Criminal Law in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćorović Emir A.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The principle of guilt is one of the essential principles of criminal law. However, it is a very complex principle. Its content has been presented in this paper particularly referring to a systematic deviation of it in the criminal legislation of the Republic of Serbia. According to the provisions of the article 2 of the Criminal Code of Serbia the principle of guilt is related to punishments and warning measures, while security and educational measures remained beyond its reach. On the other side, The Criminal Code defining a crime offense in the article 14 demands culpability of perpetrator's behavior. It involves a conceptual problem: a possibility is given for criminal sanctions of the principle of guilt, article 2 of the Criminal Code not referring to security and educational measures could be applied for people acting without culpability. It is paradoxical to accept criminal-justice reaction in the form of criminal sanctions regarding people without guilt. According to author of this paper, such a normative solution brings into issue the relevant principle, more precisely its basis, generality and guidance, the qualities that every legal principle should maintain. Of course, deviations of legal principle and the principle of guilt are possible but they must be kept to a minimum. Otherwise, systematic legal principle deviations, in this case the principle of guilt, are not to be tolerated. Connecting the principle of guilt with the system of criminal sanctions opens the debate on voluntarism embodied in the freedom of will and guilt and positivism/determinism embodied in perpetrator's danger and educational neglect within the criminal law. It is over a century discussion in the science of criminal law. The author of the paper concludes criminal-justice reaction in the form of criminal sanction can be justified only of based on the principle of guilt. Otherwise, such a reaction has no place in the criminal law.

  2. Generalization in chess thinking

    OpenAIRE

    D'Eredit??, Giuliano; Ferro, Mario

    2015-01-01

    En este trabajo abordamos la generalizaci??n en el pensamiento en el juego del ajedrez. La generalizaci??n es un complejo proceso basado en informaci??n adquirida durante experiencias previas. En el campo del ajedrez, los libros de ajedrez, la educaci??n en el ajedrez y la pr??ctica personal con el juego aportan la informaci??n que posibilita la generalizaci??n. La forma en que la generalizaci??n se produce en el ajedrez es todav??a un tema que merece m??s investigaci??n. En este art??culo...

  3. 39 CFR 230.4 - Arrest and investigative powers of criminal investigators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Arrest and investigative powers of criminal... OFFICE OF INSPECTOR GENERAL General Policy and Authority § 230.4 Arrest and investigative powers of criminal investigators. (a) Under the authority of 18 U.S.C. 3061, criminal investigators employed by the...

  4. A general neurologist's perspective on the urgent need to apply resilience thinking to the prevention and treatment of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomorska, Grazyna; Ockene, Judith K

    2017-11-01

    The goal of this article was to look at the problem of Alzheimer's disease (AD) through the lens of a socioecological resilience-thinking framework to help expand our view of the prevention and treatment of AD. This serious and complex public health problem requires a holistic systems approach. We present the view that resilience thinking, a theoretical framework that offers multidisciplinary approaches in ecology and natural resource management to solve environmental problems, can be applied to the prevention and treatment of AD. Resilience thinking explains a natural process that occurs in all complex systems in response to stressful challenges. The brain is a complex system, much like an ecosystem, and AD is a disturbance (allostatic overload) within the ecosystem of the brain. Resilience thinking gives us guidance, direction, and ideas about how to comprehensively prevent and treat AD and tackle the AD epidemic.

  5. Colour revolutions: criminal-legal aspect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Alekseyevich Gordeychik

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective basing on the analysis of colour revolution technologies in different countries to formulate propositions for improving criminal legislation aimed at counteraction against this phenomenon. Methods general scientific induction deduction analysis synthesis and specific scientific formaljuridical and comparativelegal. Results using the results of colour revolutionsrsquo research carried out by political scientists the author evaluates the character and level of public danger of colour revolutions. The author states that the colour revolutions threaten the normal existence of the country or several countries. The conclusion is made that the colour revolutions must be counteracted by criminallegal means. The article states the absence of norms in the existing criminal legislation which would impose criminal liability on organizers incendiaries and participants of colour revolutions. It is proposed to supplement the existing criminal law with the norm stipulating the liability for such deeds and to insert this norm into Art. 34 ldquoCrimes against peace and security of humanityrdquo thus equating organization preparation and implementing colour revolutions with planning preparation launching and conducting an aggressive war Art. 353 of the Russian Criminal Code. Scientific novelty basing on the existing legal norms modern politological and juridical scientific literature a conclusion is made that the colour revolutions are based on the abuse of law. This allows the organizers of colour revolutions to legally prepare and implement the subversion of undesirable political regimes. The author formulates proposals for supplementing the criminal legislation. Practical value the materials and conclusions of the article can be used in lawmaking activity when elaborating the drafts of legal acts for changing and supplementing the Russian Criminal Code for research activity when preparing monographs and dissertations tutorials and articles when

  6. Civil & Criminal Penalties

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Consumer Product Safety Commission — When CPSC is involved in a civil or criminal investigations into violations of the Consumer Products Safety Act the Commission publishes final determinations and...

  7. Dentistry and criminal law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoury, B S; Khoury, J N

    2017-09-01

    Criminal law in dentistry, as shaped and moulded by the prevailing views of society, defines what is or is not socially acceptable. It applies in both personal and professional contexts with the intended consequence of protecting the public from unacceptable conduct and potential imbalances of power. At its centre, a patient's consent plays a pivotal role in transforming unlawful conduct into lawful conduct. This literature review considers the current law and the trend of utilizing criminal law in addition to non-criminal law alternatives of reprimanding clinicians for failure to achieve consent in the course of dental practice. Dentists must appreciate this change and the prosecuting authority's increasing willingness to resort to criminal law. © 2017 Australian Dental Association.

  8. Criminal Law in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langsted, Lars Bo; Garde, Peter; Greve, Vagn

    Derived from the renowned multi-volume International Encyclopaedia of Laws, this book provides a practical analysis of criminal law in Denmark. An introduction presents the necessary background information about the framework and sources of the criminal justice system, and then proceeds......-trial proceedings, trial stage, and legal remedies. A final part describes the execution of sentences and orders, the prison system, and the extinction of custodial sanctions or sentences. Its succinct yet scholarly nature, as well as the practical quality of the information it provides, make this book a valuable...... resource for criminal lawyers, prosecutors, law enforcement officers, and criminal court judges handling cases connected with Denmark. Academics and researchers, as well as the various international organizations in the field, will welcome this very useful guide, and will appreciate its value in the study...

  9. Euthanasia and criminal law

    OpenAIRE

    Ullrichová, Petra

    2008-01-01

    71 8. Summary- Euthanasia and criminal law Euthanasia is often regarded as a controversial topic that is being discussed all around the world. The legislative rules differ among the countries to various extent. The scope of this work is to offer a summary of legal regulations in euthanasia, particulary in the area of criminal law and a several examples of these regulations in Europe, USA and Australia. In the first chapter, the term of euthanasia is defined which is necessary for the purpose ...

  10. The ICC, International Criminal Justice and International Politics

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    short, does it have a future, and how shall it remain relevant in the future? This article is a think piece ... Introduction. The International Criminal ... in its operations by international politics, are the ICC's weaknesses a function of its very nature or ...

  11. Rational Thinking and Reasonable Thinking in Physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaeva E. A.

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The usual concept of space and time, based on Aristotle's principle of contemplation of the world and of the absoluteness of time, is a product of rational thinking. At the same time, in philosophy, rational thinking differs from reasonable thinking; the aim of logic is to distinguish finite forms from infinite forms. Agreeing that space and time are things of infinity in this work, we shall show that, with regard to these two things, it is necessary to apply reasonable thinking. Spaces with non-Euclidean geometry, for example Riemannian and Finslerian spaces, in particular, the space of the General Theory of the Relativity (four-dimensional pseudo-Riemannian geometry and also the concept of multi-dimensional space-time are products of reasonable thinking. Consequently, modern physical experiment not dealing with daily occurrences (greater speeds than a low speed to the velocity of light, strong fields, singularities, etc. can be covered only by reasonable thinking.

  12. Rational Thinking and Reasonable Thinking in Physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaeva E. A.

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The usual concept of space and time, based on Aristotle’s principle of contemplation of the world and of the absoluteness of time, is a product of rational thinking. At the same time, in philosophy, rational thinking differs from reasonable thinking; the aim of logic is to distinguish finite forms from infinite forms. Agreeing that space and time are things of infinity in this work, we shall show that, with regard to these two things, it is necessary to apply reasonable thinking. Spaces with non-Euclidean geometry, for example Riemannian and Finslerian spaces, in particular, the space of the General Theory of the Relativity (four-dimensional pseudo-Riemannian geometry and also the concept of multi-dimensional space-time are products of reasonable thinking. Consequently, modern physical experiment not dealing with daily occurrences (greater speeds than a low speed to the velocity of light, strong fields, singularities, etc. can be covered only by reasonable thinking.

  13. Criminal Policy Debate as an Active Learning Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellgren, Caroline; Ivert, Anna-Karin

    2016-01-01

    One of the biggest challenges for criminal justice educators is to deal with the strongly held opinions and preconceived notions about criminal justice issues among students. It often takes the form of students being reluctant to accept certain premises that does not comply with their own experience of the issue. The general tendency to reject…

  14. Administrative prejudgment in the Russian criminal law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhat Akhnafovich Yunusov

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective basing on the research of formation and development of the administrative prejudgment in the Russian criminal law and comparativelegal analysis of this institution as well as the longterm experience in crime investigation to trace the problems and trends of administrative prejudgment and prove the necessity to introduce or to be more precise legalize the administrative prejudgment in the Russian criminal law. Methods the research is based on the general dialectic method of cognition comparative historical formaljuridical methods as well as special and privatelegal methods of research. Results analysis of the main problems and collisions of administrative prejudgment in the Russian criminal law the doctrine and the practice of implementation of this institution can become the basis for legalization of the administrative prejudgment in the Russian criminal law and implementing it for the crimes stipulated in the Special part of the Russian Criminal Code if they are of low or middle gravity and committed intentionally those most often occurred. The article studies the institution of the administrative prejudgment in the Russian criminal law since 1922 until present. Various researchersrsquo opinions are given for and against returning of this institution. Taking into account the criminological indicators the authors express their own opinion on legalization of the administrative prejudgment. Scientific novelty having abandoned the formal approach to the institution of the administrative prejudgment both in the Russian criminal law and in the foreign laws the authors believe that the criminal personality should be the central factor of the administrative prejudgment legalization. In this context the authors state the direct connection between the personal features of a criminal including their inclination to immoral and illegal behavior and the crime committed by them. Practical value the theoretical conclusions formulated in the research

  15. 40 CFR 303.12 - Criminal violations covered by this award authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Criminal violations covered by this... (CONTINUED) SUPERFUND, EMERGENCY PLANNING, AND COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW PROGRAMS CITIZEN AWARDS FOR INFORMATION ON CRIMINAL VIOLATIONS UNDER SUPERFUND General § 303.12 Criminal violations covered by this award...

  16. Invited Address: James Joyce, Alice in Wonderland, the Rolling Stones, and Criminal Careers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piquero, Alex R.

    2011-01-01

    The study of criminal careers generally, and patterns of continuity and change in criminal offending in particular, has been a long-standing interest to social scientists across many disciplines. This article provides readers with an overview of this line of research. After an introduction to the criminal career perspective, the article presents…

  17. 21 CFR 7.84 - Opportunity for presentation of views before report of criminal violation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... report of criminal violation. 7.84 Section 7.84 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ENFORCEMENT POLICY Criminal Violations § 7.84 Opportunity for presentation of views before report of criminal violation. (a)(1) Except as provided in paragraph (a) (2) and...

  18. 21 CFR 7.85 - Conduct of a presentation of views before report of criminal violation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... of criminal violation. 7.85 Section 7.85 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ENFORCEMENT POLICY Criminal Violations § 7.85 Conduct of a presentation of views before report of criminal violation. (a) The presentation of views shall be heard by a...

  19. The criminal law responsibility of officials under environmental criminal law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkelbauer, W.

    1986-01-01

    The legal application of environmental criminal law has attributed to office-bearers of the environmental administration a determining function in the field of criminal protection of legal objects. Criminal law shall prevent the misuse of official authority. In this connection law has to observe the limits of admissible procedure of the administration. (CW) [de

  20. Motive Criminal Procedure Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В. В. Вапнярчук

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the article the need for such a level of mental regulation of behavior of proving motivation. The latter refers to internal motivation conscious entity Criminal Procedure proof, due to specific needs, interests and goals that cause a person to act rishymist. Detailed attention is given to the first two determinants, namely the nature of needs and interests. In particular, analyzes highlighted in the literature variety of needs (physiological, ekzistentsionalni, social, prestige, cognitive, aesthetic and spiritual and the manifestation of some of them in the criminal procedural proof.

  1. Criminal aspects of domestic violence

    OpenAIRE

    Váňová, Radka

    2013-01-01

    Criminal aspects of domestic violence SUMMARY Domestic violence is a serious social concern with high level of latency. The domestic violence victims protection is ensured by legal standarts of Civil, Administrative and Criminal Law and other legal standarts. Criminal Law is one of the important instruments for tackling of serious forms of domestic violence. However Criminal Law is an instrument "ultima ratio" which needs claiming of subsidiarity principal of the crime repression. The purpose...

  2. PROBLEM OF CRIMINAL REPRESSION, APPLIED OUTSIDE OF CRIMINAL LIABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitaly Stepashin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available УДК 343.2A new institute of repressive measures applied outside the criminal liability in criminal law (including as a condition for exemption from criminal liability is forming now in Russian legislation. The author concludes that the provisions of the criminal law on monetary compensation and a court fine should be deleted because of the following reasons. 1 By their nature, and monetary compensation and a court fine, not being a formal punishment (and, therefore, a form of realization of criminal responsibility is a monetary penalty, i.e., penalty-punishment. Moreover, the rules of court fine destination identical rules of criminal sentencing. 2 Quantitatively court fine may exceed the minimum limits of criminal punish-ment in the form of fines. The dimensions of monetary compensation in the order of hours. Pt. 2, Art. 76.1 of the Criminal Code and at all close to the maximum values of fine-punishment. 3 Exemption from criminal liability requires states to refrain from prosecuting the person alleged to have committed a crime, which means that the nonuse of criminal repression. Regulatory standards analyzed, on the other hand, require mandatory use of repression, ie, virtually no exemption from criminal liability does not occur at all. 4 The use of a quasi-penalty in the form of monetary compensation and court fines are not an exemption from criminal responsibility, but on the contrary, the use of criminal repression (of responsibility, and in a simplified manner. 5 Contrary to the requirements of the Constitution and the Criminal Code of criminal repression is applied to persons whose guilt has not been established in the commission of a crime. Thus, in criminal law introduced a presumption of guilt. 6 Customization repression (in fact – of criminal responsibility in the application of the judicial penalty is substantially limited, and the application of monetary compensation is excluded at all, contrary to the requirement that the rough

  3. Criminal aspect of injuries in sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandarić Sanja

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the concept of sports ethics is defined and attention is directed to kinds of behavior which are not considered as fair play, the general conception of criminal offence as well as the elements of general idea of criminal act, unlawfulness and guilt with special attention paid to the basis on which unlawfulness and delict, and with them, the criminal offence itself are excluded. Consent of the injured party as basis for excluding unlawfulness has been carefully considered, with emphasis on the fact that with accepting to participate is a certain sport an athlete does not consent to be hurt outside the frame which rules of a particular sport imply. The attitude is accepted that with his consent an athlete consented to the possibility for his integrity be endangered, which still does not mean that he consented to be injured indeed, i.e. a difference is recognized between the consequence of endangering and the consequence of injuring protected assets. After that, rules which are applied in certain sports are explained and connected with the acceptance of the injured party, and the stand is taken that acceptance of the injured party excludes existence of criminal deed only in a situation when an injury occurred within the rules of a particular sport. If the injury occurred by breaking the rules of the sport, it would be considered as a criminal act. In conclusion, the stand is taken that it is necessary to fight against all harmful occurrences in sports, including the injuries which occurred due to severe violation of rules which should be applied in a particular sport. It is concluded that consent of the injured party must not be an excuse for not applying criminal justice, if the injury occurred by violation of the rules of a particular sport.

  4. Mapping the criminal mind: idiographic assessment of criminal belief systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Glenn D

    2005-02-01

    An idiographic procedure designed to assess the belief systems of criminal offenders is described, investigated, and clarified. This measure, the Cognitive Map of Major Belief Systems (CMMBS), assesses the five belief systems (self-view, world-view, past-view, present-view, future-view) held to occupy the higher echelons of human cognition. Modest to moderate test-retest reliability was achieved when 19 inmates, enrolled in one of three drug-counseling groups, completed the CMMBS on two separate occasions, 2 weeks apart. It was also ascertained that the drug treatment specialist who served as therapist for all three groups "blindly" matched the 19 CMMBS records to the inmates who produced them. A case study of one of the 19 participants was used to illustrate how the CMMBS is employed with individual offenders and how belief systems interact with major schematic subnetworks such as attributions, outcome expectancies, efficacy expectancies, goals, values, and thinking styles to create crime-supporting lifestyles.

  5. Criminal Justice Web Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodge, Timothy

    1998-01-01

    Evaluates 15 criminal justice Web sites that have been selected according to the following criteria: authority, currency, purpose, objectivity, and potential usefulness to researchers. The sites provide narrative and statistical information concerning crime, law enforcement, the judicial system, and corrections. Searching techniques are also…

  6. Managing Criminal Investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloch, Peter B.; Weidman, Donald R.

    The report discusses many ways for police managers to improve the success of their departments' criminal investigation efforts. Management issues addressed include budgeting and allocating resources; improving relationships with the prosecutor; interacting with the public, especially victims and witnesses; improving relationships between…

  7. Review of Regional Criminal Justice Training Academies. House Document No. 28. Report of the Joint Legislative Audit and Review Commission to the Governor and the General Assembly of Virginia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virginia State General Assembly, Richmond. Joint Legislative Audit and Review Commission.

    Virginia has 36 criminal justice training academies, including 10 regional academies. The academies conduct entry-level, inservice, and specialized training for law enforcement officers, jailers, and other criminal justice personnel. In 1998, the Joint Legislative Audit and Review Commission (JLARC) was directed to review the quality, consistency,…

  8. Thinking about computational thinking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, J.J.; Fletcher, G.H.L.; Fitzgerald, S.; Guzdial, M.; Lewandowski, G.; Wolfman, S.A.

    2009-01-01

    Jeannette Wing's call for teaching Computational Thinking (CT) as a formative skill on par with reading, writing, and arithmetic places computer science in the category of basic knowledge. Just as proficiency in basic language arts helps us to effectively communicate and in basic math helps us to

  9. Cyber Forensics Ontology for Cyber Criminal Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Heum; Cho, Sunho; Kwon, Hyuk-Chul

    We developed Cyber Forensics Ontology for the criminal investigation in cyber space. Cyber crime is classified into cyber terror and general cyber crime, and those two classes are connected with each other. The investigation of cyber terror requires high technology, system environment and experts, and general cyber crime is connected with general crime by evidence from digital data and cyber space. Accordingly, it is difficult to determine relational crime types and collect evidence. Therefore, we considered the classifications of cyber crime, the collection of evidence in cyber space and the application of laws to cyber crime. In order to efficiently investigate cyber crime, it is necessary to integrate those concepts for each cyber crime-case. Thus, we constructed a cyber forensics domain ontology for criminal investigation in cyber space, according to the categories of cyber crime, laws, evidence and information of criminals. This ontology can be used in the process of investigating of cyber crime-cases, and for data mining of cyber crime; classification, clustering, association and detection of crime types, crime cases, evidences and criminals.

  10. Several criminal, phenomenological and etiological features of criminal offences of counterfeiting money in Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MSc. Milot Krasniqi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The Republic of Kosovo is making efforts as a young state to strengthen rule of law and efficiently combat criminality in general, and specifically organized crime, as a condition for its journey towards European integration perspectives.  For a normal functioning of the economic system, the safety and protection of controlled circulation of money are of vital importance. In this direction, the state takes actions and measures to ensure that manufacturing and emissions of banknotes and bonds are undertaken by competent authorities, such as the Central Bank, and render impossible the counterfeiting of money. In Kosovo, money counterfeiting is not widely studied. Consequently, there are no recent research papers over the time when these offences have marked rather high records. This circumstance, and especially the fact that these offences are rather frequent in Kosovo, made me enter the research of this type of criminality.    Apart from principles and rules stipulated by special laws of the field of economy, protection of the economic system is also helped by the Criminal Code, which incriminates the act of counterfeit money as a criminal offence against the economic system, thereby ensuring general prevention of potential offenders, and repressive measures against confirmed offenders. Protection of economic and monetary systems is also provided upon by numerous international acts.  The paper is permeated by conclusions, analysis and independent recommendations, which I believe will contribute de lege ferrenda to criminal policies in preventing and combating this type of crime. In researching the criminal offences of counterfeiting money, I have used the method of historical materialism, dogmatic law method, statistical methods, surveys and interviews, and studies of individual cases.    From the research of this type of crime, I have concluded that these criminal offences are a serious type of crime, which may result in major individual

  11. Thinking Critically about Critical Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulnix, Jennifer Wilson

    2012-01-01

    As a philosophy professor, one of my central goals is to teach students to think critically. However, one difficulty with determining whether critical thinking can be taught, or even measured, is that there is widespread disagreement over what critical thinking actually is. Here, I reflect on several conceptions of critical thinking, subjecting…

  12. Criminal Justice History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Krause

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This review article discusses studies on the history of crime and the criminal law in England and Ireland published during the last few years. These reflect the ›history of crime and punishment‹ as a more or less established sub-discipline of social history, at least in England, whereas it only really began to flourish in the german-speaking world from the 1990s onwards. By contrast, the legal history of the criminal law and its procedure has a strong, recently revived academic tradition in Germany that does not really have a parallel in the British Isles, whose legal scholars still evidence their traditional reluctance to confront penal subjects.

  13. The definition of the sources of the criminal law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Анна Суренівна Сохікян

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem setting. The article investigates the notion of the sources of criminal law. The approaches to definition of the source of law are analyzed. On the basis of fundamental research of the current legislation inUkraine selected characteristics of the sources of criminal law. Using the inductive study method is the definition of sources of criminal law. Recent research and publications. Obviously, the concept itself is not able entirely to solve the highlighted problem. Moreover, the identification of sources of criminal law is only possible through the selection of some traits from the concept. After all, the concept of "source of criminal law" is the species concept in relation to sources of law in General. As with any concept in science, it must be based on theoretical concepts. Paper objective. From our point of view, the answer to the question about the range of sources of criminal law can be based exclusively on the clarification of the concepts and features of this source. In other words, only the phenomenon, which will fully meet all scientific indications of the sources of criminal law, and can only be attributed to them. Paper main body. Given the above, the purpose of this article is the definition of "source of criminal law". Applying the inductive method of knowledge and doctrinal analysis of the formal and material sources of criminal law, we can distinguish a number of characteristics by which we define the concept of "source of criminal law". A generalization of the existing points of view on the problem of the sources of law has led scientists to believe that it refers to: 1 factor, from which derives the right, the source of knowledge of law; 2 the basis from which comes the right; 3 that contains the right, meaning the standards set or fixed at a certain stage of a dominant class; the material conditions of society; 4 the form or method of formation, occurrence and expression of the rule of law, what should the mandatory

  14. Pathological gambling and criminality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folino, Jorge Oscar; Abait, Patricia Estela

    2009-09-01

    To review research results on the relationship between pathological gambling and criminality, published in 2007 and 2008, in English and in Spanish. An important association between pathological gambling and criminality was confirmed in populations of anonymous gamblers, helpline callers and substance abusers. Helplines provide a timely service to gamblers who have not reached the maximum stages in the development of a pathological gambling pattern. Pathological gambling is associated with violence in couples and dysfunctional families. Inversely, violence is also an antecedent promoting vulnerability toward pathological gambling. Impulsiveness shows diverse relationships with pathological gambling and violence as well. A pathological gambler's involvement in crime is exceptionally considered without responsibility by justice, but it may be an indicator of the disorder severity and the need for special therapeutic tactics. While reviewing the present study, research work was published that contributed to a better understanding of the association between pathological gambling and criminality and went further into their complex relationship and the formulation of explanatory models related to impulsiveness.

  15. General problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This article presents the general problems as natural disasters, consequences of global climate change, public health, the danger of criminal actions, the availability to information about problems of environment

  16. International Criminal Law & Its Paradoxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlson, Kerstin Bree

    2017-01-01

    criminal law are unrealizable under current ICT practice. This is due to international criminal law's foundational, legitimizing basis in natural law, rather than political liberalism. The article calls for a revision of ICT institutional accountability structures.......This article challenges international criminal tribunals' (ICTs) capacity to perform the socially constitutive work of transitional justice. Highlighting paradigmatic ICT jurisprudence, it shows both the "progress" and "justice" constructs central to the work and legitimacy of international...

  17. Racial Profiling and Criminal Justice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryberg, Jesper

    2011-01-01

    According to the main argument in favour of the practice of racial profiling as a low enforcement tactic, the use of race as a targeting factor helps the police to apprehend more criminals. In the following, this argument is challenged. It is argued that, given the assumption that criminals...... are currently being punished too severely in Western countries, the apprehension of more criminals may not constitute a reason in favour of racial profiling at all....

  18. Drones in (Slovene) criminal investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Boštjan, Slak

    2016-01-01

    Unmanned aircrafts, also known as drones, are increasingly used in modern society. Their versatility allows them to be used in a range of different industries, sectors, spheres and activities, including in the area of policing and criminal investigation. In policing, drones are primarily used for the control of state borders, public events and traffic, while their use in criminal investigation is related all from assisting crime scene investigation to tracking suspects or criminal gangs. The ...

  19. Addiction between therapy and criminalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birklbauer, Alois; Schmidthuber, Kathrin

    2014-12-01

    The present paper delves into the question of whether and to what extent it is appropriate to leave addiction problems between the conflicting priorities of therapy and criminalization. After outlining the issue the criminal addictive behaviour including crimes associated with drug misuse and with obtaining drugs is described. Subsequently it is discussed if and how you could make allowances for addiction-related legal insanity in the criminal law sector. Following a few remarks on the principle of "voluntary therapy instead of penal sanction" as a way to alleviate the strict law on narcotic drugs misuse a summary and an outlook with criminal-political demands complete the issue.

  20. Enhance Criminal Investigation by Proposed Fingerprint Recognition System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashem, S.H.; Maolod, A.T.; Mohammad, A.A.

    2014-01-01

    Law enforcement officers and forensic specialists spend hours thinking about how fingerprints solve crimes, and trying to find, collect, record and compare these unique identifiers that can connect a specific person to a specific crime. These individuals understand that a basic human feature that most people take for granted, can be one of the most effective tools in crime solving.This research exploits our previous work to be applicable in criminal investigation field. The present study aims to solve the advance crime by strength fingerprint’s criminal investigation to control the alterations happen intentionally to criminals’ fingerprint. That done by suggest strategy introduce an optimal fingerprint image feature’s vector to the person and then considers it to be stored in database for future matching. Selecting optimal fingerprint feature’s vector strategy deal with considering 10 fingerprints for each criminal person (take the fingerprint in different time and different circumstance of criminal such as finger is dirty, wet, trembling, etc.). Proposal begun with apply a proposed enrollment on all 10 fingerprint for each criminal, the enrollment include the following consequence steps; begin with preprocessing step for each of 10 images including enhancement, then two level of feature extraction (first level to extract arches, whorls, and loops, where second level extract minutiae), after that applying proposed Genetic Algorithm to select optimal fingerprint, master fingerprint, which in our point of view present the most universal image which include more detailed features to recognition. Master fingerprint will be feature’s vector which stored in database. Then apply the proposed matching by testing fingerprints with these stored in database.While, measuring of criminal fingerprint investigation performance by calculating False Reject Rate (FRR)and False Accept Rate (FAR) for the traditional system and the proposed in criminal detection field. The

  1. Increased Executive Functioning, Attention, and Cortical Thickness in White-Collar Criminals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raine, Adrian; Laufer, William S.; Yang, Yaling; Narr, Katherine L.; Thompson, Paul; Toga, Arthur W.

    2011-01-01

    Very little is known on white collar crime and how it differs to other forms of offending. This study tests the hypothesis that white collar criminals have better executive functioning, enhanced information processing, and structural brain superiorities compared to offender controls. Using a case-control design, executive functioning, orienting, and cortical thickness was assessed in 21 white collar criminals matched with 21 controls on age, gender, ethnicity, and general level of criminal offending. White collar criminals had significantly better executive functioning, increased electrodermal orienting, increased arousal, and increased cortical gray matter thickness in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, inferior frontal gyrus, somatosensory cortex, and the temporal-parietal junction compared to controls. Results, while initial, constitute the first findings on neurobiological characteristics of white-collar criminals It is hypothesized that white collar criminals have information-processing and brain superiorities that give them an advantage in perpetrating criminal offenses in occupational settings. PMID:22002326

  2. Invited address: James Joyce, Alice in Wonderland, The Rolling Stones, and criminal careers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piquero, Alex R

    2011-07-01

    The study of criminal careers generally, and patterns of continuity and change in criminal offending in particular, has been a long-standing interest to social scientists across many disciplines. This article provides readers with an overview of this line of research. After an introduction to the criminal career perspective, the article presents several 'facts' that have emerged from criminal career studies. This material segues into a discussion of theories based on criminal careers research as well as a related discussion of the emerging methods and trends in the area. The article closes with some observations about public policy with respect to criminal careers knowledge and identifies some neglected research needs. A key summary conclusion is that the processes associated with continuity and change are not mutually exclusive, but instead are important and complimentary aspects of criminal careers research.

  3. Long-term Consequences of Childhood ADHD on Criminal Activities*

    OpenAIRE

    Fletcher, Jason; Wolfe, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    The question of whether childhood mental illness has long term consequences in terms of criminal behavior has been little studied, yet it could have major consequences for both the individual and society more generally. In this paper, we focus on Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), one of the most prevalent mental conditions in school-age children, to examine the long-term effects of childhood mental illness on criminal activities, controlling for a rich set of individual, family...

  4. An Outline of the New Norwegian Criminal Code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jørn Jacobsen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article gives an overview of the new criminal code, its background and content. It maps out the code’s background, the legislative process and central ideas. Furthermore, the article gives an outline of the general criteria for criminal responsibility according to the code, the offences and forms of punishment and other reactions. The article emphasises the most important changes from the previous code of 1902. To some degree, strengths and weaknesses of the new code are addressed.

  5. [The pedophilic criminal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heim, M; Morgner, J

    1985-02-01

    After a review of the literature dealing with pedophilia, the results of an analysis of 100 forensic psychiatric reports dealing with pedophile criminals are described. They show that, except for a few homosexual pedophiles, pedophilia is a pseudoperversion originating from different developmental conditions and, in individual cases, verifiable personality traits. The authors discuss problems involved in the forensic-psychiatric assessment of these delinquents. Attention is drawn to the necessity of purposeful, coordinated further education in this respect to enable the existing considerable discrepancies between forensic-psychiatric evaluation of these and other sexual deviants to be overcome.

  6. Criminal decision making: the development of adolescent judgment, criminal responsibility, and culpability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fried, C S; Reppucci, N D

    2001-02-01

    Theories of judgment in decision making hypothesize that throughout adolescence, judgment is impaired because the development of several psychosocial factors that are presumed to influence decision making lags behind the development of the cognitive capacities that are required to make mature decisions. This study uses an innovative video technique to examine the role of several psychosocial factors--temporal perspective, peer influence, and risk perception--in adolescent criminal decision making. Results based on data collected from 56 adolescents between the ages of 13 and 18 years revealed that detained youth were more likely to think of future-oriented consequences of engaging in the depicted delinquent act and less likely to anticipate pressure from their friends than nondetained youth. Examination of the developmental functions of the psychosocial factors indicates age-based differences on standardized measures of temporal perspective and resistance to peer influence and on measures of the role of risk perception in criminal decision making. Assessments of criminal responsibility and culpability were predicted by age and ethnicity. Implications for punishment in the juvenile justice system are discussed.

  7. 21 CFR 7.87 - Records related to opportunities for presentation of views conducted before report of criminal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... of views conducted before report of criminal violation. 7.87 Section 7.87 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ENFORCEMENT POLICY Criminal... criminal violation. (a) Records related to a section 305 opportunity for presentation of views constitute...

  8. Defendants' Rights in Criminal Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Ralph C., II; Keeley, Elizabeth

    1997-01-01

    Reviews the protections afforded by the Constitution for defendants in criminal trials. These include the right to a jury trial (in cases of possible incarceration), an impartial jury, and the requirement of a unanimous verdict. Defends the use of plea bargaining as essential to an efficient criminal justice system. (MJP)

  9. Drug Use and Criminal Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Ludwig; Hyatt, Murray P.

    1978-01-01

    An overview of addiction and crime is presented. Crimes of violence and sex crimes are contrasted with non-violent criminal behavior when drug-connected. It is suggested that alternative methods of dealing with drug abuse and criminal behavior be explored, and that several previously discarded methods be re-examined. (Author)

  10. What do general practitioners think about an online self-regulation programme for health promotion? Focus group interviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaete, Jolien; Crombez, Geert; DeSmet, Ann; Deveugele, Myriam; Verloigne, Maïté; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse

    2015-01-22

    Chronic diseases may be prevented through programmes that promote physical activity and healthy nutrition. Computer-tailoring programmes are effective in changing behaviour in the short- and long-term. An important issue is the implementation of these programmes in general practice. However, there are several barriers that hinder the adoption of eHealth programmes in general practice. This study explored the feasibility of an eHealth programme that was designed, using self-regulation principles. Seven focus group interviews (a total of 62 GPs) were organized to explore GPs' opinions about the feasibility of the eHealth programme for prevention in general practice. At the beginning of each focus group, GPs were informed about the principles of the self-regulation programme 'My Plan'. Open-ended questions were used to assess the opinion of GPs about the content and the use of the programme. The focus groups discussions were audio-taped, transcribed and thematically analysed via NVivo software. The majority of the GPs was positive about the use of self-regulation strategies and about the use of computer-tailored programmes in general practice. There were contradictory results about the delivery mode of the programme. GPs also indicated that the programme might be less suited for patients with a low educational level or for old patients. Overall, GPs are positive about the adoption of self-regulation techniques for health promotion in their practice. However, they raised doubts about the adoption in general practice. This barrier may be addressed (1) by offering various ways to deliver the programme, and (2) by allowing flexibility to match different work flow systems. GPs also believed that the acceptability and usability of the programme was low for patients who are old or with low education. The issues raised by GPs will need to be taken into account when developing and implementing an eHealth programme in general practice.

  11. Examination of the Computational Thinking Skills of Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korucu, Agah Tugrul; Gencturk, Abdullah Tarik; Gundogdu, Mustafa Mucahit

    2017-01-01

    Computational thinking is generally considered as a kind of analytical way of thinking. According to Wings (2008) it shares with mathematical thinking, engineering thinking and scientific thinking in the general ways in which we may use for solving a problem, designing and evaluating complex systems or understanding computability and intelligence…

  12. THE APPLICATION OF THE SPECIALTY PRINCIPLE, CONCERNING THE SPECIAL SEIZURE IN ROMANIAN CRIMINAL LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MONICA POCORA

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to be a comparative analysis of the special seizure as a safety measure, as it is regulated in Romanian special criminal legislation, and also a way to highlight certain discrepancies between the general and special criminal legislation. Special seizure, as a safety measure, may be disposed under Criminal Code regulations, as a general norm, but also under some stipulations included in special Criminal laws. Moreover, when there are such special stipulations, they have under the rules of specialty principle, priority in implementing to the general norm. In our opinion, in these cases, special seizure is also disposed under the Criminal Code provisions, as general norm, because the general terms nondescript by others field of incidence, are the ones who set by the Criminal law. In fact, in such cases, the special seizure is ordered under both Criminal provisions. In analysis of the paper, is made reference to the applicability of special seizure measure inmatter of corruption offences, in customs, money laundering, illicit trafficking of drugs and fisheries and fish farming, and as a result of their presentation, we concluded that although is in question the specialty principle, mainly would find application the general norm in comparison with special norm. Moreover, corroborating the actually general norm with the provisions of the New Criminal Code, we believe the special seizure, should operate exclusively under the general law, or the provisions of the special norm, should be modified.

