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Sample records for general chemistry physical

  1. Chemistry and physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broerse, J.J.; Barendsen, G.W.; Kal, H.B.; Kogel, A.J. van der

    1983-01-01

    This book contains the extended abstracts of the contributions of the poster workshop sessions on chemistry and physics of the 7th international congress of radiation research. They cover the following main topics: primary processes in radiation physics and chemistry, general chemistry in radiation chemistry, DNA and model systems in radiation chemistry, molecules of biological interest in radiation chemistry, techniques in radiation chemistry, hot atom chemistry. refs.; figs.; tabs

  2. General chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Yeong Sik; Lee, Dong Seop; Ryu, Haung Ryong; Jang, Cheol Hyeon; Choi, Bong Jong; Choi, Sang Won

    1993-07-01

    The book concentrates on the latest general chemistry, which is divided int twenty-three chapters. It deals with basic conception and stoichiometry, nature of gas, structure of atoms, quantum mechanics, symbol and structure of an electron of ion and molecule, chemical thermodynamics, nature of solid, change of state and liquid, properties of solution, chemical equilibrium, solution and acid-base, equilibrium of aqueous solution, electrochemistry, chemical reaction speed, molecule spectroscopy, hydrogen, oxygen and water, metallic atom; 1A, IIA, IIIA, carbon and atom IVA, nonmetal atom and an inert gas, transition metals, lanthanons, and actinoids, nuclear properties and radioactivity, biochemistry and environment chemistry.

  3. Selected chapters from general chemistry in physics teaching with the help of e - learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feszterová, Melánia

    2017-01-01

    Education in the field of natural disciplines - Mathematics, Physics, Chemistry, Ecology and Biology takes part in general education at all schools on the territory of Slovakia. Its aim is to reach the state of balanced development of all personal characteristics of pupils, to teach them correctly identify and analyse problems, propose solutions and above all how to solve the problem itself. High quality education can be reached only through the pedagogues who have a good expertise knowledge, practical experience and high level of pedagogical abilities. The teacher as a disseminator of natural-scientific knowledge should be not only well-informed about modern tendencies in the field, but he/she also should actively participate in project tasks This is the reason why students of 1st year of study (bachelor degree) at the Department of Physics of Constantine the Philosopher University in Nitra attend lectures in the frame of subject General Chemistry. In this paper we present and describe an e - learning course called General Chemistry that is freely accessible to students. One of the aims of this course is to attract attention towards the importance of cross-curricular approach which seems to be fundamental in contemporary natural-scientific education (e.g. between Physics and Chemistry). This is why it is so important to implement a set of new topics and tasks that support development of abilities to realise cross-curricular goals into the process of preparation of future teachers of Physics.

  4. Mathematics for physical chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Mortimer, Robert G

    2013-01-01

    Mathematics for Physical Chemistry is the ideal supplementary text for practicing chemists and students who want to sharpen their mathematics skills while enrolled in general through physical chemistry courses. This book specifically emphasizes the use of mathematics in the context of physical chemistry, as opposed to being simply a mathematics text. This 4e includes new exercises in each chapter that provide practice in a technique immediately after discussion or example and encourage self-study. The early chapters are constructed around a sequence of mathematical topics, wit

  5. Experiments in physical chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, J M; Denaro, A R

    1968-01-01

    Experiments in Physical Chemistry, Second Edition provides a compilation of experiments concerning physical chemistry. This book illustrates the link between the theory and practice of physical chemistry. Organized into three parts, this edition begins with an overview of those experiments that generally have a simple theoretical background. Part II contains experiments that are associated with more advanced theory or more developed techniques, or which require a greater degree of experimental skill. Part III consists of experiments that are in the nature of investigations wherein these invest

  6. Physical Chemistry '98: Fourth International Conference on Fundamental and Applied Aspects of Physical Chemistry - Papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribnikar, S.; Anic, S.

    1998-01-01

    The proceedings has following chapters: Plenary lectures; Chemical Thermodynamics; Spectroscopy, Molecular Structures, Physical Chemistry of Plasma; Kinetics, Catalysis, Nonlinear Dynamics; Electrochemistry; Biophysical Chemistry, Photochemistry, Radiation Chemistry; Radiochemistry, Nuclear Chemistry; Solid State Physical Chemistry, Material Science; Macromolecular Physical Chemistry; Environmental Protection; Phase Boundaries; Complex Compounds; General Physical Chemistry. A separated abstract was prepared for each of the 20 papers selected from the three chapters: Biophysical Chemistry, Photochemistry, Radiation Chemistry; Radiochemistry, Nuclear Chemistry. and Environmental Protection. Refs and figs

  7. Mathematics for physical chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Mortimer, Robert G

    2005-01-01

    Mathematics for Physical Chemistry, Third Edition, is the ideal text for students and physical chemists who want to sharpen their mathematics skills. It can help prepare the reader for an undergraduate course, serve as a supplementary text for use during a course, or serve as a reference for graduate students and practicing chemists. The text concentrates on applications instead of theory, and, although the emphasis is on physical chemistry, it can also be useful in general chemistry courses. The Third Edition includes new exercises in each chapter that provide practice in a technique immediately after discussion or example and encourage self-study. The first ten chapters are constructed around a sequence of mathematical topics, with a gradual progression into more advanced material. The final chapter discusses mathematical topics needed in the analysis of experimental data.* Numerous examples and problems interspersed throughout the presentations * Each extensive chapter contains a preview, objectives, and ...

  8. The latest general chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Geun Bae; Choi, Se Yeong; Kim, Chin Yeong; Yoon, Gil Jung; Lee, Eun Seok; Seo, Moon Gyu

    1995-02-01

    This book deals with the latest general chemistry, which is comprised of twenty-three chapters, the contents of this book are introduction, theory of atoms and molecule, chemical formula and a chemical reaction formula, structure of atoms, nature of atoms and the periodic table, structure of molecule and spectrum, gas, solution, solid, chemical combination, chemical reaction speed, chemical equilibrium, thermal chemistry, oxidation-reduction, electrochemistry, acid-base, complex, aquatic chemistry, air chemistry, nuclear chemistry, metal and nonmetal, organic chemistry and biochemistry. It has exercise in the end of each chapter.

  9. General Chemistry for Engineers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kybett, B. D.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses the relationship between molecular structure, intermolecular forces, and tensile strengths of a polymer and suggests that this is a logical way to introduce polymers into a general chemistry course. (Author/JN)

  10. The physical basis of chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Warren, Warren S

    2000-01-01

    If the text you're using for general chemistry seems to lack sufficient mathematics and physics in its presentation of classical mechanics, molecular structure, and statistics, this complementary science series title may be just what you're looking for. Written for the advanced lower-division undergraduate chemistry course, The Physical Basis of Chemistry, Second Edition, offers students an opportunity to understand and enrich the understanding of physical chemistry with some quantum mechanics, the Boltzmann distribution, and spectroscopy. Posed and answered are questions concerning eve

  11. Physics and Chemistry of the Interstellar Medium. General Colloquium, 19-21 November 2012, Paris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguillon, Francois; Alata, Ivan; Alcaraz, Christian; Alves, Marta; Andre, Philippe; Bachiller, Rafael; Bacmann, Aurore; Baklouti, Donia; Bernard, Jean-Philippe; Berne, Olivier; Beroff, Karine; Bertin, Mathieu; Biennier, Ludovic; Bocchio, Marco; Bonal, Lydie; Bontemps, Sylvain; Bouchez Giret, Aurelia; Boulanger, Francois; Bracco, Andrea; Bron, Emeric; Brunetto, Rosario; Cabrit, Sylvie; Canosa, Andre; Capron, Michael; Ceccarelli, Cecilia; Cernicharo, Jose; Chaabouni, Henda; Chabot, Marin; Chen, Hui-Chen; Chiavassa, Thierry; Cobut, Vincent; Commercon, Benoit; Congiu, Emanuele; Coutens, Audrey; Danger, Gregoire; Daniel, Fabien; Dartois, Emmanuel; Demyk, Karine; Denis, Alpizar; Despois, Didier; D'hendecourt, Louis; Dontot, Leo; Doronin, Mikhail; Dubernet, Marie-Lise; Dulieu, Francois; Dumouchel, Fabien; Duvernay, Fabrice; Ellinger, Yves; Falgarone, Edith; Falvo, Cyril; Faure, Alexandre; Fayolle, Edith; Feautrier, Nicole; Feraud, Geraldine; Fillion, Jean-Hugues; Gamboa, Antonio; Gardez, Aline; Gavilan, Lisseth; Gerin, Maryvonne; Ghesquiere, Pierre; Godard, Benjamin; Godard, Marie; Gounelle, Matthieu; Gratier, Pierre; Grenier, Isabelle; Gruet, Sebastien; Gry, Cecile; Guillemin, Jean-Claude; Guilloteau, Stephane; Gusdorf, Antoine; Guzman, Viviana; Habart, Emilie; Hennebelle, Patrick; Herrera, Cinthya; Hily-Blant, Pierre; Hincelin, Ugo; Hochlaf, Majdi; Huet, Therese; Iftner, Christophe; Jallat, Aurelie; Joblin, Christine; Kahane, Claudine; Kalugina, Yulia; Kleiner, Isabelle; Koehler, Melanie; Kokkin, Damian; Koutroumpa, Dimitra; Krim, Lahouari; Lallement, Rosine; Lanza, Mathieu; Lattelais, Marie; Le Bertre, Thibaut; Le Gal, Romane; Le Petit, Franck; Le Picard, Sebastien; Lefloch, Bertrand; Lemaire, Jean Louis; Lesaffre, Pierre; Lique, Francois; Loison, Jean-Christophe; Lopez Sepulcre, Ana; Maillard, Jean-Pierre; Margules, Laurent; Martin, Celine; Mascetti, Joelle; Michaut, Xavier; Minissale, Marco; Miville-Deschenes, Marc-Antoine; Mokrane, Hakima; Momferratos, Georgios; Montillaud, Julien; Montmerle, Thierry; Moret-Bailly, Jacques; Motiyenko, Roman; Moudens, Audrey; Noble, Jennifer; Padovani, Marco; Pagani, Laurent; Pardanaud, Cedric; Parisel, Olivier; Pauzat, Francoise; Pernet, Amelie; Pety, Jerome; Philippe, Laurent; Piergiorgio, Casavecchia; Pilme, Julien; Pinto, Cecilia; Pirali, Olivier; Pirim, Claire; Puspitarini, Lucky; Rist, Claire; Ristorcelli, Isabelle; Romanzin, Claire; Roueff, Evelyne; Rousseau, Patrick; Sabbah, Hassan; Saury, Eleonore; Schneider, Ioan; Schwell, Martin; Sims, Ian; Spielfiedel, Annie; Stoecklin, Thierry; Talbi, Dahbia; Taquet, Vianney; Teillet-Billy, Dominique; Theule, Patrice; Thi, Wing-Fai; Trolez, Yann; Valdivia, Valeska; Van Dishoeck, Ewine; Verstraete, Laurent; Vinogradoff, Vassilissa; Wiesenfeld, Laurent; Ysard, Nathalie; Yvart, Walter; Zicler Eleonore

    2012-11-01

    This document publishes the oral contributions and the 66 posters presented during a colloquium on physics and chemistry of interstellar medium. The following themes have been addressed: New views on the interstellar medium with Herschel, Planck and Alma, Cycle of interstellar dusts, Physics and Dynamics of the interstellar medium, Molecular complexifying and the link towards pre-biotic chemistry. More precisely, the oral contributions addressed the following topics: Interstellar medium with Herschel and Planck; The anomalous microwave emission: a new window on the physics of small grains; Sub-millimetre spectroscopy of complex molecules and of radicals for ALMA and Herschel missions; Analysing observations of molecules in the ISM: theoretical and experimental studies of energy transfer; Unravelling the labyrinth of star formation with Herschel; Star formation regions with Herschel and Alma: astro-chemistry in the Netherlands; Physical structure of gas and dust in photo-dissociation regions observed with Herschel; Photo-desorption of analogues of interstellar ices; Formation of structures in the interstellar medium: theoretical and numerical aspects; Towards a 3D mapping of the galactic ISM by inversion of absorption individual measurements; Low velocity shocks as signatures of turbulent dissipation in diffuse irradiated gas; Early phases of solar system formation: 3D physical and chemical modelling of the collapse of pre-stellar dense core; Cosmic-ray propagation in molecular clouds; Protostellar shocks in the time of Herschel; A new PDR model of the physics and chemistry of the interstellar gas; Molecular spectroscopy in the ALMA era and laboratory Astrophysics in Spain; Which molecules to be searched for in the interstellar medium; Physics and chemistry of UV illuminated neutral gas: the Horsehead case; Nitrogen fractionation in dark clouds; Molecular spectral surveys from millimetre range to far infrared; Mechanisms and synthesis at the surface of cold grains

  12. Simulations of physics and chemistry of polar stratospheric clouds with a general circulation model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchholz, J.

    2005-04-20

    A polar stratospheric cloud submodel has been developed and incorporated in a general circulation model including atmospheric chemistry (ECHAM5/MESSy). The formation and sedimentation of polar stratospheric cloud (PSC) particles can thus be simulated as well as heterogeneous chemical reactions that take place on the PSC particles. For solid PSC particle sedimentation, the need for a tailor-made algorithm has been elucidated. A sedimentation scheme based on first order approximations of vertical mixing ratio profiles has been developed. It produces relatively little numerical diffusion and can deal well with divergent or convergent sedimentation velocity fields. For the determination of solid PSC particle sizes, an efficient algorithm has been adapted. It assumes a monodisperse radii distribution and thermodynamic equilibrium between the gas phase and the solid particle phase. This scheme, though relatively simple, is shown to produce particle number densities and radii within the observed range. The combined effects of the representations of sedimentation and solid PSC particles on vertical H{sub 2}O and HNO{sub 3} redistribution are investigated in a series of tests. The formation of solid PSC particles, especially of those consisting of nitric acid trihydrate, has been discussed extensively in recent years. Three particle formation schemes in accordance with the most widely used approaches have been identified and implemented. For the evaluation of PSC occurrence a new data set with unprecedented spatial and temporal coverage was available. A quantitative method for the comparison of simulation results and observations is developed and applied. It reveals that the relative PSC sighting frequency can be reproduced well with the PSC submodel whereas the detailed modelling of PSC events is beyond the scope of coarse global scale models. In addition to the development and evaluation of new PSC submodel components, parts of existing simulation programs have been

  13. Progress in physical chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Hempelmann, Rolf

    2008-01-01

    Progress in Physical Chemistry is a collection of recent ""Review Articles"" published in the ""Zeitschrift für Physikalische Chemie"". The second volume of Progress in Physical Chemistry is a collection of thematically closely related minireview articles written by the members of the Collaborative Research Centre (SFB) 277 of the German Research Foundation (DFG). These articles are based on twelve years of intense coordinated research efforts. Central topics are the synthesis and the characterization of interface-dominated, i.e. nanostructured materials, mainly in the solid state but also as

  14. Assessment of two physical parameterization schemes for desert dust emissions in an atmospheric chemistry general circulation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astitha, M.; Abdel Kader, M.; Pozzer, A.; Lelieveld, J.

    2012-04-01

    Atmospheric particulate matter and more specific desert dust has been the topic of numerous research studies in the past due to the wide range of impacts in the environment and climate and the uncertainty of characterizing and quantifying these impacts in a global scale. In this work we present two physical parameterizations of the desert dust production that have been incorporated in the atmospheric chemistry general circulation model EMAC (ECHAM5/MESSy2.41 Atmospheric Chemistry). The scope of this work is to assess the impact of the two physical parameterizations in the global distribution of desert dust and highlight the advantages and disadvantages of using either technique. The dust concentration and deposition has been evaluated using the AEROCOM dust dataset for the year 2000 and data from the MODIS and MISR satellites as well as sun-photometer data from the AERONET network was used to compare the modelled aerosol optical depth with observations. The implementation of the two parameterizations and the simulations using relatively high spatial resolution (T106~1.1deg) has highlighted the large spatial heterogeneity of the dust emission sources as well as the importance of the input parameters (soil size and texture, vegetation, surface wind speed). Also, sensitivity simulations with the nudging option using reanalysis data from ECMWF and without nudging have showed remarkable differences for some areas. Both parameterizations have revealed the difficulty of simulating all arid regions with the same assumptions and mechanisms. Depending on the arid region, each emission scheme performs more or less satisfactorily which leads to the necessity of treating each desert differently. Even though this is a quite different task to accomplish in a global model, some recommendations are given and ideas for future improvements.

  15. Physical chemistry II essentials

    CERN Document Server

    REA, The Editors of

    1992-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Physical Chemistry II includes reaction mechanisms, theoretical approaches to chemical kinetics, gravitational work, electrical and magnetic work, surface work, kinetic theory, collisional and transport properties of gases, statistical mechanics, matter and waves, quantum mechanics, and rotations and vibrations of atoms and molecules.

  16. Physics, radiology, and chemistry. 7. rev. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linde, O.K.; Knigge, H.J.

    1986-01-01

    This book is an introduction to physics and chemistry especially for medical personnel. After a general introduction, measurement methods, mechanics including mechanics of solid bodies, fluids and gases, heat, optics, acoustics, electricity, radiations including their biological effects, general chemistry, inorganic and organic chemistry are treated. Every chapter contains exercises mostly in connection with medical and biological effects. Furthermore, connections with biology and medicine are considered. The chapters on physiological chemistry, computer and information theory, chemistry and ecology, and metabolism have been rewritten. (orig./HP) [de

  17. Physics, radiology, and chemistry. 5. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linde, O.K.; Knigge, H.J.

    1978-01-01

    This book is an introduction into physics and chemistry especially for medical personnel. After a general introduction, measurement methods, mechanics including mechanics of colid bodies, fluids and gases, heat, optics, acoustics, electricity, radiations including their biological effects, general chemistry, anorganic and organic chemistry are treated. Every chapter contains exercises mostly in connection with medical and biological effects. Futhermore connections with biology and medicine are considered. (HSI) [de

  18. Mathematical methods for physical and analytical chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Goodson, David Z

    2011-01-01

    Mathematical Methods for Physical and Analytical Chemistry presents mathematical and statistical methods to students of chemistry at the intermediate, post-calculus level. The content includes a review of general calculus; a review of numerical techniques often omitted from calculus courses, such as cubic splines and Newton's method; a detailed treatment of statistical methods for experimental data analysis; complex numbers; extrapolation; linear algebra; and differential equations. With numerous example problems and helpful anecdotes, this text gives chemistry students the mathematical

  19. Atmosphere physics and chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delmas, R.; Megie, G.; Peuch, V.H.

    2005-10-01

    Since the 1970's, the awareness about the atmospheric pollution threat has led to a spectacular development of the researches on the complex interactions between the chemical composition of the atmosphere and the climate. This book makes a synthesis of the state-of-the-art in this very active domain of research. Content: introduction, atmosphere dynamics and transport, matter-radiation interaction and radiant transfer, physico-chemical processes, atmospheric aerosol and heterogenous chemistry, anthropic and natural emissions and deposition, stratospheric chemical system, tropospheric chemical system, polluted boundary layer, paleo-environments and ice archives, role of atmospheric chemistry in global changes, measurement principles and instruments, numerical modeling, experimental strategy, regulation and management of the atmospheric environment, index. (J.S.)

  20. Physical chemistry and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunning, T.H. Jr.; Garrett, B.C.; Kolb, C.E. Jr.; Shaw, R.W.; Choppin, G.R.; Wagner, A.F.

    1994-08-01

    From the ozone hole and the greenhouse effect to plastics recycling and hazardous waste disposal, society faces a number of issues, the solutions to which require an unprecedented understanding of the properties of molecules. We are coming to realize that the environment is a coupled set of chemical systems, its dynamics determining the welfare of the biosphere and of humans in particular. These chemical systems are governed by fundamental molecular interactions, and they present chemists with an unparalleled challenge. The application of current concepts of molecular behavior and of up-to-date experimental and computational techniques can provide us with insights into the environment that are needed to mitigate past damage, to anticipate the impact of current human activity, and to avoid future insults to the environment. Environmental chemistry encompasses a number of separate, yet interlocking, areas of research. In all of these areas progress is limited by an inadequate understanding of the underlying chemical processes involved. Participation of all chemical approaches -- experimental, theoretical and computational -- and of all disciplines of chemistry -- organic, inorganic, physical, analytical and biochemistry -- will be required to provide the necessary fundamental understanding. The Symposium on ''Physical Chemistry and the Environment'' was designed to bring the many exciting and challenging physical chemistry problems involved in environmental chemistry to the attention of a larger segment of the physical chemistry community

  1. Affordances of Instrumentation in General Chemistry Laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Kristin Mary Daniels

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to find out what students in the first chemistry course at the undergraduate level (general chemistry for science majors) know about the affordances of instrumentation used in the general chemistry laboratory and how their knowledge develops over time. Overall, students see the PASCO(TM) system as a useful and accurate…

  2. Bioscience methodologies in physical chemistry an engineering and molecular approach

    CERN Document Server

    D'Amore, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    The field of bioscience methodologies in physical chemistry stands at the intersection of the power and generality of classical and quantum physics with the minute molecular complexity of chemistry and biology. This book provides an application of physical principles in explaining and rationalizing chemical and biological phenomena. It does not stick to the classical topics that are conventionally considered as part of physical chemistry; instead it presents principles deciphered from a modern point of view, which is the strength of this book.

  3. Textbook of physical chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wedler, G.

    1982-01-01

    The textbook presents an introduction to physical-chemical fundamentals and working methods, deals with the chemical thermodynamics, structure of matter, the statistical theory of matter, and transport phenomena. The kinetics are presented by means of experimental methods and the evaluation of kinetic measurements; furtheron formal kinetic of more complicated reactions, reaction mechanisms, the theory of kinetics, the kinetics of reactions in solution, of heterogeneous reactions of electrode processes, and the catalysis are described. A mathematical appendix (determinants, vectors, operators, series, integrals, differential equations, Schroedinger equation, wave functions) and the solutions of the numerical calculation examples complete this book. (HK) [de

  4. Radiation applications of physical chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talrose, V.L.

    1993-01-01

    Many chemical energy problems have a physical chemistry nature connected with chemical kinetics and thermodynamics. In our country, the development in this field is associated with the name N.N. Semenov, who was involved in a large number of fundamental and applied physical chemistry problems.Energy development during the last decades created or sharpened new problems. Our new Institute, the Institute of Energy problems of Chemical Physics, USSR Academy of Sciences, is dealing with some of them. The present article is an overview of our work on radiation applications. Examples of the use of radiation in power industry (such as coal gasification), tire production, mechanical joints, metal powder production and sterilization of pharmaceutical products are given. Methods and problems involved in these applications are discussed and the great potential for vast utilization is demonstrated. (authors)

  5. Department of Nuclear Physical Chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikulski, J.

    1994-01-01

    The research program at the Department of Nuclear Physical Chemistry of the Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics is described. The Department consist of three laboratories. First - Laboratory of Physical Chemistry of Separation Processes on which the activity is concentrated on production and separation of neutron deficient isotopes for medical diagnostic. Recently, the main interest was in 111 In which is a promising tracer for cancer diagnostic. To increase the effectiveness of production of indium 111 In the reaction with deuterons on the enriched cadmium target was carried out instead of the previously used one with alpha particles on natural silver. In the second one - Laboratory of Chemistry and Radiochemistry - the systematic studies of physicochemical properties of transition elements in solutions are carried out. The results of the performed experiments were used for the elaboration of new rapid and selective methods for various elements. Some of these results have been applied for separation of trans actinide elements at U-400 cyclotron of JINR Dubna. The third one laboratory -Environmental Radioactivity Laboratory - conducts continuous monitoring of radioactivity contamination of atmosphere. The investigation of different radionuclides concentration in natural environment, mainly in the forest had been carried out

  6. Physical Chemistry Chemical Kinetics and Reaction Mechanism

    CERN Document Server

    Trimm, Harold H

    2011-01-01

    Physical chemistry covers diverse topics, from biochemistry to materials properties to the development of quantum computers. Physical chemistry applies physics and math to problems that interest chemists, biologists, and engineers. Physical chemists use theoretical constructs and mathematical computations to understand chemical properties and describe the behavior of molecular and condensed matter. Their work involves manipulations of data as well as materials. Physical chemistry entails extensive work with sophisticated instrumentation and equipment as well as state-of-the-art computers. This

  7. Supplemental Instruction in Physical Chemistry I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toby, Ellen; Scott, Timothy P.; Migl, David; Kolodzeji, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Physical chemistry I at Texas A&M University is an upper division course requiring mathematical and analytical skills. As such, this course poses a major problem for many Chemistry, Engineering, Biochemistry and Genetics majors. Comparisons between participants and non-participants in Supplemental Instruction for physical chemistry were made…

  8. A Comprehensive General Chemistry Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeder, Ryan D.; Jeffery, Kathleen A.

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the use of a comprehensive demonstration suitable for a high school or first-year undergraduate introductory chemistry class. The demonstration involves placing a burning candle in a container adjacent to a beaker containing a basic solution with indicator. After adding a lid, the candle will extinguish and the produced…

  9. Contributing Chemistry and Compelling Physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Chemistry as an integral part of biology has been studied and utilised to yield numerous solutions in healthcare. Both the in vivo and in vitro applications of chemically synthesized compounds as drugs and the culture media used for cell culture respectively have been an indispensable tool in therapeutic and research arena in healthcare. The evolving specialty of regenerative medicine has been exploring the physical characteristics of the cell culture environment to see its effect on the behaviour of cells in vitro. For instance, mere change of matrix stiffness gives rise to a cascade of chemical events leading to different biological outputs as reported (1 in which softer matrices induced the mesenchymal stem cells to give rise to neuronal cells and increasing the matrix stiffness made the same stem cells to differentiate into chondrogenic and osteogenic lineages. The regulated movement of ions across membranes have been found to influence cell morphogenesis and stem cell regeneration (2. The influence of variety of media, reagents, growth factors, scaffolds etc. on the different types of cells and the varying needs of each type of cell are being continuously studied with an aim of advancing regenerative medicine based solutions. In this issue, the article by Kazemnejad et al is reporting the role of wnt signalling on menstrual blood derived stem cells (MenSCs by studying the influence of Lithium chloride on the proliferation of these cells. They have come out results that prove that the MenSCs have unique immunophenotyping properties and that Wnt signaling pathway regulates MenSCs proliferation via the trans-localization of activated-ß-catenin protein. Another article by Sharma et al has focussed on the gene expression pathways and on the specific modification or modulation of a key molecular player of homing and engraftment of the hematopoietic progenitor cells which will help in enhancing the efficacy of hematopoietic stem cell

  10. A Quantum Chemistry Concept Inventory for Physical Chemistry Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick-Perez, Marilu; Luxford, Cynthia J.; Windus, Theresa L.; Holme, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    A 14-item, multiple-choice diagnostic assessment tool, the quantum chemistry concept inventory or QCCI, is presented. Items were developed based on published student misconceptions and content coverage and then piloted and used in advanced physical chemistry undergraduate courses. In addition to the instrument itself, data from both a pretest,…

  11. Academic excellence workshops in chemistry and physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Susan Rose

    In the mid-1970's, Uri Treisman, at the University of California, Berkeley, developed an academic excellence workshop program that had important successes in increasing minority student achievement and persistence in calculus. The present dissertation research is an in-depth study of chemistry and physics workshops at the California State Polytechnic University, Pomona. Data for the first, longitudinal component of this study were obtained by tracking to Spring 1998 all workshop minority students, i.e., Latino, African American, and Native American workshop students, a random sample of non-workshop minority students, and a random sample of non-targeted students, i.e., Anglo and Asian students, enrolled in first-quarter General Chemistry or Physics during specific quarters of 1992 or 1993. Data for the second component were obtained by administering questionnaires, conducting interviews, and observing science students during Fall, 1996. Workshop participation was a significant predictor of first-quarter course grade for minority students in both chemistry and physics, while verbal and mathematics Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) scores were not significant predictors of beginning course grade for minority science students. The lack of predictive ability of the SAT and the importance of workshop participation in minority students' beginning science course performance are results with important implications for educators and students. In comparing pre-college achievement measures for workshop and non-targeted students, non-targeted students' mathematics SAT scores were significantly higher than chemistry and physics workshop students' scores. Nonetheless, workshop participation "leveled the field" as workshop and non-targeted students performed similarly in beginning science courses. Positive impacts of workshop participation on achievement, persistence, efficiency, social integration, and self-confidence support the continued and expanded funding of workshop programs

  12. Physical organic chemistry in the making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engberts, J.B.F.N.

    The discipline of physical organic chemistry will continue to occupy a central position in chemistry. The rapid increase in instrumentation and important theoretical developments allow the investigation of many problems of great complexity and challenge. In the next century the leading theme will

  13. A Flipped Classroom Redesign in General Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Scott A.

    2016-01-01

    The flipped classroom continues to attract significant attention in higher education. Building upon our recent parallel controlled study of the flipped classroom in a second-term general chemistry course ("J. Chem. Educ.," 2016, 93, 13-23), here we report on a redesign of the flipped course aimed at scaling up total enrollment while…

  14. Defining Conceptual Understanding in General Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holme, Thomas A.; Luxford, Cynthia J.; Brandriet, Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    Among the many possible goals that instructors have for students in general chemistry, the idea that they will better understand the conceptual underpinnings of the science is certainly important. Nonetheless, identifying with clarity what exemplifies student success at achieving this goal is hindered by the challenge of clearly articulating what…

  15. Measuring Student Performance in General Organic Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Ara C.; Ben-Daat, Hagit; Zhu, Mary; Atkinson, Robert; Barrows, Nathan; Gould, Ian R.

    2015-01-01

    Student performance in general organic chemistry courses is determined by a wide range of factors including cognitive ability, motivation and cultural capital. Previous work on cognitive factors has tended to focus on specific areas rather than exploring performance across all problem types and cognitive skills. In this study, we have categorized…

  16. The 2016 Nobel Prize: Chemistry and Physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Maria Filardo Bassalo

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we will deal with the 2016 Nobel Prizes: Chemistry and Physics, since they are related to the same theme: nanostructures / molecular machines (conception, fabrication and topological theoretical explanation.

  17. Physics and chemistry of fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    Full text: In the pleasant and hospitable atmosphere of the Kernforschungsanlage Juelich in the Federal Republic of Germany, the IAEA symposium on the Physics and Chemistry of Fission took place. Almost 200 scientists attended, 154 abstracts were submitted, and 57 papers presented, but more important than the numbers was the quality of the contributions and the progress reported at the symposium. The neutron was discovered almost 50 years ago; 40 years ago the idea of nuclear fission was born. Since then, a number of laboratories have worked hard to explain the phenomenon of fission One would expect that by now scientists would know exactly what happens in a nucleus before and during the process of fission, particularly as there are hundreds of power and research reactors in operation, and fission of uranium isotopes is the basis of their functioning. At first glance, fission seems a simple process: a neutron hits and penetrates the uranium nucleus which becomes excited, i.e. has a surplus of energy. One way to get rid of this energy is for the nucleus to split into two parts; additional products of this process are energy and more neutrons. Nature, however, seems to dislike such straightforward explanations. In the case of fission, scientists have observed a number of phenomena which disagree with a simple model. Sometimes, a nucleus will split into two parts without being 'attacked' by a neutron; this spontaneous fission opens up a new line of fission research and several contributions at the symposium reported on sophisticated experiments designed to unravel some of its specific details. Sometimes, a fissioning nucleus will emit another particle: ternary fission has become a powerful tool for studying the properties of nuclei during the fission process. For the scientist, it is fascinating to observe how the nucleus behaves during fission. They invent models which are supposed to reproduce the most probable course of events leading to fission. In one of these

  18. Terminology dictionary for physics and chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong Deuk

    1988-03-01

    This book introduces as many as terms covering from basic chemistry and applied chemistry to general industry and tries to explain them correctly. If it is not needed to explain the terms or they are not general, it omits explanation. However, it accurately and precisely, without omitting, describes elementary reaction and operation, representative materials, naming, idiom, and method of measurement. It also adds to supplement all the materials which are helpful in daily lives and are convenient to studying and understanding.

  19. General Dialdehyde Click Chemistry for Amine Bioconjugation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elahipanah, Sina; O'Brien, Paul J; Rogozhnikov, Dmitry; Yousaf, Muhammad N

    2017-05-17

    -conjugation strategy, we designed a straightforward scheme to synthesize a suite of dialdehyde reagents. The dialdehyde molecules were used for applications in cell-surface engineering and for tailoring surfaces for material science applications. We anticipate the broad utility of the general dialdehyde click chemistry to primary amines in all areas of chemical research, ranging from polymers and bioconjugation to material science and nanoscience.

  20. Physics, radiology and chemistry. 6. rev. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linde, O.K.; Knigge, H.J.

    1981-01-01

    The scientific basic disciplines of physics and chemistry are the beginning of all medical teaching. They are suitable to clarify medical and biochemical problems in their causality by means of their own thinking methodics as well as by the information provided. This book attempts to point out the relationships of physics, radiology and chemistry to neighbouring disciplines, especially to practical medicine. Greater importance must naturally be given here to the examples of individual fundamental facts than to the conveying of pure theory from books. The statements and questions on self control ordered according to chapter represent a minimum learning for the students which can be extended as required. (orig./ORU) [de

  1. Collection of problems in physical chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Bareš, Jirí; Fried, Vojtech

    1961-01-01

    Collection of Problems in Physical Chemistry provides illustrations and problems covering the field of physical chemistry. The material has been arranged into illustrations that are solved and supplemented by problems, thus enabling readers to determine the extent to which they have mastered each subject. Most of the illustrations and problems were taken from original papers, to which reference is made. The English edition of this book has been translated from the manuscript of the 2nd Czech edition. It has been changed slightly in some places and enlarged on in others on the basis of further

  2. Dilution physics modeling: Dissolution/precipitation chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onishi, Y.; Reid, H.C.; Trent, D.S.

    1995-09-01

    This report documents progress made to date on integrating dilution/precipitation chemistry and new physical models into the TEMPEST thermal-hydraulics computer code. Implementation of dissolution/precipitation chemistry models is necessary for predicting nonhomogeneous, time-dependent, physical/chemical behavior of tank wastes with and without a variety of possible engineered remediation and mitigation activities. Such behavior includes chemical reactions, gas retention, solids resuspension, solids dissolution and generation, solids settling/rising, and convective motion of physical and chemical species. Thus this model development is important from the standpoint of predicting the consequences of various engineered activities, such as mitigation by dilution, retrieval, or pretreatment, that can affect safe operations. The integration of a dissolution/precipitation chemistry module allows the various phase species concentrations to enter into the physical calculations that affect the TEMPEST hydrodynamic flow calculations. The yield strength model of non-Newtonian sludge correlates yield to a power function of solids concentration. Likewise, shear stress is concentration-dependent, and the dissolution/precipitation chemistry calculations develop the species concentration evolution that produces fluid flow resistance changes. Dilution of waste with pure water, molar concentrations of sodium hydroxide, and other chemical streams can be analyzed for the reactive species changes and hydrodynamic flow characteristics

  3. Basic radiation physics and chemistry of composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Przybytniak, G.; Zagorski, Z.P.

    2006-01-01

    Composites are increasingly more important in the applied and fundamental polymer science, and the participation of radiation processing of these systems increase. In presented paper the newest achievements of radiation physics and chemistry of composites are reviewed. It is stressed, that although main experimental effort is directed towards the development of composites as such, and investigation of their specific properties, mechanical, physicochemical and physical, the radiation processing will enter the field on the wider scale, especially as concerns specialized plastics

  4. Physics and Chemistry of Earth Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navrotsky, Alexandra

    1994-11-01

    Stressing the fundamental solid state behavior of minerals, and emphasizing both theory and experiment, this text surveys the physics and chemistry of earth materials. The author begins with a systematic tour of crystal chemistry of both simple and complex structures (with completely new structural drawings) and discusses how to obtain structural and thermodynamic information experimentally. Dr. Navrotsky also reviews the quantitative concepts of chemical bonding--band theory, molecular orbit and ionic models. She then covers physical properties and relates microscopic features to macroscopic thermodynamic behavior and treats high pressure phase transitions, amorphous materials and solid state reactions. The author concludes with a look at the interface between mineral physics and materials science. Highly illustrated throughout, this book fills the gap between undergraduate texts and specialized review volumes and is appropriate for students and researchers in earth science and materials science.

  5. Physics and chemistry of the solar system

    CERN Document Server

    Lewis, John S

    2004-01-01

    Physics and Chemistry of the Solar System, 2nd Edition, is a comprehensive survey of the planetary physics and physical chemistry of our own solar system. It covers current research in these areas and the planetary sciences that have benefited from both earth-based and spacecraft-based experimentation. These experiments form the basis of this encyclopedic reference, which skillfully fuses synthesis and explanation. Detailed chapters review each of the major planetary bodies as well as asteroids, comets, and other small orbitals. Astronomers, physicists, and planetary scientists can use this state-of-the-art book for both research and teaching. This Second Edition features extensive new material, including expanded treatment of new meteorite classes, spacecraft findings from Mars Pathfinder through Mars Odyssey 2001, recent reflections on brown dwarfs, and descriptions of planned NASA, ESA, and Japanese planetary missions.* New edition features expanded treatment of new meteorite classes, the latest spacecraft...

  6. Understanding the Impact of a General Chemistry Course on Students' Transition to Organic Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins-Webb, Alexandra; Jeffery, Kathleen A.; Sweeder, Ryan D.

    2016-01-01

    The move from general chemistry to organic chemistry can be a challenge for students as it often involves a transition from quantitatively-oriented to mechanistically-oriented thinking. This study found that the design of the general chemistry course can change the student experience of this transition as assessed by a reflective survey. The…

  7. Engineering Faculty Attitudes to General Chemistry Courses in Engineering Curricula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garip, Mehmet; Erdil, Erzat; Bilsel, Ayhan

    2006-01-01

    A survey on the attitudes of engineering faculty to chemistry, physics, and mathematics was conducted with the aim of clarifying the attitudes of engineering faculty to chemistry courses in relation to engineering education or curricula and assessing their expectations. The results confirm that on the whole chemistry is perceived as having a…

  8. Life is physics and chemistry and communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witzany, Guenther

    2015-04-01

    Manfred Eigen extended Erwin Schroedinger's concept of "life is physics and chemistry" through the introduction of information theory and cybernetic systems theory into "life is physics and chemistry and information." Based on this assumption, Eigen developed the concepts of quasispecies and hypercycles, which have been dominant in molecular biology and virology ever since. He insisted that the genetic code is not just used metaphorically: it represents a real natural language. However, the basics of scientific knowledge changed dramatically within the second half of the 20th century. Unfortunately, Eigen ignored the results of the philosophy of science discourse on essential features of natural languages and codes: a natural language or code emerges from populations of living agents that communicate. This contribution will look at some of the highlights of this historical development and the results relevant for biological theories about life. © 2014 New York Academy of Sciences.

  9. General Chemistry Students' Goals for Chemistry Laboratory Coursework

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeKorver, Brittland K.; Towns, Marcy H.

    2015-01-01

    Little research exists on college students' learning goals in chemistry, let alone specifically pertaining to laboratory coursework. Because students' learning goals are linked to achievement and dependent on context, research on students' goals in the laboratory context may lead to better understanding about the efficacy of lab curricula. This…

  10. Evaluation of Chemical Representations in Physical Chemistry Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyachwaya, James M.; Wood, Nathan B.

    2014-01-01

    That different levels of representation are important for complete understanding of chemistry is an accepted fact in the chemistry education community. This study sought to uncover types of representations used in given physical chemistry textbooks. Textbooks play a central role in the teaching and learning of science (chemistry), and in some…

  11. Laser experiments for chemistry and physics

    CERN Document Server

    Compton, Robert N

    2016-01-01

    Lasers are employed throughout science and technology, in fundamental research, the remote sensing of atmospheric gases or pollutants, communications, medical diagnostics and therapies, and the manufacturing of microelectronic devices. Understanding the principles of their operation, which underlie all of these areas, is essential for a modern scientific education. This text introduces the characteristics and operation of lasers through laboratory experiments designed for the undergraduate curricula in chemistry and physics. Introductory chapters describe the properties of light, the history of laser invention, the atomic, molecular, and optical principles behind how lasers work, and the kinds of lasers available today. Other chapters include the basic theory of spectroscopy and computational chemistry used to interpret laser experiments. Experiments range from simple in-class demonstrations to more elaborate configurations for advanced students. Each chapter has historical and theoretical background, as well...

  12. Puzzling through General Chemistry: A Light-Hearted Approach to Engaging Students with Chemistry Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Susan L.

    2007-01-01

    Several puzzles are designed to be used by chemistry students as learning tools and teach them basic chemical concepts. The topics of the puzzles are based on the chapters from Chemistry, The Central Science used in general chemistry course and the puzzles are in various forms like crosswords, word searches, number searches, puzzles based on…

  13. Russian science readings (chemistry, physics, biology)

    CERN Document Server

    Light, L

    1949-01-01

    Some years' experience in teaching Russian to working scientists who had already acquired the rudiments of the grammar convinced me of the need for a reader of the present type that would smooth the path of those wishing to study Russian scientific literature in the original. Although the subject matter comprises what I have described for convenience as chemistry, physics and biology, it could be read with equal profit by those engaged in any branch of pure or applied science. All the passages are taken from school textbooks, and acknowledgements are due to the authors of the works listed at the foot of the contents page.

  14. Analysis of Students’ Missed Organic Chemistry Quiz Questions that Stress the Importance of Prior General Chemistry Knowledge

    OpenAIRE

    Julie Ealy

    2018-01-01

    A concern about students’ conceptual difficulties in organic chemistry prompted this study. It was found that prior knowledge from general chemistry was critical in organic chemistry, but what were some of the concepts that comprised that prior knowledge? Therefore an analysis of four years of organic chemistry quiz data was undertaken. Multiple general chemistry concepts were revealed that are essential prior knowledge in organic chemistry. The general chemistry concepts that were foun...

  15. Student Attitudes toward Flipping the General Chemistry Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J. Dominic

    2013-01-01

    The idea of ''flipping the classroom'' to make class time more engaging and student-centred has gained ground in recent years. The lecture portion of General Chemistry I and General Chemistry II courses were pushed outside the classroom using pre-recording technology and streaming delivery of content, in order to make in-class time more…

  16. The Contributions of James Moir to Physical Chemistry

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICO

    Physical chemistry, spectroscopy, ruby, solar spectrum, history of chemistry. 1. Introduction ... band in the green, which appears and disappears as the gem is rotated. ..... (5) He also used various screens, such as a methylviolet screen to.

  17. Physics, radiology, and chemistry. An introduction to natural science. 8. rev. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linde, O.K.; Knigge, H.J.

    1991-01-01

    This book is an introduction to physics and chemistry especially for medical personnel. After a general introduction, measurement methods, mechanics including mechanics of solid bodies, fluids and gases, heat, optics, acoustics, electricity, radiations including their biological effects, general chemistry, inorganic and organic chemistry are treated. Every chapter contains exercises mostly in connection with medical and biological effects. Furthermore connections with biology and medicine are considered. (orig./HP) With 104 figs., 51 tabs [de

  18. Cobalt oxides from crystal chemistry to physics

    CERN Document Server

    Raveau, Bernard

    2012-01-01

    Unparalleled in the breadth and depth of its coverage of all important aspects, this book systematically treats the electronic and magnetic properties of stoichiometric and non-stoichiometric cobaltites in both ordered and disordered phases. Authored by a pioneer and a rising star in the field, the monograph summarizes, organizes and streamlines the otherwise difficult-to-obtain information on this topic. An introductory chapter sets forth the crystal chemistry of cobalt oxides to lay the groundwork for an understanding of the complex phenomena observed in this materials class. Special emphasis is placed on a comprehensive discussion of cobaltite physical properties in different structural families. Providing a thorough introduction to cobalt oxides from a chemical and physical viewpoint as a basis for understanding their intricacies, this is a must-have for both experienced researchers as well as entrants to the field.

  19. Pre-Service Physics and Chemistry Teachers' Conceptual Integration of Physics and Chemistry Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuysuz, Mustafa; Bektas, Oktay; Geban, Omer; Ozturk, Gokhan; Yalvac, Bugrahan

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the pre-service teachers' opinions about conceptual integration (CI) and their understanding of it. A qualitative phenomenology design was used in the study. Data was collected through in-depth semi-structured interviews comprising ten guiding questions. Three pre-service physics and three pre-service chemistry teachers…

  20. Comparing Recent Organizing Templates for Test Content between ACS Exams in General Chemistry and AP Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holme, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Two different versions of "big ideas" rooted content maps have recently been published for general chemistry. As embodied in the content outline from the College Board, one of these maps is designed to guide curriculum development and testing for advanced placement (AP) chemistry. The Anchoring Concepts Content Map for general chemistry…

  1. Stratospheric General Circulation with Chemistry Model (SGCCM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rood, Richard B.; Douglass, Anne R.; Geller, Marvin A.; Kaye, Jack A.; Nielsen, J. Eric; Rosenfield, Joan E.; Stolarski, Richard S.

