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Sample records for general chemistry section

  1. General chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Yeong Sik; Lee, Dong Seop; Ryu, Haung Ryong; Jang, Cheol Hyeon; Choi, Bong Jong; Choi, Sang Won

    1993-07-01

    The book concentrates on the latest general chemistry, which is divided int twenty-three chapters. It deals with basic conception and stoichiometry, nature of gas, structure of atoms, quantum mechanics, symbol and structure of an electron of ion and molecule, chemical thermodynamics, nature of solid, change of state and liquid, properties of solution, chemical equilibrium, solution and acid-base, equilibrium of aqueous solution, electrochemistry, chemical reaction speed, molecule spectroscopy, hydrogen, oxygen and water, metallic atom; 1A, IIA, IIIA, carbon and atom IVA, nonmetal atom and an inert gas, transition metals, lanthanons, and actinoids, nuclear properties and radioactivity, biochemistry and environment chemistry.

  2. The latest general chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Geun Bae; Choi, Se Yeong; Kim, Chin Yeong; Yoon, Gil Jung; Lee, Eun Seok; Seo, Moon Gyu

    1995-02-01

    This book deals with the latest general chemistry, which is comprised of twenty-three chapters, the contents of this book are introduction, theory of atoms and molecule, chemical formula and a chemical reaction formula, structure of atoms, nature of atoms and the periodic table, structure of molecule and spectrum, gas, solution, solid, chemical combination, chemical reaction speed, chemical equilibrium, thermal chemistry, oxidation-reduction, electrochemistry, acid-base, complex, aquatic chemistry, air chemistry, nuclear chemistry, metal and nonmetal, organic chemistry and biochemistry. It has exercise in the end of each chapter.

  3. General Chemistry for Engineers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kybett, B. D.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses the relationship between molecular structure, intermolecular forces, and tensile strengths of a polymer and suggests that this is a logical way to introduce polymers into a general chemistry course. (Author/JN)

  4. Affordances of Instrumentation in General Chemistry Laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Kristin Mary Daniels

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to find out what students in the first chemistry course at the undergraduate level (general chemistry for science majors) know about the affordances of instrumentation used in the general chemistry laboratory and how their knowledge develops over time. Overall, students see the PASCO(TM) system as a useful and accurate…

  5. Connecting Achievement Motivation to Performance in General Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrell, Brent; Phillips, Michael M.; Barbera, Jack

    2016-01-01

    Student success in chemistry is inherently tied to motivational and other affective processes. We investigated three distinct constructs tied to motivation: self-efficacy, interest, and effort beliefs. These variables were measured twice over the course of a semester in three sections of a first-semester general chemistry course (n = 170). We…

  6. Electron collision cross sections and radiation chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatano, Y.

    1983-01-01

    A survey is given of the cross section data needs in radiation chemistry, and of the recent progress in electron impact studies on dissociative excitation of molecules. In the former some of the important target species, processes, and collision energies are presented, while in the latter it is demonstrated that radiation chemistry is a source of new ideas and information in atomic collision research. 37 references, 4 figures

  7. A Comprehensive General Chemistry Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeder, Ryan D.; Jeffery, Kathleen A.

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the use of a comprehensive demonstration suitable for a high school or first-year undergraduate introductory chemistry class. The demonstration involves placing a burning candle in a container adjacent to a beaker containing a basic solution with indicator. After adding a lid, the candle will extinguish and the produced…

  8. 14 CFR Section 4 - General

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS AND REPORTS FOR LARGE CERTIFICATED AIR CARRIERS Balance Sheet Classifications Section 4 General (a) The balance sheet accounts are designed to show the financial condition of the air... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General Section 4 Section 4 Aeronautics and...

  9. A Flipped Classroom Redesign in General Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Scott A.

    2016-01-01

    The flipped classroom continues to attract significant attention in higher education. Building upon our recent parallel controlled study of the flipped classroom in a second-term general chemistry course ("J. Chem. Educ.," 2016, 93, 13-23), here we report on a redesign of the flipped course aimed at scaling up total enrollment while…

  10. Defining Conceptual Understanding in General Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holme, Thomas A.; Luxford, Cynthia J.; Brandriet, Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    Among the many possible goals that instructors have for students in general chemistry, the idea that they will better understand the conceptual underpinnings of the science is certainly important. Nonetheless, identifying with clarity what exemplifies student success at achieving this goal is hindered by the challenge of clearly articulating what…

  11. Measuring Student Performance in General Organic Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Ara C.; Ben-Daat, Hagit; Zhu, Mary; Atkinson, Robert; Barrows, Nathan; Gould, Ian R.

    2015-01-01

    Student performance in general organic chemistry courses is determined by a wide range of factors including cognitive ability, motivation and cultural capital. Previous work on cognitive factors has tended to focus on specific areas rather than exploring performance across all problem types and cognitive skills. In this study, we have categorized…

  12. General Dialdehyde Click Chemistry for Amine Bioconjugation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elahipanah, Sina; O'Brien, Paul J; Rogozhnikov, Dmitry; Yousaf, Muhammad N

    2017-05-17

    -conjugation strategy, we designed a straightforward scheme to synthesize a suite of dialdehyde reagents. The dialdehyde molecules were used for applications in cell-surface engineering and for tailoring surfaces for material science applications. We anticipate the broad utility of the general dialdehyde click chemistry to primary amines in all areas of chemical research, ranging from polymers and bioconjugation to material science and nanoscience.

  13. 14 CFR Section 2 - General Accounting Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General Accounting Policies Section 2 Section 2 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION... General Accounting Provisions Section 2 General Accounting Policies ...

  14. Understanding the Impact of a General Chemistry Course on Students' Transition to Organic Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins-Webb, Alexandra; Jeffery, Kathleen A.; Sweeder, Ryan D.

    2016-01-01

    The move from general chemistry to organic chemistry can be a challenge for students as it often involves a transition from quantitatively-oriented to mechanistically-oriented thinking. This study found that the design of the general chemistry course can change the student experience of this transition as assessed by a reflective survey. The…

  15. Report of scientific results 1976. Section nuclear chemistry and reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    The report of the section Nuclear Chemistry and Reactor presents the results of R and D in the fields of neutron scattering, radiation damage in solids, reactor chemistry, trace elements research in biomedicine, geochemistry, reactor operation, radioisotope production, and gives a survey of publications and lectures. (HK) [de

  16. General Chemistry Students' Goals for Chemistry Laboratory Coursework

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeKorver, Brittland K.; Towns, Marcy H.

    2015-01-01

    Little research exists on college students' learning goals in chemistry, let alone specifically pertaining to laboratory coursework. Because students' learning goals are linked to achievement and dependent on context, research on students' goals in the laboratory context may lead to better understanding about the efficacy of lab curricula. This…

  17. Water Chemistry Section: progress report (1981-82)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dharwadkar, S.R.; Ramshesh, V.

    1983-01-01

    The activities of the Water Chemistry Section of the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC), Bombay, during the years 1981 and 1982 are reported in the form of individual summaries. The research activities of the Section cover the following areas: (1) chemistry and thermodynamics of nuclear materials, (2) crystal structure of organo-metallic complexes using X-ray diffraction, (3) thermophysical and phase transition studies, (4) solid state chemistry and thermochemical studies, (5) water and steam chemistry of heavy water plants and phwr type reactors, and (6) uranium isotope exchange studies. A survey is also given of: (i) the Section's participation in advisory and consultancy services in nuclear and thermal power stations, (ii) training activities, and (iii) assistance in chemical analysis by various techniques to other units of BARC and outside agencies. A list of publications and lectures by the staff during the report period is included. (M.G.B.)

  18. Puzzling through General Chemistry: A Light-Hearted Approach to Engaging Students with Chemistry Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Susan L.

    2007-01-01

    Several puzzles are designed to be used by chemistry students as learning tools and teach them basic chemical concepts. The topics of the puzzles are based on the chapters from Chemistry, The Central Science used in general chemistry course and the puzzles are in various forms like crosswords, word searches, number searches, puzzles based on…

  19. Analytical Chemistry Section Chemistry Research Group, Winfrith. Report for 1982 and 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amey, M.D.H.; Capp, P.D.; James, H.

    1984-01-01

    This report reviews the principal activities of the Analytical Chemistry Section of Chemistry Research Group, Winfrith, during 1982 and 1983. The objectives of the report are to outline the range of chemical analysis support services available at Winfrith, indicate the research areas from which samples currently originate, and identify instrumental techniques where significant updating has occurred. (author)

  20. Analysis of Students’ Missed Organic Chemistry Quiz Questions that Stress the Importance of Prior General Chemistry Knowledge

    OpenAIRE

    Julie Ealy

    2018-01-01

    A concern about students’ conceptual difficulties in organic chemistry prompted this study. It was found that prior knowledge from general chemistry was critical in organic chemistry, but what were some of the concepts that comprised that prior knowledge? Therefore an analysis of four years of organic chemistry quiz data was undertaken. Multiple general chemistry concepts were revealed that are essential prior knowledge in organic chemistry. The general chemistry concepts that were foun...

  1. Student Attitudes toward Flipping the General Chemistry Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J. Dominic

    2013-01-01

    The idea of ''flipping the classroom'' to make class time more engaging and student-centred has gained ground in recent years. The lecture portion of General Chemistry I and General Chemistry II courses were pushed outside the classroom using pre-recording technology and streaming delivery of content, in order to make in-class time more…

  2. Comparing Recent Organizing Templates for Test Content between ACS Exams in General Chemistry and AP Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holme, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Two different versions of "big ideas" rooted content maps have recently been published for general chemistry. As embodied in the content outline from the College Board, one of these maps is designed to guide curriculum development and testing for advanced placement (AP) chemistry. The Anchoring Concepts Content Map for general chemistry…

  3. Stratospheric General Circulation with Chemistry Model (SGCCM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rood, Richard B.; Douglass, Anne R.; Geller, Marvin A.; Kaye, Jack A.; Nielsen, J. Eric; Rosenfield, Joan E.; Stolarski, Richard S.

    1990-01-01

    In the past two years constituent transport and chemistry experiments have been performed using both simple single constituent models and more complex reservoir species models. Winds for these experiments have been taken from the data assimilation effort, Stratospheric Data Analysis System (STRATAN).

  4. Computer assisted instruction in the general chemistry laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pate, Jerry C.

    This dissertation examines current applications concerning the use of computer technology to enhance instruction in the general chemistry laboratory. The dissertation critiques widely-used educational software, and explores examples of multimedia presentations such as those used in beginning chemistry laboratory courses at undergraduate and community colleges. The dissertation describes a prototype compact disc (CD) used to (a) introduce the general chemistry laboratory, (b) familiarize students with using chemistry laboratory equipment, (c) introduce laboratory safety practices, and (d) provide approved techniques for maintaining a laboratory notebook. Upon completing the CD portion of the pre-lab, students are linked to individual self-help (WebCT) quizzes covering the information provided on the CD. The CD is designed to improve student understanding of basic concepts, techniques, and procedures used in the general chemistry laboratory.

  5. Students' Written Arguments in General Chemistry Laboratory Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Aeran; Hand, Brian; Greenbowe, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the written arguments developed by college freshman students using the Science Writing Heuristic approach in inquiry-based general chemistry laboratory classrooms and its relationships with students' achievement in chemistry courses. Fourteen freshman students participated in the first year of the study while 19…

  6. Using Computational Chemistry Activities to Promote Learning and Retention in a Secondary School General Chemistry Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochterski, Joseph W.

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the results of using state-of-the-art, research-quality software as a learning tool in a general chemistry secondary school classroom setting. I present three activities designed to introduce fundamental chemical concepts regarding molecular shape and atomic orbitals to students with little background in chemistry, such as…

  7. General Chemistry Students' Understanding of Climate Change and the Chemistry Related to Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versprille, Ashley N.; Towns, Marcy H.

    2015-01-01

    While much is known about secondary students' perspectives of climate change, rather less is known about undergraduate students' perspectives. The purpose of this study is to investigate general chemistry students' understanding of the chemistry underlying climate change. Findings that emerged from the analysis of the 24 interviews indicate that…

  8. Green Goggles: Designing and Teaching a General Chemistry Course to Nonmajors Using a Green Chemistry Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    A novel course using green chemistry as the context to teach general chemistry fundamentals was designed, implemented and is described here. The course design included an active learning approach, with major course graded components including a weekly blog entry, exams, and a semester project that was disseminated by wiki and a public symposium.…

  9. SPECIAL ISSUE DEDICATED TO THE 10TH ANNIVERSARY OF THE CHEMISTRY JOURNAL OF MOLDOVA. GENERAL, INDUSTRIAL AND ECOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY

    OpenAIRE

    Gheorghe DUCA

    2016-01-01

    Ten years ago, in 2006, CHEMISTRY JOURNAL OF MOLDOVA. General, Industrial and Ecological Chemistry was founded by the Institute of Chemistry of Academy of Sciences of Moldova and Moldova State University. Chemistry Journal of Moldova is an open access, international indexed and peer-reviewed journal that publishes papers of high quality containing original results in the areas of Chemical Sciences, such as analytical chemistry, ecological chemistry, food chemistry, industrial chem...

  10. LOGICAL REASONING ABILITY AND STUDENT PERFORMANCE IN GENERAL CHEMISTRY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Lillian

    2010-03-01

    Logical reasoning skills of students enrolled in General Chemistry at the University of Puerto Rico in Río Piedras were measured using the Group Assessment of Logical Thinking (GALT) test. The results were used to determine the students' cognitive level (concrete, transitional, formal) as well as their level of performance by logical reasoning mode (mass/volume conservation, proportional reasoning, correlational reasoning, experimental variable control, probabilistic reasoning and combinatorial reasoning). This information was used to identify particular deficiencies and gender effects, and to determine which logical reasoning modes were the best predictors of student performance in the general chemistry course. Statistical tests to analyze the relation between (a) operational level and final grade in both semesters of the course; (b) GALT test results and performance in the ACS General Chemistry Examination; and (c) operational level and student approach (algorithmic or conceptual) towards a test question that may be answered correctly using either strategy, were also performed.

  11. A General Chemistry Experiment Incorporating Synthesis and Structural Determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ryswyk, Hal

    1997-07-01

    An experiment for the general chemistry laboratory is described wherein gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) and diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS) are used to characterize the products of a series of microscale reactions on vanillin. A single sophisticated instrument can be incorporated into the laboratory given sufficient attention to the use of sampling accessories and software macros. Synthetic experiments coupled with modern instrumental techniques can be used in the general chemistry laboratory to illustrate the concepts of synthesis, structure, bonding, and spectroscopy.

  12. Team-Based Learning Reduces Attrition in a First-Semester General Chemistry Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comeford, Lorrie

    2016-01-01

    Team-based learning (TBL) is an instructional method that has been shown to reduce attrition and increase student learning in a number of disciplines. TBL was implemented in a first-semester general chemistry course, and its effect on attrition was assessed. Attrition from sections before implementing TBL (fall 2008 to fall 2009) was compared with…

  13. A General Chemistry Laboratory Course Designed for Student Discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obenland, Carrie A.; Kincaid, Kristi; Hutchinson, John S.

    2014-01-01

    We report a study of the general chemistry laboratory course at one university over four years. We found that when taught as a traditional laboratory course, lab experiences do not encourage students to deepen their understanding of chemical concepts. Although the lab instructor emphasized that the lab experiences were designed to enhance…

  14. A New Approach to the General Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieron, Joseph F.; McCarthy, Paul J.; Kermis, Thomas W.

    1996-11-01

    same professors engaged a group of 14 students (representing a cross section of the whole class) in a 75-minute discussion of many aspects of the courses. As presented above, we made no attempt to perfectly synchronize the lecture and lab. In spite of our rationale, students invariably found this unappealing. They clearly prefer to have the matter covered in lecture before they perform an experiment on the particular subject. In general, students expressed a positive view of the lab experiments, particularly the "experiment and observation" component. Somewhat more than half agreed or strongly agreed that the lab course stimulated their interest in chemistry. Most (80%) thought the number of experiments that we attempted to do was "about right", and they considered the experiments well written with clear directions (86%). As regards the use of microscale techniques, the overriding response was neutrality, both in the enjoyment and in the perceptions of this as "new and different". The use of computers in some experiments was not perceived as difficult, nor was it seen as especially helpful in increasing understanding of chemistry. The component of the experiments most disliked by students and considered most difficult was the data-sheet reports. (Because these contain the observed data and the calculated results, this is probably not surprising.) The students were required to keep a notebook, and 68% found this an aid in taking tests on the lab work. Instructors' Observations The instructors consider these experiments to be an improvement over the experiments they replaced. Students showed an interest in doing the experiments without the usual activity of trying to determine from other students the "correct" answers. One prelab presentation can cover an entire cluster, and weekly prelab directions take minimal time. The students learned to keep detailed notebooks, since they could use the notes for the exam at the end of each cluster. In summary, we believe this

  15. Integrating the Liberal Arts and Chemistry: A Series of General Chemistry Assignments to Develop Science Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Diane M.; Chengelis Czegan, Demetra A.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes assignments that have been implemented in a General Chemistry I course to promote science literacy. This course was chosen in particular because it reaches a broad audience, which includes nonscience majors. The assignment series begins with several discussions and tasks to develop information literacy, in which students find…

  16. Supramolecular chemistry-general principles and selected examples from anion recognition and metallosupramolecular chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, Markus

    2007-12-01

    This review gives an introduction into supramolecular chemistry describing in the first part general principles, focusing on terms like noncovalent interaction, molecular recognition, self-assembly, and supramolecular function. In the second part those will be illustrated by simple examples from our laboratories. Supramolecular chemistry is the science that bridges the gap between the world of molecules and nanotechnology. In supramolecular chemistry noncovalent interactions occur between molecular building blocks, which by molecular recognition and self-assembly form (functional) supramolecular entities. It is also termed the "chemistry of the noncovalent bond." Molecular recognition is based on geometrical complementarity based on the "key-and-lock" principle with nonshape-dependent effects, e.g., solvatization, being also highly influential. Self-assembly leads to the formation of well-defined aggregates. Hereby the overall structure of the target ensemble is controlled by the symmetry features of the certain building blocks. Finally, the aggregates can possess special properties or supramolecular functions, which are only found in the ensemble but not in the participating molecules. This review gives an introduction on supramolecular chemistry and illustrates the fundamental principles by recent examples from our group.

  17. Overview. Department of Nuclear Physical Chemistry. Section 9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szeglowski, Z. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Cracow (Poland)

    1995-12-31

    In the papers presented bellow the activities of the Department of Nuclear Physical Chemistry in 1994 are presented. A further effort was made towards routine production of neutron-deficient isotopes for nuclear medicine - and namely {sup 67} Ga and {sup 139} Ce. Small activities of {sup 111} In were produced by the {alpha} bombardment of Ag target. In order to improve the {sup 111} In production the deuterons reaction with cadmium target was studied. The other field of the Department research is studying of the physicochemical properties of transactinoid elements (104,105, 106). The Department is also engaged in works of the National Network of Early Detection of Radioactive Contamination in Air. In this section, apart of the detail descriptions of mentioned activities, the information about personnel employed in the Department, papers and reports published in 1994, contribution to conferences and grants are also given.

  18. Overview. Department of Nuclear Physical Chemistry. Section 9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szeglowski, Z [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Cracow (Poland)

    1996-12-31

    In the papers presented bellow the activities of the Department of Nuclear Physical Chemistry in 1994 are presented. A further effort was made towards routine production of neutron-deficient isotopes for nuclear medicine - and namely {sup 67} Ga and {sup 139} Ce. Small activities of {sup 111} In were produced by the {alpha} bombardment of Ag target. In order to improve the {sup 111} In production the deuterons reaction with cadmium target was studied. The other field of the Department research is studying of the physicochemical properties of transactinoid elements (104,105, 106). The Department is also engaged in works of the National Network of Early Detection of Radioactive Contamination in Air. In this section, apart of the detail descriptions of mentioned activities, the information about personnel employed in the Department, papers and reports published in 1994, contribution to conferences and grants are also given.

  19. Formation and Dimerization of NO2 A General Chemistry Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennis, April D.; Highberger, C. Scott; Schreiner, Serge

    1997-11-01

    We have developed a general chemistry experiment which illustrates Gay-Lussac's law of combining volumes. Students are able to determine the partial pressures and equilibrium constant for the formation and dimerization of NO2. The experiment can be carried out in about 45 minutes with students working in groups of two. The experiment readily provides students with data that can be manipulated with a common spreadsheet.

  20. Attitude Counts: Self-Concept and Success in General Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Scott E.; Shaw, Janet L.; Heitz, Judith O.; Webster, Gail H.

    2009-06-01

    General chemistry is a required first step for students who wish to pursue a career in science or health professions. The course often has low rates of student success and as a result serves as a gateway limiting access to science fields. This study seeks to better understand factors that are related to student success in general chemistry by focusing on the affective domain, in this case students' self-concept, or self-evaluation of ability as it pertains to a specific field of study. First, a profile of students' self-concept in the general chemistry setting is created. Next, the relationship between self-concept and success in the course is investigated, including examining the role of self-concept after taking into account a cognitive measure (SAT scores). This study is unique in that evidence is found for the impact of self-concept after taking into account a cognitive measure. Finally, the effect of a semester-long, inquiry-oriented learning environment on students' self-concept is described. Suggested interventions to improve student self-concept are also discussed.

  1. General Chemistry Courses That Can Affect Achievement: An Action Research Study in Developing a Plan to Improve Undergraduate Chemistry Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shweikeh, Eman

    2014-01-01

    Over the past 50 years, considerable research has been dedicated to chemistry education. In evaluating principal chemistry courses in higher education, educators have noted the learning process for first-year general chemistry courses may be challenging. The current study investigated perceptions of faculty, students and administrators on…

  2. The Importance of Undergraduate General and Organic Chemistry to the Study of Biochemistry in Medical School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scimone, Anthony; Scimone, Angelina A.

    1996-01-01

    Investigates chemistry topics necessary to facilitate the study of biochemistry in U.S. medical schools. Lists topics considered especially important and topics considered especially unimportant in general chemistry and organic chemistry. Suggests that in teaching undergraduate general or organic chemistry, the topics categorized as exceptionally…

  3. Mendeleev-2013. VII All-Russian conference of young scientists, postgraduate students and students with international participation on chemistry and nanomaterials. Book of abstracts. Section 4. Organic chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    VII All-Russian conference of young scientists, postgraduate students and students with international participation on chemistry and nanomaterials was conducted on the Chemistry department of Saint-Petersburg University on April, 2-5, 2013. In the conference participants from 14 countries took part. There were five sections: Nanochemistry and nanomaterials, Analytic chemistry, Inorganic chemistry, Organic chemistry, Physical chemistry. In the collection (Section 2 - Organic chemistry) there are the abstracts concerning different aspects of organic chemistry: synthesis and study of properties of heterocyclic, organometallic, biologically active, medicinal compounds, new ion exchange materials, reagents for analytic chemistry, etc [ru

  4. Bias Assessment of General Chemistry Analytes using Commutable Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koerbin, Gus; Tate, Jillian R; Ryan, Julie; Jones, Graham Rd; Sikaris, Ken A; Kanowski, David; Reed, Maxine; Gill, Janice; Koumantakis, George; Yen, Tina; St John, Andrew; Hickman, Peter E; Simpson, Aaron; Graham, Peter

    2014-11-01

    Harmonisation of reference intervals for routine general chemistry analytes has been a goal for many years. Analytical bias may prevent this harmonisation. To determine if analytical bias is present when comparing methods, the use of commutable samples, or samples that have the same properties as the clinical samples routinely analysed, should be used as reference samples to eliminate the possibility of matrix effect. The use of commutable samples has improved the identification of unacceptable analytical performance in the Netherlands and Spain. The International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (IFCC) has undertaken a pilot study using commutable samples in an attempt to determine not only country specific reference intervals but to make them comparable between countries. Australia and New Zealand, through the Australasian Association of Clinical Biochemists (AACB), have also undertaken an assessment of analytical bias using commutable samples and determined that of the 27 general chemistry analytes studied, 19 showed sufficiently small between method biases as to not prevent harmonisation of reference intervals. Application of evidence based approaches including the determination of analytical bias using commutable material is necessary when seeking to harmonise reference intervals.

  5. Impact of General Chemistry on Student Achievement and Progression to Subsequent Chemistry Courses: A Regression Discontinuity Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shultz, Ginger V.; Gottfried, Amy C.; Winschel, Grace A.

    2015-01-01

    General chemistry is a gateway course that impacts the STEM trajectory of tens of thousands of students each year, and its role in the introductory curriculum as well as its pedagogical design are the center of an ongoing debate. To investigate the role of general chemistry in the curriculum, we report the results of a posthoc analysis of 10 years…

  6. Chemistry, Life, the Universe, and Everything: A New Approach to General Chemistry, and a Model for Curriculum Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Melanie; Klymkowsky, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The history of general chemistry is one of almost constant calls for reform, yet over the past 60 years little of substance has changed. Those reforms that have been implemented are almost entirely concerned with how the course is taught, rather than what is to be learned. Here we briefly discuss the history of the general chemistry curriculum and…

  7. Learning beyond the Classroom: Using Text Messages to Measure General Chemistry Students' Study Habits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Li; Oueini, Razanne; Dickerson, Austin P.; Lewis, Scott E.

    2015-01-01

    This study used a series of text message inquiries sent to General Chemistry students asking: "Have you studied for General Chemistry I in the past 48 hours? If so, how did you study?" This method for collecting data is novel to chemistry education research so the first research goals were to investigate the feasibility of the technique…

  8. General chemistry courses that can affect achievement: An action research study in developing a plan to improve undergraduate chemistry courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shweikeh, Eman

    Over the past 50 years, considerable research has been dedicated to chemistry education. In evaluating principal chemistry courses in higher education, educators have noted the learning process for first-year general chemistry courses may be challenging. The current study investigated perceptions of faculty, students and administrators on chemistry education at three institutions in Southern California. Via action research, the study sought to develop a plan to improve student engagement in general chemistry courses. A mixed method was utilized to analyze different perceptions on key factors determining the level of commitment and engagement in general chemistry education. The approach to chemistry learning from both a faculty and student perspective was examined including good practices, experiences and extent of active participation. The research study considered well-known measures of effective education with an emphasis on two key components: educational practices and student behavior. Institutional culture was inclusively assessed where cognitive expectations of chemistry teaching and learning were communicated. First, the extent in which faculty members are utilizing the "Seven Principles for Good Practice in Undergraduate Education" in their instruction was explored. Second, student attitudes and approaches toward chemistry learning were examined. The focus was on investigating student understanding of the learning process and the structure of chemistry knowledge. The seven categories used to measure students' expectations for learning chemistry were: effort, concepts, math link, reality link, outcome, laboratory, and visualization. This analysis represents the views of 16 faculty and 140 students. The results validated the assertion that students need some competencies and skills to tackle the challenges of the chemistry learning process to deeply engage in learning. A mismatch exists between the expectations of students and those of the faculty

  9. Effects of Students' Pre- and Post-Laboratory Concept Maps on Students' Attitudes toward Chemistry Laboratory in University General Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilic, Ziya; Kaya, Osman Nafiz; Dogan, Alev

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of scientific discussions based on student-constructed pre- and post-laboratory concept maps on students' attitudes toward chemistry laboratory in the university general chemistry. As part of instruction, during the first four laboratory sessions, students were taught how to construct and…

  10. Mendeleev-2013. VII All-Russian conference of young scientists, postgraduate students and students with international participation on chemistry and nanomaterials. Book of abstracts. Section 2. Analytic chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    VII All-Russian conference of young scientists, postgraduate students and students with international participation on chemistry and nanomaterials was conducted on the Chemistry department of Saint-Petersburg University on April, 2-5, 2013. In the conference participants from 14 countries took part. There were five sections: Nanochemistry and nanomaterials, Analytic chemistry, Inorganic chemistry, Organic chemistry, Physical chemistry. In the collection (Section 2 - Analytic chemistry) there are the abstracts concerning determination of heavy metals in environmental samples, petroleum products, different biological active and toxic substances in human tissues, food products and water; usage of nanoparticles for modification of electrodes for electrochemical methods of analysis, etc [ru

  11. Radiation chemistry - its Czechoslovak story and comments on general present

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bednar, J.

    1978-01-01

    The history is outlined of radiation chemistry in Czechoslovakia since 1954 and scientists contributing to the respective stages of its development are listed. Current trends of radiation chemistry in the world are indicated. (J.P.)

  12. Integrating Multiple Teaching Methods into a General Chemistry Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco, Joseph S.; Nicoll, Gayle; Trautmann, Marcella

    1998-02-01

    In addition to the traditional lecture format, three other teaching strategies (class discussions, concept maps, and cooperative learning) were incorporated into a freshman level general chemistry course. Student perceptions of their involvement in each of the teaching methods, as well as their perceptions of the utility of each method were used to assess the effectiveness of the integration of the teaching strategies as received by the students. Results suggest that each strategy serves a unique purpose for the students and increased student involvement in the course. These results indicate that the multiple teaching strategies were well received by the students and that all teaching strategies are necessary for students to get the most out of the course.

  13. Engineering Faculty Attitudes to General Chemistry Courses in Engineering Curricula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garip, Mehmet; Erdil, Erzat; Bilsel, Ayhan

    2006-01-01

    A survey on the attitudes of engineering faculty to chemistry, physics, and mathematics was conducted with the aim of clarifying the attitudes of engineering faculty to chemistry courses in relation to engineering education or curricula and assessing their expectations. The results confirm that on the whole chemistry is perceived as having a…

  14. First 25-hydroxyvitamin D assay for general chemistry analyzers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saida, Fakhri B; Chen, Xiaoru; Tran, Kiet; Dou, Chao; Yuan, Chong

    2015-03-01

    25-Hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], the predominant circulating form of vitamin D, is an accurate indicator of the general vitamin D status of an individual. Because vitamin D deficiencies have been linked to several pathologies (including osteoporosis and rickets), accurate monitoring of 25(OH)D levels is becoming increasingly important in clinical settings. Current 25(OH)D assays are either chromatographic or immunoassay-based assays. These assays include HPLC, liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), enzyme-immunosorbent, immunochemiluminescence, immunofluorescence and radioimmunoassay. All these assays use heterogeneous formats that require phase separation and special instrumentations. In this article, we present an overview of these assays and introduce the first homogeneous assay of 25(OH)D for use on general chemistry analyzers. A special emphasis is put on the unique challenges posed by the 25(OH)D analyte. These challenges include a low detection limit, the dissociation of the analyte from its serum transporter and the inactivation of various binding proteins without phase separation steps.

  15. Design and Evaluation of a One-Semester General Chemistry Course for Undergraduate Life Science Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnoebelen, Carly; Towns, Marcy H.; Chmielewski, Jean; Hrycyna, Christine A.

    2018-01-01

    The chemistry curriculum for undergraduate life science majors at Purdue University has been transformed to better meet the needs of this student population and prepare them for future success. The curriculum, called the 1-2-1 curriculum, includes four consecutive and integrated semesters of instruction in general chemistry, organic chemistry, and…

  16. The Effects of Clickers and Online Homework on Students' Achievement in General Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebru, Misganaw T.

    2012-01-01

    Retention of an introductory general chemistry course material is vital for student success in future chemistry and chemistry-related courses. This study investigated the effects of clickers versus online homework on students' long-term content retention, examined the effectiveness of online homework versus no graded homework on…

  17. Development and Assessment of Green, Research-Based Instructional Materials for the General Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacciatore, Kristen L.

    2010-01-01

    This research entails integrating two novel approaches for enriching student learning in chemistry into the context of the general chemistry laboratory. The first is a pedagogical approach based on research in cognitive science and the second is the green chemistry philosophy. Research has shown that inquiry-based approaches are effective in…

  18. Examining the Effectiveness of a Semi-Self-Paced Flipped Learning Format in a College General Chemistry Sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibbard, Lisa; Sung, Shannon; Wells, Breche´

    2016-01-01

    Flipped learning has come to the forefront in education. It maximizes learning by moving content delivery online, where learning can be self-paced, allowing for class time to focus on student-centered active learning. This five-year cross-sectional study assessed student performance in a college general chemistry for majors sequence taught by a…

  19. Measuring Meaningful Learning in the Undergraduate Chemistry Laboratory: A National, Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, Kelli R.; Bretz, Stacey Lowery

    2015-01-01

    Research on laboratory learning points to the need to better understand what and how students learn in the undergraduate chemistry laboratory. The Meaningful Learning in the Laboratory Instrument (MLLI) was administered to general and organic chemistry students from 15 colleges and universities across the United States in order to measure the…

  20. Building a Database for the Historical Analysis of the General Chemistry Curriculum Using ACS General Chemistry Exams as Artifacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luxford, Cynthia J.; Linenberger, Kimberly J.; Raker, Jeffrey R.; Baluyut, John Y.; Reed, Jessica J.; De Silva, Chamila; Holme, Thomas A.

    2015-01-01

    As a discipline, chemistry enjoys a unique position. While many academic areas prepared "cooperative examinations" in the 1930s, only chemistry maintained the activity within what has become the ACS Examinations Institute. As a result, the long-term existence of community-built, norm-referenced, standardized exams provides a historical…

  1. A Transition Program for Underprepared Students in General Chemistry: Diagnosis, Implementation, and Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Shawn P.; Hogrebe, Mark C.; Spees, William M.; Handlin, Larry B.; Noelken, Greg P.; Riley, Julie M.; Frey, Regina F.

    2012-01-01

    We developed an online exam to diagnose students who are underprepared for college-level general chemistry and implemented a program to support them during the general chemistry sequence. This transition program consists of extended-length recitations, peer-led team-learning (PLTL) study groups, and peer-mentoring groups. We evaluated this…

  2. Population-Based Pediatric Reference Intervals in General Clinical Chemistry: A Swedish Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridefelt, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Very few high quality studies on pediatric reference intervals for general clinical chemistry and hematology analytes have been performed. Three recent prospective community-based projects utilising blood samples from healthy children in Sweden, Denmark and Canada have substantially improved the situation. The Swedish survey included 701 healthy children. Reference intervals for general clinical chemistry and hematology were defined.

  3. Chemical Remediation of Nickel(II) Waste: A Laboratory Experiment for General Chemistry Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, K. Blake; Rood, Brian E.; Trogden, Bridget G.

    2011-01-01

    This project involved developing a method to remediate large quantities of aqueous waste from a general chemistry laboratory experiment. Aqueous Ni(II) waste from a general chemistry laboratory experiment was converted into solid nickel hydroxide hydrate with a substantial decrease in waste volume. The remediation method was developed for a…

  4. Aspergillus section Nidulantes (formerly Emericella): Polyphasic taxonomy, chemistry and biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, A.J.; Frisvad, Jens Christian; Sun, B.D.

    2016-01-01

    Aspergillus section Nidulantes includes species with striking morphological characters, such as biseriate conidiophores with brown-pigmented stipes, and if present, the production of ascomata embedded in masses of Hülle cells with often reddish brown ascospores. The majority of species in this se...

  5. Fostering Spatial Skill Acquisition by General Chemistry Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlisle, Deborah; Tyson, Julian; Nieswandt, Martina

    2015-01-01

    The study of chemistry requires the understanding and use of spatial relationships, which can be challenging for many students. Prior research has shown that there is a need to develop students' spatial reasoning skills. To that end, this study implemented guided activities designed to strengthen students' spatial skills, with the aim of improving…

  6. Exploring Dominant Types of Explanations Built by General Chemistry Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talanquer, Vicente

    2010-01-01

    The central goal of our study was to explore the nature of the explanations generated by science and engineering majors with basic training in chemistry to account for the colligative properties of solutions. The work was motivated by our broader interest in the characterisation of the dominant types of explanations that science college students…

  7. Student Conceptions about Energy Transformations: Progression from General Chemistry to Biochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfson, Adele J.; Rowland, Susan L.; Lawrie, Gwendolyn A.; Wright, Anthony H.

    2014-01-01

    Students commencing studies in biochemistry must transfer and build on concepts they learned in chemistry and biology classes. It is well established, however, that students have difficulties in transferring critical concepts from general chemistry courses; one key concept is "energy." Most previous work on students' conception of energy…

  8. Atoms-First Curriculum: A Comparison of Student Success in General Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esterling, Kevin M.; Bartels, Ludwig

    2013-01-01

    We present an evaluation of the impact of an atoms-first curriculum on student success in introductory chemistry classes and find that initially a lower fraction of students obtain passing grades in the first and second quarters of the general chemistry series. This effect is more than reversed for first-quarter students after one year of…

  9. Applying the Multilevel Framework of Discourse Comprehension to Evaluate the Text Characteristics of General Chemistry Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyburn, Daniel T.; Pazicni, Samuel

    2014-01-01

    Prior chemistry education research has demonstrated a relationship between student reading skill and general chemistry course performance. In addition to student characteristics, however, the qualities of the learning materials with which students interact also impact student learning. For example, low-knowledge students benefit from texts that…

  10. Preparation for College General Chemistry: More than Just a Matter of Content Knowledge Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cracolice, Mark S.; Busby, Brittany D.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the potential of five factors that may be predictive of success in college general chemistry courses: prior knowledge of common alternate conceptions, intelligence, scientific reasoning ability, proportional reasoning ability, and attitude toward chemistry. We found that both prior knowledge and scientific reasoning ability…

  11. Improving General Chemistry Course Performance through Online Homework-Based Metacognitive Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casselman, Brock L.; Atwood, Charles H.

    2017-01-01

    In a first-semester general chemistry course, metacognitive training was implemented as part of an online homework system. Students completed weekly quizzes and multiple practice tests to regularly assess their abilities on the chemistry principles. Before taking these assessments, students predicted their score, receiving feedback after…

  12. Past, Present and Future of General Chemistry in the PUC-Rio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farias, Percio A. M.; Goulart, Mauricio S.; de Mello, Paulo Correa

    This manuscript describes the role of chemistry as a vehicle for understanding many other basic sciences and engineering based on the experience acquired in the General Chemistry course at the "Center Technical-Scientific" at the Pontific Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro (CTC-PUC-Rio). A description of the history of the General…

  13. Examining the Effects of Reflective Journals on Pre-Service Science Teachers' General Chemistry Laboratory Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cengiz, Canan; Karatas, Faik Özgür

    2015-01-01

    The general chemistry laboratory is an appropriate place for learning chemistry well. It is also effective for stimulating higher-order thinking skills, including reflective thinking, a skill that is crucial for science teaching as well as learning. This study aims to examine the effects of feedback-supported reflective journal-keeping activities…

  14. Chemistry for DUMMIES: how to popularize and introduce chemistry to the general public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montangero, Marc

    2012-01-01

    To mark the occasion of the International Year of Chemistry, each week in 2011 I posted a two-minute film demonstrating and explaining a simple and safe experiment to be carried out at home using everyday household products on the site www.chimie.ch/nuls.

  15. Measuring Meaningful Learning in the Undergraduate General Chemistry and Organic Chemistry Laboratories: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, Kelli R.; Bretz, Stacey Lowery

    2015-01-01

    Understanding how students learn in the undergraduate chemistry teaching laboratory is an essential component to developing evidence-based laboratory curricula. The Meaningful Learning in the Laboratory Instrument (MLLI) was developed to measure students' cognitive and affective expectations and experiences for learning in the chemistry…

  16. An Approach to Teaching General Chemistry II that Highlights the Interdisciplinary Nature of Science*,†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumter, Takita Felder; Owens, Patrick M.

    2012-01-01

    The need for a revised curriculum within the life sciences has been well-established. One strategy to improve student preparation in the life sciences is to redesign introductory courses like biology, chemistry, and physics so that they better reflect their disciplinary interdependence. We describe a medically relevant, context-based approach to teaching second semester general chemistry that demonstrates the interdisciplinary nature of biology and chemistry. Our innovative method provides a model in which disciplinary barriers are diminished early in the undergraduate science curriculum. The course is divided into three principle educational modules: 1) Fundamentals of General Chemistry, 2) Medical Approaches to Inflammation, and 3) Neuroscience as a connector of chemistry, biology, and psychology. We accurately anticipated that this modified approach to teaching general chemistry would enhance student interest in chemistry and bridge the perceived gaps between biology and chemistry. The course serves as a template for context-based, interdisciplinary teaching that lays the foundation needed to train 21st century scientists. PMID:21445902

  17. An approach to teaching general chemistry II that highlights the interdisciplinary nature of science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumter, Takita Felder; Owens, Patrick M

    2011-01-01

    The need for a revised curriculum within the life sciences has been well-established. One strategy to improve student preparation in the life sciences is to redesign introductory courses like biology, chemistry, and physics so that they better reflect their disciplinary interdependence. We describe a medically relevant, context-based approach to teaching second semester general chemistry that demonstrates the interdisciplinary nature of biology and chemistry. Our innovative method provides a model in which disciplinary barriers are diminished early in the undergraduate science curriculum. The course is divided into three principle educational modules: 1) Fundamentals of General Chemistry, 2) Medical Approaches to Inflammation, and 3) Neuroscience as a connector of chemistry, biology, and psychology. We accurately anticipated that this modified approach to teaching general chemistry would enhance student interest in chemistry and bridge the perceived gaps between biology and chemistry. The course serves as a template for context-based, interdisciplinary teaching that lays the foundation needed to train 21st century scientists. Copyright © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Imidazole as a pH Probe: An NMR Experiment for the General Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagan, William J., Jr.; Edie, Dennis L.; Cooley, Linda B.

    2007-01-01

    The analysis describes an NMR experiment for the general chemistry laboratory, which employs an unknown imidazole solution to measure the pH values. The described mechanism can also be used for measuring the acidity within the isolated cells.

  19. Summary Report for April, May and June, 1951, Chemistry Division, Section C-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manning, W. M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Chemistry Division; Osborne, D. W. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Chemistry Division

    1951-08-01

    This is a summary report for April, May and June, 1951, in the Chemistry Division, Section C-1 of Argonne National Laboratory. Topics include Nuclear Chemistry and Radiochemistry with specifics about the following: 1) U238 (n,2n) Cross Section WIthin a Uranium Slug, and 2) Possible Occurrence of Si32 in Nature. Basic Chemistry is also covered, going into the following subjects: 1) Heats of Solution of Salts in Organic Solvents, 2) Effect of Coordination on Absorption Spectra of Anions, 3) Entropy, Enthalpy, and Heat Capacity of Thorium Dioxide from 10 to 300°K, 4) The Thermodynamics of Neptunium Ions, 5) Migration of Ions in Ion-Exchange Resins During Electrolysis, and 5) Mutual Separation of Lanthanides and Actinides by Solvent Extraction Techniques.

  20. Suggestions for Modifications in the Teaching of General Chemistry to Accommodate Learning Disabled Students: Alternative Techniques for Teaching General Chemistry to Learning Disabled Students in the University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, H. S.

    A professor involved with the HELDS project (Higher Education for Learning Disabled Students) describes modifications in a general chemistry course. A syllabus lists program objectives for eight text chapters, evaluation components, and course rules. Two units are described in detail, with information presented on modifications made for LD…

  1. XIX Mendeleev Congress on general and applied chemistry. Abstract book in 4 volumes. Volume 4. Chemistry aspects of modern energy and alternative energy resources. Chemistry of fossil and renewable hydrocarbon raw materials. Analytical chemistry: novel methods and devices for chemical research and analysis. Chemical education

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The abstracts of the XIX Mendeleev Congress on general and applied chemistry held 25-30 September 2011 in Volgograd are presented. The program includes the Congress plenary and section reports, poster presentations, symposia and round tables on key areas of chemical science and technology, and chemical education. The work of the Congress was held the following sections: 1. Fundamental problems of chemical sciences; 2. Chemistry and technology of materials, including nanomaterials; 3. Physicochemical basis of metallurgical processes; 4. Current issues of chemical production, technical risk assessment; 5. Chemical aspects of modern power and alternative energy sources; 6. Chemistry of fossil and renewable hydrocarbons; 7. Analytical chemistry: new methods and instruments for chemical research and analysis; 8. Chemical education. Volume 4 includes abstracts of oral and poster presentations and presentations of correspondent participants of the sections: Chemistry aspects of modern energy and alternative energy resources; Chemistry of fossil and renewable hydrocarbon raw materials; Analytical chemistry: novel methods and devices for chemical research and analysis; Chemical education, and author index [ru

  2. A study of how precursor key concepts for organic chemistry success are understood by general chemistry students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Patrick Gerard

    This study examines college student understanding of key concepts that will support future organic chemistry success as determined by university instructors. During four one-hour individual interviews the sixteen subjects attempted to solve general chemistry problems. A think-aloud protocol was used along with a whiteboard where the students could draw and illustrate their ideas. The protocols for the interviews were adapted from the Covalent Structure and Bonding two-tiered multiple choice diagnostic instrument (Peterson, Treagust, & Garnett, 1989) and augmented by the Geometry and Polarity of Molecules single-tiered multiple choice instrument (Furio & Calatayud, 1996). The interviews were videotaped, transcribed, and coded for analysis to determine the subjects' understanding of the key ideas. The subjects displayed many misconceptions that were summarized into nine assertions about student conceptualization of chemistry. (1) Many students misunderstand the location and nature of intermolecular forces. (2) Some think electronegativity differences among atoms in a molecule are sufficient to make the molecule polar, regardless of spatial arrangement. (3) Most know that higher phase change temperatures imply stronger intermolecular attractions, but many do not understand the difference between covalent molecular and covalent network substances. (4) Many have difficulty deciding whether a molecule is polar or non-polar, often confusing bilateral symmetry with spatial symmetry in all three dimensions. (5) Many cannot reliably draw correct Lewis structures due to carelessness and overuse of flawed algorithms. (6) Many are confused by how electrons can both repel one other and facilitate bonding between atoms via orbitals---this seems oxymoronic to them. (7) Many cannot explain why the atoms of certain elements do not follow the octet rule and some believe the octet rule alone can determine the shape of a molecule. (8) Most do know that electronegativity and polarity

  3. A general approach for monodisperse colloidal perovskites, Chemistry of Materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demirors, A.F.; Imhof, A.

    2009-01-01

    We describe a novel general method for synthesizing monodisperse colloidal perovskite particles at room temperature by postsynthesis addition of metal hydroxides to amorphous titania colloids. In previous work, we used titania particles to synthesize homogenously mixed silica-titania composite

  4. Designing an undergraduate laboratory course in general chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vianna José F.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available From an analysis of a learning model based on the theory of information processing four hypothesis were developed for improving the design of laboratory courses. Three of these hypotheses concerned specific procedures to minimise the load on students' working memories (or working spaces and the fourth hypothesis was concerned with the value of mini-projects in enhancing meaningful learning of the knowledge and skills underpinning the set experiments. A three-year study of a first year undergraduate chemistry laboratory course at a Scottish university has been carried out to test these four hypotheses. This paper reports the results of the study relevant to the three hypotheses about the burden on students' working spaces. It was predicted from the learning model that the load on students working space should be reduced by appropriate changes to the written instructions and the laboratory organisation and by the introduction of prelab-work and prelab-training in laboratory techniques. It was concluded from research conducted over the three years period that all these hypothesised changes were effective both in reducing the load on students' working spaces and in improving their attitudes to the laboratory course.

  5. Radiation chemistry of heavy-particle tracks. I. General considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magee, J.L.; Chatterjee, A.

    1980-01-01

    The radiation chemistry of heavy-particle tracks in dilute aqueous solution is considered in a unified manner. Emphasis is on the physical and chemical phenomena which are involved rather than on the construction of models to be used in actual calculations although the latter problem is discussed. A differential segment of a heavy-particle track is composed of two parts which we call core and penumbra; elementary considerations show that all properties of such a differential track can be uniquely specified in terms of a two-parameter system, and we choose energy per nucleon (E) and atomic numbers (Z) as independent parameters. The nature of heavy-particle-track processes varies with the magnitude of the energy deposit (LET), and we discuss three categories of track problems, for low-, intermediate-, and high-LET cases, respectively. Scavenger reactions normally terminate radical recombination in a track, and for heavy-particle tracks we find a criterion involving the scavenger concentration for a convenient separation of core and penumbra into essentially noninteracting parts which can be treated independently. Problems of the core expansion in the three regions are considered, and it is found that a versatile model can be constructed on concepts previously introduced by Ganguly and Magee. A model for the penumbra, based on the authors' electron-track theory, is presented and discussed

  6. EVALUATION OF THE USE OF IPAD IN TEACHING GENERAL CHEMISTRY LAB TO FRESHMEN STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. EID

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available It is generally accepted that the use of iPad enhances students’ engagement in the classroom. However, assessing the benefits of using iPad in teaching laboratory sessions have seen less attention, due to the hands-on nature of these courses. To do this assessment, iPad was applied in teaching two pilot sessions of the General Chemistry Lab, and students’ evaluation was compared to that of other students in sections taught by conventional teaching techniques. The evaluation was based on the students’ assessment of their achievements in meeting the main course outcomes, which indicated that the students in the classes taught using iPad showed more satisfaction with the course, and believed that they have better achieved the outcomes of the course compared to the conventional classes. Furthermore, the comparison process included the overall students’ quantitative performance, which showed insignificant difference between the two classes, with slightly better performance of students in normal classes in quizzes, whereas final exam marks were almost the same for both the iPad piloted students and conventional class students. The differences in quizzes results were attributed to the normal variation in the students’ academic merits. In addition, the piloted students were asked about their experience of using iPad in class and their satisfaction by using different iPad Apps. The feedback was collected and analysed, and the results showed that the students generally enjoyed using iPad in the class and appreciated all Apps.

  7. The Influence of Modern Instrumentation on the Analytical and General Chemistry Curriculum at Bates College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenzel, Thomas J.

    2001-09-01

    The availability of state-of-the-art instruments such as high performance liquid chromatograph, gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer, inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometer, capillary electrophoresis system, and ion chromatograph obtained through four Instructional Laboratory Improvement and one Course, Curriculum, and Laboratory Improvement grants from the National Science Foundation has led to a profound change in the structure of the analytical and general chemistry courses at Bates College. Students in both sets of courses now undertake ambitious, semester-long, small-group projects. The general chemistry course, which fulfills the prerequisite requirement for all upper-level chemistry courses, focuses on the connection between chemistry and the study of the environment. The projects provide students with an opportunity to conduct a real scientific investigation. The projects emphasize problem solving, team work, and communication, while still fostering the development of important laboratory skills. Cooperative learning is also used extensively in the classroom portion of these courses.

  8. Computer-based, Jeopardy™-like game in general chemistry for engineering majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, S. S.; Saffre, F.; Kadadha, M.; Gater, D. L.; Isakovic, A. F.

    2013-03-01

    We report on the design of Jeopardy™-like computer game for enhancement of learning of general chemistry for engineering majors. While we examine several parameters of student achievement and attitude, our primary concern is addressing the motivation of students, which tends to be low in a traditionally run chemistry lectures. The effect of the game-playing is tested by comparing paper-based game quiz, which constitutes a control group, and computer-based game quiz, constituting a treatment group. Computer-based game quizzes are Java™-based applications that students run once a week in the second part of the last lecture of the week. Overall effectiveness of the semester-long program is measured through pretest-postest conceptual testing of general chemistry. The objective of this research is to determine to what extent this ``gamification'' of the course delivery and course evaluation processes may be beneficial to the undergraduates' learning of science in general, and chemistry in particular. We present data addressing gender-specific difference in performance, as well as background (pre-college) level of general science and chemistry preparation. We outline the plan how to extend such approach to general physics courses and to modern science driven electives, and we offer live, in-lectures examples of our computer gaming experience. We acknowledge support from Khalifa University, Abu Dhabi

  9. Investigations of nitrogen oxide plasmas: Fundamental chemistry and surface reactivity and monitoring student perceptions in a general chemistry recitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blechle, Joshua M.

    unparalleled insight into the chemistry of these plasma systems. Part II of this work is focused on understanding the efficacy of a general chemistry recitation program. Such programs can be an valuable tool for improving students' problem solving skills and understanding using methods that are difficult to implement in large lecture settings. Here, general chemistry students at Colorado State University participated in a variety of recitation activities throughout the first semester of a 2-semester general chemistry sequence, including peer-led exercises, games, and scaffolded worksheets. Through weekly surveys, students were asked to evaluate and assess recitation activities for both interest and effectiveness as part of their course homework. Also included in these survey assignments were content questions relevant to the weekly themes, providing a measure of student learning of recitation topics. Student opinions were correlated with content retention, and these data were compared against student responses to a pre-survey administered before the first recitation session. This analysis allows for monitoring students' expectations of recitation courses and how well those expectations are met through the various types of activities employed. Ultimately, this work has found that students have positive feeling with respect to individual assignments, but that perspectives on chemistry and the course in general decrease dramatically from the beginning to the end of the semester. Thus, this work can serve as a significant starting points for future efforts to monitor and record student perceptions in the general chemistry recitation classroom, leading to further investigation into the source of changing attitudes and the role that week-to-week activities have on global course attitudes.

  10. General Procedure for the Easy Calculation of pH in an Introductory Course of General or Analytical Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cepriá, Gemma; Salvatella, Luis

    2014-01-01

    All pH calculations for simple acid-base systems used in introductory courses on general or analytical chemistry can be carried out by using a general procedure requiring the use of predominance diagrams. In particular, the pH is calculated as the sum of an independent term equaling the average pK[subscript a] values of the acids involved in the…

  11. Cross section recondensation method via generalized energy condensation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douglass, Steven; Rahnema, Farzad

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → A new method is presented which corrects for core environment error from specular boundaries at the lattice cell level. → Solution obtained with generalized energy condensation provides improved approximation to the core level fine-group flux. → Iterative recondensation of the cross sections and unfolding of the flux provides on-the-fly updating of the core cross sections. → Precomputation of energy integrals and fine-group cross sections allows for easy implementation and efficient solution. → Method has been implemented in 1D and shown to correct the environment error, particularly in strongly heterogeneous cores. - Abstract: The standard multigroup method used in whole-core reactor analysis relies on energy condensed (coarse-group) cross sections generated from single lattice cell calculations, typically with specular reflective boundary conditions. Because these boundary conditions are an approximation and not representative of the core environment for that lattice, an error is introduced in the core solution (both eigenvalue and flux). As current and next generation reactors trend toward increasing assembly and core heterogeneity, this error becomes more significant. The method presented here corrects for this error by generating updated coarse-group cross sections on-the-fly within whole-core reactor calculations without resorting to additional cell calculations. In this paper, the fine-group core flux is unfolded by making use of the recently published Generalized Condensation Theory and the cross sections are recondensed at the whole-core level. By iteratively performing this recondensation, an improved core solution is found in which the core-environment has been fully taken into account. This recondensation method is both easy to implement and computationally very efficient because it requires precomputation and storage of only the energy integrals and fine-group cross sections. In this work, the theoretical basis and development

  12. A General Chemistry and Precalculus First-Year Interest Group (FIG): Effect on Retention, Skills, and Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pence, Laura E.; Workman, Harry J.; Haruta, Mako E.