  13. CONCEPTUAL AGGREGATION OF CRIMINAL OFFENCES SEPARATION FROM COLLISION OF THE CRIMINAL LAW NORMS

    OpenAIRE

    Persidskis, Ainārs

    2017-01-01

    The topic of the paper is the conceptual aggregation of criminal offences separation from collision of the Criminal Law norms. The conceptual aggregation of criminal offences is the most difficult type of all multiplicity types of criminal offences. This research paper provides an overview of the conceptual aggregation of criminal offences separation from collision of the Criminal Law norms. In the paper is given analyses of conceptual aggregation of criminal offences separation from collisio...

  14. A Study of Teacher Stereotypes: How Do Tuition-Free Teacher Candidates and General Undergraduates Think about Middle School and University Teachers in China?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Youxia; Zhao, Yufang; Peng, Chunhua; Chen, Youguo

    2017-01-01

    A tuition-free teacher candidate is an undergraduate who receives tuition-free teacher education and must work as a teacher in a middle school after their graduation. Tuition-free candidates are of the focus of many researchers; however, no study reports how tuition-free teacher candidates think about teachers. The present study explored stereotypes about middle school and university teachers held by teacher candidates. Specifically, we looked for the differences between the stereotypes held by the teacher candidates and general undergraduates. This study attempted to provide a potential tool to predict the actual willingness of teacher candidates to work as middle school teachers. University and middle school teachers were evaluated using descriptive phrases or words on a five-point Likert scale by 116 tuition-free teacher candidates and 155 general undergraduates. Exploratory factor analyses revealed a three-factor stereotype model including occupational cognition, occupational personality, and occupational emotion. Compared with general undergraduates, teacher candidates held more positive occupational personality and emotions toward middle school teachers; they held more negative occupational emotions toward university teachers. Further, the undergraduates' willingness to be middle school teachers positively correlated with positive occupational emotions and negatively correlated with negative occupational personality and emotions toward middle school teachers. This supported previous studies that individuals' professional willingness were influenced by their stereotypes about professions. PMID:28469587

  15. A Study of Teacher Stereotypes: How Do Tuition-Free Teacher Candidates and General Undergraduates Think about Middle School and University Teachers in China?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Youxia; Zhao, Yufang; Peng, Chunhua; Chen, Youguo

    2017-01-01

    A tuition-free teacher candidate is an undergraduate who receives tuition-free teacher education and must work as a teacher in a middle school after their graduation. Tuition-free candidates are of the focus of many researchers; however, no study reports how tuition-free teacher candidates think about teachers. The present study explored stereotypes about middle school and university teachers held by teacher candidates. Specifically, we looked for the differences between the stereotypes held by the teacher candidates and general undergraduates. This study attempted to provide a potential tool to predict the actual willingness of teacher candidates to work as middle school teachers. University and middle school teachers were evaluated using descriptive phrases or words on a five-point Likert scale by 116 tuition-free teacher candidates and 155 general undergraduates. Exploratory factor analyses revealed a three-factor stereotype model including occupational cognition, occupational personality, and occupational emotion. Compared with general undergraduates, teacher candidates held more positive occupational personality and emotions toward middle school teachers; they held more negative occupational emotions toward university teachers. Further, the undergraduates' willingness to be middle school teachers positively correlated with positive occupational emotions and negatively correlated with negative occupational personality and emotions toward middle school teachers. This supported previous studies that individuals' professional willingness were influenced by their stereotypes about professions.

  16. Constitutional collisions of criminal law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey M. Inshakov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective to identify and resolve conflicts between the norms of constitutional and criminal law which regulate the issue of legal liability of senior officials of the state. Methods formallogical systematic comparativelegal. Results the article analyzes the embodiment of the principle of citizensrsquo equality under the law regarding the criminal responsibility of the President of the Russian Federation as one of the segments of the elite right other criminal and legal conflicts are considered associated with the creation of conditions for derogation from the principle of equality. Basing on this analysis the means of overcoming collisions between the norms of constitutional and criminal law are formulated. Scientific novelty in the article for the first time it has been shown that in the Russian criminal law there are exceptions to the principle of citizensrsquo equality under the law relating to the President of the Russian Federation the conflicts are identified between the norms of constitutional and criminal law regulating the issue of legal liability of senior officials of the state ways of overcoming conflicts are suggested. Practical significance the main provisions and conclusions of the article can be used in research and teaching in the consideration of issues of senior state officialsrsquo criminal liability.

  17. International Criminalization of International Terrorizm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Grigoryevich Volevodz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis and studying of the terrorism in all its facets is a complex entangled problem with less clear legal regulation that it might seem at first glance, especially after its transformation from local phenomenon into a world threat. Hitherto terrorism and actions connected to it have been criminalized by the majority of states. There are in modern criminal law whole systems of rules on criminal liability for terrorism which differs considerably from country to country. Terrorism has been criminalized in numerous international regional and universal antiterrorist legal instruments. The author notes that differences in definitions that are enshrined in them hinders international cooperation in criminal matters with respect to terrorist cases. Difficulties reside in the necessity to meet the dual criminality requirement and in the political offense exception. These difficulties can only be overcome through elaboration of a universally recognized definition of the notion of international terrorism and making it legally binding via its inclusion into a universal convention. The issue of definition of international terrorism is an important part of an efficient mutual assistance among states in fight against this crime. In this article the author accounts of actual ways of tackling by the international community of the issue of criminalization of international terrorism and of factors influencing them.

  18. CRIMINAL PROTECTION OF PRIVATE LIFE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RADU SLAVOIU

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This study is meant, first of all, to analyze the incriminations that the new Romanian Criminal Code sets for the protection of a person’s private life as a social value of maximum significance both for the human being and for any democratic society as a whole.There are two criminal offences treated in this study that are not to be found in the current criminal legislation: violation of private life and criminal trespassing of a legal person’s property. Likewise, the study will bring forth the novelties and the differences regarding the offences of criminal trespassing of a natural person’s property, disclosure of professional secret, violation of secret correspondence, illegal access to computerized system and illegal interception of electronic data transfer – acts that when, directly or indirectly, committed can cause harm to the intimacy of a person’s life.As an expression of the interdisciplinary nature of this subject, the study also sets out, as a subsidiary aspect, an evaluation of the circumstances under which the new criminal proceeding legislation allows public authorities to interfere with an individual’s private life. Thus, the emphasis is on the analysis of the circumstances under which special surveillance and investigation techniques can be used as evidence proceedings regulated by the new Romanian Criminal Procedure Code.

  19. Objective Truth Institution in Criminal Procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voltornist O. A.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the category of objective truth in criminal procedure, its importance for correct determination of criminal court procedure aims. The author analyzes also the bill draft offered by the RF Committee of Inquiry “On amending in the RF Criminal Procedure Code due to the implementation ofobjective truth institution in criminal procedure”

  20. Criminal Law Study Guide (Revision)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1998-01-01

    .... Correct application of principles of military criminal law. This study guide is the is the primary text for students in the course and may be also useful to practicing judge advocates as a starting point for research...

  1. Thinking and feeling in the People's Republic of China: testing the generality of the "laws of emotion".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jonathon D; Cai, Huajian

    2010-04-01

    Cognitive theories of emotion assert that emotional reactions to events depend on the manner in which events are interpreted and appraised. From this perspective, the same outcome can produce different emotions. For example, a score of 85% on a test can evoke positive feelings if it is considered a success or negative feelings if it is considered a failure. Among the various appraisal dimensions that have been identified, causal attributions are thought to play a particularly influential role in shaping emotional reactions to various events. For example, success can evoke pride if it is attributed to high ability, gratitude if it is attributed to help from others, relief if it is attributed to a stroke of good fortune, or guilt if it is attained fraudulently or at the expense of others. These cognitive-affective linkages are thought to be universal. In this paper, we report two studies that tested the cross-cultural generality of some of these assumptions. In Study 1, participants from the People's Republic of China were led to succeed or fail on an (alleged) test of their intelligence and creativity. Consistent with previous findings with Western samples, attributions to ability predicted participants' emotional reactions to their test performance, with high ability attributions linked to greater pride following success. In Study 2, we extended these findings with American and Chinese participants, using a different experimental manipulation of success and failure, and a measure of attributions to effort. For both cultural groups, attributions to ability (but not attributions to effort) predicted greater emotional reactions to success. We conclude that attribution-emotion linkages have cross-cultural validity, and that pride is maximized when success is attributed to high ability.

  2. Profiling, Screening and Criminal Recruitment

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher Cotton; Cheng Li

    2012-01-01

    We model major criminal activity as a game in which a law enforcement officer chooses the rate at which to screen different population groups and a criminal organization (e.g., drug cartel, terrorist cell) chooses the observable characteristics of its recruits. Our model best describes smuggling or terrorism activities at borders, airports and other security checkpoints. When the social costs of crime are high, law enforcement is most-effective when it is unconstrained in its ability to profi...

  3. Criminal Aspects of Artificial Abortion

    OpenAIRE

    Hartmanová, Leona

    2016-01-01

    Criminal Aspects of Artificial Abortion This diploma thesis deals with the issue of artificial abortion, especially its criminal aspects. Legal aspects are not the most important aspects of artificial abortion. Social, ethical or ideological aspects are of the same importance but this diploma thesis cannot analyse all of them. The main issue with artificial abortion is whether it is possible to force a pregnant woman to carry a child and give birth to a child when she cannot or does not want ...

  4. Thinking about thinking: implications for patient safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Kathryn

    2009-01-01

    Clinical medicine, a learned, rational, science-using practice, is labelled a science even though physicians have the good sense not to practise it that way. Rather than thinking like scientists - or how we think scientists think - physicians are engaged in analogical, interpretive reasoning that resembles Aristotle's phronesis, or practical reasoning, more closely than episteme, or scientific reasoning. In medicine, phronesis is clinical judgment; and while it depends on both a fund of information and extensive experience, somehow it is not quite teachable. This practical, clinical rationality relies on case narrative for teaching and learning about illness and disease, for recording and communicating about patient care and, inevitably, for thinking about and remembering the details, as well as the overarching rules of practice. At the same time, "anecdotal" remains the most pejorative word in medicine, and the tension between the justifiable caution this disdain expresses and the pervasive narrative structure of medical knowledge is characteristic of clinical knowing generally: a tug-of-war between apparent irreconcilables that can be settled only by an appeal to the circumstances of the clinical situation. Practical rationality in the clinical encounter is characterized by a productive circulation between the particular details of the patient's presentation and general information about disease stored as a taxonomy of cases. Evidence-based medicine can improve this negotiation between general knowledge and the patient's particulars, but it cannot replace it. In a scientific era, clinical judgment remains the quintessential intellectual strength of the clinician. Why, then, do we not teach the epistemology of medicine? Understanding the mis-description of physicians' thinking - and the accompanying claim that medicine is, in itself, a science - could mitigate the misplaced perfectionism that makes mistakes in medicine personal and unthinkable.

  5. Systems thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, Derek; Colosi, Laura; Lobdell, Claire

    2008-08-01

    Evaluation is one of many fields where "systems thinking" is popular and is said to hold great promise. However, there is disagreement about what constitutes systems thinking. Its meaning is ambiguous, and systems scholars have made diverse and divergent attempts to describe it. Alternative origins include: von Bertalanffy, Aristotle, Lao Tsu or multiple aperiodic "waves." Some scholars describe it as synonymous with systems sciences (i.e., nonlinear dynamics, complexity, chaos). Others view it as taxonomy-a laundry list of systems approaches. Within so much noise, it is often difficult for evaluators to find the systems thinking signal. Recent work in systems thinking describes it as an emergent property of four simple conceptual patterns (rules). For an evaluator to become a "systems thinker", he or she need not spend years learning many methods or nonlinear sciences. Instead, with some practice, one can learn to apply these four simple rules to existing evaluation knowledge with transformative results.

  6. Facing Facts in International Criminal Law: A Casuistic Model of Judicial Reasoning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cupido, M.

    2016-01-01

    International criminal courts (ICCs) have made a decisive contribution to the clarification of international criminal law. By interpreting generally formulated rules, the courts have elucidated the meaning of international crimes and modes of liability. However, in applying the law to individual

  7. Vigilantism and cooperative criminal justice: : Is there a place for cybersecurity vigilantes in cybercrime fighting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E Silva, Karine

    2017-01-01

    Are cybersecurity vigilantes at odds with criminal justice? Perhaps. In general terms, vigilantism could be understood as an act of retaliation launched by private agents in response to a perceived criminal conduct and targeting alleged perpetrators of a crime. This form of unofficial crime control

  8. Criminal Law in Nigeria in the Last 53 Years: Trends and Prospects for the Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akeem Olajide Bello

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The article is an overview of developments in substantive criminal law in Nigeria in the last 53 years. It examines the sharing of constitutional legislative powers to enact criminal laws between the federal (national government and the state (local governments. The examination of federal laws revealed proactive legislative activity responding to emerging local and international criminal law issues. The main development at the state level is the introduction by States in Northern Nigeria of Sharia Penal Codes and the enactment of the Criminal Law of Lagos State 2011. A common trend is the entrenchment of death penalty as punishment for some crimes. Implications: While federal criminal laws have responded to emerging realties, state criminal laws have generally failed to respond to emerging issues at the state level. Consequently, in most of the southern states criminal laws introduced in 1916 have continued to apply. Value: The paper demonstrates the need for southern States to reform their criminal laws to respond to emerging realties, the federal government to respond to some outstanding criminal law issues and calls for a suspension of death penalty and a revaluation of its continued relevance.

  9. Criminal-legal prohibitions in the soviet juridical discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey V. Skorobogatov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective to determine the place of criminal law prohibitions in the formation development and functioning of the Soviet legal discourse. Methods dialectic approach to the research of social phenomena which allows to analyze them in historical development and functioning in the context of the unity of the objective and subjective factors as well as postmodern paradigm giving the opportunity to explore the legal reality at different levels including the lawinterpretation one. Dialectical approach and postmodern paradigm have determined the choice of specific research methods comparative hermeneutics discursive formally legal. Results basing on the analysis of normativelegal acts regulating criminal legal relations in the USSR the development of the Soviet criminal law was considered since its emergence to termination of existence. Conclusion on its restrictive nature was made which was in line with the main task of this sector of law ndash the protection of the Soviet system and socialist property from criminal encroachments. The normative regulatory basis of criminal law prohibitions determined the general nature of the Soviet legal discourse which was designed to prove the necessity and expediency of such means of protecting public and state interests in the period of building communism. Scientific novelty on the basis of use of the complex classical and postclassical methods the article for the first time studies the role of criminal law prohibitions in the development of Soviet legal discourse. Practical value the key issues and conclusions of the article can be used in scientific and pedagogical activity while researching the issues of the nature and trends of development of the Soviet criminal law.

  10. Teaching for Thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefe, James W., Ed.; Walberg, Herbert J., Ed.

    This volume represents a variety of current efforts to incorporate thought-provoking methods into teaching. There are three sections. "Curriculum Developments" defines key curricular terms and offers a framework and general examples of teaching tactics. In this section, Barbara Presseisen distinguishes thinking from other cognitive…

  11. Methamphetamine use and criminal behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gizzi, Michael C; Gerkin, Patrick

    2010-12-01

    This research seeks to broaden our understanding of methamphetamine's (meth's) place within the study of drugs and crime. Through extensive court records research and interviews with 200 offenders in local jails in western Colorado, this research contributes to the creation of a meth user profile and begins to identify the place of meth in the drug-crime nexus. The study compares the criminal behavior of meth users with other drug users, finding that meth users are more likely than other drug users to be drunk or high at the time of arrest and claim their crimes were related to drug use in other ways. A content analysis of criminal records demonstrates that meth users have more extensive criminal records and are more likely than other drug users to commit property crimes.

  12. Criminal Liability for Human Abduction​

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vyacheslav N. Voronin

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The Author considers the quality of the construction of the criminal law provision which is stipulated in article 126 of the Criminal Code of Russian Federation (Kidnapping. The Author signifies some application problems of the concerned article, researches judicial interpretations of the elements of crime characteristics and opinions of contemporary scientists who propose to redraft the article. The Author also analyses the law of Armenia, Belarus, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan, Tajikistan and Latvia. On the basis of the research the Author concludes that a primitive disposition which doesn’t include elements of a criminal conduct doesn’t meet the requirements of legality and legal certainty, and, because of the above-mentioned reason, the Author proposes his own definition of the disposition of kidnapping.

  13. Neurologic disorder and criminal responsibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaffe, Gideon

    2013-01-01

    Sufferers from neurologic and psychiatric disorders are not uncommonly defendants in criminal trials. This chapter surveys a variety of different ways in which neurologic disorder bears on criminal responsibility. It discusses the way in which a neurologic disorder might bear on the questions of whether or not the defendant acted voluntarily; whether or not he or she was in the mental state that is required for guilt for the crime; and whether or not he or she is deserving of an insanity defense. The discussion demonstrates that a just determination of whether a sufferer from a neurologic disorder is diminished in his or her criminal responsibility for harmful conduct requires equal appreciation of the nature of the relevant disorder and its impact on behavior, on the one hand, and of the legal import of facts about the psychologic mechanisms through which behavior is generated, on the other. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Complicity in International Criminal Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aksenova, Marina

    2014-01-01

    Complicity is a criminal law doctrine that attributes responsibility to those who do not physically perpetrate the crime. It is an essential mode of liability for core international crimes because it reaches out to senior political and military leadership. These persons do not usually engage...... in direct offending, yet in the context of mass atrocities they are often more culpable than foot soldiers. The Statutes of the ad hoc tribunals, hybrid courts and the International Criminal Court expressly provide for different forms of complicity, and domestic legal systems recognize it in one form...... or another. This is in contrast with alternative modes of liability implied from the Statutes to address the situations with multiple accused removed from the scene of the crime / (in)direct co-perpetration, extended perpetration and the joint criminal enterprise....

  15. The European Union and National Criminal Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Vagn

    1995-01-01

    Beware of Punishment. Annika Snare (ed.) Beware of Punishment. On the Utility and Futility of Criminal Law......Beware of Punishment. Annika Snare (ed.) Beware of Punishment. On the Utility and Futility of Criminal Law...

  16. Criminal violence associated to mental health in Salvadorian people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ricardo Gutiérrez Quintanilla

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This is an ex post facto study with a retrospective and cross sectional design, consisting of a random sample of 1,143 participants (538 men and 605 women, age range 17-56 or more. The measures used involved the Escala de estrés y ansiedad delincuencial, and the Cuestionario de salud general. Results revealed that approximately three fourths of the simple considered that the criminal violence context affected their mental health. Differences between men and women were established. Women and urban residents exhibited a greater number of stress symptoms and criminal anxiety. Recommendations for future studies are suggested.

  17. International criminal tribunals and human rights law: Adherence and contextualization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeegers, K.J.

    2015-01-01

    Given their mandate to prosecute persons responsible for the most atrocious of human rights violations, International Criminal Tribunals (ICTs) are generally hailed as welcome enforcers of international human rights law: a new instrument in the toolkit of human rights protectors. However, ICTs

  18. Author: V Basdeo THE LAW AND PRACTICE OF CRIMINAL ASSET ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    10332324

    generally accepted in societies that embrace liberal democratic values. .... It is submitted that, in the light of the fact that once a restraint order is granted or is .... assess what "may" occur in the future, that is, whether the criminal court "may".

  19. Relation of criminal offence of tax evasion and criminal offence of non-payment of withholding tax in Serbian criminal law

    OpenAIRE

    Kulić, Mirko; Milošević, Goran

    2011-01-01

    Countries often resort to tightening of criminal sanctions against those who do not fulfill their tax obligations on time. Instead of more organized undertaking of measures to eliminate the causes of tax crime, Serbia seeks to solve the problem by upgrading the criminal legislation. There are six criminal offences which provide for criminal law protection of public revenues. Among these criminal offences, the central place belongs to the criminal offence of tax evasion and criminal offence of...

  20. Defence counsel in international criminal law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Temminck Tuinstra, J.P.W.

    2009-01-01

    The field of international criminal law is relatively new and rapidly developing. This dissertation examines whether international criminal courts enable defence counsel to conduct an effective defence. When the International Criminal Tribunals for the former Yugoslavia and Rwanda (the ad hoc

  1. Original Thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Natarajan

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available History that comes to us as a chronology of events is really a collective existence that is evolving through several stages to develop Individuality in all members of the society. The human community, nation states, linguistic groups, local castes and classes, and families are the intermediate stages in development of the Individual. The social process moves through phases of survival, growth, development and evolution. In the process it organizes the consciousness of its members at successive levels from social external manners, formed behavior, value-based character and personality to culminate in the development of Individuality. Through this process, society evolves from physicality to Mentality. The power of accomplishment in society and its members develops progressively through stages of skill, capacity, talent, and ability. Original thinking is made possible by the prior development of thinking that organizes facts into information. The immediate result of the last world war was a shift in reliance from physical force and action to mental conception and mental activity on a global scale. At such times no problem need defy solution, if only humanity recognizes the occasion for thinking and Original Thinking. The apparently insoluble problems we confront are an opportunity to formulate a comprehensive theory of social evolution. The immediate possibility is to devise complete solutions to all existing problems, if only we use the right method of thought development.

  2. Thinking big

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Harry

    2008-02-01

    Physicists are often quick to discount social research based on qualitative techniques such as ethnography and "deep case studies" - where a researcher draws conclusions about a community based on immersion in the field - thinking that only quantitative research backed up by statistical analysis is sound. The balance is not so clear, however.

  3. Thinking Drawing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Eileen

    2017-01-01

    This article draws heavily on the author's critical autobiography: "Eileen Adams: Agent of Change." It presents evidence of the value of drawing as a medium for learning, particularly in art and design, and argues that drawing is a useful educational tool. The premise is that drawing makes you think. This article explains various…

  4. Think Human

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Charlotte Marie Bisgaard

    2013-01-01

    years' campaigns suggests that the theory of communication underlying the campaign has its basis in mechanical action rather than in human communication. The practice of 'Communication design' is investigated in relation to this metaphorical 'machine thinking' model of communication and contrasted...... with the human-centered theory of communication advocated by integrationism....

  5. Thinking recursively

    CERN Document Server

    Roberts, Eric S

    1986-01-01

    Concentrating on the practical value of recursion, this text, the first of its kind, is essential to computer science students' education. In this text, students will learn the concept and programming applications of recursive thinking. This will ultimately prepare students for advanced topics in computer science such as compiler construction, formal language theory, and the mathematical foundations of computer science.

  6. Think Human

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Charlotte Marie Bisgaard

    2013-01-01

    years' campaigns suggests that the theory of communication underlying the campaign has its basis in mechanical action rather than in human communication. The practice of 'Communication design' is investigated in relation to this metaphorical 'machine thinking' model of communication and contrasted...

  7. Students' THINKing

    OpenAIRE

    Schembri, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Seagrass meadows support a diverse range of organisms. When this habitat is fragmented all species suffer. Fish that previously had large stretches of seagrass meadows to forage in would have to face the prospect of swimming to a different patch more often and this exposes them to predators. http://www.um.edu.mt/think/fast-fish-slow-fish-little-fish-big-fish/

  8. El fleteo: "la abstracción de un riesgo criminal". Una experiencia de inteligencia criminal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Alfredo Amaya Cristancho

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Problema. El fleteo se percibe como un peligro, porque no se dispone de un esquema racional y contingente para la toma de decisiones en materia de seguridad pública. Metodología. Ante tal situación, se hizo necesario identificar las características del fleteo como riesgo criminal contra la seguridad pública, mediante las teorías de la sociología del riesgo y la construcción social de la realidad. Para ello, se usó la metodología de los tipos ideales como guía para la recolección y análisis de información, por lo que se aplicaron diversas técnicas, como consulta documental, entrevistas, encuesta, grupos focales, análisis de caso y mentefacto conceptual. Resultados. Esto permitió distinguir y caracterizar el fleteo como riesgo criminal, fragmento de la realidad del que se ocupa la inteligencia criminal, y finalmente se identificaron algunos daños contra la seguridad pública. Conclusiones. La teoría del riesgo por lo general no se concibe aplicada a la seguridad pública. Por ello, se presenta la inteligencia criminal como una disciplina que se ocupa de anticipar los riesgos criminales contra la seguridad pública. Esto permitiría disminuir la incertidumbre durante la toma de decisiones y calcular los daños contra la seguridad pública, que se pretende prevenir.

  9. Tax penalties : minor criminal charges?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baron, J.; Poelmann, Eric

    2017-01-01

    In European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR) 15 November 2016, No. 24130/11 and 29758/11, (A. and B. v. Norway) the Jussila-doctrine was repeated once again. The ECtHR seems to have taken the next step in the discussion whether the criminal-head guarantees of Article 6 ECHR and other fundamental rights

  10. Cultural Cleavage and Criminal Justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheingold, Stuart A.

    1978-01-01

    Reviews major theories of criminal justice, proposes an alternative analytic framework which focuses on cultural factors, applies this framework to several cases, and discusses implications of a cultural perspective for rule of law values. Journal available from Office of Publication, Department of Political Science, University of Florida,…

  11. Nuclear future: thinking for building. Proceedings of the 12. Brazilian national meeting on reactor physics and thermal hydraulics; 8. General congress on nuclear energy; 5. Brazilian national meeting on nuclear applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    These proceedings, for the first time, present jointly the 12. Brazilian national meeting on reactor physics and thermal hydraulics (12 ENFIR), 8. General congress on nuclear energy (8. CGEN), and 5. Brazilian national meeting on nuclear applications (5. ENAN). The main theme of discussion was: 'Nuclear Future: thinking for building'. The papers have analysed the progresses of peaceful utilization of nuclear technology and its forecasting for the beginning of the new millennium. The construction of Angra-3 nuclear power plant have been discussed

  12. The United States: A Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court Non-Participant

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hopkins, J

    2004-01-01

    .... As of 1 July 2002, the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court is a reality. It will try individuals such as the Khmer Rouge, Slobodan Milosevic, and General Juvenal Habyarimana for crimes against humanity, genocide, and war crimes...

  13. Strain, Negative Emotions, and Level of Criminality Among Chinese Incarcerated Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ivan Y; Luo, Haishan; Wu, Yuning; Lin, Wen-Hsu

    2016-05-01

    General strain theory (GST) has been one of the most frequently tested criminological theories. According to GST, strain tends to generate negative emotions, which create pressures for corrective action, such as crime and delinquency. Although GST has received strong empirical support, one under-addressed issue is the lack of diversity in sampling population in assessing the generalizability of the theory. Using survey data collected from 335 incarcerated women in four Chinese prisons, this study examined the impact of strain and negative emotions on the level of female criminality. The strain variable, physical abuse, and discrimination, exerted a positive effect on female inmates' levels of criminality, whereas negative emotions were not significantly related to female criminality. Two control variables, age of current offense and educational attainment, were predictive of female criminality, with younger and less-educated women having more serious criminality. Implications for future research and policy are discussed. © The Author(s) 2015.

  14. About decision of question of social conditionality to the law on criminal responsibility in labours of O. V. Naden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. О. Пащенко

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The scientific looks of О. V. Naden in relation to the problem of social conditionality of criminal legislation are investigated. Factors that are offered to take into account a legislator during setting of criminal responsibility for certain kind’s publicly dangerous behavior are considered. The realizable a scientist attempt of decision of problem is analyzed at general level by means of determination of limits of sphere of the criminal and legal adjusting.

  15. Criminal characteristics of a group of primary criminals diagnosed with aspd: approach to criminal recidivis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Larrotta-Castillo

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD is commonly associated with the risk of criminal recidivism. Knowing more about the factors associated with this pattern of behaviour can help with the design of effective prevention strategies. The purpose of this article is to establish if there are differences in socio-criminogenic variables of a group of criminals sentenced for the first time and with APSD compared to another group of first-time offenders who do not present this disorder. Materials and methods: Analytical observation study of 70 men classified into 2 groups according to the presence of ASPD TPA (n=47; age: 29.98±7.8 years or absence of ASPD (n=23; age: 32.35±8.7 years. Results: The inmates with ASPD showed higher frequencies of current consumption of psychoactive substances (31.9%, criminal associations and simultaneous use of psychoactive substances (70.2%, having committed the crime under the effects of a psychoactive substance (55.3%, not having the possibility of distancing themselves from criminal associations (83% and a lack of legal resources for proceedings for defence and release (76.6%. Discussion: This sample contains a group of variables called dynamic that are more commonly present amongst first time offenders with ASPD; said variables have been associated as major predictors of recidivism. Given that they are regarded as dynamic, they may well be modifiable.

  16. The Execution of Criminal Fine Penalty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cosmin Peneoașu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at dissecting the criminal provisions on criminal enforcement of fines in current Romanian criminal law with the goal of highlighting the new penal policy stated in the larger field of criminal penalties. In the new Criminal Code the fine penalty experience a new regulation, but also a wider scope compared to the Criminal Code from 1968, with an exponential growth of the number of offenses or variations of them, for which a fine may be imposed as a unique punishment, but, especially, as an alternative punishment to imprisonment. Consequently, to ensure the efficiency of this punishment, the effective enforcement manner of the fine takes a new dimension. The study aims both students and academics or practitioners in the making. Furthermore, throughout the approach of this scientific research, new matters that new criminal legislation brings, are emphasized regarding this institution, both in a positive, and especially under a critical manner.

  17. Critical Thinking Activities and the Enhancement of Ethical Awareness: An Application of a "Rhetoric of Disruption" to the Undergraduate General Education Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Jeffrey W.

    2015-01-01

    This article explores how critical thinking activities and assignments can function to enhance students' ethical awareness and sense of civic responsibility. Employing Levinas's Other-centered theory of ethics, Burke's notion of "the paradox of substance", and Murray's concept of "a rhetoric of disruption", this article…

  18. Understanding criminal behavior: Empathic impairment in criminal offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariano, Melania; Pino, Maria Chiara; Peretti, Sara; Valenti, Marco; Mazza, Monica

    2017-08-01

    Criminal offenders (CO) are characterized by antisocial and impulsive lifestyles and reduced empathy competence. According to Zaki and Ochsner, empathy is a process that can be divided into three components: mentalizing, emotional sharing and prosocial concern. The aim of our study was to evaluate these competences in 74 criminal subjects compared to 65 controls. The CO group demonstrated a lower ability in measures of mentalizing and sharing, especially in recognizing the mental and emotional states of other people by observing their eyes and sharing other people's emotions. Conversely, CO subjects showed better abilities in prosocial concern measures, such as judging and predicting the emotions and behavior of other people, but they were not able to evaluate the gravity of violations of social rules as well as the control group. In addition, logistic regression results show that the higher the deficits in the mentalizing component are, the higher the probability of committing a crime against another person. Taken together, our results suggest that criminal subjects are able to judge and recognize other people's behavior as right or wrong in a social context, but they are not able to recognize and share the suffering of other people.

  19. Figures of criminal offences that are committed through mass media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirvete Uka

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The rapid development of information technology created endless possibilities for the information and communication between people in the world. This made possible that within few seconds information could be elaborated. In the meantime that freedom of speech and opinion are protected with all international conventions and laws, this freedom and together with it also the possibilities and actual standards endanger to put in service of the persons which in one form or another, damage the general interest. The study seeks to explain cases, forms and methods of how the presence in media can be misused. Based in the Criminal Code of Republic of Kosovo there are the range of criminal offenses which can be committed through mass communication in general and sometimes also through more serious media, written or electronic. The major number of them has to do with such acts that help terrorism, encourage race and religious hatred and in different forms, the use of children for pornography, risking in this manner the greater values of humanism anywhere in the world. The fact of abolition of special dispositions for criminal offenses that are committed through media does not mean that the danger from committing these acts does not exist. It is based in the fact that criminal responsibility lays directly on the crime committer and not on the director or publisher of certain media, in the meantime the last ones should be careful not to be in the service of crime instigators by giving space to publication.

  20. Quasi and real toughening of criminal liability for mediation of bribery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeniya V. Rogova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective to identify the disputable issues of criminallegal regulation and problems of criminal law norms application establishing liability for mediation in bribery. Basing on the analysis to propose ways to resolve some of them. Methods for the accuracy and completeness general and special methods of scientific cognition were applied. The general methods include historicallegal logicallegal comparative legal methods systemic analysis and synthesis. Special methods are study of documents and content analysis expert evaluation method. Results the authors came to a conclusion about the need to reform the law concerning the criminal liability for mediation in bribery. One of the solutions to the problem is to change the disposition of Article 291.1 of the Criminal Code. However a comprehensive analysis of the problems of application of this regulation and the norms of the General part of the Criminal Code indicates that there is no need to legislatively confirm the criminal liability for mediation in bribery. Scientific novelty the complex analysis of problems of the application of Article 291.1 of the RF Criminal Code has been made which serves as the basis to justify the inconsistency of this provision of the criminal law a proposal is made to make amendments in the norms of the General part of the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation relating to the concept of accomplice of the crime. Practical significance the results can be used in the reforming of criminal legislation of the Russian Federation and also at the further research of problems of differentiation of liability for bribery.

  1. Emotional intelligence and criminal behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megreya, Ahmed M

    2015-01-01

    A large body of research links criminality to cognitive intelligence and personality traits. This study examined the link between emotional intelligence (EI) and criminal behavior. One hundred Egyptian adult male offenders who have been sentenced for theft, drug dealing or murder and 100 nonoffenders were administered the Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-i). The offenders had lower levels of EI than the nonoffenders. In addition, EI varied as a function of the types of offenses. Namely, it decreased in magnitude with crime severity (lowest for murder, higher for drug dealing, and highest for theft). These results converged with the direct/ indirect aggression theory suggesting that indirect aggression requires more social intelligence than physical aggression. Forensic intervention programs should therefore include EI training, especially when violence is involved. © 2014 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  2. Differential profile and treatment development of drug-addicted patients depending on violent behaviours and/or criminal acts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Goñi, José J; Fernández-Montalvo, Javier; Arteaga, Alfonso; Cacho, Raúl

    2015-01-01

    This study explored the prevalence of violent and/or criminal behaviors in drug-addicted patients. A sample of 252 drug-addicted patients who sought treatment was assessed. Information was collected on violent behaviors, criminal acts, socio-demographic factors, consumption factors, psychopathological factors, and personality variables. The sample was divided into 4 groups according to the presence of violence and/or criminal behaviors. There were significant differences between the groups on some variables. In general, patients associated with both violence and criminal behaviors showed a greater severity in drug consumption and maladjustment variables, as well as a higher rate of treatment dropout and re-entry.

  3. Born criminal? Differences in structural, functional and behavioural lateralization between criminals and noncriminals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savopoulos, Priscilla; Lindell, Annukka K

    2018-02-15

    Over 100 years ago Lombroso [(1876/2006). Criminal man. Durham: Duke University Press] proposed a biological basis for criminality. Based on inspection of criminals' skulls he theorized that an imbalance of the cerebral hemispheres was amongst 18 distinguishing features of the criminal brain. Specifically, criminals were less lateralized than noncriminals. As the advent of neuroscientific techniques makes more fine-grained inspection of differences in brain structure and function possible, we review criminals' and noncriminals' structural, functional, and behavioural lateralization to evaluate the merits of Lombroso's thesis and investigate the evidence for the biological underpinning of criminal behaviour. Although the body of research is presently small, it appears consistent with Lombroso's proposal: criminal psychopaths' brains show atypical structural asymmetries, with reduced right hemisphere grey and white matter volumes, and abnormal interhemispheric connectivity. Functional asymmetries are also atypical, with criminal psychopaths showing a less lateralized cortical response than noncriminals across verbal, visuo-spatial, and emotional tasks. Finally, the incidence of non-right-handedness is higher in criminal than non-criminal populations, consistent with reduced cortical lateralization. Thus despite Lombroso's comparatively primitive and inferential research methods, his conclusion that criminals' lateralization differs from that of noncriminals is borne out by the neuroscientific research. How atypical cortical asymmetries predispose criminal behaviour remains to be determined.

