WorldWideScience

Sample records for general considerations 2867fnl

  1. Orthognathic surgery: general considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khechoyan, David Y

    2013-08-01

    a patient's appearance and occlusal function can be improved significantly, impacting the patient's sense of self and well-being. Successful outcomes in modern orthognathic surgery rely on close collaboration between the surgeon and the orthodontist across all stages of treatment, from preoperative planning to finalization of occlusion. Virtual computer planning promotes a more accurate analysis of dentofacial deformity and preoperative planning. It is also an invaluable aid in providing comprehensive patient education. In this article, the author describes the general surgical principles that underlie orthognathic surgery, highlighting the sequence of treatment, preoperative analysis of dentofacial deformity, surgical execution of the treatment plan, and possible complications.

  2. Blastogenetic associations: General considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubinsky, Mark

    2015-11-01

    Associations of anomalies, with VACTERL as the prototype, have been the source of much debate, including questions about the validity and definition of this category. Evidence is presented for a teratologic basis for associations involving interactions between disruptive events and specific vulnerabilities. Because the embryo is organized in time and space, differences in the timing, location, and severity of exposures will create variable sequelae for any specific vulnerability, creating associations. The blastogenetic stage of development involves distinct properties that affect the nature of associations arising during this time, including relatively undifferentiated developmental fields and causally nonspecific malformations. With this, single anomalies can be part of the spectrum of findings that comprise a specific association. A specific defect defines a subset of disturbances, biasing frequencies of other defects. Processes are basic, integrated, and general, so disruptions are often lethal, and can have multiple effects, accounting for high incidences of multiple anomalies, and overlaps between associations. Blastogenetic disturbances also do not affect the late "fine tuning" of minor anomalies, although pathogenetic sequences can occur. This model suggests that certain combinations of congenital anomalies can arise from causally nonspecific teratogenetic fields determined by timing, location, and vulnerabilities, rather than polytopic developmental fields. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. General B factory design considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zisman, M.S.

    1992-12-01

    We describe the general considerations that go into the design of an asymmetric B factory collider. Justification is given for the typical parameters of such a facility, and the physics and technology challenges that arise from these parameter choices are discussed. Cost and schedule issues for a B factory are discussed briefly. A summary of existing proposals is presented, noting their similarities and differences

  4. [General considerations on psychiatric interconsultation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpinacci, J A

    1975-03-01

    This paper attempts to follow the evolution of some general ideas on Psychiatric Interconsulting. It is the result of six years' work at Ramos Mejía Hospital, Buenos Aires. Progressive transformations were imposed by daily practice on our team's theoretical and technical conceptions. We started with an individualistic-phenomenical approach, and we were forced to switch to a dynamical-situational one. The general working model we use at present is briefly summarized, emphasizing the important role played by Psychiatric Interconsulting in the change of the medical cultural patterns prevailing at present in our milieu. Two main factors for the role of privilege played by the Interconsulting team are set forth: one is conceptual, the other is pragmatic. From a conceptual standpoint, the theoretical basis of Psychiatric Interconsulting is much broader than those of other specialities, like clinical practice or surgery, for it includes, besides Biology, the Psychological and Socio-Historical determinants of the disturbance the diseases man suffers. From a pragmatic standpoint, the boundaries of human and physical fields within which Psychiatric Interconsulting is operating, go beyond the scope of daily medical practice. Their place could be located in between formal traditional wefts, relating to institutional structures as well as to specific medical practice. Professionals working at Interconsulting are usually required at general wards, at consulting offices, at emergency wards, in corridors, or even at the bar. They are interested not only in specific medical problems; they encompass the whole range of personal and institutional framework, and consider the whole situation in a comprehensive approach. Knowledge acquired in this widened professional field, together with actual experience in dealing with people in distress, are the main sources for theoretical conceptualization of new activities, as well as for building pragmatic tools to modify the official medical

  5. 20 CFR 332.2 - General considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... a female employee be considered to lack remuneration with respect to a day solely because of the... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false General considerations. 332.2 Section 332.2 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT...

  6. General aspects of siting and safety considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutgers, E.

    1980-01-01

    The siting process from site selection to the different stages of review by the regulatory body is described. Special attention is payed to the role and responsibilities of the licensing authority. Next, the basic considerations involved in the siting process are reviewed. They include system planning, engineering, safety, environmental impact (including land use) and economics. Case studies illustrating different aspects of the siting process (e.g. site selection) are presented. (orig.)

  7. Triggering and data acquisition general considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butler, Joel N.

    2003-01-01

    We provide a general introduction to trigger and data acquisition systems in High Energy Physics. We emphasize the new possibilities and new approaches that have been made possible by developments in computer technology and networking

  8. Considerations for a general flexible detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulos, F.

    1975-01-01

    Starting from a set of desirable features, a general shape of the detector is chosen. To decide on the size and magnitude of the solenoidal magnetic field 4 cases are compared. A good compromise is chosen and illustrated

  9. [Management of eyelid tumors: general considerations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasudry, J

    2011-12-01

    Despite the fact that the majority of eyelid tumors are benign, proper management in daily practice requires detection of the malignant ones. Several clinical criteria are usually proposed to support or reject a hypothesis of malignancy; however, most are of limited reliability. In any case of doubt, outpatient biopsy is recommended, so as to establish the correct diagnosis and formulate the most appropriate treatment plan. In all facial malignancies, the first (and absolutely mandatory) consideration is control of the cancer. Then, restoration of eyelid function can be addressed, in the following order: protection of the globe by complete dynamic eyelid closure and opening, visual function (and prevention of possible deprivation amblyopia) by insuring a clear visual axis, correction of the tear film, efficient lachrymal drainage, and only then the role of the eyelids in facial expression and esthetics. For most malignant eyelid tumors, the best assurance of complete excision is obtained by extemporaneous examination of the resection margins by frozen section (by Mohs' micrographic surgery techniques, or a variation thereof). Currently, advancement and transposition flaps, possibly in combination with tarso-conjunctival or skin grafts, are the most utilised techniques. Despite the lack of histological verification, new treatment modalities, including topical chemotherapy, photodynamic therapy and cryotherapy, may provide interesting treatment options, particularly in collaboration with the dermatologist. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. 16 CFR 1012.1 - General policy considerations; scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Policy, sets forth requirements for advance public notice, public attendance, and recordkeeping for... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General policy considerations; scope. 1012.1 Section 1012.1 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL MEETINGS POLICY-MEETINGS...

  11. General considerations for SSC scintillator calorimeters (For the scintillator general subgroup)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nodulman, L.

    1989-01-01

    The Scintillator Calorimetry group divided into three subgroups: a conventional uranium and plate design ala ZEUS, fiber design, and a group on general considerations. The considerations of the third group are reported here on geometrical and technical issues. 1 fig

  12. GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS ON REGULATIONS AND SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR QUADRICYCLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Pavlovic

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, a new class of compact vehicles has been emerging and wide-spreading all around Europe: the quadricycle. These four-wheeled motor vehicles, originally derived from motorcycles, are a small and fuel-efficient mean of transportation used in rural or urban areas as an alternative to motorbikes or city cars. In some countries, they are also endorsed by local authorities and institutions which support small and environmentally-friendly vehicles. In this paper, several general considerations on quadricycles will be provided including the vehicle classification, evolution of regulations (as homologation, driver licence, emissions, etc, technical characteristics, safety requirements, most relevant investigations, and other additional useful information (e.g. references, links. It represents an important and actual topic of investigation for designers and manufacturers considering that the new EU regulation on the approval and market surveillance of quadricycles will soon enter in force providing conclusive requirements for functional safety environmental protection of these promising vehicles.

  13. Cellular gauge symmetry and the Li organization principle: General considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tozzi, Arturo; Peters, James F; Navarro, Jorge; Kun, Wu; Lin, Bi; Marijuán, Pedro C

    2017-12-01

    Based on novel topological considerations, we postulate a gauge symmetry for living cells and proceed to interpret it from a consistent Eastern perspective: the li organization principle. In our framework, the reference system is the living cell, equipped with general symmetries and energetic constraints standing for the intertwined biochemical, metabolic and signaling pathways that allow the global homeostasis of the system. Environmental stimuli stand for forces able to locally break the symmetry of metabolic/signaling pathways, while the species-specific DNA is the gauge field that restores the global homeostasis after external perturbations. We apply the Borsuk-Ulam Theorem (BUT) to operationalize a methodology in terms of topology/gauge fields and subsequently inquire about the evolution from inorganic to organic structures and to the prokaryotic and eukaryotic modes of organization. We converge on the strategic role that second messengers have played regarding the emergence of a unitary gauge field with profound evolutionary implications. A new avenue for a deeper investigation of biological complexity looms. Philosophically, we might be reminded of the duality between two essential concepts proposed by the great Chinese synthesizer Zhu Xi (in the XIII Century). On the one side the li organization principle, equivalent to the dynamic interplay between symmetry and information; and on the other side the qi principle, equivalent to the energy participating in the process-both always interlinked with each other. In contemporary terms, it would mean the required interconnection between information and energy, and the necessity to revise essential principles of information philosophy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. 40 CFR 230.91 - Purpose and general considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... done after taking into consideration cost, existing technology, and logistics in light of overall... national or regional level. No modifications to the basic application, meaning, or intent of this subpart...

  15. 33 CFR 332.1 - Purpose and general considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... available and capable of being done after taking into consideration cost, existing technology, and logistics... and the Corps at the national or regional level. No modifications to the basic application, meaning...

  16. General considerations for neutron capture therapy at a reactor facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binney, S.E.

    2001-01-01

    In addition to neutron beam intensity and quality, there are also a number of other significant criteria related to a nuclear reactor that contribute to a successful neutron capture therapy (NCT) facility. These criteria are classified into four main categories: Nuclear design factors, facility management and operations factors, facility resources, and non-technical factors. Important factors to consider are given for each of these categories. In addition to an adequate neutron beam intensity and quality, key requirements for a successful neutron capture therapy facility include necessary finances to construct or convert a facility for NCT, a capable medical staff to perform the NCT, and the administrative support for the facility. The absence of any one of these four factors seriously jeopardizes the overall probability of success of the facility. Thus nuclear reactor facility management considering becoming involved in neutron capture therapy, should it be proven clinically successful, should take all these factors into consideration. (author)

  17. Simulation modelling in agriculture: General considerations. | R.I. ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A computer simulation model is a detailed working hypothesis about a given system. The computer does all the necessary arithmetic when the hypothesis is invoked to predict the future behaviour of the simulated system under given conditions.A general pragmatic approach to model building is discussed; techniques are ...

  18. General consideration of domestic participation in nuclear power projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Csik, B.J.

    1975-01-01

    No nuclear power plant can be supplied entirely by outside sources. Some degree of domestic participation is always required and this can be increased if desired. There is no general rule as to what can and should be supplied locally; different countries have different characteristics, conditions and possibilities, and these define the scope of what is to be done. (orig./FW) [de

  19. General consideration of effective plutonium utilization in future LWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, Nobuyuki; Okubo, Tsutomu

    2009-01-01

    In this study, the potential of mixed oxide fueled light water reactors (MOX-LWRs), especially focusing on the high conversion type LWRs (HC-LWRs) such as FLWR are evaluated in terms of both economic aspect and effective use of plutonium. For economics consideration, relative economics positions of MOX-LWRs are clarified comparing the cost of electricity for uranium fueled LWRs (U-LWRs), MOX-LWRs and fast breeder reactors (FBRs) assuming future natural uranium price raise and variation of parameters such as construction cost and capacity factor. Also the economic superiority of MOX utilization against the uranium use is mentioned from the view point of plutonium credit concerning to the front-end fuel cycle cost. In terms of effective use of plutonium, comparative evaluations on plutonium mass balance in the cases of HC-LWR and high moderation type LWRs (HM-LWRs) taking into account plutonium quality (ratio of fissile to total plutonium) constraint in multiple recycling are performed as representative MOX utilization cases. Through this evaluation, the advantageous features of plutonium multiple recycling by HC-LWR are clarified. From all these results, merits of the introduction of HC-LWRs are discussed. (author)

  20. Radiation chemistry of heavy-particle tracks. I. General considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magee, J.L.; Chatterjee, A.

    1980-01-01

    The radiation chemistry of heavy-particle tracks in dilute aqueous solution is considered in a unified manner. Emphasis is on the physical and chemical phenomena which are involved rather than on the construction of models to be used in actual calculations although the latter problem is discussed. A differential segment of a heavy-particle track is composed of two parts which we call core and penumbra; elementary considerations show that all properties of such a differential track can be uniquely specified in terms of a two-parameter system, and we choose energy per nucleon (E) and atomic numbers (Z) as independent parameters. The nature of heavy-particle-track processes varies with the magnitude of the energy deposit (LET), and we discuss three categories of track problems, for low-, intermediate-, and high-LET cases, respectively. Scavenger reactions normally terminate radical recombination in a track, and for heavy-particle tracks we find a criterion involving the scavenger concentration for a convenient separation of core and penumbra into essentially noninteracting parts which can be treated independently. Problems of the core expansion in the three regions are considered, and it is found that a versatile model can be constructed on concepts previously introduced by Ganguly and Magee. A model for the penumbra, based on the authors' electron-track theory, is presented and discussed

  1. GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS ON THE DISSOLUTION AND LIQUIDATION OF ROMANIAN COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Cristina Baciu

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available All stakeholders are interested in whether a firm has a good and stable financial situation, even though they all have different stakes in it. However, not all companies can succeed and operate profitably. The purpose of the study is to examine the peculiarities of dissolution and liquidation in Romania and the characteristics of liquidation of companies, according to their legal form. From examining the general causes of dissolution to specifics of different type of companies, all elements have a great importance in understanding how to avoid this procedure.

  2. General considerations on the oxide fuel-cladding chemical interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pascard, R.

    1977-01-01

    Since the very first experimental irradiations in thermal reactors, performed in view of the future Rapsodie fuel general study, corrosion cladding anomalies were observed. After 10 years of Rapsodie and more than two years of Phenix, performance brought definite confirmation of the chemical reactions between the irradiated fuel and cladding. That is the reason for which the fuel designers express an urgent need for determining the corrosion rates. Semi-empirical laws and mechanisms describing corrosion processes are proposed. Erratic conditions for appearance of the oxide-cladding corrosion are stressed upon. Obviously such a problem can be fully appreciated only by a statistical approach based on a large number of observations on the true LMFBR fuel pins

  3. General Considerations of the Electrostatic Boundary Conditions in Oxide Heterostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higuchi, Takuya

    2011-08-19

    -VI' for semiconductors. As we will review, interfaces between different families creates a host of electrostatic issues. They can be somewhat avoided if, as in many semiconductor heterostructures, only one family is used, with small perturbations (such as n-type or p-type doping) around them. However, for most transition metal oxides, this is greatly restrictive. For example, LaMnO{sub 3} and SrMnO{sub 3} are both insulators in part due to strong electron correlations, and only in their solid solution does 'colossal magnetoresistance' emerge in bulk. Similarly, the metallic superlattice shown in Fig. 1(c) can be considered a nanoscale deconstruction of (La,Sr)TiO{sub 3} to the insulating parent compounds. Therefore the aspiration to arbitrarily mix and match perovskite components requires a basic understanding of, and ultimately control over, these issues. In this context, here we present basic electrostatic features that arise in oxide heterostructures which vary the ionic charge stacking sequence. In close relation to the analysis of the stability of polar surfaces and semiconductor heterointerfaces, the variation of the dipole moment across a heterointerface plays a key role in determining its stability. Different self-consistent assignments of the unit cell are presented, allowing the polar discontinuity picture to be recast in terms of an equivalent local charge neutrality picture. The latter is helpful in providing a common framework with which to discuss electronic reconstructions, local-bonding considerations, crystalline defects, and lattice polarization on an equal footing, all of which are the subject of extensive current investigation.

  4. Generalized causal mediation and path analysis: Extensions and practical considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Jeffrey M; Cho, Jang Ik; Liu, Yiying; Nelson, Suchitra

    2018-01-01

    Causal mediation analysis seeks to decompose the effect of a treatment or exposure among multiple possible paths and provide casually interpretable path-specific effect estimates. Recent advances have extended causal mediation analysis to situations with a sequence of mediators or multiple contemporaneous mediators. However, available methods still have limitations, and computational and other challenges remain. The present paper provides an extended causal mediation and path analysis methodology. The new method, implemented in the new R package, gmediation (described in a companion paper), accommodates both a sequence (two stages) of mediators and multiple mediators at each stage, and allows for multiple types of outcomes following generalized linear models. The methodology can also handle unsaturated models and clustered data. Addressing other practical issues, we provide new guidelines for the choice of a decomposition, and for the choice of a reference group multiplier for the reduction of Monte Carlo error in mediation formula computations. The new method is applied to data from a cohort study to illuminate the contribution of alternative biological and behavioral paths in the effect of socioeconomic status on dental caries in adolescence.

  5. Considerations on requests for euthanasia or assisted suicide; a qualitative study with Dutch general practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ten Cate, Katja; van Tol, Donald G; van de Vathorst, Suzanne

    2017-11-16

    In the Netherlands, euthanasia or assisted suicide (EAS) is neither a right of the patient nor a duty of the physician. Beside the legal requirements, physicians can weigh their own considerations when they decide on a request for EAS. We aim at a better understanding of the considerations that play a role when physicians decide on a request for EAS. This was a qualitative study. We analysed 33 interviews held with general practitioners (GPs) from various regions in the Netherlands. The considerations found can be divided in three main types. (i) Perceived legal criteria, (ii) individual interpretations of the legal criteria and (iii) considerations unrelated to the legal criteria. Considerations of this 3rd type have not been mentioned so far in the literature and the debate on EAS. Examples are: the family should agree to EAS, the patient's attitude must reflect resignation, or conflicts must be resolved. Our study feeds the ethical discussion on the tension that can arise between a physician's own views on death and dying, and the views and preferences of his patients. When considerations like 'no unresolved conflicts' or 'enough resignation' influence the decision to grant a request for EAS this poses questions from an ethical and professional point of view. We hypothesise that these considerations reflect GPs' views on what 'good dying' entails and we advocate further research on this topic. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. 38 CFR 4.75 - General considerations for evaluating visual impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... for evaluating visual impairment. 4.75 Section 4.75 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT... § 4.75 General considerations for evaluating visual impairment. (a) Visual impairment. The evaluation of visual impairment is based on impairment of visual acuity (excluding developmental errors of...

  7. Proposal to change General Consideration 5 and Principle 2 of the International Code of Nomenclature of Prokaryotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oren, Aharon; Garrity, George M

    2014-01-01

    A proposal is submitted to the ICSP to change the wording of General Consideration 5 of the International Code of Nomenclature of Prokaryotes (ICNP), deleting the words Schizophycetes, Cyanophyceae and Cyanobacteria from the groups of organisms whose nomenclature is covered by the Code. It is further proposed to change the terms Zoological Code and International Code of Botanical Nomenclature in General Consideration 5 and in Principle 2 to International Code of Zoological Nomenclature and International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi and plants, respectively.

  8. 48 CFR 970.1504-1-5 - General considerations and techniques for determining fixed fees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... the opportunity to hold or expand a staff whose loyalties are primarily to the contractor; and (8) Other special considerations, including support of Government programs such as those relating to small...

  9. Considerations concering the generalization of the Dirac equations to unstable fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kniehl, Bernd A.; Sirlin, Alberto

    2014-08-01

    We discuss the generalization of the Dirac equations and spinors in momentum space to free unstable spin-1/2 fermions taking into account the fundamental requirement of Lorentz covariance. We derive the generalized adjoint Dirac equations and spinors, and explain the very simple relation that exists, in our formulation, between the unstable and stable cases. As an application of the generalized spinors, we evaluate the probability density. We also discuss the behavior of the generalized Dirac equations under time reversal.

  10. In the Beginning of the Middle: Curriculum Considerations for Middle School General Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giebelhausen, Robin

    2015-01-01

    Middle school general music is an experience that numerous music educators feel underprepared to teach. Because many undergraduate programs spend little time on this teaching scenario and because the challenges of middle school general music are different from those of elementary general music or middle school ensembles, teachers often lack the…

  11. Considerations on requests for euthanasia or assisted suicide; a qualitative study with Dutch general practitioners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ten Cate, Katja; van Tol, Donald G.; van de Vathorst, Suzanne

    2017-01-01

    Background. In the Netherlands, euthanasia or assisted suicide (EAS) is neither a right of the patient nor a duty of the physician. Beside the legal requirements, physicians can weigh their own considerations when they decide on a request for EAS. Objective. We aim at a better understanding of the

  12. General views about specimen irradiations in reactors; Considerations generales sur'les irradiations d'echantillons dans les reacteurs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seguin, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-07-01

    Specimen irradiation of fissile or non-fissile materials, carried out under circumstances becoming more and more severe and in reactor of increasing flux bas led to an evolution of irradiation rigs. A survey of the problems arising from irradiating under these various circumstances leads to conclude that it is possible to devise one capsule type suitable to every particular case, and that in a wide temperature range. Consequently, once the various irradiation-parameters known, a general method of calculation can be followed so as to determine the various sizes of the parts constituting the capsule. These theoretical calculations might sometimes be corrected through benefits gained from previous irradiations. Similarly, practical experimentation might allow to foresee more handy assembling of the capsule, specimen loading-and unloading being easier at the same time. (author) [French] L'irradiation d'echantillons, fissiles ou non fissiles, dans des conditions imposees de plus en plus strictes et dans des reacteurs a flux de plus en plus eleve, a eu pour consequence une evolution dans la conception des dispositifs d'irradiation. Lorsqu'on examine les problemes souleves par ces differentes irradiations, on en conclut qu'il est possible de concevoir un type de capsule capable de donner satisfaction dans chaque cas particulier, et ce, dans une tres large gamme de temperature. Par consequent, les differents parametres de l'irradiation etant connus, une methode generale de calcul peut etre suivie pour determiner les differentes cotes des pieces constitutives de la capsule. Ces calculs theoriques devront quelquefois etre corriges grace aux enseignements tires d'irradiations precedentes. De meme, l'experience acquise permettra d'envisager un montage plus aise de la capsule, tout en facilitant l'enfournement et le defournement des echantillons.

  13. Cre-loxP-Mediated Recombination: General Principles and Experimental Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLellan, Micheal A; Rosenthal, Nadia A; Pinto, Alexander R

    2017-03-02

    The cre-loxP-mediated recombination system (the "cre-loxP system") is an integral experimental tool for mammalian genetics and cell biology. Use of the system has greatly expanded our ability to precisely interrogate gene function in the mouse, providing both spatial and temporal control of gene expression. This has been largely due to the simplicity of its use and its adaptability to address diverse biological questions. While the use of the cre-loxP system is becoming increasingly widespread, in particular because of growing availability of conditional mouse mutants, many considerations need to be taken into account when utilizing the cre-loxP system. This review provides an overview of the cre-loxP system and its various permutations. It addresses the limitations of cre-loxP technology and related considerations for experimental design, and it discusses alternative strategies for site-specific genetic recombination and integration. © 2017 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  14. Coherent states, quantum gravity, and the Born-Oppenheimer approximation. I. General considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stottmeister, Alexander; Thiemann, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    This article, as the first of three, aims at establishing the (time-dependent) Born-Oppenheimer approximation, in the sense of space adiabatic perturbation theory, for quantum systems constructed by techniques of the loop quantum gravity framework, especially the canonical formulation of the latter. The analysis presented here fits into a rather general framework and offers a solution to the problem of applying the usual Born-Oppenheimer ansatz for molecular (or structurally analogous) systems to more general quantum systems (e.g., spin-orbit models) by means of space adiabatic perturbation theory. The proposed solution is applied to a simple, finite dimensional model of interacting spin systems, which serves as a non-trivial, minimal model of the aforesaid problem. Furthermore, it is explained how the content of this article and its companion affect the possible extraction of quantum field theory on curved spacetime from loop quantum gravity (including matter fields).

  15. Relationship between potency and boiling point of general anesthetics: a thermodynamic consideration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dastmalchi, S; Barzegar-Jalali, M

    2000-07-20

    The most important group of nonspecific drugs is that of the general anesthetics. These nonspecific compounds vary greatly in structure, from noble gases such as Ar or Xe to complex steroids. Since the development of clinical anesthesia over a century ago, there has been a vast amount of research and speculation concerning the mechanism of action of general anesthetics. Despite these efforts, the exact mechanism remains unknown. Many theories of narcosis do not explain how unconsciousness is produced at a molecular level, but instead relate some physicochemical property of anesthetic agents to their anesthetic potencies. In this paper, we address some of those physicochemical properties, with more emphasis on correlating the anesthetic potency of volatile anesthetics to their boiling points based on thermodynamic principles.

  16. Forbidden Raman scattering processes. I. General considerations and E1--M1 scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harney, R.C.

    1979-01-01

    The generalized theory of forbidden Raman scattering processes is developed in terms of the multipole expansion of the electromagnetic interaction Hamiltonian. Using the general expressions, the theory of electric dipole--magnetic dipole (E1--M1) Raman scattering is derived in detail. The 1 S 0 → 3 P 1 E1--M1 Raman scattering cross section in atomic magnesium is calculated for two applicable laser wavelengths using published f-value data. Since resonantly enhanced cross sections larger than 10 -29 cm 2 /sr are predicted it should be possible to experimentally observe this scattering phenomenon. In addition, by measuring the frequency dependence of the cross section near resonance, it may be possible to directly determine the relative magnitudes of the Axp and AxA contributions to the scattering cross section. Finally, possible applications of the effect in atomic and molecular physics are discussed

  17. General Considerations Regarding the Restrictions, Exemptions and Limitations on the Right of Free Movement of Persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilica Negrut

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses a current problem, not only for the legal research, but also for the practical activity. Through this study we resume a subject that was analyzed by other authors as well, however, we highlighted, based on the analysis and observation, certain features on the free movement of persons. In the current context of globalization, the free movement of persons has new nuances. Based on the historical perspective of the approach of this principle, we examined the restrictions, exceptions and limitations on free movement of persons. From the analysis of the European legislation and jurisprudence it results that the exceptions on the free movement of persons must be interpreted strictly, the limits and the purpose of the restrictions being consistent with the general principles of European Union law (non-discrimination principle, proportionality and fundamental rights protection.

  18. Material properties requirements for LMFBR structural design: General considerations and data needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pugh, C E [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Purdy, C M [U.S. Energy Research and Development Administration (United States)

    1977-07-01

    A statement is given of material properties information needed in connection with the structural design technology for liquid-metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) primary circuit components. Implementation of current analysis methods and criteria is considered with an emphasis on data and data correlations for performing elastic-plastic and creep analyses, for establishing allowable stress limits, and for computing creep-fatigue damage. Further development of the technology is discussed in relation to properties information. Emphasis is placed on improved constitutive equations for representing inelastic material behavior, on procedures for treating time-dependent fatigue, and on criteria for creep rupture. The properties are generally discussed without regard to specific alloys, since most categories of information are needed for each major structural material. Some sample experimental results are given for type 304 stainless steel and 2 1/4 Cr-1 Mo steel. (author)

  19. Supporting and Protecting the Victims of Crime and the European Union. Some General Considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana-Minodora Rusu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper there were examined, the general provisions of Directive 2012/29/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 25 October 2012 establishing minimum standards on the rights, support and protection of victims of crime and replacing the Framework Decision 2001/220/JHA. The paper continues other studies relating to international judicial cooperation in criminal matters, published in national or international journals or conference proceedings. Developed in a modern way that allows understanding the terms used by the European legislator and the described objectives, the paper can be useful to academics, practitioners or European legislator in terms of changing and supplementing this legislative act. The innovations consist in the brief examination, in the critical opinions and in formulating de lege ferenda, by which we propose a single act regulating the rights, supporting and protecting victims of crime by amending and completion of the examined document.

  20. Material properties requirements for LMFBR structural design: general considerations and data needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pugh, C.E.; Purdy, C.M.

    1977-01-01

    A statement is given of material properties information needed in connection with the structural design technology for liquid-metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) primary circuit components. Implementation of current analysis methods and criteria is considered with an emphasis on data and data correlations for performing elastic-plastic and creep analyses, for establishing allowable stress limits, and for computing creep-fatigue damage. Further development of the technology is discussed in relation to properties information. Emphasis is placed on improved constitutive equations for representing inelastic material behavior, on procedures for treating time-dependent fatigue, and on criteria for creep rupture. The properties are generally discussed without regard to specific alloys, since most categories of information are needed for each major structural material. Some sample experimental results are given for type 304 stainless steel and 2 1 / 4 Cr-1 Mo steel

  1. Considerations regarding the general rule provided by the article 4 of the Rome II regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian PRICOPI

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses certain issues related to the enforcement of the Rome II Regulation. The mentioned Regulation was adopted in order to unify, within the European Union, the rules regarding choice of law concerning non-contractual obligations. The application of the Regulation has caused some controversies in jurisprudence, regarding the implications on the national laws and international treaties or conventions. Almost two years after its prescribed date of application, a rigorous analysis of the Regulation’s impact over the case law, both on national and European level is necessary. The purpose of this study is to briefly describe, the research of the two authors regarding the practical effects of the aforementioned Regulation, as well as some judicial problems arisen from its application, mainly relating to the general rule of law, expressed in the fourth Article of the Regulation.

  2. 41 CFR 102-83.15 - Is there a general hierarchy of consideration that agencies must follow in their utilization of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... hierarchy of consideration that agencies must follow in their utilization of space? 102-83.15 Section 102-83... general hierarchy of consideration that agencies must follow in their utilization of space? Yes, Federal agencies must follow the hierarchy of consideration identified in § 102-79.55 of this chapter. ...

  3. General practitioners' management of mental disorders: A rewarding practice with considerable obstacles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fleury Marie-Josée

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Primary care improvement is the cornerstone of current reforms. Mental disorders (MDs are a leading cause of morbidity worldwide and widespread in industrialised countries. MDs are treated mainly in primary care by general practitioners (GPs, even though the latter ability to detect, diagnose, and treat patients with MDs is often considered unsatisfactory. This article examines GPs' management of MDs in an effort to acquire more information regarding means by which GPs deal with MD cases, impact of such cases on their practices, factors that enable or hinder MD management, and patient-management strategies. Methods This study employs a mixed-method approach with emphasis on qualitative investigation. Based on a previous survey of 398 GPs in Quebec, Canada, 60 GPs representing a variety of practice settings were selected for further study. A 10-minute-long questionnaire comprising 27 items was administered, and 70-minute-long interviews were conducted. Quantitative (SPSS and qualitative (NVivo analyses were performed. Results At least 20% of GP visits were MD-related. GPs were comfortable managing common MDs, but not serious MDs. GPs' based their treatment of MDs on pharmacotherapy, support therapy, and psycho-education. They used clinical intuition with few clinical tools, and closely followed their patients with MDs. Practice features (salary or hourly fees payment; psycho-social teams on-site; strong informal networks, and GPs' individual characteristics (continuing medical education; exposure and interest in MDs; traits like empathy favoured MD management. Collaboration with psychologists and psychiatrists was considered key to good MD management. Limited access to specialists, system fragmentation, and underdeveloped group practice and shared-care models were impediments. MD management was seen as burdensome because it required more time, flexibility, and emotional investment. Strategies exist to reduce the burden (one

  4. Some considerations concerning volume-modulated arc therapy: a stepping stone towards a general theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, S; McQuaid, D

    2009-01-01

    In this paper it is formally shown that the dynamic multileaf collimator (MLC) IMRT delivery technique remains valid if the MLC is supported on a 1D moving platform. It is also shown that, in such circumstances, it is always time preferable to deliver overlapping modulating fields as a single swept field rather than as separate fields. The most general formulism is presented and then related to simpler equations in limiting cases. The paper explains in detail how a 'small-arc approximation' can be invoked to relate the 1D linear theory to the MLC-on-moving-platform-(gantry) delivery technique involving rotation therapy and known as volume-modulated arc therapy (VMAT). It is explained how volume-modulated arc therapy delivered with open unmodulated fields and which can deliver conformal dose distributions can be interpreted as an IMRT delivery. The (Elekta adopted) term VMAT will be used in a generic sense to include a similar (Varian) method known as RapidArc. Approximate expressions are derived for the 'amount of modulation' possible in a VMAT delivery. This paper does not discuss the actual VMAT planning but gives an insight at a deep level into VMAT delivery. No universal theory of VMAT is known in the sense that there is no theory that can predict precisely the performance of a VMAT delivery in terms of the free parameters available (variable gantry speed, variable fluence-delivery rate, set of MLC shapes, MLC orientation, number of arcs, coplanarity versus non-coplanarity, etc). This is in stark contrast to the situation with several other IMRT delivery techniques where such theoretical analyses are known. In this paper we do not provide such a theory; the material presented is a stepping stone on the path towards this.

  5. Sedation/general anesthesia for magnetic resonance imaging in paediatrics patients - special considerations and safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tzoneva, D.; Hinev, S.; Guergueltcheva, V.; Chamova, T.

    2012-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study requires the patient to remain motionless for extended periods of time, which can not be achieved in children without special care or drug-induced sleep. There are various methods for sedation / general anaesthesia (GA) in children with their different advantages and disadvantages. The aim of this study was to report our experience with sedation/GA in children who require MRI/computed-tomography (CT) studies. We performed a retrospective review of the sedation/GA records in 34 children aged from 6 months to 12 years; class ASA I-III, undergoing diagnostic MR/CT study. Demographic data, information regarding diagnosis, type of sedation/GA, use of premedication, time to readiness for the procedure after premedication administration, duration of procedure, and the recovery time were obtained. Any adverse events were noted. Imaging study in most of the patients (61.8%) was performed for neurological diseases (delayed neuropsychological development, epilepsy, and cerebral palsy). Sedation/GA with Propofol was administered in 50% (n=17) of patients, in 26.5% (n=9) - Ketamine plus Midazolam; in 20.6% (n=7) - Midazolam alone, and in 9% (n=1) - Thiopental. The time to readiness for the procedure and the recovery time were statistically significantly shorter for patients receiving Propofol, and the observed adverse respiratory events were mild in severity, when compared with patients receiving sedation/GA with another hypnotic agent (p<0.05).The evaluation of the respiratory system before sedation/GA should be carefully performed, as the respiratory diseases could increase the patients' risk of adverse events occurrence. Sedation/GA with Propofol is a method of choice in children with neurological disorders with seizures, increased intracranial pressure and myopathies, undergoing MR/CT study. Crucial for patients' safety and good clinical results is the medical professionals, delivering sedation/GA, to have the knowledge and practical

  6. GENERAL CONSIDERATION REGARDING EU LAW IN THE DOMAIN OF CULTURAL HERITAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra STĂNCIULESCU

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The cultural heritage is a rich and diverse mosaic of cultural and creative expressions, our inheritance from previous generations of people and our legacy for those to come. In the terms of the Convention concerning the protection of the world cultural and natural heritage, the cultural heritage includes: monuments, such as architectural works, works of monumental sculpture and painting, elements or structures of an archaeological nature; groups of buildings and sites, such as works of man or the combined works of nature and man and areas including archaeological sites, all of these being of outstanding universal value from the point of view of history, art or science. Because of its substantial importance for the evolution of humanity, all nations in general and the European Union in particular, should have the duty of ensuring the identification, protection, conservation, presentation and transmission to future generations of the cultural and natural heritage. EU law states through the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union at article 167 that the action of the Union shall be aimed at encouraging cooperation between Member States and, if necessary, supporting and supplementing the action in areas such as: improvement of the knowledge and dissemination of the culture and history of the European people; conservation and safeguarding of cultural heritage of European significance and others. While policy in this area is primarily the responsibility of Member States, regional and local authorities, the EU is committed to safeguarding and enhancing Europe's cultural heritage through a number of policies and programmes. Due to the lack of such policies and programmes, the lack of consistent terminology and legal definitions, especially between EU languages, the lack of information and data on the crimes that affect cultural goods, the purpose of the essay is to emphasize the need of a rigorous legal program and policy and to observe the

  7. 41 CFR 102-79.55 - Is there a general hierarchy of consideration that agencies must follow in their utilization of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Is there a general hierarchy of consideration that agencies must follow in their utilization of space? 102-79.55 Section 102-79... Utilization of Space Utilization of Space § 102-79.55 Is there a general hierarchy of consideration that...

  8. General safety considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-09-01

    This document presents the full filling of the Brazilian obligations under the Convention on Nuclear Safety. The Chapter 4 of the document contains some details about the priority to safety, financial and human resources, human factors, quality assurance, safety assessment and verification, radiation protection and emergency preparedness.

  9. Financing - general considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    Various aspects of the problems of financing a multinational regional fuel cycle centre (RFCC) are briefly discussed. Some of the points covered are: financing by participants; floating long-term loans on capital markets outside the countries of the participants; and export credits for the purchase of equipment manufactured outside the countries of the participants

  10. General safety considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    This document presents the full filling of the Brazilian obligations under the Convention on Nuclear Safety. The Chapter 4 of the document contains some details about the priority to safety, financial and human resources, human factors, quality assurance, safety assessment and verification, radiation protection and emergency preparedness.

  11. General safety considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This document presents the full filling of the Brazilian obligations under the Convention on Nuclear Safety. The Chapter 4 of the document contains some details about the priority to safety, financial and human resources, human factors, quality assurance, safety assessment and verification, radiation protection and emergency preparedness

  12. General safety considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This document presents the full filling of the Brazilian obligations under the Convention on Nuclear Safety. The Chapter 4 of the document contains some details about the priority to safety, financial and human resources, human factors, quality assurance, safety assessment and verification, radiation protection and emergency preparedness

  13. Considerations concerning ''de minimis'' quantities of radioactive waste suitable for dumping at sea under a general permit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-02-01

    Following the principles proposed by the ICRP of balancing the costs and detriments of any practice involving radioactivity, there must be some level of radioactivity below which considerations other than those of the radioactivity itself are of overriding importance. For very low-level radioactive wastes, it is necessary to define a quantitative criterion which allows practical implementation of these principles within the terms of the London Dumping Convention. It will be necessary therefore to consider how these requirements can be met by defining material that can be regarded as non-radioactive for the purposes of the London Dumping Convention, defining a category of radioactivity in wastes whose content is sufficiently low (de minimis) that it can be dumped under a general permit if its other characteristics so permit. It is stressed that even if a material has been deemed to contain less than de minimis quantities of radioactive materials its suitability for dumping due to it's other constituents must still be carried out. The question of defining such a de minimis level of radioactivity was considered by an Advisory Group meeting convened at the IAEA headquarters in Vienna from 2 to 6 July 1979

  14. General practitioners' perspectives regarding competence and confidentiality in an adolescent with suspected anorexia nervosa: legal and ethical considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholomew, Terence P; Paxton, Susan J

    2003-02-01

    In Victoria, Australia, the legal position regarding young people's competence to make medical treatment decisions has not been clarified in legislation, and a number of often vague common law decisions must be relied on for guidance. This situation produces a degree of uncertainty about appropriate professional practice, while also potentially impeding young people's rights claims in health care settings. With this in mind, the present research explored general practitioners' competence and confidentiality decisions regarding a 17-year-old female who presented with symptoms of an eating disorder. Questionnaires were sent to a random sample of 500 Victorian general practitioners, of whom 190 responded. After reading a case vignette, general practitioners indicated whether they would find the hypothetical patient competent and if they would maintain her confidentiality. Seventy-three per cent of respondents found the patient competent and most would have maintained confidentiality, at least initially. However, subsequent analysis of the rationales supplied for these decisions revealed a wide diversity in general practitioners' understandings and implementations of extant legal authority. This research highlights the need for general practitioners to be exposed to up-to-date and clinically relevant explanations of contemporary legal positions.

  15. Holding or Breaking with Ptolemy's Generalization: Considerations about the Motion of the Planetary Apsidal Lines in Medieval Islamic Astronomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozaffari, S Mohammad

    2017-03-01

    Argument In the Almagest, Ptolemy finds that the apogee of Mercury moves progressively at a speed equal to his value for the rate of precession, namely one degree per century, in the tropical reference system of the ecliptic coordinates. He generalizes this to the other planets, so that the motions of the apogees of all five planets are assumed to be equal, while the solar apsidal line is taken to be fixed. In medieval Islamic astronomy, one change in this general proposition took place because of the discovery of the motion of the solar apogee in the ninth century, which gave rise to lengthy discussions on the speed of its motion. Initially Bīrūnī and later Ibn al-Zarqālluh assigned a proper motion to it, although at different rates. Nevertheless, appealing to the Ptolemaic generalization and interpreting it as a methodological axiom, the dominant idea became to extend it in order to include the motion of the solar apogee as well. Another change occurred after correctly making a distinction between the motion of the apogees and the rate of precession. Some Western Islamic astronomers generalized Ibn al-Zarqālluh's proper motion of the solar apogee to the apogees of the planets. Analogously, Ibn al-Shāṭir maintained that the motion of the apogees is faster than precession. Nevertheless, the Ptolemaic generalization in the case of the equality of the motions of the apogees remained untouchable, despite the notable development of planetary astronomy, in both theoretical and observational aspects, in the late Islamic period.

  16. Reactor and /or accelerator: general remarks on strategic considerations in sourcing/producing radiopharmaceuticals and radiotracer for the Philippines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazarea, A.D.

    1996-01-01

    The most important sources of radionuclides in the world are particle accelerators and nuclear reactors. Since the late 1940's many radiotracers and radiopharmaceuticals have been innovated and conceived, designed, produced and applied in important industrial and clinical/ biomedical settings. For example in the health area, reactor-produced radionuclides have become indispensable for diagnostic imaging involving, in its most recent and advanced development, radioimmunoscintigraphy, which exploits the exquisite ligand-specificity of monoclonal antibodies, reagents which in turn are the products of advances in biotechnology. Thus far, one of the most indispensable radiopharmaceuticals has been 99m Tc, which is usually obtained as a daughter decay product of 99 Mo. In January 1991, some questions about the stability of the worldwide commercial supply of 99 Mo became highlighted when the major commercial world producer of 99 Mo, Nordion International, shut down its facilities temporarily in Canada due to contamination in its main reactor building (see for instance relevant newsbrief in J. Nuclear Medicine (1991): 'Industry agrees to join DOE study of domestic moly-99 production'). With the above background, my remarks will attempt to open discussions on strategic considerations relevant to questions of 'self reliance' in radiotracers/radiopharmaceutical production in the Philippines. For instance, the relevant question of sourcing local radionuclide needs from a fully functioning multipurpose cyclotron facility within the country that will then supply the needs of the local industrial, biomedical (including research) and health sectors; and possibly, eventually acquiring the capability to export to nearby countries longer-lived radiotracers and radiopharmaceuticals

  17. Duplication of complete dentures using general-purpose handheld optical scanner and 3-dimensional printer: Introduction and clinical considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurahashi, Kosuke; Matsuda, Takashi; Goto, Takaharu; Ishida, Yuichi; Ito, Teruaki; Ichikawa, Tetsuo

    2017-01-01

    To introduce a new clinical procedure for fabricating duplicates of complete dentures by bite pressure impression using digital technology, and to discuss its clinical significance. The denture is placed on a rotary table and the 3-dimensional form of the denture is digitized using a general-purpose handheld optical scanner. The duplicate denture is made of polylactic acid by a 3-dimensional printer using the 3-dimensional data. This procedure has the advantages of wasting less material, employing less human power, decreasing treatment time at the chair side, lowering the rates of contamination, and being readily fabricated at the time of the treatment visit. Copyright © 2016 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The mond external field effect on the dynamics of the globular clusters: general considerations and application to NGC 2419

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derakhshani, Kamran, E-mail: kderakhshani@iasbs.ac.ir [Institute for Advanced Studies in Basic Sciences, P. O. Box 45195-1159 Zanjan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, we investigate the external field effect in the context of the MOdified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND) on the surface brightness and velocity dispersion profiles of globular clusters (GCs). Using N-MODY, which is an N-body simulation code with a MOND potential solver, we show that the general effect of the external field for diffuse clusters, which obey MOND in most of their parts, is that it pushes the dynamics toward the Newtonian regime. On the other hand, for more compact clusters, which are essentially Newtonian in their inner parts, the external field is effective mainly in the outer parts of compact clusters. As a case study, we then choose the remote Galactic GC NGC 2419. By varying the cluster mass, half-light radius, and mass-to-light ratio, we aim to find a model that will reproduce the observational data most effectively, using N-MODY. We find that even if we take the Galactic external field into account, a Newtonian Plummer sphere represents the observational data better than MOND to an order of magnitude in terms of the total χ{sup 2} of surface brightness and velocity dispersion.

  19. The mond external field effect on the dynamics of the globular clusters: general considerations and application to NGC 2419

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derakhshani, Kamran

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the external field effect in the context of the MOdified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND) on the surface brightness and velocity dispersion profiles of globular clusters (GCs). Using N-MODY, which is an N-body simulation code with a MOND potential solver, we show that the general effect of the external field for diffuse clusters, which obey MOND in most of their parts, is that it pushes the dynamics toward the Newtonian regime. On the other hand, for more compact clusters, which are essentially Newtonian in their inner parts, the external field is effective mainly in the outer parts of compact clusters. As a case study, we then choose the remote Galactic GC NGC 2419. By varying the cluster mass, half-light radius, and mass-to-light ratio, we aim to find a model that will reproduce the observational data most effectively, using N-MODY. We find that even if we take the Galactic external field into account, a Newtonian Plummer sphere represents the observational data better than MOND to an order of magnitude in terms of the total χ 2 of surface brightness and velocity dispersion.