    2005-01-01

    The backdrop of the calculus reform movement created a fertile movement for the creation of overlap between general chemistry and precalculus as many of the goals emphasized key concepts from the chemistry lab. By using the graphing calculator in both precalculus and chemistry laboratory enhanced the students' comfort and competence with the…

  13. Development, Implementation, and Assessment of General Chemistry Lab Experiments Performed in the Virtual World of Second Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkelmann, Kurt; Keeney-Kennicutt, Wendy; Fowler, Debra; Macik, Maria

    2017-01-01

    Virtual worlds are a potential medium for teaching college-level chemistry laboratory courses. To determine the feasibility of conducting chemistry experiments in such an environment, undergraduate students performed two experiments in the immersive virtual world of Second Life (SL) as part of their regular General Chemistry 2 laboratory course.…

  14. General Physics Section. Progress Report Fiscal Year 1969/70

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braun, J

    1970-12-15

    This report contains information regarding that part of the work performed at the General Physics Section of AB Atomenergi during the period July 1969 - July 1970, which has been supported by grants from the Swedish Board of Technical Development (STU). For projects still in progress the current status is described, for terminated projects, or distinguishable parts thereof, a summary is given. Where available, reports describing the work are listed. A substantial part of our resources has been concentrated on the physics of energy conversion: Investigation of recombination processes in a pulsed helium discharge; Theoretical and experimental investigation of MHD gas flow; Isotopic battery in the muW-range. Our section's interest in nuclear dosimetry and the general aspects of metrology has been manifested in two additional projects: Application of mass spectrometry on He in solids to analysis, nuclear physics and material technology; Servo system filter. As general information it can be added that other, not STU-supported, activities of the section are material dosimetry for irradiation monitoring and a fairly broad range of radiation shielding activities

  15. General Physics Section. Progress Report Fiscal Year 1969/70

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braun, J.

    1970-12-01

    This report contains information regarding that part of the work performed at the General Physics Section of AB Atomenergi during the period July 1969 - July 1970, which has been supported by grants from the Swedish Board of Technical Development (STU). For projects still in progress the current status is described, for terminated projects, or distinguishable parts thereof, a summary is given. Where available, reports describing the work are listed. A substantial part of our resources has been concentrated on the physics of energy conversion: Investigation of recombination processes in a pulsed helium discharge; Theoretical and experimental investigation of MHD gas flow; Isotopic battery in the μW-range. Our section's interest in nuclear dosimetry and the general aspects of metrology has been manifested in two additional projects: Application of mass spectrometry on He in solids to analysis, nuclear physics and material technology; Servo system filter. As general information it can be added that other, not STU-supported, activities of the section are material dosimetry for irradiation monitoring and a fairly broad range of radiation shielding activities

  16. What We Don't Test: What an Analysis of Unreleased ACS Exam Items Reveals about Content Coverage in General Chemistry Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Jessica J.; Villafan~e, Sachel M.; Raker, Jeffrey R.; Holme, Thomas A.; Murphy, Kristen L.

    2017-01-01

    General chemistry courses are often the foundation for the study of other science disciplines and upper-level chemistry concepts. Students who take introductory chemistry courses are more often from health and science-related fields than chemistry. As such, the content taught and assessed in general chemistry courses is envisioned as building…

  17. Introducing Scientific Literature to Honors General Chemistry Students: Teaching Information Literacy and the Nature of Research to First-Year Chemistry Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer-Vinent, Ignacio J.; Bruehl, Margaret; Pan, Denise; Jones, Galin L.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the methodology and implementation of a case study introducing the scientific literature and creative experiment design to honors general chemistry laboratory students. The purpose of this study is to determine whether first-year chemistry students can develop information literacy skills while they engage with the primary…

  18. Effects of Implementing a Hybrid Wet Lab and Online Module Lab Curriculum into a General Chemistry Course: Impacts on Student Performance and Engagement with the Chemistry Triplet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irby, Stefan M.; Borda, Emily J.; Haupt, Justin

    2018-01-01

    Here, we describe the implementation a hybrid general chemistry teaching laboratory curriculum that replaces a portion of a course's traditional "wet lab" experiences with online virtual lab modules. These modules intentionally utilize representations on all three levels of the chemistry triplet-macroscopic, submicroscopic, and symbolic.…

  19. Results of an interactively coupled atmospheric chemistrygeneral circulation model: Comparison with observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Hein

    Full Text Available The coupled climate-chemistry model ECHAM4.L39(DLR/CHEM is presented which enables a simultaneous treatment of meteorology and atmospheric chemistry and their feedbacks. This is the first model which interactively combines a general circulation model with a chemical model, employing most of the important reactions and species necessary to describe the stratospheric and upper tropospheric ozone chemistry, and which is computationally fast enough to allow long-term integrations with currently available computer resources. This is possible as the model time-step used for the chemistry can be chosen as large as the integration time-step for the dynamics. Vertically the atmosphere is discretized by 39 levels from the surface up to the top layer which is centred at 10 hPa, with a relatively high vertical resolution of approximately 700 m near the extra-tropical tropopause. We present the results of a control simulation representing recent conditions (1990 and compare it to available observations. The focus is on investigations of stratospheric dynamics and chemistry relevant to describe the stratospheric ozone layer. ECHAM4.L39(DLR/CHEM reproduces main features of stratospheric dynamics in the arctic vortex region, including stratospheric warming events. This constitutes a major improvement compared to earlier model versions. However, apparent shortcomings in Antarctic circulation and temperatures persist. The seasonal and interannual variability of the ozone layer is simulated in accordance with observations. Activation and deactivation of chlorine in the polar stratospheric vortices and their inter-hemispheric differences are reproduced. Considering methane oxidation as part of the dynamic-chemistry feedback results in an improved representation of the spatial distribution of stratospheric water vapour concentrations. The current model constitutes a powerful tool to investigate, for instance, the combined direct and indirect effects of anthropogenic

  20. General Chemistry Students' Conceptual Understanding and Language Fluency: Acid-Base Neutralization and Conductometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyachwaya, James M.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine college general chemistry students' conceptual understanding and language fluency in the context of the topic of acids and bases. 115 students worked in groups of 2-4 to complete an activity on conductometry, where they were given a scenario in which a titration of sodium hydroxide solution and dilute…

  1. Exploring Chemical Equilibrium with Poker Chips: A General Chemistry Laboratory Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindel, Thomas H.

    2012-01-01

    A hands-on laboratory exercise at the general chemistry level introduces students to chemical equilibrium through a simulation that uses poker chips and rate equations. More specifically, the exercise allows students to explore reaction tables, dynamic chemical equilibrium, equilibrium constant expressions, and the equilibrium constant based on…

  2. A Computer Algebra Approach to Solving Chemical Equilibria in General Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalainoff, Melinda; Lachance, Russ; Riegner, Dawn; Biaglow, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we report on a semester-long study of the incorporation into our general chemistry course, of advanced algebraic and computer algebra techniques for solving chemical equilibrium problems. The method presented here is an alternative to the commonly used concentration table method for describing chemical equilibria in general…

  3. Analytical capabilities and services of Lawrence Livermore Laboratory's General Chemistry Division

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutmacher, R.; Crawford, R.

    1978-01-01

    This comprehensive guide to the analytical capabilities of Lawrence Livermore Laboratory's General Chemistry Division describes each analytical method in terms of its principle, field of application, and qualitative and quantitative uses. Also described are the state and quantity of sample required for analysis, processing time, available instrumentation, and responsible personnel

  4. Infrared and Raman Spectroscopy: A Discovery-Based Activity for the General Chemistry Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgsmiller, Karen L.; O'Connell, Dylan J.; Klauenberg, Kathryn M.; Wilson, Peter M.; Stromberg, Christopher J.

    2012-01-01

    A discovery-based method is described for incorporating the concepts of IR and Raman spectroscopy into the general chemistry curriculum. Students use three sets of springs to model the properties of single, double, and triple covalent bonds. Then, Gaussian 03W molecular modeling software is used to illustrate the relationship between bond…

  5. Playing with Light: Adventures in Optics and Spectroscopy for Honors and Majors General Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Staveren, Marie N.; Edwards, Kimberly D.; Apkarian, V. A.

    2012-01-01

    A lab was developed for use in an undergraduate honors and majors general chemistry laboratory to introduce students to optics, spectroscopy, and the underlying principles of quantum mechanics. This lab includes four mini-experiments exploring total internal reflection, the tunneling of light, spectra of sparklers and colored candles, and emission…

  6. Integrating Biology into the General Chemistry Laboratory: Fluorometric Analysis of Chlorophyll "a"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesolowski, Meredith C.

    2014-01-01

    A laboratory experiment that introduces fluorometry of chlorophyll "a" at the general chemistry level is described. The use of thin-layer chromatography to isolate chlorophyll "a" from spirulina and leaf matter enables quantification of small amounts of chlorophyll "a" via fluorometry. Student results were reasonably…

  7. An Analysis of Undergraduate General Chemistry Students' Misconceptions of the Submicroscopic Level of Precipitation Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Resa M.; Barrera, Juliet H.; Mohamed, Saheed C.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined how 21 college-level general chemistry students, who had received instruction that emphasized the symbolic level of ionic equations, explained their submicroscopic-level understanding of precipitation reactions. Students' explanations expressed through drawings and semistructured interviews revealed the nature of the…

  8. A Systematic Experimental Test of the Ideal Gas Equation for the General Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Luis H.; Romero, Carmen M.

    1995-10-01

    A set of experiments that examines each one of the terms of the ideal gas equation is described. Boyle's Law, Charles-Gay Lussac's Law, Amonton's Law, the number of moles or Molecular Weight, and the Gas Constant are studied. The experiments use very simple, easy to obtain equipment and common gases, mainly air. The results gathered by General Chemistry College students are satisfactory.

  9. A Genetically Optimized Predictive System for Success in General Chemistry Using a Diagnostic Algebra Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Cameron I.; Pearson, Paul T.

    2012-01-01

    In higher education, many high-enrollment introductory courses have evolved into "gatekeeper" courses due to their high failure rates. These courses prevent many students from attaining their educational goals and often become graduation roadblocks. At the authors' home institution, general chemistry has become a gatekeeper course in which…

  10. Transitioning from Expository Laboratory Experiments to Course-Based Undergraduate Research in General Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Ted M.; Ricciardo, Rebecca; Weaver, Tyler

    2016-01-01

    General chemistry courses predominantly use expository experiments that shape student expectations of what a laboratory activity entails. Shifting within a semester to course-based undergraduate research activities that include greater decision-making, collaborative work, and "messy" real-world data necessitates a change in student…

  11. Can They Succeed? Exploring At-Risk Students' Study Habits in College General Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Li; Shuniak, Constantine; Oueini, Razanne; Robert, Jenay; Lewis, Scott

    2016-01-01

    A well-established literature base identifies a portion of students enrolled in post-secondary General Chemistry as at-risk of failing the course based on incoming metrics. Learning about the experiences and factors that lead to this higher failure rate is essential toward improving retention in this course. This study examines the relationship…

  12. Self-Assembled Student Interactions in Undergraduate General Chemistry Clicker Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacArthur, James R.; Jones, Loretta

    2013-01-01

    Student interviews, focus groups, and classroom observations were used in an exploratory study of the nature of student interactions in a large (300+ students) general chemistry course taught with clickers. These data suggest that students are self-assembling their learning environment: choosing ways in which to interact with one another during…

  13. Improving the Success of First Term General Chemistry Students at a Liberal Arts Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Kari L.; Shaner, Sarah E.; Fendrick, Carol M.

    2018-01-01

    General Chemistry is a high impact course at Benedictine University where a large enrollment of ~250 students each year, coupled with low pass rates of a particularly vulnerable student population from a retention point of view (i.e., first-year college students), make it a strategic course on which to focus innovative pedagogical development.…

  14. Using the Plan View to Teach Basic Crystallography in General Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushman, Cody V.; Linford, Matthew R.

    2015-01-01

    The plan view is used in crystallography and materials science to show the positions of atoms in crystal structures. However, it is not widely used in teaching general chemistry. In this contribution, we introduce the plan view, and show these views for the simple cubic, body-centered cubic, face-centered cubic, hexagonal close packed, CsCl, NaCl,…

  15. Peer Mentor Program for the General Chemistry Laboratory Designed to Improve Undergraduate STEM Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damkaci, Fehmi; Braun, Timothy F.; Gublo, Kristin

    2017-01-01

    We describe the design and implementation of an undergraduate peer mentor program that can overlay an existing general chemistry laboratory and is designed to improve STEM student retention. For the first four freshman cohorts going through the program, year-to-year retention improved by a four-year average of 20% for students in peer-mentored…

  16. Awareness, Analysis, and Action: Curricular Alignment for Student Success in General Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewitt, Sarah; Sutphin, Kathy; Gierasch, Tiffany; Hamilton, Pauline; Lilly, Kathleen; Miller, Kristine; Newlin, Donald; Pires, Richard; Sherer, Maureen; LaCourse, William R.

    2018-01-01

    This article examines the ways that a shared faculty experience across five partner institutions led to a deep awareness of the curriculum and pedagogy of general chemistry coursework, and ultimately, to a collaborative action plan for student success. The team identified key differences and similarities in course content and instructional…

  17. The Evaluation of Students' Written Reflection on the Learning of General Chemistry Lab Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ng Sook; Li, Ho Ket; Sin, Lee Choy; Sin, Keng Pei

    2014-01-01

    Reflective writing is often used to increase understanding and analytical ability. The lack of empirical evidence on the effect of reflective writing interventions on the learning of general chemistry lab experiment supports the examination of this concept. The central goal of this exploratory study was to evaluate the students' written…

  18. Podcast Effectiveness as Scaffolding Support for Students Enrolled in First-Semester General Chemistry Laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Mary Cynthia Barton

    2010-01-01

    Podcasts covering essential first-semester general chemistry laboratory techniques and central concepts that aid in experimental design or data processing were prepared and made available for students to access on an as-needed basis on iPhones [arrow right] or iPod touches [arrow right]. Research focused in three areas: the extent of podcast…

  19. Structure Determination of Unknown Organic Liquids Using NMR and IR Spectroscopy: A General Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavel, John T.; Hyde, Erin C.; Bruch, Martha D.

    2012-01-01

    This experiment introduced general chemistry students to the basic concepts of organic structures and to the power of spectroscopic methods for structure determination. Students employed a combination of IR and NMR spectroscopy to perform de novo structure determination of unknown alcohols, without being provided with a list of possible…

  20. Assessment of Antioxidant Capacities in Foods: A Research Experience for General Chemistry Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoch, Matthew A.; Russell, Cianan B.; Steffen, Debora M.; Weaver, Gabriela C.; Burgess, John R.

    2009-01-01

    With the booming interest in health food and nutrition, investigations of the antioxidant capacities of various foods have come to the forefront of food science. This general chemistry laboratory curriculum provides students with an opportunity to design and implement their own experiments relating to antioxidants in food. The curriculum is six…

  1. Reform in a General Chemistry Laboratory: How Do Students Experience Change in the Instructional Approach?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopra, I.; O'Connor, J.; Pancho, R.; Chrzanowski, M.; Sandi-Urena, S.

    2017-01-01

    This qualitative study investigated the experience of a cohort of students exposed consecutively to two substantially different environments in their General Chemistry Laboratory programme. To this end, the first semester in a traditional expository programme was followed by a semester in a cooperative, problem-based, multi-week format. The focus…

  2. The Testing Effect: An Intervention on Behalf of Low-Skilled Comprehenders in General Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyburn, Daniel T.; Pazicni, Samuel; Benassi, Victor A.; Tappin, Elizabeth M.

    2014-01-01

    Past work has demonstrated that language comprehension ability correlates with general chemistry course performance with medium effect sizes. We demonstrate here that language comprehension's strong cognitive grounding can be used to inform effective and equitable pedagogies, namely, instructional interventions that differentially aid low-skilled…

  3. Web-Enhanced General Chemistry Increases Student Completion Rates, Success, and Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, Katie E.; Shank, John D.; Shibley, Ivan A., Jr.; Shibley, Lisa R.

    2013-01-01

    General Chemistry I historically had one of the highest failure and withdrawal rates at Penn State Berks, a four-year college within the Penn State system. The course was completely redesigned to incorporate more group work, the use of classroom response systems, peer mentors, and a stronger online presence via the learning management system…

  4. Relationships of Approaches to Studying, Metacognition, and Intellectual Development of General Chemistry Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egenti, Henrietta N.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated approaches to studying, intellectual developments, and metacognitive skills of general chemistry students enrolled for the spring 2011 semester at a single campus of a multi-campus community college. The three instruments used were the Approaches and Study Skills Inventory for Students (ASSIST), the Learning Environment…

  5. Implementation of Argument-Driven Inquiry as an Instructional Model in a General Chemistry Laboratory Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadayifci, Hakki; Yalcin-Celik, Ayse

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of Argument-Driven Inquiry (ADI) as an instructional model in a general chemistry laboratory course. The study was conducted over the course of ten experimental sessions with 125 pre-service science teachers. The participants' level of reflective thinking about the ADI activities, changes in their science…

  6. Identifying At-Risk Students in General Chemistry via Cluster Analysis of Affective Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Julia Y. K.; Bauer, Christopher F.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify academically at-risk students in first-semester general chemistry using affective characteristics via cluster analysis. Through the clustering of six preselected affective variables, three distinct affective groups were identified: low (at-risk), medium, and high. Students in the low affective group…

  7. General chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    This book explains chemical equilibrium with nature and characteristic of chemical equilibrium, law of mass action and direction of chemical equilibrium, acid-base equilibrium with principle of acid and base and amino acid, solubility and precipitation equilibrium with equilibrium of solubility, complex ion and solubility, electrochemistry on oxidation-reduction reaction, battery and fuel cell, decay and electrolysis, chemical reaction speed and nuclear reaction with Michaelis-Menten mechanism safety of nuclear, transition elements and coordination compound with introduction, name, structure and ligand EDTA and solid structure with categorization of solid and unit cell.

  8. Student Scientific Conference, 2008. Collection of contributions. Vol. 2 - Sections of geography, geology, environment, chemistry and didactics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-04-01

    The conference included the following sections: (i) Biology (114 contributions); (ii) Geography (37 contributions); (iii) Geology (24 contributions); (iv) Environment (16 contributions); (v) Chemistry (11 contributions); (vi) Didactics (8 contributions). Contributions relevant to INIS interest have been inputted to INIS.

  9. Selected chapters from general chemistry in physics teaching with the help of e - learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feszterová, Melánia

    2017-01-01

    Education in the field of natural disciplines - Mathematics, Physics, Chemistry, Ecology and Biology takes part in general education at all schools on the territory of Slovakia. Its aim is to reach the state of balanced development of all personal characteristics of pupils, to teach them correctly identify and analyse problems, propose solutions and above all how to solve the problem itself. High quality education can be reached only through the pedagogues who have a good expertise knowledge, practical experience and high level of pedagogical abilities. The teacher as a disseminator of natural-scientific knowledge should be not only well-informed about modern tendencies in the field, but he/she also should actively participate in project tasks This is the reason why students of 1st year of study (bachelor degree) at the Department of Physics of Constantine the Philosopher University in Nitra attend lectures in the frame of subject General Chemistry. In this paper we present and describe an e - learning course called General Chemistry that is freely accessible to students. One of the aims of this course is to attract attention towards the importance of cross-curricular approach which seems to be fundamental in contemporary natural-scientific education (e.g. between Physics and Chemistry). This is why it is so important to implement a set of new topics and tasks that support development of abilities to realise cross-curricular goals into the process of preparation of future teachers of Physics.

  10. Using Self-Reflection To Increase Science Process Skills in the General Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veal, William R.; Taylor, Dawne; Rogers, Amy L.

    2009-03-01

    Self-reflection is a tool of instruction that has been used in the science classroom. Research has shown great promise in using video as a learning tool in the classroom. However, the integration of self-reflective practice using video in the general chemistry laboratory to help students develop process skills has not been done. Immediate video feedback and direct instruction were employed in a general chemistry laboratory course to improve students' mastery and understanding of basic and advanced process skills. Qualitative results and statistical analysis of quantitative data proved that self-reflection significantly helped students develop basic and advanced process skills, yet did not seem to influence the general understanding of the science content.

  11. Chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferris, L.M.

    1975-01-01

    The chemical research and development efforts related to the design and ultimate operation of molten-salt breeder reactor systems are concentrated on fuel- and coolant-salt chemistry, including the development of analytical methods for use in these systems. The chemistry of tellurium in fuel salt is being studied to help elucidate the role of this element in the intergranular cracking of Hastelloy N. Studies were continued of the effect of oxygen-containing species on the equilibrium between dissolved UF 3 and dissolved UF 4 , and, in some cases, between the dissolved uranium fluorides and graphite, and the UC 2 . Several aspects of coolant-salt chemistry are under investigation. Hydroxy and oxy compounds that could be formed in molten NaBF 4 are being synthesized and characterized. Studies of the chemistry of chromium (III) compounds in fluoroborate melts were continued as part of a systematic investigation of the corrosion of structural alloys by coolant salt. An in-line voltammetric method for determining U 4+ /U 3+ ratios in fuel salt was tested in a forced-convection loop over a six-month period. (LK)

  12. Development and Preliminary Impacts of the Implementation of an Authentic Research-Based Experiment in General Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasik, Janice Hall; Cottone, Katelyn E.; Heethuis, Mitchell T.; Mueller, Anja

    2013-01-01

    Incorporating research-based lab activities into general chemistry at a large university can be challenging, considering the high enrollments and costs typically associated with the courses. Performing sweeping curricular overhauls of the general chemistry laboratory can be difficult, and in some cases discouraged, as many would rather maintain…

  13. Engaging Participation and Promoting Active Learning through Student Usage of the Internet to Create Notes for General Chemistry in Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Renee Monica

    2017-01-01

    Reported here is a study of an interactive component to General Chemistry I and General Chemistry II where a new pedagogy for taking notes in class was developed. These notes, called key word created class notes, prompted students to locate information using the Internet guided by a key word. Reference Web sites were added to a next generation of…

  14. A Content Analysis of General Chemistry Laboratory Manuals for Evidence of Higher-Order Cognitive Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domin, Daniel S.

    1999-01-01

    The science laboratory instructional environment is ideal for fostering the development of problem-solving, manipulative, and higher-order thinking skills: the skills needed by today's learner to compete in an ever increasing technology-based society. This paper reports the results of a content analysis of ten general chemistry laboratory manuals. Three experiments from each manual were examined for evidence of higher-order cognitive activities. Analysis was based upon the six major cognitive categories of Bloom's Taxonomy of Educational Objectives: knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis, and evaluation. The results of this study show that the overwhelming majority of general chemistry laboratory manuals provide tasks that require the use of only the lower-order cognitive skills: knowledge, comprehension, and application. Two of the laboratory manuals were disparate in having activities that utilized higher-order cognition. I describe the instructional strategies used within these manuals to foster higher-order cognitive development.

  15. A general method for the inclusion of radiation chemistry in astrochemical models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shingledecker, Christopher N; Herbst, Eric

    2018-02-21

    In this paper, we propose a general formalism that allows for the estimation of radiolysis decomposition pathways and rate coefficients suitable for use in astrochemical models, with a focus on solid phase chemistry. Such a theory can help increase the connection between laboratory astrophysics experiments and astrochemical models by providing a means for modelers to incorporate radiation chemistry into chemical networks. The general method proposed here is targeted particularly at the majority of species now included in chemical networks for which little radiochemical data exist; however, the method can also be used as a starting point for considering better studied species. We here apply our theory to the irradiation of H 2 O ice and compare the results with previous experimental data.

  16. Effect of Formative Quizzes on Teacher Candidates’ Learning in General Chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Yalaki, Yalcin; Bayram, Zeki

    2015-01-01

    Formative assessment or assessment for learning is one of the most emphasized educational innovations around the world. Two of the common strategies that could be used in formative assessment are use of summative tests for formative purposes and comment only marking. We utilized these strategies in the form of formative quizzes in a general chemistry course and measured its effect on students’ learning. The results of our weak-experimental design, which was conducted with 124 pre-service elem...

  17. Chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferris, L.M.

    1976-01-01

    Research progress is reported in programs on fuel-salt chemistry, properties of compounds in the Li--Te system, Te spectroscopy UF 4 --H equilibria, porous electrode studies of molten salts, fuel salt-coolant salt reactions, thermodynamic properties of transition-metal fluorides, and properties of sodium fluoroborate. Developmental work on analytical methods is summarized including in-line analysis of molten MSBR fuel, analysis of coolant-salts for tritium, analysis of molten LiF--BeF 2 --ThF 4 for Fe and analysis of LiF--BeF--ThF 4 for Te

  18. First two-reagent vitamin D assay for general clinical chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saida, Fakhri B; Padilla-Chee, Mario; Dou, Chao; Yuan, Chong

    2018-05-01

    Vitamin D is a lipid-soluble molecule that plays key physiological roles in the metabolism of calcium, phosphate and magnesium. Recent studies show that deficiency in vitamin D is linked to cardiovascular diseases, autoimmune diseases and cancer. As a result, regular monitoring of 25-OH vitamin D (the main circulating form of vitamin D) is becoming essential. Current 25-OH vitamin D testing methodologies are cumbersome (too many reagents, long incubation times, phase separation) and are not compatible with general clinical chemistry platforms. Here, we report on a novel method to detect 25-OH vitamin D that is fast (results in 10 min or less), simple (two reagents) and compatible with virtually all general clinical chemistry analyzers. An immunoturbidimetric assay for 25-OH vitamin D (the Diazyme EZ Vitamin D Assay) has been developed using nanoparticles and vitamin D-specific antibodies. The performance of the assay kit, which consists of two reagents and five calibrators, was tested on the Beckman AU680 analyzer (AU680). The new assay was precise, sensitive (LOD = 7.2 nmol/L), linear (up to 390.1 nmol/L) and correlated strongly (R 2  > 0.95) with major commercial 25-OH vitamin D assays. Additionally, the assay was found to be the fastest to date, with the first results obtained within 10 min. Throughput on the AU680 was estimated at over 300 tests per hour. The newly developed 25-OH vitamin D assay is fast, precise and accurate. It can be run on most general chemistry analyzers. This assay aims at providing vitamin D-testing capabilities to all clinical chemistry laboratories. Copyright © 2018 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The Role of Water Chemistry in Marine Aquarium Design: A Model System for a General Chemistry Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keaffaber, Jeffrey J.; Palma, Ramiro; Williams, Kathryn R.

    2008-01-01

    Water chemistry is central to aquarium design, and it provides many potential applications for discussion in undergraduate chemistry and engineering courses. Marine aquaria and their life support systems feature many chemical processes. A life support system consists of the entire recirculation system, as well as the habitat tank and all ancillary…

  20. Results of an interactively coupled atmospheric chemistry - general circulation model. Comparison with observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hein, R.; Dameris, M.; Schnadt, C. [and others

    2000-01-01

    An interactively coupled climate-chemistry model which enables a simultaneous treatment of meteorology and atmospheric chemistry and their feedbacks is presented. This is the first model, which interactively combines a general circulation model based on primitive equations with a rather complex model of stratospheric and tropospheric chemistry, and which is computational efficient enough to allow long-term integrations with currently available computer resources. The applied model version extends from the Earth's surface up to 10 hPa with a relatively high number (39) of vertical levels. We present the results of a present-day (1990) simulation and compare it to available observations. We focus on stratospheric dynamics and chemistry relevant to describe the stratospheric ozone layer. The current model version ECHAM4.L39(DLR)/CHEM can realistically reproduce stratospheric dynamics in the Arctic vortex region, including stratospheric warming events. This constitutes a major improvement compared to formerly applied model versions. However, apparent shortcomings in Antarctic circulation and temperatures persist. The seasonal and interannual variability of the ozone layer is simulated in accordance with observations. Activation and deactivation of chlorine in the polar stratospheric vortices and their interhemispheric differences are reproduced. The consideration of the chemistry feedback on dynamics results in an improved representation of the spatial distribution of stratospheric water vapor concentrations, i.e., the simulated meriodional water vapor gradient in the stratosphere is realistic. The present model version constitutes a powerful tool to investigate, for instance, the combined direct and indirect effects of anthropogenic trace gas emissions, and the future evolution of the ozone layer. (orig.)

  1. Why has the bohr-sommerfeld model of the atom been ignoredby general chemistry textbooks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niaz, Mansoor; Cardellini, Liberato

    2011-12-01

    Bohr's model of the atom is considered to be important by general chemistry textbooks. A major shortcoming of this model was that it could not explain the spectra of atoms containing more than one electron. In order to increase the explanatory power of the model, Sommerfeld hypothesized the existence of elliptical orbits. This study has the following objectives: 1) Formulation of criteria based on a history and philosophy of science framework; and 2) Evaluation of university-level general chemistry textbooks based on the criteria, published in Italy and U.S.A. Presentation of a textbook was considered to be "satisfactory" if it included a description of the Bohr-Sommerfeld model along with diagrams of the elliptical orbits. Of the 28 textbooks published in Italy that were analyzed, only five were classified as "satisfactory". Of the 46 textbooks published in U.S.A., only three were classified as "satisfactory". This study has the following educational implications: a) Sommerfeld's innovation (auxiliary hypothesis) by introducing elliptical orbits, helped to restore the viability of Bohr's model; b) Bohr-Sommerfeld's model went no further than the alkali metals, which led scientists to look for other models; c) This clearly shows that scientific models are tentative in nature; d) Textbook authors and chemistry teachers do not consider the tentative nature of scientific knowledge to be important; e) Inclusion of the Bohr-Sommerfeld model in textbooks can help our students to understand how science progresses.

  2. General Chemistry Exercises Focused on the Professional Profile on Nuclear Careers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lau-González, Maritza; Jáuregui-Haza, Ulises; Corona-Hernández, José Ángel; Santamaría-Arbona, María Teresa; Abreu-Díaz, Aidamary

    2016-01-01

    The subject General Chemistry is part of the base curriculum of the nuclear profile careers: Radiochemistry Careers and Engineering on Nuclear Technologies and Energetics. It has as main objectives the complementing, the deep analysis and integration of the basic principles of chemistry as a science, and due to its content, it constitutes an excellent platform to settle inter-subject relationships with those of the nuclear specialties. The aim of this paper is presenting linking examples among the subjects, through exercises that are supported in the Moodle Platform, conceived for the independent work of students, which besides facilitating the consolidation of the received knowledge in high school, and those ones in the first year of the career, allow them to be familiar with the future of their profession. (author)

  3. Based on a True Story: Using Movies as Source Material for General Chemistry Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griep, Mark A.; Mikasen, Marjorie L.

    2005-10-01

    Research for chemical reports and case study analysis of chemical topics are two commonly used learning activities to engage and enrich student understanding of the content in introductory chemistry courses. Even though movies are excellent vehicles for exploring the human dimension of events, they have been used only sparingly as source material in introductory science courses. One reason for this sparing use has been the lack of a list of suitable movies. To fill this void, a list of one dozen highly rated movies is presented. The focus of these movies is either a scientist's chemical research or the societal impact of some chemical compound. The method by which two of these movies were used as source material for a written report in a general chemistry course is described. The student response to the exercise was enthusiastic.

  4. Investigating the Longitudinal Impact of a Successful Reform in General Chemistry on Student Enrollment and Academic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Scott E.

    2014-01-01

    Considerable effort in chemistry education research has been dedicated to developing and evaluating reform pedagogies designed to improve student success in general chemistry. Policy recommendations propose adoption of these techniques as a means to increase the number of science graduates, however there is the potential that the impact of these…

  5. Improving Students' Inquiry Skills and Self-Efficacy through Research-Inspired Modules in the General Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkelmann, Kurt; Baloga, Monica; Marcinkowski, Tom; Giannoulis, Christos; Anquandah, George; Cohen, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Research projects conducted by faculty in STEM departments served as the inspiration for a new curriculum of inquiry-based, multiweek laboratory modules in the general chemistry 1 course. The purpose of this curriculum redesign was to improve students' attitudes about chemistry as well as their self-efficacy and skills in performing inquiry…

  6. Bad chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Petsko, Gregory A

    2004-01-01

    General chemistry courses haven't changed significantly in forty years. Because most basic chemistry students are premedical students, medical schools have enormous influence and could help us start all over again to create undergraduate chemistry education that works.

  7. An Investigation of the Effects of Reader Characteristics on Reading Comprehension Of a General Chemistry Text

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neiles, Kelly Y.

    variable. The results from this regression analysis indicated that the two schema measures (measured by the Pathfinder program) accounted for the greatest amount of variance in four of the reading comprehension variables (encoding the text, bridging and elaborative inferences, and delayed recall of a general summary). This research suggest that providing students with background information on chemistry concepts prior to having them read the text may result in better understanding and more effective incorporation of the chemistry concepts into their schema.

  8. Student participation in World Wide Web-based curriculum development of general chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, William John Forbes

    1998-12-01

    This thesis describes an action research investigation of improvements to instruction in General Chemistry at Purdue University. Specifically, the study was conducted to guide continuous reform of curriculum materials delivered via the World Wide Web by involving students, instructors, and curriculum designers. The theoretical framework for this study was based upon constructivist learning theory and knowledge claims were developed using an inductive analysis procedure. This results of this study are assertions made in three domains: learning chemistry content via the World Wide Web, learning about learning via the World Wide Web, and learning about participation in an action research project. In the chemistry content domain, students were able to learn chemical concepts that utilized 3-dimensional visualizations, but not textual and graphical information delivered via the Web. In the learning via the Web domain, the use of feedback, the placement of supplementary aids, navigation, and the perception of conceptual novelty were all important to students' use of the Web. In the participation in action research domain, students learned about the complexity of curriculum. development, and valued their empowerment as part of the process.

  9. Using Graphs of Gibbs Energy versus Temperature in General Chemistry Discussions of Phase Changes and Colligative Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Robert M.; Riley, Patrick; Schwinefus, Jeff; Fischer, Paul J.

    2008-01-01

    The use of qualitative graphs of Gibbs energy versus temperature is described in the context of chemical demonstrations involving phase changes and colligative properties at the general chemistry level. (Contains 5 figures and 1 note.)

  10. Research and Teaching: Computational Methods in General Chemistry--Perceptions of Programming, Prior Experience, and Student Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Lindsay B.; Chiu, Jennie L.; Grisham, Charles M.

    2016-01-01

    This article explores how integrating computational tools into a general chemistry laboratory course can influence student perceptions of programming and investigates relationships among student perceptions, prior experience, and student outcomes.

  11. Implementation of a PETN failure model using ARIA's general chemistry framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hobbs, Michael L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-01-01

    We previously developed a PETN thermal decomposition model that accurately predicts thermal ignition and detonator failure [1]. This model was originally developed for CALORE [2] and required several complex user subroutines. Recently, a simplified version of the PETN decomposition model was implemented into ARIA [3] using a general chemistry framework without need for user subroutines. Detonator failure was also predicted with this new model using ENCORE. The model was simplified by 1) basing the model on moles rather than mass, 2) simplifying the thermal conductivity model, and 3) implementing ARIA’s new phase change model. This memo briefly describes the model, implementation, and validation.

  12. Chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferris, L.M.

    1975-01-01

    Research and development activities dealing with the chemical problems related to design and ultimate operation of molten-salt reactor systems are described. An experimental test stand was constructed to expose metallurgical test specimens to Te 2 vapor at defined temperatures and deposition rates. To better define the chemistry of fluoroborate coolant, several aspects are being investigated. The behavior of hydroxy and oxy compounds in molten NaBF 4 is being investigated to define reactions and compounds that may be involved in corrosion and/or could be involved in methods for trapping tritium. Two corrosion products of Hastelloy N, Na 3 CrF 6 and Na 5 Cr 3 F 14 , were identified from fluoroborate systems. The evaluation of fluoroborate and alternate coolants continued. Research on the behavior of hydrogen and its isotopes is summarized. The solubilities of hydrogen, deuterium, and helium in Li 2 BeF 4 are very low. The sorption of tritium on graphite was found to be significant (a few milligrams of tritium per kilogram of graphite), possibly providing a means of sequestering a portion of the tritium produced. Development of analytical methods continued with emphasis on voltammetric and spectrophotometric techniques for the in-line analysis of corrosion products such as Fe 2+ and Cr 3+ and the determination of the U 3+ /U 4+ ratio in MSBR fuel salt. Similar studies were conducted with the NaBF 4 --NaF coolant salt. Information developed during the previous operation of the CSTF has been assessed and used to formulate plans for evaluation of in-line analytical methods in future CSTF operations. Electroanalytical and spectrophotometric research suggests that an electroactive protonic species is present in molten NaBF 4 --NaF, and that this species rapidly equilibrates with a volatile proton-containing species. Data obtained from the CSTF indicated that tritium was concentrated in the volatile species. (JGB)

  13. What Do Conceptual Holes in Assessment Say about the Topics We Teach in General Chemistry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luxford, Cynthia J.; Holme, Thomas A.

    2015-01-01

    Introductory chemistry has long been considered a service course by various departments that entrust chemistry departments with teaching their students. As a result, most introductory courses include a majority of students who are not chemistry majors, and many are health and science related majors who are required to take chemistry. To identify…

  14. A report on workshops: General circulation model study of climate- chemistry interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei-Chyung, Wang; Isaksen, I.S.A.

    1993-01-01

    This report summarizes the discussion on General Circulation Model Study of Climate-Chemistry Interaction from two workshops, the first held 19--21 August 1992 at Oslo, Norway and the second 26--27 May 1993 at Albany, New York, USA. The workshops are the IAMAP activities under the Trace Constituent Working Group. The main objective of the two workshops was to recommend specific general circulation model (GCM) studies of the ozone distribution and the climatic effect of its changes. The workshops also discussed the climatic implications of increasing sulfate aerosols because of its importance to regional climate. The workshops were organized into four working groups: observation of atmospheric O 3 ; modeling of atmospheric chemical composition; modeling of sulfate aerosols; and aspects of climate modeling

  15. Beyond "Inert" Ideas to Teaching General Chemistry from Rich Contexts: Visualizing the Chemistry of Climate Change (VC3)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahaffy, Peter G.; Holme, Thomas A.; Martin-Visscher, Leah; Martin, Brian E.; Versprille, Ashley; Kirchhoff, Mary; McKenzie, Lallie; Town, Marcy

    2017-01-01

    As one approach to moving beyond transmitting "inert" ideas to chemistry students, we use the term "teaching from rich contexts" to describe implementations of case studies or context-based learning based on systems thinking that provide deep and rich opportunities for learning crosscutting concepts through contexts. This…

  16. Investigations of Nitrogen Oxide Plasmas: Fundamental Chemistry and Surface Reactivity and Monitoring Student Perceptions in a General Chemistry Recitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blechle, Joshua M.

    2016-01-01

    Part I of this dissertation focuses on investigations of nitrogen oxide plasma systems. With increasing concerns over the environmental presence of NxOy species, there is growing interest in utilizing plasma-assisted conversion techniques. Advances, however, have been limited because of the lack of knowledge regarding the fundamental chemistry of…

  17. Getting Real: A General Chemistry Laboratory Program Focusing on "Real World" Substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerber, Robert C.; Akhtar, Mohammad J.

    1996-11-01

    to dyeing. Identification of unknowns is then possible by comparison with the knowns. Student success in identifying both the plastics and the fibers is increased by willingness to do side-by-side comparison of knowns and unknowns and by careful observation of responses. Accuracy of identification in each case is 80-90%. Student Evaluations Student response to the new laboratory program has generally been positive. On a scale of 4.0 (very favorable) to 0.0 (very unfavorable), responses are favorable to working in groups of two or three (3.30) and to bringing in samples (3.05). They were nearly neutral (2.24) to working with pooled section data, as in the antifreeze exercise. The exercises found most interesting by students were synthesis of polymers (3.08), paper chromatography of food dyes (3.04), textiles and dyeing (2.96), and determination of zinc on galvanized nails (2.95). Found least interesting were the unknown acid (2.08), determination of aspirin purity by colorimetry (2.13) and pH titration (2.28), and vinegar titration (2.42). These less popular exercises tended to be graded exercises and exercises requiring more extensive calculations. Student assessments of educational quality closely tracked their assessments of how interesting they found the exercises. Overall, student course evaluations, as conducted by anonymous university questionnaires, improved by 0.5 to 0.7 units (on a 7-unit scale) in the category "I would strongly recommend this [course] to a friend," and by 0.4 to 0.6 units in the category, "I have learned morethan from othercoursesof similar size and level." Further Development We have begun to introduce FTIR methods into the laboratory program. These will be used initially to assist in identification of household "chemicals" and the unknown acid, and to investigate internal combustion engine exhaust gasses. They will be applied to qualitative analysis of aspirin, vitamin C samples, and plastic samples. We hope to introduce an open

  18. Introductory Molecular Orbital Theory: An Honors General Chemistry Computational Lab as Implemented Using Three-Dimensional Modeling Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruddick, Kristie R.; Parrill, Abby L.; Petersen, Richard L.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, a computational molecular orbital theory experiment was implemented in a first-semester honors general chemistry course. Students used the GAMESS (General Atomic and Molecular Electronic Structure System) quantum mechanical software (as implemented in ChemBio3D) to optimize the geometry for various small molecules. Extended Huckel…

  19. Pediatric reference intervals for general clinical chemistry components - merging of studies from Denmark and Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridefelt, Peter; Hilsted, Linda; Juul, Anders; Hellberg, Dan; Rustad, Pål

    2018-05-28

    Reference intervals are crucial tools aiding clinicians when making medical decisions. However, for children such values often are lacking or incomplete. The present study combines data from separate pediatric reference interval studies of Denmark and Sweden in order to increase sample size and to include also pre-school children who were lacking in the Danish study. Results from two separate studies including 1988 healthy children and adolescents aged 6 months to 18 years of age were merged and recalculated. Eighteen general clinical chemistry components were measured on Abbott and Roche platforms. To facilitate commutability, the NFKK Reference Serum X was used. Age- and gender-specific pediatric reference intervals were defined by calculating 2.5 and 97.5 percentiles. The data generated are primarily applicable to a Nordic population, but could be used by any laboratory if validated for the local patient population.

  20. Awareness, Analysis, and Action: Curricular Alignment for Student Success in General Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    This article examines the ways that a shared faculty experience across five partner institutions led to a deep awareness of the curriculum and pedagogy of general chemistry coursework, and ultimately, to a collaborative action plan for student success. The team identified key differences and similarities in course content and instructional experiences. The comparative analysis yielded many more similarities than differences, and therefore, the team shifted its focus from “gap analysis” to an exploration of common curricular challenges. To address these challenges, the team developed content for targeted instructional resources that promoted the success of all STEM students across institutions. This article contextualizes the interinstitutional collaboration and closely examines the interactive components (awareness, analysis, and action), critical tools, and productive attitudes that undergirded the curricular alignment process of the STEM Transfer Student Success Initiative (t-STEM). PMID:29657334

  1. Comparative analysis of a nontraditional general chemistry textbook and selected traditional textbooks used in Texas community colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvato, Steven Walter

    The purpose of this study was to analyze questions within the chapters of a nontraditional general chemistry textbook and the four general chemistry textbooks most widely used by Texas community colleges in order to determine if the questions require higher- or lower-order thinking according to Bloom's taxonomy. The study employed quantitative methods. Bloom's taxonomy (Bloom, Engelhart, Furst, Hill, & Krathwohl, 1956) was utilized as the main instrument in the study. Additional tools were used to help classify the questions into the proper category of the taxonomy (McBeath, 1992; Metfessel, Michael, & Kirsner, 1969). The top four general chemistry textbooks used in Texas community colleges and Chemistry: A Project of the American Chemical Society (Bell et al., 2005) were analyzed during the fall semester of 2010 in order to categorize the questions within the chapters into one of the six levels of Bloom's taxonomy. Two coders were used to assess reliability. The data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential methods. The descriptive method involved calculation of the frequencies and percentages of coded questions from the books as belonging to the six categories of the taxonomy. Questions were dichotomized into higher- and lower-order thinking questions. The inferential methods involved chi-square tests of association to determine if there were statistically significant differences among the four traditional college general chemistry textbooks in the proportions of higher- and lower-order questions and if there were statistically significant differences between the nontraditional chemistry textbook and the four traditional general chemistry textbooks. Findings indicated statistically significant differences among the four textbooks frequently used in Texas community colleges in the number of higher- and lower-level questions. Statistically significant differences were also found among the four textbooks and the nontraditional textbook. After the analysis of

  2. 29 CFR 1977.3 - General requirements of section 11(c) of the Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... WILLIAMS-STEIGER OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ACT OF 1970 General § 1977.3 General requirements of... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General requirements of section 11(c) of the Act. 1977.3 Section 1977.3 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH...

  3. Effects on Student Achievement in General Chemistry Following Participation in an Online Preparatory Course. ChemPrep, a Voluntary, Self-Paced, Online Introduction to Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botch, Beatrice; Day, Roberta; Vining, William; Stewart, Barbara; Rath, Kenneth; Peterfreund, Alan; Hart, David

    2007-03-01

    ChemPrep was developed to be a stand-alone preparatory short-course to help students succeed in general chemistry. It is Web-based and delivered using the OWL system. Students reported that the ChemPrep materials (short information pages, parameterized questions with detailed feedback, tutorials, and answers to questions through the OWL message system) permitted them to work independently without the need for textbook or lecture. On average, students who completed ChemPrep had higher grades in the subsequent GenChem, Nursing, and Honors chemistry courses, with a greater percentage achieving a grade of C- or higher. Participation in ChemPrep was voluntary, and more women than men responded. Students in the Honors course enrolled in ChemPrep in higher percentages than students in GenChem and Nursing. SAT and departmental math placement exam scores were used as proxy measures of prior achievement and ability. Based on these, Honors chemistry ChemPrep users were on par with their peers but performed better in the course than non-users. In GenChem and Nursing chemistry courses, ChemPrep helped students of high prior achievement and ability perform better than their achievement scores would predict. Weaker or less motivated students did not respond to the voluntary offerings of ChemPrep in the same numbers as stronger or more motivated students, and we are seeking alternate ways to reach this population.

  4. Simulations of physics and chemistry of polar stratospheric clouds with a general circulation model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchholz, J.

    2005-04-20

    A polar stratospheric cloud submodel has been developed and incorporated in a general circulation model including atmospheric chemistry (ECHAM5/MESSy). The formation and sedimentation of polar stratospheric cloud (PSC) particles can thus be simulated as well as heterogeneous chemical reactions that take place on the PSC particles. For solid PSC particle sedimentation, the need for a tailor-made algorithm has been elucidated. A sedimentation scheme based on first order approximations of vertical mixing ratio profiles has been developed. It produces relatively little numerical diffusion and can deal well with divergent or convergent sedimentation velocity fields. For the determination of solid PSC particle sizes, an efficient algorithm has been adapted. It assumes a monodisperse radii distribution and thermodynamic equilibrium between the gas phase and the solid particle phase. This scheme, though relatively simple, is shown to produce particle number densities and radii within the observed range. The combined effects of the representations of sedimentation and solid PSC particles on vertical H{sub 2}O and HNO{sub 3} redistribution are investigated in a series of tests. The formation of solid PSC particles, especially of those consisting of nitric acid trihydrate, has been discussed extensively in recent years. Three particle formation schemes in accordance with the most widely used approaches have been identified and implemented. For the evaluation of PSC occurrence a new data set with unprecedented spatial and temporal coverage was available. A quantitative method for the comparison of simulation results and observations is developed and applied. It reveals that the relative PSC sighting frequency can be reproduced well with the PSC submodel whereas the detailed modelling of PSC events is beyond the scope of coarse global scale models. In addition to the development and evaluation of new PSC submodel components, parts of existing simulation programs have been

  5. The effect of restructuring student writing in the general chemistry laboratory on student understanding of chemistry and on students' approach to the laboratory course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudd, James Andrew, II

    Many students encounter difficulties engaging with laboratory-based instruction, and reviews of research have indicated that the value of such instruction is not clearly evident. Traditional forms of writing associated with laboratory activities are commonly in a style used by professional scientists to communicate developed explanations. Students probably lack the interpretative skills of a professional, and writing in this style may not support students in learning how to develop scientific explanations. The Science Writing Heuristic (SWH) is an inquiry-based approach to laboratory instruction designed in part to promote student ability in developing such explanations. However, there is not a convincing body of evidence for the superiority of inquiry-based laboratory instruction in chemistry. In a series of studies, the performance of students using the SWH student template in place of the standard laboratory report format was compared to the performance of students using the standard format. The standard reports had Title, Purpose, Procedure, Data & Observations, Calculations & Graphs, and Discussion sections. The SWH reports had Beginning Questions & Ideas, Tests & Procedures, Observations, Claims, Evidence, and Reflection sections. The pilot study produced evidence that using the SWH improved the quality of laboratory reports, improved student performance on a laboratory exam, and improved student approach to laboratory work. A main study found that SWH students statistically exhibited a better understanding of physical equilibrium when written explanations and equations were analyzed on a lecture exam and performed descriptively better on a physical equilibrium practical exam task. In another main study, the activities covering the general equilibrium concept were restructured as an additional change, and it was found that SWH students exhibited a better understanding of chemical equilibrium as shown by statistically greater success in overcoming the common

  6. Development and evaluation of a thermochemistry concept inventory for college-level general chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wren, David A.

    The research presented in this dissertation culminated in a 10-item Thermochemistry Concept Inventory (TCI). The development of the TCI can be divided into two main phases: qualitative studies and quantitative studies. Both phases focused on the primary stakeholders of the TCI, college-level general chemistry instructors and students. Each phase was designed to collect evidence for the validity of the interpretations and uses of TCI testing data. A central use of TCI testing data is to identify student conceptual misunderstandings, which are represented as incorrect options of multiple-choice TCI items. Therefore, quantitative and qualitative studies focused heavily on collecting evidence at the item-level, where important interpretations may be made by TCI users. Qualitative studies included student interviews (N = 28) and online expert surveys (N = 30). Think-aloud student interviews (N = 12) were used to identify conceptual misunderstandings used by students. Novice response process validity interviews (N = 16) helped provide information on how students interpreted and answered TCI items and were the basis of item revisions. Practicing general chemistry instructors (N = 18), or experts, defined boundaries of thermochemistry content included on the TCI. Once TCI items were in the later stages of development, an online version of the TCI was used in expert response process validity survey (N = 12), to provide expert feedback on item content, format and consensus of the correct answer for each item. Quantitative studies included three phases: beta testing of TCI items (N = 280), pilot testing of the a 12-item TCI (N = 485), and a large data collection using a 10-item TCI ( N = 1331). In addition to traditional classical test theory analysis, Rasch model analysis was also used for evaluation of testing data at the test and item level. The TCI was administered in both formative assessment (beta and pilot testing) and summative assessment (large data collection), with

  7. Student Learning through Journal Writing in a General Education Chemistry Course for Pre-Elementary Education Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dianovsky, Michael T.; Wink, Donald J.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes research on the use of journals in a general education chemistry course for elementary education majors. In the journals, students describe their understanding of a topic, the development of that understanding, and how the topic connects to their lives. In the process, they are able to engage in reflection about several…

  8. Two Methods of Determining Total Phenolic Content of Foods and Juices in a General, Organic, and Biological (GOB) Chemistry Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaver, Lee Alan; Leung, Sam H.; Puderbaugh, Amy; Angel, Stephen A.

    2011-01-01

    The determination of total phenolics in foods and fruit juices was used successfully as a laboratory experiment in our undergraduate general, organic, and biological (GOB) chemistry course. Two different colorimetric methods were used over three years and comparative student results indicate that a ferrous ammonium sulfate (FAS) indicator…

  9. Introduction of Differential Scanning Calorimetry in a General Chemistry Laboratory Course: Determination of Thermal Properties of Organic Hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amelia, Ronald; Franks, Thomas; Nirode, William F.

    2007-01-01

    In first-year general chemistry undergraduate courses, thermodynamics and thermal properties such as melting points and changes in enthalpy ([Delta]H) and entropy ([Delta]S) of phase changes are frequently discussed. Typically, classical calorimetric methods of analysis are used to determine [Delta]H of reactions. Differential scanning calorimetry…

  10. The Use of Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry to Introduce General Chemistry Students to Percent Mass and Atomic Mass Calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfennig, Brian W.; Schaefer, Amy K.

    2011-01-01

    A general chemistry laboratory experiment is described that introduces students to instrumental analysis using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), while simultaneously reinforcing the concepts of mass percent and the calculation of atomic mass. Working in small groups, students use the GC to separate and quantify the percent composition…

  11. Implementation of Gas Chromatography and Microscale Distillation into the General Chemistry Laboratory Curriculum as Vehicles for Examining Intermolecular Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csizmar, Clifford M.; Force, Dee Ann; Warner, Don L.

    2011-01-01

    As part of an NSF-funded Course Curriculum and Laboratory Improvement (CCLI) project that seeks, in part, to increase student exposure to scientific instrumentation, a gas chromatography experiment has been integrated into the second-semester general chemistry laboratory curriculum. The experiment uses affordable, commercially available equipment…

  12. Use of a PhET Interactive Simulation in General Chemistry Laboratory: Models of the Hydrogen Atom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Ted M.; Chamberlain, Julia M.

    2014-01-01

    An activity supporting the PhET interactive simulation, Models of the Hydrogen Atom, has been designed and used in the laboratory portion of a general chemistry course. This article describes the framework used to successfully accomplish implementation on a large scale. The activity guides students through a comparison and analysis of the six…

  13. IM-Chem: The Use of Instant Messaging to Improve Student Performance and Personalize Large Lecture General Chemistry Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behmke, Derek A.; Atwood, Charles H.