  4. Food Design Thinking: A Branch of Design Thinking Specific to Food Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zampollo, Francesca; Peacock, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Is there a need for a set of methods within Design Thinking tailored specifically for the Food Design process? Is there a need for a branch of Design Thinking dedicated to Food Design alone? Chefs are not generally trained in Design or Design Thinking, and we are only just beginning to understand how they ideate and what recourses are available to…

  5. The debate on expanding criminal law towards upper class criminality and minimal criminal law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio César Montáñez-Ruiz

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Hoy en día el debate sobre la pregunta de cuáles conflictos sociales deben ser castigados desde la óptica de la política criminal aún continúa. La batalla para imponer un particular discurso de criminalidad está relacionada con el hecho de que el marco de la criminalización depende del legislador que refleja la expansión punitiva. El propósito de este artículo es discutir sobre la lucha entre modelos de criminalización, los cuales, de una parte, tienden a la aplicación del sistema criminal persiguiendo a la criminalidad de las clases poderosas y, de otra, buscan el criterio de intervención mínima para prevenir la excesiva intervención del derecho penal.

  6. The externalities of crime : The effect of criminal involvement of parents on the educational attainment of their children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rud, Iryna; Van Klaveren, Chris; Groot, Wim; Maassen van den Brink, Henriëtte

    The empirical literature on education and crime suggests that both criminal behavior and educational attainment are transferred from parents to children. However, the impact of criminal behavior of parents on educational outcomes of children is generally ignored, even though the entailed social

  7. The externalities of crime: the effect of criminal involvement of parents on the educational attainment of their children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rud, I.; van Klaveren, C.; Groot, W.; Maassen van den Brink, H.

    2014-01-01

    The empirical literature on education and crime suggests that both criminal behavior and educational attainment are transferred from parents to children. However, the impact of criminal behavior of parents on educational outcomes of children is generally ignored, even though the entailed social

  8. Criminalizing rape within marriage: perspectives of Ghanaian university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adinkrah, Mensah

    2011-09-01

    Forcing sexual intercourse on an unwilling marital partner, or marital rape, is not a crime in many societies around the world, because of a marital exemption rule that prohibits the prosecution of husbands who rape their wives. Concurrently, marital rape is one of the least studied phenomena in sexual violence research. This is particularly true for societies in the non-Western world. The current study examined the general attitudes of a sample of university students in Ghana, a West African country, toward marital rape. Respondents were also asked whether an ongoing legislative effort to criminalize marital rape in the country was warranted. The results indicated strong opposition toward criminalization. The results also indicated no marked differences between male and female respondents in attitudes toward marital rape and the need for a legislative response to the phenomenon. Patriarchal ideologies such as wifely submission to the husband and an implicit duty to provide sex in marriage provided some of the justifications furnished for why marital rape should remain noncriminalized. Advocates of criminalization mentioned the social, physical, and psychological effects of rape and how the enactment of marital rape legislation and the imposition of severe criminal sanctions would help prevent the incidence of marital rape and other forms of violence against women in the society.

  9. The Rise of the Autonomous Cyber Criminal

    OpenAIRE

    Rogers, Marcus

    2015-01-01

    Are we on the threshold of a new evolution of cyber crime? There has been numerous discussions and SciFi themes that have centered around truly autonomous online criminal behavior. This talk will look at the myths and realities surrounding the potential for automated systems to turn to the "dark side" and become uber cyber criminals, and what if anything we can do to prevent or at least detect this type of criminal behavior.

  10. Guarantee of Criminal Policy as Limited to Criminal Decisionism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Belén Bonilla Albán

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The essay explains how the inclusion of the security of public policy in the 2008 Constitution of Ecuador as part of the constitutional state of law and justice or “guarantor state” can become a substantial limit for criminal decisionism, which is usually behind the penal policy in Latin America. Thus, the function of this collateral is to eliminate the huge space of discretion in the management of the most sensitive policy of modern state penal policy. However, the guarantee of public policy is not clear in determining the limits of punitive power; therefore, this paper seeks to explore some of the international human rights.

  11. On three forms of thinking: magical thinking, dream thinking, and transformative thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogden, Thomas H

    2010-04-01

    The author believes that contemporary psychoanalysis has shifted its emphasis from the understanding of the symbolic meaning of dreams, play, and associations to the exploration of the processes of thinking, dreaming, and playing. In this paper, he discusses his understanding of three forms of thinking-magical thinking, dream thinking, and transformative thinking-and provides clinical illustrations in which each of these forms of thinking figures prominently. The author views magical thinking as a form of thinking that subverts genuine thinking and psychological growth by substituting invented psychic reality for disturbing external reality. By contrast, dream thinking--our most profound form of thinking-involves viewing an emotional experience from multiple perspectives simultaneously: for example, the perspectives of primary process and secondary process thinking. In transformative thinking, one creates a new way of ordering experience that allows one to generate types of feeling, forms of object relatedness, and qualities of aliveness that had previously been unimaginable.

  12. Public perceptions of risk in criminality: the effects of mental illness and social disadvantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nee, Claire; Witt, Clare

    2013-10-30

    We examined how different types of mental illness elicited varying levels of predicted criminality and compared this with factors which might also elicit a negative response, specifically, a criminal history and social disadvantage. A sample of 243 participants undertook an anonymous, online experiment. Each participant was exposed to one of six vignettes: three involved mental illness (schizophrenia, depression/anxiety, or alcohol dependency); two in which socio-economic background was manipulated; and a control. The impact of mental illness, history of criminality and social disadvantage on the likelihood that the character in the vignette would commit future crime, and levels of sympathy, trust and potential for rehabilitation in the character were measured. Age and personal experience of mental illness and/or criminal behaviour in the participants was also examined. The sample were significantly more likely to think that a character would 'possibly' commit future crime if he had mental illness in comparison to the control, but crimes were expected to be minor. Significantly more discriminatory behaviour was reported towards the character with no mental illness but a disadvantaged background. Familiarity ameliorated this effect. Prejudice towards those with a criminal past and a disadvantaged background may be stronger than prejudice against those with mental illnesses. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. HIV is a virus, not a crime: ten reasons against criminal statutes and criminal prosecutions

    OpenAIRE

    Cameron, Edwin; Burris, Scott; Clayton, Michaela

    2008-01-01

    Abstract The widespread phenomenon of enacting HIV-specific laws to criminally punish transmission of, exposure to, or non-disclosure of HIV, is counter-active to good public health conceptions and repugnant to elementary human rights principles. The authors provide ten reasons why criminal laws and criminal prosecutions are bad strategy in the epidemic.

  14. Nuclear future: thinking for building. Proceedings of the 5. Brazilian national meeting on nuclear applications; 8. General congress on nuclear energy; 12. Brazilian national meeting on reactor physics and thermal hydraulics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    These proceedings, for the first time, present jointly the 12. Brazilian national meeting on reactor physics and thermal hydraulics (12. ENFIR), the 8. General congress on nuclear energy (8. CGEN), and the 5. Brazilian national meeting on nuclear applications (5. ENAN). The main theme of discussion was: 'Nuclear Future: thinking for building'. The papers have analysed the progresses of peaceful utilization of nuclear technology and its forecasting for the beginning of the new millennium. The construction of Angra-3 nuclear power plant have been discussed

  15. A triangle model of criminality

    OpenAIRE

    Nuno, J.C.; Herrero, M.A.; Primicerio, M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper is concerned with a quantitative model describing the interaction of three sociological species, termed as owners, criminals and security guards, and denoted by X, Y and Z respectively. In our model, Y is a predator of the species X, and so is Z with respect to Y . Moreover, Z can also be thought of as a predator of X, since this last population is required to bear the costs of maintaining Z. We propose a system of three ordinary differential equations to account for the time evolu...

  16. Editorial International Criminal Justice, Peace and Reconciliation in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    conference in July 2014 on the theme 'International Criminal Justice,. Reconciliation ... International Criminal Court (ICC) had come to occupy in discussions .... Pella, V. P., 1950, 'Towards an international criminal court', The American Journal.

  17. Criminal miles and phenomenological aspects of the criminalistics intelligence sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manojlović Dragan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is based on research conducted by the author in the last decades of the twentieth century and the first decade of the third millennium, the modern scientific theory of crime investigation. The author's intention is to complete the huge gap that exists today in our scientific crime literature on the phenomenology of criminalistics intelligence sources. The presence of scientific and technical isolationist and conservative pragmatism in criminalistics theory in us, with whom I have never lied, accordingly, I have tried to work more fully convey the latest scientific views on foreign theory of criminology criminalistics intelligence sources as the primary tool for understanding, recognition and decoding of occurrence in the criminal milieu. From the above it is quite logical and scientific methodology established by first larly exposed to the general approach among law enforcement theory, the criminal underworld, and then access the research of criminalistics intelligence sources, through their determination to categorize the movement and management. From the results, the findings suggest that the traditional model definition, recruitment, management and installation source in a criminal milieu, which applies to us, abandoned for more than three decades of contemporary crime research and professional literature and practice in the world. Furthermore, the results indicate that it is of decisive importance to the understanding of criminalistics intelligence sources, methods of installation, movement models and management resources, to the criminal milieu could understand phenomena that are not visible, and carry with them the challenges, risks and threats. Not more contemporary understanding of the needs of society to counter the criminal activities of individuals or groups, it is enough to have informers or collaborators. Today, the world of crime must confront numerous, well-organized and professional criminalistics intelligence

  18. Animal poisoning - veterinary-medical and criminal-legal aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksić Jelena

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Apart from approved or planned poisoning with agricultural purpose, an increase in the number of cases of intentional animal poisoning (primarily referring to cats and dogs has been detected in Serbia, and it is suspected that their number is significantly larger than the one shown by the official statistics data. Under the conditions prescribed by the Criminal Code of the Republic of Serbia, such activities may represent the crime of killing and torture of animals, but also the crime of causing a general danger. It would be impossible to conduct the procedure of discovering and proving these criminal offences and the responsibility of their perpetrators without findings and opinion of forensic veterinary-medicine experts. They play an important role when it comes to site inspection, crime scene processing, collecting the samples from the crime scene, processing of samples and autopsy and exhumation of a potentially poisoned animal body. Just like other evidence in criminal procedure, findings and opinion of experts of veterinary medicine are estimated in accordance with the principle of free assessment of evidence. However, due to the specificity of such cases of killing and torture of animals, their impact on court’s decision on the existence of criminal offence and perpetrator’s liability is crucial. In this paper, the authors discuss the scope of animal poisoning in Serbia, particularly in Belgrade, analyze possible criminal - legal consequences of these illegal activities and point out to a significant role that experts of veterinary medical profession have in discovering and proving such cases and the liability of their perpetrators.

  19. Criminal Misdemeanor: Novels of the Russian Criminal Legislation and Questions of Its Improvement​

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yurchenko Irina A.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the problem of legally securing in the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation the concept of a criminal misdemeanor. On the basis of doctrinal provisions, Russian and foreign criminal legislation, the concept of a criminal misdemeanor is investigated, its relation to an insignificant act is analyzed, and the category of administrative prejudice is analyzed. The Author justifies the position according to which criminal misdemeanor cannot be a kind of crime of little gravity. It is concluded that a group of crimes with administrative prejudice, regardless of their category, should be classified as a criminal misdemeanor. With regard to this type of socially dangerous acts, the criminal law proposes to use the term “criminal misdemeanor”. An approach is presented to the establishment in the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation of a preferential criminal law regime for criminal misdemeanor: the unpunishable assassination and complicity in such a crime, the absence of aggregate and relapse, if one of the crimes is small, the reduction of the statute of limitations, the recognition of the person who committed such an act is unacceptable.

  20. Mapping Criminal Governance in African Cities | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Mapping Criminal Governance in African Cities. This grant will allow the Institute for Security Studies (ISS), through its Organized Crime and Money Laundering Programme (OCML), to explore the causal links between weak state authority and the emergence of criminal governance ... Profile of crime markets in Dakar.

  1. Criminal Trajectories of White-collar Offenders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Onna, J.; van der Geest, V.R.; Huisman, W.; Denkers, A.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives:This article analyzes the criminal development and sociodemographic and criminal profile of a sample of prosecuted white-collar offenders. It identifies trajectory groups and describes their profiles based on crime, sociodemographic, and selection offence characteristics.Methods:The

  2. The Relative Ineffectiveness of Criminal Network Disruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duijn, Paul A. C.; Kashirin, Victor; Sloot, Peter M. A.

    2014-01-01

    Researchers, policymakers and law enforcement agencies across the globe struggle to find effective strategies to control criminal networks. The effectiveness of disruption strategies is known to depend on both network topology and network resilience. However, as these criminal networks operate in secrecy, data-driven knowledge concerning the effectiveness of different criminal network disruption strategies is very limited. By combining computational modeling and social network analysis with unique criminal network intelligence data from the Dutch Police, we discovered, in contrast to common belief, that criminal networks might even become ‘stronger’, after targeted attacks. On the other hand increased efficiency within criminal networks decreases its internal security, thus offering opportunities for law enforcement agencies to target these networks more deliberately. Our results emphasize the importance of criminal network interventions at an early stage, before the network gets a chance to (re-)organize to maximum resilience. In the end disruption strategies force criminal networks to become more exposed, which causes successful network disruption to become a long-term effort. PMID:24577374

  3. Judicial Functions in the Criminal Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin Tănase

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The separation of judicial functions falls, indisputably, in the news gallery of the Romanian criminal trial current rules. The previous Criminal Procedure Code, namely that of 1968, as well as the older ones, hadn‟t enrolled in their content such a principle. However, the doctrine identified, under mentioned legal regulations, the existence of distinct procedural functions and their need to separate, in the idea of genuine criminal justice accomplishment. These procedural functions were: the indictment function (or charges, the defense function the trial function. In the new code, this principle proclaims the existence of four judicial functions that aim the efficiency and speed of the criminal trial, but also guarantee the presumption of innocence, equal opportunity of parties, protection of rights and fundamental freedoms. This research try to explain this principle and its connections with other institutions of the criminal trial.

  4. Prison tattoos as a reflection of the criminal lifestyle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano, Alicia T Rozycki; Morgan, Robert D; Murray, Danielle D; Varghese, Femina

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between prison tattoos and the criminal lifestyle and recidivism. Participants consisted of 81 male inmates with prison tattoos (i.e., prison-themed or prison-made tattoos), 75 inmates with nonprison tattoos (e.g., animal tattoos, tattoos of ethnic origin), 52 male inmates with no tattoos, and 66 college students with tattoos. Results indicated that inmates with prison tattoos differed from inmates with nonprison tattoos, inmates without tattoos, and college students with tattoos with regard to criminal thinking styles, were at increased risk of recidivism, and presented more institutional behavioral problems, resulting in more disciplinary infractions. There were no significant differences between inmate groups with regard to number of convictions; however, additional group comparisons indicated that inmates with visible tattoos and antisocial-themed tattoos were at greater risk for recidivism and received more disciplinary infractions than inmates without visible or antisocial-themed tattoos. Implications of these findings are discussed.

  5. The Protection of the Right to Life in the New Criminal Code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavinia Mihaela Vladila

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The present article illustrates general aspects of the actual regulation on the protection of the rightto life, in comparison with the new regulation, which shall be analyzed more carefully. The paper is based onthe study of the new Criminal Code, emphasizing the most important differences between the actualregulation and the new Criminal Code, and the few texts elaborated in this area. The approach of the subjectis a more practical one, because few texts were written about the new Criminal Code, at the moment of itsentrance into force, the doctrinaires will need to know the differences and the innovations brought by it. Theresult is meant to increase the understanding of the new text and to enrich the analysis and synthesis of thenew Criminal Code.

  6. Critical Thinking and the Development of Innovative Problem Solvers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Drew, Christopher T

    2005-01-01

    .... This capability can be trained by making Critical Thinking the focus of officer education. Critical Thinking is the general cognitive skill of developing the best solution when there is not a single correct answer...

  7. CRIMINAL LAW PROTECTION OF DATABASE AT A GLANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUCIAN T. POENARU

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Database protection is provided in Romania by the general law on copyright no. 8/1996. According to the law, it is considered to be a crime making available to the public, by any means, the special rights attributed to database owners or copies thereof. This paper will focus on, one hand, presenting the way database and database related products can be subject to a copyright general protection and, on the other, revealing the special sui generis right attributed to database owners. In such a context, criminal instruments for protecting such rights seem to be quite annoying for the perpetrator, but less effective when it comes to a proper enforcement by the criminal bodies. This paper will therefore try to compare the way guilty actions of the culprit are effectively sanctioned by the criminal instruments provided by the law.And because the Romanian law on copyright does follow at least the letter of the European Directives on copyright and the protection of database, this paper will also search the spirit of the relevant European case-law and its applicability by the Romanian authorities.

  8. [Criminal implication of sponsoring in medicine: legal ramifactions and recommendations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahnken, A H; Theilmann, M; Bolenz, M; Günther, R W

    2005-08-01

    As a consequence of the so-called "Heart-Valve-Affair" in 1994, the German public became aware of the potential criminal significance of industrial sponsoring and third-party financial support in medicine. Since 1997, when the German Anti-Corruption Law came into effect, the penal regulations regarding bribery and benefits for public officers were tightened. Due to the lack of explicit and generally accepted guidelines in combination with regional differences of jurisdiction, there is a lingering uncertainty regarding the criminal aspects of third-party funding and industrial sponsoring. The aim of this review is to summarize the penal and professional implications of third-party funding and sponsoring in medicine including recent aspects of jurisdiction. The currently available recommendations on this issue are introduced.

  9. Criminal implication of sponsoring in medicine: legal ramifactions and recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahnken, A.H.; Guenther, R.W.; Theilmann, M.; Bolenz, M.

    2005-01-01

    As a consequence of the so-called ''Heart-Valve-Affair'' in 1994, the German public became aware of the potential criminal significance of industrial sponsoring and third-party financial support in medicine. Since 1997, when the German Anti-Corruption Law came into effect, the penal regulations regarding bribery and benefits for public officers were tightened. Due to the lack of explicit and generally accepted guidelines in combination with regional differences of jurisdiction, there is a lingering uncertainty regarding the criminal aspects of third-party funding and industrial sponsoring. The aim of this review is to summarize the penal and professional implications of third-party funding and sponsoring in medicine including recent aspects of jurisdiction. The currently available recommendations on this issue are introduced. (orig.)

  10. Design thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Tim

    2008-06-01

    In the past, design has most often occurred fairly far downstream in the development process and has focused on making new products aesthetically attractive or enhancing brand perception through smart, evocative advertising. Today, as innovation's terrain expands to encompass human-centered processes and services as well as products, companies are asking designers to create ideas rather than to simply dress them up. Brown, the CEO and president of the innovation and design firm IDEO, is a leading proponent of design thinking--a method of meeting people's needs and desires in a technologically feasible and strategically viable way. In this article he offers several intriguing examples of the discipline at work. One involves a collaboration between frontline employees from health care provider Kaiser Permanente and Brown's firm to reengineer nursing-staff shift changes at four Kaiser hospitals. Close observation of actual shift changes, combined with brainstorming and rapid prototyping, produced new procedures and software that radically streamlined information exchange between shifts. The result was more time for nursing, better-informed patient care, and a happier nursing staff. Another involves the Japanese bicycle components manufacturer Shimano, which worked with IDEO to learn why 90% of American adults don't ride bikes. The interdisciplinary project team discovered that intimidating retail experiences, the complexity and cost of sophisticated bikes, and the danger of cycling on heavily trafficked roads had overshadowed people's happy memories of childhood biking. So the team created a brand concept--"Coasting"--to describe a whole new category of biking and developed new in-store retailing strategies, a public relations campaign to identify safe places to cycle, and a reference design to inspire designers at the companies that went on to manufacture Coasting bikes.

  11. Rehabilitation and Re-socialization of Criminals in Iranian Criminal Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollaei, Mohammad; Ghayoomzadeh, Mahmood; Mirkhalili, Seyed Mahmoud

    2018-02-08

    One of the concerns that always remain for the repentant criminal is the condition for his return to society. This concern may be so strong and effective that the criminal may seclude from the society due to the fear of its consequences and may return to crime. Therefore, paying attention to eliminating the social effect of the criminal conviction of criminals can return security to society and return the repentant criminals to normal life. So, all military and social institutions are effective in the re-socialization, in such a way that the re-socialization of criminals requires the provision of social platforms that starts with their own family and expands to society. The main concern of this research is how we can provide the favorable conditions for the re-socialization of repentant criminals that effectively realize the socialization goals. The Islamic Penal Code initiatives in 2013, despite the gaps in this regard, partly help to achieve such goals, but they are not enough. Therefore, the present article focused on the criminals' re-socialization and tried to raise the criminals' re-socialization both socially and criminally. The method was descriptive analytical. The result showed that the Islamic Penal Code, adopted in 2013 on the period of the subsequent effects, needs to be reformed, and the effective social institutions should be raised orderly in such a case.

  12. Criminal tendencies and psychological testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sobchik L. N.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Methods of psychological diagnostics closer to the psychology main research areas, which involve measuring the accuracy and statistical reliability. A set of methods that includes questionnaires should be complemented with projective tests in which the stimulus material is verbal in nature. The article presents the results of surveys of different groups of persons in conflict with the law, as well as screening tests contingent of youth groups and adolescents. High performance, spontaneously manifested aggressiveness, traits, emotional immaturity, low self-control and primitive-the requirement of the hierarchy of values at statistically significant level are identified in the data psychodiagnostic study, thus allowing to allocate the risk of wrongful conduct and to develop preventive measures of psycho-pedagogical and social nature. Psychological testing is an effective tool in the study of criminal predisposici and gives the key to a science-based approach in the development of preventive measures aimed at reducing crime.

  13. Criminal Courts of Justice, Dublin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Tooth

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The newly completed Criminal Courts of Justice (CCJ at Parkgate Street in Dublin 8 is the largest courts project undertaken in the history of the Irish State. The design of the heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC systems was based on computer simulated modelling of the build ing to determine the optimum plant selection and operation based on the contract conditions and energy targets. The report will analyse the computer simulated energy targets versus the actual energy consumption and assess the benefit of engineering solutions such as twin-skin facades and heat recovery based on real data. The report will draw conclusions on the real benefit of such systems with in the built environment. In addition to the energy targets, the report will discuss the commission ing processes involved in delivering the energy targets required and the importance of designing metering strategies to enable the data to be collected and analysed.

  14. Thinking-in-Concert

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Aislinn

    2012-01-01

    In this essay, I examine the concept of thinking in Hannah Arendt's writings. Arendt's interest in the experience of thinking allowed her to develop a concept of thinking that is distinct from other forms of mental activity such as cognition and problem solving. For her, thinking is an unending, unpredictable and destructive activity without fixed…

  15. Protecting Children Rights under International Criminal Justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erinda Duraj (Male

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Children are a central concern of international criminal justice. International crimes and other forms of violence and the abuse of children are disturbing daily realities in today’s world. Children and young persons are increasingly being targeted for the purposes of murder, rape, abduction, mutilation, recruitment as child soldiers, trafficking, sexual exploitation and other abuses. Sierra Leone, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Rwanda, Colombia, and many others illustrate this. The participation of children in international criminal justice and other accountability mechanisms is now one of the major issues facing criminal justice today. In this sense, this paper presents a short overview on the issue of children and their participation in international criminal justice. The paper thus focuses on giving a definition of “child/children” according to international norms, which are the key principles of children’s rights, their participation in the criminal justice system, the different international crimes committed by them or against them etc. Also, this paper briefly addresses the main contours of the normative framework regarding the criminal responsibility of children for their alleged participation in international crimes. It reviews international norms regarding children who may be accused of having participated in the commission of such crimes themselves (as child soldiers and identifies their criminal responsibility for such acts. Finally, this paper acknowledges the obligations of states under international law to prosecute persons accused of genocide, war crimes, crimes against humanity, torture and enforced disappearances, specifically focusing on crimes against children.

  16. Critical Thinking for Mass Communications Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoemaker, Pamela J.

    1993-01-01

    Describes one way of systematically teaching critical thinking skills in a journalism-mass communication program. Begins with a general discussion of critical thinking. Proceeds to the theory and structure underlying the course as it is taught at the Ohio State University School of Journalism. (RS)

  17. The Criminal justice system in Northern Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    Carr, Nicola

    2017-01-01

    As with any country, crime and justice and the contours of criminal justice have to be situated within the particular historical, social, and political context. Nowhere is this truer than in Northern Ireland, where the criminal justice system that has emerged has been shaped by a violent political conflict which spanned over three decades (from the late 1960s to the late 1990s). In the transition to peace, the reform of criminal justice agencies has been central—to a wider project of state le...

  18. The suspended sentence in French Criminal Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovašević Dragan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available From the ancient times until today, criminal law has provided different criminal sanctions as measures of social control. These coercive measures are imposed on the criminal offender by the competent court and aimed at limitting the offender's rights and freedoms or depriving the offender of certain rights and freedoms. These sanctions are applied to the natural or legal persons who violate the norms of the legal order and injure or endanger other legal goods that enjoy legal protection. In order to effectively protect social values, criminal legislations in all countries predict a number of criminal sanctions. These are: 1 imprisonment, 2 precautions, 3 safety measures, 4 penalties for juveniles, and 5 sanctions for legal persons. Apart and instead of punishment, warning measures have a significant role in the jurisprudence. Since they emerged in the early 20th century in the system of criminal sanctions, there has been an increase in their application to criminal offenders, especially when it comes to first-time offenders who committed a negligent or accidental criminal act. Warnings are applied in case of crimes that do not have serious consequences, and whose perpetrators are not hardened and incorrigible criminals. All contemporary criminal legislations (including the French legilation provide a warning measure of suspended sentence. Suspended sentence is a conditional stay of execution of sentence of imprisonment for a specified time, provided that the convicted person does not commit another criminal offense and fulfills other obligations. This sanction applies if the following two conditions are fulfilled: a forma! -which is attached to the sentence of imprisonment; and b material -which is the court assessment that the application of this sanction is justified and necessary in a particular case. In many modern criminal legislations, there are two different types of suspended (conditional sentence: 1 ordinary (classical suspended

  19. 32 CFR 635.16 - General.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true General. 635.16 Section 635.16 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS LAW ENFORCEMENT REPORTING Offense Reporting § 635.16 General. (a) This subpart establishes policy for reporting founded criminal offenses...

  20. Justifying genetics as a possible legal defence to criminal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, jurisprudence of many criminal cases tends to question whether a person's inherited genes predispose him to violence and further determine his criminal responsibility in law. Under the Nigerian criminal law, the legal test of criminal responsibility is mainly whether the accused person intends the consequence of ...

  1. Methods and manners of interpretation of criminal norms | Assefa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The criminal justice system is constituted of criminal norms, institutions and methods, among others. Interpretation of the criminal law is a process that transforms the text of the law into reality. The process is influenced by various factors, such as, the courts' conception of the criminal law, the concept and practice of ...

  2. Advanced Analytic Cognition: Thinking Dispositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    example, cognitive ability, which is a generalized predictor of learning and performance effectiveness and has a high genetic component, is very...CA, 2006. Peirce, W. Designing Rubrics for Assessing Higher Order Thinking. Available: http://academic.pgcc.edu/~wpeirce/MCCCTR

  3. MODEL FOR FORMATION OF ENTREPRENEUR’S STYLE THINKING AMONG STUDENTS OF SECONDARY SCHOOLS PROVIDING GENERAL EDUCATION WHILE USING MEANS THAT DEVELOP SOCIAL AND PEDAGOGICAL ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Gorodovich

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper rises problems pertaining to formation of entrepreneur competence among students of secondary schools providing general education while using means that develop social and pedagogical environment.

  4. Individuals with bipolar disorder and their relationship with the criminal justice system: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fovet, Thomas; Geoffroy, Pierre Alexis; Vaiva, Guillaume; Adins, Catherine; Thomas, Pierre; Amad, Ali

    2015-04-01

    Bipolar disorder is a severe and prevalent psychiatric disease. Poor outcomes include a high frequency of criminal acts, imprisonments, and repeat offenses. This critical review of the international literature examined several aspects of the complex relationship between individuals with bipolar disorder and the criminal justice system: risk factors for criminal acts, features of bipolar patients' incarceration, and their postrelease trajectories. Publications were obtained from the PubMed and Google Scholar electronic databases by using the following MeSH headings: prison, forensic psychiatry, criminal law, crime, and bipolar disorder. Among patients with bipolar disorder, the frequency of violent criminal acts is higher than in the general population (odds ratio [OR]=2.8, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.8-4.3). The frequency is higher among patients with bipolar disorder and a comorbid substance use disorder than among those without either disorder (OR=10.1, CI=5.3-19.2). As a result, the prevalence of bipolar disorder among prisoners is high (2%-7%). In prison, patients' bipolar disorder symptoms can complicate their relationship with prison administrators, leading to an increased risk of multiple incarcerations. Moreover, the risk of suicide increases for these prisoners. Criminal acts are common among patients with bipolar disorder and are often associated with problems such as addiction. Thus it is important to improve the diagnosis and treatment of inmates with bipolar disorder.

  5. Involvement in the US criminal justice system and cost implications for persons treated for schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faries Douglas E

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Individuals with schizophrenia may have a higher risk of encounters with the criminal justice system than the general population, but there are limited data on such encounters and their attendant costs. This study assessed the prevalence of encounters with the criminal justice system, encounter types, and the estimated cost attributable to these encounters in the one-year treatment of persons with schizophrenia. Methods This post-hoc analysis used data from a prospective one-year cost-effectiveness study of persons treated with antipsychotics for schizophrenia and related disorders in the United States. Criminal justice system involvement was assessed using the Schizophrenia Patients Outcome Research Team (PORT client survey and the victimization subscale of the Lehman Quality of Life Interview (QOLI. Direct cost of criminal justice system involvement was estimated using previously reported costs per type of encounter. Patients with and without involvement were compared on baseline characteristics and direct annual health care and criminal justice system-related costs. Results Overall, 278 (46% of 609 participants reported at least 1 criminal justice system encounter. They were more likely to be substance users and less adherent to antipsychotics compared to participants without involvement. The 2 most prevalent types of encounters were being a victim of a crime (67% and being on parole or probation (26%. The mean annual per-patient cost of involvement was $1,429, translating to 6% of total annual direct health care costs for those with involvement (11% when excluding crime victims. Conclusions Criminal justice system involvement appears to be prevalent and costly for persons treated for schizophrenia in the United States. Findings highlight the need to better understand the interface between the mental health and the criminal justice systems and the related costs, in personal, societal, and economic terms.

  6. International Criminal Responsibility After Katanga: Old Challenges, New Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena Kucher

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available On March 7, 2014, the International Criminal Court delivered its most recent judgment convicting Mr. Katanga as an accessory of crime against humanity in the form of murder and four counts of war crimes within the meaning of Art. 25(3(d of the Rome Statute. This decision along with its previous final decisions in the Lubanga and Ngudjolo cases has raised similar concerns about individual criminal responsibility regarding, inter alia, application of control over a crime doctrine as evidenced from the dissenting / separate opinions to them. This doctrine has already firmly settled within the ICC jurisprudence and yet some judges doubt if its application is justified, especially given the peculiarities of national origin irrelevant in the realm of the Rome Statute. The other raised concern is a potential application of the legality principle, since both Ngudjolo and Katanga judgments have investigated the same situations and come to the completely different results.While the Rome Statute contains the most complete provision determining the modes of individual responsibility, Art. 25 thus appears to be far from being out of debates. To dispel some of them, this article analyzes practical application of Art. 25(3(a and (d by the ICC and different approaches in this regard as well as general grounds for raising question on the necessity for individual criminal responsibility. 

  7. Dynamical analysis of a model of social behavior: Criminal vs non-criminal population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbas, Syed; Tripathi, Jai Prakash; Neha, A.A.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A new social model of interaction between criminal and non-criminal population is proposed • The effect of law enforcement is studied • Many real life situations are analyzed • List of open problems is given for future work. - Abstract: In this paper, we construct a model motivated by the well known predator-prey model to study the interaction between criminal population and non-criminal population. Our aim is to study various possibilities of interactions between them. First we model it using simple predator-prey model, then we modify it by considering the logistic growth of non-criminal population. We clearly deduce that the model with logistic growth is better than classical one. More precisely, the role of carrying capacity on the dynamics of criminal minded population is discussed. Further, we incorporate law enforcement term in the model and study its effect. The result obtained suggest that by incorporating enforcement law, the criminal population reduces from the very beginning, which resembles with real life situation. Our result indicates that the criminal minded population exist as long as coefficient of enforcement l_c does not cross a threshold value and after this value the criminal minded population extinct. In addition, we also discuss the occurrence of saddle-node bifurcation in case of model system with law enforcement. Numerical examples and simulations are presented to illustrate the obtained results.

  8. Original article Latent classes of criminal intent associated with criminal behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Boduszek

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background This study aimed to examine the number of latent classes of criminal intent that exist among prisoners and to look at the associations with recidivism, number of police arrests, type of offending (robbery, violent offences, murder, and multiple offences, and age. Participants and procedure Latent class analysis was used to identify homogeneous subgroups of prisoners based on their responses to the 10 questions reflecting criminal intent. Participants were 309 male recidivistic prisoners incarcerated in a maximum security prison. Multinomial logistic regression was used to interpret the nature of the latent classes, or groups, by estimating the association between recidivism and latent classes of criminal intent while controlling for offence type (robbery, violent offences, murder, and multiple offences, number of arrests, and age. Results The best fitting latent class model was a three-class solution: ‘High criminal intent’ (49.3%, ‘Intermediate criminal intent’ (41.3%, and ‘Low criminal intent’ (9.4%. The latent classes were differentially related to the external variables (recidivism, violent offences, and age. Conclusions Criminal intent is best explained by three homogeneous classes that appear to represent an underlying continuum. Future work is needed to identify whether these distinct classes of criminal intent may predict engagement in various types of criminal behaviour.

  9. A Framework for visualization of criminal networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasheed, Amer

    networks, network analysis, composites, temporal data visualization, clustering and hierarchical clustering of data but there are a number of areas which are overlooked by the researchers. Moreover there are some issues, for instance, lack of effective filtering techniques, computational overhead......This Ph.D. thesis describes research concerning the application of criminal network visualization in the field of investigative analysis. There are number of way with which the investigative analysis can locate the hidden motive behind any criminal activity. Firstly, the investigative analyst must...... have the ability to understand the criminal plot since a comprehensive plot is a pre-requisite to conduct an organized crime. Secondly, the investigator should understand the organization and structure of criminal network. The knowledge about these two aspects is vital in conducting an investigative...

  10. Criminal sanctions: does imprisonment strategy reduce crimes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    What works, in our views, is the delivery of appropriate correctional treatment, and ... adult criminal treatment among both Lagos and Enugu prisoners that summarized ... Keywords: Imprisonment, Sanctions, Crimes, Rehabilitation, Recidivism.

  11. What Defines an International Criminal Court?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldgaard-Pedersen, Astrid

    2015-01-01

    that only criminal tribunals deriving their authority from international law should be labelled ‘international’, while the term ‘national criminal court’ should apply to tribunals set up under national law. This terminology would underline that issues concerning jurisdiction and applicable law must......Since the post-World War II tribunals, only few scholars have attempted to draw a definitional distinction between international and national criminal courts. Remarkable exceptions include Robert Woetzel, who in 1962 categorized criminal courts according to ‘the involvement of the international...... that ‘the involvement of the international community’ is at best an unhelpful criterion when it comes to resolving questions, e.g. regarding the immunity of state officials and the relevance of domestic law, that require a determination of the legal system in which the court operates. Instead, it is argued...

  12. Expert Evidence and International Criminal Justice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appazov, Artur

    The book is a comprehensive narration of the use of expertise in international criminal trials offering reflection on standards concerning the quality and presentation of expert evidence. It analyzes and critiques the rules governing expert evidence in international criminal trials...... and the strategies employed by counsel and courts relying upon expert evidence and challenges that courts face determining its reliability. In particular, the author considers how the procedural and evidentiary architecture of international criminal courts and tribunals influences the courts' ability to meaningfully...... incorporate expert evidence into the rational fact-finding process. The book provides analysis of the unique properties of expert evidence as compared with other forms of evidence and the challenges that these properties present for fact-finding in international criminal trials. It draws conclusions about...