  20. General Considerations on Leisure Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurica Grigore

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The leisure is a component of standard of living and quality of life, expresses the level of material and spiritual life, without it can’t beheld the multilateral development of the human, enforcing recovery functions of the organism, formative and instructive – educative, cultural andsocial. In pre-modern times, the free time was located on religious holidays and in the rest days established on the basis of religion (Sunday atChristians, Saturday at Jews, etc. The good of the individual towards trends any true democracy has in its structure, along with the materialcomponents and social and spiritual. In the economic and social framework, the reproduction of material conditions of existence is doubled by thehealth care, intelligent, creative force of the society members

  1. GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS ON MONEY LAUNDERING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena EVA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Lawyers are not immune to committing offences and the provisions of criminal law apply to them accordingly. The criminal liability of lawyers represents a natural aspect in the rule of law. Lawyers involved as defendants in criminal cases do not benefit from any special status or privileges compared to other defendants. In the international context of the fight against money laundering, the community law has submitted the profession of lawyer to two obligations concerning vigilance and denouncement. The assimilation of lawyer’s profession to financial or non-regulated professions entails the deformation of rules and principles specific to lawyers, as well as discussing the bases of any democratic society: the professional secrecy of lawyers and their independence.

  2. General Considerations on fiscal evasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pripoaie Silviu

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of performance of any economy involves the measurement and correlation of three basic elements: the rate of economic growth,the rate of inflation and unemployment rate. When the rate of growth (rate of real GDP is high, the production of goods and services is growing andtherefore increasing the number of jobs, decrease unemployment and raise living standards. If the economy is in recession phase, increasing fiscalpressure to ensure the necessary budgetary funds triggers complex economic mechanisms. Rules more strictly is that those who are not able tooperate in the normal economy to slide towards the underground economy, and this not because he wants to tax evasion, but because they simplycannot cope with new regulations. It is widely accepted in economic theory and practice the idea that reliability scale macroeconomic indicators of acountry is affected by size of underground economy and the various tests made so far on this subject, focusing either on the social aspect or theeconomic or moral, or emphasizes the illegal or the edge of legality. This has led to various studies in this area do not provide comparable data orprovide data to the contrary. Worldwide were put in place, however, some calculation methods provided that applied the same country and sameperiod, the results are rarely consistent, sometimes even in fundamentally different.

  3. Metastatic Breast Cancer With ESR1 Mutation: Clinical Management Considerations From the Molecular and Precision Medicine (MAP) Tumor Board at Massachusetts General Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardia, Aditya; Iafrate, John A; Sundaresan, Tilak; Younger, Jerry; Nardi, Valentina

    2016-09-01

    : The last decade in oncology has witnessed impressive response rates with targeted therapies, largely because of collaborative efforts at understanding tumor biology and careful patient selection based on molecular fingerprinting of the tumor. Consequently, there has been a push toward routine molecular genotyping of tumors, and large precision medicine-based clinical trials have been launched to match therapy to the molecular alteration seen in a tumor. However, selecting the "right drug" for an individual patient in clinic is a complex decision-making process, including analytical interpretation of the report, consideration of the importance of the molecular alteration in driving growth of the tumor, tumor heterogeneity, the availability of a matched targeted therapy, efficacy and toxicity considerations of the targeted therapy (compared with standard therapy), and reimbursement issues. In this article, we review the key considerations involved in clinical decision making while reviewing a molecular genotyping report. We present the case of a 67-year-old postmenopausal female with metastatic estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) breast cancer, whose tumor progressed on multiple endocrine therapies. Molecular genotyping of the metastatic lesion revealed the presence of an ESR1 mutation (encoding p.Tyr537Asn), which was absent in the primary tumor. The same ESR1 mutation was also detected in circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) extracted from her blood. The general approach for interpretation of genotyping results, the clinical significance of the specific mutation in the particular cancer, potential strategies to target the pathway, and implications for clinical practice are reviewed in this article. ER+ breast tumors are known to undergo genomic evolution during treatment with the acquisition of new mutations that confer resistance to treatment.ESR1 mutations in the ligand-binding domain of ER can lead to a ligand-independent, constitutively active form of ER and mediate

  4. Influence of Incomplete Mixing on the OH-Isoprene Reaction in the Lower Troposphere - Measurements Above the Amazon Rain Forest and General Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sörgel, M.; Dlugi, R. J. W.; Berger, M.; Mallik, C.; Tsokankunku, A.; Zelger, M.; Acevedo, O. C.; Dias, N. L.; Hofzumahaus, A.; Kesselmeier, J.; Kramm, G.; Marno, D. R.; Martinez, M.; Nölscher, A.; H G, O.; Pfannerstill, E.; Bourtsoukidis, E.; Rohrer, F.; Tauer, S.; Williams, J.; Yanez Serrano, A. M.; Andreae, M. O.; Harder, H.

    2017-12-01

    Incomplete mixing of reactants in the atmosphere (segregation) causes reduced reaction rates compared to laboratory values derived for well mixed conditions. To adequately determine the actual reaction rates in a variety of natural environments where the distribution of sources and sinks leads to inhomogeneous distribution of reactants, the intensity of segregation (IS) has to be taken into account. Although, there has been considerable progress in modeling IS in the boundary layer within the last 30 years, calculations from direct observations are still sparse as high time resolution and time synchronization are required. OH-radicals are the most important oxidizing agent in the atmosphere, and are therefore regarded as the detergent of the atmosphere, reacting with the majority of atmospheric pollutants and therefore accelerating their removal from the atmosphere. Hence, to understand atmospheric self-cleansing, we need to quantify and understand the budgets (sources and sinks) of OH. As it is a fast reacting compound, for some of its reactants mixing will limit the reaction rate. The reaction of isoprene and OH radicals has gained considerable interest in recent years since large discrepancies between modeled and measured OH have been found mainly in high isoprene environments. This motivated not only laboratory studies on unknown recycling mechanisms for OH in this reaction, but also modeling work and field studies on the effect of segregation on this reaction. We measured OH radicals, isoprene and other species that are either precursors of OH or promote OH recycling (e.g. O3, NOx, HO2, H2O) with high time resolution (1-10 Hz) closely above a rain forest canopy (at 41 m above ground level) at the ATTO (Amazon Tall Tower Observatory) site (02°08'38.8''S, 58°59'59.5''W). The site is characterized by high isoprene (up to 20 ppb) and low NO (50 -500 ppt). Simultaneous measurements of OH and isoprene with high time resolution so far have been sparse. To our

  5. CONSIDERATIONS ABOUT READING COMPREHENSION IN THE SUBJECT ENGLISH FOR ACADEMIC PURPOSES / CONSIDERACIONES SOBRE LA COMPRENSIÓN LECTORA EN LA ASIGNATURA INGLÉS CON FINES GENERALES

    OpenAIRE

    Graciela Feliciana Mayo Castro; Yanelis Karina Ávila Pavón

    2013-01-01

    Reading comprehension is one of the general abilities of English language in the teaching-learning process. This skill constitutes a cultural and a work device, and it is the basis that helps to acquire of a great amount of knowledge. This methodological suggestion facilitates the development of reading comprehension due to that it is a system of exercises which are organized in a hierarchical way that leads the students to better decode the message expressed in a text. Reading comprehension ...

  6. Fusion facility siting considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bussell, G.T.

    1985-01-01

    Inherent in the fusion program's transition from hydrogen devices to commercial power machines is a general increase in the size and scope of succeeding projects. This growth will lead to increased emphasis on safety, environmental impact, and the external effects of fusion in general, and of each new device in particular. A critically important consideration in this regard is site selection. The purpose of this paper is to examine major siting issues that may affect the economics, safety, and environmental impact of fusion

  7. CONSIDERATIONS ABOUT READING COMPREHENSION IN THE SUBJECT ENGLISH FOR ACADEMIC PURPOSES / CONSIDERACIONES SOBRE LA COMPRENSIÓN LECTORA EN LA ASIGNATURA INGLÉS CON FINES GENERALES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciela Feliciana Mayo Castro

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Reading comprehension is one of the general abilities of English language in the teaching-learning process. This skill constitutes a cultural and a work device, and it is the basis that helps to acquire of a great amount of knowledge. This methodological suggestion facilitates the development of reading comprehension due to that it is a system of exercises which are organized in a hierarchical way that leads the students to better decode the message expressed in a text. Reading comprehension ability makes easier to decode a message not only in English language but in Spanish language as well. LA COMPRENSIÓN LECTORA EN LA ASIGNATURA INGLÉS CON FINES GENERALES AUTORAS: DIRECCIÓN PARA CORRESPONDENCIA: Departamento de Idiomas. Universidad de Las Tunas, Cuba. E-mail graciela@ult.edu.cu Fecha de recepción: 21\t-\t08\t-\t2013 Fecha de aceptación:\t30\t-\t11\t-\t2013 RESUMEN La comprensión lectora es una de las habilidades generales en el proceso de enseñanza-aprendizaje del idioma inglés, esta constituye un instrumento de trabajo y de cultura y es la base que facilita el aprendizaje de un gran cúmulo de conocimientos. La presente alternativa metodológica facilita el desarrollo de la habilidad de comprensión lectora pues parte de un sistema de ejercicios jerárquicamente organizados, lo que conllevan al estudiante a una decodificación más acertada del mensaje expresado en los textos. El desarrollo de esta habilidad les permite la decodificación de información tanto en la lengua inglesa como en la lengua materna.

  8. Stability of solutions of antineoplastic agents during preparation and storage for in vitro assays. General considerations, the nitrosoureas and alkylating agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosanquet, A G

    1985-01-01

    In vitro drug sensitivity of tumour biopsies is currently being determined using a variety of methods. For these chemosensitivity assays many drugs are required at short notice, and this in turn means that the drugs must generally be stored in solution. There are, however, a number of potential problems associated with dissolving and storing drugs for in vitro use, which include (a) drug adsorption; (b) effects of freezing; (c) drug stability under the normal conditions of dilution and setting up of an in vitro assay; and (d) insolubility of drugs in normal saline (NS) or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). These problems are considered in general, and some recommendations for use of solutions of drugs in in vitro assays are suggested. The nitrosoureas and alkylating agents are also investigated in greater detail in this respect. The nitrosoureas are found to be very labile in PBS at pH 7, with 5% degradation (t0.95) occurring in 10-50 min at room temperature. These values are increased about 10-fold on refrigeration and about 5- to 10-fold on reduction of the pH of the medium to pH 4-5. At pH 7 and room temperature, t0.95 is observed in under 1 h with the alkylating agents nitrogen mustard, chlorambucil, melphalan, 2,5-diaziridinyl-3,6-bis(2-hydroxyethylamino)-1,4-benzoquinone (BZQ), dibromodulcitol, dibromomannitol, treosulphan, and procarbazine. Of the other alkylating agents, 4-hydroperoxycylophosphamide (sometimes used in vitro in place of cyclophosphamide), busulphan, dianhydrogalactitol, aziridinylbenzoquinone (AZQ), and dacarbazine have a t0.95 of between 2 and 24 h, while ifosfamide and pentamethylmelamine are both stable in aqueous solution for greater than 7 days. About half the drugs studied in detail have been stored frozen in solution for in vitro use, although very little is known about their stability under these conditions.

  9. CP violation in D0- D-bar0 oscillations: general considerations and applications to the Littlest Higgs model with T-parity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bigi, Ikaros I.; Blanke, Monika; Buras, Andrzej J.; Recksiegel, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    The observed D 0 -D-bar 0 oscillations provide a new stage in our search for New Physics in heavy flavour dynamics. The theoretical verdict on the observed values of x D and y D remains ambiguous: while they could be totally generated by Standard Model dynamics, they could also contain a sizable or even leading contribution from New Physics. Those oscillations are likely to enhance the observability of CP violation as clear manifestations of New Physics. We present general formulae for D 0 - D-bar 0 oscillations, concentrating on the case of negligible direct CP violation. In particular we derive a general formula for the time-dependent mixing-induced CP asymmetry in decays to a CP eigenstate and its correlation with the semileptonic CP asymmetry a SL (D 0 ) in D 0 (t) → lνK. We apply our formalism to the Littlest Higgs model with T-parity, using the time-dependent CP asymmetry in D 0 → K S φ as an example. We find observable effects at a level well beyond anything possible with CKM dynamics. Comparisons with CP violation in the K and B systems offer an excellent test of this scenario and reveal the specific pattern of flavour and CP violation in the D 0 -D-bar 0 system predicted by this model. We discuss a number of charm decays that could potentially offer an insight in the dynamics of CP violation in D decays. We also apply our formalism to B s -B-bar s mixing.

  10. Equipment considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Trace or ultratrace analyses require that the HPLC equipment used, including the detector, be optimal for such determinations. HPLC detectors are discussed at length in Chapter 4; discussion here is limited to the rest of the equipment. In general, commercial equipment is adequate for trace analysis; however, as the authors approach ultratrace analysis, it becomes very important to examine the equipment thoroughly and optimize it, where possible. For this reason they will review the equipment commonly used in HPLC and discuss the optimization steps. Detectability in HPLC is influenced by two factors (1): (a) baseline noise or other interferences that lead to errors in assigning the baseline absorbance; (b) peak width. 87 refs

  11. Climate considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutchinson, I.P.G.; Ellison, R.D.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the conditions under which rainfall and snowmelt result in infiltration, percolation, and leachate formation, and to develop guidelines for incorporating these processes into the mine waste disposal regulations. This is important because in mine waste, and under certain circumstances, these processes can result in conditions which pose a threat to surface and ground water quality. This paper provides a general overview of infiltration, percolation, and leachate formation. It incorporates a discussion of the methods that can be used to quantify infiltration and the climatic and physical site and waste conditions under which percolation and leachate formation occur. Reference is made to case histories on infiltration, ground water recharge, and analytical procedures for calculating infiltration. An approach to infiltration prediction is outlined, and the paper concludes with a discussion on how climatic factors and prediction of infiltration could be incorporated into the regulations

  12. 32 CFR 310.15 - General considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., or other methods). The Privacy Act Statement consists of the elements set forth in paragraph (d)(2)of... easily understood. (4) The Privacy Act statement may appear as a public notice (sign or poster...

  13. General Considerations on the Institution of Fiducia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea Diana Papa

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Of Roman origins, fiducia was under the form of a pact (the fiduciary pact secondary to atemporary transfer of property, by which a natural person preserved the property to the benefit of thetestator under a resolutory condition and during all the life of the testator; after the death of the testatorthe properties should be transferred either to the direct descendant, or to other person authorized by thetestator by legacy. The contemporary fiducia in the continental civil law has its origins in the Englishright in the specific institution in the common law of the trust, which designates the judicial rapportcreated by acts between the living or for a death cause from a person named founder who transfers two ormore goods under the control of an administrator to the benefit of a person or for a given purpose. TheRegulation in The New Civil Code Part III, Title IV, articles 773-791, followed the pattern of the FrenchLaw no. 2007-211 in 19th February 2007 which introduced in the French civil code, the Title XIV “Onfiducia”. The Romanian legislator took in an adapted form the provisions of the French normative actoperating some important changes or additions.

  14. 16 CFR 255.1 - General considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... an uncooked chicken in the oven roasting bag and places the bag in one oven. He then takes a chicken roasting bag from a second oven, removes from the bag what appears to be a perfectly cooked chicken, tastes... conduct. Example 4: A well-known celebrity appears in an infomercial for an oven roasting bag that...

  15. [Algorithms, machine intelligence, big data : general considerations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radermacher, F J

    2015-08-01

    We are experiencing astonishing developments in the areas of big data and artificial intelligence. They follow a pattern that we have now been observing for decades: according to Moore's Law,the performance and efficiency in the area of elementary arithmetic operations increases a thousand-fold every 20 years. Although we have not achieved the status where in the singular sense machines have become as "intelligent" as people, machines are becoming increasingly better. The Internet of Things has again helped to massively increase the efficiency of machines. Big data and suitable analytics do the same. If we let these processes simply continue, our civilization may be endangerd in many instances. If the "containment" of these processes succeeds in the context of a reasonable political global governance, a worldwide eco-social market economy, andan economy of green and inclusive markets, many desirable developments that are advantageous for our future may result. Then, at some point in time, the constant need for more and faster innovation may even stop. However, this is anything but certain. We are facing huge challenges.

  16. The older orthopaedic patient: general considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Jane F

    2004-08-01

    People older than 65 years are more likely to need elective and emergent orthopaedic surgery compared with younger persons. They also experience significant benefits. Although age-related changes increase the risk of perioperative complications, understanding those changes allows prevention or at least early recognition and treatment when problems arise. Because of comorbidities, older persons take more medications that need to be managed in the perioperative period. Care could be simplified if patients were to bring their medications to the preoperative evaluation. Central nervous system sensitivity to certain pain medications (meperidine and propoxyphene) means that these drugs are best avoided as good alternatives exist (morphine and oxycodone). Adverse reactions to drugs are an important cause of acute confusion (delirium) that often complicates orthopaedic care. Early mobilization after surgery, avoiding certain drugs, avoiding restraints (including Foley catheters), attending to hydration, promoting normal sleep, compensating for sensory disorders, and stimulating daytime activities can prevent delirium. Patients with dementia are more likely to have delirium develop and, like many older people, will present special challenges in communication and decision making. Including family members in discussions may be helpful in ensuring truly informed consent.

  17. Animal experimentations: Part I: General considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T K Pal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available All materials, in the form of drugs or devices, which are intended for human use are required to be tested first in suitable animals. Many biological understandings are established on various modes of cruelties on animals. This observational notes guide us to accept or modify or even reject materials for ultimate human use. The science of experiments on animals gives us the remedial solutions to many of our human sufferings. This unique and important discipline is in need of proper understanding for selection of suitable number of animals and its proper care in captivity, and further refinements of code of conducts and ethical issues.

  18. General considerations of noise in microphone preamplifiers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Donk, A.G.H.; van der Donk, A.G.H.; Voorthuyzen, J.A.; Voorthuyzen, J.A.; Bergveld, Piet

    1991-01-01

    In this paper a study of the noise performance of electret microphone systems as a part of hearing aids is presented. The signal-to-noise ratio of the microphone-preamplifier combination, containing a field-effect transistor (FET) and a high value resistive bias element in a hybrid configuration, is

  19. General considerations on the population ageing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Nuta

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This article presents one of the most important issues of the current context, the ageing of the population, with major consequences on the financial stability of the nation. This restructure of the population (that change the shape of the population pyramid , as a result, on the one hand, of the reducing in the fertility rate, on the other hand, increasing in life expectancy and last but not least, due to migration, unbalance national budgets, generating negative effects in economic, financial and social terms.

  20. 5 CFR 2634.401 - General considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... or control of the trust, such as investment counsel, investment advisers, accountants, or tax... and beneficiary taxes. For tax purposes, because a trust is a separate entity distinct from its beneficiaries, a trustee must file an annual fiduciary tax return for the trust (IRS Form 1041). In addition...

  1. THE EDUCATIONAL LEADERSHIP. GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS / EL LIDERAZGO EDUCATIVO. CONSIDERACIONES GENERALES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique José Marañón Rodríguez

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The present article treats some questions related with the leadership and the educative leadership. It is only an approach to the topic that requires of its continuity to be able to treat it more thoroughly. Given the demands of the pedagogic pattern in which the formation of professionals is sustained -at the moment, in the Cuban university in the new called universialisation - that is focused in the dimensions: instructive, educational and developmental, it confers a degree of such integrality that requires that the professor's list causes in the student a transformation process in which, through the appropriation and construction of the experience and the culture, takes place the growth and the personal development, effect that could be achieved, among other, with the development of the educative leadership.RESUMENEl presente artículo trata algunas cuestiones relacionadas con el liderazgo y el liderazgo educativo. Es sólo un acercamiento al tema que requiere de su continuidad para poder tratarlo más ampliamente. Dadas las exigencias del modelo pedagógico en que se sustenta la formación de profesionales en la universidad cubana –actualmente en nuevo estadio de universalización- que se enfoca en las dimensiones: instructiva, educativa y desarrolladora, le confieren un grado de integralidad tal, que requiere que el rol del profesor provoque en el estudiante un proceso de transformación en el que, a través de la apropiación y construcción de la experiencia y la cultura se produzca el crecimiento y el desarrollo personal, efecto que podría lograrse, entre otros, con el desarrollo del liderazgo educativo.

  2. 5 CFR 330.206 - Job consideration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Job consideration. 330.206 Section 330..., SELECTION, AND PLACEMENT (GENERAL) Reemployment Priority List (RPL) § 330.206 Job consideration. (a)(1) An eligible employee under § 330.203 is entitled to consideration for positions in the commuting area for...

  3. 46 CFR 175.550 - Special consideration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Special consideration. 175.550 Section 175.550 Shipping...) GENERAL PROVISIONS § 175.550 Special consideration. In applying the provisions of this subchapter, the OCMI may give special consideration to authorizing departures from the specific requirements when...

  4. 7 CFR 1735.92 - Accounting considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Accounting considerations. 1735.92 Section 1735.92... All Acquisitions and Mergers § 1735.92 Accounting considerations. (a) Proper accounting shall be... in the absence of such a commission, as required by RUS based on Generally Accepted Accounting...

  5. DOE handbook: Design considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-04-01

    The Design Considerations Handbook includes information and suggestions for the design of systems typical to nuclear facilities, information specific to various types of special facilities, and information useful to various design disciplines. The handbook is presented in two parts. Part 1, which addresses design considerations, includes two sections. The first addresses the design of systems typically used in nuclear facilities to control radiation or radioactive materials. Specifically, this part addresses the design of confinement systems and radiation protection and effluent monitoring systems. The second section of Part 1 addresses the design of special facilities (i.e., specific types of nonreactor nuclear facilities). The specific design considerations provided in this section were developed from review of DOE 6430.1A and are supplemented with specific suggestions and considerations from designers with experience designing and operating such facilities. Part 2 of the Design Considerations Handbook describes good practices and design principles that should be considered in specific design disciplines, such as mechanical systems and electrical systems. These good practices are based on specific experiences in the design of nuclear facilities by design engineers with related experience. This part of the Design Considerations Handbook contains five sections, each of which applies to a particular engineering discipline

  6. DOE handbook: Design considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-04-01

    The Design Considerations Handbook includes information and suggestions for the design of systems typical to nuclear facilities, information specific to various types of special facilities, and information useful to various design disciplines. The handbook is presented in two parts. Part 1, which addresses design considerations, includes two sections. The first addresses the design of systems typically used in nuclear facilities to control radiation or radioactive materials. Specifically, this part addresses the design of confinement systems and radiation protection and effluent monitoring systems. The second section of Part 1 addresses the design of special facilities (i.e., specific types of nonreactor nuclear facilities). The specific design considerations provided in this section were developed from review of DOE 6430.1A and are supplemented with specific suggestions and considerations from designers with experience designing and operating such facilities. Part 2 of the Design Considerations Handbook describes good practices and design principles that should be considered in specific design disciplines, such as mechanical systems and electrical systems. These good practices are based on specific experiences in the design of nuclear facilities by design engineers with related experience. This part of the Design Considerations Handbook contains five sections, each of which applies to a particular engineering discipline.

  7. General Relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Straumann, Norbert

    2013-01-01

    This book provides a completely revised and expanded version of the previous classic edition ‘General Relativity and Relativistic Astrophysics’. In Part I the foundations of general relativity are thoroughly developed, while Part II is devoted to tests of general relativity and many of its applications. Binary pulsars – our best laboratories for general relativity – are studied in considerable detail. An introduction to gravitational lensing theory is included as well, so as to make the current literature on the subject accessible to readers. Considerable attention is devoted to the study of compact objects, especially to black holes. This includes a detailed derivation of the Kerr solution, Israel’s proof of his uniqueness theorem, and a derivation of the basic laws of black hole physics. Part II ends with Witten’s proof of the positive energy theorem, which is presented in detail, together with the required tools on spin structures and spinor analysis. In Part III, all of the differential geomet...

  8. General considerations of the choice of dose limits, averaging areas and weighting factors for the skin in the light of revised skin cancer risk figures and experimental data on non-stochastic effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charles, M.W.

    1990-01-01

    Recent biological data from man and pig on the non-stochastic effects following exposure with a range of β-emitters are combined with recent epidemiological analyses of skin cancer risks in man to form a basis for suggested improved protection criteria following whole- or partial-body skin exposures. Specific consideration is given to the choice of an organ weighting factor for evaluation of effective dose-equivalent. Since stochastic and non-stochastic end-points involve different cell types at different depths in the skin, the design of an ideal physical dosemeter may depend on the proportion of the body skin exposed and the radiation penetrating power. Possible choices of design parameters for skin dosemeters are discussed. Limitation of skin exposure from small radioactive sources ('hot particles') is addressed using animal data. (author)

  9. Sodium concrete reaction - Structural considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferskakis, G.N.

    1984-01-01

    An overview of the sodium concrete reaction phenomenon, with emphasis on structural considerations, is presented. Available test results for limestone, basalt, and magnetite concrete with various test article configurations are reviewed. Generally, tests indicate reaction is self limiting before all sodium is used. Uncertainties, however, concerning the mechanism for penetration of sodium into concrete have resulted in different theories about a reaction model. Structural behavior may be significant in the progression of the reaction due to thermal-structuralchemical interactions involving tensile cracking, compressive crushing, or general deterioration of concrete and the exposure of fresh concrete surfaces to react with sodium. Structural behavior of test articles and potential factors that could enhance the progression of the reaction are discussed

  10. A population-based nested case control study on recurrent pneumonias in children with severe generalized cerebral palsy: ethical considerations of the design and representativeness of the study sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benninga Marc A

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In children with severe generalized cerebral palsy, pneumonias are a major health issue. Malnutrition, dysphagia, gastro-oesophageal reflux, impaired respiratory function and constipation are hypothesized risk factors. Still, no data are available on the relative contribution of these possible risk factors in the described population. This paper describes the initiation of a study in 194 children with severe generalized cerebral palsy, on the prevalence and on the impact of these hypothesized risk factors of recurrent pneumonias. Methods/Design A nested case-control design with 18 months follow-up was chosen. Dysphagia, respiratory function and constipation will be assessed at baseline, malnutrition and gastro-oesophageal reflux at the end of the follow-up. The study population consists of a representative population sample of children with severe generalized cerebral palsy. Inclusion was done through care-centres in a predefined geographical area and not through hospitals. All measurements will be done on-site which sets high demands on all measurements. If these demands were not met in "gold standard" methods, other methods were chosen. Although the inclusion period was prolonged, the desired sample size of 300 children was not met. With a consent rate of 33%, nearly 10% of all eligible children in the Netherlands are included (n = 194. The study population is subtly different from the non-participants with regard to severity of dysphagia and prevalence rates of pneumonias and gastro-oesophageal reflux. Discussion Ethical issues complicated the study design. Assessment of malnutrition and gastro-oesophageal reflux at baseline was considered unethical, since these conditions can be easily treated. Therefore, we postponed these diagnostics until the end of the follow-up. In order to include a representative sample, all eligible children in a predefined geographical area had to be contacted. To increase the consent rate, on

  11. Entrepreneurship: Some Considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Martinho

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this work it is presented some considerations about entrepreneurship. Most of these questions are linked with Portuguese context. Portugal has some particularities, namely because the asymmetries between the littoral and the interior. This situation carried out some problems that complicate and prevent the appearance of new innovated business. In a situation of crisis like that we have today this context can become a really problem to solve some questions.

  12. Storage array reflection considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haire, M.J.; Jordan, W.C.; Taylor, R.G.

    1997-01-01

    The assumptions used for reflection conditions of single containers are fairly well established and consistently applied throughout the industry in nuclear criticality safety evaluations. Containers are usually considered to be either fully water reflected (i.e., surrounded by 6 to 12 in. of water) for safety calculations or reflected by 1 in. of water for nominal (structural material and air) conditions. Tables and figures are usually available for performing comparative evaluations of containers under various loading conditions. Reflection considerations used for evaluating the safety of storage arrays of fissile material are not as well established. When evaluating arrays, it has become more common for analysts to use calculations to demonstrate the safety of the array configuration. In performing these calculations, the analyst has considerable freedom concerning the assumptions made for modeling the reflection of the array. Considerations are given for the physical layout of the array with little or no discussion (or demonstration) of what conditions are bounded by the assumed reflection conditions. For example, an array may be generically evaluated by placing it in a corner of a room in which the opposing walls are far away. Typically, it is believed that complete flooding of the room is incredible, so the array is evaluated for various levels of water mist interspersed among array containers. This paper discusses some assumptions that are made regarding storage array reflection

  13. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... General ultrasound procedure View full size with caption Pediatric Content Some imaging tests and treatments have special pediatric considerations. The teddy bear denotes child-specific content. ...

  14. Part 8. Deployment considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dance, K.D.; Chang, Y.I.; Daly, T.A.

    1980-01-01

    This report addresses considerations of fast breeder reactor development and deployment from a national perspective. Nations vary greatly in their expertise and interest relative to nuclear power, and hence a single set of steps to be taken by a nation in decision-making on breeder development and deployment cannot be presented. The approach taken in this report is to present discussions on key factors influencing the breeder development and deployment decisions, especially in non-breeder nations, by drawing upon historical perspectives of the Light Water Reactor for comparison

  15. Geophysical considerations of geothermics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayakawa, M

    1967-01-01

    The development and utilization of geothermal energy is described from the standpoint of geophysics. The internal temperature of the Earth and the history and composition of magmas are described. Methods of exploration such as gravity, magnetic, thermal and electrical surveys are discussed, as are geochemical and infrared photogrammetric techniques. Examples are provided of how these techniques have been used in Italy and at the Matsukawa geothermal field in Japan. Drilling considerations such as muds, casings and cementing materials are discussed. Solutions are proposed for problems of environmental pollution and plant expansion.

  16. Storage array reflection considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haire, M.J.; Jordan, W.C.; Taylor, R.G.

    1997-01-01

    The assumptions used for reflection conditions of single containers are fairly well established and consistently applied throughout the industry in nuclear criticality safety evaluations. Containers are usually considered to be either fully water-reflected (i.e. surrounded by 6 to 12 in. of water) for safety calculations or reflected by 1 in. of water for nominal (structural material and air) conditions. Tables and figures are usually available for performing comparative evaluations of containers under various loading conditions. Reflection considerations used for evaluating the safety of storage arrays of fissile material are not as well established

  17. Generalized Superconductivity. Generalized Levitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciobanu, B.; Agop, M.

    2004-01-01

    In the recent papers, the gravitational superconductivity is described. We introduce the concept of generalized superconductivity observing that any nongeodesic motion and, in particular, the motion in an electromagnetic field, can be transformed in a geodesic motion by a suitable choice of the connection. In the present paper, the gravitoelectromagnetic London equations have been obtained from the generalized Helmholtz vortex theorem using the generalized local equivalence principle. In this context, the gravitoelectromagnetic Meissner effect and, implicitly, the gravitoelectromagnetic levitation are given. (authors)

  18. 44 CFR 331.4 - Special consideration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... HOMELAND SECURITY PREPAREDNESS PRESERVATION OF THE MOBILIZATION BASE THROUGH THE PLACEMENT OF PROCUREMENT... sells a significant proportion of its production to the Government is generally depressed or has a... hearing of interested parties, will give consideration to appropriate measures applicable to the entire...

  19. Design considerations for mechanical face seals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, L. P.; Greiner, H. F.

    1980-01-01

    Two companion reports deal with design considerations for improving performance of mechanical face seals, one of family of devices used in general area of fluid sealing of rotating shafts. One report deals with basic seal configuration and other with lubrication of seal.

  20. 15 CFR 1160.24 - Antitrust considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Partnership Initiative § 1160.24 Antitrust considerations. (a) The Department of Commerce will offer no opinion on the antitrust merits of the formation of any proposed Strategic Partnership. The Department may..., conduct workshops to discuss the formation of such partnerships in general. Commerce will not select the...

  1. General considerations in fuel management for thermal reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyror, J.G.; Fayers, F.J.

    1971-07-01

    By fuel management we mean the strategy for fuelling and refuelling a reactor together with any associated absorber movements. It incorporates (a) decisions made about the timing of fuel loading operations; (b) choice of enrichments to be loaded; (c) selection of sites at which reloading occurs; (d) programming of control rods and any other reactivity control facilities such as soluble or burnable poisons; and (e) evaluation of the resulting fuel element performance consequences. The topic of fuel management is thus a vast and vital one. It embraces most of the various aspects of core performance and determines many of a reactor's design characteristics. In this paper we review what to us appear to be some of the important issues in this important field

  2. GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS ON THE DISCIPLINARY LIABILITY OF ARCHITECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andra PURAN

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available As well as other liberal professions in Romania, also the profession as an architect is regulated by special norms, the Law No 184/2001, whose provisions are amended by the Rules governing the functioning and organization of the Romanian Order of Architects and the Code of Ethics of Architects. The specificity of the disciplinary liability of the architects towards the common law is given by specific sanctions, by the authorities competent in performing the disciplinary investigation of the disciplinary offences, as well as by the specific procedural rules. The present study aims to offer a brief analysis of these aspects which differentiate the disciplinary liability of architects towards that of the employees performing their activities under an employment contract.

  3. 38 CFR 3.321 - General rating considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... in civil occupations resulting from disability. (Authority: 38 U.S.C. 1155) (b) Exceptional cases—(1... capacity impairment due exclusively to the service-connected disability or disabilities. The governing norm...

  4. Stainless steels: general considerations and rates of crack growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chator, T.

    1992-05-01

    This report describes the different types of stainless steels, and presents the laws governing the rates of crack growth for several stainless steels extensively used for the manufacture of structures in nuclear power plants. The laws are not discussed in detail in the report. After a brief review of the development of stainless steels, the main categories of stainless steels, their mechanical characteristics and corrosion resistance, are presented. Finally, the rates of crack growth are presented for various stainless steels, mainly austenitic. The study overall aim is an investigation of the cracking in the 900 MWe primary pump thermal barriers and shafts

  5. Buccal Dosage Forms: General Considerations for Pediatric Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero-Padilla, Soledad; Velaga, Sitaram; Morales, Javier O

    2017-02-01

    The development of an appropriate dosage form for pediatric patients needs to take into account several aspects, since adult drug biodistribution differs from that of pediatrics. In recent years, buccal administration has become an attractive route, having different dosage forms under development including tablets, lozenges, films, and solutions among others. Furthermore, the buccal epithelium can allow quick access to systemic circulation, which could be used for a rapid onset of action. For pediatric patients, dosage forms to be placed in the oral cavity have higher requirements for palatability to increase acceptance and therapy compliance. Therefore, an understanding of the excipients required and their functions and properties needs to be particularly addressed. This review is focused on the differences and requirements relevant to buccal administration for pediatric patients (compared to adults) and how novel dosage forms can be less invasive and more acceptable alternatives.

  6. General Considerations on the Influence of Prices on Business

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Elena Tureac

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available In most companies, there is an ongoing conflict between managers in charge of covering costs (finance and accounting and managers incharge of satisfying customers (marketing and sales. Accounting journals warn on prices that fail to cover full costs, while marketing journals arguethat customer willingness to pay must be the sole driver of prices. The conflict between these views wastes company resources and leads to pricingdecisions that are imperfect compromises. Profitable pricing involves an integration of costs and customer value. To achieve that integration,however, both need to let go of misleading ideas and to form a common vision of what profitability means.

  7. 9 CFR 116.1 - Applicability and general considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... imported products, each permittee shall maintain at the permittee's place of business detailed and accurate... manufacturer may maintain and retain records required under this part at an alternative location. Such authorization shall be confirmed by the filing of an addendum to the plot plan legend. The addendum shall list...

  8. Dyslexia in general practice education: considerations for recognition and support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrewsbury, Duncan

    2016-07-01

    Dyslexia is a common developmental learning difficulty, which persists throughout life. It is highly likely that those working in primary care will know, or even work with someone who has dyslexia. Dyslexia can impact on performance in postgraduate training and exams. The stereotypical characteristics of dyslexia, such as literacy difficulties, are often not obvious in adult learners. Instead, recognition requires a holistic approach to evaluating personal strengths and difficulties, in the context of a supportive relationship. Strategies to support dyslexic learners should consider recommendations made in formal diagnostic reports, and aim to address self-awareness and coping skills.

  9. Pacemakers and implantable cardioverter defibrillators - general and anesthetic considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy G. Rapsang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A pacemaking system consists of an impulse generator and lead or leads to carry the electrical impulse to the patient's heart. Pacemaker and implantable cardioverter defibrillator codes were made to describe the type of pacemaker or implantable cardioverter defibrillator implanted. Indications for pacing and implantable cardioverter defibrillator implantation were given by the American College of Cardiologists. Certain pacemakers have magnet-operated reed switches incorporated; however, magnet application can have serious adverse effects; hence, devices should be considered programmable unless known otherwise. When a device patient undergoes any procedure (with or without anesthesia, special precautions have to be observed including a focused history/physical examination, interrogation of pacemaker before and after the procedure, emergency drugs/temporary pacing and defibrillation, reprogramming of pacemaker and disabling certain pacemaker functions if required, monitoring of electrolyte and metabolic disturbance and avoiding certain drugs and equipments that can interfere with pacemaker function. If unanticipated device interactions are found, consider discontinuation of the procedure until the source of interference can be eliminated or managed and all corrective measures should be taken to ensure proper pacemaker function should be done. Post procedure, the cardiac rate and rhythm should be monitored continuously and emergency drugs and equipments should be kept ready and consultation with a cardiologist or a pacemaker-implantable cardioverter defibrillator service may be necessary.

  10. General Consideration on Legal Tax Evasion vs. Tax Fraud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavia-Daniela Steriopol

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is a brief overview of tax evasion as a complex social and economicphenomenon, of utmost importance, that today’s states confront with; its consequences seek to limitas much as possible, by legal and fiscal means, the eradication, which, at this point, is virtuallyimpossible. Tax evasion can be analysed from two points of view, the legal and the illegal aspect ofthe phenomenon or the fiscal fraud. The “fiscal paradises” had a very important role in the last years’activity.

  11. General considerations on the enforcement (application of law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berlingher Remus Daniel

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Law is a system of norms developed and/or recognized by the state as norms guiding human behaviour according to the values of that particular society, establishing rights and obligations, principles and definitions, structures and relationships of social organization and activity that must be obeyed and which, when necessary, are insured by the coercive force of the state. Thus, the development of this system of norms is not an end in itself, but is intended to regulate all social relations, guide human behaviours and achieve the aims of the law. The enforcement of law is the process of translating legal rules into practice, through which the subjects of law obey and execute legal norms, and state authorities apply them, depending on their competence. The enforcement of law depends on a number of factors that shape law, such as its natural framework of existence, the historical context and the ethnic and national particularities of that community’s development, the economic factor or framework, the framework and particularities of the political system, the cultural-ideological framework or factor, the international framework or factor, etc.

  12. INSURANCE MARKET. GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS OF INSURANCES IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARINEL NEDELUŢ

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Insurance is a contract made by a company or society, or by the state, to provide a guarantee for loss, damage, illness, death etc in return for regular payments. In other words it is a means by which one pays a relatively small known cost for protection against an uncertain and much larger cost. Still, this contract (insurance policy makes it possible for the insured to cover only losses that are measurable in terms of money and caused strictly by hazardous events, independent from own doing. If no such events should happen, the benefits won’t exist in a tangible, material form, but will take the shape of security against ruin. Since the insurance industry has developed more during the last decade due to the powerful players that have entered the market, the services provided by the insurance companies, and not only their products have evolved a lot in order to meet the requirements of the consumers, and to make them familiar with this type of investments. Therefore all the means of advertising became essential in this process of implementation and familiarization with this area of activity: mass-media advertising, insurance brokerage companies, the internet are all parts of this process.

  13. The lichens: general considerations. Role as pollution biological indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivaux, E.

    1998-01-01

    After having recalled the morphology and the different classification of lichens, the author presents the main lichenous substances, in particular the depsides and the depsidones. A detailed study on the role of lichens as pollution biological indicators is given. (O.M.)

  14. Considerations on hyrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beltrami, E.

    1985-01-01

    In the general theory of the motion of fluids, there are two doubly infinite systems of lines that have a fundamental importance for kinematic and dynamic studies of the motion itself. One of these systems is that of the lines of flux and the other system is the vortical lines. These two systems of lines are not, evidently, independent of each other, even if their mutual dependence is not explicit. They appear only in a very indirect way in the well-known hydrodynamic theorems. We will not speak about this question in general, but only about two cases that can be considered as extreme cases. The first is the case in which the lines of the two systems cross each other at right angles in each instant of time and in each point of the space occupied by the fluid. The second case takes place when these lines always meet at a 0 angle

  15. Epigenetic considerations in aquaculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mackenzie R. Gavery

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Epigenetics has attracted considerable attention with respect to its potential value in many areas of agricultural production, particularly under conditions where the environment can be manipulated or natural variation exists. Here we introduce key concepts and definitions of epigenetic mechanisms, including DNA methylation, histone modifications and non-coding RNA, review the current understanding of epigenetics in both fish and shellfish, and propose key areas of aquaculture where epigenetics could be applied. The first key area is environmental manipulation, where the intention is to induce an ‘epigenetic memory’ either within or between generations to produce a desired phenotype. The second key area is epigenetic selection, which, alone or combined with genetic selection, may increase the reliability of producing animals with desired phenotypes. Based on aspects of life history and husbandry practices in aquaculture species, the application of epigenetic knowledge could significantly affect the productivity and sustainability of aquaculture practices. Conversely, clarifying the role of epigenetic mechanisms in aquaculture species may upend traditional assumptions about selection practices. Ultimately, there are still many unanswered questions regarding how epigenetic mechanisms might be leveraged in aquaculture.

  16. General general game AI

    OpenAIRE

    Togelius, Julian; Yannakakis, Georgios N.; 2016 IEEE Conference on Computational Intelligence and Games (CIG)

    2016-01-01

    Arguably the grand goal of artificial intelligence research is to produce machines with general intelligence: the capacity to solve multiple problems, not just one. Artificial intelligence (AI) has investigated the general intelligence capacity of machines within the domain of games more than any other domain given the ideal properties of games for that purpose: controlled yet interesting and computationally hard problems. This line of research, however, has so far focuse...

  17. MOX Fabrication Isolation Considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eric L. Shaber; Bradley J Schrader

    2005-08-01

    This document provides a technical position on the preferred level of isolation to fabricate demonstration quantities of mixed oxide transmutation fuels. The Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative should design and construct automated glovebox fabrication lines for this purpose. This level of isolation adequately protects the health and safety of workers and the general public for all mixed oxide (and other transmutation fuel) manufacturing efforts while retaining flexibility, allowing parallel development and setup, and minimizing capital expense. The basis regulations, issues, and advantages/disadvantages of five potential forms of isolation are summarized here as justification for selection of the preferred technical position.

  18. Space Tourism: Orbital Debris Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoudian, N.; Shajiee, S.; Moghani, T.; Bahrami, M.

    2002-01-01

    Space activities after a phase of research and development, political competition and national prestige have entered an era of real commercialization. Remote sensing, earth observation, and communication are among the areas in which this growing industry is facing competition and declining government money. A project like International Space Station, which draws from public money, has not only opened a window of real multinational cooperation, but also changed space travel from a mere fantasy into a real world activity. Besides research activities for sending man to moon and Mars and other outer planets, space travel has attracted a considerable attention in recent years in the form of space tourism. Four countries from space fairing nations are actively involved in the development of space tourism. Even, nations which are either in early stages of space technology development or just beginning their space activities, have high ambitions in this area. This is worth noting considering their limited resources. At present, trips to space are available, but limited and expensive. To move beyond this point to generally available trips to orbit and week long stays in LEO, in orbital hotels, some of the required basic transportations, living requirements, and technological developments required for long stay in orbit are already underway. For tourism to develop to a real everyday business, not only the price has to come down to meaningful levels, but also safety considerations should be fully developed to attract travelers' trust. A serious hazard to space activities in general and space tourism in particular is space debris in earth orbit. Orbiting debris are man-made objects left over by space operations, hazardous to space missions. Since the higher density of debris population occurs in low earth orbit, which is also the same orbit of interest to space tourism, a careful attention should be paid to the effect of debris on tourism activities. In this study, after a

  19. CONSIDERATIONS ON URBAN SOILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu Lacatusu

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Urban soil is an material that has been manipulated, disturbed or transported by man’s activities in the urban environment and is used as a medium for plant growth and for constructions. The physical, chemical, and biological properties are generally less favorable as a rooting medium than soil found on the natural landscape. The main characteristics of urban soils are: great vertical and spatial variability; modified soil structure leading to compaction; presence of a surface crust; modified soil reaction, usually elevated; restricted aeration and water drainage; modified abundance of chemical elements, interrupted nutrient cycling and soil organism activity; presence of anthropic materials contaminants and pollutants; modified soil temperature regime. The urbic horizon is designated as U (always capital letter and for indication of processes are used different small letters. It is necessary elaboration a new classification of urban soils for our country.

  20. THE COMMUNICATIVE STYLE OF STAFF LEADERS. SOME GENERAL THEORETICAL CONSIDERATIONS ON THE LIGHT OF THE ACTIVITY OF DIRECTION / EL ESTILO DE COMUNICACIÓN DEL DIRECTIVO. ALGUNAS CONSIDERACIONES TEÓRICAS GENERALES A LA LUZ DE LA ACTIVIDAD DE DIRECCIÓN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Peña Valdés

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This article is about the communication style of the staff directive, farther beyond the interpretations made by some authors, considering it as a style of direction. Some ideas about the activity of direction in education are focused, as a natural scenery where the activity of communication is conceived, developed, evaluated and feedback, in contrast to some other authors and works that do it from a perspective of a style of direction without a rigorous scientific foundation, and without establishing the limits between one classification and the other, this is a well discussed issue, on authors point of view is the least important. Our considerations are based on the idea that every person has its own way of communicating that any position one may take is intertwined to the natural method and in some occasion’s reductions ideas singularize it. We are in favour of the criterion that the style of communication of staff leaders is an indissoluble and inseparable aspect of directing competence. Some arguments are offered in this level of analysis; the indicators and categories through which the first can be assessed, departing from the individuals of the activity of direction’s behaviour are offered, as well as a matrix for the collection of the data and their alternatives for processing them.