    1990-01-01

    In the past two years constituent transport and chemistry experiments have been performed using both simple single constituent models and more complex reservoir species models. Winds for these experiments have been taken from the data assimilation effort, Stratospheric Data Analysis System (STRATAN).

  2. General Relativity: Geometry Meets Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, Dietrick E.

    1975-01-01

    Observing the relationship of general relativity and the geometry of space-time, the author questions whether the rest of physics has geometrical explanations. As a partial answer he discusses current research on subatomic particles employing geometric transformations, and cites the existence of geometrical definitions of physical quantities such…

  3. Atmospheric chemistry and physics from air pollution to climate change

    CERN Document Server

    Seinfeld, John H

    2016-01-01

    Expanded and updated with new findings and new features Since the second edition of Seinfeld and Pandis’ classic textbook, significant progress has taken place in the field of atmospheric chemistry and physics, particularly in the areas of tropospheric chemistry, aerosols, and the science of climate change. A new edition of this comprehensive work has been developed by the renowned author team. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 3rd Edition, as the previous two editions have done, provides a rigorous and comprehensive treatment of the chemistry and physics of the atmosphere – including the chemistry of the stratosphere and troposphere, aerosol physics and chemistry, atmospheric new particle formation, physical meteorology, cloud physics, global climate, statistical analysis of data, and mathematical chemical/transport models of the atmosphere. Each of these topics is covered in detail and in each area the central results are developed from first principles. In this way the reader gains a significant un...

  4. Computer assisted instruction in the general chemistry laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pate, Jerry C.

    This dissertation examines current applications concerning the use of computer technology to enhance instruction in the general chemistry laboratory. The dissertation critiques widely-used educational software, and explores examples of multimedia presentations such as those used in beginning chemistry laboratory courses at undergraduate and community colleges. The dissertation describes a prototype compact disc (CD) used to (a) introduce the general chemistry laboratory, (b) familiarize students with using chemistry laboratory equipment, (c) introduce laboratory safety practices, and (d) provide approved techniques for maintaining a laboratory notebook. Upon completing the CD portion of the pre-lab, students are linked to individual self-help (WebCT) quizzes covering the information provided on the CD. The CD is designed to improve student understanding of basic concepts, techniques, and procedures used in the general chemistry laboratory.

  5. Connecting Achievement Motivation to Performance in General Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrell, Brent; Phillips, Michael M.; Barbera, Jack

    2016-01-01

    Student success in chemistry is inherently tied to motivational and other affective processes. We investigated three distinct constructs tied to motivation: self-efficacy, interest, and effort beliefs. These variables were measured twice over the course of a semester in three sections of a first-semester general chemistry course (n = 170). We…

  6. Students' Written Arguments in General Chemistry Laboratory Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Aeran; Hand, Brian; Greenbowe, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the written arguments developed by college freshman students using the Science Writing Heuristic approach in inquiry-based general chemistry laboratory classrooms and its relationships with students' achievement in chemistry courses. Fourteen freshman students participated in the first year of the study while 19…

  7. Preparing Physics and Chemistry Teachers at the University of Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novodvorsky, Ingrid

    2006-04-01

    Beginning in 2000, science majors at the University of Arizona who wish to teach in middle or high schools have enrolled in the College of Science Teacher Preparation Program (CoS TPP). Students in the program take General Education courses, content courses, and science pedagogy courses that make them eligible for teacher certification. Students can remain in their science degree programs, and take the required science pedagogy courses, or they can enroll in a BS in Science Education degree that includes the pedagogy courses, with concentrations available in Biology, Chemistry, Earth Science, and Physics. Science educators from six different departments, two permanent Adjunct Instructors, and two Teachers in Residence teach the program's courses. (One of the Teachers in Residence is supported by the PhysTEC project.) Most of the pedagogy courses include field experiences in area science classrooms; the program works with some 115 mentor teachers from throughout the Tucson area, who host preservice teachers in their field experiences. In the first six years of the program, 14 program graduates have been chemistry and physics teachers. This compares to a total of six chemistry and physics teachers produced by the College of Education program in the four years preceding the creation of the CoS TPP. In this presentation, I will describe the unique features of the courses that prospective chemistry and physics teachers take and the field experiences in which they participate. In addition, I will describe how PhysTEC-supplied resources have been used to improve the program, and the ways in which we are assessing the program's success.

  8. Department of Nuclear Physical Chemistry - Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petelenz, B.

    1999-01-01

    , UJ) and use of Pu and Cs contaminations as tracers to follow-up natural processes in peat bog (University of Agriculture, Cracow); d) preparation of α-spectrometric sources by electrodeposition (other groups of the Department) and determination of 241 Pu in α-spectrometric Pu sources (Silesian University, Katowice, Poland); e) comparative measurements of γ-background dose rate, using the PMS station, TL detectors and Gamma-Tracer probe (Health Physics Section of the Institute). In recognition of his expertise in radioecology, Dr Mietelski has been admitted as a Regular Member of the U.I.R. (Union Internationale de Radioecologie). Mrs Jasinska, Mr Kozak and Dr Mietelski received the Prize of the President of the City of Cracow for ''Organising and conducting continuous radiological monitoring of the air in Cracow and for the researches at the radioactive contamination of the environment''. The project on construction of the internal target assembly for isotope production was continued in the Laboratory of Physical Chemistry, in cooperation with the Cyclotron Section and Division of Mechanical Constructions of the Institute, and with the JINR, Dubna. In the meantime, in pilot experiments on the internal beam of the AIC-144 cyclotron, small activities of 11 C PET tracer were obtained from proton irradiated B 2 0 3 targets. A joint project with the Silesian Medical Academy, on applications of 32 P sources pure (β - emitter) in intravascular brachytherapy (IVBT), was started. Chemical and ionic methods of preparation of 32 P sources and their TL dosimetry were tested in cooperation with the Laboratory of the Ion Implanter and with the Health Physics Section of the Institute. Measurements of the activity of selenoenzymes in the context of human thyroid health or disease were continued in cooperation with the Medical College of the Jagiellonian University, and with the Rowett Research Institute, Aberdeen, Scotland

  9. Using Computational Chemistry Activities to Promote Learning and Retention in a Secondary School General Chemistry Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochterski, Joseph W.

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the results of using state-of-the-art, research-quality software as a learning tool in a general chemistry secondary school classroom setting. I present three activities designed to introduce fundamental chemical concepts regarding molecular shape and atomic orbitals to students with little background in chemistry, such as…

  10. General Chemistry Students' Understanding of Climate Change and the Chemistry Related to Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versprille, Ashley N.; Towns, Marcy H.

    2015-01-01

    While much is known about secondary students' perspectives of climate change, rather less is known about undergraduate students' perspectives. The purpose of this study is to investigate general chemistry students' understanding of the chemistry underlying climate change. Findings that emerged from the analysis of the 24 interviews indicate that…

  11. Green Goggles: Designing and Teaching a General Chemistry Course to Nonmajors Using a Green Chemistry Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    A novel course using green chemistry as the context to teach general chemistry fundamentals was designed, implemented and is described here. The course design included an active learning approach, with major course graded components including a weekly blog entry, exams, and a semester project that was disseminated by wiki and a public symposium.…

  12. SPECIAL ISSUE DEDICATED TO THE 10TH ANNIVERSARY OF THE CHEMISTRY JOURNAL OF MOLDOVA. GENERAL, INDUSTRIAL AND ECOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY

    OpenAIRE

    Gheorghe DUCA

    2016-01-01

    Ten years ago, in 2006, CHEMISTRY JOURNAL OF MOLDOVA. General, Industrial and Ecological Chemistry was founded by the Institute of Chemistry of Academy of Sciences of Moldova and Moldova State University. Chemistry Journal of Moldova is an open access, international indexed and peer-reviewed journal that publishes papers of high quality containing original results in the areas of Chemical Sciences, such as analytical chemistry, ecological chemistry, food chemistry, industrial chem...

  13. General theory for multiple input-output perturbations in complex molecular systems. 1. Linear QSPR electronegativity models in physical, organic, and medicinal chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Díaz, Humberto; Arrasate, Sonia; Gómez-SanJuan, Asier; Sotomayor, Nuria; Lete, Esther; Besada-Porto, Lina; Ruso, Juan M

    2013-01-01

    In general perturbation methods starts with a known exact solution of a problem and add "small" variation terms in order to approach to a solution for a related problem without known exact solution. Perturbation theory has been widely used in almost all areas of science. Bhor's quantum model, Heisenberg's matrix mechanincs, Feyman diagrams, and Poincare's chaos model or "butterfly effect" in complex systems are examples of perturbation theories. On the other hand, the study of Quantitative Structure-Property Relationships (QSPR) in molecular complex systems is an ideal area for the application of perturbation theory. There are several problems with exact experimental solutions (new chemical reactions, physicochemical properties, drug activity and distribution, metabolic networks, etc.) in public databases like CHEMBL. However, in all these cases, we have an even larger list of related problems without known solutions. We need to know the change in all these properties after a perturbation of initial boundary conditions. It means, when we test large sets of similar, but different, compounds and/or chemical reactions under the slightly different conditions (temperature, time, solvents, enzymes, assays, protein targets, tissues, partition systems, organisms, etc.). However, to the best of our knowledge, there is no QSPR general-purpose perturbation theory to solve this problem. In this work, firstly we review general aspects and applications of both perturbation theory and QSPR models. Secondly, we formulate a general-purpose perturbation theory for multiple-boundary QSPR problems. Last, we develop three new QSPR-Perturbation theory models. The first model classify correctly >100,000 pairs of intra-molecular carbolithiations with 75-95% of Accuracy (Ac), Sensitivity (Sn), and Specificity (Sp). The model predicts probabilities of variations in the yield and enantiomeric excess of reactions due to at least one perturbation in boundary conditions (solvent, temperature

  14. Department of Nuclear Physical Chemistry - Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szeglewski, S.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Research in the Department of Nuclear Physical Chemistry concentrates on three main topics: 1. Radiochemistry of transactinide elements; 2. Environmental radioactivity and related problems; 3. Preparation and applications of radioactive isotopes. The investigations on radiochemistry of transactinide elements are carried out in the Laboratory of Chemistry and Radiochemistry. Practical difficulties due to short half-lives and very low cross sections of formation of the superheavy nuclei are being overcome by developing fast and efficient methods of chemical separation, basing mostly on ion-exchange processes which are thoroughly studied via model experiments on lighter homologues of the elements of interest. During the year 2001, work with composite ferrocyanide sorbents was continued, and the efforts resulted in a patent application. The developed ion-exchangers (whose characteristics are constantly checked and improved in the laboratory) can find practical applications in environmental protection as well as in fundamental studies on the most exotic elements: 104 Rf, 105 Db, 106 Sg, 107 Bh, 108 Hs, and more. As to the latter, the discovery in Dubna of the relatively long-lived element 114 (t 1/2 =30s) gives hope that studies on aqueous chemistry of the elements Z =107 would be feasible. In this context, chemical methods of separation and identification of the heaviest elements are necessary to know the behaviour of the whole decay chains, for example: 114 -α-112 -α-110 -α-108 -α-106. The group is contributing its expertise to the top specialist international co-operation, involving the Joint Institute of Nuclear Research, Dubna, Russia, the Institute of Geochemistry and Analytical Chemistry of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia, and three German institutions: the Technical University of Dresden, the University of Mainz, and the GSI Darmstadt. The Environmental Radioactivity Laboratory is following up traces of α, β, and γ radioactive

  15. S.E.A. Lab. Science Experiments and Activities. Marine Science for High School Students in Chemistry, Biology and Physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Kathy, Ed.

    A series of science experiments and activities designed for secondary school students taking biology, chemistry, physics, physical science or marine science courses are outlined. Each of the three major sections--chemistry, biology, and physics--addresses concepts that are generally covered in those courses but incorporates aspects of marine…

  16. An Approach to Teaching General Chemistry II that Highlights the Interdisciplinary Nature of Science*,†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumter, Takita Felder; Owens, Patrick M.

    2012-01-01

    The need for a revised curriculum within the life sciences has been well-established. One strategy to improve student preparation in the life sciences is to redesign introductory courses like biology, chemistry, and physics so that they better reflect their disciplinary interdependence. We describe a medically relevant, context-based approach to teaching second semester general chemistry that demonstrates the interdisciplinary nature of biology and chemistry. Our innovative method provides a model in which disciplinary barriers are diminished early in the undergraduate science curriculum. The course is divided into three principle educational modules: 1) Fundamentals of General Chemistry, 2) Medical Approaches to Inflammation, and 3) Neuroscience as a connector of chemistry, biology, and psychology. We accurately anticipated that this modified approach to teaching general chemistry would enhance student interest in chemistry and bridge the perceived gaps between biology and chemistry. The course serves as a template for context-based, interdisciplinary teaching that lays the foundation needed to train 21st century scientists. PMID:21445902

  17. An approach to teaching general chemistry II that highlights the interdisciplinary nature of science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumter, Takita Felder; Owens, Patrick M

    2011-01-01

    The need for a revised curriculum within the life sciences has been well-established. One strategy to improve student preparation in the life sciences is to redesign introductory courses like biology, chemistry, and physics so that they better reflect their disciplinary interdependence. We describe a medically relevant, context-based approach to teaching second semester general chemistry that demonstrates the interdisciplinary nature of biology and chemistry. Our innovative method provides a model in which disciplinary barriers are diminished early in the undergraduate science curriculum. The course is divided into three principle educational modules: 1) Fundamentals of General Chemistry, 2) Medical Approaches to Inflammation, and 3) Neuroscience as a connector of chemistry, biology, and psychology. We accurately anticipated that this modified approach to teaching general chemistry would enhance student interest in chemistry and bridge the perceived gaps between biology and chemistry. The course serves as a template for context-based, interdisciplinary teaching that lays the foundation needed to train 21st century scientists. Copyright © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. A Reply to ''Reinterpretation of Students' Ideas When Reasoning about Particle Model Illustrations. A Response to ''Using Animations in Identifying General Chemistry Students' Misconceptions and Evaluating Their Knowledge Transfer Relating to Particle Position in Physical Changes'' by Smith and Villarreal (2015)''

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, K. Christopher; Villarreal, Savannah

    2015-01-01

    In this reply to Elon Langbeheim's response to an article recently published in this journal, authors Smith and Villarreal identify several types of general chemistry students' misconceptions concerning the concept of particle position during physical change. They focus their response on one of the misconceptions identified as such: Given a solid…

  19. Department of Nuclear Physical Chemistry - Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szeglowski, Z.

    2000-01-01

    taking part in the proficiency test on the determination of 239 Pu, 241 Pu and 241 Am in mineral matrix, organised by the IAEA. Ten dust samples, delivered by the University of Bremen (Germany) were analysed for the presence of 238 Pu, 239+240 Pu, 241 Pu, 241 Am and 244 Cm. In 1999, the equipment of the Environmental Radioactivity Laboratory was enriched with a low- background liquid scintillator spectrometer (Wallac 1414-003 Guardian), which opened a whole new branch of possible work connected with determination of pure beta-emitters. First isotopes of interest were 90 Sr and 241 Pu accumulated in animal bones. For 90 Sr measurements, an extensive library of scintillation quenching corrections was prepared. The spectrometer was also applied for tests of the purity of 32 P for the Laboratory of Physical Chemistry. A new project on transfer of plutonium from forest soil and litter to fungi and plants has been started. It is a pilot study for a planned in-Lab experiment to be performed during the incoming year at the University of Extremadura, Caceres, Spain. Other projects conducted during 1999 in the Environmental Radioactivity Laboratory are described in short abstracts below. In the Laboratory of Physical Chemistry, the project on construction of the internal target assembly for isotope production was continued, in cooperation with the Institute's Division of Mechanical Construction and with the Cyclotron Section. At the same time, much investment was made into necessary renovations in the radiochemical laboratory. Research in the Laboratory was concentrated on preparation and evaluation of 32 P sources for intravascular brachytherapy. With the help of the Institute's Health Physics Laboratory, liquid Na 2 H 32 PO 4 sources were calibrated by TL dosimetry, and in cooperation with the Department of Nuclear Spectroscopy, some solid state sources containing 32 P were prepared. Liquid 32 P sources calibrated in the Institute were first applied in pre-clinical intravascular

  20. Education-oriented Physics-Chemistry for Universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Spoelstra

    1985-03-01

    Full Text Available The shortage of well-qualified Science teachers is discussed, and possible contributing factors are mentioned. The need for an education-oriented university education in Physics and Chemistry, parallel to the existing courses in Physics and Chemistry, is justified. At the University of Zululand a subject called “Physical Science” (“Natuurwetenskap” was established, bearing in mind the specific requirements of a teaching career in Physical Science at secondary level. “Physical Science” is offered at second and third year level and the syllabus covers equal amounts of Chemistry and Physics. A less formal-mathematical and more descriptive approach is followed, and as wide a field as possible is covered which includes new developments in the physical sciences. We believe that this new course will enhance the training of well-prepared teachers of Physical Science for secondary schools, where a severe shortage prevails. Special reference is made here to the situation in Black schools.

  1. LOGICAL REASONING ABILITY AND STUDENT PERFORMANCE IN GENERAL CHEMISTRY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Lillian

    2010-03-01

    Logical reasoning skills of students enrolled in General Chemistry at the University of Puerto Rico in Río Piedras were measured using the Group Assessment of Logical Thinking (GALT) test. The results were used to determine the students' cognitive level (concrete, transitional, formal) as well as their level of performance by logical reasoning mode (mass/volume conservation, proportional reasoning, correlational reasoning, experimental variable control, probabilistic reasoning and combinatorial reasoning). This information was used to identify particular deficiencies and gender effects, and to determine which logical reasoning modes were the best predictors of student performance in the general chemistry course. Statistical tests to analyze the relation between (a) operational level and final grade in both semesters of the course; (b) GALT test results and performance in the ACS General Chemistry Examination; and (c) operational level and student approach (algorithmic or conceptual) towards a test question that may be answered correctly using either strategy, were also performed.

  2. Using Physics Principles in the Teaching of Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulden, Warren

    1996-01-01

    Presents three examples that show how students can use traditional physics principles or laws for the purpose of understanding chemistry better. Examples include Coulomb's Law and melting points, the Faraday Constant, and the Rydberg Constant. Presents a list of some other traditional topics in a chemistry course that could be enhanced by the…

  3. A General Chemistry Experiment Incorporating Synthesis and Structural Determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ryswyk, Hal

    1997-07-01

    An experiment for the general chemistry laboratory is described wherein gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) and diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS) are used to characterize the products of a series of microscale reactions on vanillin. A single sophisticated instrument can be incorporated into the laboratory given sufficient attention to the use of sampling accessories and software macros. Synthetic experiments coupled with modern instrumental techniques can be used in the general chemistry laboratory to illustrate the concepts of synthesis, structure, bonding, and spectroscopy.

  4. Single Molecule Spectroscopy in Chemistry, Physics and Biology Nobel Symposium

    CERN Document Server

    Gräslund, Astrid; Widengren, Jerker

    2010-01-01

    Written by the leading experts in the field, this book describes the development and current state-of-the-art in single molecule spectroscopy. The application of this technique, which started 1989, in physics, chemistry and biosciences is displayed.

  5. Saclay Center of Nuclear Studies, Direction of Materials and Nuclear Fuels, Department of Physico-Chemistry, Division of Physical Chemistry. 1968 Annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, M.; Clerc, M.; Le Calve, J.; Bourene, M.; Lesigne, B.; Gillois, M.; Devillers, C.; Arvis, M.; Gilles, L.; Moreau, M.; Sutton, J.; Faraggi, M.; Desalos, J.; Tran Dinh Son; Barat, F.; Hickel, B.; Chachaty, C.; Forchioni, A.; Shiotani, M.; Larher, Y.; Maurice, P.; Le Bail, H.; Nenner, T.

    1969-03-01

    This document is the 1968 annual report of research activities at the Physico-Chemistry Department (Physical Chemistry Division), part of the Directorate of Materials and Nuclear Fuels of the CEA Saclay center of nuclear studies. The report is divided into two main parts: radiolysis and photolysis studies (gaseous phase, condensed phase), and general physico-chemical studies (sorption, molecular jets)

  6. A General Chemistry Laboratory Course Designed for Student Discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obenland, Carrie A.; Kincaid, Kristi; Hutchinson, John S.

    2014-01-01

    We report a study of the general chemistry laboratory course at one university over four years. We found that when taught as a traditional laboratory course, lab experiences do not encourage students to deepen their understanding of chemical concepts. Although the lab instructor emphasized that the lab experiences were designed to enhance…

  7. Physics and chemistry of irradiated protostars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg, Johan

    not resemble so-called hot corinos or warm carbon-chain chemistry sources (the previously known types of low-mass Class 0 objects as defined by their chemistry). The absence of complex organic molecules in combination with high abundances of radicals such as cyanide (CN) and hydroxyl (OH) suggest...... that the chemistry is dominated by radiation from R CrA. In the high-resolution interferometry data we also detect signs of a 100 AU Keplerian disc around the Class 0/I object IRS7B. The disc may be responsible for the lack of detections of complex organic molecules on the smaller scales as it may have flattened......) and chemistry (such as molecular abundances) in low-mass protostellar envelopes is studied. The work studies the nearby low-mass star-forming region Corona Australis, in which a large proportion of the youngest low-mass protostars (so-called Class 0 and Class I objects) are located in a dense cloud situated...

  8. Computer-based, Jeopardy™-like game in general chemistry for engineering majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, S. S.; Saffre, F.; Kadadha, M.; Gater, D. L.; Isakovic, A. F.

    2013-03-01

    We report on the design of Jeopardy™-like computer game for enhancement of learning of general chemistry for engineering majors. While we examine several parameters of student achievement and attitude, our primary concern is addressing the motivation of students, which tends to be low in a traditionally run chemistry lectures. The effect of the game-playing is tested by comparing paper-based game quiz, which constitutes a control group, and computer-based game quiz, constituting a treatment group. Computer-based game quizzes are Java™-based applications that students run once a week in the second part of the last lecture of the week. Overall effectiveness of the semester-long program is measured through pretest-postest conceptual testing of general chemistry. The objective of this research is to determine to what extent this ``gamification'' of the course delivery and course evaluation processes may be beneficial to the undergraduates' learning of science in general, and chemistry in particular. We present data addressing gender-specific difference in performance, as well as background (pre-college) level of general science and chemistry preparation. We outline the plan how to extend such approach to general physics courses and to modern science driven electives, and we offer live, in-lectures examples of our computer gaming experience. We acknowledge support from Khalifa University, Abu Dhabi

  9. Physical Chemistry for the Chemical and Biological Sciences (by Raymond Chang)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pounds, Andrew

    2001-05-01

    This book does offer an alternative approach to physical chemistry that is particularly well suited for those who want to pursue a course of study more focused on the biological sciences. It could also be an excellent choice for schools that mainly serve preprofessional programs or for schools that have split physical chemistry tracks to independently serve the B.S. and B.A. degrees. Since the book focuses on single-variable mathematics, schools that require only one year of calculus for their chemistry degree could also think about adopting it. However, in general, the use of the text as a drop-in replacement for physical chemistry for the B.S. degree is questionable owing to its lack of focus on quantum mechanics and its implications for spectroscopy.

  10. Integrating the Liberal Arts and Chemistry: A Series of General Chemistry Assignments to Develop Science Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Diane M.; Chengelis Czegan, Demetra A.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes assignments that have been implemented in a General Chemistry I course to promote science literacy. This course was chosen in particular because it reaches a broad audience, which includes nonscience majors. The assignment series begins with several discussions and tasks to develop information literacy, in which students find…

  11. Annual progress report of the physical chemistry department. Basic research 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    Basic research for 1987 in physical chemistry of the French Atomic Energy Commission are reviewed. Topics include molecular chemistry, isotopic geochemistry, molecular photophysics, laser photochemistry, solid and surface physical chemistry. A list of publications and thesis is given [fr

  12. Supramolecular chemistry-general principles and selected examples from anion recognition and metallosupramolecular chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, Markus

    2007-12-01

    This review gives an introduction into supramolecular chemistry describing in the first part general principles, focusing on terms like noncovalent interaction, molecular recognition, self-assembly, and supramolecular function. In the second part those will be illustrated by simple examples from our laboratories. Supramolecular chemistry is the science that bridges the gap between the world of molecules and nanotechnology. In supramolecular chemistry noncovalent interactions occur between molecular building blocks, which by molecular recognition and self-assembly form (functional) supramolecular entities. It is also termed the "chemistry of the noncovalent bond." Molecular recognition is based on geometrical complementarity based on the "key-and-lock" principle with nonshape-dependent effects, e.g., solvatization, being also highly influential. Self-assembly leads to the formation of well-defined aggregates. Hereby the overall structure of the target ensemble is controlled by the symmetry features of the certain building blocks. Finally, the aggregates can possess special properties or supramolecular functions, which are only found in the ensemble but not in the participating molecules. This review gives an introduction on supramolecular chemistry and illustrates the fundamental principles by recent examples from our group.

  13. Formation and Dimerization of NO2 A General Chemistry Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennis, April D.; Highberger, C. Scott; Schreiner, Serge

    1997-11-01

    We have developed a general chemistry experiment which illustrates Gay-Lussac's law of combining volumes. Students are able to determine the partial pressures and equilibrium constant for the formation and dimerization of NO2. The experiment can be carried out in about 45 minutes with students working in groups of two. The experiment readily provides students with data that can be manipulated with a common spreadsheet.

  14. Attitude Counts: Self-Concept and Success in General Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Scott E.; Shaw, Janet L.; Heitz, Judith O.; Webster, Gail H.

    2009-06-01

    General chemistry is a required first step for students who wish to pursue a career in science or health professions. The course often has low rates of student success and as a result serves as a gateway limiting access to science fields. This study seeks to better understand factors that are related to student success in general chemistry by focusing on the affective domain, in this case students' self-concept, or self-evaluation of ability as it pertains to a specific field of study. First, a profile of students' self-concept in the general chemistry setting is created. Next, the relationship between self-concept and success in the course is investigated, including examining the role of self-concept after taking into account a cognitive measure (SAT scores). This study is unique in that evidence is found for the impact of self-concept after taking into account a cognitive measure. Finally, the effect of a semester-long, inquiry-oriented learning environment on students' self-concept is described. Suggested interventions to improve student self-concept are also discussed.

  15. General Chemistry Courses That Can Affect Achievement: An Action Research Study in Developing a Plan to Improve Undergraduate Chemistry Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shweikeh, Eman

    2014-01-01

    Over the past 50 years, considerable research has been dedicated to chemistry education. In evaluating principal chemistry courses in higher education, educators have noted the learning process for first-year general chemistry courses may be challenging. The current study investigated perceptions of faculty, students and administrators on…

  16. The link between physics and chemistry in track modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, N.J.B.; Bolton, C.E.; Spencer-Smith, R.D.

    1999-01-01

    The physical structure of a radiation track provides the initial conditions for the modelling of radiation chemistry. These initial conditions are not perfectly understood, because there are important gaps between what is provided by a typical track structure model and what is required to start the chemical model. This paper addresses the links between the physics and chemistry of tracks, with the intention of identifying those problems that need to be solved in order to obtain an accurate picture of the initial conditions for the purposes of modelling chemistry. These problems include the reasons for the increased yield of ionisation relative to homolytic bond breaking in comparison with the gas phase. A second area of great importance is the physical behaviour of low-energy electrons in condensed matter (including thermolisation and solvation). Many of these processes are not well understood, but they can have profound effects on the transient chemistry in the track. Several phenomena are discussed, including the short distance between adjacent energy loss events, the molecular nature of the underlying medium, dissociative attachment resonances and the ability of low-energy electrons to excite optically forbidden molecular states. Each of these phenomena has the potential to modify the transient chemistry substantially and must therefore be properly characterised before the physical model of the track can be considered to be complete. (orig.)

  17. Physics and Its Interfaces with Medicinal Chemistry and Drug Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Ricardo N.; Andricopulo, Adriano D.

    2013-08-01

    Medicinal chemistry is a multidisciplinary subject that integrates knowledge from a variety of fields of science, including, but not limited to, chemistry, biology, and physics. The area of drug design involves the cooperative work of scientists with a diverse range of backgrounds and technical skills, trying to tackle complex problems using an integration of approaches and methods. One important contribution to this field comes from physics through studies that attempt to identify and quantify the molecular interactions between small molecules (drugs) and biological targets (receptors), such as the forces that govern the interactions, the thermodynamics of the drug-receptor interactions, and so on. In this context, the interfaces of physics, medicinal chemistry, and drug design are of vital importance for the development of drugs that not only have the right chemistry but also the right intermolecular properties to interact at the macromolecular level, providing useful information about the principles and molecular mechanisms underlying the therapeutic action of drugs. This article highlights some of the most important connections between physics and medicinal chemistry in the design of new drugs.

  18. The Importance of Undergraduate General and Organic Chemistry to the Study of Biochemistry in Medical School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scimone, Anthony; Scimone, Angelina A.

    1996-01-01

    Investigates chemistry topics necessary to facilitate the study of biochemistry in U.S. medical schools. Lists topics considered especially important and topics considered especially unimportant in general chemistry and organic chemistry. Suggests that in teaching undergraduate general or organic chemistry, the topics categorized as exceptionally…

  19. Liquid crystals beyond displays chemistry, physics, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Quan

    2012-01-01

    The chemistry, physics, and applications of liquid crystals beyond LCDs Liquid Crystals (LCs) combine order and mobility on a molecular and supramolecular level. But while these remarkable states of matter are most commonly associated with visual display technologies, they have important applications for a variety of other fields as well. Liquid Crystals Beyond Displays: Chemistry, Physics, and Applications considers these, bringing together cutting-edge research from some of the most promising areas of LC science. Featuring contributions from respected researchers from around the globe, th

  20. Bias Assessment of General Chemistry Analytes using Commutable Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koerbin, Gus; Tate, Jillian R; Ryan, Julie; Jones, Graham Rd; Sikaris, Ken A; Kanowski, David; Reed, Maxine; Gill, Janice; Koumantakis, George; Yen, Tina; St John, Andrew; Hickman, Peter E; Simpson, Aaron; Graham, Peter

    2014-11-01

    Harmonisation of reference intervals for routine general chemistry analytes has been a goal for many years. Analytical bias may prevent this harmonisation. To determine if analytical bias is present when comparing methods, the use of commutable samples, or samples that have the same properties as the clinical samples routinely analysed, should be used as reference samples to eliminate the possibility of matrix effect. The use of commutable samples has improved the identification of unacceptable analytical performance in the Netherlands and Spain. The International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (IFCC) has undertaken a pilot study using commutable samples in an attempt to determine not only country specific reference intervals but to make them comparable between countries. Australia and New Zealand, through the Australasian Association of Clinical Biochemists (AACB), have also undertaken an assessment of analytical bias using commutable samples and determined that of the 27 general chemistry analytes studied, 19 showed sufficiently small between method biases as to not prevent harmonisation of reference intervals. Application of evidence based approaches including the determination of analytical bias using commutable material is necessary when seeking to harmonise reference intervals.

  1. Physics and chemistry of the solar nebula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunine, J I

    1997-06-01

    The solar system is thought to have begun in a flattened disk of gas and dust referred to traditionally as the solar nebula. Such a construct seems to be a natural product of the collapse of dense parts of giant molecular clouds, the vast star-forming regions that pepper the Milky Way and other galaxies. Gravitational, magnetic and thermal forces within the solar nebula forced a gradual evolution of mass toward the center (where the sun formed) and angular momentum (borne by a small fraction of the mass) toward the outer more distant regions of the disk. This evolution was accompanied by heating and a strong temperature contrast from the hot, inner regions to the cold, more remote parts of the disk. The resulting chemistry in the disk determined the initial distribution of organic matter in the planets; most of the reduced carbon species, in condensed form, were located beyond the asteroid belt (the 'outer' solar system). The Earth could have received much of its inventory of pre-biological material from comets and other icy fragments of the process of planetary formation in the outer solar system.

  2. Physical-chemical processes of astrophysical interest: nitrogen chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loison, Jean-Christophe; Hickson, Kevin; Hily-Blant, Pierre; Faure, Alexandre; Vuitton, Veronique; Bacmann, A.; Maret, Sebastien; Legal, Romane; Rist, Claire; Roncero, Octavio; Larregaray, Pascal; Hochlaf, Majdi; Senent, M. L.; Capron, Michael; Biennier, Ludovic; Carles, Sophie; Bourgalais, Jeremy; Le Picard, Sebastien; Cordier, Daniel; Guillemin, Jean-Claude; Trolez, Yann; Bertin, M.; Poderoso, H.A.M.; Michaut, X.; Jeseck, P.; Philippe, L.; Fillion, J.H.; Fayolle, E.C.; Linnartz, H.; Romanzin, C.; Oeberg, K.I.; Roueff, Evelyne; Pagani, Laurent; Padovani, Marco; Wakelam, Veronique; Honvault, Beatrice; Zvereva-Loete, Natalia; Ouk, Chanda-Malis; Scribano, Yohann; Hartmann, J.M.; Pineau des Forets, Guillaume; Hernandez, Mario; Lique, Francois; Kalugina, Yulia N.; Stoecklin, T.; Hochlaf, M.; Crespos, C.; Larregaray, P.; Martin-Gondre, L.; Petuya, R.; Quintas Sanchez, E.L.; Zanchet, Alexandre; Rodriguez-Lazcano, Yamilet; Mate, Belen

    2013-06-01

    This document contains the programme and abstracts of contributions to a workshop on nitrogen chemistry within an astrophysical perspective. These contributions have been presented in sessions: Introduction (opening lecture, experimental approaches to molecular astrophysics, theoretical approaches to astrophysics, observations in molecular astrophysics), Physical-chemical theory of the gas phase (time-dependent approach in elementary activity, statistic approach in elementary activity in the case of the N+H_2 reaction, potential energy surfaces for inelastic and reactive collisions, collision rate for N_2H"+, ortho/para selection rules in the chemistry of nitrogen hydrides, cyanides/iso-cyanides excitation in the ISM, CN excitation, radiative association with N_2H as new interstellar anion, ro-vibratory excitation of HCN) Laboratory astrophysics (measurement of reaction products in the CRESUSOL project, reactivity of the CN- anion, N_2 photo-desorption in ices, CRESU study of nitrogen chemistry, chemistry of nitrogen complex molecules), Observations and chemistry of astrophysical media (the problem of interstellar nitrogen fractioning, abundance of N_2 in proto-stellar cores, HNC in Titan atmosphere and nitrogen-related mechanisms in hot Jupiters, HCN and HNC in dark clouds or how theoretical modelling helps in interpreting observations, nitrogen chemistry in cold clouds, deuteration of nitrogen hydrides, nitrogen in interstellar ices, biochemical molecules on Titan, coupling between excitation and chemistry, radiative transfer of nitrogen hydrides, ortho/para chemistry of nitrogen hydrides), Physical-chemical theory of gas-grain interactions (nitrogen reactivity on surfaces, IR spectra of ices of NH_3 and NH_3/N_2 mixtures)

  3. Physics and chemistry of aging - early developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Va'vra, J.

    2003-01-01

    The aging phenomena are very complex physical and chemical processes. The author attempts to qualitatively discuss various physical processes contributing to aging. A satisfactory quantitative explanation is not presently available. In this sense, little progress has been made since the 1986 LBL Aging Workshop. However, what was accomplished during the past decade is a heightened awareness from the research and management sides to pay more attention to this problem, and as a result a number of aging tests have increased in quantity and quality. These efforts will undoubtedly yield some new results in the future. Examples in this paper are mainly from a 'pre-LHC and pre-HERA-B era of aging', where the total charge doses are limited to much less than 1 C/cm

  4. Teaching a Chemistry MOOC with a Virtual Laboratory: Lessons Learned from an Introductory Physical Chemistry Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Malley, Patrick J.; Agger, Jonathan R.; Anderson, Michael W.

    2015-01-01

    An analysis is presented of the experience and lessons learned of running a MOOC in introductory physical chemistry. The course was unique in allowing students to conduct experimental measurements using a virtual laboratory constructed using video and simulations. A breakdown of the student background and motivation for taking the course is…

  5. Progress in organic and physical chemistry structures and mechanisms

    CERN Document Server

    Zaikov, Gennady E; Lobanov, Anton V

    2013-01-01

    Progress in Organic and Physical Chemistry: Structures and Mechanisms provides a collection of new research in the field of organic and physical properties, including new research on: The physical principles of the conductivity of electrical conducting polymer compounds The dependence on constants of electromagnetic interactions upon electron spacial-energy characteristics Effects of chitosan molecultural weight on rehological behavior of chitosan modified nanoclay at hight hydrated state Bio-structural energy criteria of functional states in normal and pathological conditions Potentiometric study on the international between devalent cations and sodium carboxylates in aqueous solutions Structural characteristic changes in erythrocyte membranes of mice bearing Alzheimer's-like disease caused by the olfactory bulbetomy This volume is intended to provide an overview of new studies and research for engineers, faculty, researchers, and upper-level students in the field of organic and physical chemistry.

  6. Charge Migration in DNA Perspectives from Physics, Chemistry, and Biology

    CERN Document Server

    Chakraborty, Tapash

    2007-01-01

    Charge migration through DNA has been the focus of considerable interest in recent years. A deeper understanding of the nature of charge transfer and transport along the double helix is important in fields as diverse as physics, chemistry and nanotechnology. It has also important implications in biology, in particular in DNA damage and repair. This book presents contributions from an international team of researchers active in this field. It contains a wide range of topics that includes the mathematical background of the quantum processes involved, the role of charge transfer in DNA radiation damage, a new approach to DNA sequencing, DNA photonics, and many others. This book should be of value to researchers in condensed matter physics, chemical physics, physical chemistry, and nanoscale sciences.

  7. The Sequencing of Basic Chemistry Topics by Physical Science Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibanda, Doras; Hobden, Paul

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to find out teachers' preferred teaching sequence for basic chemistry topics in Physical Science in South Africa, to obtain their reasons underpinning their preferred sequence, and to compare these sequences with the prescribed sequences in the current curriculum. The study was located within a pragmatic paradigm and…

  8. Empowering Girls with Chemistry, Exercise and Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clapham, Emily D.; Ciccomascolo, Lori E.; Clapham, Andrew J.

    2015-01-01

    Research suggests that a girl's career interests in the areas of science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) declines between grades 6 and 8. Similarly, in middle school, there is a decrease in physical activity among girls. Researchers at the University of Rhode Island (URI) conducted a chemistry-based science camp that took place…

  9. Solar Energy Education. Renewable energy activities for chemistry and physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-01-01

    Information on renewable energy sources is provided for students in this teachers' guide. With the chemistry and physics student in mind, solar energy topics such as absorber plate coatings for solar collectors and energy collection and storage methods are studied. (BCS)

  10. Impact of General Chemistry on Student Achievement and Progression to Subsequent Chemistry Courses: A Regression Discontinuity Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shultz, Ginger V.; Gottfried, Amy C.; Winschel, Grace A.

    2015-01-01

    General chemistry is a gateway course that impacts the STEM trajectory of tens of thousands of students each year, and its role in the introductory curriculum as well as its pedagogical design are the center of an ongoing debate. To investigate the role of general chemistry in the curriculum, we report the results of a posthoc analysis of 10 years…

  11. Chemistry, Life, the Universe, and Everything: A New Approach to General Chemistry, and a Model for Curriculum Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Melanie; Klymkowsky, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The history of general chemistry is one of almost constant calls for reform, yet over the past 60 years little of substance has changed. Those reforms that have been implemented are almost entirely concerned with how the course is taught, rather than what is to be learned. Here we briefly discuss the history of the general chemistry curriculum and…

  12. Chemistry and physical properties of estolides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isbell, T.A.

    2011-01-01

    Estolides are a developing class of natural and synthetic compounds that have been synthesized from hydroxy oils like castor and lesquerella or by the condensation of fatty acids across the olefin of a second fatty acid. Castor and lesquerella estolides are derived from either their triglycerides or their free fatty acids utilizing their hydroxyl moiety to establish the estolide bond. The triglyceride estolides have pour points of 9 to -36 degrees centigrade but suffer poor oxidative stability with RPVOT times of 29 - 52 minutes even with 1% of an anti-oxidant package incorporated into the samples. In contrast to the triglyceride estolides of castor and lesquerella, the estolides from lesquerolic and ricinoleic acids have very good pour points of -36 to - 54 degrees centigrade. Estolides derived from the acid catalyzed condensation of oleic acid with a variety of fatty acids can be made in good yield and posses a wide range of physical properties. Of particular interest are the saturated capped estolides of oleic that have both good low temperature properties (pour point -5 to -39 degrees centigrade) and good oxidative stability. Estolides from meadow foam fatty acids do not have good low temperature properties but have been extensively used in cosmetics where they provide good moisturizing properties. (Author).

  13. Microfluidics and nanofluidics handbook chemistry, physics, and life science principles

    CERN Document Server

    Mitra, Sushanta K

    2011-01-01

    The Microfluidics and Nanofluidics Handbook: Two-Volume Set comprehensively captures the cross-disciplinary breadth of the fields of micro- and nanofluidics, which encompass the biological sciences, chemistry, physics and engineering applications. To fill the knowledge gap between engineering and the basic sciences, the editors pulled together key individuals, well known in their respective areas, to author chapters that help graduate students, scientists, and practicing engineers understand the overall area of microfluidics and nanofluidics. Topics covered include Cell Lysis Techniques in Lab-on-a-Chip Technology Electrodics in Electrochemical Energy Conversion Systems: Microstructure and Pore-Scale Transport Microscale Gas Flow Dynamics and Molecular Models for Gas Flow and Heat Transfer Microscopic Hemorheology and Hemodynamics Covering physics and transport phenomena along with life sciences and related applications, Volume One: Chemistry, Physics, and Life Science Principles provides readers with the fun...

  14. Feasibility of Integration of Selected Aspects of (CBA) Chemistry, (CHEMS) Chemistry and (PSSC) Physics into a Two Year Physical Science Sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiasca, Michael Aldo

    Compared, for selected outcomes, were integrated chemistry-physics courses with chemistry and physics courses taught separately. Three classes studying integrated Physical Science Study Committee (PSSC)-Chemical Bond Approach (CBA), and three classes studying integrated Physical Science Study Committee-Chemical Education Materials Study (CHEMS)…

  15. Enhancing interdisciplinary, mathematics, and physical science in an undergraduate life science program through physical chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pursell, David P

    2009-01-01

    BIO2010 advocates enhancing the interdisciplinary, mathematics, and physical science components of the undergraduate biology curriculum. The Department of Chemistry and Life Science at West Point responded by developing a required physical chemistry course tailored to the interests of life science majors. To overcome student resistance to physical chemistry, students were enabled as long-term stakeholders who would shape the syllabus by selecting life science topics of interest to them. The initial 2 yr of assessment indicates that students have a positive view of the course, feel they have succeeded in achieving course outcome goals, and that the course is relevant to their professional future. Instructor assessment of student outcome goal achievement via performance on exams and labs is comparable to that of students in traditional physical chemistry courses. Perhaps more noteworthy, both student and instructor assessment indicate positive trends from year 1 to year 2, presumably due to the student stakeholder effect.

  16. Chemistry and physical properties of estolides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isbell, Terry A.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Estolides are a developing class of natural and synthetic compounds that have been synthesized from hydroxy oils like castor and lesquerella or by the condensation of fatty acids across the olefin of a second fatty acid. Castor and lesquerella estolides are derived from either their triglycerides or their free fatty acids utilizing their hydroxyl moiety to establish the estolide bond. The triglyceride estolides have pour points of 9 to –36ºC but suffer poor oxidative stability with RPVOT times of 29 – 52 minutes even with 1% of an anti-oxidant package incorporated into the samples. In contrast to the triglyceride estolides of castor and lesquerella, the estolides from lesquerolic and ricinoleic acids have very good pour points of –36 to –54ºC. Estolides derived from the acid catalyzed condensation of oleic acid with a variety of fatty acids can be made in good yield and posses a wide range of physical properties. Of particular interest are the saturated capped estolides of oleic that have both good low temperature properties (pour point –5 to – 39ºC and good oxidative stability. Estolides from meadowfoam fatty acids do not have good low temperature properties but have been extensively used in cosmetics where they provide good moisturizing properties.

    Los estólidos son una familia de compuestos sintetizados a partir de aceites hidroxilados como los de ricino o lesquerella o mediante la condensación de ácidos grasos sobre el doble enlace de un segundo ácido graso insaturado. Los estólidos de ricino y lesquerela se derivan tanto de sus triglicéridos como de sus ácidos grasos libres empleándose el residuo hidroxilo para formar los ésteres estólidos de los mismos. Los triglicéridos estólidos tienen puntos de fluidez crítica de entre 9 y -36ºC y baja estabilidad, con tiempos de oxidación en recipiente vacío a presión (RPVOT de entre 29 y 52 minutos incluso con la adición de un 1% de una mezcla antioxidante a las

  17. Learning beyond the Classroom: Using Text Messages to Measure General Chemistry Students' Study Habits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Li; Oueini, Razanne; Dickerson, Austin P.; Lewis, Scott E.