  13. Violent and criminal manifestations in dementia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipriani, Gabriele; Lucetti, Claudio; Danti, Sabrina; Carlesi, Cecilia; Nuti, Angelo

    2016-05-01

    Although the older adults have been studied as victims of violence, geriatric patients can display violent behavior. The purpose of the present review was to explore the phenomenon of criminal violations and violent acts in people with dementia. The authors used PubMed to search the MEDLINE database and other sources for original research and review articles on criminal and violent manifestation in demented patients combining the terms "criminal manifestation," "violence, aggressive behavior," "homicide," "suicide" and "homicide-suicide" together with "dementia". Possible biomarkers of violence are considered. The present review highlights the risk factors for violence in patients suffering from dementia, and reviews the literature about criminal violations and homicidal/suicidal behavior in this patient group. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2016; 16: 541-549. © 2015 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  14. Are Celebrities Criminally Responsible For Deceptive Advertising?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The State Administration for Industry and Commerce recently said it has suggested the addition of an article in the Advertising Law to make celebrities who represent fake products in deceptive advertising criminally responsible for their actions if it is confirmed

  15. Employers liability to the international criminal court

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yenifer Yiseth Suárez Díaz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The constant changes in the social dynamics due to economic and technological development has brought along the need to dispose of a High Court, with competence over International Crimes. The above was the reason to establish the International Criminal Court, destined to prosecute and punish the maximum responsible for crimes of its jurisdiction. Nonetheless, despite the existence of individual criminal responsibility as an accomplice in the case of entrepreneurs who contribute to the crime, there is not an actual investigation or conviction as such in the Court fase for those individuals. Through a criminological study, the actions in the frame of the criminal policy in international law, in order to hold individual criminal responsibility towards entrepreneurs for international crimes, will be evaluated, from the dogmatic categories established in the international guidelines as well as from international doctrine.

  16. Nullum Crimen sine Lege in the International Criminal Court

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venus GHAREH BAGHI

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The Principles of legality in crimes and punishments refer to the fact that an act is not considered a crime and deserves no punishment, until the legislator determines and announces thecriminal title and its penalty. In Iranian legal system, before the Islamic Revolution and also after it, the Constitution and ordinary laws have explicitly emphasized the observance of the mentionedprinciple. When there is no text or in the case of the silence or lack of law, the criminal judge is bound to issue the verdict of innocence. According to the Rome statute the court shall exercisejurisdiction over the crime of aggressions once a provision is adopted. And, according to the article 121 and 123 defending the crime and setting out, the condition under which the Court shall exercise jurisdiction with respect to crimes such as provision shall be consisted of the head of the general principle the relevant provision of the charter of the United Nations. The principle of legality is set out in article 22 to 24 of the ICC statute. These norms are derived from the customary law and the national law. Article 15, International Covenant on Civil and Political rights, states that no one shall be found guilty of any criminal offence based on an act or omission which did not constitute a criminal offence under national or international laws at the time when it was committed. Yet, in the context of prosecuting mass atrocities, genocide, crimes against humanity, and war crimes, international criminal law appears to be resigned to such a principle, if not openly including it. fact, that it may be considered the poor cousin of nullum crimen sine lege (no crime without law which has attracted far greater consideration in scholarship and jurisprudence.

  17. Analysis of the relation between intelligence and criminal behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Jovanovic

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: One of the cognitive aspects of personality is intelligence. A large number of previous studies have shown that the intelligence within the criminal population is decreased, particularly in its verbal aspect.The aim of this study is to determine whether there is a link between intelligence and criminal behavior and how it is manifested.Methods: The research involved criminal inmates of the Correctional institutes of Republic of Srpska and Court Department of Psychiatry Clinic Sokolac who committed homicide and various non-homicide acts. Thetest group consisted of 60 inmates who have committed homicide (homicide offenders and a control group of 60 inmates who did not commit homicide (non-homicide offenders. The study was controlled, transverse or cross-sectional study.Results: Average intelligence of inmates (homicidal and non-homicidal was IQ 95.7. Intelligence of homicide inmates was IQ 97.4 and non-homicide IQ 94.09. Intelligence coeffi cients for non-homicide inmatesubgroups were as follows - subgroup consisting of robbery offenders (IQ 96.9, subgroup consisting of theft perpetrators (IQ 93.83, subgroups consisting of other criminal offenders (IQ 92.8. Verbal intellectual ability– IQw of homicide inmates was 91.22, and 91.10 IQw of non-homicide inmates. Intellectual abilities in nonverbal or manipulative part were average, but they were higher in homicide inmates group (IQm 103.65 than in the group of non-homicide inmates (IQm 97.08.Conclusion: Average intelligence of investigated inmates (homicide and non-homicide is lower than in the general population and corresponds to low average. Verbal part of intelligence is lowered while nonverbalpart is within the average range.

  18. Child and adolescent psychiatric patients and later criminality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rydelius Per-Anders

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sweden has an extensive child and adolescent psychiatric (CAP research tradition in which longitudinal methods are used to study juvenile delinquency. Up to the 1980s, results from descriptions and follow-ups of cohorts of CAP patients showed that children's behavioural disturbances or disorders and school problems, together with dysfunctional family situations, were the main reasons for families, children, and youth to seek help from CAP units. Such factors were also related to registered criminality and registered alcohol and drug abuse in former CAP patients as adults. This study investigated the risk for patients treated 1975–1990 to be registered as criminals until the end of 2003. Methods A regional sample of 1,400 former CAP patients, whose treatment occurred between 1975 and 1990, was followed to 2003, using database-record links to the Register of Persons Convicted of Offences at the National Council for Crime Prevention (NCCP. Results Every third CAP patient treated between 1975 and 1990 (every second man and every fifth woman had entered the Register of Persons Convicted of Offences during the observation period, which is a significantly higher rate than the general population. Conclusion Results were compared to published results for CAP patients who were treated between 1953 and 1955 and followed over 20 years. Compared to the group of CAP patients from the 1950s, the results indicate that the risk for boys to enter the register for criminality has doubled and for girls, the risk seems to have increased sevenfold. The reasons for this change are discussed. Although hypothetical and perhaps speculative this higher risk of later criminality may be the result of lack of social control due to (1 rising consumption of alcohol, (2 changes in organisation of child social welfare work, (3 the school system, and (4 CAP methods that were implemented since 1970.

  19. International Criminal Law: Over-studied and Underachieving?

    OpenAIRE

    Van Sliedregt, E

    2016-01-01

    In his recent review of Neil Boister's book, An Introduction to Transnational Criminal Law, Robert Currie praises the author for shedding light on a field of law that has suffered from inattention. Transnational criminal law (TCL), the 'other' branch of what was traditionally called international criminal law, has been overshadowed by international criminal law 'proper' (ICL). The establishment of international criminal tribunals after the end of the Cold War, culminating in the establishment...

  20. Discovering Cartels: Dynamic Interrelationships between Civil and Criminal Antitrust Investigations

    OpenAIRE

    Ghosal, Vivek

    2006-01-01

    This paper focuses on the genesis, taxonomy and timeline of U.S. criminal antitrust investigations, and uses time-series data on enforcement to examine the interrelationships between the various criminal enforcement variables as well as the linkages between criminal and civil enforcement. The key findings are: (1) there appears to be considerable dynamic interplay between the criminal variables. For example, an increase in grand jury investigations or criminal cases initiated or the number of...

  1. Compositional Homology and Creative Thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Tedesco

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The concept of homology is the most solid theoretical basis elaborated by the morphological thinking during its history. The enucleation of some general criteria for the interpretation of homology is today a fundamental tool for life sciences, and for restoring their own opening to the question of qualitative innovation that arose so powerfully in the original Darwinian project. The aim of this paper is to verify the possible uses of the concept of compositional homology in order to provide of an adequate understanding of the dynamics of creative thinking.

  2. Comparison of criminal procedure and inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyung, Sang Cheol

    2009-01-01

    While a criminal investigation and international inspection are similar in the purpose of identifying any possible violator, there are also differences between them. Especially in the case of a criminal procedure, the defendants are presumed to be innocent until he or she is convicted, but states must make efforts to prove their nuclear transparency. Let's compare both of them to find out the reason why these different points have happened

  3. Neurotechnological Behavioural Treatment of Criminal Offenders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryberg, Jesper; Petersen, Thomas Søbirk

    2013-01-01

    at the behaviour for which the criminal is convicted. In this article it is argued that Bomann-Larsen's analysis of the morality of offers does not provide a solid base for this conclusion and that, even if the analysis is assumed to be correct, it still does not follow that voluntary rehabilitation schemes...... targeting behaviour beyond the act for which a criminal is convicted are inappropriate....

  4. Criminal investigation in the light of Law 9,034 / 95: the role of undercover agents and their criminal consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayme José de Souza FIlho

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Law 9034 of May 3, 1995 provides for the use of means operacionaispara prevention and prosecution of actions taken by organizations criminosas.Sofreu amendment by Law 10,217 of April 11, 2001, which entered the Brazilian legal noordenamento agents infiltration technique comoinstrumento to combat such organizations. It provides that police officers or deinteligência in any criminal prosecution phase, since autorizadosjudicialmente, can enter into criminal groups acting dissimuladamentecomo part thereof, to obtain information and evidence to reach oseu dismantling. the owners acting as agenteinfiltrado is unacceptable. It is silent on legislation about the limits and succinct with aosrequisitos relationship that should be imposed for the exercise of this method investigativo.Silenciou is still about the criminal liability of the undercover agent noexercício of its activities, thus any responsibility should serresolvidas in the field of Theory of Crime, contained in the general section of the Code Penal.Difere the undercover agent provocateur, where the first ageconstantemente passively collecting data, while the second agede actively, prompting the target (suspect to commit crimes. The evidence obtained by the undercover agent and testimony are legitimate to instruct inquiry policiale competent prosecution.

  5. In Search of Police Investigative Thinking Styles: An Exploratory Study of Detectives in Norway and Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Geoff; Fahsing, Ivar Andre; Gottschalk, Petter

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we argue that more research attention needs to be devoted to profile how investigators think when attempting to solve crimes and dismantle terrorist networks. Since 9/11, there is much activity focused on profiling criminals and terrorists but little on the other side of the investigative equation the detectives/investigators…

  6. Conceptual thinking of uneducated adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlović Zoran

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The starting point of this paper is Vygotsky's thesis that the prerequisite of conceptual thinking and concepts in general is the systematic influence upon the child effectuated by his/her inclusion into the process of education. The aim of this work is to examine characteristics of conceptual thinking of people who have not attended school, by which they have been devoid of formative role of education. Four different methods for examination of conceptual development have been used on the sample consisting of seventeen respondents who have not attended school. The results state that the majority of respondents have not demonstrated that they master the concepts on the highest level of development in none of these four methods. However, some respondents in some tests and some individual tasks within the tests show some characteristics of the high level of the conceptual thinking development.

  7. Cognitive fallacies and criminal investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditrich, Hans

    2015-03-01

    The human mind is susceptible to inherent fallacies that often hamper fully rational action. Many such misconceptions have an evolutionary background and are thus difficult to avert. Deficits in the reliability of eye-witnesses are well known to legal professionals; however, less attention has been paid to such effects in crime investigators. In order to obtain an "inside view" on the role of cognitive misconceptions in criminalistic work, a list of fallacies from the literature was adapted to criminalistic settings. The statements on this list were rated by highly experienced crime scene investigators according to the assumed likelihood of these errors to appear and their severity of effect. Among others, selective perception, expectation and confirmation bias, anchoring/"pars per toto" errors and "onus probandi"--shifting the burden of proof from the investigator to the suspect--were frequently considered to negatively affect criminal investigations. As a consequence, the following measures are proposed: alerting investigating officers in their training to cognitive fallacies and promoting the exchange of experiences in peer circles of investigators on a regular basis. Furthermore, the improvement of the organizational error culture and the establishment of a failure analysis system in order to identify and alleviate error prone processes are suggested. Copyright © 2014 Forensic Science Society. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Visual Thinking Strategies = Creative and Critical Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeller, Mary; Cutler, Kay; Fiedler, Dave; Weier, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Implementation of Visual Thinking Strategies (VTS) into the Camelot Intermediate School curriculum in Brookings, South Dakota, has fostered the development of creative and critical thinking skills in 4th- and 5th-grade students. Making meaning together by observing carefully, deciphering patterns, speculating, clarifying, supporting opinions, and…

  9. Fashioning an ex-crook self: citizenship and criminality in the work of Netley Lucas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houlbrook, Matt

    2013-01-01

    This essay uses the autobiographical and journalistic work of the confidence trickster Netley Lucas to explore the possibilities and problems of writing as an ex-crook in inter-war Britain. In so doing, it considers the intersections between emerging forms of mass culture, popular and scientific narratives of criminality, and increasingly heated debates about the social and institutional management of crime. This case study provides an opportunity to think critically about the extent to which inter-war criminology was the modernizing project it often claimed to be. In the hands of Lucas and others, different modes of writing about crime bled into one another. Older forms of criminal confession coexisted with 'modern' criminological knowledge as mutually constitutive ways of apprehending the social.

  10. The suspended sentence in German criminal law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovašević Dragan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available From the ancient times until today, criminal law in all countries has provided different criminal sanctions as social control measures. These are court-imposed coercive measures that take away or limit certain rights and freedoms of criminal offenders. Sanctions are applied to natural or legal persons who violate the norms of the legal order and cause damage or endanger other legal goods that enjoy legal protection. In order to effectively protect social values jeopardized by the commission of crime, state legislations prescribe several kinds of criminal sanctions: 1 penalties, 2 precautions, 3 safety measures, 4 penalties for juvenile offenders, and 5 sanctions for legal persons. Penalties are the basic, the oldest and the most important type of criminal sanctions. They are prescribed for the largest number of criminal offences. Imposed instead of or alongside with penalties, warning measures have particularly important role in jurisprudence. Since they were introduced in the system of criminal sanctions in the early 20th century, there has been a notable increase in the application of these measures, particularly in cases involving negligent and accidental offences, and minor offences that do not cause serious consequences, whose perpetrators are not persons with criminal characteristics. Warning measures (suspended sentence are envisaged in all contemporary criminal legislations, including the German legislation. Suspended sentence is a conditional stay of execution of the sentence of imprisonment for a specified time, provided that the convicted person fulfills the imposed obligations and does not commit another criminal offense. Two conditions must be fulfilled for the application of these sanctions: a the formal requirement, which is attached to the sentence of imprisonment; and b the substantive requirement, which implies the court assessment that the application of these sanctions is justified and necessary in a particular case. Many

  11. Thinking About Adoption

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... asked questions. Q: I think I want to adopt. Where do I begin?​ A: Thinking about adoption ... through adoption. Learn more about their How-to-Adopt and Adoption Parenting Network . Q: What are the ...

  12. The Application of Criminal Reconciliation in Tibetan Areas of Sichuan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RAN Hui

    2014-01-01

    agreement often included reli-gious content .After democratic reform , following the collapse of the political power of the tusi , and its replacement with a system of local administra-tive organizations on various levels ( including county, township and village level organizations ), judicial organs on various levels ( public security organs, the people′s procuratorate or the people′s court) the traditional system for conflict resolution was demolished .The institutions mentioned above were responsible for resolving different disputes and conflicts according to the national law .In or-der to have an overall understanding of present criminal reconciliation in the Tibetan areas of Si-chuan , we conducted an investigation by handing out questionnaires to the local people , staff in ju-dicial organs and monasteries , and also inter-viewed some administrative cadres from county and township administrations . This was done so as to understand their thoughts on and understanding of local criminal reconciliation .According to the in-vestigation , for those cases which have big impact in Tibetan areas and are difficult to solve , the main method was to combine the various strategies ( such as religious powers , administrative organi-zations at the basic levels ) to solve conflicts. Current criminal reconciliation practices in theTibetan areas of Sichuan include reconciliationsoutside lawsuits and reconciliation within lawsuits .Those in charge of reconciliation outside lawsuitsare other organizations.The judicial organs do notinvolve themselves, or if they are involved, theyonly play an auxiliary role.The basis and procedurefor dealing with conflicts basically does nothave legal attributes.There are generally two situationsregarding reconciliation outside lawsuits.The first situation is related to remote areas whereit is difficult to carry out national law.This is dueto the restrictions caused by natural geographicalconditions.The second situation is related to thelocal

  13. Think Tanks in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelstrup, Jesper Dahl

    in their national contexts. Questions regarding patterns and differences in think tank organisations and functions across countries have largely been left unanswered. This paper advances a definition and research design that uses different expert roles to categorise think tanks. A sample of 34 think tanks from...

  14. Foundations for Critical Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bers, Trudy; Chun, Marc; Daly, William T.; Harrington, Christine; Tobolowsky, Barbara F.

    2015-01-01

    "Foundations for Critical Thinking" explores the landscape of critical-thinking skill development and pedagogy through foundational chapters and institutional case studies involving a range of students in diverse settings. By establishing a link between active learning and improved critical thinking, this resource encourages all higher…

  15. Visual thinking and neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, C U M

    2008-01-01

    After a consideration of visual thinking in science the role of such thinking in neuroscience is discussed. Three instances are examined - cortical column, retina, impulse - and it is argued that visual thinking is employed, though in different ways, in each. It lies at the core of neurobiological thought.

  16. Criminal violence associated to mental health in Salvadorian people

    OpenAIRE

    José Ricardo Gutiérrez Quintanilla; Cecilia Beatriz Portillo García

    2014-01-01

    This is an ex post facto study with a retrospective and cross sectional design, consisting of a random sample of 1,143 participants (538 men and 605 women), age range 17-56 or more. The measures used involved the Escala de estrés y ansiedad delincuencial, and the Cuestionario de salud general. Results revealed that approximately three fourths of the simple considered that the criminal violence context affected their mental health. Differences between men and women were established. Women and ...

  17. Pervasive developmental disorders and criminal behaviour - A case control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouridsen, S.E.; Rich, B.; Isager, T.

    2008-01-01

    The prevalence and pattern of criminal behaviour in a population of 313 former child psychiatric in-patients with pervasive developmental disorders were studied. The patients were divided into three subgroups and compared with 933 matched controls from the general population. Age at follow.......1% and 18.4%, respectively. The corresponding rate of convictions in the comparison groups was 18.9%, 14.7%, and 19.6% respectively. Particular attention is given to arson in Asperger's syndrome (P = .0009) Udgivelsesdato: 2008/4...

  18. The International Criminal Court and Peace Processes in Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gissel, Line Engbo

    justice, while also tracing how and why international decision-making processes interfered with the negotiations, narrated the conflicts and insisted on a narrow scope of justice. Building on this interpretive analysis, a comparative analysis of peace processes in Uganda, Kenya and Colombia explores a set......The book investigates how involvement by the International Criminal Court (ICC) affects efforts to negotiate peace. It offers an interpretive account of how peace negotiators and mediators in two peace processes in Uganda and Kenya sought to navigate and understand the new terrain of international...... of general features pertaining to the judicialisation of peace....

  19. How can the criminal law support the provision of quality in healthcare?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Karen; Horder, Jeremy

    2014-06-01

    The egregious failings in patient safety at Mid Staffordshire NHS Foundation Trust between 2005 and 2009 identified by Sir Robert Francis QC in his public inquiry prompted him to recommend the introduction of a new criminal offence into English law in circumstances where a patient dies or is seriously harmed by a breach of fundamental standards. The authors evaluate whether, from the perspective of fairness and justice, a new criminal offence in this context is necessary and desirable. The authors considered the basic principles and functions of the criminal law and compared them with the principles and functions of the civil law. They then identify two primary tasks for the criminal law to perform in healthcare settings: (a) to establish primary duties to patients consisting of appropriately graded offences targeted at conduct that harms patients or unjustifiably poses risks to patients, and (b) to establish secondary duties to patients, consisting of offences aimed at punishing and deterring instances in which healthcare management and workers undermine the goals of regulation by lying or giving misleading information to regulatory officials or by obstructing their work. The authors focus on the first of these functions, identifying the scope of existing regulatory schemes that may give rise to criminal liability in English law when applied to healthcare contexts to identify whether a new criminal offence is needed. A gap in the existing regime of criminal liability is identified, and it is this gap which a new criminal offence seeks to fill. The authors suggest how such an offence should be structured, drawing primarily upon foundational principles of criminal liability. It is suggested that a new general offence of wilfully neglecting or ill-treating a patient that can be committed by any healthcare organisation or worker (appropriately defined) is warranted. The criminal law has an important role to play in the healthcare context. Its central function is not

  20. Thinking Like a Psychologist Introductory Psychology Writing Assignments: Encouraging Critical Thinking and Resisting Plagiarism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wentworth, Diane Keyser; Whitmarsh, Lona

    2017-01-01

    Teaching the general psychology course provides instructors with the opportunity to invite students to explore the dynamics of behavior and mental processes through the lens of theory and research. Three innovative writing assignments were developed to teach students to think like a psychologist, operationalized as enhancing critical thinking,…

  1. Intelligence as evidence in criminal proceedings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukić Tatjana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The fight against modern forms of crime such as organized crime, terrorism and other very serious crimes caused not only modification of procedural principles and procedural rules, but also the necessity of re-examination of evidence in terms of introducing new evidence in criminal proceedings. Given that the prevention, detection and proving in cases of mentioned offenses represent the systemic issue and that the efficiency is caused by cohesion of preventive and repressive mechanisms in each strategy of preventing and combating serious crimes, the more often raised question, aroused from the practice, is the issue of the use of information gathered by the police or security services as evidence in criminal proceedings. In addition, there is the issue of use of illegal evidence, the ways in which these evidence are defined in some jurisdictions and which are the legal consequences of their use in judicial decision, whether it is based only on them, or on some other evidence beside them. The author addresses the issues of necessity and justification for use of information of security services as evidence in criminal proceedings, their definition and difference with respect to data, experiences and practices in other countries and of course their use as evidence in criminal proceedings of Serbia. Also, the paper addresses the Criminal Intelligence Analytics, exchange of information between the competent authorities at national and international level.

  2. [Neurobiological determinism: questionable inferences on human freedom of choice and forensic criminal responsibility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbaniok, F; Hardegger, J; Rossegger, A; Endrass, J

    2006-08-01

    Several authors argue that criminal behavior is generally caused by neurobiological deficits. Based on this neurobiological perspective of assumed causality, the concept of free will is questioned, and the theory of neurobiological determinism of all human behavior is put forward, thus maintaining that human beings are not responsible for their actions, and consequently the principle of guilt should be given up in criminal law. In this context the controversial debate on determinism and indeterminism, which has been held for centuries, has flared up anew, especially within the science of criminal law. When critically examining the current state of research, it becomes apparent that the results do not support the existence of a universally valid neurobiological causality of criminal behavior, nor a theory of an absolute neurobiological determinism. Neither is complete determination of all phenomena in the universe--as maintained--the logical conclusion of the principle of causality, nor is it empirically confirmed. Analyzed methodically, it cannot be falsified, and thus, as a theory which cannot be empirically tested, it represents a dogma against which plausible objections can be made. The criticism of the concept of free will, and even more so of human accountability and criminal responsibility, is not put forward in a valid way. The principle of relative determinism--the evaluation of the degree of determinism of personality factors potentially reducing criminal responsibility, which includes concrete observations and analysis of behavior--thus remains a central and cogent approach to the assessment of criminal responsibility. To sum up, the theories proposed by some authors on the complete neurobiological determinism of human behavior, and the subsequent impossibility of individual responsibility and guilt, reveal both methodical misconception and a lack of empirical foundation.

  3. 28 CFR 0.50 - General functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., including criminal prosecutions and civil actions and proceedings on behalf of the Government and appellate... Assistant Attorney General, Criminal Division: (1) Sections 591 through 593 and sections 595 through 612 of title 18, U.S. Code, relating to elections and political activities; (2) Sections 241, 242, and 594 of...

  4. Precisiones teóricas sobre la subjetivación de la culpa en la mujer criminal // Theoretical precisions about guilt subjectivation in criminal woman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeannet Quiroz Bautista

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available En 1916 Freud escribe “Algunos tipos de carácter dilucidados por el trabajo psicoanalítico”, en el cual se desarrollan tres caracterologías que pueden ser leídas como tres momentos de la estructura del acto criminal en relación con la culpa. Esta conceptualización freudiana del criminal contrae problemas no sólo epistemológicos sino en el trabajo clínico dentro de prisión con mujeres, ya que, siguiendo la premisa freudiana, se podría pensar que la mujer estaría determinada a priori como una criminal excepcional, por lo que carecería de los elementos suficientes para experimentar culpa, y por lo tanto para dar un sentido a la sanción penal. Este trabajo propone un acercamiento a la subjetividad femenina buscando la posibilidad de hacer aportaciones al campo del tratamiento penitenciario a partir de la premisa sobre la imperiosidad de que, quien delinque, se asuma como sujeto responsable no sólo de sus actos sino de calidad de sujeto. // In 1916 Freud wrote “Some Character-types met with in Psychoanalytic work”, where three character-types, that can be read as three structural moments of the criminal act relating to the guilt are developed. This Freudian conceptualization of the criminal brings problems either in epistemology as in the clinical work inside women in prisons. Following Freudian premise, it is possible to think that women would be determined a priori as an exceptional criminal, reason why women would lack of enough elements to experiment the guilt; in that way, giving a sense to penal punishment. This work proposes an approach to the femininity subjectivity searching the possibility to contribute to field of penitentiary treatment, starting with the premise about the imperiousness that person who commits a crime accept him/her-self as a responsible of his/her acts and accept his/her-self as a subject.

  5. SOCIAL WORK FORENSIC REPORTS IN SOUTH AFRICAN CRIMINAL COURTS: INEVITABILITY IN THE QUEST FOR JUSTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joubert, Mariëtte

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Social work forensic reports can play a vital role in sentencing. In this article the expectations of criminal courts of social work forensic reports were established in order to improve the contribution of the social work discipline in the search for justice. An important result indicates that courts would like to make use of social work forensic reports, among others. However, the poor writing style of some of these reports makes them unfit for use in the legal context. It is argued that social workers must be trained in critical thinking and the elements of clear writing to enable them to produce high-quality forensic reports.

  6. What the public think about hypnosis and hypnotherapy: A narrative review of literature covering opinions and attitudes of the general public 1996-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krouwel, Matthew; Jolly, Kate; Greenfield, Sheila

    2017-06-01

    To describe the public's understanding of hypnosis and openness to hypnotherapy. A comprehensive search of English language peer reviewed journal articles from 1st January 1996-11th March 2016 was performed over 9 databases (Medline, PubMed, PsycARTICLES, CINAHL, Embase (excerpta medica), PsychInfo, Cochrane, Science citation index-expanded, Conference citation index) and a title-only search of Google scholar. 39 keyword combinations were employed: hypnosis, hypnotherapy, hypnotic, perception, beliefs, knowledge, view, opinion and understanding, in singular and plural where appropriate. A search of the bibliographies of eligible articles was undertaken. Inclusion criteria - Articles containing original data regarding the general public's attitudes towards hypnotherapy or hypnosis. Exclusion criteria - Non-therapy hypnosis (forensic, entertainment) materials and those concerned with groups likely to possess prior or professional knowledge of hypnosis, (hypnotists, clinicians and psychologists). Analysis was conducted in line with the questions. 31 articles were identified, covering diverse populations. Most people believe that: hypnosis is an altered state which requires collaboration to enter; once hypnotized perception changes; hypnotherapy is beneficial for psychological issues and is supportive of medical interventions; hypnosis can also enhance abilities especially memory. People are open to hypnotherapy subject to validation from the psychological or medical establishment. Similarity of opinion is more apparent than difference. Most people are positive towards hypnotherapy, and would consider its use under the right circumstances. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. [Personality disorders, violence and criminal behaviour].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmstierna, Tom

    2016-12-06

    Personality disorders, violence and criminal behaviour The importance of personality disorders for violent and criminal behaviour is illustrated by their high prevalence in prison populations. Especially antisocial personality disorder and antisocial personality traits are linked to violence. During diagnostic assessment of personality disorders, violence risk screening is recommended. Cognitive behaviour treatment focused on violent behaviour has some effect in criminal populations, but the antisocial personality traits are resistant to treatment. Evidence for pharmacological treatment of repetitive aggressive behaviour is weak. But, bensodiazepines seem to increase the risk of violent behaviour among patients with personality disorders. Antisocial personality traits diminish over time. This spontaneous decrease can be delayed by comorbidity such as other personality disorder, substance use disorder, psychosis and attention deficit disorders. Therefore it is recommended to actively treat these comorbid conditions.

  8. Conflicts of Jurisdiction in Criminal Proceedings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihail Silviu Pocora

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper will consider the practical settlement of conflicts of jurisdiction both in relation to the forum for prosecution and transfer of proceedings. The corollary of free movement of people is free movement of judgments, sentences and related powers of investigation and prosecution. Cross border crime requires to be addressed by equipping law enforcement and prosecution authorities with mechanisms to ensure the public interest in the investigation and prosecution of crime is met. The starting point for any consideration is the place where the criminal conduct took place. Sometimes the crime is such that criminal jurisdiction will be fixed - such as theft of property, crimes of violence - where others have an impact or criminal conduct in more than one jurisdiction - drug importation, major transnational drug dealing, human trafficking, terrorism.

  9. Self-conscious emotions and criminal offending.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibbetts, Stephen G

    2003-08-01

    This study examined the relation of personality traits--shame-proneness, guilt-proneness, and pride--on offending behavior. Using survey data from a sample of 224 college students, the construct and criterion-related validity of scales of the Shame Proneness Scale, the Test of Self-conscious Affect, and the Personality Feelings Questionnaire-2 were assessed. Regression analyses showed that self-conscious emotions are important in the etiology of criminal offending. Specifically, rated pride was positively correlated with self-reported criminal activity, whereas ratings of guilt were negatively associated with offending. The relation of shame with criminality varied depending on the type of measure used to indicate proneness to shame.

  10. BRIEF CONSIDERATIONS REGARDING MEDIATION IN CRIMINAL MATTERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUMINITA DRAGNE

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Mediation is an alternative means of conflict resolution, is designed as a flexible procedure whose utility was observed in contrast to the deficiencies of the judiciary system. In the field of criminal law, mediation is part of the larger concept of the restorative justice whose aim is restoring the main victim in its rights. From this perspective, to the criminal process is intended, in principal, repairing of the victim's prejudice and, subsequently, to encourage the delinquent in taking responsibility and to acknowledge his guilt, and also to determine him to actively participate in repairing the damage caused. The ultimate goal of the process is giving back the delinquent to society and consequently, reducing the relapse. Romanian legislator has not taken this concept, and how it is regulated mediation in criminal matters is hesitant, cautious and ultimately ineffective. Specifically, in situations that will actually occur, victim-delinquent mediation will only take the form of "assisted reconciliation."

  11. Analytic thinking reduces belief in conspiracy theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swami, Viren; Voracek, Martin; Stieger, Stefan; Tran, Ulrich S; Furnham, Adrian

    2014-12-01

    Belief in conspiracy theories has been associated with a range of negative health, civic, and social outcomes, requiring reliable methods of reducing such belief. Thinking dispositions have been highlighted as one possible factor associated with belief in conspiracy theories, but actual relationships have only been infrequently studied. In Study 1, we examined associations between belief in conspiracy theories and a range of measures of thinking dispositions in a British sample (N=990). Results indicated that a stronger belief in conspiracy theories was significantly associated with lower analytic thinking and open-mindedness and greater intuitive thinking. In Studies 2-4, we examined the causational role played by analytic thinking in relation to conspiracist ideation. In Study 2 (N=112), we showed that a verbal fluency task that elicited analytic thinking reduced belief in conspiracy theories. In Study 3 (N=189), we found that an alternative method of eliciting analytic thinking, which related to cognitive disfluency, was effective at reducing conspiracist ideation in a student sample. In Study 4, we replicated the results of Study 3 among a general population sample (N=140) in relation to generic conspiracist ideation and belief in conspiracy theories about the July 7, 2005, bombings in London. Our results highlight the potential utility of supporting attempts to promote analytic thinking as a means of countering the widespread acceptance of conspiracy theories. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Criminal Policy Movements and Legal Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thula Rafaela de Oliveira Pires

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The article's intention is to make an analyse of the emerging criminal policy movements in Brazil, especially after the 1980 decade, and their influence on legal education. Based on empirical research in Law Course UNIFESO (Teresópolis- Rio de Janeiro, it is sought to identify the political and criminal discourses prevalent in positions of hegemonic power among the Law scholars. Beyond the necessity of interdisciplinary approach, it is defended a more radical critique of the knowledge production process, with the affiliation of decolonial perspective, fundamental for the deconstruction of punitive normalization standards adopted by the modern States, of colonial slave matrix.

  13. Digital forensics digital evidence in criminal investigations

    CERN Document Server

    Marshall, Angus McKenzie

    2009-01-01

    The vast majority of modern criminal investigations involve some element of digital evidence, from mobile phones, computers, CCTV and other devices. Digital Forensics: Digital Evidence in Criminal Investigations provides the reader with a better understanding of how digital evidence complements "traditional" scientific evidence and examines how it can be used more effectively and efficiently in a range of investigations. Taking a new approach to the topic, this book presents digital evidence as an adjunct to other types of evidence and discusses how it can be deployed effectively in s

  14. Reforming China’s Criminal Procedure Law

    OpenAIRE

    Winckler, Hugo

    2014-01-01

    Sources:- Wang Jianxun, “The provisions of the reform of criminal procedural law legalising secret investigations are a step backwards,” Caijing wang, 5 September 2011.- Chen Youxi, “The legalisation of secret investigations is an important violation of political integrity,” Zhongguo wangluo dianshitai – CNTV web site, Opinion section, 27 November 2011.- Wu Zhehua, “Chen Weidong discusses reform of the criminal procedure law: Behind each article there is a story,” Zhongguoguangbo wang, 8 Marc...

  15. Diagnosis of antisocial personality disorder and criminal responsibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spaans, M.; Barendregt, M.; Haan, B.; Nijman, H.L.I.; Beurs, E. de

    2011-01-01

    The present study empirically investigates whether personality disorders and psychopathic traits in criminal suspects are reasons for diminished criminal responsibility or enforced treatment in high security hospitals. Recently, the tenability of the claim that individuals with personality disorders

  16. 76 FR 44757 - Blocking Property of Transnational Criminal Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-27

    ... Property of Transnational Criminal Organizations By the authority vested in me as President by the... America, find that the activities of significant transnational criminal organizations, such as those... of international political and economic systems. Such organizations are becoming increasingly...

  17. International Criminal Justice and the Politics of Compliance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamont, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    International Criminal Justice and the Politics of Compliance provides a comprehensive study of compliance with legal obligations derived from the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia's (ICTY) Statute and integrates theoretical debates on compliance into international justice

  18. Editorial: The researcher and the research in criminal sciences in contemporaneity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caíque Ribeiro Galícia

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This editorial presents a general analysis of the contemporary reality of the researcher and research in criminal sciences in Brazil. The researcher's profile is sought as an important component to understand the choices of criminal science research guidelines, with a focus on overcoming the false claim of impartiality of the subject-researcher. In this panorama, an analysis of legal research in Brazil is made, highlighting the most important role in the better understanding of legal science, but also as a factor of social, cultural, political and economic development.

  19. [Anarchists, Assassins and Revolutionaries. The Psychopathologization of "Political Criminals" between 1880 and 1920].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Judith

    2016-01-01

    "Political criminals" of the early 20th century were adjudged to be psychopaths, a term which was generally accompanied by a negative moral judgement. However, other more positive appraisals were also made at this time. These contradictory moral judgements by psychiatrists expose the need for an examination of the historical development of concepts, traditions and moral debates associated with political criminals (anarchists, assassins, revolutionaries). This will be undertaken in the context of psychiatry/ criminology, security (and surveillance) policy as well as culture and the arts in German-speaking countries from 1880 to the early 1920s.

  20. The Value Of Justice In Child Criminal Justice System A Review Of Indonesian Criminal Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andi Sofyan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The value of justice in Act No. 11 of 2012 concerns the Child Criminal Justice System Act No. SPPA confirms the Restorative Justice Approach as a method of disputes resolution. The method of research used was normative-legal research with philosophical approach. The results showed that the value of restorative justice through diversion contained in Act SPPA but the diversion limit for certain types of criminal acts and threats of punishment under seven 7 years and not a repetition criminal recidivists. This indicates that Act SPPA still contained a retributive justice not promote the interests of protection for child.