  1. MARKETING CONSIDERATIONS ON BRAND COMMUNITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.-C. Budac

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Most consumers spend an important part of their free time looking for online information about the brands before taking a decision to purchase. The Internet is the main factor which has led to a considerable increase of the time allotted by consumers for search and comparing information about brands, as a step preceding the decision to purchase and also one of the most important factors that influence the interaction between the brand and the consumer. Although the general trend is that the public to become more active and more involved in the choice of the brand, consumer's responses to its messages obviously depend on cultural, social or economic factors. The work has the purpose to clarify what brand community means and how it appeared - if it was really built from scratch or it has already existed in a latent way and it must only be recognized - the characteristics of successful communities, which of the objectives of the brands can be achieved by means of these groups, what is the role of social media in the development of these communities, what kind of types of mem¬bers are likely to be encountered inside of the online communities and what is their proportion for each and which are the research methodologies that can give support to companies in monitoring these groups.

  2. Considerations about energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lelek, V.

    2010-01-01

    As in any branch also in nuclear reactors there are attempts to forecast future as from the technology point of view so from the amount and economic effectiveness of planned capacities. It is frequently forgotten that electricity and maybe further products from nuclear energy cannot be easy stored and that there is strong feedback among overall economy and energy in its different forms and general decrease of production leads to the decrease of electricity (oil, gas) use and even to the greater decrease of its prices. This altogether is leading to the demand of deeper understanding of the energy flow, including cross-frontier trade and supply and R and D planning including very long time intervals to keep industry and life standard, which may need new technology development and bringing to the functioning new industry branches. There are described various aspects of the problem and possible conclusions for us in the situation of growing public demands and decreasing raw material base. Material is based on works and presentations from the INPRO collaborative project RMI 'Meeting energy needs in the period of raw materials insufficiency during the twenty first century' and older works. (Author)

  3. Engineering radioecology: Methodological considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nechaev, A.F.; Projaev, V.V.; Sobolev, I.A.; Dmitriev, S.A.

    1995-01-01

    The term ''radioecology'' has been widely recognized in scientific and technical societies. At the same time, this scientific school (radioecology) does not have a precise/generally acknowledged structure, unified methodical basis, fixed subjects of investigation, etc. In other words, radioecology is a vast, important but rather amorphous conglomerate of various ideas, amalgamated mostly by their involvement in biospheric effects of ionizing radiation and some conceptual stereotypes. This paradox was acceptable up to a certain time. However, with the termination of the Cold War and because of remarkable political changes in the world, it has become possible to convert the problem of environmental restoration from the scientific sphere in particularly practical terms. Already the first steps clearly showed an imperfection of existing technologies, managerial and regulatory schemes; lack of qualified specialists, relevant methods and techniques; uncertainties in methodology of decision-making, etc. Thus, building up (or maybe, structuring) of special scientific and technological basis, which the authors call ''engineering radioecology'', seems to be an important task. In this paper they endeavored to substantiate the last thesis and to suggest some preliminary ideas concerning the subject matter of engineering radioecology

  4. 7 CFR 1491.6 - Ranking considerations and proposal selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ranking considerations and proposal selection. 1491.6... PROGRAM General Provisions § 1491.6 Ranking considerations and proposal selection. (a) Before the State.... The national ranking criteria will be established by the Chief and the State criteria will be...

  5. 40 CFR 258.3 - Consideration of other Federal laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Consideration of other Federal laws... CRITERIA FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS General § 258.3 Consideration of other Federal laws. The owner... rules, laws, regulations, or other requirements. ...

  6. 40 CFR 144.4 - Considerations under Federal law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Considerations under Federal law. 144... (CONTINUED) UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAM General Provisions § 144.4 Considerations under Federal law. The following is a list of Federal laws that may apply to the issuance of permits under these rules...

  7. Advanced LBB methodology and considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, R.; Rahman, S.; Scott, P.

    1997-01-01

    LBB applications have existed in many industries and more recently have been applied in the nuclear industry under limited circumstances. Research over the past 10 years has evolved the technology so that more advanced consideration of LBB can now be given. Some of the advanced considerations for nuclear plants subjected to seismic loading evaluations are summarized in this paper

  8. Revealed preference with limited consideration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demuynck, T.; Seel, C.

    2014-01-01

    We derive revealed preference tests for models where individuals use consideration sets to simplify their consumption problem. Our basic test provides necessary and sufficient conditions for consistency of observed choices with the existence of consideration set restrictions. The same conditions can

  9. Ethical Considerations in Technology Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froehlich, Thomas J.

    1991-01-01

    Examines ethical considerations involved in the transfer of appropriate information technology to less developed countries. Approaches to technology are considered; two philosophical frameworks for studying ethical considerations are discussed, i.e., the Kantian approach and the utilitarian perspective by John Stuart Mill; and integration of the…

  10. Advanced LBB methodology and considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, R.; Rahman, S.; Scott, P. [Battelle, Columbus, OH (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    LBB applications have existed in many industries and more recently have been applied in the nuclear industry under limited circumstances. Research over the past 10 years has evolved the technology so that more advanced consideration of LBB can now be given. Some of the advanced considerations for nuclear plants subjected to seismic loading evaluations are summarized in this paper.

  11. Design Considerations | Efficient Windows Collaborative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foundry Foundry New Construction Windows Window Selection Tool Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Replacement Windows Window Selection Tool Assessing Options Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Understanding Windows Benefits Design Considerations Measuring Performance Performance Standards

  12. State/Federal Regulatory Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page contains presentations from the Brown to Green: Make the Connection to Renewable Energy workshop held in Santa Fe, New Mexico, during December 10-11, 2008, regarding State/Federal Regulatory Considerations.

  13. Design considerations for mechanical snubbers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Severud, L.K.; Summers, G.D.

    1980-03-01

    The use of mechanical snubbers to restrain piping during an earthquake event is becoming more common in design of nuclear power plants. The design considerations and qualification procedures for mechanical snubbers used on the Fast Flux Test Facility will be presented. Design precautions and requirements for both normal operation and seismic operation are necessary. Effects of environmental vibration (nonseismic) induced through the piping by pump shaft imbalance and fluid flow oscillations will be addressed. Also, the snubber dynamic characteristics of interest to design and snubber design application considerations will be discussed

  14. Considerations on the modelling of environmental radiocarbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, E.M.; McCartney, M.

    1991-01-01

    Modelling radionuclide transfer within the natural environment involves three general steps: model formulation, its fitting using appropriate experimental data and model validation. The last process typically involves a sensitivity analysis and is used to modify model formulation and to direct future experimental effort. A wide variety of models exists appropriate to a number of different applications. Recently, attention has been directed to the development of principles for establishing local, regional and global upper bounds to doses. Here important considerations in model choice are the spatial detail required within the model, the links between models of differing resolution and the availability of suitable experimental data. We illustrate the model-building stages and discuss the above considerations in transfer modelling using radiocarbon which is produced and released as part of the nuclear fuel cycle. Its long half life of 5730 years, its mobility in the environment and its incorporation into man via the food chain make it of some considerable radiological significance. We consider local modelling of 14 C transfer using a Gaussian plume model, while its global dispersal is modelled using a large globally-averaged compartmental model. The global analysis is used to make short term predictions of 14 C specific activities to 2050 and longer-term predictions over a period of 10,000 years. We discuss the validation of these models and attempt to quantify the sources and magnitudes of the uncertainties in the model predictions. (26 refs., 2 figs.)

  15. Generalized functions

    CERN Document Server

    Gelfand, I M; Graev, M I; Vilenkin, N Y; Pyatetskii-Shapiro, I I

    Volume 1 is devoted to basics of the theory of generalized functions. The first chapter contains main definitions and most important properties of generalized functions as functional on the space of smooth functions with compact support. The second chapter talks about the Fourier transform of generalized functions. In Chapter 3, definitions and properties of some important classes of generalized functions are discussed; in particular, generalized functions supported on submanifolds of lower dimension, generalized functions associated with quadratic forms, and homogeneous generalized functions are studied in detail. Many simple basic examples make this book an excellent place for a novice to get acquainted with the theory of generalized functions. A long appendix presents basics of generalized functions of complex variables.

  16. Statistical considerations on safety analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pal, L.; Makai, M.

    2004-01-01

    The authors have investigated the statistical methods applied to safety analysis of nuclear reactors and arrived at alarming conclusions: a series of calculations with the generally appreciated safety code ATHLET were carried out to ascertain the stability of the results against input uncertainties in a simple experimental situation. Scrutinizing those calculations, we came to the conclusion that the ATHLET results may exhibit chaotic behavior. A further conclusion is that the technological limits are incorrectly set when the output variables are correlated. Another formerly unnoticed conclusion of the previous ATHLET calculations that certain innocent looking parameters (like wall roughness factor, the number of bubbles per unit volume, the number of droplets per unit volume) can influence considerably such output parameters as water levels. The authors are concerned with the statistical foundation of present day safety analysis practices and can only hope that their own misjudgment will be dispelled. Until then, the authors suggest applying correct statistical methods in safety analysis even if it makes the analysis more expensive. It would be desirable to continue exploring the role of internal parameters (wall roughness factor, steam-water surface in thermal hydraulics codes, homogenization methods in neutronics codes) in system safety codes and to study their effects on the analysis. In the validation and verification process of a code one carries out a series of computations. The input data are not precisely determined because measured data have an error, calculated data are often obtained from a more or less accurate model. Some users of large codes are content with comparing the nominal output obtained from the nominal input, whereas all the possible inputs should be taken into account when judging safety. At the same time, any statement concerning safety must be aleatory, and its merit can be judged only when the probability is known with which the

  17. Nuclear energy applications - ethical considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoermann, K.

    1980-01-01

    Following an Austrian referendum in 1978 which showed a small majority against operation of nuclear power stations, the economic penalties involved by this decision are qualitatively discussed, with emphasis on reduced standards of living. Religious considerations are examined and the difficulty of obtaining informed public opinion is stressed. Alternative sources of energy, including nuclear fusion, are briefly referred to. (G.M.E.)

  18. LABORATORY DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS FOR SAFETY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Safety Council, Chicago, IL. Campus Safety Association.

    THIS SET OF CONSIDERATIONS HAS BEEN PREPARED TO PROVIDE PERSONS WORKING ON THE DESIGN OF NEW OR REMODELED LABORATORY FACILITIES WITH A SUITABLE REFERENCE GUIDE TO DESIGN SAFETY. THERE IS NO DISTINCTION BETWEEN TYPES OF LABORATORY AND THE EMPHASIS IS ON GIVING GUIDES AND ALTERNATIVES RATHER THAN DETAILED SPECIFICATIONS. AREAS COVERED INCLUDE--(1)…

  19. Practical considerations for effective microendoscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaioannou, Thanassis; Papazoglou, Theodore G.; Daykhovsky, Leon; Gershman, Alex; Segalowitz, Jacob; Reznik, G.; Beeder, Clain; Chandra, Mudjianto; Grundfest, Warren S.

    1991-07-01

    This paper reports on the application of angioscopic technology to the endoscopy of previously inaccessible body cavities. Necessary instruments including endoscopes, light sources, cameras, video recorders, monitors, and other accessories are described. Practical considerations for effective instrumentation are discussed. An overview of our clinical microendoscopic applications in more than 630 patients is presented.

  20. Design considerations for community mental health management information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, B H; Sugarman, B

    1978-01-01

    Many community mental health centers are presently faced with the necessity of implementing a management information system. This article offers guidelines for centers dealing with this situation. Whether a center chooses to adapt an existing system or develop one of its own, careful planning prior to the implementation of the system can help ensure that it will meet the needs of the center and operate successfully. The guidelines are organized into the categories of data considerations, people considerations, and system considerations. The first two categories are of general interest, whereas the last category is more technical in nature.

  1. General Editorial

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education. General Editorial. Articles in Resonance – Journal of Science Education. Volume 19 Issue 1 January 2014 pp 1-2 General Editorial. General Editorial on Publication Ethics · R Ramaswamy · More Details Fulltext PDF. Volume 19 Issue 1 January 2014 pp 3-3 ...

  2. Three essays on resource economics. Demand systems for energy forecasting: Practical considerations for estimating a generalized logit model, To borrow or not to borrow: A variation on the MacDougal-Kemp theme, and, Valuing reduced risk for households with children or the retired

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Weifeng

    This thesis presents papers on three areas of study within resource and environmental economics. "Demand Systems For Energy Forecasting" provides some practical considerations for estimating a Generalized Logit model. The main reason for using this demand system for energy and other factors is that the derived price elasticities are robust when expenditure shares are small. The primary objective of the paper is to determine the best form of the cross-price weights, and a simple inverse function of the expenditure share is selected. A second objective is to demonstrate that the estimated elasticities are sensitive to the units specified for the prices, and to show how price scales can be estimated as part of the model. "To Borrow or Not to Borrow: A Variation on the MacDougal-Kemp Theme" studies the impact of international capital movements on the conditional convergence of economies differing from each other only in initial wealth. We found that in assets, income, consumption and utility, convergence obtains, with and only with, the absence of international capital movement. When a rich country invests in a poor country, the balance of debt increases forever. Asset ownership is increased in all periods for the lender, and asset ownership of the borrower is deceased. Also, capital investment decreases the lender's utility for early periods, but increases it forever after a cross-over point. In contrast, the borrower's utility increases for early periods, but then decreases forever. "Valuing Reduced Risk for Households with Children or the Retired" presents a theoretical model of how families value risk and then exams family automobile purchases to impute the average Value of a Statistical Life (VSL) for each type of family. Data for fatal accidents are used to estimate survival rates for individuals in different types of accidents, and the probabilities of having accidents for different types of vehicle. These models are used to determine standardized risks for

  3. Generalized G-theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sladkowski, J.

    1991-01-01

    Various attempts to formulate the fundamental physical interactions in the framework of unified geometric theories have recently gained considerable success (Kaluza, 1921; Klein, 1926; Trautmann, 1970; Cho, 1975). Symmetries of the spacetime and so-called internal spaces seem to play a key role in investigating both the fundamental interactions and the abundance of elementary particles. The author presents a category-theoretic description of a generalization of the G-theory concept and its application to geometric compactification and dimensional reduction. The main reasons for using categories and functors as tools are the clearness and the level of generalization one can obtain

  4. Some considerations of wave propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdonk, P. L. F. M.

    The meaning of group velocity and its relation to conserved quantities are demonstrated. The origin of wave dispersion in terms of nonlocal and relaxation phenomena are clarified. The character of a wave described by an equation with a general type of nonlinearity and general dispersion terms is explained. The steepening of a wave flank and the occurrence of stationary waves are discussed.

  5. Forces in general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ridgely, Charles T

    2010-01-01

    Many textbooks dealing with general relativity do not demonstrate the derivation of forces in enough detail. The analyses presented herein demonstrate straightforward methods for computing forces by way of general relativity. Covariant divergence of the stress-energy-momentum tensor is used to derive a general expression of the force experienced by an observer in general coordinates. The general force is then applied to the local co-moving coordinate system of a uniformly accelerating observer, leading to an expression of the inertial force experienced by the observer. Next, applying the general force in Schwarzschild coordinates is shown to lead to familiar expressions of the gravitational force. As a more complex demonstration, the general force is applied to an observer in Boyer-Lindquist coordinates near a rotating, Kerr black hole. It is then shown that when the angular momentum of the black hole goes to zero, the force on the observer reduces to the force on an observer held stationary in Schwarzschild coordinates. As a final consideration, the force on an observer moving in rotating coordinates is derived. Expressing the force in terms of Christoffel symbols in rotating coordinates leads to familiar expressions of the centrifugal and Coriolis forces on the observer. It is envisioned that the techniques presented herein will be most useful to graduate level students, as well as those undergraduate students having experience with general relativity and tensor analysis.

  6. Generalized product

    OpenAIRE

    Greco, Salvatore; Mesiar, Radko; Rindone, Fabio

    2014-01-01

    Aggregation functions on [0,1] with annihilator 0 can be seen as a generalized product on [0,1]. We study the generalized product on the bipolar scale [–1,1], stressing the axiomatic point of view. Based on newly introduced bipolar properties, such as the bipolar increasingness, bipolar unit element, bipolar idempotent element, several kinds of generalized bipolar product are introduced and studied. A special stress is put on bipolar semicopulas, bipolar quasi-copulas and bipolar copulas.

  7. Commercial considerations in tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansbridge, Jonathan

    2006-10-01

    Tissue engineering is a field with immense promise. Using the example of an early tissue-engineered skin implant, Dermagraft, factors involved in the successful commercial development of devices of this type are explored. Tissue engineering has to strike a balance between tissue culture, which is a resource-intensive activity, and business considerations that are concerned with minimizing cost and maximizing customer convenience. Bioreactor design takes place in a highly regulated environment, so factors to be incorporated into the concept include not only tissue culture considerations but also matters related to asepsis, scaleup, automation and ease of use by the final customer. Dermagraft is an allogeneic tissue. Stasis preservation, in this case cryopreservation, is essential in allogeneic tissue engineering, allowing sterility testing, inventory control and, in the case of Dermagraft, a cellular stress that may be important for hormesis following implantation. Although the use of allogeneic cells provides advantages in manufacturing under suitable conditions, it raises the spectre of immunological rejection. Such rejection has not been experienced with Dermagraft. Possible reasons for this and the vision of further application of allogeneic tissues are important considerations in future tissue-engineered cellular devices. This review illustrates approaches that indicate some of the criteria that may provide a basis for further developments. Marketing is a further requirement for success, which entails understanding of the mechanism of action of the procedure, and is illustrated for Dermagraft. The success of a tissue-engineered product is dependent on many interacting operations, some discussed here, each of which must be performed simultaneously and well.

  8. Considerations Regarding Students’ Social Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iuliana Cenar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper entitled “Considerations Regarding Students’ Social Protection” addresses the main forms of support offered to students and their families, divided in relation to the aim pursued, which may be relate to stimulating students’ performance and discipline, material and financial support (social assistance, supplementing family income. For these components there were taken into account: the circumstances in which it acquires to status of beneficiary, evolutionary dimensions in terms of beneficiary numbers, the amounts awarded, the need to ensure the complementarities with the informal side of social protection.

  9. Preliminary considerations concerning actinide solubilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newton, T.W.; Bayhurst, B.P.; Daniels, W.R.; Erdal, B.R.; Ogard, A.E.

    1980-01-01

    Work at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory on the fundamental solution chemistry of the actinides has thus far been confined to preliminary considerations of the problems involved in developing an understanding of the precipitation and dissolution behavior of actinide compounds under environmental conditions. Attempts have been made to calculate solubility as a function of Eh and pH using the appropriate thermodynamic data; results have been presented in terms of contour maps showing lines of constant solubility as a function of Eh and pH. Possible methods of control of the redox potential of rock-groundwater systems by the use of Eh buffers (redox couples) is presented

  10. Consideration of aging in probabilistic safety assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Titina, B.; Cepin, M.

    2007-01-01

    Probabilistic safety assessment is a standardised tool for assessment of safety of nuclear power plants. It is a complement to the safety analyses. Standard probabilistic models of safety equipment assume component failure rate as a constant. Ageing of systems, structures and components can theoretically be included in new age-dependent probabilistic safety assessment, which generally causes the failure rate to be a function of age. New age-dependent probabilistic safety assessment models, which offer explicit calculation of the ageing effects, are developed. Several groups of components are considered which require their unique models: e.g. operating components e.g. stand-by components. The developed models on the component level are inserted into the models of the probabilistic safety assessment in order that the ageing effects are evaluated for complete systems. The preliminary results show that the lack of necessary data for consideration of ageing causes highly uncertain models and consequently the results. (author)

  11. Smallpox: clinical highlights and considerations for vaccination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahoney M

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Smallpox virus has gained considerable attention as a potential bioterrorism agent. Recommendations for smallpox (vaccinia vaccination presume a low risk for use of smallpox as a terrorist biological agent and vaccination is currently recommended for selected groups of individuals such as health care workers, public health authorities, and emergency/rescue workers, among others. Information about adverse reactions to the smallpox vaccine is based upon studies completed during the 1950s and 1960s. The prevalence of various diseases has changed over the last four decades and new disease entities have been described during this period. The smallpox vaccination may be contra-indicated in many of these conditions. This has made pre-screening of potential vaccines necessary. It is believed that at present, the risks of vaccine-associated complications far outweigh the potential benefits of vaccination in the general population.

  12. Nuclear energy: considerations about nuclear trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goes Fischer, M.D. de.

    1988-01-01

    A general view of historical aspects of nuclear energy and the arrangements to assure its use for peaceful purposes are presented. Then the internal character of nuclear energy in a juride context is demonstrated; some consideration about the international organizations and conventions and the Brazilian Legislation in the nuclear area are examined. It also deals with the political aspects of nuclear trade and the function of IAEA in this are. Furthermore the restrictions imposed by Non-Proliferation Treaty-NPT, the objectures of the Tlatelolco Treaty and ''London Club'' guidelines. Afterwards the bilateral cooperation under taken by countries and its agreements are discussed. Besides some aspects of agreements made between United States, France Germany and Brazil are discussed [pt

  13. 28 CFR 51.34 - Expedited consideration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Expedited consideration. 51.34 Section 51... consideration. (a) When a submitting authority is required under State law or local ordinance or otherwise finds... the submission be given expedited consideration. The submission should explain why such consideration...

  14. 46 CFR 114.550 - Special consideration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Special consideration. 114.550 Section 114.550 Shipping... consideration. In applying the provisions of this subchapter, the OCMI may give special consideration to... vessel operates must approve any special consideration granted to the vessel. ...

  15. Ethical considerations for field research on fishes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhett H. Bennett

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Collection of data from animals for research purposes can negatively impact target or by-catch species if suitable animal ethics practices are not followed. This study aimed to assess the ethical requirements of peer-reviewed scientific journals that publish primary literature on fishes, and review the ethical considerations and animal care guidelines of national and international documents on the ethical treatment of animals for research, to provide an overview of the general ethical considerations for field research on fishes. A review of 250 peer-reviewed, ISI-rated journals publishing primary research on fishes revealed that nearly half (46% had no mention of ethics, treatment of animals or ethical requirements for publication in their author guidelines or publication policies. However, 18% of the journals reviewed identify a specific set of ethical guidelines to be followed before publishing research involving animals. Ethical considerations for investigators undertaking field research on fishes, common to most animal care policies, legislation and guiding documents, include adhering to relevant legislation, minimising sample sizes, reducing or mitigating pain and distress, employing the most appropriate and least invasive techniques and accurately reporting methods and findings. This information will provide potential investigators with a useful starting point for designing and conducting ethical field research. Application of ethical best practices in field sampling studies will improve the welfare of study animals and the conservation of rare and endangered species. Conservation implications: This article provides a list of ethical considerations for designing and conducting field research on fishes. By reviewing sampling techniques and processes that are frequently used in field research on fishes and by highlighting the potential negative impacts of these sampling techniques, this article is intended to assist researchers in planning

  16. Generalized isothermic lattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doliwa, Adam

    2007-01-01

    We study multi-dimensional quadrilateral lattices satisfying simultaneously two integrable constraints: a quadratic constraint and the projective Moutard constraint. When the lattice is two dimensional and the quadric under consideration is the Moebius sphere one obtains, after the stereographic projection, the discrete isothermic surfaces defined by Bobenko and Pinkall by an algebraic constraint imposed on the (complex) cross-ratio of the circular lattice. We derive the analogous condition for our generalized isothermic lattices using Steiner's projective structure of conics, and we present basic geometric constructions which encode integrability of the lattice. In particular, we introduce the Darboux transformation of the generalized isothermic lattice and we derive the corresponding Bianchi permutability principle. Finally, we study two-dimensional generalized isothermic lattices, in particular geometry of their initial boundary value problem

  17. General relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenyon, I.R.

    1990-01-01

    General relativity is discussed in this book at a level appropriate to undergraduate students of physics and astronomy. It describes concepts and experimental results, and provides a succinct account of the formalism. A brief review of special relativity is followed by a discussion of the equivalence principle and its implications. Other topics covered include the concepts of curvature and the Schwarzschild metric, test of the general theory, black holes and their properties, gravitational radiation and methods for its detection, the impact of general relativity on cosmology, and the continuing search for a quantum theory of gravity. (author)

  18. Consideration of the volume dependence of tolerance doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gremmel, H.; Wendhausen, H.

    1977-01-01

    A general formula for consideration of the dependence of tolerance doses upon volume is obtained by mathematical evaluation of known skin tolerance doses. The validity for different organs is verified using available data of literature. It is recommended to introduce the volume dependence into the Ellis-formula for tolerance doses. (orig.) [de

  19. Surgical Considerations in the Management of Tumours of the Nose ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Tumours of the nose and paranasal sinuses in sub-Saharan Africa are generally characterised by late presentation posing management challenges to the otorhinolaryngologists in the sub-region. OBJECTIVES: To appraise surgical considerations in the management of tumours of the nose and paranasal ...

  20. 48 CFR 32.005 - Consideration for contract financing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... financing. 32.005 Section 32.005 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT FINANCING 32.005 Consideration for contract financing. (a) Requirement. When a contract financing clause is included at the inception of a contract, there shall be no...

  1. Mechanical considerations for MFTF-B plasma-diagnostic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, S.R. Jr.; Wells, C.W.

    1981-01-01

    The reconfiguration of MFTF to a tandem mirror machine with thermal barriers has caused a significant expansion in the physical scope of plasma diagnostics. From a mechanical perspective, it complicates the plasma access, system interfaces, growth and environmental considerations. Conceptual designs characterize the general scope of the design and fabrication which remains to be done

  2. General problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This article presents the general problems as natural disasters, consequences of global climate change, public health, the danger of criminal actions, the availability to information about problems of environment

  3. Generalized Recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christian Skov; Lando, David; Pedersen, Lasse Heje

    We characterize when physical probabilities, marginal utilities, and the discount rate can be recovered from observed state prices for several future time periods. Our characterization makes no assumptions of the probability distribution, thus generalizing the time-homogeneous stationary model...

  4. General Conformity

    Science.gov (United States)

    The General Conformity requirements ensure that the actions taken by federal agencies in nonattainment and maintenance areas do not interfere with a state’s plans to meet national standards for air quality.

  5. Shaft and tunnel sealing considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelsall, P.C.; Shukla, D.K.

    1980-01-01

    Much of the emphasis of previous repository sealing research has been placed on plugging small diameter boreholes. It is increasingly evident that equal emphasis should now be given to shafts and tunnels which constitute more significant pathways between a repository and the biosphere. The paper discusses differences in requirements for sealing shafts and tunnels as compared with boreholes and the implications for seal design. Consideration is given to a design approach for shaft and tunnel seals based on a multiple component design concept, taking into account the requirements for retrievability of the waste. A work plan is developed for the future studies required to advance shaft and tunnel sealing technology to a level comparable with the existing technology for borehole sealing

  6. Biosimilars: Considerations for Oncology Nurses
.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vizgirda, Vida; Jacobs, Ira

    2017-04-01

    Biosimilars are developed to be highly similar to and treat the same conditions as licensed biologics. As they are approved and their use becomes more widespread, oncology nurses should be aware of their development and unique considerations. This article reviews properties of biosimilars; their regulation and approval process; the ways in which their quality, safety, and efficacy are evaluated; their postmarketing safety monitoring; and their significance to oncology nurses and oncology nursing.
. A search of PubMed and regulatory agency websites was conducted for references related to the development and use of biosimilars in oncology. 
. Because biologics are large, structurally complex molecules, biosimilars cannot be considered generic equivalents to licensed biologic products. Consequently, regulatory approval for biosimilars is different from approval for small-molecule generics. Oncology nurses are in a unique position to educate themselves, other clinicians, and patients and their families about biosimilars to ensure accurate understanding, as well as optimal and safe use, of biosimilars.

  7. Lyme Disease: Emergency Department Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Applegren, Nathan D; Kraus, Chadd K

    2017-06-01

    Lyme disease (LD) is the most common vector-borne illness in North America. Reported cases of LD have increased from approximately 10,000 cases annually in 1991 to >25,000 cases in 2014. Greater recognition, enhanced surveillance, and public education have contributed to the increased prevalence, as have geographic expansion and the number of infected ticks. Cases are reported primarily in the Northeastern United States, Wisconsin, and Minnesota, with children having the highest incidence of LD among all age groups. The increased incidence and prevalence of LD in the United States makes it increasingly more common for patients to present to the emergency department (ED) for tick bites and LD-related chief complaints, such as the characteristic erythema migrans skin manifestation. We sought to review the etiology of LD, describe its clinical presentations and sequela, and provide a practical classification and approach to ED management of patients with LD-related presentations. In this review, ED considerations for LD are presented and clinical presentations and management of the disease at different stages is discussed. Delayed sequelae that have significant morbidity, including Lyme carditis and Lyme neuroborreliosis, are discussed. Diagnostic tests and management are described in detail. The increasing prevalence and growing geographic reach of Lyme disease makes it critically important for emergency physicians to consider the diagnosis in patients presenting with symptoms suggestive of LD and to initiate appropriate treatment to minimize the potential of delayed sequelae. Special consideration should be made for the epidemiology of LD and a high clinical suspicion should be present for patients in endemic areas or with known exposures to ticks. Emergency physicians can play a critical role in the recognition, diagnosis, and treatment of LD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Context-dependent Generalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan A Taylor

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The pattern of generalization following motor learning can provide a probe on the neural mechanisms underlying learning. For example, the breadth of generalization to untrained regions of space after visuomotor adaptation to targets in a restricted region of space has been attributed to the directional tuning properties of neurons in the motor system. Building on this idea, the effect of different types of perturbations on generalization (e.g., rotation versus visual translation have been attributed to the selection of differentially tuned populations. Overlooked in this discussion is consideration of how the context of the training environment may constrain generalization. Here, we explore the role of context by having participants learn a visuomotor rotation or a translational shift in two different contexts, one in which the array of targets were presented in a circular arrangement and the other in which they were presented in a rectilinear arrangement. The perturbation and environments were either consistent (e.g., rotation with circular arrangement or inconsistent (e.g., rotation with rectilinear arrangement. The pattern of generalization across the workspace was much more dependent on the context of the environment than on the perturbation, with broad generalization for the rectilinear arrangement for both types of perturbations. Moreover, the generalization pattern for this context was evident, even when the perturbation was introduced in a gradual manner, precluding the use of an explicit strategy. We describe how current models of generalization might be modified to incorporate these results, building on the idea that context provides a strong bias for how the motor system infers the nature of the visuomotor perturbation and, in turn, how this information influences the pattern of generalization.

  9. Generalized polygons

    CERN Document Server

    Van Maldeghem, Hendrik

    1998-01-01

    Generalized Polygons is the first book to cover, in a coherent manner, the theory of polygons from scratch. In particular, it fills elementary gaps in the literature and gives an up-to-date account of current research in this area, including most proofs, which are often unified and streamlined in comparison to the versions generally known. Generalized Polygons will be welcomed both by the student seeking an introduction to the subject as well as the researcher who will value the work as a reference. In particular, it will be of great value for specialists working in the field of generalized polygons (which are, incidentally, the rank 2 Tits-buildings) or in fields directly related to Tits-buildings, incidence geometry and finite geometry. The approach taken in the book is of geometric nature, but algebraic results are included and proven (in a geometric way!). A noteworthy feature is that the book unifies and generalizes notions, definitions and results that exist for quadrangles, hexagons, octagons - in the ...

  10. [Physicians' strikes--ethical considerations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glick, Shimon; Schwarzfuchs, Dan

    2012-01-01

    Strikes in general represent a solution based on a form of coercion. Historically, the striker caused direct damage to his employer, who was responsible for the perceived unfair treatment of the employee. In the case of strikes in the public sector, the employer is generally not harmed, but innocent citizens suffer in order to pressure the government agencies, a questionable practice from an ethical viewpoint. Physicians' strikes have more serious ethical problems. They cause suffering and death to innocent citizens. They violate the ethical codes to which physicians have committed themselves as professionals, and they seriously impair the trust of the public in physicians. Better and more ethical ways to provide fair compensation for physicians must be employed, perhaps like those used for judges and members of the IDF.

  11. Legal considerations for urban underground space development in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Zaini

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2008, the Malaysia land code, named the National Land Code 1965 (NLC 1965, was amended to add Part Five (A to deal with the disposal of underground space. In addition, the Circular of the Director General of Lands and Mines No. 1/2008 was issued to assist the application of Part Five (A of the NLC 1965. However, the legislation is still questionable and has instigated many arguments among numerous actors. Therefore, this research was undertaken to examine legal considerations for the development of underground space. The focus is on four legal considerations, namely underground space ownership, the bundle of rights, depth, and underground space utilization. Rooted in qualitative methods, interviews were conducted with respondents involved in the development of underground space in Malaysia. The obtained data were then analyzed descriptively. The findings differentiated the rights of landowners for surface land and underground space, and their liability for damages and the depth. It was indicated that the current legislation in Malaysia, namely Part Five (A of the NLC 1965 and the Circular of the Director General of Lands and Mines No. 1/2008, is adequate to facilitate the development of underground space in terms of legal considerations. However, to further facilitate the development of underground land in the future, based on the research, four enhancements are recommended for legal considerations pertaining to the development of underground space in Malaysia. Keywords: Underground space, Legal consideration, Land right, Urban development

  12. General conclusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tubiana, M.

    1993-01-01

    In conclusion, a general consensus of a number of points which the author endeavours to summarize in this article: -doctors are an excellent channel for passing on information to the public -doctors feel that they do not know enough about the subject and a training on radiobiology and radiation protection is a necessity for them -communication between doctors and the general public is poor in this field -research should be encouraged in numerous areas such as: carcinogenic effect of low doses of radiation, pedagogy and risk perception

  13. TRIGA reactor health physics considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, A.G.

    1970-01-01

    The factors influencing the complexity of a TRIGA health physics program are discussed in details in order to serve as a basis for later consideration of various specific aspects of a typical TRIGA health physics program. The health physics program must be able to provide adequate assistance, control, and safety for individuals ranging from the inexperienced student to the experienced postgraduate researcher. Some of the major aspects discussed are: effluent release and control; reactor area air monitoring; area monitoring; adjacent facilities monitoring; portable instrumentation, personnel monitoring. TRIGA reactors have not been associated with many significant occurrences in the area of health physics, although some operational occurrences have had health physics implications. One specific occurrence at OSU is described involving the detection of non-fission-product radioactive particulates by the continuous air monitor on the reactor top. The studies of this particular situation indicate that most of the particulate activity is coming from the rotating rack and exhausting to the reactor top through the rotating rack loading tube

  14. Hypochondriasis: considerations for ICD-11

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odile A. van den Heuvel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The World Health Organization (WHO is currently revisiting the ICD. In the 10th version of the ICD, approved in 1990, hypochondriacal symptoms are described in the context of both the primary condition hypochondriacal disorder and as secondary symptoms within a range of other mental disorders. Expansion of the research base since 1990 makes a critical evaluation and revision of both the definition and classification of hypochondriacal disorder timely. This article addresses the considerations reviewed by members of the WHO ICD-11 Working Group on the Classification of Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders in their proposal for the description and classification of hypochondriasis. The proposed revision emphasizes the phenomenological overlap with both anxiety disorders (e.g., fear, hypervigilance to bodily symptoms, and avoidance and obsessive-compulsive and related disorders (e.g., preoccupation and repetitive behaviors and the distinction from the somatoform disorders (presence of somatic symptom is not a critical characteristic. This revision aims to improve clinical utility by enabling better recognition and treatment of patients with hypochondriasis within the broad range of global health care settings.

  15. Ethical Considerations of Preclinical Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allen Goldenthal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The numbers of animal tests being conducted are on a sharp incline.  Much of this increase is directly due to our ability to generate transgenic models and knock-outs, thereby increasing the validity of the animal model but not necessarily correlating directly with any translational medical benefits to the human counterpart.  In spite of our best efforts, there still exist species differences that prevent the application directly from animal to human, and in some examples having a completely different and adverse effect from that seen in the animal model. There are several ways in which we can improve the opportunity for a positive test outcome and at the same time reduce the animal usage which is associated with our current animal testing practices. The benefit of the 3R’s is that they encourage us not only to avoid wastage of life but that they require us to provide considerable foresight and extrapolated thought before directly engaging in the preclinical testing phase.

  16. CONSIDERATIONS ON CONSUMER PERCEIVED RISK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Catalina Timiras

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article we identified a number of factors influencing the consumers’ perceived risk. In the first part we conducted a review of the main issues that define the perceived risk by the consumer at the time of purchase, some of the lines of action of the organizations to diminish this risk perception and a number of influencing factors presented in the literature, with significant impact on the intensity with which risk is perceived by consumers. The second part of the article is based on the statistical information regarding e-commerce market, market in which the perceived risk plays an important role in the purchasing decision. Thus, based on available official statistics provided by Eurostat we have revealed the existence of certain links between electronic commerce and orientation towards risk and income levels, age and consumer educational level. The review is not intended to be exhaustive, the study taking into consideration only those links that can be identified from using official statistical data.

  17. Considerations regarding dosimetry in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilday, D.L.

    1986-01-01

    The most important consideration when deciding whether or not to perform a nuclear medicine procedure in a child is whether the benefit of the information obtained exceeds the potential risk. In most circumstances the potential benefits are well define. No patient should be studied unless the question to be answered is clearly understood and there is a reasonable change to answer it. To properly perform procedures in children one must not only have a schedule to scale the radiopharmaceutical dose to be administered to the child's body surface area but also one must have an established minimum dose for small babies and infants. There is no point in under-dosing the patient as then the information will not be obtained from the nuclear medicine society. The value of nuclear medicine in the pediatric population cannot be underestimated. It is often the single most important test that can be performed diagnostically. For these reasons it is very important to understand the proper relationship of an adequate study versus the minimization of radiation. 3 references

  18. Enabling fast charging - Vehicle considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meintz, Andrew; Zhang, Jiucai; Vijayagopal, Ram; Kreutzer, Cory; Ahmed, Shabbir; Bloom, Ira; Burnham, Andrew; Carlson, Richard B.; Dias, Fernando; Dufek, Eric J.; Francfort, James; Hardy, Keith; Jansen, Andrew N.; Keyser, Matthew; Markel, Anthony; Michelbacher, Christopher; Mohanpurkar, Manish; Pesaran, Ahmad; Scoffield, Don; Shirk, Matthew; Stephens, Thomas; Tanim, Tanvir

    2017-11-01

    To achieve a successful increase in the plug-in battery electric vehicle (BEV) market, it is anticipated that a significant improvement in battery performance is required to increase the range that BEVs can travel and the rate at which they can be recharged. While the range that BEVs can travel on a single recharge is improving, the recharge rate is still much slower than the refueling rate of conventional internal combustion engine vehicles. To achieve comparable recharge times, we explore the vehicle considerations of charge rates of at least 400 kW. Faster recharge is expected to significantly mitigate the perceived deficiencies for long-distance transportation, to provide alternative charging in densely populated areas where overnight charging at home may not be possible, and to reduce range anxiety for travel within a city when unplanned charging may be required. This substantial increase in charging rate is expected to create technical issues in the design of the battery system and the vehicle's electrical architecture that must be resolved. This work focuses on vehicle system design and total recharge time to meet the goals of implementing improved charge rates and the impacts of these expected increases on system voltage and vehicle components.

  19. Synthetic vision systems: operational considerations simulation experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Lynda J.; Williams, Steven P.; Bailey, Randall E.; Glaab, Louis J.

    2007-04-01

    Synthetic vision is a computer-generated image of the external scene topography that is generated from aircraft attitude, high-precision navigation information, and data of the terrain, obstacles, cultural features, and other required flight information. A synthetic vision system (SVS) enhances this basic functionality with real-time integrity to ensure the validity of the databases, perform obstacle detection and independent navigation accuracy verification, and provide traffic surveillance. Over the last five years, NASA and its industry partners have developed and deployed SVS technologies for commercial, business, and general aviation aircraft which have been shown to provide significant improvements in terrain awareness and reductions in the potential for Controlled-Flight-Into-Terrain incidents / accidents compared to current generation cockpit technologies. It has been hypothesized that SVS displays can greatly improve the safety and operational flexibility of flight in Instrument Meteorological Conditions (IMC) to a level comparable to clear-day Visual Meteorological Conditions (VMC), regardless of actual weather conditions or time of day. An experiment was conducted to evaluate SVS and SVS-related technologies as well as the influence of where the information is provided to the pilot (e.g., on a Head-Up or Head-Down Display) for consideration in defining landing minima based upon aircraft and airport equipage. The "operational considerations" evaluated under this effort included reduced visibility, decision altitudes, and airport equipage requirements, such as approach lighting systems, for SVS-equipped aircraft. Subjective results from the present study suggest that synthetic vision imagery on both head-up and head-down displays may offer benefits in situation awareness; workload; and approach and landing performance in the visibility levels, approach lighting systems, and decision altitudes tested.

  20. Synthetic Vision Systems - Operational Considerations Simulation Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Lynda J.; Williams, Steven P.; Bailey, Randall E.; Glaab, Louis J.

    2007-01-01

    Synthetic vision is a computer-generated image of the external scene topography that is generated from aircraft attitude, high-precision navigation information, and data of the terrain, obstacles, cultural features, and other required flight information. A synthetic vision system (SVS) enhances this basic functionality with real-time integrity to ensure the validity of the databases, perform obstacle detection and independent navigation accuracy verification, and provide traffic surveillance. Over the last five years, NASA and its industry partners have developed and deployed SVS technologies for commercial, business, and general aviation aircraft which have been shown to provide significant improvements in terrain awareness and reductions in the potential for Controlled-Flight-Into-Terrain incidents/accidents compared to current generation cockpit technologies. It has been hypothesized that SVS displays can greatly improve the safety and operational flexibility of flight in Instrument Meteorological Conditions (IMC) to a level comparable to clear-day Visual Meteorological Conditions (VMC), regardless of actual weather conditions or time of day. An experiment was conducted to evaluate SVS and SVS-related technologies as well as the influence of where the information is provided to the pilot (e.g., on a Head-Up or Head-Down Display) for consideration in defining landing minima based upon aircraft and airport equipage. The "operational considerations" evaluated under this effort included reduced visibility, decision altitudes, and airport equipage requirements, such as approach lighting systems, for SVS-equipped aircraft. Subjective results from the present study suggest that synthetic vision imagery on both head-up and head-down displays may offer benefits in situation awareness; workload; and approach and landing performance in the visibility levels, approach lighting systems, and decision altitudes tested.

  1. Game theoretic considerations for Kenyan health governance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Game theoretic considerations for Kenyan health governance. ... theoretic considerations in their practice in order to achieve market-driven competition ... Key words: Game theory, social capital, good governance, health policy, health systems.

  2. GENERAL Iarticle

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 8; Issue 2. Supersymmetry. Akshay Kulkarni P Ramadevi. General Article Volume 8 Issue 2 February 2003 pp 28-41 ... Author Affiliations. Akshay Kulkarni1 P Ramadevi1. Physics Department, Indian Institute of Technology, Mumbai 400 076, India.

  3. General indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This document summarizes the main 2002 energy indicators for France. A first table lists the evolution of general indicators between 1973 and 2002: energy bill, price of imported crude oil, energy independence, primary and final energy consumption. The main 2002 results are detailed separately for natural gas, petroleum and coal (consumption, imports, exports, production, stocks, prices). (J.S.)

  4. Generalized Recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christian Skov; Lando, David; Pedersen, Lasse Heje

    We characterize when physical probabilities, marginal utilities, and the discount rate can be recovered from observed state prices for several future time periods. We make no assumptions of the probability distribution, thus generalizing the time-homogeneous stationary model of Ross (2015). Recov...

  5. GENERAL SURGERY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Department of Surgery, University of Cape Town Health Sciences Faculty, Groote Schuur Hospital, Observatory, Cape Town,. South Africa ... included all district, regional and tertiary hospitals in the nine provinces. Clinics and so-called ..... large contingency of senior general surgeons from countries such as Cuba, who have ...

  6. GENERAL SURGERY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    effect of fatigue on patient safety, and owing to increasing emphasis on lifestyle issues .... increasing emphasis on an appropriate work-life balance in professional life.10 ... experience, were the most negative about the EWTD in general.3,13 ...

  7. GENERAL SURGERY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    in the endoscopy room. GENERAL SURGERY. T du Toit, O C Buchel, S J A Smit. Department of Surgery, University of the Free State, Bloemfontein, ... The lack of video instrumentation in developing countries: Redundant fibre-optic instruments (the old. “eye scope”) are still being used. This instrument brings endoscopists ...

  8. General Assembly

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    5th April, 2016 – Ordinary General Assembly of the Staff Association! In the first semester of each year, the Staff Association (SA) invites its members to attend and participate in the Ordinary General Assembly (OGA). This year the OGA will be held on Tuesday, April 5th 2016 from 11:00 to 12:00 in BE Auditorium, Meyrin (6-2-024). During the Ordinary General Assembly, the activity and financial reports of the SA are presented and submitted for approval to the members. This is the occasion to get a global view on the activities of the SA, its financial management, and an opportunity to express one’s opinion, including taking part in the votes. Other points are listed on the agenda, as proposed by the Staff Council. Who can vote? Only “ordinary” members (MPE) of the SA can vote. Associated members (MPA) of the SA and/or affiliated pensioners have a right to vote on those topics that are of direct interest to them. Who can give his/her opinion? The Ordinary General Asse...