    2015-01-01

    This study used a series of text message inquiries sent to General Chemistry students asking: "Have you studied for General Chemistry I in the past 48 hours? If so, how did you study?" This method for collecting data is novel to chemistry education research so the first research goals were to investigate the feasibility of the technique…

  18. General chemistry courses that can affect achievement: An action research study in developing a plan to improve undergraduate chemistry courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shweikeh, Eman

    Over the past 50 years, considerable research has been dedicated to chemistry education. In evaluating principal chemistry courses in higher education, educators have noted the learning process for first-year general chemistry courses may be challenging. The current study investigated perceptions of faculty, students and administrators on chemistry education at three institutions in Southern California. Via action research, the study sought to develop a plan to improve student engagement in general chemistry courses. A mixed method was utilized to analyze different perceptions on key factors determining the level of commitment and engagement in general chemistry education. The approach to chemistry learning from both a faculty and student perspective was examined including good practices, experiences and extent of active participation. The research study considered well-known measures of effective education with an emphasis on two key components: educational practices and student behavior. Institutional culture was inclusively assessed where cognitive expectations of chemistry teaching and learning were communicated. First, the extent in which faculty members are utilizing the "Seven Principles for Good Practice in Undergraduate Education" in their instruction was explored. Second, student attitudes and approaches toward chemistry learning were examined. The focus was on investigating student understanding of the learning process and the structure of chemistry knowledge. The seven categories used to measure students' expectations for learning chemistry were: effort, concepts, math link, reality link, outcome, laboratory, and visualization. This analysis represents the views of 16 faculty and 140 students. The results validated the assertion that students need some competencies and skills to tackle the challenges of the chemistry learning process to deeply engage in learning. A mismatch exists between the expectations of students and those of the faculty

  19. Ultrafast phenomena in molecular sciences femtosecond physics and chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Bañares, Luis

    2014-01-01

    This book presents the latest developments in Femtosecond Chemistry and Physics for the study of ultrafast photo-induced molecular processes. Molecular systems, from the simplest H2 molecule to polymers or biological macromolecules, constitute central objects of interest for Physics, Chemistry and Biology, and despite the broad range of phenomena that they exhibit, they share some common behaviors. One of the most significant of those is that many of the processes involving chemical transformation (nuclear reorganization, bond breaking, bond making) take place in an extraordinarily short time, in or around the femtosecond temporal scale (1 fs = 10-15 s). A number of experimental approaches - very particularly the developments in the generation and manipulation of ultrashort laser pulses - coupled with theoretical progress, provide the ultrafast scientist with powerful tools to understand matter and its interaction with light, at this spatial and temporal scale. This book is an attempt to reunite some of the ...

  20. The physics and chemistry of the Schottky barrier height

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tung, Raymond T.

    2014-01-01

    The formation of the Schottky barrier height (SBH) is a complex problem because of the dependence of the SBH on the atomic structure of the metal-semiconductor (MS) interface. Existing models of the SBH are too simple to realistically treat the chemistry exhibited at MS interfaces. This article points out, through examination of available experimental and theoretical results, that a comprehensive, quantum-mechanics-based picture of SBH formation can already be constructed, although no simple equations can emerge, which are applicable for all MS interfaces. Important concepts and principles in physics and chemistry that govern the formation of the SBH are described in detail, from which the experimental and theoretical results for individual MS interfaces can be understood. Strategies used and results obtained from recent investigations to systematically modify the SBH are also examined from the perspective of the physical and chemical principles of the MS interface

  1. Effects of Students' Pre- and Post-Laboratory Concept Maps on Students' Attitudes toward Chemistry Laboratory in University General Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilic, Ziya; Kaya, Osman Nafiz; Dogan, Alev

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of scientific discussions based on student-constructed pre- and post-laboratory concept maps on students' attitudes toward chemistry laboratory in the university general chemistry. As part of instruction, during the first four laboratory sessions, students were taught how to construct and…

  2. Radiation chemistry - its Czechoslovak story and comments on general present

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bednar, J.

    1978-01-01

    The history is outlined of radiation chemistry in Czechoslovakia since 1954 and scientists contributing to the respective stages of its development are listed. Current trends of radiation chemistry in the world are indicated. (J.P.)

  3. Integrating Multiple Teaching Methods into a General Chemistry Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco, Joseph S.; Nicoll, Gayle; Trautmann, Marcella

    1998-02-01

    In addition to the traditional lecture format, three other teaching strategies (class discussions, concept maps, and cooperative learning) were incorporated into a freshman level general chemistry course. Student perceptions of their involvement in each of the teaching methods, as well as their perceptions of the utility of each method were used to assess the effectiveness of the integration of the teaching strategies as received by the students. Results suggest that each strategy serves a unique purpose for the students and increased student involvement in the course. These results indicate that the multiple teaching strategies were well received by the students and that all teaching strategies are necessary for students to get the most out of the course.

  4. Expression of results in quantum chemistry physical chemistry division commission on physicochemical symbols, terminology and units

    CERN Document Server

    Whiffen, D H

    2013-01-01

    Expression of Results in Quantum Chemistry recommends the appropriate insertion of physical constants in the output information of a theoretical paper in order to make the numerical end results of theoretical work easily transformed to SI units by the reader. The acceptance of this recommendation would circumvent the need for a set of atomic units each with its own symbol and name. It is the traditional use of the phrase """"atomic units"""" in this area which has obscured the real problem. The four SI dimensions of length, mass, time, and current require four physical constants to be permitte

  5. NREL Senior Research Fellow Honored by The Journal of Physical Chemistry |

    Science.gov (United States)

    News | NREL 7 » NREL Senior Research Fellow Honored by The Journal of Physical Chemistry News Release: NREL Senior Research Fellow Honored by The Journal of Physical Chemistry January 10, 2007 The Journal of Physical Chemistry B. The Dec. 21 issue was titled The Arthur J. Nozik Festschrift (Volume 110

  6. Coherence of Physics and Chemistry Curricula in Terms of the Electron Concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elena, Ivanova

    2016-01-01

    One of the major contradictions in subject teaching is the contradiction between the unity of the world and the discrete separated generalized content of natural sciences that study natural phenomena. These are physics, chemistry, biology and more. One can eliminate the conflict if opens the content's interdisciplinary links set by the events that are studied by different disciplines. The corresponding contexts of the phenomenon content arise depending on the discipline, and they are not enough coordinated. Obviously, we need a mechanism that allows establishing interdisciplinary links in the content quickly and without losing the logic of the material and assess their coherence in academic disciplines. This article uses a quantitative method of coherence assessment elaborated by T.N. Gnitetskaya. The definition of the concept of the semantic state introduced by the authors is given in this article. The method is applied to coherence assessment of physics and chemistry textbooks. The coherence of two pairs of chemistry and physics textbooks by different authors in different combinations was calculated. The most cohered pairs of textbooks (chemistry-physics) were identified. One can recommend using the pair of textbooks for eighth grade that we offered that favors the development of holistic understandings of the world around us. (paper)

  7. Coherence of Physics and Chemistry Curricula in Terms of the Electron Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elena, Ivanova

    2016-08-01

    One of the major contradictions in subject teaching is the contradiction between the unity of the world and the discrete separated generalized content of natural sciences that study natural phenomena. These are physics, chemistry, biology and more. One can eliminate the conflict if opens the content's interdisciplinary links set by the events that are studied by different disciplines. The corresponding contexts of the phenomenon content arise depending on the discipline, and they are not enough coordinated. Obviously, we need a mechanism that allows establishing interdisciplinary links in the content quickly and without losing the logic of the material and assess their coherence in academic disciplines. This article uses a quantitative method of coherence assessment elaborated by T.N. Gnitetskaya. The definition of the concept of the semantic state introduced by the authors is given in this article. The method is applied to coherence assessment of physics and chemistry textbooks. The coherence of two pairs of chemistry and physics textbooks by different authors in different combinations was calculated. The most cohered pairs of textbooks (chemistry-physics) were identified. One can recommend using the pair of textbooks for eighth grade that we offered that favors the development of holistic understandings of the world around us.

  8. A New Approach to the General Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieron, Joseph F.; McCarthy, Paul J.; Kermis, Thomas W.

    1996-11-01

    Background Canisius College is a medium-sized liberal arts college with a longstanding tradition of maintaining an excellent chemistry program. We realized a few years ago, however, that this tradition was not being sustained by our General Chemistry laboratory course, which had not changed significantly in years. With the help of a grant from the National Science Foundation, our department has been able to design a new laboratory course built around several guiding principles. The design called for experiments to be grouped in units or clusters. Each cluster has a unifying theme or common thread, which gives some coherence to the experiments. The clusters and experiments are listed in the appendix and briefly explained below. Course Design Cluster A's topic is organic and polymer chemistry, and its main objective is to show that chemistry can be enjoyable and relevant to common experiences. Data collection is minimal and hands-on manipulation with observable products is emphasized. Cluster B is a case study of the chemistry of maintaining a swimming pool. The common theme is solution chemistry, and the experiments are designed to promote critical thinking. Cluster C encompasses both oxidation - reduction reactions and electrochemistry, and attempts to show the commonality of these important topics. Cluster D is a series of experiments on methods and techniques of analytical chemistry; in this group the analysis of unknown materials is undertaken. Cluster E is covered last in the second semester, and it stresses important concepts in chemistry at a slightly more advanced level. The emphasis is on the relationship of experiment to theory, and the cluster involves experiments in kinetics, equilibrium, and synthesis. Other guidelines that we considered important in our design were the use of computers (when appropriate), the introduction of microscale chemistry, and the use of instrumentation whenever possible. A separate cluster, labeled Mac, was developed to provide

  9. First 25-hydroxyvitamin D assay for general chemistry analyzers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saida, Fakhri B; Chen, Xiaoru; Tran, Kiet; Dou, Chao; Yuan, Chong

    2015-03-01

    25-Hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], the predominant circulating form of vitamin D, is an accurate indicator of the general vitamin D status of an individual. Because vitamin D deficiencies have been linked to several pathologies (including osteoporosis and rickets), accurate monitoring of 25(OH)D levels is becoming increasingly important in clinical settings. Current 25(OH)D assays are either chromatographic or immunoassay-based assays. These assays include HPLC, liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), enzyme-immunosorbent, immunochemiluminescence, immunofluorescence and radioimmunoassay. All these assays use heterogeneous formats that require phase separation and special instrumentations. In this article, we present an overview of these assays and introduce the first homogeneous assay of 25(OH)D for use on general chemistry analyzers. A special emphasis is put on the unique challenges posed by the 25(OH)D analyte. These challenges include a low detection limit, the dissociation of the analyte from its serum transporter and the inactivation of various binding proteins without phase separation steps.

  10. MIANN models in medicinal, physical and organic chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Díaz, Humberto; Arrasate, Sonia; Sotomayor, Nuria; Lete, Esther; Munteanu, Cristian R; Pazos, Alejandro; Besada-Porto, Lina; Ruso, Juan M

    2013-01-01

    Reducing costs in terms of time, animal sacrifice, and material resources with computational methods has become a promising goal in Medicinal, Biological, Physical and Organic Chemistry. There are many computational techniques that can be used in this sense. In any case, almost all these methods focus on few fundamental aspects including: type (1) methods to quantify the molecular structure, type (2) methods to link the structure with the biological activity, and others. In particular, MARCH-INSIDE (MI), acronym for Markov Chain Invariants for Networks Simulation and Design, is a well-known method for QSAR analysis useful in step (1). In addition, the bio-inspired Artificial-Intelligence (AI) algorithms called Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) are among the most powerful type (2) methods. We can combine MI with ANNs in order to seek QSAR models, a strategy which is called herein MIANN (MI & ANN models). One of the first applications of the MIANN strategy was in the development of new QSAR models for drug discovery. MIANN strategy has been expanded to the QSAR study of proteins, protein-drug interactions, and protein-protein interaction networks. In this paper, we review for the first time many interesting aspects of the MIANN strategy including theoretical basis, implementation in web servers, and examples of applications in Medicinal and Biological chemistry. We also report new applications of the MIANN strategy in Medicinal chemistry and the first examples in Physical and Organic Chemistry, as well. In so doing, we developed new MIANN models for several self-assembly physicochemical properties of surfactants and large reaction networks in organic synthesis. In some of the new examples we also present experimental results which were not published up to date.

  11. Design and Evaluation of a One-Semester General Chemistry Course for Undergraduate Life Science Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnoebelen, Carly; Towns, Marcy H.; Chmielewski, Jean; Hrycyna, Christine A.

    2018-01-01

    The chemistry curriculum for undergraduate life science majors at Purdue University has been transformed to better meet the needs of this student population and prepare them for future success. The curriculum, called the 1-2-1 curriculum, includes four consecutive and integrated semesters of instruction in general chemistry, organic chemistry, and…

  12. The Effects of Clickers and Online Homework on Students' Achievement in General Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebru, Misganaw T.

    2012-01-01

    Retention of an introductory general chemistry course material is vital for student success in future chemistry and chemistry-related courses. This study investigated the effects of clickers versus online homework on students' long-term content retention, examined the effectiveness of online homework versus no graded homework on…

  13. Development and Assessment of Green, Research-Based Instructional Materials for the General Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacciatore, Kristen L.

    2010-01-01

    This research entails integrating two novel approaches for enriching student learning in chemistry into the context of the general chemistry laboratory. The first is a pedagogical approach based on research in cognitive science and the second is the green chemistry philosophy. Research has shown that inquiry-based approaches are effective in…

  14. Radiation chemistry of heavy-particle tracks. I. General considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magee, J.L.; Chatterjee, A.

    1980-01-01

    The radiation chemistry of heavy-particle tracks in dilute aqueous solution is considered in a unified manner. Emphasis is on the physical and chemical phenomena which are involved rather than on the construction of models to be used in actual calculations although the latter problem is discussed. A differential segment of a heavy-particle track is composed of two parts which we call core and penumbra; elementary considerations show that all properties of such a differential track can be uniquely specified in terms of a two-parameter system, and we choose energy per nucleon (E) and atomic numbers (Z) as independent parameters. The nature of heavy-particle-track processes varies with the magnitude of the energy deposit (LET), and we discuss three categories of track problems, for low-, intermediate-, and high-LET cases, respectively. Scavenger reactions normally terminate radical recombination in a track, and for heavy-particle tracks we find a criterion involving the scavenger concentration for a convenient separation of core and penumbra into essentially noninteracting parts which can be treated independently. Problems of the core expansion in the three regions are considered, and it is found that a versatile model can be constructed on concepts previously introduced by Ganguly and Magee. A model for the penumbra, based on the authors' electron-track theory, is presented and discussed

  15. Gamification and Physics and Chemistry of Secondary Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe QUINTANAL PEREZ

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Research proposal was made during the 2014–2015 school year with 4th year’s students of Secondary Education who have chosen as optional the subject of Physics and Chemistry. This project is based on the use of various gamebased strategies applied to the subject of Physics and Chemistry. We have chosen this theme by the pedagogical benefits that games have on the attraction of students and the development of their motivation. Students have participated individually, in pairs and in teams. Games used have been “chemical formulas on the run”, “chemical formulas championship”, “wheel of Physics and Chemistry”, “the sunken treasure” and “challenge problems”. The students have also developed a game based on the theme of waves and several teams did using Scratch. Finally there has been an increase in the academic performance of the subject. This experience was a success according to the results of the evaluation by the students. They have highlighted chemical formulas championship, the sunken treasure and the development of the game based on waves. As conclusions are that gamifying is not limited to only use video games, it can be gamify with little technology, personal, social and intellectual skills are developed and the method employed can be extrapolated to other subjects and courses.

  16. Developing Technical Writing Skills in the Physical Chemistry Laboratory: A Progressive Approach Employing Peer Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gragson, Derek E.; Hagen, John P.

    2010-01-01

    Writing formal "journal-style" lab reports is often one of the requirements chemistry and biochemistry students encounter in the physical chemistry laboratory. Helping students improve their technical writing skills is the primary reason this type of writing is a requirement in the physical chemistry laboratory. Developing these skills is an…

  17. Introduction to Physics and Chemistry of Combustion Explosion, Flame, Detonation

    CERN Document Server

    Liberman, Michael A

    2008-01-01

    Most of the material covered in this book deals with the fundamentals of chemistry and physics of key processes and fundamental mechanisms for various combustion and combustion related phenomena in gaseous combustible mixture. It provides the reader with basic knowledge of burning processes and mechanisms of reaction wave propagation. The combustion of a gas mixture (flame, explosion, detonation) is necessarily accompanied by motion of the gas. The process of combustion is therefore not only a chemical phenomenon but also one of gas dynamics. The material selection focuses on the gas phase and

  18. Dynamic light scattering with applications to chemistry, biology, and physics

    CERN Document Server

    Berne, Bruce J

    2000-01-01

    Lasers play an increasingly important role in a variety of detection techniques, making inelastic light scattering a tool of growing value in the investigation of dynamic and structural problems in chemistry, biology, and physics. Until the initial publication of this work, however, no monograph treated the principles behind current developments in the field.This volume presents a comprehensive introduction to the principles underlying laser light scattering, focusing on the time dependence of fluctuations in fluid systems; it also serves as an introduction to the theory of time correlation f

  19. Building a Database for the Historical Analysis of the General Chemistry Curriculum Using ACS General Chemistry Exams as Artifacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luxford, Cynthia J.; Linenberger, Kimberly J.; Raker, Jeffrey R.; Baluyut, John Y.; Reed, Jessica J.; De Silva, Chamila; Holme, Thomas A.

    2015-01-01

    As a discipline, chemistry enjoys a unique position. While many academic areas prepared "cooperative examinations" in the 1930s, only chemistry maintained the activity within what has become the ACS Examinations Institute. As a result, the long-term existence of community-built, norm-referenced, standardized exams provides a historical…

  20. A Transition Program for Underprepared Students in General Chemistry: Diagnosis, Implementation, and Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Shawn P.; Hogrebe, Mark C.; Spees, William M.; Handlin, Larry B.; Noelken, Greg P.; Riley, Julie M.; Frey, Regina F.

    2012-01-01

    We developed an online exam to diagnose students who are underprepared for college-level general chemistry and implemented a program to support them during the general chemistry sequence. This transition program consists of extended-length recitations, peer-led team-learning (PLTL) study groups, and peer-mentoring groups. We evaluated this…

  1. Population-Based Pediatric Reference Intervals in General Clinical Chemistry: A Swedish Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridefelt, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Very few high quality studies on pediatric reference intervals for general clinical chemistry and hematology analytes have been performed. Three recent prospective community-based projects utilising blood samples from healthy children in Sweden, Denmark and Canada have substantially improved the situation. The Swedish survey included 701 healthy children. Reference intervals for general clinical chemistry and hematology were defined.

  2. Chemical Remediation of Nickel(II) Waste: A Laboratory Experiment for General Chemistry Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, K. Blake; Rood, Brian E.; Trogden, Bridget G.

    2011-01-01

    This project involved developing a method to remediate large quantities of aqueous waste from a general chemistry laboratory experiment. Aqueous Ni(II) waste from a general chemistry laboratory experiment was converted into solid nickel hydroxide hydrate with a substantial decrease in waste volume. The remediation method was developed for a…

  3. Workshop on Processing Physic-Chemistry Advanced – WPPCA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    In the present volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series we publish the proceedings of the “2nd Workshop on Processing Physic-Chemistry advanced (WPPCA)”, that was held from, April 4-8, 2016, at the Universidad Industrial de Santander (UIS), Bucaramanga, Colombia. The proceedings consist of 17 contributions that were presented as plenary talks at the event. The abstracts of all participants contributions were published in the Abstract Book with ISSN 2500-8420. The scientific program of the 2nd WPPCA consisted of 12 Magisterial Conferences, 28 Poster Presentations and 2 Courses with the participation of undergraduate and graduate students, professors, researchers and entrepreneurs from Colombia, Spain, Unite States of America, Mexico and Chile. Moreover, the 2nd WPPCA allowed to establish a shared culture of the research and innovation that enriches the area of the processing physical-chemistry of the materials and the industrial applications. All papers in these Proceedings refer to one from the following topics: Semiconductors, Superconductivity, Nanostructure Materials and Modelling, Simulation and Diagnostics. The editor hopes that those interested in the area of the science of materials can to enjoy this reading, that reflects a wide variety of current issues. On behalf of the organizing committee of the 2nd WPPCA, we are extremely thankful to all authors for providing their valuable contributions for these Proceedings as well as the reviewers for their constructive recommendations and criticism aiding to improve the presented articles. Besides, especially we appreciate the great support provided by the Sponsors and Partners. (paper)

  4. Stimulated Raman adiabatic passage in physics, chemistry, and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitanov, Nikolay V.; Rangelov, Andon A.; Shore, Bruce W.; Bergmann, Klaas

    2017-01-01

    The technique of stimulated Raman adiabatic passage (STIRAP), which allows efficient and selective population transfer between quantum states without suffering loss due to spontaneous emission, was introduced in 1990 by Gaubatz et al.. Since then STIRAP has emerged as an enabling methodology with widespread successful applications in many fields of physics, chemistry, and beyond. This article reviews the many applications of STIRAP emphasizing the developments since 2001, the time when the last major review on the topic was written (Vitanov, Fleischhauer et al.). A brief introduction into the theory of STIRAP and the early applications for population transfer within three-level systems is followed by the discussion of several extensions to multilevel systems, including multistate chains and tripod systems. The main emphasis is on the wide range of applications in atomic and molecular physics (including atom optics, cavity quantum electrodynamics, formation of ultracold molecules, etc.), quantum information (including single- and two-qubit gates, entangled-state preparation, etc.), solid-state physics (including processes in doped crystals, nitrogen-vacancy centers, superconducting circuits, semiconductor quantum dots and wells), and even some applications in classical physics (including waveguide optics, polarization optics, frequency conversion, etc.). Promising new prospects for STIRAP are also presented (including processes in optomechanics, precision experiments, detection of parity violation in molecules, spectroscopy of core-nonpenetrating Rydberg states, population transfer with x-ray pulses, etc.).

  5. About the laboratories of general physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso Medina, A.

    1996-01-01

    In this article it is analysed the role of the laboratory of general physics in the teaching of the discipline and establish the necessity to configurater it as an independent scope of the first cycle in order to get its specific objectives of teaching. (Author) 46 refs

  6. Bioceramics for Hip Joints: The Physical Chemistry Viewpoint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Pezzotti

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Which intrinsic biomaterial parameter governs and, if quantitatively monitored, could reveal to us the actual lifetime potential of advanced hip joint bearing materials? An answer to this crucial question is searched for in this paper, which identifies ceramic bearings as the most innovative biomaterials in hip arthroplasty. It is shown that, if in vivo exposures comparable to human lifetimes are actually searched for, then fundamental issues should lie in the physical chemistry aspects of biomaterial surfaces. Besides searching for improvements in the phenomenological response of biomaterials to engineering protocols, hip joint components should also be designed to satisfy precise stability requirements in the stoichiometric behavior of their surfaces when exposed to extreme chemical and micromechanical conditions. New spectroscopic protocols have enabled us to visualize surface stoichiometry at the molecular scale, which is shown to be the key for assessing bioceramics with elongated lifetimes with respect to the primitive alumina biomaterials used in the past.

  7. Overview. Department of Nuclear Physical Chemistry. Section 9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szeglowski, Z. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Cracow (Poland)

    1995-12-31

    In the papers presented bellow the activities of the Department of Nuclear Physical Chemistry in 1994 are presented. A further effort was made towards routine production of neutron-deficient isotopes for nuclear medicine - and namely {sup 67} Ga and {sup 139} Ce. Small activities of {sup 111} In were produced by the {alpha} bombardment of Ag target. In order to improve the {sup 111} In production the deuterons reaction with cadmium target was studied. The other field of the Department research is studying of the physicochemical properties of transactinoid elements (104,105, 106). The Department is also engaged in works of the National Network of Early Detection of Radioactive Contamination in Air. In this section, apart of the detail descriptions of mentioned activities, the information about personnel employed in the Department, papers and reports published in 1994, contribution to conferences and grants are also given.

  8. Introduction: the changing face of accelerator target physics and chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sunderland, J.J.

    1992-01-01

    The explosive growth of the small accelerator industry, an offshoot of the expansion of both clinical and research PET imaging, is driving a changing perspective in the field of accelerator targetry. To meet the new demands placed on targetry by the increasingly active and demanding PET institutions it has become necessary to design targets capable of producing large amounts of the four common positron-emitting radionuclides ( 15 O, 13 N, 11 C, 18 F) with unfailing reliability and simplicity. The economic clinical and research survival of PET absolutely relies upon these capabilities. In response to this perceived need, the lion's share of the effort in the field of target physics and chemistry is being directed toward the profuse production of these four common radioisotopes. (author)

  9. Overview. Department of Nuclear Physical Chemistry. Section 9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szeglowski, Z [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Cracow (Poland)

    1996-12-31

    In the papers presented bellow the activities of the Department of Nuclear Physical Chemistry in 1994 are presented. A further effort was made towards routine production of neutron-deficient isotopes for nuclear medicine - and namely {sup 67} Ga and {sup 139} Ce. Small activities of {sup 111} In were produced by the {alpha} bombardment of Ag target. In order to improve the {sup 111} In production the deuterons reaction with cadmium target was studied. The other field of the Department research is studying of the physicochemical properties of transactinoid elements (104,105, 106). The Department is also engaged in works of the National Network of Early Detection of Radioactive Contamination in Air. In this section, apart of the detail descriptions of mentioned activities, the information about personnel employed in the Department, papers and reports published in 1994, contribution to conferences and grants are also given.

  10. Physics and chemistry of plasma pollution control technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, J S

    2008-01-01

    Gaseous pollution control technologies for acid gases (NO x , SO x , etc), volatile organic compounds, greenhouse gases, ozone layer depleting substances, etc have been commercialized based on catalysis, incineration and adsorption methods. However, non-thermal plasma techniques based on electron beams and corona discharges are becoming significant due to advantages such as lower costs, higher removal efficiency and smaller space volume. In order to commercialize this new technology, the pollution gas removal rate, energy efficiency of removal, pressure drop of reactors and useable by-product production rates must be improved and identification of major fundamental processes and optimizations of reactor and power supply for an integrated system must be investigated. In this work, the chemistry and physics of plasma pollution control are discussed and the limitation of this type of plasma is outlined based on the plasma parameters.

  11. Physical Chemistry of Bile: Detailed Pathogenesis of Cholelithiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itani, Malak; Dubinsky, Theodore J

    2017-09-01

    Despite the overwhelming prevalence of cholelithiasis, many health care professionals are not familiar with the basic pathophysiology of gallstone formation. This article provides an overview of the biochemical pathways related to bile, with a focus on the physical chemistry of bile. We describe the important factors in bile synthesis and secretion that affect the composition of bile and consequently its liquid state. Within this biochemical background lies the foundation for understanding the clinical and sonographic manifestation of cholelithiasis, including the pathophysiology of cholesterol crystallization, gallbladder sludge, and gallstones. There is a brief discussion of the clinical manifestations of inflammatory and obstructive cholestasis and the impact on bile metabolism and subsequently on liver function tests. Despite being the key modality in diagnosing cholelithiasis, ultrasound has a limited role in the characterization of stone composition.

  12. The Logical and Psychological Structure of Physical Chemistry and Its Relevance to the Organization/Sequencing of the Major Areas Covered in Physical Chemistry Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsaparlis, Georgios

    2014-01-01

    Jensen's scheme for the logical structure of chemistry is taken as reference to study the logical structure of physical chemistry. The scheme distinguishes three dimensions (composition and structure, energy, and time), with each dimension treated at one of the three levels (molar, molecular, and electrical). Such a structure places the outer…

  13. Fostering Spatial Skill Acquisition by General Chemistry Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlisle, Deborah; Tyson, Julian; Nieswandt, Martina

    2015-01-01

    The study of chemistry requires the understanding and use of spatial relationships, which can be challenging for many students. Prior research has shown that there is a need to develop students' spatial reasoning skills. To that end, this study implemented guided activities designed to strengthen students' spatial skills, with the aim of improving…

  14. Exploring Dominant Types of Explanations Built by General Chemistry Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talanquer, Vicente

    2010-01-01

    The central goal of our study was to explore the nature of the explanations generated by science and engineering majors with basic training in chemistry to account for the colligative properties of solutions. The work was motivated by our broader interest in the characterisation of the dominant types of explanations that science college students…

  15. Characteristics of the General Physics student population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Gary L.

    2006-12-01

    Are pre-medical students different than the other students in a General physics class? They often appear to be different, based on how often they seek help from the instructor or how nervous they are about 2 points on a lab report. But are these students different in a measurable characteristic? The purpose of this study is to better understand the characteristics of the students in the introductory physics classes. This is the first step toward improving the instruction. By better understanding the students the classroom, the organization and pedagogy can be adjusted to optimize student learning. The characteristics to be investigated during this study are: · student epistemological structure, · student attitudes, · science course preparation prior to this course, · study techniques used, · physics concepts gained during the class · performance in the class. The data will be analyzed to investigate differences between groups. The groups investigated will be major, gender, and traditional/nontraditional students.

  16. Student Conceptions about Energy Transformations: Progression from General Chemistry to Biochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfson, Adele J.; Rowland, Susan L.; Lawrie, Gwendolyn A.; Wright, Anthony H.

    2014-01-01

    Students commencing studies in biochemistry must transfer and build on concepts they learned in chemistry and biology classes. It is well established, however, that students have difficulties in transferring critical concepts from general chemistry courses; one key concept is "energy." Most previous work on students' conception of energy…

  17. Atoms-First Curriculum: A Comparison of Student Success in General Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esterling, Kevin M.; Bartels, Ludwig

    2013-01-01

    We present an evaluation of the impact of an atoms-first curriculum on student success in introductory chemistry classes and find that initially a lower fraction of students obtain passing grades in the first and second quarters of the general chemistry series. This effect is more than reversed for first-quarter students after one year of…

  18. Applying the Multilevel Framework of Discourse Comprehension to Evaluate the Text Characteristics of General Chemistry Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyburn, Daniel T.; Pazicni, Samuel

    2014-01-01

    Prior chemistry education research has demonstrated a relationship between student reading skill and general chemistry course performance. In addition to student characteristics, however, the qualities of the learning materials with which students interact also impact student learning. For example, low-knowledge students benefit from texts that…

  19. Preparation for College General Chemistry: More than Just a Matter of Content Knowledge Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cracolice, Mark S.; Busby, Brittany D.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the potential of five factors that may be predictive of success in college general chemistry courses: prior knowledge of common alternate conceptions, intelligence, scientific reasoning ability, proportional reasoning ability, and attitude toward chemistry. We found that both prior knowledge and scientific reasoning ability…

  20. Improving General Chemistry Course Performance through Online Homework-Based Metacognitive Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casselman, Brock L.; Atwood, Charles H.

    2017-01-01

    In a first-semester general chemistry course, metacognitive training was implemented as part of an online homework system. Students completed weekly quizzes and multiple practice tests to regularly assess their abilities on the chemistry principles. Before taking these assessments, students predicted their score, receiving feedback after…

  1. Past, Present and Future of General Chemistry in the PUC-Rio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farias, Percio A. M.; Goulart, Mauricio S.; de Mello, Paulo Correa

    This manuscript describes the role of chemistry as a vehicle for understanding many other basic sciences and engineering based on the experience acquired in the General Chemistry course at the "Center Technical-Scientific" at the Pontific Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro (CTC-PUC-Rio). A description of the history of the General…

  2. Examining the Effects of Reflective Journals on Pre-Service Science Teachers' General Chemistry Laboratory Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cengiz, Canan; Karatas, Faik Özgür

    2015-01-01

    The general chemistry laboratory is an appropriate place for learning chemistry well. It is also effective for stimulating higher-order thinking skills, including reflective thinking, a skill that is crucial for science teaching as well as learning. This study aims to examine the effects of feedback-supported reflective journal-keeping activities…

  3. Handbook on the physics and chemistry of rare earths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gschneidner, K.A. Jr.; Eyring, L.

    1982-01-01

    This handbook is a six-volume work which covers the entire rare earth field in an integrated manner. Each chapter is a comprehensive, up-to-date, critical review of a particular segment of the field. The first volume is devoted to the rare earth metals, the second to rare earth alloys and intermetallics, and the third and fourth volumes to the non-metallic rare earth materials, including solutions, complexes and bioinorganic substances, in addition to solid inorganic compounds. The electronic structure of these unique elements is the primary basis of understanding their physical, metallurgical and chemical natures. The interrelationship of the 4f and valence electrons and the observed optical, electrical, magnetic, crystallographic, elastic, thermal, mechanical, chemical, geochemical and biological behaviors is brought forth time and again throughout the chapters. Also discussed are the preparative, separation and solution chemistry of the elements and their compounds and the various chemical and physical analytical methods for determining the rare earths in various materials and impurities in a rare earth matrix. Vol. 5 is a update complement of the previous volumes. Volume 6 is concerned with ternary and higher order materials. (Auth.)

  4. Topological data analysis: A promising big data exploration tool in biology, analytical chemistry and physical chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offroy, Marc; Duponchel, Ludovic

    2016-03-03

    An important feature of experimental science is that data of various kinds is being produced at an unprecedented rate. This is mainly due to the development of new instrumental concepts and experimental methodologies. It is also clear that the nature of acquired data is significantly different. Indeed in every areas of science, data take the form of always bigger tables, where all but a few of the columns (i.e. variables) turn out to be irrelevant to the questions of interest, and further that we do not necessary know which coordinates are the interesting ones. Big data in our lab of biology, analytical chemistry or physical chemistry is a future that might be closer than any of us suppose. It is in this sense that new tools have to be developed in order to explore and valorize such data sets. Topological data analysis (TDA) is one of these. It was developed recently by topologists who discovered that topological concept could be useful for data analysis. The main objective of this paper is to answer the question why topology is well suited for the analysis of big data set in many areas and even more efficient than conventional data analysis methods. Raman analysis of single bacteria should be providing a good opportunity to demonstrate the potential of TDA for the exploration of various spectroscopic data sets considering different experimental conditions (with high noise level, with/without spectral preprocessing, with wavelength shift, with different spectral resolution, with missing data). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Chemistry for DUMMIES: how to popularize and introduce chemistry to the general public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montangero, Marc

    2012-01-01

    To mark the occasion of the International Year of Chemistry, each week in 2011 I posted a two-minute film demonstrating and explaining a simple and safe experiment to be carried out at home using everyday household products on the site www.chimie.ch/nuls.

  6. Measuring Meaningful Learning in the Undergraduate General Chemistry and Organic Chemistry Laboratories: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, Kelli R.; Bretz, Stacey Lowery

    2015-01-01

    Understanding how students learn in the undergraduate chemistry teaching laboratory is an essential component to developing evidence-based laboratory curricula. The Meaningful Learning in the Laboratory Instrument (MLLI) was developed to measure students' cognitive and affective expectations and experiences for learning in the chemistry…

  7. Guided-Inquiry Experiments for Physical Chemistry: The POGIL-PCL Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunnicutt, Sally S.; Grushow, Alexander; Whitnell, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The POGIL-PCL project implements the principles of process-oriented, guided-inquiry learning (POGIL) in order to improve student learning in the physical chemistry laboratory (PCL) course. The inquiry-based physical chemistry experiments being developed emphasize modeling of chemical phenomena. In each experiment, students work through at least…

  8. 8. International Conference on Pulse Investigations in Chemistry, Biology and Physics - PULS'2008. Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The Report comprises abstracts of 68 communications (oral and posters) presented during the 8. International Conference on Pulse Investigations in Chemistry, Biology and Physics - PULS'2008, held on September 6 - 12, 2008 in Cracow. Presentations cover a variety of research fields representing different fields of pulse radiolysis in chemistry, biology and physics

  9. 8. International Conference on Pulse Investigations in Chemistry, Biology and Physics - PULS'2008. Abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    The Report comprises abstracts of 68 communications (oral and posters) presented during the 8. International Conference on Pulse Investigations in Chemistry, Biology and Physics - PULS'2008, held on September 6 - 12, 2008 in Cracow. Presentations cover a variety of research fields representing different fields of pulse radiolysis in chemistry, biology and physics.

  10. Imidazole as a pH Probe: An NMR Experiment for the General Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagan, William J., Jr.; Edie, Dennis L.; Cooley, Linda B.

    2007-01-01

    The analysis describes an NMR experiment for the general chemistry laboratory, which employs an unknown imidazole solution to measure the pH values. The described mechanism can also be used for measuring the acidity within the isolated cells.

  11. Suggestions for Modifications in the Teaching of General Chemistry to Accommodate Learning Disabled Students: Alternative Techniques for Teaching General Chemistry to Learning Disabled Students in the University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, H. S.

    A professor involved with the HELDS project (Higher Education for Learning Disabled Students) describes modifications in a general chemistry course. A syllabus lists program objectives for eight text chapters, evaluation components, and course rules. Two units are described in detail, with information presented on modifications made for LD…

  12. Students' Energy Understanding Across Biology, Chemistry, and Physics Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opitz, S. T.; Neumann, K.; Bernholt, S.; Harms, U.

    2017-07-01

    Energy is considered both as a disciplinary core idea and as a concept cutting across science disciplines. Most previous approaches studied progressing energy understanding in specific disciplinary contexts, while disregarding the relation of understanding across them. Hence, this study provides a systematic analysis of cross-disciplinary energy learning. On the basis of a cross-sectional study with n = 742 students from grades 6, 8, and 10, we analyze students' progression in understanding energy across biology, chemistry, and physics contexts. The study is guided by three hypothetical scenarios that describe how the connection between energy understanding in the three disciplinary contexts changes across grade levels. These scenarios are compared using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). The results suggest that, from grade 6 to grade 10, energy understanding in the three disciplinary contexts is highly interrelated, thus indicating a parallel progression of energy understanding in the three disciplinary contexts. In our study, students from grade 6 onwards appeared to have few problems to apply one energy understanding across the three disciplinary contexts. These findings were unexpected, as previous research concluded that students likely face difficulties in connecting energy learning across disciplinary boundaries. Potential reasons for these results and the characteristics of the observed cross-disciplinary energy understanding are discussed in the light of earlier findings and implications for future research, and the teaching of energy as a core idea and a crosscutting concept are addressed.

  13. Physical chemistry of Nanogap-Enhanced Raman Scattering (NERS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Yung Doug; Kim, Hyun Woo

    2017-08-01

    Plasmonically coupled electromagnetic field localization has generated a variety of new concepts and applications, and this has been one of the hottest topics in nanoscience, materials science, chemistry, physics and engineering and increasingly more important over the last decade. In particular, plasmonically coupled nanostructures with ultra-small gap ( 1-nm or smaller) gap have been of special interest due to their ultra-strong optical properties that can be useful for a variety of signal enhancements such surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) and nanoantenna. These promising nanostructures with extraordinarily strong optical signal, however, have rendered a limited success in widespread use and commercialization largely due to the lack of designing principles, high-yield synthetic strategies with nm-level structural controllability and reproducibility and lack of systematic single-molecule and single-particle level studies. All these are extremely important challenges because even small changes ( 1 nm) of the coupled nanogap structures can significant affect plasmon mode and signal intensity and therefore structural and signal reproducibility and controllability can be in question. The plasmonic nanogap-enhanced Raman scattering (NERS) is defined as the plasmonic nanogap-based Raman signal enhancement within plasmonic nanogap particles with 1 nm gap and a Raman dye positioned inside the gap.

  14. Quantum physics reimagined for the general public

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobroff, Julien

    2015-03-01

    Quantum Physics has always been a challenging issue for outreach. It is invisible, non-intuitive and written in sophisticated mathematics. In our ``Physics Reimagined'' research group, we explore new ways to present that field to the general public. Our approach is to develop close collaborations between physicists and designers or graphic artists. By developing this new kind of dialogue, we seek to find new ways to present complex phenomena and recent research topics to the public at large. For example, we created with web-illustrators a series of 3D animations about basic quantum laws and research topics (graphene, Bose-Einstein condensation, decoherence, pump-probe techniques, ARPES...). We collaborated with designers to develop original setups, from quantum wave animated models or foldings to a superconducting circus with levitating animals. With illustrators, we produced exhibits, comic strips or postcards displaying the physicists in their labs, either famous ones or even our own colleagues in their daily life as researchers. With artists, we recently made a stop-motion picture to explain in an esthetic way the process of discovery and scientific publication. We will discuss how these new types of outreach projects allowed us to engage the public with modern physics both on a scientific and cultural level and how the concepts and process can easily be replicated and expanded by other physicists. We are at the precise time when creative tools, interfaces, and ways of sharing and learning are rapidly evolving (wikipedia, MOOCs, smartphones...). If scientists don't step forward to employ these tools and develop new resources, other people will, and the integrity of the science and underlying character of research risks being compromised. All our productions are free to use and can be downloaded at www.PhysicsReimagined.com (for 3D quantum videos, specific link: www.QuantumMadeSimple.com) This work benefited from the support of the Chair ``Physics Reimagined

  15. A study of how precursor key concepts for organic chemistry success are understood by general chemistry students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Patrick Gerard

    This study examines college student understanding of key concepts that will support future organic chemistry success as determined by university instructors. During four one-hour individual interviews the sixteen subjects attempted to solve general chemistry problems. A think-aloud protocol was used along with a whiteboard where the students could draw and illustrate their ideas. The protocols for the interviews were adapted from the Covalent Structure and Bonding two-tiered multiple choice diagnostic instrument (Peterson, Treagust, & Garnett, 1989) and augmented by the Geometry and Polarity of Molecules single-tiered multiple choice instrument (Furio & Calatayud, 1996). The interviews were videotaped, transcribed, and coded for analysis to determine the subjects' understanding of the key ideas. The subjects displayed many misconceptions that were summarized into nine assertions about student conceptualization of chemistry. (1) Many students misunderstand the location and nature of intermolecular forces. (2) Some think electronegativity differences among atoms in a molecule are sufficient to make the molecule polar, regardless of spatial arrangement. (3) Most know that higher phase change temperatures imply stronger intermolecular attractions, but many do not understand the difference between covalent molecular and covalent network substances. (4) Many have difficulty deciding whether a molecule is polar or non-polar, often confusing bilateral symmetry with spatial symmetry in all three dimensions. (5) Many cannot reliably draw correct Lewis structures due to carelessness and overuse of flawed algorithms. (6) Many are confused by how electrons can both repel one other and facilitate bonding between atoms via orbitals---this seems oxymoronic to them. (7) Many cannot explain why the atoms of certain elements do not follow the octet rule and some believe the octet rule alone can determine the shape of a molecule. (8) Most do know that electronegativity and polarity

  16. Simulation of General Physics laboratory exercise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aceituno, P; Hernández-Cabrera, A; Hernández-Aceituno, J

    2015-01-01

    Laboratory exercises are an important part of general Physics teaching, both during the last years of high school and the first year of college education. Due to the need to acquire enough laboratory equipment for all the students, and the widespread access to computers rooms in teaching, we propose the development of computer simulated laboratory exercises. A representative exercise in general Physics is the calculation of the gravity acceleration value, through the free fall motion of a metal ball. Using a model of the real exercise, we have developed an interactive system which allows students to alter the starting height of the ball to obtain different fall times. The simulation was programmed in ActionScript 3, so that it can be freely executed in any operative system; to ensure the accuracy of the calculations, all the input parameters of the simulations were modelled using digital measurement units, and to allow a statistical management of the resulting data, measurement errors are simulated through limited randomization

  17. The integration of the contents of the subject Physics-Chemistry (I in Biology-Chemistry specialty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sc. Luis AZCUY LORENZ

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This work is the result of a research task developed in the Natural Sciences Education Department during 2013-2014 academic year, and it emerged from the necessity of solving some insufficiencies in the use of the real potentialities offered by the content of the subject Physics-Chemistry (I, that is part of the curriculum of the Biology-Chemistry career. Its main objective is to offer a set of exercises to contribute to achieve the integration of contents from the subject Physics-chemistry (I in the mentioned career at «Ignacio Agramonte Loynaz» University of Camaguey. The exercises proposed are characterized for being related to the real practice and to other subjects of the career. Their implementation through review lessons, partial tests and final evaluations during the formative experiment made possible a better academic result in the learners overall performance.

