Lam, Charlene L M; Yu, Junhong; Lee, Tatia M C
The relationship between depression, loneliness, and cognitive functioning among the elderly is not well understood in the literature. In the present study, we tested the moderating influence of depressive symptoms on loneliness and cognitive functioning. We recruited 100 community-dwelling older adults in Hong Kong. Demographic information, perceived loneliness, depressed mood, and general cognitive status were assessed. Results indicated that married participants reported lower levels of perceived loneliness (t (96) = 2.26, p = .03). We found a significant moderating effect of depressive symptoms on the relationship between perceived loneliness and general cognitive status (B = -.05, p = .002). Perceived loneliness correlated negatively with general cognitive status only in participants with higher levels of depressed mood (B = -.16, p = .01). Together, these findings suggest that perceived loneliness combined with depressed mood is related to poorer general cognitive status in older adults. The implications of these findings are discussed.
This study seeks to assess the interaction between mid-life socioeconomic status (SES) and city residence on the cognitive status of Baby Boomers and pre-Boomers in Taiwan, a non-Western society with a distinct cultural and family context, taking apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene polymophism and life stressors into consideration. The data used was from the Social Environment and Biomarkers of Aging Study (SEBAS) collected in Taiwan during 2006, this involved 1245 individuals from 23 communities and used multilevel regression. General cognitive status was assessed by ten questions via personal interviews. The questions were part of the Short Portable Mental Status Questionnaire, a 10-item free-recall and immediate recall test. Mid-life SES was defined by education and major mid-life occupation of the participant and/or their partner. Mid-life SES was positively associated with cognitive status among both Baby Boomers and pre-Boomers, even after adjusting for APOE polymorphism and stressor covariates. For Baby Boomers, city residents were more likely than town residents to show better cognition (β = 1.47, p interaction effect between mid-life SES and city residence was observed (β = -2.12, p < 0.01). While both the Baby Boomer and pre-Boomer cohorts who lived with a partner were reported better cognition, the effects of depressive symptoms and ethnicity differed by cohort. Having a high level of mid-life SES and living with a partner are associated with better cognition for both cohort groups. An interplay effect between mid-life SES and place of residence on cognition was only found for Baby Boomers. On the other hand, being psychologically depressed was associated with poorer cognition among pre-Boomers. These results underscore the specific roles of mid-life SES, city residence, and life stressors with regard to the cognitive status of Baby Boomers and pre-Boomers in Taiwan.
Ihle, Andreas; Jopp, Daniela S; Oris, Michel; Fagot, Delphine; Kliegel, Matthias
Health research suggests that findings on young-old adults cannot be generalized to old-old adults and thus that old-old age seems not a simple continuation of young-old age due to qualitative changes that result in a discontinuity in old age. Specifically, it would be of conceptual and methodological importance to inform research regarding estimates around which chronological age the beginning of old-old age could be placed at a population level, and whether this is universal or domain-specific. To derive such criteria, we investigated potential discontinuity of age relations between young-old and old-old age in a large population-based sample considering measures in different domains (processing speed, verbal abilities, general health status, activity participation, and life satisfaction). For processing speed, verbal abilities, general health status, and life satisfaction we observed some very small indication that there might be a discontinuity of age relations at the end of individuals' eighties, and for activity participation already at the beginning of individuals' eighties. In conclusion, models conceptualizing aging as a gradual development might not suffice to adequately represent the differences between the stages of young-old and old-old age due to some very small indication that there might be discontinuity in late adulthood.
Siegler, Robert S.
Proposes five generalizations on existing knowledge, learning, and their interaction, and discusses evidence for these from recent research on children's learning, memory, conceptual understanding, and problem solving. (Author/AOS)
Zhang, Michael; Gale, Shawn D; Erickson, Lance D; Brown, Bruce L; Woody, Parker; Hedges, Dawson W
Cognitive function may be influenced by education, socioeconomic status, sex, and health status. Furthermore, aging interacts with these factors to influence cognition and dementia risk in late life. Factors that may increase or decrease successful cognitive aging are of critical importance, particularly if they are modifiable. The purpose of this study was to determine if economic status in late life is associated with cognition independent of socioeconomic status in early life. Cross-sectional demographic, socioeconomic, and cognitive function data were obtained in 2592 older adults (average age 71.6 years) from the Center for Disease Control's National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and analyzed with linear regression modeling. Cognitive function, as measured with a test of processing speed, was significantly associated with poverty index scores after adjusting for educational attainment as an estimate of childhood socioeconomic status, ethnic background, age, health status, and sex (P status is independently associated with cognitive function in adults over age 60 years.
Baxendale, Sallie; Heaney, Dominic
Poorer surgical outcomes in patients with low socioeconomic status have previously been reported, but the mechanisms underlying this pattern are unknown. Lower socioeconomic status may be a proxy marker for the limited economic opportunities associated with compromised cognitive function. The aim of this study was to examine the preoperative neuropsychological characteristics of patients with unilateral hippocampal sclerosis (HS) and their relationship to socioeconomic status. Two hundred ninety-two patients with medically intractable temporal lobe epilepsy and unilateral HS completed tests of memory and intellectual function prior to surgery. One hundred thirty-one had right HS (RHS), and 161 had left HS (LHS). The socioeconomic status of each participant was determined via the Index of Multiple Deprivation (IMD) associated with their postcode. The IMD was not associated with age at the time of assessment, age at onset of epilepsy, or duration of active epilepsy. The RHS and LHS groups did not differ on the IMD. The IMD was negatively correlated with all neuropsychological test scores in the LHS group. In the RHS group, the IMD was not significantly correlated with any of the neuropsychological measures. There were no significant correlations in the RHS group. Regression analyses suggested that IMD score explained 3% of variance in the measures of intellect, but 8% of the variance in verbal learning in the LHS group. The IMD explained 1% or less of the variance in neuropsychological scores in the RHS group. Controlling for overall level of intellectual function, the IMD score explained a small but significant proportion of the variance in verbal learning in the LHS group and visual learning for the RHS group. Our findings suggest that patients living in an area with a high IMD enter surgery with greater focal deficits associated with their epilepsy and more widespread cognitive deficits if they have LHS. Further work is needed to establish the direction of the
Pedersen, Mette; Holt, Nicole E; Grande, Laura
: An analysis was conducted on baseline data from the Boston Rehabilitative Impairment Study in the Elderly study, a cohort study of 430 primary care patients aged 65 or older. Neuropsychological tests identified participants with MCI and further subclassified those with impairment in memory domains (a......BACKGROUND: The prevalence of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and mobility limitations is high among older adults. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between MCI status and both performance-based and self-report measures of mobility in community-dwelling older adults. METHODS...
Dennett, Kathryn; Tometich, Danielle; Duff, Kevin
Despite the growing use of the modified Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status (mTICS) as a cognitive screening instrument, it does not yet have demographic corrections. Demographic data, mTICS, and a neuropsychological battery were collected from 274 community dwelling older adults with intact cognition or mild cognitive impairments. Age, education, premorbid intellect, and depression were correlated with mTICS scores. Using regression equations, age and education significantly predicted m...
Full Text Available Vitamin C plays a role in neuronal differentiation, maturation, myelin formation and modulation of the cholinergic, catecholinergic, and glutaminergic systems. This review evaluates the link between vitamin C status and cognitive performance, in both cognitively intact and impaired individuals. We searched the PUBMED, SCOPUS, SciSearch and the Cochrane Library from 1980 to January 2017, finding 50 studies, with randomised controlled trials (RCTs, n = 5, prospective (n = 24, cross-sectional (n = 17 and case-control (n = 4 studies. Of these, 36 studies were conducted in healthy participants and 14 on cognitively impaired individuals (including Alzheimer’s and dementia. Vitamin C status was measured using food frequency questionnaires or plasma vitamin C. Cognition was assessed using a variety of tests, mostly the Mini-Mental-State-Examination (MMSE. In summary, studies demonstrated higher mean vitamin C concentrations in the cognitively intact groups of participants compared to cognitively impaired groups. No correlation between vitamin C concentrations and MMSE cognitive function was apparent in the cognitively impaired individuals. The MMSE was not suitable to detect a variance in cognition in the healthy group. Analysis of the studies that used a variety of cognitive assessments in the cognitively intact was beyond the scope of this review; however, qualitative assessment revealed a potential association between plasma vitamin C concentrations and cognition. Due to a number of limitations in these studies, further research is needed, utilizing plasma vitamin C concentrations and sensitive cognitive assessments that are suitable for cognitively intact adults.
Wang, H P; Liang, J; Kuo, L M; Chen, C Y; Shyu, Y I L
This paper describes the trajectories of nutritional status and cognitive impairment and their correlation among older Taiwanese over 1 year after hip-fracture surgery. Secondary analysis of data from a clinical trial evaluating the effects of three types of post-discharge care for 292 older hip-fracture patients (age >60 years). Nutritional status was assessed by the Mini Nutritional Assessment before and 1, 3, 6, 12 months after hospital discharge. Cognitive function was measured by the Mini-Mental State Examination before surgery, at hospital discharge, 6 and 12 months after discharge. Trajectories of nutritional status and cognitive impairment were depicted by latent class growth modeling, whereas linkages between nutritional-status and cognitive-impairment trajectories were assessed by multinomial logistic regression. Nutritional status in general improved significantly, particularly during the first 3 months after discharge. We identified three trajectories of nutritional status: malnourished (15.4%), at risk for malnutrition (38.9%), and well-nourished (45.7%). In contrast, cognitive changes followed four largely linear but distinct trajectories: moderately impaired (12.2%), mildly impaired (27.8%), borderline impaired (21.8%), and cognitively intact (38.2%). Trajectories of nutritional status were significantly associated with cognitive-function trajectories. For instance, relative to malnourished patients, well-nourished patients were 95% less likely (OR=0.05, CI =0.01-0.24) to be moderately cognitively impaired. A good nutritional-status trajectory after hip fracture was associated with better cognitive function. To treat and care for elderly hip-fractured patients, specific interventions need to target those who are malnourished or at risk of malnutrition to decrease their risk for cognitive impairment.
Mary F. Baxter PhD, OT, FAOTA
Full Text Available The purposes of this study were to identify the cognitive status of cancer survivors, determine the effect of cognitive status on function and participation in daily activities, and explore how cancer survivors perceive changes in their cognition. The study used a quantitative nonexperimental cross-sectional design. The participants included 35 cancer survivors from two different sites. Instruments included the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA and the Reintegration to Normal Index-Postal Version (RNLI-P in the measurement of cognitive impairment and functional performance respectively. Data were also collected with a supplemental questionnaire to explore participants’ perspectives on their cognitive difficulties and current function. The participant scores on the MoCA indicated cognitive impairment (μ= 25 and their scores on the RNLI-P demonstrated subpar reintegration (μ=9.64. Twenty-one participants answered the supplemental questionnaire. In content analysis of questionnaire responses, 17/21 participants reported some level of cognitive change related to cancer and cancer treatment. Data from an open-ended question were organized into four categories: decreased participation, more selective in activities, balance in activities, and cognitive changes. Study results indicate a large percentage of cancer survivors demonstrate mild cognitive impairment as well as changes in participation in instrumental activities of daily living.
Hildebrandt, Andrea; Wilhelm, Oliver; Schmiedek, Florian; Herzmann, Grit; Sommer, Werner
Face cognition is considered a specific human ability, clearly differentiable from general cognitive functioning. Its specificity is primarily supported by cognitive-experimental and neuroimaging research, but recently also from an individual differences perspective. However, no comprehensive behavioral data are available, which would allow estimating lifespan changes of the covariance structure of face-cognition abilities and general cognitive functioning as well as age-differences in face cognition after accounting for interindividual variability in general cognition. The present study aimed to fill this gap. In an age-heterogeneous (18-82 years) sample of 448 adults, we found no factorial dedifferentiation between face cognition and general cognition. Age-related differences in face memory were still salient after taking into account changes in general cognitive functioning. Face cognition thus remains a specific human ability compared with general cognition, even until old age. We discuss implications for models of cognitive aging and suggest that it is necessary to include more explicitly special social abilities in those models.
Erik Chih-Hung Chang
Conclusion: These findings indicate that the mode of sport training, which results in either high cardiovascular or high motor fitness, bears no relationship to measures of general cognition in elite athletes. The present findings suggest that coaches and athletic trainers should be encouraged to monitor athletes' stress levels during training in order to maximize the beneficial effects of such training on general cognitive performance.
Clausen, Sara Juul; Kristensen, Line Burholt
marked. Keeping in mind the cross-distribution between phonetic/phonological markedness and distributional patterns, we investigate here whether stød is also related to accent 1 when it comes to cognitive markedness. We present the results of a psycholinguistic study in which participants attended...... for words with non-stød stems, indicating that the cognitive markedness status of stød corresponds to that of accent 2....
Ghosh-Dastidar, Bonnie; Margolis, Karen L.; Slaughter, Mary E.; Jewell, Adria; Bird, Chloe E.; Eibner, Christine; Denburg, Natalie L.; Ockene, Judith; Messina, Catherine R.; Espeland, Mark A.
Objectives. We examined whether neighborhood socioeconomic status (NSES) is associated with cognitive functioning in older US women and whether this relationship is explained by associations between NSES and vascular, health behavior, and psychosocial factors. Methods. We assessed women aged 65 to 81 years (n = 7479) who were free of dementia and took part in the Women's Health Initiative Memory Study. Linear mixed models examined the cross-sectional association between an NSES index and cognitive functioning scores. A base model adjusted for age, race/ethnicity, education, income, marital status, and hysterectomy. Three groups of potential confounders were examined in separate models: vascular, health behavior, and psychosocial factors. Results. Living in a neighborhood with a 1-unit higher NSES value was associated with a level of cognitive functioning that was 0.022 standard deviations higher (P = .02). The association was attenuated but still marginally significant (P < .1) after adjustment for confounders and, according to interaction tests, stronger among younger and non-White women. Conclusions. The socioeconomic status of a woman's neighborhood may influence her cognitive functioning. This relationship is only partially explained by vascular, health behavior, or psychosocial factors. Future research is needed on the longitudinal relationships between NSES, cognitive impairment, and cognitive decline. PMID:21778482
Pérez-Martín, María Yaiza; Eguia-Del Río, Pablo; González-Platas, Montserrat; Jiménez-Sosa, Alejandro
Cognitive impairment is a common feature in multiple sclerosis affecting ~43%-72% of patients, which involves cognitive functions such as memory, processing speed, attention, and executive function. The aim of this study was to describe the extent and pattern of the involvement of cognitive impairment and psychological status in all patients with multiple sclerosis on a small Spanish island. In all, 70 patients and 56 healthy controls were included in the study between February 2013 and May 2013. All participants were assessed using the Brief Repeatable Battery of Neuropsychological Test. The patients also completed instruments to evaluate the presence of fatigue, perceived cognitive dysfunction, and symptoms of anxiety and depression. All procedures were performed in a single session. Cognitive impairment, defined as a score <1.5 standard deviation on two subtests of the battery, was present in 35% of the participants. The most frequently affected domain was working memory, followed by verbal memory and processing speed. Disease duration showed a moderate correlation with visuospatial memory and processing speed. The Expanded Disability Status Scale score correlated with verbal and processing speed. Verbal memory was correlated with depression symptoms and fatigue. Cognitive impairment was present in 35% of the study population. The most affected domains were working memory and verbal memory. Working memory and verbal fluency deficit are independent factors of disease evolution. Cognitive decline is related to clinical variables and psychological measures such as fatigue or depression but not to anxiety.
Closs, S José; Barr, Bridget; Briggs, Michelle
Background: Although it is becoming acknowledged that pain management is generally poor for older people, little is known about pain management for nursing home residents in the United Kingdom, and the specific problems for those with cognitive impairments.
Without adequate nutrition, children cannot develop to their full physical and mental potentials. The nutritional status and the cognitive performance of 500 school children aged 5-12 years from urban and rural areas of Enugu State, Nigeria were evaluated. Anthropometric measurements of heights and weights were ...
fatigue, overload) Technology Transfer Opportunity Technology from PDT – Methods to acquire various physiological signals (EEG, EOG , EMG, ECG, etc...Integrated Hardware for Experiments EEG Sensor Array EOG Sensor Array Eye Tracker Amplifiers and Signal Conditioners Laptop Computer...REPORT Advanced Physiological Estimation of Cognitive Status - Part II 14. ABSTRACT 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: This report describes ongoing work
Zhang, Fan; Fung, Helene; Kwok, Timothy
The current study aims to investigate the association between subjective social status (SSS) and prospective cognitive functioning of older adults and their spouses, and to explore the potential mediating roles of health habits and physical activities in this association. Using the longitudinal data of 512 pairs of community-dwelling older couples aged 65-91 years (M = 72.2 ± 4.6), we tested the effects of SSS in cognitive functioning using an Actor-Partner Interdependence Model. SSS was measured by a self-anchoring social ladder, and cognitive functioning was measured by the Mini-Mental State Examination at baseline and 4-year follow-up. Socioeconomic status (i.e. education) was tested as a moderator, and physical activity (measured by the Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly) as well as health habits (i.e. tobacco and alcohol consumption) were included as potential mediators. A partner effect of SSS was found only in the low-education group, in which the wife's higher level of SSS in the community was associated with the husband's better cognitive functioning in the follow-up. A small proportion of this effect was found to be partially mediated by participation in housework, such that the wife's higher SSS was associated with the husband's increased housework activity, which was related to higher prospective cognitive functioning. By examining the dyadic effects of SSS with a longitudinal design, our findings extended the understanding on how subjective social status influenced older couples' cognitive health, and provided evidence-based insights for future studies on cognitive health in later life.
Conclusion: Among Chinese nonagenarians and centenarians, there were significant associations between nutrition status and cognitive impairment. Further studies should evaluation if maintaining a good nutritional status or nutritional intervention may be effective in the management and prevention of cognitive impairment.
Ybarra, Oscar; Burnstein, Eugene; Winkielman, Piotr; Keller, Matthew C; Manis, Melvin; Chan, Emily; Rodriguez, Joel
Social interaction is a central feature of people's life and engages a variety of cognitive resources. Thus, social interaction should facilitate general cognitive functioning. Previous studies suggest such a link, but they used special populations (e.g., elderly with cognitive impairment), measured social interaction indirectly (e.g., via marital status), and only assessed effects of extended interaction in correlational designs. Here the relation between mental functioning and direct indicators of social interaction was examined in a younger and healthier population. Study 1 using survey methodology found a positive relationship between social interaction, assessed via amount of actual social contact, and cognitive functioning in people from three age groups including younger adults. Study 2 using an experimental design found that a small amount of social interaction (10 min) can facilitate cognitive performance. The findings are discussed in the context of the benefits social relationships have for so many aspects of people's lives.
Full Text Available María Yaiza Pérez-Martín,1 Pablo Eguia-del Río,2 Montserrat González-Platas,1 Alejandro Jiménez-Sosa31Service of Neurology, Complejo Hospitalario Universitario de Canarias, La Laguna, 2Service of Neurology, Doctor José Molina Orosa Hospital, Arrecife, Lanzarote, 3Unit of Research, Complejo Hospitalario Universitario de Canarias, La Laguna, SpainObjectives: Cognitive impairment is a common feature in multiple sclerosis affecting ~43%–72% of patients, which involves cognitive functions such as memory, processing speed, attention, and executive function. The aim of this study was to describe the extent and pattern of the involvement of cognitive impairment and psychological status in all patients with multiple sclerosis on a small Spanish island.Patients and methods: In all, 70 patients and 56 healthy controls were included in the study between February 2013 and May 2013. All participants were assessed using the Brief Repeatable Battery of Neuropsychological Test. The patients also completed instruments to evaluate the presence of fatigue, perceived cognitive dysfunction, and symptoms of anxiety and depression. All procedures were performed in a single session.Results: Cognitive impairment, defined as a score <1.5 standard deviation on two subtests of the battery, was present in 35% of the participants. The most frequently affected domain was working memory, followed by verbal memory and processing speed. Disease duration showed a moderate correlation with visuospatial memory and processing speed. The Expanded Disability Status Scale score correlated with verbal and processing speed. Verbal memory was correlated with depression symptoms and fatigue.Conclusion: Cognitive impairment was present in 35% of the study population. The most affected domains were working memory and verbal memory. Working memory and verbal fluency deficit are independent factors of disease evolution. Cognitive decline is related to clinical variables and
Figlio, David N; Freese, Jeremy; Karbownik, Krzysztof; Roth, Jeffrey
Accurate understanding of environmental moderation of genetic influences is vital to advancing the science of cognitive development as well as for designing interventions. One widely reported idea is increasing genetic influence on cognition for children raised in higher socioeconomic status (SES) families, including recent proposals that the pattern is a particularly US phenomenon. We used matched birth and school records from Florida siblings and twins born in 1994-2002 to provide the largest, most population-diverse consideration of this hypothesis to date. We found no evidence of SES moderation of genetic influence on test scores, suggesting that articulating gene-environment interactions for cognition is more complex and elusive than previously supposed.
Burns, Jeffrey M; Johnson, David K; Liebmann, Edward P; Bothwell, Rebecca J; Morris, Jill K; Vidoni, Eric D
Disclosing amyloid status to cognitively normal individuals remains controversial given our lack of understanding the test's clinical significance and unknown psychological risk. We assessed the effect of amyloid status disclosure on anxiety and depression before disclosure, at disclosure, and 6 weeks and 6 months postdisclosure and test-related distress after disclosure. Clinicians disclosed amyloid status to 97 cognitively normal older adults (27 had elevated cerebral amyloid). There was no difference in depressive symptoms across groups over time. There was a significant group by time interaction in anxiety, although post hoc analyses revealed no group differences at any time point, suggesting a minimal nonsustained increase in anxiety symptoms immediately postdisclosure in the elevated group. Slight but measureable increases in test-related distress were present after disclosure and were related to greater baseline levels of anxiety and depression. Disclosing amyloid imaging results to cognitively normal adults in the clinical research setting with pre- and postdisclosure counseling has a low risk of psychological harm. Copyright © 2017 the Alzheimer's Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Metacognitive theory and therapy views the persistence of negative beliefs and thoughts as a result of metacognitions controlling cognition. This paper describes, with reference to the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and social phobia, how metacognition contributes to cognitive stability and to change. Metacognitive therapy offers…
Morris, John N.; Steel, Knight; Strout, Kelley A.; Fries, Brant E.; Moore, Alice; Garms-Homolová, Vjenka
Cognitive decline impacts older adults, particularly their independence. The goal of this project was to increase understanding of how short-term, everyday lifestyle options, including physical activity, help an older adult sustain cognitive independence. Using a secondary analysis of lifestyle choices, we drew on a dataset of 4,620 community-dwelling elders in the US, assessed at baseline and one year later using 2 valid and reliable tools, the interRAI Community Health Assessment and the interRAI Wellness tool. Decline or no decline on the Cognitive Performance Scale was the dependent variable. We examined sustaining one's status on this measure over a one-year period in relation to key dimensions of wellness through intellectual, physical, emotional, social, and spiritual variables. Engaging in physical activity, formal exercise, and specific recreational activities had a favorable effect on short-term cognitive decline. Involvement with computers, crossword puzzles, handicrafts, and formal education courses also were protective factors. The physical and intellectual domains of wellness are prominent aspects in protection from cognitive decline. Inherent in these two domains are mutable factors suitable for targeted efforts to promote older adult health and well-being. PMID:27891520
Elizabeth P. Howard
Full Text Available Cognitive decline impacts older adults, particularly their independence. The goal of this project was to increase understanding of how short-term, everyday lifestyle options, including physical activity, help an older adult sustain cognitive independence. Using a secondary analysis of lifestyle choices, we drew on a dataset of 4,620 community-dwelling elders in the US, assessed at baseline and one year later using 2 valid and reliable tools, the interRAI Community Health Assessment and the interRAI Wellness tool. Decline or no decline on the Cognitive Performance Scale was the dependent variable. We examined sustaining one’s status on this measure over a one-year period in relation to key dimensions of wellness through intellectual, physical, emotional, social, and spiritual variables. Engaging in physical activity, formal exercise, and specific recreational activities had a favorable effect on short-term cognitive decline. Involvement with computers, crossword puzzles, handicrafts, and formal education courses also were protective factors. The physical and intellectual domains of wellness are prominent aspects in protection from cognitive decline. Inherent in these two domains are mutable factors suitable for targeted efforts to promote older adult health and well-being.
Kalron, Alon; Allali, Gilles; Achiron, Anat
Cerebellar volume has been linked with cognitive performances in MS; however, the association in terms of fall status has never been compared. Therefore, the objective of the current study was to compare cognitive performance with cerebellar volume between MS fallers and non-fallers. The cross-sectional study included 140 PwMS (96 women). MRI volumetric analysis was based on the FreeSurfer image analysis suite. Volumes of the cerebellar gray and white matter were identified as the region of interest. Cognitive function included scores obtained from a computerized cognitive battery of tests. The sample was divided into fallers and non-fallers. MS fallers demonstrated a lower global cognitive performance and reduced gray and white matter cerebellar volumes compared to non-fallers. A significant association was found between total gray and white matter cerebellar volume and visual spatial subdomain (P value = 0.044 and 0.032, respectively) in the non-fallers group. The association remained significant after controlling for the total cranial volume and neurological disability (P value = 0.026 and 0.047, respectively). A relationship was found between the visual spatial score and the left gray matter cerebellum volume; R 2 = 0.44, P value = 0.021. We believe that a unique relationship exists between the cerebellum structure and cognitive processing according to fall history in PwMS and should be considered when investigating the association between brain functioning and cognitive performances in MS.
Kondraske, George V
General Systems Performance Theory (GSPT) was initially motivated by problems associated with quantifying different aspects of human performance. It has proved to be invaluable for measurement development and understanding quantitative relationships between human subsystem capacities and performance in complex tasks. It is now desired to bring focus to the application of GSPT to modeling of cognitive system performance. Previous studies involving two complex tasks (i.e., driving and performing laparoscopic surgery) and incorporating measures that are clearly related to cognitive performance (information processing speed and short-term memory capacity) were revisited. A GSPT-derived method of task analysis and performance prediction termed Nonlinear Causal Resource Analysis (NCRA) was employed to determine the demand on basic cognitive performance resources required to support different levels of complex task performance. This approach is presented as a means to determine a cognitive workload profile and the subsequent computation of a single number measure of cognitive workload (CW). Computation of CW may be a viable alternative to measuring it. Various possible "more basic" performance resources that contribute to cognitive system performance are discussed. It is concluded from this preliminary exploration that a GSPT-based approach can contribute to defining cognitive performance models that are useful for both individual subjects and specific groups (e.g., military pilots).
van den Heuvel, E G H M; van Schoor, N M; Vermeer, C; Zwijsen, R M L; den Heijer, M; Comijs, H C
The aim of this study was to examine the association between dephospho-uncarboxylated matrix Gla protein (dp-ucMGP), an indicator of vitamin K status, and cognitive decline, and the modifying role of 25(OH)D. Longitudinal study with six years follow-up. Community based. 599 participants of the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam (aged 55-65 years). Information processing speed and a composite Z-score by combining three domains of cognition reflecting general cognitive functioning. Generalized estimating equations (GEE) showed no significant associations between dp-ucMGP and decline in general cognitive functioning. Vitamin D modified the association between dp-ucMGP and speed of information processing (p 50 nmol/l, the highest tertile of dp-ucMGP (>406 pmol/l), which corresponds to lower vitamin K levels, was associated with 1.5 higher score on information processing speed (p=0.023) as compared to the lowest tertile of dp-ucMGP. In contrast to our hypothesis, a suboptimal vitamin K was not associated with cognitive decline in middle-aged adults.
Mahmood, Nurul Huda
For meaningful co-existence of cognitive radios with primary system, it is imperative that the cognitive radio system is aware of how much interference it generates at the primary receivers. This can be done through statistical modeling of the interference as perceived at the primary receivers. In this work, we propose a generalized model for the interference generated by a cognitive radio network, in the presence of small and large scale fading, at a primary receiver located at the origin. We then demonstrate how this model can be used to estimate the impact of cognitive radio transmission on the primary receiver in terms of different outage probabilities. Finally, our analytical findings are validated through some selected computer-based simulations. © 2011 IEEE.
Forecasts of both likely anthropogenic effects on climate and consequent effects on nature and society are based on large, complex software tools called general circulation models (GCMs). Forecasts generated by GCMs have been used extensively in policy decisions related to climate change. However, the relation between underlying physical theories and results produced by GCMs is unclear. In the case of GCMs, many discretizations and approximations are made, and simulating Earth system processes is far from simple and currently leads to some results with unknown energy balance implications. Statistical testing of GCM forecasts for degree of agreement with data would facilitate assessment of fitness for use. If model results need to be put on an anomaly basis due to model bias, then both visual and quantitative measures of model fit depend strongly on the reference period used for normalization, making testing problematic. Epistemology is here applied to problems of statistical inference during testing, the relationship between the underlying physics and the models, the epistemic meaning of ensemble statistics, problems of spatial and temporal scale, the existence or not of an unforced null for climate fluctuations, the meaning of existing uncertainty estimates, and other issues. Rigorous reasoning entails carefully quantifying levels of uncertainty.
Cognitive and social predictors of generalized anxiety disorder symptoms among fresh undergraduates in Uganda. ... The prevalence of this common disorder and the associated factors in Ugandan students are unknown. ... Psychological interventions for undergraduate students may be needed to target these factors.
Freijo, Enrique B. Arranz; Oliva, Alfredo; Olabarrieta, Fernando; Martin, Juan Luis; Manzano, Ainhoa; Richards, Martin P. M.
This study analyzes the influence of socioeconomic status, quality of family context and sibling status on cognitive development in a sample of 551 five-year-old children. The regression analyses confirmed the predictive value of socioeconomic status and quality of family context on cognitive development. The quality of family context mediates the…
Ramos, Rosa; Freire, Carmen; Julvez, Jordi; Fernández, Mariana F; García-Esteban, Raquel; Torrent, Maties; Sunyer, Jordi; Olea, Nicolás
We aimed to investigate the association of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and social competence outcomes with cognitive status in preschool children. The study population was drawn from three birth cohorts belonging to the Spanish INMA (Infancia y Medio Ambiente) project: Menorca (n = 289), Ribera d'Ebre (n = 60), and Granada (n = 108). Children were assessed at the age of 4 years for cognitive functions (McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities, MSCA) by psychologists and for inattention and hyperactivity symptoms (ADHD Criteria of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, ADHD-DSM-IV) and social competence (California Preschool Social Competence Scale) by their teachers. Multiple regression analyses were conducted to examine potential associations between behavioral outcomes (ADHD symptoms and social competence) and MSCA cognitive outcomes, adjusting for confounders. The presence of general ADHD symptoms (inattention, hyperactivity, or both) and poorer social competence both showed negative associations with cognitive outcomes. When we compared children according to ADHD subtypes, those with inattention symptoms alone and those with both inattention and hyperactivity symptoms showed significantly lower cognitive function scores in comparison to children with no ADHD symptoms. Behavioral dysfunctions in preschoolers may be associated with impairment of cognitive functions.
Villegas, S; Ivanovic, R; Pérez, H; Almagià, A; Urrutia, M S; Rodríguez, M del P; Larrain, C; Ivanovic, D
The impact of prenatal nutritional status, assessed through birth weight (BW) and their effects in the short, medium and long-term on nutritional status, cognitive development and job status in the adult life, has been a problem of interest for several researchers; as regards, some of these report a positive and significant association between these variables and others do not find any relation. Children with insufficient, low or very low BW despite the early more deteriorate nutritional status should present higher risk for brain maturation, failure cognitive development and lowered head circumference which implies both lowered brain volume and intellectual development. In the short and medium-term, this situation damages the learning process at school-age, while in the long-term this might condition the quality of jobs. At present, the body of knowledge pinpoints that findings related to these associations is not conclusive verifying a great controversy in these matters. This review article has the purpose of analyzing the current evidence, in order to stimulate research about to these aspects which are relevant for child development and their future life.
Ho, Yi-Te; Kao, Tung-Wei; Peng, Tao-Chun; Liaw, Fang-Yih; Yang, Hui-Fang; Sun, Yu-Shan; Chang, Yaw-Wen; Chen, Wei-Liang
Abstract Preserving physical and cognitive function becomes an important issue as people age. A growing number of studies have found that the correlation between body mass index (BMI) and cognitive function changes in different age groups. It is obvious that higher educational status is linked to higher cognitive function in terms of numerous risk factors that influence cognitive function. This study aimed to investigate the interplay between obesity and cognitive function categorized by diff...
Nelson, Peter T.; Alafuzoff, Irina; Bigio, Eileen H.; Bouras, Constantin; Braak, Heiko; Cairns, Nigel J.; Castellani, Rudolph J.; Crain, Barbara J.; Davies, Peter; Del Tredici, Kelly; Duyckaerts, Charles; Frosch, Matthew P.; Haroutunian, Vahram; Hof, Patrick R.; Hulette, Christine M.; Hyman, Bradley T.; Iwatsubo, Takeshi; Jellinger, Kurt A.; Jicha, Gregory A.; Kövari, Enikö; Kukull, Walter A.; Leverenz, James B.; Love, Seth; Mackenzie, Ian R.; Mann, David M.; Masliah, Eliezer; McKee, Ann C.; Montine, Thomas J.; Morris, John C.; Schneider, Julie A.; Sonnen, Joshua A.; Thal, Dietmar R.; Trojanowski, John Q.; Troncoso, Juan C.; Wisniewski, Thomas; Woltjer, Randall L.; Beach, Thomas G.
Clinicopathologic correlation studies are critically important for the field of Alzheimer disease (AD) research. Studies on human subjects with autopsy confirmation entail numerous potential biases that affect both their general applicability and the validity of the correlations. Many sources of data variability can weaken the apparent correlation between cognitive status and AD neuropathologic changes. Indeed, most persons in advanced old age have significant non-AD brain lesions that may alter cognition independently of AD. Worldwide research efforts have evaluated thousands of human subjects to assess the causes of cognitive impairment in the elderly, and these studies have been interpreted in different ways. We review the literature focusing on the correlation of AD neuropathologic changes (i.e. β-amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles) with cognitive impairment. We discuss the various patterns of brain changes that have been observed in elderly individuals to provide a perspective for understanding AD clinicopathologic correlation and conclude that evidence from many independent research centers strongly supports the existence of a specific disease, as defined by the presence of Aβ plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. Although Aβ plaques may play a key role in AD pathogenesis, the severity of cognitive impairment correlates best with the burden of neocortical neurofibrillary tangles. PMID:22487856
Alford, Elizabeth L.; Wheless, James W.
Generalized convulsive status epilepticus (GCSE) is one of the most common neurologic emergencies and can be associated with significant morbidity and mortality if not treated promptly and aggressively. Management of GCSE is staged and generally involves the use of life support measures, identification and management of underlying causes, and rapid initiation of anticonvulsants. The purpose of this article is to review and evaluate published reports regarding the treatment of impending, established, refractory, and super-refractory GCSE in pediatric patients. PMID:26380568
Serper, Marina; Patzer, Rachel E; Curtis, Laura M; Smith, Samuel G; O'Conor, Rachel; Baker, David W; Wolf, Michael S
Objective To investigate whether previously noted associations between health literacy and functional health status might be explained by cognitive function. Data Sources/Study Setting Health Literacy and Cognition in Older Adults (“LitCog,” prospective study funded by National Institute on Aging). Data presented are from interviews conducted among 784 adults, ages 55–74 years receiving care at an academic general medicine clinic or one of four federally qualified health centers in Chicago from 2008 to 2010. Study Design Study participants completed structured, in-person interviews administered by trained research assistants. Data Collection Health literacy was measured using the Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults, Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine, and Newest Vital Sign. Cognitive function was assessed using measures of long-term and working memory, processing speed, reasoning, and verbal ability. Functional health was assessed with SF-36 physical health summary scale and Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System short form subscales for depression and anxiety. Principal Findings All health literacy measures were significantly correlated with all cognitive domains. In multivariable analyses, inadequate health literacy was associated with worse physical health and more depressive symptoms. After adjusting for cognitive abilities, associations between health literacy, physical health, and depressive symptoms were attenuated and no longer significant. Conclusions Cognitive function explains a significant proportion of the associations between health literacy, physical health, and depression among older adults. Interventions to reduce literacy disparities in health care should minimize the cognitive burden in behaviors patients must adopt to manage personal health. PMID:24476068
Ferdous, Tamanna; Cederholm, Tommy; Kabir, Zarina Nahar; Hamadani, Jena Derakhshani; Wahlin, Ake
To investigate the association between nutritional status and general and specific (fluid and crystallized) cognitive functioning in a group of older people living in a rural area in Bangladesh. Cross-sectional study. Matlab, Bangladesh. Four hundred fifty-seven randomly selected persons aged 60 and older (mean age 69.5 +/- 6.8), 55% female. Nutritional status was evaluated using a modified form of the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA). General cognitive function was assessed using the Bangla Adaptation of the Mini-Mental State Examination, and a word synonym test was used to test semantic memory function (a crystallized ability). To assess cognitive processing speed (a fluid ability), "cross balls" and "complete boxes" tests (scores/time unit) were used. Clinical diagnoses were registered. Structured questionnaires were used to assess demographic and socioeconomic status of the participants. Twenty-six percent of the participants were undernourished, and 62% were at risk of malnutrition according to the MNA. The MNA scores were significantly lower in women than in men (P=.01). Women performed worse than men in all three cognitive tasks (Pperformance was independently associated with older age, female sex, illiteracy, visual impairment, severity of disease, and depressive symptoms. There were significant associations between better nutritional status and better cognitive performance tests of general ability and processing speed, whereas semantic memory appeared to be less affected. The association between nutritional status and cognitive function involves general and specific cognitive abilities, with fluid ability seeming to be affected but crystalized functions being relatively spared.
von Stumm, Sophie
The current study tests if the type of children's daily main meal (slow versus fast food) mediates the association of socioeconomic status (SES) with cognitive ability and cognitive growth in childhood. A Scottish birth cohort (Growing Up in Scotland) was assessed at ages 3 (N = 4512) and 5 years (N = 3833) on cognitive ability (i.e. vocabulary…
Clarke, Robert; Birks, Jacqueline; Nexo, Ebba
BACKGROUND: Elevated total homocysteine (tHcy) concentrations have been associated with cognitive impairment, but it is unclear whether low vitamin B-12 or folate status is responsible for cognitive decline. OBJECTIVE: We examined the associations of cognitive decline with vitamin B-12 and folate...
Ihle, Andreas; Gouveia, Élvio R; Gouveia, Bruna R; Freitas, Duarte L; Jurema, Jefferson; Odim, Angenay P; Kliegel, Matthias
It remains unclear so far whether the role of cognitive reserve may differ between physically frail compared to less frail individuals. Therefore, the present study set out to investigate the relation of key markers of cognitive reserve to cognitive status in old age and its interplay with physical frailty in a large sample of older adults. We assessed Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) in 701 older adults. We measured grip strength as indicator of physical frailty and interviewed individuals on their education, past occupation, and cognitive leisure activity. Greater grip strength, longer education, higher cognitive level of job, and greater engaging in cognitive leisure activity were significantly related to higher MMSE scores. Moderation analyses showed that the relations of education, cognitive level of job, and cognitive leisure activity to MMSE scores were significantly larger in individuals with lower, compared to those with greater grip strength. Cognitive status in old age may more strongly depend on cognitive reserve accumulated during the life course in physically frail (compared to less frail) older adults. These findings may be explained by cross-domain compensation effects in vulnerable individuals.
Full Text Available Background: Although poorer cognitive performance has been found to be associated with anxiety, it remains unclear whether neurocognitive function affects biased cognitive processing toward emotional information. We investigated whether general cognitive function evaluated with a standard neuropsychological test predicts biased cognition, focusing on attentional bias toward threat.Methods: One hundred and five healthy young adults completed a dot-probe task measuring attentional bias and the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS measuring general cognitive function, which consists of five domains: immediate memory, visuospatial/constructional, language, attention, and delayed memory. Stepwise multiple regression analysis was performed to examine the relationships between attentional bias and cognitive function. Results: The attentional domain was the best predictor of attentional bias toward threat (β = -0.26, p = 0.006. Within the attentional domain, digit symbol coding was negatively correlated with attentional bias (r = -0.28, p = 0.005.Conclusions: The present study provides the first evidence that general attentional ability, which was assessed with a standard neuropsychological test, affects attentional bias toward threatening information. Individual cognitive profiles might be important for the measurement and modification of cognitive biases.
Firth, Joseph; Stubbs, Brendon; Vancampfort, Davy; Firth, Josh A; Large, Matthew; Rosenbaum, Simon; Hallgren, Mats; Ward, Philip B; Sarris, Jerome; Yung, Alison R
Handgrip strength may provide an easily-administered marker of cognitive functional status. However, further population-scale research examining relationships between grip strength and cognitive performance across multiple domains is needed. Additionally, relationships between grip strength and cognitive functioning in people with schizophrenia, who frequently experience cognitive deficits, has yet to be explored. Baseline data from the UK Biobank (2007-2010) was analyzed; including 475397 individuals from the general population, and 1162 individuals with schizophrenia. Linear mixed models and generalized linear mixed models were used to assess the relationship between grip strength and 5 cognitive domains (visual memory, reaction time, reasoning, prospective memory, and number memory), controlling for age, gender, bodyweight, education, and geographical region. In the general population, maximal grip strength was positively and significantly related to visual memory (coefficient [coeff] = -0.1601, standard error [SE] = 0.003), reaction time (coeff = -0.0346, SE = 0.0004), reasoning (coeff = 0.2304, SE = 0.0079), number memory (coeff = 0.1616, SE = 0.0092), and prospective memory (coeff = 0.3486, SE = 0.0092: all P reasoning (P > .1). Grip strength is significantly associated with cognitive functioning in the general population and individuals with schizophrenia, particularly for working memory and processing speed. Future research should establish directionality, examine if grip strength also predicts functional and physical health outcomes in schizophrenia, and determine whether interventions which improve muscular strength impact on cognitive and real-world functioning.
Sumowski, James F; Chiaravalloti, Nancy; Krch, Denise; Paxton, Jessica; Deluca, John
To investigate whether the cognitive reserve hypothesis helps to explain differential cognitive impairment among survivors of traumatic brain injury (TBI), whereby survivors with greater intellectual enrichment (estimated with education) are less vulnerable to cognitive impairment. Cross-sectional study. Medical rehabilitation research center. Survivors of moderate or severe TBI (n=44) and healthy controls (n=36). Not applicable. Intellectual enrichment was estimated with educational attainment. Group was defined as TBI or healthy control. Current cognitive status (processing speed, working memory, episodic memory) was evaluated with neuropsychological tasks. TBI survivors exhibited worse cognitive status than healthy persons (Peducation was positively correlated with cognitive status in TBI survivors (r=.54, Peducation (R(2) change=.036, P=.004), whereas higher education attenuated the negative impact of TBI on cognitive status. TBI survivors with lower education performed much worse than matched healthy persons, but this TBI-related performance discrepancy was attenuated at higher levels of education. Higher intellectual enrichment (estimated with education) reduces the negative effect of TBI on cognitive outcomes, thereby supporting the cognitive reserve hypothesis in persons with TBI. Future work is necessary to investigate whether intellectual enrichment can build cognitive reserve as a rehabilitative intervention in survivors of TBI. Copyright © 2013 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Custodio, Nilton; Lira, David; Herrera-Perez, Eder; Nuñez del Prado, Liza; Parodi, José; Guevara-Silva, Erik; Castro-Suarez, Sheila; Montesinos, Rosa; Cortijo, Patricia
Background/Aims Dementia is a worldwide public health problem and there are several diagnostic tools for its assessment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of the Memory Alteration Test (M@T) to discriminate between patients with early Alzheimer's disease (AD), patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (a-MCI), and subjects with a cognitively healthy status (CHS). Methods The discriminative validity was assessed in a sample of 90 patients with AD, 45 patients with a-MCI, and 180 subjects with CHS. Clinical, functional, and cognitive studies were independently performed in a blinded fashion and the gold standard diagnosis was established by consensus on the basis of these results. The test performance was assessed by means of a receiver operating characteristic curve analysis as area under the curve (AUC). Results M@T mean scores were 17.7 (SD = 5.7) in AD, 30.8 (SD = 2.3) in a-MCI, and 44.5 (SD = 3.1) in CHS. A cutoff score of 37 points had a sensitivity of 98.3% and a specificity of 97.8% to differentiate a-MCI from CHS (AUC = 0.999). A cutoff score of 27 points had a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 98.9% to differentiate mild AD from a-MCI and from CHS (AUC = 1.000). Conclusions The M@T had a high performance in the discrimination between early AD, a-MCI and CHS. PMID:25298775
Amarra, Ma Sofia V; Bongga, Demetria C; Peñano-Ho, Leticia; Cruz, Federico B; Solis, José S; Barrios, Erniel B
Until 1998, iodine deficiency was a public health problem in the Philippines. A law entitled "An Act Promoting Salt Iodization Nationwide" (ASIN) has been passed and implemented by the government to eliminate iodine deficiency. The contribution of salt iodization, as well as dietary, health, and environmental factors, to improving the intellectual performance of Filipino schoolchildren remains to be determined. The objectives of the study were to determine the relationship between iodine status and levels of psychomotor and cognitive performance in first-grade children aged 6 to 10 years, and to examine the extent to which dietary, biochemical, health, and environmental factors contribute to children's mental performance. Two hundred ninety children in six classroom sections from a public school in Manila were examined by measurement of urinary iodine excretion (UIE) and thyroid palpation. The median UIE level for each section was determined. Sixty-five children classified as iodine deficient (UIE 100 microg/L without goiter, n = 31) were given psychomotor and cognitive function tests (Bender-Gestalt and Raven's Colored Progressive Matrices). Scores from the two tests were used to determine each child's general ability percentile rank. Other variables examined were dietary intake (% RDA of nutrients ingested based on two nonconsecutive 24-hour recalls); deficiencies in iron, vitamin A, and selenium; parasitic infection; coliform contamination of drinking water; household use of iodized salt; illness in the past 2 weeks; and wasting and stunting. Children whose general ability scores were at or above the 50th percentile had higher UIE levels, but the relationship was not significant. Children from sections with higher median UIE levels had higher percentile ranks for general ability (p = .002). Backward logistic regression showed that the variance in deficient and adequate mental performance was explained by dietary intakes that met > or = 80% of the RDA for energy
Ospina, Luz H; Russo, Manuela; Nitzburg, George M; Cuesta-Diaz, Armando; Shanahan, Megan; Perez-Rodriguez, Mercedes M; Mcgrath, Meaghan; Levine, Hannah; Mulaimovic, Sandra; Burdick, Katherine E
Several studies have documented the prevalence and effects of cigarette smoking on cognition in psychotic disorders; fewer have focused on bipolar disorder (BD). Cognitive and social dysfunction are common in BD, and the severity of these deficits may be related both to illness features (e.g., current symptoms, psychosis history) and health-related behaviors (e.g., smoking, alcohol use). The current study assessed the influence of cigarette smoking on general and social cognition in a BD cohort, accounting for illness features with a focus on psychosis history. We assessed smoking status in 105 euthymic patients with BD, who completed a comprehensive battery including social (facial affect recognition, emotional problem-solving, and theory of mind) and general (the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery and executive functioning) cognitive measures. We compared smokers vs nonsmokers on cognitive performance and tested for the effects of psychosis history, premorbid intellectual functioning, substance use, and current affective symptoms. Within the nonpsychotic subgroup with BD (n=45), smokers generally outperformed nonsmokers; by contrast, for subjects with BD with a history of psychosis (n=41), nonsmokers outperformed smokers. This pattern was noted more globally using a general composite cognitive score and on social/affective measures assessing patients' ability to identify emotions of facial stimuli and solve emotional problems. Cigarette smoking differentially affects performance on both general and social cognition in patients with BD as a function of psychosis history. These results suggest that there may be at least partially divergent underlying neurobiological causes for cognitive dysfunction in patients with BD with and without psychosis. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Cowan, Richard; Hurry, Jane; Midouhas, Emily
Three relationships between learning mathematics and general cognitive ability have been hypothesized: The educational hypothesis that learning mathematics develops general cognitive skills, the psychometric hypothesis that differences in general cognitive ability cause differences in mathematical attainment, and the reciprocal influence hypothesis that developments in mathematical ability and general cognitive ability influence each other. These hypotheses are assessed with a sample of 948 children from the Twins Early Development Study who were assessed at 7, 9, and 10 years on mathematics, English, and general cognitive ability. A cross-lagged path analysis with mathematics and general cognitive ability measures supports the reciprocal influence hypothesis between 7 and 9 and between 9 and 10. A second analysis including English assessments only provides evidence of a reciprocal relationship between 7 and 9. Statement of Contribution What is already known on this subject? The correlations between mathematical attainment, literacy, and measures of general cognitive skills are well established. The role of literacy in developing general cognitive skills is emerging. What the present study adds? Mathematics contributes to the development of general cognitive skills. General cognitive ability contributes to mathematical development between 7 and 10. These findings support the hypothesis of reciprocal influence between mathematics and general cognitive ability, at least between 7 and 9. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.
Beglinger, Leigh J; Duff, Kevin; Allison, Jessica; Theriault, Danielle; O'Rourke, Justin J F; Leserman, Anne; Paulsen, Jane S
Huntington disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative disease associated with cognitive, motor, and psychiatric deterioration over time. Although there is currently no cure for HD, there has been a surge of clinical trials available to patients with HD over the past 5 years. However, cognitive measures have generally been lacking from these trials. A brief, repeatable neuropsychological battery is needed to assess cognitive endpoints. The Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS) may be useful for assessing change in interventional studies or for clinical monitoring. A total of 38 patients with HD were assessed using the RBANS, other cognitive tests, and the standardized HD battery (Unified Huntington's Disease Rating Scale, UHDRS) at two clinic visits approximately 16 months apart. The RBANS Attention Index, as well as individual subtest scores on Coding, Digit Span, List Recognition, Figure Copy, and Figure Recall all declined significantly over this interval. Performance on the UHDRS cognitive tests (Symbol Digit Modalities; Stroop Color, and Stroop Word) also declined, as did functional capacity. Results suggest that cognitive changes were detected both on established cognitive tasks used in HD research and on the RBANS in patients with measurable functional decline. The RBANS provided additional information about other cognitive domains affected (e.g., memory) and may be a useful measure for tracking longitudinal change.
Ritchie, Stuart J.; Bates, Timothy C.; Deary, Ian J.
Previous research has indicated that education influences cognitive development, but it is unclear what, precisely, is being improved. Here, we tested whether education is associated with cognitive test score improvements via domain-general effects on general cognitive ability ("g"), or via domain-specific effects on particular cognitive…
Puigbo, Jordi-Ysard; Pumarola, Albert; Angulo, Cecilio; Tellez, Ricardo
A humanoid service robot equipped with a set of simple action skills including navigating, grasping, recognising objects or people, among others, is considered in this paper. By using those skills the robot should complete a voice command expressed in natural language encoding a complex task (defined as the concatenation of a number of those basic skills). As a main feature, no traditional planner has been used to decide skills to be activated, as well as in which sequence. Instead, the SOAR cognitive architecture acts as the reasoner by selecting which action the robot should complete, addressing it towards the goal. Our proposal allows to include new goals for the robot just by adding new skills (without the need to encode new plans). The proposed architecture has been tested on a human-sized humanoid robot, REEM, acting as a general purpose service robot.
Clarke, Robert; Birks, Jacqueline; Nexo, Ebba
remained significant. CONCLUSIONS: Low vitamin B-12 status was associated with more rapid cognitive decline. Randomized trials are required to determine the relevance of vitamin B-12 supplementation for prevention of dementia. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-Nov......BACKGROUND: Elevated total homocysteine (tHcy) concentrations have been associated with cognitive impairment, but it is unclear whether low vitamin B-12 or folate status is responsible for cognitive decline. OBJECTIVE: We examined the associations of cognitive decline with vitamin B-12 and folate...... status in a longitudinal cohort study performed from 1993 to 2003 in Oxford, United Kingdom. DESIGN: Cognitive function was assessed with the Mini-Mental State Examination on >/=3 occasions during 10 y and related to serum concentrations of vitamin B-12, holotranscobalamin (holoTC), tHcy, methylmalonic...
Deste, Giacomo; De Peri, Luca
Objectives. This study is aimed to review the current scientific literature on cognitive remediation in schizophrenia. In particular, the main structured protocols of cognitive remediation developed for schizophrenia are presented and the main results reported in recent meta-analyses are summarized. Possible benefits of cognitive remediation in the early course of schizophrenia and in subjects at risk for psychosis are also discussed. Methods. Electronic search of the relevant studies which appeared in the PubMed database until April 2013 has been performed and all the meta-analyses and review articles on cognitive remediation in schizophrenia have been also taken into account. Results. Numerous intervention programs have been designed, applied, and evaluated, with the objective of improving cognition and social functioning in schizophrenia. Several quantitative reviews have established that cognitive remediation is effective in reducing cognitive deficits and in improving functional outcome of the disorder. Furthermore, the studies available support the usefulness of cognitive remediation when applied in the early course of schizophrenia and even in subjects at risk of the disease. Conclusions. Cognitive remediation is a promising approach to improve real-world functioning in schizophrenia and should be considered a key strategy for early intervention in the psychoses. PMID:24455253
Mahmood, Nurul Huda; Yilmaz, Ferkan; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim
For meaningful co-existence of cognitive radios with primary system, it is imperative that the cognitive radio system is aware of how much interference it generates at the primary receivers. This can be done through statistical modeling
A cross-sectional study was conducted between July and December 1992 to assess the nutritional status, cognitive development, and mother-child interactions in a group of 153 Nicaraguan refugee children living in Costa Rica. Nutritional status was assessed using anthropometric indices. Cognitive development was assessed with the Bayley Scale of Mental Development. Mother-child interaction was assessed with the Nursing Child Assessment Teaching Scale and Caldwell's Home Observation and Measurem...
Koekkoek, Paula S.; Biessels, Geert Jan; Kooistra, Minke; Janssen, Jolien; Kappelle, L. Jaap; Rutten, Guy E H M
Aims Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is associated with cognitive impairment. We examined whether undiagnosed cognitive impairment in T2DM-patients is associated with a reduced health status and depressive symptoms. Methods In an observational study, 225 T2DM-patients aged < 70 years were examined at their
The purpose of this study was to examine the impact factor of cognitive psychology journals indexed in the Science and Social Sciences edition of "Journal Citation Reports" ("JCR") database over a period of 10 consecutive years. Cognitive psychology journals were indexed in 11 different subject categories of the database. Their mean impact factor…
Partsinevelos, Panagiotis; Papadogiorgaki, Maria
research scheme comprises of the combination of SOM with the variations of other widely used generalization algorithms. For instance, an adaptation of the Douglas-Peucker line simplification method in 3D data is used in order to reduce the initial nodes, while maintaining their actual coordinates. Furthermore, additional methods are deployed, aiming to corroborate and verify the significance of each node, such as mathematical algorithms exploiting the pixel's nearest neighbors. Finally, besides the quantitative evaluation of error vs information preservation in a DTM, cognitive inputs from geoscience experts are incorporated in order to test, fine-tune and advance our algorithm. Under the described strategy that incorporates mechanical, topology, semantic and cognitive restrains, results demonstrate the necessity to integrate these characteristics in describing raster DTM surfaces. Acknowledgements: This work is partially supported under the framework of the "Cooperation 2011" project ATLANTAS (11_SYN_6_1937) funded from the Operational Program "Competitiveness and Entrepreneurship" (co-funded by the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF)) and managed by the Greek General Secretariat for Research and Technology.
Validation of the Telephone Interview of Cognitive Status and Telephone Montreal Cognitive Assessment Against Detailed Cognitive Testing and Clinical Diagnosis of Mild Cognitive Impairment After Stroke.
Zietemann, Vera; Kopczak, Anna; Müller, Claudia; Wollenweber, Frank Arne; Dichgans, Martin
Assessment of cognitive status poststroke is recommended by guidelines but follow-up can often not be done in person. The Telephone Interview of Cognitive Status (TICS) and the Telephone Montreal Cognitive Assessment (T-MoCA) are considered useful screening instruments. Yet, evidence to define optimal cut-offs for mild cognitive impairment (MCI) after stroke is limited. We studied 105 patients enrolled in the prospective DEDEMAS study (Determinants of Dementia After Stroke; NCT01334749). Follow-up visits at 6, 12, 36, and 60 months included comprehensive neuropsychological testing and the Clinical Dementia Rating scale, both of which served as reference standards. The original TICS and T-MoCA were obtained in 2 separate telephone interviews each separated from the personal visits by 1 week (1 before and 1 after the visit) with the order of interviews (TICS versus T-MoCA) alternating between subjects. Area under the receiver-operating characteristic curves was determined. Ninety-six patients completed both the face-to-face visits and the 2 interviews. Area under the receiver-operating characteristic curves ranged between 0.76 and 0.83 for TICS and between 0.73 and 0.94 for T-MoCA depending on MCI definition. For multidomain MCI defined by multiple-tests definition derived from comprehensive neuropsychological testing optimal sensitivities and specificities were achieved at cut-offs <36 (TICS) and <18 (T-MoCA). Validity was lower using single-test definition, and cut-offs were higher compared with multiple-test definitions. Using Clinical Dementia Rating as the reference, optimal cut-offs for MCI were <36 (TICS) and approximately 19 (T-MoCA). Both the TICS and T-MoCA are valid screening tools poststroke, particularly for multidomain MCI using multiple-test definition. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.
White, Judith B
When everyone in a group shares a common social identity except one individual, the one who is different from the majority has solo status. Solo status increases one's visibility and performance pressure, which may result in stress. Stress has divergent effects on performance, and individuals' response to stressful situations is predicted by their cognitive appraisal (challenge or threat) of the situation. Two experiments test the hypothesis that cognitive appraisal moderates the effect of solo status on performance. Experiment 1 finds that at relatively high appraisal levels (resources exceed demands), solo status improves men's and women's performance; at relatively low appraisal levels, solo status hurts performance. Experiment 2 replicates this effect for solo status based on minimal group assignment. Results suggest that for individuals who feel challenged and not threatened by their work, it may help to be a solo.
Strauss, Esther; MacDonald, Stuart W S; Hunter, Michael; Moll, Alex; Hultsch, David F
Intraindividual variability of physical status and affect/beliefs as well as their relations with cognition were examined in 3 groups of older adults: healthy elderly, individuals with a nonneurological health-related disturbance (arthritis) and people with neurological compromise (dementia). The findings showed that greater inconsistency in physical performance was observed in groups characterized by central nervous system dysfunction. By contrast, fluctuations in affect appeared to reflect other more transient sources, such as pain. In general, increased inconsistency in non-cognitive domains was associated with poorer cognitive function. There were cross-domain links between inconsistency in physical functioning and fluctuations in cognitive performance, although the nature of the links depended largely upon the neurological status of the individuals. Considered together, the result indicated that measures of cognitive as well as physical variability are important behavioral markers of neurological integrity.
Lin, Jiahui; Kacker, Ashutosh; Trujillo, Oscar; Stewart, Michael G
This article focuses on the hiring trends of academic general otolaryngology practices to clarify the status of academic general otolaryngology in the face of today's changing medical landscape. Cross-sectional study. We conducted a survey to evaluate past, present, and projected hiring issues in academic otolaryngology, specifically related to general otolaryngology. Surveys were sent via e-mail to all academic chairpersons of accredited otolaryngology residency programs in the United States. Data included faculty appointments, work hours, clinical and research roles, academic productivity, patient load, promotions, and criteria for future hires. The response rate was 34.3%. On average, general otolaryngologists (generalists) represented 17% of otolaryngology faculty in academic practices. Whereas most generalists were employed as assistant professors (65%), nearly half of promotions in recent years were given to generalists (49%). Between 2009 and 2014, there was an average of six new hires per academic otolaryngology practice (range: 1-13); of these new hires, 21% were generalists. Chairpersons estimated that in the next 5 years they would hire an average of three new otolaryngologists per practice (range: 0-7), of whom 39% would be generalists. Although 82% of chairpersons reported an increase in subspecialty hires, 94% reported that they would also require the same or increasing numbers of generalists. Despite the increase in subspecialization in academic otolaryngology, the role of general otolaryngologists in academic practices will continue to be important and perhaps will increase. N/A. Laryngoscope, 126:1995-1998, 2016. © 2015 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.
Full Text Available The objective of this study is to examine the association between impulsivity and weight status in a large sample of the adult general population in France, and the influence of gender on this relationship. A total of 11,929 men and 39,114 women participating in the NutriNet-Santé cohort were selected in this cross-sectional analysis. The Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11 was used to assess impulsivity. Weight and height were self-reported. The association between impulsivity and BMI was estimated using logistic regressions adjusted for socio-demographic and lifestyle factors. Individuals with high impulsivity levels (BIS-11 total score >71 were more likely to be obese (Odds Ratio (OR = 1.80, 95% Confidence Interval (CI: 1.39, 2.33 in men; OR = 1.30, 95% CI: 1.15, 1.48 in women compared to individuals in the average range of impulsivity. The strongest associations between impulsivity and obesity were observed in men, where highly impulsive participants were more likely to be class III obese (BMI > 40 kg/m2 (OR = 3.57, 95% CI: 1.86, 6.85. This large sample analysis supports the existence of a relationship between impulsivity and weight status and the importance of psychological factors in the prevention of obesity.