  9. GENERAL SURGERY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    could cripple the global economy. Greater attention ... Africa and 5.7 general surgeons per 100 000 in the US.12 One of the key ... 100 000 insured population working in the private sector, which is comparable with the United States (US).

  10. Necklaces: Generalizations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    . A q-ary necklace of length n is an equivalence class of q-coloured strings of length n under rota- tion. In this article, we study various generaliza- tions and derive analytical expressions to count the number of these generalized necklaces.

  11. Generalized Recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lando, David; Pedersen, Lasse Heje; Jensen, Christian Skov

    We characterize when physical probabilities, marginal utilities, and the discount rate can be recovered from observed state prices for several future time periods. We make no assumptions of the probability distribution, thus generalizing the time-homogeneous stationary model of Ross (2015...... our model empirically, testing the predictive power of the recovered expected return and other recovered statistics....

  12. Emergency medicine and general practice

    OpenAIRE

    Abela, Gunther

    2005-01-01

    Emergency Medicine and Immediate Medical Care are relatively new specialties. In Malta, there is quite a considerable area of overlap between these specialties and general practice. Indeed, the family physician is confronted with some sort of medical emergency quite regularly. The brief of this article is to go through recent developments in Emergency Medicine as applied to General Practice. The areas considered are Basic Life Support, Head Injury, Asthma, Anaphylaxis, Community Acquired Pneu...

  13. 32 CFR 643.74 - Consideration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Consideration. 643.74 Section 643.74 National... Licenses § 643.74 Consideration. When a license is granted under the authority of an easement or leasing statute, the same rules will apply in regard to consideration as is applicable to the granting of an...

  14. 32 CFR 643.53 - Consideration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Consideration. 643.53 Section 643.53 National... Leases § 643.53 Consideration. (a) Unless otherwise authorized by this regulation or directed by the SA, the consideration for a lease of real estate will be the appraised fair market rental value. However...

  15. 15 CFR 2301.5 - Special consideration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Special consideration. 2301.5 Section... PROGRAM Application Requirements § 2301.5 Special consideration. In accordance with section 392(f) of the Act, the Agency will give special consideration to applications that foster ownership of, operation of...

  16. 46 CFR 169.112 - Special consideration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Special consideration. 169.112 Section 169.112 Shipping... Provisions § 169.112 Special consideration. In applying the provisions of this part, the Officer in Charge, Marine Inspection, may give special consideration to departures from the specific requirements when...

  17. 49 CFR 260.7 - Priority consideration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Priority consideration. 260.7 Section 260.7... REHABILITATION AND IMPROVEMENT FINANCING PROGRAM Overview § 260.7 Priority consideration. When evaluating applications, the Administrator will give priority consideration (but not necessarily in the following order...

  18. 48 CFR 1427.304-1 - General.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Solicitor for the General Law Division shall issue a final determination, after consideration of any further... Section 1427.304-1 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patent Rights Under Government Contracts. 1427.304-1 General. (a)(1...

  19. Materials considerations in accelerator targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peacock, H. B. Jr.; Iyer, N. C.; Louthan, M. R. Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Future nuclear materials production and/or the burn-up of long lived radioisotopes may be accomplished through the capture of spallation produced neutrons in accelerators. Aluminum clad-lead and/or lead alloys has been proposed as a spallation target. Aluminum was the cladding choice because of the low neutron absorption cross section, fast radioactivity decay, high thermal conductivity, and excellent fabricability. Metallic lead and lead oxide powders were considered for the target core with the fabrication options being casting or powder metallurgy (PM). Scoping tests to evaluate gravity casting, squeeze casting, and casting and swaging processes showed that, based on fabricability and heat transfer considerations, squeeze casting was the preferred option for manufacture of targets with initial core cladding contact. Thousands of aluminum clad aluminum-lithium alloy core targets and control rods for tritium production have been fabricated by coextrusion processes and successfully irradiated in the SRS reactors. Tritium retention in, and release from, the coextruded product was modeled from experimental and operational data. The model assumed that tritium atoms, formed by the 6Li(n,a)3He reaction, were produced in solid solution in the Al-Li alloy. Because of the low solubility of hydrogen isotopes in aluminum alloys, the irradiated Al-Li rapidly became supersaturated in tritium. Newly produced tritium atoms were trapped by lithium atoms to form a lithium tritide. The effective tritium pressure required for trap or tritide stability was the equilibrium decomposition pressure of tritium over a lithium tritide-aluminum mixture. The temperature dependence of tritium release was determined by the permeability of the cladding to tritium and the local equilibrium at the trap sites. The model can be used to calculate tritium release from aluminum clad, aluminum-lithium alloy targets during postulated accelerator operational and accident conditions. This paper describes

  20. Materials considerations in accelerator targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peacock, H.B. Jr.; Iyer, N.C.; Louthan, M.R. Jr.

    1994-01-01

    Future nuclear materials production and/or the burn-up of long lived radioisotopes may be accomplished through the capture of spallation produced neutrons in accelerators. Aluminum clad-lead and/or lead alloys has been proposed as a spallation target. Aluminum was the cladding choice because of the low neutron absorption cross section, fast radioactivity decay, high thermal conductivity, and excellent fabricability. Metallic lead and lead oxide powders were considered for the target core with the fabrication options being casting or powder metallurgy (PM). Scoping tests to evaluate gravity casting, squeeze casting, and casting and swaging processes showed that, based on fabricability and heat transfer considerations, squeeze casting was the preferred option for manufacture of targets with initial core cladding contact. Thousands of aluminum clad aluminum-lithium alloy core targets and control rods for tritium production have been fabricated by coextrusion processes and successfully irradiated in the SRS reactors. Tritium retention in, and release from the coextruded product was modeled from experimental and operational data. Newly produced tritium atoms were trapped by lithium atoms to form a lithium tritide. The effective tritium pressure required for trap or tritide stability was the equilibrium decomposition pressure of tritium over a lithium tritide-aluminum mixture. The temperature dependence of tritium release was determined by the permeability of the cladding to tritium and the local equilibrium at the trap sites. The model can be used to calculate tritium release from aluminum clad, aluminum-lithium alloy targets during postulated accelerator operational and accident conditions. This paper describes the manufacturing technologies evaluated and presents the model for tritium retention in aluminum clad, aluminum-lithium alloy tritium production targets

  1. Generalizing entanglement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Ding

    2017-12-01

    The expected indefinite causal structure in quantum gravity poses a challenge to the notion of entanglement: If two parties are in an indefinite causal relation of being causally connected and not, can they still be entangled? If so, how does one measure the amount of entanglement? We propose to generalize the notions of entanglement and entanglement measure to address these questions. Importantly, the generalization opens the path to study quantum entanglement of states, channels, networks, and processes with definite or indefinite causal structure in a unified fashion, e.g., we show that the entanglement distillation capacity of a state, the quantum communication capacity of a channel, and the entanglement generation capacity of a network or a process are different manifestations of one and the same entanglement measure.

  2. General topology

    CERN Document Server

    Willard, Stephen

    2004-01-01

    Among the best available reference introductions to general topology, this volume is appropriate for advanced undergraduate and beginning graduate students. Its treatment encompasses two broad areas of topology: ""continuous topology,"" represented by sections on convergence, compactness, metrization and complete metric spaces, uniform spaces, and function spaces; and ""geometric topology,"" covered by nine sections on connectivity properties, topological characterization theorems, and homotopy theory. Many standard spaces are introduced in the related problems that accompany each section (340

  3. Generalized polygons

    CERN Document Server

    Maldeghem, Hendrik

    1998-01-01

    This book is intended to be an introduction to the fascinating theory ofgeneralized polygons for both the graduate student and the specialized researcher in the field. It gathers together a lot of basic properties (some of which are usually referred to in research papers as belonging to folklore) and very recent and sometimes deep results. I have chosen a fairly strict geometrical approach, which requires some knowledge of basic projective geometry. Yet, it enables one to prove some typically group-theoretical results such as the determination of the automorphism groups of certain Moufang polygons. As such, some basic group-theoretical knowledge is required of the reader. The notion of a generalized polygon is a relatively recent one. But it is one of the most important concepts in incidence geometry. Generalized polygons are the building bricks of Tits buildings. They are the prototypes and precursors of more general geometries such as partial geometries, partial quadrangles, semi-partial ge­ ometries, near...

  4. General principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutchison, J.M.S.; Foster, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    NMR characteristics are not unique - T/sub 1/ values of tumour tissues overlap with those from multiple sclerosis plaques or from areas of inflammation. Despite this, NMR imaging is an extremely powerful tool to the diagnostician and for other medical use such as following the course of treatment or planning or surgery or radiotherapy. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is often used solely as an anatomical technique similar to X-ray CT. This is certainly an appropriate use for it and it has certain advantages over X-ray CT such as the greater ease with which sagittal and coronal sections can be obtained (or other views by suitable manipulation of the gradients) NMR is also less bothered by bone-related artefacts. There are disadvantages in terms of resolution (although this is improving) and of speed of acquisition of the image. The NMR signal, however, derives from a complex interaction of biophysical properties and, if properly used, can yield a considerable amount of information about its origin. The NMR image is capable of much more manipulation than that obtained by X-ray methods and, particularly with the addition of spectroscopy to the repertoire the authors expect in vivo NMR examinations to yield much metabolic and biophysical information in addition to providing a demonstration of the anatomy of the body

  5. Impact of risk considerations on dosimetry of radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eckerman, K.F.

    1981-01-01

    Estimates of the absorbed dose from clinical procedures involving the administration of radiopharmaceuticals are used primarily to determine the presumed risk of various procedures so that, in-so-far as possible, the selection of a given procedure can be based on a comparison of risk. Although this has been the basic objective, risk evaluation has generally been separated from the dosimetry considerations. In the recent revision of its radiation protection guidance, the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has embodied risk considerations in its recommendations and risk concepts have become an integral part of the dosimetric framework. The impact of these considerations on the dosimetric assessments of radiopharmaceuticals and the resulting need for additional information is discussed

  6. Parameter identifiability and redundancy: theoretical considerations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark P Little

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Models for complex biological systems may involve a large number of parameters. It may well be that some of these parameters cannot be derived from observed data via regression techniques. Such parameters are said to be unidentifiable, the remaining parameters being identifiable. Closely related to this idea is that of redundancy, that a set of parameters can be expressed in terms of some smaller set. Before data is analysed it is critical to determine which model parameters are identifiable or redundant to avoid ill-defined and poorly convergent regression. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this paper we outline general considerations on parameter identifiability, and introduce the notion of weak local identifiability and gradient weak local identifiability. These are based on local properties of the likelihood, in particular the rank of the Hessian matrix. We relate these to the notions of parameter identifiability and redundancy previously introduced by Rothenberg (Econometrica 39 (1971 577-591 and Catchpole and Morgan (Biometrika 84 (1997 187-196. Within the widely used exponential family, parameter irredundancy, local identifiability, gradient weak local identifiability and weak local identifiability are shown to be largely equivalent. We consider applications to a recently developed class of cancer models of Little and Wright (Math Biosciences 183 (2003 111-134 and Little et al. (J Theoret Biol 254 (2008 229-238 that generalize a large number of other recently used quasi-biological cancer models. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We have shown that the previously developed concepts of parameter local identifiability and redundancy are closely related to the apparently weaker properties of weak local identifiability and gradient weak local identifiability--within the widely used exponential family these concepts largely coincide.

  7. Transnasal endoscopy: Technical considerations, advantages and limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atar, Mustafa; Kadayifci, Abdurrahman

    2014-02-16

    Transnasal endoscopy (TNE) is an upper endoscopy method which is performed by the nasal route using a thin endoscope less than 6 mm in diameter. The primary goal of this method is to improve patient tolerance and convenience of the procedure. TNE can be performed without sedation and thus eliminates the risks associated with general anesthesia. In this way, TNE decreases the cost and total duration of endoscopic procedures, while maintaining the image quality of standard caliber endoscopes, providing good results for diagnostic purposes. However, the small working channel of the ultra-thin endoscope used for TNE makes it difficult to use for therapeutic procedures except in certain conditions which require a thinner endoscope. Biopsy is possible with special forceps less than 2 mm in diameter. Recently, TNE has been used for screening endoscopy in Far East Asia, including Japan. In most controlled studies, TNE was found to have better patient tolerance when compared to unsedated endoscopy. Nasal pain is the most significant symptom associated with endoscopic procedures but can be reduced with nasal pretreatment. Despite the potential advantage of TNE, it is not common in Western countries, usually due to a lack of training in the technique and a lack of awareness of its potential advantages. This paper briefly reviews the technical considerations as well as the potential advantages and limitations of TNE with ultra-thin scopes.

  8. Discrete modeling considerations in multiphase fluid dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ransom, V.H.; Ramshaw, J.D.

    1988-01-01

    The modeling of multiphase flows play a fundamental role in light water reactor safety. The main ingredients in our discrete modeling Weltanschauung are the following considerations: (1) Any physical model must be cast into discrete form for a digital computer. (2) The usual approach of formulating models in differential form and then discretizing them is potentially hazardous. It may be preferable to formulate the model in discrete terms from the outset. (3) Computer time and storage constraints limit the resolution that can be employed in practical calculations. These limits effectively define the physical phenomena, length scales, and time scales which cannot be directly represented in the calculation and therefore must be modeled. This information should be injected into the model formulation process at an early stage. (4) Practical resolution limits are generally so coarse that traditional convergence and truncation-error analyses become irrelevant. (5) A discrete model constitutes a reduced description of a physical system, from which fine-scale details are eliminated. This elimination creates a statistical closure problem. Methods from statistical physics may therefore be useful in the formulation of discrete models. In the present paper we elaborate on these themes and illustrate them with simple examples. 48 refs

  9. Siting considerations for LNG import terminals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meratla, Z. [CDS Research Ltd., Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    Site selection criteria for liquefied natural gas (LNG) facilities and terminals were reviewed in this PowerPoint presentation. Onshore and offshore sites were discussed. Typical public opposition issues were examined, including public concerns over safety and the environment. Low key consultation processes with local communities was advised to assess levels of interest and opposition during initial stages. It was suggested that desirable LNG sites should not be visible from local communities. Remoteness from built-up areas was advised, as well as ensuring that sites meet the requirements of future expansion and large LNG carriers. Issues concerning waterway drawbacks and exclusion zones were examined, as well as the relative merits of onshore and offshore terminals. It was noted that onshore terminals are accessible to personnel as well as outside emergency response resources, and are less susceptible to weather related downtime. In addition, onshore spills are generally impounded. Offshore LNG import terminals are visible from shorelines and susceptible to stray marine traffic and abnormal events. Siting considerations for offshore facilities include sensitive areas; shipping channels; foundation issues; shipping lane access; and offshore pipeline lengths. Issues concerning loading arms, remote flare systems, integral ballast and process equipment for offshore facilities were discussed. Membrane type storage systems and tank construction details were presented as well as details of self supporting storage systems. A comparison of gravity-based structures and floating facilities was presented. It was concluded that floating LNG facilities have well developed security procedures, passive protection and automatic intruder detection alarms. tabs., figs.

  10. Nuclear energy center finance and ownership considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, J.A.; Wilder, R.P.

    1980-09-01

    Finance and ownership alternatives for a nuclear energy center (NEC) in South Carolina are analyzed in the context of the capital market and tax differences among alternatives. The ownership alternatives considered are (1) the private or private/public joint venture, (2) full public ownership and (3) a hybrid ownership form featuring federal involvement in the initial site development and permit phase, followed by a transition to private ownership. Public ownership is associated with considerably lower out-of-pocket costs than private ownership; the difference between the two, however, is related to subsidies from other parts of society to electricity customers of a publicly owned NEC. The attitudes of participating utilities on ownership forms are examined, with the finding of general strong opposition to increased federal involvement in the electric utility industry through NEC ownership. The conclusion is that the private-private/public joint venture is the preferable ownership form and that public ownership should be employed only if the private sector fails to respond to future energy demand

  11. Momentum considerations on the New MEXICO experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra, E. A.; Boorsma, K.; Schepers, J. G.; Snel, H.

    2016-09-01

    The present paper regards axial and angular momentum considerations combining detailed loads from pressure sensors and the flow field mapped with particle image velocimetry (PIV) techniques. For this end, the study implements important results leaning on experimental data from wind tunnel measurements of the New MEXICO project. The measurements, taken on a fully instrumented rotor, were carried out in the German Dutch Wind tunnel Organisation (DNW) testing the MEXICO rotor in the open section. The work revisits the so-called momentum theory, showing that the integral thrust and torque measured on the rotor correspond with an extent of 0.7 and 2.4% respectively to the momentum balance of the global flow field using the general momentum equations. Likewise, the sectional forces combined with the local induced velocities are found to plausibly obey the annular streamtube theory, albeit some limitations in the axial momentum become more apparent at high inductions after a=0.3. Finally, azimuth induced velocities are measured and compared to predictions from models of Glauert and Burton et al., showing close-matching forecasts for blade spans above 25%.

  12. Photovoltaics in buildings: town planning considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cradick, K.

    1999-07-01

    This report explores the significance of PV specifically from a town and country planning perspective. PV will become of interest to planners for a number of reasons. Installation of PV systems on the walls, roofs and windows of buildings will have implications for the design and appearance of buildings and the wider townscape. For this reason, it would be beneficial for the planning profession to have a general awareness of the rapidly expanding range of PV building products now available. A widespread use of the technology will raise a number of other practical planning considerations, such as the need to ensure that PV-equipped buildings are not overshadowed by subsequent development or maturing trees.The use of PV could bring planning benefits. For example, use of the technology could sometimes obviate the need to route overhead power supplies through sensitive landscapes to outlying rural settlement. As a renewable source of energy, the use of PV will be in harmony with Local Agenda 21 objectives and sustainability policies in development plans. This report is written for practising planners in local government, private practice and the voluntary sector, and has regard to the regulatory context within which planners operate. It does not seek to encourage members of the profession to exceed their powers by insisting upon the use of PV in new development. Instead, the report aims to provide an introduction to the technology so that planners may be conversant with the technology and understand both its potential and its limitations. (author)

  13. Transnasal endoscopy: Technical considerations, advantages and limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atar, Mustafa; Kadayifci, Abdurrahman

    2014-01-01

    Transnasal endoscopy (TNE) is an upper endoscopy method which is performed by the nasal route using a thin endoscope less than 6 mm in diameter. The primary goal of this method is to improve patient tolerance and convenience of the procedure. TNE can be performed without sedation and thus eliminates the risks associated with general anesthesia. In this way, TNE decreases the cost and total duration of endoscopic procedures, while maintaining the image quality of standard caliber endoscopes, providing good results for diagnostic purposes. However, the small working channel of the ultra-thin endoscope used for TNE makes it difficult to use for therapeutic procedures except in certain conditions which require a thinner endoscope. Biopsy is possible with special forceps less than 2 mm in diameter. Recently, TNE has been used for screening endoscopy in Far East Asia, including Japan. In most controlled studies, TNE was found to have better patient tolerance when compared to unsedated endoscopy. Nasal pain is the most significant symptom associated with endoscopic procedures but can be reduced with nasal pretreatment. Despite the potential advantage of TNE, it is not common in Western countries, usually due to a lack of training in the technique and a lack of awareness of its potential advantages. This paper briefly reviews the technical considerations as well as the potential advantages and limitations of TNE with ultra-thin scopes. PMID:24567791

  14. Social marketing: issues for consideration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novelli, W D

    1983-01-01

    Few social organizations have been able to incorporate all the essential components of successful marketing, namely, a customer oriented perspective, careful product development, segmented targets and programs, and an interative process of analysis, planning, implementation, and replanning. The lack of resources is part of the problem of moving forward into comprehensive social marketing. Social organizations may use marketing's 4 "Ps" -- product, price, promotion, and place, but often they must also contend with low visibility, lamentable budgets, little research, and lack of continuity. Several general problems confront marketing planners who try to transfer marketing approaches used to sell toothpaste and laundry detergent to promote concepts like family planning, smoking cessation, and nutrition. It has not been possible simply to apply commercial techniques for market analysis and segmentation or product, price, channel, and communication strategy and implementation to social programs. Evaluating program effectiveness is another area where commercial methods fail to readily apply. Contraceptive social marketing programs can point to quantifiable success measures of units sold and revenue received, but generally social marketers must gauge their longterm program objectives such as reduced fertility rates according to intermediary measures such as knowledge change or reported behavior. Currently, organizational design is being studied by several contraceptive social marketing programs. Trained marketing managers in key positions, a systematic marketing planning process, and careful monitoring and control are key program success ingredients that frequently are missing in social agencies where marketing activities and functions may not be fully understood. Many social organizations have established communication functions, but they are not conducive to the broader role that marketing must play if any significant impact is to result. Additionally, in the absence of

  15. General chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Yeong Sik; Lee, Dong Seop; Ryu, Haung Ryong; Jang, Cheol Hyeon; Choi, Bong Jong; Choi, Sang Won

    1993-07-01

    The book concentrates on the latest general chemistry, which is divided int twenty-three chapters. It deals with basic conception and stoichiometry, nature of gas, structure of atoms, quantum mechanics, symbol and structure of an electron of ion and molecule, chemical thermodynamics, nature of solid, change of state and liquid, properties of solution, chemical equilibrium, solution and acid-base, equilibrium of aqueous solution, electrochemistry, chemical reaction speed, molecule spectroscopy, hydrogen, oxygen and water, metallic atom; 1A, IIA, IIIA, carbon and atom IVA, nonmetal atom and an inert gas, transition metals, lanthanons, and actinoids, nuclear properties and radioactivity, biochemistry and environment chemistry.

  16. General relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gourgoulhon, Eric

    2013-01-01

    The author proposes a course on general relativity. He first presents a geometrical framework by addressing, presenting and discussion the following notions: the relativistic space-time, the metric tensor, Universe lines, observers, principle of equivalence and geodesics. In the next part, he addresses gravitational fields with spherical symmetry: presentation of the Schwarzschild metrics, radial light geodesics, gravitational spectral shift (Einstein effect), orbitals of material objects, photon trajectories. The next parts address the Einstein equation, black holes, gravitational waves, and cosmological solutions. Appendices propose a discussion of the relationship between relativity and GPS, some problems and their solutions, and Sage codes

  17. Statistical considerations in NRDA studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harner, E.G.; Parker, K.R.; Skalski, J.R.

    1993-01-01

    Biological, chemical, and toxicological variables are usually modeled with lognormal, Poisson, negative binomial, or binomial error distributions. Species counts and densities often have frequent zeros and overdispersion. Chemical concentrations can have frequent non-detects and a small proportion of high values. The feasibility of making adjustments to these response variables, such as zero-inflated models, are discussed. Toxicity measurements are usually modeled with the binomial distribution. A strategy for determining the most appropriate distribution is presented. Model-based methods, using concomitant variables and interactions, enhance assessment of impacts. Concomitant variable models reduce variability and also reduce bias by adjusting means to a common basis. Variable selection strategies are given for determining the most appropriate set of concomitant variables. Multi-year generalized linear models test impact-by-time interactions, possibly after adjusting for time-dependent concomitant variables. Communities are analyzed to make inferences about overall biological impact and recovery and require non-normal multivariate techniques. Partial canonical corresponding analysis is an appropriate community model for ordinating spatial and temporal shifts due to impact. The Exxon Valdez is used as a case study

  18. Hidden inventory and safety considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, A.R.; James, R.H.; Morgan, F.

    1976-01-01

    Preliminary results are described of the evaluation of residual plutonium in a process line used for the production of experimental fast reactor fuel. Initial attention has been focussed on a selection of work boxes used for processing powders and solutions. Amounts of material measured as ''hidden inventory'' are generally less than 0.1 percent of throughput but in one box containing very complex equipment the amount was exceptionally about 0.5 percent. The total surface area of the box and the installed equipment appears to be the most significant factor in determining the amount of plutonium held-up as ''hidden inventory,'' representing an average of about 4 x 10 -4 g cm -2 . Present results are based on gamma spectrometer measurements but neutron techniques are being developed to overcome some of the inherent uncertainties in the gamma method. It is suggested that the routine use of sample plates of known surface area would be valuable in monitoring the deposition of plutonium in work boxes

  19. Environmental compliance considerations for the management of cultural resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curtis, S.A.; Whitfield, S.; McGinnis, K.

    1987-01-01

    This paper examines three key considerations underlying the programmatic management of cultural resources that may be affected by a large federal project. These considerations are statutory background and the compliance process, cultural resource compliance tasks, and quality assurance. The first consideration addresses the legal requirements and steps that must be met and taken for federal agencies to fulfill their cultural resource compliance responsibilities. The second consideration focuses on the tasks that must be performed by technical specialists to facilitate related federal and state compliance actions. The third consideration ensures that compliance requirements are being properly fulfilled. In the technical literature and compliance planning, archaeological and historic sites and Native American cultural resources are grouped under the general heading of cultural resources. Also included under this heading are the traditions and resources of Folk societies. Cultural resources encompass both material and nonmaterial aspects of our cultural heritage and include buildings, structures, objects, sites, districts, archaeological resources, places of religious importance, and unique, distinctive, or unusual lifeways. For compliance purposes, it is useful to treat these resources within four roughly chronological culture-historical periods: prehistoric, ethnohistoric, historic, and contemporary. 6 refs., 6 tabs

  20. Considerations for reference pump curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stockton, N.B.

    1992-01-01

    This paper examines problems associated with inservice testing (IST) of pumps to assess their hydraulic performance using reference pump curves to establish acceptance criteria. Safety-related pumps at nuclear power plants are tested under the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (the Code), Section 11. The Code requires testing pumps at specific reference points of differential pressure or flow rate that can be readily duplicated during subsequent tests. There are many cases where test conditions cannot be duplicated. For some pumps, such as service water or component cooling pumps, the flow rate at any time depends on plant conditions and the arrangement of multiple independent and constantly changing loads. System conditions cannot be controlled to duplicate a specific reference value. In these cases, utilities frequently request to use pump curves for comparison of test data for acceptance. There is no prescribed method for developing a pump reference curve. The methods vary and may yield substantially different results. Some results are conservative when compared to the Code requirements; some are not. The errors associated with different curve testing techniques should be understood and controlled within reasonable bounds. Manufacturer's pump curves, in general, are not sufficiently accurate to use as reference pump curves for IST. Testing using reference curves generated with polynomial least squares fits over limited ranges of pump operation, cubic spline interpolation, or cubic spline least squares fits can provide a measure of pump hydraulic performance that is at least as accurate as the Code required method. Regardless of the test method, error can be reduced by using more accurate instruments, by correcting for systematic errors, by increasing the number of data points, and by taking repetitive measurements at each data point

  1. Adoption consideration and concerns among young adult female cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorman, Jessica R; Whitcomb, Brian W; Standridge, Daniel; Malcarne, Vanessa L; Romero, Sally A D; Roberts, Samantha A; Su, H Irene

    2017-02-01

    We compared adoption consideration between female young adult cancer survivors and women of the same age in the general US population, hypothesizing that cancer survivors who desired children would report greater interest in adoption than an age-adjusted general population sample who desired children. After age-standardizing the cancer survivor cohort to match the age distribution of the 2006-2010 National Survey for Family Growth (NSFG), we estimated adoption consideration among women age 18-35 years who wanted a (another) child in the two cohorts overall and within age groups. We assessed characteristics and concerns related to adoption consideration among cancer survivors. Among cancer survivors, 81.6 % (95 % CI 75.7-87.6) reported that they would consider adoption compared to 40.3 % (95 % CI 40.3-40.3) of women in the general population. While over 80 % of the cancer survivor sample reported that they would consider adoption, only 15 % of cancer survivors reported no concerns about adoption. The most common concerns were desire for a biological child (48 %), expense (45 %), adoption agency candidacy (41 %), and needing more information (39 %). We observed a twofold higher interest in adoption when comparing the cancer survivor with the general population, suggesting that adoption is a consideration for many young women who have survived cancer. Adoption is an important family-building option for those who want to have a child but are unable to or choose not to have a biological child. However, young adult survivors may need more support to understand and navigate this process.

  2. Pectus updates and special considerations in Marfan syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Fraser

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Congenital chest wall or pectus deformities including pectus excavatum (funnel chest and pectus carinatum (pigeon chest affect a significant proportion of the general population and up to 70% of patients with Marfan syndrome. Patients often experience significant morbidity and psychological distress, which can worsen with age. Here we discuss new techniques for both operative and non-operative treatment of pectus deformity, the importance of a welltimed intervention and special considerations in patients with Marfan syndrome.

  3. Generalizing quasinormality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Cossey

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Quasinormal subgroups have been studied for nearly 80 years. In finite groups, questions concerning them invariably reduce to p-groups, and here they have the added interest of being invariant under projectivities, unlike normal subgroups. However, it has been shown recently that certain groups, constructed by Berger and Gross in 1982, of an important universal nature with regard to the existence of core-free quasinormal subgroups gener- ally, have remarkably few such subgroups. Therefore in order to overcome this misfortune, a generalization of the concept of quasi- normality will be defined. It could be the beginning of a lengthy undertaking. But some of the initial findings are encouraging, in particular the fact that this larger class of subgroups also remains invariant under projectivities of finite p-groups, thus connecting group and subgroup lattice structures.

  4. General report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicklisch, F.

    1984-01-01

    Growing complexity of technical matter has meant that technical expertise is called upon in more and more legal proceedings. The technical expert is, in general terms, the mediator between technology and the law, he is also entrusted with the task of pointing up the differences in approach and in the nature of authority in these two areas and thus paving the way for mutual understanding. The evaluation of the technical expert's opinion is one of the cardinal problems bound up with the role of the expert in legal procedure. After the presentation of the expert's opinion, the judge is supposed to possess so much specialised knowledge that he can assess the opinion itself in scientific and technical respects and put his finger on any errors the expert may have made. This problem can only be solved via an assessment opinion. First of all, the opinion can be assessed indirectly via evaluation of the credentials and the neutrality and independence of the expert. In direct terms, the opinion can be subjected to a certain - albeit restricted - scrutiny, whether it is generally convincing, as far as the layman is competent to judge. This interpretation alone makes it possible to classify and integrate legally the technical standards and regulations represent expert statements on the scientific and technical theorems based on the knowledge and experience gained in a given area. They are designed to reflect prevailing opinion among leading representatives of the profession and can thus themselves be regarded as expert opinions. As a rule, these opinions will have such weight that - other than in exceptional cases - they will not be invalidated in procedure by deviating opinions from individual experts. (orig./HSCH) [de

  5. Large Payload Ground Transportation and Test Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rucker, Michelle A.

    2016-01-01

    Many spacecraft concepts under consideration by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s (NASA’s) Evolvable Mars Campaign take advantage of a Space Launch System payload shroud that may be 8 to 10 meters in diameter. Large payloads can theoretically save cost by reducing the number of launches needed--but only if it is possible to build, test, and transport a large payload to the launch site in the first place. Analysis performed previously for the Altair project identified several transportation and test issues with an 8.973 meters diameter payload. Although the entire Constellation Program—including Altair—has since been canceled, these issues serve as important lessons learned for spacecraft designers and program managers considering large payloads for future programs. A transportation feasibility study found that, even broken up into an Ascent and Descent Module, the Altair spacecraft would not fit inside available aircraft. Ground transportation of such large payloads over extended distances is not generally permitted, so overland transportation alone would not be an option. Limited ground transportation to the nearest waterway may be possible, but water transportation could take as long as 67 days per production unit, depending on point of origin and acceptance test facility; transportation from the western United States would require transit through the Panama Canal to access the Kennedy Space Center launch site. Large payloads also pose acceptance test and ground processing challenges. Although propulsion, mechanical vibration, and reverberant acoustic test facilities at NASA’s Plum Brook Station have been designed to accommodate large spacecraft, special handling and test work-arounds may be necessary, which could increase cost, schedule, and technical risk. Once at the launch site, there are no facilities currently capable of accommodating the combination of large payload size and hazardous processing such as hypergolic fuels

  6. Considerations in Starting Climate Change Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, J. C. S.; Morgan, G.; Hamburg, S.; Winickoff, D. E.

    2014-12-01

    Many have called for climate engineering research because the growing risks of climate change and the geopolitical and national security risks of climate remediation technologies are real. As the topic of climate engineering remains highly controversial, national funding agencies should evaluate even modest outdoor climate engineering research proposals with respect to societal, legal, and risk considerations in making a decision to fund or not to fund. These concerns will be extremely difficult to coordinate internationally if they are not first considered successfully on a national basis. Assessment of a suite of proposed research projects with respect to these considerations indicates we would learn valuable lessons about how to govern research by initiating a few exemplar projects. The first time an issue arrives it can be very helpful if it there are specific cases, not a broad class of projects. A good first case should be defensible and understandable, fit within the general mandate of existing research programs, have negligible physical risk, small physical scale and short duration. By focusing on a specific case, the discussion can be held with limits and help to establish some track record in dealing with a controversial subject and developing a process for assigning appropriate scrutiny and outreach. Even at an early stage, with low risk, small-scale experiments, obtaining broad-based advice will aid in dealing with the controversies. An independent advisory body can provide guidance about a wide spectrum of physical and social risks of funding the experiment compared to societal benefit of gaining understanding. Clearly identifying the research as climate engineering research avoids sending research down a path that might violate public trust and provide an important opportunity to grow governance and public engagement at an early stage. Climate engineering research should be seen in the context of all approaches to dealing with the climate problem

  7. ACCOUNTING FOR CONTINGENT CONSIDERATIONS IN BUSINESS COMBINATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Gurgen KALASHYAN

    2017-01-01

    According to IFRS 3 Business Combinations contingent considerations must be included in the total consideration given for the acquired entity along with cash, other assets, ordinary or preference equity instruments, options, warrants. The contingent consideration is the determined amount which acquiring entity has to pay to acquired entity provided, that certain conditions will be fulfilled in the future. In case the provisions are not satisfied, we will get the situation when the amount of c...

  8. 14 CFR 1263.105 - Considerations in determining whether production or disclosure should be made.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Considerations in determining whether... § 1263.105 Considerations in determining whether production or disclosure should be made. The General...) Whether disclosure might improperly reveal trade secrets, or commercial or financial information that is...

  9. 32 CFR 643.104 - Consideration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Consideration. 643.104 Section 643.104 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE Permits § 643.104 Consideration. (a) Permits are usually granted on a rent-free basis. (b) The Army is...

  10. Technical specification improvement through safety margin considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, R.C.; Jansen, R.L.

    1986-01-01

    Westinghouse has developed an approach for utilizing safety analysis margin considerations to improve plant operability through technical specification revision. This approach relies on the identification and use of parameter interrelations and sensitivities to identify acceptable operating envelopes. This paper summarizes technical specification activities to date and presents the use of safety margin considerations as another viable method to obtain technical specification improvement

  11. 29 CFR 1614.305 - Consideration procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Consideration procedures. 1614.305 Section 1614.305 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION FEDERAL SECTOR EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY Related Processes § 1614.305 Consideration procedures. (a) Once a petition is filed...

  12. 48 CFR 226.7104 - Other considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Businesses 226.7104 Other considerations. When planning for contracts for services related to base closure activities at a military installation affected by a closure or realignment under a base closure law... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Other considerations. 226...

  13. Insurance considerations associated with radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boylan, F.X.

    1979-01-01

    Comments are made on nuclear insurance experience in the United States. The subject is discussed in more detail under the headings: direct physical damage insurance; workers' compensation insurance; third party liability (premises and operations considerations; products considerations); possible alternatives to the existing arrangement. (U.K.)

  14. ACCOUNTING FOR CONTINGENT CONSIDERATIONS IN BUSINESS COMBINATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurgen KALASHYAN

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available According to IFRS 3 Business Combinations contingent considerations must be included in the total consideration given for the acquired entity along with cash, other assets, ordinary or preference equity instruments, options, warrants. The contingent consideration is the determined amount which acquiring entity has to pay to acquired entity provided, that certain conditions will be fulfilled in the future. In case the provisions are not satisfied, we will get the situation when the amount of contingent consideration has been included in the total consideration given in the business combination, but in fact, the acquirer has not paid that amount. In its turn, the acquired entity will recognize the contingent consideration as a financial asset according to IFRS 9 Financial Instruments. In that case, it would be appropriately to recognize the contingent consideration as a contingent asset applying IAS 37. In the Article the author will explore the challenges of contingent consideration accounting and suggest the ways of solving the above mentioned problems.

  15. Integrated sampling vs ion chromatography: Mathematical considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundberg, L.L.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents some general purpose considerations that can be utilized when comparisons are made between the results of integrated sampling over several hours or days, and ion chromatography where sample collection times are measured in minutes. The discussion is geared toward the measurement of soluble transition metal ions in BWR feedwater. Under steady-state conditions, the concentrations reported by both techniques should be in reasonable agreement. Transient operations effect both types of measurements. A simplistic model, applicable to both sampling techniques, is presented that demonstrates the effect of transients which occur during the acquisition of a steady-state sample. For a common set of conditions, the integrated concentration is proportional to the concentration and duration of the transient, and inversely proportional to the sample collection time. The adjustment of the collection period during a known transient allows an estimation of peak transient concentration. Though the probability of sampling a random transient with the integrated sampling technique is very high, the magnitude is severely diluted with long integration times. Transient concentrations are magnified with ion chromatography, but the probability of sampling a transient is significantly lower using normal ion chromatography operations. Various data averaging techniques are discussed for integrated sampling and IC determinations. The use of time-weighted averages appears to offer more advantages over arithmetic and geometric means for integrated sampling when the collection period is variable. For replicate steady-state ion chromatography determinations which bracket a transient sample, it may be advantageous to ignore the calculation of averages, and report the data as trending information only

  16. LBB considerations for a new plant design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swamy, S.A.; Mandava, P.R.; Bhowmick, D.C.; Prager, D.E. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1997-04-01

    The leak-before-break (LBB) methodology is accepted as a technically justifiable approach for eliminating postulation of Double-Ended Guillotine Breaks (DEGB) in high energy piping systems. This is the result of extensive research, development, and rigorous evaluations by the NRC and the commercial nuclear power industry since the early 1970s. The DEGB postulation is responsible for the many hundreds of pipe whip restraints and jet shields found in commercial nuclear plants. These restraints and jet shields not only cost many millions of dollars, but also cause plant congestion leading to reduced reliability in inservice inspection and increased man-rem exposure. While use of leak-before-break technology saved hundreds of millions of dollars in backfit costs to many operating Westinghouse plants, value-impacts resulting from the application of this technology for future plants are greater on a per plant basis. These benefits will be highlighted in this paper. The LBB technology has been applied extensively to high energy piping systems in operating plants. However, there are differences between the application of LBB technology to an operating plant and to a new plant design. In this paper an approach is proposed which is suitable for application of LBB to a new plant design such as the Westinghouse AP600. The approach is based on generating Bounding Analyses Curves (BAC) for the candidate piping systems. The general methodology and criteria used for developing the BACs are based on modified GDC-4 and Standard Review Plan (SRP) 3.6.3. The BAC allows advance evaluation of the piping system from the LBB standpoint thereby assuring LBB conformance for the piping system. The piping designer can use the results of the BACs to determine acceptability of design loads and make modifications (in terms of piping layout and support configurations) as necessary at the design stage to assure LBB for the, piping systems under consideration.

  17. Generalized Field Theory and Kasner universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klotz, A.H.

    1986-01-01

    It is shown that the only Kasner-like solution of the Generalized Field Theory field equations with a nonzero electromagnetic field corresponds to an empty field geometry of the space-time. In this case, the electromagnetic field tensors of the theory coincide as could be expected from general considerations. 6 refs. (author)

  18. Evolution of the Olkiluoto site. Palaeohydrogeochemical considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smellie, J. (ed.) [Conterra AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Pitkaenen, P.; Koskinen, L.; and others

    2014-05-15

    Over the past 20 years a considerable amount of work has been carried out to establish a palaeohydrogeological understanding of the Olkiluoto site and surrounding area, and to integrate this knowledge into the hydrogeochemical and hydrogeological descriptive and modelling programmes. This has involved not only a wide range of well established disciplines such as geology, hydrogeology and hydrochemistry, but also the extraction and determination of rock matrix porewaters by out-diffusion, a relatively new approach in crystalline rock. This required a sophisticated laboratory based input, not only to extract and analyse the porewaters, but also to take into consideration any effects associated to, for example, connected physical porosity and/or geochemical porosity in the rock matrix. In general, there is a good integrated understanding of the Olkiluoto site in terms of the geology, mineralogy, hydrology, hydrochemistry and the overall palaeohydrogeochemical model. The Olkiluoto site has had a complex geological and environmental history from Precambrian to the Quaternary as shown by fluid inclusions in quartz grains and fracture calcites. The Quaternary time period has been dominated by a large climatic variation of cold glacial cycles with temperate interglacials and sea-level changes, all of which have contributed to the hydrogeochemical evolution at the Olkiluoto site. All data indicate that infiltration of aerobic water has systematically been limited to few metres depth in the bedrock at Olkiluoto. Today at about the -300 m elevation level, there exists a distinct change in groundwater chemistry and mean residence time including a redox divide supported by a significant reduction in both the intensity and transmissivity of the water connected fracture networks. These indicate that long term stability (over the time span of glacial cycles) and sufficient buffering capacity of the water-rock system against aerobic infiltration, has dominated continuously until

  19. Evolution of the Olkiluoto site. Palaeohydrogeochemical considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smellie, J.; Pitkaenen, P.; Koskinen, L.

    2014-05-01

    Over the past 20 years a considerable amount of work has been carried out to establish a palaeohydrogeological understanding of the Olkiluoto site and surrounding area, and to integrate this knowledge into the hydrogeochemical and hydrogeological descriptive and modelling programmes. This has involved not only a wide range of well established disciplines such as geology, hydrogeology and hydrochemistry, but also the extraction and determination of rock matrix porewaters by out-diffusion, a relatively new approach in crystalline rock. This required a sophisticated laboratory based input, not only to extract and analyse the porewaters, but also to take into consideration any effects associated to, for example, connected physical porosity and/or geochemical porosity in the rock matrix. In general, there is a good integrated understanding of the Olkiluoto site in terms of the geology, mineralogy, hydrology, hydrochemistry and the overall palaeohydrogeochemical model. The Olkiluoto site has had a complex geological and environmental history from Precambrian to the Quaternary as shown by fluid inclusions in quartz grains and fracture calcites. The Quaternary time period has been dominated by a large climatic variation of cold glacial cycles with temperate interglacials and sea-level changes, all of which have contributed to the hydrogeochemical evolution at the Olkiluoto site. All data indicate that infiltration of aerobic water has systematically been limited to few metres depth in the bedrock at Olkiluoto. Today at about the -300 m elevation level, there exists a distinct change in groundwater chemistry and mean residence time including a redox divide supported by a significant reduction in both the intensity and transmissivity of the water connected fracture networks. These indicate that long term stability (over the time span of glacial cycles) and sufficient buffering capacity of the water-rock system against aerobic infiltration, has dominated continuously until

  20. Creating Library Interiors: Planning and Design Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Plummer Alston, Jr.; Barton, Phillip K.

    1997-01-01

    Examines design considerations for public library interiors: access; acoustical treatment; assignable and nonassignable space; building interiors: ceilings, clocks, color, control, drinking fountains; exhibit space: slotwall display, floor coverings, floor loading, furniture, lighting, mechanical systems, public address, copying machines,…

  1. Safety considerations for compressed hydrogen storage systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gleason, D.

    2006-01-01

    An overview of the safety considerations for various hydrogen storage options, including stationary, vehicle storage, and mobile refueling technologies. Indications of some of the challenges facing the industry as the demand for hydrogen fuel storage systems increases. (author)

  2. Health physics considerations in decontamination and decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-12-01

    These proceedings contain papers on legal considerations, environmental aspects, decommissioning equipment and methods, instrumentation, applied health physics, waste classification and disposal, and project experience. Separate abstracts have been prepared for individual papers

  3. [Theological moral considerations of advance directives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virt, G

    1997-01-01

    The forms for advanced directives vary considerably in respect to content and wording. This article intends to develop ethical criteria for such texts, from the moraltheological point of view, also considering the social context.

  4. 32 CFR 643.83 - Consideration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... consideration in an amount equal to the fair market value as established by recognized appraisal practices. As... thereof, will not require fair market value when the purpose of the easement is to serve the public...

  5. Practical considerations in developing an instrument-maintenance plan--

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guth, M.A.S.

    1989-01-01

    The author develops a general set of considerations to explain how a consistent, well-organized, prioritized, and adequate time-allowance program plan for routine maintenance can be constructed. The analysis is supplemented with experience from the high flux isotope reactor (HFIR) at US Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). After the preventive maintenance (PM) problem was defined, the instruments on the schedule were selected based on the manufacturer's design specifications, quality-assurance requirements, prior classifications, experiences with the incidence of breakdowns or calibration, and dependencies among instruments. The effects of repair error in PM should be also studied. The HFIR requires three full-time technicians to perform both PM and unscheduled maintenance. A review is presented of concepts from queuing theory to determine anticipated breakdown patterns. In practice, the pneumatic instruments have a much longer lifetime than the electric/electronic instruments on various reactors at ORNL. Some special considerations and risk aversion in choosing a maintenance schedule

  6. Safeguards and security considerations for automated and robotic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordan, S.E.; Jaeger, C.D.