  18. The general physics theory for 21 century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gassym, T. M.

    2006-01-01

    By solving the coupled system of kinetic equations for interacting system of electrons positrons (holes) and photons (phonons) at high external electric, arbitrary magnetic and at the propagation of strong electromagnetic waves non-equilibrium and non-stationary distribution function of photons (phonons) and charge carriers by taking into account of arbitrary heating and mutual drag of carriers and photons (phonons) was found. Author was sure that received him in 1976 distribution function of photons (phonons) must lay on the basis of Theoretical Physics of 21 Century, as the equilibrium Planck's distribution function of black-body radiation received in 1900 lied on the basis of Quantum Physics of 20 Century. Authors many years mental work (from 1976 till today) confirmed the rightness of searched him way and leads to the conclusion that Kinetic Theory is more general and fundamental theory of nature, which unificated Non-stationary Dynamics (the left-hand side) with Non-stationary Statistical Mechanics (the right-hand side) of Kinetic Equation. It is shown that other sections of Theoretical Physics such as Newtonian, Hamiltonian and Relativistic Classical Mechanics, Quantum Physics, Optics, Statistical Mechanics and Thermodynamics, Particle Physics may be received from Kinetic Theory under the special conditions and are the special parts of this theory. The problems such as the irreversibility and instability, the paradox of time, quantum paradox and others are solved. This new General Theory explains all the problems and troubles contents with the foundations and interpretation of quantum mechanics and relativity. It was found the mechanism of quantization and transition from one energetic level to another,the squeezed effect, the transition of particles wave-packets through the energetic barriers. It is shown the possibility of superluminal motion of light pulses and wave-packets through the medium and photonic barriers. It is well known that the experiments

  19. Inquiry-based course in physics and chemistry for preservice K-8 teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael E. Loverude

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available We describe an inquiry-based course in physics and chemistry for preservice K-8 teachers developed at California State University Fullerton. The course is one of three developed primarily to enhance the science content understanding of prospective teachers. The course incorporates a number of innovative instructional strategies and is somewhat unusual for its interdisciplinary focus. We describe the course structure in detail, providing examples of course materials and assessment strategies. Finally, we provide research data illustrating both the need for the course and the effectiveness of the course in developing student understanding of selected topics. Student responses to various questions reflect a lack of understanding of many relatively simple physical science concepts, and a level of performance that is usually lower than that in comparable courses serving a general education audience. Additional data suggest that course activities improve student understanding of selected topics, often dramatically.

  20. A general approach for monodisperse colloidal perovskites, Chemistry of Materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demirors, A.F.; Imhof, A.

    2009-01-01

    We describe a novel general method for synthesizing monodisperse colloidal perovskite particles at room temperature by postsynthesis addition of metal hydroxides to amorphous titania colloids. In previous work, we used titania particles to synthesize homogenously mixed silica-titania composite

  1. Designing an undergraduate laboratory course in general chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vianna José F.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available From an analysis of a learning model based on the theory of information processing four hypothesis were developed for improving the design of laboratory courses. Three of these hypotheses concerned specific procedures to minimise the load on students' working memories (or working spaces and the fourth hypothesis was concerned with the value of mini-projects in enhancing meaningful learning of the knowledge and skills underpinning the set experiments. A three-year study of a first year undergraduate chemistry laboratory course at a Scottish university has been carried out to test these four hypotheses. This paper reports the results of the study relevant to the three hypotheses about the burden on students' working spaces. It was predicted from the learning model that the load on students working space should be reduced by appropriate changes to the written instructions and the laboratory organisation and by the introduction of prelab-work and prelab-training in laboratory techniques. It was concluded from research conducted over the three years period that all these hypothesised changes were effective both in reducing the load on students' working spaces and in improving their attitudes to the laboratory course.

  2. Biomaterials — where biology, physics, chemistry, engineering and medicine meet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hing, K. A.

    2008-03-01

    The success or failure of an implant material in the body depends on a complex interaction between a synthetic 'foreign body' and the 'host tissue'. These interactions occur at many levels from the sub-microscopic level, where subtle changes in the surface physio-chemistry can substantially alter the nature of the biomaterial-host tissue interface, through the microscopical level (e.g. sensitivity to surface topography) to the macrostructural level (e.g. dependence on scaffold porosity). Thus the factors that control these responses are not only biologically determined but also mechanically, physically and chemically mediated, although identifying where one starts and the other finishes can be difficult. Design of a successful medical device has therefore to call on expertise within a wide range of disciplines. In terms of both investigating the basic science behind the factors which orchestrate a biological response and developing research tools that enable study of these responses. However, a medical device must also meet the economic and practical demands of health care professionals who will ultimately be using it in the clinic. Bone graft substitute materials are used in orthopaedics as an alternative or adjunct to autografting, a practice where the patient 'donates' bone from a healthy site to aid bone repair at a damaged or diseased site. These materials are used in a wide range of procedures from total hip revision to spinal fusion and their evolution over the last 10 years illustrates how an interdisciplinary approach has benefited their development and may lead to further innovation in the future.

  3. General accelerator physics. Proceedings. Vol. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryant, P.; Turner, S.

    1985-01-01

    This course on accelerator physics is the first in a series of two, which is planned by the CERN Accelerator School. Starting at the level of a science graduate, this course covers mainly linear theory. The topics include: transverse and longitudinal beam dynamics, insertions, coupling, transition, dynamics of radiating particles, space-charge forces, neutralization, beam profiles, luminosity calculations in colliders, longitudinal phase-space stacking, phase-displacement acceleration, transfer lines, injection and extraction. Some more advanced topics are also introduced: coherent instabilities in coasting beams, general collective phenomena, quantum lifetime, and intra-beam scattering. The seminar programme is based on two themes: firstly, the sub-systems of an accelerator and, secondly, the uses to which accelerators are put. (orig.)

  4. The Influence of Modern Instrumentation on the Analytical and General Chemistry Curriculum at Bates College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenzel, Thomas J.

    2001-09-01

    The availability of state-of-the-art instruments such as high performance liquid chromatograph, gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer, inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometer, capillary electrophoresis system, and ion chromatograph obtained through four Instructional Laboratory Improvement and one Course, Curriculum, and Laboratory Improvement grants from the National Science Foundation has led to a profound change in the structure of the analytical and general chemistry courses at Bates College. Students in both sets of courses now undertake ambitious, semester-long, small-group projects. The general chemistry course, which fulfills the prerequisite requirement for all upper-level chemistry courses, focuses on the connection between chemistry and the study of the environment. The projects provide students with an opportunity to conduct a real scientific investigation. The projects emphasize problem solving, team work, and communication, while still fostering the development of important laboratory skills. Cooperative learning is also used extensively in the classroom portion of these courses.

  5. Fusing a Reversed and Informal Learning Scheme and Space: Student Perceptions of Active Learning in Physical Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Julie; Hernández, Florencio E.

    2018-01-01

    Physical chemistry students often have negative perceptions and low expectations for success in physical chemistry, attitudes that likely affect their performance in the course. Despite the results of several studies indicating increased positive perception of physical chemistry when active learning strategies are used, a recent survey of faculty…

  6. Chemistry and physics of fogwater collection. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaeschke, W.; Enderle, K.H. (eds.)

    1988-01-01

    Increasing interest in the problems of air pollution and source receptor relationships has led to a significant expansion of knowledge in the field of atmospheric chemistry. In recent years the multiphase atmospheric chemistry was given great scholarly attention, and slogans like acid precipitation, dirty cloud or killer fog indicated these phenomena. The report describes results of collection and chemical analysis of fog water with emphasis or fog microphysics, of the heterogeneous atmospheric chemistry project in the Po-valley, of the development of the Great Dun Fell project, of the mountain cloud chemistry project in eastern U.S., of the design of fog water collectors and of the numerical study of the radiation fog event on October 10/11, 1982 in Albany, N.Y.

  7. Phase Equilibrium, Chemical Equilibrium, and a Test of the Third Law: Experiments for Physical Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dannhauser, Walter

    1980-01-01

    Described is an experiment designed to provide an experimental basis for a unifying point of view (utilizing theoretical framework and chemistry laboratory experiments) for physical chemistry students. Three experiments are described: phase equilibrium, chemical equilibrium, and a test of the third law of thermodynamics. (Author/DS)

  8. Investigations of nitrogen oxide plasmas: Fundamental chemistry and surface reactivity and monitoring student perceptions in a general chemistry recitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blechle, Joshua M.

    unparalleled insight into the chemistry of these plasma systems. Part II of this work is focused on understanding the efficacy of a general chemistry recitation program. Such programs can be an valuable tool for improving students' problem solving skills and understanding using methods that are difficult to implement in large lecture settings. Here, general chemistry students at Colorado State University participated in a variety of recitation activities throughout the first semester of a 2-semester general chemistry sequence, including peer-led exercises, games, and scaffolded worksheets. Through weekly surveys, students were asked to evaluate and assess recitation activities for both interest and effectiveness as part of their course homework. Also included in these survey assignments were content questions relevant to the weekly themes, providing a measure of student learning of recitation topics. Student opinions were correlated with content retention, and these data were compared against student responses to a pre-survey administered before the first recitation session. This analysis allows for monitoring students' expectations of recitation courses and how well those expectations are met through the various types of activities employed. Ultimately, this work has found that students have positive feeling with respect to individual assignments, but that perspectives on chemistry and the course in general decrease dramatically from the beginning to the end of the semester. Thus, this work can serve as a significant starting points for future efforts to monitor and record student perceptions in the general chemistry recitation classroom, leading to further investigation into the source of changing attitudes and the role that week-to-week activities have on global course attitudes.

  9. General Procedure for the Easy Calculation of pH in an Introductory Course of General or Analytical Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cepriá, Gemma; Salvatella, Luis

    2014-01-01

    All pH calculations for simple acid-base systems used in introductory courses on general or analytical chemistry can be carried out by using a general procedure requiring the use of predominance diagrams. In particular, the pH is calculated as the sum of an independent term equaling the average pK[subscript a] values of the acids involved in the…

  10. Radiological and Environmental Research Division annual report, October 1979-September 1980: fundamental molecular physics and chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-09-01

    Research is reported on the physics and chemistry of atoms, ions, and molecules, especially their interactions with external agents such as photons and electrons. Individual items from the report were prepared separately for the data base

  11. Quantum Chemistry; A concise introduction for students of physics, chemistry, biochemistry and materials science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakkar, Ajit J.

    2017-09-01

    This book provides non-specialists with a basic understanding of the underlying concepts of quantum chemistry. It is both a text for second- or third-year undergraduates and a reference for researchers who need a quick introduction or refresher. All chemists and many biochemists, materials scientists, engineers, and physicists routinely use spectroscopic measurements and electronic structure computations in their work. The emphasis of Quantum Chemistry on explaining ideas rather than enumerating facts or presenting procedural details makes this an excellent foundation text/reference.

  12. Illustrating Concepts in Physical Organic Chemistry with 3D Printed Orbitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Michael J.; Jorgensen, William L.

    2015-01-01

    Orbital theory provides a powerful tool for rationalizing and understanding many phenomena in chemistry. In most introductory chemistry courses, students are introduced to atomic and molecular orbitals in the form of two-dimensional drawings. In this work, we describe a general method for producing 3D printing files of orbital models that can be…

  13. Challenging Gifted Learners: General Principles for Science Educators; and Exemplification in the Context of Teaching Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taber, Keith S.

    2010-01-01

    There is concern in some counties about the number of able young people entering degree level study and careers in physical science, including chemistry. Too few of the most talented young people are selecting "STEM" subjects to ensure the future supply of scientists, engineers and related professionals. The present paper sets out general…

  14. Students' confidence in the ability to transfer basic math skills in introductory physics and chemistry courses at a community college

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Reginald

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the confidence levels that community college students have in transferring basic math skills to science classes, as well as any factors that influence their confidence levels. This study was conducted with 196 students at a community college in central Mississippi. The study was conducted during the month of November after all of the students had taken their midterm exams and received midterm grades. The instrument used in this survey was developed and validated by the researcher. The instrument asks the students to rate how confident they were in working out specific math problems and how confident they were in working problems using those specific math skills in physics and chemistry. The instrument also provided an example problem for every confidence item. Results revealed that students' demographics were significant predictors in confidence scores. Students in the 18-22 year old range were less confident in solving math problems than others. Students who had retaken a math course were less confident than those who had not. Chemistry students were less confident in solving math problems than those in physics courses. Chemistry II students were less confident than those in Chemistry I and Principals of Chemistry. Students were least confident in solving problems involving logarithms and the most confident in solving algebra problems. In general, students felt that their math courses did not prepare them for the math problems encountered in science courses. There was no significant difference in confidence between students who had completed their math homework online and those who had completed their homework on paper. The researcher recommends that chemistry educators find ways of incorporating more mathematics in their courses especially logarithms and slope. Furthermore, math educators should incorporate more chemistry related applications to math class. Results of hypotheses testing, conclusions, discussions, and

  15. Jahn-Teller effect fundamentals and implications for physics and chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Koppel, Horst; Barentzen, Heinz

    2009-01-01

    The Jahn-Teller effect continues to be a paradigm for structural instabilities and dynamical processes in molecules and in the condensed phase. While the basic theorem, first published in 1937, had to await experimental verification for 15 years, the intervening years have seen rapid development, initially in the theoretical arena, followed increasingly by experimental work on molecules and crystals. Among the many important developments in the field we mention cooperative phenomena in crystals, the general importance of pseudo-Jahn-Teller couplings for symmetry-lowering phenomena in molecular systems, nonadiabatic processes at conical intersections of potential energy surfaces and extensions of the basic theory in relation to the discovery of fullerenes and other icosahedral systems. The aim of the present volume is to provide a survey of the state-of-the art in Jahn-Teller interactions at the interface of quantum chemistry and condensed matter physics.

  16. The physical chemistry and materials science behind sinter-resistant catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Yunqian; Lu, Ping; Cao, Zhenming; Campbell, Charles T; Xia, Younan

    2018-06-18

    Catalyst sintering, a main cause of the loss of catalytic activity and/or selectivity at high reaction temperatures, is a major concern and grand challenge in the general area of heterogeneous catalysis. Although all heterogeneous catalysts are inevitably subjected to sintering during their operation, the immediate and drastic consequences can be mitigated by carefully engineering the catalytic particles and their interactions with the supports. In this tutorial review, we highlight recent progress in understanding the physical chemistry and materials science involved in sintering, including the discussion of advanced techniques, such as in situ microscopy and spectroscopy, for investigating the sintering process and its rate. We also discuss strategies for the design and rational fabrication of sinter-resistant catalysts. Finally, we showcase recent success in improving the thermal stability and thus sinter resistance of supported catalytic systems.

  17. A General Chemistry and Precalculus First-Year Interest Group (FIG): Effect on Retention, Skills, and Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pence, Laura E.; Workman, Harry J.; Haruta, Mako E.

    2005-01-01

    The backdrop of the calculus reform movement created a fertile movement for the creation of overlap between general chemistry and precalculus as many of the goals emphasized key concepts from the chemistry lab. By using the graphing calculator in both precalculus and chemistry laboratory enhanced the students' comfort and competence with the…

  18. Development, Implementation, and Assessment of General Chemistry Lab Experiments Performed in the Virtual World of Second Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkelmann, Kurt; Keeney-Kennicutt, Wendy; Fowler, Debra; Macik, Maria

    2017-01-01

    Virtual worlds are a potential medium for teaching college-level chemistry laboratory courses. To determine the feasibility of conducting chemistry experiments in such an environment, undergraduate students performed two experiments in the immersive virtual world of Second Life (SL) as part of their regular General Chemistry 2 laboratory course.…

  19. What We Don't Test: What an Analysis of Unreleased ACS Exam Items Reveals about Content Coverage in General Chemistry Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Jessica J.; Villafan~e, Sachel M.; Raker, Jeffrey R.; Holme, Thomas A.; Murphy, Kristen L.

    2017-01-01

    General chemistry courses are often the foundation for the study of other science disciplines and upper-level chemistry concepts. Students who take introductory chemistry courses are more often from health and science-related fields than chemistry. As such, the content taught and assessed in general chemistry courses is envisioned as building…

  20. Introducing Scientific Literature to Honors General Chemistry Students: Teaching Information Literacy and the Nature of Research to First-Year Chemistry Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer-Vinent, Ignacio J.; Bruehl, Margaret; Pan, Denise; Jones, Galin L.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the methodology and implementation of a case study introducing the scientific literature and creative experiment design to honors general chemistry laboratory students. The purpose of this study is to determine whether first-year chemistry students can develop information literacy skills while they engage with the primary…

  1. Effects of Implementing a Hybrid Wet Lab and Online Module Lab Curriculum into a General Chemistry Course: Impacts on Student Performance and Engagement with the Chemistry Triplet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irby, Stefan M.; Borda, Emily J.; Haupt, Justin

    2018-01-01

    Here, we describe the implementation a hybrid general chemistry teaching laboratory curriculum that replaces a portion of a course's traditional "wet lab" experiences with online virtual lab modules. These modules intentionally utilize representations on all three levels of the chemistry triplet-macroscopic, submicroscopic, and symbolic.…

  2. Physical chemistry of the interface between oxide and aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jolivet, J.P.

    1997-01-01

    The behavior and properties of small oxide particles in aqueous suspension are dominated by the physico-chemistry of their surface. It is electrostatically charged and strongly solvated. The origin of the surface charge is discussed through the MUSIC model [Hiemstra 1996], allowing to estimate the acid-base behavior of surface oxygen atoms. The stability of aqueous dispersions of particles is analysed following the DLVO model, with a special attention on the hydration layers allowing the peptization of flocs. Different adsorption mechanisms of metal cations are presented in terms of coordination chemistry (outer- and inner-sphere complexes) emphasizing the coordinating ability of the surface towards metal complexes in solution. The anion adsorption is also studied in relation with some interesting consequences on spinel iron oxide nano-particles. (author)

  3. Results of an interactively coupled atmospheric chemistrygeneral circulation model: Comparison with observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Hein

    Full Text Available The coupled climate-chemistry model ECHAM4.L39(DLR/CHEM is presented which enables a simultaneous treatment of meteorology and atmospheric chemistry and their feedbacks. This is the first model which interactively combines a general circulation model with a chemical model, employing most of the important reactions and species necessary to describe the stratospheric and upper tropospheric ozone chemistry, and which is computationally fast enough to allow long-term integrations with currently available computer resources. This is possible as the model time-step used for the chemistry can be chosen as large as the integration time-step for the dynamics. Vertically the atmosphere is discretized by 39 levels from the surface up to the top layer which is centred at 10 hPa, with a relatively high vertical resolution of approximately 700 m near the extra-tropical tropopause. We present the results of a control simulation representing recent conditions (1990 and compare it to available observations. The focus is on investigations of stratospheric dynamics and chemistry relevant to describe the stratospheric ozone layer. ECHAM4.L39(DLR/CHEM reproduces main features of stratospheric dynamics in the arctic vortex region, including stratospheric warming events. This constitutes a major improvement compared to earlier model versions. However, apparent shortcomings in Antarctic circulation and temperatures persist. The seasonal and interannual variability of the ozone layer is simulated in accordance with observations. Activation and deactivation of chlorine in the polar stratospheric vortices and their inter-hemispheric differences are reproduced. Considering methane oxidation as part of the dynamic-chemistry feedback results in an improved representation of the spatial distribution of stratospheric water vapour concentrations. The current model constitutes a powerful tool to investigate, for instance, the combined direct and indirect effects of anthropogenic

  4. General Chemistry Students' Conceptual Understanding and Language Fluency: Acid-Base Neutralization and Conductometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyachwaya, James M.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine college general chemistry students' conceptual understanding and language fluency in the context of the topic of acids and bases. 115 students worked in groups of 2-4 to complete an activity on conductometry, where they were given a scenario in which a titration of sodium hydroxide solution and dilute…

  5. Exploring Chemical Equilibrium with Poker Chips: A General Chemistry Laboratory Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindel, Thomas H.

    2012-01-01

    A hands-on laboratory exercise at the general chemistry level introduces students to chemical equilibrium through a simulation that uses poker chips and rate equations. More specifically, the exercise allows students to explore reaction tables, dynamic chemical equilibrium, equilibrium constant expressions, and the equilibrium constant based on…

  6. A Computer Algebra Approach to Solving Chemical Equilibria in General Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalainoff, Melinda; Lachance, Russ; Riegner, Dawn; Biaglow, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we report on a semester-long study of the incorporation into our general chemistry course, of advanced algebraic and computer algebra techniques for solving chemical equilibrium problems. The method presented here is an alternative to the commonly used concentration table method for describing chemical equilibria in general…

  7. Analytical capabilities and services of Lawrence Livermore Laboratory's General Chemistry Division

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutmacher, R.; Crawford, R.

    1978-01-01

    This comprehensive guide to the analytical capabilities of Lawrence Livermore Laboratory's General Chemistry Division describes each analytical method in terms of its principle, field of application, and qualitative and quantitative uses. Also described are the state and quantity of sample required for analysis, processing time, available instrumentation, and responsible personnel

  8. Infrared and Raman Spectroscopy: A Discovery-Based Activity for the General Chemistry Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgsmiller, Karen L.; O'Connell, Dylan J.; Klauenberg, Kathryn M.; Wilson, Peter M.; Stromberg, Christopher J.

    2012-01-01

    A discovery-based method is described for incorporating the concepts of IR and Raman spectroscopy into the general chemistry curriculum. Students use three sets of springs to model the properties of single, double, and triple covalent bonds. Then, Gaussian 03W molecular modeling software is used to illustrate the relationship between bond…

  9. Playing with Light: Adventures in Optics and Spectroscopy for Honors and Majors General Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Staveren, Marie N.; Edwards, Kimberly D.; Apkarian, V. A.

    2012-01-01

    A lab was developed for use in an undergraduate honors and majors general chemistry laboratory to introduce students to optics, spectroscopy, and the underlying principles of quantum mechanics. This lab includes four mini-experiments exploring total internal reflection, the tunneling of light, spectra of sparklers and colored candles, and emission…

  10. Integrating Biology into the General Chemistry Laboratory: Fluorometric Analysis of Chlorophyll "a"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesolowski, Meredith C.

    2014-01-01

    A laboratory experiment that introduces fluorometry of chlorophyll "a" at the general chemistry level is described. The use of thin-layer chromatography to isolate chlorophyll "a" from spirulina and leaf matter enables quantification of small amounts of chlorophyll "a" via fluorometry. Student results were reasonably…

  11. An Analysis of Undergraduate General Chemistry Students' Misconceptions of the Submicroscopic Level of Precipitation Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Resa M.; Barrera, Juliet H.; Mohamed, Saheed C.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined how 21 college-level general chemistry students, who had received instruction that emphasized the symbolic level of ionic equations, explained their submicroscopic-level understanding of precipitation reactions. Students' explanations expressed through drawings and semistructured interviews revealed the nature of the…

  12. A Systematic Experimental Test of the Ideal Gas Equation for the General Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Luis H.; Romero, Carmen M.

    1995-10-01

    A set of experiments that examines each one of the terms of the ideal gas equation is described. Boyle's Law, Charles-Gay Lussac's Law, Amonton's Law, the number of moles or Molecular Weight, and the Gas Constant are studied. The experiments use very simple, easy to obtain equipment and common gases, mainly air. The results gathered by General Chemistry College students are satisfactory.

  13. A Genetically Optimized Predictive System for Success in General Chemistry Using a Diagnostic Algebra Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Cameron I.; Pearson, Paul T.

    2012-01-01

    In higher education, many high-enrollment introductory courses have evolved into "gatekeeper" courses due to their high failure rates. These courses prevent many students from attaining their educational goals and often become graduation roadblocks. At the authors' home institution, general chemistry has become a gatekeeper course in which…

  14. Transitioning from Expository Laboratory Experiments to Course-Based Undergraduate Research in General Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Ted M.; Ricciardo, Rebecca; Weaver, Tyler

    2016-01-01

    General chemistry courses predominantly use expository experiments that shape student expectations of what a laboratory activity entails. Shifting within a semester to course-based undergraduate research activities that include greater decision-making, collaborative work, and "messy" real-world data necessitates a change in student…

  15. Team-Based Learning Reduces Attrition in a First-Semester General Chemistry Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comeford, Lorrie

    2016-01-01

    Team-based learning (TBL) is an instructional method that has been shown to reduce attrition and increase student learning in a number of disciplines. TBL was implemented in a first-semester general chemistry course, and its effect on attrition was assessed. Attrition from sections before implementing TBL (fall 2008 to fall 2009) was compared with…

  16. Can They Succeed? Exploring At-Risk Students' Study Habits in College General Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Li; Shuniak, Constantine; Oueini, Razanne; Robert, Jenay; Lewis, Scott

    2016-01-01

    A well-established literature base identifies a portion of students enrolled in post-secondary General Chemistry as at-risk of failing the course based on incoming metrics. Learning about the experiences and factors that lead to this higher failure rate is essential toward improving retention in this course. This study examines the relationship…

  17. Self-Assembled Student Interactions in Undergraduate General Chemistry Clicker Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacArthur, James R.; Jones, Loretta

    2013-01-01

    Student interviews, focus groups, and classroom observations were used in an exploratory study of the nature of student interactions in a large (300+ students) general chemistry course taught with clickers. These data suggest that students are self-assembling their learning environment: choosing ways in which to interact with one another during…

  18. Improving the Success of First Term General Chemistry Students at a Liberal Arts Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Kari L.; Shaner, Sarah E.; Fendrick, Carol M.

    2018-01-01

    General Chemistry is a high impact course at Benedictine University where a large enrollment of ~250 students each year, coupled with low pass rates of a particularly vulnerable student population from a retention point of view (i.e., first-year college students), make it a strategic course on which to focus innovative pedagogical development.…

  19. Using the Plan View to Teach Basic Crystallography in General Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushman, Cody V.; Linford, Matthew R.

    2015-01-01

    The plan view is used in crystallography and materials science to show the positions of atoms in crystal structures. However, it is not widely used in teaching general chemistry. In this contribution, we introduce the plan view, and show these views for the simple cubic, body-centered cubic, face-centered cubic, hexagonal close packed, CsCl, NaCl,…

  20. Peer Mentor Program for the General Chemistry Laboratory Designed to Improve Undergraduate STEM Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damkaci, Fehmi; Braun, Timothy F.; Gublo, Kristin

    2017-01-01

    We describe the design and implementation of an undergraduate peer mentor program that can overlay an existing general chemistry laboratory and is designed to improve STEM student retention. For the first four freshman cohorts going through the program, year-to-year retention improved by a four-year average of 20% for students in peer-mentored…

  1. Awareness, Analysis, and Action: Curricular Alignment for Student Success in General Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewitt, Sarah; Sutphin, Kathy; Gierasch, Tiffany; Hamilton, Pauline; Lilly, Kathleen; Miller, Kristine; Newlin, Donald; Pires, Richard; Sherer, Maureen; LaCourse, William R.

    2018-01-01

    This article examines the ways that a shared faculty experience across five partner institutions led to a deep awareness of the curriculum and pedagogy of general chemistry coursework, and ultimately, to a collaborative action plan for student success. The team identified key differences and similarities in course content and instructional…

  2. The Evaluation of Students' Written Reflection on the Learning of General Chemistry Lab Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ng Sook; Li, Ho Ket; Sin, Lee Choy; Sin, Keng Pei

    2014-01-01

    Reflective writing is often used to increase understanding and analytical ability. The lack of empirical evidence on the effect of reflective writing interventions on the learning of general chemistry lab experiment supports the examination of this concept. The central goal of this exploratory study was to evaluate the students' written…

  3. Podcast Effectiveness as Scaffolding Support for Students Enrolled in First-Semester General Chemistry Laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Mary Cynthia Barton

    2010-01-01

    Podcasts covering essential first-semester general chemistry laboratory techniques and central concepts that aid in experimental design or data processing were prepared and made available for students to access on an as-needed basis on iPhones [arrow right] or iPod touches [arrow right]. Research focused in three areas: the extent of podcast…

  4. Structure Determination of Unknown Organic Liquids Using NMR and IR Spectroscopy: A General Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavel, John T.; Hyde, Erin C.; Bruch, Martha D.

    2012-01-01

    This experiment introduced general chemistry students to the basic concepts of organic structures and to the power of spectroscopic methods for structure determination. Students employed a combination of IR and NMR spectroscopy to perform de novo structure determination of unknown alcohols, without being provided with a list of possible…

  5. Assessment of Antioxidant Capacities in Foods: A Research Experience for General Chemistry Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoch, Matthew A.; Russell, Cianan B.; Steffen, Debora M.; Weaver, Gabriela C.; Burgess, John R.

    2009-01-01

    With the booming interest in health food and nutrition, investigations of the antioxidant capacities of various foods have come to the forefront of food science. This general chemistry laboratory curriculum provides students with an opportunity to design and implement their own experiments relating to antioxidants in food. The curriculum is six…

  6. Reform in a General Chemistry Laboratory: How Do Students Experience Change in the Instructional Approach?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopra, I.; O'Connor, J.; Pancho, R.; Chrzanowski, M.; Sandi-Urena, S.

    2017-01-01

    This qualitative study investigated the experience of a cohort of students exposed consecutively to two substantially different environments in their General Chemistry Laboratory programme. To this end, the first semester in a traditional expository programme was followed by a semester in a cooperative, problem-based, multi-week format. The focus…

  7. The Testing Effect: An Intervention on Behalf of Low-Skilled Comprehenders in General Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyburn, Daniel T.; Pazicni, Samuel; Benassi, Victor A.; Tappin, Elizabeth M.

    2014-01-01

    Past work has demonstrated that language comprehension ability correlates with general chemistry course performance with medium effect sizes. We demonstrate here that language comprehension's strong cognitive grounding can be used to inform effective and equitable pedagogies, namely, instructional interventions that differentially aid low-skilled…

  8. Web-Enhanced General Chemistry Increases Student Completion Rates, Success, and Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, Katie E.; Shank, John D.; Shibley, Ivan A., Jr.; Shibley, Lisa R.

    2013-01-01

    General Chemistry I historically had one of the highest failure and withdrawal rates at Penn State Berks, a four-year college within the Penn State system. The course was completely redesigned to incorporate more group work, the use of classroom response systems, peer mentors, and a stronger online presence via the learning management system…

  9. Relationships of Approaches to Studying, Metacognition, and Intellectual Development of General Chemistry Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egenti, Henrietta N.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated approaches to studying, intellectual developments, and metacognitive skills of general chemistry students enrolled for the spring 2011 semester at a single campus of a multi-campus community college. The three instruments used were the Approaches and Study Skills Inventory for Students (ASSIST), the Learning Environment…

  10. Implementation of Argument-Driven Inquiry as an Instructional Model in a General Chemistry Laboratory Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadayifci, Hakki; Yalcin-Celik, Ayse

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of Argument-Driven Inquiry (ADI) as an instructional model in a general chemistry laboratory course. The study was conducted over the course of ten experimental sessions with 125 pre-service science teachers. The participants' level of reflective thinking about the ADI activities, changes in their science…

  11. Identifying At-Risk Students in General Chemistry via Cluster Analysis of Affective Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Julia Y. K.; Bauer, Christopher F.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify academically at-risk students in first-semester general chemistry using affective characteristics via cluster analysis. Through the clustering of six preselected affective variables, three distinct affective groups were identified: low (at-risk), medium, and high. Students in the low affective group…

  12. General chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    This book explains chemical equilibrium with nature and characteristic of chemical equilibrium, law of mass action and direction of chemical equilibrium, acid-base equilibrium with principle of acid and base and amino acid, solubility and precipitation equilibrium with equilibrium of solubility, complex ion and solubility, electrochemistry on oxidation-reduction reaction, battery and fuel cell, decay and electrolysis, chemical reaction speed and nuclear reaction with Michaelis-Menten mechanism safety of nuclear, transition elements and coordination compound with introduction, name, structure and ligand EDTA and solid structure with categorization of solid and unit cell.

  13. Technical liaison with the Institute of Physical Chemistry (Russian Academy of Science)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delegard, C.H.

    1995-12-01

    The Institute of Physical Chemistry of the Russian Academy of Science (IPC/RAS) is engaged by the DOE to conduct studies of the fundamental and applied chemistry of the transuranium elements (TRU; primarily neptunium, plutonium, and americium; Np, Pu, Am) and technetium T c in alkaline media. This work is being supported by the DOE because the radioactive wastes stored in underground tanks at DOE sites (Hanford, Savannah River, and Oak Ridge) contain TRU and T c , are alkaline, and the chemistries of TRU and T c are not well developed in this system. Previous studies at the IPC/RAS centered on the fundamental chemistry and on coprecipitation. Work continuing in FY 1996 will focus more on the applied chemistry of the TRU and T c in alkaline media and continue effort on the coprecipitation task

  14. IPEN's Nuclear Physics and Chemistry Department - Progress report - 1995-1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The biannual progress report of 1995-1996 of IPEN's Nuclear Physics and Chemistry Department - Brazilian organization - introduces the next main topics: neutron activation and radiochemical analysis; nuclear structure and reactions; neutron diffraction; hyperfine interactions; applied physics and instrumentation; publications; academic activities; services; and personnel

  15. IPEN's Nuclear Physics and Chemistry Department - Progress report - 1995-1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    The biannual progress report of 1995-1996 of IPEN's Nuclear Physics and Chemistry Department - Brazilian organization - introduces the next main topics: neutron activation and radiochemical analysis; nuclear structure and reactions; neutron diffraction; hyperfine interactions; applied physics and instrumentation; publications; academic activities; services; and personnel.

  16. A Python Program for Solving Schro¨dinger's Equation in Undergraduate Physical Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srnec, Matthew N.; Upadhyay, Shiv; Madura, Jeffry D.

    2017-01-01

    In undergraduate physical chemistry, Schrödinger's equation is solved for a variety of cases. In doing so, the energies and wave functions of the system can be interpreted to provide connections with the physical system being studied. Solving this equation by hand for a one-dimensional system is a manageable task, but it becomes time-consuming…

  17. IPEN's Nuclear Physics and Chemistry Department - Progress report - 1995-1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    The biannual progress report of 1995-1996 of IPEN's Nuclear Physics and Chemistry Department - Brazilian organization - introduces the next main topics: neutron activation and radiochemical analysis; nuclear structure and reactions; neutron diffraction; hyperfine interactions; applied physics and instrumentation; publications; academic activities; services; and personnel.

  18. The Physics and Chemistry of Color: The Fifteen Causes of Color, 2nd Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassau, Kurt

    2001-07-01

    An updated and revised second edition of the acclaimed classic Have you ever wondered why the sky is blue, or a ruby red? This classic volume studies the physical and chemical origins of color by exploring fifteen separate causes of color and their varied and often subtle occurrences in biology, geology, mineralogy, the atmosphere, technology, and the visual arts. It covers all of the fundamental concepts at work and requires no specialized knowledge. Author Kurt Nassau includes hundreds of illustrations, tables, and photographs-as well as end-of-chapter problems-that aid in visualizing the concepts discussed. An updated bibliography permits readers to pursue their own particular interests and an expanded series of appendices cover advanced topics. The Physics and Chemistry of Color, Second Edition is a one-of-a-kind treatment of color that provides both detailed physical and chemical properties of color and a more general overview of the subject. It will prove highly useful to specialists and non-specialists alike-and fascinate those with varied interests from optics to art history.

  19. Radiation Chemistry and Physical Chemistry of Chitosan and Other Polysaccharides. Fundamental Studies and Practical Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosiak, Janusz M.; Czechowska-Biskup, Renata; Rokita, Bożena; Olejnik, Alicja K.

    2010-01-01

    This report summarizes the second year of activities performed at the Institute of Applied Radiation Chemistry (IARC) within the framework of the CRP project. It consists of two parts. Part I is a brief account of the activities related to design, tests, sample procurement and characterization and formulation of “Protocol for determination of intrinsic viscosity of chitosan” designed to be the basis of the interlaboratory study on viscometric determination of chitosan molecular weight as well as on radiation degradation of chitosan in controlled conditions. Part II contains the text of the Protocol, and is given in the Annex. (author)

  20. Liaison activities with the Institute of Physical Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences: FY 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delegard, C.H.; Elovich, R.J.

    1997-09-01

    The Institute of Physical Chemistry of the Russian Academy of Sciences is conducting a program of fundamental and applied research into the chemistry of the actinides and technetium in alkaline media such as are present in the Hanford Site underground waste storage tanks. This work is being coordinated and the results disseminated through a technical liaison maintained at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The technical liaison is performing laboratory studies on plutonium chemistry in alkaline media. The activities at the Institute of Physical Chemistry and through the liaison are pursued to improve understanding of the chemical behavior of key long-lived radioactive elements under current operating and proposed tank waste processing conditions. Both activities are supported by the Efficient Separations and Processing Crosscutting Program under the Office of Science and Technology of the U.S. Department of Energy

  1. Using Self-Reflection To Increase Science Process Skills in the General Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veal, William R.; Taylor, Dawne; Rogers, Amy L.

    2009-03-01

    Self-reflection is a tool of instruction that has been used in the science classroom. Research has shown great promise in using video as a learning tool in the classroom. However, the integration of self-reflective practice using video in the general chemistry laboratory to help students develop process skills has not been done. Immediate video feedback and direct instruction were employed in a general chemistry laboratory course to improve students' mastery and understanding of basic and advanced process skills. Qualitative results and statistical analysis of quantitative data proved that self-reflection significantly helped students develop basic and advanced process skills, yet did not seem to influence the general understanding of the science content.

  2. Revisiting kaon physics in general Z scenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motoi Endo

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available New physics contributions to the Z penguin are revisited in the light of the recently-reported discrepancy of the direct CP violation in K→ππ. Interference effects between the standard model and new physics contributions to ΔS=2 observables are taken into account. Although the effects are overlooked in the literature, they make experimental bounds significantly severer. It is shown that the new physics contributions must be tuned to enhance B(KL→π0νν¯, if the discrepancy of the direct CP violation is explained with satisfying the experimental constraints. The branching ratio can be as large as 6×10−10 when the contributions are tuned at the 10% level.

  3. Chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferris, L.M.

    1975-01-01

    The chemical research and development efforts related to the design and ultimate operation of molten-salt breeder reactor systems are concentrated on fuel- and coolant-salt chemistry, including the development of analytical methods for use in these systems. The chemistry of tellurium in fuel salt is being studied to help elucidate the role of this element in the intergranular cracking of Hastelloy N. Studies were continued of the effect of oxygen-containing species on the equilibrium between dissolved UF 3 and dissolved UF 4 , and, in some cases, between the dissolved uranium fluorides and graphite, and the UC 2 . Several aspects of coolant-salt chemistry are under investigation. Hydroxy and oxy compounds that could be formed in molten NaBF 4 are being synthesized and characterized. Studies of the chemistry of chromium (III) compounds in fluoroborate melts were continued as part of a systematic investigation of the corrosion of structural alloys by coolant salt. An in-line voltammetric method for determining U 4+ /U 3+ ratios in fuel salt was tested in a forced-convection loop over a six-month period. (LK)

  4. General physical fundamentals of isotope hydrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moser, H.; Rauert, W.

    1976-01-01

    A description is given of the measurement and measuring units of stable isotopes, the physical properties, measurement and measuring units of radioactive isotopes, the fundamentals of the tracer technique, the environmental isotope distribution in the hydrosphere and the radiation protection in isotope hydrological investigations. (HK) [de

  5. Development and Preliminary Impacts of the Implementation of an Authentic Research-Based Experiment in General Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasik, Janice Hall; Cottone, Katelyn E.; Heethuis, Mitchell T.; Mueller, Anja

    2013-01-01

    Incorporating research-based lab activities into general chemistry at a large university can be challenging, considering the high enrollments and costs typically associated with the courses. Performing sweeping curricular overhauls of the general chemistry laboratory can be difficult, and in some cases discouraged, as many would rather maintain…

  6. Engaging Participation and Promoting Active Learning through Student Usage of the Internet to Create Notes for General Chemistry in Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Renee Monica

    2017-01-01

    Reported here is a study of an interactive component to General Chemistry I and General Chemistry II where a new pedagogy for taking notes in class was developed. These notes, called key word created class notes, prompted students to locate information using the Internet guided by a key word. Reference Web sites were added to a next generation of…

  7. Progress report, Chemistry and Materials Division, October 1 to December 31, 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    Interim research results are reported in solid state science (ion penetration, electron microscopy, radiation damage and metal physics, nuclear methods of analysis), general chemistry (analytical chemistry, hydrogen-water exchange, radioactivity measurements, electrochemistry), physical chemistry (radiation and isotope chemistry), materials science (surface chemistry and metal physics), and university research (deuterium exchange and zirconium alloy properties). (E.C.B.)

  8. Annual progress report of the Condensed Matter Physics and Chemistry Department 1 January - 31 December 2000

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2001-01-01

    The Condensed Matter Physics and Chemistry Department is concerned with both fundamental and applied research into the physical and chemical properties of materials. The principal activities in the year 2000 are presented in this progress report. Theresearch in physics is concentrated on neutron...... molecules and polymers, with emphasis on polymers with new optical properties, block copolymers, surface-modified polymers, and supramolecular structures. Theoretical work related to these problems is undertaken, including Monte Carlo simulations, computer simulation of molecules and polymers and methods...

  9. Scandium: its occurrence, chemistry, physics, metallurgy, biology, and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horovitz, C.T.

    1975-01-01

    This book describes the following aspects of scandium: discovery and history, occurrence in nature, geochemistry and mineralogy, chemical, physical and technological properties, fabrication and metallurgy, its biological significance and toxicology, and its uses. (Extensive references for each chapter)

  10. General remarks on fast neutron reactor physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barre, J.Y.

    1980-01-01

    The main aspects of fast reactor physics, presented in these lecture notes, are restricted to LMFBR's. The emphasis is placed on the core neutronic balance and the burn-up problems. After a brief description of the power reactor main components and of the fast reactor chronology, the fundamental parameters of the one-group neutronic balance are briefly reviewed. Then the neutronic burn-up problems related to the Pu production and to the doubling time are considered

  11. Device description and general physics requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neilson, G.H. Jr.

    1992-01-01

    To accomplish the dual goals set forth in the mission statement - determination of burning plasma physics and demonstration of fusion power production - requires a tokamak with special characteristics. A conceptual design for such a facility has been developed by the CIT/BPX Project team over a period of about 5 years. The process has drawn extensively upon the world tokamak physics data base as well as engineering experience gained on actual machines like Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) and the Alcators and on design studies for machines like the Long-Pulse Ignited Test experiment (LITE) and the Tokamak Fusion Core Experiment (TFCX). The Joint European Torus (JET) and Doublet III-D (DIII-D) experiments in particular have had a significant influence on the physics base. The resulting design incorporates features that have proven successful in tokamak experiments, combined with new features that are needed in the regime of high-power-density deuterium-tritium (D-T) fusion plasmas

  12. Guide to essential math a review for physics, chemistry and engineering students

    CERN Document Server

    Blinder, Sy M

    2013-01-01

    This book reminds students in junior, senior and graduate level courses in physics, chemistry and engineering of the math they may have forgotten (or learned imperfectly), which is needed to succeed in science courses. The focus is on math actually used in physics, chemistry and engineering, and the approach to mathematics begins with 12 examples of increasing complexity, designed to hone the student's ability to think in mathematical terms and to apply quantitative methods to scientific problems. Detailed Illustrations and links to reference material online help further comprehension. The

  13. A Content Analysis of General Chemistry Laboratory Manuals for Evidence of Higher-Order Cognitive Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domin, Daniel S.

    1999-01-01

    The science laboratory instructional environment is ideal for fostering the development of problem-solving, manipulative, and higher-order thinking skills: the skills needed by today's learner to compete in an ever increasing technology-based society. This paper reports the results of a content analysis of ten general chemistry laboratory manuals. Three experiments from each manual were examined for evidence of higher-order cognitive activities. Analysis was based upon the six major cognitive categories of Bloom's Taxonomy of Educational Objectives: knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis, and evaluation. The results of this study show that the overwhelming majority of general chemistry laboratory manuals provide tasks that require the use of only the lower-order cognitive skills: knowledge, comprehension, and application. Two of the laboratory manuals were disparate in having activities that utilized higher-order cognition. I describe the instructional strategies used within these manuals to foster higher-order cognitive development.

  14. A general method for the inclusion of radiation chemistry in astrochemical models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shingledecker, Christopher N; Herbst, Eric

    2018-02-21

    In this paper, we propose a general formalism that allows for the estimation of radiolysis decomposition pathways and rate coefficients suitable for use in astrochemical models, with a focus on solid phase chemistry. Such a theory can help increase the connection between laboratory astrophysics experiments and astrochemical models by providing a means for modelers to incorporate radiation chemistry into chemical networks. The general method proposed here is targeted particularly at the majority of species now included in chemical networks for which little radiochemical data exist; however, the method can also be used as a starting point for considering better studied species. We here apply our theory to the irradiation of H 2 O ice and compare the results with previous experimental data.