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has linked poor student performance with the depersonalized feeling of large lecture courses. Various forms of enhanced communication have been tried that appear to enhance personalization in large courses. For general chemistry classes taught in a 365-seat lecture hall at the University of Georgia, we have attempted to enhance…

  14. Features of Representations in General Chemistry Textbooks: A Peek through the Lens of the Cognitive Load Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyachwaya, James M.; Gillaspie, Merry

    2016-01-01

    The goals of this study were (1) determine the prevalence of various features of representations in five general chemistry textbooks used in the United States, and (2) use cognitive load theory to draw implications of the various features of analyzed representations. We adapted the Graphical Analysis Protocol (GAP) (Slough et al., 2010) to look at…

  15. The Influence of Self-Efficacy and Motivational Factors on Academic Performance in General Chemistry Course: A Modeling Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alci, Bulent

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to determine the predictive and explanatory model in terms of university students' academic performance in "General Chemistry" course and their motivational features. The participants were 169 university students in the 1st grade at university. Of the participants, 132 were female and 37 were male students. Regarding…

  16. Impact of the Flipped Classroom on Student Performance and Retention: A Parallel Controlled Study in General Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Michael D.; Reid, Scott A.

    2016-01-01

    Despite much recent interest in the flipped classroom, quantitative studies are slowly emerging, particularly in the sciences. We report a year-long parallel controlled study of the flipped classroom in a second-term general chemistry course. The flipped course was piloted in the off-semester course in Fall 2014, and the availability of the…

  17. The Use of Molecular Modeling as "Pseudoexperimental" Data for Teaching VSEPR as a Hands-On General Chemistry Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Christopher B.; Vandehoef, Crissie; Cook, Allison

    2015-01-01

    A hands-on activity appropriate for first-semester general chemistry students is presented that combines traditional VSEPR methods of predicting molecular geometries with introductory use of molecular modeling. Students analyze a series of previously calculated output files consisting of several molecules each in various geometries. Each structure…

  18. Enhancing Student Performance in First-Semester General Chemistry Using Active Feedback through the World Wide Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Kent A.; Blake, Bob

    2007-01-01

    The World Wide Web recently launched a new interactive feedback system for the instructors, so that can better understanding about their students and their problems. The feedback, in combination with tailored lectures is expected to enhance student performance in the first semester of general chemistry.

  19. Customized Videos on a YouTube Channel: A beyond the Classroom Teaching and Learning Platform for General Chemistry Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranga, Jayashree S.

    2017-01-01

    Videos are an integral part of online courses. In this study, customized YouTube videos were explored as teaching and learning materials in place of face-to-face discussion sessions in General Chemistry courses. The videos were created using a budget-friendly and interactive app on an iPad. The customized YouTube videos were available to students…

  20. Assessing the Relation between Language Comprehension and Performance in General Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyburn, Daniel T.; Pazicni, Samuel; Benassi, Victor A.; Tappin, Elizabeth E.

    2013-01-01

    Few studies have focused specifically on the role that language plays in learning chemistry. We report here an investigation into the ability of language comprehension measures to predict performance in university introductory chemistry courses. This work is informed by theories of language comprehension, which posit that high-skilled…

  1. XVIII Mendeleev congress on general and applied chemistry. Summaries of reports in five volumes. Volume 5. IV Russian-French symposium Supramolecular systems in chemistry and biology. II Russian-Indian symposium on organic chemistry. International symposium on present-day radiochemistry Radiochemistry: progress and prospects. International symposium Green chemistry, stable evolution and social responsibility of chemists. Symposium Nucleophilic hydrogen substitution in aromatic systems and related reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The 5 volume of the XVIII Mendeleev congress on general and applied chemistry includes summaries of reports on the subjects of sypramolecular systems in chemistry and biology, organic chemistry, modern radiochemistry, green chemistry - development and social responsibility of chemists, nucleophilic hydrogen substitution in aromatic systems and related chemical reactions [ru

  2. Química geral experimental: uma nova abordagem didática Experimental general chemistry: a new teaching approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo Eduardo da Luz Júnior

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available This essay describes a new didactic approach, in according with the national curriculum guidelines for chemistry undergraduate courses in Brazil, employed during the one-semester course "Experimental General Chemistry" for chemistry undergraduate students at the Federal University of Piauí. The new approach has positively helped student's training by improving their reading skills and their understanding of scientific reports, by developing the use of electronic tools to search and to recover the required knowledge for their learning activities, and by improving their skills of understanding published texts and dealing with digital sources. At the same time the students are strongly stimulated to enter the research program for undergraduate students available at the University.

  3. Student Scientific Conference, 2008. Collection of contributions. Vol. 2 - Sections of geography, geology, environment, chemistry and didactics; Studentska vedecka konferencia, 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-04-15

    The conference included the following sections: (i) Biology (114 contributions); (ii) Geography (37 contributions); (iii) Geology (24 contributions); (iv) Environment (16 contributions); (v) Chemistry (11 contributions); (vi) Didactics (8 contributions). Contributions relevant to INIS interest have been inputted to INIS.

  4. CHEMISTRY DIVISION, SECTION C-II SUMMARY REPORT FOR JULY, AUGUST, AND SEPTEMBER 1952

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbreath, J. R.; Simpson, O.C., comps.

    1953-01-21

    The progress of the work is reported on the physical properties of graphite; effect of reactor radiation on the properties of graphite; effect of irradiation on ceramic materials; x-ray-induced luminescence of ice; investigation of color centers and other optical properties of single crystals; radiation chemistry of liquids; application of mass spectrometry to chemical problems; vapor pressure and heat of vaporization of U; nuclear properties of Zr/ sup 93/ and Nb/sup 93m/; mass distribution in the spontaneous fission of Cm/sup 242/; upper limit to lifetimes of first excited states of Th/sup 230/, U/sup 234/ and Pu/sup 238/; spectrographic and chemical analysis; and design and performance of the 60-in. cyclotron. (For preceding period see ANL-4888.) (B.O.G.)

  5. Productive whole-class discussions: A qualitative analysis of peer leader behaviors in general chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckart, Teresa Mcclain

    The intention of this research was to describe behaviors and characteristics of General Chemistry I peer leaders using a pedagogical reform method referred to as Peer-led Guided Inquiry (PLGI), and to discuss the ways in which these peer leaders created productive whole-class discussions. This reform technique engaged students to work on guided inquiry activities while working cooperatively in small groups, led by undergraduate peer leaders. These sessions were video recorded and transcribed. The data was evaluated using grounded theory methods of analysis. This study examined the dialog between students and peer leaders, paying specific attention to question types and observed patterns of interactions. The research took shape by examining the kinds of questions asked by peer leaders and the purposes these questions served. In addition to looking at questions, different kinds of behaviors displayed by peer leaders during their small group sessions were also observed. A close examination of peer leader questions and behaviors aided in developing an answer to the overall research question regarding what factors are associated with productive whole-class discussions. Five major categories of peer leader behaviors evolved from the data and provided a means to compare and contrast productive whole-class discussions. While no category single-handedly determined if a discussion was good or bad, there was a tendency for peer leaders who exhibited positive traits in at least three of the following categories to have consistently better whole-class discussions: Procedural Practices, Supervisory Qualities, Questioning Techniques, Feedback/Responses, and Interpersonal Skills. Furthermore, each of the major categories is tied directly to Interpersonal, Communication, and Leadership skills and their interactions with each other. This study also addressed applications that each of these categories has on instructional practices and their need in peer leader training. In addition

  6. Coordinated Implementation and Evaluation of Flipped Classes and Peer-Led Team Learning in General Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, Jenay; Lewis, Scott E.; Oueini, Razanne; Mapugay, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    The research-based pedagogical strategy of flipped classes has been shown to be effective for increasing student achievement and retention in postsecondary chemistry classes. The purpose of flipped classes is to move content delivery (e.g., lecture) outside of the classroom, freeing more face-to-face time for active learning strategies. The…

  7. Connecting Solubility, Equilibrium, and Periodicity in a Green, Inquiry Experiment for the General Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacciatore, Kristen L.; Amado, Jose; Evans, Jason J.; Sevian, Hannah

    2008-01-01

    We present a novel first-year chemistry laboratory experiment that connects solubility, equilibrium, and chemical periodicity concepts. It employs a unique format that asks students to replicate experiments described in different sample lab reports, each lacking some essential information, rather than follow a scripted procedure. This structure is…

  8. Design, Implementation, and Evaluation of a Flipped Format General Chemistry Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Gabriela C.; SturtevantHannah G.

    2015-01-01

    Research has consistently shown that active problem-solving in a collaborative environment supports more effective learning than the traditional lecture approach. In this study, a flipped classroom format was implemented and evaluated in the chemistry majors' sequence at Purdue University over a period of three years. What was formerly lecture…

  9. A General Chemistry Assignment Analyzing Environmental Contamination for the Depue, IL, National Superfund Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saslow Gomez, Sarah A.; Faurie-Wisniewski, Danielle; Parsa, Arlen; Spitz, Jeff; Spitz, Jennifer Amdur; Loeb, Nancy C.; Geiger, Franz M.

    2015-01-01

    The classroom exercise outlined here is a self-directed assignment that connects students to the environmental contamination problem surrounding the DePue Superfund site. By connecting chemistry knowledge gained in the classroom with a real-world problem, students are encouraged to personally connect with the problem while simultaneously…

  10. Textbook-Bundled Metacognitive Tools: A Study of LearnSmart's Efficacy in General Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thadani, Vandana; Bouvier-Brown, Nicole C.

    2016-01-01

    College textbook publishers increasingly bundle sophisticated technology-based study tools with their texts. These tools appear promising, but empirical work on their efficacy is needed. We examined whether LearnSmart, a study tool bundled with McGraw-Hill's textbook "Chemistry" (Chang & Goldsby, 2013), improved learning in an…

  11. Pre-Assessment and Peer Tutoring as Measures to Improve Performance in Gateway General Chemistry Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allenbaugh, R. J.; Herrera, K. M.

    2014-01-01

    Determining student readiness for gateway chemistry courses and providing underprepared students effective remediation are important as student bodies are growing increasingly diverse in their precollege preparation. The effectiveness of the ACT Mathematics Test and the Whimbey Analytical Skills Inventory (WASI) in predicting student success in…

  12. Green, Enzymatic Syntheses of Divanillin and Diapocynin for the Organic, Biochemistry, or Advanced General Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Rachel T.; Giammanco, Chiara H.; Vosburg, David A.

    2010-01-01

    Environmentally benign chemistry is an increasingly important topic both in the classroom and the laboratory. In this experiment, students synthesize divanillin from vanillin or diapocynin from apocynin, using horseradish peroxidase and hydrogen peroxide in water. The dimerized products form rapidly at ambient temperature and are isolated by…

  13. Challenging Gifted Learners: General Principles for Science Educators; and Exemplification in the Context of Teaching Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taber, Keith S.

    2010-01-01

    There is concern in some counties about the number of able young people entering degree level study and careers in physical science, including chemistry. Too few of the most talented young people are selecting "STEM" subjects to ensure the future supply of scientists, engineers and related professionals. The present paper sets out general…

  14. Thermal neutron cross sections and resonance integrals for the 1994 handbook of chemistry and physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holden, N.E.

    1994-01-01

    A re-evaluation of all thermal neutron cross sections and neutron resonance integrals has been performed, utilizing the previous database of the ''Barn Book'' and all of the more recently published experiments. Only significant changes or previously undetermined values are recorded in this report. The source for each value is also recorded in the accompanying table

  15. Chemistry and physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broerse, J.J.; Barendsen, G.W.; Kal, H.B.; Kogel, A.J. van der

    1983-01-01

    This book contains the extended abstracts of the contributions of the poster workshop sessions on chemistry and physics of the 7th international congress of radiation research. They cover the following main topics: primary processes in radiation physics and chemistry, general chemistry in radiation chemistry, DNA and model systems in radiation chemistry, molecules of biological interest in radiation chemistry, techniques in radiation chemistry, hot atom chemistry. refs.; figs.; tabs

  16. General chemistry: expanding the learning outcomes and promoting interdisciplinary connections through the use of a semester-long project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenzel, Thomas J

    2006-01-01

    The laboratory component of a first-semester general chemistry course for science majors is described. The laboratory involves a semester-long project undertaken in a small-group format. Students are asked to examine whether plants grown in soil contaminated with lead take up more lead than those grown in uncontaminated soil. They are also asked to examine whether the acidity of the rainwater affects the amount of lead taken up by the plants. Groups are then given considerable independence in the design and implementation of the experiment. Once the seeds are planted, which takes about 4 wk into the term, several shorter experiments are integrated in before it is time to harvest and analyze the plants. The use of a project and small working groups allows for the development of a broader range of learning outcomes than occurs in a "traditional" general chemistry laboratory. The nature of these outcomes and some of the student responses to the laboratory experience are described. This particular project also works well at demonstrating the connections among chemistry, biology, geology, and environmental studies.

  17. Major Challenges for the Modern Chemistry in Particular and Science in General.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uskokovíc, Vuk

    2010-11-01

    In the past few hundred years, science has exerted an enormous influence on the way the world appears to human observers. Despite phenomenal accomplishments of science, science nowadays faces numerous challenges that threaten its continued success. As scientific inventions become embedded within human societies, the challenges are further multiplied. In this critical review, some of the critical challenges for the field of modern chemistry are discussed, including: (a) interlinking theoretical knowledge and experimental approaches; (b) implementing the principles of sustainability at the roots of the chemical design; (c) defining science from a philosophical perspective that acknowledges both pragmatic and realistic aspects thereof; (d) instigating interdisciplinary research; (e) learning to recognize and appreciate the aesthetic aspects of scientific knowledge and methodology, and promote truly inspiring education in chemistry. In the conclusion, I recapitulate that the evolution of human knowledge inherently depends upon our ability to adopt creative problem-solving attitudes, and that challenges will always be present within the scope of scientific interests.

  18. Mendeleev-2013. VII All-Russian conference of young scientists, postgraduate students and students with international participation on chemistry and nanomaterials. Book of abstracts. Section 1. Nanochemistry and nanomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    VII All-Russian conference of young scientists, postgraduate students and students with international participation on chemistry and nanomaterials was conducted on the Chemistry department of Saint-Petersburg University on April, 2-5, 2013. In the conference participants from 14 countries took part. There were five sections: Nanochemistry and nanomaterials, Analytic chemistry, Inorganic chemistry, Organic chemistry, Physical chemistry. In the collection (Section 1 - Nanochemistry and nanomaterials) there are the abstracts concerning the different methods of preparation of various inorganic and organic nanomaterials, their structure and use [ru

  19. Implementation of the rapid cross section adjustment approach at General Electric

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowan, C.L.; Kujawski, E.; Protsik, R.

    1978-01-01

    The General Electric rapid cross section adjustment approach was developed to use the shielding factor method for formulating multigroup cross sections. In this approach, space- and composition-dependent cross sections for a particular reactor or shield design are prepared from a generalized cross section library by the use of resonance self-shielding factors, and by the adjustment of elastic scattering cross sections for the local neutron flux spectra. The principal tool in the cross section adjustment package is the data processing code TDOWN. This code was specified to give the user a high degree of flexibility in the analysis of advanced reactor designs. Of particular interest in the analysis of critical experiments is the ability to carry out cell heterogeneity self-shielding calculations using a multiregion equivalence relationship, and the homogenization of the cross sections over the specified cell with the flux weighting obtained from transport theory calculations. Extensive testing of the rapid cross section adjustment approach, including comparisons with Monte Carlo methods, indicated that this approach can be utilized with a high degree of confidence in the design analysis of complex fast reactor systems. 2 figures, 1 table

  20. Physics and Chemistry of the Interstellar Medium. General Colloquium, 19-21 November 2012, Paris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguillon, Francois; Alata, Ivan; Alcaraz, Christian; Alves, Marta; Andre, Philippe; Bachiller, Rafael; Bacmann, Aurore; Baklouti, Donia; Bernard, Jean-Philippe; Berne, Olivier; Beroff, Karine; Bertin, Mathieu; Biennier, Ludovic; Bocchio, Marco; Bonal, Lydie; Bontemps, Sylvain; Bouchez Giret, Aurelia; Boulanger, Francois; Bracco, Andrea; Bron, Emeric; Brunetto, Rosario; Cabrit, Sylvie; Canosa, Andre; Capron, Michael; Ceccarelli, Cecilia; Cernicharo, Jose; Chaabouni, Henda; Chabot, Marin; Chen, Hui-Chen; Chiavassa, Thierry; Cobut, Vincent; Commercon, Benoit; Congiu, Emanuele; Coutens, Audrey; Danger, Gregoire; Daniel, Fabien; Dartois, Emmanuel; Demyk, Karine; Denis, Alpizar; Despois, Didier; D'hendecourt, Louis; Dontot, Leo; Doronin, Mikhail; Dubernet, Marie-Lise; Dulieu, Francois; Dumouchel, Fabien; Duvernay, Fabrice; Ellinger, Yves; Falgarone, Edith; Falvo, Cyril; Faure, Alexandre; Fayolle, Edith; Feautrier, Nicole; Feraud, Geraldine; Fillion, Jean-Hugues; Gamboa, Antonio; Gardez, Aline; Gavilan, Lisseth; Gerin, Maryvonne; Ghesquiere, Pierre; Godard, Benjamin; Godard, Marie; Gounelle, Matthieu; Gratier, Pierre; Grenier, Isabelle; Gruet, Sebastien; Gry, Cecile; Guillemin, Jean-Claude; Guilloteau, Stephane; Gusdorf, Antoine; Guzman, Viviana; Habart, Emilie; Hennebelle, Patrick; Herrera, Cinthya; Hily-Blant, Pierre; Hincelin, Ugo; Hochlaf, Majdi; Huet, Therese; Iftner, Christophe; Jallat, Aurelie; Joblin, Christine; Kahane, Claudine; Kalugina, Yulia; Kleiner, Isabelle; Koehler, Melanie; Kokkin, Damian; Koutroumpa, Dimitra; Krim, Lahouari; Lallement, Rosine; Lanza, Mathieu; Lattelais, Marie; Le Bertre, Thibaut; Le Gal, Romane; Le Petit, Franck; Le Picard, Sebastien; Lefloch, Bertrand; Lemaire, Jean Louis; Lesaffre, Pierre; Lique, Francois; Loison, Jean-Christophe; Lopez Sepulcre, Ana; Maillard, Jean-Pierre; Margules, Laurent; Martin, Celine; Mascetti, Joelle; Michaut, Xavier; Minissale, Marco; Miville-Deschenes, Marc-Antoine; Mokrane, Hakima; Momferratos, Georgios; Montillaud, Julien; Montmerle, Thierry; Moret-Bailly, Jacques; Motiyenko, Roman; Moudens, Audrey; Noble, Jennifer; Padovani, Marco; Pagani, Laurent; Pardanaud, Cedric; Parisel, Olivier; Pauzat, Francoise; Pernet, Amelie; Pety, Jerome; Philippe, Laurent; Piergiorgio, Casavecchia; Pilme, Julien; Pinto, Cecilia; Pirali, Olivier; Pirim, Claire; Puspitarini, Lucky; Rist, Claire; Ristorcelli, Isabelle; Romanzin, Claire; Roueff, Evelyne; Rousseau, Patrick; Sabbah, Hassan; Saury, Eleonore; Schneider, Ioan; Schwell, Martin; Sims, Ian; Spielfiedel, Annie; Stoecklin, Thierry; Talbi, Dahbia; Taquet, Vianney; Teillet-Billy, Dominique; Theule, Patrice; Thi, Wing-Fai; Trolez, Yann; Valdivia, Valeska; Van Dishoeck, Ewine; Verstraete, Laurent; Vinogradoff, Vassilissa; Wiesenfeld, Laurent; Ysard, Nathalie; Yvart, Walter; Zicler Eleonore

    2012-11-01

    This document publishes the oral contributions and the 66 posters presented during a colloquium on physics and chemistry of interstellar medium. The following themes have been addressed: New views on the interstellar medium with Herschel, Planck and Alma, Cycle of interstellar dusts, Physics and Dynamics of the interstellar medium, Molecular complexifying and the link towards pre-biotic chemistry. More precisely, the oral contributions addressed the following topics: Interstellar medium with Herschel and Planck; The anomalous microwave emission: a new window on the physics of small grains; Sub-millimetre spectroscopy of complex molecules and of radicals for ALMA and Herschel missions; Analysing observations of molecules in the ISM: theoretical and experimental studies of energy transfer; Unravelling the labyrinth of star formation with Herschel; Star formation regions with Herschel and Alma: astro-chemistry in the Netherlands; Physical structure of gas and dust in photo-dissociation regions observed with Herschel; Photo-desorption of analogues of interstellar ices; Formation of structures in the interstellar medium: theoretical and numerical aspects; Towards a 3D mapping of the galactic ISM by inversion of absorption individual measurements; Low velocity shocks as signatures of turbulent dissipation in diffuse irradiated gas; Early phases of solar system formation: 3D physical and chemical modelling of the collapse of pre-stellar dense core; Cosmic-ray propagation in molecular clouds; Protostellar shocks in the time of Herschel; A new PDR model of the physics and chemistry of the interstellar gas; Molecular spectroscopy in the ALMA era and laboratory Astrophysics in Spain; Which molecules to be searched for in the interstellar medium; Physics and chemistry of UV illuminated neutral gas: the Horsehead case; Nitrogen fractionation in dark clouds; Molecular spectral surveys from millimetre range to far infrared; Mechanisms and synthesis at the surface of cold grains

  1. Nanocrystal conversion chemistry: A unified and materials-general strategy for the template-based synthesis of nanocrystalline solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasquez, Yolanda; Henkes, Amanda E.; Chris Bauer, J.; Schaak, Raymond E.

    2008-01-01

    The concept of nanocrystal conversion chemistry, which involves the use of pre-formed nanoparticles as templates for chemical transformation into derivative solids, has emerged as a powerful approach for designing the synthesis of complex nanocrystalline solids. The general strategy exploits established synthetic capabilities in simple nanocrystal systems and uses these nanocrystals as templates that help to define the composition, crystal structure, and morphology of product nanocrystals. This article highlights key examples of 'conversion chemistry' approaches to the synthesis of nanocrystalline solids using a variety of techniques, including galvanic replacement, diffusion, oxidation, and ion exchange. The discussion is organized according to classes of solids, highlighting the diverse target systems that are accessible using similar chemical concepts: metals, oxides, chalcogenides, phosphides, alloys, intermetallic compounds, sulfides, and nitrides. - Graphical abstract: Nanocrystal conversion chemistry uses pre-formed nanoparticles as templates for chemical transformation into derivative solids, helping to define the composition, crystal structure, and morphology of product nanocrystals that have more complex features than their precursor templates. This article highlights the application of this concept to diverse classes of solids, including metals, oxides, chalcogenides, phosphides, alloys, intermetallics, sulfides, and nitrides

  2. General aspects of research in inorganic and solid-state recoil chemistry - a critical survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, H.

    1986-01-01

    Following a condensed review of the main features of hot-atom chemistry in inorganic solids a fictitious investigation is examined for some shortcomings which appear in the literature. Popper's basic concepts of scientific research are recommended to guide future work. Using Rossler's 'ligand abstraction model' as an example, it has been shown that (1) new correlations may be found between experimental parameters even if very good correlations already exist: (2) existing experimental facts may not be sufficient to falsify one of the correlations; and (3) new experiments can be suggested, the results of which may make one of the models more probable than the other or even falsify one of them. (author)

  3. Uncertainty Analysis of Few Group Cross Sections Based on Generalized Perturbation Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Tae Young; Lee, Hyun Chul; Noh, Jae Man

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the methodology of the sensitivity and uncertainty analysis code based on GPT was described and the preliminary verification calculations on the PMR200 pin cell problem were carried out. As a result, they are in a good agreement when compared with the results by TSUNAMI. From this study, it is expected that MUSAD code based on GPT can produce the uncertainty of the homogenized few group microscopic cross sections for a core simulator. For sensitivity and uncertainty analyses for general core responses, a two-step method is available and it utilizes the generalized perturbation theory (GPT) for homogenized few group cross sections in the first step and stochastic sampling method for general core responses in the second step. The uncertainty analysis procedure based on GPT in the first step needs the generalized adjoint solution from a cell or lattice code. For this, the generalized adjoint solver has been integrated into DeCART in our previous work. In this paper, MUSAD (Modues of Uncertainty and Sensitivity Analysis for DeCART) code based on the classical perturbation theory was expanded to the function of the sensitivity and uncertainty analysis for few group cross sections based on GPT. First, the uncertainty analysis method based on GPT was described and, in the next section, the preliminary results of the verification calculation on a VHTR pin cell problem were compared with the results by TSUNAMI of SCALE 6.1

  4. Provision of medical student teaching in UK general practices: a cross-sectional questionnaire study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Alex; Rosenthal, Joe; Al-Seaidy, Marwa; Gray, Denis Pereira; McKinley, Robert K

    2015-01-01

    Background Health care is increasingly provided in general practice. To meet this demand, the English Department of Health recommends that 50% of all medical students should train for general practice after qualification. Currently 19% of medical students express general practice as their first career choice. Undergraduate exposure to general practice positively influences future career choice. Appropriate undergraduate exposure to general practice is therefore highly relevant to workforce planning Aim This study seeks to quantify current exposure of medical students to general practice and compare it with past provision and also with postgraduate provision. Design and setting A cross-sectional questionnaire in the UK. Method A questionnaire regarding provision of undergraduate teaching was sent to the general practice teaching leads in all UK medical schools. Information was gathered on the amount of undergraduate teaching, how this was supported financially, and whether there was an integrated department of general practice. The data were then compared with results from previous studies of teaching provision. The provision of postgraduate teaching in general practice was also examined. Results General practice teaching for medical students increased from teaching in 1968 to 13.0% by 2008; since then, the percentage has plateaued. The total amount of general practice teaching per student has fallen by 2 weeks since 2002. Medical schools providing financial data delivered 14.6% of the clinical curriculum and received 7.1% of clinical teaching funding. The number of departments of general practice has halved since 2002. Provision of postgraduate teaching has tripled since 2000. Conclusion Current levels of undergraduate teaching in general practice are too low to fulfil future workforce requirements and may be falling. Financial support for current teaching is disproportionately low and the mechanism counterproductive. Central intervention may be required to solve

  5. Fundamentals of nuclear chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majer, K.

    1982-01-01

    The textbook is a Czech-to-German translation of the second revised edition and covers the subject under the headings: general nuclear chemistry, methods of nuclear chemistry, preparative nuclear chemistry, analytical nuclear chemistry, and applied chemistry. The book is especially directed to students

  6. The role of self-regulated learning in explaining examination performance of college students in first-semester general chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckley, Scott

    Many college students struggle with first-semester general chemistry. Prior studies have shown that a student's prior knowledge of chemistry, a cognitive factor, does not account for the total variance when measured by examination scores. This study explored the role of self-regulated learning (SRL) to identify the degree of success or failure of students with two outcome variables (i.e., American Chemical Society Comprehensive First-Term General Chemistry Examination (Form 2009) and hour-examination averages). The SRL construct consists of three interrelated components (i.e., cognitive, metacognitive, and motivational). SRL theory focuses on the idea of reciprocal determinism, in which the impact of one component of self-regulation affects the other two components. In the quantitative portion of this mixed methods study, eight measures of SRL were used to determine the `level' of self-regulation for each student. SRL variables were used in regression analysis and provided additional and unique variances. Cluster analysis techniques identified two distinct groups of students (i.e., adaptive and maladaptive). Generally, adaptive learners were associated with higher levels of SRL and success in the course; maladaptive learners had lower levels of SRL and struggled with the course demands. For the qualitative portion of the study, student volunteers (n = 8) were interviewed to gauge their views on the role of instruction in influencing their examination performances. The findings indicated that perceptions of teaching methods, demands of the course, course structure, feedback, and assessments were associated with the students' levels of self-regulation. Interviews revealed four SRL styles. Rote memorizers tended to fragment instruction and then memorize each fragment, while algorithmic memorizers tended to imitate the step-by-step problem-solving strategies of the instructor or the textbook. Globalizers were intrinsically motivated to learn the material but tended to

  7. Quantitative Clinical Chemistry Proteomics (qCCP) using mass spectrometry: general characteristics and application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Sylvain; Hoofnagle, Andrew; Hochstrasser, Denis; Brede, Cato; Glueckmann, Matthias; Cocho, José A; Ceglarek, Uta; Lenz, Christof; Vialaret, Jérôme; Scherl, Alexander; Hirtz, Christophe

    2013-05-01

    Proteomics studies typically aim to exhaustively detect peptides/proteins in a given biological sample. Over the past decade, the number of publications using proteomics methodologies has exploded. This was made possible due to the availability of high-quality genomic data and many technological advances in the fields of microfluidics and mass spectrometry. Proteomics in biomedical research was initially used in 'functional' studies for the identification of proteins involved in pathophysiological processes, complexes and networks. Improved sensitivity of instrumentation facilitated the analysis of even more complex sample types, including human biological fluids. It is at that point the field of clinical proteomics was born, and its fundamental aim was the discovery and (ideally) validation of biomarkers for the diagnosis, prognosis, or therapeutic monitoring of disease. Eventually, it was recognized that the technologies used in clinical proteomics studies [particularly liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)] could represent an alternative to classical immunochemical assays. Prior to deploying MS in the measurement of peptides/proteins in the clinical laboratory, it seems likely that traditional proteomics workflows and data management systems will need to adapt to the clinical environment and meet in vitro diagnostic (IVD) regulatory constraints. This defines a new field, as reviewed in this article, that we have termed quantitative Clinical Chemistry Proteomics (qCCP).

  8. Prevalence of hepatitis B virus in patients with diabetes mellitus: a comparative cross sectional study at Woldiya General Hospital, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekonnen, Daniel; Gebre-Selassie, Solomon; Fantaw, Surafel; Hunegnaw, Andualem; Mihret, Adane

    2014-01-01

    The overall prevalence of HBV in Ethiopia varies from 4.7-16.8% for Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and 70-76.38% for at least one marker positive. Patients suffering from type I Diabetes Mellitus (DM) incur high risk of infection with hepatotropic viruses because of frequent hospitalization and blood tests. A comparative cross sectional study was conducted at Woldiya General Hospital using 108 consented study populations from Diabetes and 108 non diabetes control groups during the period November 2010 - January 2011. VISITECT HBsAg rapid test kit and Humastat 80 chemistry analyzer were used. Multivariate logistic regression was used to see the association of HBV with clinical history of participants and Sociodemographic variables. All tests were two-sided with α-level of 0.05 and 80% power. Prevalence of HBsAg was equal between diabetic and non diabetic individuals, 3.7% indicating that there was no difference between the two groups. Only history of invasive procedures and chronic liver disease showed association with HBsAg seropositivity. In this study a positive relation was not indicated between HBV and Diabetes and the prevalence of HBsAg was equal between diabetic and non diabetic individuals.

  9. General calculation of the cross section for dark matter annihilations into two photons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Cely, Camilo [Service de Physique Théorique, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Boulevard du Triomphe, CP225, 1050 Brussels (Belgium); Rivera, Andres, E-mail: Camilo.Alfredo.Garcia.Cely@ulb.ac.be, E-mail: afelipe.rivera@udea.edu.co [Instituto de Física, Universidad de Antioquia, Calle 70 No. 52-21, Medellín (Colombia)

    2017-03-01

    Assuming that the underlying model satisfies some general requirements such as renormalizability and CP conservation, we calculate the non-relativistic one-loop cross section for any self-conjugate dark matter particle annihilating into two photons. We accomplish this by carefully classifying all possible one-loop diagrams and, from them, reading off the dark matter interactions with the particles running in the loop. Our approach is general and leads to the same results found in the literature for popular dark matter candidates such as the neutralinos of the MSSM, minimal dark matter, inert Higgs and Kaluza-Klein dark matter.

  10. General calculation of the cross section for dark matter annihilations into two photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Cely, Camilo; Rivera, Andres

    2017-01-01

    Assuming that the underlying model satisfies some general requirements such as renormalizability and CP conservation, we calculate the non-relativistic one-loop cross section for any self-conjugate dark matter particle annihilating into two photons. We accomplish this by carefully classifying all possible one-loop diagrams and, from them, reading off the dark matter interactions with the particles running in the loop. Our approach is general and leads to the same results found in the literature for popular dark matter candidates such as the neutralinos of the MSSM, minimal dark matter, inert Higgs and Kaluza-Klein dark matter.

  11. The Generalized Principle of the Golden Section and its applications in mathematics, science, and engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stakhov, A.P. [International Club of the Golden Section, 6 McCreary Trail, Bolton, ON, L7E 2C8 (Canada)] e-mail: goldenmuseum@rogers.com

    2005-10-01

    The 'Dichotomy Principle' and the classical 'Golden Section Principle' are two of the most important principles of Nature, Science and also Art. The Generalized Principle of the Golden Section that follows from studying the diagonal sums of the Pascal triangle is a sweeping generalization of these important principles. This underlies the foundation of 'Harmony Mathematics', a new proposed mathematical direction. Harmony Mathematics includes a number of new mathematical theories: an algorithmic measurement theory, a new number theory, a new theory of hyperbolic functions based on Fibonacci and Lucas numbers, and a theory of the Fibonacci and 'Golden' matrices. These mathematical theories are the source of many new ideas in mathematics, philosophy, botanic and biology, electrical and computer science and engineering, communication systems, mathematical education as well as theoretical physics and physics of high energy particles.

  12. The Generalized Principle of the Golden Section and its applications in mathematics, science, and engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stakhov, A.P.

    2005-01-01

    The 'Dichotomy Principle' and the classical 'Golden Section Principle' are two of the most important principles of Nature, Science and also Art. The Generalized Principle of the Golden Section that follows from studying the diagonal sums of the Pascal triangle is a sweeping generalization of these important principles. This underlies the foundation of 'Harmony Mathematics', a new proposed mathematical direction. Harmony Mathematics includes a number of new mathematical theories: an algorithmic measurement theory, a new number theory, a new theory of hyperbolic functions based on Fibonacci and Lucas numbers, and a theory of the Fibonacci and 'Golden' matrices. These mathematical theories are the source of many new ideas in mathematics, philosophy, botanic and biology, electrical and computer science and engineering, communication systems, mathematical education as well as theoretical physics and physics of high energy particles

  13. A general algorithm for calculating jet cross sections in NLO QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Catani, S.; Catani, Stefano; Seymour, Michael H

    1997-01-01

    We present a new general algorithm for calculating arbitrary jet cross sections in arbitrary scattering processes to next-to-leading accuracy in perturbative QCD. The algorithm is based on the subtraction method. The key ingredients are new factorization formulae, called dipole formulae, which implement in a Lorentz covariant way both the usual soft and collinear approximations, smoothly interpolating the two. The corresponding dipole phase space obeys exact factorization, so that the dipole contributions to the cross section can be exactly integrated analytically over the whole of phase space. We obtain explicit analytic results for any jet observable in any scattering or fragmentation process in lepton, lepton-hadron or hadron-hadron collisions. All the analytical formulae necessary to construct a numerical program for next-to-leading order QCD calculations are provided. The algorithm is straightforwardly implementable in general purpose Monte Carlo programs.

  14. A Comparison of Satisfaction; Spinal versus General Anesthesia for Cesarean Section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meo, S. A.; Siddique, S.; Meo, R. A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To compare the patients satisfaction with spinal and general anesthesia after cesarean section at CMH Lahore. Study Design: Randomized controlled trials. Study Setting: The study was conducted at the department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology combined military Hospital, Lahore, for 6 months from July to Dec 2011. Patients and Methods: Total 70 patients were included in the study and randomly divided into two groups of 35 each using random numbers table. All patients between ages of 20-40 years admitted for elective cesarean section and presented for following up at day 5-7 who never had any type of anesthesia in the past. There included in the study patients with complaints of migraine, low backaches, positive history or any other medical disorder were excluded from the study. Results: A total number of patients included were 70. Out of these selected patients, 35 procedures were carried out under spinal anesthesia and 35 under general anesthesia. Insignificant difference was found in satisfaction level of both the groups (p=0.220). There is significant difference for the future choice between two groups (p<0.001). Conclusion: Spinal anesthesia provides equal satisfaction for patients of cesarean section than general anesthesia. (author)

  15. Choice of Study Resources in General Chemistry by Students Who Have Little Time to Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunce, Diane M.; Komperda, Regis; Dillner, Debra K.; Lin, Shirley; Schroeder, Maria J.; Hartman, JudithAnn R.

    2017-01-01

    Students with an insufficient amount of time to study are becoming more prevalent in the general college population as many who enroll in college have competing responsibilities (full-time jobs, childcare, etc.). Such students are likely to choose study resources that they consider to be both effective and efficient. Students at the U.S. Naval…

  16. The factors associated to psychosocial stress among general practitioners in Lithuania. Cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanagas Giedrius

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are number of studies showing that general practice is one of the most stressful workplace among health care workers. Since Baltic States regained independence in 1990, the reform of the health care system took place in which new role and more responsibilities were allocated to general practitioners' in Lithuania. This study aimed to explore the psychosocial stress level among Lithuanian general practitioner's and examine the relationship between psychosocial stress and work characteristics. Methods The cross-sectional study of 300 Lithuanian General practitioners. Psychosocial stress was investigated with a questionnaire based on the Reeder scale. Job demands were investigated with the R. Karasek scale. The analysis included descriptive statistics; interrelationship analysis between characteristics and multivariate logistic regression to estimate odds ratios for each of the independent variables in the model. Results Response rate 66% (N = 197. Our study highlighted highest prevalence of psychosocial stress among widowed, single and female general practitioners. Lowest prevalence of psychosocial stress was among males and older age general practitioners. Psychosocial stress occurs when job demands are high and job decision latitude is low (χ2 = 18,9; p Conclusion One half of respondents suffering from work related psychosocial stress. High psychological workload demands combined with low decision latitude has the greatest impact to stress caseness among GP's. High job demands, high patient load and young age of GP's can be assigned as significant predictors of psychosocial stress among GP's.

  17. The atmospheric chemistry general circulation model ECHAM5/MESSy1: consistent simulation of ozone from the surface to the mesosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Jöckel

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The new Modular Earth Submodel System (MESSy describes atmospheric chemistry and meteorological processes in a modular framework, following strict coding standards. It has been coupled to the ECHAM5 general circulation model, which has been slightly modified for this purpose. A 90-layer model setup up to 0.01 hPa was used at spectral T42 resolution to simulate the lower and middle atmosphere. With the high vertical resolution the model simulates the Quasi-Biennial Oscillation. The model meteorology has been tested to check the influence of the changes to ECHAM5 and the radiation interactions with the new representation of atmospheric composition. In the simulations presented here a Newtonian relaxation technique was applied in the tropospheric part of the domain to weakly nudge the model towards the analysed meteorology during the period 1998–2005. This allows an efficient and direct evaluation with satellite and in-situ data. It is shown that the tropospheric wave forcing of the stratosphere in the model suffices to reproduce major stratospheric warming events leading e.g. to the vortex split over Antarctica in 2002. Characteristic features such as dehydration and denitrification caused by the sedimentation of polar stratospheric cloud particles and ozone depletion during winter and spring are simulated well, although ozone loss in the lower polar stratosphere is slightly underestimated. The model realistically simulates stratosphere-troposphere exchange processes as indicated by comparisons with satellite and in situ measurements. The evaluation of tropospheric chemistry presented here focuses on the distributions of ozone, hydroxyl radicals, carbon monoxide and reactive nitrogen compounds. In spite of minor shortcomings, mostly related to the relatively coarse T42 resolution and the neglect of inter-annual changes in biomass burning emissions, the main characteristics of the trace gas distributions are generally reproduced well. The MESSy

  18. Picture this: The value of multiple visual representations for student learning of quantum concepts in general chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Emily Christine

    Mental models for scientific learning are often defined as, "cognitive tools situated between experiments and theories" (Duschl & Grandy, 2012). In learning, these cognitive tools are used to not only take in new information, but to help problem solve in new contexts. Nancy Nersessian (2008) describes a mental model as being "[loosely] characterized as a representation of a system with interactive parts with representations of those interactions. Models can be qualitative, quantitative, and/or simulative (mental, physical, computational)" (p. 63). If conceptual parts used by the students in science education are inaccurate, then the resulting model will not be useful. Students in college general chemistry courses are presented with multiple abstract topics and often struggle to fit these parts into complete models. This is especially true for topics that are founded on quantum concepts, such as atomic structure and molecular bonding taught in college general chemistry. The objectives of this study were focused on how students use visual tools introduced during instruction to reason with atomic and molecular structure, what misconceptions may be associated with these visual tools, and how visual modeling skills may be taught to support students' use of visual tools for reasoning. The research questions for this study follow from Gilbert's (2008) theory that experts use multiple representations when reasoning and modeling a system, and Kozma and Russell's (2005) theory of representational competence levels. This study finds that as students developed greater command of their understanding of abstract quantum concepts, they spontaneously provided additional representations to describe their more sophisticated models of atomic and molecular structure during interviews. This suggests that when visual modeling with multiple representations is taught, along with the limitations of the representations, it can assist students in the development of models for reasoning about

  19. Lead optimization attrition analysis (LOAA): a novel and general methodology for medicinal chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munson, Mark; Lieberman, Harvey; Tserlin, Elina; Rocnik, Jennifer; Ge, Jie; Fitzgerald, Maria; Patel, Vinod; Garcia-Echeverria, Carlos

    2015-08-01

    Herein, we report a novel and general method, lead optimization attrition analysis (LOAA), to benchmark two distinct small-molecule lead series using a relatively unbiased, simple technique and commercially available software. We illustrate this approach with data collected during lead optimization of two independent oncology programs as a case study. Easily generated graphics and attrition curves enabled us to calibrate progress and support go/no go decisions on each program. We believe that this data-driven technique could be used broadly by medicinal chemists and management to guide strategic decisions during drug discovery. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Adsorbate-induced lifting of substrate relaxation is a general mechanism governing titania surface chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silber, David; Kowalski, Piotr M; Traeger, Franziska; Buchholz, Maria; Bebensee, Fabian; Meyer, Bernd; Wöll, Christof

    2016-09-30

    Under ambient conditions, almost all metals are coated by an oxide. These coatings, the result of a chemical reaction, are not passive. Many of them bind, activate and modify adsorbed molecules, processes that are exploited, for example, in heterogeneous catalysis and photochemistry. Here we report an effect of general importance that governs the bonding, structure formation and dissociation of molecules on oxidic substrates. For a specific example, methanol adsorbed on the rutile TiO 2 (110) single crystal surface, we demonstrate by using a combination of experimental and theoretical techniques that strongly bonding adsorbates can lift surface relaxations beyond their adsorption site, which leads to a significant substrate-mediated interaction between adsorbates. The result is a complex superstructure consisting of pairs of methanol molecules and unoccupied adsorption sites. Infrared spectroscopy reveals that the paired methanol molecules remain intact and do not deprotonate on the defect-free terraces of the rutile TiO 2 (110) surface.

  1. Double Differential Cross Sections and Generalized Oscillator Strength Distributions of Ammonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Karin; Nogami, Keisuke; Hino, Yuta; Sakai, Yasuhiro

    2011-01-01

    The absolute double differential cross section (DDCS), the generalized oscillator strength distribution (GOSD), and the ionization efficiency of ammonia (NH 3 ) were investigated from the threshold to 40 eV under the condition of 200 and 400 eV incident electron energies and 6 and 8 degree scattering angles using electron energy-loss spectroscopy and electron- ion coincidence techniques. To determine the absolute values, we used a mixture of helium (He) and NH 3 and normalized the measured relative DDCS spectrum by the differential cross section for 2 1 P excitation of He. Our results are in close agreement with previous dipole (e, e) spectroscopy, although the incident electron energy is lower. The ionization efficiency curve obtained from coincidence measurements indicated the existence of doubly excited states that cause neutral dissociation.

  2. Assessment of two physical parameterization schemes for desert dust emissions in an atmospheric chemistry general circulation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astitha, M.; Abdel Kader, M.; Pozzer, A.; Lelieveld, J.

    2012-04-01

    Atmospheric particulate matter and more specific desert dust has been the topic of numerous research studies in the past due to the wide range of impacts in the environment and climate and the uncertainty of characterizing and quantifying these impacts in a global scale. In this work we present two physical parameterizations of the desert dust production that have been incorporated in the atmospheric chemistry general circulation model EMAC (ECHAM5/MESSy2.41 Atmospheric Chemistry). The scope of this work is to assess the impact of the two physical parameterizations in the global distribution of desert dust and highlight the advantages and disadvantages of using either technique. The dust concentration and deposition has been evaluated using the AEROCOM dust dataset for the year 2000 and data from the MODIS and MISR satellites as well as sun-photometer data from the AERONET network was used to compare the modelled aerosol optical depth with observations. The implementation of the two parameterizations and the simulations using relatively high spatial resolution (T106~1.1deg) has highlighted the large spatial heterogeneity of the dust emission sources as well as the importance of the input parameters (soil size and texture, vegetation, surface wind speed). Also, sensitivity simulations with the nudging option using reanalysis data from ECMWF and without nudging have showed remarkable differences for some areas. Both parameterizations have revealed the difficulty of simulating all arid regions with the same assumptions and mechanisms. Depending on the arid region, each emission scheme performs more or less satisfactorily which leads to the necessity of treating each desert differently. Even though this is a quite different task to accomplish in a global model, some recommendations are given and ideas for future improvements.

  3. Annual report 1985 Chemistry Department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funck, J.; Larsen, E.; Nielsen, O.J.

    1986-03-01

    This report contains a brief survey of the main activities in the Chemistry Department. All particles and reports published and lectures given in 1985 are presented. The facilities and equipment are mentioned briefly. The activities are divided into the following groups: radioisotope chemistry, analytical- and organic chemistry, environmental chemistry, polymer chemistry, geochemistry and waste disposal, radical chemistry, positron annihilation, mineral processing, and general. (author)

  4. Annual report 1984 Chemistry Department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funck, J.; Larsen, E.; Nielsen, O.J.

    1985-03-01

    This report contains a brief survey of the main activities in the Chemistry Department. All articles and reports published and lectures given in 1984 are presented. The facilities and equipment are mentioned briefly. The activities are divided into the following groups: radioisotope chemistry, analytical- and organic chemistry , environmental chemistry, polymer chemistry, geochemistry and waste disposal, radical chemistry, positron annihilation, mineral processing, and general. (author)

  5. The generalized nuclear contact and its application to the photoabsorption cross-section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, Ronen; Barnea, Nir [The Hebrew University, The Racah Institute of Physics, Jerusalem (Israel); Bazak, Betzalel [The Hebrew University, The Racah Institute of Physics, Jerusalem (Israel); Universite Paris-Sud, Institut de Physique Nucleaire, CNRS/IN2P3, Orsay (France)

    2016-04-15

    Using the zero-range model, it was demonstrated recently that Levinger's quasi-deuteron model can be utilized to extract the nuclear neutron-proton contact. Going beyond the zero-range approximation and considering the full nuclear contact formalism, we rederive here the quasi-deuteron model for the nuclear photoabsorption cross-section and utilize it to establish relations and constraints for the general contact matrix. We also define and demonstrate the importance of the diagonalized nuclear contacts, which can be also relevant to further applications of the nuclear contacts. (orig.)

  6. Chapter A6. Section 6.0. General Information and Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilde, Franceska D.; Radtke, Dean B.

    2005-01-01

    This report summarizes information, guidelines, and minimum requirements that apply generally to the seven field-measurement sections that comprise the rest of Chapter A6 of this U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Field Manual for the Collection of Water-Quality Data (NFM). Protocols are specified for establishing and maintaining data records, use of field-measurement instruments and methods, and quality assurance of data-collection and reporting methods that are relevant to surface-water and ground-water field-measurement activities.

  7. Correlation of bupivacaine 0.5% dose and conversion from spinal anesthesia to general anesthesia in cesarean sections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seljogi, D; Wolff, A P; Scheffer, G J; van Geffen, G J; Bruhn, J

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Failed spinal anesthesia for cesarean sections may require conversion to general anesthesia. The aim of this study was to determine whether the administered spinal bupivacaine dose for performing a cesarean section under spinal anesthesia was related to the conversion rate to general

  8. Human brain receptor autoradiography using whole hemisphere sections: a general method that minimizes tissue artefacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quirion, R.; Robitaille, Y.; Martial, J.; Chabot, J.G.; Lemoine, P.; Pilapil, C.; Dalpe, M.

    1987-01-01

    A general method for the preparation of high-quality, mostly ice-crystal-artefact-free whole human brain hemisphere sections is described. Upon receipt, hemispheres are divided; one is then fixed in buffered 10% formalin for neuropathological analysis while the other is cut in 8-10-mm-thick coronal slices that are then rapidly frozen in 2-methylbutane at -40 degrees C (10-15 sec) before being placed in the brain bank at -80 degrees C. Such rapid freezing markedly decreases the formation of ice-crystal artefacts. Whole-hemisphere 20-micron thick sections are then cut and mounted onto lantern-type gelatin-coated slides. These sections are subsequently used for both qualitative and quantitative in vitro receptor autoradiography. Examples of data obtained are given by using various radioligands labelling classical neutrotransmitter, neuropeptide, enzyme, and ion channel receptor binding sites. This method should be useful for the obtention of various receptor maps in human brain. Such information could be most useful for in vivo receptor visualization studies using positron emission tomography (PET) scanning. It could also indicate if a given receptor population is specifically and selectively altered in certain brain diseases, eventually leading to the development of new therapeutic approaches

  9. Patients' evaluations of patient safety in English general practices: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci-Cabello, Ignacio; Marsden, Kate S; Avery, Anthony J; Bell, Brian G; Kadam, Umesh T; Reeves, David; Slight, Sarah P; Perryman, Katherine; Barnett, Jane; Litchfield, Ian; Thomas, Sally; Campbell, Stephen M; Doos, Lucy; Esmail, Aneez; Valderas, Jose M

    2017-07-01

    Description of safety problems and harm in general practices has previously relied on information from health professionals, with scarce attention paid to experiences of patients. To examine patient-reported experiences and outcomes of patient safety in primary care. Cross-sectional study in 45 general practices across five regions in the north, centre, and south of England. A version of the Patient Reported Experiences and Outcomes of Safety in Primary Care (PREOS-PC) questionnaire was sent to a random sample of 6736 patients. Main outcome measures included 'practice activation' (what a practice does to create a safe environment); 'patient activation' (how proactive are patients in ensuring safe healthcare delivery); 'experiences of safety events' (safety errors); 'outcomes of safety' (harm); and 'overall perception of safety' (how safe patients rate their practice). Questionnaires were returned by 1244 patients (18.4%). Scores were high for 'practice activation' (mean [standard error] = 80.4 out of 100 [2.0]) and low for 'patient activation' (26.3 out of 100 [2.6]). Of the patients, 45% reported experiencing at least one safety problem in the previous 12 months, mostly related to appointments (33%), diagnosis (17%), patient provider communication (15%), and coordination between providers (14%). Twenty-three per cent of the responders reported some degree of harm in the previous 12 months. The overall assessment of level of safety of practices was generally high (86.0 out of 100 [16.8]). Priority areas for patient safety improvement in general practices in England include appointments, diagnosis, communication, coordination, and patient activation. © British Journal of General Practice 2017.

  10. The Effect of Using 3E, 5E Learning Cycle in General Chemistry Laboratory to Prospective Science Teachers Attitude and Perceptions to the Science, Chemistry and Laboratory

    OpenAIRE

    Toprak, Fatih; Çelikler, Dilek

    2013-01-01

    The study aimed to investigate the emerging changes in prospective science teachers" attitudes and perceptions towards science, chemistry and laboratory resulting from the implementation of 3E. 5E learning cycles and traditional instruction in laboratory environment in which learning is achieved by doing and experiencing. The study included 74 first grade prospective science teachers from Ondokuz Mayıs University at the Department of Science Education. In the study, quasi-experimental pre-tes...

  11. The Effect of Using 3E, 5E Learning Cycle in General Chemistry Laboratory to Prospective Scinence Teachers’ Attitude and Perceptions to the Science, Chemistry and Laboratory

    OpenAIRE

    Toprak, Fatih; Çelikler, Dilek

    2013-01-01

    The study aimed to investigate the emerging changes in prospective science teachers" attitudes and perceptions towards science, chemistry and laboratory resulting from the implementation of 3E. 5E learning cycles and traditional instruction in laboratory environment in which learning is achieved by doing and experiencing. The study included 74 first grade prospective science teachers from Ondokuz Mayıs University at the Department of Science Education. In the study, quasi-experimental pr...

  12. Using the Arts To Make Chemistry Accessible to Everybody. 2002 James Flack Norris Award, sponsored by ACS Northeast Section

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerman, Zafra M.

    2003-11-01

    Although all chemists know the importance of chemistry in daily life, the rest of the population somehow does not seem to share this view. Each of us believes that we must teach chemistry to everyone, yet we have not succeeded in persuading everyone that they must study chemistry. The reason is often the methods used to communicate chemistry to the public. The arts (music, dance, drama, fine arts, etc.) are excellent vehicles to enhance understanding. For eample, most people are not interested in the concept of the ionic bond, but when presented like Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet (with a love story between Sodium and Chlorine) everyone enjoys learning about the bonding relationship. In addition, the drama students who write and act out the script remember the concept far longer than would be expected through more conventional teaching methods. The same is true for the students who wrote and acted The Bondfather, and for the students who danced The Three States of Matter. (Our hero falls in love with Solid, but "When she warms to him, through his fingers she runs," and when his love heats up with Liquid, "Her love escaped from him just like a vapor.")

  13. Analytical chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jae Seong

    1993-02-15

    This book is comprised of nineteen chapters, which describes introduction of analytical chemistry, experimental error and statistics, chemistry equilibrium and solubility, gravimetric analysis with mechanism of precipitation, range and calculation of the result, volume analysis on general principle, sedimentation method on types and titration curve, acid base balance, acid base titration curve, complex and firing reaction, introduction of chemical electro analysis, acid-base titration curve, electrode and potentiometry, electrolysis and conductometry, voltammetry and polarographic spectrophotometry, atomic spectrometry, solvent extraction, chromatograph and experiments.