Bénard, Marc; Camilleri, Géraldine M; Etilé, Fabrice; Méjean, Caroline; Bellisle, France; Reach, Gérard; Hercberg, Serge; Péneau, Sandrine
The objective of this study is to examine the association between impulsivity and weight status in a large sample of the adult general population in France, and the influence of gender on this relationship. A total of 11,929 men and 39,114 women participating in the NutriNet-Santé cohort were selected in this cross-sectional analysis. The Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11) was used to assess impulsivity. Weight and height were self-reported. The association between impulsivity and BMI was estimated using logistic regressions adjusted for socio-demographic and lifestyle factors. Individuals with high impulsivity levels (BIS-11 total score >71) were more likely to be obese (Odds Ratio (OR) = 1.80, 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.39, 2.33 in men; OR = 1.30, 95% CI: 1.15, 1.48 in women) compared to individuals in the average range of impulsivity. The strongest associations between impulsivity and obesity were observed in men, where highly impulsive participants were more likely to be class III obese (BMI > 40 kg/m²) (OR = 3.57, 95% CI: 1.86, 6.85). This large sample analysis supports the existence of a relationship between impulsivity and weight status and the importance of psychological factors in the prevention of obesity.
Tada, Akio; Miura, Hiroko
A substantial number of elderly people suffer from cognitive impairment and dementia, which are considered to have various risk factors, including masticatory dysfunction; however, the association between mastication and cognition is inconclusive. The objectives of this systematic review were to provide an overview of the literature on (1) the association between mastication and cognitive function and (2) the association between mastication and dementia incidence, in elderly people. Searches were conducted on five electronic databases (PubMed, EMBASE, CINHL, Cochrane Library, and Pro Quest) and publications were selected that met the following criteria: published between 2005 and 2015, written in English, and assessed associations between mastication and cognitive function, cognitive decline and dementia among population over 40 years old. The included publications were analyzed for study design, main conclusions, and strength of evidence by two reviewers who screened all abstracts and full-text articles, abstracted data and performed quality assessments by using a critical appraisal tool. A total of 33 articles (22 cross-sectional, and 11 prospective cohort studies) were evaluated. Poorer mastication was associated with lower cognitive function in 15 of the 17 cross-sectional studies and steeper decline in 5 of the 6 prospective studies. Poorer mastication was one of significant risk factors for having dementia or mild memory impairment (MMI) in 4 of 5 cross-sectional studies and for the incidence of dementia or MMI in 4 of 5 prospective studies. Most studies point to a positive association between mastication and cognitive function, including dementia among elderly people. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Irina V. Gatckikh
Full Text Available Background: Cognitive impairment is a common complication of type 2 diabetes, greatly reduce the quality of life and daily functioning of patients, as well as have an impact on their compliance to therapy. Aim: Explore the nature and frequency of cognitive impairment in patients with type 2 diabetes, their relation to carbohydrate metabolism. Materials and methods: The study involved 113 patients with type 2 diabetes aged 40–70 years, with disease duration of more than 12 months; Control group consisted of 33 persons, stateless persons with type 2 diabetes, matched by age, sex, level of education, the presence of cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension and coronary heart disease. The complex included a survey of clinical and laboratory tests, instrumental, neuropsychological testing. To screen for cognitive impairment used by the Montreal Cognitive Assessment Scale (MоСа test, for the study of the frontal functions FAB (frontal dysfunction battery. Results: The study of cognitive impairment were diagnosed in 53,1 ± 9,2% of patients with type 2 diabetes, which is statistically significantly higher than in those in the control group 15,2 ± 12,2%. In patients with type 2 diabetes prevailed violations fronto-subcortical type with a reduction in short-term memory function, attention and constructive praxis. Cognitive impairment correlated with indices of carbohydrate metabolism (HbA1c, fasting glucose, disease duration 7 [5, 12] years and the patient's. Conclusions: These data confirm the impact of hyperglycemia as a major pathogenic factor and duration of the disease on the formation and progression of cognitive impairment in patients with type 2 diabetes.
Notten, N.; Bol, Th.; van de Werfhorst, H.G.; Ganzeboom, H.B.G.
This article examines educational stratification in highbrow cultural participation. There are two contrasting explanations of why cultural participation is stratified. The status hypothesis predicts that people come to appreciate particular forms of art because it expresses their belonging to a
Notten, N.; Lancee, B.; van de Werfhorst, H.G.; Ganzeboom, H.B.G.
This article examines educational stratification in highbrow cultural participation. There are two contrasting explanations of why cultural participation is stratified. The status hypothesis predicts that people come to appreciate particular forms of art because it expresses their belonging to a
Pereira, Alessandra Marques; Bruni, Oliviero; Ferri, Raffaele; Nunes, Magda Lahorgue
The aims of this study were to evaluate the sleep habits of children with drug resistant epilepsy and to correlate sleep abnormalities with epilepsy and level of intelligence. Twenty five subjects with drug resistant epilepsy (14 males, age range 2-16.4 years) were recruited for this study. A control group was formed by 23 normal children. Two instruments to assess sleep habits were administered to the patients with epilepsy: a questionnaire on sleep habits (to preschool children) and a questionnaire on sleep behavior (for children aged more than seven years old); a cognitive test (Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-WISC) was also performed. Patients underwent a complete polysomnographic study and sleep parameters, including CAP, were analyzed and correlated according to cognitive-behavioral measures in children with epilepsy. Children with drug-resistant epilepsy and severe mental retardation showed sleep abnormalities such as low sleep efficiency, high percentage of wakefulness after sleep onset, reduced slow wave sleep, and reduced REM sleep. Sleep microstructure evaluated by means of CAP analysis showed a decrease in A1 index during N3 in patients with more severe cognitive impairment. Children with epilepsy and cognitive impairment (n=10) had higher Sleep Behavior Questionnaire for Children (SBQC) total scores (65.60 ± 18.56) compared to children with epilepsy and normal IQ (50.00 ± 10.40), pintellectual disability. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Wong, Jaclyn S; Hsieh, Ning
Health limitations can change older adults' social relationships and social engagement. Yet, researchers rarely examine how the disability of one's spouse might affect one's social relationships, even though such life strains are often experienced as a couple. This study investigates the association between functional and cognitive limitations and social experience in a dyadic context. We use actor-partner interdependence models to analyze the partner data from 953 heterosexual couples in Wave II (2010-2011) of the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project. One spouse's functional and cognitive health is associated with the other's relationship quality, but the pattern varies by gender. Husbands' functional limitations are associated with lower marital support and higher marital strain in wives, but wives' functional limitations are related to lower family and friendship strain in husbands. Husbands' cognitive impairment also predicts higher family and friend support in wives. Findings support a gendered dyadic relationship between health and social life and highlight women's caregiver role and better connection with family and friends. There are also differences between experiencing cognitive and physical limitations in couples. Finally, mild health impairment sometimes shows stronger effects on social relationships than severe impairment, suggesting adaptation to health transition. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Cook, Sarah E; Marsiske, Michael; McCoy, Karin J M
Many screening tools for detecting cognitive decline require in-person assessment, which is often not cost-effective or feasible for those with physical limitations. The Modified Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status has been used for screening dementia, but little is known about its usefulness in detecting amnestic mild cognitive impairment. Community-dwelling participants (mean age=74.9, mean education = 16.1 years) were administered the Modified Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status during initial screening and subsequently given a multidomain neuropsychological battery. Participants were classified by consensus panel as cognitively normal older adult (noMCI, N=54) or amnestic mild cognitive impairment (N=17) based on neuropsychological performance and Clinical Dementia Rating Scale interview, but independent of Modified Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status score. There was a significant difference between groups in Modified Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status score (t=8.04, PTICS-M alone correctly classified 85.9% of participants into their respective diagnostic classification (sensitivity=82.4%, specificity=87.0%). Receiver operating characteristics analysis resulted in cutoff score of 34 that optimized sensitivity and specificity of amnestic mild cognitive impairment classification. The Modified Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status is a brief, cost-effective screening measure for identifying those with and without amnestic mild cognitive impairment.
Meng, Xiangfei; D'Arcy, Carl
Although cognitive impairment is widely accepted as a leading indicator of dementia, influences of cognitive status on incident dementia and mortality remain unclear. The present study investigated the morbidity hazard associated with cognitive impairment and the mortality hazard associated with dementia in comparison to cognitively intact seniors. A population-based sample of 2914 seniors with clinically diagnosed cognitive status at Wave I (1991-1992) of the Canadian Study of Health and Aging (CSHA) were followed-up 5 years later (1996-1997). At Wave I, there were 921 cognitively intact, 861 cognitively impaired but not demented (CIND), and 1132 seniors with dementia, respectively. The primary outcome measures 5 years later were being cognitively intact, CIND, dementia and death. Kaplan-Meier estimates, log-rank tests, and Cox's proportional models were used in the analyses. Respondents with CIND at Wave I were 2.191 times (95%CI 1.706-2.814) more likely to have dementia 5 years later than cognitively intact seniors. After adjusting for confounding socio-demographic and health status factors, the odds ratio was reduced to 2.147 times (95%CI 1.662-2.774), but remained significant. Respondents with CIND had a mortality rate 1.869 times (95%CI 1.602-2.179) and seniors with dementia 3.362 times greater (95%CI 2.929-3.860) than that of seniors who were cognitively intact. After controlling the confounders, the odds remained significant at 1.576 (95%CI 1.348-1.843) for CIND respondents and 2.415 (95%CI 2.083-2.800) for seniors with dementia. CIND increases both the risk of dementia and mortality. Early intervention with CIND is warranted to reduce both dementia incidence and mortality. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Passolunghi, Maria Chiara; Cargnelutti, Elisa; Pastore, Massimiliano
Background: Math learning is a complex process that entails a wide range of cognitive abilities to be fulfilled. There is sufficient evidence that both general and specific cognitive skills assume a fundamental role, despite the absence of shared consensus about the relative extent of their involvement. Moreover, regarding general abilities, there…
Newman, J P
We describe a new brief neurocognitive assessment instrument, Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination, which is built around the shell of the Mini-Mental State Examination but which assesses a wider range of cognitive functions specific to various dementing diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and frontotemporal dementia. A Hebrew-language adaptation of the instrument is also provided.
Simmons, Sandra F; Cleeton, Patrick; Porchak, Tracy
Most nursing home (NH) residents are not interviewed about their satisfaction with the food service due to cognitive impairment. The purpose of this study was to determine the proportion of NH residents able to complete a structured interview to assess food complaints when no cognitive status criteria were used to exclude residents from interview. Eighty-nine percent of 163 residents were able and willing to complete the interview, and 65% expressed complaints about the NH food service. Residents who expressed complaints ate less of their meals, had less cognitive impairment, and had more depressive symptoms than those who did not. This study shows that the majority of NH residents are able to reliably answer questions about their satisfaction with the food service, regardless of cognitive status, and the presence of complaints is related to poor meal intake and depressive symptoms.
Full Text Available Leukoaraiosis is a change in brain white matter with characteristic manifestation in MR and CT head scans. Common leukoaraiosis risk factors include aging and arterial hypertension. A quarter of symptomatic ischemic infarcts belongs to small blood vessel disease group and could be presented as lacunar infarcts. These two crucial pathophysiological mechanisms are in the root of cognitive dysfunction related to small blood vessel disease. 60 lacunar infarct patients were examined and parameters for groups with and with-out leukoaraiosis were determined. It was found that leukoaraiosis incidence was highest in the group of women older than 70. Neurological assessment was scored on NIH-NINDS scale, functional status was scored with Barthelo index, and cognitive status was determined using Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE and Alzheimer Disease Assessment Scale Late (ADAS-L. Correlation analysis of these parameters on significance level of *p<0.05, **p<0.01, suggests decrease in neurological status and cognitive performance.
Mohammad Reza Shahbazi
Conclusion: Disability in older people had a significant relationship with their depression, cognitive status, and morale. Thus, the degree of their disability can be lowered by prevention and early treatment of depression, promotion of memory, delaying cognitive disorders, as well as providing morale enhancement programs, creating a positive attitude toward old age, and increasing life satisfaction in older people.
Full Text Available A cross-sectional study was conducted between July and December 1992 to assess the nutritional status, cognitive development, and mother-child interactions in a group of 153 Nicaraguan refugee children living in Costa Rica. Nutritional status was assessed using anthropometric indices. Cognitive development was assessed with the Bayley Scale of Mental Development. Mother-child interaction was assessed with the Nursing Child Assessment Teaching Scale and Caldwell's Home Observation and Measurement of the Environment Inventory. Correlational analysis was performed to examine the relationship between child cognitive development scores and mother-child interaction measures and also between anthropometric measures and child cognitive development scores. Multiple regression analysis was performed to evaluate the relationship between the mother-child interaction measures and cognitive development scores, after adjusting by anthropometric measures. Thirty-three percent of the children were below the 10th percentile for height-for-age. There was no significant correlation between the total amount of mother-child interaction and child cognitive development. However, certain aspects of the home environment correlated with cognitive development, specifically the manner in which the mother responded emotionally and verbally to her child, and the organization of the child's physical and temporal environment. Multiple regression analysis revealed that the manner in which the mother responded and the child's weight-for-height were important in predicting child cognitive development. The child's weight-for-height and certain aspects of the home environment played an important role in the cognitive development of this refugee population. The findings indicate the importance of assessing nutritional status in this refugee population.
Duckman, Robert; Tulloch, Deborah
Relationships between infant visual skills and the development of object permanence and expressive language skills were examined with 31 infants in three groups: visually typical, visually atypical, and Down Syndrome. Measures used to evaluate visual status were: forced preferential looking, optokinetic nystagmus, and behavioral. Object permanence…
Hanna-Pladdy, Brenda; Gajewski, Byron
Studies evaluating the impact of modifiable lifestyle factors on cognition offer potential insights into sources of cognitive aging variability. Recently, we reported an association between extent of musical instrumental practice throughout the life span (greater than 10 years) on preserved cognitive functioning in advanced age. These findings raise the question of whether there are training-induced brain changes in musicians that can transfer to non-musical cognitive abilities to allow for compensation of age-related cognitive declines. However, because of the relationship between engagement in general lifestyle activities and preserved cognition, it remains unclear whether these findings are specifically driven by musical training or the types of individuals likely to engage in greater activities in general. The current study controlled for general activity level in evaluating cognition between musicians and nomusicians. Also, the timing of engagement (age of acquisition, past versus recent) was assessed in predictive models of successful cognitive aging. Seventy age and education matched older musicians (>10 years) and non-musicians (ages 59-80) were evaluated on neuropsychological tests and general lifestyle activities. Musicians scored higher on tests of phonemic fluency, verbal working memory, verbal immediate recall, visuospatial judgment, and motor dexterity, but did not differ in other general leisure activities. Partition analyses were conducted on significant cognitive measures to determine aspects of musical training predictive of enhanced cognition. The first partition analysis revealed education best predicted visuospatial functions in musicians, followed by recent musical engagement which offset low education. In the second partition analysis, early age of musical acquisition (memory in musicians, while analyses for other measures were not predictive. Recent and past musical activity, but not general lifestyle activities, predicted variability
Xing, Yingshou; Qin, Yi; Jing, Wei; Zhang, Yunxiang; Wang, Yanran; Guo, Daqing; Xia, Yang; Yao, Dezhong
Patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) often display cognitive deficits. However, current epilepsy therapeutic interventions mainly aim at how to reduce the frequency and degree of epileptic seizures. Recovery of cognitive impairment is not attended enough, resulting in the lack of effective approaches in this respect. In the pilocarpine-induced temporal lobe epilepsy rat model, memory impairment has been classically reported. Here we evaluated spatial cognition changes at different epileptogenesis stages in rats of this model and explored the effects of long-term Mozart music exposure on the recovery of cognitive ability. Our results showed that pilocarpine rats suffered persisting cognitive impairment during epileptogenesis. Interestingly, we found that Mozart music exposure can significantly enhance cognitive ability in epileptic rats, and music intervention may be more effective for improving cognitive function during the early stages after Status epilepticus. These findings strongly suggest that Mozart music may help to promote the recovery of cognitive damage due to seizure activities, which provides a novel intervention strategy to diminish cognitive deficits in TLE patients.
Frith, Emily; Loprinzi, Paul D
We evaluated the association between physical activity and cognitive function among a national sample of the broader U.S. adult population, with consideration by social risk. Data from the 1999-2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) were used to identify 2031 older adults, ages 60-85. Social risk was classified by measuring four NHANES variables, namely poverty level, education, minority status, and social living status, which were graded on a scale of 0-4, with higher scores corresponding with higher social risk. The Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST) was used to assess cognitive function. Physical activity was assessed via a validated self-report questionnaire. After adjustments, meeting physical activity guidelines (vs not) was associated with greater cognitive function (β = 3.0, 95% CI [1.5, 4.4], p cognitive function. Meeting physical activity guidelines (vs. not) was not associated with higher cognitive function among those with a social risk score of of 3 (β = -0.01; 95% CI [-6.3, 6.4], p = 0.99) or a social risk score of 4 (β = -6.8, 95% CI [-15.7, 2.0], p = 0.12). In this national sample of older adults, meeting physical activity guidelines, and degree of social risk were independently associated with cognitive function. However, physical activity was not associated with cognitive function among older adults with the highest degree of social risk.
Felipe Q. da Luz
Full Text Available Dysfunctional cognitions may be associated with unhealthy eating behaviors seen in individuals with obesity. However, dysfunctional cognitions commonly occur in individuals with poor mental health independently of weight. We examined whether individuals with morbid obesity differed with regard to dysfunctional cognitions when compared to individuals of normal weight, when mental health status was controlled for. 111 participants—53 with morbid obesity and 58 of normal weight—were assessed with the Mini-Mental State Examination, Young Schema Questionnaire, Cognitive Distortions Questionnaire, Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale, and a Demographic and Clinical Questionnaire. Participants with morbid obesity showed higher scores in one (insufficient self-control/self-discipline of 15 early maladaptive schemas and in one (labeling of 15 cognitive distortions compared to participants of normal weight. The difference between groups for insufficient self-control/self-discipline was not significant when mental health status was controlled for. Participants with morbid obesity showed more severe anxiety than participants of normal weight. Our findings did not show clinically meaningful differences in dysfunctional cognitions between participants with morbid obesity or of normal weight. Dysfunctional cognitions presented by individuals with morbid obesity are likely related to their individual mental health and not to their weight.
da Luz, Felipe Q.; Sainsbury, Amanda; Hay, Phillipa; Roekenes, Jessica A.; Swinbourne, Jessica; da Silva, Dhiordan C.; da S. Oliveira, Margareth
Dysfunctional cognitions may be associated with unhealthy eating behaviors seen in individuals with obesity. However, dysfunctional cognitions commonly occur in individuals with poor mental health independently of weight. We examined whether individuals with morbid obesity differed with regard to dysfunctional cognitions when compared to individuals of normal weight, when mental health status was controlled for. 111 participants—53 with morbid obesity and 58 of normal weight—were assessed with the Mini-Mental State Examination, Young Schema Questionnaire, Cognitive Distortions Questionnaire, Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale, and a Demographic and Clinical Questionnaire. Participants with morbid obesity showed higher scores in one (insufficient self-control/self-discipline) of 15 early maladaptive schemas and in one (labeling) of 15 cognitive distortions compared to participants of normal weight. The difference between groups for insufficient self-control/self-discipline was not significant when mental health status was controlled for. Participants with morbid obesity showed more severe anxiety than participants of normal weight. Our findings did not show clinically meaningful differences in dysfunctional cognitions between participants with morbid obesity or of normal weight. Dysfunctional cognitions presented by individuals with morbid obesity are likely related to their individual mental health and not to their weight. PMID:28264484
Full Text Available Obesity is becoming a global problem, rather than one found only in developed countries. Although recent studies have suggested a detrimental effect of obesity on cognition, studies of the relationship between obesity and cognition among older adults have been limited to developed countries. We aimed to examine the associations between central obesity, as measured by waist circumference, and cognition level in adults aged 50 years and older in England and Indonesia.We used linear regression models to analyse these associations and multiple imputation to manage missing data. The 2006 English Longitudinal Study of Ageing Wave 3 is the source of data from England, while data from Indonesia is sourced from the 2007 Indonesian Family Life Survey Wave 4.Centrally obese respondents had lower cognition levels than non-centrally obese respondents in England. In contrast, central adiposity had a statistically significant positive association with cognition in Indonesia. Higher levels of education and higher economic status were associated with higher cognitive ability, while age was associated with lower cognition in both countries. Elevated C-reactive protein (CRP concentrations and smoking behaviour, both linked to higher risk of obesity, were negatively associated with cognitive ability among older adults in England, but they had no statistically significant association with cognition among Indonesians.The contradictory findings on obesity and cognition in England and Indonesia not only create a puzzle, but they may also have different policy implications in these countries. Reducing the prevalence of obesity may be the main focus in England and other developed countries to maintain older adults' cognition. However, Indonesia and other developing countries should place more emphasis on education, in addition to continued efforts to tackle the double burden of malnutrition, in order to prevent cognitive impairment among older adults.
Doets, Esmée L; van Wijngaarden, Janneke P; Szczecińska, Anna; Dullemeijer, Carla; Souverein, Olga W; Dhonukshe-Rutten, Rosalie A M; Cavelaars, Adrienne E J M; van 't Veer, Pieter; Brzozowska, Anna; de Groot, Lisette C P G M
Current recommendations on vitamin B12 intake vary from 1.4 to 3.0 μg per day and are based on the amount needed for maintenance of hematologic status or on the amount needed to compensate obligatory losses. This systematic review evaluates whether the relation between vitamin B12 intake and cognitive function should be considered for underpinning vitamin B12 recommendations in the future. The authors summarized dose-response evidence from randomized controlled trials and prospective cohort studies on the relation of vitamin B12 intake and status with cognitive function in adults and elderly people. Two randomized controlled trials and 6 cohort studies showed no association or inconsistent associations between vitamin B12 intake and cognitive function. Random-effects meta-analysis showed that serum/plasma vitamin B12 (50 pmol/L) was not associated with risk of dementia (4 cohort studies), global cognition z scores (4 cohort studies), or memory z scores (4 cohort studies). Although dose-response evidence on sensitive markers of vitamin B12 status (methylmalonic acid and holotranscobalamin) was scarce, 4 of 5 cohort studies reported significant associations with risk of dementia, Alzheimer's disease, or global cognition. Current evidence on the relation between vitamin B12 intake or status and cognitive function is not sufficient for consideration in the development of vitamin B12 recommendations. Further studies should consider the selection of sensitive markers of vitamin B12 status. © The Author 2012. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Minchen, Nathan; de la Torre, Jimmy
Cognitive diagnosis models (CDMs) allow for the extraction of fine-grained, multidimensional diagnostic information from appropriately designed tests. In recent years, interest in such models has grown as formative assessment grows in popularity. Many dichotomous as well as several polytomous CDMs have been proposed in the last two decades, but…
Connelly, Roxanne; Gayle, Vernon
The ‘Flynn effect’ describes the substantial and long-standing increase in average cognitive ability test scores, which has been observed in numerous psychological studies. Flynn makes an appeal for researchers to move beyond psychology’s standard disciplinary boundaries and to consider sociological contexts, in order to develop a more comprehensive understanding of cognitive inequalities. In this article we respond to this appeal and investigate social class inequalities in general cognitive...
This target article considers the relation of fluid cognitive functioning to general intelligence. A neurobiological model differentiating working memory/executive function cognitive processes of the prefrontal cortex from aspects of psychometrically defined general intelligence is presented. Work examining the rise in mean intelligence-test performance between normative cohorts, the neuropsychology and neuroscience of cognitive function in typically and atypically developing human populations, and stress, brain development, and corticolimbic connectivity in human and nonhuman animal models is reviewed and found to provide evidence of mechanisms through which early experience affects the development of an aspect of cognition closely related to, but distinct from, general intelligence. Particular emphasis is placed on the role of emotion in fluid cognition and on research indicating fluid cognitive deficits associated with early hippocampal pathology and with dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis stress-response system. Findings are seen to be consistent with the idea of an independent fluid cognitive construct and to assist with the interpretation of findings from the study of early compensatory education for children facing psychosocial adversity and from behavior genetic research on intelligence. It is concluded that ongoing development of neurobiologically grounded measures of fluid cognitive skills appropriate for young children will play a key role in understanding early mental development and the adaptive success to which it is related, particularly for young children facing social and economic disadvantage. Specifically, in the evaluation of the efficacy of compensatory education efforts such as Head Start and the readiness for school of children from diverse backgrounds, it is important to distinguish fluid cognition from psychometrically defined general intelligence.
Anderson, Craig A.; And Others
Used a general model of affective aggression to generate predictions concerning hot temperatures. Results indicated that hot temperatures produced increases in hostile affect, hostile cognition, and physiological arousal. Concluded that hostile affect, hostile cognitions, and excitation transfer processes may all increase the likelihood of biased…
This article reviews research on the effects of music instruction on general cognitive abilities. The review of more than 75 reports shows (1) the consistency in results pertaining to the short-term effects of music instruction on cognitive abilities and the lack of clear evidence on the long-term effects on intelligence; (2) the complex nature of…
Newman, Michelle G.; Fisher, Aaron J.
Objective: This study examined (a) duration of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) as a moderator of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) versus its components (cognitive therapy and self-control desensitization) and (b) increases in dynamic flexibility of anxious symptoms during the course of psychotherapy as a mediator of this moderation. Degree of…
This commentary touches on practical, public policy, and social science domains informed by cognitive epidemiology while pulling together common themes running through this important special issue. As is made clear in the contributions assembled here, and others (Deary, Whalley, & Starr, 2009; Gottfredson, 2004; Lubinski & Humphreys, 1992, 1997),…
Full Text Available We evaluated the association between physical activity and cognitive function among a national sample of the broader U.S. adult population, with consideration by social risk. Data from the 1999-2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES were used to identify 2031 older adults, ages 60-85. Social risk was classified by measuring four NHANES variables, namely poverty level, education, minority status, and social living status, which were graded on a scale of 0-4, with higher scores corresponding with higher social risk. The Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST was used to assess cognitive function. Physical activity was assessed via a validated self-report questionnaire. After adjustments, meeting physical activity guidelines (vs not was associated with greater cognitive function (β = 3.0, 95% CI [1.5, 4.4], p < 0.001. In this same model, social risk status was also independently associated with cognitive function. Meeting physical activity guidelines (vs. not was not associated with higher cognitive function among those with a social risk score of of 3 (β = -0.01; 95% CI [-6.3, 6.4], p = 0.99 or a social risk score of 4 (β = -6.8, 95% CI [-15.7, 2.0], p = 0.12. In this national sample of older adults, meeting physical activity guidelines, and degree of social risk were independently associated with cognitive function. However, physical activity was not associated with cognitive function among older adults with the highest degree of social risk.
Hessler, Johannes Baltasar; Schäufele, Martina; Hendlmeier, Ingrid; Nora Junge, Magdalena; Leonhardt, Sarah; Weber, Joshua; Bickel, Horst
The objective of this study was to examine the psychometric quality of the 6-Item Cognitive Impairment Test (6CIT) as a bedside screening for the detection of dementia in general hospital patients. Participants (N = 1,440) were inpatients aged ≥65 of 33 randomly selected general hospitals in Southern Germany. The 6CIT was conducted at bedside, and dementia was diagnosed according to DSM-IV. Nursing staff was asked to rate the patients' cognitive status, and previous diagnoses of dementia were extracted from medical records. Completion rates and validity statistics were calculated. Two-hundred seventy patients had dementia. Cases with delirium but no dementia were excluded. Feasibility was 97.9% and 83.3% for patients without and with dementia, respectively, and decreased from moderate (93.8%) to severe dementia (53%). The area under the curve of the 6CIT was 0.98. Sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value were calculated for the cutoffs 7/8 (0.96, 0.82, 0.85, 0.52, 0.99) and 10/11 (0.88, 0.95, 0.94, 0.76, 0.98). The nurse ratings and medical records information had lower validity statistics. Logistic regression analyses revealed that the 6CIT statistically significantly provided information above nurse ratings and medical records. Twenty-five and 37 additional patients were correctly classified by the 7/8 and 10/11 cutoffs, respectively. The 6CIT is a feasible and valid screening tool for the detection of dementia in older general hospital patients. The 6CIT outperformed the nurse ratings of cognitive status and dementia diagnoses from medical records, suggesting that standardized screening may have benefits with regard to case finding. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Beeri, Michal Schnaider; Werner, Perla; Davidson, Michael; Schmidler, James; Silverman, Jeremy
The validity of the Hebrew version of the Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status-Modified (TICS-m) for Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI), for dementia, and for cognitive impairment (either MCI or dementia) was investigated. Of the 10 059 who took part of the Israel Ischemic Heart Disease Cohort, 1902 of the 2901 survivors in 1999 had TICS-m interviews. Those with a score of 27 or below and a random sample with a score of 28 or 29 were invited to have a physician's examination for the diagnosis of dementia. The analysis was performed on the 576 who agreed. Based on physician's diagnosis, 269 were diagnosed as suffering from dementia, 128 as suffering from MCI, and 179 were diagnosed with no cognitive impairment. The TICS-m Hebrew version's internal consistency was very high (Cronbach's alpha = 0.98) and showed a strong convergent validity with the MMSE (r = 0.82; p education and hearing impairment, TICS-m was a strong predictor of dementia, MCI and cognitive impairment. At a cut-off of 27/50 the Hebrew version of the TICS-m is a useful screening instrument to identify subjects suffering from mild cognitive impairment, dementia and cognitive impairment (MCI or dementia). Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Staplin, Loren; Gish, Kenneth W; Sifrit, Kathy J
A computer-based version of an established neuropsychological paper-and-pencil assessment tool, the Trail-Making Test, was applied with approximately 700 drivers aged 70 years and older in offices of the Maryland Motor Vehicle Administration. This was a volunteer sample that received a small compensation for study participation, with an assurance that their license status would not be affected by the results. Analyses revealed that the study sample was representative of Maryland older drivers with respect to age and indices of prior driving safety. The relationship between drivers' scores on the Trail-Making Test and prospective crash experience was analyzed using a new outcome measure that explicitly takes into account error responses as well as correct responses, the error-compensated completion time. For the only reliable predictor of crash risk, Trail-Making Test Part B, this measure demonstrated a modest gain in specificity and was a more significant predictor of future safety risk than the simple time-to-completion measure. Improved specificity and the potential for autonomous test administration are particular advantages of this measure for use with large populations, in settings such as health care or driver licensing. © 2013.
Fliss, Rafika; Lemerre, Marion; Mollard, Audrey
Compromised theory of mind (ToM) can be explained either by a failure to implement specific representational capacities (mental state representations) or by more general executive selection demands. In older adult populations, evidence supporting affected executive functioning and cognitive ToM in normal aging are reported. However, links between these two functions remain unclear. In the present paper, we address these shortcomings by using a specific task of ToM and classical executive tasks. We studied, using an original cognitive ToM task, the effect of age on ToM performances, in link with the progressive executive decline. 96 elderly participants were recruited. They were asked to perform a cognitive ToM task, and 5 executive tests (Stroop test and Hayling Sentence Completion Test to appreciate inhibitory process, Trail Making Test and Verbal Fluency for shifting assessment and backward span dedicated to estimate working memory capacity). The results show changes in cognitive ToM performance according to executive demands. Correlational studies indicate a significant relationship between ToM performance and the selected executive measures. Regression analyzes demonstrates that level of vocabulary and age as the best predictors of ToM performance. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that ToM deficits are related to age-related domain-general decline rather than as to a breakdown in specialized representational system. The implications of these findings for the nature of social cognition tests in normal aging are also discussed.
Domin, Daniel S.
The science laboratory instructional environment is ideal for fostering the development of problem-solving, manipulative, and higher-order thinking skills: the skills needed by today's learner to compete in an ever increasing technology-based society. This paper reports the results of a content analysis of ten general chemistry laboratory manuals. Three experiments from each manual were examined for evidence of higher-order cognitive activities. Analysis was based upon the six major cognitive categories of Bloom's Taxonomy of Educational Objectives: knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis, and evaluation. The results of this study show that the overwhelming majority of general chemistry laboratory manuals provide tasks that require the use of only the lower-order cognitive skills: knowledge, comprehension, and application. Two of the laboratory manuals were disparate in having activities that utilized higher-order cognition. I describe the instructional strategies used within these manuals to foster higher-order cognitive development.
Klein-Radukic, Sarah; Zmyj, Norbert
Dropout of infants in looking time studies sometimes occurs at high rates, raising concerns that the representativeness of the final sample might be reduced in comparison to the originally obtained sample. The current study investigated which infant characteristics play a role in dropout. Infants were presented with a preferential looking task at 6 and 9 months of age. At 9 months of age, an additional habituation task and a subsequent novelty preference task were conducted. In addition, temperament was assessed via the Infant Behavior Questionnaire - Revised (IBQ-R, Gartstein & Rothbart, 2003), and cognitive developmental status was assessed via the Cognitive Scale of the Bayley Scale of Infant and Toddler Development (BSID-III, Bayley, 2006). Dropout was positively related to the IBQ-R temperament scales Distress to Limitations and Approach, and negatively related to the scales Falling Reactivity and Cuddliness. The representativeness of the final sample regarding situation-specific temperament dimensions is affected by dropout. Dropout was not related to cognitive developmental status as measured via the BSID-III, habituation speed and novelty preference. Dropout at 6 months of age was associated with dropout at 9 months of age. We concluded that in looking time studies, the representativeness of the final sample regarding performance-relevant temperament dimensions or cognitive developmental status is not affected by dropout. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Andruchow, Nadia D; Konishi, Kyoko; Shatenstein, Bryna; Bohbot, Véronique D
Evidence from several cross-sectional studies indicates that an increase in omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acids (FAs) may negatively affect cognition in old age. The hippocampus is among the first neural structures affected by age and atrophy in this brain region is associated with cognitive decline. Therefore, we hypothesized that a lower omega-6:3 FA ratio would predict better hippocampus-dependent spatial memory, and a higher general cognitive status. Fifty-two healthy older adults completed a Food Frequency Questionnaire, the Montreal Cognitive Assessment test (MoCA; a test of global cognition) and virtual navigation tasks that assess navigational strategies and spatial memory. In this cross-sectional study, a lower ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 FA intake strongly predicted more accurate hippocampus-dependent spatial memory and faster learning on our virtual navigation tasks, as well as higher cognitive status overall. These results may help elucidate why certain dietary patterns with a lower omega-6:3 FA ratio, like the Mediterranean diet, are associated with reduced risk of cognitive decline. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Martín-Santiago, Oscar; Suazo, Vanessa; Rodríguez-Lorenzana, Alberto; Ruiz de Azúa, Sonia; Valcárcel, César; Díez, Álvaro; Grau, Adriana; Domínguez, Cristina; Gallardo, Ricardo; Molina, Vicente
Subclinical psychotic symptoms are associated to negative life outcomes in the general population, but their relationship with cognitive performance is still not well understood. Assessing the relationship between performance in cognitive domains and subclinical psychotic symptoms in the general population may also help understand the handicap attributed to clinical psychosis, in which these alterations are present. Subclinical and cognitive assessments were obtained in 203 participants from the general population by means of the Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences, the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia, the Wechsler Adults Intelligence Scale and the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test. The positive and negative subclinical symptoms and their relationship with age and cognition were examined, followed by assessing the influence of subclinical depression scores on the possible relationships between those subclinical psychotic symptoms and cognitive deficits. Inverse relationships were found between frequency in the Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences positive dimension and motor speed, and frequency and distress in the Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences negative dimension and motor speed. A direct relationship was also found between distress scores of the positive dimension and executive functions. Both positive and negative subclinical symptoms were related to depression scores. Psychotic symptoms, similar to those in the clinical population, may be associated with cognitive deficits in the general population. Copyright © 2015 SEP y SEPB. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.
Ho, Yi-Te; Kao, Tung-Wei; Peng, Tao-Chun; Liaw, Fang-Yih; Yang, Hui-Fang; Sun, Yu-Shan; Chang, Yaw-Wen; Chen, Wei-Liang
Preserving physical and cognitive function becomes an important issue as people age. A growing number of studies have found that the correlation between body mass index (BMI) and cognitive function changes in different age groups. It is obvious that higher educational status is linked to higher cognitive function in terms of numerous risk factors that influence cognitive function. This study aimed to investigate the interplay between obesity and cognitive function categorized by different educational status.This study included 5021 participants aged 20 to 59 years who completed 3 neurocognitive function tests, including a simple reaction time test (SRTT), a symbol digit substitution test (SDST), and a serial digit learning test (SDLT) as reported in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) III database. The associations between neurocognitive function and BMI were analyzed using multivariate linear regression while controlling for confounders.After adjusting for pertinent covariates in mode 3, the β coefficients in the female participants with more than 12 years of education (interpreted as change of 3 neurocognitive function tests for each increment in BMI) comparing obesity groups to those with normal BMI were 16.2 (P education and female participants with fewer than 12 years of education demonstrated increased impairment as their BMI increased. However, this association was not significant after adjustments.Obese individuals had worse neurocognitive function than those of normal weight or overweight, especially in women with a high educational level.
Weihreter, Martin; Chaerle, Laury; Secco, Benjamin; Molders, Katrien; van der Straeten, Dominique; Duliere, Eric; Pieters, Serge; Maclean, Heather; Dochain, Denis; Quinet, Muriel; Lutts, Stanley; Graham, Thomas; Stasiak, Michael; Rondeau Vuk, Theresa; Zheng, Youbin; Dixon, Mike; Laniau, Martine; Larreture, Alain; Timsit, Michel; Aronne, Giovanna; Barbieri, Giancarlo; Buonomo, Roberta; Veronica; Paradiso, Roberta; de Pascale, Stafania; Galbiati, Massimo; Troia, A. R.; Nobili, Matteo; Bucchieri, Lorenzo; Page, Valérie; Feller, Urs; Lasseur, Christophe
. Available MELiSSA closed environment crop growth data were used to develop a first photosynthetic model representing the basic carbon fixation mechanisms. This model will be further elaborated in the course of this study to predict yield, oxygen production and transpi-ration. As an ultimate goal the model is intended to simulate the composition of the different plant organs (root, shoot, fruit/seed or tuber) for each crop under various conditions. For the validation of this model an extensive amount of data sets are needed. Current plant growth bench test setups will provide part of the required data. To gain more precise and detailed datasets, a highly closed plant growth chamber (Plant Characterization Unit, PCU) is under development. The PCU will provide accurate mass balances for carbon, water, oxygen and other elements with statistical reliability. This reliability is achieved through a high degree of closure and environment homogeneity. The PCU will also provide data for the above described plant characterization studies. The general work approach, the current status and future steps will be illustrated.
Cook, Sarah E.; Marsiske, Michael; McCoy, Karin J. M.
Many screening tools for detecting cognitive decline require in-person assessment, which is often not cost effective or feasible for those with physical limitations. The Modified Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status (TICS-M) has been used for screening dementia, but little is known about its usefulness in detecting amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment (aMCI). Community-dwelling participants (mean age= 74.9, mean education= 16.1 years) were administered the TICS-M during initial screening an...
Fuchs, Douglas; Compton, Donald L; Fuchs, Lynn S; Bryant, V Joan; Hamlett, Carol L; Lambert, Warren
In a sample of 195 first graders selected for poor reading performance, the authors explored four cognitive predictors of later reading comprehension and reading disability (RD) status. In fall of first grade, the authors measured the children's phonological processing, rapid automatized naming (RAN), oral language comprehension, and nonverbal reasoning. Throughout first grade, they also modeled the students' reading progress by means of weekly Word Identification Fluency (WIF) tests to derive December and May intercepts. The authors assessed their reading comprehension in the spring of Grades 1-5. With the four cognitive variables and the WIF December intercept as predictors, 50.3% of the variance in fifth-grade reading comprehension was explained: 52.1% of this 50.3% was unique to the cognitive variables, 13.1% to the WIF December intercept, and 34.8% was shared. All five predictors were statistically significant. The same four cognitive variables with the May (rather than December) WIF intercept produced a model that explained 62.1% of the variance. Of this amount, the cognitive variables and May WIF intercept accounted for 34.5% and 27.7%, respectively; they shared 37.8%. All predictors in this model were statistically significant except RAN. Logistic regression analyses indicated that the accuracy with which the cognitive variables predicted end-of-fifth-grade RD status was 73.9%. The May WIF intercept contributed reliably to this prediction; the December WIF intercept did not. Results are discussed in terms of a role for cognitive abilities in identifying, classifying, and instructing students with severe reading problems.
Full Text Available Apart from motor and behavioral dysfunctions, deficits in cognitive skills are among the well-documented sequelae of preterm birth. However, early identification of infants at risk for poor cognition is still a challenge, as no clear association between pathological findings based on neuroimaging scans and cognitive functions have been detected as yet. The Prechtl General Movement Assessment (GMA has shown its merits for the evaluation of the integrity of the young nervous system. It is a reliable tool for identifying infants at risk for neuromotor deficits. Recent studies on preterm infants demonstrate that abnormal general movements also reflect impairments of brain areas involved in cognitive development. The aim of this systematic review was to discuss studies that included (i the Prechtl GMA applied in preterm infants, and (ii cognitive outcome measures in six data bases. Seven studies met the inclusion criteria and yielded the following results: (a children born preterm with consistently abnormal general movements up to 8 weeks after term had lower intelligence quotients at school age than children with an early normalization of general movements; (b from 3 to 5 months after term, several qualitative and quantitative aspects of the concurrent motor repertoire, including postural patterns, were predictive of intelligence at 7 to 10 years of age. These findings in 428 individuals born preterm suggest that normal general movements along with a normal motor repertoire during the first months after term are markers for normal cognitive development until at least age 10.
Veena, Sargoor R; Gale, Catharine R; Krishnaveni, Ghattu V; Kehoe, Sarah H; Srinivasan, Krishnamachari; Fall, Caroline Hd
The mother is the only source of nutrition for fetal growth including brain development. Maternal nutritional status (anthropometry, macro- and micro-nutrients) before and/or during pregnancy is therefore a potential predictor of offspring cognitive function. The relationship of maternal nutrition to offspring cognitive function is unclear. This review aims to assess existing evidence linking maternal nutritional status with offspring cognitive function. Exposures considered were maternal BMI, height and weight, micronutrient status (vitamins D, B12, folate and iron) and macronutrient intakes (carbohydrate, protein and fat). The outcome was any measure of cognitive function in children aged nutritional status during pregnancy as defined by BMI, single micronutrient studies, or macronutrient intakes influences offspring cognitive function is inconclusive. There is a need for more trials especially in populations with high rates of maternal undernutrition. Registered in PROSPERO CRD42013005702 .
Ma, Cheng; Li, Jin; Bao, Zhijun; Ruan, Qingwei; Yu, Zhuowei
Background. Advancing age, chronic inflammation, oxidative damage, and disorders of lipid metabolism are positively linked to the late-life cognitive impairment. Serum biomarkers may be associated with the cognitive status in older men. Methods. 440 old male subjects with different cognitive functions were recruited to investigate probable serum markers. Pearson Chi-Squared test, univariate analysis, and multivariate logistic regression analysis were performed to evaluate biomarkers which may be associated with cognitive status. Results. Levels of fundus atherosclerosis (AS) (P age (P age, AS levels, POD, IL-6, HDL-C, ApoA2, and ApoC2 were significantly related to cognitive status. Moreover, ApoA1 and ApoA2 were independently associated with cognitive impairment and late-life dementia. PMID:26682220
Hill, W David; Davies, Gail; Liewald, David C; McIntosh, Andrew M; Deary, Ian J
General cognitive function predicts psychiatric illness across the life course. This study examines the role of pleiotropy in explaining the link between cognitive function and psychiatric disorder. We used two large genome-wide association study data sets on cognitive function-one from older age, n = 53,949, and one from childhood, n = 12,441. We also used genome-wide association study data on educational attainment, n = 95,427, to examine the validity of its use as a proxy phenotype for cognitive function. Using a new method, linkage disequilibrium regression, we derived genetic correlations, free from the confounding of clinical state between psychiatric illness and cognitive function. We found a genetic correlation of .711 (p = 2.26e-12) across the life course for general cognitive function. We also showed a positive genetic correlation between autism spectrum disorder and cognitive function in childhood (rg = .360, p = .0009) and for educational attainment (rg = .322, p = 1.37e-5) but not in older age. In schizophrenia, we found a negative genetic correlation between older age cognitive function (rg = -.231, p = 3.81e-12) but not in childhood or for educational attainment. For Alzheimer's disease, we found negative genetic correlations with childhood cognitive function (rg = -.341, p = .001), educational attainment (rg = -.324, p = 1.15e-5), and with older age cognitive function (rg = -.324, p = 1.78e-5). The pleiotropy exhibited between cognitive function and psychiatric disorders changed across the life course. These age-dependent associations might explain why negative selection has not removed variants causally associated with autism spectrum disorder or schizophrenia. Copyright © 2016 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Natália Pessoa Rocha
Full Text Available Cognitive impairment and depressive symptoms are of great interest in Parkinson’s disease (PD, since they are very common and lead to increased disability with poor quality of life. Inflammatory mechanisms have been implicated in PD and its nonmotor symptoms. In the current pilot study, we aimed to evaluate plasma levels of chemokines in PD patients and to analyze the putative association of chemokines with depressive symptoms and cognitive performance. We hypothesized that higher chemokines levels are associated with worse cognitive performance and increased depressive symptoms in PD. For this purpose, 40 PD patients and 25 age- and gender-matched controls were subjected to a clinical evaluation including cognitive and mood tests. Peripheral blood was drawn and plasma levels of CCL2/MCP-1, CCL11/eotaxin, CCL24/eotaxin-2, and CXCL10/IP-10 were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. PD patients and control individuals presented comparable plasma concentrations of all the evaluated chemokines. In PD patients, CXCL10/IP-10 plasma levels correlated positively with Hoehn and Yahr staging scale. In addition, the higher CXCL10/IP-10 levels, the worse performance on cognitive tests. Although there was no significant difference between PD patients and control individuals regarding chemokines levels, our preliminary results showed that CXCL10/IP-10 may be associated with cognitive status in PD.
Kempe, Vera; Brooks, Patricia J.; Kharkhurin, Anatoliy
This study explores how learners generalize grammatical categories such as noun gender. Adult native English speakers with no prior knowledge of Russian (N = 47, ages 17-55 years) were trained to categorize Russian masculine and feminine diminutive nouns according to gender. The training set was morphophonologically homogeneous due to similarities…
Natalia Casagrande Brabo
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the frequency of occurrence and to characterize the typology of dysfluencies in individuals with Parkinson’s disease (PD, including the variables age, gender, schooling, disease duration, score on the Hoehn and Yahr scale and cognitive status (score on Mini-Mental State Examination. A cross-sectional study of a sample comprising 60 adults matched for gender, age and schooling was conducted. Group I comprised 30 adults with idiopathic PD, and Group II comprised 30 healthy adults. For assessment of fluency of speech, subjects were asked to utter a narrative based on a sequence of drawings and a transcription of 200 fluent syllables was performed to identify speech dysfluencies. PD patients exhibited a higher overall number of dysfluencies in speech with a large number of atypical dysfluencies. Additionally, results showed an influence of the variables cognitive status, disease duration and age on occurrence of dysfluencies.
Light, Kenneth R; Kolata, Stefan; Wass, Christopher; Denman-Brice, Alexander; Zagalsky, Ryan; Matzel, Louis D
In both humans and mice, the efficacy of working memory capacity and its related process, selective attention, are each strongly predictive of individuals' aggregate performance in cognitive test batteries [1-9]. Because working memory is taxed during most cognitive tasks, the efficacy of working memory may have a causal influence on individuals' performance on tests of "intelligence" [10, 11]. Despite the attention this has received, supporting evidence has been largely correlational in nature (but see ). Here, genetically heterogeneous mice were assessed on a battery of five learning tasks. Animals' aggregate performance across the tasks was used to estimate their general cognitive abilities, a trait that is in some respects analogous to intelligence [13, 14]. Working memory training promoted an increase in animals' selective attention and their aggregate performance on these tasks. This enhancement of general cognitive performance by working memory training was attenuated if its selective attention demands were reduced. These results provide evidence that the efficacy of working memory capacity and selective attention may be causally related to an animal's general cognitive performance and provide a framework for behavioral strategies to promote those abilities. Furthermore, the pattern of behavior reported here reflects a conservation of the processes that regulate general cognitive performance in humans and infrahuman animals. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Infections with different herpes viruses have been associated with cognitive functioning in psychiatric patients and healthy adults. The aim of this study was to find out whether antibodies to different herpes viruses are prospectively associated with cognitive functioning in a general adolescent population.This study was performed in TRAILS, a large prospective general population cohort (N = 1084, 54% female, mean age 16.2 years (SD 0.6. At age 16, immunoglobulin G antibodies against HSV1, HSV2, CMV and EBV were measured next to high sensitive C-Reactive Protein (hsCRP. Two years later, immediate memory and executive functioning were assessed using the 15 words task and the self ordered pointing task. Multiple linear regression analysis with bootstrapping was performed to study the association between viral infections and cognitive function, adjusting for gender, socioeconomic status, ethnicity, and cannabis use.Presence of HSV1 antibodies was associated with memory function ((B = -0.272, 95% CI = -0.556 to -0.016, p = 0.047, while the association with executive functioning did not reach statistical significance (B = 0.560, 95% CI is -0.053 to 1.184, p = 0.075. The level of HSV1 antibodies was associated with both memory function (B = -0.160, 95% CI = -0.280 to -0.039, p = 0.014 and executive functioning (B = 0.296, 95% CI = 0.011 to 0.578, p = 0.046. Other herpes viruses and hsCRP were not associated with cognitive functioning.Both presence and level of HSV1 antibodies are prospectively associated with reduced cognitive performance in a large cohort of adolescents.
Dec 2, 2012 ... of pregnant women in General Hospital Kiru, Kiru. Local Government .... AACC, American Association for Clinical Chemistry,. 2012. ... Animal. Reproductive Science. 72: pp. 235. Das, S. C. and Isechei, U. P. (1996). Serum ...
Chen, Huilin; Chen, Jinsong
Cognitive diagnosis models (CDMs) are psychometric models developed mainly to assess examinees' specific strengths and weaknesses in a set of skills or attributes within a domain. By adopting the Generalized-DINA model framework, the recently developed general modeling framework, we attempted to retrofit the PISA reading assessments, a…
Lee, Chung Nam; Koh, Young-Cho; Moon, Chang Taek; Park, Dong Sun; Song, Sang Woo
This study was aimed at finding out the changes in cognitive dysfunction in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) and investigating the factors limiting their cognitive improvement. Between January 2010 and March 2014, 33 patients with TBI participated in serial mini-mental status examination (MMSE). Their cognitive functions were statistically analyzed to clarify their relationship with different TBI status. Patients who developed hydrocephalus were separately analyzed in regards to their cognitive function depending on the placement of ventriculoperitoneal shunt (VPS). Bi-frontal lobe injury (β=-10.441, p<0.001), contre-coup injury (β=-6.592, p=0.007), severe parenchymal injury (β=-7.210, p=0.012), temporal lobe injury (β=-5.524, p=0.027), and dominant hemisphere injury (β=-5.388, p=0.037) significantly lowered the final MMSE scores. The risk of down-grade in the prognosis was higher in severe parenchymal injury [odds ratio (OR)=13.41, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.31-136.78], temporal lobe injury (OR=12.3, 95% CI=2.07-73.08), dominant hemisphere injury (OR=8.19, 95% CI=1.43-46.78), and bi-frontal lobe injury (OR=7.52, 95% CI=1.31-43.11). In the 11 post-traumatic hydrocephalus patients who underwent VPS, the final MMSE scores (17.7±6.8) substantially increased from the initial MMSE scores (11.2±8.6). Presence of bi-frontal lobe injury, temporal lobe injury, dominant hemisphere injury, and contre-coup injury and severe parenchymal injury adversely influenced the final MMSE scores. They can be concluded to be poor prognostic factors in terms of cognitive function in TBI patients. Development of hydrocephalus aggravates cognitive impairment with unpredictable time of onset. Thus, close observation and routine image follow-up are mandatory for early detection and surgical intervention for hydrocephalus.
Cho, Sang Soo; Kwak, Young Bin; Lee, Eun Ju; Ryu, Chang Hyung; Chey, Jean Yung; Kim, Sang Eun
While many studies examined the neural correlates of individual cognitive functions, few made efforts to identify the neural networks associated with general cognitive function. General cognitive function decline in the elderly population is not infrequent. This study examined the brain areas associated with general cognitive function in the elderly subjects. Community-dwelling 116 elderly subjects without dementing illnesses (age, 71±5 y; 13 males and 103 females) participated. General cognitive ability was assessed with the Dementia Rating Scale (K-DRS), which is composed of five subtests of attention, initiation and perseveration, construction, conceptualization, and memory. The EVLT (Elderly Verbal Learning Test), a nine-word list learning test, was used for general memory assessment. Brain FDG PET scans were acquired in all subjects. Brain regions where metabolic levels are correlated with the total scores of K-DRS and EVLT were examined using SPM99. There was a significant positive correlation (P < 0.01 uncorrected, k=100) between the total score of K-DRS and glucose metabolism in the bilateral posterior cingulate gyri, bilateral inferior frontal gyri, left caudate, left inferior parietal lobule, right precuneus, bilateral unci, right parahippocampal gyrus, and right anterior cingulate gyrus. A significant positive correlation between the total score of EVLT and glucose metabolism was shown in the right precuneus, right posterior cingulate gyrus, left insula, bilateral inferior parietal lobules, left anterior cingulate gyrus, left caudate, right inferior frontal gyrus (P < 0.01 uncorrected, k=100). Our data showed the brain regions that are associated with general cognitive function in the elderly. Those regions may serve as the neural substrated of cognitive dysfunction associated with neurodegenerative and cerebrovascular diseases in elderly subjects
Karnam, Rekha Rao; Kumar, Naganandini Samapth; Eshwar, Shruthi; Deolia, Shravani
Levels of oral health and economic status are unequally distributed throughout the population. Inequality has multiple causes and that the effect of Socio Economic Status (SES) and demographic factors, on oral health is mediated through several factors. Association between cognitive ability and oral health had been demonstrated in older age groups but adolescents and younger adults have received relatively little attention in this field. To establish the role of cognitive ability as a determinant of SES and oral health status among adolescent college students of Benagluru, Karnataka, India. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1000 adolescents aged 17-19 years. Six government and six private first grade colleges were selected by multi-stage random sampling. Cognitive ability was assessed using digit symbol substitution test and digit span test. Dental caries and periodontal status were recorded by extent of bleeding, presence of calculus, periodontal pockets, loss of attachments using Community Periodontal Index, decayed, missing and filled teeth surfaces using Decayed, Missing, Filled Teeth and Surfaces Index. SES status was assessed using Kuppuswamy scale. Chi-square test was used to check the association of cognitive ability with oral health indicators and SES status. Regression analysis was performed to assess the effect of cognitive ability on oral health indicators after adjusting for SES and effect of SES status on oral health indicators after adjusting for indicators of cognitive ability. Significant association and negative correlation between cognitive ability and indicators for oral health was seen in the regression models. Cognitive ability attributed for nearly 30% changes in the indicators for oral health after adjusting for SES and SES attributed for nearly 25% variance in indicators for oral health after adjusting for cognitive ability. There is a potential role of cognitive ability in SES and oral health.
Papathanasiou, Athanasios; Messinis, Lambros; Zampakis, Petros; Papathanasopoulos, Panagiotis
Cognitive impairment in Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is more frequent and pronounced in secondary progressive MS (SPMS). Cognitive decline is an important predictor of employment status in patients with MS. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) markers have been used to associate tissue damage with cognitive dysfunction. The aim of the study was to designate the MRI marker that predicts cognitive decline in SPMS and explore its effect on employment status. 30 SPMS patients and 30 healthy participants underwent neuropsychological assessment using the Trail Making Test (TMT) parts A and B, semantic and phonological verbal fluency task and a computerized cognitive screening battery (Central Nervous System Vital Signs). Employment status was obtained as a quality of life measure. Brain MRI was performed in all participants. We measured total lesion volume, third ventricle width, thalamic and corpus callosum atrophy. The frequency of cognitive decline for our SPMS patients was 80%. SPMS patients differed significantly from controls in all neuropsychological measures. Corpus callosum area was correlated with cognitive flexibility, processing speed, composite memory, executive functions, psychomotor speed, reaction time and phonological verbal fluency task. Processing speed and composite memory were the most sensitive markers for predicting employment status. Corpus callosum area was the most sensitive MRI marker for memory and processing speed. Corpus callosum atrophy predicts a clinically meaningful cognitive decline, affecting employment status in our SPMS patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Senders, J.W.; Moray, N.P.
Cognitive behaviour is, most generally put, that behaviour which is mental. In the context of Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) operations, cognitive behaviour is that which analyses, judges and transforms information received from the environment; makes use of memory; imposes meaning; predicts, interpolates and extrapolates; decides on and chooses goals, plans and courses of action. Behaviour of these kinds arises in the course of responding to emergencies and it is precisely there that the greatest importance must be attached to errors by operators
Drost, J.; Van der Does, A. J. W.; Antypa, N.; Zitman, F. G.; Van Dyck, R.; Spinhoven, Ph.
Comorbidity among anxiety and depressive disorders is the rule rather than the exception. The Integrative Hierarchical Model proposes that each of these disorders contains general (common to all), specific (common to some) and unique components. However, research into this model is limited and hampered by small (clinical) sample sizes. The aim of the present study is to investigate the incremental validity of the cognitive constructs Anxiety Sensitivity, Pathological Worry and Cognitive React...
Full Text Available Ulla Ek,1 Joakim Westerlund,2 Elisabeth Fernell31Department of Special Education, 2Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, 3Gillberg Neuropsychiatry Centre, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg and the Research and Development Centre, Skaraborg Hospital Skövde, SwedenBackground: The aim of this study was to analyze two main types of cognitive domains in school children with different types and severities of attention-related problems. The cognitive domains examined were general cognitive ability and executive abilities.Methods: Three different clinical samples of pupils with school problems were analyzed to assess their cognitive Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children profiles. In particular, the general cognitive ability index and the executive markers (ie, verbal memory index and processing speed index were of interest. Of the total sample (n = 198, two main groups were contrasted; one met the full criteria for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD/subthreshold ADHD, and one was comprised of those with milder attention problems, insufficient to meet the criteria for ADHD/subthreshold ADHD.Results: It could be demonstrated that both groups had a significantly higher score on the general cognitive ability index than on measures of working memory and processing speed. This difference was more pronounced for boys.Conclusion: These types of cognitive differences need to be considered in children with different kinds of learning, behavior, and attention problems; this is also true for children presenting with an average general intelligence quotient and with milder attention problems. Current educational expectations are demanding for children with mild difficulties, and such cognitive information will add to the understanding of the child's learning problems, hopefully leading to a better adapted education than that conventionally available.Keywords: working memory, processing speed, children, learning and
Light, Kenneth R.; Kolata, Stefan; Wass, Christopher; Denman-Brice, Alexander; Zagalsky, Ryan; Matzel, Louis D.
In humans, aspects of working memory capacity (i.e., resistance to interference or selective attention) correlate strongly with measures indicative of general intelligence [1–7], and likewise, the efficacy of working memory capacity and its related process, selective attention, are each strongly predictive of the aggregate performance of individual mice in cognitive test batteries [8,9]. Since by its nature, working memory is taxed during most cognitive tasks, it has been suggested that the e...
van der Lee, Sven J; Teunissen, Charlotte E; Pool, René; Shipley, Martin J; Teumer, Alexander; Chouraki, Vincent; Melo van Lent, Debora; Tynkkynen, Juho; Fischer, Krista; Hernesniemi, Jussi; Haller, Toomas; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Verhoeven, Aswin; Willemsen, Gonneke; de Leeuw, Francisca A; Wagner, Holger; van Dongen, Jenny; Hertel, Johannes; Budde, Kathrin; Willems van Dijk, Ko; Weinhold, Leonie; Ikram, M Arfan; Pietzner, Maik; Perola, Markus; Wagner, Michael; Friedrich, Nele; Slagboom, P Eline; Scheltens, Philip; Yang, Qiong; Gertzen, Robert E; Egert, Sarah; Li, Shuo; Hankemeier, Thomas; van Beijsterveldt, Catharina E M; Vasan, Ramachandran S; Maier, Wolfgang; Peeters, Carel F W; Jörgen Grabe, Hans; Ramirez, Alfredo; Seshadri, Sudha; Metspalu, Andres; Kivimäki, Mika; Salomaa, Veikko; Demirkan, Ayşe; Boomsma, Dorret I; van der Flier, Wiesje M; Amin, Najaf; van Duijn, Cornelia M
Identifying circulating metabolites that are associated with cognition and dementia may improve our understanding of the pathogenesis of dementia and provide crucial readouts for preventive and therapeutic interventions. We studied 299 metabolites in relation to cognition (general cognitive ability) in two discovery cohorts (N total = 5658). Metabolites significantly associated with cognition after adjusting for multiple testing were replicated in four independent cohorts (N total = 6652), and the associations with dementia and Alzheimer's disease (N = 25,872) and lifestyle factors (N = 5168) were examined. We discovered and replicated 15 metabolites associated with cognition including subfractions of high-density lipoprotein, docosahexaenoic acid, ornithine, glutamine, and glycoprotein acetyls. These associations were independent of classical risk factors including high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, and apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotypes. Six of the cognition-associated metabolites were related to the risk of dementia and lifestyle factors. Circulating metabolites were consistently associated with cognition, dementia, and lifestyle factors, opening new avenues for prevention of cognitive decline and dementia. Copyright © 2018 the Alzheimer's Association. All rights reserved.
Parsons Thomas D
Full Text Available Abstract Background Brief screening tests have been developed to measure cognitive performance and dementia, yet they measure limited cognitive domains and often lack construct validity. Neuropsychological assessments, while comprehensive, are too costly and time-consuming for epidemiological studies. This study's aim was to develop a psychometrically valid telephone administered test of cognitive function in aging. Methods Using a sequential hierarchical strategy, each stage of test development did not proceed until specified criteria were met. The 30 minute Cognitive Assessment of Later Life Status (CALLS measure and a 2.5 hour in-person neuropsychological assessment were conducted with a randomly selected sample of 211 participants 65 years and older that included equivalent distributions of men and women from ethnically diverse populations. Results Overall Cronbach's coefficient alpha for the CALLS test was 0.81. A principal component analysis of the CALLS tests yielded five components. The CALLS total score was significantly correlated with four neuropsychological assessment components. Older age and having a high school education or less was significantly correlated with lower CALLS total scores. Females scored better overall than males. There were no score differences based on race. Conclusion The CALLS test is a valid measure that provides a unique opportunity to reliably and efficiently study cognitive function in large populations.