  15. Radiation physics and chemistry of biomolecules. Recent developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spotheim-Maurizot, Melanie

    2016-11-01

    A chapter of the book ;Radiation chemistry. From basics to application in materials and life sciences (EDP Science, Paris, France, 2008); was devoted to the state-of-the-art in the research on ionizing radiation (IR) effects on biomolecules. An update, eight years later, seemed pertinent enough to the editors of this journal who accepted to dedicate a Special Issue to the latest developments in this area of high interest for cancer radiotherapy, nuclear workers' radioprotection and food radiosterilisation. We sincerely thank them and the authors who accepted to present reviews of their most recent work. Obviously, only a small part of the research in the fascinating domain of molecular radiobiology can be covered here. Some articles are presenting the contribution of biophysical models and computational techniques to the understanding of IR effects on molecules such as DNA and proteins, or on larger systems such as chromatin, chromosomes and even cells (Nikjoo et al., Štěpán & Davídková, Ballarini & Carante, and Nikitaki et al.). In these papers, as well as in many others, several qualities of IR are compared in order to explain the observed differences of effects. The damages induced by the low energy electrons and new techniques involved in their study are discussed in great detail (Sanche and Fromm & Boulanouar). The chemistry behind the IR induced damages (single or clustered), studied in many laboratories around the world is presented in several papers (Cadet & Wagner, Sevilla et al., Chatgilialoglu et al., and Greenberg). One of them addresses a very useful comparison between the effects of IR and UV exposure on DNA (Ravanat & Douki). The majority of the papers in this Special Issue is dealing with DNA and this reflects the real situation: damages of DNA are more studied than those of other biomolecules. This is due to the role of DNA as main support of hereditary information. Nevertheless, more and more studies are outlining the influence of epigenetic

  16. Combining research in physical chemistry and chemical education: Part A. The femtosecond molecular dynamics of small gas-phase anion clusters. Part B. Surveying student beliefs about chemistry and the development of physical chemistry learning tutorials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbera, Jack

    2007-12-01

    This dissertation combines work in the areas of experimental physical chemistry and chemical education. In the area of physical chemistry, femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopy is used to interrogate the time-dependence for energy redistribution, solvent reorientation, and dissociation dynamics in small gas-phase anion clusters. The chemical education research addressed in this manuscript include the development and validation of a survey to measure students' beliefs about chemistry and the learning of chemistry and the development and testing of learning tutorials for use in undergraduate physical chemistry courses in thermodynamics and kinetics. In the first part of this dissertation, the Cu(CD3OD) dynamics are investigated using a combination of femtosecond pump-probe experiments and ab initio calculations. Dissociation of this complex into Cu and CD3OD occurs on two distinct time scales: 3 and 30 ps, which arise, respectively, from the coupling of intermolecular solvent rotations and excited methyl rotor rotation into the Cu-O dissociation component upon electron photodetachment of the precursor anion. In the second part of this dissertation, the time-resolved recombination of photodissociated IBr-(CO2)n (n = 5 - 10) cluster anions is investigated. Upon excitation to the A' 2pi 1/2 state of the chromophore, the bare anion results in I- and Br products, upon solvation with CO2, the IBr- chromophore regains near-IR absorption after recombination and vibrational relaxation on the ground electronic state. The recombination times vary with the number of solvent molecules from 12 ps for n = 5 to 900 ps for n = 10. Extensive electronic structure and non-adiabatic molecular dynamic simulations provide a framework to understand this behavior. In the third part of this dissertation, the modification and validation of the Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey (CLASS) for use in chemistry is presented in detail. The CLASS survey is designed to measure student

  17. Effect of Formative Quizzes on Teacher Candidates’ Learning in General Chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Yalaki, Yalcin; Bayram, Zeki

    2015-01-01

    Formative assessment or assessment for learning is one of the most emphasized educational innovations around the world. Two of the common strategies that could be used in formative assessment are use of summative tests for formative purposes and comment only marking. We utilized these strategies in the form of formative quizzes in a general chemistry course and measured its effect on students’ learning. The results of our weak-experimental design, which was conducted with 124 pre-service elem...

  18. Research on condensed matter and atomic physics, using major experimental facilities and devices: Physics, chemistry, biology. Reports on results. Vol. 1. 1. Atomic and molecular physics. 2. Physics and chemistry of surfaces and interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This report in three volumes substantiates the contents of the programme survey published in September 1989. The progress reports cover the following research areas: Vol. I, (1). Atomic and molecular physics - free atoms, molecules, macromolecules, clusters, matrix-isolated atoms and molecules. (2) Physics and chemistry of surfaces and interfaces - epitaxy, surface structure, adsorption, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties, thin films, synthetic layer structure. Vol. II, (3). Solid-state physics, and materials science -structural research, lattice dynamics, magnetic structure and dynamics, electronic states; load; spin and pulse density fluctuations; diffusion and internal motion, defects, unordered systems and liquids. Vol. III, (4). Chemistry - bonding and structure, kinetics and reaction mechanisms, polymer research, analysis and synthesis. (5). Biology, - structure and dynamics of biological macromolecules, membrane and cell biology. (6) Development of methods and instruments - neutron sources, synchrotron sources, special accelerators, research with interlinked systems and devices. (orig.) [de

  19. Connectivity and theoretical physics: some applications to chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanley, H.E.; Coniglio, A.; Klein, W.; Teixeira, J.

    1981-01-01

    Two classical problems are treated, viz., the polymer gelation and the polymer gelation and the liquid water. In both problems, the concept of connectivity and generalized percolation has been used. (L.C.) [pt

  20. Promoting Active Learning in Calculus and General Physics through Interactive and Media-Enhanced Lectures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoqing Tang

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present an approach of incorporating interactive and media-enhanced lectures to promote active learning in Calculus and General Physics courses. The pedagogical practice of using interactive techniques in lectures to require "heads-on" and "hands-on" learning, and involve students more as active participants than passive receivers is a part of academic curricular reform efforts undertaken currently by the mathematics, physics and chemistry departments at North Carolina A&T State University under the NSF funded project "Talent-21: Gateway for Advancing Science and Mathematics Talents."

  1. Enthalpy of Vaporization by Gas Chromatography: A Physical Chemistry Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellison, Herbert R.

    2005-01-01

    An experiment is conducted to measure the enthalpy of vaporization of volatile compounds like methylene chloride, carbon tetrachloride, and others by using gas chromatography. This physical property was measured using a very tiny quantity of sample revealing that it is possible to measure the enthalpies of two or more compounds at the same time.

  2. Workshop on the interface between radiation chemistry and radiation physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-03-01

    Twenty-four papers are grouped under the session headings: measurements of physical and chemical properties, track structure modeling, spurs and track structure, and the 10 - 16 to 10 - 12 second region. Separate abstracts were prepared for 12 of the papers; four of the remaining papers had previously been abstracted

  3. Physics Meets Art in the General Education Core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dark, Marta L.; Hylton, Derrick J.

    2018-01-01

    This article describes a general education course offering, Physics and the Arts. During the development of this course, physics and arts faculty collaborated closely. We cover the usual physics phenomena for such a course--light, color, and sound--in addition to gravity, equilibrium, and spacetime. Goals of the course are to increase students'…

  4. A Study of Faculty Approaches to Teaching Undergraduate Physical Chemistry Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, Michael Ryan

    Chemistry education researchers have not adequately studied teaching and learning experiences at all levels in the undergraduate chemistry curriculum leaving gaps in discipline-based STEM education communities understanding about how the upper- division curricula works (National Research Council, 2012b; Towns, 2013). This study explored faculty approaches to teaching in upper-division physical chemistry course settings using an interview-based methodology. Two conceptualizations of approaches to teaching emerged from a phenomenographic analysis of interview transcripts: (1) faculty beliefs about the purposes for teaching physical chemistry and (2) their conceptions of their role as an instructor in these course settings. Faculty who reported beliefs predominantly centered on helping students develop conceptual knowledge and problem-solving skills in physical chemistry often worked with didactic models of teaching, which emphasized the transfer of expert knowledge to students. When faculty expressed beliefs that were more inclusive of conceptual, epistemic, and social learning goals in science education they often described more student-centered models of teaching and learning, which put more responsibilities on them to facilitate students' interactive engagement with the material and peers during regularly scheduled class time. Knowledge of faculty thinking, as evinced in a rich description of their accounts of their experience, provides researchers and professional developers with useful information about the potential opportunities or barriers that exist for helping faculty align their beliefs and goals for teaching with research-based instructional strategies.

  5. Analyzing General Chemistry Texts' Treatment of Rates of Change Concepts in Reaction Kinetics Reveals Missing Conceptual Links

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seethaler, Sherry; Czworkowski, John; Wynn, Lynda

    2018-01-01

    Change over time is a crosscutting theme in the sciences that is pivotal to reaction kinetics, an anchoring concept in undergraduate chemistry, and students' struggles with rates of change are well-documented. Informed by the education scholarship in chemistry, physics, and mathematics, a research team with members from complementary disciplinary…

  6. Fundamentals of nuclear chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majer, V.

    1982-01-01

    The author of the book has had 25 years of experience at the Nuclear Chemistry of Prague Technical University. In consequence, the book is intended as a basic textbook for students of this field. Its main objectives are an easily understandable presentation of the complex subject and in spite of the uncertainty which still characterizes the definition and subjects of nuclear chemistry - a systematic classification and logical structure. Contents: 1. Introduction (history and definition); 2. General nuclear chemistry (physical fundamentals, hot atom chemistry, interaction of nuclear radiation with matter, radioactive elements, isotope effects, isotope exchange, chemistry of radioactive trace elements); 3. Methods of nuclear chemistry of nuclear chemistry (radiochemical methods, activation, separation and enrichment chemistry); 4. Preparative nuclear chemistry (isotope production, labelled compounds); 5. Analytival nuclear chemistry; 6. Applied nuclear chemistry (isotope applications in general physical and analytical chemistry). The book is supplemented by an annex with tables, a name catalogue and a subject index which will facilitate access to important information. (RB) [de

  7. Expanding frontiers in materials chemistry and physics with multiple anions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kageyama, Hiroshi; Hayashi, Katsuro; Maeda, Kazuhiko; Attfield, J Paul; Hiroi, Zenji; Rondinelli, James M; Poeppelmeier, Kenneth R

    2018-02-22

    During the last century, inorganic oxide compounds laid foundations for materials synthesis, characterization, and technology translation by adding new functions into devices previously dominated by main-group element semiconductor compounds. Today, compounds with multiple anions beyond the single-oxide ion, such as oxyhalides and oxyhydrides, offer a new materials platform from which superior functionality may arise. Here we review the recent progress, status, and future prospects and challenges facing the development and deployment of mixed-anion compounds, focusing mainly on oxide-derived materials. We devote attention to the crucial roles that multiple anions play during synthesis, characterization, and in the physical properties of these materials. We discuss the opportunities enabled by recent advances in synthetic approaches for design of both local and overall structure, state-of-the-art characterization techniques to distinguish unique structural and chemical states, and chemical/physical properties emerging from the synergy of multiple anions for catalysis, energy conversion, and electronic materials.

  8. Life as physics and chemistry: A system view of biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baverstock, Keith

    2013-04-01

    Cellular life can be viewed as one of many physical natural systems that extract free energy from their environments in the most efficient way, according to fundamental physical laws, and grow until limited by inherent physical constraints. Thus, it can be inferred that it is the efficiency of this process that natural selection acts upon. The consequent emphasis on metabolism, rather than replication, points to a metabolism-first origin of life with the adoption of DNA template replication as a second stage development. This order of events implies a cellular regulatory system that pre-dates the involvement of DNA and might, therefore, be based on the information acquired as peptides fold into proteins, rather than on genetic regulatory networks. Such an epigenetic cell regulatory model, the independent attractor model, has already been proposed to explain the phenomenon of radiation induced genomic instability. Here it is extended to provide an epigenetic basis for the morphological and functional diversity that evolution has yielded, based on natural selection of the most efficient free energy transduction. Empirical evidence which challenges the current genetic basis of cell and molecular biology and which supports the above proposal is discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferris, L.M.

    1976-01-01

    Research progress is reported in programs on fuel-salt chemistry, properties of compounds in the Li--Te system, Te spectroscopy UF 4 --H equilibria, porous electrode studies of molten salts, fuel salt-coolant salt reactions, thermodynamic properties of transition-metal fluorides, and properties of sodium fluoroborate. Developmental work on analytical methods is summarized including in-line analysis of molten MSBR fuel, analysis of coolant-salts for tritium, analysis of molten LiF--BeF 2 --ThF 4 for Fe and analysis of LiF--BeF--ThF 4 for Te

  10. First two-reagent vitamin D assay for general clinical chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saida, Fakhri B; Padilla-Chee, Mario; Dou, Chao; Yuan, Chong

    2018-05-01

    Vitamin D is a lipid-soluble molecule that plays key physiological roles in the metabolism of calcium, phosphate and magnesium. Recent studies show that deficiency in vitamin D is linked to cardiovascular diseases, autoimmune diseases and cancer. As a result, regular monitoring of 25-OH vitamin D (the main circulating form of vitamin D) is becoming essential. Current 25-OH vitamin D testing methodologies are cumbersome (too many reagents, long incubation times, phase separation) and are not compatible with general clinical chemistry platforms. Here, we report on a novel method to detect 25-OH vitamin D that is fast (results in 10 min or less), simple (two reagents) and compatible with virtually all general clinical chemistry analyzers. An immunoturbidimetric assay for 25-OH vitamin D (the Diazyme EZ Vitamin D Assay) has been developed using nanoparticles and vitamin D-specific antibodies. The performance of the assay kit, which consists of two reagents and five calibrators, was tested on the Beckman AU680 analyzer (AU680). The new assay was precise, sensitive (LOD = 7.2 nmol/L), linear (up to 390.1 nmol/L) and correlated strongly (R 2  > 0.95) with major commercial 25-OH vitamin D assays. Additionally, the assay was found to be the fastest to date, with the first results obtained within 10 min. Throughput on the AU680 was estimated at over 300 tests per hour. The newly developed 25-OH vitamin D assay is fast, precise and accurate. It can be run on most general chemistry analyzers. This assay aims at providing vitamin D-testing capabilities to all clinical chemistry laboratories. Copyright © 2018 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. A Stopped-Flow Kinetics Experiment for the Physical Chemistry Laboratory Using Noncorrosive Reagents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prigodich, Richard V.

    2014-01-01

    Stopped-flow kinetics techniques are important to the study of rapid chemical and biochemical reactions. Incorporation of a stopped-flow kinetics experiment into the physical chemistry laboratory curriculum would therefore be an instructive addition. However, the usual reactions studied in such exercises employ a corrosive reagent that can over…

  12. X-Ray Diffraction of Intermetallic Compounds: A Physical Chemistry Laboratory Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varberg, Thomas D.; Skakuj, Kacper

    2015-01-01

    Here we describe an experiment for the undergraduate physical chemistry laboratory in which students synthesize the intermetallic compounds AlNi and AlNi3 and study them by X-ray diffractometry. The compounds are synthesized in a simple one-step reaction occurring in the solid state. Powder X-ray diffractograms are recorded for the two compounds…

  13. For the Love of Learning Science: Connecting Learning Orientation and Career Productivity in Physics and Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazari, Zahra; Potvin, Geoff; Tai, Robert H.; Almarode, John

    2010-01-01

    An individual's motivational orientation serves as a drive to action and can influence their career success. This study examines how goal orientation toward the pursuit of a graduate degree in physics and chemistry influences later success outcomes of practicing physicists and chemists. Two main categories of goal orientation are examined in this…

  14. EPR Studies of Spin-Spin Exchange Processes: A Physical Chemistry Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastman, Michael P.

    1982-01-01

    Theoretical background, experimental procedures, and analysis of experimental results are provided for an undergraduate physical chemistry experiment on electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) linewidths. Source of line broadening observed in a spin-spin exchange process between radicals formed in aqueous solutions of potassium peroxylamine…

  15. 3D Printed Potential and Free Energy Surfaces for Teaching Fundamental Concepts in Physical Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaliakin, Danil S.; Zaari, Ryan R.; Varganov, Sergey A.

    2015-01-01

    Teaching fundamental physical chemistry concepts such as the potential energy surface, transition state, and reaction path is a challenging task. The traditionally used oversimplified 2D representation of potential and free energy surfaces makes this task even more difficult and often confuses students. We show how this 2D representation can be…

  16. Essential Concepts and Underlying Theories from Physics, Chemistry, and Mathematics for "Biochemistry and Molecular Biology" Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Ann; Provost, Joseph; Roecklein-Canfield, Jennifer A.; Bell, Ellis

    2013-01-01

    Over the past two years, through an NSF RCN UBE grant, the ASBMB has held regional workshops for faculty members from around the country. The workshops have focused on developing lists of Core Principles or Foundational Concepts in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, a list of foundational skills, and foundational concepts from Physics, Chemistry,…

  17. Retention of Differential and Integral Calculus: A Case Study of a University Student in Physical Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jukic Matic, Ljerka; Dahl, Bettina

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports a study on retention of differential and integral calculus concepts of a second-year student of physical chemistry at a Danish university. The focus was on what knowledge the student retained 14 months after the course and on what effect beliefs about mathematics had on the retention. We argue that if a student can quickly…

  18. Subject Knowledge Enhancement Courses for Creating New Chemistry and Physics Teachers: The Students' Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tynan, Richard; Jones, Robert Bryn; Mallaburn, Andrea; Clays, Ken

    2016-01-01

    Subject knowledge enhancement (SKE) courses are one option open in England to graduates with a science background whose first degree content is judged to be insufficient to train to become chemistry or physics teachers. Previous articles in "School Science Review" have discussed the structure of one type of extended SKE course offered at…

  19. Thermodynamic Exploration of Eosin-Lysozyme Binding: A Physical Chemistry and Biochemistry Laboratory Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huisman, Andrew J.; Hartsell, Lydia R.; Krueger, Brent P.; Pikaart, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    We developed a modular pair of experiments for use in the undergraduate physical chemistry and biochemistry laboratories. Both experiments examine the thermodynamics of the binding of a small molecule, eosin Y, to the protein lysozyme. The assay for binding is the quenching of lysozyme fluorescence by eosin through resonant energy transfer. In…

  20. Computational Modeling of the Optical Rotation of Amino Acids: An "in Silico" Experiment for Physical Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Scott; Autschbach, Jochen; Zurek, Eva

    2013-01-01

    A computational experiment that investigates the optical activity of the amino acid valine has been developed for an upper-level undergraduate physical chemistry laboratory course. Hybrid density functional theory calculations were carried out for valine to confirm the rule that adding a strong acid to a solution of an amino acid in the l…

  1. Integrating a Single Tablet PC in Chemistry, Engineering, and Physics Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, James W.; Cox, James R.

    2008-01-01

    A tablet PC is a versatile computer that combines the computing power of a notebook with the pen functionality of a PDA (Cox and Rogers 2005b). The authors adopted tablet PC technology in order to improve the process and product of the lecture format in their chemistry, engineering, and physics courses. In this high-tech model, a single tablet PC…

  2. Preservice Teachers' Epistemological Beliefs in Physics, Chemistry, and Biology: A Mixed Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topcu, Mustafa Sami

    2013-01-01

    The purposes of the study were to assess preservice teachers' domain-specific epistemological beliefs and to investigate whether preservice teachers distinguish disciplinary differences (physics, chemistry, and biology) in domain-specific epistemological beliefs. Mixed-method research design guided the present research. The researcher explored…

  3. Where Is Earth Science? Mining for Opportunities in Chemistry, Physics, and Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Julie; Ivey, Toni; Puckette, Jim

    2013-01-01

    The Earth sciences are newly marginalized in K-12 classrooms. With few high schools offering Earth science courses, students' exposure to the Earth sciences relies on the teacher's ability to incorporate Earth science material into a biology, chemistry, or physics course. ''G.E.T. (Geoscience Experiences for Teachers) in the Field'' is an…

  4. A Game-Based Approach to an Entire Physical Chemistry Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daubenfeld, Thorsten; Zenker, Dietmar

    2015-01-01

    We designed, implemented, and evaluated a game-based learning approach to increase student motivation and achievement for an undergraduate physical chemistry course. By focusing only on the most important game aspects, the implementation was realized with a production ratio of 1:8 (study load in hours divided by production effort in hours).…

  5. A Procedure to Create a Pedagogic Conversational Agent in Secondary Physics and Chemistry Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Marín, Diana; Boza, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Pedagogic Conversational Agents are computer applications that can interact with students in natural language. They have been used with satisfactory results on the instruction of several domains. The authors believe that they could also be useful for the instruction of Secondary Physics and Chemistry Education. Therefore, in this paper, the…

  6. Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy of Spermine-DNA Interactions - Nanostructure and Physical Supramolecular Chemistry of DNA Condensation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kral, Teresa; Langner, M.; Hof, Martin; Adjimatera, N.; Blagbrough, I. S.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 98, Supplement (2004), s22-s23 ISSN 0009-2770 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4040901 Keywords : fluorescence * nanostructure * DNA condensation Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 0.348, year: 2004

  7. The Role of Water Chemistry in Marine Aquarium Design: A Model System for a General Chemistry Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keaffaber, Jeffrey J.; Palma, Ramiro; Williams, Kathryn R.

    2008-01-01

    Water chemistry is central to aquarium design, and it provides many potential applications for discussion in undergraduate chemistry and engineering courses. Marine aquaria and their life support systems feature many chemical processes. A life support system consists of the entire recirculation system, as well as the habitat tank and all ancillary…

  8. The Gravity of Regenerative Medicine; Physics, Chemistry & Biology behind it

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dedeepiya V

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The in-vitro expansion of cells of the organs/tissues and their re-implantation into the affected region/ tissue for treating cell/organ failure have been in practice for long, but in limited specialties. The in-vitro cell culture protocols use variety of biological reagents derived from animal sources and recombinant technologies. However, the optimal quantity of such biological components such as growth factors, cytokines etc.,needed for such cells to be grown in a non-physiological environment is still unknown. The use of such biological components have started to stir a controversy of late, due to the recognition of its potential hazards such as spread of prion diseases and contamination with non-human sialic acid proteins. Therefore synthetic reproducible biomaterials are gaining popularity in cell culture and tissue engineering. The biomaterials made of several chemical components based on physical parameters are starting to change certain concepts about the niche of cell culture and that of stem cell expansion and differentiation to specific lineages. Engler et al have already proven that a simple change in the matrix elasticity alone could change the lineage of the cells. Spencer et al have reported that a change in bioelectricity could change the morphogenesis during development. NCRM has been involved in cell culture and tissue engineering using approximately 240 different materials ranging from polymer hydrogel, gel with adherent inserts, nano composite materials, nano-coating technologies, nano-sheets and nano-films. These materials are used in cell culture in different hybrid combinations such as Floating 3D cell culture without adherent components in a homogenous hydrogel. Floating 3D cell culture with anchorage inserts. Flat surface- 2D adherent cell culture. Combined flat surface 2D cell culture (for differentiating cells and floating 3D culture (for undifferentiated cells. These combinations have started yielding several

  9. Research into condensed matter using large-scale apparatus. Physics, chemistry, biology. Progress report 1992-1995. Summarizing reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    Activities for research into condensed matter have been supported by the German BMBF with approx. 102 million Deutschmarks in the years 1992 through 1995. These financial means have been distributed among 314 research projects in the fields of physics, chemistry, biology, materials science, and other fields, which all rely on the intensive utilization of photon and particle beams generated in large-scale apparatus of institutions for basic research. The volume in hand first gives information of a general kind and statistical data on the distribution of financial means, for a number of priority research projects. The project reports are summarizing reports on the progress achieved in the various projects. (CB) [de

  10. The chemistry and physics of nonlinear optical materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velsko, S.P.; Eimerl, D.

    1989-01-01

    Recent efforts to engineer new nonlinear optical materials with specific desired characteristics has engendered a need for a theoretical description of optical properties which is readily accessible to chemists, yet correctly treats the essential physics of dielectric response. This paper describes a simple empirical molecular orbital model which gives useful insights into the relationship between chemical composition, crystalline structure, and optical susceptibilities. The authors compare the probabilities of finding new harmonic generators in various chemical classes. Rigorous bounds on the magnitudes of linear and nonlinear optical coefficients and their anisotropies are also discussed

  11. Results of an interactively coupled atmospheric chemistry - general circulation model. Comparison with observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hein, R.; Dameris, M.; Schnadt, C. [and others

    2000-01-01

    An interactively coupled climate-chemistry model which enables a simultaneous treatment of meteorology and atmospheric chemistry and their feedbacks is presented. This is the first model, which interactively combines a general circulation model based on primitive equations with a rather complex model of stratospheric and tropospheric chemistry, and which is computational efficient enough to allow long-term integrations with currently available computer resources. The applied model version extends from the Earth's surface up to 10 hPa with a relatively high number (39) of vertical levels. We present the results of a present-day (1990) simulation and compare it to available observations. We focus on stratospheric dynamics and chemistry relevant to describe the stratospheric ozone layer. The current model version ECHAM4.L39(DLR)/CHEM can realistically reproduce stratospheric dynamics in the Arctic vortex region, including stratospheric warming events. This constitutes a major improvement compared to formerly applied model versions. However, apparent shortcomings in Antarctic circulation and temperatures persist. The seasonal and interannual variability of the ozone layer is simulated in accordance with observations. Activation and deactivation of chlorine in the polar stratospheric vortices and their interhemispheric differences are reproduced. The consideration of the chemistry feedback on dynamics results in an improved representation of the spatial distribution of stratospheric water vapor concentrations, i.e., the simulated meriodional water vapor gradient in the stratosphere is realistic. The present model version constitutes a powerful tool to investigate, for instance, the combined direct and indirect effects of anthropogenic trace gas emissions, and the future evolution of the ozone layer. (orig.)

  12. Why has the bohr-sommerfeld model of the atom been ignoredby general chemistry textbooks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niaz, Mansoor; Cardellini, Liberato

    2011-12-01

    Bohr's model of the atom is considered to be important by general chemistry textbooks. A major shortcoming of this model was that it could not explain the spectra of atoms containing more than one electron. In order to increase the explanatory power of the model, Sommerfeld hypothesized the existence of elliptical orbits. This study has the following objectives: 1) Formulation of criteria based on a history and philosophy of science framework; and 2) Evaluation of university-level general chemistry textbooks based on the criteria, published in Italy and U.S.A. Presentation of a textbook was considered to be "satisfactory" if it included a description of the Bohr-Sommerfeld model along with diagrams of the elliptical orbits. Of the 28 textbooks published in Italy that were analyzed, only five were classified as "satisfactory". Of the 46 textbooks published in U.S.A., only three were classified as "satisfactory". This study has the following educational implications: a) Sommerfeld's innovation (auxiliary hypothesis) by introducing elliptical orbits, helped to restore the viability of Bohr's model; b) Bohr-Sommerfeld's model went no further than the alkali metals, which led scientists to look for other models; c) This clearly shows that scientific models are tentative in nature; d) Textbook authors and chemistry teachers do not consider the tentative nature of scientific knowledge to be important; e) Inclusion of the Bohr-Sommerfeld model in textbooks can help our students to understand how science progresses.

  13. General Chemistry Exercises Focused on the Professional Profile on Nuclear Careers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lau-González, Maritza; Jáuregui-Haza, Ulises; Corona-Hernández, José Ángel; Santamaría-Arbona, María Teresa; Abreu-Díaz, Aidamary

    2016-01-01

    The subject General Chemistry is part of the base curriculum of the nuclear profile careers: Radiochemistry Careers and Engineering on Nuclear Technologies and Energetics. It has as main objectives the complementing, the deep analysis and integration of the basic principles of chemistry as a science, and due to its content, it constitutes an excellent platform to settle inter-subject relationships with those of the nuclear specialties. The aim of this paper is presenting linking examples among the subjects, through exercises that are supported in the Moodle Platform, conceived for the independent work of students, which besides facilitating the consolidation of the received knowledge in high school, and those ones in the first year of the career, allow them to be familiar with the future of their profession. (author)

  14. Based on a True Story: Using Movies as Source Material for General Chemistry Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griep, Mark A.; Mikasen, Marjorie L.

    2005-10-01

    Research for chemical reports and case study analysis of chemical topics are two commonly used learning activities to engage and enrich student understanding of the content in introductory chemistry courses. Even though movies are excellent vehicles for exploring the human dimension of events, they have been used only sparingly as source material in introductory science courses. One reason for this sparing use has been the lack of a list of suitable movies. To fill this void, a list of one dozen highly rated movies is presented. The focus of these movies is either a scientist's chemical research or the societal impact of some chemical compound. The method by which two of these movies were used as source material for a written report in a general chemistry course is described. The student response to the exercise was enthusiastic.

  15. Academic Achievement in Physics-Chemistry: The Predictive Effect of Attitudes and Reasoning Abilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo N. Vilia

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Science education plays a critical role as political priority due to its fundamental importance in engaging students to pursue technological careers considered essential in modern societies, in order to face scientific development challenges. High-level achievement on science education and positive attitudes toward science constitutes a crucial challenge for formal education. Several studies indicate close relationships between students’ attitudes, cognitive abilities, and academic achievement. The main purpose of this study is to analyze the impact of student’s attitudes toward the school discipline of Physics and Chemistry and their reasoning abilities on academic achievement on that school subject, among Portuguese 9th grade students using the data collected during the Project Academic Performance and Development: a longitudinal study on the effects of school transitions in Portuguese students (PTDC/CPE-CED/104884/2008. The participants were 470 students (267 girls – 56.8% and 203 boys – 43.2%, aged 14–16 years old (μ = 14.3 ± 0.58. The attitude data were collected using the Attitude toward Physics-Chemistry Questionnaire (ATPCQ and, the Reasoning Test Battery (RTB was used to assess the students reasoning abilities. Achievement was measured using the students’ quarterly (9-week grades in the physics and chemistry subject. The relationships between the attitude dimensions toward Physics-chemistry and the reasoning dimensions and achievement in each of the three school terms were assessed by multiple regression stepwise analyses and standardized regression coefficients (β, calculated with IBM SPSS Statistics 21 software. Both variables studied proved to be significant predictor variables of school achievement. The models obtained from the use of both variables were always stronger accounting for higher proportions of student’s grade variations. The results show that ATPCQ and RTB had a significantly positive relationship with

  16. Essential concepts and underlying theories from physics, chemistry, and mathematics for "biochemistry and molecular biology" majors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Ann; Provost, Joseph; Roecklein-Canfield, Jennifer A; Bell, Ellis

    2013-01-01

    Over the past two years, through an NSF RCN UBE grant, the ASBMB has held regional workshops for faculty members from around the country. The workshops have focused on developing lists of Core Principles or Foundational Concepts in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, a list of foundational skills, and foundational concepts from Physics, Chemistry, and Mathematics that all Biochemistry or Molecular Biology majors must understand to complete their major coursework. The allied fields working group created a survey to validate foundational concepts from Physics, Chemistry, and Mathematics identified from participant feedback at various workshops. One-hundred twenty participants responded to the survey and 68% of the respondents answered yes to the question: "We have identified the following as the core concepts and underlying theories from Physics, Chemistry, and Mathematics that Biochemistry majors or Molecular Biology majors need to understand after they complete their major courses: 1) mechanical concepts from Physics, 2) energy and thermodynamic concepts from Physics, 3) critical concepts of structure from chemistry, 4) critical concepts of reactions from Chemistry, and 5) essential Mathematics. In your opinion, is the above list complete?" Respondents also delineated subcategories they felt should be included in these broad categories. From the results of the survey and this analysis the allied fields working group constructed a consensus list of allied fields concepts, which will help inform Biochemistry and Molecular Biology educators when considering the ASBMB recommended curriculum for Biochemistry or Molecular Biology majors and in the development of appropriate assessment tools to gauge student understanding of how these concepts relate to biochemistry and molecular biology. © 2013 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  17. Investigating the Longitudinal Impact of a Successful Reform in General Chemistry on Student Enrollment and Academic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Scott E.

    2014-01-01

    Considerable effort in chemistry education research has been dedicated to developing and evaluating reform pedagogies designed to improve student success in general chemistry. Policy recommendations propose adoption of these techniques as a means to increase the number of science graduates, however there is the potential that the impact of these…

  18. Improving Students' Inquiry Skills and Self-Efficacy through Research-Inspired Modules in the General Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkelmann, Kurt; Baloga, Monica; Marcinkowski, Tom; Giannoulis, Christos; Anquandah, George; Cohen, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Research projects conducted by faculty in STEM departments served as the inspiration for a new curriculum of inquiry-based, multiweek laboratory modules in the general chemistry 1 course. The purpose of this curriculum redesign was to improve students' attitudes about chemistry as well as their self-efficacy and skills in performing inquiry…

  19. The physical basis of thermodynamics with applications to chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Richet, Pascal

    2001-01-01

    Given that thermodynamics books are not a rarity on the market, why would an additional one be useful? The answer is simple: at any level, thermodynamics is usually taught as a somewhat abstruse discipline where many students get lost in a maze of difficult concepts. However, thermodynamics is not as intricate a subject as most people feel. This book fills a niche between elementary textbooks and mathematically oriented treatises, and provides readers with a distinct approach to the subject. As indicated by the title, this book explains thermodynamic phenomena and concepts in physical terms before proceeding to focus on the requisite mathematical aspects. It focuses on the effects of pressure, temperature and chemical composition on thermodynamic properties and places emphasis on rapidly evolving fields such as amorphous materials, metastable phases, numerical simulations of microsystems and high-pressure thermodynamics. Topics like redox reactions are dealt with in less depth, due to the fact that there is a...

  20. Bad chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Petsko, Gregory A

    2004-01-01

    General chemistry courses haven't changed significantly in forty years. Because most basic chemistry students are premedical students, medical schools have enormous influence and could help us start all over again to create undergraduate chemistry education that works.

  1. Basic actinide chemistry and physics research in close cooperation with hot laboratories: ACTILAB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minato, K; Konashi, K; Fujii, T; Uehara, A; Nagasaki, S; Ohtori, N; Tokunaga, Y; Kambe, S

    2010-01-01

    Basic research in actinide chemistry and physics is indispensable to maintain sustainable development of innovative nuclear technology. Actinides, especially minor actinides of americium and curium, need to be handled in special facilities with containment and radiation shields. To promote and facilitate actinide research, close cooperation with the facilities and sharing of technical and scientific information must be very important and effective. A three-year-program B asic actinide chemistry and physics research in close cooperation with hot laboratories , ACTILAB, was started to form the basis of sustainable development of innovative nuclear technology. In this program, research on actinide solid-state physics, solution chemistry and solid-liquid interface chemistry is made using four main facilities in Japan in close cooperation with each other, where basic experiments with transuranium elements can be made. The 17 O-NMR measurements were performed on (Pu 0.91 Am 0.09 )O 2 to study the electronic state and the chemical behaviour of Am and Cm ions in electrolyte solutions was studied by distribution experiments.

  2. Physical chemistry characterization of soils of the Storage Center of Radioactive Wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez T, U. O.; Fernandez R, E.; Monroy G, F.; Anguiano A, J.

    2011-11-01

    Any type of waste should be confined so that it does not causes damage to the human health neither the environment and for the storage of the radioactive wastes these actions are the main priority. In the Storage Center of Radioactive Wastes the radioactive wastes generated in Mexico by non energy applications are storage of temporary way. The present study is focused in determining the physical chemistry properties of the lands of the Storage Center of Radioactive Wastes like they are: real density, ph, conductivity percentage of organic matter and percentage of humidity. With what is sought to make a characterization to verify the reaction capacity of the soils in case of a possible flight of radioactive material. The results show that there are different density variations, ph and conductivity in all the soil samples; the ph and conductivity vary with regard to the contact time between the soil and their saturation point in water, for the case of the density due to the characteristics of the same soil; for what is not possible to establish a general profile, but is necessary to know the properties of each soil type more amply. Contrary case is the content of organic matter and humidity since both are in minor proportions. (Author)

  3. Physical chemistry and modelling of the sintering of actinide oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lechelle, Jacques

    2013-01-01

    This report gives a synthesis of the work I have carried out or to which I have numerically contributed to from 1996 up to 2012 in the Department of Plutonium Uranium and minor Actinides in Cadarache CEA Center. Their main goal is the study and the modeling of the sintering process of nuclear fuels which is the unifying thread of this document. Both in order to take into account the physical and chemical features of the actinide bearing oxide material and in order to combine the different transport phenomena leading to sintering, a sub-granular scale model is under development. Extension to a varying chemical composition as well as exchanges with the gaseous phase are foreseen. A simulation on a larger scale (pellet scale) is ongoing in the framework of a PhD thesis. Validation means have been tested with (U,Pu)O 2 material on the scale of the pellet (Small Angle Neutron Diffusion), on the scale of powder granules (X-Ray High Resolution Micro-Tomography) and with CeO 2 at the 'Institut de Chimie Separative' in Marcoule on a single crystal scale (Environmental Scanning Electron Microscope). The required microstructure homogeneity for nuclear fuels has led to a campaign of experimental studies about the role of Cr 2 O 3 as a sintering aid. Whole of these studies improve our understanding of fuel sintering and hence leads to an improved mastering of this process. (author) [fr

  4. Before big science the pursuit of modern chemistry and physics, 1800-1940

    CERN Document Server

    Nye, Mary Jo

    1999-01-01

    Today's vast multinational scientific monoliths bear little resemblance to the modest laboratories of the early nineteenth century. Yet early in the nineteenth century--when heat and electricity were still counted among the elements--changes were already under way that would revolutionize chemistry and physics into the "big science" of the late twentieth century, expanding tiny, makeshift laboratories into bustling research institutes and replacing the scientific amateurs and generalist savants of the early Victorian era with the professional specialists of contemporary physical science. Mary Jo Nye traces the social and intellectual history of the physical sciences from the early 1800s to the beginning of the Second World War, examining the sweeping transformation of scientific institutions and professions during the period and the groundbreaking experiments that fueled that change, from the earliest investigations of molecular chemistry and field dynamics to the revolutionary breakthroughs of quantum mecha...

  5. Annual progress report of the Condensed Matter Physics and Chemistry Department. 1 January - 31 December 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebech, B.

    2001-03-01

    The Condensed Matter Physics and Chemistry Department is concerned with both fundamental and applied research into the physical and chemical properties of materials. The principal activities in the year 2000 are presented in this progress report. The research in physics is concentrated on neutron and x-ray scattering measurements and the problems studied include two- and three-dimensional structures, magnetic ordering and spin dynamics, superconductivity, phase transitions and nano-scale structures. The research in chemistry includes chemical synthesis and physico-chemical investigation of small molecules and polymers, with emphasis on polymers with new optical properties, block copolymers, surface-modified polymers, and supramolecular structures. Theoretical work related to these problems is undertaken, including Monte Carlo simulations, computer simulation of molecules and polymers and methods of data analysis. (au)

  6. Annual progress report of the Condensed Matter Physics and Chemistry Department. 1 January - 31 December 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebech, B [ed.

    2000-02-01

    The Condensed Matter Physics and Chemistry Department is concerned with both fundamental and applied research into the physical and chemical properties of materials. The principal activities in the year 1999 are presented in this progress report. The research in physics is concentrated on neutron and x-ray scattering measurements and the problems studied include two- and three-dimensional structures, magnetic ordering and spin dynamics, superconductivity, phase transitions and nano-scalestructures. The research in chemistry includes chemical synthesis and physico-chemical investigation of small molecules and polymers, with emphasis on polymers with new optical properties, block copolymers, surface-modified polymers, and supramolecular structures. Theoretical work related to these problems is undertaken, including Monte Carlo simulations, computer simulation of molecules and polymers and methods of data analysis. (au)

  7. Annual progress report of the Condensed Matter Physics and Chemistry Department 1 January - 31 December 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, M.; Bechgaard, K.; Clausen, K.N.; Feidenhans'l, R.; Johannsen, I.

    1998-01-01

    The Condensed Matter Physics and Chemistry Department is concerned with both fundamental and applied research into the physical and chemical properties of materials. The principal activities in the year 1997 are presented in this progress report. The research in physics in concentrated on neutron and x-ray scattering measurements and the problems studied include two- and three-dimensional structures, magnetic ordering and spin dynamics, superconductivity, phase transitions and nano-scale structures. The research in chemistry includes chemical synthesis and physico-chemical investigation of small molecules and polymers, with emphasis on polymers with new optical properties, block copolymers, surface-modified polymers, and supramolecular structures. Theoretical work related to these problems in undertaken, including Monte Carlo simulations, computer simulation of molecules and polymers and methods of data analysis. (au)

  8. Annual progress report of the Condensed Matter Physics and Chemistry Department. 1 January - 31 December 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebech, B.

    2000-02-01

    The Condensed Matter Physics and Chemistry Department is concerned with both fundamental and applied research into the physical and chemical properties of materials. The principal activities in the year 1999 are presented in this progress report. The research in physics is concentrated on neutron and x-ray scattering measurements and the problems studied include two- and three-dimensional structures, magnetic ordering and spin dynamics, superconductivity, phase transitions and nano-scale structures. The research in chemistry includes chemical synthesis and physico-chemical investigation of small molecules and polymers, with emphasis on polymers with new optical properties, block copolymers, surface-modified polymers, and supramolecular structures. Theoretical work related to these problems is undertaken, including Monte Carlo simulations, computer simulation of molecules and polymers and methods of data analysis. (au)

  9. Annual progress report of the Condensed Matter Physics and Chemistry Department 1 January - 31 December 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bechgaard, K.; Clausen, K.N.; Feidenhans`l, R.; Johannsen, I. [eds.

    1999-04-01

    The Condensed Matter Physics and Chemistry Department is concerned with both fundamental and applied research into the physical properties of materials. The principal activities in the year 1998 are presented in this progress report. The research in physics is concentrated on neutron and x-ray scattering measurements and the problems studied include two- and three-dimensional structures, magnetic ordering and spin dynamics, superconductivity, phase transitions and nano-scale structures. The research in chemistry includes chemical synthesis and physico-chemical investigation of small molecules and polymers, with emphasis on polymers with new optical properties, block copolymers, surface-modified polymers, and supramolecular structures. Theoretical work related to these problems is undertaken, including Monte Carlo simulations, computer simulation of molecules and polymers and methods of data analysis. (au) 2 tabs., 142 ills., 169 refs.

  10. Annual progress report of the Condensed Matter Physics and Chemistry Department 1 January - 31 December 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, M; Bechgaard, K; Clausen, K N; Feidenhans` l, R; Johannsen, I [eds.

    1998-01-01

    The Condensed Matter Physics and Chemistry Department is concerned with both fundamental and applied research into the physical and chemical properties of materials. The principal activities in the year 1997 are presented in this progress report. The research in physics in concentrated on neutron and x-ray scattering measurements and the problems studied include two- and three-dimensional structures, magnetic ordering and spin dynamics, superconductivity, phase transitions and nano-scale structures. The research in chemistry includes chemical synthesis and physico-chemical investigation of small molecules and polymers, with emphasis on polymers with new optical properties, block copolymers, surface-modified polymers, and supramolecular structures. Theoretical work related to these problems in undertaken, including Monte Carlo simulations, computer simulation of molecules and polymers and methods of data analysis. (au). 129 ills., 213 refs.

  11. Annual progress report of the Condensed Matter Physics and Chemistry Department 1 January - 31 December 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bechgaard, K.; Clausen, K.N.; Feidenhans'l, R.; Johannsen, I.

    1999-04-01

    The Condensed Matter Physics and Chemistry Department is concerned with both fundamental and applied research into the physical properties of materials. The principal activities in the year 1998 are presented in this progress report. The research in physics is concentrated on neutron and x-ray scattering measurements and the problems studied include two- and three-dimensional structures, magnetic ordering and spin dynamics, superconductivity, phase transitions and nano-scale structures. The research in chemistry includes chemical synthesis and physico-chemical investigation of small molecules and polymers, with emphasis on polymers with new optical properties, block copolymers, surface-modified polymers, and supramolecular structures. Theoretical work related to these problems is undertaken, including Monte Carlo simulations, computer simulation of molecules and polymers and methods of data analysis. (au)

  12. The role of Einstein's general relativity theory in today's physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bicak, J.

    The relationships are discussed of the general relativity theory to other fields of today's physics. Recent results are reported of studies into gravitational radiation, relativistic astrophysics, cosmology and the quantum theory. (Z.M.)

  13. An Investigation of the Effects of Reader Characteristics on Reading Comprehension Of a General Chemistry Text

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neiles, Kelly Y.

    variable. The results from this regression analysis indicated that the two schema measures (measured by the Pathfinder program) accounted for the greatest amount of variance in four of the reading comprehension variables (encoding the text, bridging and elaborative inferences, and delayed recall of a general summary). This research suggest that providing students with background information on chemistry concepts prior to having them read the text may result in better understanding and more effective incorporation of the chemistry concepts into their schema.

  14. Student participation in World Wide Web-based curriculum development of general chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, William John Forbes

    1998-12-01

    This thesis describes an action research investigation of improvements to instruction in General Chemistry at Purdue University. Specifically, the study was conducted to guide continuous reform of curriculum materials delivered via the World Wide Web by involving students, instructors, and curriculum designers. The theoretical framework for this study was based upon constructivist learning theory and knowledge claims were developed using an inductive analysis procedure. This results of this study are assertions made in three domains: learning chemistry content via the World Wide Web, learning about learning via the World Wide Web, and learning about participation in an action research project. In the chemistry content domain, students were able to learn chemical concepts that utilized 3-dimensional visualizations, but not textual and graphical information delivered via the Web. In the learning via the Web domain, the use of feedback, the placement of supplementary aids, navigation, and the perception of conceptual novelty were all important to students' use of the Web. In the participation in action research domain, students learned about the complexity of curriculum. development, and valued their empowerment as part of the process.

  15. Using Graphs of Gibbs Energy versus Temperature in General Chemistry Discussions of Phase Changes and Colligative Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Robert M.; Riley, Patrick; Schwinefus, Jeff; Fischer, Paul J.