  1. Criminal offending and distinguishing features of offenders among persons experiencing a first episode of psychosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hodgins, Sheilagh

    2011-02-01

    Persons with severe mental illness (SMI) are at increased risk of criminal offending, particularly violent offending, as compared with the general population. Most offenders with SMI acquire convictions prior to contact with mental health services. This study examined offending among 301 individuals experiencing their first episode of psychosis.

  2. Mistake of Criminal Law and Its Influence on the Classification of Crime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veresha, Roman V.

    2016-01-01

    The paper examines the characteristics of a mistake of the commitment of crime as an optional feature of the mental state of the crime. The analysis conducted offers an opportunity to state that in international criminal law, a mistake of law, although taken into account, does not generally affect the classification of crime. We uncovered and…

  3. Specious Rights: Myth vs. Reality in the American Criminal Justice System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhardt, William R.

    2010-01-01

    Contrary to the dominant discourse metanarrative, this dissertation explores, re-exposes, and updates the generally hidden realities of what is actually taking place in the current operation of the American criminal justice system. The government/dominant discourse benefits from the amorphous ambiguity of the law in conjunction with its usage of…

  4. 44 CFR 17.635 - Reporting of and employee sanctions for convictions of criminal drug offenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reporting of and employee sanctions for convictions of criminal drug offenses. 17.635 Section 17.635 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL GOVERNMENTWIDE...

  5. THE URGENCY OF THE CRIMINAL POLICY IN CRIME MITIGATION POLICE PROFESSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ridwan Tahir

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to reveal the characteristics of the crimes committed by the police in general, and then continued by asserting the main orientation of the criminal policy in crime prevention. Next, will be discussed more specifically about the urgency of the criminal policy in the prevention of the crimes committed by the police. This paper, presented using data and information from literature sources, then analyzed qualitatively with decomposition descriptive and prescriptive analytics. The focus of the discussion of this article will be directed to the issue of urgency criminal policy in relation to the role of agency compensation and rehabilitation for the abuses of power that are criminogen in the investigation process established through pretrial agencies that the results are only set compensation and rehabilitation as a result of misuse of the police profession. To that end, the weakness of the criminal law policy, need to be updated, ie, by adding the authority to institute pretrial may also recommend its findings to be prosecuted and criminal sanctions

  6. Early risk factors for criminal offending in schizophrenia: a 35-year longitudinal cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Asa; Romelsjö, Anders; Stenbacka, Marlene; Tengström, Anders

    2011-09-01

    Recent evidence suggests that factors predicting offending among individuals with no mental disorder may also predict offending among individuals with schizophrenia. The aims of the study were (1) to explore the prevalence of risk factors for criminal offending reported at age 18 among males later diagnosed with schizophrenia, (2) to explore the associations between risk factors reported at age 18 and lifetime criminal offending, (3) to predict lifetime serious violent offending based on risk factors reported at age 18, and (4) to compare the findings with those in males with no later diagnosis of schizophrenia. The study was a prospective, longitudinal study of a birth cohort followed up through registers after 35 years. The cohort consisted of 49,398 males conscripted into the Swedish Army in 1969-1970, of whom 377 were later diagnosed with schizophrenia. Among the subjects later diagnosed with schizophrenia, strong associations were found between four of the items reported at age 18 and lifetime criminal offending: (1) low marks for conduct in school, (2) contact with the police or child care authorities, (3) crowded living conditions, and (4) arrest for public drinking. Three of these four risk factors were found to double the risk of offending among males with no later diagnosis of schizophrenia. Criminality in individuals with schizophrenia may at least partly be understood as a phenomenon similar to criminality in individuals in the general population.

  7. Criminal adjudication by state courts under the FDRE constitution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... delegation power or as an original power. This article explores how the state courts are adjudicating federal criminal matters, and how the criminal adjudicative jurisdiction of the federal courts and state courts is compartmentalized. Keywords: jurisdiction, criminal adjudication, compartmentalization, constitution, federalism ...

  8. 33 CFR 401.205 - Civil and criminal penalties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil and criminal penalties. 401... § 401.205 Civil and criminal penalties. (a) If the violation of the Seaway Regulations carries a... criminal proceedings shall not bar the initiation of civil penalty proceedings by the Associate...

  9. On the Issue of the Concept "Coercive Criminality"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pestereva Y. S.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the actual problems relating to the concept of coercive criminality. Here is determined the lexical scope of the concept "coercion"; the philosophical and criminal law contents of the researched term are compared; the types of the coercive criminality are determined.

  10. The right to a fair appeal in international criminal law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Djukic, Drazan

    2017-01-01

    The Right to a Fair Appeal in International Criminal Law – Layman’s Summary A criminal trial does not end after the first judgment of a court. A person is only finally found guilty or innocent after one or more appeals. Appeals thus have an important place in the criminal justice system. However,

  11. 32 CFR 635.5 - Police Intelligence/Criminal Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Police Intelligence/Criminal Information. 635.5... ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS LAW ENFORCEMENT REPORTING Records Administration § 635.5 Police Intelligence/Criminal Information. (a) The purpose of gathering police intelligence is to identify individuals...

  12. 21 CFR 1405.625 - Criminal drug statute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Criminal drug statute. 1405.625 Section 1405.625 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 1405.625 Criminal drug statute. Criminal drug statute means a...

  13. 46 CFR 5.69 - Evidence of criminal liability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... INVESTIGATION REGULATIONS-PERSONNEL ACTION Statement of Policy and Interpretation § 5.69 Evidence of criminal liability. Evidence of criminal liability discovered during an investigation or hearing conducted pursuant... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Evidence of criminal liability. 5.69 Section 5.69...

  14. The Productivity of Criminology and Criminal Justice Faculty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeZee, Matthew R.

    The scholarly productivity of criminology and criminal justice faculty and programs was investigated. The methodologies that were used to rate journals that publish articles in the criminology/criminal justice field and to select 71 schools with graduate programs in criminology or criminal justice are described. Primary interest focused on…

  15. Mens Rea Principle and Criminal Jurisprudence in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper discusses the possibility or otherwise of the application of the common law doctrine of mens rea in Nigerian criminal jurisprudence. Our study discovers that the relevant provisions of the Criminal Code are exhaustive for considering and deciphering the criminal intent, if any, of an accused in view of conviction ...

  16. Civilisation of Criminal Justice: Restorative Justice amongst other strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.R. Blad (John)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Is criminal justice becoming more and uncivilised if so, how could this be explained? Could Is criminal justice becoming more and uncivilised if so, how could this be explained? Could Is criminal justice becoming more and uncivilised if so, how could this be

  17. 26 CFR 301.6231(c)-5 - Criminal investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... criminal investigation for violation of the internal revenue laws relating to income tax will interfere... latest taxable year of the partner to which the criminal investigation relates shall be treated as... criminal investigation and written notification is sent by the Internal Revenue Service that the partner's...

  18. Childhood and Adolescent Predictors of Late Onset Criminal Careers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zara, Georgia; Farrington, David P.

    2009-01-01

    This study explores the emergence of a criminal career in adulthood. The main hypothesis tested is that late criminal onset (at age 21 or later) is influenced by early factors that delay antisocial manifestations. The Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development (CSDD) was used to examine early determinants of criminal behavior. 400 Inner London…

  19. Think tanks in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blach-Ørsten, Mark; Kristensen, Nete Nørgaard

    2016-01-01

    outside the media. The study shows that the two largest and oldest think tanks in Denmark, the liberal think tank CEPOS and the social democratic think tank ECLM, are very active and observable in the media; that the media’s distribution of attention to these think tanks, to some extent, confirms a re......-politicization of Danish newspapers; but also that the news media as an arena of influence is only one part of the equation, since some of the corporatist political networks are still intact and working outside the media...... half of the 2010s, because in this national setting think tanks are still a relatively new phenomenon. Based on theories of mediatization and de-corporatization, we present 1) an analysis of the visibility of selected Danish think tanks in the media and 2) an analysis of their political networks...

  20. Strategies for Reducing Criminal Violence among Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staffo, Donald F.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the serious problem of criminal violence in the personal lives of athletes, suggesting strategies that physical educators, coaches, and school systems can implement with young athletes which could reduce the incidence and severity of violence later in life (e.g., teaching unconditional respect for others, continually reinforcing social…

  1. Criminal violence and displacement in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastián Albuja

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Rampant criminal violence, from direct coercion and physical threats to the erosion of the quality of life and livelihood opportunities, pushes people to move in a variety of ways. Not everyone forced to move has equal access to protection or asylum.

  2. Challenging international criminal tribunals before domestic courts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    d' Aspremont, J.; Brölmann, C.; Reinisch, A.

    2011-01-01

    International courts, despite the wide-ranging means that have been put at their disposal, need the cooperation of various domestic actors. The cooperation of States with international criminal tribunals has not always been without difficulty, as these tribunals have been the object of various

  3. 22 CFR 1101.16 - Criminal penalties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Criminal penalties. 1101.16 Section 1101.16 Foreign Relations INTERNATIONAL BOUNDARY AND WATER COMMISSION, UNITED STATES AND MEXICO, UNITED STATES... public notice of a system of records as required by 5 U.S.C. 552a(e)(4). ...

  4. 25 CFR 11.410 - Criminal mischief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Criminal mischief. 11.410 Section 11.410 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAW AND ORDER COURTS OF INDIAN OFFENSES AND LAW AND... he or she: (1) Damages tangible property of another purposely, recklessly, or by negligence in the...

  5. CRIMINAL PSYCHOLOGY IN SPAIN: PRESENT AND FUTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis González

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available As part of legal psychology, as it is understood in Spain, we can distinguish between the applications of psychology in the different steps of the judicial process: in police stations during criminal investigations, in court when the perpetrators have already been identified and arrested, and in prisons where they are eventually sent after being convicted. This paper argues that when psychology assists the criminal investigation in the first step of the judicial process - the police activities-, we are talking about criminal psychology, at two levels: the operational level (mostly pertaining to criminal psychology and the strategic level (shared with other areas of expertise. After describing its peculiarities and specific areas, in analogy with the support provided by other forensic sciences, we explain that in Spain this specialty is carried out professionally from within our own police forces, with a profile that is very different from the more traditional police psychology, and in close collaboration with the academic environment with regard to the scientific development of techniques and procedures.

  6. Hyubris as a factor of individual criminal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Surkov

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Criminal personality for thousands of years is the object of philosophical research. For philosophical anthropology, in particular, it is important to understand which components of human nature can be regarded as criminal. The term “hubris” that appears in ancient Greek culture, today received its second wind. It is widely used (especially in the West to refer to the human outlook, which provokes too arrogant, defiant behavior, which is a public danger. The term “hubris” is often used in criticism of certain politicians. However, we propose to expand the scope of its application also in other spheres of public life. Іn the history of criminology there are many examples of people with hubris, especially among dangerous criminals. Therefore hubris can be considered as criminogenic factor that requires research and limitations of the society. In another case, there is a situation, by analogy with the term “intoxication of power”, can be called “intoxication of impunity”. This thesis is confirmed by authoritative theories developed in criminology, sociology, psychology too. It is also consistent with some modern philosophical views on the nature of the criminal personality. Analysis of factors that stimulate the emergence and growth of hubris, suggest that most are present in a mass society. It generates anomie (loss of values that щаеут manifests as hubris that can act as criminogenic factor. Therefore, hubris reducing requires changes in the organization of social life.

  7. 17 CFR 14.5 - Criminal conviction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Criminal conviction. 14.5 Section 14.5 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION RULES RELATING TO... felony or of a misdemeanor involving fraud or involving moral turpitude in matters related to the...

  8. The Hispanic Experience of Criminal Justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sissons, Peter L.

    This monograph explores the Hispanic experience of the criminal justice system by examining statistics provided by Federal, State, and local agencies. A review of the literature provides a theoretical perspective from which to view the data. Examination of the first set of data begins with a description of the experiences of Puerto Ricans in the…

  9. Criminal Justice Research Is about People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, John P.

    1982-01-01

    Suggests that the Golden Age of criminal justice research has ended with an impending era of austerity. Reviews the work done in the past forty years and recommends a return to the people-oriented research that characterized the Chicago School of the early '20s rather than systems research. (Author/JAC)

  10. Becoming Criminal: The Cultural Politics of Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Derrick

    2006-01-01

    At the same time as youth crime in the UK is falling, there has been an increase in the numbers of young people in custody together with an explosion of social policy initiatives aimed at young people deemed to be "at risk" of becoming criminal and focused upon the prevention of future offending and inclusion in mainstream society. This…

  11. Open Access for International Criminal Lawyers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Laer, Coen

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates to what extent Open Access is useful for international criminal lawyers. Free reuse and distribution may be particularly advantageous for the audience in less resourceful countries. And individual authors need visibility to promote their academic reputation. However, many

  12. Association and Centrality in Criminal Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Rasmus Rosenqvist

    Network-based techniques are widely used in criminal investigations because patterns of association are actionable and understandable. Existing network models with nodes as first class entities and their related measures (e.g., social networks and centrality measures) are unable to capture...

  13. THINKING IN PAREMIOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letitia DURNEA

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The present article has the purpose of highlighting possible interrelationships between proverbs and thinking, both connected through education. Thinking, a complex mental process, is materialized in various forms, being influenced by the individual’s personalities, trends and personal interests. For this reason, we consider that proverbs, reaching so extensive areas, can satisfy different tastes, sometimes even contradictory. It seeks to highlight the form in which thinking can be contrived, guided and even provoked by proverbs - short, popular phrases with fixed forms that convey the millennial wisdom of our ancestors. Assigning multiple roles, the paremiology conceals thinking with the help of educators through education.

  14. Keeping pace with criminals: An extended study of designing patrol allocation against adaptive opportunistic criminals

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Chao; Gholami, Shahrzad; Kar, Debarun; Sinha, Arunesh; Jain, Manish; Goyal, Ripple; Tambe, Milind

    2016-01-01

    Game theoretic approaches have recently been used to model the deterrence effect of patrol officers’ assignments on opportunistic crimes in urban areas. One major challenge in this domain is modeling the behavior of opportunistic criminals. Compared to strategic attackers (such as terrorists) who execute a well-laid out plan, opportunistic criminals are less strategic in planning attacks and more flexible in executing well-laid plans based on their knowledge of patrol officers’ assignments. I...

  15. Bribery offences under Vietnamese criminal law in comparision with Swedish and Australian criminal law

    OpenAIRE

    Dao Le, Thu

    2011-01-01

    There have been attempts, all over the world, to address bribery with recourse to criminal law. As many other countries, Vietnam has been doing activities that show the determination of combating and controlling corruption, including strengthening penal provisions in terms of bribery. However, the situation of bribery in Vietnam is still alarming. For Vietnamese law enforcement authorities, criminal provisions concerning bribery are neither adequate nor clear. Analysis starts with bot...

  16. JPRS Report: East Asia, Southeast Asia, LPDR Criminal Code, Courts, and Criminal Procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-03-05

    1941 - 1991 JPRS Repor East Asia Southeast Asia LPDR Criminal Code, Courts, and Criminal Procedure mom m £C QUALITY »ra^r...prostitution, will be impris- oned for three to five years. Article 124. Incest . Anyone who has sexual intercourse with parents, step- parents...This consists of facts which indicate whether there have been actions dangerous to society, the guilt of the per- sons who undertook the

  17. The relation between emotional intelligence and criminal behavior: A study among convicted criminals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neelu Sharma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lack of emotional intelligence (EI may lead to maladjustment and inability to achieve desired goals. A relationship between low levels of EI and crime has been proposed. Aim: The aim was to assess the relationship between EI and criminal behavior. Materials and Methods: Study sample consisted of 202 subjects, in whom 101 subjects were convicted offenders, and 101 were matched normal controls. Offender group comprised of individuals convicted for different crimes such as murder, rape, and robbery, selected from Birsa Munda Central Jail, Hotwar, Ranchi, Jharkhand, India based on purposive sampling. Sample of the normal control group was taken from Ranchi and nearby areas. All subjects gave informed consent for participating in the study. Both the groups were matched on age, gender, education, occupation, and marital status. All participants were assessed on General Health Questionnaire-12 and Mangal Emotional Intelligence Inventory (MEII. The results were analyzed using statistical package SPSS-version 20. Results: The group of convicted offenders obtained significantly lower scores on all the domains of MEII such as intrapersonal awareness (own emotions, interpersonal awareness (others emotions, intrapersonal management (own emotions and interpersonal management (others emotions, and aggregate emotional quotient in comparison to their normal counterparts. Conclusion: The convicted offenders group had significantly lower EI compared to normal subjects. Starting EI enhancement program in prison can help the inmates better understand their feelings and emotions.

  18. On voluntariness of the withdrawal from the commitment of the criminal offence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đokić Ivan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Serbian Criminal Code (CC provides in art. 32 that offender who voluntary withdraws from an attempted offence can be released from punishment. CC distinguishes between two different types of attempt, unfinished and finished attempt. For both types CC prescribes that withdrawal must be voluntary. In earlier theory the distinction between voluntariness and involuntariness was made on the basis of the so-called Frank's Formula (the withdrawal is voluntary if the perpetrator says: I don't wish to complete the offence if I could, whereas it will be involuntary if he thinks: I cannot complete the offence if I wanted to. This theory has been abandoned in the modern criminal law doctrine. The requirement of voluntariness is usually interpreted according to psychological and normative approach. According to art. 32 (2 CC there is no voluntariness if it is impossible for the offender to commit the offence or if there are some obstacles which make significantly difficult the commitment of the criminal offence. Serbian jurisprudence holds a restrictive approach to the requirement of voluntariness despite the fact that CC unlike the law of some other countries doesn't prescribe that withdrawal leads to a full acquittal from the charge based on the attempted offence.

  19. Criminal proceedings involving children in conflict with the law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolocan-Holban Augustina

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available At each stage of criminal procedure involving children (juveniles in conflict with the law, it is important to be ensured the fundamental rights provided by international standards, as well by national criminal legislation. Starting with the first contact of the child with criminal justice system until the pronunciation of the decision by the Court, including the enforcement of the punishment, the juvenile must be supervised by qualified professionals from criminal justice system, who could intervene in each moment with a purpose of providing pertinent information to criminal investigative body and to the Court, in order to establish a proportionate and equitable punishment.

  20. Think tanks criminológicos: Una herramienta de política pública contra el crimen/Criminological think tanks: A tool of public policy on crime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ervyn Norza- Céspedes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Este documento es el producto de la construcción metodológica en la investigación del crimen y la creación de unidades especializadas que operacionalicen las diferentes formas de analizar y comprender los comportamientos criminosos en una sociedad, con el fin de generar insumos en el diseño de la política criminal en un país o región. Por lo tanto, en el escrito se revisan los conceptos de Think Tank, política criminal, investigación criminológica y la experiencia de la Dirección de investigación Criminal e INTERPOL de la Policía Nacional de Colombia en la creación del Observatorio del Delito como herramienta en la política criminal.

  1. Relevant Skills for Criminal Accounting Expertise: The Perception of Federal Police Experts and Delegates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Roberto dos Santos Filho

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to identify which skills are considered most relevant to the practice of criminal accounting expertise in Brazil. As in international research, the skills perceived as most relevant were written communication, deductive analysis and critical thinking. Among the less relevant skills were the interview and the solution and negotiation of conflicts. In the second part, while experts and delegates jointly consider written communication to be the most present skills, delegates diverge from experts in terms of critical thinking and serenity. In addition, the respondents indicated skills that had not been investigated, and the most cited skills were proactivity, objectivity and updating. In the light of forensic accounting, the research method used was the survey, using a predefined questionnaire with open and closed questions, which 144 respondents answered. The study was divided into three parts: the first about the perceived relevance of the skills, the second about the perceived practical application of skills and the third part allowed the respondents to contribute with suggestions of skills that were considered relevant but did not figure among the skills investigated. The study contributes to the establishment of curricular guidelines for undergraduate and postgraduate courses related to the training of skills considered relevant for the training of future professionals and for the improvement of criminal accounting experts. Finally, we observe that the skills investigated and suggested can contribute to all areas of accounting expertise.

  2. Criminal investigations in child protective services cases: an empirical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Theodore P; Chuang, Emmeline; Helton, Jesse J; Lux, Emily A

    2015-05-01

    This study analyzed the frequency and correlates of criminal investigation of child maltreatment in cases investigated by child protective service (CPS), using national probability data from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being. Criminal investigations were conducted in slightly more than 25% of cases. Communities varied substantially in percentage criminally investigated. Sexual abuse was the most frequent type of maltreatment criminally investigated followed by physical abuse. Logistic regression results indicated that criminal investigations were more likely when caseworkers perceived greater harm and more evidence; when CPS conducted an investigation rather than an assessment; when a parent or a legal guardian reported the maltreatment; and when cases were located in communities in which CPS and police had a memorandum of understanding (MOU) governing coordination. Most variation between communities in criminal investigation remained unexplained. The findings suggest the potential of MOUs for communities wanting to increase criminal investigation. © The Author(s) 2014.

  3. Scheme of thinking quantum systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yukalov, V I; Sornette, D

    2009-01-01

    A general approach describing quantum decision procedures is developed. The approach can be applied to quantum information processing, quantum computing, creation of artificial quantum intelligence, as well as to analyzing decision processes of human decision makers. Our basic point is to consider an active quantum system possessing its own strategic state. Processing information by such a system is analogous to the cognitive processes associated to decision making by humans. The algebra of probability operators, associated with the possible options available to the decision maker, plays the role of the algebra of observables in quantum theory of measurements. A scheme is advanced for a practical realization of decision procedures by thinking quantum systems. Such thinking quantum systems can be realized by using spin lattices, systems of magnetic molecules, cold atoms trapped in optical lattices, ensembles of quantum dots, or multilevel atomic systems interacting with electromagnetic field

  4. Stakeholder Thinking in Sustainability Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerdrum Pedersen, Esben Rahbek; Hove Henriksen, Morten; Frier, Claus

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – The objective of the paper is to describe and discuss how the biotech company Novozymes integrates stakeholder thinking into everyday sustainability practices. Design/methodology/approach – The paper is based on first-hand experiences as well as secondary information from Novozymes' sta...... to make sense of stakeholder thinking. Originality/value – The contribution of this paper is to provide a detailed analysis of how various stakeholder relations management methods can be used in practice to integrate sustainability in an organisation.......' stakeholder-oriented sustainability activities. Findings – The paper illustrates how a company is striving to transform the general stakeholder principles into concrete, manageable actions. Moreover, the paper describes some of the needs, challenges, and paradoxes experienced by an organisation that is trying...

  5. Arthur Morrison, Criminality, and Late-Victorian Maritime Subculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Maltz

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In 1897, the literary critic H. D. Traill accused Arthur Morrison’s novel, 'A Child of the Jago', of exaggerating the viciousness of East London’s poor, claiming that Morrison had distilled various criminal behaviors into one totalizing, nightmarish zone of barbarity. This essay looks to Morrison’s later novel, 'The Hole in the Wall' (1902, whose concentration of crime is more ambiguous. Morrison tells the reader that Blue Gate Fields, and the pub within it, Paddy’s Goose, are especial locales of danger, but in fact, criminality extends beyond them to wider Wapping, including the pub and home of Captain Nat Kemp and his grandson, the narrator Stephen Kemp. Through his portrayal of Wapping, Morrison conveys his childhood familiarity with the specific maritime culture of the docks and their associated industries. In this regard, we can classify Morrison not merely as an East End novelist, but as a docklands writer. He recognized the unusual topography of Wapping with its sailors’ pubs, lodging houses, and curio shops – and also the hazards inherent there for the sailor on leave: the risk of losing one’s freedom and wages to predatory crimps and ‘land sharks’. Given his commitment to representing the district with all of its idiosyncrasies, Morrison reminds us of the limits of generalizing the ‘East End’ as a homogenous region.

  6. Exploring Higher Thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conover, Willis M.

    1992-01-01

    Maintains that the social studies reform movement includes a call for the de-emphasis of rote memory and more attention to the development of higher-order thinking skills. Discusses the "thinking tasks" concept derived from the work of Hilda Taba and asserts that the tasks can be used with almost any social studies topic. (CFR)

  7. Blue Ocean Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orem, Donna

    2016-01-01

    This article describes a concept called the "blue ocean thinking strategy," developed by W. Chan Kim and Renée Mauborgne, professors at INSEAD, an international graduate school of business in France. The "blue ocean" thinking strategy considers opportunities to create new markets for services, rather than focusing solely on…

  8. Vitalistic thinking in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Stuart

    2013-11-01

    Vitalistic thinking has traditionally been associated with reasoning about biological phenomena. The current research aimed to investigate a broader range of vitalistic thinking than previously studied. Esoteric notions of 'energy' are frequently used by individuals when making causal attributions for strange occurrences, and previous literature has linked such thinking with paranormal, magical, and superstitious beliefs. Two experiments are described that aim to investigate whether adults are vitalistic when asked to make causal judgments, and whether this can be predicted by thinking styles and prior paranormal belief. Experiment 1 asked participants to rate three causal options (one of which was vitalistic) for six vignettes. Scores on one dimension of paranormal belief (New Age Philosophy) and analytical thinking significantly predicted vitalism, but scores on intuitive thinking and Traditional Paranormal Beliefs did not. Experiment 2 extended the findings by asking participants to generate their own causal responses. Again, paranormal belief was found to be the best predictor of vitalism, but this time Traditional Paranormal Beliefs were associated with vitalistic responses whilst both intuitive and analytical thinking were unable to significantly predict classification. Results challenge previous findings, suggesting that vitalistic thinking may operate differently when applied to everyday causal reasoning. © 2012 The British Psychological Society.

  9. Thinking about Metacognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossland, John

    2015-01-01

    Learning depends on the effective use of basic cognitive processes such as memory and attention, but for optimal learning, learners also need to have awareness of, and control over, these cognitive processes. The literal meaning of metacognition is cognition about cognition or, more informally, thinking about your thinking: a good starting point…

  10. Responsibility and Integrated Thinking

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, SJ

    2014-01-01

    Integrated thinking is essentially focused in dialogue and communication. This is partly because relationships and related purpose focus on action, which itself acts as a means of integration, and partly because critical dialogue enables better, more responsive, integrated thinking and action.

  11. Assessing Children's Multiplicative Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, Chris; Hurrell, Derek

    2016-01-01

    Multiplicative thinking is a "big idea" of mathematics that underpins much of the mathematics learned beyond the early primary school years. This paper reports on a current study that utilises an interview tool and a written quiz to gather data about children's multiplicative thinking. The development of the tools and some of the…

  12. Counterfactual thinking in physics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elwenspoek, Michael Curt; Birke, Dorothee; Butter, Michael; Köppe, Tilmann

    2011-01-01

    Counterfactual thinking plays a key role in research in physics and, I believe, in research in all natural sciences. In this contribution I will describe a few examples of counterfactual thinking, how it is used, the power of this method of inquiry, and the types of results that can be achieved. A

  13. Medical Computational Thinking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Musaeus, Peter; Tatar, Deborah Gail; Rosen, Michael A.

    2017-01-01

    Computational thinking (CT) in medicine means deliberating when to pursue computer-mediated solutions to medical problems and evaluating when such solutions are worth pursuing in order to assist in medical decision making. Teaching computational thinking (CT) at medical school should be aligned...

  14. It Makes You Think

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, Helen

    2009-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the "It Makes You Think" resource. The lessons provided by this resource show how students can learn about the global dimension through science. The "It Makes You Think" resource contains ten topics: (1) Metals in jewellery worldwide; (2) Global food market; (3) The worldwide travels of…

  15. How Babies Think

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachleda, Amelia R.; Thompson, Ross A.

    2018-01-01

    Babies think differently than adults, and understanding how they think can help us see their explosive brain growth in everyday behavior. Infants learn language faster than adults do, use statistics to understand how the world works, and even reason about the minds of others. But these achievements can be hidden by their poor self-regulatory…

  16. Thinking inside the Box

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demski, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    When one thinks of 21st century schools, one thinks of geometric modern architecture, sustainable building materials, and high-tech modular classrooms. It's rare, though, that a district has the space or the money to build that school from the ground up. Instead, the challenge for most is the transformation of the 20th century architecture to…

  17. The Expansion of Swiss Criminal Jurisdiction in Light of International Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Petrig

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Over the last few decades, a global trend of extending the reach of domestic penal power can be observed, namely driven by the changing face of crime as it becomes increasingly transnational in nature. It is demonstrated in this article that the Swiss legislature has clearly followed this global trend of broadening the extraterritorial reach of domestic criminal law, most notably since the 1980s. It has acted with particular resolve in the last decade, adding jurisdictional bases to the Swiss Criminal Code by virtue of which Swiss criminal law can be applied to many instances of conduct taking place abroad. Certain offences – specified crimes against minors and female genital mutilation – have even been subjected to an absolute and unrestricted universality principle. The Swiss legislature is not indifferent to the problems that such an expansive approach to jurisdiction may create, notably in terms of conflicts of jurisdiction. Yet, the rules it adopted to temper the effects of applying Swiss criminal law to extraterritorial conduct only partially remedy the situation. This development in Swiss law begs the question whether such an expansive approach towards jurisdiction is permissible – or even encouraged or requested by international law. Hence, this article explores to what extent international law informs the reach of domestic penal power and concludes that international law is Janus-faced with regard to the question of the geographical scope of domestic criminal law. While some of its rules push for long-arm jurisdiction, others put limits on the domestic legislature’s endeavour to expand the reach of its domestic criminal law. In light of this, the idea of adopting, on an international level, general principles governing the definition of the scope of domestic prescriptive and adjudicative jurisdiction for transnational cases is tempting, albeit difficult to realize.

  18. Making Immigrants into Criminals: Legal Processes of Criminalization in the Post-IIRIRA Era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leisy Abrego

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available During a post-election TV interview that aired mid-November 2016, then President-Elect Donald Trump claimed that there are millions of so-called “criminal aliens” living in the United States: “What we are going to do is get the people that are criminal and have criminal records, gang members, drug dealers, we have a lot of these people, probably two million, it could be even three million, we are getting them out of our country or we are going to incarcerate.” This claim is a blatant misrepresentation of the facts. A recent report by the Migration Policy Institute suggests that just over 800,000 (or 7 percent of the 11 million undocumented individuals in the United States have criminal records. Of this population, 300,000 individuals are felony offenders and 390,000 are serious misdemeanor offenders — tallies which exclude more than 93 percent of the resident undocumented population (Rosenblum 2015, 22-24.[1] Moreover, the Congressional Research Service found that 140,000 undocumented migrants — or slightly more than 1 percent of the undocumented population — are currently serving time in prison in the United States (Kandel 2016. The facts, therefore, are closer to what Doris Meissner, former Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS Commissioner, argues: that the number of “criminal aliens” arrested as a percentage of all fugitive immigration cases is “modest” (Meissner et al. 2013, 102-03. The facts notwithstanding, President Trump’s fictional tally is important to consider because it conveys an intent to produce at least this many people who — through discourse and policy — can be criminalized and incarcerated or deported as “criminal aliens.” In this article, we critically review the literature on immigrant criminalization and trace the specific laws that first linked and then solidified the association between undocumented immigrants and criminality. To move beyond a legal, abstract context, we also draw on

  19. The Question Concerning Thinking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis, Søren

    2008-01-01

    Martin Heidegger's thought-provoking essay "The Question Concerning Technology" (1977a) placed technology at the heart of philosophy. Heidegger tried to show that the essence of technology provokes humans to think about the world in a very dangerous way. Yet if we follow Heidegger's analysis...... of technology, what role does that ascribe to philosophy? To be able to understand the programmatic scope of Heidegger's question ‘concerning' technology, we need to see it as inseparable from his famous thesis about the end of philosophy (1977c) and what he considers to be the ideal kind of thinking. However......, by doing so, we will in the end realize two important things. First, that Heidegger's declaration of the end of philosophy in fact also means the end of anything we can meaningfully call thinking. Second, that Heidegger's own thinking is completely different from his own ideal of thinking. Our question...

  20. Thinking is believing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasturirangan, Rajesh

    2008-01-01

    Philosophers as well lay people often think of beliefs as psychological states with dubious epistemic properties. Beliefs are conceptualized as unregulated conceptual structures, for the most part hypothetical and often fanciful or deluded. Thinking and reasoning on the other hand are seen as rational activities regulated by rules and governed by norms. Computational modeling of the mind has focused on rule-governed behavior, ultimately trying to reduce them to rules of logic. What if thinking is less like reasoning and more like believing? I argue that the classical model of thought as rational is mistaken and that thinking is fundamentally constituted by believing. This new approach forces us to re-evaluate classical epistemic concepts like "truth", "justification" etc. Furthermore, if thinking is believing, then it is not clear how thoughts can be modeled computationally. We need new mathematical ideas to model thought, ideas that are quite different from traditional logic-based mathematical structures.

  1. Are batterers different from other criminals? An fMRI study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdejo-Román, Juan; Contreras-Rodríguez, Oren; Carmona-Perera, Martina; Pérez-García, Miguel; Hidalgo-Ruzzante, Natalia

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a complex and global phenomenon that requires a multi-perspective analysis. Nevertheless, the number of neuroscientific studies conducted on this issue is scarce as compared with studies of other types of violence, and no neuroimaging studies comparing batterers to other criminals have been conducted. Thus, the main aim of this study was to compare the brain functioning of batterers to that of other criminals when they are exposed to IPV or general violence pictures. An fMRI study was conducted in 21 batterers and 20 other criminals while they observed IPV images (IPVI), general violence images (GVI) and neutral images (NI). Results demonstrated that batterers, compared with other criminals, exhibited a higher activation in the anterior and posterior cingulate cortex and in the middle prefrontal cortex and a decreased activation in the superior prefrontal cortex to IPVI compared to NI. The paired t-test comparison between IPVI and GVI for each group showed engagement of the medial prefrontal cortex, the posterior cingulate and the left angular cortices to IPVI in the batterer group only. These results could have important implications for a better understanding of the IPV phenomenon. PMID:26884544

  2. Argumentation: A Methodology to Facilitate Critical Thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makhene, Agnes

    2017-06-20

    Caring is a difficult nursing activity that involves a complex nature of a human being in need of complex decision-making and problem solving through the critical thinking process. It is mandatory that critical thinking is facilitated in general and in nursing education particularly in order to render care in diverse multicultural patient care settings. This paper aims to describe how argumentation can be used to facilitate critical thinking in learners. A qualitative, exploratory and descriptive design that is contextual was used. Purposive sampling method was used to draw a sample and Miles and Huberman methodology of qualitative analysis was used to analyse data. Lincoln and Guba's strategies were employed to ensure trustworthiness, while Dhai and McQuoid-Mason's principles of ethical consideration were used. Following data analysis the findings were integrated within literature which culminated into the formulation of guidelines that can be followed when using argumentation as a methodology to facilitate critical thinking.

  3. Terrorism and information sharing between the intelligence and law enforcement communities in the US and the Netherlands: emergency criminal law?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A. E. Vervaele

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Intelligence sharing between intelligence and police services with a view to preventing and combating terrorism is high on the political agenda in Brussels and The Hague. The Netherlands is one of the few countries in the EU where this topic is subject of political scrutiny. It also led to controversial case law. Recently, Justice Minister Donner has used an expedited procedure to submit a legislative proposal concerning shielded witnesses. This Bill raises many questions, that concern, amongst others, the discretion of intelligence services to determine which information will be provided for use in criminal proceedings and the relationship between this discretionary power and the connected legal duty of secrecy on the one hand and the rights of the defence to test and question that information on the other. Furthermore, questions raise regarding the evidentiary quality of this information. The proposed rules also influence the legitimacy of criminal law and the position of the criminal courts. What effect does the paradigm of security-orientated thinking have on the historical connection between criminal law and the rule of law? This issue is also addressed in this article.

  4. Crime and Young Men: The Role of Arrest, Criminal Experience, and Heterogeneity

    OpenAIRE

    Susumu Imai; Hajime Katayama; Kala Krishna

    2006-01-01

    Using National Youth Survey (NYS) data, we examine the relationship of current criminal activity and past arrests using an ordered probit model with unobserved heterogeneity. Past arrests raise current criminal activity only for the non-criminal type, while past criminal experience raises current criminal activity for both types. Also, the age crime profile peaks at age 18 for non-criminal type individuals, but for criminal type individuals, it continues to rise with age. Past research indica...