Bogale, Alemtsehay; Stoecker, Barbara J; Kennedy, Tay; Hubbs-Tait, Laura; Thomas, David; Abebe, Yewelsew; Hambidge, K Michael
The purpose of this study was to assess the nutritional status and cognitive performance of women and their 5-year-old children using a cross-sectional design. Cognitive performance of mothers and children was assessed with Raven's Colored Progressive Matrices (CPM) and Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children-II (KABC-II). Demographic characteristics, food consumption patterns and anthropometry were also measured. Four rural districts in Sidama, southern Ethiopia served as the setting for this study. Subjects were one hundred women and their 5-year-old children. Mean ± standard deviation age of the mothers was 29 ± 6 years and family size was 7.0 ± 2.6. Maternal body mass index (BMI) ranged from 15.3 to 29.0 with 14% of the mothers having BMI children revealed 29% to be stunted (height-for-age z-score education significantly contributed to prediction of both mothers' and children's cognitive test scores. There were significant differences in mean cognitive test scores between stunted and non-stunted, and between underweight and normal-weight children. Height-for-age z-scores were correlated with scores for short-term memory (r = 0.42, P children with growth deficits suggesting that efficient and cost effective methods to alleviate malnutrition and food insecurity would impact not only child health but also cognitive function. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Fong, Tamara G.; Fearing, Michael A.; Jones, Richard N.; Shi, Peilin; Marcantonio, Edward R.; Rudolph, James L.; Yang, Frances M.; Kiely, Dan K.; Inouye, Sharon K.
Background Brief cognitive screening measures are valuable tools for both research and clinical applications. The most widely used instrument, the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) is limited in that it must be administered face-to-face, cannot be used in participants with visual or motor impairments, and is protected by copyright. Alternative screening instruments, such as the Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status (TICS) have been developed and may provide a valid alternative with comparable cut point scores to rate global cognitive function. Methods MMSE, TICS-30, and TICS-40 scores from 746 community dwelling elders who participated in the Aging, Demographics, and Memory Study (ADAMS) were analyzed with equipercentile equating, a statistical process of determining comparable scores based on percentile equivalents on different forms of an examination. Results Scores from the MMSE and the TICS-30 and TICS-40 corresponded well and clinically relevant cut point scores were determined; for example, an MMSE score of 23 is equivalent to 17 and 20 on the TICS-30 and TICS-40, respectively. Conclusions These findings provide scores that can be used to link TICS and MMSE scores directly. Clinically relevant and important MMSE cut points and the respective ADAMS TICS-30 and TICS-40 cut point scores have been included to identify the degree of cognitive impairment among respondents with any type of cognitive disorder. These results will help with the widespread application of the TICS in both research and clinical practice. PMID:19647495
Wee, Liang En; Yeo, Wei Xin; Yang, Gui Rong; Hannan, Nazirul; Lim, Kenny; Chua, Christopher; Tan, Mae Yue; Fong, Nikki; Yeap, Amelia; Chen, Lionel; Koh, Gerald Choon-Huat; Shen, Han Ming
Neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES) can affect cognitive function. We assessed cognitive function and cognitive impairment among community-dwelling elderly in a multi-ethnic urban low-SES Asian neighborhood and compared them with a higher-SES neighborhood. The study population involved all residents aged ≥60 years in two housing estates comprising owner-occupied housing (higher SES) and rental flats (low SES) in Singapore in 2012. Cognitive impairment was defined as cognitive function, while multilevel logistic regression determined predictors of cognitive impairment. Participation was 61.4% (558/909). Cognitive impairment was found in 26.2% (104/397) of residents in the low-SES community and in 16.1% (26/161) of residents in the higher-SES community. After adjusting for other sociodemographic variables, living in a low-SES community was independently associated with poorer cognitive function (β = -1.41, SD = 0.58, p cognitive impairment (adjusted odds ratio 5.13, 95% CI 1.98-13.34). Among cognitively impaired elderly in the low-SES community, 96.2% (100/104) were newly detected. Living in a low-SES community is independently associated with cognitive impairment in an urban Asian society.
Tong, Tiffany; Chignell, Mark; Tierney, Mary C; Lee, Jacques
We propose the use of serious games to screen for abnormal cognitive status in situations where it may be too costly or impractical to use standard cognitive assessments (eg, emergency departments). If validated, serious games in health care could enable broader availability of efficient and engaging cognitive screening. The objective of this work is to demonstrate the feasibility of a game-based cognitive assessment delivered on tablet technology to a clinical sample and to conduct preliminary validation against standard mental status tools commonly used in elderly populations. We carried out a feasibility study in a hospital emergency department to evaluate the use of a serious game by elderly adults (N=146; age: mean 80.59, SD 6.00, range 70-94 years). We correlated game performance against a number of standard assessments, including the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), and the Confusion Assessment Method (CAM). After a series of modifications, the game could be used by a wide range of elderly patients in the emergency department demonstrating its feasibility for use with these users. Of 146 patients, 141 (96.6%) consented to participate and played our serious game. Refusals to play the game were typically due to concerns of family members rather than unwillingness of the patient to play the game. Performance on the serious game correlated significantly with the MoCA (r=-.339, P games in a clinical setting. Further research is required to demonstrate the validity and reliability of game-based assessments for clinical decision making.
Hu, Pengjuan; Huang, Lili; Zhou, Shuang; Shi, Qiang; Xiao, Dan; Wang, Chen
In countries where smoking is associated with lower socioeconomic status, smokers tend to perform worse on cognitive tasks than non-smokers. China is now undergoing a similar process with a recent study showing that there is a reduced cognitive performance in middle aged but not in elderly smokers. We examined the links between smoking status and cognitive functioning among vocational school students in Beijing, China. A total of 213 students aged 16-20 (98 smokers and 115 non-smokers) were recruited from three vocational schools in Beijing. Participants completed three subtests of Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) (information, arithmetic, digit span) and Dysexecutive Questionnaire (DEX). Smokers also completed a cigarette smoking questionnaire and Fagerstrom Test of Nicotine Dependence (FTND). Smokers performed worse than non-smokers in tests of arithmetic and digit span forward (t = 4.25, 2.05, both P < .05). Scores on digit span backward did not differentiate smokers and non-smokers, but among smokers, the performance on this subtest was related to the age of starting smoking (r = 0.26, p < .001). Cognitive performance in smokers was not related to tobacco dependence or intensity of smoking. Compared to non-smokers, smokers had a higher total DEX score and higher scores on three of its five subscales (Inhibition, Knowing-doing dissociation and Social regulation, all p < .05). Another subscale, In-resistance, did not differentiate smokers and non-smokers, but differentiated smokers with lower and higher levels of nicotine dependence (t = -2.12, p < .05). Smokers performed worse on some cognitive tasks than non-smokers and scored higher on a questionnaire assessing executive dysfunction. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Chignell, Mark; Tierney, Mary C.; Lee, Jacques
Background We propose the use of serious games to screen for abnormal cognitive status in situations where it may be too costly or impractical to use standard cognitive assessments (eg, emergency departments). If validated, serious games in health care could enable broader availability of efficient and engaging cognitive screening. Objective The objective of this work is to demonstrate the feasibility of a game-based cognitive assessment delivered on tablet technology to a clinical sample and to conduct preliminary validation against standard mental status tools commonly used in elderly populations. Methods We carried out a feasibility study in a hospital emergency department to evaluate the use of a serious game by elderly adults (N=146; age: mean 80.59, SD 6.00, range 70-94 years). We correlated game performance against a number of standard assessments, including the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), and the Confusion Assessment Method (CAM). Results After a series of modifications, the game could be used by a wide range of elderly patients in the emergency department demonstrating its feasibility for use with these users. Of 146 patients, 141 (96.6%) consented to participate and played our serious game. Refusals to play the game were typically due to concerns of family members rather than unwillingness of the patient to play the game. Performance on the serious game correlated significantly with the MoCA (r=–.339, P games in a clinical setting. Further research is required to demonstrate the validity and reliability of game-based assessments for clinical decision making. PMID:27234145
Full Text Available Status epilepticus causes significant morbidity and mortality. A case of generalized status epilepticus followed by massive pulmonary aspiration, acute respiratory failure and transient central diabetes insipidus is presented. Seizures were promptly controlled, but the patient required mechanical ventilation and correction of polyuria with desmopressin acetate. During hospitalization mental status improved, diabetes insipidus spontaneously remitted and he was discharged without neurologic sequelae. The clinical and pathophysiological features of this case are discussed.
Childhood micronutrient deficiencies have negative effects on cognition. Little is known about the effects of combined consumption of micronutrients and sugar on growth and cognitive function. The aim of this thesis was to 1) investigate the effects of micronutrients and sugar, alone and in combination, in a beverage, on growth and cognition in South African children and 2) review recent evidence on iron status and anaemia prevalence in South African children since the National Food Consu...
Rozenman, Michelle; Vreeland, Allison; Piacentini, John
Cognitive bias and physiological arousal are two putative markers that may underlie youth anxiety. However, data on relationships between cognitive bias and arousal are limited, and typically do not include behavioral measurement of these constructs in order to tap real-time processes. We aimed to examine the relationship between performance-based cognitive bias and sympathetic arousal during stress in clinically anxious and typically-developing youth. The sample included children and adolescents ages 9 to 17 (Mean age=13.18, SD=2.60) who either met diagnostic criteria for primary generalized anxiety, social phobia, or separation anxiety (N=24) or healthy controls who had no history of psychopathology (N=22). Youth completed performance-based measures of attention and interpretation bias. Electrodermal activity was assessed while youth participated in the Trier Social Stress Test for Children (TSST-C; Buske-Kirschbaum, Jobst, & Wustmans, 1997). A mixed models analysis indicated significant linear and non-linear changes in skin conductance, with similar slopes for both groups. Interpretation bias, but not attention bias, moderated the relationship between group status and sympathetic arousal during the TSST-C. Arousal trajectories did not differ for anxious and healthy control youth who exhibited high levels of threat interpretation bias. However, for youth who exhibited moderate and low levels of interpretation bias, the anxious group demonstrated greater arousal slopes than healthy control youth. Results provide initial evidence that the relationship between anxiety status and physiological arousal during stress may be moderated by level of interpretation bias for threat. These findings may implicate interpretation bias as a marker of sympathetic reactivity in youth. Implications for future research and limitations are discussed. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Stone, E R; Dodrill, C L; Johnson, N
This research is an examination of whether cognition in depressed individuals incorporates a realistic view of the world or a general tendency toward negativity. Participants provided two types of probability judgments of the likelihood that they correctly answered general knowledge questions: the probability that they correctly answered each of the individual questions and an aggregate judgment, after completing the questionnaire, of the percentage of all the questions they thought they had correctly answered. These tasks generally elicit overconfidence and accuracy in nondepressives. In accord with theories of both depressive realism and general negativity, in their item-by-item assessments of their answers to the individual questions, depressed participants demonstrated less overconfidence than nondepressed participants. In accord with the theory of general negativity but not with the theory of depressive realism, however, depressed participants demonstrated underconfidence in their aggregate judgments. The implications of these findings on theories of depressive cognition are discussed.
Connelly, Roxanne; Gayle, Vernon
The 'Flynn effect' describes the substantial and long-standing increase in average cognitive ability test scores, which has been observed in numerous psychological studies. Flynn makes an appeal for researchers to move beyond psychology's standard disciplinary boundaries and to consider sociological contexts, in order to develop a more comprehensive understanding of cognitive inequalities. In this article we respond to this appeal and investigate social class inequalities in general cognitive ability test scores over time. We analyse data from the National Child Development Study (1958) and the British Cohort Study (1970). These two British birth cohorts are suitable nationally representative large-scale data resources for studying inequalities in general cognitive ability. We observe a large parental social class effect, net of parental education and gender in both cohorts. The overall finding is that large social class divisions in cognitive ability can be observed when children are still at primary school, and similar patterns are observed in each cohort. Notably, pupils with fathers at the lower end of the class structure are at a distinct disadvantage. This is a disturbing finding and it is especially important because cognitive ability is known to influence individuals later in the lifecourse. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2017.
de Jong, B. M.; van de Hoeven, J. H.; Pruim, J.; van der Naalt, J.; Meertens, John H. J. M.
In a patient with a refractory generalized convulsive status epilepticus, the ictal distribution of regional cerebral glucose was assessed with positron emission tomography (PET). Synchronized seizure activity in the EEG was associated with bilateral metabolic activation of medial sensorimotor
Mignardot, Jean-Baptiste; Beauchet, Olivier; Annweiler, Cédric; Cornu, Christophe; Deschamps, Thibault
Cognitive impairment-related changes in postural sway increase fall risk among older adults. Better understanding this association could be helpful for fall prevention. To examine the center-of-pressure (COP) velocity association with cognitive status and history of falls, in cognitively healthy individuals (CHI), patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and with mild-to-moderate Alzheimer's disease (MMAD). Six hundred and eleven older community-dwellers (77.2 ± 7.9 years; 51.8% men) were separated into CHI, MCI, and MMAD participants. By computing the average absolute maximal velocity (AAMV), the bounding limits of COP velocity dynamics were determined while participants were asked to maintain quiet stance on a force platform with eyes open or with eyes closed. Age, gender, history of falls, body mass index, medications, handgrip strength, Timed Up & Go score were used as covariates. The multivariate ANCOVA, with AAMV in eyes open and eyes closed conditions as dependent variables, showed that the highest AAMVs that bound the COP velocity dynamics of postural sway were associated with cognitive impairment (p = 0.048) (i.e., lowest limits in CHI and MCI as compared with MMAD) and falls (p = 0.033) (i.e., highest limits in fallers). These findings identified the bounding limits of COP velocity as a hallmark feature of cognitive impairment-related changes in postural sway, in particular for MMAD. This point is of special interest for clinical balance assessment and fall prevention in MMAD patients in order to plan long-term targeted fall-prevention programs.
Warsito, Oktarina; Khomsan, Ali; Hernawati, Neti; Anwar, Faisal
The purposes of the study were to analyze nutritional status, psychosocial stimulation, and factors affecting the cognitive development of preschool-age children. This study was conducted in the Village of Babakan, Sub-District of Dramaga, Bogor Regency, West Java. This cross-sectionally designed study was conducted with mothers who had preschool children aged 3-5 years as respondents. Fifty-eight children were included. The distribution of mother's educational level was quite diverse, and the largest percentage (44.8%) had senior high school education. Approximately 78% of the family income per capita was classified into the non-poor category and 22.4% into the poor category. The average mother's nutritional knowledge score was 76.7 ± 2.5 (moderate category). Most of the preschool children (84.4%) had psychosocial stimulation scores in the moderate category (30-45). The nutritional status of children showed that 15.5% were underweight, 5.2% were wasted, 3.4% were severely wasted, and 19% of the children were in the short and very short categories (stunted). The stepwise regression results showed that psychosocial stimulation (P education (P = 0.002) and nutritional status based on the height index for age (P = 0.028) had a positive and significant effect on cognitive development of the preschool children (adjusted R(2), 0.434; P = 0.028).
Konagaya, Yoko; Watanabe, Tomoyuki; Takata, Kazuko; Ohta, Toshiki
The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether the Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status in Japanese (TICS-J) is accepted among community-dwelling elderly, to examine the correlations among gender, age or the duration of education and the TICS-J, as well as to grasp the subjects with probable cognitive impairment. A total of 12,059 community-dwelling elderly were invited to join the cognitive screening by the TICS-J, among which 3,482 responded, of these we were actually able to measure 2,620 and found out the educational back ground of the 2,431. They counted 1,186 men (age 72.3+/-5.7 (mean+/-SD) years old, duration of education 11.4+/-2.9 years) and 1,245 women (72.4+/-5.8, 10.3+/-2.2). The TICS-J was administered according to the TICS manual. The TICS-J consisted of orientation concerning name, time and place, counting backward from 20 to 1, remembering a word list, 7 serial subtractions, naming of verbal descriptions, repetition, recent memory, praxis and opposites. The subjects were divided into two groups by the duration of education (less than 11 years, or 11 years or more), or four groups by age (65-69, 70-74, 75-79 and 80 years old or more). There were no significant differences of total TICS-J scores between men and women, 34.3+/-3.5 and 34.4+/-3.6, respectively. The mean total score of the high education group (35.3+/-3.0) was significantly higher than that of the low education group (33.3+/-3.8). Moreover, the averages of the total scores decreased according to age increase. The number of the subjects who showed the total TICS-J scores below the cut-off point of 33 was 564 (23.2%). There was no difference between men and women with the average total score of the TICS-J, however, there were correlations between ages and extent of education and their average total scores. The TICS-J is useful to assess the cognitive function of the community-dwelling elderly.
Stan-Sion, C.; Plostinaru, D.; Catana, L.; Radulescu, M.; Marinescu, L.; Dima, R.
sensitivities. For the same reason, the transmission to the beam line and the ion current must be maximized. Additionally, cross-contamination between different samples should be minimized. To meet all these requirements, a new cesium sputter ion source has been constructed and is under the tests. Beams from the source are focused by an optical element (Einzel lens and steerer) on the object slits of a 90 angle double-focusing Danfysik analyzing magnet. The Injector was designed using the beam optics code OPTIC 4. The same code was used to couple the beams from the injector to the other transport elements down to the entrance into the tandem accelerator. To ensure good transmission through the analyzing magnet, the width of the beam is controlled by measuring the currents on a four-fold diaphragm system placed in the object point of the magnet. The information is used to adjust focusing power and steering done by the optical element after the sputter source. At this preliminary status, the stable isotopes are monitored by a Faraday cup which is positioned by remote control into the beam axis at the image point of the analyzing magnet. Our scientific research programme is devoted to environmental AMS studies. (authors)
El Khoury, A.; Atoui, A.
Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a mycotoxin produced by several species of Aspergillus and Penicillium fungi that structurally consists of a para-chlorophenolic group containing a dihydroisocoumarin moiety that is amide-linked to L-phenylalanine. OTA is detected worldwide in various food and feed sources. Studies show that this molecule can have several toxicological effects such as nephrotoxic, hepatotoxic, neurotoxic, teratogenic and immunotoxic. A role in the etiology of Balkan endemic nephropathy and its association to urinary tract tumors has been also proved. In this review, we will explore the general aspect of OTA: physico-chemical properties, toxicological profile, OTA producing fungi, contaminated food, regulation, legislation and analytical methods. Due to lack of sufficient information related to the molecular background, this paper will discuss in detail the recent advances in molecular biology of OTA biosynthesis, based on information and on new data about identification and characterization of ochratoxin biosynthetic genes in both Penicillium and Aspergillus species. This review will also cover the development of the molecular methods for the detection and quantification of OTA producing fungi in various foodstuffs. (author)
Full Text Available Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs, especially the n-3 series, are known for their protective effects. Considering that cardiovascular diseases are risk factors for dementia, which is common at aging, the aim of this study was to evaluate whether fatty acid status in the elderly was associated with cognitive function and cardiovascular risk. Forty-five elderly persons (age ≥60 years were included and divided into two groups based on their Mini-Mental Status Examination score adjusted for educational level: the case group (n = 12 and the control group (n = 33. Serum fatty acid composition, homocysteine (Hcy, hs-CRP, lipid profile and different cognitive domains were evaluated. The case group, characterized by reduced cognitive performance, showed higher levels of 14:0, 16:0, 16:1n-7 fatty acids and lower levels of 22:0, 24:1n-9, 22:6n-3 (DHA and total PUFAs compared to the control group (p < 0.05. The n-6/n-3 ratio was elevated in both study groups, whereas alterations in Hcy, hs-CRP and lipid profile were observed in the case group. Cognitive function was positively associated with the 24:1n-9, DHA and total n-3 PUFAs, while 14:0, 16:0 and 16:1n-7 fatty acids, the n-6/n-3 ratio and Hcy were inversely associated. In addition, n-3 PUFAs, particularly DHA, were inversely associated with cardiovascular risk, assessed by Hcy levels in the elderly.
Schene, A.H.; Baas, K.D.; Koeter, M.W.J.; Lucassen, P.; Bockting, C.L.H.; Wittkampf, K.A.; Huyser, J.; van Weert, H.C.
Background: How to treat Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) in primary care? Studies that compared (brief) Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) with care as usual by the General Practitioner (GP) found the first to be more effective. However, to make a fair comparison GP care should be optimised and
Schene, A. H.; Baas, K. D.; Koeter, M.; Lucassen, P.; Bockting, C. L. H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/258267992; Wittkampf, K. F.; van Weert, H. C.; Huyser, J.
Background: How to treat Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) in primary care? Studies that compared (brief) Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) with care as usual by the General Practitioner (GP) found the first to be more effective. However, to make a fair comparison GP care should be optimised and
Petrill, Stephen A.; Lipton, Paul A.; Hewitt, John K.; Plomin, Robert; Cherny, Stacey S.; Corley, Robin; DeFries, John C.
The genetic and environmental contributions to the development of general cognitive ability throughout the first 16 years of life were examined using sibling data from the Colorado Adoption Project. Correlations were analyzed along with structural equation models to characterize the genetic and environmental influences on longitudinal stability…
Rossi, N. F.; Giacheti, C. M.
Background: Williams syndrome (WS) phenotype is described as unique and intriguing. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between speech-language abilities, general cognitive functioning and behavioural problems in individuals with WS, considering age effects and speech-language characteristics of WS sub-groups. Methods: The…
Wölwer, Wolfgang; Frommann, Nicole
In the last decade, several social cognitive remediation programs have been developed for use in schizophrenia. Though existing evidence indicates that such programs can improve social cognition, which is essential for successful social functioning, it remains unclear whether the improvements generalize to social cognitive domains not primarily addressed by the intervention and whether the improved test performance transfers into everyday social functioning. The present study investigated whether, beyond its known effects on facial affect recognition, the Training of Affect Recognition (TAR) has effects on prosodic affect recognition, theory of mind (ToM) performance, social competence in a role-play task, and more general social and occupational functioning. Thirty-eight inpatients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder were randomly assigned to 6 weeks of treatment with the TAR--primarily targeted at facial affect recognition-or Cognitive Remediation Training (CRT)--primarily targeted at neurocognition. Intention-to-treat analyses found significantly larger pre-post improvements with TAR than with CRT in prosodic affect recognition, ToM, and social competence and a trend effect in global social functioning. However, the effects on ToM and social competence were no longer significant in the smaller group of patients who completed treatment according to protocol. Results suggest that TAR effects generalize to other social cognitive domains not primarily addressed. TAR may also enhance social skills and social functioning, although this has to be confirmed. Results are discussed with regard to the need to improve functional outcome in schizophrenia against the background of current evidence from other social cognitive remediation approaches.
This study examined the relative contributions of general cognitive abilities and number abilities to word problem solving, calculation, and arithmetic fact retrieval in a sample of 134 children aged 10 to 13 years. The following tasks were administered: listening span, visual matrix span, verbal fluency, color naming, Raven's Progressive Matrices, enumeration, number line estimation, and digit comparison. Hierarchical multiple regressions demonstrated that number abilities provided an independent contribution to fact retrieval and word problem solving. General cognitive abilities contributed to problem solving and calculation. All three number tasks accounted for a similar amount of variance in fact retrieval, whereas only the number line estimation task contributed unique variance in word problem solving. Verbal fluency and Raven's matrices accounted for an equal amount of variance in problem solving and calculation. The current findings demonstrate, in accordance with Fuchs and colleagues' developmental model of mathematical learning (Developmental Psychology, 2010, Vol. 46, pp. 1731-1746), that both number abilities and general cognitive abilities underlie 10- to 13-year-olds' proficiency in problem solving, whereas only number abilities underlie arithmetic fact retrieval. Thus, the amount and type of cognitive contribution to arithmetic proficiency varies between the different aspects of arithmetic. Furthermore, how closely linked a specific aspect of arithmetic is to the whole number representation systems is not the only factor determining the amount and type of cognitive contribution in 10- to 13-year-olds. In addition, the mathematical complexity of the task appears to influence the amount and type of cognitive support. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hakamata, Yuko; Matsui, Mie; Tagaya, Hirokuni
Background: Although poorer cognitive performance has been found to be associated with anxiety, it remains unclear whether neurocognitive function affects biased cognitive processing toward emotional information. We investigated whether general cognitive function evaluated with a standard neuropsychological test predicts biased cognition, focusing on attentional bias toward threat. Methods: One hundred and five healthy young adults completed a dot-probe task measuring attentional bias and ...
Full Text Available Background and Aim : Learning and memory are two high level cognitive performances in human that hearing loss influences them. In our study, mini-mental state examination (MMSE and Ray auditory-verbal learning test (RAVLT was conducted to study cognitive stat us and lexical learning and memory in deaf adults using sign language. Methods: This cross-sectional comparative study was conducted on 30 available congenitally deaf adults using sign language in Persian and 46 normal adults aged 19 to 27 years for both sexes, with a minimum of diploma level of education. After mini-mental state examination, Rey auditory-verbal learning test was run through computers to evaluate lexical learning and memory with visual presentation. Results: Mean scores of mini-mental state examination and Rey auditory-verbal learning test in congenitally deaf adults were significantly lower than normal individuals in all scores (p=0.018 except in the two parts of the Rey test. Significant correlation was found between results of two tests just in the normal group (p=0.043. Gender had no effect on test results. Conclusion: Cognitive status and lexical memory and learning in congenitally deaf individuals is weaker than in normal subjects. It seems that using sign language as the main way of communication in deaf people causes poor lexical memory and learning.
Haan, J; van Kleef, J W; Bloem, B R; Zwartendijk, J; Lanser, J B; Brand, R; van der Does, I G; Krul, E J; Elshove, H M; Moll, A C
Cognitive functions in 53 elderly men who underwent a transurethral prostatectomy were assessed pre-operatively and 4 days and 3 months post-operatively. Thirteen patients had a preference for one particular type of anesthesia, and the remaining 40 were randomly allocated to receive either spinal or general anesthesia. Cognitive function was not different between the groups receiving different types of anesthesia at either time point and did not decrease post-operatively. No pre- or perioperative variable could distinguish the subgroup of patients who had a post-operative decrease of 2 points or more on the Mini-Mental State Examination. No difference in post-operative performance was found in the patient groups with pre-operative Mini-Mental State Examination scores above or under their age-specific norm. It is concluded that neither hospitalization nor the two forms of anesthesia investigated cause a decrease in cognitive function in elderly men.
Najmi, Sadia; Amir, Nader; Frosio, Kristen E.; Ayers, Catherine
Poor regulation of emotions may involve impaired attention control. In the current paper, we report the results of two studies examining the interaction of anxiety, attention control, and cognitive load. In Study I, using a performance-based task to assess attention control, we examined whether anxiety is associated with impaired attention control, and whether these effects are influenced by working memory load. In Study II we examined these effects in patients with a diagnosis of Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) compared to non-anxious control (NAC) participants. Results of Study I showed that high anxiety was associated with increased attention control, that is decreased interference from distractors, but only under high cognitive load. These results were replicated in Study II such that individuals with GAD showed increased attention control relative to NACs, but only under high cognitive load. These results help clarify previous predictions regarding the effect of anxiety on attention control. PMID:25355423
Benros, Michael E; Sørensen, Holger Jelling; Nielsen, Philip Finn Rising
nationwide registers were linked to establish a cohort of all 161,696 male conscripts during the years 2006-2012 who were tested for cognitive ability, which was based on logical, verbal, numerical and spatial reasoning at a mean age of 19.4 years. Test scores were converted to a mean of 100.......00 and with a standard deviation (SD) of 15. Data were analyzed as a cohort study with severe infections requiring hospitalization as exposure using linear regression. RESULTS: Adjusted effect sizes were calculated with non-exposure to severe infections as reference, ranging from 0.12 SD to 0.63 SD on general cognitive...... of infections (Mean: -9.44; 95%CI: -13.2 to -5.69; corresponding to 0.63 SD). Hospital contacts with infections had occurred in 35% of the individuals prior to conscription. CONCLUSIONS: Independent of a wide range of possible confounders, significant associations between infections and cognitive ability were...
Huang, Chiung-Yu; Sousa, Valmi D; Perng, Shao-Jen; Hwang, Mei-Yi; Tsai, Chun-Ching; Huang, Mei-Huang; Yao, Shu-Ying
This study examined the relationships among stressors, social support, depressive symptoms and the general health status of Taiwanese caregivers of individuals with stroke or Alzheimer's disease. Caring for a disabled or cognitively impaired person can be extremely stressful and often has adverse effects on caregivers' health. While research on caregiving in Taiwan has examined caregivers' characteristics, caregivers' need and caregivers' burden in caring for older people in general, little is known about Taiwanese caregivers of individuals with stroke or Alzheimer's disease. Cross-sectional, descriptive correlation design. Data were obtained from a convenience sample of 103 Taiwanese informal caregivers in the South of Taiwan and analysed using descriptive statistics, Pearson's correlations, multiple and hierarchical regressions and t-tests. Caregivers who had lower household incomes and were taking care of individuals with more behaviour problems had more depressive symptoms. In addition, caregivers who were older and were taking care of individuals with more behaviour problems had worse general health. Caregivers who had more emotional support had less depressive symptoms. Caregivers of persons with Alzheimer's disease had more depressive symptoms and worse general health than caregivers of persons with stroke. Only emotional support moderated the relationship between one of the stressors (household income) and depressive symptoms. The findings of this study may be helpful for nurses and other health care professionals in designing effective interventions to minimise the negative impacts of stressors on the psychological and general health of caregivers in Taiwan.
Full Text Available Background Clinical information systems in the National Health Service do not need to conform to any explicit usability requirements. Poor usability can increase the mental workload experienced by clinicians and cause fatigue, increase error rates and impact the overall patient safety. Mental workload can be used as a measure of usability.Objective To assess the subjective cognitive workload experienced by general practitioners (GPs with their systems. To raise awareness of the importance of usability in system design among users, designers, developers and policymakers.Methods We used a modified version of the NASA Task Load Index, adapted for web. We developed a set of common clinical scenarios and computer tasks on an online survey. We emailed the study link to 199 clinical commissioning groups and 1,646 GP practices in England. Results Sixty-seven responders completed the survey. The respondents had spent an average of 17 years in general practice, had experience of using a mean of 1.5 GP computer systems and had used their current system for a mean time of 6.7 years. The mental workload score was not different among systems. There were significant differences among the task scores, but these differences were not specific to particular systems. The overall score and task scores were related to the length of experience with their present system. Conclusion Four tasks imposed a higher mental workload on GPs: ‘repeat prescribing’, ‘find episode’, ‘drug management’ and ‘overview records’. Further usability studies on GP systems should focus on these tasks. Users, policymakers, designers and developers should remain aware of the importance of usability in system design.What does this study add?• Current GP systems in England do not need to conform to explicit usability requirements. Poor usability can increase the mental workload of clinicians and lead to errors.• Some clinical computer tasks incur more cognitive workload
The association between marital status and generalized trust in other people was investigated. The public health survey in Skane 2008 is a cross-sectional study including 28,198 persons (55% participation rate) aged 18-80 in southern Sweden. Logistic regression models investigated associations between marital status and trust, adjusting for age, country of birth, education, emotional support, instrumental support and economic stress. 33.9% of the men and 35.7% of the women had low trust. The ...
Igase, Michiya; Igase, Keiji; Tabara, Yasuharu; Ohyagi, Yasumasa; Kohara, Katsuhiko
It is well known that consumption of isoflavones reduces the risk of cardiovascular disease. However, the effectiveness of isoflavones in preventing dementia is controversial. A number of intervention studies have produced conflicting results. One possible reason is that the ability to produce equol, a metabolite of a soy isoflavone, differs greatly in individuals. In addition to existing data, we sought to confirm whether an apparent beneficial effect in cognitive function is observed after soy consumption in equol producers compared with non-producers. The present study was a cross-sectional, observational study of 152 (male/female = 61/91, mean age 69.2 ± 9.2 years) individuals. Participants were divided into two groups according to equol production status, which was determined using urine samples collected after a soy challenge test. Cognitive function was assessed using two computer-based questionnaires (touch panel-type dementia assessment scale [TDAS] and mild cognitive impairment [MCI] screen). Overall, 60 (40%) of 152 participants were equol producers. Both TDAS and prevalence of MCI were significantly higher in the equol producer group than in the non-producer group. In univariate analyses, TDAS significantly correlated with age, serum creatinine, estimated glomerular filtration rate and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. In multiple regression analysis using TDAS as a dependent variable, equol producer (β = 0.236, P = 0.005) was selected as an independent variable. In addition, multiple logistic regression analysis to assess the presence of MCI showed that being an equol producer was an independent risk factor for MCI (odds ratio 3.961). Compared with equol non-producers, equol producers showed an apparent beneficial effect in cognitive function after soy intake. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; 17: 2103-2108. © 2017 Japan Geriatrics Society.
Gray, Sarah A; Reeve, Robert A
Different number-specific and general cognitive markers have been claimed to underlie preschoolers' math ability. It is unclear, however, whether similar/different cognitive markers, or combinations of them, are associated with different patterns of emerging math abilities (i.e., different patterns of strength and weakness). To examine this question, 103 preschoolers (40-60 months of age) completed six math tasks (count sequence, object counting, give a number, naming numbers, ordinal relations, and arithmetic), three number-specific markers of math ability (dot enumeration, magnitude comparison, and spontaneous focusing on numerosity), and four general markers (working memory, response inhibition, attention, and vocabulary). A three-step latent profile modeling procedure identified five math ability profiles that differed in their patterns of math strengths and weaknesses; specifically, the profiles were characterized by (a) excellent math ability on all math tasks, (b) good arithmetic ability, (c) good math ability but relatively poor count sequence recitation ability, (d) average ability on all math tasks, and (e) poor ability on all math tasks. After controlling for age, only dot enumeration and spontaneous focusing on numerosity were associated with the math ability profiles, whereas vocabulary was also marginally significant, and these markers were differentially associated with different profiles; that is, different cognitive markers were associated with different patterns of strengths and weaknesses in math abilities. Findings are discussed in terms of their implications for the development of math cognition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Badre, David; Wagner, Anthony D
Prefrontal cortex (PFC) supports flexible behavior by mediating cognitive control, though the elemental forms of control supported by PFC remain a central debate. Dorsolateral PFC (DLPFC) is thought to guide response selection under conditions of response conflict or, alternatively, may refresh recently active representations within working memory. Lateral frontopolar cortex (FPC) may also adjudicate response conflict, though others propose that FPC supports higher order control processes such as subgoaling and integration. Anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is hypothesized to upregulate response selection by detecting response conflict; it remains unclear whether ACC functions generalize beyond monitoring response conflict. The present fMRI experiment directly tested these competing theories regarding the functional roles of DLPFC, FPC, and ACC. Results reveal dissociable control processes in PFC, with mid-DLPFC selectively mediating resolution of response conflict and FPC further mediating subgoaling/integration. ACC demonstrated a broad sensitivity to control demands, suggesting a generalized role in modulating cognitive control.
Skröder, Helena; Kippler, Maria; Tofail, Fahmida; Vahter, Marie
In older adults, selenium status has been positively associated with cognitive function. We recently reported a positive association between maternal selenium status in pregnancy and children's cognitive function at 1.5 y. We followed up the children to assess if prenatal and childhood selenium status was associated with cognitive abilities at 5 and 10 y. This longitudinal cohort study was nested in Maternal and Infant Nutrition Interventions in Matlab (MINIMat), a population-based, randomized supplementation trial in pregnancy in rural Bangladesh. Selenium in maternal blood [erythrocyte fraction (Ery-Se) at baseline] and in child hair and urine was measured using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Children's cognition at 5 and 10 y was assessed using the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence™ and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children ® , respectively. In total, 1,408 children were included. Multivariable-adjusted linear regression analyses showed that prenatal selenium status was positively associated with children's cognitive function at 5 and 10 y. An increase in maternal Ery-Se from the fifth to the 95th percentile [median: 0.44μg/g hemoglobin (Hb)] was associated with an increase in full developmental score of 3.5 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.1, 7.0], corresponding to 0.16 standard deviation (SD) at 5 y, and 8.1 (95% CI: 3.8, 13), corresponding to 0.24 SD at 10 y. In addition, urine and hair selenium concentrations at 5 and 10 y of age were positively associated with cognitive function at 10 y, although associations were inverse for concentrations ≥98th percentile. Some associations were slightly stronger for girls than for boys. Measures of prenatal and childhood (below the 98th percentile) selenium status were associated with higher cognitive function scores at 5 and 10 y of age. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP1691.
Lombardi, Diana R.; Button, Melissa; Westra, Henny A.
How clients talk about change early in treatment has been found to be a potent predictor of their subsequent treatment success. Studies examining such client motivational language (arguments for and against change) have typically been conducted in the context of motivational interviewing for addictions. The present study examined the capacity of client motivational language to predict treatment outcomes in the context of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for generalized anxiety. Client early...
Full Text Available Principal Component Analysis (PCA was used to determine the association between dietary patterns and cognitive function and to examine how classification systems based on food groups and food items affect levels of association between diet and cognitive function. The present study focuses on the older segment of the Australian Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle Study (AusDiab sample (age 60+ that completed the food frequency questionnaire at Wave 1 (1999/2000 and the mini-mental state examination and tests of memory, verbal ability and processing speed at Wave 3 (2012. Three methods were used in order to classify these foods before applying PCA. In the first instance, the 101 individual food items asked about in the questionnaire were used (no categorisation. In the second and third instances, foods were combined and reduced to 32 and 20 food groups, respectively, based on nutrient content and culinary usage—a method employed in several other published studies for PCA. Logistic regression analysis and generalized linear modelling was used to analyse the relationship between PCA-derived dietary patterns and cognitive outcome. Broader food group classifications resulted in a greater proportion of food use variance in the sample being explained (use of 101 individual foods explained 23.22% of total food use, while use of 32 and 20 food groups explained 29.74% and 30.74% of total variance in food use in the sample, respectively. Three dietary patterns were found to be associated with decreased odds of cognitive impairment (CI. Dietary patterns derived from 101 individual food items showed that for every one unit increase in ((Fruit and Vegetable Pattern: p = 0.030, OR 1.061, confidence interval: 1.006–1.118; (Fish, Legumes and Vegetable Pattern: p = 0.040, OR 1.032, confidence interval: 1.001–1.064; (Dairy, Cereal and Eggs Pattern: p = 0.003, OR 1.020, confidence interval: 1.007–1.033, the odds of cognitive impairment decreased. Different
Ruffing, Stephanie; Wach, F-Sophie; Spinath, Frank M; Brünken, Roland; Karbach, Julia
Recent research has revealed that learning behavior is associated with academic achievement at the college level, but the impact of specific learning strategies on academic success as well as gender differences therein are still not clear. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate gender differences in the incremental contribution of learning strategies over general cognitive ability in the prediction of academic achievement. The relationship between these variables was examined by correlation analyses. A set of t-tests was used to test for gender differences in learning strategies, whereas structural equation modeling as well as multi-group analyses were applied to investigate the incremental contribution of learning strategies for male and female students' academic performance. The sample consisted of 461 students (mean age = 21.2 years, SD = 3.2). Correlation analyses revealed that general cognitive ability as well as the learning strategies effort, attention, and learning environment were positively correlated with academic achievement. Gender differences were found in the reported application of many learning strategies. Importantly, the prediction of achievement in structural equation modeling revealed that only effort explained incremental variance (10%) over general cognitive ability. Results of multi-group analyses showed no gender differences in this prediction model. This finding provides further knowledge regarding gender differences in learning research and the specific role of learning strategies for academic achievement. The incremental assessment of learning strategy use as well as gender-differences in their predictive value contributes to the understanding and improvement of successful academic development.
Hernández-Galiot, Ana; Goñi, Isabel
Scientific evidence indicates that adherence to the Mediterranean diet protects against the deterioration of cognitive status and depressive symptoms during aging. However, few studies have been conducted in elderly non-institutionalized subjects. This study evaluated the relation between the adherence to the Mediterranean dietary pattern and cognitive status and depressive symptoms in an elderly population over 75 years. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a Mediterranean city (Garrucha, Spain) in 79 elderly people over 75 (36 men and 41 women). Adherence to the Mediterranean dietary pattern was determined using the Mediterranean Diet Adherence Screener (MEDAS). Cognitive function was determined by the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE), and depressive symptoms were assessed by the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS). Most of population showed a very high adherence to the Mediterranean diet pattern and optimal cognitive and affective status. They consumed olive oil as their main source of fat, high levels of fish and fruit, low levels of foods with added sugars, and a low consumption of red meat. A significant relation between the MEDAS and MMSE scores was found. However, no relationship was observed between the MEDAS and GDS. The Mediterranean diet pattern was positively related with the cognitive function, although the infl uence of a healthy dietary pattern on the symptomatology of depression was unclear. However, an effective strategy against cognitive function and depression would be to improve physical activity rates, establish lifelong healthy eating habits, and consume a nutritionally-rich diet in order to enhance quality of life of the elderly.
Laganá, Luciana; Spellman, Therese; Wakefield, Jennifer; Oliver, Taylor
The authors investigated the relationship between marital adjustment and ethnic minority status, depressive symptomatology, and cognitive failures among 78 married, community-dwelling, and predominantly non-European-American older women (ages 57-89). Respondents were screened to rule out dementia. Level of depressive symptoms, self-report of cognitive failures, and marital adjustment were obtained. As hypothesized, higher depressive symptomatology and cognitive failures were associated with worse marital adjustment ( p socioemotional selectivity theory (Carstensen, 1992) applied to marriage in older age, a conceptualization formulated by Bookwala and Jacobs in 2004.
ferritin concentrations nutritional status of school-age children as well as the reasons of iron deficiency. Food fortification...... with multiple micronutrients has the potential to improve micronutrient status, growth and cognitive performance, and reduce morbidity incidence in developing countries. In Cambodia, rice is a staple food, and therefore fortified rice with multiple micronutrients could be a promising strategy to reduce...... the prevalence of micronutrient deficiencies. However, few studies have investigated the impact of fortified rice on micronutrient status, health and cognitive development in school-age children. Therefore, the aim of this PhD study is to evaluate the impact of fortified rice on nutritional status, health...
Ogliari, Giulia; Sabayan, Behnam; Mari, Daniela
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate whether the relationship between blood pressure (BP) measures and cognitive function is different according to age and functional status in older outpatients. DESIGN: Cross-sectional. SETTING: Outpatient hospital-based Milan Geriatrics 75+ Cohort Study. PARTICIPANTS......: Individuals aged 75 and older (N = 1,540). MEASUREMENTS: Blood pressure, Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), basic activities of daily living (ADLs), and instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs) were assessed. Associations between BP measures and MMSE score were first analyzed in the total population...... using linear regression models and were then further examined according to strata of age, ADLs, and IADLs. All analyses were adjusted for sociodemographic factors and presence of comorbidities. RESULTS: In the total population, higher systolic BP (SBP), diastolic BP (DBP), pulse pressure (PP), and mean...
Crogan, Neva L; Short, Robert; Dupler, Alice E; Heaton, Grace
This article describes the testing of a new nursing home food delivery system that empowers elders to choose the foods they want to eat and gives them an active voice in menu development. Using a 2-group, repeated measures design, 61 elderly residents from 2 eastern Washington nursing homes were recruited to participate in a 6-month study. Outcome measures included food and meal service satisfaction, body weight, serum prealbumin, and food intake. Serum prealbumin levels and body weight increased post intervention for treatment group residents. Mini-Mental Status Examination (MMSE) scores were not associated with the changes in serum prealbumin, body weight, or food intake. The MMSE scores did not influence the resident's ability to actively participate in the rate the food process or choose the foods they liked and preferred to eat. Cognitive impaired older adults experienced weight gain similarly to higher functioning elderly individuals. © The Author(s) 2012.
Brown, Timothy T
To introduce the subjective well-being (SWB) method of valuation and provide an example by valuing health status. The SWB method allows monetary valuations to be performed in the absence of market relationships. Data are from the 1975-2010 General Social Survey. The value of health status is determined via the estimation of an implicit derivative based on a happiness equation. Two-stage least-squares was used to estimate happiness as a function of poor-to-fair health status, annual household income adjusted for household size, age, sex, race, marital status, education, year, and season. Poor-to-fair health status and annual household income are instrumented using a proxy for intelligence, a temporal version of the classic distance instrument, and the average health status of individuals who are demographically similar but geographically separated. Instrument validity is evaluated. Moving from good/excellent health to poor/fair health (1 year of lower health status) is equivalent to the loss of $41,654 of equivalized household income (2010 constant dollars) per annum, which is larger than median equivalized household income. The SWB method may be useful in making monetary valuations where fundamental market relationships are not present. © Health Research and Educational Trust.
Dyer, Adam H; Foley, Tony; O'Shea, Brendan; Kennelly, Sean P
The collateral (or informant) history is a key component in the assessment of older adults presenting with a memory problem or concern over cognition. Despite this, it rarely features in medical literature and academic curricula. Its role in general practice has never been assessed. The aim of this study is to assess the role of the collateral history in the investigation of cognitive impairment in general practice. An online survey distributed to three nationally representative cohorts of GPs in Ireland (n = 692). Ninety-five (14%; 52.2% male) responded. Nearly all (87%; 83/95) indicate that it is most often a family member who brings possible cognitive impairment to the attention of their GP. The vast majority obtain a collateral history in > 90% of cases (72.6%; 69/95) and rate it very useful in their clinical assessment of cognition. GPs report the collateral history as readily available and rarely refused, with the general practice environment well-suited to obtaining collateral histories. A small minority routinely use the GPCOG informant section (3.2%; 3/95). Nearly all (92.6%; 88/95) report having received no training in obtaining collateral histories with most (79%; 75/95) welcoming of further training in this area. Despite recognition of the utility and importance of the collateral history, the vast majority of GPs report having never received training in obtaining one and do not use structured tools to guide their interview. Further emphasis on the informant history as a distinct clinical entity on medical curricula and increasing emphasis on the availability of structured informant tools are warranted.
van Stijn, Mireille F M; Korkic-Halilovic, Ines; Bakker, Marjan S M; van der Ploeg, Tjeerd; van Leeuwen, Paul A M; Houdijk, Alexander P J
Poor nutrition status is considered a risk factor for postoperative complications in the adult population. In elderly patients, who often have a poor nutrition status, this relationship has not been substantiated. Thus, the aim of this systematic review was to assess the merit of preoperative nutrition parameters used to predict postoperative outcome in elderly patients undergoing general surgery. A systematic literature search of 10 consecutive years, 1998-2008, in PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases was performed. Search terms used were nutrition status, preoperative assessment, postoperative outcome, and surgery (hip or general), including their synonyms and MeSH terms. Limits used in the search were human studies, published in English, and age (65 years or older). Articles were screened using inclusion and exclusion criteria. All selected articles were checked on methodology and graded. Of 463 articles found, 15 were included. They showed profound heterogeneity in the parameters used for preoperative nutrition status and postoperative outcome. The only significant preoperative predictors of postoperative outcome in elderly general surgery patients were serum albumin and ≥ 10% weight loss in the previous 6 months. This systematic review revealed only 2 preoperative parameters to predict postoperative outcome in elderly general surgery patients: weight loss and serum albumin. Both are open to discussion in their use as a preoperative nutrition parameter. Nonetheless, serum albumin seems a reliable preoperative parameter to identify a patient at risk for nutrition deterioration and related complicated postoperative course.
... 26 Internal Revenue 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false General principles; status of old target and new target. 1.338-1 Section 1.338-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... of old target and new target. (a) In general—(1) Deemed transaction. Elections are available under...
van Vliet, Nicolien A.; van der Spoel, Evie; Beekman, Marian
(TSH), free thyroxine (fT4) and free triiodothyronine (fT3) were measured. In nonagenarians from long-lived families and from the general population, associations between thyroid parameters and mortality were similar. We found no interaction between study population and parameters of thyroid status...
Natalie H. Brito
Full Text Available Past research has demonstrated links between cortical activity, measured via EEG power, and cognitive processes during infancy. In a separate line of research, family socioeconomic status (SES has been strongly associated with children’s early cognitive development, with socioeconomic disparities emerging during the second year of life for both language and declarative memory skills. The present study examined associations among resting EEG power at birth, SES, and language and memory skills at 15-months in a sample of full-term infants. Results indicate no associations between SES and EEG power at birth. However, EEG power at birth was related to both language and memory outcomes at 15-months. Specifically, frontal power (24–48 Hz was positively correlated with later Visual Paired Comparison (VPC memory scores. Power (24–35 Hz in the parietal region was positively correlated with later PLS-Auditory Comprehension language scores. These findings suggest that SES disparities in brain activity may not be apparent at birth, but measures of resting neonatal EEG power are correlated with later memory and language skills independently of SES.
Awadh Kishor Pandit
Full Text Available Objectives: To review clinical characteristics and response to immunomodulation therapy in autoimmune encephalitis presenting with status epilepticus (SE, epilepsy, and cognitive decline. Design: Observational, prospective case series. Setting: All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India. Materials and Methods: Prospective analysis of 15 patients, who presented with SE, epilepsy, cognitive decline, and other neurological symptoms with positive autoantibodies. Demographic and clinical characteristics were recorded. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, cerebrospinal-fluid analysis (CSF, and tumor screening were done periodically. Treatment received and responses (categorized as per patients and treating doctor′s information were noted. Results: There were 15 (males = 10 patients of autoimmune encephalitis. The mean age of presentation was 24 years (range: 2-64 years. The most common onset was subacute (64% and four (29% patients presented as SE. Predominant clinical presentations were seizures (100% almost of every semiology. CSF was done in 10 patients; it was normal in 60%. Brain MRI was done in all patients, in six (40% it was normal, six (40% showed T2W and FLAIR hyperintensities in bilateral limbic areas. Antibodies found were the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antibody in seven (50%, voltage-gated potassium channel antibody in five (36%, two of antiglutamic acid decarboxylase, and one patient with double stranded DNA (dsDNA antibodies. None showed evidence of malignancy. Patients received immunotherapy, either steroids, intravenous immunoglobulin, or both. Follow-up showed significant improvement in majority of cases, neither further seizures nor relapse in nine (67% cases. One death occurred, due to delayed presentation. Conclusions: Uncommon but potentially reversible causes of SE, epilepsy, and cognitive decline may be immune-related and high index of suspicion will prevent missing the diagnosis.
Brühl, Annette Beatrix; Herwig, Uwe; Delsignore, Aba; Jäncke, Lutz; Rufer, Michael
Anxiety disorders are characterized by deficient emotion regulation prior to and in anxiety-evoking situations. Patients with social anxiety disorder (SAD) have increased brain activation also during the anticipation and perception of non-specific emotional stimuli pointing to biased general emotion processing. In the current study we addressed the neural correlates of emotion regulation by cognitive control during the anticipation and perception of non-specific emotional stimuli in patients with SAD. Thirty-two patients with SAD underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging during the announced anticipation and perception of emotional stimuli. Half of them were trained and instructed to apply reality-checking as a control strategy, the others anticipated and perceived the stimuli. Reality checking significantly (pperception of negative emotional stimuli. The medial prefrontal cortex was comparably active in both groups (p>0.50). The results suggest that cognitive control in patients with SAD influences emotion processing structures, supporting the usefulness of emotion regulation training in the psychotherapy of SAD. In contrast to studies in healthy subjects, cognitive control was not associated with increased activation of prefrontal regions in SAD. This points to possibly disturbed general emotion regulating circuits in SAD. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Passolunghi, Maria Chiara; Cargnelutti, Elisa; Pastore, Massimiliano
Math learning is a complex process that entails a wide range of cognitive abilities to be fulfilled. There is sufficient evidence that both general and specific cognitive skills assume a fundamental role, despite the absence of shared consensus about the relative extent of their involvement. Moreover, regarding general abilities, there is no agreement about the recruitment of the different memory components or of intelligence. In relation to specific factors, great debate subsists regarding the role of the approximate number system (ANS). Starting from these considerations, we wanted to conduct a wide assessment of memory components and ANS, by controlling for the effects associated with intelligence and also exploring possible relationships between all precursors. To achieve this purpose, a sample of 157 children was tested at both beginning and end of their Grade 1. Both general (memory and intelligence) and specific (ANS) precursors were evaluated by a wide battery of tests and put in relation to concurrent and subsequent math skills. Memory was explored in passive and active aspects involving both verbal and visuo-spatial components. Path analysis results demonstrated that memory, and especially the more active processes, and intelligence were the strongest precursors in both assessment times. ANS had a milder role which lost significance by the end of the school year. Memory and ANS seemed to influence early mathematics almost independently. Both general and specific precursors seemed to have a crucial role in early math competences, despite the lower involvement of ANS. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.
Individuals suffering from generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) experience a broad range of physical, emotional, and cognitive distress. A hallmark of GAD is anxiety around making decisions. Many clinicians notice improvements in patients through specific modalities, such as mindfulness, hypnosis, and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT); however, these individual methods sometimes fall short. Clinicians and researchers alike note that it can be more effective to combine these three methods into an integrative treatment protocol. This article demonstrates the efficacy of an integrative model through the case study of a client who suffers from GAD and acute fear of decision making. Competent use of mindfulness, hypnosis, and CBT helps the client build the skills necessary to self-soothe, diminish worry, access resources, and enhance hope for the future. Through the article, clinicians interested in integrated treatment models will gain insight into how to apply these methods.
Mohammad Taghi Savadpour
Full Text Available Background & Aims of the Study: Health is one of the basic needs of human. There is a close relationship between physical and mental health. Human psyche is directly affected by his physical condition, and mutually his body and actions of human systems are influenced by psychological and mental space. Students because of their particular circumstances are vulnerable to mental health problems. The purpose of this study is to determine the general health status of students of Islamic Azad University. Materials & Methods: This descriptive analytical research was conducted on 478 students of Khalkhal Islamic Azad University. Simple random sampling method was used. General health questionnaire (GHQ-28 was used as research tool. Following data collection, data were analyzed using SPSS Software 13. Results: The results show that mean score of general health of the subjects is higher than cutoff. In this study, 21.3 percent of students were suspected of impaired health. Also, status of general health of female students was worse than male students and significant statistical relationship was observed between general health status and all its sub-scales except depression and gender (P < 0.5. Conclusions: G eneral health of students especially female students is impaired which may considerably affect their learning and performance and academic achievement.
Full Text Available Background and Aim: The birth of a hearing-impaired child and raising him/her often brings special psychological feelings for parents, especially mothers who spend more time with the child. This study aimed to compare the general health status in mothers of hearing-impaired and hearing children. Methods: This was a descriptive-analytic study. General Health Questionnaire was used to identify general health status; and data were analyzed with independent-t test. Results: The general health level of mothers of hearing-impaired children was lower than mothers of normal hearing children (p=0.01 . The average scores of anxiety (p=0.01, depression (p= 0.01 and physical (p=0.02 symptoms and social function (p=0.01 of mothers of hearing-impaired children was higher than mothers of normal hearing ones (p=0.01. Conclusion: Having a child with hearing impairment affects mothers’ general health status. Our findings show that it’s necessary to provide psychological and social support for mothers of hearing-impaired children.
Bao, Yan; von Stosch, Alexandra; Park, Mona; Pöppel, Ernst
In experimental aesthetics the relationship between the arts and cognitive neuroscience has gained particular interest in recent years. But has cognitive neuroscience indeed something to offer when studying the arts? Here we present a theoretical frame within which the concept of complementarity as a generative or creative principle is proposed; neurocognitive processes are characterized by the duality of complementary activities like bottom-up and top-down control, or logistical functions like temporal control and content functions like perceptions in the neural machinery. On that basis a thought pattern is suggested for aesthetic appreciations and cognitive appraisals in general. This thought pattern is deeply rooted in the history of philosophy and art theory since antiquity; and complementarity also characterizes neural operations as basis for cognitive processes. We then discuss some challenges one is confronted with in experimental aesthetics; in our opinion, one serious problem is the lack of a taxonomy of functions in psychology and neuroscience which is generally accepted. This deficit makes it next to impossible to develop acceptable models which are similar to what has to be modeled. Another problem is the severe language bias in this field of research as knowledge gained in many languages over the ages remains inaccessible to most scientists. Thus, an inspection of research results or theoretical concepts is necessarily too narrow. In spite of these limitations we provide a selective summary of some results and viewpoints with a focus on visual art and its appreciation. It is described how questions of art and aesthetic appreciations using behavioral methods and in particular brain-imaging techniques are analyzed and evaluated focusing on such issues like the representation of artwork or affective experiences. Finally, we emphasize complementarity as a generative principle on a practical level when artists and scientists work directly together which can
Full Text Available In experimental aesthetics the relationship between the arts and cognitive neuroscience has gained particular interest in recent years. But has cognitive neuroscience indeed something to offer when studying the arts? Here we present a theoretical frame within which the concept of complementarity as a generative or creative principle is proposed; neurocognitive processes are characterized by the duality of complementary activities like bottom-up and top-down control, or logistical functions like temporal control and content functions like perceptions in the neural machinery. On that basis a thought pattern is suggested for aesthetic appreciations and cognitive appraisals in general. This thought pattern is deeply rooted in the history of philosophy and art theory since antiquity; and complementarity also characterizes neural operations as basis for cognitive processes. We then discuss some challenges one is confronted with in experimental aesthetics; in our opinion, one serious problem is the lack of a taxonomy of functions in psychology and neuroscience which is generally accepted. This deficit makes it next to impossible to develop acceptable models which are similar to what has to be modeled. Another problem is the severe language bias in this field of research as knowledge gained in many languages over the ages remains inaccessible to most scientists. Thus, an inspection of research results or theoretical concepts is necessarily too narrow. In spite of these limitations we provide a selective summary of some results and viewpoints with a focus on visual art and its appreciation. It is described how questions of art and aesthetic appreciations using behavioral methods and in particular brain-imaging techniques are analyzed and evaluated focusing on such issues like the representation of artwork or affective experiences. Finally, we emphasize complementarity as a generative principle on a practical level when artists and scientists work
Schiffer, Angélique A; Pelle, Aline J; Smith, Otto R F
Depression is a predictor of adverse health outcomes in chronic heart failure (CHF), but it is not known whether specific symptoms drive this relationship. We examined the impact of somatic/affective, cognitive/affective, and total depressive symptoms on all-cause mortality and health status in CHF....
Kempen, GIJM; Ormel, J
Objectives. The purpose of this study was to examine the independent contributions of physical performance and cognitive status to subsequent levels of ADL disability in low-functioning non-institutionalized older adults. Methods. A prospective cohort study included 416 women and 141 men 57 years of
Eilander, A.; Muthayya, S.; Knaap, van der H.; Srinivasan, K.; Thomas, T.; Kok, F.J.; Kurpad, A.V.; Osendarp, S.J.M.
While undernutrition and anaemia have previously been linked to poor development of children, relatively little is known about the role of B-vitamins and fatty acids on cognition. The present study aims to explore the associations between indicators of body size, fatty acid and micronutrient status
O'Donnell, Ellen H; Moreau, Melissa; Cardemil, Esteban V; Pollastri, Alisha
Research on the mechanisms by which interparental conflict (IPC) affects child depression suggests that both parenting and children's conflict appraisals play important roles, but few studies have explored the role of general cognitive style or included both parenting and cognitions in the same design. Moreover, the effects of IPC on minority children are not well understood. In this longitudinal study, parenting was examined as a mediator of the relation between increasing IPC and change in depression. General cognitive style was included as a moderator. The combined influence of parenting and cognitions was also explored. A racially and ethnically diverse sample of 88 fifth and sixth graders from two urban schools reported their cognitive style, depressive symptoms, and perceptions of conflict and parenting at two time points separated by one year. Parental warmth/rejection mediated the relation between IPC and depression, and general cognitive style acted as a moderator. Parenting, cognitive style, and IPC did not significantly interact to predict change in depression over time. Findings indicate that both parenting and children's general cognitive style play a role in understanding the impact of increasing IPC on children's well-being.
Rasmussen, L.S.; Johnson, T.; Kuipers, H.M.; Kristensen, D.; Siersma, V.D.; Vila, P.; Jolles, J.; Papaioannou, A.; Abildstrom, H.; Silverstein, J.H.; Bonal, J.A.; Raeder, J.; Nielsen, I.K.; Korttila, K.; Munoz, L.; Dodds, C.; Hanning, C.D.; Moller, J.T.
Keywords:anesthesia;cognitive function;complications;postoperative period;regional anesthesia;surgery Background: Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is a common complication after cardiac and major non-cardiac surgery with general anaesthesia in the elderly. We hypothesized that the
O'Donnell, Ellen H.; Moreau, Melissa; Cardemil, Esteban V.; Pollastri, Alisha
Research on the mechanisms by which interparental conflict (IPC) affects child depression suggests that both parenting and children's conflict appraisals play important roles, but few studies have explored the role of general cognitive style or included both parenting and cognitions in the same design. Moreover, the effects of IPC on minority…
Rodrigo de Rosso Krug
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective To estimate the effect of participating in cognitive cooperation groups, mediated by computers and the internet, on the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE percent variation of outpatients with memory complaints attending two memory clinics. Methods A prospective controlled intervention study carried out from 2006 to 2013 with 293 elders. The intervention group (n = 160 attended a cognitive cooperation group (20 sessions of 1.5 hours each. The control group (n = 133 received routine medical care. Outcome was the percent variation in the MMSE. Control variables included gender, age, marital status, schooling, hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidaemia, hypothyroidism, depression, vascular diseases, polymedication, use of benzodiazepines, exposure to tobacco, sedentary lifestyle, obesity and functional capacity. The final model was obtained by multivariate linear regression. Results The intervention group obtained an independent positive variation of 24.39% (CI 95% = 14.86/33.91 in the MMSE compared to the control group. Conclusion The results suggested that cognitive cooperation groups, mediated by computers and the internet, are associated with cognitive status improvement of older adults in memory clinics.