    2008-01-01

    The use of qualitative graphs of Gibbs energy versus temperature is described in the context of chemical demonstrations involving phase changes and colligative properties at the general chemistry level. (Contains 5 figures and 1 note.)

  16. Research and Teaching: Computational Methods in General Chemistry--Perceptions of Programming, Prior Experience, and Student Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Lindsay B.; Chiu, Jennie L.; Grisham, Charles M.

    2016-01-01

    This article explores how integrating computational tools into a general chemistry laboratory course can influence student perceptions of programming and investigates relationships among student perceptions, prior experience, and student outcomes.

  17. Mathematical modeling of physical processes in inorganic chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiu, H.L.

    1988-01-01

    The first part deals with the rapid calculation of steady-state concentration profiles in contactors using the Purex Process. Most of the computer codes simulating the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel generate the steady-state properties by calculating the transient behavior of the contactors. In this study, the author simulates the steady-state concentration profiles directly without first generating the transient behavior. Two computer codes are developed, PUMA (Plutonium-Uranium-Matrix-Algorithm) and PUNE (Plutonium-Uranium-Non-Equilibrium). The first one simulates the steady-state concentration profiles under conditions of equilibrium mass transfer. The second one accounts for deviations from mass transfer equilibrium. The second part of this dissertation shows how to use the classical trajectory method to study the equilibrium and saddle-point geometries of MX n (n = 2-7) molecules. Two nuclear potential functions that have the property of invariance to the operations of the permutation group of nuclei in molecules of the general formula MX n are described. Such potential functions allow equivalent isomers to have equal energies so that various statistical mechanical properties can be simply determined. The first function contains two center interactions between pairs of peripheral atoms and its defined by V(r) = 1/2Σ α k triangle r αμ 2 + Σ α QR αβ -n (n = 1,2...). The second function contains two and three center interactions and is defined by V(Θ) = 1/2Σ α K triangle αμ 2 + 1/2Σ α Qr 0 2 (Θ αμβ - π) 2

  18. The Chemistry Departement of the Institute for Nuclear Physics Research, Amsterdam, The Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindner, L.

    1977-01-01

    In 1946, the Institute for Nuclear Physics Research (IKO) in Amsterdam was founded as a typical post World War II effort to cope with the surge in scientific research, primarily in the USA. At present, the Institute encompasses almost 250 workers - including a Philips research group - out of which nearly 30 are members of the Chemistry Department. In the beginning, the investigations dealt with more or less conventional tracerwork using long-lived radionuclides produced in nuclear reactors. This changed rapidly with the synchrocyclotron coming into operation in 1947. The present can be best characterized as a sort of a transition state. Emphasis has been laid upon more typical chemical aspects of the research program: a shift from ''nuclear'' chemistry to ''radio'' chemistry. The future is determined by the 500 MeV linear electron accelerator, dubbed MEA (Medium Energy Accelerator) already under construction. (T.G.)

  19. Annual progress report of the Condensed Matter Physics and Chemistry Department 1 January - 31 December 1999

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2000-01-01

    The Condensed Matter Physics and Chemistry Department is concerned with both fundamental and applied research into the physical and chemical properties of materials. The principal activities in the year 1999 are presented in this progress report. Theresearch in physics is concentrated on neutron...... molecules and polymers, with emphasis on polymers with new optical properties, block copolymers, surface-modified polymers, and supramolecular structures.Theoretical work related to these problems is undertaken, including Monte Carlo simulations, computer simulation of molecules and polymers and methods...

  20. Implementation of a PETN failure model using ARIA's general chemistry framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hobbs, Michael L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-01-01

    We previously developed a PETN thermal decomposition model that accurately predicts thermal ignition and detonator failure [1]. This model was originally developed for CALORE [2] and required several complex user subroutines. Recently, a simplified version of the PETN decomposition model was implemented into ARIA [3] using a general chemistry framework without need for user subroutines. Detonator failure was also predicted with this new model using ENCORE. The model was simplified by 1) basing the model on moles rather than mass, 2) simplifying the thermal conductivity model, and 3) implementing ARIA’s new phase change model. This memo briefly describes the model, implementation, and validation.

  1. Chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferris, L.M.

    1975-01-01

    Research and development activities dealing with the chemical problems related to design and ultimate operation of molten-salt reactor systems are described. An experimental test stand was constructed to expose metallurgical test specimens to Te 2 vapor at defined temperatures and deposition rates. To better define the chemistry of fluoroborate coolant, several aspects are being investigated. The behavior of hydroxy and oxy compounds in molten NaBF 4 is being investigated to define reactions and compounds that may be involved in corrosion and/or could be involved in methods for trapping tritium. Two corrosion products of Hastelloy N, Na 3 CrF 6 and Na 5 Cr 3 F 14 , were identified from fluoroborate systems. The evaluation of fluoroborate and alternate coolants continued. Research on the behavior of hydrogen and its isotopes is summarized. The solubilities of hydrogen, deuterium, and helium in Li 2 BeF 4 are very low. The sorption of tritium on graphite was found to be significant (a few milligrams of tritium per kilogram of graphite), possibly providing a means of sequestering a portion of the tritium produced. Development of analytical methods continued with emphasis on voltammetric and spectrophotometric techniques for the in-line analysis of corrosion products such as Fe 2+ and Cr 3+ and the determination of the U 3+ /U 4+ ratio in MSBR fuel salt. Similar studies were conducted with the NaBF 4 --NaF coolant salt. Information developed during the previous operation of the CSTF has been assessed and used to formulate plans for evaluation of in-line analytical methods in future CSTF operations. Electroanalytical and spectrophotometric research suggests that an electroactive protonic species is present in molten NaBF 4 --NaF, and that this species rapidly equilibrates with a volatile proton-containing species. Data obtained from the CSTF indicated that tritium was concentrated in the volatile species. (JGB)

  2. Delayed Reaction: The Tardy Embrace of Physical Organic Chemistry by the German Chemical Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weininger, Stephen J

    2018-02-01

    The emergence of physical organic chemistry, which focuses on the mechanisms and structures of organic reactions and molecules using the tools of physical chemistry, was a major development in twentieth-century chemistry. It first flourished in the interwar period, in the UK and then in the US. Germany, by contrast, did not embrace the field until almost a half century later. The great success of classical organic chemistry, especially in synthesis, encouraged indifference to the new field among German chemists, as did their inductivist research philosophy, as enunciated by Walter Hückel's ground-breaking textbook (1931). This author also resisted new concepts and representations, especially those of the American theoretician, Linus Pauling. The arrival of the Nazi regime reinforced such resistance. Postwar conditions initiated a reaction against this conservative, nationalistic attitude, especially in the American Occupation Zone. Exposure to American textbooks and visiting lecturers influenced attitudes of younger chemists. The accompanying shift towards a more explanatory, less hierarchical mode of pedagogy was consonant with larger social and political developments.

  3. The Implementation of Physics Problem Solving Strategy Combined with Concept Map in General Physics Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidayati, H.; Ramli, R.

    2018-04-01

    This paper aims to provide a description of the implementation of Physic Problem Solving strategy combined with concept maps in General Physics learning at Department of Physics, Universitas Negeri Padang. Action research has been conducted in two cycles where each end of the cycle is reflected and improved for the next cycle. Implementation of Physics Problem Solving strategy combined with concept map can increase student activity in solving general physics problem with an average increase of 15% and can improve student learning outcomes from 42,7 in the cycle I become 62,7 in cycle II in general physics at the Universitas Negeri Padang. In the future, the implementation of Physic Problem Solving strategy combined with concept maps will need to be considered in Physics courses.

  4. What Do Conceptual Holes in Assessment Say about the Topics We Teach in General Chemistry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luxford, Cynthia J.; Holme, Thomas A.

    2015-01-01

    Introductory chemistry has long been considered a service course by various departments that entrust chemistry departments with teaching their students. As a result, most introductory courses include a majority of students who are not chemistry majors, and many are health and science related majors who are required to take chemistry. To identify…

  5. MADNESS applied to density functional theory in chemistry and nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fann, G I; Harrison, R J; Beylkin, G; Jia, J; Hartman-Baker, R; Shelton, W A; Sugiki, S

    2007-01-01

    We describe some recent mathematical results in constructing computational methods that lead to the development of fast and accurate multiresolution numerical methods for solving quantum chemistry and nuclear physics problems based on Density Functional Theory (DFT). Using low separation rank representations of functions and operators in conjunction with representations in multiwavelet bases, we developed a multiscale solution method for integral and differential equations and integral transforms. The Poisson equation, the Schrodinger equation, and the projector on the divergence free functions provide important examples with a wide range of applications in computational chemistry, nuclear physics, computational electromagnetic and fluid dynamics. We have implemented this approach along with adaptive representations of operators and functions in the multiwavelet basis and low separation rank (LSR) approximation of operators and functions. These methods have been realized and implemented in a software package called Multiresolution Adaptive Numerical Evaluation for Scientific Simulation (MADNESS)

  6. Guide to essential math a review for physics, chemistry and engineering students

    CERN Document Server

    Blinder, Sy M

    2008-01-01

    This book reminds students in junior, senior and graduate level courses in physics, chemistry and engineering of the math they may have forgotten (or learned imperfectly) which is needed to succeed in science courses. The focus is on math actually used in physics, chemistry and engineering, and the approach to mathematics begins with 12 examples of increasing complexity, designed to hone the student''s ability to think in mathematical terms and to apply quantitative methods to scientific problems. By the author''s design, no problems are included in the text, to allow the students to focus on their science course assignments.- Highly accessible presentation of fundamental mathematical techniques needed in science and engineering courses- Use of proven pedagogical techniques develolped during the author's 40 years of teaching experience- illustrations and links to reference material on World-Wide-Web- Coverage of fairly advanced topics, including vector and matrix algebra, partial differential equations, speci...

  7. A report on workshops: General circulation model study of climate- chemistry interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei-Chyung, Wang; Isaksen, I.S.A.

    1993-01-01

    This report summarizes the discussion on General Circulation Model Study of Climate-Chemistry Interaction from two workshops, the first held 19--21 August 1992 at Oslo, Norway and the second 26--27 May 1993 at Albany, New York, USA. The workshops are the IAMAP activities under the Trace Constituent Working Group. The main objective of the two workshops was to recommend specific general circulation model (GCM) studies of the ozone distribution and the climatic effect of its changes. The workshops also discussed the climatic implications of increasing sulfate aerosols because of its importance to regional climate. The workshops were organized into four working groups: observation of atmospheric O 3 ; modeling of atmospheric chemical composition; modeling of sulfate aerosols; and aspects of climate modeling

  8. Use of ionising radiation in the teaching of physics and chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The guide lays down the safety requirements for the use of radiation in school education, as well as the principles regulating the use of radiation sources without the safety licence referred to in section 16 of the Finnish Radiation Act (592/1991). The guide covers the use of radiation sources emitting ionising radiation in elementary schools and high schools, as well as the use of radiation in the teaching of physics and chemistry in vocational training institutions and corresponding educational institutions

  9. Use of ionizing radiation in the teaching of physics and chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The guide specifies the safety requirements for the use of radiation in school education as well as the principles regulating the use of radiation sources without the safety license referred to the Section 16 of the Finnish Radiation Act (592/91). The guide covers the use of radiation sources emitting ionizing radiation in elementary schools and high schools, as well as the use of radiation in the teaching of physics and chemistry in vocational training institutions and corresponding educational institutions. (3 refs.)

  10. Development of Teaching Materials for a Physical Chemistry Experiment Using the QR Code

    OpenAIRE

    吉村, 忠与志

    2008-01-01

    The development of teaching materials with the QR code was attempted in an educational environment using a mobile telephone. The QR code is not sufficiently utilized in education, and the current study is one of the first in the field. The QR code is encrypted. However, the QR code can be deciphered by mobile telephones, thus enabling the expression of text in a small space.Contents of "Physical Chemistry Experiment" which are available on the Internet are briefly summarized and simplified. T...

  11. Beyond "Inert" Ideas to Teaching General Chemistry from Rich Contexts: Visualizing the Chemistry of Climate Change (VC3)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahaffy, Peter G.; Holme, Thomas A.; Martin-Visscher, Leah; Martin, Brian E.; Versprille, Ashley; Kirchhoff, Mary; McKenzie, Lallie; Town, Marcy

    2017-01-01

    As one approach to moving beyond transmitting "inert" ideas to chemistry students, we use the term "teaching from rich contexts" to describe implementations of case studies or context-based learning based on systems thinking that provide deep and rich opportunities for learning crosscutting concepts through contexts. This…

  12. Investigations of Nitrogen Oxide Plasmas: Fundamental Chemistry and Surface Reactivity and Monitoring Student Perceptions in a General Chemistry Recitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blechle, Joshua M.

    2016-01-01

    Part I of this dissertation focuses on investigations of nitrogen oxide plasma systems. With increasing concerns over the environmental presence of NxOy species, there is growing interest in utilizing plasma-assisted conversion techniques. Advances, however, have been limited because of the lack of knowledge regarding the fundamental chemistry of…

  13. Picture this: The value of multiple visual representations for student learning of quantum concepts in general chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Emily Christine

    Mental models for scientific learning are often defined as, "cognitive tools situated between experiments and theories" (Duschl & Grandy, 2012). In learning, these cognitive tools are used to not only take in new information, but to help problem solve in new contexts. Nancy Nersessian (2008) describes a mental model as being "[loosely] characterized as a representation of a system with interactive parts with representations of those interactions. Models can be qualitative, quantitative, and/or simulative (mental, physical, computational)" (p. 63). If conceptual parts used by the students in science education are inaccurate, then the resulting model will not be useful. Students in college general chemistry courses are presented with multiple abstract topics and often struggle to fit these parts into complete models. This is especially true for topics that are founded on quantum concepts, such as atomic structure and molecular bonding taught in college general chemistry. The objectives of this study were focused on how students use visual tools introduced during instruction to reason with atomic and molecular structure, what misconceptions may be associated with these visual tools, and how visual modeling skills may be taught to support students' use of visual tools for reasoning. The research questions for this study follow from Gilbert's (2008) theory that experts use multiple representations when reasoning and modeling a system, and Kozma and Russell's (2005) theory of representational competence levels. This study finds that as students developed greater command of their understanding of abstract quantum concepts, they spontaneously provided additional representations to describe their more sophisticated models of atomic and molecular structure during interviews. This suggests that when visual modeling with multiple representations is taught, along with the limitations of the representations, it can assist students in the development of models for reasoning about

  14. The Physics and Chemistry of Oxygen-Rich Circumstellar Envelopes as Traced by Simple Molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Ka Tat

    2018-04-01

    The physics and chemistry of the circumstellar envelopes (CSEs) of evolved stars are not fully understood despite decades of research. This thesis addresses two issues in the study of the CSEs of oxygen-rich (O-rich) evolved stars. In the first project, the ammonia (NH3) chemistry of O-rich stars is investigated with multi-wavelength observations; in the second project, the extended atmosphere and inner wind of the archetypal asymptotic giant branch (AGB) star o Ceti (Mira) is studied with high-angular resolution observations. One of the long-standing mysteries in circumstellar chemistry is the perplexing overabundance of the NH3 molecule. NH3 in O-rich evolved stars has been found in much higher abundance, by several orders of magnitude, than that expected in equilibrium chemistry. Several mechanisms have been suggested in the literature to explain this high NH3 abundance, including shocks in the inner wind, photodissociation of nitrogen by interstellar ultraviolet radiation, and nitrogen enrichment in stellar nucleosynthesis; however, none of these suggestions can fully explain the abundances of NH3 and various other molecular species in the CSEs of O-rich stars. In order to investigate the distribution of NH3 in O-rich CSEs, observations of the spectral lines of NH3 from a diverse sample of evolved stars and in different wavelength regimes are necessary. In this thesis, the NH3 line emission and absorption from four O-rich stars are studied. These targets include the AGB star IK Tauri, the pre-planetary nebula OH 231.8+4.2, the red supergiant VY Canis Majoris, and the yellow hypergiant IRC +10420. The amount of NH3 observational data has increased drastically thanks to the recent advancement of instrumentation. Observations of NH3 rotational line emission at submillimetre/far-infrared wavelengths were possible with the Herschel Space Observatory (2009–2013). The new wideband correlator in the upgraded Karl G. Janksy Very Large Array (VLA) provided data of

  15. Generalized Tellegen Principle and Physical Correctness of System Representations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaclav Cerny

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with a new problem of physical correctness detection in the area of strictly causal system representations. The proposed approach to the problem solution is based on generalization of Tellegen's theorem well known from electrical engineering. Consequently, mathematically as well as physically correct results are obtained. Some known and often used system representation structures are discussed from the developed point of view as an addition.

  16. Framing a program designed to train new chemistry/physics teachers for California outlying regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodily, Gerald P., Jr.

    The purpose of this study was to develop guidelines for a new high school chemistry and physics teacher training program. Eleven participants were interviewed who attended daylong workshops, every other Saturday, for 10 months. The instructors used Modeling Instruction pedagogy and curriculum. All the instructors had high school teaching experience, but only one possessed a doctorate degree. The interview questions focused on four themes: motivation, epistemology, meta-cognition, and self-regulation; and the resulting transcripts were analyzed using a methodology called Interpretive Phenomenological Analysis. The cases expressed a strong preference for the program's instruction program over learning subject matter knowledge in university classrooms. The data indicated that the cases, as a group, were disciplined scholars seeking a deep understanding of the subject matter knowledge needed to teach high school chemistry and physics. Based on these results a new approach to training teachers was proposed, an approach that offers novel answers to the questions of how and who to train as science teachers. The how part of the training involves using a program called Modeling Instruction. Modeling instruction is currently used to upgrade experienced science teachers and, in the new approach, replaces the training traditionally administered by professional scientists in university science departments. The who aspect proposes that the participants be college graduates, selected not for university science training, but for their high school math and science background. It is further proposed that only 10 months of daily, face-to-face instruction is required to move the learner to a deep understanding of subject matter knowledge required to teach high school chemistry and physics. Two outcomes are sought by employing this new training paradigm, outcomes that have been unachievable by current educational practices. First, it is hoped that new chemistry and physics teachers can

  17. Research on condensed matter and atomic physics using major experimental facilities and devices: Physics, chemistry, biology. Reports on results. Vol. 2. 3. Solid state physics and materials science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This report in three volumes substantiates the contents of the programme survey published in September 1989. The progress reports cover the following research areas: Vol. I, (1). Atomic and molecular physics - free atoms, molecules, macromolecules, clusters, matrix-isolated atoms and molecules. (2) Physics and chemistry of surfaces and interfaces - epitaxy, surface structure, adsorption, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties, thin films, synthetic layer structure. Vol. II, (3). Solid-state physics, and materials science -structural research, lattice dynamics, magnetic structure and dynamics, electronic states; load; spin and pulse density fluctuations; diffusion and internal motion, defects, unordered systems and liquids. Vol. III, (4). Chemistry - bonding and structure, kinetics and reaction mechanisms, polymer research, analysis and synthesis. (5). Biology, - structure and dynamics of biological macromolecules, membrane and cell biology. (6) Development of methods and instruments - neutron sources, synchrotron sources, special accelerators, research with interlinked systems and devices. (orig.) [de

  18. Introductory Molecular Orbital Theory: An Honors General Chemistry Computational Lab as Implemented Using Three-Dimensional Modeling Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruddick, Kristie R.; Parrill, Abby L.; Petersen, Richard L.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, a computational molecular orbital theory experiment was implemented in a first-semester honors general chemistry course. Students used the GAMESS (General Atomic and Molecular Electronic Structure System) quantum mechanical software (as implemented in ChemBio3D) to optimize the geometry for various small molecules. Extended Huckel…

  19. Pediatric reference intervals for general clinical chemistry components - merging of studies from Denmark and Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridefelt, Peter; Hilsted, Linda; Juul, Anders; Hellberg, Dan; Rustad, Pål

    2018-05-28

    Reference intervals are crucial tools aiding clinicians when making medical decisions. However, for children such values often are lacking or incomplete. The present study combines data from separate pediatric reference interval studies of Denmark and Sweden in order to increase sample size and to include also pre-school children who were lacking in the Danish study. Results from two separate studies including 1988 healthy children and adolescents aged 6 months to 18 years of age were merged and recalculated. Eighteen general clinical chemistry components were measured on Abbott and Roche platforms. To facilitate commutability, the NFKK Reference Serum X was used. Age- and gender-specific pediatric reference intervals were defined by calculating 2.5 and 97.5 percentiles. The data generated are primarily applicable to a Nordic population, but could be used by any laboratory if validated for the local patient population.

  20. Awareness, Analysis, and Action: Curricular Alignment for Student Success in General Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    This article examines the ways that a shared faculty experience across five partner institutions led to a deep awareness of the curriculum and pedagogy of general chemistry coursework, and ultimately, to a collaborative action plan for student success. The team identified key differences and similarities in course content and instructional experiences. The comparative analysis yielded many more similarities than differences, and therefore, the team shifted its focus from “gap analysis” to an exploration of common curricular challenges. To address these challenges, the team developed content for targeted instructional resources that promoted the success of all STEM students across institutions. This article contextualizes the interinstitutional collaboration and closely examines the interactive components (awareness, analysis, and action), critical tools, and productive attitudes that undergirded the curricular alignment process of the STEM Transfer Student Success Initiative (t-STEM). PMID:29657334

  1. Comparative analysis of a nontraditional general chemistry textbook and selected traditional textbooks used in Texas community colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvato, Steven Walter

    The purpose of this study was to analyze questions within the chapters of a nontraditional general chemistry textbook and the four general chemistry textbooks most widely used by Texas community colleges in order to determine if the questions require higher- or lower-order thinking according to Bloom's taxonomy. The study employed quantitative methods. Bloom's taxonomy (Bloom, Engelhart, Furst, Hill, & Krathwohl, 1956) was utilized as the main instrument in the study. Additional tools were used to help classify the questions into the proper category of the taxonomy (McBeath, 1992; Metfessel, Michael, & Kirsner, 1969). The top four general chemistry textbooks used in Texas community colleges and Chemistry: A Project of the American Chemical Society (Bell et al., 2005) were analyzed during the fall semester of 2010 in order to categorize the questions within the chapters into one of the six levels of Bloom's taxonomy. Two coders were used to assess reliability. The data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential methods. The descriptive method involved calculation of the frequencies and percentages of coded questions from the books as belonging to the six categories of the taxonomy. Questions were dichotomized into higher- and lower-order thinking questions. The inferential methods involved chi-square tests of association to determine if there were statistically significant differences among the four traditional college general chemistry textbooks in the proportions of higher- and lower-order questions and if there were statistically significant differences between the nontraditional chemistry textbook and the four traditional general chemistry textbooks. Findings indicated statistically significant differences among the four textbooks frequently used in Texas community colleges in the number of higher- and lower-level questions. Statistically significant differences were also found among the four textbooks and the nontraditional textbook. After the analysis of

  2. Japan - UK Conference: Trends in Physics and Chemistry Education in Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-11-01

    demonstrations by groups of physics and chemistry teachers of apparatus that they had made. This hugely enjoyable session has resulted in a great number of good ideas appearing ready for use in a certain British physics lab. Poaching ideas in teaching can be an international activity as well! One impression that this session left us with is that, making a gross generalization, the Japanese are physics teachers, the British physics teachers. How delightful if we in Britain could more often gather in this fashion to delight in exploring physics for ourselves. A substantial benefit of the conference was the challenge of presenting the substantive arguments behind the philosophy of curriculum change to teachers from a different culture, with thoughts being tempered in the furnace of translation. When each word requires lengthy translation, they become precious. An attempt to explain what was meant by the phrase `positive formative reinforcement' that had been carelessly written on one overhead transparency on the purpose of assessment has left permanent mental scars (and perhaps rightly so!). And what of the future? The conference, and perhaps more especially the surrounding visits, resulted in the start of new friendships and the renewal of old acquaintances. Other visits and conferences will doubtless be arranged. The two groups of physics teachers have much to share and discuss with each other. In the short term it is hoped that fruitful e-mail communication and cooperation can be continued both between participants and among a wider circle of physics teachers from both countries. Philip Britton and Ian Lawrence Head of Physics, Leeds Grammar School, and Secretary, IoP Education Group King's School Worcester, and Chairman, IoP Education Group

  3. An analysis of interest in students learning of physical chemistry experiment using Scientific approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widinda Normalia Arlianty

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to analyze interest in student learning of physical chemistry experiment on Chemistry Education students, Islamic University of Indonesia. The research was quantitative. The samples of this research were 2nd-semester student academic year 2015. The data learning interest of students were collected by questionnaire and documentation of seven title experimental. Learning interest consisted of three indicators, concluded feeling good, attention and activity in the learning process. The results of this research showed that score mean of feeling good  indicator was  25,9;  score  mean  of attention indicator 17,8, and score mean of  activity indicator 8,41.  Score Mean  students for the questionnaire interest in student learning  was 51,83 and this data was categorized as “good”.

  4. Materials of 4. international meeting on pulse investigations in physics, chemistry and biology. PULS'94

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    4. International Meeting on Pulse Investigations in Physics, Chemistry and Biology, PULS'94 has been organized in honor of Professor Jerzy Kroh, the precursor of radiation chemistry in Poland. The meeting has been divided into three sessions: the historical session (H) with four review lectures, lecture session (L) collected 23 papers and poster session (P) with 39 posters. The fundamental studies on early stages of radiolysis have been presented for different systems being irradiated. The pulse radiolysis and flash photolysis methods has been predominantly used in reported experimental works. The reaction of intermediate products of radiolysis and photolysis such a trapped and solvated electrons, ions and radicals has been extensively studied. The reaction mechanisms and kinetics have been also discussed

  5. How do general practitioners in Denmark promote physical activity?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Tanja K; Nordentoft, Merete; Krogh, Jesper

    2012-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to quantify the frequency of advice given on type, frequency, duration, and intensity of exercise during physical activity (PA) promoting sessions by general practitioners. Second, to find GP characteristics associated with high quality of PA counselling....

  6. Physics and Chemistry of Star and Planet Formation in the Alma ERA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergin, Edwin

    2014-06-01

    ALMA will open up new avenues of exploration encompassing the wide range of star formation in our galaxy and peering into the central heart of planet-forming circumstellar disks. As we seek to explore the origins of stars and planets molecular emission will be at the front and center of many studies probing gas physics and chemistry. In this talk I will discus some of the areas where we can expect significant advances due to the increased sensitivity and superb spatial resolution of ALMA. In star-forming cores, a rich chemistry is revealed that may be the simpler molecular precursors to more complex organics, such as amino acids, seen within primitive rocks in our own solar system. ALMA will provide new information regarding the relative spatial distribution within a given source for a host of organics, sampling tens to hundreds of transitions of a variety of molecules, including presumably new ones. In this area there is a rich synergy with existing ground and space-based data, including Herschel/Spitzer. Here the increased sampling of sources to be enabled by ALMA should bring greater clarity toward the key products of interstellar chemistry and further constrain processes. On smaller Solar System scales, for over a decade most observations of planet-forming disks focused on the dust thermal continuum emission as a probe of the gas content and structure. ALMA will enable reliable and direct studies of gas to explore the evolving physics of planet-formation, the gas dissipation timescales (i.e. the upper limit to the timescale for giant planet birth), and also the chemistry. It is this chemistry that sets the composition of gas giants and also influences the ultimate composition of water and organic materials that are delivered to terrestrial worlds. Here I will show how we can use molecular emission to determine the gas thermal structure of a disk system and the total gas content - key astrophysical quantities. This will also enable more constrained chemical

  7. EVALUATION OF THE USE OF IPAD IN TEACHING GENERAL CHEMISTRY LAB TO FRESHMEN STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. EID

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available It is generally accepted that the use of iPad enhances students’ engagement in the classroom. However, assessing the benefits of using iPad in teaching laboratory sessions have seen less attention, due to the hands-on nature of these courses. To do this assessment, iPad was applied in teaching two pilot sessions of the General Chemistry Lab, and students’ evaluation was compared to that of other students in sections taught by conventional teaching techniques. The evaluation was based on the students’ assessment of their achievements in meeting the main course outcomes, which indicated that the students in the classes taught using iPad showed more satisfaction with the course, and believed that they have better achieved the outcomes of the course compared to the conventional classes. Furthermore, the comparison process included the overall students’ quantitative performance, which showed insignificant difference between the two classes, with slightly better performance of students in normal classes in quizzes, whereas final exam marks were almost the same for both the iPad piloted students and conventional class students. The differences in quizzes results were attributed to the normal variation in the students’ academic merits. In addition, the piloted students were asked about their experience of using iPad in class and their satisfaction by using different iPad Apps. The feedback was collected and analysed, and the results showed that the students generally enjoyed using iPad in the class and appreciated all Apps.

  8. Cross-Course Collaboration in the Undergraduate Chemistry Curriculum: Primary Kinetic Isotope Effect in the Hypochlorite Oxidation of 1-Phenylethanol in the Physical Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noll, Robert J.; Fitch, Richard W.; Kjonaas, Richard A.; Wyatt, Richard A.

    2017-01-01

    A kinetic isotope effect (KIE) experiment is described for the physical chemistry laboratory. Students conduct a hypochlorite (household bleach) oxidation of an equimolar mixture of 1-phenylethanol and 1-deuterio-1-phenylethanol to acetophenone. The reaction occurs in a biphasic reaction mixture and follows first-order kinetics with respect to…

  9. [Commentary on the Nobel Prize that has been granted in Medicine-Physiology, Chemistry and Physics to noteable investigators].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zárate, Arturo; Apolinar, Leticia Manuel; Saucedo, Renata; Basurto, Lourdes

    2015-01-01

    The Nobel Prize was established by Alfred Nobel in 1901 to award people who have made outstanding achievements in physics, chemistry and medicine. So far, from 852 laureates, 45 have been female. Marie Curie was the first woman to receive the Nobel Prize in 1903 for physics and eight years later also for chemistry It is remarkable that her daughter Irene and her husband also received the Nobel Prize for chemistry in 1935. Other two married couples, Cori and Moser, have also been awarded the Nobel Prize. The present commentary attempts to show the female participation in the progress of scientific activities.

  10. Programme and Abstracts. 38. Journees des Actinides together with the 7. School on the Physics and Chemistry of the Actinides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    Journees des Actinides (JdA) is a traditional informal actinide forum, including physics, chemistry, and materials research. It regularly brings together experts from fields involved, taking place in a very informal way, emphasizing exchanges and discussions on current issues in actinide science. At the 38{sup th} JdA (10-15 April 2008; Wroclaw, Poland) scientific communications on the following topics on physics and chemistry of the actinides were presented: (a) inorganic and organometallic chemistry; (b) strongly correlated behaviour, superconductivity, quantum criticality; (c) materials science; (d) theory, electronic structure; (e) nuclear fuel cycle, environment.

  11. Programme and Abstracts. 38. Journees des Actinides together with the 7. School on the Physics and Chemistry of the Actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    Journees des Actinides (JdA) is a traditional informal actinide forum, including physics, chemistry, and materials research. It regularly brings together experts from fields involved, taking place in a very informal way, emphasizing exchanges and discussions on current issues in actinide science. At the 38 th JdA (10-15 April 2008; Wroclaw, Poland) scientific communications on the following topics on physics and chemistry of the actinides were presented: (a) inorganic and organometallic chemistry; (b) strongly correlated behaviour, superconductivity, quantum criticality; (c) materials science; (d) theory, electronic structure; (e) nuclear fuel cycle, environment

  12. A generalized Schwinger boson mapping with a physical subspace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scholtz, F.G.; Geyer, H.B.

    1988-01-01

    We investigate the existence of a physical subspace for generalized Schwinger boson mappings of SO(2n+1) contains SO(2n) in view of previous observations by Marshalek and the recent construction of such a mapping and subspace for SO(8) by Kaup. It is shown that Kaup's construction can be attributed to the existence of a unique SO(8) automorphism. We proceed to construct a generalized Schwinger-type mapping for SO(2n+1) contains SO(2n) which, in contrast to a similar attempt by Yamamura and Nishiyama, indeed has a corresponding physical subspace. This new mapping includes in the special case of SO(8) the mapping by Kaup which is equivalent to the one given by Yamamura and Nishiyama for n=4. Nevertheless, we indicate the limitations of the generalized Schwinger mapping regarding its applicability to situations where one seeks to establish a direct link between phenomenological boson models and an underlying fermion microscopy. (orig.)

  13. Rationale of beings: Recent developments in particle, nuclear and general physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, K.; Kawazoc, Y.; Matsuzaki, H.; Takahashi, K.

    1986-01-01

    This book presents papers on particle physics and nuclear physics. The chapters are on gravity, particles and fields, quantum theories, field theories, nuclei and atoms and general physics. Recent developments in various fields of physics in general are discussed

  14. Effects on Student Achievement in General Chemistry Following Participation in an Online Preparatory Course. ChemPrep, a Voluntary, Self-Paced, Online Introduction to Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botch, Beatrice; Day, Roberta; Vining, William; Stewart, Barbara; Rath, Kenneth; Peterfreund, Alan; Hart, David

    2007-03-01

    ChemPrep was developed to be a stand-alone preparatory short-course to help students succeed in general chemistry. It is Web-based and delivered using the OWL system. Students reported that the ChemPrep materials (short information pages, parameterized questions with detailed feedback, tutorials, and answers to questions through the OWL message system) permitted them to work independently without the need for textbook or lecture. On average, students who completed ChemPrep had higher grades in the subsequent GenChem, Nursing, and Honors chemistry courses, with a greater percentage achieving a grade of C- or higher. Participation in ChemPrep was voluntary, and more women than men responded. Students in the Honors course enrolled in ChemPrep in higher percentages than students in GenChem and Nursing. SAT and departmental math placement exam scores were used as proxy measures of prior achievement and ability. Based on these, Honors chemistry ChemPrep users were on par with their peers but performed better in the course than non-users. In GenChem and Nursing chemistry courses, ChemPrep helped students of high prior achievement and ability perform better than their achievement scores would predict. Weaker or less motivated students did not respond to the voluntary offerings of ChemPrep in the same numbers as stronger or more motivated students, and we are seeking alternate ways to reach this population.

  15. General quadratic gauge theory: constraint structure, symmetries and physical functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gitman, D M [Institute of Physics, University of Sao Paulo (Brazil); Tyutin, I V [Lebedev Physics Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2005-06-17

    How can we relate the constraint structure and constraint dynamics of the general gauge theory in the Hamiltonian formulation to specific features of the theory in the Lagrangian formulation, especially relate the constraint structure to the gauge transformation structure of the Lagrangian action? How can we construct the general expression for the gauge charge if the constraint structure in the Hamiltonian formulation is known? Whether we can identify the physical functions defined as commuting with first-class constraints in the Hamiltonian formulation and the physical functions defined as gauge invariant functions in the Lagrangian formulation? The aim of the present paper is to consider the general quadratic gauge theory and to answer the above questions for such a theory in terms of strict assertions. To fulfil such a programme, we demonstrate the existence of the so-called superspecial phase-space variables in terms of which the quadratic Hamiltonian action takes a simple canonical form. On the basis of such a representation, we analyse a functional arbitrariness in the solutions of the equations of motion of the quadratic gauge theory and derive the general structure of symmetries by analysing a symmetry equation. We then use these results to identify the two definitions of physical functions and thus prove the Dirac conjecture.

  16. Evaluation of an Integrated Curriculum in Physics, Mathematics, Engineering, and Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beichner, Robert

    1997-04-01

    An experimental, student centered, introductory curriculum called IMPEC (for Integrated Mathematics, Physics, Engineering, and Chemistry curriculum) is in its third year of pilot-testing at NCSU. The curriculum is taught by a multidisciplinary team of professors using a combination of traditional lecturing and alternative instructional methods including cooperative learning, activity-based class sessions, and extensive use of computer modeling, simulations, and the world wide web. This talk will discuss the research basis for our design and implementation of the curriculum, the qualitative and quantitative methods we have been using to assess its effectiveness, and the educational outcomes we have noted so far.

  17. Symposium on the Physical Chemistry of Solar Energy Conversion, Indianapolis American Chemical Society Meetings, Fall 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lian, Tianquan [PI, Emory Univ.

    2013-09-20

    The Symposium on the Physical Chemistry of Solar Energy Conversion at the Fall ACS Meeting in Indianapolis, IN (Sept. 8-12) featured the following sessions (approx. 6 speakers per session): (1) Quantum Dots and Nanorods for Solar Energy Conversion (2 half-day sessions); (2) Artificial Photosynthesis: Water Oxidation; (3) Artificial Photosynthesis: Solar Fuels (2 half-day sessions); (4) Organic Solar Cells; (5) Novel Concepts for Solar Energy Conversion (2 half-day sessions); (6) Emerging Techniques for Solar Energy Conversion; (7) Interfacial Electron Transfer

  18. Bunsen conference 1999. Atmospheric physical chemistry; Bunsentagung 1999. Physikalische Chemie der Atmosphaere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crutzen, P.J.; Zellner, R. [comps.

    2000-07-01

    The main subject of the 1999 Bunsen conference was atmospheric physical chemistry. There were lectures and posters on measurement and distribution of atmospheric trace gases, photochemical reactions in the different parts of the atmosphere, natural and anthropogenic emissions resulting from biomass combustion, thermodynamics and microphysics of aerosol, and air pollution abatement. [German] Die Bunsentagung 1999 beschaeftigte sich mit dem Thema Physikalische Chemie der Atmosphaere. Themen der Vortraege und Poster waren u.a. die Messung und Verteilung von Spurengasen in der Atmosphaere, photochemische Reaktionen in den verschiedenen Schichten der Atmosphaere, natuerliche und anthropogene Emissionen durch Verbrennung von Biomasse, Thermodynamik und Microphysik von Aerosolen und Klimaschutz.

  19. Symmetry-adapted basis sets automatic generation for problems in chemistry and physics

    CERN Document Server

    Avery, John Scales; Avery, James Emil

    2012-01-01

    In theoretical physics, theoretical chemistry and engineering, one often wishes to solve partial differential equations subject to a set of boundary conditions. This gives rise to eigenvalue problems of which some solutions may be very difficult to find. For example, the problem of finding eigenfunctions and eigenvalues for the Hamiltonian of a many-particle system is usually so difficult that it requires approximate methods, the most common of which is expansion of the eigenfunctions in terms of basis functions that obey the boundary conditions of the problem. The computational effort needed

  20. The effect of restructuring student writing in the general chemistry laboratory on student understanding of chemistry and on students' approach to the laboratory course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudd, James Andrew, II

    Many students encounter difficulties engaging with laboratory-based instruction, and reviews of research have indicated that the value of such instruction is not clearly evident. Traditional forms of writing associated with laboratory activities are commonly in a style used by professional scientists to communicate developed explanations. Students probably lack the interpretative skills of a professional, and writing in this style may not support students in learning how to develop scientific explanations. The Science Writing Heuristic (SWH) is an inquiry-based approach to laboratory instruction designed in part to promote student ability in developing such explanations. However, there is not a convincing body of evidence for the superiority of inquiry-based laboratory instruction in chemistry. In a series of studies, the performance of students using the SWH student template in place of the standard laboratory report format was compared to the performance of students using the standard format. The standard reports had Title, Purpose, Procedure, Data & Observations, Calculations & Graphs, and Discussion sections. The SWH reports had Beginning Questions & Ideas, Tests & Procedures, Observations, Claims, Evidence, and Reflection sections. The pilot study produced evidence that using the SWH improved the quality of laboratory reports, improved student performance on a laboratory exam, and improved student approach to laboratory work. A main study found that SWH students statistically exhibited a better understanding of physical equilibrium when written explanations and equations were analyzed on a lecture exam and performed descriptively better on a physical equilibrium practical exam task. In another main study, the activities covering the general equilibrium concept were restructured as an additional change, and it was found that SWH students exhibited a better understanding of chemical equilibrium as shown by statistically greater success in overcoming the common

  1. PREFACE: 3rd International Conference on Science & Engineering in Mathematics, Chemistry and Physics 2015 (ScieTech 2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaol, F. L.

    2015-06-01

    The 3rd International Conference on Science & Engineering in Mathematics, Chemistry and Physics 2015 (ScieTech 2015), was held at The Westin Resort Nusa Dua, Bali on 31 January - 1 February 2015. The ScieTech 2015 conference is aimed to bring together researchers, engineers and scientists from around the world. ScieTech 2015 is placed on promoting interaction between the theoretical, experimental, and applied communities, so that a high level exchange is achieved in new and emerging areas within mathematics, chemistry and physics. As we already know that science and technology have brought tremendous benefits for human civilization. People are becoming healthier, wealthier, better educated, more peaceful, increasingly connected, and living longer. Of course, science and technology provide many answers to global challenges, but we will face more complex problems in the next decade due to increasing world population, limitation of energy, and climate change. Therefore, researchers should be more active in conducting research that enables collaboration between one and the others. Interdisciplinary cooperation is absolutely necessary in order to create a smart system for solving the global problems. We need a global and general long-term view of the future with long-range goals for solving complex problems in next decade. Therefore the conference was held to be a forum for researchers from different disciplines to start collaborating and conducting research that provides a solution to the global issues. The theme of ScieTech 2015 was ''The interdisciplinary Application between Mathematics, Chemistry and Physics to enhance the Quality of Life''. We would like to express our sincere gratitude to all in the Technical Program Committee who have reviewed the papers and developed a very interesting conference program as well as the invited and plenary speakers. This year, we received 197 papers and after rigorous review, 59 papers were accepted. The participants came from 19

  2. AN INVARIANT OF KNOWLEDGE FOR THE DISCIPLINE CHEMISTRY-PHYSIC IN THE FORMATION OF TEACHERS OF CHEMISTRY / UN INVARIANTE DE CONOCIMIENTOS PARA LA DISCIPLINA QUÍMICA-FÍSICA EN LA FORMACIÓN DE PROFESORES DE QUÍMICA

    OpenAIRE

    Luís Arturo Ramírez Urizarri; Carlos Ortigoza Garcell; Enrique Nelson Pacheco Fonseca

    2010-01-01

    This work is part of a mastership thesis on the Didactic of Chemistry. Here it is offered the first approximation which will constitute the invariant of knowledge of the discipline Chemistry-Physic for the measurement as bachelor in education in the specialty of Chemistry; with this invariant, that knowledge is meaningful for the importance of the teachers to be professional work.

  3. Liaison activities with the Institute of Physical Chemistry/Russian Academy of Science Fiscal Year 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delegard, C.H.

    1995-09-01

    Investigations into the chemistry of alkaline Hanford Site tank waste (TTP RL4-3-20-04) were conducted in Fiscal Year 1995 at Westinghouse Hanford Company under the support of the Efficient Separations and Processing Crosscutting Program (EM-53). The investigation had two main subtasks: liaison with the Institute of Physical Chemistry of the Russian Academy of Science and further laboratory testing of the chemistry of thermal reconstitution of Hanford Site tank waste. Progress, which was achieved in the liaison subtask during Fiscal Year 1995, is summarized as follows: (1) A technical dialogue has been established with Institute scientists. (2) Editing was done on a technical literature review on the chemistry of transuranic elements and technetium in alkaline media written by researchers at the Institute. The report was issued in May 1995 as a Westinghouse Hanford Company document. (3) Four tasks from the Institute were selected for support by the U.S. Department of Energy. Work on three tasks commenced on 1 March 1995; the fourth task commenced on 1 April 1995. (4) Technical information describing the composition of Hanford Site tank waste was supplied to the Institute. (5) A program review of the four tasks was conducted at the Institute during a visit 25 August to 1 September, 1995. A lecture on the origin, composition, and proposed treatment of Hanford Site tank wastes was presented during this visit. Eight additional tasks were proposed by Institute scientists for support in Fiscal Year 1996. (6) A paper was presented at the Fifth International Conference on Radioactive Waste Management and Environmental Remediation (ICEM'95) in Berlin, Germany on 3 to 9 September, 1995 on the solubility of actinides in alkaline media

  4. Generalized Spin Coherent States: Construction and Some Physical Properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berrada, K.; El Baz, M.; Hassouni, Y.

    2009-12-01

    A generalized deformation of the su(2) algebra and a scheme for constructing associated spin coherent states is developed. The problem of resolving the unity operator in terms of these states is addressed and solved for some particular cases. The construction is carried using a deformation of Holstein-Primakoff realization of the su(2) algebra. The physical properties of these states is studied through the calculation of Mandel's parameter. (author)

  5. Anisotropic charged physical models with generalized polytropic equation of state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasim, A.; Azam, M. [University of Education, Division of Science and Technology, Lahore (Pakistan)

    2018-01-15

    In this paper, we found the exact solutions of Einstein-Maxwell equations with generalized polytropic equation of state (GPEoS). For this, we consider spherically symmetric object with charged anisotropic matter distribution. We rewrite the field equations into simple form through transformation introduced by Durgapal (Phys Rev D 27:328, 1983) and solve these equations analytically. For the physically acceptability of these solutions, we plot physical quantities like energy density, anisotropy, speed of sound, tangential and radial pressure. We found that all solutions fulfill the required physical conditions. It is concluded that all our results are reduced to the case of anisotropic charged matter distribution with linear, quadratic as well as polytropic equation of state. (orig.)