  14. Analytical chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jae Seong

    1993-02-01

    This book is comprised of nineteen chapters, which describes introduction of analytical chemistry, experimental error and statistics, chemistry equilibrium and solubility, gravimetric analysis with mechanism of precipitation, range and calculation of the result, volume analysis on general principle, sedimentation method on types and titration curve, acid base balance, acid base titration curve, complex and firing reaction, introduction of chemical electro analysis, acid-base titration curve, electrode and potentiometry, electrolysis and conductometry, voltammetry and polarographic spectrophotometry, atomic spectrometry, solvent extraction, chromatograph and experiments.

  15. Analytical chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chae, Myeong Hu; Lee, Hu Jun; Kim, Ha Seok

    1989-02-15

    This book give explanations on analytical chemistry with ten chapters, which deal with development of analytical chemistry, the theory of error with definition and classification, sample and treatment gravimetry on general process of gravimetry in aqueous solution and non-aqueous solution, precipitation titration about precipitation reaction and types, complexometry with summary and complex compound, oxidation-reduction equilibrium on electrode potential and potentiometric titration, solvent extraction and chromatograph and experiment with basic operation for chemical experiment.

  16. Analytical chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chae, Myeong Hu; Lee, Hu Jun; Kim, Ha Seok

    1989-02-01

    This book give explanations on analytical chemistry with ten chapters, which deal with development of analytical chemistry, the theory of error with definition and classification, sample and treatment gravimetry on general process of gravimetry in aqueous solution and non-aqueous solution, precipitation titration about precipitation reaction and types, complexometry with summary and complex compound, oxidation-reduction equilibrium on electrode potential and potentiometric titration, solvent extraction and chromatograph and experiment with basic operation for chemical experiment.

  17. 15. Mendeleev's meeting on general and applied chemistry. Obninsk symposium. Radiological problems in nuclear energetics and industry conversion. Abstracts. V. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Ecological aspects of nuclear-fuel engineering cycle and radiochemical technologies, radioactive waste processing and water purification, accidents at NPP and their consequences, ecological problems of industry conversion were discussed at the 15th Mendeleev's meeting on general and applied chemistry

  18. 15. Mendeleev's meeting on general and applied chemistry. Obninsk Symposium. Radioecological problems in nuclear energetics and in industry conversion. Abstracts. V. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Works devoted to the problems of radioecology, radiochemistry, ecological monitoring, human health in zones subjected to radioactive contamination as a result of the Chernobyl accident, were presented at the 15. Mendeleev congress of general and applied chemistry which took place in Obninsk in 1993

  19. "Greening" a Familiar General Chemistry Experiment: Coffee Cup Calorimetry to Determine the Enthalpy of Neutralization of an Acid-Base Reaction and the Specific Heat Capacity of Metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bopegedera, A. M. R. P.; Perera, K. Nishanthi R.

    2017-01-01

    Coffee cup calorimetry, performed with calorimeters made with styrofoam coffee cups, is a familiar experiment in the general chemistry laboratory. These calorimeters are inexpensive, easy to use, and provide good insulation for most thermodynamics experiments. This paper presents the successful substitution of paper coffee cups for styrofoam cups…

  20. Yielding Unexpected Results: Precipitation of Ba[subscript3](PO[subscript4])[subscript2] and Implications for Teaching Solubility Principles in the General Chemistry Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazen, Jeffery L.; Cleary, David A.

    2014-01-01

    Precipitation of barium phosphate from aqueous solutions of a barium salt and a phosphate salt forms the basis for a number of conclusions drawn in general chemistry. For example, the formation of a solid white precipitate is offered as evidence that barium phosphate is insoluble. Furthermore, analysis of the supernatant is used to illustrate the…

  1. A Reconstruction of Development of the Periodic Table Based on History and Philosophy of Science and Its Implications for General Chemistry Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, Angmary; Rodriguez, Maria A.; Niaz, Mansoor

    2005-01-01

    The objectives of this study are: (a) elaboration of a history and philosophy of science (HPS) framework based on a reconstruction of the development of the periodic table; (b) formulation of seven criteria based on the framework; and (c) evaluation of 57 freshman college-level general chemistry textbooks with respect to the presentation of the…

  2. Effect of Peer-Led Team Learning (PLTL) on Student Achievement, Attitude, and Self-Concept in College General Chemistry in Randomized and Quasi Experimental Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Julia Y. K.; Bauer, Christopher F.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated exam achievement and affective characteristics of students in general chemistry in a fully-randomized experimental design, contrasting Peer-Led Team Learning (PLTL) participation with a control group balanced for time-on-task and study activity. This study population included two independent first-semester courses with…

  3. Multiple-Choice Exams and Guessing: Results from a One-Year Study of General Chemistry Tests Designed to Discourage Guessing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Mark L.

    2015-01-01

    Multiple-choice exams, while widely used, are necessarily imprecise due to the contribution of the final student score due to guessing. This past year at the United States Naval Academy the construction and grading scheme for the department-wide general chemistry multiple-choice exams were revised with the goal of decreasing the contribution of…

  4. Introducing NMR to a General Chemistry Audience: A Structural-Based Instrumental Laboratory Relating Lewis Structures, Molecular Models, and [superscript 13]C NMR Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulliam, Curtis R.; Pfeiffer, William F.; Thomas, Alyssa C.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a first-year general chemistry laboratory that uses NMR spectroscopy and model building to emphasize molecular shape and structure. It is appropriate for either a traditional or an atoms-first curriculum. Students learn the basis of structure and the use of NMR data through a cooperative learning hands-on laboratory…

  5. Two-Year Community: Tools for Success--A Study of the Resources and Study Habits of General Chemistry I Students at Two Community Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruck, Laura B.; Bruck, Aaron D.

    2018-01-01

    Recruitment and retention in the sciences is both difficult and crucial, especially in the community college setting. In this study, the resources used by General Chemistry I students at two different public, predominantly two-year colleges in two states were studied via surveys for a semester. Data were analyzed with respect to student attitudes…

  6. Structure and Evaluation of a Flipped General Chemistry Course as a Model for Small and Large Gateway Science Courses at an Urban Public Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deri, Melissa A.; Mills, Pamela; McGregor, Donna

    2018-01-01

    A flipped classroom is one where students are first introduced to content outside of the classroom. This frees up class time for more active learning strategies and has been shown to enhance student learning in high school and college classrooms. However, many studies in General Chemistry, a college gateway science course, were conducted in small…

  7. Analyzing General Chemistry Texts' Treatment of Rates of Change Concepts in Reaction Kinetics Reveals Missing Conceptual Links

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seethaler, Sherry; Czworkowski, John; Wynn, Lynda

    2018-01-01

    Change over time is a crosscutting theme in the sciences that is pivotal to reaction kinetics, an anchoring concept in undergraduate chemistry, and students' struggles with rates of change are well-documented. Informed by the education scholarship in chemistry, physics, and mathematics, a research team with members from complementary disciplinary…

  8. Nanoparticle Synthesis, Characterization, and Ecotoxicity: A Research-Based Set of Laboratory Experiments for a General Chemistry Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaris, Zoe N.; Freitas, Daniel N.; Mac, Karen; Gerner, Kyle T.; Nameth, Catherine; Wheeler, Korin E.

    2017-01-01

    A series of laboratory experiments were developed to introduce first-year chemistry students to nanoscience through a green chemistry approach. Students made and characterized the stability of silver nanoparticles using two different methods: UV-visible spectroscopy and dynamic light scattering. They then assessed the ecotoxicity of silver…

  9. Experiences of occupational violence in Australian urban general practice: a cross-sectional study of GPs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magin, Parker J; Adams, Jon; Sibbritt, David W; Joy, Elyssa; Ireland, Malcolm C

    2005-10-03

    To establish the prevalence and characteristics of occupational violence in Australian urban general practice, and examine practitioner correlates of violence. Cross-sectional questionnaire survey mailed to all members (n = 1085) of three urban divisions of general practice in New South Wales in August and September 2004. The three divisions were chosen to provide a range of socioeconomic status (SES) demographics. Occupational violence towards general practitioners during the previous 12 months. 528 GPs returned questionnaires (49% response rate). Of these, 63.7% had experienced violence in the previous year. The most common forms of violence were "low level" violence - verbal abuse (42.1%), property damage/theft (28.6%) and threats (23.1%). A smaller proportion of GPs had experienced "high level" violence, such as sexual harassment (9.3%) and physical abuse (2.7%). On univariate analysis, violence was significantly more likely towards female GPs (P working in a lower SES status area (P disadvantage (P = 0.006), mental health problems (P home visits). On multivariate analysis, a significant association persisted between high level violence and lower SES area (odds ratio [OR], 2.86), being female (OR, 5.87), having practice populations with more drug-related problems (OR, 5.77), and providing home visits during business hours (OR, 4.76). More experienced GPs encountered less violence (OR, 0.77) for every additional 5 years of practice. Occupational violence is a considerable problem in Australian urban general practice. Formal education programs in preventing and managing violence would be appropriate for GPs and doctors-in-training.

  10. Bilateral primary spontaneous pneumothoraces postcaesarean section – another reason to avoid general anaesthesia in pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aye, Christina Yi Ling; McKean, David; Dark, Allan; Akinsola, S Adeyemi

    2012-01-01

    A 36-year-old, healthy, primiparous female underwent a caesarean section under general anaesthetic. She had previously had a severe reaction to dye during a myelogram and therefore, had declined epidural analgesia or regional anaesthesia. Induction and maintenance of anaesthesia was uneventful, but on emergence, and before tracheal extubation, the patient coughed on the endotracheal tube and almost immediately developed right-sided subcutaneous emphysema of the face and neck. At this point her oxygen saturation began to fall and she was noted to be difficult to ventilate. Clinically and radiologically, she had a right-sided pneumothorax which was treated immediately with intercostal drain insertion. She went on to develop a left pneumothorax which also required intercostal drain insertion. She made an uneventful recovery and was discharged 8 days later. A subsequent CT scan of her chest revealed no pre-existing primary pulmonary pathology that would have accounted for the pneumothoraces. PMID:22927264

  11. Cross Sections for the Exclusive Photon Electroproduction on the Proton and Generalized Parton Distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, H. S.; Girod, F. X.; Avakian, H.; Burkert, V. D.; Garçon, M.; Guidal, M.; Kubarovsky, V.; Niccolai, S.; Stoler, P.; Adhikari, K. P.; Adikaram, D.; Amaryan, M. J.; Anderson, M. D.; Anefalos Pereira, S.; Ball, J.; Baltzell, N. A.; Battaglieri, M.; Batourine, V.; Bedlinskiy, I.; Biselli, A. S.; Boiarinov, S.; Briscoe, W. J.; Brooks, W. K.; Carman, D. S.; Celentano, A.; Chandavar, S.; Charles, G.; Colaneri, L.; Cole, P. L.; Compton, N.; Contalbrigo, M.; Crede, V.; D'Angelo, A.; Dashyan, N.; De Vita, R.; De Sanctis, E.; Deur, A.; Djalali, C.; Dupre, R.; Alaoui, A. El; Fassi, L. El; Elouadrhiri, L.; Fedotov, G.; Fegan, S.; Filippi, A.; Fleming, J. A.; Garillon, B.; Gevorgyan, N.; Ghandilyan, Y.; Gilfoyle, G. P.; Giovanetti, K. L.; Goetz, J. T.; Golovatch, E.; Gothe, R. W.; Griffioen, K. A.; Guegan, B.; Guler, N.; Guo, L.; Hafidi, K.; Hakobyan, H.; Harrison, N.; Hattawy, M.; Hicks, K.; Hirlinger Saylor, N.; Ho, D.; Holtrop, M.; Hughes, S. M.; Ilieva, Y.; Ireland, D. G.; Ishkhanov, B. S.; Jenkins, D.; Joo, K.; Joosten, S.; Keller, D.; Khachatryan, G.; Khandaker, M.; Kim, A.; Kim, W.; Klein, A.; Klein, F. J.; Kuhn, S. E.; Kuleshov, S. V.; Lenisa, P.; Livingston, K.; Lu, H. Y.; MacGregor, I. J. D.; McKinnon, B.; Meziani, Z. E.; Mirazita, M.; Mokeev, V.; Montgomery, R. A.; Moutarde, H.; Movsisyan, A.; Munevar, E.; Munoz Camacho, C.; Nadel-Turonski, P.; Net, L. A.; Niculescu, G.; Osipenko, M.; Ostrovidov, A. I.; Paolone, M.; Park, K.; Pasyuk, E.; Phillips, J. J.; Pisano, S.; Pogorelko, O.; Price, J. W.; Procureur, S.; Prok, Y.; Puckett, A. J. R.; Raue, B. A.; Ripani, M.; Rizzo, A.; Rosner, G.; Rossi, P.; Roy, P.; Sabatié, F.; Salgado, C.; Schott, D.; Schumacher, R. A.; Seder, E.; Simonyan, A.; Skorodumina, Iu.; Smith, G. D.; Sokhan, D.; Sparveris, N.; Stepanyan, S.; Strakovsky, I. I.; Strauch, S.; Sytnik, V.; Tian, Ye; Tkachenko, S.; Ungaro, M.; Voskanyan, H.; Voutier, E.; Walford, N. K.; Watts, D. P.; Wei, X.; Weinstein, L. B.; Wood, M. H.; Zachariou, N.; Zana, L.; Zhang, J.; Zhao, Z. W.; Zonta, I.; CLAS Collaboration

    2015-11-01

    Unpolarized and beam-polarized fourfold cross sections (d4σ /d Q2d xBd t d ϕ ) for the e p →e'p'γ reaction were measured using the CLAS detector and the 5.75-GeV polarized electron beam of the Jefferson Lab accelerator, for 110 (Q2,xB,t ) bins over the widest phase space ever explored in the valence-quark region. Several models of generalized parton distributions (GPDs) describe the data well at most of our kinematics. This increases our confidence that we understand the GPD H , expected to be the dominant contributor to these observables. Through a leading-twist extraction of Compton form factors, these results support the model predictions of a larger nucleon size at lower quark-momentum fraction xB.

  12. Perioperative management of a morbidly obese pregnant patient undergoing cesarean section under general anesthesia - case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Luiz Benevides

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and objectives: The increased prevalence of obesity in the general population extends to women of reproductive age. The aim of this study is to report the perioperative management of a morbidly obese pregnant woman, body mass index >50 kg/m2, who underwent cesarean section under general anesthesia. Case report: Pregnant woman in labor, 35 years of age, body mass index 59.8 kg/m2. Cesarean section was indicated due to the presumed fetal macrosomia. The patient refused spinal anesthesia. She was placed in the ramp position with cushions from back to head to facilitate tracheal intubation. Another cushion was placed on top of the right gluteus to create an angle of approximately 15° to the operating table. Immediately before induction of anesthesia, asepsis was carried out and sterile surgical fields were placed. Anesthesia was induced in rapid sequence, with Sellick maneuver and administration of remifentanil, propofol, and succinilcolina. Intubation was performed using a gum elastic bougie, and anesthesia was maintained with sevoflurane and remifentanil. The interval between skin incision and fetal extraction was 21 min, with the use of a Simpson's forceps scoop to assist in the extraction. The patient gave birth to a newborn weighing 4850 g, with Apgar scores of 2 in the 1st minute (received positive pressure ventilation by mask for about 2 min and 8 in the 5th minute. The patient was extubated uneventfully. Multimodal analgesia and prophylaxis of nausea and vomiting was performed. Mother and newborn were discharged on the 4th postoperative day.

  13. Interference generalized cross-section for the multiphoton detachment of H- in dichromatic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercouris, Theodoros; Haritos, Costas; Nicolaides, Cleanthes A

    2005-01-01

    The paper reports results from the application of the many-electron, many-photon theory on the system 'H - 1s 2 1 S state plus two fields of weak strengths, F 1 and F 2 '. The two fields have commensurate frequencies (ω, 2ω) and (ω, 3ω), with ω ranging from 0.011 au to 0.028 au, field strengths from 5 x 10 -5 au to 1.7 x 10 -3 au and a phase difference ψ. It is possible to determine the regime where the dichromatic field is weak and to define and compute a corresponding 'interference generalized cross-section'. This cross-section is an intrinsic property of each state as a function of the pair (ω, mω), m = 2, 3,.... Its knowledge is directly relevant to deciding on the degree of effectiveness of coherent quantum control. The calculations show that, with respect to ψ, H - is more receptive to control if frequencies are low. The computed effects are large enough so as to be measurable

  14. [A cross-sectional study on iodine nutrition in general population from Zhejiang province, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Zhe; Lou, Xiao-ming; Zhu, Wen-ming; Wang, Xiao-feng; Mao, Guang-ming; Zhou, Jin-shui; Ding, Gang-qiang

    2013-05-01

    To understand the current status of iodine nutrition among the community residents to compare the level of iodine nutrition in different areas and groups of populations in Zhejiang province. Stratified cluster sampling method was adopted and residents from twenty-two communities in Zhejiang province were selected. A cross-sectional survey was conducted, using questionnaires, laboratory tests, on urinary iodine, water iodine and the concentration of the iodine in salt, which had played positive roles in the calculation of the level of iodine nutrition. of the iodine nutrition in this cross-sectional survey were as follows: the median water iodine and salt iodine of Zhejiang were 2.42 µg/L and 28.8 mg/kg, respectively. The coverage of iodized salts was 79.54%, with the ingesting rate of qualified iodized-salt as 76.65% and the median content of urinary iodine in the population of Zhejiang was 161 µg/L. The average iodine content among pregnant women was 138 µg/L, with the percentage of samples less than 100 µg/L as 25.92%, more than 300 µg/L as 15.30%. The proportions of iodine intake through water, salt and other foods were 1.70%, 76.41% and 21.89%, respectively. The status of iodine nutrition in Zhejiang province in general seemed to be appropriate, but the level of iodine nutrition in pregnant women was less than the requirement, which should call for attention.

  15. Materials Chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Fahlman, Bradley D

    2011-01-01

    The 2nd edition of Materials Chemistry builds on the strengths that were recognized by a 2008 Textbook Excellence Award from the Text and Academic Authors Association (TAA). Materials Chemistry addresses inorganic-, organic-, and nano-based materials from a structure vs. property treatment, providing a suitable breadth and depth coverage of the rapidly evolving materials field. The 2nd edition continues to offer innovative coverage and practical perspective throughout. After briefly defining materials chemistry and its history, seven chapters discuss solid-state chemistry, metals, semiconducting materials, organic "soft" materials, nanomaterials, and materials characterization. All chapters have been thoroughly updated and expanded with, for example, new sections on ‘soft lithographic’ patterning, ‘click chemistry’ polymerization, nanotoxicity, graphene, as well as many biomaterials applications. The polymer and ‘soft’ materials chapter represents the largest expansion for the 2nd edition. Each ch...

  16. Chemical Characterization and Source Apportionment of Size Fractionated Atmospheric Aerosols, and, Evaluating Student Attitudes and Learning in Large Lecture General Chemistry Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Gregory Harold

    between the OOA2 and WBOA factors and smoke levels indicates that these factors can be used to identify the influence of biomass burning on ambient aerosols. The effectiveness of using the ChemWiki instead of a traditional textbook was investigated during the spring quarter of 2014. Student performance was measured using common midterms, a final, and a pre/post content exams. We also employed surveys, the Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey (CLASS) for Chemistry, and a weekly time-on-task survey to quantify students' attitudes and study habits. The effectiveness of the ChemWiki compared to a traditional textbook was examined using multiple linear regression analysis with a standard non-inferiority testing framework. Results show that the performance of students in the section who were assigned readings from the ChemWiki was non-inferior to the performance of students in the section who were assigned readings from the traditional textbook, indicating that the ChemWiki does not substantially differ from the standard textbook in terms of student learning outcomes. The results from the surveys also suggest that the two classes were similar in their beliefs about chemistry and overall average time spent studying. These results indicate that the ChemWiki is a viable cost-saving alternative to traditional textbooks. The impact of using active learning techniques in a large lecture general chemistry class was investigated by assessing student performance and attitudes during the fall 2014 and winter 2015 quarters. One instructor applied active learning strategies while the remaining instructors employed more traditional lecture styles. Student performance, learning, learning environments, and attitudes were measured using a standardized pre/post exams, common final exams, classroom observations, and the CLASS chemistry instrument in large lecture general chemistry courses. Classroom observation data showed that the active learning class was the most student centered

  17. On the report of the Nuclear Energy Section Meeting, General Survey Committee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamura, Shigehiro

    1979-01-01

    The demand and supply of petroleum have relaxed temporarily, but in the long run, the difficulty of energy problem does not change. More powerful promotion of general energy policy with conformity and effectiveness is a worldwide problem. In order to cope with such situation, General Energy Survey Committee has examined the concrete measures, and drawn up the interim report in August, 1977. The present report does not change from the interim report in its basic framework, but the background on which this framework is based is clarified, and the contents of the concrete measures are examined in more detail. The Nuclear Energy Sectional Meeting has obtained the conclusions about the basic matters in the development and utilization of nuclear energy and the concrete measures required to be taken urgently. The domestic and foreign situations about the development and utilization of nuclear energy are explained, and the location of nuclear power stations is the most serious bottleneck, therefore the measures to obtain national consensus are the most important problem in every country. The nuclear power generation in Japan is expected to reach 33 million kW by 1985 and 60 million kW by 1990. As the concrete measures, improvement of safety and reliability, establishment of nuclear fuel cycle, development and adoption of new type nuclear reactors, strengthening of the base of nuclear energy industries, promotion of research and development, and contribution to international activities are briefly discussed. (Kako, I.)

  18. Investigation of fatigue by Australian general practice registrars: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Simon; Henderson, Kim M; Tapley, Amanda; Thomson, Allison; Wilson, Jessica; Scott, John; Spike, Neil A; McArthur, Lawrie; van Driel, Mieke L; Magin, Parker J

    2015-06-01

    Fatigue is the most common undifferentiated problem presenting in general practice. Previous studies have shown that this presentation leads to multiple investigations. There is no published literature describing the management of patients with fatigue by general practice (GP) registrars. To document the investigation-ordering behaviour of GP registrars in managing patients with a new diagnosis of unexplained fatigue. This was a cross-sectional analysis of data from Registrar Clinical Encounters in Training (ReCEnT), an ongoing cohort study of GP registrars' consultations. We established the prevalence of new diagnoses of unexplained fatigue and associations with that diagnosis, the rate of test ordering and the number and types of investigations ordered. 644 registrars contributed data from 68 986 encounters. In 0.78% of patient encounters, a new diagnosis of unexplained fatigue was made. Pathology was ordered in 78.4% of these problems (versus 18.1% in non-fatigue problems), at a rate of 488 tests per 100 new fatigue problems. Our study suggests that unexplained fatigue elicits a non-rational approach to test ordering by registrars. These findings contribute to the understanding of GP registrar management of fatigue, and undifferentiated presentations more broadly, and suggest educational approaches to improve practice, including dealing with uncertainty.

  19. Burnout syndrome in surgical oncology and general surgery nurses: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Książek, Ilona; Stefaniak, Tomasz J; Stadnyk, Magdalena; Książek, Janina

    2011-09-01

    The occurrence of burnout syndrome is strongly associated with and modulated by multiple personality and environmental factors. In Poland, nurses experience a discrepancy between the demands, expectations and social status of the position of their profession and low salaries. Such a situation provokes frustration and depression, and further leads to problems of adaptation including burnout syndrome. The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of burnout syndrome among nurses working in general surgery and surgical oncology specialties. The study was designed as a cross-sectional questionnaire survey. It was undertaken in the largest Hospital in the Pomeranian region of Poland. The participants included 60 nurses working in two departments: General Surgery and Surgical Oncology. The study was based upon an anonymous self-test composed of a questionnaire and three psychological measures: Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI), Psychological Burden Scale and a self-constructed questionnaire on job satisfaction. Intensity of burnout syndrome was significantly higher among oncology nurses than among surgical ones. There was also a strong but not significant trend towards higher Psychological Burden Scale in the group of oncology nurses. The study revealed a high degree of emotional burden and burnout in nurses working in the study hospital suggesting that nurses are at great occupational risk. The findings of the study provide evidence of the potential need to restructure the system and suggest that nurses need more control of their work including a higher degree of involvement in clinical decision-making. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Physical Violence against General Practitioners and Nurses in Chinese Township Hospitals: A Cross-Sectional Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Xing

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to identify risk factors of physical violence in Chinese township hospitals.A cross-sectional survey was used in a sample of 442 general practitioners and 398 general nurses from 90 township hospitals located in Heilongjiang province, China (response rate = 84.8%.A total of 106 of the 840 (12.6% respondents reported being physically attacked in their workplace in the previous 12 months. Most perpetrators were the patients' relatives (62.3%, followed by the patient (22.6%; 73.6% of perpetrators were aged between 20 and 40 years. Of the physical violence incidents, about 56.6% (n = 60 resulted in a physical injury, and 45.4% of respondents took two or three days of sick leave. Reporting workplace violence in hospitals to superiors or authorities was low (9.4%. Most respondents (62.8% did not receive training on how to avoid workplace violence. Logistic regression analyses indicated that general nurses, aged 35 years or younger, and with a higher-level professional title were more likely to experience physical violence. Healthcare workers with direct physical contact (washing, turning, lifting with patients had a higher risk of physical violence compared to other health care workers. Procedures for reporting workplace violence were a protective factor for physical violence; when in place, reporting after psychological violence (verbal abuse, bullying/mobbing, harassment, and threats was more protective than waiting until an instance of physical violence (beating, kicking, slapping, stabbing, etc..Physical violence in Chinese township hospitals is an occupational hazard of rural public health concern. Policies, procedures, and intervention strategies should be undertaken to manage this issue.

  1. Travel Medicine Encounters of Australian General Practice Trainees-A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Simon; Henderson, Kim M; Tapley, Amanda; Scott, John; van Driel, Mieke L; Spike, Neil A; McArthur, Lawrie A; Davey, Andrew R; Catzikiris, Nigel F; Magin, Parker J

    2015-01-01

    Travel medicine is a common and challenging area of clinical practice and practitioners need up-to-date knowledge and experience in a range of areas. Australian general practitioners (GPs) play a significant role in the delivery of travel medicine advice. We aimed to describe the rate and nature of travel medicine consultations, including both the clinical and educational aspects of the consultations. A cross-sectional analysis from an ongoing cohort study of GP trainees' clinical consultations was performed. Trainees contemporaneously recorded demographic, clinical, and educational details of consecutive patient consultations. Proportions of all problems/diagnoses managed in these consultations that were coded "travel-related" and "travel advice" were both calculated with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Associations of a problem/diagnosis being "travel-related" or "travel advice" were tested using simple logistic regression within the generalized estimating equations (GEE) framework. A total of 856 trainees contributed data on 169,307 problems from 108,759 consultations (2010-2014). Travel-related and travel advice problems were managed at a rate of 1.1 and 0.5 problems per 100 encounters, respectively. Significant positive associations of travel-related problems were younger trainee and patient age; new patient to the trainee and practice; privately billing, larger, urban, and higher socioeconomic status practices; and involvement of the practice nurse. Trainees sought in-consultation information and generated learning goals in 34.7 and 20.8% of travel advice problems, respectively, significantly more than in non-travel advice problems. Significant positive associations of travel advice problems were seeking in-consultation information, generation of learning goals, longer consultation duration, and more problems managed. Our findings reinforce the importance of focused training in travel medicine for GP trainees and adequate exposure to patients in the practice

  2. Responses to clinical uncertainty in Australian general practice trainees: a cross-sectional analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Georga; Tapley, Amanda; Holliday, Elizabeth; Morgan, Simon; Henderson, Kim; Ball, Jean; van Driel, Mieke; Spike, Neil; Kerr, Rohan; Magin, Parker

    2017-12-01

    Tolerance for ambiguity is essential for optimal learning and professional competence. General practice trainees must be, or must learn to be, adept at managing clinical uncertainty. However, few studies have examined associations of intolerance of uncertainty in this group. The aim of this study was to establish levels of tolerance of uncertainty in Australian general practice trainees and associations of uncertainty with demographic, educational and training practice factors. A cross-sectional analysis was performed on the Registrar Clinical Encounters in Training (ReCEnT) project, an ongoing multi-site cohort study. Scores on three of the four independent subscales of the Physicians' Reaction to Uncertainty (PRU) instrument were analysed as outcome variables in linear regression models with trainee and practice factors as independent variables. A total of 594 trainees contributed data on a total of 1209 occasions. Trainees in earlier training terms had higher scores for 'Anxiety due to uncertainty', 'Concern about bad outcomes' and 'Reluctance to disclose diagnosis/treatment uncertainty to patients'. Beyond this, findings suggest two distinct sets of associations regarding reaction to uncertainty. Firstly, affective aspects of uncertainty (the 'Anxiety' and 'Concern' subscales) were associated with female gender, less experience in hospital prior to commencing general practice training, and graduation overseas. Secondly, a maladaptive response to uncertainty (the 'Reluctance to disclose' subscale) was associated with urban practice, health qualifications prior to studying medicine, practice in an area of higher socio-economic status, and being Australian-trained. This study has established levels of three measures of trainees' responses to uncertainty and associations with these responses. The current findings suggest differing 'phenotypes' of trainees with high 'affective' responses to uncertainty and those reluctant to disclose uncertainty to patients. More

  3. System approach to chemistry course

    OpenAIRE

    Lorina E. Kruglova; Valentina G. Derendyaeva

    2010-01-01

    The article considers the raise of chemistry profile for engineers and constructors training, discloses the system approach to chemistry course and singles out the most important modules from the course of general chemistry for construction industry.

  4. Effect of Intravenous Infusion of Lidocaine on Pain Reduction after Cesarean Section under General Anesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anahita Hirmanpour

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of Lidocaine on pain reduction during and ileus and the need for opioids after caesarean section. Methods: For this randomized double-blind controlled clinical trial, 40 ASA I, II pregnant women who were candidates for caesarean section with general anesthesia, were randomly allocated into two groups of Lidocaine receivers and placebo using randomized block design; the Lidocaine group received 1.5 mg/kg of Lidocaine right before the surgery and then its infusion with a dose of 2 mg/kg.h until the end of the surgery and the placebo group received normal saline with the same volume and application. Patients’ pain intensity was measured using numerical rating scale (NRS, 0 (entering the recovery, 0.5, 1, 4, 12 and 24 hours after the surgery. Results: Lidocaine decreased the systolic and diastolic pressures of the patients only during the first minute after intubation, decreased the mean of arterial blood pressure at the 10th minute after intubation and 40th minute after surgery, and also decreased the mean of patients’ pain intensity, Diclofenac and Pethidine consumption, side effects (nausea and vomiting and reduced the time interval before the first time of tolerating oral liquids; but it had effect on infants’ Apgar score 1 and 5 minutes after delivery. Conclusions: Lidocaine was definitely effective on reducing the intensity of pain, opioid and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs consumption and ileus after surgery with the least occurrence of side effects for mothers and infants.

  5. Effect of Intravenous Infusion of Lidocaine on Pain Reduction after Cesarean Section under General Anesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anahita Hirmanpour

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of Lidocaine on pain reduction during and ileus and the need for opioids after caesarean section.Methods: For this randomized double-blind controlled clinical trial, 40 ASA I, II pregnant women who were candidates for caesarean section with general anesthesia, were randomly allocated into two groups of Lidocaine receivers and placebo using randomized block design; the Lidocaine group received 1.5 mg/kg of Lidocaine right before the surgery and then its infusion with a dose of 2 mg/kg.h until the end of the surgery and the placebo group received normal saline with the same volume and application. Patients’ pain intensity was measured using numerical rating scale (NRS, 0 (entering the recovery, 0.5, 1, 4, 12 and 24 hours after the surgery.Results: Lidocaine decreased the systolic and diastolic pressures of the patients only during the first minute after intubation, decreased the mean of arterial blood pressure at the 10th minute after intubation and 40th minute after surgery, and also decreased the mean of patients’ pain intensity, Diclofenac and Pethidine consumption, side effects (nausea and vomiting and reduced the time interval before the first time of tolerating oral liquids; but it had effect on infants’ Apgar score 1 and 5 minutes after delivery.Conclusions: Lidocaine was definitely effective on reducing the intensity of pain, opioid and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs consumption and ileus after surgery with the least occurrence of side effects for mothers and infants.

  6. General Physicians’ Viewpoints Towards Nutrition Course in the Medical School: a Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Fallahi

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Although nutrition has a very important role in individual and society’s health and disease, it has not yet received proper attention in the medical curricula. The objective of this study is to assess the opinions of general physician who worked at private offices in Khorramabadcity about nutrition course in Iranian medical schools.Methods: In this cross-sectional study the data were collected by posting a self-administrated questionnaire to all GPs who worked at private offices in Khorramabad city of Lorestan province in 2005. Participants were asked to state their opinions about each topic considering the following issues: the appropriate phase for introduction of the topic (in basic sciences, pathophysiology, or clinical training; need for learning it (low, moderate, high; and the time devoted to instruction of that topic (inadequate, appropriate, or excessive.GPs opinions were also surveyed to determinetheir reference for the topics not included in current nutrition course. Study data were processed by SPSS version 11 software and analyzed using descriptive and Chi-square statistics with a level of significance of less than 0.05. Results Most of participants believed that clinical teaching periods (clerkship and internship are the appropriate stage for teaching disease- related or clinical aspects of nutrition. They also valued most of the topics listed in the questionnaire as important learning needs as well as 15 new nutrition topicsConclusions: Our results clearly indicate that there is a need to include clinical nutritional topics in the clinical training of medical students. New topics such as nutritional consideration in hypelipidemia, and heart disease should also be included in the nutrition education of physicians.Key words: NUTRITION EDUCATION, MEDICAL CURRICULUM. GENERAL PHYSICIANt 

  7. Overlap between Headache, Depression, and Anxiety in General Neurological Clinics: A Cross-sectional Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cui-Bai Wei; Jian-Ping Jia; Fen Wang; Ai-Hong Zhou; Xiu-Mei Zuo; Chang-Biao Chu

    2016-01-01

    Background:Many studies have reported that depression and anxiety have bidirectional relationship with headache.However,few researches investigated the roles of depression or anxiety in patients with headache.We surveyed the prevalence of depression and anxiety as a complication or cause of headache among outpatients with a chief complaint of headache at neurology clinics in general hospitals.Additional risk factors for depression and anxiety were also analyzed.Methods:A cross-sectional study was conducted at 11 general neurological clinics.All consecutive patients with a chief complaint of headache were enrolled.Diagnoses of depression and anxiety were made using the Chinese version of the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview,and those for headache were made according to the International Classification of Headache Disorders,2nd Edition.The headache impact test and an 11-point verbal rating scale were applied to assess headache severity and intensity.Logistic regression was used to analyze risk factors of patients with headache for depression or anxiety.Results:A total of 749 outpatients with headache were included.Among them,148 (19.7%) were diagnosed with depression and 103 (13.7%) with anxiety.Further analysis showed that 114 (15.2%) patients complaining headache due to somatic symptoms of psychiatric disorders and 82 (10.9%) had a depression or anxiety comorbidity with headache.Most patients with depression or anxiety manifested mild to moderate headaches.Poor sleep and severe headache-related disabilities were predictors for either depression or anxiety.Conclusion:Clinicians must identify the etiology of headache and recognize the effects of depression or anxiety on headache to develop specific treatments.

  8. Proceedings of the 17. Annual Meeting of the Brazilian Chemistry Society; 7. National Symposium on Inorganic Chemistry. Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    These 17. Annual Meeting of the Brazilian Chemistry Society and 7. National Symposium on Inorganic Chemistry present several subjects of different interests for the participants, including sections about inorganic chemistry; organic chemistry; environmental chemistry; technological chemistry; electrochemistry; physical chemistry; photochemistry; chemical education; natural products; analytical chemistry and biological chemistry. (C.G.C.)

  9. Annual report 1989 Chemistry Department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funck, J.; Neve Larsen, Aa.; Larsen, E.; Nielsen, O.J.

    1990-03-01

    This report contains a brief survey of the main activities in the Chemistry Department. The names and abstracts of all articles and reports published and lectures given in 1989 are presented. The facilities and equipment are mentioned briefly. The activities are divided into the following groups: radioisotope chemistry, analytical- and organic chemistry, environmental chemistry, polymer chemistry, chemical reactivity, mineral processing, and general. (author)

  10. Annual report 1988 Chemistry Department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funck, J.; Neve Larsen, Aa.; Larsen, E.; Nielsen, O.J.

    1989-05-01

    This report contains a brief survey of the main activities in the Chemistry Department. The names and abstracts of all articles and reports published and lectures given in 1988 are presented. The facilities and equipment are mentioned briefly. The activities are divided into the following groups: radioisotope chemistry, analytical- and organic chemistry, environmental chemistry, polymer chemistry, chemical reactivity, mineral processing, and general. (author)

  11. Annual report 1986 chemistry department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funck, J.; Larsen, E.; Nielsen, O.J.

    1987-03-01

    This report contains a brief survey of the main activities in the Chemistry Department. All articles and reports published and lectures given in 1986 are presented. The facilities and equipment are mentioned briefly. The activities are divided into the following groups: radioisotope chemistry, analytical- and organic chemistry, environmental chemistry, polymer chemistry, radical chemistral, mineral processing, and general. (author)

  12. 46 CFR 188.10-11 - Chemistry laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Chemistry laboratory. 188.10-11 Section 188.10-11 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 188.10-11 Chemistry laboratory. This term includes...

  13. Numerical modeling for flame dynamics and combustion processes in a two-sectional porous burner with a detailed chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Young Jun; Kim, Yong Mo [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-11-15

    A two-dimensional model with the detailed chemistry and variable transport properties has been applied to numerically investigate the combustion processes and flame dynamics in the bilayer porous burner. To account for the velocity transition and diffusion influenced by solid matrix, porosity terms are included in the governing equations. Heat transfer coefficient is calculated by Nusselt number to reflect the effect of gas velocity, pore diameter, and material properties. The detailed chemistry is based on GRI 2.11. Numerical results indicate that the present approach is capable of the essential features of the premixed combustion in the porous media in terms of the precise flame structure, pollutant formation, and stabilization characteristics. In this bilayer porous burner, the heat transferred from the downstream flame zone is conducted to the upstream flame region through the solid matrix. This heat transfer process through the solid matrix substantially influences the flame structure and stabilization characteristics in the porous media. The predicted results are compared with experimental data in terms of temperature for gaseous mixture and solid matrix, CO and NO emission level. Based on numerical results, a precise comparison has been made for the freely propagating premixed flames and the premixed flames with a porous media for various inlet velocities.

  14. Cross-sectional survey: risk-averse French general practitioners are more favorable toward influenza vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massin, Sophie; Ventelou, Bruno; Nebout, Antoine; Verger, Pierre; Pulcini, Céline

    2015-01-29

    We tested the following hypotheses: (i) risk-averse general practitioners (GPs) are more likely to be vaccinated against influenza; (ii) and risk-averse GPs recommend influenza vaccination more often to their patients. In risk-averse GPs, the perceived benefits of the vaccine and/or the perceived risks of the infectious disease might indeed outweigh the perceived risks of the vaccine. In 2010-2012, we conducted a cross-sectional survey of a nationwide French representative sample of 1136 GPs. Multivariate analyses adjusted for four stratification variables (age, gender, urban/suburban/rural practice location and annual patient consultations) and for GPs' characteristics (group/solo practice, and occasional practice of alternative medicine, e.g., homeopathy) looked for associations between their risk attitudes and self-reported vaccination behavior. Individual risk attitudes were expressed as a continuous variable, from 0 (risk-tolerant) to 10 (risk-averse). Overall, 69% of GPs reported that they were very favorable toward vaccination in general. Self-reported vaccination coverage was 78% for 2009/2010 seasonal influenza and 62% for A/H1N1 pandemic influenza. Most GPs (72%) reported recommending the pandemic influenza vaccination to at-risk young adults in 2009, but few than half (42%) to young adults not at risk. In multivariate analyses, risk-averse GPs were more often vaccinated against seasonal (marginal effect=1.3%, P=0.02) and pandemic influenza (marginal effect=1.5%, P=0.02). Risk-averse GPs recommended the pandemic influenza vaccination more often than their more risk-tolerant colleagues to patients without risk factors (marginal effect=1.7%, P=0.01), but not to their at-risk patients and were more favorable toward vaccination in general (marginal effect=1.5%, P=0.04). Individual risk attitudes may influence GPs' practices regarding influenza vaccination, both for themselves and their patients. Our results suggest that risk-averse GPs may perceive the risks

  15. Shoulder pain after caesarean section: comparison between general and spinal anaesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zirak, N; Soltani, G; Hafizi, L; Mashayekhi, Z; Kashani, I

    2012-05-01

    This study investigated shoulder pain as a maternal complication after caesarean section (CS), evaluation of its prevalence and comparison between spinal anaesthesia (SA) and general anaesthesia (GA) groups. A total of 200 women as CS candidates were allocated into two equal groups; SA and GA. The total prevalence of shoulder pain was 39.45%. The two groups were matched according to demographic data. However, the incidence of shoulder pain in the GA group was more than that in the SA group (p =0.004). Shoulder pain in the right shoulder in the GA group was more prevalent than the left shoulder (p <0.001). Moderate severity of shoulder pain was significantly more in the GA group (p =0.000), while in the SA group, the mild severity was significant (p <0.001). Our study revealed that the incidence of shoulder pain after CS is significant. Moreover, shoulder pain was significantly more common in the GA group than the SA group.

  16. Organizational commitment among general practitioners: a cross-sectional study of the role of psychosocial factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuusio, Hannamaria; Heponiemi, Tarja; Sinervo, Timo; Elovainio, Marko

    2010-06-01

    To examine whether general practitioners (GP) working in primary health care have lower organizational commitment compared with physicians working in other health sectors. The authors also tested whether psychosocial factors (job demands, job control, and colleague consultation) explain these differences in commitment between GPs and other physicians. Cross-sectional postal questionnaire. Setting and participants. A postal questionnaire was sent to a random sample of physicians (n = 5000) drawn from the Finnish Association database in 2006. A total of 2841 physicians (response rate 57%) returned the questionnaire, of which 2657 (545 GPs and 2090 other physicians) fulfilled all the participant criteria. Organizational commitment was measured with two different indicators: intention to change jobs and low affective commitment. GPs were less committed to their organizations than other physicians. Work-related psychosocial factors (high job demands, low job control, and poor colleague consultation) were all significant risk factors for low organizational commitment. The evidence collected suggests that policies that reduce psychological demands, such as job demands and low control, may contribute to better organizational commitment and, thus, alleviate the shortages of physicians in primary care. Furthermore, giving GPs a stronger say in decisions concerning their work and providing them with more variety in work tasks may even improve the quality of primary care. The strategies for workplace development should focus on redesigning jobs and identifying GPs at higher risk, such as those with especially high job strain.

  17. Anorectal pathology amongst HIV infected patients attending the Douala General Hospital: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luma, Henry Namme; Eloumou, Servais Albert Fiacre Bagnaka; Fualefeh-Morfaw, Ellis Atemlefeh; Malongue, Agnes; Temfack, Elvis; Lekpa, Fernando Kemta; Donfack-Sontsa, Olivier; Ndip, Lucy; Ditah, Ivo Che

    2017-03-01

    While gastrointestinal disease is common among HIV infected individuals, the prevalence and distribution of ano-rectal pathology has not been well studied in our setting. The objective of this study therefore was to determine the prevalence and determinants of ano-rectal pathology in HIV infected patients attending the Douala General Hospital HIV treatment centre. A hospital-based cross-sectional study was undertaken. We collected socio-demographic, clinical and laboratory data using a structured questionnaire and patients' files. Each study participant had a full physical and ano-rectal examination. We further studied factors associated with having at least one ano-rectal lesion by logistic regression reporting odds ratios (ORs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI). We included 390 HIV infected patients. The mean age was 41 (SD: 8) years and 48% were men. Median duration since HIV diagnosis was 3 (interquartile range: 2-5) years and median CD4 cell count was 411 (interquartile range: 234-601) cells/mm 3 . Prevalence of ano-rectal pathology was 22.8% (95% CI: 18.7-27.3). Hemorrhoids and proctitis were most common lesions found; each in 10% of patients. From multivariate logistic regression, factors associated with ano-rectal pathology were CD4 HIV infected patients. Care givers should actively investigate and treat them as this will improve the quality of life of people living with HIV/AIDS.

  18. Danish obstetricians' personal preference and general attitude to elective cesarean section on maternal request: a nation-wide postal survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergholt, Thomas; Østberg, Birgitte; Legarth, Jesper

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess Danish obstetricians' and gynecologists' personal preference and general attitude towards elective cesarean section on maternal request in uncomplicated single cephalic pregnancies at term. DESIGN: Nation-wide anonymous postal questionnaire. POPULATION: Four hundred and fifty......-five obstetricians and gynecologists identified in the records of the Danish Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology from January 2000. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Personal preference on the mode of delivery and general attitude towards elective cesarean section on maternal request in an uncomplicated single cephalic...... and gynecologists would personally prefer vaginal delivery in uncomplicated pregnancies, but nearly 40% agree with the woman's right to request a cesarean section....

  19. Analytical chemistry instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laing, W.R.

    1986-01-01

    In nine sections, 48 chapters cover 1) analytical chemistry and the environment 2) environmental radiochemistry 3) automated instrumentation 4) advances in analytical mass spectrometry 5) fourier transform spectroscopy 6) analytical chemistry of plutonium 7) nuclear analytical chemistry 8) chemometrics and 9) nuclear fuel technology

  20. Physical Chemistry '98: Fourth International Conference on Fundamental and Applied Aspects of Physical Chemistry - Papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribnikar, S.; Anic, S.

    1998-01-01

    The proceedings has following chapters: Plenary lectures; Chemical Thermodynamics; Spectroscopy, Molecular Structures, Physical Chemistry of Plasma; Kinetics, Catalysis, Nonlinear Dynamics; Electrochemistry; Biophysical Chemistry, Photochemistry, Radiation Chemistry; Radiochemistry, Nuclear Chemistry; Solid State Physical Chemistry, Material Science; Macromolecular Physical Chemistry; Environmental Protection; Phase Boundaries; Complex Compounds; General Physical Chemistry. A separated abstract was prepared for each of the 20 papers selected from the three chapters: Biophysical Chemistry, Photochemistry, Radiation Chemistry; Radiochemistry, Nuclear Chemistry. and Environmental Protection. Refs and figs

  1. Natural carcinogenic fiber and pleural plaques assessment in a general population: A cross-sectional study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ledda, Caterina, E-mail: cledda@unict.it [Occupational Medicine, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Catania, Catania (Italy); Hygiene and Public Health, Department Medical Sciences, Surgical and Advanced Technologies “GF Ingrassia”, University of Catania, Catania (Italy); Pomara, Cristoforo [Legal Medicine, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Foggia, Foggia (Italy); Department of Anatomy, School of Medicine, University of Malta, Msida (Malta); Bracci, Massimo [Occupational Medicine, Department of Clinical and Molecular Sciences, Polytechnic University of Marche, Ancona (Italy); Mangano, Dario [Occupational Medicine, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Catania, Catania (Italy); Ricceri, Vincenzo [Division of Radiology - Hospital of Biancavilla “Maria SS. Addolorata”, ASP Catania, Biancavilla (Italy); Musumeci, Andrea [Division of Radiology – University Hospital “Policlinico – Vittorio Emanuele”, University of Catania, Catania (Italy); Ferrante, Margherita [Hygiene and Public Health, Department Medical Sciences, Surgical and Advanced Technologies “GF Ingrassia”, University of Catania, Catania (Italy); Musumeci, Giuseppe; Loreto, Carla [Human Anatomy and Histology, Department of Biomedical and Biotechnology Sciences, University of Catania, Catania (Italy); Fenga, Concettina [Occupational Medicine, Department of the Environment, Safety, Territory, Food and Health Sciences, University of Messina, Messina (Italy); Santarelli, Lory [Occupational Medicine, Department of Clinical and Molecular Sciences, Polytechnic University of Marche, Ancona (Italy); Rapisarda, Venerando [Occupational Medicine, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Catania, Catania (Italy)

    2016-10-15

    Natural carcinogenic fibers are asbestos and asbestiform fibers present as a natural component of soils or rocks. These fibers are released into the environment resulting in exposure of the general population. Environmental contamination by fibers are those cases occurred in: rural regions of Turkey, in Mediterranean countries and in other sites of the world, including northern Europe, USA and China. Fluoro-edenite(FE) is a natural mineral species first isolated in Biancavilla, Sicily. The fibers are similar in size and morphology to some amphibolic asbestos fibers, whose inhalation can cause chronic inflammation and cancer. The aim of the current study is to assess the presence and features of pleural plaques (PPs) in Biancavilla's general population exposed to FE through a retrospective cross-sectional study. All High-Resolution Computed Tomography (HRCT) chest scans carried out between June 2009 and June 2015 in Biancavilla municipality hospital site (exposed subjects) were reviewed. The exposed groups were 1:1 subjects, matched according to age and sex distributions, with unexposed subjects (n.1.240) randomly selected among HRCT chest scans carried out in a Hospital 30 km away from Biancavilla. Subjects from Biancavilla with PPs were significantly more numerous than the control group ones (218 vs 38). Average age of either group was >60 years; the age of exposed subjects was significantly (p=0.0312) lesser than the unexposed group. In exposed subjects, in most PPs thickness ranged between 2 and 4.9 cm(38%, n=83); while in unexposed ones PPs thickness was less than 2 cm (55%, n=21). As to the size of PPs in exposed subjects, in most cases it ranged between 1 cm and 24% of chest wall (53%, n=116); while in unexposed ones the size of PPs was lesser than 1 cm (23%, n=58). Among exposed subjects, 36 cases (17%) PPs were detected with calcification, whereas in unexposed ones only three (8%) presented calcification. 137 lung parenchymal abnormalities were

  2. Fee Splitting among General Practitioners: A Cross-Sectional Study in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsa, Mojtaba; Larijani, Bagher; Aramesh, Kiarash; Nedjat, Saharnaz; Fotouhi, Akbar; Yekaninejad, Mir Saeed; Ebrahimian, Nejatollah; Kandi, Mohamad Jafar

    2016-12-01

    Fee splitting is a process whereby a physician refers a patient to another physician or a healthcare facility and receives a portion of the charge in return. This survey was conducted to study general practitioners' (GPs) attitudes toward fee splitting as well as the prevalence, causes, and consequences of this process. This is a cross-sectional study on 223 general practitioners in 2013. Concerning the causes and consequences of fee splitting, an unpublished qualitative study was conducted by interviewing a number of GPs and specialists and the questionnaire options were the results of the information obtained from this study. Of the total 320 GPs, 247 returned the questionnaires. The response rate was 77.18%. Of the 247 returned questionnaires, 223 fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Among the participants, 69.1% considered fee splitting completely wrong and 23.2% (frequently or rarely) practiced fee splitting. The present study showed that the prevalence of fee splitting among physicians who had positive attitudes toward fee splitting was 4.63 times higher than those who had negative attitudes. In addition, this study showed that, compared to private hospitals, fee splitting is less practiced in public hospitals. The major cause of fee splitting was found to be unrealistic/unfair tariffs and the main consequence of fee splitting was thought to be an increase in the number of unnecessary patient referrals. Fee splitting is an unethical act, contradicts the goals of the medical profession, and undermines patient's best interest. In Iran, there is no code of ethics on fee splitting, but in this study, it was found that the majority of GPs considered it unethical. However, among those who had negative attitudes toward fee splitting, there were physicians who did practice fee splitting. The results of the study showed that physicians who had a positive attitude toward fee splitting practiced it more than others. Therefore, if physicians consider fee splitting unethical

  3. The role of the General Practitioner in weight management in primary care – a cross sectional study in General Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Doris

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity has become a global pandemic, considered the sixth leading cause of mortality by the WHO. As gatekeepers to the health system, General Practitioners are placed in an ideal position to manage obesity. Yet, very few consultations address weight management. This study aims to explore reasons why patients attending General Practice appointments are not engaging with their General Practitioner (GP for weight management and their perception of the role of the GP in managing their weight. Methods In February 2006, 367 participants aged between 17 and 64 were recruited from three General Practices in Melbourne to complete a waiting room self – administered questionnaire. Questions included basic demographics, the role of the GP in weight management, the likelihood of bringing up weight management with their GP and reasons why they would not, and their nominated ideal person to consult for weight management. Physical measurements to determine weight status were then completed. The statistical methods included means and standard deviations to summarise continuous variables such as weight and height. Sub groups of weight and questionnaire answers were analysed using the χ2 test of significant differences taking p as Results The population sample had similar obesity co-morbidity rates to the National Heart Foundation data. 74% of patients were not likely to bring up weight management when they visit their GP. Negative reasons were time limitation on both the patient's and doctor's part and the doctor lacking experience. The GP was the least likely person to tell a patient to lose weight after partner, family and friends. Of the 14% that had been told by their GP to lose weight, 90% had cardiovascular obesity related co-morbidities. GPs (15% were 4th in the list of ideal persons to manage weight after personal trainer Conclusion Patients do not have confidence in their GPs for weight management, preferring other health

  4. The problem of polysemy in the first thousand words of the General Service List: A corpus study of secondary chemistry texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemmons, Karina

    Vocabulary in a second language is an indispensable building block of all comprehension (Folse, 2006; Nation, 2006). Teachers in content area classes such as science, math, and social studies frequently teach content specific vocabulary, but are not aware of the obstacles that can occur when students do not know the basic words. Word lists such as the General Service List (GSL) were created to assist students and teachers (West, 1953). The GSL does not adequately take into account the high level of polysemy of many common English words, nor has it been updated by genre to reflect specific content domains encountered by secondary science students in today's high stakes classes such as chemistry. This study examines how many words of the first 1000 words of the GSL occurred in the secondary chemistry textbooks sampled, how often the first 1000 words of the GSL were polysemous, and specifically which multiple meanings occurred. A discussion of results includes word tables that list multiple meanings present, example phrases that illustrate the context surrounding the target words, suggestions for a GSL that is genre specific to secondary chemistry textbooks and that is ranked by meaning as well as type, and implications for both vocabulary materials and classroom instruction for ELLs in secondary chemistry classes. Findings are essential to second language (L2) researchers, materials developers, publishers, and teachers.