Milte, Catherine M; Sinn, Natalie; Street, Steven J; Buckley, Jonathan D; Coates, Alison M; Howe, Peter R C
Polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) levels are altered in adults with cognitive decline and also depression. Depression facilitates progression from mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to dementia. We investigated associations between omega-3 (n-3) and omega-6 (n-6) PUFAs and cognition, memory and depression in 50 adults ≥65 years with MCI and 29 controls. Memory, depressive symptoms and erythrocyte PUFAs (% total fatty acids) were assessed. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) was lower in MCI vs controls (.94% vs 1.26%, pcognitive decline in this population. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Duff, Kevin; Tometich, Danielle; Dennett, Kathryn
Although not as popular as the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), the modified Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status (mTICS) has some distinct advantages when screening cognitive functioning in older adults. The current study compared these 2 cognitive screening measures in their ability to predict performance on a memory composite (ie, delayed recall of verbal and visual information) in a cohort of 121 community-dwelling older adults, both at baseline and after 1 year. Both the MMSE and the mTICS significantly correlated with the memory composite at baseline (r's of .41 and .62, respectively) and at 1 year (r's of .36 and .50, respectively). At baseline, stepwise linear regression indicated that the mTICS and gender best predicted the memory composite score (R (2) = .45, P similar. Despite its lesser popularity, the mTICS may be a more attractive option when screening for cognitive abilities in this age range. © The Author(s) 2015.
Newman, Michelle G; Fisher, Aaron J
This study examined (a) duration of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) as a moderator of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) versus its components (cognitive therapy and self-control desensitization) and (b) increases in dynamic flexibility of anxious symptoms during the course of psychotherapy as a mediator of this moderation. Degree of dynamic flexibility in daily symptoms was quantified as the inverse of spectral power due to daily to intradaily oscillations in four-times-daily diary data (Fisher, Newman, & Molenaar, 2011). This was a secondary analysis of the data of Borkovec, Newman, Pincus, and Lytle (2002). Seventy-six participants with a principle diagnosis of GAD were assigned randomly to combined CBT (n = 24), cognitive therapy (n = 25), or self-control desensitization (n = 27). Duration of GAD moderated outcome such that those with longer duration showed greater reliable change from component treatments than they showed from CBT, whereas those with shorter duration fared better in response to CBT. Decreasing predictability in daily and intradaily oscillations of anxiety symptoms during therapy reflected less rigidity and more flexible responding. Increases in flexibility over the course of therapy fully mediated the moderating effect of GAD duration on condition, indicating a mediated moderation process. Individuals with longer duration of GAD may respond better to more focused treatments, whereas those with shorter duration of GAD may respond better to a treatment that offers more coping strategies. Importantly, the mechanism by which this moderation occurs appears to be the establishment of flexible responding during treatment.
Jones, Matt; Love, Bradley C
The prominence of Bayesian modeling of cognition has increased recently largely because of mathematical advances in specifying and deriving predictions from complex probabilistic models. Much of this research aims to demonstrate that cognitive behavior can be explained from rational principles alone, without recourse to psychological or neurological processes and representations. We note commonalities between this rational approach and other movements in psychology - namely, Behaviorism and evolutionary psychology - that set aside mechanistic explanations or make use of optimality assumptions. Through these comparisons, we identify a number of challenges that limit the rational program's potential contribution to psychological theory. Specifically, rational Bayesian models are significantly unconstrained, both because they are uninformed by a wide range of process-level data and because their assumptions about the environment are generally not grounded in empirical measurement. The psychological implications of most Bayesian models are also unclear. Bayesian inference itself is conceptually trivial, but strong assumptions are often embedded in the hypothesis sets and the approximation algorithms used to derive model predictions, without a clear delineation between psychological commitments and implementational details. Comparing multiple Bayesian models of the same task is rare, as is the realization that many Bayesian models recapitulate existing (mechanistic level) theories. Despite the expressive power of current Bayesian models, we argue they must be developed in conjunction with mechanistic considerations to offer substantive explanations of cognition. We lay out several means for such an integration, which take into account the representations on which Bayesian inference operates, as well as the algorithms and heuristics that carry it out. We argue this unification will better facilitate lasting contributions to psychological theory, avoiding the pitfalls
Thuesen, B.; Husemoen, L.; Fenger, M.
Background and aimsDanish legislation regarding food fortification has been very restrictive and vitamin D deficiency is thought to be common in Denmark due to inadequate dietary intakes and the fact that in Denmark (latitude 56°N) vitamin D is only synthesized in the skin after exposure to solar...... radiation during summertime (April–September). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the vitamin D status of a general adult population in Denmark and, in addition, associations between vitamin D status and distinct lifestyle factors were studied. MethodsA random sample of 6784 persons from a general...... population aged 30–60years participated in a health examination in 1999–2001. Serum samples from all participants were stored and levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) were measured by HPLC in 2009. The method was compared to another HPLC method. Information on dietary intake of vitamin D and other...
Ben Ghorbel, Mahdi; Nam, Haewoon; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim
Cognitive radio is one of the hot topics for emerging and future wireless communication. Cognitive users can share channels with primary users under the condition of non interference. In order to compute this interference, the cognitive system
K MONTAZERI; KH NAGHIBI; A.A AKHOUNDI
Introduction. The laryngeal mask airway (LMA) was recently introduced in general anesthesia as an alternative to the face mask or tracheal intubation for airway maintenance. Methods. The effects of LMA insertion, face mask or tracheal intubation on homodynamic status were studied in 195 normotensive patients who underwent elective transurethral lithotripsy (TUL). The patients were monitored with blood pressure measurement and pulse oximetry. Anesthesia was induced with sodium thiopental,...
Full Text Available Iron status is associated with cognitive performance and intervention trials show that iron supplementation improves mental function in iron-deficient adults. However, no studies have tested the efficacy of naturally iron-rich food in this context. This investigation measured the hematologic and cognitive responses to moderate beef consumption in young women. Participants (n = 43; age 21.1 ± 0.4 years were randomly assigned to a beef or non-beef protein lunch group [3-oz (85 g, 3 times weekly] for 16 weeks. Blood was sampled at baseline, and weeks 8 and 16, and cognitive performance was measured at baseline and week 16. Body iron increased in both lunch groups (p < 0.0001, with greater improvement demonstrated in women with lower baseline body iron (p < 0.0001. Body iron had significant beneficial effects on spatial working memory and planning speed (p < 0.05, and ferritin responders (n = 17 vs. non-responders (n = 26 showed significantly greater improvements in planning speed, spatial working memory strategy, and attention (p < 0.05. Lunch group had neither significant interactions with iron status nor consistent main effects on test performance. These findings support a relationship between iron status and cognition, but do not show a particular benefit of beef over non-beef protein consumption on either measure in young women.
Full Text Available This vignette-based study examines how generalized trust and the need for cognitive closure relate to the perceived acceptability of contemporary business methods of personal data collection. Subjects are exposed to four scenarios that describe a method of personal data collection, involving either brand-name companies or generic descriptors of companies. After each scenario, subjects rate how acceptable they find the practice of data collection, along with the frequency and quality of experiences that they have had with the company (for brand names or type of company (for generic descriptors. Judgments of perceived acceptability are analyzed, both across the portfolio of judgments and within each separate scenario. While analyses of each separate scenario point to the context-dependency of the perceived acceptability of data collection, several results stand out when analyzing the subjects’ portfolios of responses in the aggregate. Higher generalized trust is linked to a higher average acceptability rating, and the effect is stronger when companies are described with brand names rather than generic descriptors. Uniformly, however, no relationship is found between need for cognitive closure and perceived acceptability. Additionally, positive experiences are found to be a stronger predictor of perceived acceptability of data collection than frequency of use.
Halliday, Drew W R; Stawski, Robert S; MacDonald, Stuart W S
Response time inconsistency (RTI) in cognitive performance predicts deleterious health outcomes in late-life; however, RTI estimates are often confounded by additional influences (e.g., individual differences in learning). Finger tapping is a basic sensorimotor measure largely independent of higher-order cognition that may circumvent such confounds of RTI estimates. We examined the within-person coupling of finger-tapping mean and RTI on working memory, and the moderation of these associations by cognitive status. A total of 262 older adults were recruited and classified as controls, cognitively-impaired-not-demented (CIND) unstable or CIND stable. Participants completed finger-tapping and working-memory tasks during multiple weekly assessments, repeated annually for 4 years. Within-person coupling estimates from multilevel models indicated that on occasions when RTI was greater, working-memory response latency was slower for the CIND-stable, but not for the CIND-unstable or control individuals. The finger-tapping task shows potential for minimizing confounds on RTI estimates, and for yielding RTI estimates sensitive to central nervous system function and cognitive status. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Mueller Gathercole, Virginia C.; Thomas, Enlli Mon; Jones, Leah; Guasch, Nestor Vinas; Young, Nia; Hughes, Emma K.
This study explores the extent to which a bilingual advantage can be observed for executive function tasks in children of varying levels of language dominance, and examines the contributions of general cognitive knowledge, linguistic abilities, language use and socio-economic level to performance. Welsh-English bilingual and English monolingual…
Barnish, Maxwell S; Whibley, Daniel; Horton, Simon M C; Butterfint, Zoe R; Deane, Katherine H O
Communication is fundamental to human interaction and the development and maintenance of human relationships and is frequently affected in Parkinson's disease (PD). However, research and clinical practice have both tended to focus on impairment rather than participation aspects of communicative deficit in PD. In contrast, people with PD have reported that it is these participation aspects of communication that are of greatest concern to them rather than physical speech impairment. To systematically review the existing body of evidence regarding the association between cognitive status and/or intelligibility and everyday communication in PD. Five online databases were systematically searched in May 2015 (Medline Ovid, EMBASE, AMED, PsycINFO and CINAHL) and supplementary searches were also conducted. Two reviewers independently evaluated retrieved records for inclusion and then performed data extraction and quality assessment using standardised forms. Articles were eligible for inclusion if they were English-language original peer-reviewed research articles, book chapters or doctoral theses investigating the associations between at least one of cognitive status and level of intelligibility impairment and an everyday communication outcome in human participants with PD. 4816 unique records were identified through database searches with 16 additional records identified through supplementary searches. 41 articles were suitable for full-text screening and 15 articles (12 studies) met the eligibility criteria. 10 studies assessed the role of cognitive status and 9 found that participants with greater cognitive impairment had greater everyday communication difficulties. 4 studies assessed the role of intelligibility and all found that participants with greater intelligibility impairment had greater everyday communication difficulties, although effects were often weak and not consistent. Both cognitive status and intelligibility may be associated with everyday communicative
Carey, Daniel; Rosen, Stuart; Krishnan, Saloni; Pearce, Marcus T; Shepherd, Alex; Aydelott, Jennifer; Dick, Frederic
Performing musicians invest thousands of hours becoming experts in a range of perceptual, attentional, and cognitive skills. The duration and intensity of musicians' training - far greater than that of most educational or rehabilitation programs - provides a useful model to test the extent to which skills acquired in one particular context (music) generalize to different domains. Here, we asked whether the instrument-specific and more instrument-general skills acquired during professional violinists' and pianists' training would generalize to superior performance on a wide range of analogous (largely non-musical) skills, when compared to closely matched non-musicians. Violinists and pianists outperformed non-musicians on fine-grained auditory psychophysical measures, but surprisingly did not differ from each other, despite the different demands of their instruments. Musician groups did differ on a tuning system perception task: violinists showed clearest biases towards the tuning system specific to their instrument, suggesting that long-term experience leads to selective perceptual benefits given a training-relevant context. However, we found only weak evidence of group differences in non-musical skills, with musicians differing marginally in one measure of sustained auditory attention, but not significantly on auditory scene analysis or multi-modal sequencing measures. Further, regression analyses showed that this sustained auditory attention metric predicted more variance in one auditory psychophysical measure than did musical expertise. Our findings suggest that specific musical expertise may yield distinct perceptual outcomes within contexts close to the area of training. Generalization of expertise to relevant cognitive domains may be less clear, particularly where the task context is non-musical. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Flouri, Eirini; Mavroveli, Stella; Panourgia, Constantina
Previous studies have established the role of various measures of cognitive functioning in dampening the association between adverse life events ('life stress') and adolescents' emotional and behavioural problems. However, it is not yet clear if general cognitive ability ('intelligence') is a protective factor. In this study of 1,175 10- to 19-year-olds in five secondary schools in England, we explored this issue. We found that even after controlling for sex, age, family poverty, and special educational needs, the association of life stress with emotional, hyperactivity, and conduct problems was significant. General cognitive ability moderated the association between life stress and conduct problems; among adolescents with higher than average general cognitive ability, the association between life stress and conduct problems was non-significant. © 2012 The British Psychological Society.
Christensen, Deborah L; Schieve, Laura A; Devine, Owen; Drews-Botsch, Carolyn
Lower cognitive performance is associated with poorer health and functioning throughout the lifespan and disproportionately affects children from lower socioeconomic status (SES) populations. Previous studies reporting positive associations between child home enrichment and cognitive performance generally had a limited distribution of SES. We evaluated the associations of SES and child enrichment with cognitive performance in a population with a wide range of SES, particularly whether enrichment attenuates associations with SES. Children were sampled from a case-control study of small-for-gestational-age (SGA) conducted in a public hospital serving a low SES population (final n=198) and a private hospital serving a middle-to-high SES population (final n=253). SES (maternal education and income) and perinatal factors (SGA, maternal smoking and drinking) were obtained from maternal birth interview. Five child home enrichment factors (e.g. books in home) and preschool attendance were obtained from follow-up interview at age 4.5 years. Cognitive performance was assessed with the Differential Ability Scales (DAS), a standardized psychometric test administered at follow-up. SES and enrichment scores were created by combining individual factors. Analyses were adjusted for perinatal factors. Children from the public birth hospital had a significantly lower mean DAS general cognitive ability (GCA) score than children born at the private birth hospital (adjusted mean difference -21.4, 95% CI: -24.0, -18.7); this was substantially attenuated by adjustment for individual SES, child enrichment factors, and preschool attendance (adjusted mean difference -5.1, 95% CI: -9.5, -0.7). Individual-level SES score was associated with DAS score, beyond the general SES effect associated with hospital of birth. Adjustment for preschool attendance and home enrichment score attenuated the association between individual SES score and adjusted mean DAS-GCA among children born at both of the
Eilander, Ans; Muthayya, Sumithra; van der Knaap, Henk; Srinivasan, Krishnamachari; Thomas, Tinku; Kok, Frans J; Kurpad, Anura V; Osendarp, Saskia J M
While undernutrition and anaemia have previously been linked to poor development of children, relatively little is known about the role of B-vitamins and fatty acids on cognition. The present study aims to explore the associations between indicators of body size, fatty acid and micronutrient status on cognitive performance in 598 Indian school children aged 6-10 years. Baseline data of a clinical study were used to assess these associations by analyses of variance adjusting for age, sex, school, maternal education and cognitive tester. The Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children II was used to measure four cognitive domains, including fluid reasoning, short-term memory, retrieval ability and cognitive speediness. Scores were combined into an overall measure, named mental processing index (MPI). Body size indicators and Hb concentrations were significantly positively related to cognitive domains and MPI, such that increases of 1 sd in height-for-age and weight-for-age z-scores would each translate into a 0.09 sd increase in MPI, P = 0.0006 and 0.002, respectively. A 10 g/l increase in Hb concentrations would translate into a 0.08 sd increase in MPI, P = 0.0008. Log-transformed vitamin B12 concentrations were significantly inversely associated with short-term memory, retrieval ability and MPI (beta (95 % CI) = - 0.124 (- 0.224, - 0.023), P = 0.02). Other indicators of Fe, iodine, folate and fatty acid status were not significantly related to cognition. Our findings for body size, fatty acids and micronutrients were in agreement with previous observational studies. The inverse association of vitamin B12 with mental development was unexpected and needed further study.
Cristina F B Murphy
research is required to investigate the effects of various stimuli and lengths of training on the generalization of sensory and cognitive learning to literacy skills.
Murphy, Cristina F B; Moore, David R; Schochat, Eliane
is required to investigate the effects of various stimuli and lengths of training on the generalization of sensory and cognitive learning to literacy skills.
Full Text Available Purpose. To examine the associations among age, Apolipoprotein E (APOE genotype, metabolic changes in the hippocampus detected by 2D 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS, and neuropsychological measures of cognition in non-demented elders.Materials and Methods. We studied a cohort of 16 cognitively normal controls (CN and 11 amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI patients between 66 and 88 years old who were genotyped for APOE genetic polymorphism. Measurements of 2D1H-MRS metabolites were obtained in the hippocampus region. Adjusting by age among all subjects, the association between metabolic changes and cognitive function was measured by Spearman partial rank-order correlation. The effect of APOE status was measured by separating the subjects into APOE genotype subgroups, including the APOEε4 carriers and APOEε4 non-carriers.Results. In contrast to the CN group matched with age, gender, and education, aMCI patients showed increased myo-inositol (mI/Creatine (Cr ratio only in the right hippocampus. No differences were noted on N-acetylaspartate (NAA/Cr and mI/NAA from bilateral hippocampus, and so was mI/Cr ratio in left hippocampus between aMCI and CN. The mI/Cr ratio from the right hippocampus in non-demented elders was negatively correlated with Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA scores. Whether ε4 genotype or age was added as a covariate, none of the correlation effects remained significant. Additionally, adjusting for age and APOE genotype together, there was no significant correlation between them.Conclusion. Since the higher mI/Cr from the right hippocampus of the patients with aMCI than those from CN, the mI/Cr could be a more specific predictor of general cognitive function in aMCI patients. There is an association between higher mI/Cr in right hippocampus and worse cognitive function for the non-demented older adults, and the correlation could be modified by APOE status and age. That provided a window on objectively
Frisell, Thomas; Pawitan, Yudi; Långström, Niklas
Research has consistently found lower cognitive ability to be related to increased risk for violent and other antisocial behaviour. Since this association has remained when adjusting for childhood socioeconomic position, ethnicity, and parental characteristics, it is often assumed to be causal, potentially mediated through school adjustment problems and conduct disorder. Socioeconomic differences are notoriously difficult to quantify, however, and it is possible that the association between intelligence and delinquency suffer substantial residual confounding. We linked longitudinal Swedish total population registers to study the association of general cognitive ability (intelligence) at age 18 (the Conscript Register, 1980-1993) with the incidence proportion of violent criminal convictions (the Crime Register, 1973-2009), among all men born in Sweden 1961-1975 (N = 700,514). Using probit regression, we controlled for measured childhood socioeconomic variables, and further employed sibling comparisons (family pedigree data from the Multi-Generation Register) to adjust for shared familial characteristics. Cognitive ability in early adulthood was inversely associated to having been convicted of a violent crime (β = -0.19, 95% CI: -0.19; -0.18), the association remained when adjusting for childhood socioeconomic factors (β = -0.18, 95% CI: -0.18; -0.17). The association was somewhat lower within half-brothers raised apart (β = -0.16, 95% CI: -0.18; -0.14), within half-brothers raised together (β = -0.13, 95% CI: (-0.15; -0.11), and lower still in full-brother pairs (β = -0.10, 95% CI: -0.11; -0.09). The attenuation among half-brothers raised together and full brothers was too strong to be attributed solely to attenuation from measurement error. Our results suggest that the association between general cognitive ability and violent criminality is confounded partly by factors shared by brothers. However, most of the association remains even
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Research has consistently found lower cognitive ability to be related to increased risk for violent and other antisocial behaviour. Since this association has remained when adjusting for childhood socioeconomic position, ethnicity, and parental characteristics, it is often assumed to be causal, potentially mediated through school adjustment problems and conduct disorder. Socioeconomic differences are notoriously difficult to quantify, however, and it is possible that the association between intelligence and delinquency suffer substantial residual confounding. METHODS: We linked longitudinal Swedish total population registers to study the association of general cognitive ability (intelligence at age 18 (the Conscript Register, 1980-1993 with the incidence proportion of violent criminal convictions (the Crime Register, 1973-2009, among all men born in Sweden 1961-1975 (N = 700,514. Using probit regression, we controlled for measured childhood socioeconomic variables, and further employed sibling comparisons (family pedigree data from the Multi-Generation Register to adjust for shared familial characteristics. RESULTS: Cognitive ability in early adulthood was inversely associated to having been convicted of a violent crime (β = -0.19, 95% CI: -0.19; -0.18, the association remained when adjusting for childhood socioeconomic factors (β = -0.18, 95% CI: -0.18; -0.17. The association was somewhat lower within half-brothers raised apart (β = -0.16, 95% CI: -0.18; -0.14, within half-brothers raised together (β = -0.13, 95% CI: (-0.15; -0.11, and lower still in full-brother pairs (β = -0.10, 95% CI: -0.11; -0.09. The attenuation among half-brothers raised together and full brothers was too strong to be attributed solely to attenuation from measurement error. DISCUSSION: Our results suggest that the association between general cognitive ability and violent criminality is confounded partly by factors shared by
Turner, Hannah; Bryant-Waugh, Rachel; Peveler, Robert
Eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS) remains poorly evaluated in terms of eating disorder features and relationship to mood, health status and general functioning. This study investigated the clinical profiles of a sample of EDNOS patients, and how they compared to patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN). The sample consisted of 178 patients. All completed the Eating Disorder Examination, Beck Depression Inventory, Work and Social Adjustment Scale and Sf-36. ANOVAs were conducted to explore group differences. No differences were found for depression. No differences were found between BN and EDNOS on measures of health status and general functioning. AN patients reported greater role limitations due to physical health and experienced greater physical pain compared with BN or EDNOS patients, and reported poorer social functioning, lower vitality and higher functional impairment compared with EDNOS patients. EDNOS patients are generally no less clinically impaired than those with BN. However AN patients may be more impaired in some aspects of general functioning compared with BN or EDNOS patients. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Goldman, Jennifer G; Ghode, Reena A; Ouyang, Bichun; Bernard, Bryan; Goetz, Christopher G; Stebbins, Glenn T
Daytime and nighttime sleep disturbances and cognitive impairment occur frequently in Parkinson's disease (PD), but little is known about the interdependence of these non-motor complications. Thus, we examined the relationships among excessive daytime sleepiness, nighttime sleep quality and cognitive impairment in PD, including severity and specific cognitive deficits. Ninety-three PD patients underwent clinical and neuropsychological evaluations including the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Patients were classified as having normal cognition (PD-NC), mild cognitive impairment (PD-MCI), or dementia (PDD) using recently proposed Movement Disorder Society PD-MCI and PDD criteria. Relationships between the sleep and cognitive measures and PD cognitive groups were examined. The PD cohort included PD-NC (n = 28), PD-MCI (n = 40), and PDD (n = 25) patients. ESS scores, as a measure of daytime sleepiness, were significantly worse (p = 0.005) in cognitively impaired PD patients, particularly PDD patients. ESS scores correlated significantly with Mini-Mental State Examination scores and also with cognitive domain scores for attention/working memory, executive function, memory, and visuospatial function. In contrast, PSQI scores, as a measure of nighttime sleep quality, neither differed among cognitive groups nor correlated with any cognitive measures. Daytime sleepiness in PD, but not nighttime sleep problems, is associated with cognitive impairment in PD, especially in the setting of dementia, and attention/working memory, executive function, memory, and visuospatial deficits. The presence of nighttime sleep problems is pervasive across the PD cognitive spectrum, from normal cognition to dementia, and is not independently associated with cognitive impairment or deficits in cognitive domains. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Davis, J C; Dian, L; Khan, K M; Bryan, S; Marra, C A; Hsu, C L; Jacova, P; Chiu, B K; Liu-Ambrose, T
Falls are a costly public health problem worldwide. The literature is devoid of prospective data that identifies factors among fallers that significantly drive health care resource utilization. We found that cognitive function--specifically, executive functions--and cognitive status are significant determinants of health resource utilization among older fallers. Although falls are costly, there are no prospective data examining factors among fallers that drive health care resource utilization. We identified key determinants of health resource utilization (HRU) at 6 and 12 months among older adults with a history of falls. Specifically, with the increasing recognition that cognitive impairment is associated with increased falls risk, we investigated cognition as a potential driver of health resource utilization. This 12-month prospective cohort study at the Vancouver Falls Prevention Clinic (n = 319) included participants with a history of at least one fall in the previous 12 months. Based on their cognitive status, participants were divided into two groups: (1) no mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and (2) MCI. We constructed two linear regression models with HRU at 6 and 12 months as the dependent variables for each model, respectively. Predictors relating to mobility, global cognition, executive functions, and cognitive status (MCI versus no MCI) were examined. Age, sex, comorbidities, depression status, and activities of daily living were included regardless of statistical significance. Global cognition, comorbidities, working memory, and cognitive status (MCI versus no MCI ascertained using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA)) were significant determinants of total HRU at 6 months. The number of medical comorbidities and global cognition were significant determinants of total HRU at 12 months. MCI status was a determinant of HRU at 6 months among older adults with a history of falls. As such, efforts to minimize health care resource use related to falls
Smeland, Olav B; Frei, Oleksandr; Kauppi, Karolina; Hill, W David; Li, Wen; Wang, Yunpeng; Krull, Florian; Bettella, Francesco; Eriksen, Jon A; Witoelar, Aree; Davies, Gail; Fan, Chun C; Thompson, Wesley K; Lam, Max; Lencz, Todd; Chen, Chi-Hua; Ueland, Torill; Jönsson, Erik G; Djurovic, Srdjan; Deary, Ian J; Dale, Anders M; Andreassen, Ole A
Schizophrenia is associated with widespread cognitive impairments. Although cognitive deficits are one of the factors most strongly associated with functional outcome in schizophrenia, current treatment strategies largely fail to ameliorate these impairments. To develop more efficient treatment strategies in patients with schizophrenia, a better understanding of the pathogenesis of these cognitive deficits is needed. Accumulating evidence indicates that genetic risk of schizophrenia may contribute to cognitive dysfunction. To identify genomic regions jointly influencing schizophrenia and the cognitive domains of reaction time and verbal-numerical reasoning, as well as general cognitive function, a phenotype that captures the shared variation in performance across cognitive domains. Combining data from genome-wide association studies from multiple phenotypes using conditional false discovery rate analysis provides increased power to discover genetic variants and could elucidate shared molecular genetic mechanisms. Data from the following genome-wide association studies, published from July 24, 2014, to January 17, 2017, were combined: schizophrenia in the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium cohort (n = 79 757 [cases, 34 486; controls, 45 271]); verbal-numerical reasoning (n = 36 035) and reaction time (n = 111 483) in the UK Biobank cohort; and general cognitive function in CHARGE (Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology) (n = 53 949) and COGENT (Cognitive Genomics Consortium) (n = 27 888). Genetic loci identified by conditional false discovery rate analysis. Brain messenger RNA expression and brain expression quantitative trait locus functionality were determined. Among the participants in the genome-wide association studies, 21 loci jointly influencing schizophrenia and cognitive traits were identified: 2 loci shared between schizophrenia and verbal-numerical reasoning, 6 loci shared between schizophrenia and
Yun, Young Ho; Sim, Jin Ah; Park, Eun-Gee; Park, June Dong; Noh, Dong-Young
To perform a comparison between health behaviors and health status of employees with those of the general population, to evaluate the association between employee health behaviors, health status, and absenteeism. Cross-sectional study enrolled 2433 employees from 16 Korean companies in 2014, and recruited 1000 general population randomly in 2012. The distribution of employee health behaviors, health status, and association with absenteeism were assessed. Employees had significantly worse health status and low rates of health behaviors maintenance compared with the general population. Multiple logistic regression model revealed that regular exercise, smoking cessation, work life balance, proactive living, religious practice, and good physical health status were associated with lower absenteeism. Maintaining health behaviors and having good health status were associated with less absenteeism. This study suggests investment of multidimensional health approach in workplace health and wellness (WHW) programs.
Stein, Alan; Craske, Michelle G; Lehtonen, Annukka; Harvey, Allison; Savage-McGlynn, Emily; Davies, Beverley; Goodwin, Julia; Murray, Lynne; Cortina-Borja, Mario; Counsell, Nicholas
Postnatal depression and anxiety have been shown to increase the risk of disturbances in mother-child interaction and child development. Research into mechanisms has focused on genetics and maternal behavior; maternal cognitions have received little attention. Our aim was to experimentally determine if worry and rumination in mothers with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and major depressive disorder (MDD), diagnosed in the postnatal 6 months, interfered with maternal responsiveness to their 10-month old infants. Mothers (N = 253: GAD n = 90; MDD n = 57; control n = 106) and their infants were randomized to either a worry/rumination prime (WRP) or a neutral prime (NP); mother-infant interactions were assessed before and after priming. Type of priming was a significant predictor of maternal cognitions, with WRP resulting in more negative thoughts, higher thought recurrence and more self-focus relative to NP across the entire sample. Interaction effects between group and priming were significant for two parenting variables: Compared with controls, WRP had a more negative impact on maternal responsiveness to infant vocalization for GAD, and to a lesser extent for MDD; WRP led to decreased maternal vocalization for GAD. Also, mothers with GAD used stronger control after the NP than WRP, as well as compared with other groups, and overall post-priming, their children exhibited lower emotional tone and more withdrawal. Across the entire sample, WRP was associated with increased child vocalization relative to NP. This study demonstrated that disturbances in maternal cognitions, in the context of postnatal anxiety and to a lesser degree depression, play a significant role in mother-child interaction. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).
Stein, Alan; Craske, Michelle G.; Lehtonen, Annukka; Harvey, Allison; Savage-McGlynn, Emily; Davies, Beverley; Goodwin, Julia; Murray, Lynne; Cortina-Borja, Mario; Counsell, Nicholas
Postnatal depression and anxiety have been shown to increase the risk of disturbances in mother–child interaction and child development. Research into mechanisms has focused on genetics and maternal behavior; maternal cognitions have received little attention. Our aim was to experimentally determine if worry and rumination in mothers with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and major depressive disorder (MDD), diagnosed in the postnatal 6 months, interfered with maternal responsiveness to their 10-month old infants. Mothers (N = 253: GAD n = 90; MDD n = 57; control n = 106) and their infants were randomized to either a worry/rumination prime (WRP) or a neutral prime (NP); mother–infant interactions were assessed before and after priming. Type of priming was a significant predictor of maternal cognitions, with WRP resulting in more negative thoughts, higher thought recurrence and more self-focus relative to NP across the entire sample. Interaction effects between group and priming were significant for two parenting variables: Compared with controls, WRP had a more negative impact on maternal responsiveness to infant vocalization for GAD, and to a lesser extent for MDD; WRP led to decreased maternal vocalization for GAD. Also, mothers with GAD used stronger control after the NP than WRP, as well as compared with other groups, and overall post-priming, their children exhibited lower emotional tone and more withdrawal. Across the entire sample, WRP was associated with increased child vocalization relative to NP. This study demonstrated that disturbances in maternal cognitions, in the context of postnatal anxiety and to a lesser degree depression, play a significant role in mother–child interaction. PMID:22288906
ABSTRACT National and international large‐scale assessments (LSA) have a major impact on educational systems, which raises fundamental questions about the validity of the measures regarding their internal structure and their relations to relevant covariates. Given its importance, research on the validity of instruments specifically developed for LSA is still sparse, especially in science and its subdomains biology, chemistry, and physics. However, policy decisions for the improvement of educational quality based on LSA can only be helpful if valid information on students’ achievement levels is provided. In the present study, the nature of the measurement instruments based on the German Educational Standards in Biology is examined. On the basis of data from 3,165 students in Grade 10, we present dimensional analyses and report the relationship between different subdimensions of biology literacy and cognitive covariates such as general cognitive abilities and verbal skills. A theory‐driven two‐dimensional model fitted the data best. Content knowledge and scientific inquiry, two subdimensions of biology literacy, are highly correlated and show differential correlational patterns to the covariates. We argue that the underlying structure of biology should be incorporated into curricula, teacher training and future assessments. PMID:27818532
Onyper, Serge V; Searleman, Alan; Thacher, Pamela V; Maine, Emily E; Johnson, Alicia G
The current study compared the performances of pregnant women with education- and age-matched controls on a variety of measures that assessed perceptual speed, short-term and working memory capacity, subjective memory complaints, sleep quality, level of fatigue, executive functioning, episodic and prospective memory, and crystallized and fluid intelligence. A primary purpose was to test the hypothesis of Henry and Rendell (2007) that pregnancy-related declines in cognitive functioning would be especially evident in tasks that place a high demand on executive processes. We also investigated a parallel hypothesis: that the pregnant women would experience a broad-based reduction in cognitive capability. Very limited support was found for the executive functioning hypothesis. Pregnant women scored lower only on the measure of verbal fluency (Controlled Oral Word Association Test, COWAT) but not on the Wisconsin Card Sorting Task or on any working memory measures. Furthermore, group differences in COWAT performance disappeared after controlling for verbal IQ (Shipley vocabulary). In addition, there was no support for the general decline hypothesis. We conclude that pregnancy-associated differences in performance observed in the current study were relatively mild and rarely reached either clinical or practical significance.
Bordne, S; Schulz, R-J; Zank, S
Given the demographic changes, the need for effective geriatric intervention is obvious. Geriatric care aims to maintain the highest possible level of independence and quality of life and to reduce the risk of need for care. This study investigated the benefits of geriatric care on functional performance, mobility and cognition. This study involved a retrospective analysis of clinical data from 646 patients. At hospital admission and discharge functional status was assessed using the Barthel index. Mobility was evaluated by means of the Tinetti test and cognition by the mini-mental state examination (MMSE). A follow-up was conducted on 112 patients 2-5 months after hospital discharge. Statistical analysis included t-tests including Cohen's d for effect size and multivariate regression analysis. The mean age of the study population was 81.1 ± 7.1 years including 439 women (68%) and 207 men (32%). There were significant average improvements for activities of daily living (ADL), mobility and cognition comparing discharge and admission scores. For functional and mobility status, effect sizes were medium to high. Regression analyses showed that ADL improvement was predicted by functional, mobile and cognitive status at admission. Follow-up analyses revealed a high percentage of former patients still living at home and an overall maintenance of ADL levels. Geriatric patients seem to experience long-term improvements during geriatric treatment, which appears to fulfill its aim of recovering independence. For a better understanding of relevant factors for the recreation of geriatric patients, further research is needed, e.g. with respect to the impact of the nutritional status.
Full Text Available Factors related with hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy and the impact of HHcy in Parkinson’s disease (PD are not well understood. We investigated the factors associated with increased levels of homocysteine (Hcy and the relationship between HHcy and motor symptoms, cognitive status, and vascular risk in patients with Parkinson’s disease. Among 60 patients (29 males, 48.3% with PD, the stage of the disease, the severity of clinical symptoms, and the patients’ cognitive status were measured using a modified Hoehn and Yahr Staging Scale (mHY, Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS II and III, and Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE, respectively. Patients were also noted for having dyskinesia and hallucinations. Serum vitamin B12, folic acid, and plasma Hcy levels were measured. Furthermore, the presence of vascular risk factors was recorded. Finally, we investigated carotid artery intima-media thickening and stenosis using colour Doppler ultrasonography as well as the presence of ischemic lesions using brain imaging techniques. Plasma Hcy levels were higher with advanced age and in males. In addition, there was an inverse relationship between Hcy and vitamin B12 levels. There was no correlation between HHcy and the stage of the disease, severity of motor symptoms, cognitive status as assessed by the MMSE, vascular risk factors, carotid artery atherosclerotic findings, and ischemic brain lesions. Plasma Hcy levels may rise due to several factors in PD. However, the resulting HHcy has no significant effect on the clinical picture in terms of motor features, cognitive status, and vascular diseases.
Interrelationship of oral health status, swallowing function, nutritional status, and cognitive ability with activities of daily living in Japanese elderly people receiving home care services due to physical disabilities.
Furuta, Michiko; Komiya-Nonaka, Manae; Akifusa, Sumio; Shimazaki, Yoshihiro; Adachi, Munehisa; Kinoshita, Toshinori; Kikutani, Takeshi; Yamashita, Yoshihisa
Malnutrition and cognitive impairment lead to declines in activities of daily living (ADL). Nutritional status and cognitive ability have been shown to correlate with oral health status and swallowing function. However, the complex relationship among the factors that affect decline in ADL is not understood. We examined direct and indirect relationships among oral health status, swallowing function, nutritional status, cognitive ability, and ADL in Japanese elderly people living at home and receiving home care services because of physical disabilities. Participants were 286 subjects aged 60 years and older (mean age, 84.5±7.9 years) living at home and receiving home care services. Oral health status (the number of teeth and wearing dentures) was assessed, and swallowing function was examined using cervical auscultation. Additionally, ADL, cognitive ability, and nutritional status were assessed using the Barthel Index, the Clinical Dementia Rating Scale, and the Mini Nutritional Assessment-Short Form, respectively. Path analysis was used to test pathways from these factors to ADL. The mean number of teeth present in the participants was 8.6±9.9 (edentates, 40.6%). Dysphagia, malnutrition, and severe cognitive impairment were found in 31.1%, 14.0%, and 21.3% of the participants, respectively. Path analysis indicated that poor oral health status and cognitive impairment had a direct effect on denture wearing, and the consequent dysphagia, in addition to cognitive impairment, was positively associated with malnutrition. Malnutrition as well as dysphagia and cognitive impairment directly limited ADL. A lower number of teeth are positively related to swallowing dysfunction, whereas denture wearing contributes to recovery of swallowing function. Dysphagia, cognitive impairment, and malnutrition directly and indirectly decreased ADL in elderly people living at home and receiving home nursing care. The findings suggest that preventing tooth loss and encouraging denture
Full Text Available Background: The incidence of people with dementia is expected to increase significantly in the coming years, but it seems that there is a relationship between an active lifestyle and cognitive decline. The present study aimed to compare the characteristics and engagement in the physical activity (PA of three groups of Italian elderly with different cognitive statuses at baseline phase. Methods: Data were examined using the results from the “My Mind Project” on 305 community-dwelling Italians. The sample was comprised of 93 subjects with Alzheimer’s disease (AD, 109 with mild cognitive impairment (MCI and 103 healthy elderly (HE. Results: Classification of subjects on the basis of Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly (PASE score showed that 47% of HE performed the highest level of physical activity while 40% of AD performed the lowest level. MCI subjects were distributed quite homogeneously across the levels (p < 0.001. Physical activity such as walking and light sports was carried out mainly and more frequently by HE as compared to the others (p < 0.05. As regards functional status, AD presented worse conditions in basic and instrumental activities of daily living than the other groups (p < 0.001. Conclusions: Our results evidenced that subjects with cognitive decline had the tendency to engage in PA less than HE. In particular, age and education negatively affected engagement in PA.
Kim, Young Ae; Yun, Young Ho; Chang, Yoon Jung; Lee, Jongmog; Kim, Moon Soo; Lee, Hyun-Sung; Zo, Jae Ill; Kim, Jhingook; Choi, Yong Soo; Shim, Young Mog; Yoon, Seok-Jun
To investigate the employment status of lung cancer survivors and the work-related problems they face. Although the number of lung cancer survivors is increasing, little is known about their employment and work-related issues. We enrolled 830 lung cancer survivors 12 months after lung cancer curative surgery (median time after diagnosis, 4.11 years) and 1000 volunteers from the general population. All participants completed the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire, Core 30-item and a questionnaire that included items relating to their jobs. We used logistic regression analysis to identify independent predictors of unemployment. The employment rate of lung cancer survivors decreased from 68.6% at the time of diagnosis to 38.8% after treatment, which was significantly lower than the employment rate of the general population (63.5%; adjusted odds ratio = 2.31, 95% confidence interval: 1.66-3.22). The posttreatment unemployment rate was higher for women than for men. Among survivors, employment was inversely associated with older age, household income, number of comorbidities, and poor social functioning. Fatigue (78.6%) was the most common work-related problem reported by survivors. Lung cancer survivors experienced more difficulties in employment than did the general population. Age, monthly household income, number of comorbidities, and social functioning appear to be important factors influencing employment status. These findings suggest that lung cancer survivors need support to cope with the financial impact of cancer.
Lombardi, Diana R; Button, Melissa L; Westra, Henny A
How clients talk about change early in treatment has been found to be a potent predictor of their subsequent treatment success. Studies examining such client motivational language (arguments for and against change) have typically been conducted in the context of motivational interviewing for addictions. This study examined the capacity of client motivational language to predict treatment outcomes in the context of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for generalized anxiety. Client early in-session statements against change (counter-change talk) were found to be robust predictors of post-treatment worry scores and differentiated treatment responders from nonresponders. Moreover, client motivational language predicted outcomes beyond initial symptom severity and self-report measures of motivation. These results strongly support the relevance of client motivational language outcomes in CBT and provide a foundation for advancing research on motivation for change in a CBT context.
Full Text Available EEG sleep spindle activity (SpA during non-rapid eye movement (NREM sleep has been reported to be associated with measures of intelligence and overnight performance improvements. The reticular nucleus of the thalamus is generating sleep spindles in interaction with thalamocortical connections. The same system enables efficient encoding and processing during wakefulness. Thus, we examined if the triangular relationship between SpA, measures of intelligence and declarative learning reflect the efficiency of the thalamocortical system. As expected, SpA was associated with general cognitive ability, e.g. information processing speed. SpA was also associated with learning efficiency, however, not with overnight performance improvement in a declarative memory task. SpA might therefore reflect the efficiency of the thalamocortical network and can be seen as a marker for learning during encoding in wakefulness, i.e. learning efficiency.
O'Gorman, Rick; Roberts, Ruth
Kinship and friendship are key human relationships. Increasingly, data suggest that people are not less altruistic toward friends than close kin. Some accounts suggest that psychologically we do not distinguish between them; countering this is evidence that kinship provides a unique explanatory factor. Using the Implicit Association Test, we examined how people implicitly think about close friends versus close kin in three contexts. In Experiment 1, we examined generic attitudinal dispositions toward friends and family. In Experiment 2, attitude similarity as a marker of family and friends was examined, and in Experiments 3 and 4, strength of in-group membership for family and friends was examined. Findings show that differences exist in implicit cognitive associations toward family and friends. There is some evidence that people hold more positive general dispositions toward friends, associate attitude similarity more with friends, consider family as more representative of the in-group than friends, but see friends as more in-group than distant kin.
Seyyed Mohammad Reza Mirlohi
Full Text Available Aim: Heart disease and emotional disorders often co-occur, but effective role in dysregulation of heart disease that is often overlooked. Evidence suggests that people with heart disease are more problems in regulating their emotions. The study compared the re-evaluation of cognitive emotion regulation commonly used two strategies- and suppression- between heart disease and the general population. Methods: Sixty men (30 with heart complaints and 30 without the condition were selected by convenience sampling method and they responded to the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (Gross and John and a demographic questionnaire responded. To analyze the results and descriptive statistics such as frequency tables and inferential statistics, independent T-test was used SPSS software was used. Results: The result shows that heart disease and general population re-evaluation strategies groups (P<0.01. This is not only different from the strategy reassessment, but in different repression, too. (P <0.001. Conclusion: The results showed that heart disease and general population used different strategies to regulate their emotions. The key to finding the heart disease group prefer repression to regulate their emotions.
Adogwa, Owoicho; Elsamadicy, Aladine A; Sergesketter, Amanda; Vuong, Victoria D; Moreno, Jessica; Cheng, Joseph; Karikari, Isaac O; Bagley, Carlos A
The aim of this study is to determine whether preoperative scores on a screening measure for cognitive status (the Saint Louis University mental status examination), were associated with discharge to a location other than home in older patients undergoing surgery for deformity. Older patients (≥65 years) undergoing a planned elective spinal surgery for correction of adult degenerative scoliosis were enrolled in this study. Preoperative baseline cognition was assessed using the validated Saint Louis University mental status (SLUMS) test. SLUMS is 11 questions with a maximum of 30 points. Mild cognitive impairment was defined as a SLUMS score of 21-26 points, and severe cognitive impairment as a SLUMS score of 20 points or greater. Normal cognition was defined as a SLUMS score of 27 points or more. Postoperative length of stay and discharge location were recorded on all patients. Eighty-two subjects were included, with mean ± standard deviation age of 73.26 ± 6.08 years; 51% of patients were discharged to a facility (skilled nursing or acute rehabilitation). After adjustment for demographic variables, comorbidities, and baseline cognitive impairment, patients with preoperative cognitive impairment were 4-fold more likely to be discharged to a facility (skilled nursing or acute rehabilitation) compared with patients with normal cognitive status (odds ratio [OR], 3.93). In addition, patients who were not ambulatory before surgery were also more likely to be discharged to a facility (OR, 7.14). In geriatric patients undergoing surgery for deformity correction, cognitive screening before surgery can identify patients with impaired cognitive status who are less likely than those with normal cognitive status to return home after surgery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Nordahl, Henrik; Wells, Adrian
Psychological health has a profound effect on personal and occupational functioning with Social Anxiety Symptoms in particular having a major effect on ability to work. Recent initiatives have focused on treating psychological illness with cognitive-behavioural models with a view to increasing return to work. However, the psychological correlates of work status amongst individuals with elevated mental health symptoms such as social anxiety are under-explored. This study reports a test of unique predictors of work status drawing on variables that have been given centre stage in cognitive-behavioural models and in the metacognitive model of psychological disorder. The sample consisted of high socially anxious individuals who reported to be working (n = 102) or receiving disability benefits (n = 102). A comparison of these groups showed that those out of work and receiving benefits had greater symptom severity, higher avoidance and use of safety behaviours, greater self-consciousness, and elevated negative metacognitive beliefs and beliefs about the need to control thoughts. However, when the covariance's between these variables were controlled, only negative metacognitive beliefs significantly predicted out-of-work status. Our finding might be important because CBT does not focus on metacognitive beliefs, but targets components that in our analysis had no unique predictive value for work status.
Spikman, Jacoba M.; Timmerman, Marieke E.; Milders, Maarten V.; Veenstra, Wencke S.; van der Naalt, Joukje
Impairments in social behavior are frequently found in moderate to severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients and are associated with an unfavorable outcome with regard to return to work and social reintegration. Neuropsychological tests measuring aspects of social cognition are thought to be
Khan, Muhammad; Akhter, Saeed; Soomro, Rabail Rani; Ali, Syed Shahzad
To evaluate the effectiveness of Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) along with General exercises and General exercises alone in chronic low back pain. Total 54 patients with chronic low back pain who fulfilled inclusion criteria were recruited from Physiotherapy, Department of Alain Poly Clinic Karachi and Institute of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation Dow University of Health Sciences Karachi. Selected patients were equally divided and randomly assigned into two groups with simple randomisation method. The Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) and General exercises group received Operant model of CBT and General Exercises whereas General exercises group received General exercises only. Both groups received a home exercise program as well. Patients in both groups received 3 treatment sessions per week for 12 consecutive weeks. Clinical assessment was performed using Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) and Ronald Morris Disability Questionnaire at baseline and after 12 weeks. Both study groups showed statistically significant improvements in both outcomes measures p=0.000. However, mean improvements in post intervention VAS score and Ronald Morris score was better in CBT and exercises group as compared to General exercise group. In conclusion, both interventions are effective in treating chronic low back pain however; CBT & General exercises are clinically more effective than General exercises alone.
Depoorter, Pieter; Van Huffel, Xavier; Diricks, Herman; Imberechts, Hein; Dewulf, Jeroen; Berkvens, Dirk; Uyttendaele, Mieke
The development of an animal health barometer, an instrument to measure the general health of the Belgian livestock population on a yearly basis and to monitor its evolution over time, is described. The elaboration of a set of 13 animal health indicators (AHIs) as the basis for the animal health barometer is discussed. These indicators were weighted by experts - including scientists, policy makers and agro-industrial representatives - to determine their relative weight in the barometer. The result of the barometer is expressed as a comparison with a previous year. Based on the results of the 13 AHIs, it is concluded that general animal health in Belgium shows a positive evolution since 2008. The animal health barometer provides a composite view of the status of livestock health in Belgium and is a tool to communicate in an intelligible, comprehensible manner on aspects of animal health to consumers and professional stakeholders in the animal production and food chain. Together with the food safety barometer (Baert et al., 2011. Food Res. Int. 44, 940) and the plant health barometer (Wilmart et al., 2014. Eur. J. Plant Pathol. doi: 10.1007/s10658-014-0547-x), the animal health barometer is one of the three instruments to provide a holistic view on the overall status of the safety of the food chain in Belgium. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Coumans, J M J; Danner, U N; Ahrens, W; Hebestreit, A; Intemann, T; Kourides, Y A; Lissner, L; Michels, N; Moreno, L A; Russo, P; Stomfai, S; Veidebaum, T; Adan, R A H
To explore the association between emotion-driven impulsiveness, cognitive inflexibility, decision-making and weight status as reflected in body mass index (BMI) z-score (zBMI) in European adolescents. In total, 3354 adolescents aged between 12 and 18 years from the I.Family cohort completed the questionnaire-based negative urgency subscale from the UPPS-P Impulsive Behavior Scale to measure emotion-driven impulsiveness in 2013/2014. Furthermore, 1584 adolescents completed the computer-based Bergs Card Sorting Test to measure cognitive inflexibility, and 1780 adolescents completed the Hungry Donkey Test to assess decision-making ability. Anthropometric variables were measured objectively; confounding variables (age, sex, socioeconomic status and country) were assessed using a questionnaire. Mixed-effect regression analyses were conducted for each outcome of the test or questionnaire as a predictor with standardised BMI (zBMI) as the dependent variable in order to investigate association between markers of cognitive functioning and zBMI. After controlling for confounders, results showed that emotion-driven impulsiveness (β=0.18, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.13 to 0.24, Pdecision-making ability was not significantly related to zBMI (β=0.001, 95% CI: -0.001 to 0.003, P=0.47). More emotion-driven impulsiveness and reduced cognitive flexibility were associated with a higher zBMI in adolescents across Europe. These results may indicate that being impulsive in negative situations and having difficulties changing mental sets increase the susceptibility for unhealthy weight development. Reducing impulsivity and training cognitive flexibility seem promising targets for the prevention and intervention programmes of obesity.International Journal of Obesity advance online publication, 9 January 2018; doi:10.1038/ijo.2017.270.
Warthon-Medina, M; Moran, V H; Stammers, A-L; Dillon, S; Qualter, P; Nissensohn, M; Serra-Majem, L; Lowe, N M
In developing countries, deficiencies of micronutrients are thought to have a major impact on child development; however, a consensus on the specific relationship between dietary zinc intake and cognitive function remains elusive. The aim of this systematic review was to examine the relationship between zinc intake, status and indices of cognitive function in children and adults. A systematic literature search was conducted using EMBASE, MEDLINE and Cochrane Library databases from inception to March 2014. Included studies were those that supplied zinc as supplements or measured dietary zinc intake. A meta-analysis of the extracted data was performed where sufficient data were available. Of all of the potentially relevant papers, 18 studies met the inclusion criteria, 12 of which were randomised controlled trials (RCTs; 11 in children and 1 in adults) and 6 were observational studies (2 in children and 4 in adults). Nine of the 18 studies reported a positive association between zinc intake or status with one or more measure of cognitive function. Meta-analysis of data from the adult's studies was not possible because of limited number of studies. A meta-analysis of data from the six RCTs conducted in children revealed that there was no significant overall effect of zinc intake on any indices of cognitive function: intelligence, standard mean difference of failed to show a significant effect of zinc supplementation on cognitive functioning in children though, taken as a whole, there were some small indicators of improvement on aspects of executive function and motor development following supplementation but high-quality RCTs are necessary to investigate this further.
Verhoeven, Clara L.; Schepers, Vera P.; Post, Marcel W.; van Heugten, Caroline M.
The objective of this study was to investigate the value of screening for cognitive functions at the start of an inpatient rehabilitation programme to predict the health status 1 and 3 years poststroke. In this longitudinal cohort study of stroke patients in inpatient rehabilitation data of 134 participants were analysed. Cognitive and clinical…
Nickels, Edelmira L.
Linguistics research has demonstrated the commonness and functions of metaphors to carry cognitive frames, which influence the way people understand and act on information. This work conveys the results of three analyses employed to describe cognitive frames: forms of linguistic metaphors used, functions of systematic metaphors that emerged, and…
Neupert, Shevaun D.; Miller, Lisa M. Soederberg; Lachman, Margie E.
The present study focused on age and SES differences in stress reactivity in response to cognitively challenging tasks. Specifically, we assessed within-person trajectories of cortisol, a steroid hormone released by the adrenal gland in response to stressors, before, during, and after exposure to cognitively challenging tasks. We extend the…
Llerena, Katiah; Gabrielian, Sonya; Green, Michael F
Homeless persons with psychosis are particularly susceptible to unsheltered homelessness, which includes living on the streets, in cars, and other places not meant for human habitation. Homeless persons with psychosis have distinct barriers to accessing care and comprise a high-need and hard-to-serve homeless subpopulation. Therefore, this study sought to understand unsheltered homelessness in persons with psychosis and its relationship to cognitive impairment, clinical symptoms, and community functioning, examined both categorically and dimensionally. This study included 76 homeless participants with a history of a psychotic diagnosis who were enrolled in a supported housing program but had not yet received housing. This study used two different housing stability thresholds (literally homeless at any point vs. literally homeless >20% of days) for comparing homeless Veterans with psychosis living in sheltered versus unsheltered situations on cognition, clinical symptoms, and community integration. Dimensional analyses also examined the relationship between percentage of days spent in unsheltered locations and cognition, clinical symptoms, and community integration. Sheltered and unsheltered Veterans with psychosis did not differ on clinical symptoms or community integration, but there was an inconsistent group difference on cognition depending on the threshold used for determining housing stability. In the unsheltered group, cognitive deficits in overall cognition, visual learning, and social cognition were related to more days spent in unsheltered locations. Rehabilitation efforts targeting specific cognitive deficits may be useful to facilitate greater access to care and successful interventions in this population. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Pinnick, Cassandra L.
This paper examines the relation between situated cognition theory in science education, and feminist standpoint theory in philosophy of science. It shows that situated cognition is an idea borrowed from a long since discredited philosophy of science. It argues that feminist standpoint theory ought not be indulged as it is a failed challenge to…
Briere, John; Agee, Elisha; Dietrich, Anne
This research was undertaken to examine the role between cumulative exposure to different types of traumatic events and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) status in general population and prison samples. Two archival datasets were examined: the standardization sample for the Detailed Assessment of Posttraumatic States (DAPS; Briere, 2001), and data from a study on trauma and posttraumatic sequelae among inmates and others. PTSD was found in 4% of the general population sample and 48% of the prison sample. Trauma exposure was very common among prisoners, including a 70% rate of childhood sexual abuse for women and a 50% rate for men. Lifetime number of different types of trauma was associated with PTSD in both the general population and prison samples, even when controlling for the effects of sexual trauma. Cumulative interpersonal trauma predicted PTSD, whereas cumulative noninterpersonal trauma did not. In the general population sample, participants who had only 1 type of trauma exposure had a 0% likelihood of current PTSD, whereas those with 6 or more other trauma types had a 12% likelihood. In the prison sample, those with only 1 type of trauma exposure had a 17% percent likelihood of current PTSD, whereas those exposed to 6 or more other trauma types had a 64% chance of PTSD. Cumulative trauma predicts current PTSD in both general population and prison samples, even after controlling for sexual trauma. PTSD appears to develop generally as a function of exposure to multiple types of interpersonal trauma, as opposed to a single traumatic event. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Silverstein, Steven M
While cognitive impairment in schizophrenia is easy to demonstrate, it has been much more difficult to measure a specific cognitive process unconfounded by the influence of other cognitive processes and noncognitive factors (eg, sedation, low motivation) that affect test scores. With the recent interest in the identification of neurophysiology-linked cognitive probes for clinical trials, the issue of isolating specific cognitive processes has taken on increased importance. Recent advances in research design and psychometric theory regarding cognition research in schizophrenia demonstrate the importance of (1) maximizing between-group differences via reduction of measurement error during both test development and subsequent research and (2) the development and use of process-specific tasks in which theory-driven performance indices are derived across multiple conditions. Use of these 2 strategies can significantly advance both our understanding of schizophrenia and measurement sensitivity for clinical trials. Novel data-analytic strategies for analyzing change across multiple conditions and/or multiple time points also allow for increased reliability and greater measurement sensitivity than traditional strategies. Following discussion of these issues, trade-offs inherent to attempts to address psychometric issues in schizophrenia research are reviewed. Finally, additional considerations for maximizing sensitivity and real-world significance in clinical trials are discussed.
Hart, Sara A.; Petrill, Stephen A.; Thompson, Lee A.; Plomin, Robert
The goal of this first major report from the Western Reserve Reading Project Math component is to explore the etiology of the relationship among tester-administered measures of mathematics ability, reading ability, and general cognitive ability. Data are available on 314 pairs of monozygotic and same-sex dizygotic twins analyzed across 5 waves of assessment. Univariate analyses provide a range of estimates of genetic (h2 = .00 –.63) and shared (c2 = .15–.52) environmental influences across math calculation, fluency, and problem solving measures. Multivariate analyses indicate genetic overlap between math problem solving with general cognitive ability and reading decoding, whereas math fluency shares significant genetic overlap with reading fluency and general cognitive ability. Further, math fluency has unique genetic influences. In general, math ability has shared environmental overlap with general cognitive ability and decoding. These results indicate that aspects of math that include problem solving have different genetic and environmental influences than math calculation. Moreover, math fluency, a timed measure of calculation, is the only measured math ability with unique genetic influences. PMID:20157630
Kirby, Amanda; Williams, Natalie; Thomas, Marie; Hill, Elisabeth L
Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) affects around 2-6% of the population and is diagnosed on the basis of poor motor coordination in the absence of other neurological disorders. Its psychosocial impact has been delineated in childhood but until recently there has been little understanding of the implications of the disorder beyond this. This study aims to focus on the longer term impact of having DCD in adulthood and, in particular, considers the effect of employment on this group in relation to psychosocial health and wellbeing. Self-reported levels of life satisfaction, general health and symptoms of anxiety and depression were investigated in a group of adults with a diagnosis of DCD and those with suspected DCD using a number of published self-report questionnaire measures. A comparison between those in and out of employment was undertaken. As a group, the unemployed adults with DCD reported significantly lower levels of life satisfaction. Whilst there was no significant difference between those who were employed and unemployed on General Health Questionnaire scores; both groups reported numbers of health related issues reflective of general health problems in DCD irrespective of employment status. While both groups reported high levels of depressive symptoms and rated their satisfaction with life quite poorly, the unemployed group reported significantly more depressive symptoms and less satisfaction. Additionally, the results identified high levels of self-reported anxiety in both groups, with the majority sitting outside of the normal range using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. These findings add to the small but increasing body of literature on physical and mental health and wellbeing in adults with DCD. Furthermore, they are the first to provide insight into the possible mediating effects of employment status in adults with DCD. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Roos, Annerine; Calata, Dorothy; Jonkers, Liesl; Maritz, Stephan J; Kidd, Martin; Daniels, Willie M U; Hugo, Frans J
Normative data for the Tygerberg Cognitive Battery (TCB) and Mini-Mental Status Examination (MMSE) (in South Africa) have not been formally examined before. The TCB was developed for the bedside pen-and-paper screening of cognitive impairment in each of the 6 main cognitive domains, including attention and concentration, speech, memory, praxis, gnosis, and executive functioning. The test is also used to diagnose different neuropsychiatric conditions. The MMSE is an established screen of cognitive status, which is often used as a comparative standard for novel screening tests such as the TCB. The TCB was initially developed in English and Afrikaans, and a Xhosa version was also initiated with this study so that the 3 most common languages of the region could be accommodated. The first aim of the study was to estimate normative test performance on the TCB and MMSE among controls, and the second aim was to develop a Xhosa version of the TCB. Assessments of the TCB and MMSE were carried out in a population of healthy individuals (n = 157). In addition, healthy Xhosa-speaking participants (n = 14) were screened using a Xhosa version of the TCB. Reliability scores for all forms of the TCB were satisfactory. Age and education correlated significantly with TCB scores (r = -0.26, P < .01; r = 0.64, P < .01, respectively), whereas only education significantly correlated with MMSE scores (r = 0.32, P < .05). Normative values were calculated accordingly, that is, controlled for the effects of age and education. The TCB scores also correlated significantly with MMSE scores (r = 0.49, P < .05), demonstrating the potential of the TCB to serve as an alternate cognitive assessment tool, along with the MMSE, to focus neuropsychiatric investigations. Scores on the Xhosa version differed significantly on speech, praxis, and gnosis between the Afrikaans and English participant scores. These normative data can be used to increase precision and to provide an impartial evaluation when
Whitson, Heather E; Malhotra, Rahul; Chan, Angelique; Matchar, David B; Østbye, Truls
The objective of this study was to examine the prevalence and consequences of coexisting vision and cognitive impairments in an Asian population. Data were collected from 4508 community-dwelling Singaporeans aged 60 years and older. Cognition was assessed by the Short Portable Mental Status Questionnaire whereas vision, disability, and self-rated health (SRH) were determined by self-report. Vision impairment was present in 902 (18.5%) participants and cognitive impairment in 835 (13.6%), with 232 (3.5%) participants experiencing both impairments. Persons with the comorbidity experienced higher odds of disability than persons with either single impairment. The association of vision impairment with SRH was stronger among women (odds ratio [OR] = 6.79, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 4.64-9.92) than among men (OR = 1.71, 95% CI = 1.21-2.41). Concurrent cognitive and vision impairment is prevalent in older Singaporeans and is associated with high rates of disability. Gender differences in vision-dependent roles may affect the patient-perceived impact of this comorbidity. © 2012 APJPH.