  6. Development and evaluation of a thermochemistry concept inventory for college-level general chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wren, David A.

    The research presented in this dissertation culminated in a 10-item Thermochemistry Concept Inventory (TCI). The development of the TCI can be divided into two main phases: qualitative studies and quantitative studies. Both phases focused on the primary stakeholders of the TCI, college-level general chemistry instructors and students. Each phase was designed to collect evidence for the validity of the interpretations and uses of TCI testing data. A central use of TCI testing data is to identify student conceptual misunderstandings, which are represented as incorrect options of multiple-choice TCI items. Therefore, quantitative and qualitative studies focused heavily on collecting evidence at the item-level, where important interpretations may be made by TCI users. Qualitative studies included student interviews (N = 28) and online expert surveys (N = 30). Think-aloud student interviews (N = 12) were used to identify conceptual misunderstandings used by students. Novice response process validity interviews (N = 16) helped provide information on how students interpreted and answered TCI items and were the basis of item revisions. Practicing general chemistry instructors (N = 18), or experts, defined boundaries of thermochemistry content included on the TCI. Once TCI items were in the later stages of development, an online version of the TCI was used in expert response process validity survey (N = 12), to provide expert feedback on item content, format and consensus of the correct answer for each item. Quantitative studies included three phases: beta testing of TCI items (N = 280), pilot testing of the a 12-item TCI (N = 485), and a large data collection using a 10-item TCI ( N = 1331). In addition to traditional classical test theory analysis, Rasch model analysis was also used for evaluation of testing data at the test and item level. The TCI was administered in both formative assessment (beta and pilot testing) and summative assessment (large data collection), with

  7. General Physics Section. Progress Report Fiscal Year 1969/70

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braun, J

    1970-12-15

    This report contains information regarding that part of the work performed at the General Physics Section of AB Atomenergi during the period July 1969 - July 1970, which has been supported by grants from the Swedish Board of Technical Development (STU). For projects still in progress the current status is described, for terminated projects, or distinguishable parts thereof, a summary is given. Where available, reports describing the work are listed. A substantial part of our resources has been concentrated on the physics of energy conversion: Investigation of recombination processes in a pulsed helium discharge; Theoretical and experimental investigation of MHD gas flow; Isotopic battery in the muW-range. Our section's interest in nuclear dosimetry and the general aspects of metrology has been manifested in two additional projects: Application of mass spectrometry on He in solids to analysis, nuclear physics and material technology; Servo system filter. As general information it can be added that other, not STU-supported, activities of the section are material dosimetry for irradiation monitoring and a fairly broad range of radiation shielding activities

  8. General Physics Section. Progress Report Fiscal Year 1969/70

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braun, J.

    1970-12-01

    This report contains information regarding that part of the work performed at the General Physics Section of AB Atomenergi during the period July 1969 - July 1970, which has been supported by grants from the Swedish Board of Technical Development (STU). For projects still in progress the current status is described, for terminated projects, or distinguishable parts thereof, a summary is given. Where available, reports describing the work are listed. A substantial part of our resources has been concentrated on the physics of energy conversion: Investigation of recombination processes in a pulsed helium discharge; Theoretical and experimental investigation of MHD gas flow; Isotopic battery in the μW-range. Our section's interest in nuclear dosimetry and the general aspects of metrology has been manifested in two additional projects: Application of mass spectrometry on He in solids to analysis, nuclear physics and material technology; Servo system filter. As general information it can be added that other, not STU-supported, activities of the section are material dosimetry for irradiation monitoring and a fairly broad range of radiation shielding activities

  9. Research Data in Core Journals in Biology, Chemistry, Mathematics, and Physics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan P Womack

    Full Text Available This study takes a stratified random sample of articles published in 2014 from the top 10 journals in the disciplines of biology, chemistry, mathematics, and physics, as ranked by impact factor. Sampled articles were examined for their reporting of original data or reuse of prior data, and were coded for whether the data was publicly shared or otherwise made available to readers. Other characteristics such as the sharing of software code used for analysis and use of data citation and DOIs for data were examined. The study finds that data sharing practices are still relatively rare in these disciplines' top journals, but that the disciplines have markedly different practices. Biology top journals share original data at the highest rate, and physics top journals share at the lowest rate. Overall, the study finds that within the top journals, only 13% of articles with original data published in 2014 make the data available to others.

  10. Complex Reaction Kinetics in Chemistry: A Unified Picture Suggested by Mechanics in Physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Agliari

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Complex biochemical pathways can be reduced to chains of elementary reactions, which can be described in terms of chemical kinetics. Among the elementary reactions so far extensively investigated, we recall the Michaelis-Menten and the Hill positive-cooperative kinetics, which apply to molecular binding and are characterized by the absence and the presence, respectively, of cooperative interactions between binding sites. However, there is evidence of reactions displaying a more complex pattern: these follow the positive-cooperative scenario at small substrate concentration, yet negative-cooperative effects emerge as the substrate concentration is increased. Here, we analyze the formal analogy between the mathematical backbone of (classical reaction kinetics in Chemistry and that of (classical mechanics in Physics. We first show that standard cooperative kinetics can be framed in terms of classical mechanics, where the emerging phenomenology can be obtained by applying the principle of least action of classical mechanics. Further, since the saturation function plays in Chemistry the same role played by velocity in Physics, we show that a relativistic scaffold naturally accounts for the kinetics of the above-mentioned complex reactions. The proposed formalism yields to a unique, consistent picture for cooperative-like reactions and to a stronger mathematical control.

  11. Interest in STEM is contagious for students in biology, chemistry, and physics classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazari, Zahra; Potvin, Geoff; Cribbs, Jennifer D; Godwin, Allison; Scott, Tyler D; Klotz, Leidy

    2017-08-01

    We report on a study of the effect of peers' interest in high school biology, chemistry, and physics classes on students' STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics)-related career intentions and course achievement. We define an interest quorum as a science class where students perceive a high level of interest for the subject matter from their classmates. We hypothesized that students who experience such an interest quorum are more likely to choose STEM careers. Using data from a national survey study of students' experiences in high school science, we compared the effect of five levels of peer interest reported in biology, chemistry, and physics courses on students' STEM career intentions. The results support our hypothesis, showing a strong, positive effect of an interest quorum even after controlling for differences between students that pose competing hypotheses such as previous STEM career interest, academic achievement, family support for mathematics and science, and gender. Smaller positive effects of interest quorums were observed for course performance in some cases, with no detrimental effects observed across the study. Last, significant effects persisted even after controlling for differences in teaching quality. This work emphasizes the likely importance of interest quorums for creating classroom environments that increase students' intentions toward STEM careers while enhancing or maintaining course performance.

  12. Interest in STEM is contagious for students in biology, chemistry, and physics classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazari, Zahra; Potvin, Geoff; Cribbs, Jennifer D.; Godwin, Allison; Scott, Tyler D.; Klotz, Leidy

    2017-01-01

    We report on a study of the effect of peers’ interest in high school biology, chemistry, and physics classes on students’ STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics)–related career intentions and course achievement. We define an interest quorum as a science class where students perceive a high level of interest for the subject matter from their classmates. We hypothesized that students who experience such an interest quorum are more likely to choose STEM careers. Using data from a national survey study of students‘ experiences in high school science, we compared the effect of five levels of peer interest reported in biology, chemistry, and physics courses on students‘ STEM career intentions. The results support our hypothesis, showing a strong, positive effect of an interest quorum even after controlling for differences between students that pose competing hypotheses such as previous STEM career interest, academic achievement, family support for mathematics and science, and gender. Smaller positive effects of interest quorums were observed for course performance in some cases, with no detrimental effects observed across the study. Last, significant effects persisted even after controlling for differences in teaching quality. This work emphasizes the likely importance of interest quorums for creating classroom environments that increase students’ intentions toward STEM careers while enhancing or maintaining course performance. PMID:28808678

  13. The Use of Textbooks for Advanced-Level GCE Courses in Physics, Chemistry and Biology by Sixth-Form Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, D. P.

    1984-01-01

    A survey of sixth-form students to determine the level of A-level textbook use in physics, chemistry, and biology in English schools found that texts are used primarily after the lesson, at the student's discretion, and with great variations between students. Biology texts were used most, and physics texts used least. (MBR)

  14. Student Learning through Journal Writing in a General Education Chemistry Course for Pre-Elementary Education Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dianovsky, Michael T.; Wink, Donald J.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes research on the use of journals in a general education chemistry course for elementary education majors. In the journals, students describe their understanding of a topic, the development of that understanding, and how the topic connects to their lives. In the process, they are able to engage in reflection about several…

  15. Two Methods of Determining Total Phenolic Content of Foods and Juices in a General, Organic, and Biological (GOB) Chemistry Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaver, Lee Alan; Leung, Sam H.; Puderbaugh, Amy; Angel, Stephen A.

    2011-01-01

    The determination of total phenolics in foods and fruit juices was used successfully as a laboratory experiment in our undergraduate general, organic, and biological (GOB) chemistry course. Two different colorimetric methods were used over three years and comparative student results indicate that a ferrous ammonium sulfate (FAS) indicator…

  16. Introduction of Differential Scanning Calorimetry in a General Chemistry Laboratory Course: Determination of Thermal Properties of Organic Hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amelia, Ronald; Franks, Thomas; Nirode, William F.

    2007-01-01

    In first-year general chemistry undergraduate courses, thermodynamics and thermal properties such as melting points and changes in enthalpy ([Delta]H) and entropy ([Delta]S) of phase changes are frequently discussed. Typically, classical calorimetric methods of analysis are used to determine [Delta]H of reactions. Differential scanning calorimetry…

  17. The Use of Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry to Introduce General Chemistry Students to Percent Mass and Atomic Mass Calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfennig, Brian W.; Schaefer, Amy K.

    2011-01-01

    A general chemistry laboratory experiment is described that introduces students to instrumental analysis using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), while simultaneously reinforcing the concepts of mass percent and the calculation of atomic mass. Working in small groups, students use the GC to separate and quantify the percent composition…

  18. Implementation of Gas Chromatography and Microscale Distillation into the General Chemistry Laboratory Curriculum as Vehicles for Examining Intermolecular Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csizmar, Clifford M.; Force, Dee Ann; Warner, Don L.

    2011-01-01

    As part of an NSF-funded Course Curriculum and Laboratory Improvement (CCLI) project that seeks, in part, to increase student exposure to scientific instrumentation, a gas chromatography experiment has been integrated into the second-semester general chemistry laboratory curriculum. The experiment uses affordable, commercially available equipment…

  19. Use of a PhET Interactive Simulation in General Chemistry Laboratory: Models of the Hydrogen Atom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Ted M.; Chamberlain, Julia M.

    2014-01-01

    An activity supporting the PhET interactive simulation, Models of the Hydrogen Atom, has been designed and used in the laboratory portion of a general chemistry course. This article describes the framework used to successfully accomplish implementation on a large scale. The activity guides students through a comparison and analysis of the six…

  20. IM-Chem: The Use of Instant Messaging to Improve Student Performance and Personalize Large Lecture General Chemistry Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behmke, Derek A.; Atwood, Charles H.

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has linked poor student performance with the depersonalized feeling of large lecture courses. Various forms of enhanced communication have been tried that appear to enhance personalization in large courses. For general chemistry classes taught in a 365-seat lecture hall at the University of Georgia, we have attempted to enhance…

  1. Features of Representations in General Chemistry Textbooks: A Peek through the Lens of the Cognitive Load Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyachwaya, James M.; Gillaspie, Merry

    2016-01-01

    The goals of this study were (1) determine the prevalence of various features of representations in five general chemistry textbooks used in the United States, and (2) use cognitive load theory to draw implications of the various features of analyzed representations. We adapted the Graphical Analysis Protocol (GAP) (Slough et al., 2010) to look at…

  2. The Influence of Self-Efficacy and Motivational Factors on Academic Performance in General Chemistry Course: A Modeling Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alci, Bulent

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to determine the predictive and explanatory model in terms of university students' academic performance in "General Chemistry" course and their motivational features. The participants were 169 university students in the 1st grade at university. Of the participants, 132 were female and 37 were male students. Regarding…

  3. Impact of the Flipped Classroom on Student Performance and Retention: A Parallel Controlled Study in General Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Michael D.; Reid, Scott A.

    2016-01-01

    Despite much recent interest in the flipped classroom, quantitative studies are slowly emerging, particularly in the sciences. We report a year-long parallel controlled study of the flipped classroom in a second-term general chemistry course. The flipped course was piloted in the off-semester course in Fall 2014, and the availability of the…

  4. The Use of Molecular Modeling as "Pseudoexperimental" Data for Teaching VSEPR as a Hands-On General Chemistry Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Christopher B.; Vandehoef, Crissie; Cook, Allison

    2015-01-01

    A hands-on activity appropriate for first-semester general chemistry students is presented that combines traditional VSEPR methods of predicting molecular geometries with introductory use of molecular modeling. Students analyze a series of previously calculated output files consisting of several molecules each in various geometries. Each structure…

  5. Examining the Effectiveness of a Semi-Self-Paced Flipped Learning Format in a College General Chemistry Sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibbard, Lisa; Sung, Shannon; Wells, Breche´

    2016-01-01

    Flipped learning has come to the forefront in education. It maximizes learning by moving content delivery online, where learning can be self-paced, allowing for class time to focus on student-centered active learning. This five-year cross-sectional study assessed student performance in a college general chemistry for majors sequence taught by a…

  6. Enhancing Student Performance in First-Semester General Chemistry Using Active Feedback through the World Wide Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Kent A.; Blake, Bob

    2007-01-01

    The World Wide Web recently launched a new interactive feedback system for the instructors, so that can better understanding about their students and their problems. The feedback, in combination with tailored lectures is expected to enhance student performance in the first semester of general chemistry.

  7. Customized Videos on a YouTube Channel: A beyond the Classroom Teaching and Learning Platform for General Chemistry Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranga, Jayashree S.

    2017-01-01

    Videos are an integral part of online courses. In this study, customized YouTube videos were explored as teaching and learning materials in place of face-to-face discussion sessions in General Chemistry courses. The videos were created using a budget-friendly and interactive app on an iPad. The customized YouTube videos were available to students…

  8. Assessing the Relation between Language Comprehension and Performance in General Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyburn, Daniel T.; Pazicni, Samuel; Benassi, Victor A.; Tappin, Elizabeth E.

    2013-01-01

    Few studies have focused specifically on the role that language plays in learning chemistry. We report here an investigation into the ability of language comprehension measures to predict performance in university introductory chemistry courses. This work is informed by theories of language comprehension, which posit that high-skilled…

  9. Review: Physical, physical chemistries, chemical and sensorial characteristics of the several fruits and vegetables chips by low-temperature vacuum frying machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AHMAD DWI SETYAWAN

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Setyawan AD, Sugiyarto, Solichatun, Susilowati A. 2013. Review: Physical, physical chemistries, chemical and sensorial characteristics of the several fruits and vegetables chips by low-temperature vacuum frying machine. Nusantara Bioscience 5: 84-100. Frying process is one of the oldest cooking methods and most widely practiced in the world. Frying process is considered as a dry cooking method because the process does not involve water. In frying process, oil conduction occurs at high temperature pressing water out of food in the form of bubbles. Fried foods last longer due to reduced water levels lead less decomposition by microbes, even fried foods can be enhanced nutritional value and quality of appearance. Food frying technology can extend the shelf life of fruits and vegetables and frying oil enhances the flavors of the products, however, improper frying oil can have harmful effects on human health. Vacuum frying is a promising technology that may be an option for the production of novel snacks such as fruit and vegetable crisps that present the desired quality and respond to new health trends. This technique fry food at a low temperature and pressure so that the nutritional quality of the food is maintained and the quality of the used oil does not quickly declined and became saturated oils that are harmful to human health. This technique produces chips that have physical, physico-chemical, chemical, and sensory generally better than conventional deep-fat frying methods.

  10. XVIII Mendeleev congress on general and applied chemistry. Summaries of reports in five volumes. Volume 5. IV Russian-French symposium Supramolecular systems in chemistry and biology. II Russian-Indian symposium on organic chemistry. International symposium on present-day radiochemistry Radiochemistry: progress and prospects. International symposium Green chemistry, stable evolution and social responsibility of chemists. Symposium Nucleophilic hydrogen substitution in aromatic systems and related reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The 5 volume of the XVIII Mendeleev congress on general and applied chemistry includes summaries of reports on the subjects of sypramolecular systems in chemistry and biology, organic chemistry, modern radiochemistry, green chemistry - development and social responsibility of chemists, nucleophilic hydrogen substitution in aromatic systems and related chemical reactions [ru

  11. General physical health advice for people with serious mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosh, Graeme; Clifton, Andrew V; Xia, Jun; White, Margueritte M

    2014-03-28

    There is currently much focus on provision of general physical health advice to people with serious mental illness and there has been increasing pressure for services to take responsibility for providing this. To review the effects of general physical healthcare advice for people with serious mental illness. We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group's Trials Register (last update search October 2012) which is based on regular searches of CINAHL, BIOSIS, AMED, EMBASE, PubMed, MEDLINE, PsycINFO and registries of Clinical Trials. There is no language, date, document type, or publication status limitations for inclusion of records in the register. All randomised clinical trials focusing on general physical health advice for people with serious mental illness.. We extracted data independently. For binary outcomes, we calculated risk ratio (RR) and its 95% confidence interval (CI), on an intention-to-treat basis. For continuous data, we estimated the mean difference (MD) between groups and its 95% CI. We employed a fixed-effect model for analyses. We assessed risk of bias for included studies and created 'Summary of findings' tables using GRADE. Seven studies are now included in this review. For the comparison of physical healthcare advice versus standard care we identified six studies (total n = 964) of limited quality. For measures of quality of life one trial found no difference (n = 54, 1 RCT, MD Lehman scale 0.20, CI -0.47 to 0.87, very low quality of evidence) but another two did for the Quality of Life Medical Outcomes Scale - mental component (n = 487, 2 RCTs, MD 3.70, CI 1.76 to 5.64). There was no difference between groups for the outcome of death (n = 487, 2 RCTs, RR 0.98, CI 0.27 to 3.56, low quality of evidence). For service use two studies presented favourable results for health advice, uptake of ill-health prevention services was significantly greater in the advice group (n = 363, 1 RCT, MD 36.90, CI 33.07 to 40.73) and service use: one or more primary

  12. Using Mathematical Software to Introduce Fourier Transforms in Physical Chemistry to Develop Improved Understanding of Their Applications in Analytical Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Tierney C.; Richardson, John N.; Kegerreis, Jeb S.

    2016-01-01

    This manuscript presents an exercise that utilizes mathematical software to explore Fourier transforms in the context of model quantum mechanical systems, thus providing a deeper mathematical understanding of relevant information often introduced and treated as a "black-box" in analytical chemistry courses. The exercise is given to…

  13. Handbook on the physics and chemistry of the actinides. V. 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman, A.J.; Keller, C.

    1991-01-01

    In the last 15 years, actinide research has presented unique challenges both for experimentalists and theorists. The uniqueness stems not only from their nuclear properties, which since the early 1940's has led to their important role in nuclear energy and nuclear technology, but also from their unusual chemical and physical properties which have added new excitement and discoveries to both these disciplines. It is the purpose of this handbook to describe in detail the present understanding of the actinides by means of comprehensive, critical, broad and up-to-date reviews covering both the physics and chemistry of these exotic elements. They are intended to serve as an introduction to the subject for the non-specialist, as a convenient reference work for the specialist, and as a guide for future research. The rapid accelerated pace of research in the last decade continues and carries with it new vigor and excitement to a field in a state of transition. The present sixth volume completes the series. Like volumes 3 and 4, the emphasis is on chemistry, though physical aspects, such as self-radiation effects and electron paramagnetic resonance are also treated. The main body of the volume is devoted to systematic and comprehensive studies of a variety of important actinide compounds. These include relatively simple salts as well as various complexes and organic compounds. The data accumulated on such materials are broadly scattered in the literature, due to the interdisciplinary nature of much of the underlying research. Experts on the various substances have now reviewed this literature and brought it together in this book. refs.; figs.; tabs

  14. Annual Report of Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-06-01

    The INCT 2002 Annual Report is the review of scientific activities in all branches being developed in the Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Warsaw. The studies are connected in general with the following fields: radiation chemistry and physics, radiation technologies, radiochemistry, stable isotopes, nuclear analytical methods, chemistry in general, radiobiology, process engineering, material engineering, structural studies and diagnostics, nucleonic control systems and accelerators

  15. Annual Report of Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-06-01

    The INCT 2002 Annual Report is the review of scientific activities in all branches being developed in the Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Warsaw. The studies are connected in general with the following fields: radiation chemistry and physics, radiation technologies, radiochemistry, stable isotopes, nuclear analytical methods, chemistry in general, radiobiology, process engineering, material engineering, structural studies and diagnostics, nucleonic control systems and accelerators.

  16. General-purpose event generators for LHC physics

    CERN Document Server

    Buckley, Andy; Gieseke, Stefan; Grellscheid, David; Hoche, Stefan; Hoeth, Hendrik; Krauss, Frank; Lonnblad, Leif; Nurse, Emily; Richardson, Peter; Schumann, Steffen; Seymour, Michael H.; Sjostrand, Torbjorn; Skands, Peter; Webber, Bryan

    2011-01-01

    We review the physics basis, main features and use of general-purpose Monte Carlo event generators for the simulation of proton-proton collisions at the Large Hadron Collider. Topics included are: the generation of hard-scattering matrix elements for processes of interest, at both leading and next-to-leading QCD perturbative order; their matching to approximate treatments of higher orders based on the showering approximation; the parton and dipole shower formulations; parton distribution functions for event generators; non-perturbative aspects such as soft QCD collisions, the underlying event and diffractive processes; the string and cluster models for hadron formation; the treatment of hadron and tau decays; the inclusion of QED radiation and beyond-Standard-Model processes. We describe the principal features of the ARIADNE, Herwig++, PYTHIA 8 and SHERPA generators, together with the Rivet and Professor validation and tuning tools, and discuss the physics philosophy behind the proper use of these generators ...

  17. Química geral experimental: uma nova abordagem didática Experimental general chemistry: a new teaching approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo Eduardo da Luz Júnior

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available This essay describes a new didactic approach, in according with the national curriculum guidelines for chemistry undergraduate courses in Brazil, employed during the one-semester course "Experimental General Chemistry" for chemistry undergraduate students at the Federal University of Piauí. The new approach has positively helped student's training by improving their reading skills and their understanding of scientific reports, by developing the use of electronic tools to search and to recover the required knowledge for their learning activities, and by improving their skills of understanding published texts and dealing with digital sources. At the same time the students are strongly stimulated to enter the research program for undergraduate students available at the University.

  18. Innovation Developments of Coal Chemistry Science in L.M. Litvinenko Institute of Physical-Organic Chemistry and Coal Chemistry of NAS of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shendrik, T.G.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The article presents short historical review and innovation developments of Coal Chemistry Department of L.M. Litvinenko Institute, NAS of Ukraine connected with coal mine exploitation problems, search for decisions toward prevention of spontaneous combustion, dust control in mines, establishing structural chemical features of coal with different genesis and stages of metamorphism with the aim to develop new methods of their modification and rational use. The methods of obtaining inexpensive sorbents from Ukrainian raw materials (including carbon containing waste are proposed. The problems of modern coal chemistry science in IPOCC of NAS of Ukraine are outlined.

  19. Macromolecular crowding: chemistry and physics meet biology (Ascona, Switzerland, 10-14 June 2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foffi, G.; Pastore, A.; Piazza, F.; Temussi, P. A.

    2013-08-01

    held in Ascona from 10 to 14 June 2012. In the unique scenario of the Maggiore lake and absorbed in the magic atmosphere of the Centro Stefano Franscini (CSF) at Monte Verità, we enjoyed three-and-a-half days of intense and inspiring activity, where not only many of the most prominent scientists working on macromolecular crowding, but also experts in closely related fields such as colloids and soft matter presented their work. The meeting was intended and has been organized to bring theoreticians and experimentalists together in the attempt to promote an active dialogue. Moreover, we wanted different disciplines to be represented, notably physics and chemistry, besides biology, as cross-fertilization is proving an increasingly fundamental source of inspiration and advancement. This issue of Physical Biology (PB) features a selection of the oral contributions presented at the conference, expanded in the form of research or review articles. PB, one of the scientific journals of the Institute of Physics (IOP), is one of the most dynamic and lively forums active at the interface between biology on one side, and physics and mathematics on the other. As its mission is stated by IOP, PB 'focuses on research in which physics-based approaches lead to new insights into biological systems at all scales of space and time, and all levels of complexity'. For these reasons, and also in view of its high reputation and broad readership, PB appears to be the ideal place for disseminating the thriving pieces of research presented at the conference. We are extremely grateful to PB and its kind and efficient editorial staff who helped make this issue a great scientific follow-up to the conference. The opening lecture of the conference, the first of four day-opening keynote lectures, was given by Allen P Minton from NIH (USA), possibly the most influential among the pioneers in the field. He provided a lucid and well-thought-out overview of the concept of macromolecular crowding through an

  20. Macromolecular crowding: chemistry and physics meet biology (Ascona, Switzerland, 10-14 June 2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foffi, G; Pastore, A; Piazza, F; Temussi, P A

    2013-08-02

    conference held in Ascona from 10 to 14 June 2012. In the unique scenario of the Maggiore lake and absorbed in the magic atmosphere of the Centro Stefano Franscini (CSF) at Monte Verità, we enjoyed three-and-a-half days of intense and inspiring activity, where not only many of the most prominent scientists working on macromolecular crowding, but also experts in closely related fields such as colloids and soft matter presented their work. The meeting was intended and has been organized to bring theoreticians and experimentalists together in the attempt to promote an active dialogue. Moreover, we wanted different disciplines to be represented, notably physics and chemistry, besides biology, as cross-fertilization is proving an increasingly fundamental source of inspiration and advancement. This issue of Physical Biology (PB) features a selection of the oral contributions presented at the conference, expanded in the form of research or review articles. PB, one of the scientific journals of the Institute of Physics (IOP), is one of the most dynamic and lively forums active at the interface between biology on one side, and physics and mathematics on the other. As its mission is stated by IOP, PB 'focuses on research in which physics-based approaches lead to new insights into biological systems at all scales of space and time, and all levels of complexity'. For these reasons, and also in view of its high reputation and broad readership, PB appears to be the ideal place for disseminating the thriving pieces of research presented at the conference. We are extremely grateful to PB and its kind and efficient editorial staff who helped make this issue a great scientific follow-up to the conference. The opening lecture of the conference, the first of four day-opening keynote lectures, was given by Allen P Minton from NIH (USA), possibly the most influential among the pioneers in the field. He provided a lucid and well-thought-out overview of the concept of macromolecular crowding

  1. Teleology in biology, chemistry and physics education: what primary teachers should know

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KOSTAS KAMPOURAKIS

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent research in cognitive psychology suggests that children develop intuitions that may clash with what is accepted by scientists, thus making certain scientific concepts difficult to understand. Children possess intuitions about design and purpose that make them provide teleological explanations to many different sorts of tasks. One possible explanation for the origin of the bias to view objects as made for something derives from an early sensitivity to intentional agents and to their behavior as intentional object users and object makers. What is important is that teleological explanations may not be exclusively restricted in biological phenomena, as commonly assumed. Consequently, primary school teachers should take that into account when teaching biology, chemistry or physics concepts and try to refrain from enforcing students’ teleological intuitions.

  2. Plutonium metallurgy: The materials science challenges bridging condensed-matter physics and chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, A.J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States)], E-mail: schwartz6@llnl.gov

    2007-10-11

    Although there exists evidence of metallurgical practices dating back over 6000 years, studies of Pu and Pu alloys have been conducted for barely 60 years. During the time of the Manhattan Project and extending for some time afterward, the priority to produce the metal took precedence over the fundamental understanding of the metallurgical principals. In the past decade or so, there has been a resurgence in the basic metallurgy, condensed-matter physics, and chemistry of Pu and Pu alloys. These communities have made substantial progress, both experimentally and theoretically in many areas; however, many challenges still remain. The intent of this brief overview is to highlight a number important challenges that we face in the metallurgy of Pu including phase transformations and phase stability, aging, and the connection between electronic structure and metallurgy.

  3. Many-electron approaches in physics, chemistry and mathematics a multidisciplinary view

    CERN Document Server

    Site, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    This book provides a broad description of the development and (computational) application of many-electron approaches from a multidisciplinary perspective. In the context of studying many-electron systems Computer Science, Chemistry, Mathematics and Physics are all intimately interconnected. However, beyond a handful of communities working at the interface between these disciplines, there is still a marked separation of subjects. This book seeks to offer a common platform for possible exchanges between the various fields and to introduce the reader to perspectives for potential further developments across the disciplines. The rapid advances of modern technology will inevitably require substantial improvements in the approaches currently used, which will in turn make exchanges between disciplines indispensable. In essence this book is one of the very first attempts at an interdisciplinary approach to the many-electron problem.

  4. AN APPLICATION OF THE LOGISTIC REGRESSION MODEL IN THE EXPERIMENTAL PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elpidio Corral-López

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The calculation of intensive properties molar volumes of ethanol-water mixtures by experimental densities and tangent method in the Physical Chemistry Laboratory presents the problem of making manually the molar volume curve versus mole fraction and the trace of the tangent line trace. The advantage of using a statistical model the Logistic Regression on a Texas VOYAGE graphing calculator allowed trace the curve and the tangents in situ, and also evaluate the students work during the experimental session. The error percentage between the molar volumes calculated using literature data and those obtained with statistical method is minimal, which validates the model. It is advantageous use the calculator with this application as a teaching support tool, reducing the evaluation time of 3 weeks to 3 hours.

  5. Research on teaching and learning in Physics and Chemistry in NorDiNa Papers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Päivi Kinnunen

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This article provides an overview of teaching and learning processes in research on physics and chemistry education published in NorDiNa 2005–2013. Using the didactic triangle as our theoretical framework we developed a typology to analyse the data and used this to categorise 89 related research papers, from all levels of education (primary, secondary and tertiary. The results suggest that students’ characteristics, their understanding of the content and learning outcomes are studied frequently. In contrast, science teachers are studied much less. Most papers reported studies that had been done at the teaching organisation level. Course level studies and society level studies were also frequent. However, international level studies were few in this data pool. We conclude by discussing less popular research topics in the science education field.

  6. Table of isotopes for the 1998/99 handbook of chemistry and physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holden, N.E.

    1998-03-01

    Non-neutron nuclear data have been reviewed and recommended values are presented in the Table of the Isotopes to be published in the Chemical Rubber Company's 1998--1999 Handbook of Chemistry and Physics. The information, which is presented in the Isotopes Table for each known chemical element and for each ground state and long-lived isomeric state nuclide of each element includes the atomic weight of the element and the atomic mass of the ground state nuclide, isotopic abundance value (if the nuclide is stable) or the radioactive half-life (if the nuclide is not stable), the mode of decay, branching ratio and the total disintegration energy, the discrete energies of the alpha particles, protons or neutrons and end point energies of beta transitions and their respective intensities. The following additional information is also included, the nuclear spin and parity, the magnetic dipole moment and the electrical quadrupole moment and the gamma ray energies and intensities

  7. Physics and chemistry of niobium materials in the context of superconducting RF cavity applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, S.B.

    2016-01-01

    Superconducting radio frequency (SCRF) cavities excel over the normal conducting RF cavities in the long pulse or continuous wave high energy particle accelerations, and niobium (Nb) is currently the material of choice for fabrication of such SCRF cavities. However the accelerating gradients attained in the Nb SCRF cavities deployed in various high energy particle accelerators are significantly below the theoretical limit predicted by the superconducting properties of Nb. Thus it is very important to understand the physics and chemistry of Nb materials in some details so as to maximize the SCRF cavity performance. This abstract will discuss some issues which help in the development of high gradient and energy efficient Nb SCRF cavities in a cost effective manner. (author)

  8. Using Physical Organic Chemistry To Shape the Course of Electrochemical Reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeller, Kevin D

    2018-05-09

    While organic electrochemistry can look quite different to a chemist not familiar with the technique, the reactions are at their core organic reactions. As such, they are developed and optimized using the same physical organic chemistry principles employed during the development of any other organic reaction. Certainly, the electron transfer that triggers the reactions can require a consideration of new "wrinkles" to those principles, but those considerations are typically minimal relative to the more traditional approaches needed to manipulate the pathways available to the reactive intermediates formed downstream of that electron transfer. In this review, three very different synthetic challenges-the generation and trapping of radical cations, the development of site-selective reactions on microelectrode arrays, and the optimization of current in a paired electrolysis-are used to illustrate this point.

  9. Praxeological Organization of School Knowledge: A comparison of the Clapeyron equation approach in both physics and chemistry textbooks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Claro Zanardi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an overview of the Didactic Transposition and Anthropological Theory of Didactic of Chevallard and the relationship between them in order to use them as an analysis tool to understand the appearance of content on the Clapeyron equation in both books of Physics and Chemistry. Praxeological analysis revealed a common core to these two science courses, complemented by some concepts which are contextualized to each one of them. This analysis can provide elements that guide the internal didactical transposition, helping teachers of physics and chemistry to minimize the fragmentation of this content in both science courses.

  10. For the love of learning science: Connecting learning orientation and career productivity in physics and chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert H. Tai

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available An individual’s motivational orientation serves as a drive to action and can influence their career success. This study examines how goal orientation toward the pursuit of a graduate degree in physics and chemistry influences later success outcomes of practicing physicists and chemists. Two main categories of goal orientation are examined in this paper: performance orientation or motivation to demonstrate one’s ability or performance to others, and learning orientation or motivation through the desire to learn about a topic. The data were obtained as part of Project Crossover, a mixed-methods study which focused on studying the transition from graduate student to scientist in the physical sciences and included a survey of members of two national professional physical science organizations. Using regression analysis on data from 2353 physicists and chemists, results indicate that physicists and chemists who reported a learning orientation as their motivation for going to graduate school were more productive, in terms of total career primary and/or first-author publications and grant funding, than those reporting a performance orientation. Furthermore, given equal salary, learning-oriented individuals produced more primary and/or first-author publications than their nonlearning oriented counterparts.

  11. A Lab-Based, Lecture-Free General Physics Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Mark B.

    1997-04-01

    The past four years have seen the development of a discovery style, lecture-free, lab-based General Physics course at Grinnell College. Similar in spirit to Priscilla Laws' Workshop Physics (P. Laws, Physics Today, Dec. 1991, p. 24.), this course is a calculus- based, two-semester sequence, which is offered in parallel with more conventional lecture sections, allowing students choice of pedagogical styles. This new course is taught without a text, allowing a somewhat atypical ordering of topics and the early inclusion of a modern introduction to quantum and statistical mechanics. A complete set of laboratory materials was developed at Grinnell for this course, with activities considerably different in most cases than Laws' activities. A quick overview of the pedagogical style and topics covered will be given, and then several specific activities will be described in greater detail. The course has been shown to be a popular and viable alternative to the more conventional sections for majors and non-majors; ongoing efforts to assess the course will be described, especially those that make comparisons between this course and more conventional sections.

  12. Getting Real: A General Chemistry Laboratory Program Focusing on "Real World" Substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerber, Robert C.; Akhtar, Mohammad J.

    1996-11-01

    In order to confront the abstractness of the freshman chemistry syllabus and the consequent failure of students to relate what they learn to their everyday lives, we have designed a new freshman laboratory program. It is intended as an interface between the substances that surround the students in their ordinary lives and the abstract principles presented in chemistry classrooms (1). A laboratory should provide the organized experiences and observations that underlie the intellectual constructs of chemistry, and tying these experiences and observations to the real world can help to provide motivation for study of the principles. The freshman laboratory program constitutes the foundation for subsequent laboratory courses. However, the good habits we strive to develop there (careful observation, thorough record keeping, proper use of equipment, objective data analysis) are essential to all scientific work, and are intended to provide lasting educational value for all students, especially those who do not take later laboratory work. What We Do A list of the laboratory exercises carried out during 1994-1995 is presented in Table 1. The course incorporates the following features. 1. The exercises deal with recognizable, everyday substances, not just with "chemicals". That "baking soda" and "sodium bicarbonate" are the same is a chemical truism of which the students may be aware, but the visible presence of the Arm and Hammer box nevertheless helps them to make connections to the world outside the laboratory. Perceiving the connections, students may be inspired by curiosity to understand chemical phenomena better, not just to tolerate what they are being taught, as an irrelevant hurdle in the pursuit of a career. 2. Since many significant substances around students in the everyday world are organic, we work in the lab with organic as well as the usual inorganic materials. These include analgesics, vitamins, antifreeze, foodstuffs, dyestuffs, plastics, and fibers. In

  13. Productive whole-class discussions: A qualitative analysis of peer leader behaviors in general chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckart, Teresa Mcclain

    The intention of this research was to describe behaviors and characteristics of General Chemistry I peer leaders using a pedagogical reform method referred to as Peer-led Guided Inquiry (PLGI), and to discuss the ways in which these peer leaders created productive whole-class discussions. This reform technique engaged students to work on guided inquiry activities while working cooperatively in small groups, led by undergraduate peer leaders. These sessions were video recorded and transcribed. The data was evaluated using grounded theory methods of analysis. This study examined the dialog between students and peer leaders, paying specific attention to question types and observed patterns of interactions. The research took shape by examining the kinds of questions asked by peer leaders and the purposes these questions served. In addition to looking at questions, different kinds of behaviors displayed by peer leaders during their small group sessions were also observed. A close examination of peer leader questions and behaviors aided in developing an answer to the overall research question regarding what factors are associated with productive whole-class discussions. Five major categories of peer leader behaviors evolved from the data and provided a means to compare and contrast productive whole-class discussions. While no category single-handedly determined if a discussion was good or bad, there was a tendency for peer leaders who exhibited positive traits in at least three of the following categories to have consistently better whole-class discussions: Procedural Practices, Supervisory Qualities, Questioning Techniques, Feedback/Responses, and Interpersonal Skills. Furthermore, each of the major categories is tied directly to Interpersonal, Communication, and Leadership skills and their interactions with each other. This study also addressed applications that each of these categories has on instructional practices and their need in peer leader training. In addition

  14. CAS CERN Accelerator School: Fourth general accelerator physics course

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, S.

    1991-01-01

    The fourth CERN Accelerator School (CAS) basic course on General Accelerator Physics was given at KFA, Juelich, from 17 to 28 September 1990. Its syllabus was based on the previous similar courses held at Gif-sur-Yvette in 1984, Aarhus 1986, and Salamanca 1988, and whose proceedings were published as CERN Reports 85-19, 87-10, and 89-05, respectively. However, certain topics were treated in a different way, improved or extended, while new subjects were introduced. All of these appear in the present proceedings, which include lectures or seminars on the history and applications of accelerators, phase space and emittance, chromaticity, beam-beam effects, synchrotron radiation, radiation damping, tune measurement, transition, electron cooling, the designs of superconducting magnets, ring lattices, conventional RF cavities and ring RF systems, and an introduction to cyclotrons. (orig.)

  15. A Model Independent General Search for new physics in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Amoroso, S; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    We present results of a model-independent general search for new phenomena in proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 TeV with the ATLAS detector at the LHC. The data set corresponds to a total integrated luminosity of 20.3~\\ifb. Event topologies involving isolated electrons, photons and muons, as well as jets, including those identified as originating from \\textit{b}-quarks (\\textit{b}-jets) and missing transverse momentum are investigated. The events are subdivided according to their final states into exclusive event classes. For the 697 classes with a Standard Model expectation greater than 0.1 events, a search algorithm tests the compatibility of data against the Monte Carlo simulated background in three kinematic variables sensitive to new physics effects. No significant deviation is found in data. The number and size of the observed deviations follow the Standard Model expectation obtained from simulated pseudo-experiments.

  16. A Model Independent General Search for new physics in ATLAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoroso, S.; ATLAS Collaboration

    2016-04-01

    We present results of a model-independent general search for new phenomena in proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 TeV with the ATLAS detector at the LHC. The data set corresponds to a total integrated luminosity of 20.3 fb-1. Event topologies involving isolated electrons, photons and muons, as well as jets, including those identified as originating from b-quarks (b-jets) and missing transverse momentum are investigated. The events are subdivided according to their final states into exclusive event classes. For the 697 classes with a Standard Model expectation greater than 0.1 events, a search algorithm tests the compatibility of data against the Monte Carlo simulated background in three kinematic variables sensitive to new physics effects. No significant deviation is found in data. The number and size of the observed deviations follow the Standard Model expectation obtained from simulated pseudo-experiments.

  17. CAS CERN Accelerator School third general accelerator physics course

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, S.

    1989-01-01

    The general course on accelerator physics given in Salamanca, Spain, closely followed those organised by the CERN Accelerator School at Gif-sur-Yvette, Paris in 1984, and at Aarhus, Denmark in 1986 and whose proceedings were published as CERN Yellow Reports 85-19 (1985) and 87-10 (1987) respectively. However, certain topics were treated in a different way, improved or extended, while some new ones were introduced and it is all of these which are included in the present proceedings. The lectures include beam-cooling concepts, Liouville's theorem and emittance, emittance dilution in transfer lines, weak-betatron coupling, diagnostics, while the seminars are on positron and electron sources, linac structures and the LEP L3 experiment, together with industrial aspects of particle accelerators. Also included are errata and addenda to the Yellow Reports mentioned above. (orig.)

  18. National uses and needs for separated stable isotopes in physics, chemistry, and geoscience research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zisman, M.S.

    1982-01-01

    Present uses of separated stable isotopes in the fields of physics, chemistry, and the geosciences have been surveyed to identify current supply problems and to determine future needs. Demand for separated isotopes remains strong, with 220 different nuclides having been used in the past three years. The largest needs, in terms of both quantity and variety of isotopes, are found in nuclear physics research. Current problems include a lack of availability of many nuclides, unsatisfactory enrichment of rare species, and prohibitively high costs for certain important isotopes. It is expected that demands for separated isotopes will remain roughly at present levels, although there will be a shift toward more requests for highly enriched rare isotopes. Significantly greater use will be made of neutron-rich nuclides below A = 100 for producing exotic ion beams at various accelerators. Use of transition metal nuclei for nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy will expand. In addition, calibration standards will be required for the newer techniques of radiological dating, such as the Sm/Nd and Lu/Hf methods, but in relatively small quantities. Most members of the research community would be willing to pay considerably more than they do now to maintain adequate supplies of stable isotopes

  19. Physical chemistry and microscopic characteristics of matured beef peccary (Tayassu tajacu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Rangel Fernandes

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Fernandes H.R., Oliveira L.C., Ribeiro S.C.A. & Lourenço L.F.H. [Physical chemistry and microscopic characteristics of matured beef peccary (Tayassu tajacu.] Características físicas e microscópicas da carne maturada de caititu (Tayassu tajacu. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 37(2:167-172, 2015. Universidade do Estado do Pará, Travessa Enéas Pinheiro, 2626, Marco, Belém, PA 66113-200, Brasil. Email: suziar@yahoo.com The objective of this article was to analyze the physical and microscopic matured beef peccary. Were performed analyses of shear force, water holding capacity, weight loss by cooking and scanning electron microscopy in matured beef. The matured beef presented values of shear force between 3.76 and 5.26 %, water activity between 0,96 to 0,98 and weight loss by cooking between 19,46 and 21,17%. Therefore, it was found that the matured beef peccary, were considered soft according to analysis of shear force. The matured beef at 0ºC for 12 days was considered the best product for having less weight loss by cooking and softness according to analysis of shear force and scanning electron microscopy.

  20. Profile of Scientific Ability of Chemistry Education Students in Basic Physics Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suastika, K. G.; Sudyana, I. N.; Lasiani, L.; Pebriyanto, Y.; Kurniawati, N.

    2017-09-01

    The weakness of scientific ability of students in college has been being a concern in this case, especially in terms of laboratory activities to support Laboratory Based Education. Scientific ability is a basic ability that must be dominated by students in basic physics lecturing process as a part of scientific method. This research aims to explore the indicators emergence of the scientific ability of students in Chemistry Education of Study Program, Faculty of Teaching and Education University of Palangka Raya through Inquiry Based Learning in basic physics courses. This research is a quantitative research by using descriptive method (descriptive-quantitative). Students are divided into three categories of group those are excellent group, low group, and heterogeneous group. The result shows that the excellent group and low group have same case that were occured decreasing in the percentage of achievement of scientific ability, while in heterogeneous group was increased. The differentiation of these results are caused by enthusiastic level of students in every group that can be seen in tables of scientific ability achievement aspects. By the results of this research, hoping in the future can be a references for further research about innovative learning strategies and models that can improve scientific ability and scientific reasoning especially for science teacher candidates.

  1. National uses and needs for separated stable isotopes in physics, chemistry, and geoscience research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zisman, M.S.