    1994-09-01

    Within the reconfigured Nuclear Weapons Complex there will be a large number of automated and robotic (A&R) systems because of the many benefits derived from their use. To meet the overall security requirements of a facility, consideration must be given to those systems that handle and process nuclear material. Since automation and robotics is a relatively new technology, not widely applied to the Nuclear Weapons Complex, safeguards and security (S&S) issues related to these systems have not been extensively explored, and no guidance presently exists. The goal of this effort is to help integrate S&S into the design of future A&R systems. Towards this, the authors first examined existing A and R systems from a security perspective to identify areas of concern and possible solutions of these problems. They then were able to develop generalized S&S guidance and design considerations for automation and robotics.

  7. Safeguards and security considerations for automated and robotic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordan, S.E.; Jaeger, C.D.

    1994-01-01

    Within the reconfigured Nuclear Weapons Complex there will be a large number of automated and robotic (A ampersand R) systems because of the many benefits derived from their use. To meet the overall security requirements of a facility, consideration must be given to those systems that handle and process nuclear material. Since automation and robotics is a relatively new technology, not widely applied to the Nuclear Weapons Complex, safeguards and security (S ampersand S) issues related to these systems have not been extensively explored, and no guidance presently exists. The goal of this effort is to help integrate S ampersand S into the design of future A ampersand R systems. Towards this, the authors first examined existing A and R systems from a security perspective to identify areas of concern and possible solutions of these problems. They then were able to develop generalized S ampersand S guidance and design considerations for automation and robotics

  8. Safeguards and security considerations for automated and robotic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordan, S.E.; Jaeger, C.D.

    1994-01-01

    Within the reconfigured Nuclear Weapons Complex there will be a large number of automated and robotic (A ampersand R) systems because of the many benefits derived from their use. To meet the overall security requirements of a facility, consideration must be given to those systems that handle and process nuclear material. Since automation and robotics is a relatively new technology, not widely applied to the Nuclear Weapons Complex, safeguards and security (S ampersand S) issues related to these systems have not been extensively explored, and no guidance presently exists. The goal of this effort is to help integrate S ampersand S into the design of future A ampersand R systems. Towards this, we first examined existing A ampersand R systems from a security perspective to identify areas of concern and possible solutions to these problems. We then were able to develop generalized S ampersand S guidance and design considerations for automation and robotics

  9. Some considerations on the Tlatelolco Treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faria, N.M. de; Goes Fischer, M.D. de

    1981-01-01

    Some considerations related to the Tlatelolco Treaty are focused and so are the role and the position of Brazil in view of the Treaty. Short historical remarks are presented in order to show the commitments of Brazil with the Treaty. Finally, considerations concerned with the validity of the Treaty as the legal instrument to contribute to the security and peace in the World. (Author) [pt

  10. Rectal drug administration: clinical pharmacokinetic considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boer, A G; Moolenaar, F; de Leede, L G; Breimer, D D

    1982-01-01

    The human rectum represents a body cavity in which drugs can be easily introduced and retained and from which absorption is well possible. There are important therapeutic reasons why it is sometimes preferable to give a drug rectally rather than orally, e.g. in cases of nausea and vomiting. Drawbacks of rectal drug administration include the interruption of absorption by defaecation and lack of patient acceptability. The mechanism of drug absorption from the rectum is probably no different to that in the upper part of the gastrointestinal tract, despite the fact that the physiological circumstances (e.g. pH, fluid content) differ substantially, Absorption from aqueous and alcoholic solutions may occur very rapidly, which has proved to be of considerable therapeutic value in the rapid suppression of acute convulsive attacks by diazepam (e.g. in children), but absorption from suppositories is generally slower and very much dependent on the nature of the suppository base, the use of surfactants or other additives, particle size of the active ingredient, etc. There is some evidence that hepatic first-pass elimination of high clearance drugs is partially avoided after rectal administration, e.g. lignocaine. This can be explained by the rectal venous blood supply: the upper part is connected with the portal system, whereas the lower part is directly connected with the systemic circulation. Plasma concentration data following rectal administration of representatives of several classes of drugs are reviewed: anticonvulsants, non-narcotic analgesics and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents, hypnosedatives and anaesthetics, strong analgesics, theophylline and derivatives, corticosteroids, antibacterial agents, thiazinamium, promethazine, hyoscine-N-butyl-bromide, streptokinase, progesterone, ergotamine tartrate and levodopa. Only limited number of cases has it been adequately shown that the rectal route of administration gives plasma concentrations which are comparable to

  11. Philanthropic endowments in general internal medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murden, R A; Lamb, J F

    1999-04-01

    We performed two surveys to uncover the status of philanthropic endowments in general internal medicine divisions. The initial survey of U.S. medical school departments of medicine found that only 14.1% of general internal medicine divisions hold endowments versus 21.9% of all other divisions, and that endowment sources for general medicine are atypical. The second survey of successfully endowed divisions found that sympathetic administrators and active pursuit of endowments were associated with endowment success. Aggressive pursuit of endowments, publicizing successes of general medicine, and consideration of endowment sources noted in this study are recommended to improve philanthropic contributions to general internal medicine.

  12. Sample design considerations of indoor air exposure surveys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, B.G.; Mage, D.T.; Immerman, F.W.

    1988-01-01

    Concern about the potential for indoor air pollution has prompted recent surveys of radon and NO 2 concentrations in homes and personal exposure studies of volatile organics, carbon monoxide and pesticides, to name a few. The statistical problems in designing sample surveys that measure the physical environment are diverse and more complicated than those encountered in traditional surveys of human attitudes and attributes. This paper addresses issues encountered when designing indoor air quality (IAQ) studies. General statistical concepts related to target population definition, frame creation, and sample selection for area household surveys and telephone surveys are presented. The implications of different measurement approaches are discussed, and response rate considerations are described

  13. CONSIDERATIONS ON THE ROLE OF FINANCIAL MARKETS IN ECONOMIC GROWTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen ALBU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Generally accepted in economic literature, the financial market has a positive impact on growth in a modern economy. Nevertheless, due to the global crises starting in 2008, a number of authors are questioning today about this assertion. Among them, there are authors which are attributing as initial impulse to the crisis an exaggerated expansion of financial market (and non-covered on the real side of economy. In this study, based on economic literature and empirical evidences, we are presentig few considerations regarding the development of financial market during last decades and its role on economic growth.

  14. Considerações sobre avaliação de estabelecimentos de saúde sob gestão de OSS: o caso do Hospital Geral do Grajaú Considerations on evaluation of health facilities management under the model of Social Organizations of Health: the case of Grajaú General Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Alves Tibério

    2010-09-01

    implemented. One of the main models was the delegation of public hospitals management to Organizações Sociais de Saúde (OSS - Social Organizations of Health in the state of São Paulo. The paper proposes a structure for the evaluation of public health policy management through OSS in the city of São Paulo, starting from the case of Grajaú General Hospital. METHODS: Evaluation was centered on socio-economic and demographic variables from local population and their articulation with structural variables available from the primary healthcare network, as well as infrastructure data from the selected hospital and reports from the OSS during the period from 2004 to 2007. RESULTS: The region presents a significant deficit in primary healthcare units, which results in overload of low complexity health services demand in the hospital. Results from the comparative evaluation between public health services' supply and demand in the region, crossing information on population profile and health services provided by the OSS, indicate that the hospital adapted its structure to meet the population's essential needs. Nevertheless, it was also verified that implementing one single hospital in a high social vulnerability region is insufficient to satisfy all the population's demands; thus, it is necessary to create a network of primary healthcare units to support hospital actions in public health, especially to assume low complexity health services, so that the hospital can focus on middle and high complexity health services.

  15. Design considerations for on-site spent-fuel transfer systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, R.H.; Jones, C.R.

    1989-06-01

    Studies on spent fuel shipping logistics and operation make it clear that the use of large casks, i.e., 100--125 tons, is superior to smaller casks of similar construction. This superiority manifests itself in both transportation and/or shipping economics and safety as well as reduced personnel exposure in the processing of the casks. An on-site system for the transfer of spent fuel from the storage pool to a large shipping or storage cask, as well as the transfer of spent fuel directly from a storage cask to a shipping cask, could bring the large cask benefits to those restricted reactors. Sensing the need to look more closely at this opportunity, EPRI contracted with S. Levy, Incorporated of Campbell, CA to develop a set of design considerations for such transfer systems. Rather then embark on another design study, EPRI decided to first identify the system considerations that must be factored into any design. The format for this effort presents both the Consideration and the Rationale for the consideration. The resulting work identified thirty-six General Considerations and two Special Considerations. The Considerations are in the form of mandatory requirements and desirable but nonmandatory requirements. Additionally, a brief economic study was performed to get a feel for the cost considerations of on-site transfers. The study results suggest a relatively narrow set of scenarios where on-site transfers are economically superior to alternatives. These scenarios generally involve the use of concrete casks as on-site storage devices

  16. Site identification: environmental and radiological considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waite, D.A.

    1980-01-01

    Radiological and environmental considerations are recognized as being of utmost importance in planning, siting, licensing, operating, and decommissioning a high-level nuclear waste repository. In such a complex undertaking, it is important to identify the major concerns anticipated to arise in all of these phases in order to address them as early as possible in the program. Three representative activities/studies are summarized which will identify some of the important radiological and environmental considerations which must be addressed through this prolonged sequence of events and will indicate how these considerations are being addressed. It should be emphasized that these are only three of many which could have been chosen. The three key activities/studies are: (1) the NWTS Program criteria for identifying repository sites, (2) the generic guide for preparing environmental evaluations for deep drilling and (3) a preliminary environmental assessment for disposal of mined rock during excavation of a repository

  17. Ethical considerations of therapeutic hypnosis and children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etzrodt, Christine M

    2013-04-01

    Historically, therapeutic hypnosis has been met with skepticism within some fields, although acceptance has expanded in recent decades. Development and application of ethical standards and principles has contributed to increased acceptance of hypnosis with children. The Ethics Code of the American Psychological Association (APA, 2002) and the Code of Conduct of the American Society of Clinical Hypnosis (ASCH, 2000) serve as guides to ethical considerations when treating children. From a developmental and practical perspective, children have limited decision-making capacities, therefore special attention should be paid to their rights and welfare. Important ethical considerations relevant to children and hypnosis have emerged, including competence, supervision, informed consent, confidentiality, and boundaries. Considerations are reviewed from a normal and abnormal child development perspective.

  18. Low-water considerations for NPP sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, J.; Frank, T.; Wahl, T.

    2009-01-01

    In the frame of reactor safety considerations flood protection and the evaluation of low-water events are safety relevant issues. Therefore low-water statistics were performed for the coastal region Cuxhaven and the Elbe river estuary. The consideration of the longitudinal profile of water levels during low-tide in connection with surface water effects, morphodynamic changes of the river and anthropogenic modifications is of importance for conclusions concerning the NPP sites in some distance of the reference tide gauge. The authors performed a statistical low-tide analysis for the NPP sites Brunsbuettel and Brokdorf.

  19. Safety considerations in the design of the fusion engineering device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrett, R.J.

    1983-01-01

    Safety considerations play a significant role in the design of a near-term Fusion Engineering Device (FED). For the safety of the general public and the plant workers, the radiation environment caused by the reacting plasma and the potential release of tritium fuel are the dominant considerations. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) regulations and guidelines for radiation protection have been reviewed and are being applied to the device design. Direct radiation protection is provided by the device shield and the reactor building walls. Radiation from the activated device components and the tritium fuel is to be controlled with shielding, contamination control, and ventilation. The potential release of tritium from the plant has influenced the selection of reactor building and plant designs and specifications. The safety of the plant workers is affected primarily by the radiation from the activated device components and from plasma chamber debris. The highly activated device components make it necessary to design many of the maintenance activities in the reactor building for totally remote operation. The hot cell facility has evolved as a totally remote maintenance facility due to the high radiation levels of the device components. Safety considerations have had substantial impacts on the design of FED. Several examples of safety-related design impacts are discussed in the paper. Feasible solutions have been identified for all outstanding safety-related items, and additional optimization of these solutions is anticipated in future design studies

  20. General Climatology 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Dennis L.

    General Climatology 3 is volume 3 of the series World Survey of Climatology, which consists of 15 volumes containing review articles on a broad range of topics. General Climatology 3 contains four chapters: ‘Human Bioclimatology,’ ‘Agricultural Climatology,’ ‘City Climate,’ and ‘Technical Climatology.’ Each of these chapters will be briefly described here.‘Human Bioclimatology,’ the first chapter, was authored by E. Flach and provides a survey of the effects on the human organism of the physical conditions at the earth's surface. It contains four main sections. A section entitled ‘Light and Life’ deals with the effects of solar radiation on man and contains much interesting information on the response of the human eye and human skin to radiation at various frequencies. ‘Air and Life’ discusses the composition of air and its effect on human health and performance, including discussions of the effects of altitude, aerosols, and noxious trace gases. ‘Temperature and Life’ discusses how the body responds to temperature and how it maintains its heat budget under the variety of conditions to which it falls subject and considerable discussion is given to objective ways to characterize air conditions that give an accurate measure of their impact on the body. This discussion leads naturally into the final section, ‘Bioclimatological Evaluation Systems,’ which addresses the problem of how to classify a particular site according to its overall suitability to human habitation.

  1. Patient Dose Considerations in Interventional Cardiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciraj-Bjelac, O.; Rafajlovic, S.; Arandjic, D.; Kosutic, D.

    2011-01-01

    Interventional cardiology procedures are classified as high-dose procedures, owing to increased risk for radiation skin injuries and stochastic effects, such as cancer. European MED Directive 97/43 requires special consideration and dose evaluation for this kind of procedures . Dose received by a patient, in general, depends on the radiological equipment, examination protocol, the way it is implemented, the patient's body weight and nature of disease. Long-term fluoroscopy of certain parts of the body, a significant body mass, high-value dose intensity, continuous rather than pulsed fluoroscopy, small focus-skin distance and repeated procedure on the same patient, are among the factors that can lead to radiation skin injuries. A particular challenge is the fact that the radiation damage of the skin is difficult to detect and connect to the previously conducted cardiologic procedures. The fact that such injuries do not have immediate manifestation is very often reason that many of them remain undetected. The purpose of this work is to assess the level of radiation dose to patients in percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI) and to investigate possibility for setting of a practical trigger value if dose quantities exceed certain levels in terms of dose descriptors available at display of interventional cardiology unit. Two dedicated interventional cardiology units in a large teaching cardiac centre (Clinical Centre of Serbia, Belgrade, Serbia) were included in the survey. Both rooms (D and F) were equipped with X-ray units of the identical model: Siemens Axiom Artis (Siemens, Erlangen, Germany) with the flat panel detector and integrated ionization chamber to measure air kerma-area product (P K A) and air kerma in international reference point (K I RP). Patient doses were assessed in terms of P K A, K I RP and maximum-skin dose (MSD). P K A and K I RP were assessed using a built-in, in situ calibrated dosimeters, while MSD was estimated using radiochromic films

  2. Anaesthetic considerations for paediatric laparoscopy | Lasersohn ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Children, infants and neonates represent an anaesthetic challenge because of age-specific anatomical and physiological issues. Apart from paediatric-specific anaesthetic considerations, the paediatric anaesthetist must understand the implications of laparoscopic surgery, and prevent and react appropriately to changes ...

  3. Writing about Clients: Ethical Considerations and Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperry, Len; Pies, Ronald

    2010-01-01

    Today, the decision to prepare clinical case material for publication is a decision that cannot be taken lightly. The decision involves reviewing ethical considerations and choosing among various options to safeguard client privacy. Such options include seeking the client's permission, disguising case material, and developing composite case…

  4. Implementing Sustainability Considerations in Packaging Design Curricula

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder-Nijkamp, Maaike; de Koeijer, Bjorn; Torn, Isaäc Anthony Robbert-Jan

    2018-01-01

    This study aims to address the structured implementation of sustainability considerations in packaging design processes by proposing a teaching framework for design students. The framework builds upon a four-year research program which aims to deliver insights regarding the environmental burden

  5. 7 CFR 3430.909 - Other considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Other considerations. 3430.909 Section 3430.909 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COOPERATIVE STATE RESEARCH, EDUCATION, AND EXTENSION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMPETITIVE AND NONCOMPETITIVE NON-FORMULA FEDERAL...

  6. Environmental approvals in New Brunswick : economic considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marrack, C.; Maitland, R. [Suez Renewable Energy North America, Houston, TX (United States)

    2008-07-01

    This presentation provided a timeline of economic considerations related to New Brunswick's regulatory approval process for wind power developments. The economics of wind power projects require careful consideration during the initial planning phases, as it is not yet known if projects are viable. Spending in the early stages of a project should therefore be limited to items that focus on components of the environmental impact assessment (EIA) process that include establishing a relationship with First Nations groups in the area, and conducting seasonal bird studies. Economic considerations change when project viability is confirmed, and developers can then progress to conducting traditional knowledge studies and further seasonal bird studies. Baseline information studies should be reviewed, and biophysical surveys should involve the identification of any wetlands, sensitive areas, and rare plants. Archaeology studies are also required by the provincial government, as well as bat studies to determine if the site has a resident population of bats. Public and stakeholder consultations and open houses should then be held with an adequate time-frame for the submission of questions and concerns and the development of mitigation strategies. Project viability should be confirmed before power purchase agreements (PPAs) are signed. After PPAs are signed, the largest economic consideration is the schedule-related risk associated with legal and financial problems. It was concluded that noise impact, visual impact, and socioeconomic assessments and studies can be conducted after the PPA is secured. tabs., figs.

  7. Ethical Considerations for Data Collection Using Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Marilyn J

    2017-03-01

    Surveys are widely used instruments to collect research data. Although surveys may appear relatively benign and easily unlinked to participants, considerations for the ethical conduct of research with surveys are important. Maintaining scientific rigor is essential. This article explores ethical tenets in relation to informed consent and scientific consent when using surveys.

  8. Design Criteria Based on Aesthetic Considerations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Bente Dahl

    2009-01-01

    Aesthetic criteria for designs are often debated in a very subjective manner which makes it difficult to reach consensus. In order to have a more rational and transparent process, in particular in industrial design, we propose a procedure based on Baumgarten's aesthetic considerations and Thommesen......'s dividing of a form into form elements. The procedure has been tested in student projects....

  9. Adult Learners: Considerations for Education and Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kistler, Mark J.

    2011-01-01

    As more and more adults seek out education and training programs to help them become more competitive in the job market, it provides an opportunity for career and technical education. Those who teach adult learners should take into consideration their particular learning traits. This article highlights a framework of core principles to be…

  10. Some considerations on robotics for environmental friendliness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pin, F.G.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents a series of considerations regarding the use and potential of robotic devices for supporting humans in a variety of tasks, while maintaining, if not improving, environmental friendliness. One of the main considerations brought forward here relates to the type of human-support functions which the robots are, or will be, expected to perform, and from this, a clear differentiation appears between robots designed to replace humans in environments that were engineered in the past for best human functionality, and robots designed to take functions in the future, in environments which could be better engineered for large-scale human-robot synergy. Other considerations discussed involve the ''life-cycle'' cleanliness of robotic systems, including the materials needs for their construction, their operation, their disposal and, more importantly, their energy consumption which will impact the cycle of natural resources utilization. These considerations are discussed using a variety of possible robotic systems applications in contexts varied as manufacturing, energy recovery and production, emergency situations handling, traffic improvement, waste management, agriculture, and space exploration. In all these applications, the operation costs and complexity of the robots seem to vary in inverse proportion to the amount of engineering that is feasible to make the task environment more robot-friendly, but with no seemingly direct impact on the potential for environmental friendliness of the robots

  11. 32 CFR 989.4 - Initial considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... alternatives analyzed in the environmental documents. (f) Pursue the objective of furthering foreign policy and... ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ANALYSIS PROCESS (EIAP) § 989.4 Initial considerations. Air Force personnel will: (a... CATEX from environmental impact analysis (appendix B). (c) Make environmental documents, comments, and...

  12. Topics for Current and Future Consideration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, James P.; Jerman, Jerry

    2011-01-01

    What lies ahead for nontraditional doctorate programs? What issues should concern administrators, faculty, and scholars? Faculty and administrators raised concerns that the marketplace demand for "nontraditional doctoral programs" would pollute the academic purity and sanctity of traditional programs. The authors provide some considerations for…

  13. Tube temperature rise limits: Boiling considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanderwater, R.G.

    1952-03-26

    A revision of tube power limits based on boiling considerations was presented earlier. The limits were given on a basis of tube power versus header pressure. However, for convenience of operation, the limits have been converted from tube power to permissible water temperature rise. The permissible {triangle}t`s water are given in this document.

  14. Waste management considerations in HTGR recycle operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pence, D.T.; Shefcik, J.J.; Heath, C.A.

    1975-01-01

    Waste management considerations in the recycle of HTGR fuel are different from those encountered in the recycle of LWR fuel. The types of waste associated with HTGR recycle operations are discussed, and treatment methods for some of the wastes are described

  15. [From care to consideration of disabled people].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chossy, Jean-François

    2014-05-01

    The law of 11th February 2005 relating to the equality of the rights and opportunities, participation and citizenship of disabled people was a major step forward. Nevertheless, more progress is needed to ensure more consideration is given to disabled people.

  16. Planning for an ageing population: strategic considerations

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Shea, Dr Eamon

    2005-01-01

    This report presents both the proceedings of the Council’s conference, Planning for an Ageing Population: Strategic Considerations, and the Council’s discussion paper, ‘The Older Population: Information Issues and Deficits’, which was introduced at that conference.\\r\

  17. Transplanting the Body : Preliminary Ethical Considerations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miller, Lantz E.

    2017-01-01

    A dissociated area of medical research warrants bioethical consideration: a proposed transplantation of a donor’s entire body, except head, to a patient with a fatal degenerative disease. The seeming improbability of such an operation can only underscore the need for thorough bioethical assessment:

  18. 15 CFR 1160.4 - Antitrust considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Antitrust considerations. 1160.4 Section 1160.4 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) TECHNOLOGY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE PRODUCTIVITY, TECHNOLOGY AND INNOVATION Promotion of...

  19. Some considerations on robotics for environmental friendliness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pin, F.G.

    1993-12-01

    This paper presents a series of considerations regarding the use and potential of robotic devices for supporting humans in a variety of tasks, while maintaining, if not improving, environmental friendliness. One of the main considerations brought forward here relates to the type of human-support functions which the robots are, or will be, expected to perform, and from this, a clear differentiation appears between robots designed to replace humans in environments that were engineered in the past for best human functionality, and robots designed to take functions in the future, in environments which could be better engineered for large-scale human-robot synergy. Other considerations discussed involve the ``life-cycle`` cleanliness of robotic systems, including the materials needs for their construction, their operation, their disposal and, more importantly, their energy consumption which will impact the cycle of natural resources utilization. These considerations are discussed using a variety of possible robotic systems applications in contexts varied as manufacturing, energy recovery and production, emergency situations handling, traffic improvement, waste management, agriculture, and space exploration. In all these applications, the operation costs and complexity of the robots seem to vary in inverse proportion to the amount of engineering that is feasible to make the task environment more robot-friendly, but with no seemingly direct impact on the potential for environmental friendliness of the robots.

  20. Lunar Module ECS (Environmental Control System) - Design Considerations and Failure Modes. Part 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interbartolo, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Design considerations and failure modes for the Lunar Module (LM) Environmental Control System (ECS) are described. An overview of the the oxygen supply and cabin pressurization, atmosphere revitalization, water management and heat transport systems are provided. Design considerations including reliability, flight instrumentation, modularization and the change to the use of batteries instead of fuel cells are discussed. A summary is provided for the LM ECS general testing regime.

  1. Systems-design and energy-balance considerations for impact fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krakowski, R.A.; Miller, R.L.

    1979-01-01

    Areas of concern and potential problems for impact fusion are qualitatively considered within an overall systems context. A parametric and qualitative description of the general energy balance and systems considerations for an Impact Fusion Reactor (IFR) design is discussed. Reactor systems design considerations for an IFR are presented. An attempt to assess the IFR viability is made based on highly simplified but limiting projectile-target energy balances and thermonuclear burn models

  2. Exercise for type 1 diabetes mellitus management: General considerations and new directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farinha, Juliano Boufleur; Krause, Maurício; Rodrigues-Krause, Josianne; Reischak-Oliveira, Alvaro

    2017-07-01

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is characterized by the loss of insulin secreting cells due to a directed autoimmune process, which is linked to oxidative stress and inflammation. Exercise training is known to induce several benefits by reducing inflammation and improving antioxidant defenses. In this context, exercise training may be considered as an efficient and relatively inexpensive non-pharmacological tool for diabetes treatment, added to the usual insulin administration. Unfortunately, most people with T1DM do not reach the recommended levels of physical activity due to concerns with hypoglycemic episodes. Recent data have demonstrated that exercise sessions composed by strength exercises or high-intensity interval exercise reduce the risk of hypoglycemia during and after the physical effort, when compared with continuous aerobic exercise in insulin-dependent patients. However, no studies have tested the chronic effects of this combination of protocols on health-related markers yet. Herein, we suggest a combination of hypertrophic strength exercises (3 sets at 8-RM) with a high-intensity interval protocol (10×60-s bouts at ∼90% HR max interspersed with 60s recovery) in the same exercise session, three times per week, for T1DM patients free of micro and macrovascular complications. Our hypothesis is that this training protocol may minimize the exercise-associated rapid drop of glucose levels in T1DM, due to glucoregulatory hormones and transient reduction of insulin-mediated glucose uptake. This training is also likely to cover long-term glycaemic, bioenergetic, neuromuscular and cardiorespiratory adaptations, implicating in improved health and decreased risk of micro and macro complications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Electronic Books: A Major Publishing Revolution. Part 1: General Considerations and Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Donald T.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses electronic books and their impact on the publishing industry. Topics include a history of the book industry; downloadable ebooks; dedicated ebook readers; Web-accessible ebooks; print-on-demand books; advantages and disadvantages; copyright; ebook concerns in libraries, including licensing, lack of standards, bibliographic control, and…

  4. General considerations regarding intestinal absorption of radionuclides as a function of age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metivier, H.; Fritsch, P.; Lataillade, G.

    1987-01-01

    Although enhanced absorption of radionuclides from the GI tract has been confirmed in recent years in many animal species, the species-dependent variations in GI absorption by neonates make it difficult to extrapolate animal data to humans. Numerous measurements have been made in 1 to 2 day-old animals, but fewer studies have covered the entire neonatal period up to weaning. For plutonium, sufficiently good inter-species agreement was obtained to assume that its absorption by the GI tract remains significantly high until weaning. The same was reported for neptunium absorption by hamsters but a preliminary experiment with baboons seems to refuse this, and the problem of extrapolation to humans from species more closely related to man remains unsolved. The fact that effects of different factors such as the chemical form of radionuclides, the neonatal transfer of immunoglobulins and intestinal wall permeability, has not been definitely proved also makes such extrapolation difficult. Because the baboon resembles man more than other animals as regards lifespan, length of gestation, the birth of only one animal at a time, the weaning time, the length of adolescence and the time of sexual maturation, it seems to be the animal species most likely to provide suitable data for extrapolation to human. 21 refs.; 3 figs.; 3 tabs

  5. Industrial applications of refrigeration. General considerations; Applications industrielles du froid. Generalites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marvillet, Ch. [Ecole Centrale de Lyon, 69 - Ecully (France); Groupement pour la Recherche sur les Echangeurs Thermiques, GRETh (France)

    2001-10-01

    The refrigeration process consists in the lowering of the temperature of a product or of a process below the ambient temperature. Thus, the refrigeration process implies a heat absorption process for the production of coldness. Two ways of coldness production are considered: the mechanical refrigeration using compression or absorption cycle machineries, and the cryogenic refrigeration which requires the use of industrial fluids like liquid nitrogen, helium or CO{sub 2}. This article presents the different functions of refrigeration in industrial processes and the effects of temperature on inert or living matter (influence of temperature on the physical properties, thermodynamic state, and physico-chemical transformations of solids, bodies and substances, influence of temperature on the transformation processes of food products, mechanical refrigeration and mastery of fermentation). (J.S.)

  6. Consideration of severe accident issues for the general electric BWR standard plant a status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holtzclaw, K.W.

    1983-01-01

    In early 1982 the U.S. NRC proposed a policy to address severe accident rulemaking on future plants by utilizing standard plant licensing documentation. This paper, GE's submission, discusses the features of the design that prevent severe accidents from leading to core damage or that mitigate the effects of severe accidents should core damage occur. The quantification of the accident prevention and mitigation features, including those incorporated in the design since the accident at TMI, is provided by means of a comprehensive probabilistic risk assessment, which provides an analysis of the probability and consequences of postulated severe accidents

  7. Consideration of severe accident issues for the General Electric BWR standard plant: Chapter 10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holtzclaw, K.W.

    1983-01-01

    In early 1982, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) proposed a policy to address severe accident rulemaking on future plants by utilizing standard plant licensing documentation. GE provided appendices to the licensing documentation of its standard plant design, GESSAR II, which address severe accidents for the GE BWR/6 Mark III 238 nuclear island design. The GE submittals discuss the features of the design that prevent severe accidents from leading to core damage or that mitigate the effects of severe accidents should core damage occur. The quantification of the accident prevention and mitigation features, including those incorporated in the design since the accident at Three Mile Island (TMI), is provided by means of a comprehensive probabilistic risk assessment, which provides an analysis of the probability and consequences of postulated severe accidents

  8. Materials Information for Science and Technology (MIST): Project overview: Phase 1 and 2 and general considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grattidge, W.; Westbrook, J.; McCarthy, J.; Northrup, C. Jr.; Rumble, J. Jr.

    1986-11-01

    The National Bureau of Standards and the Department of Energy have embarked on a program to build a demonstration computerized materials data system called Materials Information for Science and Technology (MIST). This report documents the first two phases of the project. The emphasis of the first phase was on determining what information was needed and how it could impact user productivity. The second phase data from the Aerospace Metal Handbook on a set of alloys was digitized and incorporated in the system.

  9. Materials information for science and technology (MIST): Project overview: Phases I and II and general considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grattidge, W.; Westbrook, J.; McCarthy, J.; Northrup, C. Jr.; Rumble, J. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    This report documents the initial phases of the Materials Information for Science and Technology (MIST) project jointly supported by the Department of Energy and the National Bureau of Standards. The purpose of MIST is to demonstrate the power and utility of computer access to materials property data. The initial goals include: to exercise the concept of a computer network of materials databases and to build a demonstration of such a system suitable for use as the core of operational systems in the future. Phases I and II are described in detail herein. In addition, a discussion is given of the expected usage of the system. The primary MIST prototype project is running on an IBM 3084 under STS at the Stanford University's Information Technology Services (ITS). Users can access the Stanford system via ARPANET, TELENET, and TYMNET, as well as via commercial telephone lines. For fastest response time and use of the full screen PRISM interface, direct connection using a 2400 baud modem with the MNP error-correcting protocol over standard telephone lines gives the best results - though slower speed connections and a line-oriented interface are also available. This report gives detailed plans regarding the properties to be enterend and the materials to be entered into the system.

  10. Low-Flow Liquid Desiccant Air Conditioning: General Guidance and Site Considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozubal, E.; Herrmann, L.; Deru, M.; Clark, J.

    2014-09-01

    Dehumidification or latent cooling in buildings is an area of growing interest that has been identified as needing more research and improved technologies for higher performance. Heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems typically expend excessive energy by using overcool-and-reheat strategies to dehumidify buildings. These systems first overcool ventilation air to remove moisture and then reheat the air to meet comfort requirements. Another common strategy incorporates solid desiccant rotors that remove moisture from the air more efficiently; however, these systems increase fan energy consumption because of the high airside pressure drop of solid desiccant rotors and can add heat of absorption to the ventilation air. Alternatively, liquid desiccant air-conditioning (LDAC) technology provides an innovative dehumidification solution that: (1) eliminates the need for overcooling and reheating from traditional cooling systems; and (2) avoids the increased fan energy and air heating from solid desiccant rotor systems.

  11. International Considerations Associated with Economic Planning for Recovery from a Generalized Disaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-06-01

    Financial Crises and the World Banking System. New York: St. Martin’s, 1986, pp 77-116. Sen , Amartya . Poverty and Famines: Ar Essay on Entitlement and Dj•ri...ation. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1981a. Sen , Amartya . "Ingrediants of Famine Analysis: Availability and Entitlements," Quarterly Journal of...from outside ( Sen , 1981a, 1981b). The famines occurred morg beccuse of local income failure than because of even relatively nearby food uxavailability

  12. Plasma transport in stochastic magnetic fields. I. General considerations and test particle transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krommes, J.A.; Kleva, R.G.; Oberman, C.

    1978-05-01

    A systematic theory is developed for the computation of electron transport in stochastic magnetic fields. Small scale magnetic perturbations arising, for example, from finite-β micro-instabilities are assumed to destroy the flux surfaces of a standard tokamak equilibrium. Because the magnetic lines then wander in a volume, electron radial flux is enhanced due to the rapid particle transport along as well as across the lines. By treating the magnetic lines as random variables, it is possible to develop a kinetic equation for the electron distribution function. This is solved approximately to yield the diffusion coefficient

  13. 76 FR 59247 - Environmental Impact Considerations, Food Additives, and Generally Recognized As Safe Substances...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-26

    ... agent in the manufacture of silica.'' PART 178--INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: ADJUVANTS, PRODUCTION AIDS, AND... pale orange or pinkish white powder. * * * * * * * * 0 21. Section 184.1845 is amended by revising the...

  14. A generalized approach to wheat yield forecasting using earth observations: Data considerations, application and relevance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker-Reshef, Inbal

    In recent years there has been a dramatic increase in the demand for timely, comprehensive global agricultural intelligence. The issue of food security has rapidly risen to the top of government agendas around the world as the recent lack of food access led to unprecedented food prices, hunger, poverty, and civil conflict. Timely information on global crop production is indispensable for combating the growing stress on the world's crop production, for stabilizing food prices, developing effective agricultural policies, and for coordinating responses to regional food shortages. Earth Observations (EO) data offer a practical means for generating such information as they provide global, timely, cost-effective, and synoptic information on crop condition and distribution. Their utility for crop production forecasting has long been recognized and demonstrated across a wide range of scales and geographic regions. Nevertheless it is widely acknowledged that EO data could be better utilized within the operational monitoring systems and thus there is a critical need for research focused on developing practical robust methods for agricultural monitoring. Within this context this dissertation focused on advancing EO-based methods for crop yield forecasting and on demonstrating the potential relevance for adopting EO-based crop forecasts for providing timely reliable agricultural intelligence. This thesis made contributions to this field by developing and testing a robust EO-based method for wheat production forecasting at state to national scales using available and easily accessible data. The model was developed in Kansas (KS) using coarse resolution normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) time series data in conjunction with out-of-season wheat masks and was directly applied in Ukraine to assess its transferability. The model estimated yields within 7% in KS and 10% in Ukraine of final estimates 6 weeks prior to harvest. The relevance of adopting such methods to provide timely reliable information to crop commodity markets is demonstrated through a 2010 case study.

  15. Biomass as fuel: Some general supply and demand considerations for developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barron, W.F.

    1992-01-01

    A major expansion of biomass energy is probably only possible where several factors jointly hold: (1) fossil fuels are priced well above their current international market prices (e.g., to reflect environmental externalities) or otherwise limited in availability, and (2) there is not serious competition for growing sites with food and other non-energy biomass production regimes, and (3) investment resources are available at opportunity costs which make their application to biofuel development an attractive local option. Obvious policy recommendations include: (1) provide expanded support to small-scale biofuel supply and demand programs in areas where wood resources are being mined to satisfy energy needs, and (2) fund SRIC-type experiments in selected areas (e.g., where they may be financially attractive today, where the ecosystems are of particular interest) so as to begin to build-up developing country databases on species, plantation establishment techniques and cost-effective operational activities in support of possible future expansion of industrial-scale biofuels supply systems

  16. General considerations on fire and explosions in a nuclear facility. Interaction with ventilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savornin, J.

    1983-05-01

    After a brief survey of French regulations and documents used in defining fire and explosion precautions, a number of fires which have broken out in French nuclear power plants and their effects on ventilation are mentioned. Past or current tests and experiments in France are described, and the provisions made to create computer codes for refining fire safety analysis are presented. The regulations which have been established to reduce the risk of fire or explosion and to contain it without failure of the containment barrier provided by the ventilation system are then given [fr

  17. The k-means clustering technique: General considerations and implementation in Mathematica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence Morissette

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Data clustering techniques are valuable tools for researchers working with large databases of multivariate data. In this tutorial, we present a simple yet powerful one: the k-means clustering technique, through three different algorithms: the Forgy/Lloyd, algorithm, the MacQueen algorithm and the Hartigan and Wong algorithm. We then present an implementation in Mathematica and various examples of the different options available to illustrate the application of the technique.

  18. Plasma transport in stochastic magnetic fields. I. General considerations and test particle transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krommes, J.A.; Kleva, R.G.; Oberman, C.

    1978-05-01

    A systematic theory is developed for the computation of electron transport in stochastic magnetic fields. Small scale magnetic perturbations arising, for example, from finite-..beta.. micro-instabilities are assumed to destroy the flux surfaces of a standard tokamak equilibrium. Because the magnetic lines then wander in a volume, electron radial flux is enhanced due to the rapid particle transport along as well as across the lines. By treating the magnetic lines as random variables, it is possible to develop a kinetic equation for the electron distribution function. This is solved approximately to yield the diffusion coefficient.

  19. GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS OF THE EMPLOYMENT OF ROBOTS IN ARMED CONFLICTS IN THE XXI CENTURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUIS PÉREZ GIL

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This article studies the new weapon systems that can transform the notion itself of “armed conflict” in the classic sense of the term. The author deeply analyzes the differences between concepts such as robot, droid, android, UAS and UCAS, the new military hardware, and how will be the combat aircrafts of the future with systems of artificial intelligence, the field robotics, as well as the interaction between men and machines in the future combat and, finally, the revolution that the employment of this type of weapons cause in the traditional concepts of Humanitarian Law and self-defense right. The author concludes with a few reflections on the role that the newest technologies have to play necessarily in the conventional and unconventional warfare and the influence that its use will produce when these weapons will be considered “normal” in the whole world system.

  20. General considerations concerning the use of the X-ray analyzer RALE in industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, D.; Morgenstern, P.; Riedel, W.

    1983-01-01

    The X-ray analyzer RALE for light elements was tested under laboratory conditions. Particularities of X-ray analysis concerning the use of the proportional scintillation detector for X-radiation and an alpha particle source for excitation are described. The performance of the analyzer was estimated. The results demonstrate that this analyzer will be of great advantage for solution of many analytical problems in industry. This is illustrated by means of any applications concerning the determination of concentration power engineering of elements and the thickness of thin layers in the field of power engineering including nuclear power engineering as well as in the field of metallurgy. The essential advantage of this analytical method consists in the extention of X-ray analysis to the region of elements with low atomic numbers. (author)

  1. Functional analysis of cT-DNAs in naturally transformed plants, recent findings and general considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Léon Otten

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Several cases have been reported of naturally transformed plant species. These plants contain cellular T-DNAs (cT-DNAs derived from ancient infections by Agrobacterium. We have determined the structure of 4 different cT-DNAs in N. tomentosiformis, the paternal ancestor of N. tabacum, and found several intact open reading frames. Among these, TB-mas2’ and TA-rolC were tested for activity. TB-mas2’ encodes desoxyfructosylglutamine (DFG synthesis. Some N. tabacum cultivars show very high TB-mas2’ expression and produce DFG in their roots. The TA-rolC gene is biologically active and when expressed under strong constitutive promoter control, generates growth changes in N. tabacum. Based on these first data on the structure and function of cT-DNAs I present a theoretical model on the origin and evolution of naturally transformed plants, which may serve as a basis for further research in this field.

  2. Economics, Ecology and the Development and Use of GMOs: General Considerations and Biosafety Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Tisdell, Clement A.

    2008-01-01

    This article outlines both ecological and socioeconomic issues involved in the development and use of GMOs. It’s argued that while initially new GMOs add to the global stock of biodiversity, in the long-term they result in a decline in biodiversity. Various mechanisms that bring about this decline in genetic diversity are identified. It is suggested that due to evolutionary forces, the desirable genetic properties of some GMO may be eroded in the long-term. They are unlikely to be sustained i...

  3. Low energy neutron scattering for energy dependent cross sections. General considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rothenstein, W; Dagan, R [Technion-Israel Inst. of Tech., Haifa (Israel). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1996-12-01

    We consider in this paper some aspects related to neutron scattering at low energies by nuclei which are subject to thermal agitation. The scattering is determined by a temperature dependent joint scattering kernel, or the corresponding joint probability density, which is a function of two variables, the neutron energy after scattering, and the cosine of the angle of scattering, for a specified energy and direction of motion of the neutron, before the interaction takes place. This joint probability density is easy to calculate, when the nucleus which causes the scattering of the neutron is at rest. It can be expressed by a delta function, since there is a one to one correspondence between the neutron energy change, and the cosine of the scattering angle. If the thermal motion of the target nucleus is taken into account, the calculation is rather more complicated. The delta function relation between the cosine of the angle of scattering and the neutron energy change is now averaged over the spectrum of velocities of the target nucleus, and becomes a joint kernel depending on both these variables. This function has a simple form, if the target nucleus behaves as an ideal gas, which has a scattering cross section independent of energy. An energy dependent scattering cross section complicates the treatment further. An analytic expression is no longer obtained for the ideal gas temperature dependent joint scattering kernel as a function of the neutron energy after the interaction and the cosine of the scattering angle. Instead the kernel is expressed by an inverse Fourier Transform of a complex integrand, which is averaged over the velocity spectrum of the target nucleus. (Abstract Truncated)

  4. Some aspects on wind turbines monitoring. General considerations and loads on horizontal wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuerva, A.

    1996-12-01

    The concept Monitoring applied to the Wind Energy technology is similar to the definition used in other branches of Science or Engineering, this is knowing values of variables which have to do with a mechanic system, in our case a wind turbine. These mentioned parameters may have different relationships to our wind turbine; some of them come from the environment the machine is operating in, others, are a measure of how properly the machine is working, and finally, the rest are an assessment of the ``system`s health`` during its ``life``. In this chapter we will answer questions such as: What do we need to measure? Why is Monitoring mandatory (from the different points of view of people involved in this world)? How can we measure a wind turbine depending on our objectives (Technic, tools, guidance, recommendations, etc)? And finally What can we expect in the near future?. The author wants the reader to keep the idea in mind that Monitoring means the richest and most accurate knowledge on wind turbine`s operation (Its environment, performances of health). This is the first step that allows us to optimize the operation mode of the machine and improve it (design, manufacturing, even the used modeling tools). When there is so much money involved, this fact becomes a must. (Author)

  5. General Considerations on Leadership in the Hospitality Industry. Conceptual Analysis and Practical Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Andreia ISPAS

    2010-01-01

    Leadership in the hospitality industry is still an open research field especially in describing the effects of leadership style on hotel employees. The purpose of the paper is to present and analyze the following concepts: leadership and leadership style, hospitality industry; the practical aspects of leadership in the hospitality industry and to identify relevant studies regarding the importance of leadership styles applied in this industry. The research methodology consists of analyzing the...

  6. Antithyroid drugs induced agranulocytosis and multiple myeloma: case report and general considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dănciulescu Miulescu, R; Carşote, M; Trifănescu, R; Ferechide, D; Poiană, C

    2013-09-15

    Antithyroid drugs as thionamides are largely used in the treatment of the thyrotoxicosis. Side effects were reported in less than 10% of the cases, especially hematological, hepatic or skin allergies. One of the most severe manifestations is agranulocytosis, probably based on an immune mechanism that is exacerbated by the presence of the thyroid autoimmune disease itself. If the presence of the severe leucopenia is actually an epiphenomenon of a preexisting hematological disturbance as multiple myeloma is debated. The myeloma may also be correlated with an autoimmune predisposition. We present the case of a 56 years old female patient diagnosed with Graves' disease, who developed agranulocytosis after 8 months of therapy with thiamazole. Two months after antithyroid drug's withdrawal, the granulocytes number increased and she received therapy with radioiodine. Two years later she came back for diffuse bone pain that turned out to be caused by a multiple myeloma, confirmed by bone marrow biopsy. It might be a connection between the severe form of leucopenia that the patient developed and the medullar malignancy.

  7. Antithyroid drugs induced agranulocytosis and multiple myeloma: case report and general considerations

    OpenAIRE

    D?nciulescu Miulescu, R; Car?ote, M; Trif?nescu, R; Ferechide, D; Poian?, C

    2013-01-01

    Antithyroid drugs as thionamides are largely used in the treatment of the thyrotoxicosis. Side effects were reported in less than 10% of the cases, especially hematological, hepatic or skin allergies. One of the most severe manifestations is agranulocytosis, probably based on an immune mechanism that is exacerbated by the presence of the thyroid autoimmune disease itself. If the presence of the severe leucopenia is actually an epiphenomenon of a preexisting hematological disturbance as multip...

  8. DENTAL CONSIDERATIONS FOR LEUKEMIC PEDIATRIC PATIENTS: AN UPDATED REVIEW FOR GENERAL DENTAL PRACTITIONER.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowal, Kholoud A; Alaizari, Nader Ahmed; Tarakji, Bassel; Petro, Waleed; Hussain, Khaja Amjad; Altamimi, Mohamed Abdullah Alsakran

    2015-10-01

    The early signs of leukemia can usually manifest in the oral cavity due to infiltration of leukemic cells or due to associated decline in normal marrow elements, especially in the acute phase of leukemia, as common lesions at this stage of the disease can be screened and diagnosed by the dentist. Therefore, the dental community should be aware of the oral manifestations of leukemia and oral complications of anticancer treatment. This can eliminate the oral symptoms of the disease and to improve quality of life for these patients. An extensive search in PubMed line using a combination of terms like "leukemia, children, dental, Acute lymphoblastic leukemia, pediatric" for last ten years was made. Reviews and case reports concerned about acute lymphoblastic leukemia in children were all collected and analyzed and data were extracted. Accordingly, the aim of this review is to highlight on the oral presentations of leukemia in children attending dental clinics and the management of its undesirable side effects.