Tatullo, Marco; Gentile, Stefano; Paduano, Francesco; Santacroce, Luigi; Marrelli, Massimo
Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) simulates the act of tobacco smoking by vaporizing a mixture of propylene glycol, nicotine, and flavoring agents. e-cigarette has been proposed as a product able to aid to stop smoking. The aim of the study is to verify the clinical variations of periodontal health induced by e-cigarettes use and, moreover, to investigate about the awareness of the e-smokers about their health variations and about their hypothetical need to turn back to smoke combustible cigarettes.This clinical observational pilot study involved 110 out of 350 smokers, who switched to e-cigarette. Patients were subjected to oral examinations. A questionnaire to self-assess the variations of some parameters of general health, and to self-assess the need to smoke combustible cigarettes, was distributed to such subjects involved in the study.At the end of the study, we registered a progressive improvement in the periodontal indexes, as well as in the general health perception. Finally, many patients reported an interesting reduction in the need to smoke.In the light of this pilot study, the e-cigarette can be considered as a valuable alternative to tobacco cigarettes, but with a positive impact on periodontal and general health status.
Pregler, J L; Mok, M S; Steen, S N
Benzodiazepines used intra-operatively can occasionally cause prolonged sedation. Flumazenil (Romazicon) is an imidazobenzodiazepine that functions as a benzodiazepine receptor antagonist. This clinical investigation was designed to evaluate the efficacy and of intravenous flumazenil in reversing the central effects of midazolam after a general anesthetic using midazolam for maintenance. 30 ASA I-III inpatients entered and completed this study. All were interviewed preoperatively and baseline performance on a battery of psychomotor tests was obtained. Parameters measured included an assessment of sleep status, vital signs, responsiveness to verbal stimuli, quality of speech, facial expression, eye coordination, recognition of a picture card, finger-finger-to-nose (FFN) coordination and overall discharge readiness. General anesthesia was induced with midazolam. Midazolam and fentanyl were the primary maintenance agents combined with N2O and O2 (70:30) and a limited concentration of isoflurane. In the recovery room the test drug was administered in a double-blinded, randomized manner. 20 patients received flumazenil (F), the rest placebo (P). Testing was done at times 0, 5, 15, 30, 60, 120, and 180 min in the PACU. Memory testing consisted of recall of study pictures at 180 min and recognition on the first postoperative day. Demographic data were similar for both groups with the exception of age. The F group had a higher mean composite score (comprising responsiveness to verbal stimuli, speech, facial expression and eye coordination) and better FFN scores at 5, 15, and 30 min (p pictures better at 5 and 15 min (p WORDS)
Wass, Christopher; Pizzo, Alessandro; Sauce, Bruno; Kawasumi, Yushi; Sturzoiu, Tudor; Ree, Fred; Otto, Tim; Matzel, Louis D.
A common source of variance (i.e., "general intelligence") underlies an individual's performance across diverse tests of cognitive ability, and evidence indicates that the processing efficacy of working memory may serve as one such source of common variance. One component of working memory, selective attention, has been reported to…
Nyachwaya, James M.; Gillaspie, Merry
The goals of this study were (1) determine the prevalence of various features of representations in five general chemistry textbooks used in the United States, and (2) use cognitive load theory to draw implications of the various features of analyzed representations. We adapted the Graphical Analysis Protocol (GAP) (Slough et al., 2010) to look at…
Full Text Available Introduction. The laryngeal mask airway (LMA was recently introduced in general anesthesia as an alternative to the face mask or tracheal intubation for airway maintenance. Methods. The effects of LMA insertion, face mask or tracheal intubation on homodynamic status were studied in 195 normotensive patients who underwent elective transurethral lithotripsy (TUL. The patients were monitored with blood pressure measurement and pulse oximetry. Anesthesia was induced with sodium thiopental, succynilcholine and fentanyl and maintained with halothane, nitrous oxide and oxygen. Findings. The heart rate (HR and mean arterial pressure increased after LMA insertion. face mask or tracheal intubation, compared with baseline (P<0.05. The hemodynamic changes were significantly greater after tracheal intubation and face mask than after LMA insertion (P<0.05. Conclusion. We conclude that insertion of LMA is associated with less hemodynamic disturbances than face mask or tracheal intubation in normotensive patients undergoing elective operations.
After a message from the Areva's Chief Executive Officer and a message from the senior Vice President of safety, health, security, sustainable development, a text by the inspector general comments the key safety results (events, dose levels, radiological impacts), the inspection findings, the areas of vigilance (relationship with the ASN, the management of the criticality risk, and facility compliance), some significant topics after the Fukushima accident. Then this report addresses the status of nuclear safety and radiation protection in the group's facilities and operations. It more specifically addresses the context and findings (lessons learned from the inspections, operating experience from event, employee radiation monitoring, environmental monitoring), crosscutting processes (safety management, controlling facility compliance, subcontractor guidance and management, crisis management), specific risks (criticality risk, fire hazards, transportation safety, radioactive waste management, pollution prevention, liability mitigation and dismantling), and areas for improvement and outlook
Hunter, Jennifer A; Button, Melissa L; Westra, Henny A
Client ambivalence about change (or motivation) is regarded as central to outcomes in cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). However, little research has been conducted to examine the impact of client ambivalence about change on therapy process variables such as the therapeutic alliance. Given the demonstrated limitations of self-report measures of key constructs such as ambivalence and motivation, the present study instead employed a newly adapted observational measure of client ambivalence. Client statements regarding change (change talk (CT) and counter-change talk (CCT)) were coded in early (session 1 or 2) therapy sessions of CBT for generalized anxiety disorder. The frequency of CT and CCT was then compared between clients who later experienced an alliance rupture with their therapist, and clients who did not. The results showed that clients in dyads who later experienced an alliance rupture expressed significantly more CCT at the outset of therapy than clients who did not later experience an alliance rupture. However, CT utterances did not significantly differ between alliance rupture and no-rupture groups. CCT may strain the alliance because clients expressing higher levels of CCT early in therapy may be less receptive to therapist direction in CBT. Consequently, it is recommended that clients and therapists work together to carefully address these key moments in therapy so as to prevent alliance rupture and preserve client engagement in therapy.
Robert M Kirkpatrick
Full Text Available We carried out a genome-wide association study (GWAS for general cognitive ability (GCA plus three other analyses of GWAS data that aggregate the effects of multiple single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in various ways. Our multigenerational sample comprised 7,100 Caucasian participants, drawn from two longitudinal family studies, who had been assessed with an age-appropriate IQ test and had provided DNA samples passing quality screens. We conducted the GWAS across ∼ 2.5 million SNPs (both typed and imputed, using a generalized least-squares method appropriate for the different family structures present in our sample, and subsequently conducted gene-based association tests. We also conducted polygenic prediction analyses under five-fold cross-validation, using two different schemes of weighting SNPs. Using parametric bootstrapping, we assessed the performance of this prediction procedure under the null. Finally, we estimated the proportion of variance attributable to all genotyped SNPs as random effects with software GCTA. The study is limited chiefly by its power to detect realistic single-SNP or single-gene effects, none of which reached genome-wide significance, though some genomic inflation was evident from the GWAS. Unit SNP weights performed about as well as least-squares regression weights under cross-validation, but the performance of both increased as more SNPs were included in calculating the polygenic score. Estimates from GCTA were 35% of phenotypic variance at the recommended biological-relatedness ceiling. Taken together, our results concur with other recent studies: they support a substantial heritability of GCA, arising from a very large number of causal SNPs, each of very small effect. We place our study in the context of the literature-both contemporary and historical-and provide accessible explication of our statistical methods.
Curreri, Chiara; Giantin, Valter; Veronese, Nicola; Trevisan, Caterina; Sartori, Leonardo; Musacchio, Estella; Zambon, Sabina; Maggi, Stefania; Perissinotto, Egle; Corti, Maria Chiara; Crepaldi, Gaetano; Manzato, Enzo; Sergi, Giuseppe
We studied a cohort of 1408 older subjects to explore whether postural changes in blood pressure (BP; defined as orthostatic hypo- or hypertension) can predict the onset of cognitive deterioration. Orthostatic hypotension was defined as a drop of 20 mm Hg in systolic or 10 mm Hg in diastolic BP and orthostatic hypertension as a rise of 20 mm Hg in systolic BP. Orthostatic BP values were grouped into quintiles for secondary analyses. Two cognitive assessments were considered: (1) cognitive impairment, that is, Mini-Mental State Examination scores ≤24/30, and (2) cognitive decline (CD), that is, a 3-point decrease in Mini-Mental State Examination score from the baseline to the follow-up. At the baseline, the prevalence of orthostatic hypotension and hypertension was 18.3% and 10.9%, respectively. At the follow-up (4.4±1.2 years), 286 participants were found cognitively impaired and 138 had a CD. Using logistic regression analysis adjusted for potential baseline confounders, participants with orthostatic hypertension were at significantly higher risk of CD (odds ratio =1.50; 95% confidence intervals =1.26-1.78). Neither orthostatic hypotension nor orthostatic hypertension raised the risk of developing a cognitive impairment. Using quintiles of orthostatic BP values, we found that both decreases and increases in systolic and diastolic BP raised the risk of CD, but not of cognitive impairment. In conclusion, we found that orthostatic hypertension predicts the onset of CD, but not of cognitive impairment in the elderly, whereas orthostatic hypotension predicts neither of these conditions. Further studies are needed to confirm our findings. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.
Full Text Available Objectives: Individuals with schizophrenia show perceptual-cognitive abnormalities. Besides, depression and anxiety is an integral part of the disease most of the times. People with mental diseases, while under institutional care, experience lack of control and choice in their daily lives. Sensory room is an environment in which individuals can choose, control and explore the stimuli around them. So, they can organize their responses to their environment and restore and develop their skills, interacting through it. Methods: 48 people met the study criteria, who were evaluated with Lowenstein Occupational Therapy Cognitive Assessment, Mini Mental State examination, and Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. Then they were randomly and equally assigned to intervention and comparison groups. Intervention group received sensory room intervention and comparison group had their traditional therapies. After 32 treatment sessions, 14 participants in intervention group and 7 participants in comparison group were excluded from the study and the tests were repeated for the remaining ones. Results: Findings did not show a significant effect of sensory room intervention on perceptual-cognitive performance and psychiatric status of people with schizophrenia (P>0.05. In reminding domain, however, results indicated maintenance of the skill in intervention group (P>0.05. and exacerbating of that in comparison group (P<0.05. Discussion: No significant change in perceptual-cognitive performance and psychiatric status for individuals with schizophrenia during 3 month period of sensory room intervention was found, except for reminding which did not changed significantly in intervention group, but regressed in comparison group after the intervention period.
Nikolai Nikolayevich Ivanets
Full Text Available The differential diagnosis of cognitive impairments is of great importance in mental disorders detectable in general medical practice. Objective: to study whether Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination — Revised (ACE-R may be used in these patients. Patients and methods. The study was conducted in two steps at somatic hospitals and city polyclinics. It enrolled 130patients (36 men and 94 women with anxiety-depression spectrum disorders (ADSD, mild cognitive disorders (MCD and a concurrence of these conditions. The authors used the following psychometric scales: the hospital anxiety and depression scale; the mini-mental state examination; the frontal assessment battery; ACE-R; ten words learning test. The psychometric characteristics of ACE-R and the possibilities of its use were estimated to detect MCD. The differences in the spectrum of cognitive impairments were analyzed in patients with different types of ADSD. Results. ACE-R is shown to be an effective neuropsychological tool for the primary diagnosis, detection, and evaluation of MCD in the general medical network. The results of ACE-R use indicate that the spectrum of cognitive impairments has substantial differences in patients with different types of non-psychotic disorders.
Hamid, Jan J M; Amal, Mitra K; Hasmiza, H; Pim, C D; Ng, L O; Wan, Manan W M
The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between gender, birth weight, nutritional status, and iron status of children with their academic performance and cognitive function. Two hundred and forty-nine children, seven to nine years of age, were recruited by systematic sampling from six primary schools in a rural area in Malaysia. Cognitive function was assessed by using Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices (R-CPM). Academic performance of the children was recorded from their school final examination results in four subjects including Malay language, English, Mathematics, and Science. Birth weight was recorded from the birth certificate, and nutritional status was determined by weight-for-age z score and height-for-age z score. Girls had a significantly higher score in all the academic tests, but a lower cognitive score compared to boys. Nutritional status was found to be correlated significantly with academic performance. Academic and cognitive function scores were also found to be correlated significantly with birth weight, parents' education, and family income. In a multivariate analysis, gender remained the significant predictor of academic function, and iron status and haemoglobin were the significant predictors of cognitive function, after controlling for other variables. The study showed that girls performed better academically than boys in rural Malaysia. Nutritional status, parents' education and family income could be additional modifiable factors to improve academic performance of the children. More attention is needed to improve academic achievements of boys at their early school years.
Park, Hyun; Bothe, Denise; Holsinger, Eva; Kirchner, H Lester; Olness, Karen; Mandalakas, Anna
Internationally adopted children often arrive from institutional settings where they have experienced medical, nutritional and psychosocial deprivation. This study uses a validated research assessment tool to prospectively assess the impact of baseline (immediately post adoption) nutritional status on fifty-eight children as measured by weight-for-age, height-for-age, weight-for-height and head circumference-for-age z scores, as a determinant of cognitive (MDI) and psychomotor development (PDI) scores longitudinally. A statistical model was developed to allow for different ages at time of initial assessment as well as variable intervals between follow up visits. The study results show that both acute and chronic measures of malnutrition significantly affect baseline developmental status as well as the rate of improvement in both MDI and PDI scores. This study contributes to the body of literature with its prospective nature, unique statistical model for longitudinal evaluation, and use of a validated assessment tool to assess outcomes.
Caldiroli, Alice; Buoli, Massimiliano; Serati, Marta; Cahn, Wiepke; Altamura, A Carlo
The aim of this paper was to investigate whether both neurocognitive and social cognitive performances were different between remitted first-episode schizophrenia patients, non-remitters and healthy controls (HC). We assessed social cognition (Degraded Facial Affect Recognition Task-DFAR and
Malara, Alba; Sgrò, Giovanni; Caruso, Chiara; Ceravolo, Francesco; Curinga, Giuseppe; Renda, Grazia Francesca; Spadea, Fausto; Garo, Michele; Rispoli, Vincenzo
The interaction between dementia and nutritional state is very complex and not yet fully understood. The aim of the present study was to assess the interaction between cognitive impairment and nutritional state in a cohort of residential elderly in relationship with functional condition of patients and their load of assistance in long-term-care facilities of the National Association of Third Age Structures (ANASTE) Calabria. One hundred seventy-four subjects (122 female and 52 male) were admitted to the long-term-care ANASTE Calabria study. All patients underwent multidimensional geriatric assessment. Nutritional state was assessed with the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA), whereas cognitive performance was evaluated by the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). The functional state was assessed by Barthel Index (BI) and Activity Daily Living (ADL). The following nutritional biochemical parameters were also evaluated: albumin, cholesterol, iron, and hemoglobin. All patients were reassessed 180 days later. A severe cognitive impairment in MMSE performance was displayed in 49.7% patients, while 39.8% showed a moderate deficit; 6.9% had a slight deficit; and 3.4% evidenced no cognitive impairment. In MNA, 30% of patients exhibited an impairment of nutritional state; 56% were at risk of malnutrition; and 14% showed no nutritional problems. Malnutrition was present in 42% of patients with severe cognitive impairment, but only 4% of malnourished patients showed moderate cognitive deficit. The statistical analysis displayed a significant correlation between MNA and MMSE (Pnutritional state (P<0.005) as well as with the functional state (P<0.05) and mortality (P<0.01). The present study clearly shows that malnutrition may play an important role in the progression of cognitive loss.
Rajeev D S Raizada
Full Text Available The study of socioeconomic status (SES and the brain finds itself in a circumstance unusual for Cognitive Neuroscience: large numbers of questions with both practical and scientific importance exist, but they are currently under-researched and ripe for investigation. This review aims to highlight these questions, to outline their potential significance, and to suggest routes by which they might be approached. Although remarkably few neural studies have been carried out so far, there exists a large literature of previous behavioural work. This behavioural research provides an invaluable guide for future neuroimaging work, but also poses an important challenge for it: how can we ensure that the neural data contributes predictive or diagnostic power over and above what can be derived from behaviour alone? We discuss some of the open mechanistic questions which Cognitive Neuroscience may have the power to illuminate, spanning areas including language, numerical cognition, stress, memory, and social influences on learning. These questions have obvious practical and societal significance, but they also bear directly on a set of longstanding questions in basic science: what are the environmental and neural factors which affect the acquisition and retention of declarative and nondeclarative skills? Perhaps the best opportunity for practical and theoretical interests to converge is in the study of interventions. Many interventions aimed at improving the cognitive development of low SES children are currently underway, but almost all are operating without either input from, or study by, the Cognitive Neuroscience community. Given that longitudinal intervention studies are very hard to set up, but can, with proper designs, be ideal tests of causal mechanisms, this area promises exciting opportunities for future research.
Akl, Ahmad; Snoek, Jasper; Mihailidis, Alex
With a globally aging population, the burden of care of cognitively impaired older adults is becoming increasingly concerning. Instances of Alzheimer’s disease and other forms of dementia are becoming ever more frequent. Earlier detection of cognitive impairment offers significant benefits, but remains difficult to do in practice. In this paper, we develop statistical models of the behavior of older adults within their homes using sensor data in order to detect the early onset of cognitive decline. Specifically, we use inhomogenous Poisson processes to model the presence of subjects within different rooms throughout the day in the home using unobtrusive sensing technologies. We compare the distributions learned from cognitively intact and impaired subjects using information theoretic tools and observe statistical differences between the two populations which we believe can be used to help detect the onset of cognitive decline. PMID:25570050
Akl, Ahmad; Snoek, Jasper; Mihailidis, Alex
With a globally aging population, the burden of care of cognitively impaired older adults is becoming increasingly concerning. Instances of Alzheimer's disease and other forms of dementia are becoming ever more frequent. Earlier detection of cognitive impairment offers significant benefits, but remains difficult to do in practice. In this paper, we develop statistical models of the behavior of older adults within their homes using sensor data in order to detect the early onset of cognitive decline. Specifically, we use inhomogenous Poisson processes to model the presence of subjects within different rooms throughout the day in the home using unobtrusive sensing technologies. We compare the distributions learned from cognitively intact and impaired subjects using information theoretic tools and observe statistical differences between the two populations which we believe can be used to help detect the onset of cognitive decline.
Seyed Mohammad Seyedmehdi
Full Text Available Recognizing patients at a higher risk of developing chronic low back pain (LBP is important in industrial medicine. This study aimed to assess the power and quality of General Health Questionnaire (GHQ for prediction of the odds of chronicity of acute LBP. This study was conducted on industrial workers. All subjects with acute LBP who met the inclusion criteria were enrolled. Demographic characteristics, occupational, physical, and mental parameters and the general health status of subjects were evaluated; they were followed up for developing chronic LBP for one year. Cigarette smoking, high body mass index, job stress, physical load and high GHQ scores were found to be the risk factors for the progression of acute LBP to chronic LBP (P<0.05. Standing position while working, age, work experience, exercise, level of education, weekly work hours and shift work were not the risk factors for chronic LBP (P>0.05.High GHQ score can be a risk factor for progression of acute LBP to chronic LBP. The GHQ in combination with the Job Content Questionnaire can be used as a quick and simple screening tool for detection of subjects at high risk of chronic LBP when evaluating acute LBP in an occupational setting.
Colas-Zelin, Danielle; Light, Kenneth R; Kolata, Stefan; Wass, Christopher; Denman-Brice, Alexander; Rios, Christopher; Szalk, Kris; Matzel, Louis D
Imposed social subordination, such as that which accompanies physical defeat or alienation, has been associated with impaired cognitive function in both human and non-human animals. Here we examined whether domain-specific and/or domain-general learning abilities (c.f. general intelligence) are differentially influenced by the imposition of social subordination. Furthermore, we assessed whether the impact of subordination on cognitive abilities was the result of imposed subordination per se, or if it reflected deficits intrinsically expressed in subjects that are predisposed to subordination. Subordinate and dominant behaviors were assessed in two groups of CD-1 male mice. In one group (Imposed Stratification), social stratification was imposed (through persistent physical defeat in a colonized setting) prior to the determination of cognitive abilities, while in the second group (Innate Stratification), an assessment of social stratification was made after cognitive abilities had been quantified. Domain-specific learning abilities were measured as performance on individual learning tasks (odor discrimination, fear conditioning, spatial maze learning, passive avoidance, and egocentric navigation) while domain-general learning abilities were determined by subjects' aggregate performance across the battery of learning tasks. We observed that the imposition of subordination prior to cognitive testing decreased exploratory tendencies, moderately impaired performance on individual learning tasks, and severely impaired general cognitive performance. However, similar impairments were not observed in subjects with a predisposition toward a subordinate phenotype (but which had not experienced physical defeat at the time of cognitive testing). Mere colonization, regardless of outcome (i.e., stratification), was associated with an increase in stress-induced serum corticosterone (CORT) levels, and thus CORT elevations were not themselves adequate to explain the effects of
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Individual differences in human cognitive abilities show consistently positive correlations across diverse domains, providing the basis for the trait of "general intelligence" (g. At present, little is known about the evolution of g, in part because most comparative studies focus on rodents or on differences across higher-level taxa. What is needed, therefore, are experiments targeting nonhuman primates, focusing on individual differences within a single species, using a broad battery of tasks. To this end, we administered a large battery of tasks, representing a broad range of cognitive domains, to a population of captive cotton-top tamarin monkeys (Saguinus oedipus. METHODOLOGY AND RESULTS: Using a Bayesian latent variable model, we show that the pattern of correlations among tasks is consistent with the existence of a general factor accounting for a small but significant proportion of the variance in each task (the lower bounds of 95% Bayesian credibility intervals for correlations between g and task performance all exceed 0.12. CONCLUSION: Individual differences in cognitive abilities within at least one other primate species can be characterized by a general intelligence factor, supporting the hypothesis that important aspects of human cognitive function most likely evolved from ancient neural substrates.
T I Vicharenko
Full Text Available Vascular disorders play a significant role in the development of dystrophic inflammatory process. There is a direct correlation between the degree of damage to blood vessels in the jaw and a depth of the destructive process in periodontal tissue. A certain role is played by endogenous factors, such as: age, vitamin deficiency, diabetes mellitus, essential hypertension and others. Clinical and epidemiological studies using pathological techniques showed significant changes in vascular wall of the artery in the periodontium, the interdental artery in particular. Atherosclerosis, essential hypertension and periodontal pathology were proven to occur in individuals older than 40 years. The objective of the research was to determine periodontal tissue status in patients with stage II hypertension and generalized periodontitis of II degree of severity. Materials and methods. The study involved 36 patients with stage II hypertension and generalized periodontitis of II degree of severity (the main group. The patients’ age ranged from 35 to 54 years. The control group included 10 patients of corresponding age without generalized periodontitis and somatic pathology. To assess the status of periodontal tissues, we applied the Papillary-Marginal-Attached Index and the Community Periodontal Index of Treatment Needs. When diagnosing periodontal disease, the classification of M.F. Danilevskyi was used. Results. The analysis of the indicators of the Community Periodontal Index of Treatment Needs index showed the following results: in patients of the main group, the index was 2.38±0.07 points (p<0.001 pointing out a need for a course of professional oral hygiene. In patients of the control group, the index was 0.5±0.17 points indicating that there was no need for treatment, however, there was a need for improving oral hygiene. The indicators of the Papillary-Marginal-Attached Index in the main group were 55.49±1.96 points pointing out a severe degree of
Wang, Ningke; Ou, Yangwen; Qing, Wenxiang
This study investigated the effects of acupuncture combined with general anesthesia on postoperative immune and cognitive functions in elderly patients undergoing subtotal gastrectomy. We recruited 96 elderly patients who received anesthesia for subtotal gastrectomy and randomly divided them into control (n=48) and experimental (n=48) groups. The control group received general anesthesia and the experimental group received combined acupuncture and general anesthesia. We measured hemodynamic immediately before and after anesthesia induction, and immune observations before and after surgery. We found no significant differences in mean heart rate (HR), mean oxygen saturation (SpO2), and partial pressure of end-tidal carbon dioxide (PETCO2) in the perioperative period between the two groups. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) was lower in the experimental group than that in the control group (P0.05), but the incidence of delayed recovery and postoperative agitation were significantly lower in the experimental group compared with those in the control group (P<0.05). One day after surgery, the experimental group showed better protection of cognitive function than the control group (P<0.05). Overall, combined acupuncture and general anesthesia in elderly gastric cancer patients receiving subtotal gastrectomy showed more stable hemodynamics and fewer stress responses during surgery. Thus, combined acupuncture and general anesthesia can shorten the recovery time from anesthesia, have less negative effects on immune function and decrease the incidence of postoperative cognitive impairment.
This article reviews the clinical and experimental researches on cognitive impairment related to diabetes in the recent decade. Most clinical studies indicate that the cognitive impairment in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus is related to recurrent hypoglycemia closely. There is little research about whether or not hyperglycemia is related to cognitive impairment in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Most studies indicate that the cognitive impairment in type 2 diabetes involves multiple factors through multiple mechanisms, including blood glucose, blood lipid, blood pressure, level of insulin, medication, chronic complication, etc. But, there has been no large-scale, multi-center, randomized controlled clinical trial in China recently. And what is more, some problems exist in this field of research, such as the lack of golden criterion of cognitive function measurement, different population of studied objects, and incomprehensive handling of confounding factors. Experimental studies found that hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) was impaired,which were manifested by impairment of spatial memory and decreased expression of LTP, but its relation to hyperglycemia, the duration of diabetes, learning and memory has always been differently reported by different researches. Thus, there are a lot of unknown things to be explored and studied in order to clarify its mechanism. TCM has abundant clinical experience in treating cerebral disease with medicine that enforces the kidney and promotes wit. However, there has been no research on treating diabetic cognitive impairment,which requires work to be done actively and TCM to be put into full play, in order to improve the treatment of diabetes and enhance living quality of patients.
Ji Hye Suk
Full Text Available BackgroundData regarding the prescription status of individuals with diabetes are limited. This study was an analysis of participants from the relationship between cardiovascular disease and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity in patients with type 2 diabetes (REBOUND Study, which was a prospective multicenter cohort study recruited from eight general hospitals in Busan, Korea. We performed this study to investigate the current status of prescription in Korean type 2 diabetic patients.MethodsType 2 diabetic patients aged 30 years or more were recruited and data were collected for demographics, medical history, medications, blood pressure, and laboratory tests.ResultsThree thousands and fifty-eight type 2 diabetic patients were recruited. Mean age, duration of diabetes, and HbA1c were 59 years, 7.6 years, and 7.2%, respectively. Prevalence of hypertension was 66%. Overall, 7.3% of patients were treated with diet and exercise only, 68.2% with oral hypoglycemic agents (OHAs only, 5.3% with insulin only, and 19.2% with both insulin and OHA. The percentage of patients using antihypertensive, antidyslipidemic, antiplatelet agents was similar as about 60%. The prevalence of statins and aspirin users was 52% and 32%, respectively.ConclusionIn our study, two thirds of type 2 diabetic patients were treated with OHA only, and one fifth with insulin plus OHA, and 5% with insulin only. More than half of the patients were using each of antihypertensive, antidyslipidemic, or antiplatelet agents. About a half of the patients were treated with statins and one third were treated with aspirin.
Rezaei, Sajjad; Asgari, Karim; Yousefzadeh, Shahrokh; Moosavi, Heshmat-Allah; Kazemnejad, Ehsan
Neurosurgical treatment and the severity of head injury (HI) can have remarkable effect on patients' neuropsychiatric outcomes. This research aimed to study the effect of these factors on cognitive functioning, general health and incidence of mental disorders in patients with a traumatic brain injury (TBI). In this descriptive, longitudinal study, 206 TBI patients entered the study by consecutive sampling; they were then compared according to neurosurgery status and severity of their HI. Both groups underwent neurosurgical and psychological examinations. The mini mental state examination (MMSE) and general health questionnaire-28 items (GHQ-28) were administered to the study participants. At follow-up, four months later, the groups underwent a structured clinical interview by a psychiatrist based on the diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, fourth edition (DSM-IV) diagnostic criteria regarding the presence of mental disorders. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) and multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) were performed and adjusted for the effect of confounding variables (age, gender, Glasgow outcome scale (GOS) , and level of education). The severity of HI had the most significant effect for the following variables; cognitive functioning and physical symptoms (P < 0.05). The effect of the neurosurgical treatment factor was not significant; however, the interaction effect of the two variables on social dysfunction, and total score of the GHQ-28 questionnaire appeared to be significant (P < 0.05). Fisher's exact test indicated that after a four month follow-up period, no significant differences were seen between the two groups (with or without neurosurgery) in the incidence of mental disorders, while χ(2) Test showed that having a more severe HI is significantly correlated with the incidence of mental disorders (P < 0.01). The implications of this study should be discussed with an emphasis on negative, effective factors on the cognitive
Georgiades, Anna; Rijsdijk, Fruhling; Kane, Fergus; Rebollo-Mesa, Irene; Kalidindi, Sridevi; Schulze, Katja K; Stahl, Daniel; Walshe, Muriel; Sahakian, Barbara J; McDonald, Colm; Hall, Mei-Hua; Murray, Robin M; Kravariti, Eugenia
Twin studies have lacked statistical power to apply advanced genetic modelling techniques to the search for cognitive endophenotypes for bipolar disorder. To quantify the shared genetic variability between bipolar disorder and cognitive measures. Structural equation modelling was performed on cognitive data collected from 331 twins/siblings of varying genetic relatedness, disease status and concordance for bipolar disorder. Using a parsimonious AE model, verbal episodic and spatial working memory showed statistically significant genetic correlations with bipolar disorder (rg = |0.23|-|0.27|), which lost statistical significance after covarying for affective symptoms. Using an ACE model, IQ and visual-spatial learning showed statistically significant genetic correlations with bipolar disorder (rg = |0.51|-|1.00|), which remained significant after covarying for affective symptoms. Verbal episodic and spatial working memory capture a modest fraction of the bipolar diathesis. IQ and visual-spatial learning may tap into genetic substrates of non-affective symptomatology in bipolar disorder. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2016.
Graham, K A; Keefe, R S; Lieberman, J A; Calikoglu, A S; Lansing, K M; Perkins, D O
Deficient vitamin D levels are very common among Americans of all ages and ethnicities, but little is known about its prevalence or associated problems among those with schizophrenia. Stored plasma from 20 recent onset schizophrenia subjects and 20 matched healthy comparison subjects were analysed for 25 OH vitamin D, and related to measures of symptom severity and neurocognition. There was no significant difference in mean 25 OH vitamin D between the schizophrenia and the healthy comparison subjects (28.2 standard deviation (SD) 12.6 ng mL(-1) vs. 29.9 SD 14.3 ng mL(-1) ), and about half the subjects in each group had insufficient levels (vitamin D status (r = -0.55, P = 0.012); the correlations of overall symptom severity and positive symptom severity with 25 OH vitamin D levels approached significance (r = -0.42, P = 0.07 and r = -0.36, P = 0.12, respectively). There was no relationship of vitamin D with depressive symptoms. Among the schizophrenia subjects, lower 25 OH vitamin D levels were associated with more severe overall cognitive deficits (r = 0.56, P = 0.019). This study found that lower vitamin D levels in schizophrenia subjects were associated with more severe negative symptoms and overall cognitive deficits. However, the cross-sectional design precludes any conclusions about whether low vitamin D status in fact causes more severe negative symptoms and cognitive impairments. No relationship was found between lower vitamin D levels and depressive symptoms. © 2014 The Authors Early Intervention in Psychiatry Published by Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Khov, Kuong; Fiorentino, Marion; Perignon, Marlene
Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infection has been associated with lower cognitive performance of schoolchildren. To identify pathways through which STH infection might affect school performance, baseline data from a large rice-fortification trial in Cambodian schoolchildren were used to investig...
Salloum, Alison; Scheeringa, Michael S.; Cohen, Judith A.; Storch, Eric A.
Background: In order to develop Stepped Care trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy (TF-CBT), a definition of early response/non-response is needed to guide decisions about the need for subsequent treatment. Objective: The purpose of this article is to (1) establish criterion for defining an early indicator of response/non-response to the…
Deák, Gedeon O; Wiseheart, Melody
Cognitive flexibility is the ability to adapt to changing tasks or problems. To test whether cognitive flexibility is a coherent cognitive capacity in young children, we tested 3- to 5-year-olds' performance on two forms of task switching, rule-based (Three Dimension Changes Card Sorting, 3DCCS) and inductive (Flexible Induction of Meaning-Animates and Objects, FIM-Ob and FIM-An), as well as tests of response speed, verbal working memory, inhibition, and reasoning. Results suggest that cognitive flexibility is not a globally coherent trait; only the two inductive word-meaning (FIM) tests showed high inter-test coherence. Task- and knowledge-specific factors also determine children's flexibility in a given test. Response speed, vocabulary size, and causal reasoning skills further predicted individual and age differences in flexibility, although they did not have the same predictive relation with all three flexibility tests. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ben Ghorbel, Mahdi
Cognitive radio is one of the hot topics for emerging and future wireless communication. Cognitive users can share channels with primary users under the condition of non interference. In order to compute this interference, the cognitive system usually use the channel state information of the primary user which is often impractical to obtain. However, using location information, we can estimate this interference by pathloss computation. In this paper, we introduce a low-complexity resource allocation algorithm for orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA) based cognitive radio systems, which uses relative location information between primary and secondary users to estimate the interference. This algorithm considers interference with multiple primary users having different thresholds. The simulation results show the efficiency of the proposed algorithm by comparing it with an optimal exhaustive search method. © 2010 IEEE.
Reif, P S; Männer, A; Willems, L M; Kay, L; Zöllner, J P; Klein, K M; Rosenow, F; Strzelczyk, A
Nearly 10 years after its introduction into the market, the significance of lacosamide in genetic generalized epilepsies is still unclear. Its new mode of action may qualify lacosamide as a therapeutic agent in this entity, but only a limited number of cases have been published so far. To describe the efficacy of lacosamide as treatment in a patient with the absence status epilepticus. We report on a 28-year-old woman with genetic generalized epilepsy who suffered recurrent absence status epilepticus during video-EEG-monitoring. After treatment failure of first- and second-line medication, lacosamide was administered. The outcome in this patient was evaluated, and a systematic literature review was performed for the use of lacosamide in the absence status epilepticus. After application of 400 mg lacosamide intravenously, the absence status epilepticus terminated within 30 minutes. No further seizures or epileptiform discharges reoccurred until the end of video-EEG-Monitoring 3 days later. The role of lacosamide as a therapeutic option in patients with the absence status epilepticus is unclear. Only two cases have been reported so far with conflicting results. Further randomized controlled studies are required to validate the relevance of lacosamide as treatment for status epilepticus in genetic generalized and the absence epilepsy. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available Background and aims: Depression and cognitive disorders were reported more frequently in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM. Our aim was to analyze the association of cognitive disorders and depression association with chronic complications of DM in a group of Romanian patients. Materials and methods: The data was analyzed from 181 patients, with a mean age of 58,3 years to whom we applied the MMSE (Mini- Mental State Examination and MADRS (Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale questionnaires. We also analyzed the presence of chronic DM complications, HbA1c and lipid profile. Results: Most patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM had mild cognitive impairment (92%, more common in the age group 50-59 years. Chronic macrovascular complications were present in 74.58%, while chronic microvascular complications were present in 61.87% of patients with T2DM who associated mild and moderate cognitive impairment (p = 0.013. The most common form of depression was mild depression (90.2%, present in most patients with DM, regardless of progression and type of treatment. MADRS depression test scores were statistically significant correlated with the presence of peripheral artery disease - PAD (p <0.001, ischemic heart disease - IHD (p <0.001 and chronic kidney disease - CKD (p =0.05. We did not find a statistically significant correlation with HbA1c and serum lipid values (p˃0,05. Conclusion: Chronic diabetes macrovascular complications (PAD, IHD and CKD were more frequently associated with cognitive disorders and depression in patients with T2DM independent of the degree of metabolic control.
Tabassum, Saiqa; Haider, Saida; Ahmad, Saara; Madiha, Syeda; Parveen, Tahira
Choline, an essential nutrient, accounts for multiple functions in the body and brain. While its beneficial effects on healthy adults are not clear, choline supplementation is important during pregnancy for brain development, in elderly patients for support of cognitive performance and in patients with neurological disorders to reduce memory deficits. Thus, the aim of this study is to investigate whether choline administration in healthy adult rats beneficially impacts cognitive and locomotor performance, and associated oxidative and neurochemical outcomes. Two groups, control and choline, received tap water and choline bitartrate, respectively at the dose equivalent to adequate intake for five weeks. Food intake and body weight were monitored daily. Behavioral analysis comprising assessment of cognitive performance (by novel object recognition, passive avoidance and Morris Water Maze test) and locomotor performance (by Open field, Kondziela's inverted screen and beam walking test) were performed. Following testing, rats were decapitated and brain samples were collected for estimation of acetylcholine, redox profile and monoamine measurements. The results showed that chronic choline administration significantly improves cognitive and locomotor performance accompanied by a reduction in oxidative stress, enhanced cholinergic neurotransmission and monoamine levels in the brain of healthy adult rats. Hence, chronic choline intake was found to improve behavioral, oxidative and neurochemical outcomes in the normal population, so it can be suggested that choline tablets can be used as a safe and effective supplement for improving the neurological health of normal individuals and that they might also be beneficial in preventing cognitive and motor disorders later in life. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ashkenazi, Sarit; Rosenberg-Lee, Miriam; Metcalfe, Arron W.S.; Swigart, Anna G.; Menon, Vinod
The study of developmental disorders can provide a unique window into the role of domain-general cognitive abilities and neural systems in typical and atypical development. Mathematical disabilities (MD) are characterized by marked difficulty in mathematical cognition in the presence of preserved intelligence and verbal ability. Although studies of MD have most often focused on the role of core deficits in numerical processing, domain-general cognitive abilities, in particular working memory (WM), have also been implicated. Here we identify specific WM components that are impaired in children with MD and then examine their role in arithmetic problem solving. Compared to typically developing (TD) children, the MD group demonstrated lower arithmetic performance and lower visuo-spatial working memory (VSWM) scores with preserved abilities on the phonological and central executive components of WM. Whole brain analysis revealed that, during arithmetic problem solving, left posterior parietal cortex, bilateral dorsolateral and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, cingulate gyrus and precuneus, and fusiform gyrus responses were positively correlated with VSWM ability in TD children, but not in the MD group. Additional analyses using a priori posterior parietal cortex regions previously implicated in WM tasks, demonstrated a convergent pattern of results during arithmetic problem solving. These results suggest that MD is characterized by a common locus of arithmetic and VSWM deficits at both the cognitive and functional neuroanatomical levels. Unlike TD children, children with MD do not use VSWM resources appropriately during arithmetic problem solving. This work advances our understanding of VSWM as an important domain-general cognitive process in both typical and atypical mathematical skill development. PMID:23896444
Ashkenazi, Sarit; Rosenberg-Lee, Miriam; Metcalfe, Arron W S; Swigart, Anna G; Menon, Vinod
The study of developmental disorders can provide a unique window into the role of domain-general cognitive abilities and neural systems in typical and atypical development. Mathematical disabilities (MD) are characterized by marked difficulty in mathematical cognition in the presence of preserved intelligence and verbal ability. Although studies of MD have most often focused on the role of core deficits in numerical processing, domain-general cognitive abilities, in particular working memory (WM), have also been implicated. Here we identify specific WM components that are impaired in children with MD and then examine their role in arithmetic problem solving. Compared to typically developing (TD) children, the MD group demonstrated lower arithmetic performance and lower visuo-spatial working memory (VSWM) scores with preserved abilities on the phonological and central executive components of WM. Whole brain analysis revealed that, during arithmetic problem solving, left posterior parietal cortex, bilateral dorsolateral and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, cingulate gyrus and precuneus, and fusiform gyrus responses were positively correlated with VSWM ability in TD children, but not in the MD group. Additional analyses using a priori posterior parietal cortex regions previously implicated in WM tasks, demonstrated a convergent pattern of results during arithmetic problem solving. These results suggest that MD is characterized by a common locus of arithmetic and VSWM deficits at both the cognitive and functional neuroanatomical levels. Unlike TD children, children with MD do not use VSWM resources appropriately during arithmetic problem solving. This work advances our understanding of VSWM as an important domain-general cognitive process in both typical and atypical mathematical skill development. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Vuoksimaa, Eero; Panizzon, Matthew S; Chen, Chi-Hua; Fiecas, Mark; Eyler, Lisa T; Fennema-Notestine, Christine; Hagler, Donald J; Fischl, Bruce; Franz, Carol E; Jak, Amy; Lyons, Michael J; Neale, Michael C; Rinker, Daniel A; Thompson, Wesley K; Tsuang, Ming T; Dale, Anders M; Kremen, William S
Total gray matter volume is associated with general cognitive ability (GCA), an association mediated by genetic factors. It is expectable that total neocortical volume should be similarly associated with GCA. Neocortical volume is the product of thickness and surface area, but global thickness and surface area are unrelated phenotypically and genetically in humans. The nature of the genetic association between GCA and either of these 2 cortical dimensions has not been examined. Humans possess greater cognitive capacity than other species, and surface area increases appear to be the primary driver of the increased size of the human cortex. Thus, we expected neocortical surface area to be more strongly associated with cognition than thickness. Using multivariate genetic analysis in 515 middle-aged twins, we demonstrated that both the phenotypic and genetic associations between neocortical volume and GCA are driven primarily by surface area rather than thickness. Results were generally similar for each of 4 specific cognitive abilities that comprised the GCA measure. Our results suggest that emphasis on neocortical surface area, rather than thickness, could be more fruitful for elucidating neocortical-GCA associations and identifying specific genes underlying those associations. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Solon, Florentino S; Sarol, Jesus N; Bernardo, Allan B I; Solon, Juan Antonio A; Mehansho, Haile; Sanchez-Fermin, Liza E; Wambangco, Lorena S; Juhlin, Kenton D
This study aimed to determine the effect of a multiple-micronutrient-fortified beverage on the micronutrient status, physical fitness, and cognitive performance of schoolchildren. The study was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of schoolchildren assigned to receive either the fortified or nonfortified beverage with or without anthelmintic therapy. Data on hemoglobin level, urinary iodine excretion (UIE) level, physical fitness, and cognitive performance were collected at baseline and at 16 weeks post-intervention. The fortified beverage significantly improved iron status among the subjects that had hemoglobin levels performance (nonverbal mental ability score). The study showed that consumption of a multiple-micronutrient-fortified beverage for 16 weeks had significant effects on iron status, iodine status, physical fitness, and cognitive performance among iron- and/or iodine-deficient Filipino schoolchildren. Anthelmintic therapy improved iron status of anemic children and iodine status of the iron-adequate children at baseline but it had no effect on physical fitness and cognitive performance. The results from the clinical study showed that a multiple-micronutrient-fortified beverage could play an important role in preventing and controlling micronutrient deficiencies.
Sakellariou, Dimitris Fotis; Kostopoulos, George Kostantinos; Richardson, Mark Philip; Koutroumanidis, Michalis
We studied slow (≤2.5 Hz) nonevolving generalized periodic epileptiform discharges (GPEDs) in the electroencephalogram (EEG) of comatose patients after cardiac arrest (CA) in search of evidence that could assist early diagnosis of possible hypoxic nonconvulsive status epilepticus (NCSE) and its differentiation from terminal brain anoxia (BA), which can present with a similar EEG pattern. We investigated the topography of the GPEDs in the first post-CA EEGs of 13 patients, using voltage-mapping, and compared findings between two patients with NCSE and GPEDs > 2.5 Hz (group 1), and 11 with GPEDs ≤ 2 Hz, of whom six had possible NCSE (group 2) and five had terminal BA (group 3). Voltage mapping showed frontal maximum for the negative phase of the GPEDs in all patients of groups 1 and 2, but not in any of the patients of group 3, who invariably showed maximization of the negative phase posteriorly. Morphology, amplitude, and duration of the GPEDs varied across the groups, without distinctive features for possible NCSE. These findings provide evidence that, in hypoxic coma after CA with slow GPEDs, anterior topography of the maximum GPED negativity on voltage mapping may be a distinctive biomarker for possible NCSE contributing to the coma.
One important trend in the laboratory profession and quality management is the global convergence of laboratory operations. The goal of an accredited medical laboratory is to continue "offering useful laboratory service for diagnosis and treatment of the patients and also aid to the health of the nation". An accredited clinical laboratory is managed by a quality control system, it is competent technically and the laboratory service meets the needs of all its patients and physicians by taking the responsibility of all the medical tests and therapies. For this purpose, ISO 15189 international standard has been prepared by 2003. ISO 15189 standard is originated from the arrangement of ISO 17025 and ISO 9001:2000 standards. Many countries such as England, Germany, France, Canada and Australia have preferred ISO 15189 as their own laboratory accreditation programme, meeting all the requirements of their medical laboratories. The accreditation performance of a clinical microbiology laboratory is mainly based on five essential points; preanalytical, analytical, postanalytical, quality control programmes (internal, external, interlaboratory) and audits (internal, external). In this review article, general concepts on ISO 15189 accreditation standards for the clinical microbiology laboratories have been summarized and the status of a private laboratory (Acibadem LabMed, Istanbul) in Turkey has been discussed.
Hao, Wei; Su, Zhonghua; Liu, Binglun; Zhang, Kui; Yang, Hanqing; Chen, Shaozhong; Biao, Meizi; Cui, Chun
To understand drinking patterns, health status related to drinking and the level of unrecorded alcoholic beverage consumption for the general population living in five areas of China in 2001. By cluster sampling, 24992 community residents aged 15 years or older were interviewed by trained psychiatrists using structured questionnaires provided by WHO. The 1-year drinking rate was 59.0%, and the point prevalence rate of dependence was 3.8%. The average annual consumption of pure alcohol was 4.47 l. The 1-year morbidity from gastritis/ulcer in the whole sample was 7.9%, which associated nonlinearly to alcohol intake, and heart disease and cerebral infarction/cerebral haemorrhage showed V-shaped curve relationships. The rate of alcohol use was higher in men than in women, and the annual alcohol consumption per capita was higher than that in the 1990s in the selected areas. Alcohol consumption plays a role in the development of alcohol-related physical diseases.
Calero, Dolores; Navarro, Elena
The main objective of this study was to analyze the similarities and differences in cognitive performance, level of dependency, cognitive plasticity and QoL in a sample of young-old adults and old-old adults, bearing in mind both the age-group (under or over 80 years) and the cognitive status of the participants. The study population consisted of 220 people living in sheltered accommodation for elderly people in the South of Spain, with an average age of 80.75 years. Participants were evaluated by means of cognitive performance tests, a QoL questionnaire, a depression scale and a dependency assessment scale. The results indicate that the main differences in the variables analyzed are due to the cognitive status of the sample and not to the fact that the participants are under or over 80 years of age. The findings show that major inter-individual differences in this stage of life depend not only on age but also on cognitive status, which is thus an important factor to take into account when working with this sector of the population. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
McSweeney, Frances K.; Parks, Craig D.
We examined participation by women in journals devoted to social, developmental, cognitive, and general psychology. Authorship and first authorship by women increased from 1978 to 1997 for most journals. Participation by women on the editorial staff did not keep pace with their increased authorship for social and developmental psychology. Based on these trends, women's participation decreased with increases in the selectivity of the position for social and developmental psychology (a glass ce...
Černelič-Bizjak, Maša; Jenko-Pražnikar, Zala
Evidence suggests that body dissatisfaction may relate to biological processes and that negative cognitions can influence physical health through the complex pathways linking psychological and biological factors. The present study investigates the relationships between body image satisfaction, inflammation (cytokine levels), aerobic fitness level and obesity in 96 middle-aged men and women (48 normal and 48 overweight). All participants underwent measurements of body satisfaction, body composition, serological measurements of inflammation and aerobic capabilities assessment. Body image dissatisfaction uniquely predicted inflammation biomarkers, C-reactive protein and tumour necrosis factor-α, even when controlled for obesity indicators. Thus, body image dissatisfaction is strongly linked to inflammation processes and may promote the increase in cytokines, representing a relative metabolic risk, independent of most traditional risk factors, such as gender, body mass index and intra-abdominal (waist to hip ratio) adiposity. Results highlight the fact that person's negative cognitions need to be considered in psychologically based interventions and strategies in treatment of obesity, including strategies for health promotion. Results contribute to the knowledge base of the complex pathways in the association between psychological factors and physical illness and some important attempts were made to explain the psychological pathways linking cognitions with inflammation.
Skells, Kristin Marie
Extant data was used to consider the association between science anxiety, social cognitive factors and STEM career aspirations of high school freshmen in general science classes. An adapted model based on social cognitive career theory (SCCT) was used to consider these relationships, with science anxiety functioning as a barrier in the model. The study assessed the following research questions: (1) Do social cognitive variables relate in the expected way to STEM career aspirations based on SCCT for ninth graders taking general science classes? (2) Is there an association between science anxiety and outcomes and processes identified in the SCCT model for ninth graders taking general science classes? (3) Does gender moderate these relationships? Results indicated that support was found for many of the central tenants of the SCCT model. Science anxiety was associated with prior achievement, self-efficacy, and science interest, although it did not relate directly to STEM career goals. Gender was found to moderate only the relationship between prior achievement and science self-efficacy.
Hughes, Catherine F; Ward, Mary; Tracey, Fergal; Hoey, Leane; Molloy, Anne M; Pentieva, Kristina; McNulty, Helene
Advancing age can be associated with an increase in cognitive dysfunction, a spectrum of disability that ranges in severity from mild cognitive impairment to dementia. Folate and the other B-vitamins involved in one-carbon metabolism are associated with cognition in ageing but the evidence is not entirely clear. The hypothesis addressed in this study was that lower dietary intake or biomarker status of folate and/or the metabolically related B-vitamins would be associated with a greater than expected rate of cognitive decline over a 4-year follow-up period in healthy older adults. Participants (aged 60-88 years; n = 155) who had been previously screened for cognitive function were reassessed four years after initial investigation using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). At the 4-year follow-up assessment when participants were aged 73.4 ± 7.1 years, mean cognitive MMSE scores had declined from 29.1 ± 1.3 at baseline to 27.5 ± 2.4 ( p 0.56 points per year). Lower vitamin B6 status, as measured using pyridoxal-5-phosphate (PLP; vitamin B6 was also associated with a greater rate of cognitive decline (OR, 4.22; 95% CI, 1.28-13.90; p B-vitamins. In conclusion, lower dietary and biomarker status of vitamin B6 at baseline predicted a greater than expected rate of cognitive decline over a 4-year period in healthy older adults. Vitamin B6 may be an important protective factor in helping maintain cognitive health in ageing.
Blums, Angela; Belsky, Jay; Grimm, Kevin; Chen, Zhe
The present study examined whether and how socioeconomic status (SES) predicts school achievement in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) using structural equation modeling and data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Child Care and Youth Development. The present inquiry addresses gaps in…
Khaled, Salama M.; Shockley, Bethany; Abdul Rahim, Hanan F.
Objective: To explore the role of citizenship status as a predictor of general satisfaction with healthcare services in Qatar, including potential interaction with utilization and health insurance coverage type. Design: A cross-sectional survey conducted in 2012. Setting: A household survey in the State of Qatar in the Arab Gulf. Participants: A nationally representative sample of 2750 citizens and noncitizens aged 18 years and older. Main Outcome: General satisfaction st...
Background Depressive disorders are highly prevalent in primary care (PC) and are associated with considerable functional impairment and increased health care use. Research has shown that many patients prefer psychological treatments to pharmacotherapy, however, it remains unclear which treatment is most optimal for depressive patients in primary care. Methods/Design A randomized, multi-centre trial involving two intervention groups: one receiving brief cognitive behavioral therapy and the other receiving general practitioner care. General practitioners from 109 General Practices in Nijmegen and Amsterdam (The Netherlands) will be asked to include patients aged between 18-70 years presenting with depressive symptomatology, who do not receive an active treatment for their depressive complaints. Patients will be telephonically assessed with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (SCID-I) to ascertain study eligibility. Eligible patients will be randomized to one of two treatment conditions: either 8 sessions of cognitive behavioral therapy by a first line psychologist or general practitioner's care according to The Dutch College of General Practitioners Practice Guideline (NHG- standaard). Baseline and follow-up assessments are scheduled at 0, 6, 12 and 52 weeks following the start of the intervention. Primary outcome will be measured with the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale-17 (HDRS-17) and the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9). Outcomes will be analyzed on an intention to treat basis. Trial Registration ISRCTN65811640 PMID:20939917
Khaled, Salma M; Shockley, Bethany; Abdul Rahim, Hanan F
To explore the role of citizenship status as a predictor of general satisfaction with healthcare services in Qatar, including potential interaction with utilization and health insurance coverage type. A cross-sectional survey conducted in 2012. A household survey in the State of Qatar in the Arab Gulf. A nationally representative sample of 2750 citizens and noncitizens aged 18 years and older. General satisfaction status with Qatar's healthcare system. Citizenship status, healthcare utilization, health insurance type. Citizens were significantly less likely to be satisfied with Qatar's healthcare system than noncitizens (odds ratio (OR) = 0.30, P citizenship (P citizenship groups. These differences may stem from different expectations with respect to healthcare services. Understanding these expectations may have important policy implications for cross-cultural contexts. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press in association with the International Society for Quality in Health Care. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com
Catherine F. Hughes
Full Text Available Advancing age can be associated with an increase in cognitive dysfunction, a spectrum of disability that ranges in severity from mild cognitive impairment to dementia. Folate and the other B-vitamins involved in one-carbon metabolism are associated with cognition in ageing but the evidence is not entirely clear. The hypothesis addressed in this study was that lower dietary intake or biomarker status of folate and/or the metabolically related B-vitamins would be associated with a greater than expected rate of cognitive decline over a 4-year follow-up period in healthy older adults. Participants (aged 60–88 years; n = 155 who had been previously screened for cognitive function were reassessed four years after initial investigation using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE. At the 4-year follow-up assessment when participants were aged 73.4 ± 7.1 years, mean cognitive MMSE scores had declined from 29.1 ± 1.3 at baseline to 27.5 ± 2.4 (p < 0.001, but some 27% of participants showed a greater than expected rate of cognitive decline (i.e., decrease in MMSE > 0.56 points per year. Lower vitamin B6 status, as measured using pyridoxal-5-phosphate (PLP; <43 nmol/L was associated with a 3.5 times higher risk of accelerated cognitive decline, after adjustment for age and baseline MMSE score (OR, 3.48; 95% CI, 1.58 to 7.63; p < 0.05. Correspondingly, lower dietary intake (0.9–1.4 mg/day of vitamin B6 was also associated with a greater rate of cognitive decline (OR, 4.22; 95% CI, 1.28–13.90; p < 0.05. No significant relationships of dietary intake or biomarker status with cognitive decline were observed for the other B-vitamins. In conclusion, lower dietary and biomarker status of vitamin B6 at baseline predicted a greater than expected rate of cognitive decline over a 4-year period in healthy older adults. Vitamin B6 may be an important protective factor in helping maintain cognitive health in ageing.
Useche, Ana Carolina; Sullivan, Amanda L.; Merk, Welmoet; Orobio de Castro, Bram
This study examines the concurrent and longitudinal relationships between reactive and proactive aggression and children's peer status. Participants were 94 Dutch elementary school-aged boys in self-contained special education classrooms for students with emotional/behavioral disorders (EBD) and 47 boys with no disabilities in general education…
van Stijn, Mireille F. M.; Korkic-Halilovic, Ines; Bakker, Marjan S. M.; van der Ploeg, Tjeerd; van Leeuwen, Paul A. M.; Houdijk, Alexander P. J.
Background: Poor nutrition status is considered a risk factor for postoperative complications in the adult population. In elderly patients, who often have a poor nutrition status, this relationship has not been substantiated. Thus, the aim of this systematic review was to assess the merit of
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Technically assisted assessment of volume status before surgery may be useful to direct intraoperative fluid administration. We therefore tested a recently developed whole-body bioimpedance spectroscopy device to determine pre- to postoperative fluid distribution. METHODS: Using a three-compartment physiologic tissue model, the body composition monitor (BCM, Fresenius Medical Care, Germany measures total body fluid volume, extracellular volume, intracellular volume and fluid overload as surplus or deficit of 'normal' extracellular volume. BCM-measurements were performed before and after standardized general anaesthesia for gynaecological procedures (laparotomies, laparoscopies and vaginal surgeries. BCM results were blinded to the attending anaesthesiologist and data analysed using the 2-sided, paired Student's t-test and multiple linear regression. RESULTS: In 71 females aged 45 ± 15 years with body weight 67 ± 13 kg and Duration of anesthesia 154 ± 69 minutes [corrected] duration of anaesthesia 154 ± 68 min, pre- to postoperative fluid overload increased from -0.7 ± 1.1 L to 0.1 ± 1.0 L, corresponding to -5.1 ± 7.5% and 0.8 ± 6.7% of normal extracellular volume, respectively (both p<0.001, after patients had received 1.9 ± 0.9 L intravenous crystalloid fluid. Perioperative urinary excretion was 0.3 ± 0.2 L [corrected]. The increase in extracellular volume was paralleled by an increase in total body fluid volume, while intracellular volume increased only slightly and without reaching statistical significance (p = 0.15. Net perioperative fluid balance (administered fluid volume minus urinary excretion was significantly associated with change in extracellular volume (r(2 = 0.65, but was not associated with change in intracellular volume (r(2 = 0.01. CONCLUSIONS: Routine intraoperative fluid administration results in a significant, and clinically meaningful increase in the extracellular compartment. BCM-measurements yielded
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The largest earthquake on record in Japan (magnitude 9.0 occurred on March 11, 2011, and the subsequent tsunami devastated the Pacific coast of Northern Japan. These further triggered the Fukushima I nuclear power plant accidents. Such a hugely complex disaster inevitably has negative psychological effects on general populations as well as on the direct victims. While previous disaster studies enrolled descriptive approaches focusing on direct victims, the structure of the psychological adjustment process of people from the general population has remained uncertain. The current study attempted to establish a path model that sufficiently reflects the early psychological adaptation process of the general population to large-scale natural disasters. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Participants from the primary disaster area (n = 1083 and other areas (n = 2372 voluntarily participated in an online questionnaire study. By constructing path models using a structural equation model procedure (SEM, we examined the structural relationship among psychological constructs known related to disasters. As post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTS were significantly more present in people in the primarily affected area than in those in secondary- or non-affected areas, the path models were constructed for the primary victims. The parsimoniously depicted model with the best fit was achieved for the psychological-adjustment centered model with quality of life (QoL as a final outcome. CONCLUSION: The paths to QoL via negative routes (from negative cognitive appraisal, PTS, and general stress were dominant, suggesting the importance of clinical intervention for reducing negative cognitive appraisal, and for caring for general stress and PTS to maintain QoL at an early stage of psychological adaptation to a disaster. The model also depicted the presence of a positive route where positive cognitive appraisal facilitates post-traumatic growth (PTG to achieve a higher Qo
Kertes, Angela; Westra, Henny A.; Angus, Lynne; Marcus, Madalyn
Motivational Interviewing (MI) has recently been applied to the treatment of anxiety disorders in an effort to bolster engagement with and response rates to cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). In a recent randomized control trial, the addition of MI as a pretreatment compared to no pretreatment was found to significantly improve response to CBT…
Full Text Available A complete theory of cognitive architecture (i.e., the basic processes and modes of composition that together constitute cognitive behaviour must explain the systematicity property--why our cognitive capacities are organized into particular groups of capacities, rather than some other, arbitrary collection. The classical account supposes: (1 syntactically compositional representations; and (2 processes that are sensitive to--compatible with--their structure. Classical compositionality, however, does not explain why these two components must be compatible; they are only compatible by the ad hoc assumption (convention of employing the same mode of (concatenative compositionality (e.g., prefix/postfix, where a relation symbol is always prepended/appended to the symbols for the related entities. Architectures employing mixed modes do not support systematicity. Recently, we proposed an alternative explanation without ad hoc assumptions, using category theory. Here, we extend our explanation to domains that are quasi-systematic (e.g., aspects of most languages, where the domain includes some but not all possible combinations of constituents. The central category-theoretic construct is an adjunction involving pullbacks, where the primary focus is on the relationship between processes modelled as functors, rather than the representations. A functor is a structure-preserving map (or construction, for our purposes. An adjunction guarantees that the only pairings of functors are the systematic ones. Thus, (quasi-systematicity is a necessary consequence of a categorial cognitive architecture whose basic processes are functors that participate in adjunctions.
Phillips, Steven; Wilson, William H
A complete theory of cognitive architecture (i.e., the basic processes and modes of composition that together constitute cognitive behaviour) must explain the systematicity property--why our cognitive capacities are organized into particular groups of capacities, rather than some other, arbitrary collection. The classical account supposes: (1) syntactically compositional representations; and (2) processes that are sensitive to--compatible with--their structure. Classical compositionality, however, does not explain why these two components must be compatible; they are only compatible by the ad hoc assumption (convention) of employing the same mode of (concatenative) compositionality (e.g., prefix/postfix, where a relation symbol is always prepended/appended to the symbols for the related entities). Architectures employing mixed modes do not support systematicity. Recently, we proposed an alternative explanation without ad hoc assumptions, using category theory. Here, we extend our explanation to domains that are quasi-systematic (e.g., aspects of most languages), where the domain includes some but not all possible combinations of constituents. The central category-theoretic construct is an adjunction involving pullbacks, where the primary focus is on the relationship between processes modelled as functors, rather than the representations. A functor is a structure-preserving map (or construction, for our purposes). An adjunction guarantees that the only pairings of functors are the systematic ones. Thus, (quasi-)systematicity is a necessary consequence of a categorial cognitive architecture whose basic processes are functors that participate in adjunctions.