  5. The interaction of criminal procedure and outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laxminarayan, Malini; Pemberton, Antony

    2014-01-01

    Procedural quality is an important aspect of crime victims' experiences in criminal proceedings and consists of different dimensions. Two of these dimensions are procedural justice (voice) and interpersonal justice (respectful treatment). Social psychological research has suggested that both voice and respectful treatment are moderated by the impact of outcomes of justice procedures on individuals' reactions. To add to this research, we extend this assertion to the criminal justice context, examining the interaction between the assessment of procedural quality and outcome favorability with victim's trust in the legal system and self-esteem. Hierarchical regression analyses reveal that voice, respectful treatment and outcome favorability are predictive of trust in the legal system and self-esteem. Further investigation reveals that being treated with respect is only related to trust in the legal system when outcome favorability is high. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Criminal recidivism in sexual homicide perpetrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Andreas; Habermann, Niels; Klusmann, Dietrich; Berner, Wolfgang; Briken, Peer

    2008-02-01

    Forensic psychiatric reports on 166 sexual homicide perpetrators in Germany were retrospectively analyzed for criminal risk factors. Follow-up information about release and reconvictions from federal criminal records was available for 139 offenders; 90 (64.7%) had been released. The estimated recidivism rate (Kaplan-Meier analyses) for 20 years at risk was 23.1% for sexual and 18.3% for nonsexual violent reoffences. Three men (3.3%) were reconvicted for attempted or completed homicide. Only young age at the time of sexual homicide resulted in higher sexual recidivism, whereas increased nonsexual violent recidivism was related to previous sexual and nonsexual delinquency, psychopathic symptoms, and higher scores in risk assessment instruments. Increased recidivism with any violent reoffence was associated with age-related factors: young age at first sexual offence, at homicide, and at release and duration of detention. The impacts of the results for risk assessment, relapse prevention, and supervision are discussed.

  7. Extraversion, neuroticism, immoral judgment and criminal behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addad, M; Leslau, A

    1989-01-01

    The present study examines delinquent behaviour by integrating two approaches until now employed separately: Eysnck's theory linking delinquency to extraversion and neuroticism, and Kohlberg's theory of moral development and its connection to moral behaviour. The study analyzes the relations between extraversion, neuroticism and moral judgment, as well as their independent and/or interactive effect upon the development of anti-social behaviour. The relationships are tested by retrospective measurements of personality traits and moral judgment in three groups: delinquency (N = 203), control (N = 82) and comparative (N = 407) groups. Findings show that criminals are higher than control subjects in neuroticism and immoral judgment but not in extraversion. Similar relationships were found between criminals and the comparative group, with one exception: here extraversion was found to be positively related to delinquency, both independently and interactively with neuroticism. The implications of these results for differential development of anti-social behaviour are discussed.

  8. Crime and criminal justice in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Ghiringhelli de Azevedo

    Full Text Available After a presentation of indicators that allow assessing the degree of democratization of the criminal justice system in the context of democratization process in Latin America, this article points out the discrepancy existing in that domain, in the several instances that make up the justice system, from criminal legislation to the prison system. Examining the specific situation of Brazil and Argentina, problems in the functioning of institutions responsible by crime as well as the increase in crime control are pointed out as factors that cause a growing loss of legitimacy for the system, which is unable to justify its high degree of selectivity and authoritarianism. Some efforts under way to approach that phenomenon are listed. Finally, a few alternatives for institutional improvement are presented, among which the action of social scientists by producing research and analyses, as a crucial instrument to enlarge institutional ability to deal with current social conflict on democratic bases.

  9. Keeping Pace with Criminals: An Extended Study of Designing Patrol Allocation against Adaptive Opportunistic Criminals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Zhang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Game theoretic approaches have recently been used to model the deterrence effect of patrol officers’ assignments on opportunistic crimes in urban areas. One major challenge in this domain is modeling the behavior of opportunistic criminals. Compared to strategic attackers (such as terrorists who execute a well-laid out plan, opportunistic criminals are less strategic in planning attacks and more flexible in executing well-laid plans based on their knowledge of patrol officers’ assignments. In this paper, we aim to design an optimal police patrolling strategy against opportunistic criminals in urban areas. Our approach is comprised by two major parts: learning a model of the opportunistic criminal (and how he or she responds to patrols and then planning optimal patrols against this learned model. The planning part, by using information about how criminals responds to patrols, takes into account the strategic game interaction between the police and criminals. In more detail, first, we propose two categories of models for modeling opportunistic crimes. The first category of models learns the relationship between defender strategy and crime distribution as a Markov chain. The second category of models represents the interaction of criminals and patrol officers as a Dynamic Bayesian Network (DBN with the number of criminals as the unobserved hidden states. To this end, we: (i apply standard algorithms, such as Expectation Maximization (EM, to learn the parameters of the DBN; (ii modify the DBN representation that allows for a compact representation of the model, resulting in better learning accuracy and the increased speed of learning of the EM algorithm when used for the modified DBN. These modifications exploit the structure of the problem and use independence assumptions to factorize the large joint probability distributions. Next, we propose an iterative learning and planning mechanism that periodically updates the adversary model. We

  10. Nuclear age thinking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Depastas, A.N.

    1990-01-01

    According to the practicalist school, thinking emerges from activity and each human practice is giving food to its own distinctive kinds of perception, conduct, and perspective of the world. The author, while studying and describing developments after the commencement of the nuclear age in many fields of human behavior and knowledge, including the social sciences, particularly psychology and international politics, became an adherent to the practicalist philosophy when he perceived new relevant thoughts coming to his mind at the same time. Indeed writing is a learning experience. He has, therefore, systematically included these thoughts in the following pages and synoptically characterized them in the title: Nuclear Age Thinking. He considers this kind of thinking as automatic, conscious activity which is gradually influencing our choices and decisions. The author has reservations as regards Albert Einstein's saying that the unleashed power of the atom changed everything save our modes of thinking, because the uncontrollability of nuclear energy is apparently in the subconscious of mankind nowadays, influencing the development of a new mode of thinking, and that is the nuclear age thinking which is the subject of this book. Nuclear age thinking drives from the collective fear of extinction of life on earth due to this new power at man's disposal, and it is not only limited to the change in the conventional meaning of the words war and peace.

  11. Transnational Crime Fictions and Argentina's Criminal State

    OpenAIRE

    Caballero, Juan

    2013-01-01

    My dissertation, titled "Transnational Crime Fictions and Argentina's Criminal State," proposes a new understanding of the dictatorship novels of Ricardo Piglia, Juan José Saer, and Manuel Puig grounded in their shared appropriation from popular crime fiction. Across the 1940's, 50's, and 60's, a wide range of popular crime fiction was translated, written, theorized, printed and reprinted in Argentina, and these popular genres grew steadily in readership, visibility, and cultural legitimacy....

  12. DETERMINATION OF POTENTIAL CRIMINALS IN SOCIAL NETWORK

    OpenAIRE

    Ceyhan, Eyüp Burak; Sağıroğlu, Şeref; Cesur, Ramazan; Kermen, Ayten

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes a new approach to determine potential criminals by performing content analysis on Tweets. The analysis is done with the help of machine learning technologies and big data analysis. In this study, we have utilized from the MLP algorithm. A dataset consisting of 384 words are used to make the classification process. Dataset consist of two classes that are organized crime and cyber-crimes. In the analysis process, date, time, location values of sent twitter sharings are also ...

  13. 12 CFR 1403.11 - Criminal penalties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT SYSTEM INSURANCE CORPORATION PRIVACY ACT REGULATIONS § 1403.11 Criminal penalties. Section 552a(i)(3) of the Privacy Act (5 U.S.C. 552a(i)(3)) makes it a misdemeanor, subject to a... from an agency under false pretenses. Sections 552a(i) (1) and (2) of the Act (5 U.S.C. 552a(i) (1), (2...

  14. Protecting Children Rights under International Criminal Justice

    OpenAIRE

    Erinda Duraj (Male)

    2015-01-01

    Children are a central concern of international criminal justice. International crimes and other forms of violence and the abuse of children are disturbing daily realities in today’s world. Children and young persons are increasingly being targeted for the purposes of murder, rape, abduction, mutilation, recruitment as child soldiers, trafficking, sexual exploitation and other abuses. Sierra Leone, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Rwanda, Colombia, and many others illustrate this. The partic...

  15. Criminal Homicide Because of Blood Feud

    OpenAIRE

    Leyla Cak›c› Gercek; Jale Bafra

    2005-01-01

    Although so much progress going on in every field, the crimes of killing man impelled by blood feud carry on their existance. All jurisprudences and the decisions of the Court of Appeal about the criminal homicides connected with this type of crimes ha- ve been carefully examined. The required measures to prevent that, the criticisms againist the decisions of the Court of Appeal and the factors explained in the decisions of that Co- urt have been determined.

  16. Registered criminality and sanctioning of schizophrenia patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkner, Runa; Haastrup, Soeren; Joergensen, Torben

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients with schizophrenia have been shown to have an increased risk of criminality, especially violent crimes. AIMS: The aim of the current study was to describe the pattern of crimes committed by Danish patients with schizophrenia and examine the sanctions given for crimes in relat...... than imprison, individuals with schizophrenia. CONCLUSION: The findings suggest that greater alertness is needed in the judicial system for individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia....

  17. The Relevant Physical Trace in Criminal Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durdica Hazard

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A criminal investigation requires the forensic scientist to search and to interpret vestiges of a criminal act that happened in the past. The forensic scientist is one of the many stakeholders who take part in the information quest within the criminal justice system. She reads the investigation scene in search of physical traces that should enable her to tell the story of the offense/crime that allegedly occurred. The challenge for any investigator is to detect and recognize relevant physical traces in order to provide clues for investigation and intelligence purposes, and that will constitute sound and relevant evidence for the court. This article shows how important it is to consider the relevancy of physical traces from the beginning of the investigation and what might influence the evaluation process. The exchange and management of information between the investigation stakeholders are important. Relevancy is a dimension that needs to be understood from the standpoints of law enforcement personnel and forensic scientists with the aim of strengthening investigation and ultimately the overall judicial process.

  18. Behavioral Genetics in Criminal and Civil Courts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabatello, Maya; Appelbaum, Paul S

    Although emerging findings in psychiatric and behavioral genetics create hope for improved prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of disorders, the introduction of such data as evidence in criminal and civil proceedings raises a host of ethical, legal, and social issues. Should behavioral and psychiatric genetic data be admissible in judicial proceedings? If so, what are the various means for obtaining such evidence, and for what purposes should its admission be sought and permitted? How could-and should-such evidence affect judicial outcomes in criminal and civil proceedings? And what are the potential implications of using behavioral and psychiatric genetic evidence for individuals and communities, and for societal values of equality and justice? This article provides an overview of the historical and current developments in behavioral genetics. We then explore the extent to which behavioral genetic evidence has-and should-affect determinations of criminal responsibility and sentencing, as well as the possible ramifications of introducing such evidence in civil courts, with a focus on tort litigation and child custody disputes. We also consider two ways in which behavioral genetic evidence may come to court in the future-through genetic theft or the subpoena of a litigant's biospecimen data that was previously obtained for clinical or research purposes-and the concerns that these possibilities raise. Finally, we highlight the need for caution and for approaches to prevent the misuse of behavioral genetic evidence in courts.

  19. The reaction to femicide in criminal law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batrićević Ana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Misogynous and sexist violence against women, which often results in death, represents a global problem. Numerous international and national legal instruments are dedicated to the prevention and sanctioning of violence against women. However, the reality implies that existing mechanisms of penal reaction to femicide, as its most extreme and brutal form, should be re-examined. Having in mind the frequency and severe consequences of this criminal offence and the discriminatory character of the message that the state sends by tolerating it or inadequately punishing its perpetrators, the author attempts to define femicide, to present basic forms of state reaction to femicide in comparative law as well as to analyze the features of femicide as an independent criminal offence. Arguing for the incrimination of femicide as an independent criminal offence, or as a special form of aggravated murder, the author points out that such solution could contribute to more precise observation of this form of crime, to a better estimation of the quality of the state‘ s reaction to it and to its more efficient suppression.

  20. Stalking: Criminological and criminal law aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimovski Darko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Starting from the historical aspects of stalking crime, the author first provides an overview of different definitions of this socially negative behavior in the legal documents of countries where such conduct was first criminalized. The author presents statistical data on the scope of stalking in the United States and Australia. The second part of the paper discusses different types of stalkers, whose distinctive features are analyzed in more detail. In particular, the author focuses on the causal link between the stalking crime and violence, as well as the victims' responses to their own victimization. In the next part of this article, the author provides a detailed analysis of a wide range of consequences of stalking crime. In some cases, the victim of stalking may become the perpetrator of a criminal act of murder, whereas the stalker becomes a victim of this serious form of homicide. Although these cases are not numerous, they call for further analysis and proposing new legal solutions related to the privileged forms of murder, which are aimed at improving the position of the victim of stalking who is the perpetrator of such homicide. Finally, the author argues in favour of incriminating a new type of felony - the crime of stalking (in line with the model envisaged in the criminal legislation of the Republic of Croatia, as well as a privileged homicide which may be designated as a murder of a stalker committed by a victim of stalking.

  1. CRIMINALITY AT MINORS WITH MENTAL DEFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Kitkanj

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present, from penological aspect, the involvement and structure of recidivism at minors with mental deficiency within the whole area of juvenile criminality in Macedonia. The research covers 62 subjects who pay the penalty in juvenile penitentiary or institutional measure directing to correctional institution for minors. Of the total number of minors who hold one of the above-mentioned sanctions, minors with lower average IQ are presented with 56.4%. The shown involvement is in penological terms (refers to minors who hold institutional measure correctional institution for minors or penalty - juvenile penitentiary which does not mean that this category of juvenile delinquents participate in such percent in the total number of reported, accused and convicted minors. According to the research results it can be concluded that falling behind in intellectual development is an indicator for delinquent behavior but in no case it can be crucial or the most important factor for criminality. Of the total number of juvenile delinquents with intellectual deficit, 80% are repeat offenders in criminal legal sense. It is of great concern that 56% of the under average juvenile delinquents defied the law for the first time before the age of 14 years that is as children.

  2. Learning to think strategically.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Strategic thinking focuses on issues that directly affect the ability of a family planning program to attract and retain clients. This issue of "The Family Planning Manager" outlines the five steps of strategic thinking in family planning administration: 1) define the organization's mission and strategic goals; 2) identify opportunities for improving quality, expanding access, and increasing demand; 3) evaluate each option in terms of its compatibility with the organization's goals; 4) select an option; and 5) transform strategies into action. Also included in this issue is a 20-question test designed to permit readers to assess their "strategic thinking quotient" and a list of sample questions to guide a strategic analysis.

  3. Clinical thinking in psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Lloyd A

    2015-06-01

    I discuss the lack of precision in the term 'clinical reasoning' and its relationship to evidence-based medicine and critical thinking. I examine critical thinking skills, their underemphasis in medical education and successful attempts to remediate them. Evidence-based medicine (and evidence-based psychiatry) offer much but are hampered by the ubiquity and flaws of meta-analysis. I explore views of evidence-based medicine among psychiatry residents, as well as capacity for critical thinking in residents before and after a course in philosophy. I discuss decision making by experienced doctors and suggest possible futures of this issue. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Student Obstacles in Solving Algebraic Thinking Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andini, W.; Suryadi, D.

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this research is to analize the student obstacles on solving algebraic thinking problems in low grades elementary school. This research is a preliminary qualitative research, and involved 66 students of grade 3 elementary school. From the analysis student test results, most of student experience difficulty in solving algebraic thinking problems. The main obstacle is the student’s difficulty in understanding the problem of generalizing the pattern because the students are not accustomed to see the rules that exist in generalize the pattern.

  5. Deathcore, creativity, and scientific thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angeler, David G.; Sundstrom, Shana M.; Allen, Craig R.

    2016-01-01

    BackgroundMajor scientific breakthroughs are generally the result of materializing creative ideas, the result of an inductive process that sometimes spontaneously and unexpectedly generates a link between thoughts and/or objects that did not exist before. Creativity is the cornerstone of scientific thinking, but scientists in academia are judged by metrics of quantification that often leave little room for creative thinking. In many scientific fields, reductionist approaches are rewarded and new ideas viewed skeptically. As a result, scientific inquiry is often confined to narrow but safe disciplinary ivory towers, effectively preventing profoundly creative explorations that could yield unexpected benefits.New informationThis paper argues how apparently unrelated fields specifically music and belief systems can be combined in a provocative allegory to provide novel perspectives regarding patterns in nature, thereby potentially inspiring innovation in the natural, social and other sciences. The merger between basic human tensions such as those embodied by religion and music, for example the heavy metal genre of deathcore, may be perceived as controversial, challenging, and uncomfortable. However, it is an example of moving the thinking process out of unconsciously established comfort zones, through the connection of apparently unrelated entities. We argue that music, as an auditory art form, has the potential to enlighten and boost creative thinking in science. Metal, as a fast evolving and diversifying extreme form of musical art, may be particularly suitable to trigger surprising associations in scientific inquiry. This may pave the way for dealing with questions about what we don´t know that we don´t know in a fast-changing planet.

  6. Manufacturing white criminals: Depictions of criminality and violence on Law & Order

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew G. Selepak

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examines exposure to the police drama television genre and its impact on perceptions of crime and racial criminality. Content analyses of three seasons of Law & Order were examined to evaluate the show’s portrayal of race and crime compared to actual crime statistics for New York City during the same periods. A survey was also conducted to examine perceptions of personal safety and the influence of television’s depiction of race and crime. Results suggest whites are disproportionately portrayed as criminals five to eight times more often on police dramas compared to actual crime statistics for the city of New York, exposure to police dramas increases beliefs of threats to personal safety, and exposure to police dramas leads to elevated perceptions of white criminality among non-whites. Results provide additional support for cultivation theory and “Mean World Syndrome,” and implications for delimitation and racial distrust.

  7. Debt as a Criminal Risk Factor in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Annette

    2016-01-01

    due to the ex-prisoners’ debt. Those convicted in Denmark are personally liable for their own legal costs. Thus, we must regard most ex-prisoners as being highly indebted to the state. The debt of ex-prisoners was generally understood as being the cause of financial problems, but legal regulation......Existing studies of crime preventive factors have illustrated that ex-prisoners who began a course of education, obtained employment and/or had permanent housing were less likely to relapse into crime. However, this study shows that the aforementioned crime preventing factors became less effective...... and informal punishment, as unintended consequences of indebtedness, were still poorly explored. This research indicates that legal regulation and informal punishment based on indebtedness may serve as an argument for considering debt as a criminal risk factor which has made the preventive factors less...

  8. Debt as a Criminal Risk Factor in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Annette

    2016-01-01

    and informal punishment, as unintended consequences of indebtedness, were still poorly explored. This research indicates that legal regulation and informal punishment based on indebtedness may serve as an argument for considering debt as a criminal risk factor which has made the preventive factors less......Existing studies of crime preventive factors have illustrated that ex-prisoners who began a course of education, obtained employment and/or had permanent housing were less likely to relapse into crime. However, this study shows that the aforementioned crime preventing factors became less effective...... due to the ex-prisoners’ debt. Those convicted in Denmark are personally liable for their own legal costs. Thus, we must regard most ex-prisoners as being highly indebted to the state. The debt of ex-prisoners was generally understood as being the cause of financial problems, but legal regulation...

  9. Adaptability: Time to Start Thinking about Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-21

    larger whole.66 An example of a paradox is one cannot be happy if one is sad, but these two emotions are really part of an overall state of being...which triggers bodily responses; those bodily responses have implications on cognitive processes like working memory, flexibility, and creativity...Kahneman, Thinking, Fast and Slow (New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2011), 3. 99 Daniel Kahneman, “ Maps of Bounded Rationality: Psychology for

  10. Stress Management: Positive Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Stress management Positive thinking helps with stress management and can even improve your health. Practice overcoming negative self-talk ... with optimism is a key part of effective stress management. And effective stress management is associated with ...

  11. Creative Thinking Package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Clive

    1972-01-01

    A look at the latest package from a British managment training organization, which explains and demonstrates creative thinking techniques, including brainstorming. The package, designed for groups of twelve or more, consists of tapes, visuals, and associated exercises. (Editor/JB)

  12. Criminal law aspects of assisted human reproduction in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samardžić Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerous shortcomings of the Law on Infertility Treatment by Biomedically Assisted Fertilization culminate in provisions defining criminal offences. A question is raised regarding the possibility and results of the application of such criminal provisions due to the legislative technique used in the process of their creation, language, qualified forms of the offences, span of criminal sanctions, as well as having in mind the overlapping of such criminal offences with some of the misdemeanors punishable by the same Law. A possibility to provide for a criminal law protection in this highly sensitive area is put into question due to a very courageous action of the legislator reflected in the attempt to introduce criminal offences, punishable by long prison sentences.

  13. Scale of Critical Thinking

    OpenAIRE

    Semerci, Nuriye

    2000-01-01

    The main purpose of this study is to develop the scale for critical thinking. The Scale of Critical Thinking was applied to 200 student. In this scale, there are total 55 items, four of which are negative and 51 of which are positive. The KMO (Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin) value is 0.75, the Bartlett test value is 7145.41, and the Cronbach Alpha value is 0.90.

  14. GST – the idea and recommendations for the prevention of criminal behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Agnew

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is a presentation of the main assumptions of the General Strain Theory (GST and the possibility to put theory into practice in the field of prevention of criminal behaviour. The GST was created in the ‘90s by Robert Agnew as a continuation of previous structural theories (Merton, Cloward – Ohlin, Cohen. Up to this day it has been widely verified empirically and along with other criminology theories (the theory of social learning/theory of different relations, theory of social control, theories of interaction is both a fundamental but also alternative ground for interpreting social behaviour. Due to its universal assumptions, GST is now being developed also by Polish researchers. In the article are presented the fundamental strategies of prevention of criminal behaviour based on GST and examples of particular programs being carried out in the US and Poland. Pilot studies on building in Poland a pioneer local system of prevention, based on GST, are presented. In the conclusions the authors stress the importance of GST in the genesis of criminal behaviour. The content of this article is therefore a result of an American-Polish cooperation in the field of prevention of criminal behaviour. It seems that international and based on mutual partnership approach is the hallmark of the current stage of the Polish resocialization system development.

  15. Sequencing Disadvantage: Barriers to Employment Facing Young Black and White Men with Criminal Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    PAGER, DEVAH; WESTERN, BRUCE; SUGIE, NAOMI

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the authors report the results of a large-scale field experiment conducted in New York City investigating the effects of race and a prison record on employment. Teams of black and white men were matched and sent to apply for low-wage jobs throughout the city, presenting equivalent resumés and differing only in their race and criminal background. The authors find a significant negative effect of a criminal record on employment outcomes that appears substantially larger for African Americans. The sequence of interactions preceding hiring decisions suggests that black applicants are less often invited to interview, thereby providing fewer opportunities to establish rapport with the employer. Furthermore, employers’ general reluctance to discuss the criminal record of an applicant appears especially harmful for black ex-offenders. Overall, these results point to the importance of rapport-building for finding work, something that the stigmatizing characteristics of minority and criminal status make more difficult to achieve. PMID:23459367

  16. Economic Analysis of Criminal Law and Liberal Criminal Law: Confluences and Forks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego H. Goldman

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Not all economic analysis necessarily lead to a maximalist criminal law that threatens the fundamental rights, but on the contrary, can be found in economic science approaches perfectly compatible with the most liberal thought currents. This paper aims to make a critical study of economic theory usually associated with the Criminal EAL, its practical implications and its teleological budgets. Criticism will leave an openly liberal view, which defends the ideas and values that over the centuries have expressed such diverse thinkers as Adam Smith, Friedrich von Hayek, Robert Nozick or Juan Bautista Alberdi.

  17. Some Common Issues and the Application of more Favorable Criminal Law for Crimes against the Person according to the New Criminal Code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Rusu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the main common issues of crimes against the person, and some other situations of more favorable criminal law enforcement. The innovations consist in the conducted examination and the views expressed on some situations in which the more favorable criminal law should be applied. The main change with a strong preventive feature is to introduce the two institutions, namely, the renunciation of applying the punishment and postponing the punishment, which generally is given a favoring regime to physical or legal entities being at their first conflict with the law or in the case of committing crimes whose seriousness is reduced. The paper continues other papers published in the field, and it can be useful both to academics and practitioners in the domain of preventing and combating crime of this kind.

  18. Think Like a Nurse: A Critical Thinking Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Terry D; Morris, Tiffany

    2016-01-01

    Critical thinking is essential in the practice of the nurse generalist, today. Nursing faculty is frequently trying to identify teaching strategies in promoting critical thinking and engaging students in active learning. To close the gap between critical thinking and student success, a school in the south east United States implemented the use of the 'think like a nurse initiative" for incoming junior nursing students. Faculty collaborated to adopt the fundamental and essential nursing concepts for nursing students to support thinking like a nurse.

  19. Measuring Gains in Critical Thinking in Food Science and Human Nutrition Courses: The Cornell Critical Thinking Test, Problem-Based Learning Activities, and Student Journal Entries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwaoka, Wayne T.; Li, Yong; Rhee, Walter Y.

    2010-01-01

    The Cornell Critical Thinking Test (CCTT) is one of the many multiple-choice tests with validated questions that have been reported to measure general critical thinking (CT) ability. One of the IFT Education Standards for undergraduate degrees in Food Science is the emphasis on the development of critical thinking. While this skill is easy to list…

  20. Principle Mediation of Domestic Violence as Criminal Act

    OpenAIRE

    Wijaya, Sandy Ari

    2014-01-01

    Penal mediation is a process of extra judicial settlement for criminal case. The application ofpenal mediation on criminal law is to give the justice and protection to the victims of which it isnot accommodate by legality aspect in Indonesia criminal law. The existence of penal mediationprinciple with legal certainty affect the domestic violence (KDRT). The inconsistence continueswhen the penal mediation process relevance is applied to serious domestic violence that violate thehuman rights. T...

  1. Thinking aloud influences perceived time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertzum, Morten; Holmegaard, Kristin Due

    2015-02-01

    We investigate whether thinking aloud influences perceived time. Thinking aloud is widely used in usability evaluation, yet it is debated whether thinking aloud influences thought and behavior. If thinking aloud is restricted to the verbalization of information to which a person is already attending, there is evidence that thinking aloud does not influence thought and behavior. In an experiment, 16 thinking-aloud participants and 16 control participants solved a code-breaking task 24 times each. Participants estimated task duration. The 24 trials involved two levels of time constraint (timed, untimed) and resulted in two levels of success (solved, unsolved). The ratio of perceived time to clock time was lower for thinking-aloud than control participants. Participants overestimated time by an average of 47% (thinking aloud) and 94% (control). The effect of thinking aloud on time perception also held separately for timed, untimed, solved, and unsolved trials. Thinking aloud (verbalization at Levels 1 and 2) influences perceived time. Possible explanations of this effect include that thinking aloud may require attention, cause a processing shift that overshadows the perception of time, or increase mental workload. For usability evaluation, this study implies that time estimates made while thinking aloud cannot be compared with time estimates made while not thinking aloud, that ratings of systems experienced while thinking aloud may be inaccurate (because the experience of time influences other experiences), and that it may therefore be considered to replace concurrent thinking aloud with retrospective thinking aloud when evaluations involve time estimation.

  2. EUTHANASIA STIPULATED BY ROMANIAN CRIMINAL LAW, MITIGATING CIRCUMSTANCES VS. OFFENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MONICA POCORA

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to be a scientific approach to the issue of euthanasia, bringing into the debate current and future controversies raised by euthanasia, as a result of the introduction into the Romanian penal law of the criminal offence of homicide by request of the victim. The study represents an approach to moral, religious, constitutional, civil, criminal procedure debates and last but not least to criminal debates regarding the legalization of the euthanasia, as the most difficult task lies with the criminal law.

  3. Biological and Chemical Weapons: Criminal Sanctions and Federal Regulations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Garcia, Michael J

    2004-01-01

    .... In accordance with these obligations, the United States has enacted various federal requirements and criminal sanctions applying to biological and chemical weapons, Re cent anti4errorisrn legislation...

  4. Issues of remedial development of forms in criminal proceedings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsyganenko Sergey, S.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the main issues of the modern concept of the criminal proceeding differentiation in terms of new methodological and theoretical approaches - models of criminal justice and the theory of criminal procedural strategy. This draws attention to a trend to expand the scope of application in criminal proceedings, along with production and procedural forms of justice and law and technology. In connection with what is considered their place in the structure of modern criminal procedure, the application conditions and development prospects. For a long time in the theory of criminal systemology a key element in the process acted as a procedural form of normative-functional complex stages and phases of activity in the pre-trial and judicial parts of the criminal justice system. Its mission has been focused on the achievement of major milestones in the implementation of justice, which, ultimately, are expressed in establishing the truth in the case. Thus, there was a two-element mechanism consisting of pre-trial proceedings, due to the need to solve the crime and bringing charges and proceedings, consisting primarily of the trial based on the principles of justice. This order, established regulations, is unified - it is equally applied to all categories of criminal cases and with all the procedural authorities. Modern criminal procedure is a differentiated form in which, along with established procedural steps and process of production, and has been actively used legal procedural technology.

  5. Act local, think global

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, Chris; McRoberts, Doug

    2002-01-01

    Tip O'Neill, one of the grand old men of modem US politics, once famously remarked that all politics is local. Like most politicians who succeed on the national stage - and not just in the US - it was a truth he never lost sight of. What is true for politicians is equally true in the communications business. We may increasingly live in a global village, but successful companies - even multi-nationals - forget the importance of local and regional public relations at their peril. Think of Douglas Ivester, the CEO of Coca-Cola at the time of the 1999 Belgian contamination scandal, who allegedly reacted to first reports of the crisis by asking: 'Where the hell is Belgium?' A more appropriate question today - several years after Coke's share price toppled and the CEO was unceremoniously sacked - might be: 'Who the hell is Douglas Nester?' But - to adapt another famous phrase - the fact that communications (and marketing) professionals still need to 'act local' as much as ever before should not blind us to the growing need to 'think global'. In the nuclear industry, as in the world economy generally, increasing global integration is a reality, as are the international nature of the news media and the increasingly global nature of the anti-nuclear pressure groups. Indeed, it was the growing need for a truly global information network to counter these trends, by increasing the overall speed and accuracy of the worldwide nuclear information flow, that led the nuclear community to establish NucNet in 1991. So where exactly is the line between local and regional nuclear communications on the one hand, and global communications on the other? Is there one spin for a regional audience, and another for a global audience? This presentation proposes some guiding principles, by examining the response of nuclear communicators world-wide to the new communications agenda imposed in the wake of the September 11th suicide attacks in the US. NucNet President Doug McRoberts and Executive

  6. Experiences of Scientific Thinking in Physics Classrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Fagundes Faria

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available There is a contemporary demand on STEM education to support learning experiences in which students use scientific thinking to solve tasks. Scientific thinking involves domain-specific knowledge and general domain strategies of thinking. The object of interest in this research was the set of students’ experiences of scientific thinking in which they articulate domain-general strategies and domain-specific knowledge to solve physics tasks. Our goal was to characterize the experiences of scientific thinking of two groups of four students engaged in tasks about Newtonian Mechanics. The volunteers were 19 students, 15-17 years old, enrolled in electronics or computer science courses (11th grade of a Brazilian vocational high school at Belo Horizonte/Minas Gerais. All class activities proposed to the students have been regularly used since 2010, therefore, we made no special intervention to conduct the study. Data collection occurred during the classes and involved audio and video recordings of students working in group; field notes; and photographs of students’ notebooks and of the posters they made to conduct oral presentations. The choice of the groups was based on how assiduous the members were. We have transcribed episodes in which we identified experiences of scientific thinking. These transcriptions, the field notes and the photographs were analyzed together, in interaction with each other. Data analysis is based upon John Dewey’s Theory of Experience. Our results show that the experiences of scientific thinking of the two groups were educative experiences, although qualitatively different. This difference was due to the way students interacted with the conditions given to solve the tasks. Additional information is given about the school circumstances in which the study was conducted to allow a better evaluation of results quality.

  7. Advanced Analytic Cognition: Critical Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Published online ahead of print: 12/16/2010) 39 Beyer, B.K. Practical Strategies for the Teaching of Thinking, Allyn and Bacon , Boston, MA, 1987, p. 32...or critical thinking as such has no part in this linkage.78 David Schum and Francis Hume discussed critical reasoning within the context of...Teaching of Thinking, Allyn and Bacon , Boston, MA, 1987, p. 211. 110 Dewey, J. How We Think: A Restatement of the Relation of Reflective Thinking to

  8. The right to information in criminal proceedings in the light of proposed changes of the Criminal Law Codification Commission

    OpenAIRE

    Andrzejewska, Marzena

    2013-01-01

    The article addresses the issue of the right to information from the point of view of the participants of criminal proceedings. The execution of the right contributes to the principle of equality between the parties, secure execution of the adversarial principle, transparency and to creating the image of law-abidingness and transparent jurisdiction in the mindset of society. Particular attention has been paid to the draft amendment to the Criminal Procedure Code, prepared by the Criminal Law ...

  9. The Right to Remain Silent in Criminal Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianina Anemona Radu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A person's right not to incriminate oneself or to remain silent and not contribute to their own incrimination is a basic requirement of due process, although the right not to testify against oneself is not expressly guaranteed. This legal right is intended to protect the accused/ the defendant against the authorities’ abusive coercion. The scope of the right not to incriminate oneself is related to criminal matter under the Convention, and thus susceptible or applicable to criminal proceedings concerning all types of crimes as a guarantee to a fair trial. The European Court of Justice ruled that despite the fact that art. 6 paragraph 2 of the Convention does not expressly mention the right not to incriminate oneself and the right not to contribute to their own incrimination (nemo tenetur are ipsum accusare these are generally recognized international rules that are in consistence with the notion of “fair trial” stipulated in art. 6. By virtue of the right to silence, the person charged with a crime is free to answer the questions or not, as he/she believes it is in his/her interest. Therefore, the right to silence involves not only the right not to testify against oneself, but also the right of the accused/ defendant not to incriminate oneself. Thus, the accused/defendant cannot be compelled to assist in the production of evidence and cannot be sanctioned for failing to provide certain documents or other evidence. Obligation to testify against personal will, under the constraint of a fine or any other form of coercion constitutes an interference with the negative aspect of the right to freedom of expression which must be necessary in a democratic society. It is essential to clarify certain issues as far as this right is concerned. First of all, the statutory provision in question is specific to adversarial systems, which are found mainly in Anglo-Saxon countries and are totally different from that underlying the current Romanian Criminal

  10. Thinking about Thinking: An Exploration of Preservice Teachers' Views about Higher Order Thinking Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffman, Diane M.

    2013-01-01

    Thinking skills have long been regarded as an essential outcome of the educational process. Yet, research shows that the teaching of thinking skills in K-12 education does not follow a coherent path. Several factors affect the teaching and use of thinking skills in the classroom, with teacher knowledge and beliefs about thinking skills among the…

  11. “They Know, But Do Not Tell”: Examining the Link Between Animal Cruelty and Other Criminal Offences in British Columbia

    OpenAIRE

    Hinz, Jessica Marie

    2016-01-01

    Animal cruelty is a significantly under researched topic in Criminology. An exploratory study was undertaken to determine whether there is a link between cruelty offences and other crimes in British Columbia (BC). Data were compiled using open source websites to identify convicted animal cruelty offenders and examine any further criminal convictions. Using the frameworks of the graduation hypothesis and generalized deviance theory, criminal offending patterns and timing of offences were analy...