  9. General Considerations Concerning the Principle of Territoriality of the Romanian Criminal Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile Draghici

    2016-01-01

    In the current regulation of art. 8, paragraph 3 of the Penal Code, the offense committed inRomania, is any offense committed on the territory defined in art. 8 paragraph 2 of the Penal codeor a ship under the Romanian flag or an aircraft registered in Romania.

  10. Some aspects on wind turbines monitoring. General considerations and loads on horizontal wind turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuerva, A.

    1996-01-01

    The concept Monitoring applied to the Wind Energy technology is similar to the definition used in other branches of Science or Engineering, this is knowing values of variables which have to do with a mechanic system, in our case a wind turbine. These mentioned parameters may have different relationships to our wind turbine; some of them come from the environment the machine is operating in, others, are a measure of how properly the machine is working, and finally, the rest are an assessment of the systems health during its life. In this chapter we will answer questions such as: What do we need to measure? Why is Monitoring mandatory (from the different points of view of people involved in this world)? How can we measure a wind turbine depending on our objectives (Technic, tools, guidance, recommendations, etc.)? And finally What can we expect in the near future? The author wants the reader to keep the idea in mind that Monitoring means the richest and most accurate knowledge on wind turbine's operation (Its environment, performances or health). This is the first step that allows us to optimize the operation mode of the machine and improve it (design, manufacturing, even the used modeling tools). When there is so much money involved, this fact becomes a must. (Author)

  11. Retrieving unobserved consideration sets from household panel data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.E.M. van Nierop; R. Paap (Richard); B. Bronnenberg; Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans); M. Wedel (Michel)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractWe propose a new model to describe consideration, consisting of a multivariate probit model component for consideration and a multinomial probit model component for choice, given consideration. The approach allows one to analyze stated consideration set data, revealed consideration set

  12. International Legal and Political Considerations Concerning the Seabed Disposal of Nuclear Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eaker, L.H.

    1983-01-01

    From its beginnings in 1973, to the present time, the concept of disposing of high-level nuclear wastes within the seabed has attracted serious investigation by numerous scientists. The scientific work to date has led to the general conclusion that the burial of high-level nuclear waste within the deep-sea clays of the oceanic basins, in conjunction with a perfected multi-barrier containment concept, could prove technically and environmentally feasible. This article discusses the need for further consideration of the international legal and political implications arising from any proposed seabed disposal of high-level nuclear waste. Further consideration of the international legal issues necessarily involves the analysis of three general areas of international law, namely: the question of coverage under the 1972 London Ocean Dumping Convention; the application and effect of the provisions of the new United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea; and the consideration of general principles of international law. (NEA) [fr

  13. Magna-field irradiation: physical considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Dyk, J.

    1983-12-01

    Magna-field radiotherapy in the form of total body, half body and total nodal irradiation is becoming increasingly prominent and involves dosimetric problems that are much more pronounced than they are for conventional field sizes. In this review of the physical considerations of magna-field irradiation, a number of possible alternate methods of producing large radiation fields are outlined, the basic beam dosimetry is reviewed and the factors producing dose variation in the patient are considered. Since the lung contains large regions of low density tissues and has a lower tolerance to radiaiton than most other tissues, special consideration is given to methods of dose determination and dose reduction to this organ. The question of accuracy in dose delivery is briefly discussed and the concept of delivering a radiation dose 'as precisely as readily achievable (APARA), technological and biological factors being taken into account' is introduced.

  14. Ethical Considerations in Research Participation Virality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis-Barton, Carol

    2016-07-01

    This article seeks to commence and encourage discussion around the upcoming ethical challenges of virality in network structures. When the call for participation in a research project on lupus in Ireland went from an advertisement in a newsletter to a meme (unit of transmissible information) on a closed Facebook page, the ethical considerations of virality were raised. The article analyzes the Association of Internet Researchers guidelines, Facebook policies, and the context of privacy in relation to virality. Virality creates the leverage for methodological pluralism. The nature of the inquiry can determine the method rather than the other way around. Viral ethical considerations are evolving due to the cyber world becoming the primary meme of communication, with flexibility in the researcher's protocol providing opportunities for efficient, cost-effective, and diverse recruitment. © The Author(s) 2016.

  15. Noise Considerations for V/STOL Transports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, George C.

    1968-01-01

    Noise consideration may well be as important a factor in future aircraft concept selection as such economic factors as operating cost and profitability. The impact of noise on some of the design and operational aspects of future V/STOL transports is examined in detail, including consideration of configuration, attitude-control system, lift system, and terminal flight pattern. Extended vertical rise of VTOL aircraft as a method of limiting the intense noise exposure to the terminal area is shown to be only partially effective as well as costly. Comparisons are made of noise contours for conceptual V/STOL transports for several PNdB criteria. The variation in extent of affected area with configuration and criterion emphasizes the importance of establishing an "acceptable" noise level for "city-center" operation.

  16. Considerations on the time factor in radiobiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossi, H.H.

    1981-01-01

    Although extension of the time period during which a given dose of radiation is administered commonly reduces effectiveness, there are well established instances where the reverse is true. Theoretical considerations are presented which relate reduction or enhancement to the shape of the dose-effect curve. While in many instances these changes of sensitivity may be due to intracellular processes it appears that in the case of carcinogenesis by low doses of neutrons, time dependent intercellular action must be involved. (orig.) [de

  17. Local anesthesia in dentistry - Clinical Considerations

    OpenAIRE

    Sharmraaj Subramaniam; Prasanna Neelakantan

    2013-01-01

    Local anaesthesia is commonly employed prior to most dental procedures. It is imperative to understand the mechanisms by which local anaesthetics work, so that their efficacy can be improved for painless dental care. Local anaesthesia also has major clinical implications in that it can precipitate emergencies in patients with an underlying systemic disease. It is imperative that a dentist have a thorough knowledge of the considerations one must take when administering local anaesthesia in pat...

  18. Local Anesthetics: Review of Pharmacological Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Daniel E; Reed, Kenneth L

    2012-01-01

    Local anesthetics have an impressive history of efficacy and safety in medical and dental practice. Their use is so routine, and adverse effects are so infrequent, that providers may understandably overlook many of their pharmacotherapeutic principles. The purpose of this continuing education article is to provide a review and update of essential pharmacology for the various local anesthetic formulations in current use. Technical considerations will be addressed in a subsequent article. PMID:22822998

  19. Paediatricians, social media and blogs: Ethical considerations

    OpenAIRE

    St-Laurent-Gagnon, Thérèse; Coughlin, Kevin W

    2012-01-01

    The use of blogs, Facebook and similar social networking sites is rapidly expanding and, when compared with e-mail, may be having a significantly different impact on the traditional doctor-patient relationship. Characteristics specific to these online platforms have major implications for professional relationships, including the ‘Facebook effect’ (the relative permanence of postings) and the ‘online disinhibition effect’. The present practice point illustrates relevant ethical considerations...

  20. Landscaping Considerations for Urban Stream Restoration Projects

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bailey, Pam

    2004-01-01

    ... after restoration and its functionality for public use. The landscaping component of such stream and riparian restoration projects must be emphasized given its importance of visual success and public perception. The purpose of this technical note is to address landscaping considerations associated with urban stream and riparian restoration projects, and provide ideas to managers for enhancing the visual appeal and aesthetic qualities of urban projects.

  1. Considerations on automation of coating machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilsch, Markus K.; O'Donnell, Michael S.

    2015-04-01

    Most deposition chambers sold into the optical coating market today are outfitted with an automated control system. We surveyed several of the larger equipment providers, and nine of them responded with information about their hardware architecture, data logging, level of automation, error handling, user interface, and interfacing options. In this paper, we present a summary of the results of the survey and describe commonalities and differences together with some considerations of tradeoffs, such as between capability for high customization and simplicity of operation.

  2. Stress and food allergy: mechanistic considerations

    OpenAIRE

    Schreier, Hannah M.C.; Wright, Rosalind J.

    2013-01-01

    Recent years have seen a marked increase in food allergy prevalence among children, particularly in Western countries, that cannot be explained by genetic factors alone. This has resulted in an increased effort to identify environmental risk factors underlying food allergies and to understand how these factors may be modified through interventions. Food allergy is an immune-mediated adverse reaction to food. Consequently, considerations of candidate risk factors have begun to focus on environ...

  3. Manufacturing considerations for AMLCD cockpit displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Fang-Chen

    1995-06-01

    AMLCD cockpit displays need to meet more stringent requirements compared with AMLCD commercial displays in areas such as environmental conditions, optical performance and device reliability. Special considerations are required for the manufacturing of AMLCD cockpit displays in each process step to address these issues. Some examples are: UV stable polarizers, wide-temperature LC material, strong LC glue seal, ESS test system, gray scale voltage EEPROM, etc.

  4. Human Genome Editing and Ethical Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishan, Kewal; Kanchan, Tanuj; Singh, Bahadur

    2016-04-01

    Editing human germline genes may act as boon in some genetic and other disorders. Recent editing of the genome of the human embryo with the CRISPR/Cas9 editing tool generated a debate amongst top scientists of the world for the ethical considerations regarding its effect on the future generations. It needs to be seen as to what transformation human gene editing brings to humankind in the times to come.

  5. Reactor design considerations for inertial confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Booth, L.A.

    1979-01-01

    The most challenging reactor design consideration is protection of the cavity wall from the various energy forms as released by the pellet and as affected by the reaction-chamber phenomena. These phenomena depend on both the design and the yield of the pellet, as well as on ambient conditions in the chamber at the time of the pellet microexplosion. The effects on pellet energy-release mechanisms of various reaction chamber atmosphere options are summarized

  6. HIV testing and informed consent - ethical considerations

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    number of generally accepted ethical principles, including the fundamental principles ... Applied Legal Studies, School of Law, Wits; Rev. M. Dandala, General ... which are such that if an HIV-positive patient were treated in a way that would be ...

  7. Uncertainty considerations for interferometric stability testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellis, J.D.; Joo, K.N.; Verlaan, A.L.; Spronck, J.W.

    2008-01-01

    Material stability is an important parameter for EUV lithography, space instrumentation, and metrology in general. In both EUV lithography and space, more information is needed about material stability during an atmospheric to vacuum transition. For metrology instruments in general, determining the

  8. Cultural Differences in Opportunity Cost Consideration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ning; Ji, Li-Jun; Li, Ye

    2017-01-01

    Two studies were conducted to investigate cultural differences in opportunity cost consideration between Chinese and Euro-Canadians. Opportunity cost is defined as the cost of a benefit that must be forgone in order to pursue a better alternative (Becker et al., 1974). In both studies, participants read about hypothetical purchase scenarios, and then decided whether they would buy a certain product. Opportunity cost consideration was measured in two ways: (1) participants' thoughts pertaining to other (nonfocal) products while making decisions; (2) participants' decisions not to buy a focal product (Study 1) or a more expensive product (Study 2). Across both indexes, we found that after controlling for individual difference variables and amount of pocket money, Chinese participants in China considered financial opportunity cost more than Euro-Canadians in Study 1. Similar results were observed in Study 2 when comparing Chinese in Canada with Euro-Canadians However, the cultural effect on opportunity cost consideration was confounded by family income in Study 2. Implications for resource management, limitations of the current research and directions for future research are discussed.

  9. Bimetric general relativity and cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosen, N.

    1980-01-01

    A modification of the general relativity theory is proposed (bimetric general relativity) in which, in addition to the usual metric tensor gsub(μupsilon) describing the space-time geometry and gravitation, there exists also a background metric tensor γsub(μupsilon). The latter describes the space-time of the universe if no matter were present and is taken to correspond to a space-time of constant curvature with positive spatial curvature (k = 1). Field equations are obtained, and these agree with the Einstein equations for systems that are small compared to the size of the universe, such as the solar system. Energy considerations lead to a generalized form of the De Donder condition. Simple isotropic closed models of the universe can be set up which first contract and then expand without going through a singular state. It is suggested that the maximum density of the universe was of the order of c 5 -h -1 G -2 approximately 10 93 g/cm 3 . The expansion from such a high-density state is similar to that from the singular state ('big bang') of the general relativity models. In the case of the dust-filled model the parameters can be fitted to present cosmological data. Using the radiation-filled model to describe the early history of the universe, the cosmic abundance of helium and other light elements can be accounted for in the same way as in ordinary general relativity. (author)

  10. Institutional Problems and Solutions of General Education in Chinese Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Weiqing; Huang, Wei

    2018-01-01

    Embedding general education in the Chinese university education system is a considerably complex systemic project, and a lack of institutional arrangements beneficial to general education has always been a key barrier in implementation. Currently, the main institutional restricting factors for university general education include substantial…

  11. 30 CFR 256.65 - Attorney General review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Attorney General review. 256.65 Section 256.65... give due consideration to the views of the Attorney General. The Secretary may act on an assignment or transfer if the Attorney General has not responded to the request for consultation within 30 days of said...

  12. A Generalized Deduction of the Ideal-Solution Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leo, Teresa J.; Perez-del-Notario, Pedro; Raso, Miguel A.

    2006-01-01

    A new general procedure for deriving the Gibbs energy of mixing is developed through general thermodynamic considerations, and the ideal-solution model is obtained as a special particular case of the general one. The deduction of the Gibbs energy of mixing for the ideal-solution model is a rational one and viewed suitable for advanced students who…

  13. 48 CFR 1215.603 - General.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 1215.603 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Unsolicited Proposals 1215.603 General. DOT will accept unsolicited proposals from any entity for review and consideration. However, DOT will not pay any costs...

  14. 48 CFR 1315.603 - General.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 1315.603 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Unsolicited Proposals 1315.603 General. DOC will accept for review and consideration unsolicited proposals from any entity. DOC will not pay any costs associated with the preparation...

  15. An attempt to introduce dynamics into generalised exergy considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grubbstroem, Robert W.

    2007-01-01

    In previous research, the author developed a general abstract framework for the exergy content of a system of finite objects [Grubbstroem RW. Towards a generalized exergy concept. In: van Gool W, Bruggink JJC, editors. Energy and time in the economic and physical sciences. Amsterdam: North-Holland; 1985. p. 41-56]. Each such object is characterised by its initial extensive properties and has an inner energy written as a function of these properties. It was shown that if these objects were allowed to interact, there is a maximum amount of work that can be extracted from the system as a whole, and a general formula for this potential was provided. It was also shown that if one of the objects was allowed to be of infinite magnitude initially, taking on the role as an environment having constant intensive properties, then the formula provided took on the same form as the classical expression for exergy. As a side result, the theoretical considerations demonstrated that the second law of thermodynamics could be interpreted as the inner energy function being a (weakly) convex function of its arguments, when these are chosen as the extensive properties. Since exergy considerations are based on the principle that total entropy is conserved when extracting work, these processes would take an infinite time to complete. In the current paper, instead, a differential-equation approach is introduced to describe the interaction in finite time between given finite objects of a system. Differences in intensive properties between the objects provide a force enabling an exchange of energy and matter. An example of such an interaction is heat conduction. The resulting considerations explain how the power extracted from the system will be limited by the processes being required to perform within finite-time constraints. Applying finite-time processes, in which entropy necessarily is generated, leads to formulating a theory for a maximal power output from the system. It is shown that

  16. A Checklist of Legal Considerations for Museums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weil, Stephen E.

    1980-01-01

    A checklist for museum compliance with federal, state, and local laws covers administrative organization, general endowment and restricted funds, trustees, staffing and employment practices, volunteers, acquisition and disposition, exhibition programs, visitors and membership, auxiliary activities, building, and miscellaneous regulations. (MSE)

  17. Psychosocial predictors in consideration of cosmetic surgery among women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nerini, Amanda; Matera, Camilla; Stefanile, Cristina

    2014-04-01

    This study aimed to analyze the influence of psychosocial factors on the consideration of cosmetic surgery. The authors hypothesized that the internalization of thin ideals and social comparisons mediate the relationship between media pressure, family and peer influence (appearance conversations, perception of teasing, and peer attributions), and the desire to pursue cosmetic surgery. The study participants were 429 Italian women (mean age, 33 years). They completed a questionnaire containing the Appearance Conversations With Friends Scale, the Perception of Teasing Scale for Friends, the Peer Attribution Scale, the "Pressure and Internalization-General" subscales of the Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Questionnaire-3, the Feedback on Physical Appearance Scale, the Physical Appearance Comparison Scale, and the "Consider" subscale of the Acceptance of Cosmetic Surgery Scale. Hierarchical linear regression was performed. The results indicated that media pressure and appearance conversations with peers predicted the outcome variable through the full mediation of internalization of thin ideals. The relation between peer attributions and interest in cosmetic surgery was partially mediated by internalization of thin ideals. Although social comparison was significantly related to both sociocultural variables and consideration of cosmetic procedures, it was not a significant mediator of this relationship. Neither family influence nor perception of teasing predicted the outcome variable. Overall, these results provide important information about the factors implicated in the consideration of cosmetic surgery by women. This research confirms that cosmetic surgeons need to adopt a base psychological approach. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .

  18. Air quality considerations for stormwater green street design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaneyfelt, Kathryn M.; Anderson, Andrew R.; Kumar, Prashant; Hunt, William F.

    2017-01-01

    Green streets are increasingly being used as a stormwater management strategy to mitigate stormwater runoff at its source while providing other environmental and societal benefits, including connecting pedestrians to the street. Simultaneously, human exposure to particulate matter from urban transportation is of major concern worldwide due to the proximity of pedestrians, drivers, and cyclists to the emission sources. Vegetation used for stormwater treatment can help designers limit the exposure of people to air pollutants. This goal can be achieved through the deliberate placement of green streets, along with strategic planting schemes that maximize pollutant dispersion. This communication presents general design considerations for green streets that combine stormwater management and air quality goals. There is currently limited guidance on designing green streets for air quality considerations; this is the first communication to offer suggestions and advice for the design of green stormwater streets in regards to their effects on air quality. Street characteristics including (1) the width to height ratio of the street to the buildings, (2) the type of trees and their location, and (3) any prevailing winds can have an impact on pollutant concentrations within the street and along sidewalks. Vegetation within stormwater control measures has the ability to reduce particulate matter concentrations; however, it must be carefully selected and placed within the green street to promote the dispersion of air flow. - Highlights: • Green streets can be used for both stormwater and air quality management. • Design considerations must be made to minimize human exposure to air pollutants. • Urban vegetation can improve air quality with careful selection and placement.

  19. Liquid metal corrosion considerations in alloy development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tortorelli, P.F.; DeVan, J.H.

    1984-01-01

    Liquid metal corrosion can be an important consideration in developing alloys for fusion and fast breeder reactors and other applications. Because of the many different forms of liquid metal corrosion (dissolution, alloying, carbon transfer, etc.), alloy optimization based on corrosion resistance depends on a number of factors such as the application temperatures, the particular liquid metal, and the level and nature of impurities in the liquid and solid metals. The present paper reviews the various forms of corrosion by lithium, lead, and sodium and indicates how such corrosion reactions can influence the alloy development process

  20. NPP control command: Considerations for the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trapp, J.P.

    1998-01-01

    Recent years have seen considerable improvements in the performance available from instrumentation, computerized data acquisition and processing systems, signal processing and related display processing systems. This progress implies the need for a complete rethink of the approach to future surveillance, control and protection systems for use with nuclear reactors, especially regarding new reactor systems. These new systems will in the future need to ensure full compatibility between safety improvements and the enhanced economic competitively of nuclear power. This paper presents an exercise covering the main functions that can as of now be considered for future applications in this field. (author)

  1. Consideration of Fugitive Emissions from Grain Elevators

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  2. Safety considerations in the design of PFBR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaidyanathan, G.; Om Pal Singh; Govindarajan, S.; Chellapandi, P.; Chetal, S.C.; Shankar Singh, R.; Bhoje, S.B.

    1996-01-01

    Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR) is a 500 MWe reactor under design in India. The overall safety approach adopted is based on the defence-in-depth principle. Design features have been incorporated to minimize occurrence of unsafe conditions. A plant protection system comprising reliable core monitoring to detect the off-normal condition, a reliable shutdown system to ensure safe shutdown and a passive decay heat removal system are provided. Containment is provided to prevent any release of radioactivity to the environment in case of failure of the protective devices. This paper provides a brief outline of the safety considerations in the design of PFBR. (author). 5 refs, 1 tab

  3. Aesthetic considerations in algorithmic and generative composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagan, Kerry L.

    Models of chance operations, random equations, stochastic processes, and chaos systems have inspired composers as historical as Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. As these models advance and new processes are discovered or defined, composers continue to find new inspirations for musical composition. Yet, the relative artistic merits of some of these works are limited. This paper explores the application of extra-musical processes to the sonic arts and proposes aesthetic considerations from the point of view of the artist. Musical examples demonstrate possibilities for working successfully with algorithmic and generative processes in sound, from formal decisions to synthesis.

  4. Team building: conceptual, methodological, and applied considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauchamp, Mark R; McEwan, Desmond; Waldhauser, Katrina J

    2017-08-01

    Team building has been identified as an important method of improving the psychological climate in which teams operate, as well as overall team functioning. Within the context of sports, team building interventions have consistently been found to result in improvements in team effectiveness. In this paper we review the extant literature on team building in sport, and address a range of conceptual, methodological, and applied considerations that have the potential to advance theory, research, and applied intervention initiatives within the field. This involves expanding the scope of team building strategies that have, to date, primarily focused on developing group cohesion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Chemical considerations in severe accident analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malinauskas, A.P.; Kress, T.S.

    1988-01-01

    The Reactor Safety Study presented the first systematic attempt to include fission product physicochemical effects in the determination of expected consequences of hypothetical nuclear reactor power plant accidents. At the time, however, the data base was sparse, and the treatment of fission product behavior was not entirely consistent or accurate. Considerable research has since been performed to identify and understand chemical phenomena that can occur in the course of a nuclear reactor accident, and how these phenomena affect fission product behavior. In this report, the current status of our understanding of the chemistry of fission products in severe core damage accidents is summarized and contrasted with that of the Reactor Safety Study

  6. Criticality safety and facility design considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waltz, W.R.

    1991-06-01

    Operations with fissile material introduce the risk of a criticality accident that may be lethal to nearby personnel. In addition, concerns over criticality safety can result in substantial delays and shutdown of facility operations. For these reasons, it is clear that the prevention of a nuclear criticality accident should play a major role in the design of a nuclear facility. The emphasis of this report will be placed on engineering design considerations in the prevention of criticality. The discussion will not include other important aspects, such as the physics of calculating limits nor criticality alarm systems

  7. Justification and radiology: Some ethical considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sia, S.

    2009-01-01

    This paper, which seeks to address the issue of justification in radiology, intends firstly to comment on the current discussion of the ethical foundation of radiological practice that focuses on the move from utilitarianism to the rights-centred criterion. Secondly, and this constitutes the bulk of the paper, it aims to offer a philosophical perspective, which is hoped will lead to a consideration of certain specific areas in ethical decision-making in the attempts here to deal with the main issue of justification in radiology. (authors)

  8. Implantable intraocular pressure monitoring systems: Design considerations

    KAUST Repository

    Arsalan, Muhammad; Ouda, Mahmoud H.; Marnat, Loic; Shamim, Atif; Salama, Khaled N.

    2013-01-01

    Design considerations and limitations of implantable Intraocular Pressure Monitoring (IOPM) systems are presented in this paper. Detailed comparison with the state of the art is performed to highlight the benefits and challenges of the proposed design. The system-on-chip, presented here, is battery free and harvests energy from incoming RF signals. This low-cost design, in standard CMOS process, does not require any external components or bond wires to function. This paper provides useful insights to the designers of implantable wireless sensors in terms of design choices and associated tradeoffs. © 2013 IEEE.

  9. Justification and radiology: some ethical considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sia, Santiago

    2009-07-01

    This paper, which seeks to address the issue of justification in radiology, intends firstly to comment on the current discussion of the ethical foundation of radiological practice that focuses on the move from utilitarianism to the rights-centred criterion. Secondly, and this constitutes the bulk of the paper, it aims to offer a philosophical perspective, which is hoped will lead to a consideration of certain specific areas in ethical decision-making in the attempts here to deal with the main issue of justification in radiology.

  10. Implantable intraocular pressure monitoring systems: Design considerations

    KAUST Repository

    Arsalan, Muhammad

    2013-12-01

    Design considerations and limitations of implantable Intraocular Pressure Monitoring (IOPM) systems are presented in this paper. Detailed comparison with the state of the art is performed to highlight the benefits and challenges of the proposed design. The system-on-chip, presented here, is battery free and harvests energy from incoming RF signals. This low-cost design, in standard CMOS process, does not require any external components or bond wires to function. This paper provides useful insights to the designers of implantable wireless sensors in terms of design choices and associated tradeoffs. © 2013 IEEE.

  11. Paediatricians, social media and blogs: Ethical considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St-Laurent-Gagnon, Thérèse; Coughlin, Kevin W

    2012-05-01

    The use of blogs, Facebook and similar social networking sites is rapidly expanding and, when compared with e-mail, may be having a significantly different impact on the traditional doctor-patient relationship. Characteristics specific to these online platforms have major implications for professional relationships, including the 'Facebook effect' (the relative permanence of postings) and the 'online disinhibition effect'. The present practice point illustrates relevant ethical considerations and provides guidance to paediatricians and others concerning the prudent professional and personal use of social networking media.

  12. Isolation and confinement - Considerations for colonization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akins, F. R.

    1978-01-01

    This paper discusses three types of isolation (sensory/perceptual, temporal, and social) that could adversely affect mankind in space. The literature dealing with laboratory and field experiments relevant to these areas is summarized and suggestions are given for dealing with these problems within the space colony community. Also, consideration is given to the potential effects of physical confinement and the need for usable space. Finally, a modification of Maslow's hierarchy of needs is proposed as a theoretical framework to understand and investigate mankind's psychological needs in space.

  13. Review of specific radiological accident considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elder, J.

    1984-01-01

    Specific points of guidance provided in the forthcoming document A Guide to Radiological Accident Considerations for Siting and Design of Nonreactor Nuclear Facilities are discussed. Of these, the following are considered of particular interest to analysts of hypothetical accidents: onsite dose limits; population dose, public health effects, and environmental contamination as accident consequences which should be addressed; risk analysis; natural phenomena as accident initiators; recommended dose models; multiple organ equivalent dose; and recommended methods and parameters for source terms and release amount calculations. Comments are being invited on this document, which is undergoing rewrite after the first stage of peer review

  14. Environmental considerations for alternative fusion reactor blankets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, A.B. Jr.; Young, J.R.

    1975-01-01

    Comparisons of alternative fusion reactor blanket/coolant systems suggest that environmental considerations will enter strongly into selection of design and materials. Liquid blankets and coolants tend to maximize transport of radioactive corrosion products. Liquid lithium interacts strongly with tritium, minimizing permeation and escape of gaseous tritium in accidents. However, liquid lithium coolants tend to create large tritium inventories and have a large fire potential compared to flibe and solid blankets. Helium coolants minimize radiation transport, but do not have ability to bind the tritium in case of accidental releases. (auth)

  15. Design considerations for a gas microcontroller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, D. A.

    1986-01-01

    Some of the design problems that are now being addressed in consideration of a microcontroller for the upcoming GAS payload are discussed. Microcontrollers will be used to run the experiments and to collect and store the data from those experiments. Some of the requirements for a microcontroller are to be small, lightweight, have low power consumption, and high reliability. Some of the solutions that were developed to meet these design requirements are discussed. At present, the experiment is still in the design stage and the final design may change from what is presented here. The search for new integrated circuits which will do all that is needed all in one package continues.

  16. Generalized empirical likelihood methods for analyzing longitudinal data

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, S.; Qian, L.; Carroll, R. J.

    2010-01-01

    Efficient estimation of parameters is a major objective in analyzing longitudinal data. We propose two generalized empirical likelihood based methods that take into consideration within-subject correlations. A nonparametric version of the Wilks

  17. Human perception considerations for 3D content creation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, G. Almont

    2011-03-01

    Observation and interviews with people viewing autostereoscopic 3D imagery provides evidence that there are many human perception considerations required for 3D content creation. A study was undertaken whereby it was witnessed that certain test autostereoscopic imagery elicited a highly emotional response and engagement, while other test autostereoscopic imagery was given only a passing glance. That an image can be viewed with a certain level of stereopsis does not make it compelling. By taking into consideration the manner in which humans perceive depth and the space between objects, 3D content can achieve a level of familiarity and realness that is not possible with single perspective imagery. When human perception issues are ignored, 3D imagery can be undesirable to viewers and a negative bias against 3D imagery can occur. The preparation of 3D content is more important than the display technology. Where human perception, as it is used to interpret reality, is not mimicked in the creation of 3D content, the general public typically express a negative bias against that imagery (where choices are provided). For some, the viewing of 3D content that could not exist naturally, induces physical discomfort.

  18. Emollient treatment of atopic dermatitis: latest evidence and clinical considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kam Lun Hon

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To review current classes of emollients in the market, their clinical efficacy in atopic dermatitis (AD and considerations for choice of an emollient. Methods: PubMed Clinical Queries under Clinical Study Categories (with Category limited to Therapy and Scope limited to Narrow and Systematic Reviews were used as the search engine. Keywords of ‘emollient or moisturizer’ and ‘atopic dermatitis’ were used. Overview of findings: Using the keywords of ‘emollient’ and ‘atopic dermatitis’, there were 105 and 36 hits under Clinical Study Categories (with Category limited to Therapy and Scope limited to Narrow and Systematic Reviews, respectively. Plant-derived products, animal products and special ingredients were discussed. Selected proprietary products were tabulated. Conclusions: A number of proprietary emollients have undergone trials with clinical data available on PubMed-indexed journals. Most moisturizers showed some beneficial effects, but there was generally no evidence that one moisturizer is superior to another. Choosing an appropriate emollient for AD patients would improve acceptability and adherence for emollient treatment. Physician’s recommendation is the primary consideration for patients when selecting a moisturizer/ emollient; therefore, doctors should provide evidence-based information about these emollients.

  19. Clinical and practical considerations in the pharmacologic management of narcolepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorpy, Michael J; Dauvilliers, Yves

    2015-01-01

    Despite published treatment recommendations and the availability of approved and off-label pharmacologic therapies for narcolepsy, the clinical management of this incurable, chronic neurologic disorder remains challenging. While treatment is generally symptomatically driven, decisions regarding which drug(s) to use need to take into account a variety of factors that may affect adherence, efficacy, and tolerability. Type 1 narcolepsy (predominantly excessive daytime sleepiness with cataplexy) or type 2 narcolepsy (excessive daytime sleepiness without cataplexy) may drive treatment decisions, with consideration given either to a single drug that targets multiple symptoms or to multiple drugs that each treat a specific symptom. Other drug-related characteristics that affect drug choice are dosing regimens, tolerability, and potential drug-drug interactions. Additionally, the patient should be an active participant in treatment decisions, and the main symptomatic complaints, treatment goals, psychosocial setting, and use of lifestyle substances (ie, alcohol, nicotine, caffeine, and cannabis) need to be discussed with respect to treatment decisions. Although there is a lack of narcolepsy-specific instruments for monitoring therapeutic effects, clinically relevant subjective and objective measures of daytime sleepiness (eg, Epworth Sleepiness Scale and Maintenance of Wakefulness Test) can be used to provide guidance on whether treatment goals are being met. These considerations are discussed with the objective of providing clinically relevant recommendations for making treatment decisions that can enhance the effective management of patients with narcolepsy. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Air quality considerations for stormwater green street design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaneyfelt, Kathryn M; Anderson, Andrew R; Kumar, Prashant; Hunt, William F

    2017-12-01

    Green streets are increasingly being used as a stormwater management strategy to mitigate stormwater runoff at its source while providing other environmental and societal benefits, including connecting pedestrians to the street. Simultaneously, human exposure to particulate matter from urban transportation is of major concern worldwide due to the proximity of pedestrians, drivers, and cyclists to the emission sources. Vegetation used for stormwater treatment can help designers limit the exposure of people to air pollutants. This goal can be achieved through the deliberate placement of green streets, along with strategic planting schemes that maximize pollutant dispersion. This communication presents general design considerations for green streets that combine stormwater management and air quality goals. There is currently limited guidance on designing green streets for air quality considerations; this is the first communication to offer suggestions and advice for the design of green stormwater streets in regards to their effects on air quality. Street characteristics including (1) the width to height ratio of the street to the buildings, (2) the type of trees and their location, and (3) any prevailing winds can have an impact on pollutant concentrations within the street and along sidewalks. Vegetation within stormwater control measures has the ability to reduce particulate matter concentrations; however, it must be carefully selected and placed within the green street to promote the dispersion of air flow. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Experimental considerations for quantum-entanglement studies with relativistic fermions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlemme, Steffen; Peck, Marius; Enders, Joachim [TU Darmstadt (Germany); Bodek, Kazimierz; Rozpedzik, Dagmara; Zejma, Jacek [Jagiellonian University, Cracow (Poland); Caban, Pawel; Rembielinski, Jakub [University of Lodz, Lodz (Poland); Ciborowski, Jacek; Dragowski, Michal; Wlodarczyk, Marta [Warsaw University, Warsaw (Poland); Kozela, Adam [Institute of Nuclear Physics, PAS, Cracow (Poland)

    2015-07-01

    The QUEST (Quantum entanglement of Ultra-relativistic Electrons in Singlet and Triplet states) project is aimed at the determination of the electron spin correlation function at relativistic energies. Electron pairs are created through Moeller scattering, and polarization observables are planned to be measured in Mott scattering. The predicted spin correlation function is energy dependent with values of several per cent at energies of 10-20 MeV. The results of a first test experiment at the S-DALINAC were not sensitive enough to detect entangled and Mott-scattered electron pairs at the expected energies. Further steps are either to improve the former setup or design a new polarimeter for lower energies to improve statistics due to the higher scattering cross sections. This contribution presents general considerations, test results, and an outlook.

  2. Considerations for Pharmacoepidemiological Studies of Drug-Cancer Associations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pottegård, Anton; Friis, Søren; Stürmer, Til

    2018-01-01

    and future perspectives. Aspects of data sources include assessment of complete history of drug use and data on dose and duration of drug use, allowing estimates of cumulative exposure. Outcome data from formal cancer registries are preferable, but cancer data from other sources, for example, patient......In this MiniReview, we provide general considerations for the planning and conduct of pharmacoepidemiological studies of associations between drug use and cancer development. We address data sources, study design, assessment of drug exposure, ascertainment of cancer outcomes, confounder adjustment...... or pathology registries, medical records or claims are also suitable. The two principal designs for observational studies evaluating drug-cancer associations are the cohort and case-control designs. A key challenge in studies of drug-cancer associations is the exposure assessment due to the typically long...

  3. Contemporary considerations in concurrent endoscopic sinus surgery and rhinoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Toby O; Gill, Amarbir; Tollefson, Travis T

    2018-06-11

    Characterize indications, perioperative considerations, clinical outcomes and complications for concurrent endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) and rhinoplasty. Chronic rhinosinusitis and septal deviation with or without inferior turbinate hypertrophy independently impair patient-reported quality of life. Guidelines implore surgeons to include endoscopy to accurately evaluate patient symptoms. Complication rates parallel those of either surgery (ESS and rhinoplasty) alone and are not increased when performed concurrently. Operative time is generally longer for joint surgeries. Patient satisfaction rates are high. Concurrent functional and/or cosmetic rhinoplasty and ESS is a safe endeavor to perform in a single operative setting and most outcomes data suggest excellent patient outcomes. Additional studies that include patient-reported outcome measures are needed.

  4. Nudges and coercion: conceptual, empirical, and normative considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cratsley, Kelso

    2015-01-01

    Given that the concept of coercion remains a central concern for bioethics, Quigley's (Monash Bioethics Rev 32:141-158, 2014) recent article provides a helpful analysis of its frequent misapplication in debates over the use of 'nudges'. In this commentary I present a generally sympathetic response to Quigley's argument while also raising several issues that are important for the larger debates about nudges and coercion. I focus on several closely related topics, including the definition of coercion, the role of empirical research, and the normative concerns at the core of these disputes. I suggest that while a degree of precision is certainly required when deploying the relevant concepts, perhaps informed by empirical data, we need to continue to push these debates towards more pressing normative considerations.

  5. Design considerations for Mars transfer vehicles using nuclear thermal propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emrich, William J.

    1995-01-01

    The design of a Mars Transfer Vehicle (MTV) utilizing nuclear propulsion will require that careful consideration be given to the nuclear radiation environment in which it will operate. The extremely high neutron and gamma fluxes characteristic of nuclear thermal propulsion systems will cause significant heating of the fluid systems in close proximity to the reactor, especially in the lower propellant tanks. Crew radiation doses are also a concern particularly late in a mission when there is less shielding from the propellant tanks. In this study, various vehicle configuration and shielding strategies were examined and the resulting time dependent radiation fields evaluated. A common cluster of three particle bed reactor (PBR) engines were used in all configurations examined. In general, it appears that long, relatively narrow vehicles perform the best from a radiation standpoint, however, good shield optimization will be critical in maintaining a low radiation environment while minimizing the shield weight penalty.

  6. Considerations on the selection and prioritization of information security solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina RĂDULESCU

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a set of guidelines that can be used for prescribing a methodology or a detailed process for selecting and prioritizing security projects or solutions. It is based on the idea that costs of security solutions should be justified by their contribution to ensuring adequate protection of information resources in the organization which implements them. The article reviews general issues of security risks and costs, arguing the need for explicit consideration of information resources security requirements in order to validate decisions concerning security projects implementation. In such an approach, security requirements of information resources are used as a reference system to quantify the benefits and limitations of security solutions defined as alternative or complementary responses to certain security risks as their implementation faces budget constraints.

  7. Modeling Unobserved Consideration Sets for Household Panel Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.E.M. van Nierop; R. Paap (Richard); B. Bronnenberg; Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractWe propose a new method to model consumers' consideration and choice processes. We develop a parsimonious probit type model for consideration and a multinomial probit model for choice, given consideration. Unlike earlier models of consideration ours is not prone to the curse of

  8. Consideration of beam plasma ion-source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sano, Fumimichi; Kusano, Norimasa; Ishida, Yoshihiro; Ishikawa, Junzo; Takagi, Toshinori

    1976-01-01

    Theoretical and experimental analyses and their comparison were made on the plasma generation and on the beam extraction for the beam plasma ion-source. The operational principle and the structure of the ion-source are explained in the first part. Considerations are given on the electron beam-plasma interaction and the resulting generation of high frequency or microwaves which in turn increases the plasma density. The flow of energy in this system is also explained in the second part. The relation between plasma density and the imaginary part of frequency is given by taking the magnetic flux density, the electron beam energy, and the electron beam current as parameters. The relations between the potential difference between collector and drift tube and the plasma density or the ion-current are also given. Considerations are also given to the change of the plasma density due to the change of the magnetic flux density at drift tube, the change of the electron beam energy, and the change of the electron beam current. The third part deals with the extraction characteristics of the ion beam. The structure of the multiple-aperture electrode and the relation between plasma density and the extracted ion current are explained. (Aoki, K.)

  9. Some considerations on stochastic neutron populations (u)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souto, Francisco J.; Prinja, Anil K.

    2010-01-01

    The neutron population in a multiplying body containing a weak random source may depart considerably from its average or expected value. The resulting behavior of the system is then unpredictable and a fully stochastic description of the neutron population becomes necessary. Stochastic considerations are especially important when dealing with pulsed reactors or in the case of criticality excursions in the presence of a weak source. Using the theory of discrete-state continuous-time Markov processes, and subject to some physical approximations, Bell (I) obtained approximate solutions for the neutron number probability distributions (pdf), with and without an intrinsic rapdom neutron source, that were valid at late times and/ large neutron populations. In recent work (4), we obtained exact solutions for Bell's model problem, and in this paper we use these exact probability distributions to: (I) assess the accuracy of Bell's asymptotic solutions and show how the latter follow from the exact solutions, (2) rigorously examine the probability of obtaining a divergent chain reaction, and (3) demonstrate the existence of an abrupt transition from a stochastic to a deterministic phase with increasing source strength.

  10. Orthodontic Treatment Consideration in Diabetic Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almadih, Ahmed; Al-Zayer, Maryam; Dabel, Sukainh; Alkhalaf, Ahmed; Al Mayyad, Ali; Bardisi, Wajdi; Alshammari, Shouq; Alsihati, Zainab

    2018-02-01

    Although orthodontic treatment is commonly indicated for young healthy individuals, recent trends showed an increase in number of older individuals undergoing orthodontic interventions. The increased age resulted in a proportionate increase in the prevalence of systemic diseases facing dentists during orthodontic procedures, especially diabetes mellitus. This necessitates that dentists should be aware of the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus and its early signs particularly in teeth and oral cavity. It is also essential for them to understand the implications of diabetes on orthodontic treatment and the measures to be considered during managing those patients. In this review, we focused on the impact of diabetes mellitus on orthodontic treatment. We also summarized the data from previous studies that had explained the measures required to be taken into consideration during managing those patients. We included both human and animal studies to review in depth the pathophysiological mechanisms by which diabetes affects orthodontic treatment outcome. In conclusion, this review emphasizes the need to carefully identify early signs and symptoms of diabetes mellitus in patients demanding orthodontic treatment and to understand the considerations to be adopted before and during treating these patients.

  11. Structural considerations in steam generator replacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertheau, S.R.; Gazda, P.A.

    1991-01-01

    Corrosion of the tubes and tube-support structures inside pressurized water reactor (PWR) steam generators has led many utilities to consider a replacement of the generators. Such a project is a major undertaking for a utility and must be well planned to ensure an efficient and cost-effective effort. This paper discusses various structural aspects of replacement options, such as total or partial generator replacement, along with their associated pipe cuts; major structural aspects associated with removal paths through the equipment hatch or through an opening in the containment wall, along with the related removal processes; onsite movement and storage of the generators; and the advantages and disadvantages of the removal alternatives. This paper addresses the major structural considerations associated with a steam generator replacement project. Other important considerations (e.g., licensing, radiological concerns, electrical requirements, facilities for management and onsite administrative activities, storage and fabrication activities, and offsite transportation) are not discussed in this paper, but should be carefully considered when undertaking a replacement project

  12. Ideological Considerations in Official Dubbing in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masood Khoshsaligheh

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In our globalizing world, audiovisual products are understandably considered tools that advertise their original language and culture. Most societies do not stand any interference from the outside, especially if it considerably opposes the socio-cultural norms. Translation is a practice of cross-cultural communication which most often complies with the socio-cultural guidelines and norms of the recipient society. However, translated products might face resistance as they can be regarded threatening and hostile by the ruling gatekeepers. Given the dramatic disparities between most languages and cultures, translators are not the only decision-makers and other agents have pivotal roles in the process of adapting the translated product to the dominant conventions and socio-cultural norms. This paper aims at shedding some light on the role which agents play in the process of dubbing, both for public access national television and for private home distribution. The study explores the effects of preliminary and operational norms, and cultural appropriation conducted at both textual and visual levels through a method including interview data and textual analysis. The results show that foreign movies dubbed into Persian in the religious context of the contemporary Iran are strictly controlled both before the process of dubbing and during and after the process of dubbing due to a number of socio-cultural, political, and ideological considerations.

  13. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z General Ultrasound Ultrasound imaging uses sound waves to produce ... the limitations of General Ultrasound Imaging? What is General Ultrasound Imaging? Ultrasound is safe and painless, and ...

  14. General Nuclear Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z General Nuclear Medicine Nuclear medicine imaging uses small amounts of radioactive ... of General Nuclear Medicine? What is General Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical imaging ...

  15. Calfornia General Plans

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — We undertook creating the first ever seamless statewide General Plan map for California. All county general plans and many city general plans were integrated into 1...

  16. Design considerations for an integrated safeguards system for fuel-reprocessng plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cartan, F.O.

    1982-05-01

    This report presents design ideas for safeguards systems in nuclear fuels reprocessing plants. The report summarizes general safeguards requirements and describes a safeguards system concept being developed and tested at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. The report gives some general concepts intended for design consideration and a checklist of specific problems that should be considered. The report is intended as an aid for the safeguards system designer and as a source of useful information

  17. Generalized Probability Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Souto Martinez

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available From the integration of nonsymmetrical hyperboles, a one-parameter generalization of the logarithmic function is obtained. Inverting this function, one obtains the generalized exponential function. Motivated by the mathematical curiosity, we show that these generalized functions are suitable to generalize some probability density functions (pdfs. A very reliable rank distribution can be conveniently described by the generalized exponential function. Finally, we turn the attention to the generalization of one- and two-tail stretched exponential functions. We obtain, as particular cases, the generalized error function, the Zipf-Mandelbrot pdf, the generalized Gaussian and Laplace pdf. Their cumulative functions and moments were also obtained analytically.

  18. Toward a New Philosophical Anthropology of Education: Fuller Considerations of Social Constructivism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleury, Stephen; Garrison, Jim

    2014-01-01

    Philosophical anthropology is philosophical inquiry into human nature that seeks to answer the fundamental question of what generally characterizes human beings and differentiates them from other creatures and things. Political theories considerably influence educational theories. We call attention to the fact that the three main political…

  19. Design considerations for RF power amplifiers demonstrated through a GSM/EDGE power amplifier module

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baltus, P.G.M.; Bezooijen, van A.; Huijsing, J.H.; Steyaert, M.; Roermund, van A.H.M.