Oursel, Luc; Riou, Jean
This annual report by AREVA's General Inspectorate deals with the status of nuclear safety and radiation protection in the group's facilities and operations over the course of 2013. Based on the findings made during implementation of the annual inspection program, this annual report also includes the results of the analysis of significant events and the observations and assessments of specialists in the Safety Health Security Sustainable Development Department (SHSSDD), supplemented by regular interaction with the safety regulators, different government agencies, stakeholders and other nuclear operators. Additionally, this report presents the action plans put into motion and the directions taken for continuous improvement in risk prevention for operations conducted in France and internationally. In 2013, the level of safety in the group's nuclear facilities and operations remained satisfactory, although improvements are necessary in some domains. This report is based on established indicators, analyses of reported events, responses to commitments made to the regulators, and the results of different improvement actions reported on in the inspected and supported entities. In 2013, no level 2 event on the International Nuclear and Radiological Event Scale (INES) was reported, the bottom-up reporting of weak signals was confirmed, dose levels were low and there were no radiological impacts on the environment. The General Inspectorate conducted 45 inspections in 30 of the group's entities in 2013. Of these, 10 concerned sites outside France and 7 were conducted following events or particular situations. These inspections gave rise to 176 recommendations, which the inspected entities have translated into action plans. Verification of these different action plans according to planned procedures and announced schedules gave rise to 16 follow-up inspections. The major lessons learned from these inspections relate to project management, facility compliance and operational
Lacramioara Serban Ionela
Full Text Available Nowadays the general relevance of alcohol consumption in diabetes is extremely controversial. There are recent reports that alcohol consumption could result in a decreased incidence of diabetes, as well as other studies demonstrating a positive association between alcohol consumption and type 2 diabetes; there are also reports arguing for an inverse association between the two or for no correlation at all. The different results obtained in these studies could be explained by the existence of several confounders that could influence the outcome of the aforementioned studies. In this paper, we studied the possible relevance of BMI as a confounder in the relationship between alcohol consumption in diabetes and cognitive function, by analyzing the correlations between BMI values in diabetic patients with different alcohol drinking patterns and the subdomains from some main psychometric tests, such as MMSE (Mini-Mental State Examination and MOCA (Montreal Cognitive Assessment. Our results provide evidence for BMI as a possible confounder of the relationship between alcohol consumption in diabetes and cognitive function. We found a significant increase (p<0.0001 in BMI values in patients with diabetes compared to our control group. Most importantly, significant correlations between BMI parameters in alcohol-consuming diabetic patients and most of the subdomains for psychometric testing.
Macaulay, Catrin E; Ford, Ruth M
We evaluated the cognitive development of 48 profoundly deaf children from hearing families (born 1994-2002, mean age M = 8.0 years at time of test, none of whom had received early auditory-verbal therapy) as a function of family socioeconomic status and number of siblings. Overall, the deaf children matched a younger group of 47 hearing controls (M = 4.6 years) on verbal ability, theory of mind, and cognitive inhibition. Partial correlations (controlling for age) revealed positive relations in the hearing group between maternal education and inhibition, between number of younger siblings and references to emotions, and between number of close-in-age siblings and references to desires and false beliefs. In the deaf group, there were positive relations between household income and memory span, between maternal education and references to false beliefs, and between number of younger siblings and nonverbal ability. In contrast, deaf children with a greater number of older siblings aged ≤12 years showed inferior memory span, inhibition, belief understanding, picture-sequencing accuracy, and mental-state language, suggesting that they failed to compete successfully with older siblings for their parents' attention and material resources. We consider the implications of the findings for understanding birth-order effects on deaf and language-impaired children.
Gharaeipour, Manouchehr; Andrew, Melissa K
The Modified Mini-Mental State Examination (3MS) is an expanded and modified version of the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). Research demonstrates that the reliability, validity, specificity, and sensitivity of the 3MS are superior to that of the MMSE in detecting cognitive impairment. The Farsi version of the 3MS (F-3MS) was examined as a screening tool for dementia among elderly Iranians. The F-3MS and the Clock Drawing Test (CDT) were administered to 58 patients with dementia and 145 control subjects with normal cognition, aged 60 to 85 years. The difference between groups on the mean total scores of the F-3MS was statistically significant (dementia = 60.65 ± 9.89, control = 80.73 ± 8.26; df = 201, t = 14.75, p validity of the F-3MS. The F-3MS can be used as a valid and reliable measure for dementia screening among elderly Iranians.
Full Text Available Cecilia Albala,1 Lydia Lera,1 Hugo Sanchez,1 Barbara Angel,1 Carlos Márquez,1 Patricia Arroyo,2 Patricio Fuentes2 1Public Health Nutrition Unit, Institute of Nutrition and Food Technology (INTA, University of Chile, 2Faculty of Medicine, Clinical Hospital, University of Chile, Santiago, Chile Background: Age-associated brain physiologic decline and reduced mobility are key elements of increased age-associated vulnerability.Objective: To study the frequency of frailty phenotype and its association with mental health and survival in older Chileans.Methods: Follow-up of ALEXANDROS cohorts designed to study disability associated with obesity in community-dwelling people 60 years and older living in Santiago, Chile. At baseline, 2,098 (67% women of 2,372 participants were identified as having the frailty phenotype: weak handgrip dynamometry, unintentional weight loss, fatigue/exhaustion, five chair-stands/slow walking speed and difficulty walking (low physical activity. After 10–15 years, 1,298 people were evaluated and 373 had died. Information regarding deaths was available for the whole sample.Results: The prevalence of frailty at baseline (≥3 criteria in the whole sample was 13.9% (women 16.4%; men 8.7% and the pre-frailty prevalence (1–2 criteria was 63.8% (65.0% vs 61.4%, respectively. Frailty was associated with cognitive impairment (frail 48.1%; pre-frail 21.7%; nonfrail 20.5%, P<0.001 and depression (frail 55.1%; pre-frail 27.3%; nonfrail 18.8%, P<0.001. Logistic regression models for frailty adjusted for sex and age showed a strong association between frailty and mild cognitive impairment (MCI (odds ratio [OR] =3.93; 95% CI: 1.41–10.92. Furthermore, an important association was found for depression and frailty (OR =2.36; 95% CI 1.82–3.06. Age- and sex-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs for death showed an increased risk with increasing frailty: pre-frail HR =1.56 (95% CI: 1.07–2.29, frail HR =1.91 (95% CI: 1.15–3.19; after
Buchmann, Nikolaus; Tegeler, Christina; Steinhagen-Thiessen, Elisabeth
Aims/Hypothesis The increasing number of people with dementia and cognitive impairments makes it essential to detect and prevent modifiable risk factors of dementia. This study focuses on type 2 diabetes mellitus, especially on undiagnosed cases and their increased risk of cognitive impairment. Furthermore, the potential of physical activity and social integration to moderate the relation between diabetes and cognitive impairment is assessed. Methods We used cross-sectional data from 1299 participants of the Berlin Aging Study II (BASE-II) aged between 60 to 84 years and performed logistic regression models to analyze the association of diabetes status, physical activity, and cohabitation status with poor cognitive performance. Cognitive performance was measured with the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease (CERAD)-Plus test battery. Results Undiagnosed diabetes (odds ratio (OR) = 2.12, p = 0.031), physical inactivity (OR = 1.43, p = 0.008) and non-cohabiting (OR = 1.58, p = 0.002) were associated with an increased likelihood of poor cognitive performance. The highest odds were observed in participants who suffered from undiagnosed or insulin-dependent diabetes and, in addition, were inactive (undiagnosed diabetes: OR = 3.44, p = 0.003; insulin-dependent diabetes: OR = 6.19, p = 0.019) or lived alone (undiagnosed diabetes: OR = 4.46, p = 0.006; insulin-dependent diabetes: OR = 6.46 p = 0.052). Physical activity and cohabiting appeared to be beneficial. Conclusions/Interpretation Physical activity and cohabitation status moderate the link between diabetes mellitus and cognitive performance. Special attention should be paid to undiagnosed and insulin-dependent diabetes cases, which have a particularly high risk of poor cognitive performance. PMID:29073237
Full Text Available Lenore Dedeyne,1 Mieke Deschodt,2–4 Sabine Verschueren,5 Jos Tournoy,1,3 Evelien Gielen1,3 1Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, 2Department of Public Health and Primary Care, KU Leuven – University of Leuven, Leuven, Belgium; 3Department of Geriatric Medicine, University Hospitals Leuven, Leuven, Belgium; 4Department of Public Health, Institute of Nursing Science, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland; 5Department of Rehabilitation Sciences, KU Leuven – University of Leuven, Heverlee, Belgium Background: Frailty is an aging syndrome caused by exceeding a threshold of decline across multiple organ systems leading to a decreased resistance to stressors. Treatment for frailty focuses on multi-domain interventions to target multiple affected functions in order to decrease the adverse outcomes of frailty. No systematic reviews on the effectiveness of multi-domain interventions exist in a well-defined frail population. Objectives: This systematic review aimed to determine the effect of multi-domain compared to mono-domain interventions on frailty status and score, cognition, muscle mass, strength and power, functional and social outcomes in (prefrail elderly (≥65 years. It included interventions targeting two or more domains (physical exercise, nutritional, pharmacological, psychological, or social interventions in participants defined as (prefrail by an operationalized frailty definition. Methods: The databases PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, PEDro, CENTRAL, and the Cochrane Central register of Controlled Trials were searched from inception until September 14, 2016. Additional articles were searched by citation search, author search, and reference lists of relevant articles. The protocol for this review was registered on PROSPERO (CRD42016032905. Results: Twelve studies were included, reporting a large diversity of interventions in terms of content, duration, and follow-up period. Overall, multi-domain interventions tended to be more
Lee, Sung Uk; Park, Ji Eun [National Cancer Center, Proton Therapy Center, Research Institute and Hospital, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young Ae [National Cancer Center, Cancer Policy Branch, Research Institute and Hospital, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Young-Ho [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Cancer Research Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yeon-Joo [National Cancer Center, Proton Therapy Center, Research Institute and Hospital, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); National Cancer Center, Center for Uterine Cancer, Research Institute and Hospital, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Myong Cheol [National Cancer Center, Center for Uterine Cancer, Research Institute and Hospital, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); National Cancer Center, Gynecologic Cancer Branch, Research Institute and Hospital, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); National Cancer Center, Department of Cancer Control and Policy, Graduate School of Cancer Science and Policy, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Park, Sang-Yoon; Seo, Sang-Soo [National Cancer Center, Center for Uterine Cancer, Research Institute and Hospital, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Joo-Young [National Cancer Center, Proton Therapy Center, Research Institute and Hospital, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); National Cancer Center, Center for Uterine Cancer, Research Institute and Hospital, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); National Cancer Center, Research Institute and Hospital, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)
To evaluate the global health status of long-term cervical cancer survivors (LCCS) who survived for more than 4 years after curative radiation treatment (RT). Medical records of 562 women treated with RT in our institution between 2003 and 2010 were reviewed. Excluding 259 women who died of disease or were lost to follow-up, disease status and late morbidities were evaluated in 303 LCCS. Quality of life (QoL) was analyzed in 168 LCCS using a questionnaire from the European Organization for the Research and Treatment of Cancer, and the results were compared with an age-matched healthy Korean female population. Median follow-up was 6.8 years (range 4.1-12.5 years). There were 14 deaths (7 cancer specific) and 14 recurrences (5 local recurrences and 9 distant metastases). The median time to recurrence was 6.0 years (range 4.1-8.2 years). Grade ≥2 late toxicities were frequently observed in the bladder (19%) and small/large intestine (15%). Multivariate analysis revealed a higher rate of late toxicity in patients aged ≥51 years at diagnosis (small/large intestine: hazard ratio, HR, 2.5 [1.2-5.5]; bladder: HR 2.4 [1.3-4.5]; and bone: HR 4.3 [1.2-15.8]) than patients aged <51 years. Compared to the general population, LCCS exhibited a significantly higher rate of body image concerns, sexual dysfunction, lymphedema, and peripheral neuropathy. New recurrences occurred in 5% of LCCS and grade ≥2 treatment-related morbidities were present in 33%. A significant proportion of LCCS also showed decreased cervical-cancer-specific QoL. These results suggest the need for long-term surveillance and follow-up care for LCCS. (orig.) [German] Bewertung des allgemeinen Gesundheitsstatus bei Langzeitueberlebenden von Gebaermutterhalskrebs (LCCS), die nach Strahlenbehandlung (RT) mehr als 4 Jahre lebten. Ueberprueft wurden Krankenakten von 562 Frauen, die zwischen 2003 und 2010 in unserem Institut mit RT behandelt wurden. Ausgeschlossen wurden 259 Frauen, die aufgrund der Erkrankung
Shah, Dheeraj; Sachdev, Harshpal S; Gera, Tarun; De-Regil, Luz Maria; Peña-Rosas, Juan Pablo
Zinc deficiency is a global nutritional problem, particularly in children and women residing in settings where diets are cereal based and monotonous. It has several negative health consequences. Fortification of staple foods with zinc may be an effective strategy for preventing zinc deficiency and improving zinc-related health outcomes. To evaluate the beneficial and adverse effects of fortification of staple foods with zinc on health-related outcomes and biomarkers of zinc status in the general population. We searched the following databases in April 2015: Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, Issue 3 of 12, 2015, the Cochrane Library), MEDLINE & MEDLINE In Process (OVID) (1950 to 8 April 2015), EMBASE (OVID) (1974 to 8 April 2015), CINAHL (1982 to April 2015), Web of Science (1900 to 9 April 2015), BIOSIS (1969 to 9 April 2015), POPLINE (1970 to April 2015), AGRICOLA, OpenGrey, BiblioMap, and Trials Register of Promoting Health Interventions (TRoPHI), besides regional databases (April 2015) and theses. We also searched clinical trial registries (17 March 2015) and contacted relevant organisations (May 2014) in order to identify ongoing and unpublished studies. We included randomised controlled trials, randomised either at the level of the individual or cluster. We also included non-randomised trials at the level of the individual if there was a concurrent comparison group. We included non-randomised cluster trials and controlled before-after studies only if there were at least two intervention sites and two control sites. Interventions included fortification (central/industrial) of staple foods (cereal flours, edible fats, sugar, condiments, seasonings, milk and beverages) with zinc for a minimum period of two weeks. Participants were members of the general population who were over two years of age (including pregnant and lactating women) from any country. Two review authors independently assessed the eligibility of studies for inclusion
Realmuto, Sabrina; Zummo, Leila; Cerami, Chiara; Agrò, Luigi; Dodich, Alessandra; Canessa, Nicola; Zizzo, Andrea; Fierro, Brigida; Daniele, Ornella
Despite an extensive literature on cognitive impairments in focal and generalized epilepsy, only a few number of studies specifically explored social cognition disorders in epilepsy syndromes. The aim of our study was to investigate social cognition abilities in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and in patients with idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE). Thirty-nine patients (21 patients with TLE and 18 patients with IGE) and 21 matched healthy controls (HCs) were recruited. All subjects underwent a basic neuropsychological battery plus two experimental tasks evaluating emotion recognition from facial expression (Ekman-60-Faces test, Ek-60F) and mental state attribution (Story-based Empathy Task, SET). In particular, the latter is a newly developed task that assesses the ability to infer others' intentions (i.e., intention attribution - IA) and emotions (i.e., emotion attribution - EA) compared with a control condition of physical causality (i.e., causal inferences - CI). Compared with HCs, patients with TLE showed significantly lower performances on both social cognition tasks. In particular, all SET subconditions as well as the recognition of negative emotions were significantly impaired in patients with TLE vs. HCs. On the contrary, patients with IGE showed impairments on anger recognition only without any deficit at the SET task. Emotion recognition deficits occur in patients with epilepsy, possibly because of a global disruption of a pathway involving frontal, temporal, and limbic regions. Impairments of mental state attribution specifically characterize the neuropsychological profile of patients with TLE in the context of the in-depth temporal dysfunction typical of such patients. Impairments of socioemotional processing have to be considered as part of the neuropsychological assessment in both TLE and IGE in view of a correct management and for future therapeutic interventions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ernstbrunner, Matthäus; Kostner, Lisa; Kimberger, Oliver; Wabel, Peter; Säemann, Marcus; Markstaller, Klaus; Fleischmann, Edith; Kabon, Barbara; Hecking, Manfred
Background Technically assisted assessment of volume status before surgery may be useful to direct intraoperative fluid administration. We therefore tested a recently developed whole-body bioimpedance spectroscopy device to determine pre- to postoperative fluid distribution. Methods Using a three-compartment physiologic tissue model, the body composition monitor (BCM, Fresenius Medical Care, Germany) measures total body fluid volume, extracellular volume, intracellular volume and fluid overload as surplus or deficit of ‘normal’ extracellular volume. BCM-measurements were performed before and after standardized general anaesthesia for gynaecological procedures (laparotomies, laparoscopies and vaginal surgeries). BCM results were blinded to the attending anaesthesiologist and data analysed using the 2-sided, paired Student’s t-test and multiple linear regression. Results In 71 females aged 45±15 years with body weight 67±13 kg and duration of anaesthesia 154±68 min, pre- to postoperative fluid overload increased from −0.7±1.1 L to 0.1±1.0 L, corresponding to −5.1±7.5% and 0.8±6.7% of normal extracellular volume, respectively (both p<0.001), after patients had received 1.9±0.9 L intravenous crystalloid fluid. Perioperative urinary excretion was 0.4±0.3 L. The increase in extracellular volume was paralleled by an increase in total body fluid volume, while intracellular volume increased only slightly and without reaching statistical significance (p = 0.15). Net perioperative fluid balance (administered fluid volume minus urinary excretion) was significantly associated with change in extracellular volume (r2 = 0.65), but was not associated with change in intracellular volume (r2 = 0.01). Conclusions Routine intraoperative fluid administration results in a significant, and clinically meaningful increase in the extracellular compartment. BCM-measurements yielded plausible results and may become useful to guide intraoperative fluid therapy in
Gelder, van B.M.; Tijhuis, M.; Kalmijn, S.; Giampaoli, S.; Nissinen, A.; Kromhout, D.
We investigate the association between marital status and living situation (over 5 years) on 10-year subsequent cognitive decline. The study population consisted of 1,042 men aged 70-89 years in 1990, who participated in the longitudinal Finland, Italy, the Netherlands Elderly (known as FINE) Study.
Wu, Hua-Shan; Lin, Li-Chan
To describe the prevalence rate of ideational apraxia (IA) affecting self-feeding in people with dementia, confirm the stage of dementia at which IA most commonly occurs, and compare mealtime performance and nutritional status between people with dementia (PWD) with and without IA. A cross-sectional design with between-subject comparison was used. Among the 395 potential participants recruited from dementia special care units at nine long-term care facilities in central and northern Taiwan, 98 met the operational definition of IA and were included in the PWD with IA group. From the remaining pool, 98 participants, matched for age and sex with the PWD with IA group, were randomly allocated to the PWD without IA group. Eating Behavior Scale (EBS) scores, food intake, total eating time, meal assistance, body mass index, Mini-Nutritional Assessment (MNA), and Mini-Mental State Examination scores were collected. The prevalence rate of IA affecting self-feeding in our study population of PWD was 24.8%. PWD with IA had significantly lower EBS scores, had more food intake (p performance and nutritional status. For PWD with IA, reassigning staff at mealtimes based on eating ability and providing memory training are recommended. © The Author(s) 2014.
Efficacy of L-carnitine supplementation on frailty status and its biomarkers, nutritional status, and physical and cognitive function among prefrail older adults: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial.
Badrasawi, M; Shahar, Suzana; Zahara, A M; Nor Fadilah, R; Singh, Devinder Kaur Ajit
Frailty is a biological syndrome of decreased reserve and resistance to stressors due to decline in multiple physiological systems. Amino acid deficiency, including L-carnitine, has been proposed to be associated with its pathophysiology. Nevertheless, the efficacy of L-carnitine supplementation on frailty status has not been documented. Thus, this study aimed to determine the effect of 10-week L-carnitine supplement (1.5 g/day) on frailty status and its biomarkers and also physical function, cognition, and nutritional status among prefrail older adults in Klang Valley, Malaysia. This study is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial conducted among 50 prefrail subjects randomized into two groups (26 in L-carnitine group and 24 in placebo group). Outcome measures include frailty status using Fried criteria and Frailty Index accumulation of deficit, selected frailty biomarkers (interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and insulin-like growth factor-1), physical function, cognitive function, nutritional status and biochemical profile. The results indicated that the mean scores of Frailty Index score and hand grip test were significantly improved in subjects supplemented with L-carnitine ( P <0.05 for both parameters) as compared to no change in the placebo group. Based on Fried criteria, four subjects (three from the L-carnitine group and one from the control group) transited from prefrail status to robust after the intervention. L-carnitine supplementation has a favorable effect on the functional status and fatigue in prefrail older adults.
Phillips, Katharine A.; Rogers, Jamison
SYNOPSIS Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), a distressing or impairing preoccupation with nonexistent or slight defect(s) in appearance, usually begins during early adolescence and appears to be common in youth. BDD is characterized by substantial impairment in psychosocial functioning and markedly high rates of suicidality. Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) tailored to BDD’s unique features is the best tested and most promising psychosocial treatment for adults with BDD. CBT has been used for youth with BDD, but it has not been systematically developed for or tested in this age group, and there is a pressing need for this work to be done. This article focuses on CBT for BDD in adults and youth, possible adaptations for youth, and the need for treatment research in youth. We also discuss BDD’s prevalence, clinical features, how to diagnose BDD in youth, recommended pharmacotherapy for BDD (serotonin-reuptake inhibitors), and treatments that are not recommended (surgery and other cosmetic treatments). PMID:21440856
Kas, Martien J; Glennon, Jeffrey C; Buitelaar, Jan; Ey, Elodie; Biemans, Barbara; Crawley, Jacqueline; Ring, Robert H; Lajonchere, Clara; Esclassan, Frederic; Talpos, John; Noldus, Lucas P J J; Burbach, J Peter H; Steckler, Thomas
The establishment of robust and replicable behavioural testing paradigms with translational value for psychiatric diseases is a major step forward in developing and testing etiology-directed treatment for these complex disorders. Based on the existing literature, we have generated an inventory of applied rodent behavioural testing paradigms relevant to autism spectrum disorders (ASD). This inventory focused on previously used paradigms that assess behavioural domains that are affected in ASD, such as social interaction, social communication, repetitive behaviours and behavioural inflexibility, cognition as well as anxiety behaviour. A wide range of behavioural testing paradigms for rodents were identified. However, the level of face and construct validity is highly variable. The predictive validity of these paradigms is unknown, as etiology-directed treatments for ASD are currently not on the market. To optimise these studies, future efforts should address aspects of reproducibility and take into account data about the neurodevelopmental underpinnings and trajectory of ASD. In addition, with the increasing knowledge of processes underlying ASD, such as sensory information processes and synaptic plasticity, phenotyping efforts should include multi-level automated analysis of, for example, representative task-related behavioural and electrophysiological read-outs.
Moon, Chung-Man; Yang, Jong-Chul; Jeong, Gwang-Woo
The functional neuroanatomy for explicit memory in conjunction with the major anxiety symptoms in patients with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) has not yet been clearly identified. To investigate the brain activation patterns on the interaction between emotional and cognitive function during the explicit memory tasks, as well as its correlation with clinical characteristics in GAD. The participants comprised GAD patients and age-matched healthy controls. The fMR images were obtained while the participants performed an explicit memory task with neutral and anxiety-inducing words. Patients showed significantly decreased functional activities in the putamen, head of the caudate nucleus, hippocampus, and middle cingulate gyrus during the memory tasks with the neutral and anxiety-inducing words, whereas the precentral gyrus and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex were significantly increased only in the memory tasks with the anxiety-inducing words. Also, the blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signal changes in the hippocampus were positively correlated with the recognition accuracy for both neutral and anxiety-inducing words. This study identified the brain areas associated with the interaction between emotional regulation and cognitive function in the explicit memory tasks in patients with GAD. These findings would be helpful to understand the neural mechanism on the explicit memory-related cognitive deficits and emotional dysfunction with GAD symptoms. © The Foundation Acta Radiologica 2016.
Sood, Sanjana; Gallagher, Iain J; Lunnon, Katie; Rullman, Eric; Keohane, Aoife; Crossland, Hannah; Phillips, Bethan E; Cederholm, Tommy; Jensen, Thomas; van Loon, Luc J C; Lannfelt, Lars; Kraus, William E; Atherton, Philip J; Howard, Robert; Gustafsson, Thomas; Hodges, Angela; Timmons, James A
Diagnostics of the human ageing process may help predict future healthcare needs or guide preventative measures for tackling diseases of older age. We take a transcriptomics approach to build the first reproducible multi-tissue RNA expression signature by gene-chip profiling tissue from sedentary normal subjects who reached 65 years of age in good health. One hundred and fifty probe-sets form an accurate classifier of young versus older muscle tissue and this healthy ageing RNA classifier performed consistently in independent cohorts of human muscle, skin and brain tissue (n = 594, AUC = 0.83-0.96) and thus represents a biomarker for biological age. Using the Uppsala Longitudinal Study of Adult Men birth-cohort (n = 108) we demonstrate that the RNA classifier is insensitive to confounding lifestyle biomarkers, while greater gene score at age 70 years is independently associated with better renal function at age 82 years and longevity. The gene score is 'up-regulated' in healthy human hippocampus with age, and when applied to blood RNA profiles from two large independent age-matched dementia case-control data sets (n = 717) the healthy controls have significantly greater gene scores than those with cognitive impairment. Alone, or when combined with our previously described prototype Alzheimer disease (AD) RNA 'disease signature', the healthy ageing RNA classifier is diagnostic for AD. We identify a novel and statistically robust multi-tissue RNA signature of human healthy ageing that can act as a diagnostic of future health, using only a peripheral blood sample. This RNA signature has great potential to assist research aimed at finding treatments for and/or management of AD and other ageing-related conditions.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Nutrition is one of many factors affecting the cognitive development of children. In Cambodia, 55% of children <5 y were anemic and 40% stunted in 2010. Currently, no data exists on the nutritional status of Cambodian school-aged children, or on how malnutrition potentially affects their cognitive development. OBJECTIVE: To assess the anthropometric and micronutrient status (iron, vitamin A, zinc, iodine of Cambodian schoolchildren and their associations with cognitive performance. METHODS: School children aged 6-16 y (n = 2443 from 20 primary schools in Cambodia were recruited. Anthropometry, hemoglobin, serum ferritin, transferrin receptors, retinol-binding protein and zinc concentrations, inflammation status, urinary iodine concentration and parasite infection were measured. Socio-economic data were collected in a sub-group of children (n = 616. Cognitive performance was assessed using Raven's Colored Progressive Matrices (RCPM and block design and picture completion, two standardized tests from the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-III. RESULTS: The prevalence of anemia, iron, zinc, iodine and vitamin A deficiency were 15.7%; 51.2%, 92.8%, 17.3% and 0.7% respectively. The prevalence of stunting was 40.0%, including 10.9% of severe stunting. Stunted children scored significantly lower than non-stunted children on all tests. In RCPM test, boys with iron-deficiency anemia had lower scores than boys with normal iron status (-1.46, p<0.05. In picture completion test, children with normal iron status tended to score higher than iron-deficient children with anemia (-0.81; p = 0.067 or without anemia (-0.49; p = 0.064. Parasite infection was associated with an increase in risk of scoring below the median value in block design test (OR = 1.62; p<0.05, and with lower scores in other tests, for girls only (both p<0.05. CONCLUSION: Poor cognitive performance of Cambodian school-children was multifactorial and
Reniers, Georges; Armbruster, Benjamin
HIV status aware couples with at least one HIV positive partner are characterized by high separation and divorce rates. This phenomenon is often described as a corollary of couples HIV Testing and Counseling (HTC) that ought to be minimized. In this contribution, we demonstrate the implications of partnership dissolution in serodiscordant couples for the propagation of HIV. We develop a compartmental model to study epidemic outcomes of elevated partnership dissolution rates in serodiscordant couples and parameterize it with estimates from population-based data (Rakai, Uganda). Via its effect on partnership dissolution, every percentage point increase in HIV status awareness reduces HIV incidence in monogamous populations by 0.27 percent for women and 0.63 percent for men. These effects are even larger when the assumption of monogamy can be relaxed, but are moderated by other behavior changes (e.g., increased condom use) in HIV status aware serodiscordant partnerships. When these behavior changes are taken into account, each percentage point increase in HIV status awareness reduces HIV incidence by 0.13 and 0.32 percent for women and men, respectively (assuming monogamy). The partnership dissolution effect exists because it decreases the fraction of serodiscordant couples in the population and prolongs the time that individuals spend outside partnerships. Our model predicts that elevated partnership dissolution rates in HIV status aware serodiscordant couples reduce the spread of HIV. As a consequence, the full impact of couples HTC for HIV prevention is probably larger than recognized to date. Particularly high partnership dissolution rates in female positive serodiscordant couples contribute to the gender imbalance in HIV infections.
Full Text Available HIV status aware couples with at least one HIV positive partner are characterized by high separation and divorce rates. This phenomenon is often described as a corollary of couples HIV Testing and Counseling (HTC that ought to be minimized. In this contribution, we demonstrate the implications of partnership dissolution in serodiscordant couples for the propagation of HIV.We develop a compartmental model to study epidemic outcomes of elevated partnership dissolution rates in serodiscordant couples and parameterize it with estimates from population-based data (Rakai, Uganda.Via its effect on partnership dissolution, every percentage point increase in HIV status awareness reduces HIV incidence in monogamous populations by 0.27 percent for women and 0.63 percent for men. These effects are even larger when the assumption of monogamy can be relaxed, but are moderated by other behavior changes (e.g., increased condom use in HIV status aware serodiscordant partnerships. When these behavior changes are taken into account, each percentage point increase in HIV status awareness reduces HIV incidence by 0.13 and 0.32 percent for women and men, respectively (assuming monogamy. The partnership dissolution effect exists because it decreases the fraction of serodiscordant couples in the population and prolongs the time that individuals spend outside partnerships.Our model predicts that elevated partnership dissolution rates in HIV status aware serodiscordant couples reduce the spread of HIV. As a consequence, the full impact of couples HTC for HIV prevention is probably larger than recognized to date. Particularly high partnership dissolution rates in female positive serodiscordant couples contribute to the gender imbalance in HIV infections.
Steinmassl, Patricia-Anca; Steinmassl, Otto; Kraus, Gabriela; Dumfahrt, Herbert; Grunert, Ingrid
With declining general health, the maintenance of oral health becomes increasingly difficult. Unfortunately, health care resources are limited. An assessment tool for detecting a patient's need for oral health care assistance would promote its adequate distribution. The aim of this study is to evaluate if the Shulman clock-drawing test score is a suitable assessment tool for determining the need for oral hygiene assistance. Data collected from recent dental checkups of 126 inhabitants of five Austrian residential care facilities were analyzed. The Shulman clock-drawing test score was used as a measure for cognitive abilities and related to tooth and denture hygiene indices, which were assessed using the approximal space plaque index (API) and the denture plaque index (DPI). Shulman score values were distributed almost evenly in the study population. The mean API was 83.6% (SD 20.2%) for the maxilla and 94.9% (SD 15.6%) for the mandible. The mean DPI was 43.9% (SD 31.4%). Cognitive impairment was not statistically related to the dental or denture hygiene index. A high Shulman clock-drawing test score indicates the need for oral hygiene assistance, but it is not suitable as a single tool to assess this need. Patients with other disabilities might equally qualify for assistance. Dentures, however, can be cleaned quickly and efficiently independently of patient compliance; therefore, cleaning the patients' dentures should be part of nursing personnel's daily care routine for every patient.
McSweeney, Frances K; Parks, Craig D
We examined participation by women in journals devoted to social, developmental, cognitive, and general psychology. Authorship and first authorship by women increased from 1978 to 1997 for most journals. Participation by women on the editorial staff did not keep pace with their increased authorship for social and developmental psychology. Based on these trends, women's participation decreased with increases in the selectivity of the position for social and developmental psychology (a glass ceiling). The development of a glass ceiling suggests that the contributions of men and women are not always treated equally (gender inequity). Because a similar glass ceiling was reported for journals in behavior analysis (McSweeney, Donahoe, & Swindell, 2000; McSweeney & Swindell, 1998), the causes of this inequity appear to be relatively widespread. The failure to find a glass ceiling for general and cognitive psychology suggests that the inequity might be reduced by subtle pressure for diversity in editorial positions and by adopting actions that encourage women to pursue research positions.
Full Text Available The artificial neural networks are inspired by biological properties of human and animal brains. One of the neural networks type is called ART . The abbreviation of ART stands for Adaptive Resonance Theory that has been invented by Stephen Grossberg in 1976 . ART represents a family of Neural Networks. It is a cognitive and neural theory that describes how the brain autonomously learns to categorize, recognize and predict objects and events in the changing world. In this paper we introduce a GN model that represent ART1 Neural Network learning algorithm . The purpose of this model is to explain when the input vector will be clustered or rejected among all nodes by the network. It can also be used for explanation and optimization of ART1 learning algorithm.
Crupi, Vincenzo; Nelson, Jonathan D; Meder, Björn; Cevolani, Gustavo; Tentori, Katya
Searching for information is critical in many situations. In medicine, for instance, careful choice of a diagnostic test can help narrow down the range of plausible diseases that the patient might have. In a probabilistic framework, test selection is often modeled by assuming that people's goal is to reduce uncertainty about possible states of the world. In cognitive science, psychology, and medical decision making, Shannon entropy is the most prominent and most widely used model to formalize probabilistic uncertainty and the reduction thereof. However, a variety of alternative entropy metrics (Hartley, Quadratic, Tsallis, Rényi, and more) are popular in the social and the natural sciences, computer science, and philosophy of science. Particular entropy measures have been predominant in particular research areas, and it is often an open issue whether these divergences emerge from different theoretical and practical goals or are merely due to historical accident. Cutting across disciplinary boundaries, we show that several entropy and entropy reduction measures arise as special cases in a unified formalism, the Sharma-Mittal framework. Using mathematical results, computer simulations, and analyses of published behavioral data, we discuss four key questions: How do various entropy models relate to each other? What insights can be obtained by considering diverse entropy models within a unified framework? What is the psychological plausibility of different entropy models? What new questions and insights for research on human information acquisition follow? Our work provides several new pathways for theoretical and empirical research, reconciling apparently conflicting approaches and empirical findings within a comprehensive and unified information-theoretic formalism. Copyright © 2018 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.
Vejbjerg, P.; Knudsen, N.; Perrild, H.
of iodine status in the population. Methods: Two identical cross-sectional studies were performed before (1997-1998, n=4649) and after (2004-2005, n=3570) the initiation of the Danish iodization programme in two areas with mild and moderate iodine deficiency. Serum Tg was measured from blood samples....... Thyroid volume was measured by ultrasonography. Results: Before iodization, the median serum Tg was considerably higher in moderate than in mild iodine deficiency. Iodization led to a lower serum Tg in all examined age groups. The marked pre-iodization difference in Tg level between the regions......Objective: The iodine status of a population is traditionally evaluated by either urinary iodine (UT) excretion or by some measure of thyroid volume and the prevalence of goitre. In this prospective study of a mandatory iodization programme, we aimed to evaluate serum thyroglobulin (Tg) as a marker...
Ratcliff, James L.; Johnson, D. Kent; La Nasa, Steven M.; Gaff, Jerry G.
This report summarizes the result of a survey of undergraduate general education in a national sample of colleges and universities. It was conducted during 2000 through two electronic surveys; one of chief academic officers and a second directed to the administrator most responsible for day-to-day administration of a general education program.…
Mayer, Otto; Seidlerová, Jitka; Wohlfahrt, Peter; Filipovský, Jan; Cífková, Renata; Černá, Václava; Kučerová, Alena; Pešta, Martin; Fuchsová, Radka; Topolčan, Ondřej; Jardon, Kelly M C; Drummen, Nadja E A; Vermeer, Cees
Both vitamins K and D are nutrients with pleiotropic functions in human tissues. The metabolic role of these vitamins overlaps considerably in calcium homeostasis. We analyzed their potential synergetic effect on arterial stiffness. In a cross-sectional study, we analyzed aortic pulse wave velocity (aPWV) in 1023 subjects from the Czech post-MONICA study. Desphospho-uncarboxylated matrix γ-carboxyglutamate protein (dp-ucMGP), a biomarker of vitamin K status, was measured by sandwich ELISA and 25-hydroxyvitamin D 3 (25-OH-D 3 ) by a commercial immunochemical assay. In a subsample of 431 subjects without chronic disease or pharmacotherapy, we detected rs2228570 polymorphism for the vitamin D receptor. After adjustment for confounders, aPWV was independently associated with both factors: dp-ucMGP [β-coefficient(S.E.M.)=13.91(4.87); P=.004] and 25-OH-D 3 [0.624(0.28); P=.027]. In a further analysis, we divided subjects according to dp-ucMGP and 25-OH-D 3 quartiles, resulting in 16 subgroups. The highest aPWV had subjects in the top quartile of dp-ucMGP plus bottom quartile of 25-OH-D 3 (i.e., in those with insufficient status of both vitamin K and vitamin D), while the lowest aPVW had subjects in the bottom quartile of dp-ucMGP plus top quartile of 25-OH-D 3 [9.8 (SD2.6) versus 6.6 (SD1.6) m/s; PD status, the adjusted odds ratio for aPWV≥9.3 m/s was 6.83 (95% CI:1.95-20.9). The aPWV was also significantly higher among subjects bearing the GG genotype of rs2228570, but only in those with a concomitantly poor vitamin K status. In conclusion, we confirmed substantial interaction of insufficient K and D vitamin status in terms of increased aortic stiffness. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Saha, Sanjay Kumar; Sanyal, Debasish; Bhattacharyya, Agnihotri; Bhattacharyya, Ranjan; Barman, Neepamanjari; Mukherjee, Anindya
The prevalence of ageing population is increasing not only in developed countries but also in developing world like India. Epidemiological reports about cognitive impairment or dementia in elderly people from developing countries are scarce. To study the cognitive status of women more than 50 years of age and to study the relationship of sociodemographic factors with cognitive status of the study subjects a descriptive epidemiological, community based cross-sectional survey was done involving 179 old women of 50 years and above in the rural field practice area of All India Institute of Hygiene and Public Health, Kolkata. The data were analysed using Epi-info 6.04, software packages. The mean age of the sample was 64.0 +/- 7.6 years. In the total sample, 53 subjects (29.6%) were in 50-59 years, 83 (43.4%) in 60-69 years, 34 (19%) in 70-79 years and 9 (5%) in women who were more than 80 years old. The cognitive defect was found to be 42.4% in elderly women .The variables like age > 70 years, widowhood, low per capita income, economic dependence, non-support from children, not staying with own children and having no satisfaction with life, were found to be significantly associated with cognitive defect. On (stepwise) multiple regression analysis these factors together contributed to 37% of cognitive impairment among these women. Prevalence of cognitive defect of more than 40% in the elderly women of this study emphasises the need for more attention and more social security measures for this neglected group.
Koohpaei, Alireza; Khandan, Mohammad; Gaeeni, Mahdi; Momenyan, Somayeh
In a healthy organization, psychological health and physical health are as important as production and productivity; and healthy workers have higher productivity. Regarding lack of information about workers' general health profile in Qom Province, this study aimed to assess and compare the staffs' general health and its components among different workplaces in 2014. In a cross-sectional study, 2,276 employees working at 46 industries and organizations completed a standardized General Health Questionnaire (GHQ 28) and a demographic questionnaire. Data were analyzed using t-test, ANOVA, and Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient by IBM SPSS version 20. The mean age of the participants was 32.22 (±7.55) years. Seventy-nine point four percent of participants were married and the rest were single. Highest and lowest scores belonged to social dysfunction and depression, respectively. Also, total score of staffs' general health was 17.87 ± 10.93. The results showed that, in spite of the non-relationship between general health score difference among married and single personnel (p > 0.05), there was a significant difference between men and women and among organizations and industries with regards to general health score (p creativity in the workplaces are at risk. Altogether, the general health score in the studied population was suitable in its entirety.
Chen, Zuying; Godfrey-Bailey, Linda; Schiff, Isaac; Hauser, Russ
Background To investigate the relationship of human semen parameters with season, age and smoking status. Methods The present study used data from subjects recruited into an ongoing cross-sectional study on the relationship between environmental agents and semen characteristics. Our population consisted of 306 patients who presented to the Vincent Memorial Andrology Laboratory of Massachusetts General Hospital for semen evaluation. Sperm concentration and motility were measured with computer aided sperm analysis (CASA). Sperm morphology was scored using Tygerberg Kruger strict criteria. Regression analyses were used to investigate the relationships between semen parameters and season, age and smoking status, adjusting for abstinence interval. Results Sperm concentration in the spring was significantly higher than in winter, fall and summer (p seasons. There were no statistically significant relationships between semen parameters and smoking status, though current smokers tended to have lower sperm concentration. We also did not find a statistically significant relationship between age and semen parameters. Conclusions We found seasonal variations in sperm concentration and suggestive evidence of seasonal variation in sperm motility and percent sperm with normal morphology. Although smoking status was not a significant predictor of semen parameters, this may have been due to the small number of current smokers in the study. PMID:15507127
Degtiarev, V K; Aleksandrov, A V; Nenasheva, N V; Cherkashina, I V; Nikitin, M V
The present study was designed to estimate the influence of general magnetic therapy on the psychical conditions of 151 patients presenting with degenerative joint diseases including osteoarthritis (OA). It was shown that the application of general magnetic therapy for the rehabilitative treatment of osteoarthrosis promotes the improvement of the psycho-emotional state of the patients. It is concluded that prescription of general magnetic therapy to the patients with OA suffering from serious psycho-emotional disorders brings about beneficial changes in their anxiety- and depression-related personality traits.
Hui, Chen; Zhihui, Yang
China has entered the aging society, but the social support systems for the elderly are underdeveloped, which may make the elderly feel anxiety about their health and life quality. Given the prevalence of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) in the elderly, it is very important to pay more attention to the treatment for old adults. Although cognitive behavioral therapy targeting intolerance of uncertainty (CBT-IU) has been applied to different groups of patients with GAD, few studies have been performed to date. In addition, the effects of CBT-IU are not well understood, especially when applied to older adults with GAD. Sixty-three Chinese older adults with a principal diagnosis of GAD were enrolled. Of these, 32 were randomized to receive group CBT-IU (intervention group) and 31 were untreated (control group). GAD and related symptoms were assessed using the Penn State Worry Questionnaire, Intolerance of Uncertainty Scale-Chinese Version, Beck Anxiety Inventory, Beck Depression Inventory, Why Worry-II scale, Cognitive Avoidance Questionnaire, Generalized Anxiety Disorder Questionnaire-IV, and Generalized Anxiety Disorder Severity Scale across the intervention. The changes between pre and after the intervention were collected, as well as the six-month follow-up. F test and repeated-measures ANOVA were conducted to analyze the data. Compared to control group, the measures' scores of experimental group decreased significantly after the intervention and six-month follow-up. Besides the main effects for time and group were significant, the interaction effect for group × time was also significant. These results indicated the improvement of the CBT-IU group and the persistence of effect after six months. Group CBT-IU is effective in Chinese older adults with GAD. The effects of CBT-IU on GAD symptoms persist for at least six months after treatment.
Wass, Christopher; Pizzo, Alessandro; Sauce, Bruno; Kawasumi, Yushi; Sturzoiu, Tudor; Ree, Fred; Otto, Tim; Matzel, Louis D
A common source of variance (i.e., "general intelligence") underlies an individual's performance across diverse tests of cognitive ability, and evidence indicates that the processing efficacy of working memory may serve as one such source of common variance. One component of working memory, selective attention, has been reported to co-vary with general intelligence, and dopamine D1 signaling in prefrontal cortex can modulate attentional abilities. Based on their aggregate performance across five diverse tests of learning, here we characterized the general cognitive ability (GCA) of CD-1 outbred mice. In response to a D1 agonist (SKF82958, 1 mg/kg), we then assessed the relationship between GCA and activation of D1 receptor (D1R)-containing neurons in the prelimbic region of the medial prefrontal cortex, the agranular insular cortex, and the dorsomedial striatum. Increased activation of D1R-containing neurons in the prelimbic cortex (but not the agranular insular cortex or dorsomedial striatum) was observed in animals of high GCA relative to those of low GCA (quantified by c-Fos activation in response to the D1 agonist). However, a Western blot analysis revealed no differences in the density of D1Rs in the prelimbic cortex between animals of high and low GCA. Last, it was observed that working memory training promoted an increase in animals' GCA and enhanced D1R-mediated neuronal activation in the prelimbic cortex. These results suggest that the sensitivity (but not density) of D1Rs in the prelimbic cortex may both regulate GCA and be a target for working memory training.
Case: Twenty four year-old, single male patient was referred for worries abouth health and other life conditions. Seven years ago he started to find out several physical symptoms (abdominal paint, nausea in his body; because of these symptoms he thought he will become ill, undergo surgical operation and die. He frequently consulted the doctors, releived as they didnt find any illness, but his fears reoccured whenever he complained any symptom. Besides health anxiety, he feared to encounter bad occurrences. Paroxetine 20 mg/day prescribed and besides drug treatment CBT was started. CBT process begun with evaluation and case formulation, the aims of therapy were established and psycoeducation for CBT and anxiety was given. Repeated doctor consultations were prevented by exposure-response prevention (ERP. Cognitive restructering technics were used for health and other worries. Conclusion: CBT alone or in addition to pharmacotherapy may be an effective treatment option for GAD with health anxiety. [JCBPR 2014; 3(2.000: 99-108
In this paper, two resource allocation schemes for energy efficient cognitive radio systems are proposed. Our design considers resource allocation approaches that adopt spectrum sharing combined with soft-sensing information, adaptive sensing thresholds, and adaptive power to achieve an energy efficient system. An energy per good-bit metric is considered as an energy efficient objective function. A multi-carrier system, such as, orthogonal frequency division multiplexing, is considered in the framework. The proposed resource allocation schemes, using different approaches, are designated as sub-optimal and optimal. The sub-optimal approach is attained by optimizing over a channel inversion power policy. The optimal approach utilizes the calculus of variation theory to optimize a problem of instantaneous objective function subject to average and instantaneous constraints with respect to functional optimization variables. In addition to the analytical results, selected numerical results are provided to quantify the impact of soft-sensing information and the optimal adaptive sensing threshold on the system performance.
Alabbasi, AbdulRahman; Rezki, Zouheir; Shihada, Basem
In this paper, two resource allocation schemes for energy efficient cognitive radio systems are proposed. Our design considers resource allocation approaches that adopt spectrum sharing combined with soft-sensing information, adaptive sensing thresholds, and adaptive power to achieve an energy efficient system. An energy per good-bit metric is considered as an energy efficient objective function. A multi-carrier system, such as, orthogonal frequency division multiplexing, is considered in the framework. The proposed resource allocation schemes, using different approaches, are designated as sub-optimal and optimal. The sub-optimal approach is attained by optimizing over a channel inversion power policy. The optimal approach utilizes the calculus of variation theory to optimize a problem of instantaneous objective function subject to average and instantaneous constraints with respect to functional optimization variables. In addition to the analytical results, selected numerical results are provided to quantify the impact of soft-sensing information and the optimal adaptive sensing threshold on the system performance.
Drost, J.; van der Does, A.; Antypa, N.; Zitman, F.G.; van Dyck, R.; Spinhoven, P.
Comorbidity among anxiety and depressive disorders is the rule rather than the exception. The Integrative Hierarchical Model proposes that each of these disorders contains general (common to all), specific (common to some) and unique components. However, research into this model is limited and
Full Text Available 40 elderly patients with a diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction developed on the background of arterial hypertension were examined. The patients were divided into two groups: the main – 20 patients (18 men, 2 women, age 70.0 ± 1.8 years, and the control group – 20 patients (19 men, 1 woman, age 69.5 ± 1.6 years, who received the standard treatment of acute myocardial infarction and hypertension. "Standard therapy" included acetylsalicylic acid and clopidogrel, statins, beta-blockers and ACE inhi¬bitors, if necessary, drugs to control hypertension, according to the recom¬mendations of the Ukrainian Society of Cardiologists. In addition, the first group of patients undergoing standard therapy of AMI and hypertension was administered Vazonat® for 15 days intravenously at a dose of 1000 mg per day. Effect of Vazonat® (meldonium therapy on the clinical and functional status, exercise capacity, and cognitive status in patients with acute myocardial infarction and hypertension against the background of dyscirculatory encephalopathy was studied explored. Psycho-emotional state of patients was studied by Beck's depression scale. Cognitive status was assessed by neuropsychological tests (Schulte tables, Luria’s test for memorizing of 10 words and Luria’s pictograms. In was shown dynamics a positive effects of Vazonat® therapy on the improvement of cardio¬hemo¬dynamics (noted reduction in LVED with 55.20 ± 1.7 mm to 51.28 ± 1.5 mm (p > 0.1, an increasing transmitral flow Ve/Va from 0.98 ± 0.03 to 1.10 ± 0.04 (p < 0.05, an increasing exercise tolerance (at 6MWT distance increased by 12.8% in the main group (from 289.6 ± 12.2 m to 326.0 ± 13.5 m, an increasing the speed of active attention – time of sensorimotor reactions decreased from 68.55 ± 6.2 sec to 54.35 ± 3.52 sec (p < 0.05, increasing productivity of short-term memory, increasing the number of words in the Luria test from 5.90 ± 0.42 to 7.25 ± 0.38 (p < 0
Button, Melissa L; Norouzian, Nikoo; Westra, Henny A; Constantino, Michael J; Antony, Martin M
Addressing methodological shortcomings of prior work on process expectations, this study examined client process expectations both prospectively and retrospectively following treatment. Differences between clients receiving cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) versus motivational interviewing integrated with CBT (MI-CBT) were also examined. Grounded theory analysis was used to study narratives of 10 participants (N = 5 CBT, 5 MI-CBT) who completed treatment for severe generalized anxiety disorder as part of a larger randomized controlled trial. Clients in both groups reported and elaborated expectancy disconfirmations more than expectancy confirmations. Compared to CBT clients, MI-CBT clients reported experiencing greater agency in the treatment process than expected (e.g., that they did most of the work) and that therapy provided a corrective experience. Despite nearly all clients achieving recovery status, CBT clients described therapy as not working in some ways (i.e., tasks did not fit, lack of improvement) and that they overcame initial skepticism regarding treatment. Largely converging with MI theory, findings highlight the role of key therapist behaviors (e.g., encouraging client autonomy, validating) in facilitating client experiences of the self as an agentic individual who is actively engaged in the therapy process and capable of effecting change.
Skoog, Jessica; Midlöv, Patrik; Beckman, Anders
of prescription drugs among patients, issued in primary health care, according to age, gender and socioeconomic status after adjustment for multimorbidity level.MethodData were collected on all individuals above 20 years of age in Östergötland county with about 400 000 inhabitants in year 2006. The John Hopkins...... ACG Case-mix was used as a proxy for multimorbidity level. Odds ratio (OR) of having prescription drugs issued in primary health care in the population and rates of prescription drug use among patients in primary health care, stated as incidence rate ratio (IRR), according to age, gender......BackgroundAge, gender and socioeconomic status have been shown to be associated with the use of prescription drugs, even after adjustment for multimorbidity. General practitioners have a holistic and patient-centred perspective and our hypothesis is that this may reflect on the prescription...
Kamo, Tomohiko; Nishida, Yuusuke
To identify the direct and indirect effects of nutritional status, physical function, and cognitive function on activities of daily living in Japanese older adults requiring long-term care. In total, 179 participants aged ≥ 65 years who were eligible for long-term care insurance (mean age 85.5 ± 7.8 years) were recruited for this study. Nutritional status (Mini Nutritional Assessment, Short Form) and physical function (Short Physical Performance Battery) were examined. Activities of daily living, cognitive function and frailty were assessed using the Barthel Index, Mini-Mental State Examination and Clinical Frailty Scale, respectively. Path analysis was used to determine relationships between these factors and the activities of daily living. For Japanese older adults requiring long-term care, pathways were modeled for nutritional status, physical function and the activities of daily living. The total effect of nutritional status was 0.516 (Pphysical function on the activities of daily living was 0.458 (Pphysical function in aged Japanese people requiring long-term care. These findings suggest that maintaining good nutritional status and nutritional support might delay physical function decline, and prolong the activities of daily living. © 2013 Japan Geriatrics Society.
Evans, Maggie; Rohan, Kelly J; Sitnikov, Lilya; Mahon, Jennifer N; Nillni, Yael I; Lindsey, Kathryn Tierney; Vacek, Pamela M
Efficacious treatments for seasonal affective disorder include light therapy and a seasonal affective disorder-tailored form of cognitive-behavioral therapy. Using data from a parent clinical trial, these secondary analyses examined the relationship between cognitive change over treatment with cognitive-behavioral therapy, light therapy, or combination treatment and mood outcomes the next winter. Sixty-nine participants were randomly assigned to 6-weeks of cognitive-behavioral therapy, light therapy, or combination treatment. Cognitive constructs (i.e., dysfunctional attitudes, negative automatic thoughts, and rumination) were assessed at pre- and post-treatment. Dysfunctional attitudes, negative automatic thoughts, and rumination improved over acute treatment, regardless of modality; however, in participants randomized to solo cognitive-behavioral therapy, a greater degree of improvement in dysfunctional attitudes and automatic thoughts was uniquely associated with less severe depressive symptoms the next winter. Change in maladaptive thoughts during acute treatment appears mechanistic of solo cognitive-behavioral therapy's enduring effects the next winter, but is simply a consequence of diminished depression in light therapy and combination treatment.
MacNamara, Annmarie; Proudfit, Greg Hajcak
Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) may be characterized by emotion regulation deficits attributable to an imbalance between top-down (i.e., goal-driven) and bottom-up (i.e., stimulus-driven) attention. In prior work, these attentional processes were examined by presenting unpleasant and neutral pictures within a working memory paradigm. The late positive potential (LPP) measured attention toward task-irrelevant pictures. Results from this prior work showed that working memory load reduced the...
Zubriki, Tadeus Andrew
Abstract Following a review of literature regarding autobiographical memories, retrieval-induced forgetting, and emotion relative to memory, a theory is devised to find solutions to the questions: How do we conceptualize; what does it mean to conceptualize; and how is memory retrieval possible? Feeling generalization is a universal system of thinking which postulates that which we conceive and retrieve is feeling upon which we conceptualize to conceptions in accord to the moment of arousal...
Lee, Sung Uk; Park, Ji Eun; Kim, Young Ae; Yoon, Young-Ho; Kim, Yeon-Joo; Lim, Myong Cheol; Park, Sang-Yoon; Seo, Sang-Soo; Kim, Joo-Young
To evaluate the global health status of long-term cervical cancer survivors (LCCS) who survived for more than 4 years after curative radiation treatment (RT). Medical records of 562 women treated with RT in our institution between 2003 and 2010 were reviewed. Excluding 259 women who died of disease or were lost to follow-up, disease status and late morbidities were evaluated in 303 LCCS. Quality of life (QoL) was analyzed in 168 LCCS using a questionnaire from the European Organization for the Research and Treatment of Cancer, and the results were compared with an age-matched healthy Korean female population. Median follow-up was 6.8 years (range 4.1-12.5 years). There were 14 deaths (7 cancer specific) and 14 recurrences (5 local recurrences and 9 distant metastases). The median time to recurrence was 6.0 years (range 4.1-8.2 years). Grade ≥2 late toxicities were frequently observed in the bladder (19%) and small/large intestine (15%). Multivariate analysis revealed a higher rate of late toxicity in patients aged ≥51 years at diagnosis (small/large intestine: hazard ratio, HR, 2.5 [1.2-5.5]; bladder: HR 2.4 [1.3-4.5]; and bone: HR 4.3 [1.2-15.8]) than patients aged [de
Bishop, E. G.; Cherny, Stacey S.; Corley, Robin; Plomin, Robert; DeFries, John C.; Hewitt, John K.
Studied continuity and change in general cognitive ability from infancy to adolescence in adoptees (107 children), biological siblings (87 pairs), and twins (224 monozygotic and 189 dyzygotic pairs). Findings generally support previous findings about genetic and environmental factors, with the exception that in the transition to adolescence,…
Shannon M. Sisco
Full Text Available Low neighborhood-level socioeconomic status has been associated with poorer health, reduced physical activity, increased psychological stress, and less neighborhood-based social support. These outcomes are correlates of late life cognition, but few studies have specifically investigated the neighborhood as a unique source of explanatory variance in cognitive aging. This study supplemented baseline cognitive data from the ACTIVE (Advanced Cognitive Training for Independent and Vital Elderly study with neighborhood-level data to investigate (1 whether neighborhood socioeconomic position (SEP predicts cognitive level, and if so, whether it differentially predicts performance in general and specific domains of cognition and (2 whether neighborhood SEP predicts differences in response to short-term cognitive intervention for memory, reasoning, or processing speed. Neighborhood SEP positively predicted vocabulary, but did not predict other general or specific measures of cognitive level, and did not predict individual differences in response to cognitive intervention.
The GEneral Fission (GEF) model treats spontaneous fission and fission up to an excitation energy of about 100 MeV of a wide range of heavy nuclei. GEF makes use of general laws of statistical and quantum mechanics, assuring a high predictive power. It is unique in providing a general description of essentially all fission observables in a consistent way while preserving the correlations between all of them. In this contribution we present some of the physical aspects on which the model is based, give an overview on the results that can be obtained with the code and show an example that illustrates how the GEF code can serve as a framework for revealing the sensitivity of the fission observables to some basic nuclear properties.
Castanho, Teresa Costa; Portugal-Nunes, Carlos; Moreira, Pedro Silva; Amorim, Liliana; Palha, Joana Almeida; Sousa, Nuno; Correia Santos, Nadine
To explore the applicability of a Portuguese (PT) version of the Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status (TICS), with a delayed recall item [modified (M)], here termed TICSM-PT, against an extensive (in-person) battery of neuropsychological instruments, in a sample of older individuals with low educational level and without clinically manifest/diagnosed cognitive impairment. Following translation/back-translation and pilot testing in 33 community dwellers, 142 community dwellers aged 52 to 84 years (mean = 67.45, SD = 7.91) were selected from local health care centres for the study (convenience sampling; stratified age and gender). Cronbach's alpha was used to assess internal consistency, and convergent validity was evaluated through the correlation between TICSM-PT and the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE), as well as with a comprehensive battery of cognitive instruments. Divergent/discriminant validity was assessed through a battery of psychological instruments. The receiver operating curve was determined for TICSM-PT to classify participants with and without possible indication of cognitive impairment. TICSM-PT showed a satisfactory internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.705), convergent validity and discriminant validity. TICSM-PT presented a positive association with the global cognitive measures Mini Mental State Examination and the Montreal Cognitive Assessment, and also with most neuropsychological parameters. Receiver operating curve curves presented a sensitivity of 90.6% and specificity of 73.7%. The area under the curve statistic yielded a threshold score equal or below 13.5 for cognitive impairment. TICSM-PT is a practical tool for rapid cognitive assessment among older individuals with low educational background. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Sorensen, Christiane E.; Hansen, Naja L.; Mortensen, Erik L.
and nocturnal xerostomia were associated with daily intake of medication and alcohol. Discussion: Overall, hyposalivation, xerostomia and poor dental status distinguished a group of men displaying relative decline in cognitive performance from a group of men without evidence of cognitive decline. Thus...... and salivary gland hypofunction were tested in two groups of middle-aged men in late midlife, who differed substantially with respect to their midlife performance in verbal intelligence when compared with their performance in young adulthood. Materials and Methods: Participants (n = 193) were recruited from...... the Danish Metropolit Cohort of men born in 1953. Based on their individual change in performance in two previously administered intelligence tests, they were allocated to one group of positive and one group of negative outliers in midlife cognition scores, indicating no decline versus decline in test...
Nadorff, Michael R; Porter, Ben; Rhoades, Howard M; Greisinger, Anthony J; Kunik, Mark E; Stanley, Melinda A
This study investigated the relation between generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and frequency of bad dreams in older adults. A secondary analysis from a randomized clinical trial comparing cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for anxiety to enhanced usual care (EUC) assessed bad dream frequency at baseline, post treatment (3 months), and at 6, 9, 12, and 15 months. Of 227 participants (mean age = 67.4), 134 met GAD diagnostic criteria (CBT = 70, EUC = 64), with the remaining 93 serving as a comparison group. Patients with GAD had significantly more bad dreams than those without, and bad dream frequency was significantly associated with depression, anxiety, worry, and poor quality of life. CBT for anxiety significantly reduced bad dream frequency at post treatment and throughout follow up compared to EUC.
Nadorff, Michael R.; Porter, Ben; Rhoades, Howard M.; Greisinger, Anthony J.; Kunik, Mark E.; Stanley, Melinda A.