  12. Awor nan ta yama nos criminal! (and now they can call us criminals!)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rothfusz, Jacquelien

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author will question the seemingly obvious boundary between civil disobedience, as conceptualised by Rawls and Arendt, and several examples of criminal, or simply annoying, activities which don't meet their criteria, such as the case of the ‘Top 50'. The ‘Top 50' are

  13. The Law and Practice of Criminal Asset Forfeiture in South African Criminal Procedure: A Constitutional Dilemma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinesh Basdeo

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The deprivation of the proceeds of crime has been a feature of criminal law for many years. The original rationale for the confiscation of criminal assets at international level was the fight against organised crime, a feature of society described by the European Court of Human Rights as a "scourge" so that the draconian powers which are a feature of confiscation regimes around the world have been approved in circumstances which otherwise might have caused governments considerable difficulties before the international human rights tribunals. The primary objective of this article is to determine if the asset forfeiture measures employed in the South African criminal justice system are in need of any reform and/or augmentation in accordance with the "spirit, purport and object" of the South African Constitution. This article attempts to answer three questions. Firstly, why is criminal asset forfeiture important to law enforcement? Secondly, in which circumstances can property be forfeited and what types of property are subject to forfeiture? Thirdly, how is forfeiture accomplished, and what are its constitutional ramifications?

  14. Gender, General Strain Theory, Negative Emotions, and Disordered Eating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piquero, Nicole Leeper; Fox, Kristan; Piquero, Alex R.; Capowich, George; Mazerolle, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Much of the prior work on General Strain Theory (GST) has focused on how strain and negative emotions interrelate to produce criminal--especially violent--activity. Very little research has extended GST to examine other types of non-criminal, negative behavior, such as self-harming behaviors associated with disordered eating, a traditionally…

  15. Criminal Responsibility, Free Will, and Neuroscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, David

    This chapter identifies retributive and consequentialist purposes of the criminal law, and it outlines arguments that retribution should be abandoned, in cluding arguments, based on philosophy and neuroscience, that free will and re sponsibility are illusions. The author suggests that there are good reasons to retain retribution, and identifies ways in which this might be supported, including com patibilist and libertarian views of free will. The author gives reasons for preferring libertarian views, and concludes by considering the role that neuroscience may be expected to play in the future development of the law.

  16. Criminal psychological profiling of serial arson crimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocsis, Richard N; Cooksey, Ray W

    2002-12-01

    The practice of criminal psychological profiling is frequently cited as being applicable to serial arson crimes. Despite this claim, there does not appear to be any empirical research that examines serial arson offence behaviors in the context of profiling. This study seeks to develop an empirical model of serial arsonist behaviors that can be systematically associated with probable offender characteristics. Analysis has produced a model of offence behaviors that identify four discrete behavior patterns, all of which share a constellation of common nondiscriminatory behaviors. The inherent behavioral themes of each of these patterns are explored with discussion of their broader implications for our understanding of serial arson and directions for future research.

  17. Childhood risk factors for criminal justice involvement in a sample of homeless people with serious mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, R A; Lam, J; Rosenheck, R A

    2000-06-01

    It has been suggested that criminal justice involvement among the homeless, particularly those with mental illness, is largely situational. The objective of this study was to assess, in a sample of homeless seriously mentally ill people, the prevalence of childhood conduct disorder behaviors as a risk factor for adult criminal activity as well as the extent and types of adult criminal justice contact. Data were taken from the national ACCESS program, which conducted extensive baseline interviews with 7,222 homeless seriously mentally ill adults. The interview assessed demographics, childhood risk factors for criminal activity such as conduct disorder behaviors, foster care, and parental abuse, as well as current illness severity and recent criminal justice contact. The 2-month arrest rate in this sample was much higher than national rates (11% compared with 1% annually in the general population). Although most arrests were for minor crimes (10.8%), there were also substantial rates of arrest for major (2.7%) and substance-related charges (2.0%). The prevalence of a history of conduct disorder behavior was also substantial (55% in male subjects, 40% in female subjects), and conduct disorder was a strong predictor of recent criminal justice involvement, even after controlling for other predictors of arrest (odds ratio = 1.76 for major crimes, 1.49 for minor crimes, and 1.98 for substance-related crimes). Recent literature has criticized a trend to criminalize homeless mentally ill persons for attempting to get needed food, shelter, or medical attention. However, these data indicate that at least some proportion of arrests in this population are of people who have been exhibiting antisocial behavior since early adolescence, and that early antisocial behavior is a strong predictor of all types of recent arrests in this population.

  18. More Than the Ten Rational Thinking Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrance, E. Paul

    1980-01-01

    The 10 rational processes (which include recalling and imagining, classifying and generalizing, comparing and evaluating, analyzing and synthesizing, and deducting and inferring) are examined from a cultural and historical perspective, with particular emphasis on the suprarational aspects of creative thinking. A three stage model for facilitating…

  19. Legal Uncertainty in Criminal Cases Termination Institute Enforcement in Connection with Reconciliation of the Parties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zabuga E. E.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The author analyzes the judicial application practice of the RF Criminal Code, Art. 76, of the RF Criminal Procedure Code (in criminal cases involving crimes small and moderate, Art. 25; some procedural problems are designated.

  20. The Law and Practice of Criminal Asset Forfeiture in South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Law and Practice of Criminal Asset Forfeiture in South African Criminal ... of criminal assets at international level was the fight against organised crime, ... of the South African Constitution.2 This article attempts to answer three questions.

  1. Anticipative Criminal Investigation : Theory and Counterterrorism Practice in the Netherlands and the United States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hirsch Ballin, M.F.H.

    2012-01-01

    The book assesses the adoption of counterterrorism measures in the Netherlands and the United States, which facilitate criminal investigations with a preventive focus (anticipative criminal investigations), from the perspective of rule of law principles. Anticipative criminal investigation has

  2. The right to information within the criminal proceedings in the European Union. Comparative examination. Critical opinions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana-Minodora Rusu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In the present study we have examined the provisions of Directive 2012/13 / EU of the European Parliament and the Council on the right to information in criminal proceedings and a compared examination relating to the provisions of Romanian law regarding ensuring the right to information within the Romanian criminal proceedings. The innovations and the value of the work consist of the examination of the European legal instrument, the comparative examination and the critical opinions and the proposals of de lege ferenda. As recognized in the jurisprudence of the ECHR, the right to information of the person suspected or accused of committing a crime or arrested for committing a crime on the territory of another Member State is part of the right to a fair trial, being necessary its compliance throughout the criminal trial, on the territory of each Member State. At the same time the European legislative act establishes a general procedure that needs to be respected by each Member State, which entails the obligation for Member States to ensure at least the same rights as for the citizen or the conditions under which a national of another Member State is suspected, accused or arrested for the commission of a crime. This paper continues the research conducted in the field of International and European judicial cooperation in criminal matters, which have resulted in the publication of papers in wellknown publishing houses in the country and abroad, in national and international specialized journals or conference proceedings. The work can be useful to both theorists and practitioners in the field of judicial cooperation in criminal matters regarding the rights of certain categories of people and to the Romanian or European legislator for amending and supplementing the legislation.

  3. Foundations of resilience thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtin, Charles G; Parker, Jessica P

    2014-08-01

    Through 3 broad and interconnected streams of thought, resilience thinking has influenced the science of ecology and natural resource management by generating new multidisciplinary approaches to environmental problem solving. Resilience science, adaptive management (AM), and ecological policy design (EPD) contributed to an internationally unified paradigm built around the realization that change is inevitable and that science and management must approach the world with this assumption, rather than one of stability. Resilience thinking treats actions as experiments to be learned from, rather than intellectual propositions to be defended or mistakes to be ignored. It asks what is novel and innovative and strives to capture the overall behavior of a system, rather than seeking static, precise outcomes from discrete action steps. Understanding the foundations of resilience thinking is an important building block for developing more holistic and adaptive approaches to conservation. We conducted a comprehensive review of the history of resilience thinking because resilience thinking provides a working context upon which more effective, synergistic, and systems-based conservation action can be taken in light of rapid and unpredictable change. Together, resilience science, AM, and EPD bridge the gaps between systems analysis, ecology, and resource management to provide an interdisciplinary approach to solving wicked problems. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  4. Blink the power of thinking without thinking

    CERN Document Server

    Gladwell, Malcolm

    2005-01-01

    In his landmark bestseller The Tipping Point, Malcolm Gladwell redefined how we understand the world around us. Now, in Blink, he revolutionizes the way we understand the world within. Blink is a book about how we think without thinking, about choices that seem to be made in an instant-in the blink of an eye-that actually aren't as simple as they seem. Why are some people brilliant decision makers, while others are consistently inept? Why do some people follow their instincts and win, while others end up stumbling into error? How do our brains really work-in the office, in the classroom, in the kitchen, and in the bedroom? And why are the best decisions often those that are impossible to explain to others?In Blink we meet the psychologist who has learned to predict whether a marriage will last, based on a few minutes of observing a couple; the tennis coach who knows when a player will double-fault before the racket even makes contact with the ball; the antiquities experts who recognize a fake at a glance. Her...

  5. Рarticular criminalistic methods of court hearing in criminal proceedings: essence and goals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В. І. Алєксєйчук

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Problem setting. Understanding of criminalistic methods exceeded now the boundaries of traditional points of view - as a methods of crimes investigation. An attention is drawn to the fact that the process of proof in criminal proceedings is not completed with a pre-court investigation, on the contrary, it is being continued even more actively during the court hearing. In this regard a need for providing of subjects of court hearings of criminal cases (judges, prosecuting attorneys, defense lawyers with criminalistic methods is emphasized. At the same time the stated ideas have not been sufficiently developed in Ukrainian doctrine. Special papers devoted to particular criminalistic methods of court hearing of criminal cases are not present. This problem cannot be settled without preliminary solving of issues of more general theoretical meaning, especially, definition of essence and goals of particular criminalistic methods of court hearing in criminal proceedings. Recent research and publications analysis. Research of general-theoretical basic concepts of criminalistic methods was made by the domestic and foreign scientists (Yu. P. Alenin, O. Ya. Bayev, R. S. Byelkin, О. М. Vasylyev, І. О. Vozgrin, V. К. Gavlo, V. А. Zhuravel, А. V. Ishchenko, О. N. Kolesnichenko, V. V. Tishchenko, S. М. Churilov, А. V. Shmonin, B. V. Shchur, М. P. Yablokov and others. Issues of providing of criminalistic tools for court hearing in criminal proceedings are covered in the papers of the following scientists: L.Yu. Аrotsker, V. М. Bozrov, М. Y. Vilgushunsky, G. А. Vorobyov, V. К. Gavlo, S. L. Kyslenko, D. V. Kim, І. І. Kogutych, Yu. V. Korenevsky, О. Yu. Korchagin, S. P. Sukhov, О. О. Sychova, А. L. Tsypkin, Т. B. Chedzhemov, V. Yu. Shepitko and others. The authors of papers published in Ukraine in recent years, studying conceptual problems of providing with criminalistic methods of court proceeding in criminal process are: V.А. Zhuravel,

  6. Fetal Abuse and the Criminalization of Behavior during Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farr, Kathryn Ann

    1995-01-01

    Discusses efforts to criminalize fetal abuse, harm caused from a pregnant woman's use of illegal drugs. Such efforts have typically failed to withstand judicial scrutiny. Suggests that criminal prosecution for fetal abuse relies on questionable procedures, is unevenly applied, and may keep women from seeking drug treatment or prenatal care. (LKS)

  7. The principle of equality of arms in international criminal proceedings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fedorova, M.I.

    2012-01-01

    This book studies the interpretation and application of the principle of equality of arms in proceedings before several international criminal courts. The coming of age of these institutions merits an evaluation of the application of one of the fundamental principles underlying a criminal procedure.

  8. 42 CFR 38.8 - Criminal and civil penalties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Criminal and civil penalties. 38.8 Section 38.8... EXAMINATIONS DISASTER ASSISTANCE FOR CRISIS COUNSELING AND TRAINING § 38.8 Criminal and civil penalties... a civil penalty of not more than $5,000 for each violation. (c) Whoever knowingly misapplies the...

  9. International Criminal Law: Over-studied and Underachieving?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Sliedregt, E.

    2016-01-01

    In his recent review of Neil Boister's book, An Introduction to Transnational Criminal Law, Robert Currie praises the author for shedding light on a field of law that has suffered from inattention. Transnational criminal law (TCL), the 'other' branch of what was traditionally called international

  10. Problem of Determining the Chance (Casus) in Criminal Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veresha, Roman V.

    2016-01-01

    The article considers a concept of chance (casus) in criminal law and its main features. A definition of chance (casus) was analyzed as faultless causing of harm from a perspective of delimitation of the concept from carelessness in the form of criminal negligence. Particular attention is paid to the legislative definition of faultless causing of…

  11. The Use of Criminal History Information in College Admissions Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Matthew W.; Runyan, Carol W.; Bangdiwala, Shrikant I.

    2014-01-01

    To understand the potential public health and social justice implications of criminal background screening on college admissions, we examined postsecondary institutions' reasons for collecting or not collecting applicants' criminal justice information. We invited heads of admissions from 300 randomly sampled postsecondary institutions to complete…

  12. 28 CFR 90.15 - Filing costs for criminal charges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... with the filing of criminal charges against the domestic violence offender, or the costs associated... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Filing costs for criminal charges. 90.15 Section 90.15 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN The STOP...

  13. Forgiveness in Criminal Law through Incorporating Restorative Mediation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claessen, Jacques

    2017-01-01

    In this monograph, the author argues for the integration of the concept of forgiveness into criminal law through incorporating restorative justice practices such as victim-offender mediation. Although forgiveness is not a purpose in itself nor can it be enforced, criminal law should provide room for

  14. Childhood Neurodevelopmental Disorders and Violent Criminality: A Sibling Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundström, Sebastian; Forsman, Mats; Larsson, Henrik; Kerekes, Nora; Serlachius, Eva; Långström, Niklas; Lichtenstein, Paul

    2014-01-01

    The longitudinal relationship between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and violent criminality has been extensively documented, while long-term effects of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), tic disorders (TDs), and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) on criminality have been scarcely studied. Using population-based registers of all…

  15. 75 FR 9613 - Draft NIJ Restraints Standard for Criminal Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Office of Justice Programs [OJP (NIJ) Docket No. 1512] Draft NIJ Restraints Standard for Criminal Justice AGENCY: National Institute of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, DOJ. ACTION: Notice of Draft NIJ Restraints Standard for Criminal Justice and Certification Program...

  16. An Examination of Criminal Behavior among the Homeless.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solarz, Andrea

    Homelessness is a significant social problem in the United States, with an estimated 2.5 million homeless people in this country today. While criminal activity may become a means for the homeless to obtain resources needed for basic survival, little is known about the level of criminal activity among the homeless or about the types of crimnal…

  17. Highlight: The need for victim support services in India's Criminal ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Agnes spoke about the concerns and challenges faced by victims within the Indian criminal justice system. Over the years, Majlis has been working on sexual assault of women and girls with the state machinery (courts, police, lawyers and jurists) and within the criminal justice system. Drawing from their body of work, Agnes ...

  18. Harmony, Law and Criminal Reconciliation in China: A Historical Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Pei (Wei)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractIn 2012, China revised its Criminal Procedure Law (2012 CPL). One of the major changes is its official approval of the use of victim-offender reconciliation, or ‘criminal reconciliation’ in certain public prosecution cases. This change, on the one hand, echoes the Confucian doctrine that

  19. Admissibility of hearsay evidence in criminal trials: an appraisal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admissibility of hearsay evidence in criminal trials: an appraisal of the Ethiopian legal framework. ... Haramaya Law Review ... Despite Ethiopia following a common law approach regarding evidentiary principles, rules and procedural safeguards in criminal trials, the country does not have a codified and compiled evidence ...

  20. Theories on Criminality and Mental Retardation Project CAMIO, Volume 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haskins, Jimmy R.; Friel, Charles M.

    This historical review of theories on criminality and mental retardation is part of Project CAMIO (Correctional Administration and the Mentally Incompetent Offender), a Texas study to determine the incidence of criminal incarceration of the mentally retarded (MR) and to identify laws, procedures, and practices which affect the prosecution and…

  1. Criminal Conduct: A Cause for Discipline of Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larke, Patricia J.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews factors considered by courts in judicial decisions concerning teachers involved in criminal offenses relating to alcohol and drug violations, larceny, theft, shoplifting, gambling, and manslaughter. The courts have held that when criminal conduct shows a connection between the offense and the teacher's effectiveness then cause exists for…

  2. 28 CFR 0.85a - Criminal justice policy coordination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Criminal justice policy coordination. 0.85a Section 0.85a Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ORGANIZATION OF THE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Federal Bureau of Investigation § 0.85a Criminal justice policy coordination. The Federal Bureau...

  3. Criminal Liability of Political Decision-Makers in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geelhoed, Willem; Zimmermann, Frank

    2017-01-01

    Dutch criminal law does not provide for criminal liability for a political decision-maker who decides to build a bridge, if thereafter the project runs out of control or the bridge appears not to justify the funds spent on the project. This is most probably even the case if the decision-maker knew

  4. Critical assessment of Nigeria criminal justice system and the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Critical assessment of Nigeria criminal justice system and the perennial problem of awaiting trial in Port Harcourt maximum prison, Rivers State. ... Global Journal of Social Sciences ... Keywords: Nigeria criminal justice system, awaiting trial, rigidity of the penal law, holding charges, delay in the disposal of cases ...

  5. 25 CFR 11.902 - Non-criminal proceedings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAW AND ORDER COURTS OF INDIAN OFFENSES AND LAW AND ORDER CODE Children's Court § 11.902 Non-criminal proceedings. No adjudication upon the status of any minor in the jurisdiction of the children's court shall be deemed criminal or be deemed a conviction of...

  6. Paraphilia and sex offending - A South African criminal law perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carstens, Pieter; Stevens, Philip

    2016-01-01

    Historically, the link between sexual deviance and criminality has been described and documented, asserted by psychiatry, and manifested in law. Laws that have regulated sexual behaviour have referred to terms such as 'sexual deviation', 'sexual perversion' or even archaic moral terms such as 'unnatural acts and unspeakable crimes against nature'. A possible link between sexual perversion, psychopathy, and criminality, specifically manifesting in sexual homicide, has been the subject of remarkable research in forensic psychiatry. This contribution examines the phenomenon of paraphilia with specific reference to its definition, diagnostic classification and characteristics, as well as a few selections of incidences of paraphilia in South African criminal case law. A brief assessment is made of how South African criminal courts have dealt with paraphilia. In this regard, an analysis is made of the criminal liability of the paraphiliac. The South African response to sexual deviation as addressed in the Criminal Law (Sexual Offences and Related Matters) Amendment Act 32 of 2007 will also be addressed with reference to its efficacy in addressing paraphilia within South African criminal law. The interface between criminal law and medical ethics within the context of this theme will also be canvassed. In conclusion, recommendations for possible reform are canvassed. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. The ICC, International Criminal Justice and International Politics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The International Criminal Court (ICC) came into being as a result of a desire by the international community to establish a permanent body to deliver criminal justice instead of the formula of ad hoc tribunals that had become the norm. The coming into force of the Rome Statute in 2002 was greeted with euphoria as it ...

  8. Criminal victimization and psychotic experiences: cross-sectional associations in 35 low- and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVylder, J E; Kelleher, I; Oh, H; Link, B G; Yang, L H; Koyanagi, A

    2018-04-22

    Criminal victimization has been associated with elevated risk for psychotic symptoms in the United Kingdom, but has not been studied in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Understanding whether crime exposure may play a role in the social etiology of psychosis could help guide prevention and intervention efforts. We tested the hypothesis that criminal victimization would be associated with elevated odds of psychotic experiences in 35 LMICs (N = 146 999) using cross-sectional data from the World Health Organization World Health Survey. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to test for associations between criminal victimization and psychotic experiences. Victimization was associated with greater odds of psychotic experiences, OR (95% CI) = 1.72 (1.50-1.98), and was significantly more strongly associated with psychotic experiences in non-urban, OR (95% CI) = 1.93 (1.60-2.33), compared to urban settings, OR (95% CI) = 1.48 (1.21-1.81). The association between victimization and psychosis did not change across countries with varying aggregated levels of criminal victimization. In the largest ever study of victimization and psychosis, the association between criminal victimization and psychosis appears to generalize across a range of LMICs and, therefore, across nations with a broad range of crime rates, degree of urban development, average per capita income, and racial/ethnic make-up. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Thinking the unthinkable

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard Nielsen, Anders; Dombernowsky, Per

    2004-01-01

    This paper adresses the theme of thinking construction in a changing world. In more specific terms it adresses two topics. The first being the necessary competences and skills in construction, that can be expected in the profile of the future architect after graduation. The second, being the acqu......This paper adresses the theme of thinking construction in a changing world. In more specific terms it adresses two topics. The first being the necessary competences and skills in construction, that can be expected in the profile of the future architect after graduation. The second, being...

  10. Think Like a Hacker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khera, Mandeep

    2017-03-01

    Ready or not, the Internet of things (IoT) is here. No longer just a buzz term, it'll continue to grow at an unprecedented pace over the next few years expecting to reach over 25 billion connected devices by 2020. History shows us that most fast growth technology solutions focus on solving business problems first and security is an afterthought. Unfortunately, IoT is following the same trend. Most IoT devices, apps, and infrastructure were developed without security in mind and are likely going to become targets of hackers. According to some security experts, major cyberattacks against the IoT devices are looming. According to the FBI, criminals can gain access to unprotected devices used in home health care, such as those used to collect and transmit personal monitoring data or time-dispensed medicines. Once criminals have breached such devices, they gain access to any personal or medical information stored on the devices, as well as the power to change the coding that controls the dispense mechanism of medicines or health data collection. This can result in major health issues and potential loss of lives. Are organizations ready to protect themselves? What are the key vulnerable points? There are various steps that companies can take to raise the barrier. In this article, we'll talk about the background, issues, potential attack vectors liable to be hacked, protection strategies, and more.

  11. Think Like a Hacker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khera, Mandeep

    2017-01-01

    Ready or not, the Internet of things (IoT) is here. No longer just a buzz term, it’ll continue to grow at an unprecedented pace over the next few years expecting to reach over 25 billion connected devices by 2020. History shows us that most fast growth technology solutions focus on solving business problems first and security is an afterthought. Unfortunately, IoT is following the same trend. Most IoT devices, apps, and infrastructure were developed without security in mind and are likely going to become targets of hackers. According to some security experts, major cyberattacks against the IoT devices are looming. According to the FBI, criminals can gain access to unprotected devices used in home health care, such as those used to collect and transmit personal monitoring data or time-dispensed medicines. Once criminals have breached such devices, they gain access to any personal or medical information stored on the devices, as well as the power to change the coding that controls the dispense mechanism of medicines or health data collection. This can result in major health issues and potential loss of lives. Are organizations ready to protect themselves? What are the key vulnerable points? There are various steps that companies can take to raise the barrier. In this article, we’ll talk about the background, issues, potential attack vectors liable to be hacked, protection strategies, and more. PMID:27920270

  12. Transfer of Procedure in Criminal Matters in Romanian Legislation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Rusu

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Aware of the obligations assumed in fighting crime, Romania translated in itsinternal legislation the European Convention on the transfer of procedure in criminal matters,adopted in Strasbourg on 15 May 1972, ratified through Government’s Ordinance no.77/1999.The transfer of procedure in criminal matters is one of the forms of international judicialcooperation in criminal matter and represents an act on mutual trust in the organizing activityfor crime pursuit at the international level. According to law, the procedure transfer in criminalmatter consists in performing criminal procedure or continuing the procedures initiated by thecompetent Romanian authorities for an action that represents a crime, in accordance with theRomanian law and transferring it to another state. The procedure transfer in criminal matters isaccomplished only if the conditions expressly provisioned by law are fulfilled, respecting thenon bis in idem principle.

  13. Childhood neurodevelopmental disorders and violent criminality: a sibling control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundström, Sebastian; Forsman, Mats; Larsson, Henrik; Kerekes, Nora; Serlachius, Eva; Långström, Niklas; Lichtenstein, Paul

    2014-11-01

    The longitudinal relationship between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and violent criminality has been extensively documented, while long-term effects of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), tic disorders (TDs), and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) on criminality have been scarcely studied. Using population-based registers of all child and adolescent mental health services in Stockholm, we identified 3,391 children, born 1984-1994, with neurodevelopmental disorders, and compared their risk for subsequent violent criminality with matched controls. Individuals with ADHD or TDs were at elevated risk of committing violent crimes, no such association could be seen for ASDs or OCD. ADHD and TDs are risk factors for subsequent violent criminality, while ASDs and OCD are not associated with violent criminality.

  14. Increasing interpersonal trust through divergent thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta eSellaro

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Interpersonal trust is an essential ingredient of many social relationships but how stable is it actually, and how is it controlled? There is evidence that the degree of trust into others might be rather volatile and can be affected by manipulations like drawing attention to personal interdependence or independence. Here we investigated whether the degree of interpersonal trust can be biased by inducing either a more integrative or a more cognitive-control mode by means of a creativity task requiring divergent or convergent thinking, respectively. Participants then performed the Trust Game, which provides an index of interpersonal trust by assessing the money units one participant (the trustor transfers to another participant (the trustee. As expected, participants transferred significantly more money to the trustee after engaging in divergent thinking as compared to convergent thinking. This observation provides support for the idea that interpersonal trust is controlled by domain-general (i.e., not socially dedicated cognitive states.

  15. Contrasting platform thinking and product modularization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boer, Henrike Engele Elisabeth; Persson, Magnus

    2015-01-01

    Product modularization and platform thinking are both practices that seek to alleviate the negative impact of product customization and variety on internal operations by relying on economies of substitution. Through the use of a standardized pool of components and interfaces, these practices aim...... to create a broad spectrum of product choices. At first sight, product modularization and platform thinking are very similar. The difference between these practices can, however, be found in the manner in which they employ standardization. Where product modularization focuses on creating standardized...... variants. There is a general lack of research addressing the contingency factors that dictate the appropriateness of the use of product modularization and platform thinking in different contexts. To our knowledge, no large-scale empirical research has been reported in which the two concepts, contextual...

  16. teachers pattern of instruction and location on pupils critical thinking ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    LUCY

    pupils' critical thinking in science achievement in Imo State. To achieve ... such scientific attitudes such as persistence, objectivity, ... abilities out of the learners right from the primary school. ... effectively conceptualizing generalized methods.

  17. Neurobiological and psychosocial conditionings of rationality of criminal behaviour – review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przemysław Piotrowski

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The term “rationality” has been mentioned for ages in philosophical discourse, and later in science. No wonder that considerations regarding the reasons behind committing crimes involve the question of rationality of culprits. The article comprises a review of contemporary research on factors which, on a neurobiological, psychological or social level, modify the level of rationality of criminals. In case of the juveniles, factors such as not fully developed brain structures, the influence of hormonal changes resulting in emotional instability and peer pressure, should also be taken into account. Adult criminals often manifest a deficit of activity in the prefrontal cortex of the brain, combined with increased activity in the subcortex, resulting in an increased propensity for violence. Neurophysiologic disorders may be accompanied by factors reducing the rationality, such as: errors in thinking, habitual use of neutralisation techniques or being lead by the, typical for street culture, perception of justice. All of the above should be taken into account as a part of a multi-aspect analyses of the causes of crime.

  18. Incapacity of the Mind Secondary to Medication Misuse as a Not Criminally Responsible Defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prat, Sebastien S; Losier, Bruno J; Moulden, Heather M; Chaimowitz, Gary A

    2017-01-01

    The manifestations of disorders of the mind may play a role in the occurrence of criminal behavior. In the majority of the cases, the presence of a psychiatric disorder is cited as the reason that an individual was not fully aware of his behavior. However, other conditions, such as seizure disorders or hypoglycemia, have also been linked to an inability to understand the nature and consequences of one's actions. On occasion, these situations can be explained by a state of automatism that may be described as insane or noninsane. In this article, we describe the case of a 77-year-old man, suffering from Parkinson's disease, where the issue of criminal responsibility associated with incapacity of the mind secondary to medication misuse was raised. We elaborate on the thinking behind this opinion and the implications according to Canadian law. Although the legal outcome of this case is specific to our jurisdiction, the clinical implication may be common to any patient suffering from a similar condition and may inform physicians, families, and lawyers. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  19. Systems Thinking for an Economically Literate Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael F. Reber

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In the US a dismal truth exists about the citizenry’s lack of understanding of economic fundamentals whether it is amongst our political leaders or our university graduates. This then leads one to ask, “What can be done to help people become literate in economics?” Perhaps the answer lies in the area of systems thinking, which is a way of thinking about the interconnections between the parts of a system and their synthesis into a unified view of the whole system. More specifically, this means incorporating systems thinking and design in primary, secondary, and tertiary curricula. In this paper, the author gives a cursory review of General Systems Theory (GST as developed by Ludwig von Bertalanffy and extended by others in the systems thinking field to illustrate the confluences of thought among Ludwig von Mises and systems scientists. From this the author argues the need for systems thinking and design in curricula and makes reference to non-prescriptive teaching and learning applications for the fostering of economic literacy.

  20. Philosophical and Ethical Foundations of Systems Thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debora Hammond

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Drawing on more than a decade of research on the social implications of systems thinking, as well as practical experience in integrative, community-based approaches to education, this paper is an inquiry into philosophical and ethical considerations growing out of recent developments in systems thinking. In his foundational work on general system theory, Ludwig von Bertalanffy distinguishes between three general developments in the systems field: systems technology, systems science, and systems philosophy. These three dimensions of systems thinking each nurture distinct and often widely divergent theoretical and practical orientations. In his abstract for this session, Gary Metcalf asks whether the systems approach really has anything to offer. Science is a form of social feedback; it has created an enormous body of knowledge about the world and shaped humanity’s understanding of the nature of our collective reality. Knowledge then informs action. Assumptions built into scientific frameworks condition certain kinds of actions, as Bertalanffy has noted. Systems thinking as science nurtures a way of thinking that engenders a different kind of practice; systems as philosophy cultivates an ethic of integration and collaboration that has the potential to transform the nature of social organization. Although humanity still has a lot to learn about living more harmoniously and sustainably, systems thinking has made significant contributions in this direction in many fields, both theoretical and practical. The challenge is to integrate what we have learned, to communicate these insights to a larger audience, and to nurture institutional practices that honor the ethical principles inherent in the systems view.

  1. Trust and Critical Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinig, John

    2018-01-01

    This article discusses the tension between trust, as an expression of interpersonal commitment, and critical thinking, which includes a demand for reasons. It explores the importance of each for individual flourishing, and then seeks to establish some ways in which they intersect, drawing on ideas of authority and trustworthiness. It argues that…

  2. Wishful thinking in preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Stéphane; Clément, Fabrice; Mercier, Hugo

    2016-01-01

    The current experiment sought to demonstrate the presence of wishful thinking--when wishes influence beliefs--in young children. A sample of 77 preschoolers needed to predict, eight times in a row, which of two plastic eggs, one containing one toy and the other containing three toys, would be drawn by a blinded experimenter. On the four trials in which the children could not keep the content of the egg drawn, they were equally likely to predict that either egg would be drawn. By contrast, on the four trials in which the children got to keep the content of the egg, they were more likely to predict that the egg with three toys would be drawn. Any effort the children exerted would be the same across conditions, so that this demonstration of wishful thinking cannot be accounted for by an effort heuristic. One group of children--a subgroup of the 5-year-olds--did not engage in wishful thinking. Children from this subgroup instead used the representativeness heuristic to guide their answers. This result suggests that having an explicit representation of the outcome inhibits children from engaging in wishful thinking in the same way as explicit representations constrain the operation of motivated reasoning in adults. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Think It Over

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 12; Issue 12. Solution to 'A Problem in Graph Theory'. K P Savithri. Think It Over Volume 12 Issue 12 December 2007 pp 53-54. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/012/12/0053-0054. Keywords.

  4. Proto-computational Thinking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tatar, Deborah Gail; Harrison, Steve; Stewart, Michael

    2017-01-01

    . Utilizing university students in co-development activities with teachers, the current study located and implemented opportunities for integrated computational thinking in middle school in a large, suburban, mixed-socioeconomic standing (SES) , mixed-race district. The co-development strategy resulted...

  5. [A seminar for thinking?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touzet, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    The sociopolitical context in which we carry out our caregiving profession influences our methods of working. In our world marked by rationalism, thinking about care, in the framework of a seminar, is a way of engaging ourselves and of not simply becoming a functionary of care.

  6. Design thinking & lean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bravos, Cynthia; Adler, Isabel K.

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims at presenting how a Brazilian innovation consultancy guided a collaborative development of a mobile solution using the Design Thinking approach (Vianna et al, 2012) and Lean principles (Ries, 2011). It will describe tools and methods used and how it was applied to requirement gath...

  7. Thinking like an Ecologist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Jenn

    2008-01-01

    This article presents a lesson in which students examine current field research on global change. In particular, students investigate the effect of carbon dioxide and tropospheric ozone on ecosystems by applying their knowledge of scientific inquiry and photosynthesis. The goal of the activity is for students to think like ecologists and draw…

  8. Thinking Like a Ssssscientist!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Catherine; Tomasek, Terry; Matthews, Catherine E.

    2010-01-01

    A fear of snakes developed into an opportunity to teach students about the process of science: formulating questions, collecting and analyzing data, and communicating findings to the public. By using snakes to help students "think like a scientist," the authors engaged students in a five-day unit on inquiry while providing information about snakes…

  9. Thinking Like a Mathematician

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Michael K.; Moore-Russo, Deborah

    2012-01-01

    What does it mean to think like a mathematician? One of the great paradoxes of mathematics education is that, although mathematics teachers are immersed in mathematical work every day of their professional lives, most of them nevertheless have little experience with the kind of work that research mathematicians do. Their ideas of what doing…

  10. Embedding GroupThink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seabrooke, Leonard; Ban, Cornel; Helgadóttir, Oddný

    This memo outlines key concepts and the methodological approach involved in a recently funded Institute for New Economic Thinking project. Our aim is to pinpoint the relationship between the reception of academic ideas, traced by citation networks with qualitative coding, and positions...

  11. Engineering Design Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammi, Matthew; Becker, Kurt

    2013-01-01

    Engineering design thinking is "a complex cognitive process" including divergence-convergence, a systems perspective, ambiguity, and collaboration (Dym, Agogino, Eris, Frey, & Leifer, 2005, p. 104). Design is often complex, involving multiple levels of interacting components within a system that may be nested within or connected to other systems.…

  12. Design Thinking for Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Andrew D.

    2015-01-01

    According to Vande Zande (2007), understanding the Design Process can help students become stronger critical thinkers. With this in mind, Andrew Watson decided to undertake an observational case study in which he focused directly on Design Thinking and addressed it more intentionally in his teaching. The hope was to understand how students saw…

  13. Dual thinking for scientists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheffer, M.; Bascompte, J.; Bjordam, T.K.; Carpenter, S.R.; Clarke, L.; Folke, C.; Marquet, P.A.; Mazzeo, N.; Meerhoff, M.; Sala, O.; Westley, F.R.

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies provide compelling evidence for the idea that creative thinking draws upon two kinds of processes linked to distinct physiological features, and stimulated under different conditions. In short, the fast system-I produces intuition whereas the slow and deliberate system-II produces

  14. Thinking Data "with" Deleuze

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzei, Lisa A.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper the author is thinking with Deleuze's philosophical concept of the "image" of the speech-act in cinema and the implications for methodology and ethics in qualitative research. Drawing on research in the USA with white teachers, this paper will specifically engage with Deleuzian concepts presented in his two books on cinema and his…

  15. Dual thinking for scientists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marten Scheffer

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies provide compelling evidence for the idea that creative thinking draws upon two kinds of processes linked to distinct physiological features, and stimulated under different conditions. In short, the fast system-I produces intuition whereas the slow and deliberate system-II produces reasoning. System-I can help see novel solutions and associations instantaneously, but is prone to error. System-II has other biases, but can help checking and modifying the system-I results. Although thinking is the core business of science, the accepted ways of doing our work focus almost entirely on facilitating system-II. We discuss the role of system-I thinking in past scientific breakthroughs, and argue that scientific progress may be catalyzed by creating conditions for such associative intuitive thinking in our academic lives and in education. Unstructured socializing time, education for daring exploration, and cooperation with the arts are among the potential elements. Because such activities may be looked upon as procrastination rather than work, deliberate effort is needed to counteract our systematic bias.