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the design considerations for RF power amplifiers in general, including trends in systems, linearity and efficiency, the PA environment, implementation is sues and technology. As an example a triple-band (900/1800/1900MHz) dual mode (GSMIEdge) power amplifier module is described

  20. Inclusive education and social inequality: An update of the question and some geographical considerations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rambla, X.; Ferran, F.; Tarabini, A.; Verger, A.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this article is to review the current state of inclusive education in the world and to suggest a few relevant considerations. The first section "Two parallel concerns" retraces the inescapable connections between the educational aspects of inclusive education and more general concerns

  1. Variations in the prevalence of obesity among european countries, and a consideration of possible causes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blundell, John E.; Baker, Jennifer Lyn; Boyland, Emma

    2017-01-01

    Over the last 10 years the prevalence of obesity across the European continent has in general been rising. With the exception of a few countries where a levelling-off can be perceived, albeit at a high level, this upward trend seems likely to continue. However, considerable country to country var...

  2. 78 FR 63203 - Policy Statement Regarding a Program for Requesting Consideration of Legal Questions by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-23

    ... Holloway, Assistant General Counsel, or Margaret Forman, Attorney, 999 E Street NW., Washington, DC 20463... FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION [Notice 2013-14] Policy Statement Regarding a Program for Requesting Consideration of Legal Questions by the Commission AGENCY: Federal Election Commission. ACTION: Policy statement...

  3. 76 FR 45798 - Policy Statement Regarding a Program for Requesting Consideration of Legal Questions by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    ... CONTACT: Lorenzo Holloway, Assistant General Counsel, or Allison T. Steinle, Attorney, 999 E Street, NW... FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION [Notice 2011-11] Policy Statement Regarding a Program for Requesting Consideration of Legal Questions by the Commission AGENCY: Federal Election Commission. ACTION: Policy Statement...

  4. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... graphically, in terms of the distance traveled per unit of time, rather than as a color picture. ... full size with caption Pediatric Content Some imaging tests and treatments have special pediatric considerations. The teddy ...

  5. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... display screen that looks like a computer or television monitor. The image is created based on the ... have special pediatric considerations. The teddy bear denotes child-specific content. Related Articles and Media Angioplasty and ...

  6. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Imaging? Ultrasound waves are disrupted by air or gas; therefore ultrasound is not an ideal imaging technique ... with caption Pediatric Content Some imaging tests and treatments have special pediatric considerations. The teddy bear denotes ...

  7. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ultrasound procedure View full size with caption Pediatric Content Some imaging tests and treatments have special pediatric considerations. The teddy bear denotes child-specific content. Related Articles and Media Angioplasty and Vascular Stenting ...

  8. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... object is solid or filled with fluid). In medicine, ultrasound is used to detect changes in appearance, ... have special pediatric considerations. The teddy bear denotes child-specific content. Related Articles and Media Angioplasty and ...

  9. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... about this beforehand and be made aware of food and drink restrictions that may be needed prior ... full size with caption Pediatric Content Some imaging tests and treatments have special pediatric considerations. The teddy ...

  10. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ultrasound. top of page How does the procedure work? Ultrasound imaging is based on the same principles ... have special pediatric considerations. The teddy bear denotes child-specific content. Related Articles and Media Angioplasty and ...

  11. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... spleen pancreas kidneys bladder uterus , ovaries , and unborn child ( fetus ) in pregnant patients eyes thyroid and parathyroid ... have special pediatric considerations. The teddy bear denotes child-specific content. Related Articles and Media Angioplasty and ...

  12. Considerations about mediative in initial petition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria das Vitórias Nunes Silva Lourenço

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents considerations about Initial Petition, textual/discursive genre, which is a genre circumscribed in the judicial domain with relation to the Commitment. For this purpose, this article exposes the text plan of the Initial Petition from the postulations of Adam (2011. In the same way, it studies the mediative frameworks based on Guentchéva (1994, 1996, which develop the notion of mediative grammatical categories, that permits the linguistic marking of distance and engagement of the enunciator with regard to the information expressed. It evidences the relevance of the use of mediated constructions in the judicial text, as they function as attenuated strategies to the responsibility of the producer of the text with what is said, and at the same time points to a discourse of authority through the entrance of the sources of law.

  13. Design considerations for ITER toroidal field coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalsi, S.S.; Lousteau, D.C.; Miller, J.R.

    1987-01-01

    The International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) is a new tokamak design project with joint participation from Europe, Japan, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (U.S.S.R.), and the United States. This paper describes a magnetic and mechanical design methodology for toroidal field (TF) coils that employs Nb 3 Sn superconductor technology. Coil winding is sized by using conductor concepts developed for the U.S. TIBER concept. Manifold concepts are presented for the complete cooling system. Also included are concepts for the coil structural arrangement. The effects of in-plane and out-of-plane loads are included in the design considerations for the windings and case. Concepts are presented for reacting these loads with a minimum amount of additional structural material. Concepts discussed in this paper could be considered for the ITER TF coils

  14. Materials Lifecycle and Environmental Consideration at NASA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark-Ingram, Marceia

    2010-01-01

    The aerospace community faces tremendous challenges with continued availability of existing material supply chains during the lifecycle of a program. Many obsolescence drivers affect the availability of materials: environmental safety ahd health regulations, vendor and supply economics, market sector demands,and natural disasters. Materials selection has become increasingly more critical when designing aerospace hardware. NASA and DoD conducted a workshop with subject matter experts to discuss issues and define solutions for materials selections during the lifecycle phases of a product/system/component. The three primary lifecycle phases were: Conceptualization/Design, Production & Sustainment, and End of life / Reclamation. Materials obsolescence and pollution prevention considerations were explored for the aforementioned lifecycle phases. The recommended solutions from the workshop are being presented.

  15. Economic and care considerations of Marfan syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blankart, Carl Rudolf; Milstein, Ricarda; Rybczynski, Meike; Schüler, Helke; von Kodolitsch, Yskert

    2016-10-01

    Marfan syndrome is a rare multisystem disease of the connective tissue, which affects multiple organ systems. advances in healthcare have doubled the life-expectancy of patients over the past three decades. to date, there is no comprehensive review that consolidates economic considerations and care for marfan patients. Areas covered: Present research suggests that there may be a link between treatment pattern, disease progression and economic costs of Marfan syndrome. It indicates that an early detection of the disease and preventive interventions achieve a dual aim. From a patient perspective, it may reduce the amount of emergency surgery or intervention, and inpatient stays. In addition, it slows disease progression, lowers lifestyle restrictions, reduces psychological stress, and improves health-related quality of life. Expert commentary: Early detection and preventive measures are likely to achieve a dual aim by simultaneously containing costs and reducing the number and length of inpatient stays.

  16. Opening up education - some pedagogical considerations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Jørgen; Dalsgaard, Christian; Kjær, Arne

    2016-01-01

    would we need universities? Libraries could do the job!” In order to open up education, we need to develop a pedagogical framework for knowledge building to supplement the tradition for knowledge acquisition in higher education. In this article we present our strategic considerations for organising......In the “Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions” from September 25, 2013 the Commission advocated strongly to ‘Opening up Education’ through ‘Innovative teaching and learning for all...... through new Technologies and Open Educational Resources’. We strongly support this vision for the future and aim at realising it within a Danish context with a population of five million. However, we also retain a certain scepticism and remember the saying of David Wiley: “If content is all we need, why...

  17. Transplanting the Body: Preliminary Ethical Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Lantz Fleming

    2017-11-01

    A dissociated area of medical research warrants bioethical consideration: a proposed transplantation of a donor's entire body, except head, to a patient with a fatal degenerative disease. The seeming improbability of such an operation can only underscore the need for thorough bioethical assessment: Not assessing a case of such potential ethical import, by showing neglect instead of facing the issue, can only compound the ethical predicament, perhaps eroding public trust in ethical medicine. This article discusses the historical background of full-body transplantation, documents the seriousness of its current pursuit, and builds an argument for why prima facie this type of transplant is bioethically distinct. Certainly, this examination can only be preliminary, indicating what should be a wide and vigorous discussion among practitioners and ethicists. It concludes with practical suggestions for how the medical and bioethics community may proceed with ethical assessment.

  18. Current Considerations About the Elderly and Firearms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertens, Brian

    2012-01-01

    In the United States, more than 17 million people aged 65 years or older own a firearm. They have the highest rate of suicide by a firearm, and recent data suggest that a disproportionate number apply to carry a concealed weapon. At least one new handgun has been designed and marketed for older people. Memory, thinking, and judgment as well as physical and behavioral competence issues related to an elderly person's safe operation of a motor vehicle apply to firearms, too. Gun availability can pose a particular risk to those with dementia and to their caretakers. The elderly constitute a substantial and rapidly growing population and market segment for whom the public health implications of firearm production, promotion, access, ownership, and use merit consideration. PMID:22390501

  19. Magnet design considerations for Tokamak fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purcell, J.R.; Chen, W.; Thomas, R.

    1976-01-01

    Design problems for superconducting ohmic heating and toroidal field coils for large Tokamak fusion reactors are discussed. The necessity for making these coils superconducting is explained, together with the functions of these coils in a Tokamak reactor. Major problem areas include materials related aspects and mechanical design and cryogenic considerations. Projections and comparisons are made based on existing superconducting magnet technology. The mechanical design of large-scale coils, which can contain the severe electromagnetic loading and stress generated in the winding, are emphasized. Additional major tasks include the development of high current conductors for pulsed applications to be used in fabricating the ohmic heating coils. It is important to note, however, that no insurmountable technical barriers are expected in the course of developing superconducting coils for Tokamak fusion reactors. (Auth.)

  20. Technical considerations during disinfection by UV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekhtiarzadeh, Z.; Sadeghpur, H.

    2002-01-01

    The use of new methods for treatment of water and wastewater in the country is one the rise and therefore the theoretical and practical knowledge of the industry's engineers should increase simultaneously. Ultraviolet is one of the new technologies used both for treatment of water as well as wastewater. The UV disinfection system consists of different components such as the lamp, ballast and the lamp fixtures. Each has a specification, which should be taken into account prior to design, order and purchase. The subject of price is also among the important considerations. The article presents figures cost comparison in various sections. It does not try to either approve or reject other disinfection systems such as chlorination, but the writer believes that any method should find its own practice and conditions of use, and the disinfection system designers should opt for the best system suited to their plans and avoid limiting themselves to a single one

  1. Psychosocial considerations about children and radiological events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemyre, L.; Corneil, W.; Johnson, C.; Boutette, P.

    2010-01-01

    Children are identified as a vulnerable population in the case of radiological events because of their increased physical sensitivity to radiation and its impact on critical development stages. Using a comprehensive integrated risk framework, psychosocial risk protective factors are discussed in a social ecology paradigm. Children have been shown to be both vulnerable and resilient; they are both easily impressionable and also quick to adapt and learn. Psychosocial interventions during, after and most efficiently before an event can improve outcome, especially if they involve parents and schools, media and work organisations. Public education through children should be encouraged to increase knowledge of radiation and strategies to minimise exposure and irradiation. Children can become vectors of prevention, preparedness and mitigation through information and behavioural rehearsal. Special consideration must therefore be given to education, school programmes, practice rehearsal and media exposure. (authors)

  2. Senior academic physicians and retirement considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Arthur J; Greenberg, Henry; Dwyer, Edward M; Klein, Helmut; Ryan, Daniel; Francis, Charles; Marcus, Frank; Eberly, Shirley; Benhorin, Jesaia; Bodenheimer, Monty; Brown, Mary; Case, Robert; Gillespie, John; Goldstein, Robert; Haigney, Mark; Krone, Ronald; Lichstein, Edgar; Locati, Emanuela; Oakes, David; Thomsen, Poul Erik Bloch; Zareba, Wojciech

    2013-01-01

    An increasing number of academic senior physicians are approaching their potential retirement in good health with accumulated clinical and research experience that can be a valuable asset to an academic institution. Considering the need to let the next generation ascend to leadership roles, when and how should a medical career be brought to a close? We explore the roles for academic medical faculty as they move into their senior years and approach various retirement options. The individual and institutional considerations require a frank dialogue among the interested parties to optimize the benefits while minimizing the risks for both. In the United States there is no fixed age for retirement as there is in Europe, but European physicians are initiating changes. What is certain is that careful planning, innovative thinking, and the incorporation of new patterns of medical practice are all part of this complex transition and timing of senior academic physicians into retirement. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Practical design considerations for photovoltaic power station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, T. D.

    Aspects of photovoltaic (PV) technology are discussed along with generic PV design considerations, taking into account the resource sunlight, PV modules and their reliability, questions of PV system design, the support structure subsystem, and a power conditioning unit subsystem. A description is presented of two recent projects which demonstrate the translation of an idea into actual working PV systems. A privately financed project in Denton, Maryland, went on line in early December, 1982, and began providing power to the local utility grid. It represents the first intermediate size, grid-connected, privately financed power station in the U.S. Based on firm quotes, the actual cost of this system is about $13/W peak. The other project, called the PV Breeder, is an energy independent facility which utilizes solar power to make new solar cells. It is also the first large industrial structure completely powered by the sun.

  4. Liquid Hydrogen Sensor Considerations for Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Matthew E.

    2006-01-01

    The on-orbit management of liquid hydrogen planned for the return to the moon will introduce new considerations not encountered in previous missions. This paper identifies critical liquid hydrogen sensing needs from the perspective of reliable on-orbit cryogenic fluid management, and contrasts the fundamental differences in fluid and thermodynamic behavior for ground-based versus on-orbit conditions. Opportunities for advanced sensor development and implementation are explored in the context of critical Exploration Architecture operations such as on-orbit storage, docking, and trans-lunar injection burn. Key sensing needs relative to these operations are also examined, including: liquid/vapor detection, thermodynamic condition monitoring, mass gauging, and leak detection. Finally, operational aspects of an integrated system health management approach are discussed to highlight the potential impact on mission success.

  5. Design considerations for prepress color proof measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spooner, David L.

    1993-06-01

    For our purposes, we needed colorimetric measurements or, better yet, spectral reflectance data. Our survey of commercially available instruments identified one spectrocolorimeter, the Hunter PICS (manufactured by Hunter Associates Laboratory, Inc.), which could be programmed to automatically measure the color (and spectral reflectance) of large numbers of samples on a proof sheet. After an evaluation of this instrument, which included measuring over 10,000 exhibits, it was decided that the unit did not fully meet our needs. This resulted in a decision to integrate another instrument, the Byk-Gardner Color Machine (manufactured by Byk-Gardner, Inc.), with an x-y positioning mechanism. This paper describes the design considerations used in the development of our color measurement system.

  6. CONSIDERATIONS ON TRANSACTIONS OF FOREIGN TRADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paliu-Popa Lucia

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available In the complex connection process of national economies to global economy flows, an important role has the foreign trade, which in recent decades has become, in the market economy conditions, one of the factors determining for economic growth. Foreign trade, as a separate branch of the national economy is an important factor of economic growth, caused by the internationalization of business and determining for the process of globalization. For Romania, a country still in transition and recent member of the European Union is particularly important to enhance the participation to international trade in goods and services, but also attracting foreign investments in the economy as the main possibilities for the re-industry and restructuring the national economy in order to creation and maintenance of sustainable competitive advantages. Starting from these considerations, in this article I addressed/aproached the theoretical aspects of foreign trade, without omitting intracomunity purchases and deliveries of goods.

  7. Reprocessing considerations for a developing country

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes some of the alternatives for dealing with spent fuel that face a developing country. It then discusses the considerations that affect decisions on the size and siting of reprocessing plants, and shows how small plants may be suitable in countries without the means to transport spent fuel easily. The paper also outlines the reasons for reprocessing in India, and describes the development of India's reprocessing capability. It shows how the economic conditions in India, such as low skilled labour costs, make reprocessing plants of 100 to 200 tonnes U/yr capacity economic, and includes a table giving technical data on a 100 t U/yr national plant for inclusion in the reference cases used by INFCE Working Group 4

  8. Considerations for emotion-aware consumer products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Broek, Egon L; Westerink, Joyce H D M

    2009-11-01

    Emotion-aware consumer products require reliable, short-term emotion assessment (i.e., unobtrusive, robust, and lacking calibration). To explore the feasibility of this, an experiment was conducted where the galvanic skin response (GSR) and three electromyography (EMG) signals (frontalis, corrugator supercilii, and zygomaticus major) were recorded on 24 participants who watched eight 2-min emotion inducing film fragments. The unfiltered psychophysiological signals were processed and six statistical parameters (i.e., mean, absolute deviation, standard deviation, variance, skewness, and kurtosis) were derived for each 10-s interval of the film fragment. For each physiological signal, skewness and kurtosis discriminated among affective states, accompanied by other parameters, depending on the signal. The skewness parameter also showed to indicate mixed emotions. Moreover, a mapping of events in the fragments on the signals showed the importance of short-term emotion assessment. Hence, this research identified generic features, denoted important considerations, and illustrated the feasibility of emotion-aware consumer products.

  9. Considerations about our approach to obstetric psychoprophylaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerutti, R; Volpe, B; Sichel, M P; Sandri, M; Sbrignadello, C; Fede, T

    1983-01-01

    Usually the term "obstetric psychoprophylaxis" refers to a specific method or technique. We prefer to consider it as a procedure that involves on one side the woman, the child and its family, and on the other the services entitled to give pre- and post-natal assistance. In order to realize this, a reformation of our methodological parameters and a critical analysis of the results obtained are required. In the courses of obstetric psychoprophylaxis that are held in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of the University of Padua we take into consideration the following themes: - Methodological approach - Professional training of the staff - Significance of psychosocial culture in the management of the pregnancy by the health services.

  10. Considerations for high-brightness electron sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jameson, R.A.

    1990-01-01

    Particle accelerators are now used in many areas of physics research and in industrial and medical applications. New uses are being studied to address major societal needs in energy production, materials research, generation of intense beams of radiation at optical and suboptical wavelengths, treatment of various kinds of waste, and so on. Many of these modern applications require a high intensity beam at the desired energy, along with a very good beam quality in terms of the beam confinement, aiming, or focusing. Considerations for ion and electron accelerators are often different, but there are also many commonalties, and in fact, techniques derived for one should perhaps more often be considered for the other as well. We discuss some aspects of high-brightness electron sources here from that point of view. 6 refs

  11. Systems considerations in seismic margin evaluations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buttermer, D.R.

    1987-01-01

    Increasing knowledge in the geoscience field has led to the understanding that, although highly unlikely, it is possible for a nuclear power plant to be subjected to earthquake ground motion greater than that for which the plant was designed. While it is recognized that there are conservatisms inherent in current design practices, interest has developed in evaluating the seismic risk of operating plants. Several plant-specific seismic probabilistic risk assessments (SPRA) have been completed to address questions related to the seismic risk of a plant. The results from such SPRAs are quite informative, but such studies may entail a considerable amount of expensive analysis of large portions of the plant. As an alternative to an SPRA, it may be more practical to select an earthquake level above the design basis for which plant survivability is to be demonstrated. The principal question to be addressed in a seismic margin evaluation is: At what ground motion levels does one have a high confidence that the probability of seismically induced core damage is sufficiently low? In a seismic margin evaluation, an earthquake level is selected (based on site-specific geoscience considerations) for which a stable, long-term safe shutdown condition is to be demonstrated. This prespecified earthquake level is commonly referred to as the seismic margin earthquake (SME). The Electric Power Research Institute is currently supporting a research project to develop procedures for use by the utilities to allow them to perform nuclear plant seismic margin evaluations. This paper describes the systems-related aspects of these procedures

  12. Orthodontic treatment considerations in Down syndrome patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sianiwati Goenharto

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Down syndrome is an easily recognized congenital disease anomaly, a common autosomal chromosomal anomaly with high prevalence of malocclusion. Orthodontic treatment demand should be high but it seems difficult to be done because of specific condition of disability. Purpose: The purpose of this literature review was to discribe the orthodontic problems found in Down syndrome patients and several consideration that shoud be done to treat them. Reviews: Many studies report the high prevalence of malocclusion among people with Down syndrome. There is a greater frequency of clas III relationship, crossbite, crowding and also open bite. Several problems might appear in the treatment because of dental, medical, mental, and behavioural factor. Conclusion: It is concluded that orthodonic treatment can be performed in Down syndrome patient, although several difficulties may appear. Good consideration in mental, behavior, medical and also dental condition will influence whether the treatment will success or not. Special care and facilities will support the orthodontic treatment.Latar belakang: Sindroma Down adalah suatu kelainan congenital yang mudah dikenali, merupakan kelaian kromosom autosomal yang cukup banyak terjadi, dengan prevalensi maloklusi cukup tinggi. Seharusnya permintaan akan perawatan ortodonti juga tinggi meskipun tampaknya sulit dilakukan karena adanya kondisi ketidakmampuan/cacat yang spesifik. Tujuan: Tujuan studi pustaka ini adalah untuk menggambarkan problem perawatan ortodonti pada penderita sindroma Down dan pertimbangan apa yang sebaiknya diambil untuk mengatasi masalah tersebut. Tinjauan pustaka: Banyak penelitian melaporkan tentang prevalensi maloklusi yang tinggi pada penderita sindroma Down. Maloklusi yang sering dijumpai adalah relasi klas III, gigitan silang, berdesakan dan juga gigitan terbuka. Problem dapat terjadi saat perawatan ortodonti karena adanya faktor dental, medis, mental dan tingkah laku penderita

  13. Economic and developmental considerations for pharmacogenomic technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernon, John A; Johnson, Scott J; Hughen, W Keener; Trujillo, Antonio

    2006-01-01

    The pharmaceutical industry's core business is the innovation, development and marketing of new drugs. Pharmacogenetic (PG) testing and technology has the potential to increase a drug's value in many ways. A critical issue for the industry is whether products in development should be teamed with genetic tests that could segment the total population into responders and non-responders. In this paper we use a cost-effectiveness framework to model the strategic decision-making considerations by pharmaceutical manufacturers as they relate to drug development and the new technology of PG (the science of using genetic markers to predict drug response). In a simple, static, one-period model we consider three drug development strategies: a drug is exclusively developed and marketed to patients with a particular genetic marker; no distinguishing among patients based on the expression of a genetic marker is made (traditional approach); and a strategy whereby a drug is marketed to patients both with and without the genetic marker but there is price discrimination between the two subpopulations. We developed three main principles: revenues under a strategy targeting only the responder subpopulation will never generate more revenue than that which could have been obtained under a traditional approach; total revenues under a targeted PG strategy will be less than that under a traditional approach but higher than a naive [corrected] view would believe them to be; and a traditional [corrected] approach will earn the same total revenues as a price discrimination strategy, assuming no intermarket arbitrage. While these principles relate to the singular (and quite narrow) consideration of drug revenues, they may nevertheless partially explain why PG is not being used as widely as was predicted several years ago when the technology first became available, especially in terms of pharmaceutical manufacturer-developed tests.

  14. Compulsion in family planning: the fundamental considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pethe, V P

    1979-03-01

    Focus is on some of the basic issues and considerations involved in the question of compulsion in family planning, which in terms of current contraceptive technology, only means compulsory sterilization. Pressures have been increasing to implement more stringent measures to control population growth in most of the developing countries throughout the world. During the Emergency in India (1975-1977) the government at that time, along with some individuals and groups, deemed it necessary to adopt the drastic measure of compulsory sterilization. The six sections of the discussion deal with the following: 1) compulsory family planning as rational or ethical choice basic issues; 2) neo-Malthusian thesis on compulsion - fallacies, dangers and inadequacies; 3) ethical and philosophical problems - premise of irresponsible procreation; 4) individual rights versus societal interests; 5) elitism in social policy and cost benefit considerations; and 6) international consensus against compulsion. All forums, under the auspices of the United Nations, of which India is a member, have rejected coercion and reiterated repeatedly that every individual has a basic human right to decide how many children to have and at what intervals. The most recent forum to endorse the human right to family size was the World Population Conference held at Bucharest in 1974. The 14 conditions spelled out by the United Nations Fund for Population Activity for effecting a free and responsible choice in family size may form a sound basis for a comprehensive policy concerning family planning in India. The coercive measures adopted during the Emergency are responsible for a backlash in India and retarding the progress of the family planning movement.

  15. Considerations on the DEMO pellet fuelling system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lang, P.T., E-mail: peter.lang@ipp.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Day, Ch. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Fable, E. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Igitkhanov, Y. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Köchl, F. [Association EURATOM-Ö AW/ATI, Atominstitut, TU Wien, 1020 Vienna (Austria); Mooney, R. [Culham Centre for Fusion Energy, Culham Science Centre, Oxfordshire OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Pegourie, B. [CEA, IRFM, 13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Ploeckl, B. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Wenninger, R. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); EFDA, Garching (Germany); Zohm, H. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2015-10-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Considerations are made for a core particle fuelling system covering all DEMO requirements. • Particle deposition beyond the pedestal top is needed to achieve efficient fuelling. • Conventional pellet technology enabling launching from the torus inboard side can be used. • Efforts have been taken for integrating a suitable pellet guiding system into the EU DEMO model. • In addition, further techniques bearing potential for advanced fuelling performance are considered. - Abstract: The Demonstration Fusion Power Reactor DEMO is the step foreseen to bridge the gap between ITER and the first commercial fusion power plant. One key element in the European work plan for DEMO is the elaboration of a conceptual design for a suitable core particle fuelling system. First considerations for such a system are presented in this contribution. Following the well-considered ITER solution, most analysis performed in this study assumes conventional pellet technology will be used for the fuelling system. However, taking advantage of the less compressed time frame for the DEMO project, several other techniques thought to bear potential for advanced fuelling performance are considered as well. In a first, basic analysis all actuation parameters at hand and their implications on the fuelling performance were considered. Tentative transport modeling of a reference scenario strongly indicates only particles deposited inside the plasma pedestal allow for efficient fuelling. Shallow edge fuelling results in an unbearable burden on the fuel cycle. Sufficiently deep particle deposition seems technically achievable, provided pellets are launched from the torus inboard at sufficient speed. All components required for a DEMO pellet system capable for high speed inboard pellet launch are already available or can be developed in due time with reasonable efforts. Furthermore, steps to integrate this solution into the EU DEMO model are taken.

  16. Considerations on the DEMO pellet fuelling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lang, P.T.; Day, Ch.; Fable, E.; Igitkhanov, Y.; Köchl, F.; Mooney, R.; Pegourie, B.; Ploeckl, B.; Wenninger, R.; Zohm, H.

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Considerations are made for a core particle fuelling system covering all DEMO requirements. • Particle deposition beyond the pedestal top is needed to achieve efficient fuelling. • Conventional pellet technology enabling launching from the torus inboard side can be used. • Efforts have been taken for integrating a suitable pellet guiding system into the EU DEMO model. • In addition, further techniques bearing potential for advanced fuelling performance are considered. - Abstract: The Demonstration Fusion Power Reactor DEMO is the step foreseen to bridge the gap between ITER and the first commercial fusion power plant. One key element in the European work plan for DEMO is the elaboration of a conceptual design for a suitable core particle fuelling system. First considerations for such a system are presented in this contribution. Following the well-considered ITER solution, most analysis performed in this study assumes conventional pellet technology will be used for the fuelling system. However, taking advantage of the less compressed time frame for the DEMO project, several other techniques thought to bear potential for advanced fuelling performance are considered as well. In a first, basic analysis all actuation parameters at hand and their implications on the fuelling performance were considered. Tentative transport modeling of a reference scenario strongly indicates only particles deposited inside the plasma pedestal allow for efficient fuelling. Shallow edge fuelling results in an unbearable burden on the fuel cycle. Sufficiently deep particle deposition seems technically achievable, provided pellets are launched from the torus inboard at sufficient speed. All components required for a DEMO pellet system capable for high speed inboard pellet launch are already available or can be developed in due time with reasonable efforts. Furthermore, steps to integrate this solution into the EU DEMO model are taken.

  17. Parents, Families, and Partnerships: Issues and Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keen, Deb

    2007-01-01

    The first contact parents may have with a professional in relation to their child with a disability is often at the point of diagnosis. From that moment onwards, parents embark on a journey that generally involves the formation of many relationships with professionals working in the field. These relationships have the potential to facilitate…

  18. Generalized Cartan Calculus in general dimension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi-Nan

    2015-07-01

    We develop the generalized Cartan Calculus for the groups and SO(5 , 5). They are the underlying algebraic structures of d = 9 , 7 , 6 exceptional field theory, respectively. These algebraic identities are needed for the "tensor hierarchy" structure in exceptional field theory. The validity of Poincaré lemmas in this new differential geometry is also discussed. Finally we explore some possible extension of the generalized Cartan calculus beyond the exceptional series.

  19. Geronimo: Planning Considerations for Employing Airborne Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-25

    Master’s Thesis, US Army Command and General Staff College, 2000), 1. 11 The Military Balance 2015 (London: Europa Publications, 2015), 41. 12...effectiveness of NATO’s suppression of enemy air defense systems operation.” 51 The Military Balance 2015, London: Europa Publications (2015); Gordon...that the enemy forces were tired and demoralized and airfields were in friendly hands; consequently, some Soldiers were issued no ammunition

  20. Compensation for Combat Deaths: Policy Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    through the courts for deaths resulting from other parties’ negligence or criminal behavior; a key difference between the tort system and many other...funding facilities that function outside of the tort system— for example, workers’ compensation programs for workplace fatalities and the Victims...receive $100,000 if the 10-percent risk of a loss of $100,000 actually came to pass. Tort law generally uses an ex post approach to compensation and

  1. Considerations and Algorithms for Compression of Sets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsson, Jesper

    We consider compression of unordered sets of distinct elements. After a discus- sion of the general problem, we focus on compressing sets of fixed-length bitstrings in the presence of statistical information. We survey techniques from previous work, suggesting some adjustments, and propose a novel...... compression algorithm that allows transparent incorporation of various estimates for probability distribution. Our experimental results allow the conclusion that set compression can benefit from incorporat- ing statistics, using our method or variants of previously known techniques....

  2. Passengers, Crew, Life Support, and Insurance Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ONeil, Daniel A.; Young, Lawrence R.

    1999-01-01

    This section describes the key issues, barriers, opportunities, and potential trip packages related to the needs and expectations of initial space adventure travelers. A variety of ideas to overcome barriers is presented that address financial, psychological, and sociological problems expected to be encountered in establishing a general PST and tourism business. Tour package descriptions range from near-term surface training facilities to far-term lunar ones. Recommendations include requirements pertaining to human factors in design and needed technology.

  3. The generalized good cut equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamo, T M; Newman, E T

    2010-01-01

    The properties of null geodesic congruences (NGCs) in Lorentzian manifolds are a topic of considerable importance. More specifically NGCs with the special property of being shear-free or asymptotically shear-free (as either infinity or a horizon is approached) have received a great deal of recent attention for a variety of reasons. Such congruences are most easily studied via solutions to what has been referred to as the 'good cut equation' or the 'generalization good cut equation'. It is the purpose of this paper to study these equations and show their relationship to each other. In particular we show how they all have a four-complex-dimensional manifold (known as H-space, or in a special case as complex Minkowski space) as a solution space.

  4. General principles of antimicrobial therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leekha, Surbhi; Terrell, Christine L; Edson, Randall S

    2011-02-01

    Antimicrobial agents are some of the most widely, and often injudiciously, used therapeutic drugs worldwide. Important considerations when prescribing antimicrobial therapy include obtaining an accurate diagnosis of infection; understanding the difference between empiric and definitive therapy; identifying opportunities to switch to narrow-spectrum, cost-effective oral agents for the shortest duration necessary; understanding drug characteristics that are peculiar to antimicrobial agents (such as pharmacodynamics and efficacy at the site of infection); accounting for host characteristics that influence antimicrobial activity; and in turn, recognizing the adverse effects of antimicrobial agents on the host. It is also important to understand the importance of antimicrobial stewardship, to know when to consult infectious disease specialists for guidance, and to be able to identify situations when antimicrobial therapy is not needed. By following these general principles, all practicing physicians should be able to use antimicrobial agents in a responsible manner that benefits both the individual patient and the community.

  5. Anisotropic charged generalized polytropic models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasim, A.; Azam, M.

    2018-06-01

    In this paper, we found some new anisotropic charged models admitting generalized polytropic equation of state with spherically symmetry. An analytic solution of the Einstein-Maxwell field equations is obtained through the transformation introduced by Durgapal and Banerji (Phys. Rev. D 27:328, 1983). The physical viability of solutions corresponding to polytropic index η =1/2, 2/3, 1, 2 is analyzed graphically. For this, we plot physical quantities such as radial and tangential pressure, anisotropy, speed of sound which demonstrated that these models achieve all the considerable physical conditions required for a relativistic star. Further, it is mentioned here that previous results for anisotropic charged matter with linear, quadratic and polytropic equation of state can be retrieved.

  6. Aquarius study - engineering and economic considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffin, Roger F.

    1970-01-01

    The two previous papers described the scope of the Aquarius Study and the various applications considered in evaluating the use of nuclear explosives for the development of water resources in Arizona. Surface storage behind a dam created with the use of nuclear explosives was selected for the major effort, primarily because it could afford the most valid direct comparison between nuclear and conventional methods. In this paper I will focus on the engineering and economic considerations involved in developing and evaluating three concepts for constructing a rockfill dam using nuclear explosives. Engineering development and economic evaluation of the concepts was the principal responsibility of Bechtel Corporation as a consultant in the study to the Arizona Atomic Energy Commission. We depended heavily on information supplied by the Federal participants, notably the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation for site data and the U.S. AEC*s Lawrence Radiation Laboratory for information on nuclear explosives effects. Since the study report has not yet been published and additional material is still forthcoming, some of the information I will present, such as the cost estimates, may be subject to change and should be considered preliminary. (author)

  7. Ethical considerations on novel neuronal interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskinbora, Kadircan H; Keskinbora, Kader

    2018-04-01

    Wireless powered implants, each smaller than a grain of rice, have the potential to scan and stimulate brain cells. Further research may lead to next-generation brain-machine interfaces for controlling prosthetics, exoskeletons, and robots, as well as "electroceuticals" to treat disorders of the brain and body. In conditions that can be particularly alleviated with brain stimulation, the use of such mini devices may pose certain challenges. Health professionals are becoming increasingly more accountable in decision-making processes that have impacts on the life quality of individuals. It is possible to transmit such stimulation using remote control principles. Perhaps, the most important concern regarding the use of these devices termed as "neural dust" is represented by the possibility of controlling affection and other mental functions via waves reaching the brain using more advanced versions of such devices. This will not only violate the respect for authority principle of ethics, but also medical ethics, and may potentially lead to certain incidents of varying vehemence that may be considered illegal. Therefore, a sound knowledge and implementation of ethical principles is becoming a more important issue on the part of healthcare professionals. In both the ethical decision-making process and in ethical conflicts, it may be useful to re-appraise the principles of medical ethics. In this article, the ethical considerations of these devices are discussed.

  8. Euthanasia of Cattle: Practical Considerations and Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearer, Jan Keith

    2018-04-17

    Acceptable methods for the euthanasia of cattle include overdose of an anesthetic, gunshot and captive bolt. The use of anesthetics for euthanasia is costly and complicates carcass disposal. These issues can be avoided by use of a physical method such as gunshot or captive bolt; however, each requires that certain conditions be met to assure an immediate loss of consciousness and death. For example, the caliber of firearm and type of bullet are important considerations when gunshot is used. When captive bolt is used, a penetrating captive bolt loaded with the appropriate powder charge and accompanied by a follow up (adjunctive) step to assure death are required. The success of physical methods also requires careful selection of the anatomic site for entry of a “free bullet” or “bolt” in the case of penetrating captive bolt. Disease eradication plans for animal health emergencies necessitate methods of euthanasia that will facilitate rapid and efficient depopulation of animals while preserving their welfare to the greatest extent possible. A portable pneumatic captive bolt device has been developed and validated as effective for use in mass depopulation scenarios. Finally, while most tend to focus on the technical aspects of euthanasia, it is extremely important that no one forget the human cost for those who may be required to perform the task of euthanasia on a regular basis. Symptoms including depression, grief, sleeplessness and destructive behaviors including alcoholism and drug abuse are not uncommon for those who participate in the euthanasia of animals.

  9. Euthanasia of Cattle: Practical Considerations and Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Keith Shearer

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Acceptable methods for the euthanasia of cattle include overdose of an anesthetic, gunshot and captive bolt. The use of anesthetics for euthanasia is costly and complicates carcass disposal. These issues can be avoided by use of a physical method such as gunshot or captive bolt; however, each requires that certain conditions be met to assure an immediate loss of consciousness and death. For example, the caliber of firearm and type of bullet are important considerations when gunshot is used. When captive bolt is used, a penetrating captive bolt loaded with the appropriate powder charge and accompanied by a follow up (adjunctive step to assure death are required. The success of physical methods also requires careful selection of the anatomic site for entry of a “free bullet” or “bolt” in the case of penetrating captive bolt. Disease eradication plans for animal health emergencies necessitate methods of euthanasia that will facilitate rapid and efficient depopulation of animals while preserving their welfare to the greatest extent possible. A portable pneumatic captive bolt device has been developed and validated as effective for use in mass depopulation scenarios. Finally, while most tend to focus on the technical aspects of euthanasia, it is extremely important that no one forget the human cost for those who may be required to perform the task of euthanasia on a regular basis. Symptoms including depression, grief, sleeplessness and destructive behaviors including alcoholism and drug abuse are not uncommon for those who participate in the euthanasia of animals.

  10. Dietary protein considerations to support active aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Benjamin T; Cermak, Naomi M; van Loon, Luc J C

    2014-11-01

    Given our rapidly aging world-wide population, the loss of skeletal muscle mass with healthy aging (sarcopenia) represents an important societal and public health concern. Maintaining or adopting an active lifestyle alleviates age-related muscle loss to a certain extent. Over time, even small losses of muscle tissue can hinder the ability to maintain an active lifestyle and, as such, contribute to the development of frailty and metabolic disease. Considerable research focus has addressed the application of dietary protein supplementation to support exercise-induced gains in muscle mass in younger individuals. In contrast, the role of dietary protein in supporting the maintenance (or gain) of skeletal muscle mass in active older persons has received less attention. Older individuals display a blunted muscle protein synthetic response to dietary protein ingestion. However, this reduced anabolic response can largely be overcome when physical activity is performed in close temporal proximity to protein consumption. Moreover, recent evidence has helped elucidate the optimal type and amount of dietary protein that should be ingested by the older adult throughout the day in order to maximize the skeletal muscle adaptive response to physical activity. Evidence demonstrates that when these principles are adhered to, muscle maintenance or hypertrophy over prolonged periods can be further augmented in active older persons. The present review outlines the current understanding of the role that dietary protein occupies in the lifestyle of active older adults as a means to increase skeletal muscle mass, strength and function, and thus support healthier aging.

  11. Energy considerations in real estate appraising

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-04-01

    Purposes of the seminar on the subject, the basis of this report, include the following: (1) to provide the appraiser an opportunity to learn how to identify and analyze the actual physical consumption of energy as well as the energy-saving improvements in properties under appraisal and in comparable sale and lease properties; (2) to help the appraiser in developing methods to keep meaningful records on the energy consumption of subject and comparable properties so as to observe in an orderly way the behavior of buyers, sellers, tenants, landlords, borrowers, and lenders with respect to energy efficiency; and (3) to assist the appraiser in learning to measure the relative sensitivities of the various segments of the market to energy considerations as indicated by differences in sale prices and rentals. To achieve these goals, the seminar employed two case studies, one for a angle-family residence and one for a multi-family building, both in Topeka, Kansas. The case studies are for illustrative purposes only; in applying the lessons of the seminar to their own daily work, students should be careful to develop information that is pertinent to their subject properties and subject areas and not rely on any of the particulars laid out in the cases.

  12. ALARP considerations in criticality safety assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowden, Russell L.; Barnes, Andrew; Thorne, Peter R.; Venner, Jack

    2003-01-01

    Demonstrating that the risk to the public and workers is As Low As Reasonably Practicable (ALARP) is a fundamental requirement of safety cases for nuclear facilities in the United Kingdom. This is embodied in the Safety Assessment Principles (SAPs) published by the Regulator, the essence of which is incorporated within the safety assessment processes of the various nuclear site licensees. The concept of ALARP within criticality safety assessments has taken some time to establish in the United Kingdom. In principle, the licensee is obliged to search for a deterministic criticality safety solution, such as safe geometry vessels and passive control features, rather than placing reliance on active measurement devices and plant administrative controls. This paper presents a consideration of some ALARP issues in relation to the development of criticality safety cases. The paper utilises some idealised examples covering a range of issues facing the criticality safety assessor, including new plant design, operational plant and decommissioning activities. These examples are used to outline the elements of the criticality safety cases and present a discussion of ALARP in the context of criticality safety assessments. (author)

  13. Enabling fast charging - Infrastructure and economic considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnham, Andrew; Dufek, Eric J.; Stephens, Thomas; Francfort, James; Michelbacher, Christopher; Carlson, Richard B.; Zhang, Jiucai; Vijayagopal, Ram; Dias, Fernando; Mohanpurkar, Manish; Scoffield, Don; Hardy, Keith; Shirk, Matthew; Hovsapian, Rob; Ahmed, Shabbir; Bloom, Ira; Jansen, Andrew N.; Keyser, Matthew; Kreuzer, Cory; Markel, Anthony; Meintz, Andrew; Pesaran, Ahmad; Tanim, Tanvir R.

    2017-11-01

    The ability to charge battery electric vehicles (BEVs) on a time scale that is on par with the time to fuel an internal combustion engine vehicle (ICEV) would remove a significant barrier to the adoption of BEVs. However, for viability, fast charging at this time scale needs to also occur at a price that is acceptable to consumers. Therefore, the cost drivers for both BEV owners and charging station providers are analyzed. In addition, key infrastructure considerations are examined, including grid stability and delivery of power, the design of fast charging stations and the design and use of electric vehicle service equipment. Each of these aspects have technical barriers that need to be addressed, and are directly linked to economic impacts to use and implementation. This discussion focuses on both the economic and infrastructure issues which exist and need to be addressed for the effective implementation of fast charging at 400 kW and above. In so doing, it has been found that there is a distinct need to effectively manage the intermittent, high power demand of fast charging, strategically plan infrastructure corridors, and to further understand the cost of operation of charging infrastructure and BEVs.

  14. Development Considerations for Nanocrystal Drug Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mei-Ling; John, Mathew; Lee, Sau L; Tyner, Katherine M

    2017-05-01

    Nanocrystal technology has emerged as a valuable tool for facilitating the delivery of poorly water-soluble active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) and enhancing API bioavailability. To date, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has received over 80 applications for drug products containing nanocrystals. These products can be delivered by different routes of administration and are used in a variety of therapeutic areas. To aid in identifying key developmental considerations for these products, a retrospective analysis was performed on the submissions received by the FDA to date. Over 60% of the submissions were for the oral route of administration. Based on the Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS), most nanocrystal drugs submitted to the FDA are class II compounds that possess low aqueous solubility and high intestinal permeability. Impact of food on drug bioavailability was reduced for most nanocrystal formulations as compared with their micronized counterparts. For all routes of administration, dose proportionality was observed for some, but not all, nanocrystal products. Particular emphasis in the development of nanocrystal products was placed on the in-process tests and controls at critical manufacturing steps (such as milling process), mitigation and control of process-related impurities, and the stability of APIs or polymorphic form (s) during manufacturing and upon storage. This emphasis resulted in identifying challenges to the development of these products including accurate determination of particle size (distribution) of drug substance and/or nanocrystal colloidal dispersion, identification of polymorphic form (s), and establishment of drug substance/product specifications.

  15. Considerations for the transportation of spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jefferson, R.M.

    1984-01-01

    In our society today the transportation of radioactive materials, and most particularly spent reactor fuel, is surrounded by considerable emotion and a wealth of information, good and bad. The transportation of these materials is viewed as unique and distinct from the transportation of other hazardous materials and as a particularly vulnerable component of the nuclear power activities of this nation. Added to this is the concept, widely held, that almost everyone is an expert on the transportation of radioactive materials. One significant contribution to this level of emotion is the notion that all roads (rail and highway), on which these goods will be transported, somehow traverse everyone's backyard. The issue of the transportation of spent fuel has thus become a political battleground. Perhaps this should not be surprising since it has all of the right characteristics for such politicization in that it is pervasive, emotional, and visible. In order that those involved in the discussion of this activity might be able to reach some rational conclusions, this paper offers some background information which might be useful to a broad range of individuals in developing their own perspectives. The intent is to address the safety of transporting spent fuel from a technical standpoint without the emotional content which is frequently a part of this argument

  16. Considerations for acceptability in Bible translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diphus C. Chemorion

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The ministry of Bible translation is an important component of the Great Commission (Matthew 28:18�20 and its mandate is to reach everyone with the word of God. One of the main goals of a Bible translation project is to produce a translation that will be used by the church in a given language group. Bible translation teams believe that the lives of the intended recipients will be changed positively when they gain access to Scripture in their own language. However, recent developments regarding Scripture use have shown that the success of any Bible translation project depends on whether or not its products are acceptable. If a translation is not acceptable to the intended audience, it may not be used, and as a result, it may fail to bring about the desired impact. This article explores the concept of �acceptability� as used in Bible translation and highlights important considerations that translators need to keep in mind in order to enhance the acceptability of their translation products.