  5. Constructivist-Based Asynchronous Tutorial to Improve Transfer between Math and Chemistry Domains: Design, Implementation, and Analysis of the Impact of ReMATCH on General Chemistry Course Performance and Confidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, M. Danielle

    2011-07-01

    The two-year implementation of ReMATCH, a web-based math and problem-solving tutorial, in a traditionally arranged general chemistry classroom at the University of Kansas examined the impact of a designed intervention to assist students with the transfer of their mathematical knowledge to a chemistry context where it could be readily used for quantitative problem solving. The ReMATCH intervention, designed on constructivist-based pedagogies, focused on illuminating the expert-processes of problem solving and transferring knowledge across domains to the novice chemistry. The two implementations of ReMATCH -- once as lab assignments and once lecture assignments -- resulted in very different student responses to the intervention. However, within both, the beneficial effects of sustained ReMATCH-use were visible. In 2006, students who attempted all of the ReMATCH homework assignments were predicted to earn ˜5% higher on their total exam points. The 2007 implementation of ReMATCH demonstrated that students who attempted all of the homework problems and visited at least half of the ReMATCH tutorial pages were predicted to earn ˜8.5% higher on their total exam points. Additionally, use of ReMATCH in 2006 also resulted in increased confidence (as measured by comfort-level) with some of the math-related chemistry topics covered in ReMATCH. In 2007, when only students who attempted all of the ReMATCH problems were considered, it became clear that individuals who were initially less confident in their math-related chemistry skills were more likely to view more of the ReMATCH tutorial pages. When students with lower initial comfort-levels on these topics viewed at least half of the ReMATCH tutorial pages, they were able to compensate for their initially lower levels of confidence and were equally comfortable with most of the math-related chemistry topics by the final survey. Student interactions with and perceptions of ReMATCH showed that student attitudes towards Re

  6. Cross-sectional Comparison of the Epidemiology of DSM-5 Generalized Anxiety Disorder Across the Globe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruscio, Ayelet Meron; Hallion, Lauren S; Lim, Carmen C W; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Al-Hamzawi, Ali; Alonso, Jordi; Andrade, Laura Helena; Borges, Guilherme; Bromet, Evelyn J; Bunting, Brendan; Caldas de Almeida, José Miguel; Demyttenaere, Koen; Florescu, Silvia; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Gureje, Oye; Haro, Josep Maria; He, Yanling; Hinkov, Hristo; Hu, Chiyi; de Jonge, Peter; Karam, Elie G; Lee, Sing; Lepine, Jean-Pierre; Levinson, Daphna; Mneimneh, Zeina; Navarro-Mateu, Fernando; Posada-Villa, José; Slade, Tim; Stein, Dan J; Torres, Yolanda; Uda, Hidenori; Wojtyniak, Bogdan; Kessler, Ronald C; Chatterji, Somnath; Scott, Kate M

    2017-05-01

    Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is poorly understood compared with other anxiety disorders, and debates persist about the seriousness of this disorder. Few data exist on GAD outside a small number of affluent, industrialized nations. No population-based data exist on GAD as it is currently defined in DSM-5. To provide the first epidemiologic data on DSM-5 GAD and explore cross-national differences in its prevalence, course, correlates, and impact. Data come from the World Health Organization World Mental Health Survey Initiative. Cross-sectional general population surveys were carried out in 26 countries using a consistent research protocol and assessment instrument. A total of 147 261 adults from representative household samples were interviewed face-to-face in the community. The surveys were conducted between 2001 and 2012. Data analysis was performed from July 22, 2015, to December 12, 2016. The Composite International Diagnostic Interview was used to assess GAD along with comorbid disorders, role impairment, and help seeking. Respondents were 147 261 adults aged 18 to 99 years. The surveys had a weighted mean response rate of 69.5%. Across surveys, DSM-5 GAD had a combined lifetime prevalence (SE) of 3.7% (0.1%), 12-month prevalence of 1.8% (0.1%), and 30-day prevalence of 0.8% (0). Prevalence estimates varied widely across countries, with lifetime prevalence highest in high-income countries (5.0% [0.1%]), lower in middle-income countries (2.8% [0.1%]), and lowest in low-income countries (1.6% [0.1%]). Generalized anxiety disorder typically begins in adulthood and persists over time, although onset is later and clinical course is more persistent in lower-income countries. Lifetime comorbidity is high (81.9% [0.7%]), particularly with mood (63.0% [0.9%]) and other anxiety (51.7% [0.9%]) disorders. Severe role impairment is common across life domains (50.6% [1.2%]), particularly in high-income countries. Treatment is sought by approximately half of

  7. The Application and Evaluation of a Two-Concept Diagnostic Instrument with Students Entering College General Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heredia, Keily; Xu, Xiaoying; Lewis, Jennifer E.

    2012-01-01

    The Particulate Nature of Matter and Chemical Bonding Diagnostic Instrument (Othman J., Treagust D. F. and Chandrasegaran A. L., (2008), "Int. J. Sci. Educ.," 30(11), 1531-1550) is used to investigate college students' understanding of two chemistry concepts: particulate nature of matter and chemical bonding. The instrument, originally…

  8. The A[subscript 1c] Blood Test: An Illustration of Principles from General and Organic Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerber, Robert C.

    2007-01-01

    The glycated hemoglobin blood test, usually designated as the A[subscript 1c] test, is a key measure of the effectiveness of glucose control in diabetics. The chemistry of glucose in the bloodstream, which underlies the test and its impact, provides an illustration of the importance of chemical equilibrium and kinetics to a major health problem.…

  9. Investigating the Influence of Gender on Student Perceptions of the Clicker in a Small Undergraduate General Chemistry Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemeyer, Emily D.; Zewail-Foote, Maha

    2018-01-01

    The use of electronic response pads or "clickers" is a popular way to engage students and create an active-learning environment, especially within large chemistry courses. We examined students' perceptions of how the clicker affected their learning, participation, and engagement in the classroom, as well as their overall experience…

  10. Examining Evidence for External and Consequential Validity of the First Term General Chemistry Exam from the ACS Examinations Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Scott E.

    2014-01-01

    Validity of educational research instruments and student assessments has appropriately become a growing interest in the chemistry education research community. Of particular concern is an attention to the consequences to students that result from the interpretation of assessment scores and whether those consequences are swayed by invalidity within…

  11. Effectiveness of Podcasts Delivered on Mobile Devices as a Support for Student Learning during General Chemistry Laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Cynthia B.; Mason, Diana S.

    2013-01-01

    Chemistry instructors in teaching laboratories provide expert modeling of techniques and cognitive processes and provide assistance to enrolled students that may be described as scaffolding interaction. Such student support is particularly essential in laboratories taught with an inquiry-based curriculum. In a teaching laboratory with a high…

  12. Using Self-Efficacy Beliefs to Understand How Students in a General Chemistry Course Approach the Exam Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willson-Conrad, Angela; Kowalske, Megan Grunert

    2018-01-01

    Retention of students who major in STEM continues to be a major concern for universities. Many students cite poor teaching and disappointing grades as reasons for dropping out of STEM courses. Current college chemistry courses often assess what a student has learned through summative exams. To understand students' experiences of the exam process,…

  13. Types of Generalization: Introduction to Special Section of Perspectives on Psychological Science on Cultural Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, Robert J

    2017-09-01

    Cultural psychology represents one of the broadest types of generalization of psychological findings. We all need to pay attention to cultural findings because many of our most treasured "truisms" fail to generalize when looked at across cultural contexts.

  14. Interactive chemistry in the Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique general circulation model: model description and impact analysis of biogenic hydrocarbons on tropospheric chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. A. Folberth

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a description and evaluation of LMDz-INCA, a global three-dimensional chemistry-climate model, pertaining to its recently developed NMHC version. In this substantially extended version of the model a comprehensive representation of the photochemistry of non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC and volatile organic compounds (VOC from biogenic, anthropogenic, and biomass-burning sources has been included. The tropospheric annual mean methane (9.2 years and methylchloroform (5.5 years chemical lifetimes are well within the range of previous modelling studies and are in excellent agreement with estimates established by means of global observations. The model provides a reasonable simulation of the horizontal and vertical distribution and seasonal cycle of CO and key non-methane VOC, such as acetone, methanol, and formaldehyde as compared to observational data from several ground stations and aircraft campaigns. LMDz-INCA in the NMHC version reproduces tropospheric ozone concentrations fairly well throughout most of the troposphere. The model is applied in several sensitivity studies of the biosphere-atmosphere photochemical feedback. The impact of surface emissions of isoprene, acetone, and methanol is studied. These experiments show a substantial impact of isoprene on tropospheric ozone and carbon monoxide concentrations revealing an increase in surface O3 and CO levels of up to 30 ppbv and 60 ppbv, respectively. Isoprene also appears to significantly impact the global OH distribution resulting in a decrease of the global mean tropospheric OH concentration by approximately 0.7×105 molecules cm-3 or roughly 8% and an increase in the global mean tropospheric methane lifetime by approximately seven months. A global mean ozone net radiative forcing due to the isoprene induced increase in the tropospheric ozone burden of 0.09 W m-2 is found. The key role of isoprene photooxidation in the global tropospheric redistribution of NOx is demonstrated. LMDz

  15. Radiation chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodgers, F.; Rodgers, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    The contents of this book include: Interaction of ionizing radiation with matter; Primary products in radiation chemistry; Theoretical aspects of radiation chemistry; Theories of the solvated electron; The radiation chemistry of gases; Radiation chemistry of colloidal aggregates; Radiation chemistry of the alkali halides; Radiation chemistry of polymers; Radiation chemistry of biopolymers; Radiation processing and sterilization; and Compound index

  16. On the coherence between high-energy total cross-section data when compared with general principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauron, P.; Nicolescu, B.; Paris-6 Univ., 75

    1993-12-01

    An essential model is performed - an independent study of the internal coherence between high-energy total cross-section data by using classes of functions satisfying general principles. The study is practically independent of the ρ-parameter values. This general analysis, made without any fit, reveals certain inconsistencies in the existing set of high-energy data. Some of these inconsistencies are eliminated by giving up arbitrary assumptions sometimes made in 'fitology'. It is shown that the ln 2 s increase of total cross-sections at high energies is clearly favoured when compared with other possible behaviours. (authors). 16 refs., 3 figs

  17. Annual report 1987 Chemistry Department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funck, J.; Larsen, E.; Nielsen, O.J.

    1988-04-01

    This report contains a brief survey of the main activities in the Chemistry Department. The names and abstracts of all articles and reports published and lectures given in 1987 are presented. The facilities and equipment are mentioned briefly. The activities are divided into the following groups: radioisotope chemistry, analytical- and organic chemistry, environmental chemistry, polymer chemistry, radical chemistry, mineral processing, and general. 13 ills., (author)

  18. Determinants of the range of drugs prescribed in general practice: a cross-sectional analysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, D.H. de; Coffie, D.S.V.; Heerdink, E.R.; Dijk, L. van; Groenewegen, P.P.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Current health policies assume that prescribing is more efficient and rational when general practitioners (GPs) work with a formulary or restricted drugs lists and thus with a limited range of drugs. Therefore we studied determinants of the range of drugs prescribed by general

  19. Research work with TRIGA Mark II at the Nuclear Chemistry Section of the 'J. Stefan' Institute in Ljubljana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byrne, A.R.; Dermelj, M.; Kosta, L.; Ravkin, V.; Stegnar, P.

    1978-01-01

    The general features of our research programme using TRIGA MK II, as outlined at the last TRIGA Reactor Users Conference in Vienna, September 28-30,1976, remain the same; namely, neutron activation analysis for trace and some minor elements. The four main areas presently investigated are a) environmental studies, b) life sciences research, c) standardization and d) methodology for specific problems arising in the first three topics

  20. Emergency general surgery in Rwandan district hospitals: a cross-sectional study of spectrum, management, and patient outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mpirimbanyi, Christophe; Nyirimodoka, Alexandre; Lin, Yihan; Hedt-Gauthier, Bethany L; Odhiambo, Jackline; Nkurunziza, Theoneste; Havens, Joaquim M; Omondi, Jack; Rwamasirabo, Emile; Ntirenganya, Faustin; Toma, Gabriel; Mubiligi, Joel; Bayitondere, Scheilla; Riviello, Robert

    2017-12-01

    Management of emergency general surgical conditions remains a challenge in rural sub-Saharan Africa due to issues such as insufficient human capacity and infrastructure. This study describes the burden of emergency general surgical conditions and the ability to provide care for these conditions at three rural district hospitals in Rwanda. This retrospective cross-sectional study included all patients presenting to Butaro, Kirehe and Rwinkwavu District Hospitals between January 1st 2015 and December 31st 2015 with emergency general surgical conditions, defined as non-traumatic, non-obstetric acute care surgical conditions. We describe patient demographics, clinical characteristics, management and outcomes. In 2015, 356 patients presented with emergency general surgical conditions. The majority were male (57.2%) and adults aged 15-60 years (54.5%). The most common diagnostic group was soft tissue infections (71.6%), followed by acute abdominal conditions (14.3%). The median length of symptoms prior to diagnosis differed significantly by diagnosis type (p operated on at the district hospital, either by a general surgeon or general practitioner. Patients were more likely to receive surgery if they presented to a hospital with a general surgeon compared to a hospital with only general practitioners (75% vs 43%, p operation in a hospital with a general surgeon as opposed to a general practitioner. This provides evidence to support increasing the surgical workforce in district hospitals in order to increase surgical availability for patients.

  1. Danish obstetricians' personal preference and general attitude to elective cesarean section on maternal request: a nation-wide postal survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergholt, Thomas; Østberg, Birgitte; Legarth, Jesper

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess Danish obstetricians' and gynecologists' personal preference and general attitude towards elective cesarean section on maternal request in uncomplicated single cephalic pregnancies at term. DESIGN: Nation-wide anonymous postal questionnaire. POPULATION: Four hundred and fifty......-five obstetricians and gynecologists identified in the records of the Danish Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology from January 2000. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Personal preference on the mode of delivery and general attitude towards elective cesarean section on maternal request in an uncomplicated single cephalic...... indication. Obstetricians and gynecologists who had experienced a noninstrumental vaginal delivery themselves or practiced as a private gynecologist only, were less likely to agree with the woman's right to elective cesarean section on maternal request. CONCLUSION: The vast majority of Danish obstetricians...

  2. Danish obstetricians' personal preference and general attitude to elective cesarean section on maternal request: a nation-wide postal survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergholt, Thomas; Østberg, Birgitte; Legarth, Jesper

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess Danish obstetricians' and gynecologists' personal preference and general attitude towards elective cesarean section on maternal request in uncomplicated single cephalic pregnancies at term. DESIGN: Nation-wide anonymous postal questionnaire. POPULATION: Four hundred and fifty......-five obstetricians and gynecologists identified in the records of the Danish Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology from January 2000. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Personal preference on the mode of delivery and general attitude towards elective cesarean section on maternal request in an uncomplicated single cephalic...... pregnancies at term. RESULTS: Of Danish specialists in obstetrics and gynecology, 1.1% would prefer an elective cesarean section in an uncomplicated pregnancy at 37 weeks of gestation with fetal weight estimation of 3.0 kg. This rose to 22.5% when the fetal weight estimation was 4.5 kg at 37 weeks. The main...

  3. General Health Status Among Students of Islamic Azad University: A Cross-Sectional Study from Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Taghi Savadpour

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims of the Study: Health is one of the basic needs of human. There is a close relationship between physical and mental health. Human psyche is directly affected by his physical condition, and mutually his body and actions of human systems are influenced by psychological and mental space. Students because of their particular circumstances are vulnerable to mental health problems. The purpose of this study is to determine the general health status of students of Islamic Azad University. Materials & Methods: This descriptive analytical research was conducted on 478 students of Khalkhal Islamic Azad University. Simple random sampling method was used. General health questionnaire (GHQ-28 was used as research tool. Following data collection, data were analyzed using SPSS Software 13. Results: The results show that mean score of general health of the subjects is higher than cutoff. In this study, 21.3 percent of students were suspected of impaired health. Also, status of general health of female students was worse than male students and significant statistical relationship was observed between general health status and all its sub-scales except depression and gender (P < 0.5. Conclusions: G eneral health of students especially female students is impaired which may considerably affect their learning and performance and academic achievement.

  4. Annual Report 1984. Chemistry Department

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Funck, Jytte; Nielsen, Ole John

    This report contains a brief survey of the main activities in the Chemistry Department. All articles and reports published and lectures given in 1984 are presented. The facilities and equipment are mentioned briefly. The activities are divided into the following groups: radioisotope chemistry, an......, analytical- and organic chemistry, environmental chemistry, polymer chemistry, geochemistry and waste disposal, radical chemistry, positron annihilation, mineral processing, and general.......This report contains a brief survey of the main activities in the Chemistry Department. All articles and reports published and lectures given in 1984 are presented. The facilities and equipment are mentioned briefly. The activities are divided into the following groups: radioisotope chemistry...

  5. Fundamentals of nuclear chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majer, V.

    1982-01-01

    The author of the book has had 25 years of experience at the Nuclear Chemistry of Prague Technical University. In consequence, the book is intended as a basic textbook for students of this field. Its main objectives are an easily understandable presentation of the complex subject and in spite of the uncertainty which still characterizes the definition and subjects of nuclear chemistry - a systematic classification and logical structure. Contents: 1. Introduction (history and definition); 2. General nuclear chemistry (physical fundamentals, hot atom chemistry, interaction of nuclear radiation with matter, radioactive elements, isotope effects, isotope exchange, chemistry of radioactive trace elements); 3. Methods of nuclear chemistry of nuclear chemistry (radiochemical methods, activation, separation and enrichment chemistry); 4. Preparative nuclear chemistry (isotope production, labelled compounds); 5. Analytival nuclear chemistry; 6. Applied nuclear chemistry (isotope applications in general physical and analytical chemistry). The book is supplemented by an annex with tables, a name catalogue and a subject index which will facilitate access to important information. (RB) [de

  6. Bibliographies on radiation chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, M.Z.; Ross, A.B.

    1986-01-01

    The one-electron oxidation and reduction of metal ions and complexes can yield species in unusual oxidation states, and ligand-radicals coordinated to the central metal. These often unstable species can be mechanistically important intermediates in thermal, photochemical, and electrochemical reactions involving metal-containing substances. Their generation via radiolysis provides an alternate means of characterizing them using kinetic and spectroscopic techniques. We hope these bibliographies on the radiation chemistry of metal ions and complexes, presented according to periodic groups, will prove useful to researchers in metallo-redox chemistry. These bibliographies contain only primary literature sources; reviews are not included. However, a list of general review articles on the radiation chemistry of metal ions and complexes is presented here in the first section which covers cobalt, rhodium and iridium, Group 9 in the new IUPAC notation. Additional parts of the bibliography are planned, covering other periodic groups. Part A of the bibliography was prepared by a search of the Radiation Chemistry Data Center Bibliographic Data Base (RCDCbib) through January 1986 for papers on rhodium, iridium and cobalt compounds, and radiolysis (both continuous and pulsed). Papers in which the use of metal compounds was incidental to the primary objective of the study were excluded. Excluded also were publications in unrefereed and obscure sources such as meeting proceedings, internal reports, dissertations, and patents. The majority of the studies in the resultant compilation deal with experiments performed on solutions, mainly aqueous, although a substantial fraction is devoted to solid-state esr measurements. The references are listed in separate sections for each of the metals, and are presented in approximate chronological order. (author)

  7. COMPAR, NJOY, GROUPIE, FLANGE-2, ETOG-3, XLACS Multigroup Cross-Sections General Comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anaf, Jaime; Chalhoub, E.S.

    1990-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: A system for comparing multigroup cross sections generated by NJOY, GROUPIE, FLANGE-II, ETOG-3 and XLACS. This system comprises the COMPAR program and interface (auxiliary) programs developed for each of the programs under consideration. These are REDCOMP for GROUPIE, FLACOMP for FLANGE-II, ETOCOMP for ETOG-3 and XLACOMP for XLACS. For the NJOY program there is RGENDF, a program developed apart from this system. It is a modular system in which the inclusion of new multigroup cross section generating program requires no more than the development of a new interface module. 2 - Method of solution: Refer to comments in main routine. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Refer to comments in main routine

  8. Remifentanil at induction of general anesthesia for cesarean section: Double blind,randomized clinical trial

    OpenAIRE

    Behdad, Shekoufeh; Ayatollahi, Vida; Harrazi, Hamid; Nazemian, Naderali; Heiranizadeh, Najmeh; Baghianimoghadam, Behnam

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Remifentanil, with its rapid activity onset and short duration of action, may be more effective than other opioids for providing hemodynamic stability during obstetric anesthesia. However, there is some evidence of adverse effects on neonatal respiratory function. We investigated maternal and fetal effects of Remifentanil during cesarean section surgery. Methods: Eighteen women with singleton term pregnancies, and physical class status of I or II as defined by the American Socie...

  9. The functional consequences of Generalized Joint Hypermobility : a cross-sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheper, Mark C; de Vries, Janneke E; Juul-Kristensen, Birgit; Nollet, Frans; Engelbert, Raoul H H

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Generalized Joint Hypermobility (GJH) has been found to be associated with musculoskeletal complaints and disability. For others GJH is seen as a prerequisite in order to excel in certain sports like dance. However, it remains unclear what the role is of GJH in human performance.

  10. The functional consequences of generalized joint hypermobility: a cross-sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheper, Mark C.; de Vries, Janneke E.; Juul-Kristensen, Birgit; Nollet, Frans; Engelbert, Raoul H. H.

    2014-01-01

    Generalized Joint Hypermobility (GJH) has been found to be associated with musculoskeletal complaints and disability. For others GJH is seen as a prerequisite in order to excel in certain sports like dance. However, it remains unclear what the role is of GJH in human performance. Therefore, the

  11. Is Generalized Maternal Optimism or Pessimism During Pregnancy Associated with Unplanned Cesarean Section Deliveries in China?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl A. Moyer

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This research examines whether maternal optimism/pessimism is associated with unplanned Cesarean section deliveries in China. If so, does the association remain after controlling for clinical factors associated with C-sections? A sample of 227 mostly primiparous women in the third trimester of pregnancy was surveyed in a large tertiary care hospital in Beijing, China. Post-delivery data were collected from medical records. In bivariate analysis, both optimism and pessimism were related to unplanned c-section. However, when optimism and pessimism were entered into a regression model together, optimism was no longer statistically significant. Pessimism remained significant, even when adjusting for clinical factors such as previous abortion, previous miscarriage, pregnancy complications, infant gestational age, infant birthweight, labor duration, birth complications, and self-rated difficulty of the pregnancy. This research suggests that maternal mindset during pregnancy has a role in mode of delivery. However, more research is needed to elucidate potential causal pathways and test potential interventions.

  12. Advances in quantum chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Sabin, John R

    2013-01-01

    Advances in Quantum Chemistry presents surveys of current topics in this rapidly developing field that has emerged at the cross section of the historically established areas of mathematics, physics, chemistry, and biology. It features detailed reviews written by leading international researchers. This volume focuses on the theory of heavy ion physics in medicine.Advances in Quantum Chemistry presents surveys of current topics in this rapidly developing field that has emerged at the cross section of the historically established areas of mathematics, physics, chemistry, and biology. It features

  13. Application of a general-purpose scintigraphic scanner to transverse-section (tomographic) gamma-ray imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradstock, P.A.; Milward, R.C.

    1976-01-01

    The paper describes the recent application of a general-purpose commercial scintigraphic scanner to transverse-section radioisotope tomography. The principle of the method is to obtain the distribution of radioactive material in a thin transverse slice of the body or brain, from a mathematical reconstruction using the measured transverse projections of the activity within that slice. The usefulness of the radioisotope section-scanning technique for clinical diagnosis, as evidenced from one year's use of the machine at the Midland Centre for Neurology and Neurosurgery, Birmingham, U.K., is briefly discussed. (orig.) [de

  14. Presentations to general practice before a cancer diagnosis in Victoria: a cross-sectional survey

    OpenAIRE

    Lacey, K; Bishop, JF; Cross, HL; Chondros, P; Lyratzopoulos, Georgios; Emery, JD

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess variations in the number of general practitioner visits preceding a cancer diagnosis, and in the length of the interval between the patient first suspecting a problem and their seeing a hospital specialist. DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Analysis of data provided to the Cancer Patient Experience Survey (CPES; survey response rate, 37.7%) by 1552 patients with one of 19 cancer types and treated in one of five Victorian Comprehensive Cancer Centre hospitals, 1 October 20...

  15. Compatibility of scientific research and specialty training in general practice. A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kötter, Thomas; Carmienke, Solveig; Herrmann, Wolfram J

    2014-01-01

    In many departments of General Practice (GP) in Germany, young doctors who are trainees also work as researchers. Often these trainees work part time at the university and part time as a trainee in clinical practice. However, little is known about the situation of the actors involved. The aim of the study was to investigate the perspectives of GP trainees, heads of departments and GP trainers regarding the combination of research and GP training. We conducted a web-based survey with the heads of all German departments of General Practice, GP trainees who also conduct research and their GP trainers. The questionnaires consisted of open and closed questions. The results were analyzed using descriptive statistics and qualitative methods. 28 heads of GP departments and 20 GP trainees responded. The trainees were mostly very satisfied with their situation as a trainee. However, the trainees considered the combination of research and GP training as difficult. The respondents name as problems the coordination of multiple jobs and the lack of credibility given to research in General Practice. They name as solutions research-enabling training programs and uniform requirements in training regarding research. The combination of GP training and scientific research activity is perceived as difficult. However, well-organized and designed programs can improve the quality of the combination.

  16. New Concepts of Quality Assurance in Analytical Chemistry: Will They Influence the Way We Conduct Science in General?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens; Glasdam, Sidsel-Marie; Larsen, Daniel Bo

    2016-01-01

    , but in contemporary science two approaches to the implementation of statistics in decision making are used: 1. Short-term precision and 2. long-term precision. Both approaches are valid and both are described using the same methods of statistics. However, they lead to completely different conclusions and decisions....... Despite good intentions and new concepts, as well as practices and procedures for quality assurance, it is shown by these two examples that these efforts may be inadequate or mislead scientists into making major mistakes in the decision-making process. A set of equations is supplied, which are based......According to the guide Vocabulary in Metrology (VIM3) (JCGM, 2008), the definition of the concepts of trueness and accuracy has been revised, which has an important impact on analytical chemistry. Additionally, Eurachem/CITAC has published a new edition of the guide to Quantifying Uncertainty...

  17. General method for labeling siRNA by click chemistry with fluorine-18 for the purpose of PET imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercier, Frédéric; Paris, Jérôme; Kaisin, Geoffroy; Thonon, David; Flagothier, Jessica; Teller, Nathalie; Lemaire, Christian; Luxen, André

    2011-01-19

    The alkyne-azide Cu(I)-catalyzed Huisgen cycloaddition, a click-type reaction, was used to label a double-stranded oligonucleotide (siRNA) with fluorine-18. An alkyne solid support CPG for the preparation of monostranded oligonucleotides functionalized with alkyne has been developed. Two complementary azide labeling agents (1-(azidomethyl)-4-[(18)F]fluorobenzene) and 1-azido-4-(3-[(18)F]fluoropropoxy)benzene have been produced with 41% and 35% radiochemical yields (decay-corrected), respectively. After annealing with the complementary strand, the siRNA was directly labeled by click chemistry with [(18)F]fluoroazide to produce the [(18)F]-radiolabeled siRNA with excellent radiochemical yield and purity.

  18. Evaluation of a reduced centrifugation time and higher centrifugal force on various general chemistry and immunochemistry analytes in plasma and serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Møller, Mette F; Søndergaard, Tove R; Kristensen, Helle T; Münster, Anna-Marie B

    2017-09-01

    Background Centrifugation of blood samples is an essential preanalytical step in the clinical biochemistry laboratory. Centrifugation settings are often altered to optimize sample flow and turnaround time. Few studies have addressed the effect of altering centrifugation settings on analytical quality, and almost all studies have been done using collection tubes with gel separator. Methods In this study, we compared a centrifugation time of 5 min at 3000 ×  g to a standard protocol of 10 min at 2200 ×  g. Nine selected general chemistry and immunochemistry analytes and interference indices were studied in lithium heparin plasma tubes and serum tubes without gel separator. Results were evaluated using mean bias, difference plots and coefficient of variation, compared with maximum allowable bias and coefficient of variation used in laboratory routine quality control. Results For all analytes except lactate dehydrogenase, the results were within the predefined acceptance criteria, indicating that the analytical quality was not compromised. Lactate dehydrogenase showed higher values after centrifugation for 5 min at 3000 ×  g, mean bias was 6.3 ± 2.2% and the coefficient of variation was 5%. Conclusions We found that a centrifugation protocol of 5 min at 3000 ×  g can be used for the general chemistry and immunochemistry analytes studied, with the possible exception of lactate dehydrogenase, which requires further assessment.

  19. General practitioners' views of clinically led commissioning: cross-sectional survey in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Valerie; Checkland, Kath; Coleman, Anna; Spooner, Sharon; Gibson, Jonathan; Sutton, Matt

    2017-06-08

    Involving general practitioners (GPs) in the commissioning/purchasing of services has been an important element in English health policy for many years. The Health and Social Care Act 2012 handed responsibility for commissioning of the majority of care for local populations to GP-led Clinical Commissioning Groups (CCGs). In this paper, we explore GP attitudes to involvement in commissioning and future intentions for engagement. Survey of a random sample of GPs across England in 2015. The Eighth National GP Worklife Survey was distributed to GPs in spring 2015. Responses were received from 2611 respondents (response rate = 46%). We compared responses across different GP characteristics and conducted two sample tests of proportions to identify statistically significant differences in responses across groups. We also used multivariate logistic regression to identify the characteristics associated with wanting a formal CCG role in the future. While GPs generally agree that they can add value to aspects of commissioning, only a minority feel that this is an important part of their role. Many current leaders intend to quit in the next 5 years, and there is limited appetite among those not currently in a formal role to take up such a role in the future. CCGs were set up as 'membership organisations' but only a minority of respondents reported feeling that they had 'ownership' of their local CCG and these were often GPs with formal CCG roles. However, respondents generally agree that the CCG has a legitimate role in influencing the work that they do. CCGs need to engage in active succession planning to find the next generation of GP leaders. GPs believe that CCGs have a legitimate role in influencing their work, suggesting that there may be scope for CCGs to involve GPs more fully in roles short of formal leadership. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted

  20. General practitioners’ views of clinically led commissioning: cross-sectional survey in England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Valerie; Checkland, Kath; Coleman, Anna; Spooner, Sharon; Gibson, Jonathan; Sutton, Matt

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Involving general practitioners (GPs) in the commissioning/purchasing of services has been an important element in English health policy for many years. The Health and Social Care Act 2012 handed responsibility for commissioning of the majority of care for local populations to GP-led Clinical Commissioning Groups (CCGs). In this paper, we explore GP attitudes to involvement in commissioning and future intentions for engagement. Design and setting Survey of a random sample of GPs across England in 2015. Method The Eighth National GP Worklife Survey was distributed to GPs in spring 2015. Responses were received from 2611 respondents (response rate = 46%). We compared responses across different GP characteristics and conducted two sample tests of proportions to identify statistically significant differences in responses across groups. We also used multivariate logistic regression to identify the characteristics associated with wanting a formal CCG role in the future. Results While GPs generally agree that they can add value to aspects of commissioning, only a minority feel that this is an important part of their role. Many current leaders intend to quit in the next 5 years, and there is limited appetite among those not currently in a formal role to take up such a role in the future. CCGs were set up as ‘membership organisations’ but only a minority of respondents reported feeling that they had ‘ownership’ of their local CCG and these were often GPs with formal CCG roles. However, respondents generally agree that the CCG has a legitimate role in influencing the work that they do. Conclusion CCGs need to engage in active succession planning to find the next generation of GP leaders. GPs believe that CCGs have a legitimate role in influencing their work, suggesting that there may be scope for CCGs to involve GPs more fully in roles short of formal leadership. PMID:28596217

  1. The impact of general practitioner morale on patient satisfaction with care: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McKinstry Brian

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The association between stress and morale among general practitioners (GP is well documented. However, the impact of GP stress or low morale on patient care is less clear. GPs in the UK now routinely survey patients about the quality of their care including organizational issues and consultation skills and the General Practice Assessment Questionnaire (GPAQ is widely used for this purpose. We aimed to see if there was a relationship between doctor morale as measured by a validated instrument, the Morale Assessment in General Practice Index (MAGPI and scores in the GPAQ. Methods All GPs in Lothian, Scotland who were collecting GPAQ data were approached and asked to complete the MAGPI. Using an anonymised linkage system, individual scores on the MAGPI were linked to the doctors' GPAQ scores. Levels of association between the scores were determined by calculating rank correlations at the level of the individual doctor. Hypothesised associations between individual MAGPI and GPAQ items were also assessed. Results 276 of 475 GPs who were approached agreed to complete a MAGPI questionnaire and successfully collected anonymous GPAQ data from an average of 49.6 patients. There was no significant correlation between the total MAGPI score and the GPAQ communication or enablement scale. There were weak correlations between "control of work" in the MAGPI scale and GPAQ items on waiting times to see doctors (r = 0.24 p Conclusion This study showed no relationship between overall GP morale and patient perception of performance. There was a weak relationship between patients' perceptions ofquality and doctors' beliefs about their workload and whether patients value them. Further research is required to elucidate the complex relationship between workload, morale and patients' perception of care.

  2. Fear of going under general anesthesia: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhaiyem, M E; Alshehri, A A; Saade, M; Shoabi, T A; Zahoor, H; Tawfeeq, N A

    2016-01-01

    Fears related to anesthesia have affected a considerable number of patients going for surgery. The purpose of this survey was to identify the most common concerns about general anesthesia during the preoperative anesthetic clinic in different healthcare settings, and whether they are affected by patients' sex, age, education, or previous experience of anesthesia or not. Structured questionnaires with consent forms were distributed to patients in their preanesthesia clinic visit in three tertiary hospitals (King Abdul-Aziz Medical City, King Faisal Specialist Hospital, and King Khalid University Hospital) in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Patients' demographics and questions related to their fears regarding general anesthesia were included in the questionnaires. All categorical and interval variables were compared statically using a Chi-square test for independence and a t-test, respectively. All statistical tests were declared significant at α level of 0.05 or less. Among 450 questionnaires that were disturbed, 400 questionnaires were collected and analyzed. Eighty-eight percent experienced preoperative fear. The top three causes of their fears were fear of postoperative pain (77.3%), fear of intraoperative awareness (73.7%), and fear of being sleepy postoperatively (69.5%). Patients are less fearful of drains and needles in the operative theater (48%), of revealing personal issues under general anesthesia (55.2%), and of not waking up after surgery (56.4%). Age and gender were significant predictors of the overall fear among preanesthetic patients. Females are 5 times more likely to experience fear before surgery (P = 0.0009). Patients aged more than 40 years old are also at 75% higher risk of being afraid (P = 0.008). The majority of the patients going for surgery experienced a fear of anesthesia. Mostly females, especially those over 40, were at a higher risk of being afraid. Fear can bring anxiety which, in turn, might affect the patient's surgery.

  3. Chronic care management in Danish general practice - a cross‒sectional study of workload and multimorbidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moth Grete

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background About 30% of the Danish population has one or more chronic conditions, and general practitioners (GPs play a key role in effective chronic care management. However, little is known about these encounters in general practice. The aim was to describe the frequency of patients with one or more chronic conditions in general practice and how these consultations were experienced by the GPs. Methods All GPs in the Central Denmark Region were invited to register all contacts during one day in the 12‒month study period from December; 404 (46% accepted. For each patient contact, the GPs were asked to fill in a one‒page registration form covering information on chronic disease, reason for encounter, diagnosis, number of additional psychosocial problems raised by the patient during the consultation, time consumption, experienced burden of the consultation, referral to specialized care, and whether a nurse could have substituted the GP. Patients were categorized according to the number of chronic conditions (none, one, two, three or more and the categories compared with regard to the GP‒experienced burden of the contacts. Moreover, we examined which chronic conditions posed the the greatest challenge to the GPs. Results Patients aged 40 years or more had a total of 8,236 contacts. Among these patients 2,849 (34.6%; 95% CI 33.6‒35.6 had one and 2,596 (31.5%; CI 30.5‒32.5 had more than one chronic disease. The time consumption and the burden of their contacts tended to rise with the number of chronic conditions. Being present in 22.9% (CI 21.6‒24.3 of all face‒to‒face contacts, hypertension was the most common chronic condition. The burden of the contacts was experienced as particularly heavy for patients with depression and dementia due to more additional psychosocial problems and the time consumption. Conclusion General practitioners considered consultations with multimorbid patients demanding and not easily delegated to

  4. Aqueous chemistry of transactinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaedel, M.

    2001-01-01

    The aqueous chemistry of the first three transactinide elements is briefly reviewed with special emphasis given to recent experimental results. Short introductory remarks are discussing the atom-at-a-time situation of transactinide chemistry as a result of low production cross-sections and short half-lives. In general, on-line experimental techniques and, more specifically, the automated rapid chemistry apparatus, ARCA, are presented. Present and future developments of experimental techniques and resulting perspectives are outlined at the end. The central part is mainly focussing on hydrolysis and complex formation aspects of the superheavy group 4, 5, and 6 transition metals with F - and Cl - anions. Experimental results are compared with the behaviour of lighter homologous elements and with relativistic calculations. It will be shown that the chemical behaviour of the first superheavy elements is already strongly influenced by relativistic effects. While it is justified to place rutherfordium, dubnium and seaborgium in the Periodic Table of the Elements into group 4, 5 and 6, respectively, it is no more possible to deduce from this position in detail the chemical properties of these transactinide or superheavy elements. (orig.)

  5. Seroepidemiology of pertussis in a cross-sectional study of an adult general population in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønn, P F; Dalby, T; Simonsen, J

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY An increase in pertussis has been observed in several countries over the last decades, especially in adult populations. The seroprevalence of pertussis was determined in a cross-sectional study of the adult population in the Copenhagen area, Denmark, conducted between 2006 and 2008....... Specific IgG antibodies against pertussis toxin (PT) were measured in 3440 persons resulting in an age-standardized seroprevalence of 3·0% (95% confidence interval 1·9-4·7) using an IgG anti-PT cut-off of 75 IU/ml. By using antibody decay profiles from longitudinal data the estimated seroincidence was 143....../1000 person-years. In contrast, an incidence of 0·03/1000 person-years was estimated from the official data of notified cases during the same period. Of the investigated risk factors, only age and education were significantly associated with pertussis infection. This study indicates that pertussis is highly...

  6. Low energy neutron scattering for energy dependent cross sections. General considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rothenstein, W; Dagan, R [Technion-Israel Inst. of Tech., Haifa (Israel). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1996-12-01

    We consider in this paper some aspects related to neutron scattering at low energies by nuclei which are subject to thermal agitation. The scattering is determined by a temperature dependent joint scattering kernel, or the corresponding joint probability density, which is a function of two variables, the neutron energy after scattering, and the cosine of the angle of scattering, for a specified energy and direction of motion of the neutron, before the interaction takes place. This joint probability density is easy to calculate, when the nucleus which causes the scattering of the neutron is at rest. It can be expressed by a delta function, since there is a one to one correspondence between the neutron energy change, and the cosine of the scattering angle. If the thermal motion of the target nucleus is taken into account, the calculation is rather more complicated. The delta function relation between the cosine of the angle of scattering and the neutron energy change is now averaged over the spectrum of velocities of the target nucleus, and becomes a joint kernel depending on both these variables. This function has a simple form, if the target nucleus behaves as an ideal gas, which has a scattering cross section independent of energy. An energy dependent scattering cross section complicates the treatment further. An analytic expression is no longer obtained for the ideal gas temperature dependent joint scattering kernel as a function of the neutron energy after the interaction and the cosine of the scattering angle. Instead the kernel is expressed by an inverse Fourier Transform of a complex integrand, which is averaged over the velocity spectrum of the target nucleus. (Abstract Truncated)

  7. Demographic, dietary and physical activity predictors of general and abdominal obesity among university students: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Mogre, Victor; Nyaba, Rauf; Aleyira, Samuel; Sam, Napoleon B.

    2015-01-01

    Background Obesity has become a disease of global public health concern in both developing and developed countries. We investigated the influence of socio-demographic, dietary habits and physical activity levels on general and abdominal obesity among a sample of university students in Ghana. Methods This cross-sectional study was carried out among a sample of 552 students attending the University for Development Studies, School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Tamale, Ghana. Demographic chara...

  8. Frequent attenders in general practice and immigrant status in Norway: a nationwide cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Esperanza; Gimeno-Feliu, Luis-Andrés; Calderón-Larrañaga, Amaia; Prados-Torres, Alexandra

    2014-12-01

    To compare the likelihood of being a frequent attender (FA) to general practice among native Norwegians and immigrants, and to study socioeconomic and morbidity factors associated with being a FA for natives and immigrants. Linked register data for all inhabitants in Norway with at least one visit to the general practitioner (GP) in 2008 (2 967 933 persons). Immigrants were grouped according to their country of origin into low- (LIC), middle- (MIC), and high-income countries (HIC). FAs were defined as patients whose attendance rate ranked in the top 10% (cut-off point > 7 visits). FAs were compared with other GP users by means of multivariate binary logistic analyses adjusting for socioeconomic and morbidity factors. Among GP users during the daytime, immigrants had a higher likelihood of being a FA compared with natives (OR (95% CI): 1.13 (1.09-1.17) and 1.15 (1.12-1.18) for HIC, 1.84 (1.78-1.89) and 1.66 (1.63-1.70) for MIC, and 1.77 (1.67-1.89) and 1.65 (1.57-1.74) for LIC for men and women respectively). Pregnancy, middle income earned in Norway, and having cardiologic and psychiatric problems were the main factors associated with being a FA. Among immigrants, labour immigrants and the elderly used GPs less often, while refugees were overrepresented among FAs. Psychiatric, gastroenterological, endocrine, and non-specific drug morbidity were relatively more prevalent among immigrant FA compared with natives. Although immigrants account for a small percentage of all FAs, GPs and policy-makers should be aware of differences in socioeconomic and morbidity profiles to provide equality of health care.

  9. Work motivation, task delegation and job satisfaction of general practice staff: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riisgaard, Helle; Søndergaard, Jens; Munch, Maria; Le, Jette V; Ledderer, Loni; Pedersen, Line B; Nexøe, Jørgen

    2017-04-01

    Recent research has shown that a high degree of task delegation is associated with the practise staff's overall job satisfaction, and this association is important to explore since job satisfaction is related to medical as well as patient-perceived quality of care. This study aimed: (1) to investigate associations between degrees of task delegation in the management of chronic disease in general practice, with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) as a case and the staff's work motivation, (2) to investigate associations between the work motivation of the staff and their job satisfaction. The study was based on a questionnaire to which 621 members of the practice staff responded. The questionnaire consisted of a part concerning degree of task delegation in the management of COPD in their respective practice and another part being about their job satisfaction and motivation to work. In the first analysis, we found that 'maximal degree' of task delegation was significantly associated with the staff perceiving themselves to have a large degree of variation in tasks, odds ratio (OR) = 4.26, confidence interval (CI) = 1.09, 16.62. In the second analysis, we found that this perceived large degree of variation in tasks was significantly associated with their overall job satisfaction, OR = 2.81, confidence interval = 1.71, 4.61. The results suggest that general practitioners could delegate highly complex tasks in the management of COPD to their staff without influencing the staff's work motivation, and thereby their job satisfaction, negatively, as long as they ensure sufficient variation in the tasks. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  10. Respiratory symptoms and occupation: a cross-sectional study of the general population

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    Smit Henriëtte A

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study focused on respiratory symptoms due to occupational exposures in a contemporary general population cohort. Subjects were from the Dutch Monitoring Project on Risk Factors for Chronic Diseases (MORGEN. The composition of this population enabled estimation of respiratory risks due to occupation from the recent past for both men and women. Methods The study subjects (aged 20–59 were all inhabitants of Doetinchem, a small industrial town, and came from a survey of a random sample of 1104 persons conducted in 1993. A total of 274 cases with respiratory symptoms (subdivided in asthma and bronchitis symptoms and 274 controls without symptoms were matched for age and sex. Relations between industry and occupation and respiratory symptoms were explored and adjusted for smoking habits and social economic status. Results Employment in the 'construction' (OR = 3.38; 95%CI 1.02 – 11.27, 'metal' (OR = 3.17; 95%CI 0. 98 – 10.28, 'rubber, plastics and synthetics' (OR = 6.52; 95%CI 1.26 – 53.80, and 'printing' industry (OR = 3.96; 95%CI 0.85 – 18.48 were positively associated with chronic bronchitis symptoms. In addition, the 'metal' industry was found to be weakly associated with asthma symptoms (OR = 2.59; 95%CI 0.87 – 7.69. Duration of employment within these industries was also positively associated with respiratory symptoms. Conclusion Respiratory symptoms in the general population are traceable to employment in particular industries even in a contemporary cohort with relatively young individuals.

  11. Retaining the general practitioner workforce in England: what matters to GPs? A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Jeremy; Potter, Rachel; Owen, Katherine; Parsons, Nicholas; Realpe, Alba; Leach, Jonathan

    2015-10-16

    The general practice (GP) workforce in England is in crisis, reflected in increasing rates of early retirement and intentions to reduce hours of working. This study aimed to investigate underlying factors and how these might be mitigated. GPs in central England were invited to participate in an on-line survey exploring career plans and views and experiences of work-related pressures. Quantitative data were analysed using logistic regression analysis and principal components analysis. Qualitative data were analysed using a thematic framework approach. Of 1,192 GPs who participated, 978 (82.0 %) stated that they intend to leave general practice, take a career break and/or reduce clinical hours of work within the next five years. This included 488 (41.9 %) who intend to leave practice, and almost a quarter (279; 23.2 %) intending to take a career break. Only 67 (5.6 %) planned to increase their hours of clinical work. For participants planning to leave practice, the issues that most influenced intentions were volume and intensity of workload, time spent on "unimportant tasks", introduction of seven-day working and lack of job satisfaction. Four hundred fifty five participants responded to open questions (39128 words in total). The main themes were the cumulative impact of work-related pressures, the changing and growing nature of the workload, and the consequent stress. Reducing workload intensity, workload volume, administrative activities, with increased time for patient care, no out-of-hour commitments, more flexible working conditions and greater clinical autonomy were identified as the most important requirements to address the workforce crisis. In addition, incentive payments, increased pay and protected time for education and training were also rated as important. New models of professionalism and organisational arrangements may be needed to address the issues described here. Without urgent action, the GP workforce crisis in England seems set to worsen.

  12. Annual report 1983 Chemistry Department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funck, J.; Larsen, E.; Nielsen, O.J.

    1984-05-01

    This report contains a brief survey of the main activities in the Chemistry Department. All articles and reports published and lectures given in 1983 are presented. The facilities and equipment are barely mentioned. The activities are divided into nine groups: 1. radioisotope chemistry 2. analytical- and organic chemistry 3. environmental chemistry 4. polymer chemistry 5. geochemistry and waste disposal 6. radical chemstry 7. positron annihilation 8. mineral processing 9. general. (author)

  13. Diet in subjects with irritable bowel syndrome: A cross-sectional study in the general population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligaarden Solveig C

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS often relate symptoms to the intake of certain foods. This study assesses differences in diet in subjects with and without IBS. Methods The cross-sectional, population-based study was conducted in Norway in 2001. Out of 11078 invited subjects, 4621 completed a survey about abdominal complaints and intake of common food items. IBS and IBS subgroups were classified according to Rome II criteria. Results IBS was diagnosed in 388 subjects (8.4% and, of these, 26.5% had constipation-predominant IBS (C-IBS, 44.8% alternating IBS (A-IBS, and 28.6% diarrhoea-predominant IBS (D-IBS. Low intake of dairy products (portions/day (Odds Ratio 0.85 [CI 0.78 to 0.93], p = 0.001 and high intake of water (100 ml/day (1.08 [1.02 to 1.15], p = 0.002, tea (1.05 [1.01 to 1.10], p = 0.019 and carbonated beverages (1.07 [1.01 to 1.14], p = 0.023 were associated with IBS. A lower intake of dairy products and a higher intake of alcohol and carbonated beverages were associated with D-IBS and a higher intake of water and tea was associated with A-IBS. In subjects with IBS the severity of symptoms was associated with a higher intake of vegetables and potatoes in subjects with C-IBS, with a higher intake of vegetables in subjects with A-IBS, and with a higher intake of fruits and berries, carbonated beverages and alcohol in subjects with D-IBS. Conclusions In this study, the diet differed in subjects with and without IBS and between IBS subgroups and was associated with the severity of symptoms.

  14. Sociodemographic profiles regarding bitter food consumption: cross-sectional evidence from a general French population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreeva, Valentina A; Martin, Christophe; Issanchou, Sylvie; Hercberg, Serge; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle; Méjean, Caroline

    2013-08-01

    Certain beneficial foods taste bitter (e.g., cruciferous vegetables) and might be aversive to consumers. Here, individual characteristics according to bitter food consumption patterns were assessed. The study included 2327 participants in the SU.VI.MAX antioxidant-based randomized controlled trial (1994-2002). The sample was drawn from the general French population. Dietary data were obtained from a minimum of twelve 24-h dietary records provided during the first 2years of follow-up. Two bitter food consumption scores were computed - one assessing the variety of items consumed (unweighted score) and the other reflecting exposure to bitterness estimated via complementary sensory panel data from the EpiPref project (weighted score). Associations with sociodemographic, health, and lifestyle factors were analyzed with multiple linear regression. Among men, the variety of bitter foods consumed was positively associated with educational level and alcohol intake and inversely associated with physical activity and rural area of residence. Among women, the same outcome was positively associated with alcohol intake and inversely associated with diabetes. In turn, Body Mass Index displayed a significant inverse association with the bitterness-weighted score across sex, whereas educational level was supported only in women. This study adds to the presently scant knowledge about non-genetic determinants or moderators of actual bitter food intake. Future studies should elucidate the impact of diabetes and body size on bitter food intake patterns. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. General Physical Problems Related to MHD. Shock Tubes. Introduction to Papers in Section 1-b

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1966-10-15

    The papers which will be considered here are Nos. SM-74/26, 134, 172, 182 and 219. Each of the five papers will be discussed in turn, but before beginning this discussion, some general comments concerning shock tube studies of MHD generator plasmas seem in order. There is little doubt that the shock tube is an excellent facility-for the study of the basic processes which occur in the bulk of the plasma. It provides a large flow of uniform plasma with well-controlled properties. Because of the very short operating times, the materials problems, which plague continuously operating facilities, are eliminated. Depending upon the mode of operation of the shock tube, the gas dynamic conditions of an MHD generator may also be simulated more or less well. Three different modes have been used by the authors of the present papers. Abbas and Howatson have carried out their measurements in the driver plasma of an electrical shock tube. Both Zauderer and Mori, Kawada, Yamamoto and Imani have used the more conventional technique of experimenting in the plasma produced by the incident shock. Louis uses the plasma produced by reflection of the shock wave from the tube-end as a plasma source for the MHD channel.

  16. Fear of going under general anesthesia: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M E Ruhaiyem

    2016-01-01

    Results: Among 450 questionnaires that were disturbed, 400 questionnaires were collected and analyzed. Eighty-eight percent experienced preoperative fear. The top three causes of their fears were fear of postoperative pain (77.3%, fear of intraoperative awareness (73.7%, and fear of being sleepy postoperatively (69.5%. Patients are less fearful of drains and needles in the operative theater (48%, of revealing personal issues under general anesthesia (55.2%, and of not waking up after surgery (56.4%. Age and gender were significant predictors of the overall fear among preanesthetic patients. Females are 5 times more likely to experience fear before surgery (P = 0.0009. Patients aged more than 40 years old are also at 75% higher risk of being afraid (P = 0.008. Conclusion: The majority of the patients going for surgery experienced a fear of anesthesia. Mostly females, especially those over 40, were at a higher risk of being afraid. Fear can bring anxiety which, in turn, might affect the patient′s surgery.

  17. A cross sectional survey of the barriers for implementing rapid HIV testing among French general practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraisse, Thibaut; Fourcade, Camille; Brazes-Sanz, Julie; Koumar, Yatrika; Lavigne, Jean Philippe; Sotto, Albert; Laureillard, Didier

    2016-10-01

    In France, almost 30,000 people are unaware of their HIV-positive status. Innovative screening strategies are essential to reach this population. The aim of this study was to describe the acceptability of rapid HIV testing (RHT) among French general practitioners (GPs) working in the south of France and barriers for implementing this strategy. We analysed an anonymous questionnaire sent by mail to GPs about demographic data, routine practice, knowledge of RHT and barriers to its use. Between 1 April and 30 September 2013, out of the 165 GPs contacted, 78 returned the questionnaires. The GPs' mean age was 52 years; 49 were men. Fifty-one GPs reported that their registered patients included at least one HIV-infected person and 70 GPs reported taking care of high-risk patients. Sixty-three percent of GPs reported being interested in using RHT in their daily practice. The main reasons reported by uninterested GPs were: greater confidence in standard HIV testing, difficulties including RHT during the routine consultation, difficulties to screen for other sexually transmitted infections simultaneously, and difficulties to deliver a positive result. French National Authorities for Health propose to screen the population at least once in their lifetime and high-risk people at least once a year. In order to achieve this aim, RHT should be included in the GPs' arsenal for HIV testing. We showed a high acceptability of RHT by GPs. If specific and adapted training is developed, and if solutions to barriers reported by GPs are found, RHT could be implemented in to their routine activity. © The Author(s) 2016.