This study investigated the relation between generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and frequency of bad dreams in older adults. A secondary analysis from a randomized clinical trial comparing cognitive behavioral therapy for anxiety (CBT) to enhanced usual care (EUC), it assessed bad dream frequency at baseline, post-treatment (3 months), and 6, 9, 12 and 15 months. Of 227 participants (mean age = 67.4), 134 met GAD diagnostic criteria (CBT = 70, EUC = 64), with the remaining 93 serving as a comparison group. Patients with GAD had significantly more bad dreams than those without, and bad dream frequency was significantly associated with depression, anxiety, worry, and poor quality of life. CBT for anxiety significantly reduced bad dream frequency at post-treatment and throughout follow-up compared to EUC. PMID:23470116
Wu, Heng; Zhao, Xudong; Fritzsche, Kurt; Salm, Florian; Leonhart, Rainer; Jing, Wei; Yang, Jianzhong; Schaefert, Rainer
In western countries, negative illness perceptions are associated with poor health status and affect health outcomes in primary care populations. The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between illness perception and mental and physical health status in general hospital outpatients in China. This multicentre, cross-sectional study analysed a total of 281 consecutive patients from four general hospital outpatient departments of internal medicine and traditional Chinese medicine in Beijing and Kunming. The patients answered questionnaires concerning illness perception (Brief-IPQ), somatic symptom severity (Patient Health Questionnaire-15), illness behaviour (Scale for the Assessment of Illness Behaviour), emotional distress (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale) and health-related quality of life (Twelve-Item Short Form Health Survey). Negative illness perception, especially negative emotional reactions, perceived illness consequences, encumbering illness concerns, and strong illness identity were significantly associated with high emotional distress, impairing illness consequences, and a low mental and physical quality of life. Using a multiple linear regression model, five strongest correlates of negative illness perception were high anxiety, seeking diagnosis verification, low mental and physical quality of life and high somatic symptom severity. The variance explained by this model was 35%. Chinese general hospital outpatients showed associations between negative illness perceptions and poor mental and physical health status that were similar to those of primary care patients in western countries. The main difference was that no association with perceived illness control was found in Chinese patients. Chinese physicians should be sensitised to their patients' negative illness perceptions and should focus on helping patients cope with uncertainty and anxiety by providing an understandable illness model and increasing control beliefs.
Efficacy of L-carnitine supplementation on frailty status and its biomarkers, nutritional status, and physical and cognitive function among prefrail older adults: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial
Badrasawi, M; Shahar, Suzana; Zahara, AM; Nor Fadilah, R; Singh, Devinder Kaur Ajit
Background Frailty is a biological syndrome of decreased reserve and resistance to stressors due to decline in multiple physiological systems. Amino acid deficiency, including L-carnitine, has been proposed to be associated with its pathophysiology. Nevertheless, the efficacy of L-carnitine supplementation on frailty status has not been documented. Thus, this study aimed to determine the effect of 10-week L-carnitine supplement (1.5 g/day) on frailty status and its biomarkers and also physical function, cognition, and nutritional status among prefrail older adults in Klang Valley, Malaysia. Methodology This study is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial conducted among 50 prefrail subjects randomized into two groups (26 in L-carnitine group and 24 in placebo group). Outcome measures include frailty status using Fried criteria and Frailty Index accumulation of deficit, selected frailty biomarkers (interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and insulin-like growth factor-1), physical function, cognitive function, nutritional status and biochemical profile. Results The results indicated that the mean scores of Frailty Index score and hand grip test were significantly improved in subjects supplemented with L-carnitine (P<0.05 for both parameters) as compared to no change in the placebo group. Based on Fried criteria, four subjects (three from the L-carnitine group and one from the control group) transited from prefrail status to robust after the intervention. Conclusion L-carnitine supplementation has a favorable effect on the functional status and fatigue in prefrail older adults. PMID:27895474
Full Text Available Background: Regular and daily physical activity during childhood and at school is one of the important part of requirements of normal growth, development and well-being. To achieve physical activity promotion among school child aged population recess as outside of class time efforts is scheduled and allows students to engage in physical and social activities. The purpose of the present study was to assess recess activities as well as status of physical activities among a sample of Iranian students at the pri¬mary schools.Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed in four randomly se¬lected schools from a list of 26 elementary schools in March, 2012 in the city of Shahindej, located in North-west of Iran. Participants were 439 (10–12 years elementary schools’. Physical activity level by self-reporting, mental health using the parent-completed Child Health Questionnaire, and happiness was assessed using a Persian translated version of the Subjective Happiness Scale. Hierarchical logistic regression analysis was applied in two steps using the enter method to analyze data in the SPSS version 17.Results: Backward logistic regression analysis showed that gender of the parent who answered the study questions, father’s education, educational grade of children, BMI, physical function, physical health, health status of the children and family function were significantly related to the children’s physical activity level.Conclusion: Promoting parents’ awareness and schools’ staff about im¬portance of physical activities especially in recess times must be an impor¬tant part of school and community mental health promotion programs.
Tuba Talo Yildirim
Full Text Available Background Dental anxiety is a widespread problem in many populations. This problem can be a barrier to dental care and may lead to poor oral health. Dental anxiety may be related to psychological status. Aims The aim of the present study was to assess the levels of dental anxiety, dental fear, Beck Depression, and state-trait anxiety according to age, gender and education level in patients at the periodontology clinic in the Diyarbakır Mouth and Dental Health Center. Study Design A total of 231 patients (115 males, 116 females filled out dental fear scale (DFS, dental anxiety scale (DAS, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI, state-trait anxiety inventory-state (STAI-S, and state-trait anxiety inventory–trait (STAI-T questionnaires, and evaluations of DFS, DAS, BDI, STAI-S, and STAI-T were conducted according to age, gender, and education level. Results The mean DFS, DAS, BDI, STAI-T, and STAI –S were 45.64, 9.15, 13.16, 38.90, and 40.18, respectively. There was a significant association among DFS, DAS, BDI, STAI-S, and STAI-T (p < 0.05. These surveys scores were significantly higher in females than males (p < 0.05. The results of this study indicated that gender age and education level have important effects on DFS, DAS, BDI, STAI-S, and STAI-T (p < 0.05. Conclusion Dental anxiety and dental fear were found to be related to psychological status (BDI, STAI-S, and STAI-T over time. There are some patients with unaddressed psychological distress.
Liu, Ning; Chen, Yiting; Yang, Xiangdong; Hu, Yi
Different family compositions and sizes may affect child development through the different modes of interaction between family members. Previous studies have compared only children with non-only children in cognitive/non-cognitive outcomes. However, relatively little research has systematically investigated the potential moderators among them. Using a large and representative sample of Chinese students (Grades 7?8; N = 5,752), this study examines the roles of demographic characteristics, such...
Neter, J E; Dijkstra, S C; Dekkers, A L M; Ocké, M C; Visser, M; Brouwer, I A
Food-assistance program users are a specific group of nutritional concern, as they are often food insufficient and have poorer diet quality compared to non-food-assistance program users. The aim of our study was to assess dietary intake of Dutch food bank recipients (n = 167) and to compare this with dietary intake of a representative sample of the general population (Dutch National Food Consumption Survey (DNFCS-all): n = 1933), including a low-socioeconomic status (SES) sample (DNFCS-low SE...
Skaaby, Tea; Husemoen, Lise Lotte Nystrup; Pisinger, Charlotta
and negatively correlated with glomerular filtration rate. We investigated the association between vitamin D status and 5-year changes in urine albumin creatinine ratio (UACR) and parathyroid hormone (PTH). A random sample of 6,784 individuals aged 30-60 years from a general population participated in the Inter......99 study in 1999-2001. Vitamin D (serum-25-hydroxyvitamin D) was measured at baseline by high-performance liquid chromatography. UACR and PTH were measured at baseline and follow-up. Increased UACR was defined as UACR >4.0 mg/g reflecting the upper quartile at baseline. We included 4,330 individuals...
Dash, Tanya; Kar, Bhoomika R.
Background. Bilingualism results in an added advantage with respect to cognitive control. The interaction between bilingual language control and general purpose cognitive control systems can also be understood by studying executive control among individuals with bilingual aphasia. Objectives. The current study examined the subcomponents of cognitive control in bilingual aphasia. A case study approach was used to investigate whether cognitive control and language control are two separate systems and how factors related to bilingualism interact with control processes. Methods. Four individuals with bilingual aphasia performed a language background questionnaire, picture description task, and two experimental tasks (nonlinguistic negative priming task and linguistic and nonlinguistic versions of flanker task). Results. A descriptive approach was used to analyse the data using reaction time and accuracy measures. The cumulative distribution function plots were used to visualize the variations in performance across conditions. The results highlight the distinction between general purpose cognitive control and bilingual language control mechanisms. Conclusion. All participants showed predominant use of the reactive control mechanism to compensate for the limited resources system. Independent yet interactive systems for bilingual language control and general purpose cognitive control were postulated based on the experimental data derived from individuals with bilingual aphasia. PMID:24982591
Dash, Tanya; Kar, Bhoomika R
Bilingualism results in an added advantage with respect to cognitive control. The interaction between bilingual language control and general purpose cognitive control systems can also be understood by studying executive control among individuals with bilingual aphasia. objectives: The current study examined the subcomponents of cognitive control in bilingual aphasia. A case study approach was used to investigate whether cognitive control and language control are two separate systems and how factors related to bilingualism interact with control processes. Four individuals with bilingual aphasia performed a language background questionnaire, picture description task, and two experimental tasks (nonlinguistic negative priming task and linguistic and nonlinguistic versions of flanker task). A descriptive approach was used to analyse the data using reaction time and accuracy measures. The cumulative distribution function plots were used to visualize the variations in performance across conditions. The results highlight the distinction between general purpose cognitive control and bilingual language control mechanisms. All participants showed predominant use of the reactive control mechanism to compensate for the limited resources system. Independent yet interactive systems for bilingual language control and general purpose cognitive control were postulated based on the experimental data derived from individuals with bilingual aphasia.
Duplessis, C. A.; Cullum, M. E.; Crepeau, L. J.
Submarine watch-standers adhere to a 6 hour-on, 12 hour-off (6/12) watch-standing schedule, yoking them to an 18-hr day, engendering circadian desynchronization and chronic sleep deprivation. Moreover, the chronic social crowding, shift work, and confinement of submarine life provide additional stressors known to correlate with elevated secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) and cortisol levels, reduced performance, immunologic dysfunction, malignancies, infections, gastrointestinal illness, coronary disease, anxiety, and depression. We evaluated an alternative, compressed, fixed work schedule designed to enhance circadian rhythm entrainment, sleep hygiene, performance, and health on 10 underway submariners, who followed the alternative and 6/12 schedules for approximately 2 weeks each. We measured subjects" sleep, cognitive performance, and salivary biomarker levels. Pilot analysis of the salivary data on one subject utilizing ELISA suggests elevated biomarker levels of stress. Average PM cortisol levels were 0.2 μg/L (normal range: nondetectable - 0.15 μg/L), and mean sIgA levels were 562 μg/ml (normal range: 100-500 μg/ml). Future research exploiting real-time salivary bioassays, via fluorescent polarimetry technology, identified by the Office of Naval Research (ONR) as a future Naval requirement, allows researchers to address correlations between stress-induced elaboration of salivary biomarkers with physiological and performance decrements, thereby fostering insight into the underway submariner"s psychoimmunological status. This may help identify strategies that enhance resilience to stressors. Specifically, empirically-based modeling can identify optimal watch-standing schedules and stress-mitigating procedures -- within the operational constraints of the submarine milieu and the mission --that foster improved circadian entrainment and reduced stress reactivity, enhancing physiological health, operational performance, safety, and job satisfaction.
MacNamara, Annmarie; Proudfit, Greg Hajcak
Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) may be characterized by emotion regulation deficits attributable to an imbalance between top-down (i.e., goal-driven) and bottom-up (i.e., stimulus-driven) attention. In prior work, these attentional processes were examined by presenting unpleasant and neutral pictures within a working memory paradigm. The late positive potential (LPP) measured attention toward task-irrelevant pictures. Results from this prior work showed that working memory load reduced the LPP across participants; however, this effect was attenuated for individuals with greater self-reported state anxiety, suggesting reduced top-down control. In the current study, the same paradigm was used with 106 medication-free female participants-71 with GAD and 35 without GAD. Unpleasant pictures elicited larger LPPs, and working memory load reduced the picture-elicited LPP. Compared with healthy controls, participants with GAD showed large LPPs to unpleasant pictures presented under high working memory load. Self-reported symptoms of anhedonic depression were related to a reduced effect of working memory load on the LPP elicited by neutral pictures. These results indicate that individuals with GAD show less flexible modulation of attention when confronted with unpleasant stimuli. Furthermore, among those with GAD, anhedonic depression may broaden attentional deficits to neutral distracters. (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.
Garbarski, Dana; Dykema, Jennifer; Croes, Kenneth D; Edwards, Dorothy F
Self-rated health (SRH) is widely used to measure subjective health. Yet it is unclear what underlies health ratings, with implications for understanding the validity of SRH overall and across sociodemographic characteristics. We analyze participants' explanations of how they formulated their SRH answer in addition to which health factors they considered and examine group differences in these processes. Cognitive interviews were conducted with 64 participants in a convenience quota sample crossing dimensions of race/ethnicity (white, Latino, black, American Indian), gender, age, and education. Participants rated their health then described their thoughts when answering SRH. We coded participants' answers in an inductive, iterative, and systematic process from interview transcripts, developing analytic categories (i.e., themes) and subdimensions within. We examined whether the presence of each dimension of an analytic category varied across sociodemographic groups. Our qualitative analysis led to the identification and classification of various subdimensions of the following analytic categories: types of health factors mentioned, valence of health factors, temporality of health factors, conditional health statements, and descriptions and definitions of health. We found differences across groups in some types of health factors mentioned-corresponding, conflicting, or novel with respect to prior research. Furthermore, we also documented various processes through which respondents integrate seemingly disparate health factors to formulate an answer through valence and conditional health statements. Finally, we found some evidence of sociodemographic group differences with respect to types of health factors mentioned, valence of health factors, and conditional health statements, highlighting avenues for future research. This study provides a description of how participants rate their general health status and highlights potential differences in these processes across
Full Text Available Abstract Background Self-rated health (SRH is widely used to measure subjective health. Yet it is unclear what underlies health ratings, with implications for understanding the validity of SRH overall and across sociodemographic characteristics. We analyze participants’ explanations of how they formulated their SRH answer in addition to which health factors they considered and examine group differences in these processes. Methods Cognitive interviews were conducted with 64 participants in a convenience quota sample crossing dimensions of race/ethnicity (white, Latino, black, American Indian, gender, age, and education. Participants rated their health then described their thoughts when answering SRH. We coded participants’ answers in an inductive, iterative, and systematic process from interview transcripts, developing analytic categories (i.e., themes and subdimensions within. We examined whether the presence of each dimension of an analytic category varied across sociodemographic groups. Results Our qualitative analysis led to the identification and classification of various subdimensions of the following analytic categories: types of health factors mentioned, valence of health factors, temporality of health factors, conditional health statements, and descriptions and definitions of health. We found differences across groups in some types of health factors mentioned—corresponding, conflicting, or novel with respect to prior research. Furthermore, we also documented various processes through which respondents integrate seemingly disparate health factors to formulate an answer through valence and conditional health statements. Finally, we found some evidence of sociodemographic group differences with respect to types of health factors mentioned, valence of health factors, and conditional health statements, highlighting avenues for future research. Conclusion This study provides a description of how participants rate their general health
Dirkse, Dale; Hadjistavropoulos, Heather D; Hesser, Hugo; Barak, Azy
Therapist-assisted Internet-delivered cognitive behavior therapy (ICBT) involves elements of expressive writing through secure messaging with a therapist. Expressive writing has been associated with psychological and physical health benefits in past research; furthermore, certain linguistic dimensions in expressive writing have been identified as particularly beneficial to health, such as less frequent use of negative emotion words and greater use of positive emotion words. No research, to date, has analyzed linguistic dimensions in client communication over the course of therapist-assisted ICBT for individuals with symptoms of generalized anxiety. This naturalistic study examined messages sent to therapists during the course of ICBT using linguistic analysis, and explored covariation of word use with symptom improvement. Data were obtained from patients with symptoms of generalized anxiety (N = 59) who completed 12 modules of therapist-assisted ICBT and rated symptoms of anxiety, depression, and panic at the beginning of each module. Linguistic analysis categorized text submitted to therapists into different word categories. Results found that patients' use of negative emotion, anxiety, causation, and insight words reduced over the course of treatment, while past tense words increased. Furthermore, negative emotion words significantly covaried with symptom ratings over the course of treatment. While causal statements cannot be made, findings improve our understanding of patient communication in ICBT and suggest that the further study of linguistic dimensions as psychological indicators and the potential utility of expressive writing strategies in therapist-assisted ICBT may be worthwhile.
Diaz, Esperanza; Gimeno-Feliu, Luis-Andrés; Calderón-Larrañaga, Amaia; Prados-Torres, Alexandra
To compare the likelihood of being a frequent attender (FA) to general practice among native Norwegians and immigrants, and to study socioeconomic and morbidity factors associated with being a FA for natives and immigrants. Linked register data for all inhabitants in Norway with at least one visit to the general practitioner (GP) in 2008 (2 967 933 persons). Immigrants were grouped according to their country of origin into low- (LIC), middle- (MIC), and high-income countries (HIC). FAs were defined as patients whose attendance rate ranked in the top 10% (cut-off point > 7 visits). FAs were compared with other GP users by means of multivariate binary logistic analyses adjusting for socioeconomic and morbidity factors. Among GP users during the daytime, immigrants had a higher likelihood of being a FA compared with natives (OR (95% CI): 1.13 (1.09-1.17) and 1.15 (1.12-1.18) for HIC, 1.84 (1.78-1.89) and 1.66 (1.63-1.70) for MIC, and 1.77 (1.67-1.89) and 1.65 (1.57-1.74) for LIC for men and women respectively). Pregnancy, middle income earned in Norway, and having cardiologic and psychiatric problems were the main factors associated with being a FA. Among immigrants, labour immigrants and the elderly used GPs less often, while refugees were overrepresented among FAs. Psychiatric, gastroenterological, endocrine, and non-specific drug morbidity were relatively more prevalent among immigrant FA compared with natives. Although immigrants account for a small percentage of all FAs, GPs and policy-makers should be aware of differences in socioeconomic and morbidity profiles to provide equality of health care.
Full Text Available Abstract Detecting cognitive impairment in patients with Parkinson's disease is crucial for good clinical practice given the new therapeutic possibilities available. When full neuropsychological evaluations are not available, screening tools capable of detecting cognitive difficulties become crucial. Objective: The goal of this study was to investigate whether the Spanish version of the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination (ACE is capable of detecting cognitive difficulties in patients with Parkinson's disease and discriminating their cognitive profile from patients with dementia. Methods: 77 early dementia patients (53 with Alzheimer's Disease and 24 with Frontotemporal Dementia, 22 patients with Parkinson's disease, and 53 healthy controls were evaluated with the ACE. Results: Parkinson's disease patients significantly differed from both healthy controls and dementia patients on ACE total score. Conclusions: This study shows that the Spanish version of the ACE is capable of detecting patients with cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease and is able to differentiate them from patients with dementia based on their general cognitive status.
Chade, Anabel; Roca, María; Torralva, Teresa; Gleichgerrcht, Ezequiel; Fabbro, Nicolás; Arévalo, Gonzalo Gómez; Gershanik, Oscar; Manes, Facundo
Detecting cognitive impairment in patients with Parkinson's disease is crucial for good clinical practice given the new therapeutic possibilities available. When full neuropsychological evaluations are not available, screening tools capable of detecting cognitive difficulties become crucial. The goal of this study was to investigate whether the Spanish version of the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination (ACE) is capable of detecting cognitive difficulties in patients with Parkinson's disease and discriminating their cognitive profile from patients with dementia. 77 early dementia patients (53 with Alzheimer's Disease and 24 with Frontotemporal Dementia), 22 patients with Parkinson's disease, and 53 healthy controls were evaluated with the ACE. Parkinson's disease patients significantly differed from both healthy controls and dementia patients on ACE total score. This study shows that the Spanish version of the ACE is capable of detecting patients with cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease and is able to differentiate them from patients with dementia based on their general cognitive status.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS is a socially relevant condition associated with biomechanical risk factors. We evaluated age-sex-specific incidence rates of in-hospital cases of CTS in central/northern Italy and explored relations with marital status. Methods Seven regions were considered (overall population, 14.9 million over 3–6-year periods between 1997 and 2002 (when out-of-hospital CTS surgery was extremely rare. Incidence rates of in-hospital cases of CTS were estimated based on 1 codified demographic, diagnostic and intervention data in obligatory discharge records from all Italian public/private hospitals, archived (according to residence on regional databases; 2 demographic general population data for each region. We compared (using the χscore test age-sex-specific rates between married, unmarried, divorced and widowed subsets of the general population. We calculated standardized incidence ratios (SIRs for married/unmarried men and women. Results Age-standardized incidence rates (per 100,000 person-years of in-hospital cases of CTS were 166 in women and 44 in men (106 overall. Married subjects of both sexes showed higher age-specific rates with respect to unmarried men/women. SIRs were calculated comparing married vs unmarried rates of both sexes: 1.59 (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.57–1.60 in women, and 1.42 (95% CI, 1.40–1.45 in men. As compared with married women/men, widows/widowers both showed 2–3-fold higher incidence peaks during the fourth decade of life (beyond 50 years of age, widowed subjects showed similar trends to unmarried counterparts. Conclusion This large population-based study illustrates distinct age-related trends in men and women, and also raises the question whether marital status could be associated with CTS in the general population.
Danev, S; Dapov, E; Pavlov, E; Nikolova, R
Evaluation of the general functional status and psychosomatic complaints of 61 workers from the hydroelectric power stations is made. The following methods are used: 1. Assessment of the general functional state, by means of computer analysis of the cardiac variability, analysing the changes in the values of the following indices: average value of the cardiac intervals (X), their standard deviation (SD), coefficient of variation (CV), amplitude of the mode (AMO), index of stress (IS), index of the vegetative balance (IVB), homeostatic index (HI). The last 3 indices serve for determination of the complex evaluation of chronic fatigue and work adaptation (ChFWA). 2. Evaluation of the psychosomatic complaints, by the use of a questionnaire for the subjective psychosomatic complaints. 3. Studying the systolic and diastolic blood pressure. The average values received in workers from HPS were compared with the average values of the population of the country and with the average values of a similar working activity of a group of operators from the thermal power station HPS. In conclusion it could be noted that concerning ChFWA the received values in workers from HPS are not more unfavourable generalized values from that measured in workers, occupied with similar type of work in other industrial branches of the country. However, they are with more unfavourable data in comparison with the workers from HPS. The subjective evaluation of the operators concerning their psychic and body health status is moderately worse, both in comparison with the values of the index for the country, and in comparison with those of the operators from HPS.
Mattioli, Stefano; Baldasseroni, Alberto; Curti, Stefania; Cooke, Robin M T; Bena, Antonella; de Giacomi, Giovanna; dell'Omo, Marco; Fateh-Moghadam, Pirous; Melani, Carla; Biocca, Marco; Buiatti, Eva; Campo, Giuseppe; Zanardi, Francesca; Violante, Francesco S
Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is a socially relevant condition associated with biomechanical risk factors. We evaluated age-sex-specific incidence rates of in-hospital cases of CTS in central/northern Italy and explored relations with marital status. Seven regions were considered (overall population, 14.9 million) over 3-6-year periods between 1997 and 2002 (when out-of-hospital CTS surgery was extremely rare). Incidence rates of in-hospital cases of CTS were estimated based on 1) codified demographic, diagnostic and intervention data in obligatory discharge records from all Italian public/private hospitals, archived (according to residence) on regional databases; 2) demographic general population data for each region. We compared (using the chiscore test) age-sex-specific rates between married, unmarried, divorced and widowed subsets of the general population. We calculated standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) for married/unmarried men and women. Age-standardized incidence rates (per 100,000 person-years) of in-hospital cases of CTS were 166 in women and 44 in men (106 overall). Married subjects of both sexes showed higher age-specific rates with respect to unmarried men/women. SIRs were calculated comparing married vs unmarried rates of both sexes: 1.59 (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.57-1.60) in women, and 1.42 (95% CI, 1.40-1.45) in men. As compared with married women/men, widows/widowers both showed 2-3-fold higher incidence peaks during the fourth decade of life (beyond 50 years of age, widowed subjects showed similar trends to unmarried counterparts). This large population-based study illustrates distinct age-related trends in men and women, and also raises the question whether marital status could be associated with CTS in the general population.
Full Text Available Vehicles’ breaking system is one of the basic elements that lead to the maintenance of technical and road safety during transport activities on public roads or other special conditions. Therefore, particular attention is paid to all maintenance work planned or occasionally carried out on such system, as a high coefficient of vehicles availability results in an increased percentage of their productivity. Of course, there is diagnosis equipment for each element, and the brake booths within MOT centres accurately indicate the values of the measured parameters, following repair, adjustment and control operations for troubleshooting. Still, there are certain cases requesting the check of breaking system either analytically or by field experiments, i.e. when vehicles are driven on rough and rugged ground, during military specific missions and activities, where their performance no longer allows specialized equipment or when such equipment does not exist. This works presents alternatives to determine the technical condition of the braking system by means of typical solutions for the general diagnosis type.
Boehringer, Christoph; Loeschel, Andreas
Sustainability Impact Assessment (SIA) of economic, environmental, and social effects triggered by governmental policies has become a central requirement for policy design. The three dimensions of SIA are inherently intertwined and subject to trade-offs. Quantification of trade-offs for policy decision support requires numerical models in order to assess systematically the interference of complex interacting forces that affect economic performance, environmental quality, and social conditions. This paper investigates the use of computable general equilibrium (CGE) models for measuring the impacts of policy interference on policy-relevant economic, environmental, and social (institutional) indicators. We find that operational CGE models used for energy-economy-environment (E3) analyses have a good coverage of central economic indicators. Environmental indicators such as energy-related emissions with direct links to economic activities are widely covered, whereas indicators with complex natural science background such as water stress or biodiversity loss are hardly represented. Social indicators stand out for very weak coverage, mainly because they are vaguely defined or incommensurable. Our analysis identifies prospects for future modeling in the field of integrated assessment that link standard E3-CGE-models to themespecific complementary models with environmental and social focus. (author)
After messages by different managers, this report proposes a description of the context for nuclear safety: group's policy in matters of nuclear safety and radiation protection, regulatory changes (in France, with respect to information, changes in administrative organization, overhaul of general technical regulations, international context). It describes the organizational changes which occurred within the company. It reports actions regarding transparency, briefly describes actions and principles aimed at improving safety, indicates and comments noteworthy nuclear events, discusses their assessment from a HOF (human and organizational factors) perspective, comments lessons learned from inspections, comments data regarding radiation protection and actions aimed at improving radiation protection. It discusses environmental impact issues. It addresses the different processes and factors which transversely appear in nuclear safety: safety management, human and organizational factors, safety in design, project management, and emergency management. Several specific risks are discussed: criticality control, nuclear materials safeguards, fire, spill prevention, transportation, radioactive waste, shutdown and dismantling, service operations, mining, and environmental liabilities. Document in French and in English
Vigfusson, J.; Franck, E.
Typically, a lot of interesting and important details add up to give a coherent and convincing picture of a safe repository. A good portion of these details must be studied and the scientific basis of the system must be clearly understood by the reviewing authority in order to be able to pass a judgement on the safety case. HSK has already received a large part of the documentation relating to the project, including the three high level documents that summarize the synthesis of the geological information, the demonstration of repository design and construction feasibility and the safety case. After a first look at the contents of the documentation we would like to complement Nagra on the maturity and clarity of the presentation in these reports. At this early stage, we shall not present any review judgements. The reviewer usually is dependent upon having not only the high level documents but also all the detailed reference reports in front of him in order to do his job, and HSK is still receiving very relevant documents. Thus we are still at the very beginning of our review. Here, we offer some comments of general nature about the review process and mention a few points that seem to be uppermost in our mind at this stage. (author)
Zahrou, Fatima Ezzahra; Azlaf, Mehdi; El Menchawy, Imane; El Mzibri, Mohamed; El Kari, Khalid; El Hamdouchi, Asmaa; Mouzouni, Fatima-Zahra; Barkat, Amina; Aguenaou, Hassan
Iodine is required for the production of the thyroid hormones essential for the growth and development of the brain. All forms of iodine deficiency (ID) affect the mental development of the child. Our study aims to assess the impact of ID on the intellectual development of Moroccan schoolchildren and to evaluate the effect of consumption of fortified milk on reducing ID. In a double-blind controlled trial conducted on schoolchildren, children were divided into two groups to receive fortified milk (30% of cover of RDI iodine) or nonfortified milk for 9 months. Urinary iodine was analyzed using the Sandell-Kolthoff reaction, a dynamic cognitive test using Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices to assess learning potential was performed at baseline and end line, and anthropometric assessment was done only at baseline. The study included schoolchildren who were severely iodine deficient. The prevalence of malnutrition was high in both groups; in this study, we found improvements in iodine status and in cognitive abilities among Moroccan schoolchildren. Our study showed that the consumption of fortified milk led to a clear improvement in iodine status and also appeared to have a favorable effect on the cognitive ability of Moroccan schoolchildren in a rural mountainous region.
Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Stroke can lead to permanent disabilities, including motor and cognitive impairments. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of Tai Chi training on cognitive status, dynamic balance, and quality of life in women with stroke. Methods: In this quasi-experimental study, 20 women with stroke (mean age, 65.8±3.5 years; weight, 68.4±14kg; and body mass index, 26.3±5.1kg/m2 in Qom city, were selected voluntarily and randomly divided into experimental (N=10 and control (N=10 groups. Cognitive status, dynamic balance, and quality of life were assessed by Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE and SF-36 quality of life questionnaires and Timed Up and Go test. Tai Chi group trained for 6 weeks, three 60-minute sessions per week (a 10-minute warm-up period, a 40-minute simplified Tai Chi exercise, and a 10-minute cool-down period. Data were analyzed using dependent and independent t-tests and (p0.05. Conclusion: According to de results of the study, it can be said that Tai Chi training as a low-intensity and simple training improves dynamic balance and quality of life in women with stroke.
Fatima Ezzahra Zahrou
Full Text Available Iodine is required for the production of the thyroid hormones essential for the growth and development of the brain. All forms of iodine deficiency (ID affect the mental development of the child. Our study aims to assess the impact of ID on the intellectual development of Moroccan schoolchildren and to evaluate the effect of consumption of fortified milk on reducing ID. In a double-blind controlled trial conducted on schoolchildren, children were divided into two groups to receive fortified milk (30% of cover of RDI iodine or nonfortified milk for 9 months. Urinary iodine was analyzed using the Sandell-Kolthoff reaction, a dynamic cognitive test using Raven’s Standard Progressive Matrices to assess learning potential was performed at baseline and end line, and anthropometric assessment was done only at baseline. The study included schoolchildren who were severely iodine deficient. The prevalence of malnutrition was high in both groups; in this study, we found improvements in iodine status and in cognitive abilities among Moroccan schoolchildren. Our study showed that the consumption of fortified milk led to a clear improvement in iodine status and also appeared to have a favorable effect on the cognitive ability of Moroccan schoolchildren in a rural mountainous region.
Full Text Available Background: In jobs where human contact is like nursing, more tension there. This destructive and multidimensional phenomenon can be increased absenteeism, reduced work efficiency and create energy and physical and mental illnesses lead to a decline in the quality of patient care. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between stress and general health and help reduce the stress they are. Methods: This cross-sectional study on 78 public health nurses and Grft.prsshOsipow questionnaire included demographic information, job stress indicators (6 Stress workload involved, incompetence of duality role, scope, roles, responsibilities and physical environment and public health have been classified. Results: The findings show different aspects of occupational stress on 2/49% of the variation in the role and functions of stress, mild confusion, the burden of duties (45%, responsibility and physical environment (62%, stress higher. The aspects of public health, 48% of nurses in the physical symptoms (moderate and (63% of anxiety in the top 40 percent in the social dysfunction in Hdpayyn and 40% of the depression at the bottom were evaluated. Conclusion: The results of this study were determined and compared with previous studies in the same field Create occupational stress can adversely affect the performance of nurses and public health they have.Implementing ways to reduce stress and burnout can promote mental health nurses to help improve the quality of nursing care.The results will help health systems to create a quiet working conditions largely reduce occupational stress.
Dogan, Sebnem Koldas; Aytur, Yesim Kurtais; Atbasoglu, Cem
It was aimed to investigate the existence of the symptoms related to fibromyalgia in the first-degree relatives or spouses of the patients and to assess the psychologic and general health status of these individuals and the correlation of these with the patients' status. Thirty-seven patients with FS, 32 first-degree relatives or spouses of the patients and 30 healthy subjects as a control group were included. Symptoms related to FS were recorded in all subjects. Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire and Nottingham Health Profile were used to assess the components of functional status and quality of life. General health status was evaluated by General Health Questionnaire. Beck Depression Inventory and Beck Anxiety Inventory were used to assess the psychologic status. There were significant differences in the frequency of the symptoms between three groups (P 0.05). No fibromyalgia symptoms or signs were detected in the relatives/spouses. The general health status, psychologic status and quality of life were found to be not impaired in relatives/spouses of the patients with FS.
Olmedo Carrillo, Pablo; García Fuentes, Eduardo; Gutiérrez Alcántara, Carmen; Serrano Quero, Manuel; Moreno Martínez, Macarena; Ureña Fernández, Tomás; Santiago Fernández, Piedad
Iodine deficiency affecting both pregnant women and schoolchildren has been reported in Jaén. Iodine deficiency is one of the leading causes of thyroid dysfunction and goiter, and adequate iodine prophylaxis with iodized salt, milk, and dairy products, or iodine supplementation have been shown to significantly improve iodine status in pregnancy. The purpose of this study was to assess iodine nutritional status in the general population of a iodine-deficient area with no previous institutional campaigns of iodine prophylaxis. A descriptive, cross-sectional study. Urinary iodine levels were measured in subjects from the Jaén healthcare district. The data were stratified by sex and age groups, and a survey was conducted on iodized salt consumption. Median and mean urinary iodine levels were 110.59 mcg/L and 130.11 mcg/L respectively. Urinary iodine levels were significantly higher in schoolchildren as compared to other age groups (161.52μg/L vs 109.33μg/L in subjects older than 65 years). Forty-three percent of the population had urinary iodine levels less than 100μg/L, and 68% of women of childbearing age had levels less than 150μg/L. Iodine nutritional status appears to be adequate, but the proportion of the population with urinary iodine levels less than 100μg/L is still very high, and iodized salt consumption is much less common than recommended by the WHO. Copyright © 2015 SEEN. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Yoneda, Minoru; Abe-Ouchi, Ayako; Kawahata, Hodaka; Yokoyama, Yusuke; Oguchi, Takashi
The impact of climate change on human evolution is important and debating topic for many years. Since 2010, we have involved in a general joint project entitled "Replacement of Neanderthal by Modern Humans: Testing Evolutional Models of Learning", which based on a theoretical prediction that the cognitive ability related to individual and social learning divide fates of ancient humans in very unstable Late Pleistocene climate. This model predicts that the human populations which experienced a series of environmental changes would have higher rate of individual learners, while detailed reconstructions of global climate change have reported fluent and drastic change based on ice cores and stalagmites. However, we want to understand the difference between anatomically modern human which survived and the other archaic extinct humans including European Neanderthals and Asian Denisovans. For this purpose the global synchronized change is not useful for understanding but the regional difference in the amplitude and impact of climate change is the information required. Hence, we invited a geophysicist busing Global Circulation Model to reconstruct the climatic distribution and temporal change in a continental scale. At the same time, some geochemists and geographers construct a database of local climate changes recorded in different proxies. At last, archaeologists and anthropologists tried to interpret the emergence and disappearance of human species in Europe and Asia on the reconstructed past climate maps using some tools, such as Eco-cultural niche model. Our project will show the regional difference in climate change and related archaeological events and its impact on the evolution of learning ability of modern humans.
Murakami, Hiroyuki; Hino, Sadami; Tsuru, Hisanori
The Japan Nuclear Human Resource Development Network (JN-HRD Net) was established in November 2010 with the aim of developing a framework for mutual cooperation and information sharing among nuclear-related organizations. Although the tasks and goals of developing human resources in the nuclear field have been shifted since the accident at the Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO) Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant, the necessity of fostering capable personnel in this field stays unchanged and the importance of our network activities has further emphasized. The meeting of JN-HRD Net was held on the 5th of February 2013, where its activities by each field were reported and views and opinions were actively exchanged between more than 90 participants. This paper briefly describes current status and issues of JN-HRD Net and its general activities conducted by the JN-HRD Net secretariat. (J.P.N.)
Bielak, Allison A. M.; Hultsch, David F.; Levy-Ajzenkopf, Judi; MacDonald, Stuart W. S.; Hunter, Michael A.; Strauss, Esther
We examined short-term changes in younger and older adults' control beliefs. Participants completed measures of general and memory-specific competence and locus of control on 10 bi-monthly occasions. At each occasion, participants rated their control beliefs prior to and following completion of a battery of cognitive tasks. Exposure to the set of…
Newman, Michelle G.; Castonguay, Louis G.; Borkovec, Thomas D.; Fisher, Aaron J.; Boswell, James F.; Szkodny, Lauren E.; Nordberg, Samuel S.
Objective: Recent models suggest that generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) symptoms may be maintained by emotional processing avoidance and interpersonal problems. Method: This is the first randomized controlled trial to test directly whether cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) could be augmented with the addition of a module targeting interpersonal…
G. Davies (Gail); N.J. Armstrong (Nicola J.); J.C. Bis (Joshua); J. Bressler (Jan); V. Chouraki (Vincent); S. Giddaluru (Sudheer); E. Hofer; C.A. Ibrahim-Verbaas (Carla); M. Kirin (Mirna); J. Lahti; S.J. van der Lee (Sven); S. Le Hellard (Stephanie); T. Liu; R.E. Marioni (Riccardo); C. Oldmeadow (Christopher); D. Postmus (Douwe); G.D. Smith; J.A. Smith (Jennifer A); A. Thalamuthu (Anbupalam); R. Thomson (Russell); V. Vitart (Veronique); J. Wang; L. Yu; L. Zgaga (Lina); W. Zhao (Wei); R. Boxall (Ruth); S.E. Harris (Sarah); W.D. Hill (W. David); D.C. Liewald (David C.); M. Luciano (Michelle); H.H.H. Adams (Hieab); D. Ames (David); N. Amin (Najaf); P. Amouyel (Philippe); A.A. Assareh; R. Au; J.T. Becker (James); A. Beiser; C. Berr (Claudine); L. Bertram (Lars); E.A. Boerwinkle (Eric); B.M. Buckley (Brendan M.); H. Campbell (Harry); J. Corley; P.L. De Jager; C. Dufouil (Carole); J.G. Eriksson (Johan G.); T. Espeseth (Thomas); J.D. Faul; I. Ford; G. Scotland (Generation); R.F. Gottesman (Rebecca); M.D. Griswold (Michael); V. Gudnason (Vilmundur); T.B. Harris; G. Heiss (Gerardo); A. Hofman (Albert); E.G. Holliday (Elizabeth); J.E. Huffman (Jennifer); S.L.R. Kardia (Sharon); N.A. Kochan (Nicole A.); D.S. Knopman (David); J.B. Kwok; J.-C. Lambert; T. Lee; G. Li; S.-C. Li; M. Loitfelder (Marisa); O.L. Lopez (Oscar); A.J. Lundervold; A. Lundqvist; R. Mather; S.S. Mirza (Saira); L. Nyberg; B.A. Oostra (Ben); A. Palotie (Aarno); G. Papenberg; A. Pattie (Alison); K. Petrovic (Katja); O. Polasek (Ozren); B.M. Psaty (Bruce); P. Redmond (Paul); S. Reppermund; J.I. Rotter; R. Schmidt (Reinhold); M. Schuur (Maaike); P.W. Schofield; R.J. Scott; V.M. Steen (Vidar); D.J. Stott (David J.); J.C. van Swieten (John); K.D. Taylor (Kent); J. Trollor; S. Trompet (Stella); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); G. Weinstein; E. Widen (Elisabeth); B.G. Windham (B Gwen); J.W. Jukema (Jan Wouter); A. Wright (Alan); M.J. Wright (Margaret); Q. Yang (Qiong Fang); H. Amieva (Hélène); J. Attia (John); D.A. Bennett (David); H. Brodaty (Henry); A.J. de Craen (Anton); C. Hayward; M.A. Ikram (Arfan); U. Lindenberger; L.-G. Nilsson; D.J. Porteous (David J.); K. Räikkönen (Katri); I. Reinvang (Ivar); I. Rudan (Igor); P.S. Sachdev (Perminder); R. Schmidt; P. Schofield (Peter); V. Srikanth; J.M. Starr (John); S.T. Turner (Stephen); D.R. Weir (David R.); J.F. Wilson (James F); C.M. van Duijn (Cornelia); L.J. Launer (Lenore); A.L. Fitzpatrick (Annette); S. Seshadri (Sudha); T.H. Mosley (Thomas H.); I.J. Deary (Ian J.)
textabstractGeneral cognitive function is substantially heritable across the human life course from adolescence to old age. We investigated the genetic contribution to variation in this important, health- and well-being-related trait in middle-aged and older adults. We conducted a meta-analysis of
In this theoretical and speculative essay, I propose that insights into certain aspects of neural system functions can be gained from viewing brain function in terms of the branch of Statistical Mechanics currently referred to as "Modern Critical Theory" [Stanley, H.E., 1987. Introduction to Phase Transitions and Critical Phenomena. Oxford University Press; Marro, J., Dickman, R., 1999. Nonequilibrium Phase Transitions in Lattice Models. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK]. The application of this framework is here explored in two stages: in the first place, its principles are applied to state transitions in global brain dynamics, with benchmarks of Cognitive Neuroscience providing the relevant empirical reference points. The second stage generalizes to suggest in more detail how the same principles could also apply to the relation between other levels of the structural-functional hierarchy of the nervous system and between neural assemblies. In this view, state transitions resulting from the processing at one level are the input to the next, in the image of a 'bucket brigade', with the content of each bucket being passed on along the chain, after having undergone a state transition. The unique features of a process of this kind will be discussed and illustrated.
Button, Melissa L; Westra, Henny A; Hara, Kimberley M; Aviram, Adi
Resistance and ambivalence about change are increasingly recognized as important determinants of treatment outcomes. Moreover, resistance and ambivalence are thought to be theoretically related in that clients who are more ambivalent about change are more likely to demonstrate resistance to the process and tasks of treatment. In the context of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) for generalized anxiety disorder, the present study simultaneously examined early resistance and ambivalence using two observer-based coding systems in order to determine their inter-relationship and, importantly, to investigate their relative contributions to outcome. Resistance was also coded during mid-treatment in order to investigate possible mediation pathways. Early ambivalence (clients' arguments against change or counter-change talk) was found to be no longer related to outcomes when early resistance was taken into account, suggesting that disharmony in the therapeutic relationship is more important to outcomes than ambivalence per se. Moreover, mid-treatment resistance partially mediated the relationship between early resistance and post-treatment worry severity. That is, higher early opposition to therapist direction is related to poorer outcomes, in part because it is associated with greater resistance during the working phase of CBT. The findings underscore the critical need for therapists to be sensitive to identifying resistance early and throughout treatment.
Kjaersdam Telléus, Gry; Fagerlund, Birgitte; Jepsen, Jens Richardt; Bentz, Mette; Christiansen, Eva; Valentin, Jan Brink; Thomsen, Per Hove
The aim of this study was to characterise the association between the cognitive profile and weight restoration in children and adolescents with anorexia nervosa. The study was a longitudinal, matched case-control, multicentre study. An assessment of cognitive functions was conducted by using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-III/the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III, the Test of Memory and Learning-second edition, Trail Making Tests A and B, the Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test and the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery. One hundred twenty individuals, 60 patients with anorexia nervosa with mean age of 14.65 (SD 1.820) years and 60 healthy controls with mean age of 14.76 (SD 1.704) years, participated. No association was found between weight recovery and cognitive functions. However, a significant increase in motor speed was found in Trail Making Test A (p = 0.004), Reaction Time (RTI) five-choice movement time (p = 0.002) and RTI simple movement time (p = 0.011), resulting in a normalisation corresponding to that found in healthy controls. Furthermore, a significantly lower score in the perceptual organization index (p = 0.029) was found at follow-up. Weight recovery appears not to be associated with cognition. Copyright © 2016 The Authors European Eating Disorders Review published by Eating Disorders Association and John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Copyright © 2016 The Authors European Eating Disorders Review published by Eating Disorders Association and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Malik, U.E.; Ahmed, N.; Hyder, R.R.
To study the pattern of cognitive impairment after giving total intravenous anesthesia Vs general anesthesia for ECT for patients of Depressive Episode Severe. Study Design: Randomized controlled trial. Place and Duration of Study: Combined Military Hospital Skardu, from 15 Jul 2015 till 15 Jan 2016. Material and Methods: Hundred patients fulfilling the inclusion criteria were included by consecutive sampling technique for this study and divided in to two groups of 50 each. Patients of group A were given TIVA (propofol + succinylcholine). Patients in group B received GA (propofol + succinylcholine + isoflurane). Cognitive functions of patient were assessed by psychiatrist via mini mental state examination (MMSE) test before ECT and two weeks after ECT respectively. Results: Both the groups were assessed for cognitive impairment after TIVA Vs GA. In group A the MMSE showed less cognitive impairment as compared to group B (p<0.05). Conclusion: Cognitive impairment is less in total intravenous anesthesia as compared to general anesthesia for ECT in patients of depressive episode severe. (author)
Cheng, Ching-Yu; Li, Qing
Postpartum mothers experience certain physical health conditions that may affect their quality of life, future health, and health of their children. Yet, the physical health of postpartum mothers is relatively neglected in both research and practice. The purpose of this review is to describe the general health status and prevalence of common physical health conditions of postpartum mothers. The review followed standard procedures for integrative literature reviews. Twenty-two articles were reviewed from searches in scientific databases, reference lists, and an up-to-date survey. Three tables were designed to answer review questions. In general, postpartum mothers self-rate their health as good. They experience certain physical conditions such as fatigue/physical exhaustion, sleep-related problems, pain, sex-related concerns, hemorrhoids/constipation, and breast problems. Despite a limited number of studies, the findings provide a glimpse of the presence of a number of physical health conditions experienced by women in the 2 years postpartum. In the articles reviewed, physical health conditions and postpartum period were poorly defined, no standard scales existed, and the administration of surveys varied widely in time. Those disparities prevented systematic comparisons of results and made it difficult to gain a coherent understanding of the physical health conditions of postpartum mothers. More longitudinal research is needed that focuses on the etiology, predictors, and management of the health conditions most prevalent among postpartum mothers. Instruments are needed that target a broader range of physical conditions in respect to type and severity.
Kaya, Derya; Isik, Ahmet Turan; Usarel, Cansu; Soysal, Pinar; Ellidokuz, Hulya; Grossberg, George T
Presence of detailed screening instruments to detect cognitive impairment in the older adults' culture and language is very essential. The Saint Louis University Mental Status Examination (SLUMS) is one of cognitive screening scales used. The aim of the study was to establish the validity and reliability of the Turkish version of SLUMS (SLUMS-T). Two hundred seventy-four participants aged 60 years and older admitted to our geriatric clinic were screened for cognitive impairment using SLUMS-T and Mini-Mental State Examination. Internal consistency was analyzed with Cronbach α test. Area under curves of receiver operating characteristic analyses were used to test the predictive accuracy of the SLUMS-T for detecting amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and Alzheimer disease (AD) to set an appropriate cut-off point. The SLUMS-T scores were positively correlated with the Mini-Mental State Examination scores of the patients with aMCI and patients with AD and controls (r = 0.687, P < .001; r = 0.880, P < .001; respectively). Internal consistency of the SLUMS-T was Cronbach α = 0.85. It was found that SLUMS-T with a cut-off point of 23 had a sensitivity of 66.6% and a specificity of 72.3% for the diagnosis of aMCI, and with a cut-off point of 20 had a sensitivity of 83.8% and a specificity of 87.3% for the diagnosis of AD. SLUMS-T was demonstrated to have sufficient validity and reliability to evaluate cognitive impairment including MCI among Turkish elderly people. Copyright © 2016 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine. All rights reserved.
Davies, G; Armstrong, N; Bis, J C; Bressler, J; Chouraki, V; Giddaluru, S; Hofer, E; Ibrahim-Verbaas, C A; Kirin, M; Lahti, J; van der Lee, S J; Le Hellard, S; Liu, T; Marioni, R E; Oldmeadow, C; Postmus, I; Smith, A V; Smith, J A; Thalamuthu, A; Thomson, R; Vitart, V; Wang, J; Yu, L; Zgaga, L; Zhao, W; Boxall, R; Harris, S E; Hill, W D; Liewald, D C; Luciano, M; Adams, H; Ames, D; Amin, N; Amouyel, P; Assareh, A A; Au, R; Becker, J T; Beiser, A; Berr, C; Bertram, L; Boerwinkle, E; Buckley, B M; Campbell, H; Corley, J; De Jager, P L; Dufouil, C; Eriksson, J G; Espeseth, T; Faul, J D; Ford, I; Scotland, Generation; Gottesman, R F; Griswold, M E; Gudnason, V; Harris, T B; Heiss, G; Hofman, A; Holliday, E G; Huffman, J; Kardia, S L R; Kochan, N; Knopman, D S; Kwok, J B; Lambert, J-C; Lee, T; Li, G; Li, S-C; Loitfelder, M; Lopez, O L; Lundervold, A J; Lundqvist, A; Mather, K A; Mirza, S S; Nyberg, L; Oostra, B A; Palotie, A; Papenberg, G; Pattie, A; Petrovic, K; Polasek, O; Psaty, B M; Redmond, P; Reppermund, S; Rotter, J I; Schmidt, H; Schuur, M; Schofield, P W; Scott, R J; Steen, V M; Stott, D J; van Swieten, J C; Taylor, K D; Trollor, J; Trompet, S; Uitterlinden, A G; Weinstein, G; Widen, E; Windham, B G; Jukema, J W; Wright, A F; Wright, M J; Yang, Q; Amieva, H; Attia, J R; Bennett, D A; Brodaty, H; de Craen, A J M; Hayward, C; Ikram, M A; Lindenberger, U; Nilsson, L-G; Porteous, D J; Räikkönen, K; Reinvang, I; Rudan, I; Sachdev, P S; Schmidt, R; Schofield, P R; Srikanth, V; Starr, J M; Turner, S T; Weir, D R; Wilson, J F; van Duijn, C; Launer, L; Fitzpatrick, A L; Seshadri, S; Mosley, T H; Deary, I J
General cognitive function is substantially heritable across the human life course from adolescence to old age. We investigated the genetic contribution to variation in this important, health- and well-being-related trait in middle-aged and older adults. We conducted a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies of 31 cohorts (N=53 949) in which the participants had undertaken multiple, diverse cognitive tests. A general cognitive function phenotype was tested for, and created in each cohort by principal component analysis. We report 13 genome-wide significant single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) associations in three genomic regions, 6q16.1, 14q12 and 19q13.32 (best SNP and closest gene, respectively: rs10457441, P=3.93 × 10−9, MIR2113; rs17522122, P=2.55 × 10−8, AKAP6; rs10119, P=5.67 × 10−9, APOE/TOMM40). We report one gene-based significant association with the HMGN1 gene located on chromosome 21 (P=1 × 10−6). These genes have previously been associated with neuropsychiatric phenotypes. Meta-analysis results are consistent with a polygenic model of inheritance. To estimate SNP-based heritability, the genome-wide complex trait analysis procedure was applied to two large cohorts, the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study (N=6617) and the Health and Retirement Study (N=5976). The proportion of phenotypic variation accounted for by all genotyped common SNPs was 29% (s.e.=5%) and 28% (s.e.=7%), respectively. Using polygenic prediction analysis, ~1.2% of the variance in general cognitive function was predicted in the Generation Scotland cohort (N=5487; P=1.5 × 10−17). In hypothesis-driven tests, there was significant association between general cognitive function and four genes previously associated with Alzheimer's disease: TOMM40, APOE, ABCG1 and MEF2C. PMID:25644384
Kusano, Chika; Yamada, Nobuo; Kikuchi, Kenji; Hashimoto, Masaji; Gotoda, Takuji
Background: There has been debate over the indications for percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) in recent years in Japan. In addition, the level of satisfaction of patients and patient’s family after PEG remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the current status of PEG and the level of satisfaction of patients and patients’ families after PEG in Japan. Methods: We reviewed the existing data of all patients who underwent PEG tube insertion at Yuri Kumiai General Hospital (Akita, Japan) between February 2000 and December 2010. We examined the following points: underlying diseases requiring PEG, levels of consciousness, and performance status. We also sent a questionnaire to the patients and patient’s families to ask about their satisfaction with and thoughts about PEG. Results: The data of 545 patients who underwent PEG were reviewed. There were 295 men and 250 women, with a mean age of 77.2 ± 11.4 years. PEG was indicated most frequently for cerebrovascular disorders (48.2%, 239/545). There were 515 (94.4%, 515/545) patients showing consciousness disturbance and 444 (81.5%, 444/545) bedridden patients. The questionnaire was answered by one patient himself and 316 patients’ families. When asked, “Was performing PEG a good decision?”, 57.5% (182/316) of the patients’ families answered yes. Meanwhile, when patients’ family members were asked if they would wish to undergo PEG if they were in the same condition as the patient, 28.4% (90/316) answered yes, whereas 55.3% (175/316) answered no. Conclusions: Few patients were able to make their own decision about PEG tube placement because of consciousness disturbance. As a result, many family members of the patients did not want to experience PEG for themselves. Future studies should be performed to clarify the quality of life and ethical aspects associated with PEG. PMID:27313796
Sengupta, Nikhil K; Osborne, Danny; Sibley, Chris G
The status-legitimacy hypothesis, which predicts that low-status groups will legitimize inequality more than high-status groups, has received inconsistent empirical support. To resolve this inconsistency, we hypothesized that low-status groups would display enhanced legitimation only when evaluating the fairness of the specific hierarchy responsible for their disadvantage. In a New Zealand-based probability sample (N = 6,162), we found that low-status ethnic groups (Asians and Pacific Islanders) perceived ethnic-group relations to be fairer than the high-status group (Europeans). However, these groups did not justify the overall political system more than the high-status group. In fact, Māori showed the least support for the political system. These findings clarify when the controversial status-legitimacy effects predicted by System Justification Theory will - and will not - emerge. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.
Bascandziev, Igor; Tardiff, Nathan; Zaitchik, Deborah; Carey, Susan
Some episodes of learning are easier than others. Preschoolers can learn certain facts, such as "my grandmother gave me this purse," only after one or two exposures (easy to learn; fast mapping), but they require several years to learn that plants are alive or that the sun is not alive (hard to learn). One difference between the two kinds of knowledge acquisition is that hard cases often require conceptual construction, such as the construction of the biological concept alive, whereas easy cases merely involve forming new beliefs formulated over concepts the child already has (belief revision, a form of knowledge enrichment). We asked whether different domain-general cognitive resources support these two types of knowledge acquisition (conceptual construction and knowledge enrichment that supports fast mapping) by testing 82 6-year-olds in a pre-training/training/post-training study. We measured children's improvement in an episode involving theory construction (the beginning steps of acquisition of the framework theory of vitalist biology, which requires conceptual change) and in an episode involving knowledge enrichment alone (acquisition of little known facts about animals, such as the location of crickets' ears and the color of octopus blood). In addition, we measured children's executive functions and receptive vocabulary to directly compare the resources drawn upon in the two episodes of learning. We replicated and extended previous findings highlighting the differences between conceptual construction and knowledge enrichment, and we found that Executive Functions predict improvement on the Vitalism battery but not on the Fun Facts battery and that Receptive Vocabulary predicts improvement the Fun Facts battery but not on the Vitalism battery. This double dissociation provides new evidence for the distinction between the two types of knowledge acquisition, and bears on the nature of the learning mechanisms involved in each. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All
Reuben, Aaron; Caspi, Avshalom; Belsky, Daniel W.; Broadbent, Jonathan; Harrington, Honalee; Sugden, Karen; Houts, Renate M.; Ramrakha, Sandhya; Poulton, Richie; Moffitt, Terrie E.
Importance Many children in the US and around the world are exposed to lead, a developmental neurotoxin. The long-term cognitive and socioeconomic consequences of lead exposure are uncertain. Objective To test the hypothesis that childhood lead exposure is associated with cognitive function and socioeconomic status in adulthood and with changes in IQ and socioeconomic mobility between childhood and midlife. Design, Setting, and Participants Prospective cohort study based on a population-representative 1972–73 birth cohort from New Zealand, the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study, followed to age 38 years (December, 2012). Exposure Childhood lead exposure ascertained as blood-lead levels measured at 11 years. High blood-lead levels were observed among children from all socioeconomic status levels in this cohort. Main Outcomes and Measures The IQ (primary outcome) and indexes of Verbal Comprehension, Perceptual Reasoning, Working Memory, and Processing Speed (secondary outcomes) were assessed at 38 years using the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale–IV (WAIS-IV; IQ range 40–160). Socioeconomic status (primary outcome) was assessed at 38 years using the New Zealand Socioeconomic Index-2006, (NZSEI-06; range 10=lowest-90=highest). Results Of 1037 original participants, 1007 were alive at 38 years, of whom 565 (56%) had been lead tested at 11 years (54% male; 93% white). Mean blood-lead level at 11 years was 10.99μg/dL (SD=4.63). Among blood-tested participants included at 38 years, mean WAIS-IV score was 101.16 (SD=14.82) and mean NZSEI-06 score was 49.75 (SD=17.12). After adjusting for maternal IQ, childhood IQ, and childhood socioeconomic status, each 5μg/dL higher level of blood-lead in childhood was associated with a 1.61-point lower score (95%CI:−2.48, −0.74) in adult IQ, a 2.07-point lower score (95%CI: −3.14, −1.01) in Perceptual Reasoning, and a 1.26-point lower score (95%CI: −2.38, −0.14) in Working Memory. Lead
Reuben, Aaron; Caspi, Avshalom; Belsky, Daniel W; Broadbent, Jonathan; Harrington, Honalee; Sugden, Karen; Houts, Renate M; Ramrakha, Sandhya; Poulton, Richie; Moffitt, Terrie E
Many children in the United States and around the world are exposed to lead, a developmental neurotoxin. The long-term cognitive and socioeconomic consequences of lead exposure are uncertain. To test the hypothesis that childhood lead exposure is associated with cognitive function and socioeconomic status in adulthood and with changes in IQ and socioeconomic mobility between childhood and midlife. A prospective cohort study based on a population-representative 1972-1973 birth cohort from New Zealand; the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study observed participants to age 38 years (until December 2012). Childhood lead exposure ascertained as blood lead levels measured at age 11 years. High blood lead levels were observed among children from all socioeconomic status levels in this cohort. The IQ (primary outcome) and indexes of Verbal Comprehension, Perceptual Reasoning, Working Memory, and Processing Speed (secondary outcomes) were assessed at age 38 years using the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-IV (WAIS-IV; IQ range, 40-160). Socioeconomic status (primary outcome) was assessed at age 38 years using the New Zealand Socioeconomic Index-2006 (NZSEI-06; range, 10 [lowest]-90 [highest]). Of 1037 original participants, 1007 were alive at age 38 years, of whom 565 (56%) had been lead tested at age 11 years (54% male; 93% white). Mean (SD) blood lead level at age 11 years was 10.99 (4.63) µg/dL. Among blood-tested participants included at age 38 years, mean WAIS-IV score was 101.16 (14.82) and mean NZSEI-06 score was 49.75 (17.12). After adjusting for maternal IQ, childhood IQ, and childhood socioeconomic status, each 5-µg/dL higher level of blood lead in childhood was associated with a 1.61-point lower score (95% CI, -2.48 to -0.74) in adult IQ, a 2.07-point lower score (95% CI, -3.14 to -1.01) in perceptual reasoning, and a 1.26-point lower score (95% CI, -2.38 to -0.14) in working memory. Associations of childhood blood lead level with deficits in
Van de Cavey, Joris; Hartsuiker, Robert J
Cognitive processing in many domains (e.g., sentence comprehension, music listening, and math solving) requires sequential information to be organized into an integrational structure. There appears to be some overlap in integrational processing across domains, as shown by cross-domain interference effects when for example linguistic and musical stimuli are jointly presented (Koelsch, Gunter, Wittfoth, & Sammler, 2005; Slevc, Rosenberg, & Patel, 2009). These findings support theories of overlapping resources for integrational processing across domains (cfr. SSIRH Patel, 2003; SWM, Kljajevic, 2010). However, there are some limitations to the studies mentioned above, such as the frequent use of unnaturalistic integrational difficulties. In recent years, the idea has risen that evidence for domain-generality in structural processing might also be yielded though priming paradigms (cfr. Scheepers, 2003). The rationale behind this is that integrational processing across domains regularly requires the processing of dependencies across short or long distances in the sequence, involving respectively less or more syntactic working memory resources (cfr. SWM, Kljajevic, 2010), and such processing decisions might persist over time. However, whereas recent studies have shown suggestive priming of integrational structure between language and arithmetics (though often dependent on arithmetic performance, cfr. Scheepers et al., 2011; Scheepers & Sturt, 2014), it remains to be investigated to what extent we can also find evidence for priming in other domains, such as music and action (cfr. SWM, Kljajevic, 2010). Experiment 1a showed structural priming from the processing of musical sequences onto the position in the sentence structure (early or late) to which a relative clause was attached in subsequent sentence completion. Importantly, Experiment 1b showed that a similar structural manipulation based on non-hierarchically ordered color sequences did not yield any priming effect
Full Text Available The problem of selection and application of dental prostheses in periodontal disease is especially relevant in case of severe generalized periodontitis, which is accompanied by mobile tooth removal resulting in overloading the periodontium of the remaining teeth as well as the increase in tooth mobility. Therefore, in generalized periodontitis, it is important to apply the method of direct dental prosthetic rehabilitation since, in case of partial tooth loss, it will prevent the development of generalized periodontitis complications. The objective of the research was to improve the effectiveness of combination therapy for patients with generalized periodontitis and partial tooth loss applying the developed method of direct fixed dental prosthetic rehabilitation based on the study of the periodontal status. Materials and methods. The study included 129 patients with general periodontitis, II-III degree and partial tooth loss over the age of 45 years. According to prosthodontic treatment, all the patients were divided into three groups: Group I consisted of 42 (20 women and 22 men patients who immediately after tooth extraction were rehabilitated with the application of direct plastic laminar immediate prosthesis and selective tooth grinding; permanent dental prosthetic rehabilitation was performed 6 weeks after tooth extraction; Group II included 43 (21 women and 22 men patients who underwent traditional permanent dental prosthetic rehabilitation using fixed dental bridges 6 weeks after mobile tooth removal and wound healing; Group III comprised 44 (21 women and 23 men patients who immediately after mobile tooth removal were rehabilitated with the application of direct fixed sectional dental bridge (Ukrainian patent UA 20995. 2007 Feb 15 and selective tooth grinding; permanent dental prosthetic rehabilitation was performed 6 months after tooth extraction. The control group consisted of 26 people with intact dentitions over the age of 45 years
Kimura, Yumi; Ogawa, Hiroshi; Yoshihara, Akihiro; Yamaga, Takayuki; Takiguchi, Tomoya; Wada, Taizo; Sakamoto, Ryota; Ishimoto, Yasuko; Fukutomi, Eriko; Chen, Wenling; Fujisawa, Michiko; Okumiya, Kiyohito; Otsuka, Kuniaki; Miyazaki, Hideo; Matsubayashi, Kozo
The aim of this study was to assess chewing ability using color-changeable chewing gum and to show the association between chewing ability and geriatric functions, as well as dietary status in the community-dwelling elderly. The study population consisted of 269 community-dwelling elderly aged ≥ 75 living in Tosa, Japan. Assessment of chewing ability was carried out by a dentist using color-changeable chewing gum. Activities of daily living (ADL), depression and subjective quality of life (QOL) were assessed by questionnaire. Cognitive status was assessed by; Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Hasegawa Dementia Scale-Revised (HDS-R) and Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB) during the check-up. Food diversity was assessed using the 11-item Food Diversity Score Kyoto (FDSK-11). Number of teeth was significantly related to chewing ability (Pchewing ability had significantly lower ADL scores in the items of self-maintenance (P=0.029) and intellectual activity (P=0.021). There was a significant association between low chewing ability and depression (Pchewing ability; MMSE (P=0.022), HDSR (P=0.017) and FAB (P=0.002). The participants with low chewing ability had lower food variety (Pchewing ability. Low chewing ability evaluated by color-changeable gum was associated with lower ADL, lower cognitive functioning, depression and food insufficiency in the community-dwelling elderly. More attention should be paid to assessing chewing ability of elderly persons in community settings. © 2012 Japan Geriatrics Society.