  17. Space Toxicology Challenges and Ethical Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, John T.

    2010-01-01

    Before delineating specific ways that nanotechnology enterprises might contribute to better management of toxicological risks during spaceflight, I will show how ethical considerations and several theories of justice can be applied to nanotechnology strategic plans. The principles that guide an ethical technical enterprise include autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence, veracity and justice. Veracity (truth) is the underpinning principle; however, beyond this, proponents of nanotechnology must think carefully about balancing conflicting principles. For example, autonomy must yield to beneficence when fearful individuals simply lack knowledge to appreciate nanotechnology's beneficial advances. Justice is a complex topic upon which I will place six models: utilitarian, distributive, free-exchange/choice, individual dignity (social participation), equity vs. greed, and liberation of the poor. After briefly summarizing each model, I will present what I call an iterative-hybrid model of justice to show specifically how our thinking can be applied to nanotechnology enterprises. Within that broad landscape, I will discuss a single feature: how our early effort to understand health risks of carbon nanotubes fits into the iterative model. Finally, I will suggest ways that nanotechnology might advance our management of toxicological risks during spaceflight, but always with an eye toward how such advances might result in a more just world.

  18. Marfan Syndrome: Clinical, Surgical, and Anesthetic Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellano, José M; Silvay, George; Castillo, Javier G

    2014-09-01

    Marfan syndrome is a multisystem connective tissue disorder, with primary involvement of the cardiovascular, ocular, and skeletal systems. This autosomal heritable disease is mainly attributable to a defect in the FBN1 gene. Clinical diagnosis of Marfan syndrome has been based on the Ghent criteria since 1996. In 2010, these criteria were updated, and the revised guidelines place more emphasis on aortic root dilation, ectopia lentis, and FBN1 mutation testing in the diagnostic assessment of Marfan syndrome. Among its many different clinical manifestations, cardiovascular involvement deserves special consideration, owing to its impact on prognosis. Recent molecular, surgical, and clinical research has yielded profound new insights into the pathological mechanisms that ultimately lead to tissue degradation and weakening of the aortic wall, which has led to exciting new treatment strategies. Furthermore, with the increasing life expectancy of patients with Marfan syndrome, there has been a subtle shift in the spectrum of medical problems. Consequently, this article focuses on recent advances to highlight their potential impact on future concepts of patient care from a clinical, surgical, and anesthetic perspective. © The Author(s) 2013.

  19. Cannabis for Chronic Pain: Challenges and Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Sandoval, E Alfonso; Fincham, Jack E; Kolano, Ashley L; Sharpe, Brandi; Alvarado-Vázquez, P Abigail

    2018-04-10

    The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine has found substantial evidence that cannabis (plant) is effective for the treatment of chronic pain in adults, and moderate evidence that oromucosal cannabinoids (extracts, especially nabiximols) improve short-term sleep disturbances in chronic pain. The paradoxical superiority of the cannabis plant over cannabinoid molecules represents a challenge for the medical community and the established processes that define modern pharmacy. The expanding and variable legalization of cannabis in multiple states nationwide represents an additional challenge for patients and the medical community because recreational and medicinal cannabis are irresponsibly overlapped. Cannabis designed for recreational use (containing high levels of active ingredients) is increasingly available to patients with chronic pain who do not find relief with current pharmacologic entities, which exposes patients to potential harm. This article analyzes the available scientific evidence to address controversial questions that the current state of cannabis poses for health-care professionals and chronic pain patients, and sets the basis for a more open discussion about the role of cannabis in modern medicine for pain management. A critical discussion on these points, the legal status of cannabis, and considerations for healthcare providers is presented. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  20. Enabling fast charging – Vehicle considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meintz, Andrew; Zhang, Jiucai; Vijayagopal, Ram; Kreutzer, Cory; Ahmed, Shabbir; Bloom, Ira; Burnham, Andrew; Carlson, Richard B.; Dias, Fernando; Dufek, Eric J.; Francfort, James; Hardy, Keith; Jansen, Andrew N.; Keyser, Matthew; Markel, Anthony; Michelbacher, Christopher; Mohanpurkar, Manish; Pesaran, Ahmad; Scoffield, Don; Shirk, Matthew; Stephens, Thomas; Tanim, Tanvir

    2017-11-01

    To achieve a successful increase in the plug-in battery electric vehicle (BEV) market, it is anticipated that a significant improvement in battery performance is required to improve the range that BEVs can travel and the rate at which they can be recharged. While the range that BEVs can travel on a single recharge is improving, the recharging rate is still much slower than the refueling rate of conventional internal combustion engine vehicles. To achieve comparable recharge times, we explore the vehicle considerations of charge rates of at least 400 kW. Faster recharge is expected to significantly mitigate the perceived deficiencies for long-distance transportation, to provide alternative charging in densely populated areas where overnight charging at home may not be possible, and to reduce range anxiety for travel within a city when unplanned charging may be required. This substantial increase in charging rate is expected to create technical issues in the design of the battery system and vehicle’s electrical architecture that must be resolved. This work focuses on battery system thermal design and total recharge time to meet the goals of implementing higher charge rates and the impacts of the expected increase in system voltage on the components of the vehicle.

  1. Radiobiological considerations in magna-field irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, R.G.

    1983-01-01

    Radiobiological considerations are described for total body irradiation (TBI) as given to patients undergoing bone marrow transplantation (BMT). Although much progress has been made in the use of BMT for refractory leukemias, many patients still die from interstitial pneumonia and relapse. Fractionated TBI has been introduced in order to improve leukemic cell kill, while increasing the degree of normal tissue tolerance. Traditionally, bone marrow stem cells, leukemic cells and immunocytes have been considered as having a limited ability to repair radiation damage while cells of lung tissue and intestinal epithelial cells have a greater capacity. During fractionated radiation therapy or continuous low-dose rate exposure, repair of sublethal damage between fractions allows greater recovery in the cells of lung tissue to those in the bone marrow. Clinically, the potential benefit of six fractions over one fraction or low dose-rate TBI has yet to be proved, although there is suggestive evidence for a reduced incidence of interstitial pneumonitis. However, other extraneous factors such as doses to the lung, differences in conditioning regimens, effect of increased delay in BMT for patients receiving fractionated TBI, and the unmeasurable differences between institutions make definite conclusions impossible. Despite this, a consensus for dose fractionation has developed and most centers are moving away from the use of large single dose TBI

  2. Considerations relating to different types of packaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sousselier, Y.; Cohendy, G.

    1976-01-01

    The transport of radioactive materials has never given rise to a serious accident in France. This is due to the high quality of the provisions contained in the Regulations and to the conscientious manner in which the latter are applied. However, it would now seem appropriate to re-examine certain of these provisions in the light of a number of minor incidents which have occurred, or merely because problems have arisen which did not exist at the time of the last revision. This applies particularly to Type B packaging, intended for irradiated fuel shipments whose considerable bulk calls for a mock-up study. The transport of Type B packaging by sea may pose the problem of its resistance to fire on normal merchant ships, and similarly its behaviour under the effect of crushing should be examined in the context of air transport. Industrial-type packaging likewise presents problems, although these are basically of a psychological nature. This is particularly the case with consignments of uraniferous concentrates, uranium hexafluoride and plutonium-contaminated wastes. The accumulation (which sometimes reaches substantial numbers) of Type A packaging on a single vehicle may involve consequences which also call for study. (author)

  3. Criteria Considerations for Establishment of Hems Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borivoj Galović

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The importance of the "golden hour"; for optimal efficiencyof helicopter operations in emergency medical service (HEMSto meet the "golden hour" requirement the unconditional requirementis to establish a net of operational units to cover theentire area of the Republic of Croatia, capable to operate withinwide integrated area (international services. It is additionalback-up, not a competition to road and sea EMS vehicles. Therequired standards; HEMS operation, following complementarytraffic policy, i. e. complementary policy in line of trafficsystem integration within wider region, with reference to standards,must entirely comply with globally accepted standards.Republic of Croatia 's obvious objectives are traffic integrationinto EU (European Union traffic system. Cost analyses; It isstressed that coherent traffic policy can by certain instrumentsreduce traffic assigned external cost in national budget. Significanttraffic external cost includes cost of traffic accidents, environmentimpacts and traffic jams, and could be reduced byestablishmentof multi-purpose helicopter operations. SWOTanalyses should be made as for any other strategy or project.Technical-technological criteria and other considerations;Considering technical-technological criteria for relief of criticalsituations in traffic, it is obvious that one helicopter type cannotcomply to all multi-purpose requirements that traffic sets beforeus - EMS on open roads, sea, mountains and urban trafficcongested area, and search and rescue operations. However,common factor for all types is compliance to global standardsand regulations. In the paper, some examples of HEMS operationsin the EU States are mentioned.

  4. Aquarius study - engineering and economic considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffin, Roger F [Bechtel Corporation (United States)

    1970-05-15

    The two previous papers described the scope of the Aquarius Study and the various applications considered in evaluating the use of nuclear explosives for the development of water resources in Arizona. Surface storage behind a dam created with the use of nuclear explosives was selected for the major effort, primarily because it could afford the most valid direct comparison between nuclear and conventional methods. In this paper I will focus on the engineering and economic considerations involved in developing and evaluating three concepts for constructing a rockfill dam using nuclear explosives. Engineering development and economic evaluation of the concepts was the principal responsibility of Bechtel Corporation as a consultant in the study to the Arizona Atomic Energy Commission. We depended heavily on information supplied by the Federal participants, notably the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation for site data and the U.S. AEC*s Lawrence Radiation Laboratory for information on nuclear explosives effects. Since the study report has not yet been published and additional material is still forthcoming, some of the information I will present, such as the cost estimates, may be subject to change and should be considered preliminary. (author)

  5. Stress and food allergy: mechanistic considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreier, Hannah M C; Wright, Rosalind J

    2014-04-01

    Recent years have seen a marked increase in food allergy prevalence among children, particularly in Western countries, that cannot be explained by genetic factors alone. This has resulted in an increased effort to identify environmental risk factors underlying food allergies and to understand how these factors may be modified through interventions. Food allergy is an immune-mediated adverse reaction to food. Consequently, considerations of candidate risk factors have begun to focus on environmental influences that perturb the healthy development of the emerging immune system during critical periods of development (eg, prenatally and during early childhood), particularly in the gut. Given that psychosocial stress is known to play an important role in other allergic and inflammatory diseases, such as asthma, its potential role in food allergy is a growing area of research. However, research to date has largely focused on animal studies. This review synthesizes relevant animal research and epidemiological data, providing proof of concept for moderating influences of psychological stress on food allergy outcomes in humans. Pathways that may underlie associations between psychosocial stress and the expression of food allergy are discussed. Copyright © 2014 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Essential methodological considerations when using grounded theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achora, Susan; Matua, Gerald Amandu

    2016-07-01

    To suggest important methodological considerations when using grounded theory. A research method widely used in nursing research is grounded theory, at the centre of which is theory construction. However, researchers still struggle with some of its methodological issues. Although grounded theory is widely used to study and explain issues in nursing practice, many researchers are still failing to adhere to its rigorous standards. Researchers should articulate the focus of their investigations - the substantive area of interest as well as the focal population. This should be followed by a succinct explanation of the strategies used to collect and analyse data, supported by clear coding processes. Finally, the resolution of the core issues, including the core category and related categories, should be explained to advance readers' understanding. Researchers should endeavour to understand the tenets of grounded theory. This enables 'neophytes' in particular to make methodological decisions that will improve their studies' rigour and fit with grounded theory. This paper complements the current dialogue on improving the understanding of grounded theory methodology in nursing research. The paper also suggests important procedural decisions researchers need to make to preserve their studies' scientific merit and fit with grounded theory.

  7. Considerations in change management related to technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, John S; Hilty, Donald M; Worley, Linda L; Yager, Joel

    2006-01-01

    The authors describe the complexity of social processes for implementing technological change. Once a new technology is available, information about its availability and benefits must be made available to the community of users, with opportunities to try the innovations and find them worthwhile, despite organizational resistances. The authors reviewed the literature from psychiatry, psychology, sociology, business, and technology to distill common denominators for success and failure related to implementing technology. Beneficial technological innovations that are simple to use and obviously save everyone time and effort are easy to inaugurate. However, innovations that primarily serve management rather than subordinates or front-line utilizers may fail, despite considerable institutional effort. This article reviews and outlines several of the more prominent theoretical models governing successful institutional change. Successful implementation of difficult technological changes requires visionary leadership that has carefully considered the benefits, consulted with influence leaders at all organizational levels to spot unintended consequences and sources of resistance, and developed a detailed plan and continuous quality assurance process to foster implementation over time.

  8. Consideration of environmental change in performance assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinedo, P.; Thorne, M.; Egan, M.; Calvez, M.; Kautsky, U.

    2005-01-01

    Depending on the particular circumstances in which a post-closure performance assessment of a radioactive waste repository is made, it may be appropriate to follow simple or more complex approaches in characterising the biosphere. Several different Example Reference Biospheres were explored in BIOMASS Theme 1 to address a range of issues that arise. Here, consideration is given to Example Reference Biospheres relevant to representing the implications of changes that may occur within the biosphere system during the period over which releases of radionuclides from a disposal facility might take place. Mechanisms of change considered include those extrinsic and intrinsic to the system of interest. An overall methodology for incorporating environmental change into assessments is proposed. This includes screening of primary mechanisms of change; identification of possible time sequences of change; development of a coherent description of the regional landscape response for each time sequence; integration of source term and geosphere-biosphere interface information; identification and description of one or more time series of assessment biospheres; and evaluation of the advantages and disadvantages of simulating the effects of sequences of biosphere systems and the transitions between them, or of defining a set of biosphere systems to be represented individually in a non-sequential analysis. The usefulness of the methodology is explored in two site-specific examples and one generic example

  9. Temperament: a consideration of concepts and methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, J; Graham, P

    1982-01-01

    This paper discusses conceptual issues and begins with a consideration of definitions of temperament. It is suggested that the purposes for which temperament has been studied have, to some degree, dictated methods used and inferences drawn. Those psychopathologists interested in the relationship between temperament and psychiatric disorder, or emotional and behavioural disturbance, have tended to use different methods from those more concerned with delineating the structure of personality. Some issues and problems are common to both approaches, e.g. the definition of behaviour reflecting temperament in terms of style rather than content. Other issues, such as the difficulty involved in drawing a clear distinction between temperamental attributes and mental disorders, are restricted to one approach. The relative contribution of gentic and environmental effects is of interest to both psychopathologists (who wish to examine this issue in relation to the development of the individual), and to psychologists (who are usually more concerned with populations or aggregate effects). The application of biometric genetic models might clarify this issue, and various suggestions are made regarding steps that need to be taken if such models are to be successfully applied.

  10. Design Considerations for Developing Biodegradable Magnesium Implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brar, Harpreet S.; Keselowsky, Benjamin G.; Sarntinoranont, Malisa; Manuel, Michele V.

    The integration of biodegradable and bioabsorbable magnesium implants into the human body is a complex undertaking that faces major challenges. The complexity arises from the fact that biomaterials must meet both engineering and physiological requirements to ensure the desired properties. Historically, efforts have been focused on the behavior of commercial magnesium alloys in biological environments and their resultant effect on cell-mediated processes. Developing causal relationships between alloy chemistry and micro structure, and its effect on cellular behavior can be a difficult and time intensive process. A systems design approach driven by thermodynamics has the power to provide significant contributions in developing the next generation of magnesium alloy implants with controlled degradability, biocompatibility, and optimized mechanical properties, at reduced time and cost. This approach couples experimental research with theory and mechanistic modeling for the accelerated development of materials. The aim of this article is to enumerate this strategy, design considerations and hurdles for developing new magnesium alloys for use as biodegradable implant materials [1].

  11. General anaesthesia does not improve outcome in opioid antagonist detoxification treatment: a randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, C.A.J. de; Laheij, R.J.F.; Krabbe, P.F.M.

    2005-01-01

    Aim  Opioid detoxification by administering opioid-antagonists under general anaesthesia has caused considerable controversy. This study is conducted to determine whether rapid detoxification under general anaesthesia results in higher levels of opioid abstinence than rapid detoxification without

  12. General anaesthesia does not improve outcome in opioid antagonist detoxification treatment : a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Jong, Cor A J; Laheij, Robert J F; Krabbe, Paul F M

    AIM: Opioid detoxification by administering opioid-antagonists under general anaesthesia has caused considerable controversy. This study is conducted to determine whether rapid detoxification under general anaesthesia results in higher levels of opioid abstinence than rapid detoxification without

  13. General anaesthesia does not improve outcome in opioid antagonist detoxification treatment: a randomized controlled trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, C.A.J. de; Laheij, R.J.F.; Krabbe, P.F.M.

    2005-01-01

    AIM: Opioid detoxification by administering opioid-antagonists under general anaesthesia has caused considerable controversy. This study is conducted to determine whether rapid detoxification under general anaesthesia results in higher levels of opioid abstinence than rapid detoxification without

  14. Some safety considerations in laser-controlled thermonuclear reactors. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botts, T.E.; Breton, D.; Chan, C.K.; Levy, S.I.; Sehnert, M.; Ullman, A.Z.

    1978-07-01

    A major objective of this study was to identify potential safety questions for laser controlled thermonuclear reactors. From the safety viewpoint, it does not appear that the actual laser controlled thermonuclear reactor conceptual designs present hazards very different than those of magnetically confined fusion reactors. Some aspects seem beneficial, such as small lithium inventories, and the absence of cryogenic devices, while other aspects are new, for example the explosion of pressure vessels and laser hazards themselves. Major aspects considered in this report include: (a) general safety considerations, (b) tritium inventories, (c) system behavior during loss of flow accidents, and (d) safety considerations of laser related penetrations

  15. Generalized convexity, generalized monotonicity recent results

    CERN Document Server

    Martinez-Legaz, Juan-Enrique; Volle, Michel

    1998-01-01

    A function is convex if its epigraph is convex. This geometrical structure has very strong implications in terms of continuity and differentiability. Separation theorems lead to optimality conditions and duality for convex problems. A function is quasiconvex if its lower level sets are convex. Here again, the geo­ metrical structure of the level sets implies some continuity and differentiability properties for quasiconvex functions. Optimality conditions and duality can be derived for optimization problems involving such functions as well. Over a period of about fifty years, quasiconvex and other generalized convex functions have been considered in a variety of fields including economies, man­ agement science, engineering, probability and applied sciences in accordance with the need of particular applications. During the last twenty-five years, an increase of research activities in this field has been witnessed. More recently generalized monotonicity of maps has been studied. It relates to generalized conve...

  16. Theoretical considerations on multiparton interactions in QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diehl, Markus; Schaefer, Andreas

    2011-02-01

    We investigate several ingredients for a theory of multiple hard scattering in hadronhadron collisions. Issues discussed include the space-time structure of multiple interactions, their power behavior, spin and color correlations, interference terms, scale evolution and Sudakov logarithms. We discuss possibilities to constrain multiparton distributions by lattice calculations and by connecting them with generalized parton distributions. We show that the behavior of two-parton distributions at small interparton distances leads to problems with ultraviolet divergences and with double counting, which requires modification of the presently available theoretical framework. (orig.)

  17. Sustainability considerations for electricity generation from biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, Annette; Strezov, Vladimir; Evans, Tim J.

    2010-01-01

    The sustainability of electricity generation from biomass has been assessed in this work according to the key indicators of price, efficiency, greenhouse gas emissions, availability, limitations, land use, water use and social impacts. Biomass produced electricity generally provides favourable price, efficiency, emissions, availability and limitations but often has unfavorably high land and water usage as well as social impacts. The type and growing location of the biomass source are paramount to its sustainability. Hardy crops grown on unused or marginal land and waste products are more sustainable than dedicated energy crops grown on food producing land using high rates of fertilisers. (author)

  18. Theoretical considerations on multiparton interactions in QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diehl, Markus [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Schaefer, Andreas [Regensburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik

    2011-02-15

    We investigate several ingredients for a theory of multiple hard scattering in hadronhadron collisions. Issues discussed include the space-time structure of multiple interactions, their power behavior, spin and color correlations, interference terms, scale evolution and Sudakov logarithms. We discuss possibilities to constrain multiparton distributions by lattice calculations and by connecting them with generalized parton distributions. We show that the behavior of two-parton distributions at small interparton distances leads to problems with ultraviolet divergences and with double counting, which requires modification of the presently available theoretical framework. (orig.)

  19. Theoretical considerations on multiparton interactions in QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diehl, Markus; Schaefer, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    We investigate several ingredients for a theory of multiple hard scattering in hadron-hadron collisions. Issues discussed include the space-time structure of multiple interactions, their power behavior, spin and color correlations, interference terms, scale evolution and Sudakov logarithms. We discuss possibilities to constrain multiparton distributions by lattice calculations and by connecting them with generalized parton distributions. We show that the behavior of two-parton distributions at small interparton distances leads to problems with ultraviolet divergences and with double counting, which requires modification of the presently available theoretical framework.

  20. CONSIDERATIONS REGARDING THE INTERPRETATION OF LEGAL NORM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camelia IGNĂTESCU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The legal norm represents an intellectual creation of the legislator. It is expressed in legal language, according to certain rules of preparation, respecting the grammar rules specific to the language in which it is drawn up, as well as the legislative technique. The final result, thought out and wanted by the author, must be understood in direct relation to his intention. Interpretation of the law concerns the particular significance of the general form and the cognitive value of the information, of grammatical construction that expresses the legal norm.

  1. Generalized symmetry algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dragon, N.

    1979-01-01

    The possible use of trilinear algebras as symmetry algebras for para-Fermi fields is investigated. The shortcomings of the examples are argued to be a general feature of such generalized algebras. (author)

  2. Academy of General Dentistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Examine Oral Systemic Health Nov 14, 2017 General Dentistry and American Family Physician Collaborate to Examine Oral ... Oral Health Oct 23, 2017 Academy of General Dentistry Foundation Celebrates 45 Years Raising Awareness for Oral ...

  3. Generalized quantum groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leivo, H.P.

    1992-01-01

    The algebraic approach to quantum groups is generalized to include what may be called an anyonic symmetry, reflecting the appearance of phases more general than ±1 under transposition. (author). 6 refs

  4. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... What are the limitations of General Ultrasound Imaging? What is General Ultrasound Imaging? Ultrasound is safe and ... be heard with every heartbeat. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? Ultrasound ...

  5. Delphi General Ledger -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Delphi general ledger contains the following data elements, but is not limited to the United States Standard General Ledger (USSGL) chart of accounts, stores actual,...

  6. Generalized hypergeometric coherent states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appl, Thomas; Schiller, Diethard H

    2004-01-01

    We introduce a large class of holomorphic quantum states by choosing their normalization functions to be given by generalized hypergeometric functions. We call them generalized hypergeometric states in general, and generalized hypergeometric coherent states in particular, if they allow a resolution of unity. Depending on the domain of convergence of the generalized hypergeometric functions, we distinguish generalized hypergeometric states on the plane, the open unit disc and the unit circle. All states are eigenstates of suitably defined lowering operators. We then study their photon number statistics and phase properties as revealed by the Husimi and Pegg-Barnett phase distributions. On the basis of the generalized hypergeometric coherent states we introduce new analytic representations of arbitrary quantum states in Bargmann and Hardy spaces as well as generalized hypergeometric Husimi distributions and corresponding phase distributions

  7. 2 CFR Appendix A to Part 230 - General Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General Principles A Appendix A to Part 230 Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET CIRCULARS AND GUIDANCE Reserved COST PRINCIPLES FOR... Principles General Principles Table of Contents A. Basic Considerations 1. Composition of total costs 2...

  8. Generalized Fourier transforms classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berntsen, Svend; Møller, Steen

    2002-01-01

    The Fourier class of integral transforms with kernels $B(\\omega r)$ has by definition inverse transforms with kernel $B(-\\omega r)$. The space of such transforms is explicitly constructed. A slightly more general class of generalized Fourier transforms are introduced. From the general theory foll...... follows that integral transform with kernels which are products of a Bessel and a Hankel function or which is of a certain general hypergeometric type have inverse transforms of the same structure....

  9. 4 CFR 22.2 - Board Consideration [Rule 2].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Board Consideration [Rule 2]. 22.2 Section 22.2 Accounts... OFFICE CONTRACT APPEALS BOARD § 22.2 Board Consideration [Rule 2]. (a) Offices. The office of the Board... consideration of a matter by all members of the Contract Appeals Board will not be granted in any appeal filed...

  10. 46 CFR 92.01-15 - Special consideration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Special consideration. 92.01-15 Section 92.01-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Hull Structure § 92.01-15 Special consideration. (a) Special consideration will be...

  11. 17 CFR 201.401 - Consideration of stays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Consideration of stays. 201... PRACTICE Rules of Practice Appeal to the Commission and Commission Review § 201.401 Consideration of stays... consideration. Where the action complained of has already taken effect and the motion for stay is filed within...

  12. 46 CFR 72.01-20 - Special consideration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Special consideration. 72.01-20 Section 72.01-20 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Hull Structure § 72.01-20 Special consideration. (a) Special consideration will be given to the...

  13. 48 CFR 750.7106-2 - Amendments without consideration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... consideration. 750.7106-2 Section 750.7106-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL... Foreign Policy Interests of the United States 750.7106-2 Amendments without consideration. (a) Where an... of performance, considerations of fairness may make appropriate some adjustment in the contract. ...

  14. 46 CFR 190.01-15 - Special consideration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Special consideration. 190.01-15 Section 190.01-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Hull Structure § 190.01-15 Special consideration. (a) Special consideration will...

  15. Retrieving Unobserved Consideration Sets from Household Panel Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Nierop, Erjen; Bronnenberg, Bart; Paap, Richard; Wedel, Michel; Franses, Philip Hans

    The authors propose a new model to capture unobserved consideration from discrete choice data. This approach allows for unobserved dependence in consideration among brands, easily copes with many brands, and accommodates different effects of the marketing mix on consideration and choice as well as

  16. 28 CFR 2.21 - Reparole consideration guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reparole consideration guidelines. 2.21....21 Reparole consideration guidelines. (a)(1) If revocation is based upon administrative violation(s... analogy with listed federal offense behaviors. (b) The guidelines for parole consideration specified at 28...

  17. 40 CFR 270.3 - Considerations under Federal law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Considerations under Federal law. 270... Considerations under Federal law. The following is a list of Federal laws that may apply to the issuance of... applicable law requires consideration or adoption of particular permit conditions or requires the denial of a...

  18. 20 CFR 405.373 - Requesting consideration of new evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... consideration of new evidence. (a) If the administrative law judge's decision is our final decision, the... consideration by the administrative law judge at the earliest possible opportunity, but no later than 30 days... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Requesting consideration of new evidence. 405...

  19. 40 CFR 122.49 - Considerations under Federal law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Considerations under Federal law. 122... Conditions § 122.49 Considerations under Federal law. The following is a list of Federal laws that may apply... must be followed. When the applicable law requires consideration or adoption of particular permit...

  20. 49 CFR 604.21 - Special considerations for advisory opinions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Desist Orders § 604.21 Special considerations for advisory opinions. Based on new facts involving significant financial considerations, the Chief Counsel may take appropriate enforcement action contrary to an... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Special considerations for advisory opinions. 604...

  1. Generalized Fourier transforms classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berntsen, Svend; Møller, Steen

    2002-01-01

    The Fourier class of integral transforms with kernels $B(\\omega r)$ has by definition inverse transforms with kernel $B(-\\omega r)$. The space of such transforms is explicitly constructed. A slightly more general class of generalized Fourier transforms are introduced. From the general theory...

  2. Forces in General Relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgely, Charles T.

    2010-01-01

    Many textbooks dealing with general relativity do not demonstrate the derivation of forces in enough detail. The analyses presented herein demonstrate straightforward methods for computing forces by way of general relativity. Covariant divergence of the stress-energy-momentum tensor is used to derive a general expression of the force experienced…

  3. Basic consideration of diffusion/perfusion imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamagawa, Yoichi; Kimura, Hirohiko; Matsuda, Tsuyoshi; Kawamura, Yasutaka; Nakatsugawa, Shigekazu; Ishii, Yasushi; Sakuma, Hajime; Tsukamoto, Tetsuji.

    1990-01-01

    In magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), microscopic motion of biological system such as molecular diffusion of water and microcirculation of blood in the capillary network (perfusion) has been proposed to cause signal attenuation as an intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM). Quantitative imaging of the IVIM phenomenon was attempted to generate from a set of spin-echo (SE) sequences with or without sensitization by motion probing gradient (MPG). The IVIM imaging is characterized by a parameter, apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), which is an integration of both the diffusion and the perfusion factor on voxel-by-voxel basis. Hard ware was adjusted to avoid image artifact mainly produced by eddy current. Feasibility of the method was tested using bottle phantom filled with water at different temperature and acetone, and the calculated ADC values of these media corresponded well with accepted values of diffusion. The method was then applied to biological system to investigate mutual participation of diffusion/perfusion on the ADC value. The result of tumor model born on nude mouse suggested considerable participation of perfusion factor which immediately disappeared after sacrificing the animal. Meanwhile, lower value of sacrificed tissue without microcirculation was suggested to have some restriction of diffusion factor by biological tissue. To substantiate the restriction effect on the diffusion, a series of observation have made on a fiber phantom, stalk of celory with botanical fibers and human brain with nerve fibers, in applying unidirectional MPG along the course of these banch of fiber system. The directional restriction effect of diffusion along the course of fiber (diffusion anisotrophy) was clearly visualized as directional change of ADC value. The present method for tissue characterization by diffusion/perfusion on microscopic level will provide a new insight for evaluation of functional derangement in human brain and other organs. (author)

  4. Pediatric interventional radiography equipment: safety considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strauss, Keith J.

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses pediatric image quality and radiation dose considerations in state-of-the-art fluoroscopic imaging equipment. Although most fluoroscopes are capable of automatically providing good image quality on infants, toddlers, and small children, excessive radiation dose levels can result from design deficiencies of the imaging device or inappropriate configuration of the equipment's capabilities when imaging small body parts. Important design features and setup choices at installation and during the clinical use of the imaging device can improve image quality and reduce radiation exposure levels in pediatric patients. Pediatric radiologists and cardiologists, with the help of medical physicists, need to understand the issues involved in creating good image quality at reasonable pediatric patient doses. The control of radiographic technique factors by the generator of the imaging device must provide a large dynamic range of mAs values per exposure pulse during both fluoroscopy and image recording as a function of patient girth, which is the thickness of the patient in the posterior-anterior projection at the umbilicus (less than 10 cm to greater than 30 cm). The range of pulse widths must be limited to less than 10 ms in children to properly freeze patient motion. Variable rate pulsed fluoroscopy can be leveraged to reduce radiation dose to the patient and improve image quality. Three focal spots with nominal sizes of 0.3 mm to 1 mm are necessary on the pediatric unit. A second, lateral imaging plane might be necessary because of the child's limited tolerance of contrast medium. Spectral and spatial beam shaping can improve image quality while reducing the radiation dose. Finally, the level of entrance exposure to the image receptor of the fluoroscope as a function of operator choices, of added filter thickness, of selected pulse rate, of the selected field-of-view and of the patient girth all must be addressed at installation. (orig.)

  5. Extractables and leachables considerations for prefilled syringes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenke, Dennis R

    2014-10-01

    Use of pre-filled syringes as both a packaging and delivery system for pharmaceutical drug products is accelerating. Pre-filled syringes must meet the quality and suitability for use requirements for both systems, including compatibility with the drug product. Relevant incompatibilities between pre-filled syringes and drug products include the safety of syringe-based leachables that accumulate in drug products and the ability of leachables to interact with the drug product's ingredients as such interactions can affect safety, efficacy, stability and physical viability. Relevant suitability considerations for pre-filled syringes are discussed herein and specific examples of suitability for use issues for pre-filled syringes are cited, focusing on extractables associated with pre-filled syringes and leachables derived from such syringes. Aspects considered include the toxicological impact of leachables, their ability to alter the efficacy of drug products and to produce other undesirable outcomes such as aggregation and immunogenic responses. Materials used in pre-filled syringes and the conditions of use minimize the traditional safety risk associated with leachables. However, drug products that use pre-filled syringes are prone to non-traditional interactions such as disruption of protein conformation, leading to potential efficacy, safety and quality issues. In order to qualify pre-filled syringes for use, the traditional approach of measuring extractables and leachables and inferring their effect must be augmented by rigorous compatibility testing. Research into the fundamental relationship between leachables and drug substances will be necessary so the more time- and cost-efficient 'measure and infer' approach can be widely implemented.

  6. The immunologic considerations in human head transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Mark A; Furr, Allen; Barret, Juan P; Barker, John H

    2017-05-01

    The idea of head transplantation appears at first as unrealistic, unethical, and futile. Here we discuss immunological considerations in human head transplantation. In a separate accompanying article we discuss surgical, ethical, and psychosocial issues concerned in body-to-head transplantation (BHT) [1]. The success of such an unusual allograft, where the donor and the recipient can reject each other, depends on prevention of complex immunologic reactions, especially rejection of the head by the body (graft-vs-host) or probably less likely, the possibility of the head rejecting the total body allograft (host-vs-graft). The technical and immunologic difficulties are enormous, especially since rapid nerve and cord connections and regeneration have not yet been possible to achieve. In this article we begin by briefly reviewing neuro-immunologic issues that may favor BHT such as the blood brain barrier (BBB) and point out its shortcomings. And we touch on the cellular and humoral elements in the brain proper that differ in some respects from those in other organs and in the periphery. Based on recent successes in vascular composite allografts (VCAs), we will elaborate on potential specific advantages and difficulties in BHT of various available immunosuppressive medications already utilized in VCAs. The risk/benefit ratio of these drugs will be emphasized in relation to direct brain toxicity such as seizure disorders, interference, or promotion of nerve regeneration, and potentiation of cerebral viral infections. The final portion of this article will focus on pre-transplant immunologic manipulation of the deceased donor body along with pretreatment of the recipient. Copyright © 2017 IJS Publishing Group Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Moral Considerations in Pediatric Food Allergies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Shoaran

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Food allergies are common health problem among children. They carry a significant risk of severe allergic reactions. These disorders are chronic conditions in which the immune system becomes hypersensitive to some food products. It is estimated that 8% of children under the age of three have a type of food allergy. The common allergenic foods include cow’s milk, wheat, peanuts, egg, soy and fish.The mainstay of treatment is to eliminate the allergenic food from the patient’s diet which in case of a child mandates special behavioral and ethical problems. Considering the growing incidence of food allergy, and the risk of anaphylaxis, diverse moral-ethical challenges face parents, school administrators and health professionals. Older children have the right to keep the fact of their disease private and this is a matter of their autonomy and may be an effort to prevent stigmatization by other students followed by psychosocial discomfort.Some moral & ethical principles in implementing management guidelines for allergic children include: -Imagine if the patient was your own. What level of protection would you expect for him/her? -Do protective policies cause the child to be isolated from others? -Are medical recordings confidential? -Avoid unduly limiting the diet of these children. A certain scenario is an infant with cow milk allergy. In this condition specific consideration should be paid to the mother’s nutritional status when a dietary elimination strategy is to be implemented. Considering the costs /benefits of diagnostic and therapeutic measures in food allergic children is recommended.  

  8. The Importance of Muscular Strength: Training Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suchomel, Timothy J; Nimphius, Sophia; Bellon, Christopher R; Stone, Michael H

    2018-04-01

    This review covers underlying physiological characteristics and training considerations that may affect muscular strength including improving maximal force expression and time-limited force expression. Strength is underpinned by a combination of morphological and neural factors including muscle cross-sectional area and architecture, musculotendinous stiffness, motor unit recruitment, rate coding, motor unit synchronization, and neuromuscular inhibition. Although single- and multi-targeted block periodization models may produce the greatest strength-power benefits, concepts within each model must be considered within the limitations of the sport, athletes, and schedules. Bilateral training, eccentric training and accentuated eccentric loading, and variable resistance training may produce the greatest comprehensive strength adaptations. Bodyweight exercise, isolation exercises, plyometric exercise, unilateral exercise, and kettlebell training may be limited in their potential to improve maximal strength but are still relevant to strength development by challenging time-limited force expression and differentially challenging motor demands. Training to failure may not be necessary to improve maximum muscular strength and is likely not necessary for maximum gains in strength. Indeed, programming that combines heavy and light loads may improve strength and underpin other strength-power characteristics. Multiple sets appear to produce superior training benefits compared to single sets; however, an athlete's training status and the dose-response relationship must be considered. While 2- to 5-min interset rest intervals may produce the greatest strength-power benefits, rest interval length may vary based an athlete's training age, fiber type, and genetics. Weaker athletes should focus on developing strength before emphasizing power-type training. Stronger athletes may begin to emphasize power-type training while maintaining/improving their strength. Future research should

  9. Environmental considerations of offshore wind energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryckman, A. [Natural Resource Solutions Inc., Kitchener, ON (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    The environmental considerations of offshore wind energy projects in the Great Lakes region were discussed from the viewpoint of an environmental consulting firm. Existing projects and proposals were discussed in relation to site-specific conditions and the environmental studies required at the proposed sites. North American facilities that are now undergoing baseline studies in the Great Lakes include the Cape Wind and Nai Kun wind farms. Impact to fisheries in the lakes is expected to occur largely during the construction phases of the developments. However, additional noise, sedimentation, and lakebed losses have the potential to impact local fish populations. Some turbine foundations create a a reef effect that increases local fish populations. Baseline fisheries data as well as substrate and habitat assessments of the lakebed are required. Impacts on birds include collision and displacement impacts. Migratory birds and staging or wintering waterfowl may be displaced from feeding areas. Radar- and plane-based surveys should be used to identify large rafts of birds in offshore habitats, while boat surveys can be used to confirm species and identify diurnal migrants. The migratory paths of bats over the Great Lakes are not well-understood. It is expected that offshore wind developments will have little impact on terrestrial vegetation. Impacts will be localized at shoreline connection points and construction areas. Shoreline habitats, wetlands, dunes and beach habitats may also be impacted. Post-construction surveys should include avian and bat mortality, waterfowl usage, and fish habitat and substrates. Further studies were recommended, as there are limited guidelines for determining the effects of offshore wind energy developments. tabs., figs.

  10. Consideration of margins for hypo fractionated radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herschtal, A.; Foroudi, F.; Kron, T.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Geographical misses of the tumour are of concern in radiotherapy and are typically accommodated by introducing margins around the target. However, there is a trade-off between ensuring the target receives sufficient dose and minimising the dose to surrounding normal structures. Several methods of determining margin width have been developed with the most commonly used one proposed by M. VanHerk (VanHerk UROBP 52: 1407, 2002). VanHerk's model sets margins to achieve 95% of dose coverage for the target in 90% of patients. However, this model was derived assuming an infinite number of fractions. The aim of the present work is to estimate the modifications necessary to the model if a finite number of fractions are given. Software simulations were used to determine the true probability of a patient achieving 95% target coverage if different fraction numbers are used for a given margin width. Model parameters were informed by a large data set recently acquired at our institution using daily image guidance for prostate cancer patients with implanted fiducial markers. Assuming a 3 mm penumbral width it was found that using the VanHerk model only 74 or 54% of patients receive 95% of the prescription dose if 20 or 6 fractions are given, respectively. The steep dose gradients afforded by IMRT are likely to make consideration of the effects of hypofractionation more important. It is necessary to increase the margins around the target to ensure adequate tumour coverage if hypofractionated radiotherapy is to be used for cancer treatment. (author)

  11. Generalized eigenvalue based spectrum sensing

    KAUST Repository

    Shakir, Muhammad

    2012-01-01

    Spectrum sensing is one of the fundamental components in cognitive radio networks. In this chapter, a generalized spectrum sensing framework which is referred to as Generalized Mean Detector (GMD) has been introduced. In this context, we generalize the detectors based on the eigenvalues of the received signal covariance matrix and transform the eigenvalue based spectrum sensing detectors namely: (i) the Eigenvalue Ratio Detector (ERD) and two newly proposed detectors which are referred to as (ii) the GEometric Mean Detector (GEMD) and (iii) the ARithmetic Mean Detector (ARMD) into an unified framework of generalize spectrum sensing. The foundation of the proposed framework is based on the calculation of exact analytical moments of the random variables of the decision threshold of the respective detectors. The decision threshold has been calculated in a closed form which is based on the approximation of Cumulative Distribution Functions (CDFs) of the respective test statistics. In this context, we exchange the analytical moments of the two random variables of the respective test statistics with the moments of the Gaussian (or Gamma) distribution function. The performance of the eigenvalue based detectors is compared with the several traditional detectors including the energy detector (ED) to validate the importance of the eigenvalue based detectors and the performance of the GEMD and the ARMD particularly in realistic wireless cognitive radio network. Analytical and simulation results show that the newly proposed detectors yields considerable performance advantage in realistic spectrum sensing scenarios. Moreover, the presented results based on proposed approximation approaches are in perfect agreement with the empirical results. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

  12. Reciprocal mass tensor : a general form

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, C.L.

    1978-01-01

    Using the results of earlier treatment of wave packets, a general form of reciprocal mass tensor has been obtained. The elements of this tensor are seen to be dependent on momentum as well as space coordinates of the particle under consideration. The conditions under which the tensor would reduce to the usual space-independent form, are discussed and the impact of the space-dependence of this tensor on the motion of Bloch electrons, is examined. (author)

  13. Some general requirements for irradiation experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myers, H P; Skjoeldebrand, R

    1960-05-15

    This paper is limited to the interests of the EAES-symposium, namely the use of reactors for materials research and testing, for convenience we exclude consideration of chemical effects and problems of coolant technology. Its purpose is to try to define the general requirements for irradiation experiments and the reactors housing them; to see what facilities for irradiation experiments are available within the European Atomic Energy Society countries and finally, to point out possible limitations of these facilities.

  14. Oxygen general saturation after bronchography under general ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thirty-six patients undergoing bronchography or bronchoscopy under general anaesthesia were continuously monitored by pulse oximetry for 5 hours after these procedures. Significant falls in oxygen saturation were observed in the first hour and were of most clinical relevance in patients with preexisting pulmonary ...

  15. Generalization of the Knizhnik-Zamolodchikov-equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alekseev, A.Yu.; Recknagel, A.; Schomerus, V.

    1996-09-01

    In this letter we introduce a generalization of the Knizhnik-Zamolodchikov equations from affine Lie algebras to a wide class of conformal field theories (not necessarily rational). The new equations describe correlation functions of primary fields and of a finite number of their descendents. Our proposal is based on Nahm's concept of small spaces which provide adequate substitutes for the lowest energy subspaces in modules of affine Lie algebras. We explain how to construct the first order differential equations and investigate properties of the associated connections, thereby preparing the grounds for an analysis of quantum symmetries. The general considerations are illustrated in examples of Virasoro minimal models. (orig.)

  16. The 'generalized Balescu-Lenard' transport equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mynick, H.E.

    1990-01-01

    The transport equations arising from the 'generalized Balescu-Lenard' collision operator are obtained and some of their properties examined. The equations contain neoclassical and turbulent transport as two special cases having the same structure. The resultant theory offers a possible explanation for a number of results not well understood, including the anomalous pinch, observed ratios of Q/ΓT on TFTR, and numerical reproduction of ASDEX profiles by a model for turbulent transport invoked without derivation, but by analogy with neoclassical theory. The general equations are specialized to consideration of a number of particular transport mechanisms of interest. (author). Letter-to-the-editor. 10 refs

  17. On a Generalized Hankel Type Convolution of Generalized Functions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Generalized Hankel type transformation; Parserval relation; generalized ... The classical generalized Hankel type convolution are defined and extended to a class of generalized functions. ... Proceedings – Mathematical Sciences | News.

  18. Is equal moral consideration really compatible with unequal moral status?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, John

    2010-09-01

    The issue of moral considerability, or how much moral importance a being's interests deserve, is one of the most important in animal ethics. Some leading theorists--most notably David DeGrazia--have argued that a principle of "equal moral consideration" is compatible with "unequal moral status." Such a position would reconcile the egalitarian force of equal consideration with more stringent obligations to humans than animals. The article presents arguments that equal consideration is not compatible with unequal moral status, thereby forcing those who would justify significantly different moral protections for humans and animals to argue for unequal consideration.

  19. Generally covariant gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capovilla, R.

    1992-01-01

    A new class of generally covariant gauge theories in four space-time dimensions is investigated. The field variables are taken to be a Lie algebra valued connection 1-form and a scalar density. Modulo an important degeneracy, complex [euclidean] vacuum general relativity corresponds to a special case in this class. A canonical analysis of the generally covariant gauge theories with the same gauge group as general relativity shows that they describe two degrees of freedom per space point, qualifying therefore as a new set of neighbors of general relativity. The modification of the algebra of the constraints with respect to the general relativity case is computed; this is used in addressing the question of how general relativity stands out from its neighbors. (orig.)

  20. Generating perfect fluid spheres in general relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonserm, Petarpa; Visser, Matt; Weinfurtner, Silke

    2005-06-01

    Ever since Karl Schwarzschild’s 1916 discovery of the spacetime geometry describing the interior of a particular idealized general relativistic star—a static spherically symmetric blob of fluid with position-independent density—the general relativity community has continued to devote considerable time and energy to understanding the general-relativistic static perfect fluid sphere. Over the last 90 years a tangle of specific perfect fluid spheres has been discovered, with most of these specific examples seemingly independent from each other. To bring some order to this collection, in this article we develop several new transformation theorems that map perfect fluid spheres into perfect fluid spheres. These transformation theorems sometimes lead to unexpected connections between previously known perfect fluid spheres, sometimes lead to new previously unknown perfect fluid spheres, and in general can be used to develop a systematic way of classifying the set of all perfect fluid spheres.