  18. Urinary Analysis of Fluid Retention in the General Population: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert G Hahn

    Full Text Available Renal conservation (retention of fluid might affect the outcome of hospital care and can be indicated by increased urinary concentrations of metabolic waste products. We obtained a reference material for further studies by exploring the prevalence of fluid retention in a healthy population.Spot urine sampling was performed in 300 healthy hospital workers. A previously validated algorithm summarized the urine-specific gravity, osmolality, creatinine, and color to a fluid retention index (FRI, where 4.0 is the cut-off for fluid retention consistent with dehydration. In 50 of the volunteers, we also studied the relationships between FRI, plasma osmolality, and water-retaining hormones.The cut-off for fluid retention (FRI ≥ 4.0 was reached by 38% of the population. No correlation was found between the FRI and the time of the day of urine sample collection, and the FRI was only marginally correlated with the time period spent without fluid intake. Volunteers with fluid retention were younger, generally men, and more often had albuminuria (88% vs. 34%, P < 0.001. Plasma osmolality and plasma sodium were somewhat higher in those with a high FRI (mean 294.8 vs. 293.4 mosmol/kg and 140.3 vs. 139.9 mmol/l. Plasma vasopressin was consistently below the limit of detection, and the plasma cortisol, aldosterone, and renin concentrations were similar in subjects with a high or low FRI. The very highest FRI values (≥ 5.0, N = 61 were always accompanied by albuminuria.Fluid retention consistent with moderate dehydration is common in healthy staff working in a Swedish hospital.

  19. Evidence for a general stiffening motor control pattern in neck pain: a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisingset, Ingebrigt; Woodhouse, Astrid; Stensdotter, Ann-Katrin; Stavdahl, Øyvind; Lorås, Håvard; Gismervik, Sigmund; Andresen, Hege; Austreim, Kristian; Vasseljen, Ottar

    2015-03-17

    Neck pain is associated with several alterations in neck motion and motor control. Previous studies have investigated single constructs of neck motor control, while few have applied a comprehensive set of tests to investigate cervical motor control. This comparative cross- sectional study aimed to investigate different motor control constructs in neck pain patients and healthy controls. A total of 166 subjects participated in the study, 91 healthy controls (HC) and 75 neck pain patients (NP) with long-lasting moderate to severe neck pain. Neck flexibility, proprioception, head steadiness, trajectory movement control, and postural sway were assessed using a 3D motion tracking system (Liberty). The different constructs of neck motion and motor control were based on tests used in previous studies. Neck flexibility was lower in NP compared to HC, indicated by reduced cervical ROM and conjunct motion. Movement velocity was slower in NP compared to HC. Tests of head steadiness showed a stiffer movement pattern in NP compared to HC, indicated by lower head angular velocity. NP patients departed less from a predictable trajectory movement pattern (figure of eight) compared to healthy controls, but there was no difference for unpredictable movement patterns (the Fly test). No differences were found for postural sway in standing with eyes open and eyes closed. However, NP patients had significantly larger postural sway when standing on a balance pad. Proprioception did not differ between the groups. Largest effect sizes (ES) were found for neck flexibility (ES range: 0.2-0.8) and head steadiness (ES range: 1.3-2.0). Neck flexibility was the only construct that showed a significant association with current neck pain, while peak velocity was the only variable that showed a significant association with kinesiophobia. NP patients showed an overall stiffer and more rigid neck motor control pattern compared to HC, indicated by lower neck flexibility, slower movement velocity

  20. Computational design of new molecular scaffolds for medicinal chemistry, part II: generalization of analog series-based scaffolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimova, Dilyana; Stumpfe, Dagmar; Bajorath, Jürgen

    2018-01-01

    Aim: Extending and generalizing the computational concept of analog series-based (ASB) scaffolds. Materials & methods: Methodological modifications were introduced to further increase the coverage of analog series (ASs) and compounds by ASB scaffolds. From bioactive compounds, ASs were systematically extracted and second-generation ASB scaffolds isolated. Results: More than 20,000 second-generation ASB scaffolds with single or multiple substitution sites were extracted from active compounds, achieving more than 90% coverage of ASs. Conclusion: Generalization of the ASB scaffold approach has yielded a large knowledge base of scaffold-capturing compound series and target information. PMID:29379641

  1. WATER CHEMISTRY ASSESSMENT METHODS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This section summarizes and evaluates the surfce water column chemistry assessment methods for USEPA/EMAP-SW, USGS-NAQA, USEPA-RBP, Oho EPA, and MDNR-MBSS. The basic objective of surface water column chemistry assessment is to characterize surface water quality by measuring a sui...

  2. Periodontitis is associated with endothelial dysfunction in a general population: a cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birte Holtfreter

    Full Text Available A large body of evidence underlines an association between periodontal disease and cardiovascular disease. In contrast, data on its relation with endothelial dysfunction as a marker of early subclinical atherosclerosis is inconclusive and limited to patient-cohort studies. We therefore investigated the association between periodontal disease and flow-mediated dilation of the brachial artery (FMD as a measure of endothelial dysfunction in a general population, and also addressed a possible mediation via inflammation. The study population comprised 1,234 subjects (50.5% men aged 25-85 years from the 5-year follow-up of the Study of Health in Pomerania, a population-based cohort study. Clinical attachment loss (CAL and pocket probing depth (PPD as measures of periodontal disease were assessed half-mouth at four sites per tooth. Subjects were classified according to the periodontitis case definition proposed by Tonetti and Claffey (2005. Measurements of FMD and nitroglycerin-mediated dilation (NMD were performed using standardized ultrasound techniques. High-sensitive C-reactive protein, fibrinogen and leukocyte count were measured. Fully adjusted multivariate linear regression analyses revealed significant associations of the percentage of sites with PPD ≥ 6 mm with FMD (p(trend=0.048, with subjects within the highest category having a 0.74% higher FMD compared to subjects within the lowest category (p<0.05. Consistently, FMD values increased significantly across categories of the percentage of sites with CAL ≥ 6 mm (p(trend=0.01 and the periodontitis case definition (p(trend=0.006. Restrictions to subjects without antihypertensive or statin medication or current non-smokers confirmed previous results. Systemic inflammation did not seem to mediate the relation. Both PPD and CAL were not consistently associated with NMD. In contrast to previous studies, high levels of periodontal disease were significantly associated with high FMD values. This

  3. Presentations to general practice before a cancer diagnosis in Victoria: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacey, Karen; Bishop, James F; Cross, Hannah L; Chondros, Patty; Lyratzopoulos, Georgios; Emery, Jon D

    2016-07-18

    To assess variations in the number of general practitioner visits preceding a cancer diagnosis, and in the length of the interval between the patient first suspecting a problem and their seeing a hospital specialist. Analysis of data provided to the Cancer Patient Experience Survey (CPES; survey response rate, 37.7%) by 1552 patients with one of 19 cancer types and treated in one of five Victorian Comprehensive Cancer Centre hospitals, 1 October 2012 - 30 April 2013. The primary outcome was the proportion of patients who had had three or more GP consultations about cancer-related health problems before being referred to hospital. The secondary outcome was the interval between the patient first suspecting a problem and their seeing a hospital specialist. 34% of the patients included in the final analyses (426 of 1248) had visited a GP at least three times before referral to a hospital doctor. The odds ratios (reference: rectal cancer; adjusted for age, sex, language spoken at home, and socio-economic disadvantage index score) varied according to cancer type, being highest for pancreatic cancer (3.2; 95% CI, 1.02-9.9), thyroid cancer (2.5; 95% CI, 0.9-6.6), vulval cancer (2.5; 95% CI, 0.7-8.7) and multiple myeloma (2.4; 95% CI, 1.1-5.5), and lowest for patients with breast cancer (0.4; 95% CI, 0.2-0.8), cervical cancer (0.5; 95% CI, 0.1-2.1), endometrial cancer (0.5; 95% CI, 0.2-1.4) or melanoma (0.7; 95% CI, 0.3-1.5). Cancer type also affected the duration of the interval from symptom onset to seeing a hospital doctor; it took at least 3 months for more than one-third of patients with prostate or colon cancer to see a hospital doctor. Certain cancer types were more frequently associated with multiple GP visits, suggesting they are more challenging to recognise early. In Victoria, longer intervals from the first symptoms to seeing a hospital doctor for colon or prostate cancer may reflect poorer community symptom awareness, later GP referral, or limited access to

  4. Transport methods: general. 2. Monte Carlo Particle Transport in Media with Exponentially Varying Time-Dependent Cross Sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Forrest B.; Martin, William R.

    2001-01-01

    exponential variation in cross section was described in a stepwise approximation using 250 separate regions of constant cross section. For each calculation, transmission through the outer boundary of the slab was tallied. The results show nearly perfect agreement in transmission over the range of exponential parameters for the varying cross section, verifying that the PDF and random-sampling procedure described earlier are correct. A PDF and random-sampling procedure for the distance to collision were derived for the case of exponentially varying cross sections. Numerical testing indicates that both are correct. This new sampling procedure has direct application in a new method for Monte Carlo radiation transport and may be generally useful for analyzing physical problems where the material cross sections change very rapidly in an exponential manner

  5. Development of a general methodology for labelling peptide-morpholino oligonucleotide conjugates using alkyne-azide click chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabanpoor, Fazel; Gait, Michael J

    2013-11-11

    We describe a general methodology for fluorescent labelling of peptide conjugates of phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligonucleotides (PMOs) by alkyne functionalization of peptides, subsequent conjugation to PMOs and labelling with a fluorescent compound (Cy5-azide). Two peptide-PMO (PPMO) examples are shown. No detrimental effect of such labelled PMOs was seen in a biological assay.

  6. Dossier Madagascar - Introduction générale Special section on Madagascar - General introduction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Gommery

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Ce dossier spécial est consacré à Madagascar, le royaume naturel des lémuriens. Douze articles de disciplines diverses ont été regroupés dans le but de présenter une vue générale sur ce qui se fait en primatologie par ou impliquant des francophones. La majorité des travaux présentés concerne la conservation et la protection des lémuriens actuels dont beaucoup sont en danger. Les activités en conservation sont diverses mais les projets relatifs impliquent de plus en plus les relations avec les communautés locales et leur développement. Le soutien et l'engagement de celles-ci est une clé de réussite. Ces projets ne pourraient voir le jour s’il n'y avait pas d'études scientifiques en amont par exemple sur la biologie, le comportement et l'écologie de chaque population ou groupe taxonomique. Pour pouvoir protéger les lémuriens avec l'aide des populations locales, il faut aussi comprendre les traditions et les perceptions des habitants vis-à-vis de ces primates. La diversité des lémuriens était encore plus importante dans un passé assez proche et constitue une partie du patrimoine naturel malgache. Il est important de comprendre le passé pour comprendre l'actuel, et inversement. L'évolution de ces primates reste assez complexe et les recherches récentes permettent de corriger notre vision de celle-ci.This special issue is devoted to Madagascar, the natural kingdom of the lemurs. Twelve articles of various disciplines were gathered to present a general overview on what is done in primatology by or implying French-speaking people. The greatest part of this special issue relates to the conservation and the protection of the extant lemurs of which lot are in danger. The activities in conservation are varied but the projects are more and more in relationship with the local communities and implicated in their development. The support and the commitment of these populations are a key of success. These projects could not come

  7. Quality of life of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia survivors: a study of patients at the Philippine General Hospital trophoblastic disease section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagayan, M Stephanie Fay S; Llarena, Raquel T

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the quality of life (QOL) of patients who were diagnosed with gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN) at the Philippine General Hospital Trophoblastic Disease Section and who were in remission at the time of this study. A cross-sectional descriptive study designed to measure the QOL of all patients diagnosed as having GTN in remission and following up at the Philippine General Hospital Trophoblastic Disease Outpatient Clinic from May-August 2008 (N = 46). This study used the short form 12-question (SF-12) survey forms to evaluate the QOL of patients diagnosed with GTN. Scores from the SF-12 were analyzed using Pearson's correlation. Statistical significance was assumed for p values educational level and physical functioning. A negative correlation was found between the stage of GTN and patients' general health. In conclusion, the survivors' age, educational level and type of treatment had impact on the QOL among GTN survivors in terms of physical functioning. No relationship was established between the demographic variables and mental status. SF-12 appears to be a reliable instrument, suggesting its potential in measuring health status in GTN survivors. Age, educational attainment and type of treatment were shown to have an impact on the QOL of the surviving GTN patients.

  8. CRSEC: a general purpose Hauser--Feshbach code for the calculation of nuclear cross-sections and thermonuclear reaction rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woosley, S.; Fowler, W.A.

    1977-09-01

    CRSEC is a FORTRAN IV computer code designed for the efficient calculation of average nuclear cross sections in situations where a statistical theory of nuclear reactions is applicable and where compound nuclear formation is the dominant reaction mechanism. This code generates cross sections of roughly factor of 2 accuracy for incident particle energies in the range of 10 keV to 10 MeV for most target nuclei from magnesium to bismuth. Exceptions usually involve reactions that enter the compound nucleus at such a low energy that fewer than 10 levels are present in the ''energy window of interest.'' The incident particle must be a neutron, proton, or alpha particle, and only binary reactions resulting in the emission of a single n, p, α, or γ (cascade) are calculated. CRSEC is quite fast, a complete calculation of 12 different reactions over a grid of roughly 150 energy points and the generation of Maxwellian averaged rates taking about 30 seconds of CDC7600 time. Also the semi-empirical parameterization of nuclear properties contained in CRSEC is very general. Greater accuracy may be obtained, however, by furnishing specific low-lying excited states, level density parameterization, and nuclear strength functions. A more general version of CRSEC, called CRSECI, is available that conserves isospin properly in all reactions and allows the user to specify a given degree of isospin mixing in the highly excited states of the compound nucleus. Besides the cross section as a function of center-of-mass energy, CRSEC also generates the Maxwell--Boltzmann averaged thermonuclear reaction rate and temperature dependent nuclear partition function for a grid of temperatures from 10 8 to 10 10 0 K. Sections of this report describe in greater detail the physics employed in CRSEC and how to use the code. 2 tables

  9. Comparison of maternal and fetal outcomes among patients undergoing cesarean section under general and spinal anesthesia: a randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anıl İçel Saygı

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: As the rates of cesarean births have increased, the type of cesarean anesthesia has gained importance. Here, we aimed to compare the effects of general and spinal anesthesia on maternal and fetal outcomes in term singleton cases undergoing elective cesarean section.DESIGN AND SETTING: Prospective randomized controlled clinical trial in a tertiary-level public hospital.METHODS: Our study was conducted on 100 patients who underwent cesarean section due to elective indications. The patients were randomly divided into general anesthesia (n = 50 and spinal anesthesia (n = 50 groups. The maternal pre and postoperative hematological results, intra and postoperative hemodynamic parameters and perinatal results were compared between the groups.RESULTS: Mean bowel sounds (P = 0.036 and gas discharge time (P = 0.049 were significantly greater and 24th hour hemoglobin difference values (P = 0.001 were higher in the general anesthesia group. The mean hematocrit and hemoglobin values at the 24th hour (P = 0.004 and P < 0.001, respectively, urine volume at the first postoperative hour (P < 0.001 and median Apgar score at the first minute (P < 0.0005 were significantly higher, and the time that elapsed until the first requirement for analgesia was significantly longer (P = 0.042, in the spinal anesthesia group.CONCLUSION: In elective cases, spinal anesthesia is superior to general anesthesia in terms of postoperative comfort. In pregnancies with a risk of fetal distress, it would be appropriate to prefer spinal anesthesia by taking the first minute Apgar score into account.

  10. The Effects of General and Epidural Anaesthesia in Maternal’s Stress Hormones and Blood Gases in Elective Cesarean Section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meral EZBERCI

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of general and epidural anaesthesia in maternal’s stress hormones and blood gases in elective cesarean section.\tMATERIALS-METHODS: 50 patients in ASA II (American Society of Anesthesiology class who would undergo elective cesarean section in University of Kahramanmaras Sutcuimam, Department of Anaesthesiology and Reanimation included in the study and randomized into two equal groups (General anaesthesia: Group G and Epidural anaesthesia: Group E. In both groups, maternal stress hormones (TSH, cortisol, and insulin and blood gases were studied. All patients received famotidine and granisetron iv 30 min before operations in premedication room. In the general anaesthesia group; aritmal, propofol, and succinylcholine was used for induction and muscle relaxation. Following the induction, positive pressure ventilation of the lungs was started immediately using a 50% N2O + O2 mixture. After delivery of the baby, anaesthesia and muscle relaxation was maintained by 50% N2O +O2, 0,5-1% MAC isoflurane, and cisatracurium. In the epidural anaesthesia group; epidural anaesthesia was performed with 0,375 % bupivacaine. The epidural needle inserted through L2-3 or L3-4 interspace. After achieving T4-5 neural blockade, the operation was started. In general anaesthesia group; blood samples for maternal stres hormones were taken before induction and after delivery of the baby. In epidural anaesthesia group; blood samples for maternal stres hormones were taken catheter placement and after delivery of the baby. Blood samples for maternal blood gases were taken after the delivery of the baby.\tRESULTS: In both groups; there were statistically significant decrease in maternal TSH and insulin and there were no statistically significant changes in maternal cortisol. In maternal blood gases analyses, only PO2 and SO2 changes were statistically significant between two groups.\tCONCLUSION: With these results

  11. Chemistry in Microfluidic Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chia, Matthew C.; Sweeney, Christina M.; Odom, Teri W.

    2011-01-01

    General chemistry introduces principles such as acid-base chemistry, mixing, and precipitation that are usually demonstrated in bulk solutions. In this laboratory experiment, we describe how chemical reactions can be performed in a microfluidic channel to show advanced concepts such as laminar fluid flow and controlled precipitation. Three sets of…

  12. The Breath of Chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Josephsen, Jens

    The present preliminary text is a short thematic presentation in biological inorganic chemistry meant to illustrate general and inorganic (especially coordination) chemistry in biochemistry. The emphasis is on molecular models to explain features of the complicated mechanisms essential to breathing...

  13. Anion-π Catalysis of Enolate Chemistry: Rigidified Leonard Turns as a General Motif to Run Reactions on Aromatic Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotelle, Yoann; Benz, Sebastian; Avestro, Alyssa-Jennifer; Ward, Thomas R; Sakai, Naomi; Matile, Stefan

    2016-03-18

    To integrate anion-π, cation-π, and ion pair-π interactions in catalysis, the fundamental challenge is to run reactions reliably on aromatic surfaces. Addressing a specific question concerning enolate addition to nitroolefins, this study elaborates on Leonard turns to tackle this problem in a general manner. Increasingly refined turns are constructed to position malonate half thioesters as close as possible on π-acidic surfaces. The resulting preorganization of reactive intermediates is shown to support the disfavored addition to enolate acceptors to an absolutely unexpected extent. This decisive impact on anion-π catalysis increases with the rigidity of the turns. The new, rigidified Leonard turns are most effective with weak anion-π interactions, whereas stronger interactions do not require such ideal substrate positioning to operate well. The stunning simplicity of the motif and its surprisingly strong relevance for function should render the introduced approach generally useful. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Standard Technical Specifications General Electric plants, BWR/4:Bases (Sections 3.4-3.10). Volume 3, Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-04-01

    This report documents the results of the combined effort of the NRC and the industry to produce improved Standard Technical Specifications (STS), Revision 1 for General Electric BWR/4 Plants. The changes reflected in Revision 1 resulted from the experience gained from license amendment applications to convert to these improved STS or to adopt partial improvements to existing technical specifications. This NUREG is the result of extensive public technical meetings and discussions between the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff and various nuclear power plant licensees, Nuclear Steam Supply System (NSSS) Owners Groups, NSSS vendors, and the Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI). The improved STS were developed based on the criteria in the Final Commission Policy Statement on Technical Specifications Improvements for Nuclear Power Reactors, dated July 22, 1993. The improved STS will be used as the basis for individual nuclear power plant licensees to develop improved plant-specific technical specifications. This report contains three volumes. Volume 1 contains the specifications for all chapters and sections of the improved STS. Volume 2 contains he Bases for Chapters 2.0 and 3.0, and Sections 3.1-3.3 of the improved STS. This document, Volume 3, contains the Bases for Sections 3.4-3.10 of the improved STS

  15. Standard Technical Specifications General Electric plants, BWR/4: Bases (Sections 2.0-3.3). Volume 2, Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-04-01

    This report documents the results of the combined effort of the NRC and the industry produce improved Standard Technical Specifications (STS), Revision 1 for General Electric BWR/4 Plants. The changes reflected in Revision 1 resulted from the experience gained from license amendment applications to convert to these improved ST or to adopt partial improvements to existing technical specifications. This NUREG is the result of extensive public technical meetings and discussions between the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff and various nuclear power plant licensees, Nuclear Steam Supply System (NSSS) Owners Groups, NSSS vendors, and the Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI). The improved STS were developed based on the criteria in the Final Commission Policy Statement on Technical Specifications Improvements for Nuclear Power Reactors, dated July 22, 1993. The improved STS will be used as the basis for individual nuclear power plant licensees to develop improved plant-specific technical specifications. This report contains three volumes. Volume I contains the Specifications for all chapters and sections of the improved STS. This document, Volume 2, contains the Bases for Chapters 2.0 and 3.0, and Sections 3.1-3.3 of the improved STS. Volume 3 contains the Bases for Sections 3.4-3.10 of the improved STS

  16. A GENERALIZED CLASS OF TRANSFORMATION MATRICES FOR THE RECONSTRUCTION OF SPHERE SIZE DISTRIBUTIONS FROM SECTION CIRCLE SIZE DISTRIBUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willi Pabst

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A generalized formulation of transformation matrices is given for the reconstruction of sphere diameter distributions from their section circle diameter distributions. This generalized formulation is based on a weight shift parameter that can be adjusted from 0 to 1. It includes the well-known Saltykov and Cruz-Orive transformations as special cases (for parameter values of 0 and 0.5, respectively. The physical meaning of this generalization is explained (showing, among others, that the Woodhead transformation should be bounded by the Saltykov transformation on the one side and by our transformation from the other and its numerical performance is investigated. In particular, it is shown that our generalized transformation is numerically highly unstable, i.e. introduces numerical artefacts (oscillations or even unphysical negative sphere frequencies into the reconstruction, and can lead to completely wrong results when a critical value of the parameter (usually in the range 0.7-0.9, depending on the type of distribution is exceeded. It is shown that this numerical instability is an intrinsic feature of these transformations that depends not only on the weight shift parameter value and is affected both by the type and the position of the distribution. It occurs in a natural way also for the Cruz-Orive and other transformations with finite weight shift parameter values and is not just caused by inadequate input data (e.g. as a consequence of an insufficient number of objects counted, as commonly assumed. Finally it is shown that an even more general class of transformation matrices can be defined that includes, in addition to the aformentioned transformations, also the Wicksell transformation.

  17. Complex chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Bong Gon; Kim, Jae Sang; Kim, Jin Eun; Lee, Boo Yeon

    2006-06-01

    This book introduces complex chemistry with ten chapters, which include development of complex chemistry on history coordination theory and Warner's coordination theory and new development of complex chemistry, nomenclature on complex with conception and define, chemical formula on coordination compound, symbol of stereochemistry, stereo structure and isomerism, electron structure and bond theory on complex, structure of complex like NMR and XAFS, balance and reaction on solution, an organo-metallic chemistry, biology inorganic chemistry, material chemistry of complex, design of complex and calculation chemistry.

  18. Astronomical chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemperer, William

    2011-01-01

    The discovery of polar polyatomic molecules in higher-density regions of the interstellar medium by means of their rotational emission detected by radioastronomy has changed our conception of the universe from essentially atomic to highly molecular. We discuss models for molecule formation, emphasizing the general lack of thermodynamic equilibrium. Detailed chemical kinetics is needed to understand molecule formation as well as destruction. Ion molecule reactions appear to be an important class for the generally low temperatures of the interstellar medium. The need for the intrinsically high-quality factor of rotational transitions to definitively pin down molecular emitters has been well established by radioastronomy. The observation of abundant molecular ions both positive and, as recently observed, negative provides benchmarks for chemical kinetic schemes. Of considerable importance in guiding our understanding of astronomical chemistry is the fact that the larger molecules (with more than five atoms) are all organic.

  19. Mathematical Chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Trinajstić, Nenad; Gutman, Ivan

    2002-01-01

    A brief description is given of the historical development of mathematics and chemistry. A path leading to the meeting of these two sciences is described. An attempt is made to define mathematical chemistry, and journals containing the term mathematical chemistry in their titles are noted. In conclusion, the statement is made that although chemistry is an experimental science aimed at preparing new compounds and materials, mathematics is very useful in chemistry, among other things, to produc...

  20. Enzyme-Initiated Quinone-Chitosan Conjugation Chemistry: Toward A General in Situ Strategy for High-Throughput Photoelectrochemical Enzymatic Bioanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guang-Li; Yuan, Fang; Gu, Tiantian; Dong, Yuming; Wang, Qian; Zhao, Wei-Wei

    2018-02-06

    Herein we report a general and novel strategy for high-throughput photoelectrochemical (PEC) enzymatic bioanalysis on the basis of enzyme-initiated quinone-chitosan conjugation chemistry (QCCC). Specifically, the strategy was illustrated by using a model quinones-generating oxidase of tyrosinase (Tyr) to catalytically produce 1,2-bezoquinone or its derivative, which can easily and selectively be conjugated onto the surface of the chitosan deposited PbS/NiO/FTO photocathode via the QCCC. Upon illumination, the covalently attached quinones could act as electron acceptors of PbS quantum dots (QDs), improving the photocurrent generation and thus allowing the elegant probing of Tyr activity. Enzyme cascades, such as alkaline phosphatase (ALP)/Tyr and β-galactosidase (Gal)/Tyr, were further introduced into the system for the successful probing of the corresponding targets. This work features not only the first use of QCCC in PEC bioanalysis but also the separation of enzymatic reaction from the photoelectrode as well as the direct signal recording in a split-type protocol, which enables quite convenient and high-throughput detection as compared to previous formats. More importantly, by using numerous other oxidoreductases that involve quinones as reactants/products, this protocol could serve as a common basis for the development of a new class of QCCC-based PEC enzymatic bioanalysis and further extended for general enzyme-labeled PEC bioanalysis of versatile targets.

  1. Maternal and neonatal effects of nalbuphine given immediately before induction of general anesthesia for elective cesarean section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabry M Amin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although nalbuphine was studied extensively in labour analgesia and was proved to be acceptable analgesics during delivery, its use as premedication before induction of general anesthesia for cesarean section is not studied. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of nalbuphine given before induction of general anesthesia for cesarean section on quality of general anesthesia, maternal stress response, and neonatal outcome. Methods: Sixty full term pregnant women scheduled for elective cesarean section, randomly classified into two equal groups, group N received nalbuphine 0.2 mg/kg diluted in 10 ml of normal saline (n=30, and group C placebo (n=30 received 10 ml of normal saline 1 min before the induction of general anesthesia. Maternal heart rate and blood pressure were measured before, after induction, during surgery, and after recovery. Neonates were assisted by using APGAR0 scores, time to sustained respiration, and umbilical cord blood gas analysis. Result: Maternal heart rate showed significant increase in control group than nalbuphine group after intubation (88.2±4.47 versus 80.1±4.23, P<0.0001 and during surgery till delivery of baby (90.8±2.39 versus 82.6±2.60, P<0.0001 and no significant changes between both groups after delivery. MABP increased in control group than nalbuphine group after intubation (100.55±6.29 versus 88.75±6.09, P<0.0001 and during surgery till delivery of baby (98.50±2.01 versus 90.50±2.01, P<0.0001 and no significant changes between both groups after delivery. APGAR score was significantly low at one minute in nalbuphine group than control group (6.75±2.3, 8.5±0.74, respectively, P=0.0002 (27% of nalbuphine group APGAR score ranged between 4-6, while 7% in control group APGAR score ranged between 4-6 at one minute. All neonates at five minutes showed APGAR score ranged between 9-10. Time to sustained respiration was significantly longer in nalbuphine group than control group (81.8

  2. Internet health seeking behaviour of parents attending a general paediatric outpatient clinic: A cross-sectional observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebelefsky, Christian; Karner, Denise; Voitl, Jasmin; Klein, Frederic; Voitl, Peter; Böck, Andreas

    2015-10-01

    Our aim was to examine the internet health seeking behaviour of parents attending a general paediatric outpatient clinic. For this purpose, the proportion of parents going online to obtain child health information, the most commonly used online resources, and factors having an influence on internet usage were identified. This cross-sectional observational study was conducted at a general paediatric outpatient clinic in Vienna, Austria. Data collection was done by means of an anonymous questionnaire containing 14 items. A total number of 500 questionnaires were collected. Among parents visiting the outpatient clinic, 94.4% use the internet to obtain child health information in general and 21% to be informed about the reason for consultation. Most commonly used online resources are Google (91.4%), websites run by doctors (84.8%), Wikipedia (84.7%), health portals (76.4%), the outpatient clinic's homepage (76.4%), as well as health forums and communities (61.9%). Younger parents (p = 0.022) and parents of younger children (p parents with different completed educational levels (mothers: p = 0.078; fathers: p = 0.388) do not differ in this behaviour. Important reasons for high internet use might be the inexperience of young parents regarding child health as well as the frequent infections, vaccinations, and preventive check-ups which are associated with young age of children. In contrast to former findings relating to health seekers in general, internet usage of parents is independent of their sex and educational level. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. Annual report 1985 Chemistry Department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This annual report describes the activities carried out in 1985 by the Chemistry Department in the following fields: Chemistry, Inorganic Chemistry, Physicochemistry (Interphases, Surfaces), General Chemical Analysis, Active Materials Analysis, X Ray Fluorescence Analysis, Mass Spectroscopy (Isotopic Analysis, Instrumentation) and Optical Spectroscopy. A list of publications is enclosed. (M.E.L.) [es

  4. Maintaining capacity for in-practice teaching and supervision of students and general practice trainees: a cross-sectional study of early career general practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catzikiris, Nigel; Tapley, Amanda; Morgan, Simon; Holliday, Elizabeth G; Ball, Jean; Henderson, Kim; Elliott, Taryn; Spike, Neil; Regan, Cathy; Magin, Parker

    2017-08-10

    Objectives Expanding learner cohorts of medical students and general practitioner (GP) vocational trainees and the impending retirement of the 'baby boomer' GP cohort threaten the teaching and supervisory capacity of the Australian GP workforce. Engaging newly qualified GPs is essential to sustaining this workforce training capacity. The aim of the present study was to establish the prevalence and associations of in-practice clinical teaching and supervision in early career GPs. Methods The present study was a cross-sectional questionnaire-based study of recent (within 5 years) alumni of three of Australia's 17 regional general practice training programs. The outcome factor was whether the alumnus taught or supervised medical students, GP registrars or other learners in their current practice. Logistic regression analysis was used to establish associations of teaching and supervision with independent variables comprising alumnus demographics, current practice characteristics and vocational training experiences. Results In all, 230 alumni returned questionnaires (response rate 37.4%). Of currently practising alumni, 52.4% (95% confidence interval (CI) 45.6-59.0%) reported current teaching or supervisory activities. Factors significantly (Pinterest in and undertaking of teaching roles have been documented for GP or family medicine trainees, studies investigating the engagement in these clinical roles by GPs during their early post-training period are lacking. What does this paper add? This paper is the first to document the prevalence of teaching and supervision undertaken by early career GPs as part of their regular clinical practice. We also demonstrate associations of practice rurality, country of medical graduation and undertaking non-practice-based clinical roles with GPs' engagement in teaching and supervisory roles. What are the implications for practitioners? Establishing current teaching patterns of GPs enables appropriate targeting of new strategies to

  5. Calculation of 3-D free electron laser gain: Comparison with simulation and generalization to elliptical cross section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chin, Yong Ho; Kim, Kwang-Je; Xie, Ming.

    1992-08-01

    In the previous paper, we have derived a dispersion relation for the free electron laser (FEL) gain in the exponential regime taking account the diffraction and electron's betatron oscillation. Here, we compare the growth rates obtained by solving the dispersion relation with those obtained by simulation calculation for the waterbag and the Gaussian models for the electron's transverse phase space distribution. The agreement is found to be good except for the limiting case where the Rayleigh length is much longer than the gain length (1-D limit). We also generalize the analysis to the case where the electron beam cross section is elliptical as is usually the case in storage rings, and derive the first-order dispersion relation

  6. Combustion chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, N.J. [Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, CA (United States)

    1993-12-01

    This research is concerned with the development and use of sensitivity analysis tools to probe the response of dependent variables to model input variables. Sensitivity analysis is important at all levels of combustion modeling. This group`s research continues to be focused on elucidating the interrelationship between features in the underlying potential energy surface (obtained from ab initio quantum chemistry calculations) and their responses in the quantum dynamics, e.g., reactive transition probabilities, cross sections, and thermal rate coefficients. The goals of this research are: (i) to provide feedback information to quantum chemists in their potential surface refinement efforts, and (ii) to gain a better understanding of how various regions in the potential influence the dynamics. These investigations are carried out with the methodology of quantum functional sensitivity analysis (QFSA).

  7. The presence of resuscitation equipment and influencing factors at General Practitioners' offices in Denmark: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niegsch, Mark L; Krarup, Nikolaj T; Clausen, Niels Erikstrup

    2014-01-01

    Automated external defibrillators (AEDs) have proven effective when used by GPs. Despite this and the latest guidelines from the European Resuscitation Council, there are no recommendations for Danish GPs regarding proper equipment to treat cardiac arrest. Currently, there are no published data on the distribution of AEDs among GPs in Denmark. To assess the prevalence of resuscitation equipment and educated staff among Danish GPs and the parameters influencing the absence of AEDs at GP offices. A cross-sectional questionnaire-based survey among the 2030 GPs registered in Denmark. Questions concerned demographics, occurrence of resuscitation equipment and attitude towards acquisition of an AED. With a response rate >70%, we found that the prevalence of AEDs in GP offices is low (31.7%). Limited financial possibilities and relevant treatment by ambulance personnel were stated as the primary causes for not having an AED. In general, Danish primary care physicians believe that AEDs should be governmentally sponsored. Positive influential factors on the acquisition of an AED were education, number of physicians in the GP office and previous experience of cardiac arrest. Danish primary care physicians are generally not equipped with AEDs despite the proven effect of AEDs in GP offices. The main reasons for not acquiring an AED are financial considerations and believing that response time by ambulance services and nearby health facilities are the optimal treatment. We recommend better education and information in order to facilitate future acquisition of AEDs among GPs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A cross sectional study of surgical training among United Kingdom general practitioners with specialist interests in surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, H J M; Fitzgerald, J E F; Reilly, J; Beamish, A J; Gokani, V J

    2015-04-08

    Increasing numbers of minor surgical procedures are being performed in the community. In the UK, general practitioners (family medicine physicians) with a specialist interest (GPwSI) in surgery frequently undertake them. This shift has caused decreases in available cases for junior surgeons to gain and consolidate operative skills. This study evaluated GPwSI's case-load, procedural training and perceptions of offering formalised operative training experience to surgical trainees. Prospective, questionnaire-based cross-sectional study. A novel, 13-item, self-administered questionnaire was distributed to members of the Association of Surgeons in Primary Care (ASPC). A total 113 of 120 ASPC members completed the questionnaire, representing a 94% response rate. Respondents were general practitioners practising or intending to practice surgery in the community. Respondents performed a mean of 38 (range 5-150) surgical procedures per month in primary care. 37% (42/113) of respondents had previously been awarded Membership or Fellowship of a Surgical Royal College; 22% (25/113) had completed a surgical certificate or diploma or undertaken a course of less than 1 year duration. 41% (46/113) had no formal British surgical qualifications. All respondents believed that surgical training in primary care could be valuable for surgical trainees, and the majority (71/113, 63%) felt that both general practice and surgical trainees could benefit equally from such training. There is a significant volume of surgical procedures being undertaken in the community by general practitioners, with the capacity and appetite for training of prospective surgeons in this setting, providing appropriate standards are achieved and maintained, commensurate with current standards in secondary care. Surgical experience and training of GPwSI's in surgery is highly varied, and does not yet benefit from the quality assurance secondary care surgical training in the UK undergoes. The Royal Colleges of

  9. Non-physician-assisted suicide in The Netherlands: a cross-sectional survey among the general public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoonman, Merel Kristi; van Thiel, Ghislaine José Madeleine Wilhelmien; van Delden, Johannes Jozef Marten

    2014-12-01

    In The Netherlands, approximately 45% of patients' requests for euthanasia are granted by a physician. After a rejected request, some patients approach non-physicians and ask them for assistance in suicide. Recently, a non-physician who assisted his mother's suicide was declared guilty without punishment. The aim of the current study was to investigate the opinion of the Dutch general public on non-physician-assisted suicide. A cross-sectional survey among the Dutch general public was performed. A total of 1113 respondents were included (response rate 80%). The survey covered two case descriptions in which a patient asks a non-physician for assisted suicide after a non-granted request for physician-assisted dying. In both cases, a son, friend or professional facilitates the suicide by either the provision of information or the purchase of lethal medication. Respondents were invited to give their opinion on these cases and in addition on 10 propositions on non-physician-assisted suicide. When a son provides information on how to acquire lethal medication in case of a patient with a terminal illness, this involvement is accepted by 62% of the respondents. The actual purchase of lethal medication receives less support (38%). If the patient suffers without a serious disease, both forms of assistance are less accepted (46% and 24%, respectively). In addition, only 21% support the legalisation of non-physician-assisted suicide. The Dutch public prefer involvement of a physician in assisted suicide (69%). The Dutch general public consider non-physician-assisted suicide in some specific cases a tolerable alternative for patients with a rejected request for physician-assisted dying if the assistance is limited to the provision of information. However, the majority do not support the legalisation of non-physician-assisted suicide. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  10. Socioeconomic inequalities in general and psychological health among adolescents: a cross-sectional study in senior high schools in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zissi Anastasia

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Socioeconomic health inequalities in adolescence are not consistently reported. This may be due to the measurement of self-reported general health, which probably fails to fully capture the psychological dimension of health, and the reliance on traditional socio-economic indicators, such as parental education or occupational status. The present study aimed at investigating this issue using simple questions to assess both the physical and psychological dimension of health and a broader set of socioeconomic indicators than previously used. Methods This was a cross-sectional survey of 5614 adolescents aged 16-18 years-old from 25 senior high schools in Greece. Self-reported general and psychological health were both measured by means of a simple Likert-type question. We assessed the following socio-economic variables: parents' education, parents' employment status, a subjective assessment of the financial difficulties experienced by the family and adolescents' own academic performance as a measure of the personal social position in the school setting. Results One out of ten (10% and one out of three (32% adolescents did not enjoy good general and psychological health respectively. For both health variables robust associations were found in adolescents who reported more financial difficulties in the family and had worse academic performance. The latter was associated with psychological health in a more linear way. Father's unemployment showed a non-significant trend for an association with worse psychological health in girls only. Conclusions Socioeconomic inequalities exist in this period of life but are more easily demonstrated with more subjective socioeconomic indicators, especially for the psychological dimension of health.

  11. Association between social support and depression in the general population: the HUNT study, a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grav, Siv; Hellzèn, Ove; Romild, Ulla; Stordal, Eystein

    2012-01-01

    The aim was to investigate the associations between perceived social support and depression in a general population in relation to gender and age. Social support is seen as one of the social determinants for overall health in the general population. Studies have found higher probability of experiencing depression among people who have a lack of social support; evidence from the general population has been more limited. Subjective perception that support would be available if needed may reduce and prevent depression and unnecessary suffering. A cross-sectional survey with self-reported health was used. A total of 40,659 men and women aged 20-89 years living in Nord-Trøndelag County of Norway with valid ratings of depression subscale of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale in the The Nord-Trøndelag Health Study 3 were used. Logistic regression was used to quantify associations between two types of perceived support (emotional and tangible) and depression. Gender, age and interaction effects were controlled for in the final model. The main finding was that self-rated perceived support was significantly associated with Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-defined depression, even after controlling for age and gender; emotional support (OR = 3·14) and tangible support (OR = 2·93). The effects of emotional and tangible support differ between genders. Interaction effects were found for age groups and both emotional and tangible support. Self-rated perceived functional social support is associated with Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-defined depression. In the group of older people who have a lack of social support, women seem to need more emotional support and men tangible support. Health care providers should consider the close association between social support and depression in their continuing care, particularly in the older people. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. Prevalence of fragrance contact allergy in the general population of five European countries: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diepgen, T L; Ofenloch, R; Bruze, M; Cazzaniga, S; Coenraads, P J; Elsner, P; Goncalo, M; Svensson, Å; Naldi, L

    2015-12-01

    Contact allergy to fragrances is assessed mostly in clinical populations of patients. Studies in the general population are scarce and vary in their methodology across countries. To determine the prevalence of fragrance contact allergy in the European general population and to assess the clinical relevance of positive patch test reactions to different fragrances. In five European countries (Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal and Sweden) a random sample from the general population aged 18-74 years was drawn. In total, 12 377 subjects were interviewed in this cross-sectional study and a random sample (n = 3119) was patch tested using the TRUE Test and Finn Chamber techniques. Patch test procedures were harmonized by mandatory training before the study and monitoring during the study. The highest prevalence for contact allergy of 2·6% [95% confidence interval (CI) 2·1-3·2] was found for fragrance mix (FM) I in petrolatum, with a high content of atranol and chloratranol, followed by 1·9% (95% CI 1·5-2·4) for FM II in petrolatum. The conservatively estimated prevalence of fragrance contact allergy was 1·9% (95% CI 1·5-2·5). This is defined as the existence of a positive patch test to FM I or FM II; any of their individual materials; Myroxylon pereirae; sesquiterpene lactones or 3- and 4-hydroxyisohexyl 3-cyclohexene carboxaldehyde that show clinical relevance, defined conservatively as lifetime avoidance of scented products and an itchy skin rash lasting > 3 days in a lifetime. Using the reported lifetime prevalence of any contact dermatitis instead of the lifetime prevalence of any itchy skin rash, the prevalence is 0·8% (95% CI 0·5-1·2). The prevalence rates of contact allergy to fragrances in women are about twice those in men. This study helps to identify targets for prevention of fragrance allergy. © 2015 British Association of Dermatologists.

  13. Materials of the yearly scientific assembly of the Polish Chemical Society - Torun'93: chemistry of new materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Scientific conference accompanied the assembly of Polish Chemical Society has been held in 1993 in Torun. The conference has been divided into 12 sections and 4 symposia covering the most important research fields in chemistry. The general view on scientific progress has been presented during the plenary session. Then proceedings have performed in specialist sessions on: contemporary methods in organic chemistry chemistry, chemistry and physico-chemistry of polymers, coordination chemistry state-of-the-art prospects, absorption and absorbents, new chemical technologies of organic compounds, new chemical technologies of inorganic compounds, environment protection, new methods in analytical chemistry, photochemistry and chemical kinetics, crystallochemistry, history of chemistry and didactics, new substances in health protection, membranes and membrane techniques, electroactive organic compounds, zeolites - material properties

  14. General Aspects and First Progress Report on a Frame of a Research on Specific Professional Knowledge of Chemistry Teachers Associated with the Notion of Chemical Nomenclature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Andrés Perafán Echeverri

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Within the framework of research about professional teacher’s knowledge, our business is to identify and to characterize with case study method, a kind of specific professional teacher´s knowledge of Chemistry professorate, associated to the chemical nomenclature notion. This kind of research guides the sight to the teaching contents, but it postulates the teacher as an essential actor of that knowledge, rather than ignore of the other actors (didactic community, researchers, specialists, students, etc. our research realizes the specific construction that the teacher makes, beyond the «spontaneous epistemologies» category, between others, which seems to deny an academic and discipline character of the built knowledge by the teachers. First, we show a brief reference to the research program on professional teacher´s knowledge which frames in the development of research line about Specific Professional Teacher´s Knowledge associated with Particular Categories, which belongs to the research group «Por las Aulas Colombianas- INVAUCOL». After that, we show a short justification about the choice of the particular category: chemical nomenclature, as a studied object, besides the historical importance that it has to the professional teaching consolidation, recognizing the teacher´s specific contributions to discipline body construction of school knowledge. Finally, weset in consideration some general methodological criteria defined in this research, and we show too, some preliminary reflections derived from field work in thepresent state of the project.

  15. General Synthesis of Transition-Metal Oxide Hollow Nanospheres/Nitrogen-Doped Graphene Hybrids by Metal-Ammine Complex Chemistry for High-Performance Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiayuan; Wu, Xiaofeng; Gong, Yan; Wang, Pengfei; Li, Wenhui; Mo, Shengpeng; Peng, Shengpan; Tan, Qiangqiang; Chen, Yunfa

    2018-02-09

    We present a general and facile synthesis strategy, on the basis of metal-ammine complex chemistry, for synthesizing hollow transition-metal oxides (Co 3 O 4 , NiO, CuO-Cu 2 O, and ZnO)/nitrogen-doped graphene hybrids, potentially applied in high-performance lithium-ion batteries. The oxygen-containing functional groups of graphene oxide play a prerequisite role in the formation of hollow transition-metal oxides on graphene nanosheets, and a significant hollowing process occurs only when forming metal (Co 2+ , Ni 2+ , Cu 2+ , or Zn 2+ )-ammine complex ions. Moreover, the hollowing process is well correlated with the complexing capacity between metal ions and NH 3 molecules. The significant hollowing process occurs for strong metal-ammine complex ions including Co 2+ , Ni 2+ , Cu 2+ , and Zn 2+ ions, and no hollow structures formed for weak and/or noncomplex Mn 2+ and Fe 3+ ions. Simultaneously, this novel strategy can also achieve the direct doping of nitrogen atoms into the graphene framework. The electrochemical performance of two typical hollow Co 3 O 4 or NiO/nitrogen-doped graphene hybrids was evaluated by their use as anodic materials. It was demonstrated that these unique nanostructured hybrids, in contrast with the bare counterparts, solid transition-metal oxides/nitrogen-doped graphene hybrids, perform with significantly improved specific capacity, superior rate capability, and excellent capacity retention. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Identifying current training provision and future training needs in allergy available for UK general practice trainees: national cross-sectional survey of General Practitioner Specialist Training programme directors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Jayne; Rafi, Imran; Smith, Helen; Sheikh, Aziz

    2013-03-01

    There are ongoing concerns about the quality of care provision for allergy in primary care. To identify current training provision in allergy to GP trainees and to understand how this could be enhanced. A cross-sectional survey of GP Speciality Training (GPST) programme directors was undertaken. Programme directors of the 174 GPST schemes were sent an online questionnaire which was informed by the content of the Royal College of General Practitioners curriculum. Quantitative data were descriptively analysed and a thematic analysis was undertaken of free text responses. We obtained responses from 146 directors representing 106 training programmes. Responses indicated that two-thirds (62%, 95% CI 53.1 to 71.5) of programmes were providing at least some allergy training, with the remaining third stating that they either provided no training or were unsure. Overall, one-third (33%, 95% CI 22.7 to 42.2) of programme directors believed that all the relevant allergy-related curriculum requirements were being met. Where provided, this training was believed to be best for organ-specific allergic disorders but was thought to be poorer for systemic allergic disorders, particularly food allergy where 67% (95% CI 57.5 to 76.5) of respondents indicated that training was poor. There was considerable interest in increasing the allergy training provided, preferably through eLearning modules and problem-based learning materials supported by those with relevant specialist knowledge. This UK-wide survey has identified important gaps in the training of GP trainees in relation to allergy care. Addressing these gaps, particularly in the management of systemic allergic disorders, should help to improve delivery of primary care-based allergy care.

  17. Chemistry Notes

    Science.gov (United States)

    School Science Review, 1976

    1976-01-01

    Described are eight chemistry experiments and demonstrations applicable to introductory chemistry courses. Activities include: measure of lattice enthalpy, Le Chatelier's principle, decarboxylation of soap, use of pocket calculators in pH measurement, and making nylon. (SL)

  18. Chemistry Dashboard

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Chemistry Dashboard is part of a suite of dashboards developed by EPA to help evaluate the safety of chemicals. The Chemistry Dashboard provides access to a variety of information on over 700,000 chemicals currently in use.

  19. 42 CFR 493.839 - Condition: Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Condition: Chemistry. 493.839 Section 493.839... These Tests § 493.839 Condition: Chemistry. The specialty of chemistry includes for the purposes of proficiency testing the subspecialties of routine chemistry, endocrinology, and toxicology. ...

  20. Combinatorial chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, John

    1994-01-01

    An overview of combinatorial chemistry is presented. Combinatorial chemistry, sometimes referred to as `irrational drug design,' involves the generation of molecular diversity. The resulting chemical library is then screened for biologically active compounds.......An overview of combinatorial chemistry is presented. Combinatorial chemistry, sometimes referred to as `irrational drug design,' involves the generation of molecular diversity. The resulting chemical library is then screened for biologically active compounds....

  1. Aquatic Chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dong Yeun; Kim, Oh Sik; Kim, Chang Guk; Park, Cheong Gil; Lee, Gwi Hyeon; Lee, Cheol Hui

    1987-07-01

    This book deals aquatic chemistry, which treats water and environment, chemical kinetics, chemical balance like dynamical characteristic, and thermodynamics, acid-base chemistry such as summary, definition, kinetics, and PH design for mixture of acid-base chemistry, complex chemistry with definition, and kinetics, precipitation and dissolution on summary, kinetics of precipitation and dissolution, and balance design oxidation and resolution with summary, balance of oxidation and resolution.

  2. Positronium chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Green, James

    1964-01-01

    Positronium Chemistry focuses on the methodologies, reactions, processes, and transformations involved in positronium chemistry. The publication first offers information on positrons and positronium and experimental methods, including mesonic atoms, angular correlation measurements, annihilation spectra, and statistical errors in delayed coincidence measurements. The text then ponders on positrons in gases and solids. The manuscript takes a look at the theoretical chemistry of positronium and positronium chemistry in gases. Topics include quenching, annihilation spectrum, delayed coincidence

  3. avoiding general chemistry textbooks' misrepresentations

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    IICBA01

    As it has been stated before, it was found [25, 26] that 40% of first-year university ... Table 1. Glossary of equilibrium constant terms for a given chemical equilibrium ..... Notation for States and Processes, Significance of the Word Standard in.

  4. S.E.A. Lab. Science Experiments and Activities. Marine Science for High School Students in Chemistry, Biology and Physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Kathy, Ed.

    A series of science experiments and activities designed for secondary school students taking biology, chemistry, physics, physical science or marine science courses are outlined. Each of the three major sections--chemistry, biology, and physics--addresses concepts that are generally covered in those courses but incorporates aspects of marine…

  5. Fundamentals of quantum chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    House, J E

    2004-01-01

    An introduction to the principles of quantum mechanics needed in physical chemistry. Mathematical tools are presented and developed as needed and only basic calculus, chemistry, and physics is assumed. Applications include atomic and molecular structure, spectroscopy, alpha decay, tunneling, and superconductivity. New edition includes sections on perturbation theory, orbital symmetry of diatomic molecules, the Huckel MO method and Woodward/Hoffman rules as well as a new chapter on SCF and Hartree-Fock methods. * This revised text clearly presents basic q

  6. Discovery of a general method of solving the Schrödinger and dirac equations that opens a way to accurately predictive quantum chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakatsuji, Hiroshi

    2012-09-18

    Just as Newtonian law governs classical physics, the Schrödinger equation (SE) and the relativistic Dirac equation (DE) rule the world of chemistry. So, if we can solve these equations accurately, we can use computation to predict chemistry precisely. However, for approximately 80 years after the discovery of these equations, chemists believed that they could not solve SE and DE for atoms and molecules that included many electrons. This Account reviews ideas developed over the past decade to further the goal of predictive quantum chemistry. Between 2000 and 2005, I discovered a general method of solving the SE and DE accurately. As a first inspiration, I formulated the structure of the exact wave function of the SE in a compact mathematical form. The explicit inclusion of the exact wave function's structure within the variational space allows for the calculation of the exact wave function as a solution of the variational method. Although this process sounds almost impossible, it is indeed possible, and I have published several formulations and applied them to solve the full configuration interaction (CI) with a very small number of variables. However, when I examined analytical solutions for atoms and molecules, the Hamiltonian integrals in their secular equations diverged. This singularity problem occurred in all atoms and molecules because it originates from the singularity of the Coulomb potential in their Hamiltonians. To overcome this problem, I first introduced the inverse SE and then the scaled SE. The latter simpler idea led to immediate and surprisingly accurate solution for the SEs of the hydrogen atom, helium atom, and hydrogen molecule. The free complement (FC) method, also called the free iterative CI (free ICI) method, was efficient for solving the SEs. In the FC method, the basis functions that span the exact wave function are produced by the Hamiltonian of the system and the zeroth-order wave function. These basis functions are called complement

  7. Intimate partner violence and ways of coping with stress: cross-sectional survey of female patients in Russian general practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokhmatkina, Natalia V; Agnew-Davies, Roxane; Costelloe, Ceire; Kuznetsova, Olga Yu; Nikolskaya, Irina M; Feder, Gene S

    2015-04-01

    Despite World Health Organization guidelines on health service responses to intimate partner violence (IPV) against women general practitioners (GPs) often overlook the problem. Training on IPV addresses GPs' barriers to asking women patients about abuse and responding appropriately. One of the barriers is stereotype of women as passive victims. Little is known about coping behaviour of women patients with a history of IPV. The objectives are (i) to compare problem- and emotion-focused coping used by patients who have experienced IPV with those who have not; (ii) to examine whether greater coping resources (health, education, employment and income) would be associated with more problem-focused coping. The Russian Ways of Coping Questionnaire was administered to every fifth woman who participated in a cross-sectional survey on IPV prevalence in 24 St Petersburg general practices. Linear regression was used (n = 159) to test associations between life-time IPV, coping resources and ways of coping. Mean problem-focused coping scores were 0.2-4.7 units higher in those patients who have experienced IPV compared with those who have not [95% confidence interval (CI): -4.2, 11.9; P = 0.16-0.92], while mean emotion-focused coping scores were 2.5-4.2 units higher (95% CI: -3.0, 11.0; P = 0.12-0.57). After adjustment for coping resources there was no evidence for an association between IPV and problem-focused coping. Patients who have experienced IPV use as much problem-focused and emotion-focused coping, as those patients who have not experienced IPV. These findings should be incorporated into training on IPV to address GPs' stereotypes towards patients who have experienced IPV. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Workplace violence in different settings and among various health professionals in an Italian general hospital: a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferri, Paola; Silvestri, Monica; Artoni, Cecilia; Di Lorenzo, Rosaria

    2016-01-01

    Background Workplace violence (WPV) against health professionals is a global problem with an increasing incidence. The aims of this study were as follows: 1) to examine the frequency and characteristics of WPV in different settings and professionals of a general hospital and 2) to identify the clinical and organizational factors related to this phenomenon. Methods The study was cross-sectional. In a 1-month period, we administered the “Violent Incident Form” to 745 professionals (physicians, head nurses, nurses, nursing assistants), who worked in 15 wards of a general hospital in northern Italy. Results With a response rate of 56%, 45% of professionals reported WPV. The most frequently assaulted were nurses (67%), followed by nursing assistants (18%) and physicians (12%). The first two categories were correlated, in a statistically significant way, with the risk of WPV (P=0.005, P=0.004, multiple logistic regression). The violent incidents more frequently occurred in psychiatry department (86%), emergency department (71%), and in geriatric wards (57%). The assailants more frequently were males whereas assaulted professionals more often were females. Men committed physical violence more frequently than women, in a statistically significant way (P=0.034, chi-squared test). Verbal violence (51%) was often committed by people in a lucid and normal state of consciousness; physical violence (49%) was most often perpetrated by assailants affected by dementia, mental retardation, drug and substance abuse, or other psychiatric disorders. The variables positively related to WPV were “calling for help during the attack” and “physical injuries suffered in violent attack” (P=0.02, P=0.03, multiple logistic regression). Conclusion This study suggests that violence is a significant phenomenon and that all health workers, especially nurses, are at risk of suffering aggressive assaults. WPV presented specific characteristics related to the health care settings, where

  9. Forensic Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Suzanne

    2009-07-01

    Forensic chemistry is unique among chemical sciences in that its research, practice, and presentation must meet the needs of both the scientific and the legal communities. As such, forensic chemistry research is applied and derivative by nature and design, and it emphasizes metrology (the science of measurement) and validation. Forensic chemistry has moved away from its analytical roots and is incorporating a broader spectrum of chemical sciences. Existing forensic practices are being revisited as the purview of forensic chemistry extends outward from drug analysis and toxicology into such diverse areas as combustion chemistry, materials science, and pattern evidence.