Ryuno, Hirochika; Kamide, Kei; Gondo, Yasuyuki; Kabayama, Mai; Oguro, Ryosuke; Nakama, Chikako; Yokoyama, Serina; Nagasawa, Motonori; Maeda-Hirao, Satomi; Imaizumi, Yuki; Takeya, Miyuki; Yamamoto, Hiroko; Takeda, Masao; Takami, Yoichi; Itoh, Norihisa; Takeya, Yasushi; Yamamoto, Koichi; Sugimoto, Ken; Nakagawa, Takeshi; Yasumoto, Saori; Ikebe, Kazunori; Inagaki, Hiroki; Masui, Yukie; Takayama, Michiyo; Arai, Yasumichi; Ishizaki, Tatsuro; Takahashi, Ryutaro; Rakugi, Hiromi
Both hypertension and diabetes in middle-aged individuals have been suggested to be predictive indicators of cognitive decline. However, the association of hypertension, diabetes and their combination with cognitive functioning is still controversial in older people. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between cognitive decline and hypertension, diabetes, and their combination in 70-year-old people based on a 3-year longitudinal analysis. Four hundred and fifty-four people aged 70 (±1) years who participated in the Japanese longitudinal cohort study of Septuagenarians, Octogenarians and Nonagenarians Investigation with Centenarians (SONIC) were recruited randomly from a general population and were monitored for 3 years. The data, including most of the demographics, cognitive functioning measured by the Montreal Cognitive Assessment Japanese version (MoCA-J), blood pressure, blood chemistry and other medical histories, were collected at baseline and during the follow-up. The prevalence of hypertension noted in the follow-up survey was significantly higher than than noted at baseline. The mean MoCA-J score at follow-up was not significantly different from the score obtained at baseline. However, the participants with diabetes, especially combined with hypertension at baseline, had significantly lower MoCA-J scores than those without lifestyle-related diseases. The combination of hypertension and diabetes was still a significant risk factor for cognitive decline, considering the MoCA-J scores obtained during the follow-up after adjustments at baseline, relative to sex, body mass index, dyslipidemia, smoking, excessive alcohol intake, antihypertensive treatment and education level (β=-0.14; Pdiabetes and the combination of hypertension and diabetes are clear risk factors for future cognitive decline in elderly individuals who are 70 years of age.
Sheffield, Julia M; Kandala, Sridhar; Burgess, Gregory C; Harms, Michael P; Barch, Deanna M
Psychosis is hypothesized to occur on a spectrum between psychotic disorders and healthy individuals. In the middle of the spectrum are individuals who endorse psychotic-like experiences (PLEs) that may not impact daily functioning or cause distress. Individuals with PLEs show alterations in both cognitive ability and functional connectivity of several brain networks, but the relationship between PLEs, cognition, and functional networks remains poorly understood. We analyzed resting-state fMRI data, a range of neuropsychological tasks, and questions from the Achenbach Adult Self Report (ASR) in 468 individuals from the Human Connectome Project. We aimed to determine whether global efficiency of specific functional brain networks supporting higher-order cognition (the fronto-parietal network (FPN), cingulo-opercular network (CON), and default mode network (DMN)) was associated with PLEs and cognitive ability in a non-psychiatric sample. 21.6% of individuals in our sample endorsed at least one PLE. PLEs were significantly negatively associated with higher-order cognitive ability, CON global efficiency, and DMN global efficiency, but not crystallized knowledge. Higher-order cognition was significantly positively associated with CON and DMN global efficiency. Interestingly, the association between PLEs and cognitive ability was partially mediated by CON global efficiency and, in a subset of individuals who tested negative for drugs (N=405), the participation coefficient of the right anterior insula (a hub within the CON). These findings suggest that CON integrity may represent a shared mechanism that confers risk for psychotic experiences and the cognitive deficits observed across the psychosis spectrum.
Polman, Annemiek; Bouman, Theo K.; van Hout, Wiljo J. P. J.; de Jong, Peter J.; den Boer, Johan A.
The present paper discusses theoretical and methodological issues involved in the processes of change in cognitive-behavioural treatment (CBT) of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Treatment outcome studies showed that CBT is effective in reducing obsessive-compulsive symptoms. However, why and
The historical events relating to the discovery of x-rays in 1895 by W.C. Roentgen, are briefly sketched and previous surveys on radiological protection in dental practice are critically examined. The most important factors influencing the radiation dose in dental radiography are discussed, as well as the biological effects of ionizing radiation. The aims and objectives of the study were to carry out a survey on a representative sample of dentists in private practice to ascertain the current status of dental radiological protection, to analyse the results and to compare them to the findings of surveys performed in other countries. The final aim was to be able to make, wherever necessary and possible, recommendations to improve the standard of radiation protection in general practice. A personal survey was made of 141 randomly-selected dental practices throughout the country. Observations and measurements were made and a questionnaire was completed by the investigator. The findings were subsequently analysed statistically by a computer and compared to both various norms and the findings of previous surveys carried out overseas. The results showed conclusively that, whereas, in general, the hazard to the dentist, staff members and persons in the environs, from dental radiology is low, to the patient it is significant. Various specific recommendations made include the replacement of the old low-kilovoltage x-ray machines, short, unlined plastic dental cones and faulty exposure timers. They include the promotion of the use of Speed Group E Film, the Paralleling technique, correct film processing techniques, professional judgement in the use of radiographs, leaded aprons, thyroid shields film badges and continuing education courses. The compulsory recording in the patient's own identity book of each patient exposure to x-radiation, from all sources, is also recommended
Thong, Melissa S.Y.; Mols, Floortje; Lemmens, Valery E.P.P.; Rutten, Harm J.T.; Roukema, Jan A.; Martijn, Hendrik; Poll-Franse, Lonneke V. van de
Purpose: To date, few studies have evaluated the impact of preoperative radiotherapy (pRT) on long-term health status of rectal cancer survivors. Using a population-based sample, we assessed the impact of pRT on general and disease-specific health status of rectal cancer survivors up to 10 years postdiagnosis. The health status of older (≥75 years old at diagnosis) pRT survivors was also compared with that of younger survivors. Methods and Materials: Survivors identified from the Eindhoven Cancer Registry treated with surgery only (SU) or with pRT between 1998 and 2007 were included. Survivors completed the Short Form-36 (SF-36) health survey questionnaire and the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire-Colorectal 38 (EORTC QLQ-CR38) questionnaire. The SF-36 and EORTC QLQ-CR38 (sexuality subscale) scores of the survivors were compared to an age- and sex-matched Dutch normal population. Results: A total of 340 survivors (response, 85%; pRT survivors, 71%) were analyzed. Overall, survivors had similar general health status. Both short-term (<5 years) and long-term (≥5 years) pRT survivors had significantly poorer body image and more problems with gastrointestinal function, male sexual dysfunction, and defecation than SU survivors. Survivors had comparable general health status but greater sexual dysfunction than the normal population. Older pRT survivors had general and disease-specific health status comparable to that of younger pRT survivors. Conclusions: For better survivorship care, rectal cancer survivors could benefit from increased clinical and psychological focus on the possible long-term morbidity of treatment and its effects on health status.
Lemire, Pauline; Brangier, Antoine; Beaudenon, Melinda; Duval, Guillaume T; Annweiler, Cedric
Memantine is a symptomatic treatment that partially prevents cognitive decline in Alzheimer disease (AD). The neuroprotective effects of memantine and vitamin D may potentiate each other, with benefits for cognition. The objective of this exposed/unexposed pilot study was to determine the cognitive changes among AD patients using memantine according to the presence or absence of vitamin D deficiency (VDD). Fifty-eight AD patients followed in a memory clinic during 6 months between 2009 and 2014 (mean±standard deviation, 82.9±5.0years; 56.9%female) were separated into four groups according to VDD (i.e., serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D≤25nM) at M0 and M6 (i.e., Group 1: no VDD-M0, no VDD-M6; Group 2: VDD-M0, no VDD-M6; Group 3: no VDD-M0, VDD-M6; Group 4: VDD-M0, VDD-M6). The 6-month cognitive change was examined with the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score in the 4 groups according to the use of memantine. Age, gender, body mass index, IADL score, GDS score, and use of pchychoactive drugs were measured at baseline. We found that participants using memantine had a lower MMSE score at M0 compared to those without memantine (P=0.006). After 6 months of follow-up, there was a memantine-related improvement of the MMSE score only in the participants with VDD-M6. This was significant in Group 3 with no VDD-M0 (P=0.039), but not in Group 4 who already had VDD-M0. Similarly, using memantine was associated with a 6-month improvement of MMSE only in Group 3 in whom VDD appeared during the follow-up (β=8.8, P=0.044). In conclusion, the use of memantine was associated with improved cognitive performance after 6 months of treatment in the presence of VDD at M6. Memantine may prevent the cognitive decline that accompanies the onset of VDD, which prompts to give to AD patients a regimen combining both memantine and vitamin D supplements. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Cohen, R.F.; Tubiana-Potiez, A.; Kahn, J.P.
International audience; The relationship between " Theory of Mind " (ToM) or more generally, social cognition and psychotic symptoms is largely supported by the actual literature. What is less known is the relationship between mood symptoms and ToM. Some studies found that bipolar disorder patients as well as depressed remitted patients have worse performances on ToM tasks than healthy subjects. This would explain the poor social abilities of depressive patients and constitute a risk factor o...
Kvistedal, Draco Jon Torstein
Forty two participants with generalized anxiety disorder were treated with either Metacognitive therapy or Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, in a randomized controlled study comparing the relative effect of the two treatments. A wait list condition comprised the control group. Statistical analysis proved MCT superior to CBT, and CBT proved superior to no treatment. Because this is a preliminary study it has some limitations, such as no follow-up data or treatment adherence control. Thus at the cu...
Barkhausen, Jörg; Kahn, Thomas; Krombach, Gabriele A; Kuhl, Christiane K; Lotz, Joachim; Maintz, David; Ricke, Jens; Schönberg, Stefan O; Vogl, Thomas J; Wacker, Frank K
children with congenital heart defects and for atrial ablation at individual centers. Greater application can be expected in the future.. Citation format · Barkhausen J, Kahn T, Krombach GA et al. White Paper: Interventional MRI: Current Status and Potential for Development Considering Economic Perspectives, Part 1: General Application. Fortschr Röntgenstr 2017; 189: 611 - 623. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Paans, Nadine P G; Bot, Mariska; Gibson-Smith, Deborah; Van der Does, Willem; Spinhoven, Philip; Brouwer, Ingeborg; Visser, Marjolein; Penninx, Brenda W J H
A range of biological, social and psychological factors, including depression and anxiety disorders, is thought to be associated with higher body mass index (BMI). Depression and anxiety disorders are associated with specific psychological vulnerabilities, like personality traits and cognitive reactivity, that may also be associated with BMI. The relationship between those psychological vulnerabilities and BMI is possibly different in people with and without depression and anxiety disorders. Therefore, we examined the relationship between personality traits, cognitive reactivity and severity of affective symptoms with BMI in people with and without depression and anxiety disorders. Data from 1249 patients with current major depressive and/or anxiety disorder and 631 healthy controls were sourced from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety. Linear and logistic regression analyses were used to determine the associations between personality traits (neuroticism, extraversion, conscientiousness), cognitive reactivity (hopelessness, aggression, rumination, anxiety sensitivity), depression and anxiety symptoms with BMI classes (normal: 18.5-24.9, overweight: 25-29.9, and obese: ≥30kg/m(2)) and continuous BMI. Due to significant statistical interaction, analyses were stratified for healthy individuals and depressed/anxious patients. Personality traits were not consistently related to BMI. In patients, higher hopelessness and aggression reactivity and higher depression and anxiety symptoms were associated with higher BMI. In contrast, in healthy individuals lower scores on hopelessness, rumination, aggression reactivity and anxiety sensitivity were associated with higher BMI. These results suggest that, particularly in people with psychopathology, cognitive reactivity may contribute to obesity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kara, Kaffer; Mahabadi, Amir Abbas; Weimar, Christian; Winkler, Angela; Neumann, Till; Kälsch, Hagen; Dragano, Nico; Moebus, Susanne; Erbel, Raimund; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Jokisch, Martha
N-terminal pro-B type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) is a marker of cardiac stress and is linked with silent cardiac diseases. While associations of cognitive impairment with manifest cardiovascular diseases are established, data on whether subclinical elevation of NT-proBNP levels below clinically established threshold of heart failure is related with cognitive functioning, especially mild cognitive impairment (MCI), is rare. Aim of the present study was to investigate the cross-sectional association of NT-proBNP levels and MCI in a population-based study sample without heart failure. We used data from the second examination of the population based Heinz-Nixdorf-Recall-Study. Subjects with overt coronary heart disease and subjects with NT-proBNP levels indicating potential heart failure (NT-proBNP≥300 pg/ml) were excluded from this analysis. Participants performed a validated brief cognitive assessment and were classified either as MCI [subtypes: amnestic-MCI (aMCI), non-amnestic-MCI (naMCI)], or cognitively-normal. We included 419 participants with MCI (63.1±7.4 y; 47% men; aMCI n = 209; naMCI n = 210) and 1,206 cognitively normal participants (62.42±7.1 y; 48% men). NT-proBNP-levels≥125 pg/ml compared to heart failure, higher NT-proBNPlevels are associated with MCI and both MCI subtypes independent of traditional cardiovascular risk factors and sociodemographic parameters.
Drewniak, D.P.; Krones, T.; Sauer, C.G.; Wild, V.
This study examines the influence of patients' immigration background and residence permit status on physicians' willingness to treat patients in due time. A factorial survey was conducted among 352 general practitioners with a background in internal medicine in a German-speaking region in
Gill, Roopan; Stewart, Donna E
despite goals for gender equity in South Asia, the relationship between gender-sensitive policies and the empowerment of women is complex and requires an analysis of how policies align with a broad set of social, cultural, political, and economic indicators that relate to women's health. through a review of four documents under the umbrella of the World Health Organization and the United Nations, a list of 17 gender-sensitive policy and 17 general health indicators was generated with a focus on health, education, economic, and political empowerment and violence against women. A series of policy documents and international and national databases that are accessible in the public domain were the major tools used to find supporting documentation to address women's health outcomes in Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka. all five South Asian countries had several gender-sensitive policies that were measurable by indicators that contribute to health. Examination of political and economic status, birth sex ratios, human trafficking, illiteracy rates, maternal mortality rates, contraception prevalence, fertility rates, knowledge of HIV/AIDS prevention, access to skilled birth attendants, and microfinance show that large gender inequities still prevail despite the presence of gender-sensitive policies. in many cases, the presence of gender-sensitive policies did not reflect the realization of gender equity over a wide range of indicators. Although the economic, political, social, and cultural climates of the five countries may differ, the integration of women's needs into the formulation, implementation, and monitoring of policies is a universal necessity to achieve positive outcomes. 2011 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Neter, J E; Dijkstra, S C; Dekkers, A L M; Ocké, M C; Visser, M; Brouwer, I A
Food-assistance program users are a specific group of nutritional concern, as they are often food insufficient and have poorer diet quality compared to non-food-assistance program users. The aim of our study was to assess dietary intake of Dutch food bank recipients (n = 167) and to compare this with dietary intake of a representative sample of the general population (Dutch National Food Consumption Survey (DNFCS-all): n = 1933), including a low-socioeconomic status (SES) sample (DNFCS-low SES: n = 312), using data from the DNFCS 2007-2010. In this cross-sectional study, 12 food banks throughout The Netherlands participated. Food bank recipients' characteristics were assessed with a self-administered questionnaire. Dietary intake data were collected through three 24-h recalls. Habitual dietary intake (mean, percentiles, and 95% CI) was estimated for all samples. Differences between samples were determined by comparing the 95% CIs. Mean age of the study population (62.9% female) was 48.6 years (SD:10.1). Mean energy intake was 1986 (95% CI 1830-2089) kcal. The majority of the Dutch food bank recipients had lower intakes than dietary reference intakes for dietary fiber, fruit, vegetables, and fish (range 86.6-99.3%), and a higher intake for saturated fat [88.1% (95% CI 84.1-98.9)]. Furthermore, mean intakes of energy, fiber, fruit, and vegetables were significantly lower in Dutch food bank recipients than in the DNFCS-all and the DNFCS-low-SES [e.g., daily mean fruit intake (g) food bank recipients 62.8 (95% CI 45.5-76.5), DNFCS-all 105.8 (95% CI 105.4-117.9), and DNFCS-low-SES 85.1 (95% CI 78.7-100.2)]. Fish intake was significantly lower compared with the DNFCS-all, but not compared with the DNFCS-low-SES. Dutch food bank recipients, who largely rely on the content of food parcels, are not able to meet the nutritional guidelines for a healthy diet, and their dietary intake is poorer than the general as well as the low-SES sample of the Dutch adult population
Su, Yingying; Liu, Gang; Tian, Fei; Ren, Guoping; Jiang, Mengdi; Chun, Brian; Zhang, Yunzhou; Zhang, Yan; Ye, Hong; Gao, Daiquan; Chen, Weibi
Although generalized convulsive status epilepticus (GCSE) is a life-threatening emergency, evidence-based data to guide initial drug treatment choices are lacking in the Chinese population. We conducted this prospective, randomized, controlled trial to evaluate the relative efficacy and safety of intravenous phenobarbital and valproate in patients with GCSE. After the failure of first-line diazepam treatment, Chinese adult patients with GCSE were randomized to receive either intravenous phenobarbital (standard doses, low rate) or valproate (standard). Successful treatment was considered when clinical and electroencephalographic seizure activity ceased. Adverse events following treatment, as well as the neurological outcomes at discharge and 3 months later, were also evaluated. Overall, 73 cases were enrolled in the study. Intravenous phenobarbital was successful in 81.1% of patients, and intravenous valproate was successful in 44.4% of patients (p phenobarbital (6.7%) was significantly lower than that in patients receiving valproate (31.3%), and the total number of adverse events did not differ significantly between the two groups (p > 0.05). In the phenobarbital group, two patients (5.4%) required ventilation and two patients (5.4%) developed serious hypotension. The neurological outcomes of the phenobarbital group were generally better than those of the valproate group; however, no significant differences were observed between phenobarbital and valproate with respect to mortality (8.1 vs. 16.6%) at discharge, or mortality (16.2 vs. 30.5%) and post-symptomatic epilepsy (26.3 vs. 42.8%) at 3-month follow-up. Intravenous phenobarbital appears to be more effective than intravenous valproate for Chinese adult patients with GCSE. The occurrence of serious respiratory depression and hypotension caused by phenobarbital was reduced by decreasing the intravenous infusion rate; however, even at a lower infusion rate than typically used in other institutions, intravenous
Mosiołek, Anna; Gierus, Jacek; Koweszko, Tytus; Szulc, Agata
The purpose of the study was to examine the relation between cognitive functioning in people with borderline personality disorder and their overall functioning level, as well as psychopathology intensification specific for this type of disorders. 64 patients aged 18-55 (M = 30.09) with borderline personality disorder (emotionally unstable personality - borderline type in the ICD-10) were examined. The study used: demographic-descriptive questionnaire, SCID II, Borderline Symptom Checlist-23, and Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF). For cognitive assessment, The Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test, The Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure test, TMTA, TMTB, verbal fluency test, Stroop test and Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB) were used. The average GAF score in the sample was M =43.65. Significant differences between the comorbidity group and non-comorbidity group were observed with respect to the GAF scores (Mann-Whitney U = 300.500, p = 0.008) as well as a number of significant (p borderline personality disorder. The obtained data seem to suggest that the cognitive functions affect the overall functioning only in patients with psychiatric co-morbidity. In people without psychiatric co-morbidity there is a relationship of cognitive functions only with certain aspects of psychopathology specific to BPD.
Setodji, Claude Messan; Le, Vi-Nhuan; Schaack, Diana
Research linking high-quality child care programs and children's cognitive development has contributed to the growing popularity of child care quality benchmarking efforts such as quality rating and improvement systems (QRIS). Consequently, there has been an increased interest in and a need for approaches to identifying thresholds, or cutpoints,…
Full Text Available Aim. This study compares the usefulness of Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA to Standardized Mini-Mental Status Exam (SMMSE for diagnosing mild cognitive impairment (MCI in Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM population. Methods. This prospective pilot study enrolled 30 community dwelling adults with Type 2 DM aged 50 years and above. Subjects were assessed using both the SMMSE and MoCA for MCI. In all subjects, depression and dementia were ruled out using the DSM IV criteria, and a functional assessment was done. MCI was diagnosed using the standard test, the European consortium criteria. Sensitivity and specificity analysis, positive and negative predictive values, likelihood ratios and Kappa statistic were calculated. Results. In comparison to consortium criteria, the sensitivity and specificity of MoCA were 67% and 93% in identifying individuals with MCI, and SMMSE were 13% and 93%, respectively. The positive and negative predictive values for MoCA were 84% and 56%, and for SMMSE were 66% and 51%, respectively. Kappa statistics showed moderate agreement between MoCA and consortium criteria (kappa = 0.4 and a low agreement between SMMSE and consortium criteria (kappa = 0.07. Conclusion. In this pilot study, MoCA appears to be a better screening tool than SMMSE for MCI in the diabetic population.
Chen, Boyu, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Fan, Guo Guang, E-mail: email@example.com; Liu, Hu, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Wang, Shanshan, E-mail: email@example.com
Purpose: This study assesses the patterns of structural and functional connectivity damage in patients with Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD) compared with cognitively unimpaired Parkinson's disease patients (PD-Cu) and healthy controls (HC). Materials and methods: Resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) and diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DTI) scans were obtained from 30 PD and 21 sex- and age-matched HC. The between-group difference in posterior cingulate (PCC) functional connectivity (FC) was performed to assess FC dysfunction. Atlas-based spatial statistics of DTI was applied to compare White matter (WM) fibers impairment between groups. Results: (1) Functional connectivity: (1) PD-Cu compared with HC showed a decreased PCC functional connectivity of the right medial temporal lobe (MTL). In addition, PCC-right MTL connectivity strength of PD was significantly correlated with Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) score. (2) PDD group shows a decreased FC of PCC-right parahippocampa compared with PD-Cu group; while show a widespread decreased PCC FC compared with HC group. (2) Anatomical connectivity: (1) Relative to PD-Cu, significant lower FA values were found in the left hippocampus in PDD. (2) PDD showed higher MD values in a widespread WM regions compared with PD-Cu and HC. (3) Positive correlation was observed between MoCA score and FA value of left inferior longitudinal and hippocampus, and bilateral superior longitudinal fasciculus in PD. Conclusions: Cognitive decline in PD is associated with FC damage of PCC-right MTL and microstructural damage of left hippocampus. Nevertheless, combining fMRI and DTI method may provide markers able to contribute to the prediction of PDD.
Zhang, Li; Weng, Changshui; Liu, Miao; Wang, Qiuhua; Liu, Liming; He, Yao
To study the effects of whole-body vibration exercises on the mobility function, balance and general health status, and its feasibility as an intervention in frail elderly patients. Pilot randomized controlled trial. Forty-four frail older persons (85.27 ± 3.63 years) meeting the Fried Frailty Criteria. All eligible subjects were randomly assigned to the experimental group, who received a whole-body vibration exercise alone (vibration amplitude: 1-3 mm; frequency: 6-26 Hz; 4-5 bouts × 60 seconds; 3-5 times weekly), or a control group, who received usual care and exercises for eight weeks. The Timed Up and Go Test, 30-second chair stand test, lower extremities muscle strength, balance function, balance confidence and General Health Status were assessed at the beginning of the study, after four weeks and eight weeks of the intervention. Whole-body vibration exercise reduced the time of the Timed Up and Go Test (40.47 ± 15.94 s to 21.34 ± 4.42 s), improved the bilateral knees extensor strength (6.96 ± 1.70 kg to 11.26 ± 2.08 kg), the posture stability (surface area ellipse: 404.58 ± 177.05 to 255.95 ± 107.28) and General Health Status (Short-form Health Survey score: 24.51 ± 10.69 and 49.63 ± 9.85 to 45.03 ± 11.15 and 65.23 ± 9.39, respectively). The repeated-measures ANOVA showed that there were significant differences in the Timed Up and Go Test, 30-second chair stand test, bilateral knees extensor strength, activities-specific balance confidence score and general health status between the two groups (P balance and the general health status in the frail elderly.
Wang, Lin; Elder, Glen H; Spence, Naomi J
The U.S. Armed Forces offer educational and training benefits as incentives for service. This study investigates the influence of status configurations on military enlistment and their link to greater educational opportunity. Three statuses (socioeconomic status of origin, cognitive ability and academic performance) have particular relevance for life course options. We hypothesize that young men with inconsistent statuses are more likely to enlist than men with consistent status profiles, and that military service improves access to college for certain configurations. Analyses of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) show (1. that several status configurations markedly increased the likelihood of military enlistment and (2. within status configurations, recruits were generally more likely to enroll in higher education than nonveterans, with associate degrees being more likely.
Wang, Lin; Elder, Glen H.; Spence, Naomi J.
The U.S. Armed Forces offer educational and training benefits as incentives for service. This study investigates the influence of status configurations on military enlistment and their link to greater educational opportunity. Three statuses (socioeconomic status of origin, cognitive ability and academic performance) have particular relevance for life course options. We hypothesize that young men with inconsistent statuses are more likely to enlist than men with consistent status profiles, and that military service improves access to college for certain configurations. Analyses of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) show (1. that several status configurations markedly increased the likelihood of military enlistment and (2. within status configurations, recruits were generally more likely to enroll in higher education than nonveterans, with associate degrees being more likely. PMID:24511161
John F. Pearson
Full Text Available A cohort of 50-year-olds from Canterbury, New Zealand (N = 404, representative of midlife adults, undertook comprehensive health and dietary assessments. Fasting plasma vitamin C concentrations (N = 369 and dietary vitamin C intake (N = 250 were determined. The mean plasma vitamin C concentration was 44.2 µmol/L (95% CI 42.4, 46.0; 62% of the cohort had inadequate plasma vitamin C concentrations (i.e., <50 µmol/L, 13% of the cohort had hypovitaminosis C (i.e., <23 µmol/L, and 2.4% had plasma vitamin C concentrations indicating deficiency (i.e., <11 µmol/L. Men had a lower mean plasma vitamin C concentration than women, and a higher percentage of vitamin C inadequacy and deficiency. A higher prevalence of hypovitaminosis C and deficiency was observed in those of lower socio-economic status and in current smokers. Adults with higher vitamin C levels exhibited lower weight, BMI and waist circumference, and better measures of metabolic health, including HbA1c, insulin and triglycerides, all risk factors for type 2 diabetes. Lower levels of mild cognitive impairment were observed in those with the highest plasma vitamin C concentrations. Plasma vitamin C showed a stronger correlation with markers of metabolic health and cognitive impairment than dietary vitamin C.
Prevalence study of cognitive impairment and its associated sociodemographic variables using mini-mental status examination among elderly population residing in field practice areas of a medical college
Rakesh M Patel
Full Text Available Context: The world is aging rapidly through “demographic transition.” The aging leads to CI Refers as Cognitive Impairment (CI – a risk factor for dementia. A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted among the elderly aged ≥50 years. Objectives: The objective of the study is to estimate the prevalence of cognitive dysfunction among the elderly and to identify the associated sociodemographic variables. Settings and Design: This was a community-based cross-sectional study in rural and urban field areas of a medical college. Subjects and Methods: Participants aged ≥50 years were interviewed using a structured questionnaire and screened for cognitive dysfunction using Gujarati version of Mini-Mental Status Examination. A score of 23 out of 30 was taken as the cutoff. Written informed consent was obtained from participants. Statistical Analysis Used: Univariate and multivariate analyses were done using SPSS version 17 and Epi Info version 6 to identify significant variables. Results: Of 560 participants, 140 (25% had CI. Rural (27.6% and female (29.8% prevalence was higher than urban (18.5% and male (19.1% prevalence. On multivariate analysis, age ≥60 years (odds ratio [OR]: 2.98 and illiteracy (OR: 39.8 had significant positive association with outcome; being employed (OR: 0.18, living with spouse (OR: 0.07, and living with spouse and children (OR: 0.08 had significant negative association with outcome. Conclusions: CI – a precursor of dementia – has serious clinical and public health consequences. Awareness generation and capacity building of primary health-care workers and family caregivers are core control strategies.
Matrisch, M; Trampisch, U; Klaassen-Mielke, R; Pientka, L; Trampisch, H J; Thiem, U
To assess cognitive impairment or dementia in epidemiologic studies using telephone interviews for data acquisition, valid, reliable and short instruments suitable for telephone administration are required. For the Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status (TICS) in its modified German version, the only instrument used in Germany so far, more data on reliability and practicability are needed. Participants were recruited in the offices of nine primary care physicians. Data from 197 participants (115 females, mean age 78.5±4.1 years) who were tested by telephone and in the office by means of the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) were used for the evaluation. For assessing reliability, a group of 91 participants (55 females, mean age 78.1±4.1 years) was contacted twice during 30 days to be tested during a telephone interview by means of the TICS in its modified German version. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), a measure of reliability, was 0.67 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.53; 0.77]. The Bland-Altman plot did not reveal any relationship between the variability of the difference between repeated measures and the total amount of the measure. For the overall TICS score, no differences were found between repeated measurements. However, the tasks recall of the word list and counting backwards showed some improvement in the repeated tests. TICS and MMSE showed only moderate correlation, with a correlation coefficient of 0.48 (95% CI: 0.36; 0.58). TICS values were dependent on age and educational level of the person tested. The TICS in its modified German version appears to be of acceptable reliability for the assessment of cognitive impairment during a telephone interview. TICS values depend on age and educational level of the person tested. TICS and MMSE correlate only moderately.
Fieo, Robert; Ocepek-Welikson, Katja; Kleinman, Marjorie; Eimicke, Joseph P; Crane, Paul K; Cella, David; Teresi, Jeanne A
The goals of these analyses were to examine the psychometric properties and measurement equivalence of a self-reported cognition measure, the Patient Reported Outcome Measurement Information System ® (PROMIS ® ) Applied Cognition - General Concerns short form. These items are also found in the PROMIS Cognitive Function (version 2) item bank. This scale consists of eight items related to subjective cognitive concerns. Differential item functioning (DIF) analyses of gender, education, race, age, and (Spanish) language were performed using an ethnically diverse sample ( n = 5,477) of individuals with cancer. This is the first analysis examining DIF in this item set across ethnic and racial groups. DIF hypotheses were derived by asking content experts to indicate whether they posited DIF for each item and to specify the direction. The principal DIF analytic model was item response theory (IRT) using the graded response model for polytomous data, with accompanying Wald tests and measures of magnitude. Sensitivity analyses were conducted using ordinal logistic regression (OLR) with a latent conditioning variable. IRT-based reliability, precision and information indices were estimated. DIF was identified consistently only for the item, brain not working as well as usual. After correction for multiple comparisons, this item showed significant DIF for both the primary and sensitivity analyses. Black respondents and Hispanics in comparison to White non-Hispanic respondents evidenced a lower conditional probability of endorsing the item, brain not working as well as usual. The same pattern was observed for the education grouping variable: as compared to those with a graduate degree, conditioning on overall level of subjective cognitive concerns, those with less than high school education also had a lower probability of endorsing this item. DIF was also observed for age for two items after correction for multiple comparisons for both the IRT and OLR-based models: "I have had
Finney, Glen R; Minagar, Alireza; Heilman, Kenneth M
Assessing the mental status of patients with a neurobehavioral disorder is a critical element in the diagnosis and treatment of these patients. This assessment should always be performed after the patient's history it taken and a general physical as well as a neurologic examination is completed. The mental status examination commences with observing the patient's appearance and level of consciousness. The examiner should also pay attention to patient's social behavior, emotional state and mood. There are 3 major means of assessing a patient's mental status. One type attempts to determine if the patient is demented and the severity of the dementia as it pertains to their ability to perform activities of daily living as well as instrumental activities. A second type of assessment utilizes what may be termed as "screening tests" or "omnibus tests". These brief tests are performed independent of the patient's history and examination. The two most frequently used screening tests are the Mini-Mental Status Examination (MMSE) and the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). The third means of assessing a patient's mental status is by using specific neuropsychological tests that focus on specific domains of cognition, such as frontal executive functions, attention, episodic verbal and visuospatial memory, declarative knowledge such as language (speech, reading and writing) and arithmetical, as well as visuospatial and perceptual abilities. These neurobehavioral, neuropsychiatric and neuropsychological assessments of patients with a cognitive decline and behavioral abnormalities should often be accompanied by laboratory tests, and neuroimaging that can help determine the underlying pathologic process so that effective therapeutic and management approaches can be provided. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available To determine whether the relationship of gestational age (GA with brain volumes and cognitive functions is linear or whether it follows a threshold model in preterm and term born children during school-age.We studied 106 children (M = 10 years 1 month, SD = 16 months; 40 females enrolled in primary school: 57 were healthy very preterm children (10 children born 24-27 completed weeks' gestation (extremely preterm, 14 children born 28-29 completed weeks' gestation, 19 children born 30-31 completed weeks' gestation (very preterm, and 14 born 32 completed weeks' gestation (moderately preterm all born appropriate for GA (AGA and 49 term-born children. Neuroimaging involved voxel-based morphometry with the statistical parametric mapping software. Cognitive functions were assessed with the WISC-IV. General Linear Models and multiple regressions were conducted controlling age, sex, and maternal education.Compared to groups of children born 30 completed weeks' gestation and later, children born <28 completed weeks' gestation had less gray matter volume (GMV and white matter volume (WMV and poorer cognitive functions including decreased full scale IQ, and processing speed. Differences in GMV partially mediated the relationship between GA and full scale IQ in preterm born children.In preterm children who are born AGA and without major complications GA is associated with brain volume and cognitive functions. In particular, decreased brain volume becomes evident in the extremely preterm group (born <28 completed weeks' gestation. In preterm children born 30 completed weeks' gestation and later the relationship of GA with brain volume and cognitive functions may be less strong as previously thought.
Caçola, Priscila M; Pant, Mohan D
The purpose was to use a multi-level statistical technique to analyze how children's age, motor proficiency, and cognitive styles interact to affect accuracy on reach estimation tasks via Motor Imagery and Visual Imagery. Results from the Generalized Linear Mixed Model analysis (GLMM) indicated that only the 7-year-old age group had significant random intercepts for both tasks. Motor proficiency predicted accuracy in reach tasks, and cognitive styles (object scale) predicted accuracy in the motor imagery task. GLMM analysis is suitable to explore age and other parameters of development. In this case, it allowed an assessment of motor proficiency interacting with age to shape how children represent, plan, and act on the environment.
Kahalley, Lisa S.; Winter-Greenberg, Amanda; Stancel, Heather; Ris, M. Douglas; Gragert, Marsha
Introduction Pediatric brain tumor survivors are at risk for working memory and processing speed impairment. The General Ability Index (GAI) provides an estimate of intellectual functioning that is less influenced by working memory and processing speed than a Full Scale IQ (FSIQ). The Cognitive Proficiency Index (CPI) provides a measure of efficient information processing derived from working memory and processing speed tasks. We examined the utility of the GAI and CPI to quantify neurocognitive outcomes in a sample of pediatric brain tumor survivors. Methods GAI, CPI, and FSIQ scores from the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition (WISC-IV) were examined for 57 pediatric brain tumor survivors (ages 6–16) treated with cranial radiation therapy (RT). Results GAI scores were higher than FSIQ and CPI scores, both p < .001. Lower CPI scores were associated with history of craniospinal irradiation and time since RT. Lower FSIQ and GAI scores were associated with higher RT dose and time since RT. The rate of clinically significant GAI-FSIQ discrepancies in our sample was greater than observed in the WISC-IV standardization sample, p < .001. Estimated premorbid IQ scores were higher than GAI, p < .01, and FSIQ scores, p < .001. Conclusions Pediatric brain tumor survivors exhibit weaker cognitive proficiency than expected for age, while general reasoning ability remains relatively spared. The GAI may be useful to quantify the intellectual potential of a survivor when appropriate accommodations are in place for relative cognitive proficiency weaknesses. The CPI may be a particularly sensitive outcome measure of treatment-related cognitive change in this population. PMID:27295192
El Manchawy, Imane; Baymou, El Mehdi; Amjed, Achour; Benjeddou, Kaoutar; El Haloui, Noureddine; Aguenaou, Hassan; Badahi, Ahmed; Rjimati, El Arbi
Full text: The micronutrients deficiencies cause considerable economic losses. In Morocco, iron deficiency alone leads to a shortfall of about two billion dirhams a year. Iodine deficiency costs Morocco 1.48% of GDP in terms of lost productivity, support for mentally retarded children, school dropouts and infant mortality. In line with the National program for fight against micronutrients deficiencies and the National Nutrition Strategy 2011 – 2019, an efficacy study was conducted jointly by the UMNRA, the Ministry of Health, the Ministry of National Education and the ''Foundation CL for Child Nutrition''. It is a longitudinal, randomized, double-blinded efficacy study conducted for 9 months (2012) on school children (7 – 9y), without preliminary deworming, living in rural areas at high altitude. The population consisted of 380 children. One group of the children (FG) received daily 200ml of UHT fortified whole milk (Vitamin A, vitamin D3, iron and iodine)(30% RDA), the other control group(NFG) received daily 200ml of non fortified whole milk . Anthropometric, socio-economic, food consumption and morbidity data were collected. Biological tests included retinol, vitamin D, hemoglobin, ferritine and urinary iodine. Children also received a cognitive test (Raven test) at T0, T4 and T9months. Results showed 18% reduction of stunting in the fortified group. The results of serum analyses proved the efficacy of the fortification. In fact, after 9 months of intervention we noted : a- elimination of vitamin A deficiency (dropped from 50% to 4%), b- reduction of vitamin D deficiency (from 60% to 25.5%), d- reduction of iodine deficiency (from 74.7% to 29.4%). It was also observed that the non fortified whole milk contributed in the decrease of these deficiencies, but there was no impact on the iron status (ferritine). Cognitive tests showed no significant difference between the two groups. Conclusion: This study showed the efficacy of the consumption of fortified milk on
De Filippi, Francesco; Tana, Francesco; Vanzati, Simona; Balzarini, Barbara; Galetti, Giuseppe
From a sample of 265 elderly subjects (age 80.2 +/- 6.8 years) admitted to a geriatric care unit, free from cardiac and respiratory diseases, with normal chest X-ray and gas analysis, 53 subjects were selected and their respiratory functions (assessed by spirometric parameters and airway resistance 'Raw') were studied to correlate them with nutritional status, cognitive impairment, independence in everyday life activities and mood disorders, assessed, respectively, by the Mini Nutritional Assessment, rapid Mini Mental State test (MMSr), activities of daily living (ADL), instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) evaluation, Barthel Index and Cornell Depression Scale. The enrolled subjects were able to perform normally a forced expiration, although most of them committed errors in this test, according to the American Thoracic Society (ATS) criteria. Thus, about 32% started at lung volume0.12 s); in 62% of the subjects expiration time was too short and in 58% the terminal plateau was nutritional status did not seem to have any influence on spirometric performance; MMSr score was related to compliance with ATS criteria for acceptability of the forced manoeuvre; mental and mood disorders, nutritional conditions and disability did not seem to have any influence on error rates. Our data show that our geriatric enrolled patients were able to perform an imperfect, often unfinished, but acceptable forced expiration; dynamic index values were related to disability, while the errors in starting the test were related to the mental conditions.
Full Text Available This paper explores the the justificatory status of etestimony, the electronic transmission of testimony through such electronic media as e-mail, the web, instant messaging, and file-sharing. I argue that e-testimony introduces complexities in justification and cognitive management generally which should be of special interest to epistemologists and cognitive scientists. In contrast to ordinary non-technology mediated testimony, e-testimony is an impoverished stimulus. Users have to assess the epistemic and non-epistemic risks of accessing e-testimony with very little supporting information. This raises the cognitive overhead of such judgments. The paper explores mechanisms for reducing this cognitive overhead and more effectively managing e-testimony, including automated filtering and automated censorship of the incoming e-testimony stream. It is argued that such solutions may not reduce cognitive load, since epistemic responsibility still resides with the individual recipient of e-testimony.
Doets, E.L.; Ueland, P.M.; Tell, G.S.; Vollset, S.E.; Nygard, O.K.; Veer, van 't P.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.; Nurk, E.; Refsum, H.; Smith, A.D.; Eussen, S.J.P.M.
A combination of high folate with low vitamin B12 plasma status has been associated with cognitive impairment in a population exposed to mandatory folic acid fortification. The objective of the present study was to examine the interactions between plasma concentrations of folate and vitamin B12
Vestberg, Susanna; Passant, Ulla; Risberg, Jarl; Elfgren, Christina
The aims are to study personality characteristics of patients with memory complaints and to assess the presence of objective (OMI) versus subjective (SMI) memory impairment, the affective status, as well as potential gender differences. The patients were assessed by means of a neuropsychiatric examination and a neuropsychological test-battery. The Swedish version of the revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO PI-R) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) were used. The 57 patients (38 women, 19 men, mean age 56.9) differed from the Swedish normative group in three of the five personality factors: neuroticism, extraversion and agreeableness. This was mainly because of the scores of the female patients. Approximately half of the patients had OMI. No differences regarding personality factors or affective status were found between OMI and SMI patients. The female patients scored significantly higher than the male patients on symptoms of anxiety and depression. Neuroticism and symptoms of depression interacted with memory performance and gender. Our findings demonstrate the importance of applying an objective assessment of memory functions and a gender perspective when studying patients with memory complaints.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective was to review all available literature concerning Type D (distressed personality among the general population and to discuss its implications for research on health status, disease-promoting mechanisms and work-related problems in non-clinical populations. Methods A computerized search of the literature was performed independently and in duplicate by both investigators on December 21st, 2009. Published research reports were included if they studied Type D personality among the general population. Nineteen articles were selected and they were subjected to an 11-item standardised quality checklist by both investigators. Results The methodological quality of the selected studies was adequate to high. The studies included in this review showed that the presence of Type D characteristics had a negative impact on mental health status (more symptoms of depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, mental distress, passive coping, and less social support and physical health status (more somatic complaints, lower health status, more influenza-like illness reporting. Other studies reported on behavioral and biological mechanisms of disease in apparently healthy individuals with a Type D personality. Finally, some studies also showed a negative effect of Type D personality on work-related problems (higher absence-leave, higher levels of vital exhaustion and burnout, and more work-related stress. Conclusions Type D personality is a vulnerability factor for general psychological distress that affects mental and physical health status and is associated with disease-promoting mechanisms and work-related problems in apparently healthy individuals.
Schönenberger, S; Pfaff, J; Uhlmann, L; Klose, C; Nagel, S; Ringleb, P A; Hacke, W; Kieser, M; Bendszus, M; Möhlenbruch, M A; Bösel, J
Radiologic selection criteria to identify patients likely to benefit from endovascular stroke treatment are still controversial. In this post hoc analysis of the recent randomized Sedation versus Intubation for Endovascular Stroke TreAtment (SIESTA) trial, we aimed to investigate the impact of sedation mode (conscious sedation versus general anesthesia) on the predictive value of collateral status. Using imaging data from SIESTA, we assessed collateral status with the collateral score of Tan et al and graded it from absent to good collaterals (0-3). We examined the association of collateral status with 24-hour improvement of the NIHSS score, infarct volume, and mRS at 3 months according to the sedation regimen. In a cohort of 104 patients, the NIHSS score improved significantly in patients with moderate or good collaterals (2-3) compared with patients with no or poor collaterals (0-1) ( P = .011; mean, -5.8 ± 7.6 versus -1.1 ± 10.7). Tan 2-3 was also associated with significantly higher ASPECTS before endovascular stroke treatment (median, 9 versus 7; P collateral status (0.1 versus 2.3), the sedation modes conscious sedation and general anesthesia were not associated with significant differences in the predictive value of collateral status regarding infarction size or functional outcome. The sedation mode, conscious sedation or general anesthesia, did not influence the predictive value of collaterals in patients with large-vessel occlusion anterior circulation stroke undergoing thrombectomy in the SIESTA trial. © 2017 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.
Gierus, J; Mosiołek, A; Koweszko, T; Wnukiewicz, P; Kozyra, O; Szulc, A
The aim of the presented research was to obtain the initial data regarding the validity of Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) in diagnosing cognitive impairment in psychiatrically hospitalized patients. The results in MoCA obtained from 221 patients were analyzed in terms of proportional participation of patients with particular diagnosis in three result ranges. In 67 patients, additional version of the scale was also used. Comparative analysis of average results in particular diagnostic groups (organically based disorders, disorders due to psychoactive substance use, psychotic disorders, neurotic disorders and personality disorders) was also carried out, as well as an analysis of the scale's accuracy as a diagnostic test in detecting organic disorders. The reliability of the test measured with between tests correlation coefficient rho=0.92 (P=.000). Significant differences between particular diagnoses groups were detected (J-T=13736; P=.000). The cutoff points of 23 turned out to have a satisfactory sensitivity and specificity (0.82 and 0.70, respectively) in diagnosing organically based disorders. The area below the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC=0.854; P=.000) suggests that MoCA has a satisfactory value as a classifier. The initial data suggest MoCA's high value in prediction of future diagnosis of organically based disorders. The initial results obtained in particular group of diagnoses support construct validity of the method. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Gow, Alan J.; Mortensen, Erik Lykke
Background: to examine associations between social resources and cognitive ageing over 30 years. Methods: participants in the Glostrup 1914 Cohort, a year of birth sample, completed a standardarised battery of cognitive ability tests every 10 years from age 50 to 80, summarised as general cognitive...... a negative association. Marital status (at ages 50 and 60) and loneliness at age 70 were the only social resources associated with cognitive change; married individuals and those not feeling lonely experienced less cognitive decline. When the social resources showing significant associations were considered...... ability. Participants also provided information concerning a range of social resources, including marital status and living arrangements from age 50, and from age 70, details regarding social support, social contact and loneliness. Results: across the follow-up, participants were less likely to be married...
Reynish, Emma L; Hapca, Simona M; De Souza, Nicosha; Cvoro, Vera; Donnan, Peter T; Guthrie, Bruce
Cognitive impairment of various kinds is common in older people admitted to hospital, but previous research has usually focused on single conditions in highly-selected groups and has rarely examined associations with outcomes. This study examined prevalence and outcomes of cognitive impairment in a large unselected cohort of people aged 65+ with an emergency medical admission. Between January 1, 2012, and June 30, 2013, admissions to a single general hospital acute medical unit aged 65+ underwent a structured specialist nurse assessment (n = 10,014). We defined 'cognitive spectrum disorder' (CSD) as any combination of delirium, known dementia, or Abbreviated Mental Test (AMT) score dementia, 9.4% known dementia alone, and 4.5% unspecified cognitive impairment (AMT score dementia). Of those with known dementia, 45.8% had delirium superimposed. Outcomes were worse in those with CSD compared to those without - LOS 25.0 vs. 11.8 days, 30-day mortality 13.6% vs. 9.0%, 1-year mortality 40.0% vs. 26.0%, 1-year death or readmission 62.4% vs. 51.5% (all P dementia had the longest LOS, and people with dementia the worst mortality at 1 year. CSD is common in older inpatients and associated with considerably worse outcomes, with little variation between different types of CSD. Healthcare systems should systematically identify and develop care pathways for older people with CSD admitted as medical emergencies, and avoid only focusing on condition-specific pathways such as those for dementia or delirium alone.
Useche, Ana Carolina; Sullivan, Amanda L.; Merk, Welmoet; Orobio de Castro, Bram
This study examines the concurrent and longitudinal relationships between reactive and proactive aggression and children's peer status. Participants were 94 Dutch elementary school-aged boys in self-contained special education classrooms for students with emotional/behavioral disorders (EBD) and 47
Lund, H; Jønsson, A; Andresen, Jesper Graubæk
of the cognitive impairment seen in MS and constitute a supplement to traditional measurement of T2 lesion volume. Materials and Methods - Fifty patients with clinically definite MS were included (38 women, 12 men). Patients were MR scanned, neuropsychologically tested, and evaluated clinically with the Kurtzke......Objectives - Although disease load in multiple sclerosis (MS) often is based on T2 lesion volumes, the changes in T2 of normal appearing brain tissue (NABT) are rarely considered. By means of magnetic resonance, (MR) we retrospectively investigated whether T2 changes in NABT explain part...... Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) and the Multiple Sclerosis Impairment Scale (MSIS). Voxel-wise T2 estimates and total T2 lesion volume were tested for correlations with eight cognitive domains, a general cognitive dysfunction factor (CDF), and the two clinical scales. Results - We found distinct...
Full Text Available Numerous experiments in rodents suggest a causative link between exposure to general anaesthetics during brain growth spurt and poor long-lasting neurological outcomes. Many of these studies have been questioned with regard of their translational value, mainly because of extremely long anaesthesia exposure. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to assess the impact of a short sevoflurane anaesthesia, alone or combined with clonidine treatment, on respiratory function in spontaneously breathing rat pups and overall effects on long-lasting emotional and cognitive functions.At postnatal day (PND 7, male Sprague Dawley rat pups were randomized into four groups and exposed to sevoflurane for one hour, to a single dose of intraperitoneal clonidine or to a combination of both and compared to a control group. Blood gas analysis was performed at the end of sevoflurane anaesthesia and after 60 minutes from clonidine or saline injection. Emotional and cognitive outcomes were evaluated in different group of animals at infancy (PND12, adolescence (PND 30-40 and adulthood (PND 70-90.Rat pups exposed to either sevoflurane or to a combination of sevoflurane and clonidine developed severe hypercapnic acidosis, but maintained normal arterial oxygenation. Emotional and cognitive outcomes were not found altered in any of the behavioural task used either at infancy, adolescence or adulthood.Sixty minutes of sevoflurane anaesthesia in newborn rats, either alone or combined with clonidine, caused severe hypercapnic acidosis in spontaneously breathing rat pups, but was devoid of long-term behavioural dysfunctions in the present setting.
Prakash, Aanchal; Hou, Jue; Liu, Lei; Gao, Yi; Kettering, Casey; Ragin, Ann B
This study aimed to examine cognitive function in acute/early HIV infection over the subsequent 2 years. Fifty-six HIV+ subjects and 21 seronegative participants of the Chicago Early HIV Infection Study were evaluated using a comprehensive neuropsychological assessment at study enrollment and at 2-year follow-up. Cognitive performance measures were compared in the groups using t tests and mixed-effect models. Patterns of relationship with clinical measures were determined between cognitive function and clinical status markers using Spearman's correlations. At the initial timepoint, the HIV group demonstrated significantly weaker performance on measures of verbal memory, visual memory, psychomotor speed, motor speed, and executive function. A similar pattern was found when cognitive function was examined at follow-up and across both timepoints. The HIV subjects had generally weaker performance on psychomotor speed, executive function, motor speed, visual memory, and verbal memory. The rate of decline in cognitive function across the 2-year follow-up period did not differ between groups. Correlations between clinical status markers and cognitive function at both timepoints showed weaker performance associated with increased disease burden. Neurocognitive difficulty in chronic HIV infection may have very early onset and reflect consequences of initial brain viral invasion and neuroinflammation during the intense, uncontrolled viremia of acute HIV infection. Further characterization of the changes occurring in initial stages of infection and the risk and protective factors for cognitive function could inform new strategies for neuroprotection.
Nielsen, Sara Kerstine Kaya; Vangkilde, Signe; Wolitzky-Taylor, Kate B.
INTRODUCTION: Cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) is effective for treating anxiety disorders and is offered in most mental health services around the world. However, a relatively large number of patients with anxiety disorders do not benefit from CBT, experience relapses or drop out. Reliable...... for manual-based group CBT at two psychiatric outpatient clinics will be recruited. Emotion regulation, severity of anxiety and attentional control will be assessed with self-report measures and with an experimental computer-based attentional control task at baseline, post-treatment and at a 6-month follow......-based attentional control task based on theory of visual attention. Data will be analysed using multilevel mixed-effects modelling. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The study is approved by the Danish National Ethical Board, the Department of Psychology Ethical Board, University of Copenhagen and by the Danish Data...
Full Text Available Background: Alzheimer’s disease (AD is a neurodegenerative disorder that may benefit from early diagnosis and intervention. Therefore, there is a need to identify early biomarkers of AD using non-invasive techniques such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. Recently, novel approaches to the analysis of resting-state fMRI data have been developed that focus on the moment-to-moment variability in the blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD signal. The objective of the current study was to investigate BOLD variability as a novel early biomarker of AD and its associated psychophysiological correlates.Method: Data were obtained from the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI 2 database from 19 participants with AD and 19 similarly aged controls. For each participant, a map of BOLD signal variability (SDBOLD was computed as the standard deviation of the BOLD timeseries at each voxel. Group comparisons were performed to examine global differences in resting state SDBOLD in AD versus healthy controls. Correlations were then examined between participant SDBOLD maps and (1 ADNI-derived composite scores of memory and executive function and (2 neuroimaging markers of cerebrovascular status.Results: Between-group comparisons revealed significant (p < 0.05 increases in SDBOLD in patients with AD relative to healthy controls in right-lateralized frontal regions. Lower memory scores and higher WMH burden were associated with greater SDBOLD in the healthy control group (p < 0.1, but not individuals with AD.Conclusion: The current study provides proof of concept of a novel resting state fMRI analysis technique that is non-invasive, easily accessible, and clinically compatible. To further explore the potential of SDBOLD as a biomarker of AD, additional studies in larger, longitudinal samples are needed to better understand the changes in SDBOLD that characterize earlier stages of disease progression and their underlying psychophysiological
Dickinson, Dwight; Straub, Richard E; Trampush, Joey W; Gao, Yuan; Feng, Ningping; Xie, Bin; Shin, Joo Heon; Lim, Hun Ki; Ursini, Gianluca; Bigos, Kristin L; Kolachana, Bhaskar; Hashimoto, Ryota; Takeda, Masatoshi; Baum, Graham L; Rujescu, Dan; Callicott, Joseph H; Hyde, Thomas M; Berman, Karen F; Kleinman, Joel E; Weinberger, Daniel R
One approach to understanding the genetic complexity of schizophrenia is to study associated behavioral and biological phenotypes that may be more directly linked to genetic variation. To identify single-nucleotide polymorphisms associated with general cognitive ability (g) in people with schizophrenia and control individuals. Genomewide association study, followed by analyses in unaffected siblings and independent schizophrenia samples, functional magnetic resonance imaging studies of brain physiology in vivo, and RNA sequencing in postmortem brain samples. The discovery cohort and unaffected siblings were participants in the National Institute of Mental Health Clinical Brain Disorders Branch schizophrenia genetics studies. Additional schizophrenia cohorts were from psychiatric treatment settings in the United States, Japan, and Germany. The discovery cohort comprised 339 with schizophrenia and 363 community control participants. Follow-up analyses studied 147 unaffected siblings of the schizophrenia cases and independent schizophrenia samples including a total of an additional 668 participants. Imaging analyses included 87 schizophrenia cases and 397 control individuals. Brain tissue samples were available for 64 cases and 61 control individuals. We studied genomewide association with g, by group, in the discovery cohort. We used selected genotypes to test specific associations in unaffected siblings and independent schizophrenia samples. Imaging analyses focused on activation in the prefrontal cortex during working memory. Brain tissue studies yielded messenger RNA expression levels for RefSeq transcripts. The schizophrenia discovery cohort showed genomewide-significant association of g with polymorphisms in sodium channel gene SCN2A, accounting for 10.4% of g variance (rs10174400, P = 9.27 × 10(-10)). Control individuals showed a trend for g/genotype association with reversed allelic directionality. The genotype-by-group interaction was also genomewide
Wong, Simpson W L; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Lam, Catherine; Chan, Becky; Lam, Fanny W F; Doo, Sylvia
This study sought to examine factors that are predictive of future developmental dyslexia among a group of 5-year-old Chinese children at risk for dyslexia, including 62 children with a sibling who had been previously diagnosed with dyslexia and 52 children who manifested clinical at-risk factors in aspects of language according to testing by paediatricians. The age-5 performances on various literacy and cognitive tasks, gender and group status (familial risk or language delayed) were used to predict developmental dyslexia 2 years later using logistic regression analysis. Results showed that greater risk of dyslexia was related to slower rapid automatized naming, lower scores on morphological awareness, Chinese character recognition and English letter naming, and gender (boys had more risk). Three logistic equations were generated for estimating individual risk of dyslexia. The strongest models were those that included all print-related variables (including speeded number naming, character recognition and letter identification) and gender, with about 70% accuracy or above. Early identification of those Chinese children at risk for dyslexia can facilitate better dyslexia risk management. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
King, M; Marston, L; Bower, P
Most evidence in the UK on the effectiveness of brief therapy for depression concerns cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT). In a trial published in 2000, we showed that non-directive counselling and CBT were equally effective in general practice for patients with depression and mixed anxiety and depression. Our results were criticized for including patients not meeting diagnostic criteria for a depressive disorder. In this reanalysis we aimed to compare the effectiveness of the two therapies for patients with an ICD-10 depressive episode. Patients with an ICD-10 depressive episode or mixed anxiety and depression were randomized to counselling, CBT or usual general practitioner (GP) care. Counsellors provided nondirective, interpersonal counselling following a manual that we developed based on the work of Carl Rogers. Cognitive behaviour therapists provided CBT also guided by a manual. Modelling was carried out using generalized estimating equations with the multiply imputed datasets. Outcomes were mean scores on the Beck Depression Inventory, Brief Symptom Inventory, and Social Adjustment Scale at 4 and 12 months. A total of 134 participants were randomized to CBT, 126 to counselling and 67 to usual GP care. We undertook (1) an interaction analysis using all 316 patients who were assigned a diagnosis and (2) a head-to-head comparison using only those 130 (41%) participants who had an ICD-10 depressive episode at baseline. CBT and counselling were both superior to GP care at 4 months but not at 12 months. There was no difference in the effectiveness of the two psychological therapies. We recommend that national clinical guidelines take our findings into consideration in recommending effective alternatives to CBT.
Donegan, Eleanor; Dugas, Michel J.
Objective: Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is characterized by excessive worry and somatic symptoms of anxiety (e.g., restlessness, muscle tension). Several psychological treatments lead to significant reductions in GAD symptoms by posttreatment. However, little is known about how GAD symptoms change over time. Our main goal was to examine how…
Lacruz, Me; Emeny, Rt; Bickel, H; Linkohr, B; Ladwig, Kh
Test the feasibility of the modified telephone interview for cognitive status (TICS-m) as a screening tool to detect cognitive impairment in a population-based sample of older subjects. Data were collected from 3,578 participants, age 65-94 years, of the KORA-Age study. We used analysis of covariance to test for significant sex, age and educational differences in raw TICS-m scores. Internal consistency was analysed by assessing Cronbach's alpha. Correction for education years was undertaken, and participants were divided in three subgroups following validated cut-offs. Finally, a logistic regression was performed to determine the impact of sex on cognition subgroups. Internal consistency of the TICS-m was 0.78. Study participants needed approximately 5.4 min to complete the interview. Lower raw TICS-m scores were associated with male sex, older age and lower education (all p education years, 2,851 (79%) had a non-impaired cognitive status (score >31). Male sex was independently associated with having a score equal to or below 27 and 31 (OR = 1.9, 95% CI 1.4-2.5 and OR = 1.5, 95% CI 1.2-1.7, respectively). The TICS-m is a feasible questionnaire for community-dwelling older adults with normal cognitive function or moderate cognitive impairment. Lower cognitive performance was associated with being a man, being older, and having fewer years of formal education. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.