  16. Crimes against property: critical analysis of transforming the Russian criminal legislation and the practice of its enforcement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir V. Sverchkov

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective to identify contradictions and inconsistencies between the normativelegal provisions referring to liability for crimes against property as well as the facts of inconsistent and unfair changes in investigativejudicial practice due to ungrounded modification of criminal law and practice of its application. Methods dialectical historical documentary dogmatic practical systematic complex analytical comparativelegal statistical. Results contradictions and inconsistencies were revealed between the normativelegal provisions on liability for crimes against property as well as the facts of inconsistent and unfair changes in investigativejudicial practice which arose as a result of unjustified modification of criminal legislation and practice of its application. Scientific novelty the carried out critical analysis of the transformation of the Russian criminal legislation and the practice of its application allowed making conclusions aimed at improving the legislative activity of the Russian Federal Assembly and the interpretation practice of the Supreme Court of the Russian Federation. In particular the article substantiates the following provisions a on the artificial creation of competition between the qualified and specially qualified corpus delicti of theft b on the inclination of the Russian lawmaking towards the AngloAmerican legal family c on the incorrect unification of the general and special provisions in Art. 159 of the Russian Criminal Code d on the elimination of fraud as a form of theft with the characteristic criminal behavior by the contents of Art. 1596 of the Russian Criminal Code e on the ungrounded change of lawenforcement in Russia unless it is connected with socialeconomic and or politicallegal transformations in Russia. The research results show that the Supreme Court decisions contain a substitution of the concept of the ldquoacquisitive goalrdquo by the concept of ldquoacquisitive motiverdquo of property theft b

  17. Scientific thinking employed in tasks of introductory physics

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandre Fagundes Faria; Arnaldo de Moura Vaz

    2017-01-01

    In Science Education, notably in Physics Teaching, there are research based instructional strategies that are renown by their potential to promote conceptual development. It is likely that many of these strategies lead to more elaborate learning; promoting, for instance, scientific thinking development. Scientific thinking might be construed as the sum of domain-specific knowledge and domain-general strategies. Here is reported an investigation of domain-general strategies used by students on...

  18. Focusing of Students' Mathematical Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breyfogle, M. Lynn; Herbel-Eisenmann, Beth A.

    2004-01-01

    Suggestions and ideas that enable teachers to take a closer look at students' thinking are discussed. A teacher should periodically reflect on his or her own classroom practices in order to increase attention on students' mathematical thinking.

  19. Thinking Aloud Influences Perceived Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertzum, Morten; Holmegaard, Kristin Due

    2015-01-01

    a processing shift that overshadows the perception of time, or increase mental workload. Application: For usability evaluation, this study implies that time estimates made while thinking aloud cannot be compared with time estimates made while not thinking aloud, that ratings of systems experienced while......Objective: We investigate whether thinking aloud influences perceived time. Background: Thinking aloud is widely used in usability evaluation, yet it is debated whether thinking aloud influences thought and behavior. If thinking aloud is restricted to the verbalization of information to which...... a person is already attending, there is evidence that thinking aloud does not influence thought and behavior. Method: In an experiment, 16 thinking-aloud participants and 16 control participants solved a code-breaking task 24 times each. Participants estimated task duration. The 24 trials involved two...

  20. What Explains Criminal Violence in Mexico City? A Test of Two Theories of Crime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Vilalta

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available There are competing theories of what drives crime in cities and neighbourhoods. Two widely cited theoretical approaches focused on social disorganization and institutional anomie propose different explanations for the causes and dynamics of criminality. Yet these theories are seldom empirically tested, much less acknowledged, outside of North America and Western Europe. This article considers their applicability in Mexico’s capital, a sprawling metropolis of more than 20 million people. The authors administer spatial and general statistical tests to explain the geographical patterns of crime rates across multiple forms of criminality. The assessment demonstrates that both theories accurately predict the spatial distribution of crime. The article concludes with a host of policy conclusions, emphasizing social crime prevention over more traditional law and order measures. and consolidating families, parents and childcare.

  1. An integrated public health and criminal justice approach to gangs: What can research tell us?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Gebo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available There has been a call to better link public health and criminal justice approaches to best address crime problems generally, and youth and gang violence in particular. Importantly, there has yet to be a systematic examination of how criminal justice approaches can be integrated within a public health framework. This paper examines the strengths and challenges with mapping gang research and evidence-informed practices onto a public health approach. Conceptual examination reveals benefits to utilizing an integrated framework, but it also exposes core problems with identification and prediction of gang joining and gang membership. The gang label as a master status is called into question. It is argued that a public health framework can inform public policy approaches as to when the focus should be youth violence versus gangs and gang violence.

  2. THE POSITION OF JUVENILES IN THE NEW CRIMINAL LAW OF THE REPUBLIC OF SERBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Jovašević

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The new juvenile (substantive, procedural and executive criminal law came into force at the beginning of 2006 in the Republic of Serbia.. In this way, by concluding its reform of criminal law, the Republic of Serbia followed the trends of modern criminal policies of other developed European countries (France, Germany, and Croatia. Therefore, in that special, specifi c way, it determined the criminal legal status of juveniles. That specifi city is refl ected in various directions : 1 Lex specialis was brought in – a special Act on juvenile perpetrators of criminal acts and the criminal legal protection of juveniles when juveniles in their criminal legal position are completely separate from the status of adults as perpetrators of criminal acts, 2 the special authority of district courts is determined for taking action in criminal cases of juvenile perpetrators of criminal acts, 3 compulsory specialisation is provided for persons in the criminal judiciary taking part in criminal proceedings for juvenile perpetrators of criminal acts ( with previous training and issuing of licences ‘certifi cates’ and 4 besides criminal sanctions, the law has provided for juvenile perpetrators of criminal acts the possibility of sentencing specifi c measures sui generis – educational orders ( directions or recommendations – as means of restorative justice by which the commencement or carrying out of legal action is avoided. This paper precisely deals with this new criminal legal position of juvenile perpetrators of criminal acts and with the new institutions of restorative justice from theoretical, practical and comparative legal aspects.

  3. The strategic entrepreneurial thinking imperative

    OpenAIRE

    S. Dhliwayo; J. J. Van Vuuren

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is to demonstrate that strategic entrepreneurial thinking is a unitary concept which should be viewed as a standalone construct. Design/Methodology/Approach: The concept strategic entrepreneurial thinking is modelled from an analysis of strategic thinking and entrepreneurial thinking from available literature. The strategic entrepreneurial mindset imperative is then emphasised and confirmed. Findings: This paper's finding is that there is no diff...

  4. Moving on - beyond lean thinking

    OpenAIRE

    Koskela, Lauri

    2004-01-01

    Lean Thinking is currently often positioned as the underlying theory of lean production among practitioners and academics, although its originators, Womack and Jones, seem not to have presented it as a theory. This paper endeavors to analyze whether Lean Thinking can be viewed as a theory of lean production. For this purpose, a critical assessment of Lean Thinking is carried out. Lean Thinking is argued to lack an adequate conceptualization of production, which has led to imprecise concepts, ...

  5. Readiness to change criminal women and men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Biel

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The readiness of offenders to social rehabilitation is a new category in our country. Meanwhile, the research conducted in many countries indicates its usefulness in the diagnosis and selection of participants of rehabilitation programmes. This entails more effective interaction with convicted persons and greater responsibility on the part of convicted people for their own social rehabilitation process. The aim of this article is to present the main assumptions and models of readiness for change and their usefulness in social rehabilitation practice and to present pilot studies of readiness for change among criminal women and men in Kraków. Application of the Polish adaptation of the CVTRQ questionnaire made it possible to determine the level of convicted persons’ readiness, taking into account deficits in particular scales of the questionnaire and variables differentiating the group of ready and not ready people. At the end, guidelines for further research will be presented.

  6. Aberrant paralimbic gray matter in criminal psychopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermer, Elsa; Cope, Lora M; Nyalakanti, Prashanth K; Calhoun, Vince D; Kiehl, Kent A

    2012-08-01

    Psychopaths impose large costs on society, as they are frequently habitual, violent criminals. The pervasive nature of emotional and behavioral symptoms in psychopathy suggests that several associated brain regions may contribute to the disorder. Studies employing a variety of methods have converged on a set of brain regions in paralimbic cortex and limbic areas that appear to be dysfunctional in psychopathy. The present study further tests this hypothesis by investigating structural abnormalities using voxel-based morphometry in a sample of incarcerated men (N=296). Psychopathy was associated with decreased regional gray matter in several paralimbic and limbic areas, including bilateral parahippocampal, amygdala, and hippocampal regions, bilateral temporal pole, posterior cingulate cortex, and orbitofrontal cortex. The consistent identification of paralimbic cortex and limbic structures in psychopathy across diverse methodologies strengthens the interpretation that these regions are crucial for understanding neural dysfunction in psychopathy. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  7. Presumption of Innocence in Criminal Procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Zbanca

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Presumption of innocence appears as a rule hardly in modern penal trial. For first timewas noted in legislation from the end of the XVIIIth century (United States of America legislationand Declaration of Human Rights and Citizens in 1789. This constituted a reaction compared toinquisitional report, which practically the one involved into a penal case was presumed alwaysguilty, reverting the obligation of proving own innocence. According to the U.S. Supreme Court,the presumption of the innocence of a criminal defendant is best described as an assumption ofinnocence that is indulged in the absence of contrary evidence. It is not considered evidence of thedefendant's innocence, and it does not require that a mandatory inference favorable to thedefendant be drawn from any facts in evidence.

  8. Registered criminality and sanctioning of schizophrenia patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkner, Runa; Haastrup, Soeren; Joergensen, Torben

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients with schizophrenia have been shown to have an increased risk of criminality, especially violent crimes. AIMS: The aim of the current study was to describe the pattern of crimes committed by Danish patients with schizophrenia and examine the sanctions given for crimes...... in relation to the different periods in the patients' lives: not yet known to the psychiatric hospital system, known to the system but not yet diagnosed with schizophrenia, and after being diagnosed with schizophrenia. METHODS: Information from the Danish Psychiatric Central Research Register was correlated...... with data from the Danish National Crime Register. RESULTS: One of the more prominent findings was that 16% of patients diagnosed with schizophrenia receive a prison sentence or a suspended prison sentence, despite the fact that Denmark is a co-signatory of the European Prison Rules and should treat, rather...

  9. Creative Thinking with Fairy Tales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flack, Jerry

    2001-01-01

    This article discusses how creative thinking can be encouraged in students through such classic tools as brainstorming and the productive thinking elements of fluency, flexibility, originality, and elaboration. It describes how fairy tales can be used to foster these thinking skills and suggests classroom activities. (Contains two references.) (CR)

  10. How Critical Is Critical Thinking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Ryan D.

    2014-01-01

    Recent educational discourse is full of references to the value of critical thinking as a 21st-century skill. In music education, critical thinking has been discussed in relation to problem solving and music listening, and some researchers suggest that training in critical thinking can improve students' responses to music. But what exactly is…

  11. Traditional Literacy and Critical Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dando, Priscille

    2016-01-01

    How school librarians focus on activating critical thinking through traditional literacy development can proactively set the stage for the deep thinking that occurs in all literacy development. The critical-thinking skills students build while becoming accomplished readers and writers provide the foundation for learning in a variety of…

  12. EXAMINATION OF THE COMPUTATIONAL THINKING SKILLS OF STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agah Tugrul Korucu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Computational thinking is generally considered as a kind of analytical way of thinking. According to Wings (2008 it shares with mathematical thinking, engineering thinking and scientific thinking in the general ways in which we may use for solving a problem, designing and evaluating complex systems or understanding computability and intelligence as well as the mind and human behaviour. It is generally accepted important that like high order thinking skills the analytical way of thinking should be taught to the children at very early ages. The aim of this study is to investigate the computational thinking skills of secondary school students in terms of different variables. The study group of the research is 160 secondary school students who continue their education at different levels in Konya. The “Computational Thinking Skills Scale” which has been developed by Korkmaz, Çakır and Özden (2015 used for data collection. The scale includes 22 items and it is a 5 point likert type scale. The Cronbach Alpha reliability of the scale has been calculated as 0.80 and it has been found to be valid to measure the computational skills levels of the secondary school students as a result of the analysis. As a result of this research, the computational thinking skill levels of participants differ meaningfully in terms of their class levels, do not differ meaningfully in terms of their genders, do not differ meaningfully in terms of their weekly internet usage durations, do not differ meaningfully in terms of their mobile device usage competence situations, differ meaningfully in terms of their mobile Technologies possession durations.

  13. Criminal Code, Federal District, 16 February 1971.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    Article 320 of the Criminal Code of the Federal District of Mexico defines "abortion" as the death of the conceptus at any time during pregnancy. Articles 320-32 specify penalties for inducing abortion, and Articles 333-34 exempt punishment if the abortion resulted from failure of the woman to take proper care, if the pregnancy was the result of rape, or if the pregnancy endangered the life of the woman. The abortion provisions of the criminal codes of the Mexican states of Baja California, Chiapas, Mexico, Sinoala, Sonora, Tabasco, and Tamaulipas are nearly identical to those of the Federal District Code. Certain states also give immunity from prosecution for abortion 1) if the pregnancy resulted from artificial insemination neither requested or assented to by the woman, provided that the abortion is carried out within the first 90 days of pregnancy; 2) if there is good reason to believe that the unborn child suffers from severe physical or mental disabilities of genetic or congenital origin; 3) if the health of the woman would be seriously jeopardized by the pregnancy, and 4) if the abortion is carried out for serious and substantiated economic reasons in cases where the woman has at least three children. Guanajuato and Queretaro allow abortions only when the pregnancy is the result of rape. Guerrero authorizes abortions only when the pregnancy is the result of rape, when the pregnancy results from an unlawful artificial insemination, or for eugenic reasons. Hidalgo, Nuevo Leon, and San Luis Potosi allows abortions only when the pregnancy is the result of rape or when the continuation of the pregnancy would seriously jeopardize the woman's health. In Chihuahua, Coahuila, Durango, Oaxaca, and Veracruz, abortions allowed because the pregnancy resulted from rape must be performed in the first 90 days of pregnancy.

  14. Mexico On A Criminal Traffic Scenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. P. Moloeznik

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the problem of organized crime in modern Mexico. It addresses the activities of criminal clans, which profoundly evolved since the 1930s. The USMexican extensive border length and the stable demand for drugs in the United States leads to the continuous flow of illegal migrants and drugs from Mexico to the US and American firearms back to Mexico. First, the authors address the issue of interconnectedness of crime in the neighboring countries. Second, they describe the geographical distribution of crime activity. It shows the influence of organized crime on the political life oin Mexico and ways of its adaptation to law enforcement pressure, namely division and disaggregation. The authors state that the fight against organized crime was ineffective in Mexico in 2006-2012, because it ignored political and cultural realities, it used exclusively force and almost did not involve civil society. In addition, it only increased the level of violence in the country and contributed to the growth of corruption in the ranks of law enforcement. Moreover, it increased the level of violence in the country and contributed to the growth of corruption in the ranks of law enforcement. Many of its components had a pronounced «pre-election» character, aimed at attracting the voter with the promise of an «early and decisive victory» over criminals. The article proposes new approach to the problem of organized crime in Mexico. To start with, government should refuse to use unilateral, as well as politicized and opportunistic actions. The involvement of civic society is of ultimate importance.

  15. Suspects in criminal investigations of rape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinković Darko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigations of sexual assaults mostly focus on victims and their credibility, which may cause lack of firm evidence in relation to suspects. Given the fact that the criminal offence of rape is characterised by a high incidence of false reports and accusations, frequently indicating specific persons as the perpetrators, certain caution is necessary in the investigation in order to avoid false accusations and/or convictions. As regards the personality of the rapist and motives for committing a forcible sexual act, certain types or rather certain categories of perpetrators can be distinguished, although it should be noted that a large number of rapists do not belong to one category only, but rather combine characteristics of several different types. During a criminal investigation it is of vital importance to differentiate between a rape as a surprise attack and a rape as abuse of trust, as they are compatible with the nature of the suspect's defence. The suspect shall be subjected to a forensic examination in the course of the investigation in order to find traces which prove vaginal, anal or oral penetration, coerced sexual intercourse and identity of the rapist. While conducting an interrogation of a suspected rapist, a crime investigating officer shall use either factual or emotional approach to his interviewee, depending on his psychological and motivational characteristics. In this regard, the factual approach is believed to be more efficient with anger rapists and sadistic rapists, whereas the compassionate approach gives good results with the gentlemen-rapists and partly with the power asserting rapists.

  16. Mental health services costs within the Alberta criminal justice system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Philip; Moffatt, Jessica; Dewa, Carolyn S; Nguyen, Thanh; Zhang, Ting; Lesage, Alain

    2016-01-01

    Mental illness has been widely cited as a driver of costs in the criminal justice system. The objective of this paper is to estimate the additional mental health service costs incurred within the criminal justice system that are incurred because of people with mental illnesses who go through the system. Our focus is on costs in Alberta. We set up a model of the flow of all persons through the criminal justice system, including police, court, and corrections components, and for mental health diversion, review, and forensic services. We estimate the transitional probabilities and costs that accrue as persons who have been charged move through the system. Costs are estimated for the Alberta criminal justice system as a whole, and for the mental illness component. Public expenditures for each person diverted or charged in Alberta in the criminal justice system, including mental health costs, were $16,138. The 95% range of this estimate was from $14,530 to $19,580. Of these costs, 87% were for criminal justice services and 13% were for mental illness-related services. Hospitalization for people with mental illness who were reviewed represented the greatest additional cost associated with mental illnesses. Treatment costs stemming from mental illnesses directly add about 13% onto those in the criminal justice system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Legal and Jurisprudential Bases of Marital Rape Criminalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    سید علیرضا میرکمالی

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Women are, due to their physical, psychological and social nature, most exposed to crime and are thus fragile against criminals. Moreover, they may be forced by their husbands and in the context of marriage to unusual sexual intercourses in environments such as home. Couples are free in having sexual intercourse, but his freedom should not be detrimental to one another. For this reason, the differential criminal protection of women through special criminalization of some behaviors is one of the ways to support women and reduce the likelihood of the commitment of crimes against them. Under the Iranian penal law, this practice has not been criminalized, while it seems that principles of Islamic jurisprudence and criminal law can help to criminalize it. This behavior along with moral values and social norms lead to persecution and harassment of the wife as well; and since Islam forbids committing the unlawful act and its perpetrator could be punished, therefore it is necessary that this immoral and aberrant behavior considered to be criminal.

  18. Nuclear future: thinking for building. Proceedings of the 5. Brazilian national meeting on nuclear applications; 8. General congress on nuclear energy; 12. Brazilian national meeting on reactor physics and thermal hydraulics; Futuro nuclear: refletindo para construir. Anais do 5. Encontro nacional de aplicacoes nucleares; 8. Congresso geral de energia nuclear; 12. Encontro nacional de fisica de reatores e termo-hidraulica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    These proceedings, for the first time, present jointly the 12. Brazilian national meeting on reactor physics and thermal hydraulics (12. ENFIR), the 8. General congress on nuclear energy (8. CGEN), and the 5. Brazilian national meeting on nuclear applications (5. ENAN). The main theme of discussion was: 'Nuclear Future: thinking for building'. The papers have analysed the progresses of peaceful utilization of nuclear technology and its forecasting for the beginning of the new millennium. The construction of Angra-3 nuclear power plant have been discussed.

  19. Nuclear future: thinking for building. Proceedings of the 12. Brazilian national meeting on reactor physics and thermal hydraulics; 8. General congress on nuclear energy; 5. Brazilian national meeting on nuclear applications; Futuro nuclear: refletindo para construir. Anais do 12. Encontro nacional de fisica de reatores e termo-hidraulica; 8. Congresso geral de energia nuclear; 5. Encontro nacional de aplicacoes nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    These proceedings, for the first time, present jointly the 12. Brazilian national meeting on reactor physics and thermal hydraulics (12 ENFIR), 8. General congress on nuclear energy (8. CGEN), and 5. Brazilian national meeting on nuclear applications (5. ENAN). The main theme of discussion was: 'Nuclear Future: thinking for building'. The papers have analysed the progresses of peaceful utilization of nuclear technology and its forecasting for the beginning of the new millennium. The construction of Angra-3 nuclear power plant have been discussed.

  20. Strategic thinking in turbulent times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bratianu Constantin

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to present a structural analysis of strategic thinking spectrum in turbulent times. Business excellence cannot be achieved without a well-defined strategic thinking spectrum able to elaborate and implement strategies in a fast changeable and unpredictable business environment. Strategic thinking means to think for a desirable future which can be ahead 4-5 years of the present time and to make decisions to the best of our knowledge for that unknown business environment. Thus, the research question is: How can we conceive the spectrum of strategic thinking such that we shall be able to deal with a complex and unknown future in achieving a competitive advantage? The methodology used to answer this question is based on metaphorical thinking, and multidimensional analysis. I shall consider four main dimensions: time, complexity, uncertainty, and novelty. On each of these dimensions I shall analyze the known thinking models and their attributes with respect to request formulated in the research question. Then, I shall choose those thinking models that correspond to the future characteristics and integrate them in a continuous spectrum. On each dimension I shall consider three basic thinking models. On the time dimension they are: inertial, dynamic and entropic thinking. On the complexity dimension they are: linear, nonlinear and systemic thinking. On the uncertainty dimension they are: deterministic, probabilistic and chaotic thinking. Finally, on the novelty dimension we have: template, intelligent and creative thinking. Considering all requirements for the unknown future, we conclude that strategic thinking spectrum should contain: entropic, nonlinear and systemic, probabilistic and chaotic, intelligent and creative thinking models. Such a spectrum increases the capacity of our understanding and as a consequence it enhances the capability of making adequate decisions in conditions of complexity and uncertainty.

  1. Image processing by computer analysis--potential use and application in civil and criminal litigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, T W

    1990-01-01

    's technology; and a new theory and technique on using polygraph information in litigation. I am sure that the professionals in the forensic field will be able to think of many more applications where the image processing by computer analysis tool will be able to provide solutions to complex problems. The next time you say to yourself, "I wish they would have preserved this," or, "It's too bad they didn't do an autopsy," think of this new tool that is available to help you get the documentation and answers that will stand up to the scrutiny of the civil and criminal litigation system.

  2. Designers' Cognitive Thinking Based on Evolutionary Algorithms

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang Shutao; Jianning Su; Chibing Hu; Peng Wang

    2013-01-01

    The research on cognitive thinking is important to construct the efficient intelligent design systems. But it is difficult to describe the model of cognitive thinking with reasonable mathematical theory. Based on the analysis of design strategy and innovative thinking, we investigated the design cognitive thinking model that included the external guide thinking of "width priority - depth priority" and the internal dominated thinking of "divergent thinking - convergent thinking", built a reaso...

  3. Criminal behavior in frontotemporal dementia and Alzheimer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liljegren, Madeleine; Naasan, Georges; Temlett, Julia; Perry, David C; Rankin, Katherine P; Merrilees, Jennifer; Grinberg, Lea T; Seeley, William W; Englund, Elisabet; Miller, Bruce L

    2015-03-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases can cause dysfunction of neural structures involved in judgment, executive function, emotional processing, sexual behavior, violence, and self-awareness. Such dysfunctions can lead to antisocial and criminal behavior that appears for the first time in the adult or middle-aged individual or even later in life. To investigate the frequency and type of criminal behavior among patients with a diagnosed dementing disorder. We conducted a retrospective medical record review of 2397 patients who were seen at the University of California, San Francisco, Memory and Aging Center between 1999 and 2012, including 545 patients with Alzheimer disease (AD), 171 patients with behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD), 89 patients with semantic variant of primary progressive aphasia, and 30 patients with Huntington disease. Patient notes containing specific keywords denoting criminal behavior were reviewed. Data were stratified by criminal behavior type and diagnostic groups. Frequencies of criminal behavior and χ² statistics were calculated. Of the 2397 patients studied, 204 (8.5%) had a history of criminal behavior that emerged during their illness. Of the major diagnostic groups, 42 of 545 patients (7.7%) with AD, 64 of 171 patients (37.4%) with bvFTD, 24 of 89 patients (27.0%) with semantic variant of primary progressive aphasia, and 6 of 30 patients (20%) with Huntington disease exhibited criminal behavior. A total of 14% of patients with bvFTD were statistically significantly more likely to present with criminal behavior compared with 2% of patients with AD (P violence compared with 2% of patients with AD (P = .003). Common manifestations of criminal behavior in the bvFTD group included theft, traffic violations, sexual advances, trespassing, and public urination in contrast with those in the AD group, who commonly committed traffic violations, often related to cognitive impairment. Criminal behavior is more common in patients

  4. The Influence of Beccaria in Modern Criminal Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Alberto Leyva Estupiñán

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available “On Crimes and Punishments” by Cesar Beccaria is a fundamental work for modern Criminal Law. The ideas of liberal Criminal Law are presented throughout the book and the basis of philosophy used as a criteria, clearly reappears in Western thought by the middle of the 18th Century. Beccaria is one of the first authors that actually criticize the inquisitive system and canonical law from a philosophical and Criminal Law point of view. The author criticizes capital punishment, tortures to the accused and concludes that prevention should be the final objective of punishment.

  5. The Impact of Criminal Anthropology in Britain (1880-1918

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil Davie

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Only one book devoted entirely to the theories of Cesare Lombroso was published in Britain in the period 1880-1918, and that is The Criminal, by Havelock Ellis. In his book, Ellis noted the paradox of the British reaction to criminal anthropology. While researching the book, he had canvassed opinion among criminal justice professionals on the subject, hoping to garner home-grown reactions to the impassioned criminological debates taking place at the time on the Continent. Ellis was familiar w...

  6. Criminality in men with Klinefelter's syndrome and XYY syndrome: a cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Stochholm, Kirstine; Bojesen, Anders; Jensen, Anne Skakkebæk; Juul, Svend; Gravholt, Claus Højbjerg

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the criminal pattern in men between 15 and 70 years of age diagnosed with 47,XXY (Klinefelter's syndrome (KS)) or 47,XYY compared to the general population. Design Register-based cohort study comparing the incidence of convictions among men with KS and with 47,XYY with age- and calendar-matched samples of the general population. Crime was classified into eight types (sexual abuse, homicide, burglary, violence, traffic, drug-related, arson and ‘others’). Setting Denmar...

  7. The Criminal Justice System and Ordeal of Victims of Crime in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Law is important and indeed indispensable for the continued existence of human society. The criminal justice system is entrusted with the responsibility of controlling criminal behaviour and punishing criminals or offenders. Compared to civil law, criminal law focuses more on the benefit of the state and political community ...

  8. CRIMINAL-POLITICAL FUTUROLOGY IN THE FIELD OF FIGHTING CRIME (CONCEPTUAL AND SUBJECT AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valery Novichkov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the subject area of the new direction of pre-vision — criminal-political futurology (forecasting in the field of combating crime, absorbing in itself the main types of legal prediction: criminological, criminal, criminal Executive, criminal procedural, operational search and other.

  9. Educational Design Thinking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgård, Rikke Toft

    2015-01-01

    thinking (e.g. Nelson & Stolterman or Cross), empathic design (e.g. Bannon or Gagnon & Coté), technological imagination (McCarthy & Wright or Balsamo), educational design and technology use within education (Laurrilard or Donohue), the paper builds a case for new ways of thinking through technologies...... is on how to promote, sustain and scaffold designerly ideation and technological imagination within formal/informal educational settings. Something that seems to require a dialectics focused on children’s transitions, transformations and transgressions within educational settings, engaged, empathic teaching...... and radical educational experience and competence in the tradition of e.g. Freire, Ranciére, or Hooks. Rather, than focusing on the potentials of technology to support visible learning, instructional design, differentiated learning or measurement of quality in teaching and learning, this paper focuses...

  10. Fundamentals of thinking, patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gafurov, O. M.; Gafurov, D. O.; Syryamkin, V. I.

    2018-05-01

    The authors analyze the fundamentals of thinking and propose to consider a model of the brain based on the presence of magnetic properties of gliacytes (Schwann cells) because of their oxygen saturation (oxygen has paramagnetic properties). The authors also propose to take into account the motion of electrical discharges through synapses causing electric and magnetic fields as well as additional effects such as paramagnetic resonance, which allows combining multisensory object-related information located in different parts of the brain. Therefore, the events of the surrounding world are reflected and remembered in the cortex columns, thus, creating isolated subnets with altered magnetic properties (patterns) and subsequently participate in recognition of objects, form a memory, and so on. The possibilities for the pattern-based thinking are based on the practical experience of applying methods and technologies of artificial neural networks in the form of a neuroemulator and neuromorphic computing devices.

  11. Social construction of victim’s blame, with special emphasis on criminal procedure against accused for the assassination of Zoran Đinđić, the prime minister of Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    Nikolić-Ristanović Vesna Ž.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, the problem of victim blaming is analyzed, in general, and particularly, in the criminal procedure and through the media. Also, the attention is paid to the secondary victimization of family members of murder victims in general, and, especially, in criminal procedure, and when there is the tendency of blaming direct victim. In the first part of the paper the overview of existing theoretical knowledge is given. In the second part, the analyses of social construction of victim’s ...

  12. A science think tank

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devine, F [The Australian, (Australia)

    1999-07-01

    A journalist views on public perceptions on nuclear issues in Australia and Japan is presented. It is also emphasised that by not offering an undergraduate course in nuclear engineering, Australia have closed the door to the nuclear energy development in Australia and costed the country some depth of specialized knowledges. A scientific think tank with active participation of the nuclear scientists is thought to benefit Australia and be in the position to influence private industrial and governmental planning.

  13. Relative Thinking Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Ofer H. Azar

    2005-01-01

    The article presents a theory that I denote “Relative Thinking Theory,” which claims that people consider relative differences and not only absolute differences when making various economics decisions, even in those cases where the rational model dictates that people should consider only absolute differences. The article reviews experimental evidence for this behavior, summarizing briefly several experiments I conducted, as well as some earlier related literature. It then discusses how we can...

  14. Cultivating strategic thinking skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirey, Maria R

    2012-06-01

    This department highlights change management strategies that may be successful in strategically planning and executing organizational change initiatives. With the goal of presenting practical approaches helpful to nurse leaders advancing organizational change, content includes evidence-based projects, tools, and resources that mobilize and sustain organizational change initiatives. In this article, the author presents an overview of strategic leadership and offers approaches for cultivating strategic thinking skills.

  15. A science think tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devine, F.

    1999-01-01

    A journalist views on public perceptions on nuclear issues in Australia and Japan is presented. It is also emphasised that by not offering an undergraduate course in nuclear engineering, Australia have closed the door to the nuclear energy development in Australia and costed the country some depth of specialized knowledges. A scientific think tank with active participation of the nuclear scientists is thought to benefit Australia and be in the position to influence private industrial and governmental planning

  16. Critical Thinking & Lifelong Learning: An ADKAR Model-Based Framework for Managing a Change in Thinking & English Language Learning Styles at the Secondary Stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdallah, Mahmoud M. S.; Mohammad, Marwa M. M.

    2016-01-01

    The general secondary stage in Egypt is a vital educational phase since it plays an essential role in developing students' thinking and learning styles to prepare them for life in general and higher education in particular. Accordingly, it has become urgent and persistent to develop secondary-stage students' critical thinking styles while…

  17. Mind, Thinking and Creativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janani Harish

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Global civilization is the product of diverse cultures, each contributing a unique perspective arising from the development of different mental faculties and powers of mind. The momentous achievements of modern science are the result of the cumulative development of mind’s capacity for analytic thinking, mathematical rendering and experimental validation. The near-exclusive preoccupation with analysis, universal laws, mechanism, materialism, and objective experience over the past two centuries has shaped the world we live in today, accounting both for its accomplishments and its insoluble problems. Today humanity confronts complex challenges that defy solution by piecemeal analysis, unidimensional theories, and fragmented strategies. Poverty, unemployment, economic crisis, fundamentalism, violence, climate change, war, refugees, reflect the limitations and blindspots that have resulted from a partial, one-sided application of the diverse capacities of the human mind. Human monocultures suffer from all the limitations as their biological counterparts. There is urgent need to revive the legitimacy of synthetic, organic and integrated modes of thinking, to restore the credibility of subjective self-experience in science, to reaffirm the place of symbol, analogy and metaphor as valid ways of knowing and communication in education, to recognize the unique role of the individual in social processes, to recognize the central role of insight and intuition in science as in art. This article examines themes presented at the WAAS-WUC course on Mind, Thinking and Creativity, conducted at Dubrovnik in April 2016.

  18. Multidimensionality of thinking in the context of creativity studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belolutskaya A.K.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the theoretical difference between the flexibility and the multidimensionality of thinking. Multidimensionality is discussed as a characteristic of thinking that is necessary for exploration of the variability of structural transformations of problematic situations. The objective of the study was to examine a number of theories concerning the correlative connection between the multidimensionality of thinking and other characteristics of creative, productive thinking: the flexibility of thinking; the formation of an operation of dialectical thinking such as “mediation”; the ability of a person to use a scheme as an abstraction for analysis of various specific content. A total of 85 people participated in the study: they were 15 to 17 years old, students at a senior school in Kaliningradskaya oblast, winners of different stages of the all-Russian academic competition in physics, chemistry, and mathematics. All respondents had a high level of academic success and of general intelligence. The following techniques were used in this study: (1 my technique for diagnostics of the multidimensionality of thinking; (2 my technique of “schemes and paintings,” designed for diagnostics of the ability to relate abstract schemes and various specific content; (3 the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking (verbal battery; (4 a diagnostic technique for dialectical thinking: “What can be simultaneous?” All the hypotheses were confirmed. Confirmation was received of the existence of a correlation connection; this finding counts in favor of the assumption that the parameters of thinking my colleagues and I were working with can in aggregate be considered an integral characteristic of human thinking. It allows us to distinguish significant features of a situation from secondary ones—that is, to see a substantial contradiction and to propose several options for its transformation.

  19. MENTAL SHIFT TOWARDS SYSTEMS THINKING SKILLS IN COMPUTER SCIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MILDEOVÁ, Stanislava

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available When seeking solutions to current problems in the field of computer science – and other fields – we encounter situations where traditional approaches no longer bring the desired results. Our cognitive skills also limit the implementation of reliable mental simulation within the basic set of relations. The world around us is becoming more complex and mutually interdependent, and this is reflected in the demands on computer support. Thus, in today’s education and science in the field of computer science and all other disciplines and areas of life need to address the issue of the paradigm shift, which is generally accepted by experts. The goal of the paper is to present the systems thinking that facilitates and extends the understanding of the world through relations and linkages. Moreover, the paper introduces the essence of systems thinking and the possibilities to achieve mental a shift toward systems thinking skills. At the same time, the link between systems thinking and functional literacy is presented. We adopted the “Bathtub Test” from the variety of systems thinking tests that allow people to assess the understanding of basic systemic concepts, in order to assess the level of systems thinking. University students (potential information managers were the examined subjects of the examination of systems thinking that was conducted over a longer time period and whose aim was to determine the status of systems thinking. . The paper demonstrates that some pedagogical concepts and activities, in our case the subject of System Dynamics that leads to the appropriate integration of systems thinking in education. There is some evidence that basic knowledge of system dynamics and systems thinking principles will affect students, and their thinking will contribute to an improved approach to solving problems of computer science both in theory and practice.

  20. I think in portuguese I think in portuguese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Signe Oksefjell Ebeling

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper takes Aijmer (1997, 1998 and Simon-Vandenbergen’s (1998 contrastive work on I think as its starting point. In their studies, both Aijmer and Simon-Vandenbergen show that English think is a fuzzy verb and that this becomes particularly evident in a cross-linguistic perspective. Neither Swedish, Dutch or French seems to have one verb corresponding to the whole semantic range of think. In this article, the polysemous nature of think will be further explored in an English-Portuguese contrastive perspective. The data for the study will be taken from the English- Portuguese parallel corpus COMPARA. Portuguese equivalents of (I think will be analysed and the results compared to the findings of Aijmer and Simon-Vandenbergen. This paper takes Aijmer (1997, 1998 and Simon-Vandenbergen’s (1998 contrastive work on I think as its starting point. In their studies, both Aijmer and Simon-Vandenbergen show that English think is a fuzzy verb and that this becomes particularly evident in a cross-linguistic perspective. Neither Swedish, Dutch or French seems to have one verb corresponding to the whole semantic range of think. In this article, the polysemous nature of think will be further explored in an English-Portuguese contrastive perspective. The data for the study will be taken from the English- Portuguese parallel corpus COMPARA. Portuguese equivalents of (I think will be analysed and the results compared to the findings of Aijmer and Simon-Vandenbergen.