  10. Workplace violence in different settings and among various health professionals in an Italian general hospital: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferri P

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Paola Ferri,1 Monica Silvestri,1 Cecilia Artoni,2 Rosaria Di Lorenzo3 1Department of Diagnostic, Clinical and Public Health Medicine, School of Nursing, 2School of Psychiatry, University of Modena and Reggio, 3Department of Mental Health, Service of Psychiatric Diagnosis and Treatment, Modena, Italy Background: Workplace violence (WPV against health professionals is a global problem with an increasing incidence. The aims of this study were as follows: 1 to examine the frequency and characteristics of WPV in different settings and professionals of a general hospital and 2 to identify the clinical and organizational factors related to this phenomenon. Methods: The study was cross-sectional. In a 1-month period, we administered the “Violent Incident Form” to 745 professionals (physicians, head nurses, nurses, nursing assistants, who worked in 15 wards of a general hospital in northern Italy. Results: With a response rate of 56%, 45% of professionals reported WPV. The most frequently assaulted were nurses (67%, followed by nursing assistants (18% and physicians (12%. The first two categories were correlated, in a statistically significant way, with the risk of WPV (P=0.005, P=0.004, multiple logistic regression. The violent incidents more frequently occurred in psychiatry department (86%, emergency department (71%, and in geriatric wards (57%. The assailants more frequently were males whereas assaulted professionals more often were females. Men committed physical violence more frequently than women, in a statistically significant way (P=0.034, chi-squared test. Verbal violence (51% was often committed by people in a lucid and normal state of consciousness; physical violence (49% was most often perpetrated by assailants affected by dementia, mental retardation, drug and substance abuse, or other psychiatric disorders. The variables positively related to WPV were “calling for help during the attack” and “physical injuries suffered in violent

  11. Síntese de biodiesel: uma proposta contextualizada de experimento para laboratório de química geral Synthesis of biodiesel: a contextualized experiment proposal for the general chemistry laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Rinaldi

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The contextualized understanding of concepts in Chemistry by students from other areas is a challenging task. In this experiment, the synthesis of biodiesel is done by base catalyzed transesterification of refined soy oil with methanol at room temperature and common glassware found in any chemistry laboratory. The proposal permits introducing several concepts, such as that of emulsion, viscosity and catalysis to illustrate an activity based on an actual problem. In this didactic approach, some common problems of biodiesel production, such as soap formation and phase separation, are introduced into the procedure in order to raise questions and motivate the students to participate in the experimental work and stimulate reflections about critical aspects of biodiesel production. This experiment was carried out in the first semester of 2006, in experimental general chemistry taken by physics and agricultural, civil and chemical engineering students of UNICAMP.

  12. Development of a mathematical model for a single alkaline membrane fuel cell (AMFC) with fixed volume and general square section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sommer, Elise Meister; Vargas, Jose Viriato Coelho [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Centro Politecnico. Setor de Tecnologia], Email: jvargas@demec.ufpr.br; Martins, Lauber de Souza; Ordonez, Juan Carlos [Florida State University, Tallahasse, FL (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering and Center for Advanced Power Systems], Emails: martins@caps.fsu.edu, ordonez@eng.fsu.edu

    2010-07-01

    The Alkaline Membrane Fuel Cell (AMFC) is a recently developed fuel cell type, which has shown good experimental results in the laboratory. This paper introduces a mathematical model for the single AMFC with fixed volume and general square section. The main objective is to produce a reliable model (and computationally fast) to predict the response of the single AMFC according to variations of the physical properties of manufacturing materials and operating and design parameters. The model is based on mass, momentum, energy and species conservation, and electrochemical principles, and takes into account pressure drops in the gas channels and temperature gradients with respect to space in the flow direction. The simulation results comprise the AMFC temperature distribution, net power and polarization curves. It is shown that temperature spatial gradients and gas channels pressure drops significantly affect fuel cell performance. Such effects are not usually investigated in the models available in the literature, with most of them assuming uniform pressure and temperature operation. Therefore, the model is expected to be a useful tool for AMFC design and optimization. (author)

  13. Sleep quality and health service utilization in Chinese general population: a cross-sectional study in Dongguan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui-Shan; Mai, Yan-Bing; Li, Wei-Da; Xi, Wen-Tao; Wang, Jin-Ming; Lei, Yi-Xiong; Wang, Pei-Xi

    The aims of this study were to explore the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and health service utilization in Chinese general population, to investigate the association between PSQI and health service utilization and to identify the independent contributions of social demographic variables, health related factors and PSQI to health service utilization. In a cross-sectional community-based health survey using a multi-instrument questionnaire, 4067 subjects (≥15 years old) were studied. The Chinese version of the PSQI was used to assess sleep quality. Health service utilization was measured by recent two-week physician visit and annual hospitalization rates. Higher PSQI scores were associated with more frequent health service utilization. Higher scores in subjective sleep quality were associated with higher rate of recent two-week physician visit (adjusted OR = 1.24 per SD increase, P = 0.015). Higher scores in habitual sleep efficiency (adjusted OR = 1.24 per SD increase, P = 0.038) and sleep disturbances (adjusted OR = 2.09 per SD increase, P quality predicted more frequent health service utilization. The independent contribution of PSQI on health service utilization was smaller than social demographic variables. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Aerodynamic characteristics of wing-body configuration with two advanced general aviation airfoil sections and simple flap systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, H. L., Jr.; Paulson, J. W., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Aerodynamic characteristics of a general aviation wing equipped with NACA 65 sub 2-415, NASA GA(W)-1, and NASA GA(PC)-1 airfoil sections were examined. The NASA GA(W)-1 wing was equipped with plain, split, and slotted partial- and full-span flaps and ailerons. The NASA GA(PC)-1 wing was equipped with plain, partial- and full-span flaps. Experimental chordwise static-pressure distribution and wake drag measurements were obtained for the NASA GA(PC)-1 wing at the 22.5-percent spanwise station. Comparisons were made between the three wing configurations to evaluate the wing performance, stall, and maximum lift capabilities. The results of this investigation indicated that the NASA GA(W)-1 wing had a higher maximum lift capability and almost equivalent drag values compared with both the NACA 65 sub 2-415 and NASA GA(PC)-1 wings. The NASA GA(W)-1 had a maximum lift coefficient of 1.32 with 0 deg flap deflection, and 1.78 with 41.6 deg deflection of the partial-span slotted flap. The effectiveness of the NASA GA(W)-1 plain and slotted ailerons with differential deflections were equivalent. The NASA GA(PC)-1 wing with full-span flaps deflected 0 deg for the design climb configuration showed improved lift and drag performance over the cruise flap setting of -10 deg.

  15. Are French general practitioners consulted before travel to developing countries? A cross-sectional study conducted in a French airport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovira, C; Buffel du Vaure, C; Partouche, H

    2015-08-01

    General practitioners (GPs) could play a central role in preventing travel-related health issues. The aim of this study was to assess, in travellers departing to developing countries from a French airport, the proportion of individuals having sought GP counseling before departure and to identify determinants for having consulted a GP. Cross-sectional study conducted between November 2012 and July 2013, in all adults living in France. Sociodemographic, health characteristics, type of travel and resources consulted before departure were collected. A descriptive analysis was performed. Determinants for having consulted a GP before departure were investigated using a logistic regression analysis. Of the 360 travellers included, 230 (64%) sought health counseling before departure. GPs were the main source of information for 134 (58%) travellers having sought health information and the only one for 49 (21%). Almost half of the travellers (48%) departing to sub-Saharan countries did not seek health counseling from a medical doctor (GP, non-GP specialist, specialist consulted in an international vaccination center or occupational physician). Individuals significantly more likely to travel without having consulted a GP were young and male, held foreign nationality, had travelled more than five times before, rarely consulted their GP and were travelling to a non-malarious area. GPs were the main but not the only source of information and counseling before traveling to a developing country. This study helps identify the characteristics of individuals likely to travel without having consulted a GP before departure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of General Practitioners toward Complementary and Alternative Medicine: a Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barikani, Ameneh; Beheshti, Akram; Javadi, Maryam; Yasi, Marzieh

    2015-08-01

    Orientation of public and physicians to the complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is one of the most prominent symbols of structural changes in the health service system. The aim of his study was a determination of knowledge, attitude, and practice of general practitioners in complementary and alternative medicine. This cross- sectional study was conducted in Qazvin, Iran in 2013. A self-administered questionnaire was used for collecting data including four information parts: population information, physicians' attitude and knowledge, methods of getting information and their function. A total of 228 physicians in Qazvin comprised the population of study according to the deputy of treatment's report of Qazvin University of Medical Sciences. A total of 150 physicians were selected randomly, and SPSS Statistical program was used to enter questionnaires' data. Results were analyzed as descriptive statistics and statistical analysis. Sixty percent of all responders were male. About sixty (59.4) percent of participating practitioners had worked less than 10 years.96.4 percent had a positive attitude towards complementary and alternative medicine. Knowledge of practitioners about traditional medicine in 11 percent was good, 36.3% and 52.7% had average and little information, respectively. 17.9% of practitioners offered their patients complementary and alternative medicine for treatment. Although there was little knowledge among practitioners about traditional medicine and complementary approaches, a significant percentage of them had attitude higher than the lower limit.

  17. 28 CFR 68.55 - Referral of cases arising under sections 274A or 274C to the Attorney General for review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) Review by the Attorney General. When a final order of an Administrative Law Judge or the Chief... 274A or 274C to the Attorney General for review. 68.55 Section 68.55 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE FOR ADMINISTRATIVE HEARINGS BEFORE...

  18. Mathematics for physical chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Mortimer, Robert G

    2013-01-01

    Mathematics for Physical Chemistry is the ideal supplementary text for practicing chemists and students who want to sharpen their mathematics skills while enrolled in general through physical chemistry courses. This book specifically emphasizes the use of mathematics in the context of physical chemistry, as opposed to being simply a mathematics text. This 4e includes new exercises in each chapter that provide practice in a technique immediately after discussion or example and encourage self-study. The early chapters are constructed around a sequence of mathematical topics, wit

  19. Experiments in physical chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, J M; Denaro, A R

    1968-01-01

    Experiments in Physical Chemistry, Second Edition provides a compilation of experiments concerning physical chemistry. This book illustrates the link between the theory and practice of physical chemistry. Organized into three parts, this edition begins with an overview of those experiments that generally have a simple theoretical background. Part II contains experiments that are associated with more advanced theory or more developed techniques, or which require a greater degree of experimental skill. Part III consists of experiments that are in the nature of investigations wherein these invest

  20. Chemistry and nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Wet, W.J.

    1977-01-01

    The underlying principles of nuclear sciece and technology as based on the two basic phenomena, namely, radioactivity and nuclear reactions, with their relatively large associated energy changes, are outlined. The most important contributions by chemists in the overall historical development are mentioned and the strong position chemistry has attained in these fields is indicated. It is concluded that chemistry as well as many other scientific discplines (apart from general benefits) have largely benefitted from these nuclear developments [af

  1. General practitioners versus other physicians in the quality of primary care: a cross-sectional study in Guangdong Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yaming; Zhang, Xiao; Hao, Yuantao; Shi, Leiyu; Hu, Ruwei

    2015-10-09

    The primary care in China can be provided by general practitioners (GPs) and other physicians (non-GPs). However, China's general practice system has never been really established. Chinese patients tend to consider the quality of primary care provided by GPs much lower than that of non-GPs. Besides, many GPs presently prefer leaving their own positions and seeking better development in big hospitals, which has made the already weak GP system weaker. Yet, few studies have specially compared the quality of primary care provided by Chinese GPs and other physicians and no studies have explored the independent predictors of Chinese GPs' intentions to stay on their current job. In this study, we aimed to compare the quality of primary care offered by GPs with non-GPs and to explore the independent predictors of GPs' future work intentions. This cross-sectional study applied multi-stage random cluster sampling methodology. The data were collected from November 2013 to September 2014 in Guangdong Province. In total, 401 effective questionnaires were selected from the physicians. Quality of primary care was assessed using the Primary Care Assessment Tool (PCAT) Provider Part, representing six primary care domains: ongoing care, coordination (i.e., referrals and information systems), comprehensiveness (i.e., service available and service provided), family-centeredness, community orientation and cultural competence. Of 401 participating physicians, 163 (40.6 %) were GPs. The total PCAT score was 26.32 ± 2.24 which was the sum score of the six domains and represent the quality of primary care. GPs achieved significantly different total scores and scores on three individual scales: comprehensiveness: service available, comprehensiveness: service provided and community orientation. Multiple linear regressions revealed GPs had a higher total score and scores for comprehensiveness: service provided and community orientation after adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics

  2. Utilisation of internet resources for continuing professional development: a cross-sectional survey of general practitioners in Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacWalter, Gordon; McKay, John; Bowie, Paul

    2016-01-21

    Participation in continuing professional development (CPD) is a professional and regulatory expectation of general practitioners (GPs). Traditionally, CPD activity was undertaken face-to-face in educational settings, but internet based formats have found increasing favour. The need for doctors to use the internet for service and educational purposes is growing, particularly in support of specialty training and appraisal. We aimed to determine how GPs in Scotland utilise online resources in support of their CPD. This involved identifying which resources are used and how frequently, along with their preferences as to how and why they access these resources. A cross sectional study was undertaken using an online questionnaire to survey general practitioners across Scotland. Data were subjected to descriptive analysis and differences in attitudinal responses between groups and Fischer's exact tests were calculated. Three hundred and eighty-three GP responses were received, with the majority being female (n = 232, 60.6%) and GP partners (n = 236, 61.6%). The majority used the internet on three or more working days per week or more frequently (n = 361, 94.3%) with the three most common reasons being to obtain information for a patient (n = 358, 93.5%), answering a clinical question (n = 357, 93.2%) and CPD purposes (n = 308, 80.4%). Of 37 online resources used by respondents, the top five were SIGN Guidelines (n = 303, 79.3%), BMJ Learning (n = 279, 73.0%), NICE Guidelines (n = 255, 66.8%), GP Notebook (n = 243, 63.6%) and Google (n = 234, 61.3%). Low use of social media such as Facebook (n = 11, 2.9%) and Twitter (n = 11, 2.9%) was reported for CPD. A majority agreed that 'reading information online' (95.0%) and 'completing online learning modules' (87.4%) were the most valued online activities. Slow internet connections (n = 240, 62.7%), website access restrictions (n = 177, 46.2%) and difficulties logging

  3. Cross-sectional survey of older patients' views regarding multidisciplinary care for chronic conditions in general practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonney, Andrew; Magee, Christopher; Pearson, Russell

    2014-01-01

    The ageing population and increasing prevalence of chronic illness have contributed to the need for significant primary care reform, including increased use of multidisciplinary care and task substitution. This cross-sectional study explores conditions under which older patients would accept having health professionals other than their general practitioner (GP) involved in their care for chronic disease management (CDM). Ten practices were randomly sampled from a contiguous major city and inner regional area. Questionnaires were distributed to consecutive patients aged 60 years and over in each practice. Agency theory was used to inform analyses. Statistical analysis was undertaken using Wald's test, growth modelling and linear regression, controlling for the clustered design. The response rate was 53% (n=272). Most respondents (79%) had at least one chronic health condition. Respondents were more comfortable with GP than with practice nurse management in the CDM scenario (Wald's test=105.49, P<0.001). Comfort with practice nurse CDM was positively associated with increased contact with their GP at the time of the visit (β=0.41, P<0.001), negatively associated with the number of the respondent's chronic conditions (β=-0.13, P=0.030) and not associated with the frequency of other health professional visits. Agency theory suggests that patients employ continuity of care to optimise factors important in CDM: information symmetry and goal alignment. Our findings are consistent with the theory and lend support to ensuring that interpersonal continuity of care is not lost in health care reform. Further research exploring patients' acceptance of differing systems of care is required.

  4. Malnutrition in patients admitted to the medical wards of the Douala General Hospital: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luma, Henry Namme; Eloumou, Servais Albert Fiacre Bagnaka; Mboligong, Franklin Ngu; Temfack, Elvis; Donfack, Olivier-Tresor; Doualla, Marie-Solange

    2017-07-03

    Malnutrition is common in acutely ill patients occurring in 30-50% of hospitalized patients. Awareness and screening for malnutrition is lacking in most health institutions in sub-Saharan Africa. This study aimed at screening for malnutrition using anthropometric and laboratory indices in patients admitted to the internal medicine wards. A cross-sectional study. We screened for malnutrition in 251 consecutive patients admitted from January to March 2013 in the internal medicine wards. Malnutrition defined as body mass index (BMI) less than 18.5 kg/m 2 and/or mid upper arm circumference (MUAC) less than 22 cm in women and 23 cm in men. Weight loss greater than 10% in the last 6 months prior to admission, relevant laboratory data, diagnosis at discharge and length of hospital stay (LOS) were also recorded. Mean age was 47 (SD 16) years. 52.6% were male. Mean BMI was 24.44 (SD 5.79) kg/m 2 and MUAC was 27.8 (SD 5.0) cm. Median LOS was 7 (IQR 5-12) days. 42.4% of patients reported weight loss greater than 10% in the 6 months before hospitalization. MUAC and BMI correlated significantly (r = 0.78; p malnutrition by the two methods showed moderate agreement (κ = 0.56; p malnutrition was 19.34% (35/251). Blood albumin and hemoglobin were significantly lower in malnourished patients. Malnourished patients had a significantly longer LOS (p = 0.019) when compared to those with no malnutrition. Malnutrition was most common amongst patients with malignancy. Malnutrition is common in patients admitted to the medical wards of the Douala General Hospital. Nutritional screening and assessment should be integrated in the care package of all admitted patients.

  5. General Practitioners' Attitudes towards Essential Competencies in End-of-Life Care: A Cross-Sectional Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giezendanner, Stéphanie; Jung, Corinna; Banderet, Hans-Ruedi; Otte, Ina Carola; Gudat, Heike; Haller, Dagmar M; Elger, Bernice S; Zemp, Elisabeth; Bally, Klaus

    2017-01-01

    Identifying essential competencies in end-of-life care, as well as general practitioners' (GPs) confidence in these competencies, is essential to guide training and quality improvement efforts in this domain. To determine which competencies in end-of-life care are considered important by GPs, to assess GPs' confidence in these competencies in a European context and their reasons to refer terminally ill patients to a specialist. Cross-sectional postal survey involving a stratified random sample of 2000 GPs in Switzerland in 2014. Survey development was informed by a previous qualitative exploration of relevant end-of-life GP competencies. Main outcome measures were GPs' assessment of the importance of and confidence in 18 attributes of end-of-life care competencies, and reasons for transferring care of terminally-ill patients to a specialist. GP characteristics associated with main outcome measures were tested using multivariate regression models. The response rate was 31%. Ninety-nine percent of GPs considered the recognition and treatment of pain as important, 86% felt confident about it. Few GPs felt confident in cultural (16%), spiritual (38%) and legal end-of-life competencies such as responding to patients seeking assisted suicide (35%) although more than half of the respondents regarded these competencies as important. Most frequent reasons to refer terminally ill patients to a specialist were lack of time (30%), better training of specialists (23%) and end-of-life care being incompatible with other duties (19%). In multiple regression analyses, confidence in end-of-life care was positively associated with GPs' age, practice size, home visits and palliative training. GPs considered non-somatic competencies (such as spiritual, cultural, ethical and legal aspects) nearly as important as pain and symptom control. Yet, few GPs felt confident in these non-somatic competencies. These findings should inform training and quality improvement efforts in this domain, in

  6. Perioperative management of a morbidly obese pregnant patient undergoing cesarean section under general anesthesia – case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Luiz Benevides

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: The increased prevalence of obesity in the general population extends to women of reproductive age. The aim of this study is to report the perioperative management of a morbidly obese pregnant woman, body mass index >50 kg/m2, who underwent cesarean section under general anesthesia. Case report: Pregnant woman in labor, 35 years of age, body mass index 59.8 kg/m2. Cesarean section was indicated due to the presumed fetal macrosomia. The patient refused spinal anesthesia. She was placed in the ramp position with cushions from back to head to facilitate tracheal intubation. Another cushion was placed on top of the right gluteus to create an angle of approximately 15° to the operating table. Immediately before induction of anesthesia, asepsis was carried out and sterile surgical fields were placed. Anesthesia was induced in rapid sequence, with Sellick maneuver and administration of remifentanil, propofol, and succinilcolina. Intubation was performed using a gum elastic bougie, and anesthesia was maintained with sevoflurane and remifentanil. The interval between skin incision and fetal extraction was 21 min, with the use of a Simpson's forceps scoop to assist in the extraction. The patient gave birth to a newborn weighing 4850 g, with Apgar scores of 2 in the 1st minute (received positive pressure ventilation by mask for about 2 min and 8 in the 5th minute. The patient was extubated uneventfully. Multimodal analgesia and prophylaxis of nausea and vomiting was performed. Mother and newborn were discharged on the 4th postoperative day. Resumo: Justificativa e objetivos: O aumento na prevalência da obesidade na população geral se estende para mulheres na idade reprodutiva. O objetivo deste estudo é relatar o controle perioperatório de uma gestante obesa mórbida com índice de massa corporal >50 Kg/m2, submetida a parto cesariano sob anestesia geral. Relato do caso: Gestante de 35 anos com índice de massa corporal

  7. Organic chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-08-01

    This book with sixteen chapter explains organic chemistry on linkage isomerism such as alkane, cycloalkane, alkene, aromatic compounds, stereo selective isomerization, aromatic compounds, stereo selective isomerization, organic compounds, stereo selective isomerization, organic halogen compound, alcohol, ether, aldehyde and ketone, carboxylic acid, dicarboxylic acid, fat and detergent, amino, carbohydrate, amino acid and protein, nucleotide and nucleic acid and spectroscopy, a polymer and medical chemistry. Each chapter has introduction structure and characteristic and using of organic chemistry.

  8. Radiation chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1973-07-01

    Research progress is reported on radiation chemistry of heavy elements that includes the following topics: radiation chemistry of plutonium in nitric acid solutions (spectrophotometric analysis and gamma radiolysis of Pu(IV) and Pu(VI) in nitric acid solution); EPR studies of intermediates formed in radiolytic reactions with aqueous medium; two-phase radiolysis and its effect on the distribution coefficient of plutonium; and radiation chemistry of nitric acid. (DHM)

  9. Technetium chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, C.; Bryan, J.; Cotton, F.; Ott, K.; Kubas, G.; Haefner, S.; Barrera, J.; Hall, K.; Burrell, A.

    1996-01-01

    Technetium chemistry is a young and developing field. Despite the limited knowledge of its chemistry, technetium is the workhorse for nuclear medicine. Technetium is also a significant environmental concern because it is formed as a byproduct of nuclear weapons production and fission-power generators. Development of new technetium radio-pharmaceuticals and effective environmental control depends strongly upon knowledge of basic technetium chemistry. The authors performed research into the basic coordination and organometallic chemistry of technetium and used this knowledge to address nuclear medicine and environmental applications. This is the final report of a three-year Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL)

  10. Chemistry Technology

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Chemistry technology experts at NCATS engage in a variety of innovative translational research activities, including:Design of bioactive small molecules.Development...

  11. 26 CFR 1.367(a)-1T - Transfers to foreign corporations subject to section 367(a): In general (temporary).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... share of partnership property shall be determined under the rules and principles of sections 701 through... shall be determined under the rules and principles of sections 701 through 761 and the regulations... in manufacturing activities or in marketing activities. A working interest in oil and gas properties...

  12. Future in actinoids coordination chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitazawa, Takafumi

    2006-01-01

    Actinoids coordination chemistry is concerned with spent nuclear fuel reprocessing, specifically with solid-state chemistry of nuclear fuels, separation process with radioactive substances, and geological disposal of high-level radioactive substances. In the 21st century, accumulation of minor actinides, Np, Am, Cm, and others will be realized according with the present program of nuclear energy development. The present article briefly introduces general properties of actinide elements, followed by their coordination chemistry compared with rare earths coordination chemistry. Special facility needed to treat actinoids as well as their chemistry is briefly explained, together with the specific experimental apparatus such as X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (XAFS) and time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectrometry (TRLFS) with synchrotron radiation facilities. The effect of coordination with actinoids in the environment chemistry is important in underground disposal of high-level radioactive wastes. For theoretical analysis of the results with actinoids chemistry, relativistic calculation is needed. (S. Ohno)

  13. Occipito-atlanto-axial osteoarthritis: a cross sectional clinico-radiological prevalence study in high risk and general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badve, Siddharth A; Bhojraj, Shekhar; Nene, Abhay; Raut, Abhijit; Ramakanthan, Ravi

    2010-02-15

    A cross-sectional clinico-radiologic evaluation of occipito-atlantoaxial (OC1C2) region of 2 population groups. Determine the prevalence of OC1C2 osteoarthritis in porters involved in carrying loads on the head and general male population. Describe its clinico-radiologic manifestations. In addition to age, head loading is a known cause of degeneration affecting the occipito-cervical region. The impact of head loading in the population aged between third and sixth decade is unknown. Head loading is a common custom in the developing countries. Study group (n = 107) included randomly selected male porters from railway stations who underwent computed tomography (CT) study of the OC1C2 region, plain radiographs of the cervical spine and detailed clinical examination. Control group (n = 107) included randomly selected male patients undergoing CT scan study for diseases of paranasal sinuses with coincidental screening of OC1C2 region along with clinical assessment. The data were analyzed using SPSS 15 software. Mean age for study group was 32.6 years and controls was 34.6 years (P = 0.156). In the study group, duration of occupational exposure was 10.9 (+/-8.7) years; 81.3% porters being symptomatic with an age of 33.4 (+/-9.6) years. Radiologic prevalence of OC1C2 osteoarthritis in study group was 91.6% and in control group was 6.8%; age of affected individuals was 33.4 (+/-9.3) and 47.9 (+/-8.0) years, respectively. Most common complaint was suboccipital neck pain (69.7%); while the CT finding was decreased joint space with sclerosis and irregularity of the margins (81.3%). No statistically significant association was found between presence of radiologic changes and symptoms. Age, duration of occupational exposure and its relationship with various clinico-radiologic manifestations was studied. This condition has significant prevalence in porters, beginning at an early age. Diagnosis is based on the clinico-radiologic presentation. CT is the investigation of choice

  14. Factors related to achievement in sophomore organic chemistry at the University of Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Harriet Arlene

    The purpose of this study was to identify the significant cognitive and non-cognitive variables that related to achievement in the first semester of organic chemistry at the University of Arkansas. Cognitive variables included second semester general chemistry grade, ACT composite score, ACT English, mathematics, reading, and science reasoning subscores, and spatial ability. Non-cognitive variables included anxiety, confidence, effectance motivation, and usefulness. Using a correlation research design, the individual relationships between organic chemistry achievement and each of the cognitive variables and non-cognitive variables were assessed. In addition, the relationships between organic chemistry achievement and combinations of these independent variables were explored. Finally, gender- and instructor-related differences in the relationships between organic chemistry achievement and the independent variables were investigated. The samples consisted of volunteers from the Fall 1999 and Fall 2000 sections of Organic Chemistry I at the University of Arkansas. All students in each section were asked to participate. Data for spatial ability and non-cognitive independent variables were collected using the Purdue Visualization of Rotations test and the modified Fennema-Sherman Attitude Scales. Data for other independent variables, including ACT scores and second semester general chemistry grades, were obtained from the Office of Institutional Research. The dependent variable, organic chemistry achievement, was measured by each student's accumulated points in the course and consisted of scores on quizzes and exams in the lecture section only. These totals were obtained from the lecture instructor at the end of each semester. Pearson correlation and stepwise multiple regression analyses were used to measure the relationships between organic chemistry achievement and the independent variables. Prior performance in chemistry as measured by second semester general

  15. An ideal teaching program of nuclear chemistry in the undergraduate chemistry curriculum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uenak, T.

    2009-01-01

    It is well known that several reports on the common educational problems of nuclear chemistry have been prepared by certain groups of experts from time to time. According to very important statements in these reports, nuclear chemistry and related courses generally do not take sufficient importance in undergraduate chemistry curricula and it was generally proposed that nuclear chemistry and related courses should be introduced into undergraduate chemistry curricula at universities worldwide. Starting from these statements, an ideal program in an undergraduate chemistry curriculum was proposed to be introduced into the undergraduate chemistry program at the Department of Chemistry, Ege University, in Izmir, Turkey during the regular updating of the chemistry curriculum. Thus, it has been believed that this Department of Chemistry has recently gained an ideal teaching program in the field of nuclear chemistry and its applications in scientific, industrial, and medical sectors. In this contribution, the details of this program will be discussed. (author)

  16. Current organic chemistry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1997-01-01

    Provides in depth reviews on current progress in the fields of asymmetric synthesis, organometallic chemistry, bioorganic chemistry, heterocyclic chemistry, natural product chemistry, and analytical...

  17. Dynamic Combinatorial Chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lisbjerg, Micke

    This thesis is divided into seven chapters, which can all be read individually. The first chapter, however, contains a general introduction to the chemistry used in the remaining six chapters, and it is therefore recommended to read chapter one before reading the other chapters. Chapter 1...... is a general introductory chapter for the whole thesis. The history and concepts of dynamic combinatorial chemistry are described, as are some of the new and intriguing results recently obtained. Finally, the properties of a broad range of hexameric macrocycles are described in detail. Chapter 2 gives...

  18. Principles of Chemistry (by Michael Munowitz)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovac, Reviewed By Jeffrey

    2000-05-01

    principles. This is a very conceptual book. Each chapter has two parts, which are distinguished by having different-colored pages: white and gray. The first part of every chapter is a lovely conceptual development of the "big picture". In these white pages, there are no sample problems, no tables of data, just elegant prose liberally illustrated with graphs and diagrams. Mathematical and chemical equations and chemical structures are presented as needed, but the goal is to provide the reader with a conceptual understanding. I found these introductory "lectures", as Munowitz terms them, to be enchanting. The second part of each chapter is a review and guide to problems, what Munowitz calls the "recitation" section. These pages are gray. This second section gives a brief summary of the material, which is followed by a series of worked examples that apply the concepts to practical problems. This structure reflects the author's pedagogical philosophy--begin with the general and move to the specific--and his view of chemistry as a combination of "lofty principles and gritty practicality". Following the worked examples, of course, are exercises for the student, ranging from simple drill problems to more sophisticated applications of the principles. I was a little disappointed, however, that there were so few conceptual exercises. Although Munowitz describes the second part of each chapter as a review and applications, he does put new material into the sample problems. For example, in Chapter 3 the concept of oxidation numbers is introduced and sample problems on the assignment of oxidation numbers are presented. Then, in example 3-3, the concept of formal charge is presented as a contrast to the oxidation number even though this idea had not been previously introduced. The dual structure of white and gray pages makes this book unique but also very long. The combined length of the white sections is about 800 pages, but an approximately 25-page conceptual section is always followed

  19. Nuclear chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vertes, A.; Kiss, I.

    1987-01-01

    This book is an introduction to the application of nuclear science in modern chemistry. The first group of chapters discuss the basic phenomena and concepts of nuclear physics with emphasis on their relation to chemical problems, including the main properties and the composition of atomic nuclei, nuclear reactions, radioactive decay and interactions of radiation with matter. These chapters provide the basis for understanding the following chapters which encompass the wide scope of nuclear chemistry. The methods of the investigation of chemical structure based on the interaction of nuclear radiation with matter including positronium chemistry and other exotic atoms is elaborated in particular detail. Separate chapters are devoted to the use of radioactive tracers, the chemical consequences of nuclear processes (i.e. hot atom chemistry), radiation chemistry, isotope effects and their applications, and the operation of nuclear reactors

  20. Nuclear chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vertes, A.; Kiss, I.

    1987-01-01

    This book is an introduction to the application of nuclear science in modern chemistry. The first group of chapters discuss the basic phenomena and concepts of nuclear physics with emphasis on their relation to chemical problems, including the main properties and the composition of atomic nuclei, nuclear reactions, radioactive decay and interactions of radiation with matter. These chapters provide the basis for understanding the following chapters which encompass the wide scope of nuclear chemistry. The methods of the investigation of chemical structure based on the interaction of nuclear radiation with matter including positronium chemistry and other exotic atoms is elaborated in particular detail. Separate chapters are devoted to the use of radioactive tracers, the chemical consequences of nuclear processes (i.e. hot atom chemistry), radiation chemistry, isotope effects and their applications, and the operation of nuclear reactors. (Auth.)

  1. Analysing the Impact of a Discussion-Oriented Curriculum on First-Year General Chemistry Students' Conceptions of Relative Acidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Lisa; Rodriguez, Christian A.; Bartoli, Monica; Rushton, Gregory T.

    2018-01-01

    Instructional strategies that support meaningful student learning of complex chemical topics are an important aspect of improving chemistry education. Adequately assessing the success of these approaches can be supported with the use of aligned instruments with established psychometrics. Here, we report the implementation and assessment of one…

  2. Characteristics of service users and provider organisations associated with experience of out of hours general practitioner care in England: population based cross sectional postal questionnaire survey

    OpenAIRE

    Warren, Fiona C; Abel, Gary; Lyratzopoulos, Georgios; Elliott, Marc N; Richards, Suzanne; Barry, Heather E; Roland, Martin; Campbell, John L

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the experience of users of out of hours general practitioner services in England, UK. Design: Population based cross sectional postal questionnaire survey. Setting: General Practice Patient Survey 2012-13. Main outcome measures: Potential associations between sociodemographic factors (including ethnicity and ability to take time away from work during working hours to attend a healthcare consultation) and provider organisation type (not for profit, NHS, or commercial)...

  3. Prevalence of fragrance contact allergy in the general population of five European countries : A cross-sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diepgen, T. L.; Ofenloch, R.; Bruze, M.; Cazzaniga, S.; Coenraads, P. J.; Elsner, P.; Goncalo, M.; Svensson, A.; Naldi, L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Contact allergy to fragrances is assessed mostly in clinical populations of patients. Studies in the general population are scarce and vary in their methodology across countries. Objectives To determine the prevalence of fragrance contact allergy in the European general population and to

  4. Medicinal Chemistry/Pharmacology in Sophomore Organic Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Aline M.

    1989-01-01

    Discussed is a series of lectures designed to illustrate the use of general organic chemical principles in molecular biology, introduce current research in interdisciplinary areas to the beginner, increase interest in organic chemistry, and bridge the gap between traditional organic chemistry, biology, and the consumer. An outline is presented.…

  5. Quantum chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Lowe, John P

    1993-01-01

    Praised for its appealing writing style and clear pedagogy, Lowe's Quantum Chemistry is now available in its Second Edition as a text for senior undergraduate- and graduate-level chemistry students. The book assumes little mathematical or physical sophistication and emphasizes an understanding of the techniques and results of quantum chemistry, thus enabling students to comprehend much of the current chemical literature in which quantum chemical methods or concepts are used as tools. The book begins with a six-chapter introduction of standard one-dimensional systems, the hydrogen atom,

  6. Excitation in the radiation chemistry of inorganic gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willis, C.; Boyd, A.W.

    1976-01-01

    Gas phase radiation chemistry yield data and electron impact cross-section data are used to derive excitation mechanisms and to discuss the role of excited states in the radiation chemistry of O 2 , N 2 , N 2 O, CO, CO 2 , H 2 S, H 2 O and NH 3 . For each of these systems available cross-sections for ionization and neutral excitation are listed, together with relevant reaction rate data and a summary of the radiation chemistry studies at both high and low dose rates. In general, fairly complete mechanisms are derived and further tested by energy balance calculations. In order to present as complete a picture as possible, a summary of rates and products of ion-neutralization reactions is given at the end of the paper. (author)

  7. End-of-life care in general practice: A cross-sectional, retrospective survey of 'cancer', 'organ failure' and 'old-age/dementia' patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evans, N.C.; Pasman, H.R.W.; Donker, G.A.; Deliens, L.; Block, L.; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, B.D.

    2014-01-01

    Background: End-of-life care is often provided in primary care settings. Aim: To describe and compare general-practitioner end-of-life care for Dutch patients who died from 'cancer', 'organ failure' and 'old-age or dementia'. Design: A cross-sectional, retrospective survey was conducted within a

  8. Public School Principals' Experiences with Interpreting and Implementing Connecticut's Anti-Bullying Law (Connecticut General Statute Section 10-222d): A Statewide Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaRocco, Diana J.; Nestler-Rusack, Donna; Freiberg, Jo Ann

    2007-01-01

    Background: In June 2002, the State of Connecticut General Assembly (CGA) passed Public Act 02-119, An Act Concerning Bullying Behavior in Schools and Concerning the Pledge of Allegiance. Section 1 mandated that each local and regional board of education (school district) develop a policy to address bullying in its schools. Conn. Gen. Statute…

  9. A Chemistry Concept Reasoning Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloonan, Carrie A.; Hutchinson, John S.

    2011-01-01

    A Chemistry Concept Reasoning Test was created and validated providing an easy-to-use tool for measuring conceptual understanding and critical scientific thinking of general chemistry models and theories. The test is designed to measure concept understanding comparable to that found in free-response questions requiring explanations over…

  10. Factors influencing career intentions on completion of general practice vocational training in England: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Jeremy; Russell, Rachel; Scott, Emma; Owen, Katherine

    2017-08-17

    General practice is experiencing a growing crisis with the numbers of doctors who are training and then entering the profession in the UK failing to keep pace with workforce needs. This study investigated the immediate to medium term career intentions of those who are about to become general practitioners (GPs) and the factors that are influencing career plans. Online questionnaire survey, with quantitative answers analysed using descriptive statistics and free text data analysed using a thematic framework approach. Doctors approaching the end of 3-year GP vocational training in the West Midlands, England. 178 (57.2%) doctors completed the survey. Most participants planned to work as salaried GPs or locums rather than entering a general practice partnership for at least the first 5 years post-completion of training; others failed to express a career plan or planned to leave general practice completely or work overseas. Many were interested in developing portfolio careers.The quality of general practice experience across undergraduate, foundation and vocational training were reported as influencing personal career plans, and in particular perceptions about workload pressure and morale within the training practices in which they had been placed. Experience of a poor work-life balance as a trainee had a negative effect on career intentions, as did negative perceptions about how general practice is portrayed by politicians and the media. This study describes a number of potentially modifiable factors related to training programmes that are detrimentally influencing the career plans of newly trained GPs. In addition, there are sociodemographic factors, such as age, gender and having children, which are also influencing career plans and so need to be accommodated. With ever-increasing workload in general practice, there is an urgent need to understand and where possible address these issues at national and local level. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless

  11. Long-term psychosocial behavioral outcomes in children following anesthesia: A comparison of the effects of general versus regional anesthesia on term infants delivered by elective cesarean section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aouni Alameddine

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Data on the effects of general anesthesia on the fetal and neonatal brain are limited. Animal studies demonstrated that anesthetic agents leave their consequences in the form of learning and memory deficits. The effects of propofol on the fetal neurodevelopment are not clear yet. Materials and Methods: This is a telephone-based questionnaire survey that addressed the effect of general anesthesia by propofol during cesarean section at term with no perinatal complications on the psychosocial behavior of children at 8-10 years of age compared with children having same characteristics except for delivery under neuraxial anesthesia using the Pediatric Symptom Checklist as a score. Results: A total of 187 children were born at term between January 1, 2002 and December 31, 2004 with no perinatal distress under induction of general anesthesia by propofol. 66 children (35.3% were lost to follow-up and parents of two children (1.1% refused to participate. A total of 189 children were included in the study: 119 were born by cesarean section under general anesthesia and 70 were born by cesarean section under neuraxial block. The incidence of psychosocial behavior impairment at 8-10 years of age was not found to be affected by the mode of anesthesia during delivery by cesarean section nor by neonatal nor parental characteristics. Conclusion: Exposure to propofol as an induction agent for general anesthesia or cesarean section does not seem to increase the psychosocial behavior disorder development risk at 8-10 years of age.

  12. Overweight in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease needs more attention: a cross-sectional study in general practice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verberne, L.D.M.; Leemrijse, C.J.; Swinkels, I.C.S.; Dijk, C.E. van; Bakker, D.H. de; Nielen, M.M.J.

    2017-01-01

    Guidelines for management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) primarily focus on the prevention of weight loss, while overweight and obesity are highly prevalent in patients with milder stages of COPD. This cross-sectional study examines the association of overweight and obesity with the

  13. Development and implementation of an empirical frequency map for use in MD simulations of isotope-edited proteins, and, Development, implementation, and evaluation of an online student portal as a textbook replacement in an advanced general chemistry course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorb, Justin Matthew

    The first portion of this thesis describes an extension of work done in the Skinner group to develop an empirical frequency map for N-methylacetamide (NMA) in water. NMA is a peptide bond capped on either side by a methyl group and is therefore a common prototypical molecule used when studying complicated polypeptides and proteins. This amide bond is present along the backbone of every protein as it connects individual component amino acids. This amide bond also has a strong observable frequency in the IR due to the Amide-I mode (predominantly carbon-oxygen stretching motion). This project describes the simplification of the prior model for mapping the frequency of the Amide-I mode from the electric field due to the environment and develops a parallel implementation of this algorithm for use in larger biological systems, such as the trans-membrane portion of the tetrameric polypeptide bundle protein CD3zeta. The second portion of this thesis describes the development, implementation and evaluation of an online textbook within the context of a cohesive theoretical framework. The project begins by describing what is meant when discussing a digital textbook, including a survey of various types of digital media being used to deliver textbook-like content. This leads into the development of a theoretical framework based on constructivist pedagogical theory, hypertext learning theory, and chemistry visualization and representation frameworks. The implementation and design of ChemPaths, the general chemistry online text developed within the Chemistry Education Digital Library (ChemEd DL) is then described. The effectiveness of ChemPaths being used as a textbook replacement in an advanced general chemistry course is evaluated within the developed theoretical framework both qualitatively and quantitatively.

  14. Green Chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collison, Melanie

    2011-05-15

    Green chemistry is the science of chemistry used in a way that will not use or create hazardous substances. Dr. Rui Resendes is working in this field at GreenCentre Canada, an offshoot of PARTEQ Innovations in Kingston, Ontario. GreenCentre's preliminary findings suggest their licensed product {sup S}witchable Solutions{sup ,} featuring 3 classes of solvents and a surfactant, may be useful in bitumen oil sands extraction.

  15. The physical basis of chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Warren, Warren S

    2000-01-01

    If the text you're using for general chemistry seems to lack sufficient mathematics and physics in its presentation of classical mechanics, molecular structure, and statistics, this complementary science series title may be just what you're looking for. Written for the advanced lower-division undergraduate chemistry course, The Physical Basis of Chemistry, Second Edition, offers students an opportunity to understand and enrich the understanding of physical chemistry with some quantum mechanics, the Boltzmann distribution, and spectroscopy. Posed and answered are questions concerning eve

  16. 42 CFR 493.931 - Routine chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Routine chemistry. 493.931 Section 493.931 Public... Proficiency Testing Programs by Specialty and Subspecialty § 493.931 Routine chemistry. (a) Program content and frequency of challenge. To be approved for proficiency testing for routine chemistry, a program...

  17. 42 CFR 493.929 - Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Chemistry. 493.929 Section 493.929 Public Health... Proficiency Testing Programs by Specialty and Subspecialty § 493.929 Chemistry. The subspecialties under the specialty of chemistry for which a proficiency testing program may offer proficiency testing are routine...

  18. German wide cross sectional survey on health impacts of electromagnetic fields in the view of general practitioners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kowall, Bernd; Breckenkamp, Jürgen; Heyer, Kristina

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The proportion of general practitioners (GPs) in Germany who assume health impacts of electromagnetic fields (EMF) is assessed. Moreover, factors associated with this risk perception are examined. METHODS: A 7% random sample was drawn from online lists of all the GPs working in Germany...

  19. General beliefs about medicines among doctors and nurses in out-patient care: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hedenrud Tove

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Doctors and nurses are two natural partners in the healthcare team, but they usually differ in their perspectives on how to work for increased health. These professions may also have different beliefs about medicines, a factor important for adherence to medicines. The aim was to explore general beliefs about medicines among doctors and nurses. Methods Questionnaires were sent to 306 private practitioners (PPs, 298 general practitioners (GPs and 303 nurses in the county of Västra Götaland, Sweden. The questionnaire included sociodemographic questions and the general part of the Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire (BMQ, which measures the beliefs people have about medicines in general. General beliefs about medicines in relation to background variables were explored with independent t-tests and ANOVA analyses. Differences between occupations and influences of interaction variables were analysed with multiple linear regression models for general beliefs about medicines. Results The data collection resulted in 616 questionnaires (62.1% PPs; 61.6% GPs; 80.5% nurses. The majority of the PPs and 40% of the GPs were male but most of the nurses were female. The GPs' mean age was 47 years, PPs' 60 years and nurses' 52 years. Few nurses originated from non-Nordic countries while 15% of the PPs and 25% of the GPs did. Nurses saw medicines as more harmful and less beneficial than did PPs and GPs. These differences could not be explained by the included interaction variables. GPs with a Nordic background saw medicines as more beneficial and less harmful than did GPs with a non-Nordic background. Furthermore, GPs of non-Nordic origin were most likely to believe that medicines were overprescribed by doctors. Conclusion Doctors were more positive about medicines than nurses. The differences in beliefs about medicines found between doctors and nurses could not be explained by any of the included interaction variables. These differences in

  20. Chemistry for environmental scientists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller, Detlev [Brandenburgische Technische Univ., Berlin (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Luftchemie und Luftreinhaltung

    2015-07-01

    Non-chemists in environmental sciences and engineering (e.g. physicists, biologists, ecologists, geographers, soil scientists, hydrologists, meteorologists, economists, engineers) need chemical basic knowledge for understanding chemical processes in the environment. This book focuses on general and fundamental chemistry (including required physics) such as properties and bonding of matter, chemical kinetics and mechanisms, phase and chemical equilibrium, the basic features of air (gases), water (liquids) and soil (solids) and the most important substances and their reactions in the environment. Selected key environmental chemical processes are shortly characterised in the light of multi-component and multiphase chemistry. This book is also useful for chemists who are beginning work on environmental issues.

  1. Chemistry for environmental scientists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeller, Detlev

    2015-01-01

    Non-chemists in environmental sciences and engineering (e.g. physicists, biologists, ecologists, geographers, soil scientists, hydrologists, meteorologists, economists, engineers) need chemical basic knowledge for understanding chemical processes in the environment. This book focuses on general and fundamental chemistry (including required physics) such as properties and bonding of matter, chemical kinetics and mechanisms, phase and chemical equilibrium, the basic features of air (gases), water (liquids) and soil (solids) and the most important substances and their reactions in the environment. Selected key environmental chemical processes are shortly characterised in the light of multi-component and multiphase chemistry. This book is also useful for chemists who are beginning work on environmental issues.

  2. What Chemistry To Teach Engineers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkes, Stephen J.

    2000-01-01

    Examines possible general chemistry topics that would be most relevant and practical for engineering majors. Consults the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology (ABET), engineering textbooks, texts from other required subjects, and practicing engineers for recommendations. (Contains 24 references.) (WRM)

  3. The personal and general hygiene practices of food handlers in the delicatessen sections of retail outlets in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Tonder, Izanne; Lues, Jan F R; Theron, Maria M

    2007-11-01

    This paper presents data on personal- and general-hygiene knowledge and practices among food handlers in the delicatessens of a major retail group in the Western Cape in South Africa. Food handlers were interviewed by means of a structured questionnaire. Although the majority of food handlers adhered to basic hygiene principles, there is definitely a need for proper and continuous training in personal and general hygiene, not only for food handlers, but also for management. The study reported here is of importance particularly in view of new local regulations governing the application of the hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) system. Management is responsible for the implementation of this system, and where supervision is not adequate, the manager of the outlet should intervene to ensure that staff conform to the requirements.

  4. Bibliography on radioanalytical chemistry in Austria (1936-1979)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoenfeld, T.; Vojir, F.; Hedrich, E.

    1980-09-01

    This bibliography on radioanalytical chemistry contains 1143 references to publications authored by scientists while affiliated to institutes and orgnizations located in Austria. The references are presented in three sections: General Section (890 references), Section: Activation Analysis (227 references), Section: Books and Major Reviews (26 references). Within each section, the references are grouped according to the year of publication and are arranged for each year in alphabetical order of the name of the (first) author. The authors institutional affiliations when preparing the publication are given. For the publications listed in the General Section the main subject (or subjects) are indicated, this classification being based on a list of 36 subjects. An author index is included. (auth.)

  5. Association of general psychological factors with frequent attendance in primary care: a population-based cross-sectional observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajek, André; Bock, Jens-Oliver; König, Hans-Helmut

    2017-03-24

    Whereas several studies have examined the association between frequent attendance in primary care and illness-specific psychological factors, little is known about the relation between frequent attendance and general psychological factors. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the association between being a frequent attender in primary care and general psychological factors. Data were used from a large, population-based sample of community-dwelling individuals aged 40 and above in Germany in 2014 (n = 7,446). Positive and negative affect, life satisfaction, optimism, self-esteem, self-efficacy, and self-regulation were included as general psychological factors. The number of self-reported GP visits in the past twelve months was used to quantify frequency of attendance; individuals with more than 9 visits (highest decile) were defined as frequent attenders. Multiple logistic regressions showed that being a frequent attender was positively associated with less life satisfaction [OR: 0.79 (0.70-0.89)], higher negative affect [OR: 1.38 (1.17-1.62)], less self-efficacy [OR: 0.74 (0.63-0.86)], less self-esteem [OR: 0.65 (0.54-0.79)], less self-regulation [OR: 0.74 (0.60-0.91)], and higher perceived stress [OR: 1.46 (1.28-1.66)], after adjusting for sociodemographic factors, morbidity and lifestyle factors. However, frequent attendance was not significantly associated with positive affect and self-regulation. The present study highlights the association between general psychological factors and frequent attendance. As frequent GP visits produce high health care costs and are potentially associated with increased referrals and use of secondary health care services, this knowledge might help to address these individuals with high needs.

  6. Section 3. General issues in management : Heuristics or experience-based techniques for making accounting judgments and learning

    OpenAIRE

    Schiller, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to further the development of initial accounting for internally generated intangible assets, relevant to both academics and practitioners, examining what happens when accountants are given principles-based discretion. This paper draws on existing insights into heuristics or experience-based techniques for making accounting judgments. Knowledge about judgment under uncertainty, and the general framework offered by the heuristics and biases program in particular, fo...

  7. Predictors of general self-efficacy and self-esteem in occupational therapy students: A cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Bonsaksen, Tore

    2015-01-01

    A national survey reported college students showed higher risk of mental health problems than the general population. Using selfefficacy and self-esteem as indicators of mental health, this study explores sociodemographic, relational, educational, and work factors associated with these outcomes. A sample of 148 occupational therapy students in Norway participated, and data were analyzed with multiple linear regression. Factors associated with positive self-efficacy and self-esteem were higher...

  8. Compliance with referrals to medical specialist care: patient and general practice determinants: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, Christel E; de Jong, Judith D; Verheij, Robert A; Jansen, Tessa; Korevaar, Joke C; de Bakker, Dinny H

    2016-02-01

    In a gatekeeper system, primary care physicians and patients jointly decide whether or not medical specialist care is needed. However, it is the patient who decides to actually use the referral. Referral non-compliance could delay diagnosis and treatment. The objective of this study was to assess patient compliance with a referral to medical specialist care and identify patient and practice characteristics that are associated with it. Observational study using data on 48,784 referrals to medical specialist care derived from electronic medical records of 58 general practices for the period 2008-2010. Referral compliance was based on claims data of medical specialist care. Logistic multilevel regression analyses were conducted to determine associations between patient and general practice characteristics and referral compliance. In 86.6% of the referrals, patients complied. Patient and not practice characteristics were significantly associated with compliance. Patients from deprived urban areas and patients aged 18-44 years were less likely to comply, whereas patients aged 65 years and older were more likely to comply. About 1 in 8 patients do not use their referral. These patients may not receive adequate care. Demographic and socio-economic factors appear to affect compliance. The results of this study may be used to make general practitioners more aware that some patients are more likely to be noncompliant with referrals.

  9. AECL research programs in systems chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lister, D.H.; Pathania, R.S.

    1984-05-01

    Research programs in Systems Chemistry are aimed at preserving the integrity of the many working systems in CANDU reactors and at minimizing chemistry-induced problems such as radiation field growth or fouling of surfaces. The topics of main concern are the chemistry and corrosion of steam generators, for it is in this general area that the potential for serious problems is very real

  10. Analytical performance of 17 general chemistry analytes across countries and across manufacturers in the INPUtS project of EQA organizers in Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, United Kingdom and Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weykamp, Cas; Secchiero, Sandra; Plebani, Mario; Thelen, Marc; Cobbaert, Christa; Thomas, Annette; Jassam, Nuthar; Barth, Julian H; Perich, Carmen; Ricós, Carmen; Faria, Ana Paula

    2017-02-01

    Optimum patient care in relation to laboratory medicine is achieved when results of laboratory tests are equivalent, irrespective of the analytical platform used or the country where the laboratory is located. Standardization and harmonization minimize differences and the success of efforts to achieve this can be monitored with international category 1 external quality assessment (EQA) programs. An EQA project with commutable samples, targeted with reference measurement procedures (RMPs) was organized by EQA institutes in Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, UK, and Spain. Results of 17 general chemistry analytes were evaluated across countries and across manufacturers according to performance specifications derived from biological variation (BV). For K, uric acid, glucose, cholesterol and high-density density (HDL) cholesterol, the minimum performance specification was met in all countries and by all manufacturers. For Na, Cl, and Ca, the minimum performance specifications were met by none of the countries and manufacturers. For enzymes, the situation was complicated, as standardization of results of enzymes toward RMPs was still not achieved in 20% of the laboratories and questionable in the remaining 80%. The overall performance of the measurement of 17 general chemistry analytes in European medical laboratories met the minimum performance specifications. In this general picture, there were no significant differences per country and no significant differences per manufacturer. There were major differences between the analytes. There were six analytes for which the minimum quality specifications were not met and manufacturers should improve their performance for these analytes. Standardization of results of enzymes requires ongoing efforts.

  11. Mathematics for physical chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Mortimer, Robert G

    2005-01-01

    Mathematics for Physical Chemistry, Third Edition, is the ideal text for students and physical chemists who want to sharpen their mathematics skills. It can help prepare the reader for an undergraduate course, serve as a supplementary text for use during a course, or serve as a reference for graduate students and practicing chemists. The text concentrates on applications instead of theory, and, although the emphasis is on physical chemistry, it can also be useful in general chemistry courses. The Third Edition includes new exercises in each chapter that provide practice in a technique immediately after discussion or example and encourage self-study. The first ten chapters are constructed around a sequence of mathematical topics, with a gradual progression into more advanced material. The final chapter discusses mathematical topics needed in the analysis of experimental data.* Numerous examples and problems interspersed throughout the presentations * Each extensive chapter contains a preview, objectives, and ...

  12. Appraisal of cooperation with a palliative care case manager by general practitioners and community nurses: a cross-sectional questionnaire study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Plas, Annicka G M; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, Bregje D; Vissers, Kris C; Deliens, Luc; Jansen, Wim J J; Francke, Anneke L

    2016-01-01

    To investigate how general practitioners and community nurses value the support that they receive from a nurse case manager with expertise in palliative care, whether they think the case manager is helpful in realizing appropriate care and what characteristics of the patient and case management are associated with this view. For sustainable palliative care in an ageing society, basic palliative care is provided by generalists and specialist palliative care is reserved for complex situations. Acceptance of and cooperation with specialist palliative care providers by the general practitioner and community nurse is pivotal. Cross-sectional questionnaire study. Questionnaire data from 168 general practitioners and 125 community nurses were analysed using chi-square tests, univariate and multivariate logistic regression. Data were gathered between March 2011-December 2013. Of general practitioners, 46% rated the case manager as helpful in realizing care that is appropriate for the patient; for community nurses this was 49%. The case manager did not hinder the process of care and had added value for patients, according to the general practitioners and community nurses. The tasks of the case manager were associated with whether or not the case manager was helpful in realizing appropriate care, whereas patient characteristics and the number of contacts with the case manager were not. General practitioners and community nurses are moderately positive about the support from the case manager. To improve cooperation further, case managers should invest in contact with general practitioners and community nurses. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Radio-Isotopes Section, radiation Safety Division, Ministry Of The Environment, Israel: A General Review, And Future Developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Zion, S.

    1999-01-01

    The section of radio-isotopes in the Ministry Of Environment, is responsible for preventing environmental hazards fi.om radio-isotopes ''from cradle to grave's'. The management and the supervision of radioactive materials, includes about 350 institutes in Israel. We are dealing with the implementation and the enforcement of the environmental regulations and safety standards, and licensing for each institution and installation. Among our tasks are the following: Follow-up of the import, transportation and distribution, usage and storage and disposal of radio-isotopes, as well as legislation, risk-assessments, inspection, , and ''education'. We are also participating in committees / working groups discussing specific topics: Radioactive stores, Low RW disposal, Y2K, GIS, penalties charging, transportation and more

  14. Socioeconomic disadvantage and its implications for population health planning of obesity and overweight, using cross-sectional data from general practices from a regional catchment in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Ghosh, Abhijeet; Charlton, Karen E; Batterham, Marijka J

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To identify smaller geographic and region-specific evidence to inform population health planning for overweight and obesity. Design Cross-sectional secondary analysis of data. Setting Primary healthcare?17 general practices located in the Illawarra-Shoalhaven region of New South Wales (NSW). Participants A subset (n=36?674) of the Sentinel Practices Data Sourcing project adult persons data set (n=118?794) that included information on disease status of all adult patients who had hei...

  15. Radiation chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swallow, A.J.

    1983-01-01

    The subject is covered in chapters, entitled: introduction (defines scope of article as dealing with the chemistry of reactive species, (e.g. excess electrons, excited states, free radicals and inorganic ions in unusual valency states) as studied using radiation with radiation chemistry in its traditional sense and with biological and industrial applications); gases; water and simple inorganic systems; aqueous metallo-organic compounds and metalloproteins; small organic molecules in aqueous solution; microheterogeneous systems; non-aqueous liquids and solutions; solids; biological macromolecules; synthetic polymers. (U.K.)

  16. Indoor Chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weschler, Charles J.; Carslaw, Nicola

    2018-01-01

    This review aims to encapsulate the importance, ubiquity, and complexity of indoor chemistry. We discuss the many sources of indoor air pollutants and summarize their chemical reactions in the air and on surfaces. We also summarize some of the known impacts of human occupants, who act as sources...... and sinks of indoor chemicals, and whose activities (e.g., cooking, cleaning, smoking) can lead to extremely high pollutant concentrations. As we begin to use increasingly sensitive and selective instrumentation indoors, we are learning more about chemistry in this relatively understudied environment....

  17. Physics, radiology, and chemistry. 7. rev. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linde, O.K.; Knigge, H.J.

    1986-01-01

    This book is an introduction to physics and chemistry especially for medical personnel. After a general introduction, measurement methods, mechanics including mechanics of solid bodies, fluids and gases, heat, optics, acoustics, electricity, radiations including their biological effects, general chemistry, inorganic and organic chemistry are treated. Every chapter contains exercises mostly in connection with medical and biological effects. Furthermore, connections with biology and medicine are considered. The chapters on physiological chemistry, computer and information theory, chemistry and ecology, and metabolism have been rewritten. (orig./HP) [de

  18. Condensate and feedwater systems, pumps, and water chemistry. Volume seven

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    Subject matter includes condensate and feedwater systems (general features of condensate and feedwater systems, condenser hotwell level control, condensate flow, feedwater flow), pumps (principles of fluid flow, types of pumps, centrifugal pumps, positive displacement pumps, jet pumps, pump operating characteristics) and water chemistry (water chemistry fundamentals, corrosion, scaling, radiochemistry, water chemistry control processes, water pretreatment, PWR water chemistry, BWR water chemistry, condenser circulating water chemistry

  19. Difficult medical encounters and job satisfaction - results of a cross sectional study with general practitioners in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetz, Katja; Mahnkopf, Janis; Kornitzky, Anna; Steinhäuser, Jost

    2018-05-09

    In primary care 15% of patient encounters are perceived as challenging by general practitioners (GP). However it is unknown what impact these encounters have regarding job satisfaction. The aim of this study was to evaluate which encounters are perceived as challenging by German GPs and whether they were associated with job satisfaction. A total of 1538 questionnaires were sent to GPs in the federal state of Schleswig-Holstein, Germany. GPs should rate 14 medical conditions and 8 traits of patients on the perceived challenge using a Likert scale (1: 'not challenging at all' to 10: 'extremely challenging'). Job satisfaction was measured with the Warr-Cook-Wall job satisfaction scale. A linear regression analyses were used to explore potential associations between for the primary outcome variable 'overall job satisfaction'. Total response was 578 (38%). GPs perceived 16% of their patients as challenging. Psychiatric disorders such as somatization disorder (mean = 7.42), schizophrenia (mean = 6.83) and anxiety disorder (mean = 6.57) were ranked as high challenging while diabetes mellitus type 2 (mean = 4.87) and high blood pressure (mean = 3.22) were ranked as a rather low challenging condition. GPs were mostly satisfied with 'colleagues' (mean = 5.80) and mostly dissatisfied with their 'hours of work' (mean = 4.20). The linear regression analysis showed no association with challenging medical conditions and traits of patients but only with different aspects of job satisfaction concerning the outcome variable 'overall job satisfaction'. Especially psychiatric conditions are perceived as challenging the question arises, in what amount psychiatric competences are gained during the postgraduate specialty training in general practice and if GPs with a mandatory rotation in psychiatry perceive these conditions as less challenging. Interestingly this study indicates that challenging encounter in terms of challenging medical conditions and traits

  20. The association of generalized anxiety disorder and Somatic Symptoms with frequent attendance to health care services: A cross-sectional study from the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kujanpää, Tero S; Jokelainen, Jari; Auvinen, Juha P; Timonen, Markku J

    2017-03-01

    Objective Generalized anxiety disorder is associated with higher rate of physical comorbities, unexplained symptoms, and health care utilization. However, the role of somatic symptoms in determining health care utilization is unclear. The present study aims to assess the association of frequent attendance of health care services between generalized anxiety disorder symptoms and somatic symptoms. Method This study was conducted cross-sectionally using the material of the 46-year follow-up survey of the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966. Altogether, 5585 cohort members responded to the questionnaires concerning health care utilization, illness history, physical symptoms, and generalized anxiety disorder-7 screening tool. Odds ratios belonging to the highest decile in health care utilization were calculated for generalized anxiety disorder symptoms and all (n = 4) somatic symptoms of Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25 controlled for confounding factors. Results Adjusted Odds ratios for being frequent attender of health care services were 2.29 (95% CI 1.58-3.31) for generalized anxiety disorder symptoms and 1.28 (95% CI 0.99-1.64), 1.94 (95% CI 1.46-2.58), 2.33 (95% CI 1.65-3.28), and 3.64 (95% CI 2.15-6.18) for 1, 2, 3, and 4 somatic symptoms, respectively. People with generalized anxiety disorder symptoms had on average a higher number of somatic symptoms (1.8) than other cohort members (0.9). Moreover, 1.6% of people without somatic symptoms tested positive for generalized anxiety disorder, meanwhile 22.6% of people with four somatic symptoms tested positive for generalized anxiety disorder. Conclusions Both generalized anxiety disorder symptoms and somatic symptoms are associated with a higher risk for being a health care frequent attender.

  1. Chemistry Division annual progress report for period ending July 31, 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    Research is reported on: chemistry of coal liquefaction, aqueous chemistry at high temperatures, geosciences, high-temperature chemistry and thermodynamics of structural materials, chemistry of TRU elements and compounds, separations chemistry, electrochemistry, nuclear waste chemistry, chemical physics, theoretical chemistry, inorganic chemistry of hydrogen cycles, molten salt systems, and enhanced oil recovery. Separate abstracts were prepared for the sections dealing with coal liquefaction, TRU elements and compounds, separations, nuclear wastes, and enhanced oil recovery

  2. Chemistry Division annual progress report for period ending July 31, 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    Research is reported on: chemistry of coal liquefaction, aqueous chemistry at high temperatures, geosciences, high-temperature chemistry and thermodynamics of structural materials, chemistry of TRU elements and compounds, separations chemistry, electrochemistry, nuclear waste chemistry, chemical physics, theoretical chemistry, inorganic chemistry of hydrogen cycles, molten salt systems, and enhanced oil recovery. Separate abstracts were prepared for the sections dealing with coal liquefaction, TRU elements and compounds, separations, nuclear wastes, and enhanced oil recovery. (DLC)

  3. Handbook of heterocyclic chemistry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Katritzky, Alan R

    2010-01-01

    ... Heterocyclic Chemistry I (1984) Comprehensive Heterocyclic Chemistry II (1996) Comprehensive Heterocyclic Chemistry III (2008) Comprehensive Organic Functional Group Transformations I (1995) Compreh...

  4. Site investigation SFR. Fracture mineralogy and geochemistry of borehole sections sampled for groundwater chemistry and Eh. Results from boreholes KFR01, KFR08, KFR10, KFR19, KFR7A and KFR105

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandstroem, Bjoern (WSP Sverige AB (Sweden)); Tullborg, Eva-Lena (Terralogica AB, Grabo (Sweden))

    2011-01-15

    This report is part of the complementary site investigations for the future expansion of SFR. The report presents the results obtained during a detailed mineralogical and geochemical study of fracture minerals in drill cores from borehole section sampled for groundwater chemistry and where downhole Eh measurements have been performed. The groundwater redox system comprises not only the water, but also the bedrock/fracture mineral system in contact with this water. It is thus important to gain knowledge of the solid phases in contact with the groundwater, i.e. the fracture minerals. The samples studied for mineralogy and geochemistry, here reported, were selected to represent the fracture surfaces in contact with the groundwater in the sampled borehole sections and will give input to the hydrogeochemical model (SFR SDM). The mineralogy was determined using SEM-EDS and XRD and the geochemistry of fracture filling material was analysed by ICP-AES and ICP-QMS. The most common fracture minerals in the samples are mixed layer clay (smectite-illite), illite, chlorite, calcite, quartz, adularia and albite. Other minerals identified in the borehole sections include laumontite, pyrite, barite, chalcopyrite, hematite, Fe-oxyhydroxide, muscovite, REE-carbonate, allanite, biotite, asphaltite, galena, sphalerite, arsenopyrite, uranium phosphate, uranium silicate, Y-Ca silicate, monazite, xenotime, harmotome and fluorite. There are no major differences between the fracture mineralogy of the investigated borehole sections from SFR and the fracture mineralogy of the Forsmark site investigation area. The four fracture mineral generations distinguished within the Forsmark site investigation are also found at SFR. However, some differences have been observed: 1) Barite and uranium minerals are more common in the SFR fractures, 2) clay minerals like mixed layer illite-smectite and illite dominates in contrast to Forsmark where corrensite is by far the most common clay mineral and, 3

  5. Site investigation SFR. Fracture mineralogy and geochemistry of borehole sections sampled for groundwater chemistry and Eh. Results from boreholes KFR01, KFR08, KFR10, KFR19, KFR7A and KFR105

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandstroem, Bjoern; Tullborg, Eva-Lena

    2011-01-01

    This report is part of the complementary site investigations for the future expansion of SFR. The report presents the results obtained during a detailed mineralogical and geochemical study of fracture minerals in drill cores from borehole section sampled for groundwater chemistry and where downhole Eh measurements have been performed. The groundwater redox system comprises not only the water, but also the bedrock/fracture mineral system in contact with this water. It is thus important to gain knowledge of the solid phases in contact with the groundwater, i.e. the fracture minerals. The samples studied for mineralogy and geochemistry, here reported, were selected to represent the fracture surfaces in contact with the groundwater in the sampled borehole sections and will give input to the hydrogeochemical model (SFR SDM). The mineralogy was determined using SEM-EDS and XRD and the geochemistry of fracture filling material was analysed by ICP-AES and ICP-QMS. The most common fracture minerals in the samples are mixed layer clay (smectite-illite), illite, chlorite, calcite, quartz, adularia and albite. Other minerals identified in the borehole sections include laumontite, pyrite, barite, chalcopyrite, hematite, Fe-oxyhydroxide, muscovite, REE-carbonate, allanite, biotite, asphaltite, galena, sphalerite, arsenopyrite, uranium phosphate, uranium silicate, Y-Ca silicate, monazite, xenotime, harmotome and fluorite. There are no major differences between the fracture mineralogy of the investigated borehole sections from SFR and the fracture mineralogy of the Forsmark site investigation area. The four fracture mineral generations distinguished within the Forsmark site investigation are also found at SFR. However, some differences have been observed: 1) Barite and uranium minerals are more common in the SFR fractures, 2) clay minerals like mixed layer illite-smectite and illite dominates in contrast to Forsmark where corrensite is by far the most common clay mineral and, 3

  6. Reinventing Chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Whitesides, George McClelland

    2015-01-01

    Chemistry is in a period of change, from an era focused on molecules and reactions, to one in which manipulations of systems of molecules and reactions will be essential parts of controlling larger systems. This Essay traces paths from the past to possible futures.

  7. Chemistry Notes

    Science.gov (United States)

    School Science Review, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Short articles on the kinetics of the hydrogen peroxide-iodide ion reaction, simulation of fluidization catalysis, the use of Newman projection diagrams to represent steric relationships in organic chemistry, the use of synthetic substrates for proteolytic enzyme reactions, and two simple clock reactions"--hydrolysis of halogenoalkanes and…

  8. Predictors of perceived barriers to physical activity in the general adult population: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herazo-Beltrán, Yaneth; Pinillos, Yisel; Vidarte, José; Crissien, Estela; Suarez, Damaris; García, Rafael

    The perception of personal barriers to physical activity varies according to the sociodemographic characteristics of individuals. To determine the predictors of the perception of barriers to physical activity in the adult population. A cross-sectional study with 1066 adult women and 1036 adult men. The sociodemographic variables (age, gender, marital status, socioeconomic level, level of education), the perception of barriers that do not allow performance of physical activity (i.e. lack of time, social support, energy, motivation, skill, resources, and fear of injury during practice); and the level of physical activity through the International Physical Activity Questionnaire in its short-form version were evaluated. Individuals from low socioeconomic level (1 and 2) have higher risks of perceiving barriers such as lack of motivation [OR 1.76 (95% CI (1.4-2.1))] and lack of resources [OR 1.37 (95% CI (1.1-1.6))]; individuals with partners did not perceive the lack of social support [OR 0.29 (95% CI (0.2-0.4))] and lack of motivation [OR 0.54 (95% CI (0.4-0.7))] as barriers to physical activity. Individuals with low schooling perceived lack of social support [OR 3.81 (95% CI (3-4.7))], lack of resources [OR 2.78 (95% CI (2.2-3.3))], and fear of injury [OR 2.70 (95% CI (2.2-3.3))] as barrier to physical activity. Factors such as socioeconomic level, marital status, level of education, and self-perception of health are predictors of barriers to physical activity. Copyright © 2017 Associação Brasileira de Pesquisa e Pós-Graduação em Fisioterapia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  9. A cross-sectional study of self-reported general health, lifestyle factors, and disease: the Hordaland Health Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randi Jepsen

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background. Information on self-reported health is important for health professionals, and the aim of this study was to examine associations between lifestyle factors and self-reported health and the mediating effect of disease in a Norwegian population.Methods and Materials. The data collection was conducted as part of the Hordaland Health Study (HUSK 1997–99, which was a cross-sectional epidemiological study. All individuals in Hordaland county born in 1953–1957 were invited to participate (aged 40–44 years. Complete information for the present study was obtained from 12,883 individuals (44% response rate. Height and weight were measured at a physical examination. Information on lifestyle factors, self-reported health, disease (heart attack, apoplexy, angina pectoris, and diabetes, and socio-demographic variables was obtained from a self-administered questionnaire. Self-reported health was measured with a one-item question. Odds ratios for fair or poor self-reported health were calculated using multiple logistic regression analyses adjusted for disease and socio-demographic variables.Results. Respondents reporting adverse lifestyle behaviours (obesity (odds ratio (OR 1.7, p < 0.001, smoking (OR 1.2, p < 0.001, or excessive intake of alcohol (OR 3.3, p < 0.001 showed an increased risk of poor self-reported health. Furthermore, a moderate intake of wine (OR 0.6, p < 0.001 or strenuous physical activity (OR 0.5, p < 0.001 decreased the risk of poor health. Disease did not mediate the effect.Conclusion. A one-item question measuring self-reported health may be a suitable measure for health professionals to identify levels of subjective health and reveal a need to target lifestyle factors in relatively young individuals with or without disease.

  10. Violence against children, later victimisation, and mental health: a cross-sectional study of the general Norwegian population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoresen, Siri; Myhre, Mia; Wentzel-Larsen, Tore; Aakvaag, Helene Flood; Hjemdal, Ole Kristian

    2015-01-01

    Background Violence in childhood is associated with mental health problems and risk of revictimisation. Less is known about the relative importance of the various types of childhood and adult victimisation for adult mental health. Objective To estimate the associations between various types of childhood and adult violence exposure, and their combined associations to adult mental health. Method This study was a cross-sectional telephone survey of the Norwegian adult population; 2,435 women and 2,092 men aged 18–75 participated (19.3% of those we tried to call and 42.9% of those who answered the phone). The interview comprised a broad array of violence exposure in both childhood and adulthood. Anxiety/depression was measured by the Hopkins Symptom Check List (HSCL-10). Results Victimisation was commonly reported, for example, child sexual abuse (women: 10.2%, men: 3.5%), childhood–parental physical violence (women: 4.9%, men: 5.1%), and lifetime forcible rape (women: 9.4%, men: 1.1%). All categories of childhood violence were significantly associated with adult victimisation, with a 2.2–5.0 times higher occurrence in exposed children (pviolence categories experienced (pviolence were significantly associated with anxiety/depression (pviolence/neglect had the highest levels of anxiety/depression. Conclusions Results should be interpreted in light of the low response rate. Childhood violence in all its forms was a risk factor for victimisation in adulthood. Adult anxiety/depression was associated with both the number of violence categories and the type of childhood violence experienced. A broad assessment of childhood and adult violence exposure is necessary both for research and prevention purposes. Psychological violence and neglect should receive more research attention, especially in combination with other types of violence. PMID:25591729

  11. [What Makes Happy Doctors? Job Satisfaction of General Practitioners in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania - a Representative Cross-sectional Study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löffler, C; Höck, J; Hornung, A; Kundt, G; Drewelow, E; Völker, S; Kreiser, B; Riedel, J; Altiner, A

    2015-12-01

    Studies provide evidence for the importance of general practitioners (GPs) job satisfaction for a secure and high quality health care provision. This study focuses on job satisfaction of GPs in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania (MV), a rural area threatened by a lack of GPs. We investigate how satisfied GPs are with their job and which factors influence their job satisfaction. All 1 133 GPs working in MV in December 2011 were asked to complete a 57-item-questionnaire. The response rate reached 50.1%. The sample is representative for GPs in MV. Levels of job satisfaction are high and correlate with age and sex: females and GPs below 50 years of age are more satisfied. Factors contributing to high job satisfaction include a good doctor-patient relationship, fair pay, and the variety of reasons for doctor-patient consultations in primary care. Although all GPs were dissatisfied with bureaucracy, this factor has little impact on GPs' overall job satisfaction. In light of the imminent lack of GPs, in future it will be important to improve factors that have been demonstrated to increase job satisfaction. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  12. AWARENESS UNDER GENERAL ANAESTHESIA IN PATIENTS UNDERGOING ELECTIVE CAESAREAN SECTION USING THIOPENTONE AND KETAMINE AS INDUCTION AGENTS- A RANDOMISED PROSPECTIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somashekharappa Basavanneppa Kadur

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Awareness during general anaesthesia for caesarean section is a big concern because of its serious adverse consequences. It has been reported that ketamine used as induction agent reduces awareness. This study was conducted to compare awareness under general anaesthesia when thiopentone and ketamine are used as induction agents for caesarean section. MATERIALS AND METHODS Fifty healthy mothers scheduled for elective caesarean section were randomly divided into two groups to receive thiopentone (4 mg/kg -1 or ketamine (1.5 mg/kg -1 for induction of anaesthesia. Mothers were examined for intraoperative awareness using isolated forearm technique until the delivery of the baby. Postoperatively, they were spoken about recall and any hallucination by using a set of questionnaire. RESULTS 15% patients who received thiopentone were able to follow the commands compared to 8% patients who received ketamine. 65% patients who received thiopentone made reaching movements of the isolated forearm towards the stimulus compared to 20% patients of ketamine group. None of the patients in thiopentone group experienced any hallucinations compared to 1 patient (4% in ketamine group who exhibited hallucinations. None of fifty patients could recall the intraoperative events like squeezing of hands or the pain of operation. CONCLUSION Ketamine can be used as substitute for thiopentone as an induction agent in a dose equal to 1.5 mg/kg -1 . Having profound analgesic effect, property to maintain foetoplacental exchange better than any other induction agents, ketamine can be used routinely as an induction agent for mothers undergoing caesarean section under general anaesthesia.

  13. Effects of General and Epidural Anaesthesia in Newborn’s Stres Hormones, Blood Gases, and Apgar Scores in Elective Cesarean Section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meral Ezberci

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of general and epidural anaesthesia in newborn’s stres hormones, blood gases, and Apgar scores in elective cesarean section. MATERIALS-METHODS: 50 patients in ASA II (American Society of Anesthesiology class who would undergo elective cesarean section in University of Kahramanmaras Sutcuimam, Department of Anaesthesiology and Reanimation included in the study and randomized into two equal groups (General anaesthesia: Group G and Epidural anaesthesia: Group E. In both groups, newborn stres hormones (TSH, cortisol, and insulin, blood gases, and Apgar scores were studued. All patients received famotidine and granisetron iv 30 min before operations in premedication room. In the general anaesthesia group; aritmal, propofol, and succinylcholine was used for induction and muscle relaxation. Following the induction, positive pressure ventilation of the lungs was started immediately using a 50% N2O + O2 mixture. After delivery of the baby, anaesthesia and muscle relaxation was maintained by 50% N2O +O2, 0,5-1% MAC isoflurane, and cisatracurium. In the epidural anaesthesia group; epidural anaesthesia was performed with 0,375% bupivacaine. The epidural needle inserted through L2-3 or L3-4 interspace. After achieving T4-5 neural blockade, the operation was started. Blood samples for newborn stres hormones and blood gases were taken from umblical vein. The Apgar scores were recorded at 1 min and again at 5 min after the delivery by same person. RESULTS: There were no differences in newborn stress hormones between two groups. In newborn blood gases analyses, only SO2 changes were statistically significant between two groups. There were no differences in newborn Apgar scores between two groups. CONCLUSION: With these results, we concluded that each of the general and epidural anaesthesia techniques have similar effects on newborn blood gases, stress hormones and Apgar scores and can be acceptable

  14. A cross-sectional prevalence study of ethnically targeted and general audience outdoor obesity-related advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yancey, Antronette K; Cole, Brian L; Brown, Rochelle; Williams, Jerome D; Hillier, Amy; Kline, Randolph S; Ashe, Marice; Grier, Sonya A; Backman, Desiree; McCarthy, William J

    2009-03-01

    Commercial marketing is a critical but understudied element of the sociocultural environment influencing Americans' food and beverage preferences and purchases. This marketing also likely influences the utilization of goods and services related to physical activity and sedentary behavior. A growing literature documents the targeting of racial/ethnic and income groups in commercial advertisements in magazines, on billboards, and on television that may contribute to sociodemographic disparities in obesity and chronic disease risk and protective behaviors. This article examines whether African Americans, Latinos, and people living in low-income neighborhoods are disproportionately exposed to advertisements for high-calorie, low nutrient-dense foods and beverages and for sedentary entertainment and transportation and are relatively underexposed to advertising for nutritious foods and beverages and goods and services promoting physical activities. Outdoor advertising density and content were compared in zip code areas selected to offer contrasts by area income and ethnicity in four cities: Los Angeles, Austin, New York City, and Philadelphia. Large variations were observed in the amount, type, and value of advertising in the selected zip code areas. Living in an upper-income neighborhood, regardless of its residents' predominant ethnicity, is generally protective against exposure to most types of obesity-promoting outdoor advertising (food, fast food, sugary beverages, sedentary entertainment, and transportation). The density of advertising varied by zip code area race/ethnicity, with African American zip code areas having the highest advertising densities, Latino zip code areas having slightly lower densities, and white zip code areas having the lowest densities. The potential health and economic implications of differential exposure to obesity-related advertising are substantial. Although substantive legal questions remain about the government's ability to regulate

  15. Current status of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) in a general hospital in Japan: a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusano, Chika; Yamada, Nobuo; Kikuchi, Kenji; Hashimoto, Masaji; Gotoda, Takuji

    2016-01-01

    Background: There has been debate over the indications for percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) in recent years in Japan. In addition, the level of satisfaction of patients and patient’s family after PEG remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the current status of PEG and the level of satisfaction of patients and patients’ families after PEG in Japan. Methods: We reviewed the existing data of all patients who underwent PEG tube insertion at Yuri Kumiai General Hospital (Akita, Japan) between February 2000 and December 2010. We examined the following points: underlying diseases requiring PEG, levels of consciousness, and performance status. We also sent a questionnaire to the patients and patient’s families to ask about their satisfaction with and thoughts about PEG. Results: The data of 545 patients who underwent PEG were reviewed. There were 295 men and 250 women, with a mean age of 77.2 ± 11.4 years. PEG was indicated most frequently for cerebrovascular disorders (48.2%, 239/545). There were 515 (94.4%, 515/545) patients showing consciousness disturbance and 444 (81.5%, 444/545) bedridden patients. The questionnaire was answered by one patient himself and 316 patients’ families. When asked, “Was performing PEG a good decision?”, 57.5% (182/316) of the patients’ families answered yes. Meanwhile, when patients’ family members were asked if they would wish to undergo PEG if they were in the same condition as the patient, 28.4% (90/316) answered yes, whereas 55.3% (175/316) answered no. Conclusions: Few patients were able to make their own decision about PEG tube placement because of consciousness disturbance. As a result, many family members of the patients did not want to experience PEG for themselves. Future studies should be performed to clarify the quality of life and ethical aspects associated with PEG. PMID:27313796

  16. Violence against children, later victimisation, and mental health: a cross-sectional study of the general Norwegian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siri Thoresen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Violence in childhood is associated with mental health problems and risk of revictimisation. Less is known about the relative importance of the various types of childhood and adult victimisation for adult mental health. Objective: To estimate the associations between various types of childhood and adult violence exposure, and their combined associations to adult mental health. Method: This study was a cross-sectional telephone survey of the Norwegian adult population; 2,435 women and 2,092 men aged 18–75 participated (19.3% of those we tried to call and 42.9% of those who answered the phone. The interview comprised a broad array of violence exposure in both childhood and adulthood. Anxiety/depression was measured by the Hopkins Symptom Check List (HSCL-10. Results: Victimisation was commonly reported, for example, child sexual abuse (women: 10.2%, men: 3.5%, childhood–parental physical violence (women: 4.9%, men: 5.1%, and lifetime forcible rape (women: 9.4%, men: 1.1%. All categories of childhood violence were significantly associated with adult victimisation, with a 2.2–5.0 times higher occurrence in exposed children (p<0.05 for all associations. Anxiety/depression (HSCL-10 associated with adult abuse increased with the number of childhood violence categories experienced (p<0.001. All combinations of childhood violence were significantly associated with anxiety/depression (p<0.001 for all associations. Individuals reporting psychological violence/neglect had the highest levels of anxiety/depression. Conclusions: Results should be interpreted in light of the low response rate. Childhood violence in all its forms was a risk factor for victimisation in adulthood. Adult anxiety/depression was associated with both the number of violence categories and the type of childhood violence experienced. A broad assessment of childhood and adult violence exposure is necessary both for research and prevention purposes. Psychological violence

  17. Sharing Responsibilities within the General Practice Team - A Cross-Sectional Study of Task Delegation in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mergenthal, Karola; Beyer, Martin; Gerlach, Ferdinand M; Guethlin, Corina

    2016-01-01

    Expected growth in the demand for health services has generated interest in the more effective deployment of health care assistants. Programs encouraging German general practitioners (GPs) to share responsibility for care with specially qualified health care assistants in the family practice (VERAHs) have existed for several years. But no studies have been conducted on the tasks German GPs are willing to rely on specially qualified personnel to perform, what they are prepared to delegate to all non-physician practice staff and what they prefer to do themselves. As part of an evaluation study on the deployment of VERAHs in GP-centered health care, we used a questionnaire to ask about task delegation within the practice team. From a list of tasks that VERAHs are specifically trained to carry out, GPs were asked to indicate which they actually delegate. We also asked GPs why they had employed a VERAH in their practice and for their opinions on the benefits and limitations of assigning tasks to VERAHs. The aim of the study was to find out which tasks GPs delegate to their specially qualified personnel, which they permit all HCAs to carry out, and which tasks they do not delegate at all. The survey was filled in and returned by 245 GPs (83%). Some tasks were exclusively delegated to VERAHs (e.g. home visits), while others were delegated to all HCAs (e.g. vaccinations). About half the GPs rated the assessment of mental health, as part of the comprehensive assessment of a patient's condition, as the sole responsibility of a GP. The possibility to delegate more complex tasks was the main reason given for employing a VERAH. Doctors said the delegation of home visits provided them with the greatest relief. In Germany, where GPs are solely accountable for the health care provided in their practices, experience with the transfer of responsibility to other non-physician health care personnel is still very limited. When HCAs have undergone special training, GPs seem to be

  18. Sharing Responsibilities within the General Practice Team – A Cross-Sectional Study of Task Delegation in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mergenthal, Karola; Beyer, Martin; Gerlach, Ferdinand M.; Guethlin, Corina

    2016-01-01

    Background Expected growth in the demand for health services has generated interest in the more effective deployment of health care assistants. Programs encouraging German general practitioners (GPs) to share responsibility for care with specially qualified health care assistants in the family practice (VERAHs) have existed for several years. But no studies have been conducted on the tasks German GPs are willing to rely on specially qualified personnel to perform, what they are prepared to delegate to all non-physician practice staff and what they prefer to do themselves. Methods As part of an evaluation study on the deployment of VERAHs in GP-centered health care, we used a questionnaire to ask about task delegation within the practice team. From a list of tasks that VERAHs are specifically trained to carry out, GPs were asked to indicate which they actually delegate. We also asked GPs why they had employed a VERAH in their practice and for their opinions on the benefits and limitations of assigning tasks to VERAHs. The aim of the study was to find out which tasks GPs delegate to their specially qualified personnel, which they permit all HCAs to carry out, and which tasks they do not delegate at all. Results The survey was filled in and returned by 245 GPs (83%). Some tasks were exclusively delegated to VERAHs (e.g. home visits), while others were delegated to all HCAs (e.g. vaccinations). About half the GPs rated the assessment of mental health, as part of the comprehensive assessment of a patient’s condition, as the sole responsibility of a GP. The possibility to delegate more complex tasks was the main reason given for employing a VERAH. Doctors said the delegation of home visits provided them with the greatest relief. Conclusions In Germany, where GPs are solely accountable for the health care provided in their practices, experience with the transfer of responsibility to other non-physician health care personnel is still very limited. When HCAs have

  19. Handbook of relativistic quantum chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Wenjian

    2017-01-01

    This handbook focuses on the foundations of relativistic quantum mechanics and addresses a number of fundamental issues never covered before in a book. For instance: How can many-body theory be combined with quantum electrodynamics? How can quantum electrodynamics be interfaced with relativistic quantum chemistry? What is the most appropriate relativistic many-electron Hamiltonian? How can we achieve relativistic explicit correlation? How can we formulate relativistic properties? - just to name a few. Since relativistic quantum chemistry is an integral component of computational chemistry, this handbook also supplements the ''Handbook of Computational Chemistry''. Generally speaking, it aims to establish the 'big picture' of relativistic molecular quantum mechanics as the union of quantum electrodynamics and relativistic quantum chemistry. Accordingly, it provides an accessible introduction for readers new to the field, presents advanced methodologies for experts, and discusses possible future perspectives, helping readers understand when/how to apply/develop the methodologies.

  20. Handbook of relativistic quantum chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Wenjian (ed.) [Peking Univ., Beijing (China). Center for Computational Science and Engineering

    2017-03-01

    This handbook focuses on the foundations of relativistic quantum mechanics and addresses a number of fundamental issues never covered before in a book. For instance: How can many-body theory be combined with quantum electrodynamics? How can quantum electrodynamics be interfaced with relativistic quantum chemistry? What is the most appropriate relativistic many-electron Hamiltonian? How can we achieve relativistic explicit correlation? How can we formulate relativistic properties? - just to name a few. Since relativistic quantum chemistry is an integral component of computational chemistry, this handbook also supplements the ''Handbook of Computational Chemistry''. Generally speaking, it aims to establish the 'big picture' of relativistic molecular quantum mechanics as the union of quantum electrodynamics and relativistic quantum chemistry. Accordingly, it provides an accessible introduction for readers new to the field, presents advanced methodologies for experts, and discusses possible future perspectives, helping readers understand when/how to apply/develop the methodologies.

  1. Kinetic model framework for aerosol and cloud surface chemistry and gas-particle interactions - Part 1: General equations, parameters, and terminology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pöschl, U.; Rudich, Y.; Ammann, M.

    2007-12-01

    Aerosols and clouds play central roles in atmospheric chemistry and physics, climate, air pollution, and public health. The mechanistic understanding and predictability of aerosol and cloud properties, interactions, transformations, and effects are, however, still very limited. This is due not only to the limited availability of measurement data, but also to the limited applicability and compatibility of model formalisms used for the analysis, interpretation, and description of heterogeneous and multiphase processes. To support the investigation and elucidation of atmospheric aerosol and cloud surface chemistry and gas-particle interactions, we present a comprehensive kinetic model framework with consistent and unambiguous terminology and universally applicable rate equations and parameters. It enables a detailed description of mass transport and chemical reactions at the gas-particle interface, and it allows linking aerosol and cloud surface processes with gas phase and particle bulk processes in systems with multiple chemical components and competing physicochemical processes. The key elements and essential aspects of the presented framework are: a simple and descriptive double-layer surface model (sorption layer and quasi-static layer); straightforward flux-based mass balance and rate equations; clear separation of mass transport and chemical reactions; well-defined and consistent rate parameters (uptake and accommodation coefficients, reaction and transport rate coefficients); clear distinction between gas phase, gas-surface, and surface-bulk transport (gas phase diffusion, surface and bulk accommodation); clear distinction between gas-surface, surface layer, and surface-bulk reactions (Langmuir-Hinshelwood and Eley-Rideal mechanisms); mechanistic description of concentration and time dependences (transient and steady-state conditions); flexible addition of unlimited numbers of chemical species and physicochemical processes; optional aggregation or resolution

  2. National Chemistry Teacher Safety Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plohocki, Barbra A.

    This study evaluated the status of secondary school instructional chemistry laboratory safety using a survey instrument which focused on Teacher background Information, Laboratory Safety Equipment, Facility Safety, General Safety, and a Safety Content Knowledge Survey. A fifty question survey instrument based on recent research and questions developed by the researcher was mailed to 500 secondary school chemistry teachers who participated in the 1993 one-week Woodrow Wilson National Fellowship Foundation Chemistry Institute conducted at Princeton University, New Jersey. The data received from 303 respondents was analyzed by t tests and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). The level of significance for the study was set at ~\\ performance on the Safety Content Knowledge Survey and secondary school chemistry teachers who have had undergraduate and/or graduate safety training and those who have not had undergraduate and/or graduate safety training. Secondary school chemistry teachers who attended school district sponsored safety inservices did not score higher on the Safety Content Knowledge Survey than teachers who did not attend school district sponsored safety inservice sessions. The type of school district (urban, suburban, or rural) had no significant correlation to the type of laboratory safety equipment found in the instructional chemistry laboratory. The certification area (chemistry or other type of certificate which may or may not include chemistry) of the secondary school teacher had no significant correlation to the type of laboratory equipment found in the instructional chemistry laboratory. Overall, this study indicated a majority of secondary school chemistry teachers were interested in attending safety workshops applicable to chemistry safety. Throughout this research project, many teachers indicated they were not adequately instructed on the collegiate level in science safety and had to rely on common sense and self-study in their future teaching careers.

  3. Fine chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laszlo, P.

    1988-01-01

    The 1988 progress report of the Fine Chemistry laboratory (Polytechnic School, France) is presented. The research programs are centered on the renewal of the organic chemistry most important reactions and on the invention of new, highly efficient and highly selective reactions, by applying low cost reagents and solvents. An important research domain concerns the study and fabrication of new catalysts. They are obtained by means of the reactive sputtering of the metals and metal oxydes thin films. The Monte Carlo simulations of the long-range electrostatic interaction in a clay and the obtention of acrylamides from anhydrous or acrylic ester are summarized. Moreover, the results obtained in the field of catalysis are also given. The published papers and the congress communications are included [fr

  4. Radioanalytical chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    The bibliography of Hungarian literature in the field of radioanalytical chemistry covers the four-year period 1976-1979. The list of papers contains 290 references in the alphabetical order of the first authors. The majority of the titles belongs to neutron activation analysis, labelling, separation and determination of radioactive isotopes. Other important fields like radioimmunoassay, environmental protection etc. are covered as well. (Sz.J.)

  5. Analytical chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    The division for Analytical Chemistry continued to try and develope an accurate method for the separation of trace amounts from mixtures which, contain various other elements. Ion exchange chromatography is of special importance in this regard. New separation techniques were tried on certain trace amounts in South African standard rock materials and special ceramics. Methods were also tested for the separation of carrier-free radioisotopes from irradiated cyclotron discs

  6. Physics, radiology, and chemistry. 5. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linde, O.K.; Knigge, H.J.

    1978-01-01

    This book is an introduction into physics and chemistry especially for medical personnel. After a general introduction, measurement methods, mechanics including mechanics of colid bodies, fluids and gases, heat, optics, acoustics, electricity, radiations including their biological effects, general chemistry, anorganic and organic chemistry are treated. Every chapter contains exercises mostly in connection with medical and biological effects. Futhermore connections with biology and medicine are considered. (HSI) [de

  7. Industrial chemistry engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This book on industrial chemistry engineering is divided in two parts. The first part deals with industrial chemistry, inorganic industrial chemistry, organic industrial chemistry, analytical chemistry and practical questions. The last parts explain the chemical industry, a unit parts and thermodynamics in chemical industry and reference. It reveals the test subjects for the industrial chemistry engineering with a written examination and practical skill.

  8. Computational chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, J. O.

    1987-01-01

    With the advent of supercomputers, modern computational chemistry algorithms and codes, a powerful tool was created to help fill NASA's continuing need for information on the properties of matter in hostile or unusual environments. Computational resources provided under the National Aerodynamics Simulator (NAS) program were a cornerstone for recent advancements in this field. Properties of gases, materials, and their interactions can be determined from solutions of the governing equations. In the case of gases, for example, radiative transition probabilites per particle, bond-dissociation energies, and rates of simple chemical reactions can be determined computationally as reliably as from experiment. The data are proving to be quite valuable in providing inputs to real-gas flow simulation codes used to compute aerothermodynamic loads on NASA's aeroassist orbital transfer vehicles and a host of problems related to the National Aerospace Plane Program. Although more approximate, similar solutions can be obtained for ensembles of atoms simulating small particles of materials with and without the presence of gases. Computational chemistry has application in studying catalysis, properties of polymers, all of interest to various NASA missions, including those previously mentioned. In addition to discussing these applications of computational chemistry within NASA, the governing equations and the need for supercomputers for their solution is outlined.

  9. Green chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warner, John C.; Cannon, Amy S.; Dye, Kevin M.

    2004-01-01

    A grand challenge facing government, industry, and academia in the relationship of our technological society to the environment is reinventing the use of materials. To address this challenge, collaboration from an interdisciplinary group of stakeholders will be necessary. Traditionally, the approach to risk management of materials and chemicals has been through inerventions intended to reduce exposure to materials that are hazardous to health and the environment. In 1990, the Pollution Prevention Act encouraged a new tact-elimination of hazards at the source. An emerging approach to this grand challenge seeks to embed the diverse set of environmental perspectives and interests in the everyday practice of the people most responsible for using and creating new materials--chemists. The approach, which has come to be known as Green Chemistry, intends to eliminate intrinsic hazard itself, rather than focusing on reducing risk by minimizing exposure. This chapter addresses the representation of downstream environmental stakeholder interests in the upstream everyday practice that is reinventing chemistry and its material inputs, products, and waste as described in the '12 Principles of Green Chemistry'

  10. Transfusion practice in anemic, non-bleeding patients: Cross-sectional survey of physicians working in general internal medicine teaching hospitals in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Babo, Michelle; Chmiel, Corinne; Müggler, Simon Andreas; Rakusa, Julia; Schuppli, Caroline; Meier, Philipp; Fischler, Manuel; Urner, Martin

    2018-01-01

    Transfusion practice might significantly influence patient morbidity and mortality. Between European countries, transfusion practice of red blood cells (RBC) greatly differs. Only sparse data are available on transfusion practice of general internal medicine physicians in Switzerland. In this cross-sectional survey, physicians working in general medicine teaching hospitals in Switzerland were investigated regarding their self-reported transfusion practice in anemic patients without acute bleeding. The definition of anemia, transfusion triggers, knowledge on RBC transfusion, and implementation of guidelines were assessed. 560 physicians of 71 hospitals (64%) responded to the survey. Anemia was defined at very diverging hemoglobin values (by 38% at a hemoglobin Switzerland. Identifying and subsequently correcting this deficit in knowledge translation may have a significant impact on patient care.

  11. Seeing the Chemistry around Me--Helping Students Identify the Relevance of Chemistry to Everyday Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Tracy Lynn

    2012-01-01

    The study attempted to determine whether the use of a series of reading and response assignments decreased students' perceptions of chemistry difficulty and enhanced students' perceptions of the relevance of chemistry in their everyday lives. Informed consent volunteer students enrolled in General Chemistry II at a community college in the…

  12. 14 CFR Section 8 - General

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... and infrequent occurrence. (7) Cumulative effect of changes in accounting principles. This primary classification (9800) shall include the cumulative effect of material changes in accounting principles. [ER-755... accounting period. (b) The prescribed system of accounts provides for the co-ordinate grouping of all...

  13. Analytical chemistry experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Seung Jo; Paeng, Seong Gwan; Jang, Cheol Hyeon

    1992-08-01

    This book deals with analytical chemistry experiment with eight chapters. It explains general matters that require attention on experiment, handling of medicine with keep and class, the method for handling and glass devices, general control during experiment on heating, cooling, filtering, distillation and extraction and evaporation and dry, glass craft on purpose of the craft, how to cut glass tube and how to bend glass tube, volumetric analysis on neutralization titration and precipitation titration, gravimetric analysis on solubility product, filter and washing and microorganism experiment with necessary tool, sterilization disinfection incubation and appendixes.

  14. Selected constants oxydo-reduction potentials tables of constants and numerical data affiliated to the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry, v.8

    CERN Document Server

    Charlot, G

    1958-01-01

    Selected Constants: Oxydo-Reduction Potentials contains Tables of the most probable value of the normal oxidation-reduction potential, or of the formal or apparent potential, of a given oxidation-reduction system. This book is prepared under the sponsorship of the Commission on Electrochemical Data of the Section of Analytical Chemistry of the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry. It is included in a general program of the Section of Analytical Chemistry. Entry items are classified in alphabetical order. This book will be of value to specialized and non-specialized chemists, teach

  15. Theoretical chemistry periodicities in chemistry and biology

    CERN Document Server

    Eyring, Henry

    1978-01-01

    Theoretical Chemistry: Periodicities in Chemistry and Biology, Volume 4 covers the aspects of theoretical chemistry. The book discusses the stably rotating patterns of reaction and diffusion; the chemistry of inorganic systems exhibiting nonmonotonic behavior; and population cycles. The text also describes the mathematical modeling of excitable media in neurobiology and chemistry; oscillating enzyme reactions; and oscillatory properties and excitability of the heart cell membrane. Selected topics from the theory of physico-chemical instabilities are also encompassed. Chemists, mechanical engin

  16. Solution chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1973-07-01

    Research progress is reported on studies in heavy element chemistry. Topics considered are: synergistic complexes of plutonyl ion; water uptake in synergistic systems; formation constants of some uranyl BETA -diketone complexes; thermodynamic acid dissociation constants of BETA -diketones; thermodynamic formation constants of uranyl BETA -diketonates; thiocyanate complexes of some trivalent lanthanides and actinides; stability constants of actinide complexes using dinonyl naphthalenesulfonic acid extraction; TBP extraction of actinides; stability constants of complexes of Pu(III) with 5- sulfosalicycllc acid; and solvent extraction behavior of Pu( VII). (DHM)

  17. Interstellar chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemperer, William

    2006-08-15

    In the past half century, radioastronomy has changed our perception and understanding of the universe. In this issue of PNAS, the molecular chemistry directly observed within the galaxy is discussed. For the most part, the description of the molecular transformations requires specific kinetic schemes rather than chemical thermodynamics. Ionization of the very abundant molecular hydrogen and atomic helium followed by their secondary reactions is discussed. The rich variety of organic species observed is a challenge for complete understanding. The role and nature of reactions involving grain surfaces as well as new spectroscopic observations of interstellar and circumstellar regions are topics presented in this special feature.

  18. Alcohol use, alcohol-related aggression and intimate partner abuse: A cross-sectional survey of convicted versus general population men in Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilchrist, Elizabeth Allison; Ireland, Lana; Forsyth, Alasdair; Godwin, Jon; Laxton, Tim

    2017-01-01

    Scotland has a particular problem with alcohol, and the links between intimate partner abuse (IPA) and alcohol appear stronger here than elsewhere across Europe. This study explored differences in alcohol use, related aggression and relationship conflict across a number of groups: men convicted for intimate partner abuse, men convicted of general offences and men recruited from community sports teams. Participants (n = 64) completed three questionnaires exploring their experiences of alcohol use (Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test, AUDIT); alcohol and aggression (Alcohol Related Aggression Questionnaire, ARAQ-28), and relationship conflict (Revised Conflict Tactics Scale, CTS-2). There were significant differences across the groups in terms of AUDIT and ARAQ-28 scores, IPA and general offenders scored higher than the community sample. CTS-2 scores showed significant differences: both offender groups reported more use of negotiation and psychological abuse, than the community men, and IPA offenders reported causing more physical harm than either general offenders or the community sample. ARAQ-28 scores correlated with psychological abuse for general offenders. Alcohol use was very high across all groups, but the community group did not endorse an aggression-precipitating view of alcohol and did not report high IPA. Discussed is the need for cross-cultural research to explore putative mediators and moderators in the relationship between alcohol, aggressiveness and IPA. [Gilchrist EA, Ireland L, Forsyth A, Godwin J, Laxton T. Alcohol use, alcohol-related aggression and intimate partner abuse: A cross-sectional survey of convicted versus general population men in Scotland. Drug Alcohol Rev 2017;36:20-23]. © 2017 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  19. Association of white and red meat consumption with general and abdominal obesity: a cross-sectional study among a population of Iranian military families in 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabbagh-Moghadam, Arasb; Mozaffari-Khosravi, Hassan; Nasiri, Morteza; Miri, Ali; Rahdar, Maliehe; Sadeghi, Omid

    2017-12-01

    To assess the association of red and white meat consumption with general and abdominal obesity among Iranian military families. In this cross-sectional study, 525 subjects with age range of 19-55 years belong to military families of Army of Islamic Republic of Iran were recruited during 2016. Dietary data were collected using semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire. A self-reported questionnaire was used to collect data on demographic characteristics and anthropometric measurements. General obesity was defined as body mass index ≥25 kg/m 2 and abdominal obesity as waist circumference ≥80 cm for women and ≥ 94 cm for men. Finally, we had complete data on 170 subjects for analysis. Mean age of subjects was 33.78 ± 6.48. We found a significant positive association between red meat consumption and abdominal obesity in fully adjusted model, so that subjects in the fourth quartile had 4.51 more odds to be abdominally obese compared with those in the first quartile of red meat consumption (OR 4.51, 95% CI 1.32-15.40). Such relationship was not seen for general obesity. In addition, white meat consumption was not associated with general and abdominal obesity either before or after adjustment for covariates. Red meat consumption was positively associated with abdominal obesity. No significant relationship was found between white meat consumption, and general and abdominal obesity. Therefore, further studies are needed to shed light our findings.

  20. Decreased management of genital warts in young women in Australian general practice post introduction of national HPV vaccination program: results from a nationally representative cross-sectional general practice study.

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    Christopher Harrison

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Since the introduction of Australia's human papillomavirus vaccination program, the management rate of genital warts in sexual health clinics and private hospitals has decreased in women of vaccine-eligible age. However, most genital warts in Australia are managed in general practice. This study examines whether a similar decrease occurred in Australian general practice after the introduction of the program. METHODS: Analysis of a nationally representative cross-sectional database of Australian general practice activity (1,175,879 patient encounters with 11,780 general practitioners. Genital warts management rates were estimated for the periods before and after introduction of the program (Pre-program, July 2002-June 2006; Post-program, July 2008-June 2012. Control conditions included genital herpes and gardnerella/bacterial vaginosis in female patients and genital herpes and urethritis in male patients. Trends in management rates by year, pre-vaccine (July 2000-June 2007 and post-vaccine (July 2007-June 2012 were also calculated. RESULTS: Management rate of genital warts among women potentially covered by program (aged 15-27 years decreased by 61% from 4.33 per 1,000 encounters in the Pre-program period to 1.67 in the Post-program period. Trend analysis of the post-vaccine period showed, among women of vaccine eligible age, a significant year-on-year reduction in the rate of genital warts management (p<0.0001 and a significant increase in the management rate of control conditions per year (p<0.0001. For all other age-sex groups there was no significant change in the management rate of genital warts between the Pre- and Post-program periods. CONCLUSION: The large decrease in general practice management of genital warts in women of vaccine-eligible age highlights the success of the program in the wider community.