    1982-01-01

    Present uses of separated stable isotopes in the fields of physics, chemistry, and the geosciences have been surveyed to identify current supply problems and to determine future needs. Demand for separated isotopes remains strong, with 220 different nuclides having been used in the past three years. The largest needs, in terms of both quantity and variety of isotopes, are found in nuclear physics research. Current problems include a lack of availability of many nuclides, unsatisfactory enrichment of rare species, and prohibitively high costs for certain important isotopes. It is expected that demands for separated isotopes will remain roughly at present levels, although there will be a shift toward more requests for highly enriched rare isotopes. Significantly greater use will be made of neutron-rich nuclides below A = 100 for producing exotic ion beams at various accelerators. Use of transition metal nuclei for nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy will expand. In addition, calibration standards will be required for the newer techniques of radiological dating, such as the Sm/Nd and Lu/Hf methods, but in relatively small quantities. Most members of the research community would be willing to pay considerably more than they do now to maintain adequate supplies of stable isotopes.

  2. plasmaFoam: An OpenFOAM framework for computational plasma physics and chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkattraman, Ayyaswamy; Verma, Abhishek Kumar

    2016-09-01

    As emphasized in the 2012 Roadmap for low temperature plasmas (LTP), scientific computing has emerged as an essential tool for the investigation and prediction of the fundamental physical and chemical processes associated with these systems. While several in-house and commercial codes exist, with each having its own advantages and disadvantages, a common framework that can be developed by researchers from all over the world will likely accelerate the impact of computational studies on advances in low-temperature plasma physics and chemistry. In this regard, we present a finite volume computational toolbox to perform high-fidelity simulations of LTP systems. This framework, primarily based on the OpenFOAM solver suite, allows us to enhance our understanding of multiscale plasma phenomenon by performing massively parallel, three-dimensional simulations on unstructured meshes using well-established high performance computing tools that are widely used in the computational fluid dynamics community. In this talk, we will present preliminary results obtained using the OpenFOAM-based solver suite with benchmark three-dimensional simulations of microplasma devices including both dielectric and plasma regions. We will also discuss the future outlook for the solver suite.

  3. Sol-Gel Application for Consolidating Stone: An Example of Project-Based Learning in a Physical Chemistry Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    de los Santos, Desiree´ M.; Montes, Antonio; Sa´nchez-Coronilla, Antonio; Navas, Javier

    2014-01-01

    A Project Based Learning (PBL) methodology was used in the practical laboratories of the Advanced Physical Chemistry department. The project type proposed simulates "real research" focusing on sol-gel synthesis and the application of the obtained sol as a stone consolidant. Students were divided into small groups (2 to 3 students) to…

  4. Converting STEM Doctoral Dissertations into Patent Applications: A Study of Chemistry, Physics, Mathematics, and Chemical Engineering Dissertations from CIC Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butkovich, Nancy J.

    2015-01-01

    Doctoral candidates may request short-term embargoes on the release of their dissertations in order to apply for patents. This study examines how often inventions described in dissertations in chemical engineering, chemistry, physics, and mathematics are converted into U.S. patent applications, as well as the relationship between dissertation…

  5. Temperature and Electron Density Determination on Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) Plasmas: A Physical Chemistry Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najarian, Maya L.; Chinni, Rosemarie C.

    2013-01-01

    This laboratory is designed for physical chemistry students to gain experience using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) in understanding plasma diagnostics. LIBS uses a high-powered laser that is focused on the sample causing a plasma to form. The emission of this plasma is then spectrally resolved and detected. Temperature and electron…

  6. Students' Interest and Experiences in Physics and Chemistry Related Themes: Reflections Based on a ROSE-Survey in Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavonen, Jari; Byman, Reijo; Uitto, Anna; Juuti, Kalle; Meisalo, Veijo

    2008-01-01

    Interest in physics and chemistry topics and out-of-school experiences of Finnish secondary school students (n = 3626, median age 15) were surveyed using the international ROSE questionnaire. Based on explorative factor analysis the scores of six out-of-school experience factors (indicating how often students had done something outside of school)…

  7. Conceptual Mobility and Entrenchment in Introductory Geoscience Courses: New Questions Regarding Physics' and Chemistry's Role in Learning Earth Science Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Steven W.; Libarkin, Julie C.

    2016-01-01

    Nationwide pre- and posttesting of introductory courses with the Geoscience Concept Inventory (GCI) shows little gain for many of its questions. Analysis of more than 3,500 tests shows that 22 of the 73 GCI questions had gains of <0.03, and nearly half of these focused on basic physics and chemistry. We also discovered through an assessment of…

  8. Determination of Molecular Self-Diffusion Coefficients Using Pulsed-Field-Gradient NMR: An Experiment for Undergraduate Physical Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmon, Jennifer; Coffman, Cierra; Villarrial, Spring; Chabolla, Steven; Heisel, Kurt A.; Krishnan, Viswanathan V.

    2012-01-01

    NMR spectroscopy has become one of the primary tools that chemists utilize to characterize a range of chemical species in the solution phase, from small organic molecules to medium-sized proteins. A discussion of NMR spectroscopy is an essential component of physical and biophysical chemistry lecture courses, and a number of instructional…

  9. Reasoning Using Particulate Nature of Matter: An Example of a Sociochemical Norm in a University-Level Physical Chemistry Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Nicole; Rasmussen, Chris; Sweeney, George; Wawro, Megan; Towns, Marcy; Cole, Renee

    2013-01-01

    In college level chemistry courses, reasoning using molecular and particulate descriptions of matter becomes central to understanding physical and chemical properties. In this study, we used a qualitative approach to analyzing classroom discourse derived from Toulmin's model of argumentation in order to describe the ways in which students develop…

  10. The 54th International Meeting of Physical Chemistry; Fast Elementary Processes in Chemical and Biological Systems Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tramer, A.

    1996-01-01

    These proceedings represent papers presented at the 54th International Meeting of Physical Chemistry held in Villeneuve d'Ascq in France. Topics discussed include ultrafast studies in biophysics surface phenomena, photochemical processes, electron and proton transfer, crystalline and microdisperse media and isolated molecules. There were 80 papers presented at the meeting and 14 have been abstracted for the Energy Science and Technology database

  11. Utilization of a Microcomputer for the Study of an Iodine Oxidation and Equilibrium Reaction: A Physical Chemistry Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julien, L. M.

    1984-01-01

    Describes a physical chemistry experiment which incorporates the use of a microcomputer to enhance understanding of combined kinetic and equilibrium phenomena, to increase experimental capabilities when working with large numbers of students and limited equipment, and for the student to develop a better understanding of experimental design. (JN)

  12. General-purpose event generators for LHC physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckley, Andy [PPE Group, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, EH25 9PN (United Kingdom); Butterworth, Jonathan [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Gieseke, Stefan [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, D-76128 Karlsruhe (Germany); Grellscheid, David [Institute for Particle Physics Phenomenology, Durham University, DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Hoeche, Stefan [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Hoeth, Hendrik; Krauss, Frank [Institute for Particle Physics Phenomenology, Durham University, DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Loennblad, Leif [Department of Astronomy and Theoretical Physics, Lund University (Sweden); PH Department, TH Unit, CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Nurse, Emily [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Richardson, Peter [Institute for Particle Physics Phenomenology, Durham University, DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Schumann, Steffen [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Heidelberg, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Seymour, Michael H. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Sjoestrand, Torbjoern [Department of Astronomy and Theoretical Physics, Lund University (Sweden); Skands, Peter [PH Department, TH Unit, CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Webber, Bryan, E-mail: webber@hep.phy.cam.ac.uk [Cavendish Laboratory, J.J. Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom)

    2011-07-15

    We review the physics basis, main features and use of general-purpose Monte Carlo event generators for the simulation of proton-proton collisions at the Large Hadron Collider. Topics included are: the generation of hard scattering matrix elements for processes of interest, at both leading and next-to-leading QCD perturbative order; their matching to approximate treatments of higher orders based on the showering approximation; the parton and dipole shower formulations; parton distribution functions for event generators; non-perturbative aspects such as soft QCD collisions, the underlying event and diffractive processes; the string and cluster models for hadron formation; the treatment of hadron and tau decays; the inclusion of QED radiation and beyond Standard Model processes. We describe the principal features of the ARIADNE, Herwig++, PYTHIA 8 and SHERPA generators, together with the Rivet and Professor validation and tuning tools, and discuss the physics philosophy behind the proper use of these generators and tools. This review is aimed at phenomenologists wishing to understand better how parton-level predictions are translated into hadron-level events as well as experimentalists seeking a deeper insight into the tools available for signal and background simulation at the LHC.

  13. General-purpose event generators for LHC physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckley, Andy; Butterworth, Jonathan; Gieseke, Stefan; Grellscheid, David; Hoeche, Stefan; Hoeth, Hendrik; Krauss, Frank; Loennblad, Leif; Nurse, Emily; Richardson, Peter; Schumann, Steffen; Seymour, Michael H.; Sjoestrand, Torbjoern; Skands, Peter; Webber, Bryan

    2011-01-01

    We review the physics basis, main features and use of general-purpose Monte Carlo event generators for the simulation of proton-proton collisions at the Large Hadron Collider. Topics included are: the generation of hard scattering matrix elements for processes of interest, at both leading and next-to-leading QCD perturbative order; their matching to approximate treatments of higher orders based on the showering approximation; the parton and dipole shower formulations; parton distribution functions for event generators; non-perturbative aspects such as soft QCD collisions, the underlying event and diffractive processes; the string and cluster models for hadron formation; the treatment of hadron and tau decays; the inclusion of QED radiation and beyond Standard Model processes. We describe the principal features of the ARIADNE, Herwig++, PYTHIA 8 and SHERPA generators, together with the Rivet and Professor validation and tuning tools, and discuss the physics philosophy behind the proper use of these generators and tools. This review is aimed at phenomenologists wishing to understand better how parton-level predictions are translated into hadron-level events as well as experimentalists seeking a deeper insight into the tools available for signal and background simulation at the LHC.

  14. General-purpose event generators for LHC physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckley, Andy; /Edinburgh U.; Butterworth, Jonathan; /University Coll. London; Gieseke, Stefan; /Karlsruhe U., ITP; Grellscheid, David; /Durham U., IPPP; Hoche, Stefan; /SLAC; Hoeth, Hendrik; Krauss, Frank; /Durham U., IPPP; Lonnblad, Leif; /Lund U., Dept. Theor. Phys. /CERN; Nurse, Emily; /University Coll. London; Richardson, Peter; /Durham U., IPPP; Schumann, Steffen; /Heidelberg U.; Seymour, Michael H.; /Manchester U.; Sjostrand, Torbjorn; /Lund U., Dept. Theor. Phys.; Skands, Peter; /CERN; Webber, Bryan; /Cambridge U.

    2011-03-03

    We review the physics basis, main features and use of general-purpose Monte Carlo event generators for the simulation of proton-proton collisions at the Large Hadron Collider. Topics included are: the generation of hard-scattering matrix elements for processes of interest, at both leading and next-to-leading QCD perturbative order; their matching to approximate treatments of higher orders based on the showering approximation; the parton and dipole shower formulations; parton distribution functions for event generators; non-perturbative aspects such as soft QCD collisions, the underlying event and diffractive processes; the string and cluster models for hadron formation; the treatment of hadron and tau decays; the inclusion of QED radiation and beyond-Standard-Model processes. We describe the principal features of the Ariadne, Herwig++, Pythia 8 and Sherpa generators, together with the Rivet and Professor validation and tuning tools, and discuss the physics philosophy behind the proper use of these generators and tools. This review is aimed at phenomenologists wishing to understand better how parton-level predictions are translated into hadron-level events as well as experimentalists wanting a deeper insight into the tools available for signal and background simulation at the LHC.

  15. Report of the joint seminar on heavy-ion nuclear physics and nuclear chemistry in the energy region of tandem accelerators (II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-04-01

    A meeting of the second joint seminar on Heavy-Ion Nuclear Physics and Nuclear Chemistry in the Energy Region of Tandem Accelerators was held after an interval of two years at the Tokai Research Establishment of the JAERI, for three days from January 9 to 11, 1986. In the seminar, about 70 nuclear physicists and nuclear chemists of JAERI and other Institutes participated, and 38 papers were presented. These include general reviews and topical subjects which have been developed intensively in recent years, as well as the new results obtained by using the JAERI tandem accelerator. This report is a collection of the papers presented to the seminar. (author)

  16. Coordinated Implementation and Evaluation of Flipped Classes and Peer-Led Team Learning in General Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, Jenay; Lewis, Scott E.; Oueini, Razanne; Mapugay, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    The research-based pedagogical strategy of flipped classes has been shown to be effective for increasing student achievement and retention in postsecondary chemistry classes. The purpose of flipped classes is to move content delivery (e.g., lecture) outside of the classroom, freeing more face-to-face time for active learning strategies. The…

  17. Connecting Solubility, Equilibrium, and Periodicity in a Green, Inquiry Experiment for the General Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacciatore, Kristen L.; Amado, Jose; Evans, Jason J.; Sevian, Hannah

    2008-01-01

    We present a novel first-year chemistry laboratory experiment that connects solubility, equilibrium, and chemical periodicity concepts. It employs a unique format that asks students to replicate experiments described in different sample lab reports, each lacking some essential information, rather than follow a scripted procedure. This structure is…

  18. Design, Implementation, and Evaluation of a Flipped Format General Chemistry Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Gabriela C.; SturtevantHannah G.

    2015-01-01

    Research has consistently shown that active problem-solving in a collaborative environment supports more effective learning than the traditional lecture approach. In this study, a flipped classroom format was implemented and evaluated in the chemistry majors' sequence at Purdue University over a period of three years. What was formerly lecture…

  19. A General Chemistry Assignment Analyzing Environmental Contamination for the Depue, IL, National Superfund Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saslow Gomez, Sarah A.; Faurie-Wisniewski, Danielle; Parsa, Arlen; Spitz, Jeff; Spitz, Jennifer Amdur; Loeb, Nancy C.; Geiger, Franz M.

    2015-01-01

    The classroom exercise outlined here is a self-directed assignment that connects students to the environmental contamination problem surrounding the DePue Superfund site. By connecting chemistry knowledge gained in the classroom with a real-world problem, students are encouraged to personally connect with the problem while simultaneously…

  20. Textbook-Bundled Metacognitive Tools: A Study of LearnSmart's Efficacy in General Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thadani, Vandana; Bouvier-Brown, Nicole C.

    2016-01-01

    College textbook publishers increasingly bundle sophisticated technology-based study tools with their texts. These tools appear promising, but empirical work on their efficacy is needed. We examined whether LearnSmart, a study tool bundled with McGraw-Hill's textbook "Chemistry" (Chang & Goldsby, 2013), improved learning in an…

  1. Pre-Assessment and Peer Tutoring as Measures to Improve Performance in Gateway General Chemistry Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allenbaugh, R. J.; Herrera, K. M.

    2014-01-01

    Determining student readiness for gateway chemistry courses and providing underprepared students effective remediation are important as student bodies are growing increasingly diverse in their precollege preparation. The effectiveness of the ACT Mathematics Test and the Whimbey Analytical Skills Inventory (WASI) in predicting student success in…

  2. Green, Enzymatic Syntheses of Divanillin and Diapocynin for the Organic, Biochemistry, or Advanced General Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Rachel T.; Giammanco, Chiara H.; Vosburg, David A.

    2010-01-01

    Environmentally benign chemistry is an increasingly important topic both in the classroom and the laboratory. In this experiment, students synthesize divanillin from vanillin or diapocynin from apocynin, using horseradish peroxidase and hydrogen peroxide in water. The dimerized products form rapidly at ambient temperature and are isolated by…

  3. AN INVARIANT OF KNOWLEDGE FOR THE DISCIPLINE CHEMISTRY-PHYSIC IN THE FORMATION OF TEACHERS OF CHEMISTRY / UN INVARIANTE DE CONOCIMIENTOS PARA LA DISCIPLINA QUÍMICA-FÍSICA EN LA FORMACIÓN DE PROFESORES DE QUÍMICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Arturo Ramírez Urizarri

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This work is part of a mastership thesis on the Didactic of Chemistry. Here it is offered the first approximation which will constitute the invariant of knowledge of the discipline Chemistry-Physic for the measurement as bachelor in education in the specialty of Chemistry; with this invariant, that knowledge is meaningful for the importance of the teachers to be professional work.

  4. Paul Scherrer Institut annual report 1996. Annex I. PSI-F1-Newsletter 1996 nuclear and particle physics. Muons in solid-state physics and chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herlach, D.; Kettle, P.R.; Buechli, C. [eds.] [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-02-01

    This newsletter contains reports from the F1-Department and its Divisions. The contributions are categorized as follows: - activities of the F1-Department of PSI, - nuclear and particle physics supported by the Department, -applications of muons in solid-state physics and chemistry. Groups were asked to present new, preliminary or final results obtained in 1996, as well as a publication list, related to F1-supported work which had appeared in scientific journals during 1996. (author) figs., tabs., refs.

  5. Paul Scherrer Institut annual report 1995. Annex I: PSI-F1-Newsletter 1995. Nuclear and particle physics. Muons in solid-state physics and chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herlach, D; Kettle, P R [eds.

    1996-09-01

    This newsletter contains reports from the F1-Department and its Divisions. The contributions are categorized as follows: - activities of the F1-Department of PSI, - nuclear and particle physics supported by the Department, - applications of muons in solid-state physics and chemistry. Groups were asked to present new, preliminary or final results obtained in 1995, as well as a publication list, related to F1-supported work which had appeared in scientific journals during 1995. (author) figs., tabs., refs.

  6. Paul Scherrer Institut annual report 1996. Annex I. PSI-F1-Newsletter 1996 nuclear and particle physics. Muons in solid-state physics and chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herlach, D.; Kettle, P.R.; Buechli, C.

    1997-02-01

    This newsletter contains reports from the F1-Department and its Divisions. The contributions are categorized as follows: - activities of the F1-Department of PSI, - nuclear and particle physics supported by the Department, -applications of muons in solid-state physics and chemistry. Groups were asked to present new, preliminary or final results obtained in 1996, as well as a publication list, related to F1-supported work which had appeared in scientific journals during 1996. (author) figs., tabs., refs

  7. Paul Scherrer Institut annual report 1995. Annex I: PSI-F1-Newsletter 1995. Nuclear and particle physics. Muons in solid-state physics and chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herlach, D.; Kettle, P.R.

    1996-01-01

    This newsletter contains reports from the F1-Department and its Divisions. The contributions are categorized as follows: - activities of the F1-Department of PSI, - nuclear and particle physics supported by the Department, - applications of muons in solid-state physics and chemistry. Groups were asked to present new, preliminary or final results obtained in 1995, as well as a publication list, related to F1-supported work which had appeared in scientific journals during 1995. (author) figs., tabs., refs

  8. Research on condensed matter and atomic physics using major experimental facilities and devices: Physics, chemistry, biology. Reports on results. Vol. 3. 4. Chemistry. 5. Biology. 6. Development of methods and instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This report in three volumes substantiates the contents of the programme survey published in September 1989. The progress reports cover the following research areas: Vol. I, (1). Atomic and molecular physics - free atoms, molecules, macromolecules, clusters, matrix-isolated atoms and molecules. (2) Physics and chemistry of surfaces and interfaces - epitaxy, surface structure, adsorption, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties, thin films, synthetic layer structure. Vol. II, (3). Solid-state physics, and materials science -structural research, lattice dynamics, magnetic structure and dynamics, electronic states; load; spin and pulse density fluctuations; diffusion and internal motion, defects, unordered systems and liquids. Vol. III, (4). Chemistry - bonding and structure, kinetics and reaction mechanisms, polymer research, analysis and synthesis. (5). Biology, - structure and dynamics of biological macromolecules, membrane and cell biology. (6) Development of methods and instruments - neutron sources, synchrotron sources, special accelerators, research with interlinked systems and devices. (orig.) [de

  9. General chemistry: expanding the learning outcomes and promoting interdisciplinary connections through the use of a semester-long project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenzel, Thomas J

    2006-01-01

    The laboratory component of a first-semester general chemistry course for science majors is described. The laboratory involves a semester-long project undertaken in a small-group format. Students are asked to examine whether plants grown in soil contaminated with lead take up more lead than those grown in uncontaminated soil. They are also asked to examine whether the acidity of the rainwater affects the amount of lead taken up by the plants. Groups are then given considerable independence in the design and implementation of the experiment. Once the seeds are planted, which takes about 4 wk into the term, several shorter experiments are integrated in before it is time to harvest and analyze the plants. The use of a project and small working groups allows for the development of a broader range of learning outcomes than occurs in a "traditional" general chemistry laboratory. The nature of these outcomes and some of the student responses to the laboratory experience are described. This particular project also works well at demonstrating the connections among chemistry, biology, geology, and environmental studies.

  10. Major Challenges for the Modern Chemistry in Particular and Science in General.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uskokovíc, Vuk

    2010-11-01

    In the past few hundred years, science has exerted an enormous influence on the way the world appears to human observers. Despite phenomenal accomplishments of science, science nowadays faces numerous challenges that threaten its continued success. As scientific inventions become embedded within human societies, the challenges are further multiplied. In this critical review, some of the critical challenges for the field of modern chemistry are discussed, including: (a) interlinking theoretical knowledge and experimental approaches; (b) implementing the principles of sustainability at the roots of the chemical design; (c) defining science from a philosophical perspective that acknowledges both pragmatic and realistic aspects thereof; (d) instigating interdisciplinary research; (e) learning to recognize and appreciate the aesthetic aspects of scientific knowledge and methodology, and promote truly inspiring education in chemistry. In the conclusion, I recapitulate that the evolution of human knowledge inherently depends upon our ability to adopt creative problem-solving attitudes, and that challenges will always be present within the scope of scientific interests.

  11. An assemblage of science and home. The gendered lifestyle of Svante Arrhenius and early twentieth-century physical chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergwik, Staffan

    2014-06-01

    This essay explores the gendered lifestyle of early twentieth-century physics and chemistry and shows how that way of life was produced through linking science and home. In 1905, the Swedish physical chemist Svante Arrhenius married Maja Johansson and established a scientific household at the Nobel Institute for Physical Chemistry in Stockholm. He created a productive context for research in which ideas about marriage and family were pivotal. He also socialized in similar scientific sites abroad. This essay displays how scholars in the international community circulated the gendered lifestyle through frequent travel and by reproducing gendered behavior. Everywhere, husbands and wives were expected to perform distinct duties. Shared performances created loyalties across national divides. The essay thus situates the physical sciences at the turn of the twentieth century in a bourgeois gender ideology. Moreover, it argues that the gendered lifestyle was not external to knowledge making but, rather, foundational to laboratory life. A legitimate and culturally intelligible lifestyle produced the trust and support needed for collaboration. In addition, it enabled access to prestigious facilities for Svante Arrhenius, ultimately securing his position in international physical chemistry.

  12. Analysis of the Chemistry activities in 1st level of Spanish Bachelor Physics and Chemistry textbooks from a «Chemistry in context» approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea MARTÍNEZ DÍAZ

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last few years there are two worrying phenomenon happening in the science teaching environment, on one hand there are fewer students who choose science subjects at the time they’re optional and on the other hand the decreasing number of university students enrolled in science careers, if we add those two facts the results of the latest pisa tests, which show that students who choose these materials do not get satisfactory results, we have a hopeless outlook. One way of analysing the situation is exploring what happens in the classroom and in this context we find that the textbook is a resource used extensively in the teaching of Chemistry; one essential element for learning are planned activities in the classroom, so it seems essential to make a full review of them. The objectives in this study are: Analysing and classifying the activities contextualized of chemistry textbooks currently used in eleventh grade and comparing books from different educational laws based on their contextualized activities. For the review and classification of activities it uses a methodology of analysis for qualitative content. The results demonstrate the anecdotic presence of this kind of activities in textbooks; 8308 activities were reviewed of which only 6,46% corresponded to contextualized activities. In addition when comparing the different books, whether they are currently used or the ones from previous educational laws, we see that there is not a turnaround in what refers to the contextualized activities, as a significant variation is not observed in the percentages and therefore do not adapt well to curriculum changes. 

  13. DNA as information: at the crossroads between biology, mathematics, physics and chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartwright, Julyan H E; Giannerini, Simone; González, Diego L

    2016-03-13

    On the one hand, biology, chemistry and also physics tell us how the process of translating the genetic information into life could possibly work, but we are still very far from a complete understanding of this process. On the other hand, mathematics and statistics give us methods to describe such natural systems-or parts of them-within a theoretical framework. Also, they provide us with hints and predictions that can be tested at the experimental level. Furthermore, there are peculiar aspects of the management of genetic information that are intimately related to information theory and communication theory. This theme issue is aimed at fostering the discussion on the problem of genetic coding and information through the presentation of different innovative points of view. The aim of the editors is to stimulate discussions and scientific exchange that will lead to new research on why and how life can exist from the point of view of the coding and decoding of genetic information. The present introduction represents the point of view of the editors on the main aspects that could be the subject of future scientific debate. © 2016 The Author(s).

  14. Handbook on the physics and chemistry of the actinides. V. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman, A.J.; Keller, C.

    1985-01-01

    It is the purpose of the Handbook to describe in detail the present understanding of the actinides by means of comprehensive, critical, broad and up to date reviews covering both physics and chemistry of these exotic elements. Volume 3 is the first of two volumes to cover the more chemical, physico-chemical, structural and environmental aspects of the actinide elements. Leading scientists from Europe, USA and P.R. China present critical reviews on important aspects of the behaviour of this radioactive group of elements. In contrast to most other elements radioactivity has, to a degree, a profound influence on the chemical behaviour of the actinides. The unusual behaviour of the 5f-elements - delocalization of the electrons for the light actinides versus localization for the heavier ones - makes them an outstanding tool for the scientist, which can be seen by the variety of oxidation states ranging from +1 to +7. Special laboratory techniques must be developed to deal with the problem of the transcurium elements only being available in small amounts (nanograms to micrograms) or only in the tracer scale. Special emphasis is also placed on the fate of actinides released in the environment, e.g. their reaction to carbonate and organic complexing agents in aquatic systems. In contrast to volumes 1 and 2 which deal mainly with the less radioactive actinides, this volume and the forthcoming volume 4 cover all actinides, in particular those which can be prepared in weighable quantities (up to fermium, element 100). refs.; figs.; tabs

  15. Quantifying enzymatic lysis: estimating the combined effects of chemistry, physiology and physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, Gabriel J; Weitz, Joshua S; Nelson, Daniel C

    2010-01-01

    The number of microbial pathogens resistant to antibiotics continues to increase even as the rate of discovery and approval of new antibiotic therapeutics steadily decreases. Many researchers have begun to investigate the therapeutic potential of naturally occurring lytic enzymes as an alternative to traditional antibiotics. However, direct characterization of lytic enzymes using techniques based on synthetic substrates is often difficult because lytic enzymes bind to the complex superstructure of intact cell walls. Here we present a new standard for the analysis of lytic enzymes based on turbidity assays which allow us to probe the dynamics of lysis without preparing a synthetic substrate. The challenge in the analysis of these assays is to infer the microscopic details of lysis from macroscopic turbidity data. We propose a model of enzymatic lysis that integrates the chemistry responsible for bond cleavage with the physical mechanisms leading to cell wall failure. We then present a solution to an inverse problem in which we estimate reaction rate constants and the heterogeneous susceptibility to lysis among target cells. We validate our model given simulated and experimental turbidity assays. The ability to estimate reaction rate constants for lytic enzymes will facilitate their biochemical characterization and development as antimicrobial therapeutics

  16. Analysis of scientific argumentation in two physical chemistry classrooms using the POGIL approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Alena C.

    The benefits of facilitating argumentation in science education have been well reported (Jimenez-Aleixandre & Erduran, 2007). Engaging in argumentation has shown to model authentic scientific inquiry as well as promote development of content knowledge. However, less emphasis has been placed on facilitating argumentation in upper level undergraduate courses, though it is important for evaluating undergraduate curricula to characterize upper level students' scientific reasoning. This work considers two implementations of the POGIL physical chemistry curriculum and evaluates the classroom argumentation. The researchers aimed to consider the content of the arguments and dialectical features characteristic of socially constructed arguments (Nielson, 2013). To do this, whole class sessions were videotaped and Toulmin's Argument Pattern (TAP) was used to identify the arguments generated during the class (Erduran, Simon, & Osborne, 2004). A learning progression on chemical thinking (Sevian & Talanquer, 2014) was used as a domain-specific measure of argument quality. Results show differences in argumentation between and across both classrooms that can be explained by analysis of instructor facilitation and the POGIL curriculum. The results from this work will be used to make recommendations for instructor facilitation of argumentation and reform of the POGIL curriculum.

  17. Application of perturbed angular correlations to chemistry and related areas of solid state physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rinneberg, H H [Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany, F.R.)

    1979-06-01

    The paper reviews the more recent applications of ..gamma..-..gamma.. time-differential perturbed angular correlation (TDPAC) to chemistry and related areas of solid state physics. Topics which are discussed in some detail include: Supertransferred hyperfine fields at diamagnetic impurities in antiferromagnetic transition metal compounds and their relation to the covalency of the transition metal-ligand bond; effects of charge transfer on the quadrupole interactions in various partially covalent insulators measured by PAC; fluctuating electric field gradients in heptafluorohafnates; the influence of charge density waves in TaS/sub 2/ and the effect of intercalating on the field gradients at /sup 181/Ta; recent advances in the understanding of electric field gradients in metals; information obtained by PAC on the microscopic structure of alloys as well as defects in pure metals after quenching, implantation or irradiation. Magnetic and electric phase transitions observed in PAC spectra are briefly mentioned. In addition, recent measurements in liquids and gases are reviewed. Three introductory sections are devoted to a brief discussion of the time-differential PAC technique, to a concise explanation of the theoretical expressions needed to analyse PAC spectra and to a short description of the experimental set-up. An outlook suggests some areas of possible future applications.

  18. Quantifying enzymatic lysis: estimating the combined effects of chemistry, physiology and physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Gabriel J; Nelson, Daniel C; Weitz, Joshua S

    2010-10-04

    The number of microbial pathogens resistant to antibiotics continues to increase even as the rate of discovery and approval of new antibiotic therapeutics steadily decreases. Many researchers have begun to investigate the therapeutic potential of naturally occurring lytic enzymes as an alternative to traditional antibiotics. However, direct characterization of lytic enzymes using techniques based on synthetic substrates is often difficult because lytic enzymes bind to the complex superstructure of intact cell walls. Here we present a new standard for the analysis of lytic enzymes based on turbidity assays which allow us to probe the dynamics of lysis without preparing a synthetic substrate. The challenge in the analysis of these assays is to infer the microscopic details of lysis from macroscopic turbidity data. We propose a model of enzymatic lysis that integrates the chemistry responsible for bond cleavage with the physical mechanisms leading to cell wall failure. We then present a solution to an inverse problem in which we estimate reaction rate constants and the heterogeneous susceptibility to lysis among target cells. We validate our model given simulated and experimental turbidity assays. The ability to estimate reaction rate constants for lytic enzymes will facilitate their biochemical characterization and development as antimicrobial therapeutics.

  19. Physics and Chemistry on Well-Defined Semiconductor and Oxide Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Peijun

    High resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (HREELS) and other surface spectroscopic techniques have been employed to investigate the following two classes of surface/interface phenomena on well-defined semiconductor and oxide surfaces: (i) the fundamental physical and chemical processes involved in gas-solid interaction on silicon single crystal surfaces, and (ii) the physical and chemical properties of metal-oxide interfaces. The particular systems reported in this dissertation are: NH_3, PH_3 and B_ {10}H_{14} on Si(111)-(7 x 7); NH_3 on Si(100) -(2 x 1); atomic H on Si(111)-(7 x 7) and boron-modified Si(111); Al on Al_2O_3 and Sn on SiO_2.. On silicon surfaces, the surface dangling bonds function as the primary adsorption sites where surface chemical processes take place. The unambiguous identification of surface species by vibrational spectroscopy allows the elementary steps involved in these surface chemical processes to be followed on a molecular level. For adsorbate molecules such as NH_3 and PH_3, the nature of the initial low temperature (100 -300 K) adsorption is found to be dissociative, while that for B_{10}H_ {14} is non-dissociative. This has been deduced based upon the presence (or absence) of specific characteristic vibrational mode(s) on surface. By following the evolution of surface species as a function of temperature, the elementary steps leading to silicon nitride thin film growth and doping of silicon are elucidated. In the case of NH_3 on Si(111)-(7 x 7) and Si(100)-(2 x 1), a detailed understanding on the role of substrate surface structure in controlling the surface reactivity has been gained on the basis of a Si adatom backbond-strain relief mechanism on the Si(111) -(7 x 7). The electronic modification to Si(111) surface by subsurface boron doping has been shown to quench its surface chemistry, even for the most aggressive atomic H. This discovery is potentially meaningful to the technology of gas-phase silicon etching. The

  20. Chemistry and physics of a single atomic layer: strategies and challenges for functionalization of graphene and graphene-based materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Liang; Zheng, Yue Bing; Zhao, Feng; Li, Shoujian; Gao, Xingfa; Xu, Bingqian; Weiss, Paul S; Zhao, Yuliang

    2012-01-07

    Graphene has attracted great interest for its superior physical, chemical, mechanical, and electrical properties that enable a wide range of applications from electronics to nanoelectromechanical systems. Functionalization is among the significant vectors that drive graphene towards technological applications. While the physical properties of graphene have been at the center of attention, we still lack the knowledge framework for targeted graphene functionalization. In this critical review, we describe some of the important chemical and physical processes for graphene functionalization. We also identify six major challenges in graphene research and give perspectives and practical strategies for both fundamental studies and applications of graphene (315 references). This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2012

  1. Peer Instruction in an Algebra-Based General Physics Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Listerman, Thomas W.

    1999-10-01

    We have restructured our algebra-based general physics course to increase peer instruction. For the last three years each lecture has been followed by a recitation class. In recitation class students break up into small groups to work on "study guides" concerning the previous lecture. The recitation instructor is available to answer questions and to provide encouragement. The study guides ask qualitative and quantitative questions to lead students step-by-step through the material. Two completed study guides and a homework assignment are submitted each week for grading and the solutions are available later on the internet. Student surveys show the majority of students have a good attitude about the course, like to work in groups with their friends, and like the ready availability of the instructor for help. Both students and faculty seem to like the more frequent one-to-one contact of this format. We have also noticed that one student in each group tends to ask most of the questions and then "translates" the instructor's response into words the others understand. Lest you think "the millenium has arrived," student performance on multiple-choice tests has not improved markedly, some students strongly resist cooperation with others, and many students still think this is the hardest course they have ever taken.

  2. Síntese de biodiesel: uma proposta contextualizada de experimento para laboratório de química geral Synthesis of biodiesel: a contextualized experiment proposal for the general chemistry laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Rinaldi

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The contextualized understanding of concepts in Chemistry by students from other areas is a challenging task. In this experiment, the synthesis of biodiesel is done by base catalyzed transesterification of refined soy oil with methanol at room temperature and common glassware found in any chemistry laboratory. The proposal permits introducing several concepts, such as that of emulsion, viscosity and catalysis to illustrate an activity based on an actual problem. In this didactic approach, some common problems of biodiesel production, such as soap formation and phase separation, are introduced into the procedure in order to raise questions and motivate the students to participate in the experimental work and stimulate reflections about critical aspects of biodiesel production. This experiment was carried out in the first semester of 2006, in experimental general chemistry taken by physics and agricultural, civil and chemical engineering students of UNICAMP.

  3. Nanocrystal conversion chemistry: A unified and materials-general strategy for the template-based synthesis of nanocrystalline solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasquez, Yolanda; Henkes, Amanda E.; Chris Bauer, J.; Schaak, Raymond E.

    2008-01-01

    The concept of nanocrystal conversion chemistry, which involves the use of pre-formed nanoparticles as templates for chemical transformation into derivative solids, has emerged as a powerful approach for designing the synthesis of complex nanocrystalline solids. The general strategy exploits established synthetic capabilities in simple nanocrystal systems and uses these nanocrystals as templates that help to define the composition, crystal structure, and morphology of product nanocrystals. This article highlights key examples of 'conversion chemistry' approaches to the synthesis of nanocrystalline solids using a variety of techniques, including galvanic replacement, diffusion, oxidation, and ion exchange. The discussion is organized according to classes of solids, highlighting the diverse target systems that are accessible using similar chemical concepts: metals, oxides, chalcogenides, phosphides, alloys, intermetallic compounds, sulfides, and nitrides. - Graphical abstract: Nanocrystal conversion chemistry uses pre-formed nanoparticles as templates for chemical transformation into derivative solids, helping to define the composition, crystal structure, and morphology of product nanocrystals that have more complex features than their precursor templates. This article highlights the application of this concept to diverse classes of solids, including metals, oxides, chalcogenides, phosphides, alloys, intermetallics, sulfides, and nitrides

  4. General aspects of research in inorganic and solid-state recoil chemistry - a critical survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, H.

    1986-01-01

    Following a condensed review of the main features of hot-atom chemistry in inorganic solids a fictitious investigation is examined for some shortcomings which appear in the literature. Popper's basic concepts of scientific research are recommended to guide future work. Using Rossler's 'ligand abstraction model' as an example, it has been shown that (1) new correlations may be found between experimental parameters even if very good correlations already exist: (2) existing experimental facts may not be sufficient to falsify one of the correlations; and (3) new experiments can be suggested, the results of which may make one of the models more probable than the other or even falsify one of them. (author)

  5. XIX Mendeleev Congress on general and applied chemistry. Abstract book in 4 volumes. Volume 4. Chemistry aspects of modern energy and alternative energy resources. Chemistry of fossil and renewable hydrocarbon raw materials. Analytical chemistry: novel methods and devices for chemical research and analysis. Chemical education

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The abstracts of the XIX Mendeleev Congress on general and applied chemistry held 25-30 September 2011 in Volgograd are presented. The program includes the Congress plenary and section reports, poster presentations, symposia and round tables on key areas of chemical science and technology, and chemical education. The work of the Congress was held the following sections: 1. Fundamental problems of chemical sciences; 2. Chemistry and technology of materials, including nanomaterials; 3. Physicochemical basis of metallurgical processes; 4. Current issues of chemical production, technical risk assessment; 5. Chemical aspects of modern power and alternative energy sources; 6. Chemistry of fossil and renewable hydrocarbons; 7. Analytical chemistry: new methods and instruments for chemical research and analysis; 8. Chemical education. Volume 4 includes abstracts of oral and poster presentations and presentations of correspondent participants of the sections: Chemistry aspects of modern energy and alternative energy resources; Chemistry of fossil and renewable hydrocarbon raw materials; Analytical chemistry: novel methods and devices for chemical research and analysis; Chemical education, and author index [ru

  6. VII Russian annual conference of young scientists and postgraduate students Physical chemistry and technology of inorganic materials. Collection of materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsvetkov, Yu.V.

    2010-01-01

    The materials of the VII Russian annual conference of young scientists and postgraduate students Physical chemistry and technology of inorganic materials, held 8-11 November 2010 in Moscow, are presented. Structure and properties of high-strength nanostructured metal and composite materials, development of research methods and simulation of the structure and properties of materials and nanomaterials, functional ceramic and composite nanomaterials - in sight of the participants. The problems of physicochemical principles and processes for new technologies and forming powder materials and nanomaterials, physicochemical bases of production and processing of advanced inorganic materials, physical chemistry and technology of energy-, resource-saving and environmentally friendly processes for ferrous, non-ferrous and rare metals are under consideration. Promising composite coatings and nanostructured films of functional purposes, physicochemical bases of new processes of shaping and forming of materials and nanomaterials are discussed [ru

  7. FOREWORD: Third Nordic Symposium on Computer Simulation in Physics, Chemistry, Biology and Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaski, K.; Salomaa, M.

    1990-01-01

    These are Proceedings of the Third Nordic Symposium on Computer Simulation in Physics, Chemistry, Biology, and Mathematics, held August 25-26, 1989, at Lahti (Finland). The Symposium belongs to an annual series of Meetings, the first one of which was arranged in 1987 at Lund (Sweden) and the second one in 1988 at Kolle-Kolle near Copenhagen (Denmark). Although these Symposia have thus far been essentially Nordic events, their international character has increased significantly; the trend is vividly reflected through contributions in the present Topical Issue. The interdisciplinary nature of Computational Science is central to the activity; this fundamental aspect is also responsible, in an essential way, for its rapidly increasing impact. Crucially important to a wide spectrum of superficially disparate fields is the common need for extensive - and often quite demanding - computational modelling. For such theoretical models, no closed-form (analytical) solutions are available or they would be extremely difficult to find; hence one must rather resort to the Art of performing computational investigations. Among the unifying features in the computational research are the methods of simulation employed; methods which frequently are quite closely related with each other even for faculties of science that are quite unrelated. Computer simulation in Natural Sciences is presently apprehended as a discipline on its own right, occupying a broad region somewhere between the experimental and theoretical methods, but also partially overlapping with and complementing them. - Whichever its proper definition may be, the computational approach serves as a novel and an extremely versatile tool with which one can equally well perform "pure" experimental modelling and conduct "computational theory". Computational studies that have earlier been made possible only through supercomputers have opened unexpected, as well as exciting, novel frontiers equally in mathematics (e.g., fractals

  8. Probing General Relativity and New Physics with Lunar Laser Ranging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dell' Agnello, S. [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati (LNF) dell' INFN, Frascati, Rome (Italy); Maiello, M., E-mail: mauro.maiello@lnf.infn.it [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati (LNF) dell' INFN, Frascati, Rome (Italy); Currie, D.G. [University of Maryland (UMD), College Park, MD (United States); Boni, A.; Berardi, S.; Cantone, C.; Delle Monache, G.O.; Intaglietta, N.; Lops, C.; Garattini, M.; Martini, M.; Patrizi, G.; Porcelli, L.; Tibuzzi, M. [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati (LNF) dell' INFN, Frascati, Rome (Italy); Vittori, R. [Aeronautica Militare Italiana (AMI), Rome (Italy); Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI), Rome (Italy); Bianco, G. [ASI-Centro di Geodesia Spaziale, Matera (Italy); Coradini, A. [INAF-Istituto di Fisica dello Spazio Interplanetario (IFSI), Via Fosso del Cavaliere 100, 00133 Rome (Italy); Dionisio, C. [Rheinmetall Italia S.p.A., Via Affile 102, 00131 Rome (Italy); March, R. [INFN-LNF and CNR-Istituto per le Applicazioni del Calcolo (IAC), Viale del Policlinico 137, 00161 Rome (Italy); Bellettini, G. [INFN-LNF and Department of Mathematics, University of Rome ' Tor Vergata' , Via della Ricerca Scientifica, 00133 Rome (Italy); and others

    2012-11-11

    (LLR). The primary goal of these innovative tools is to provide critical design and diagnostic capabilities for Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) to Galileo and other GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) constellations. Implementation of new retroreflector designs being studied will help to improve GNSS orbits, which will then increase the accuracy, stability, and distribution of the International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF) [4], to provide better definition of the geocenter (origin) and the scale (length unit). The SCF is also actively used to develop, validate and optimize the second generation LLR arrays for precision gravity and lunar science measurements to be performed with robotic missions of the International Lunar Network in which NASA and ASI participate (ILN). The capability will allow us to optimize the design of GNSS laser retroreflector payloads to maximize ranging efficiency, to improve signal-to-noise conditions in daylight and to provide pre-launch validation of retroreflector performance under laboratory-simulated space conditions. For the MAGIA lunar orbiter Phase A study funded by ASI (Dell'Agnello et al., 2010 [14]), we studied fundamental physics and absolute positioning metrology experiments, to improve test of the gravitational redshift in the Earth-Moon system predicted by General Relativity and a precursor test of our second generation LLR payload.

  9. Micro-physics of aircraft-generated aerosols and their potential impact on heterogeneous plume chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaercher, B; Luo, B P [Muenchen Univ., Freising (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Bioklimatologie und Immissionsforschung

    1998-12-31

    Answers are attempted to give to open questions concerning physico-chemical processes in near-field aircraft plumes, with emphasis on their potential impact on subsequent heterogeneous chemistry. Research issues concerning the nucleation of aerosols and their interactions among themselves and with exhaust gases are summarized. Microphysical properties of contrail ice particles, formation of liquid ternary mixtures, and nucleation of nitric acid trihydrate particles in contrails are examined and possible implications for heterogeneous plume chemistry are discussed. (author) 19 refs.

  10. Micro-physics of aircraft-generated aerosols and their potential impact on heterogeneous plume chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaercher, B.; Luo, B.P. [Muenchen Univ., Freising (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Bioklimatologie und Immissionsforschung

    1997-12-31

    Answers are attempted to give to open questions concerning physico-chemical processes in near-field aircraft plumes, with emphasis on their potential impact on subsequent heterogeneous chemistry. Research issues concerning the nucleation of aerosols and their interactions among themselves and with exhaust gases are summarized. Microphysical properties of contrail ice particles, formation of liquid ternary mixtures, and nucleation of nitric acid trihydrate particles in contrails are examined and possible implications for heterogeneous plume chemistry are discussed. (author) 19 refs.

  11. Fundamentals of nuclear chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majer, K.

    1982-01-01

    The textbook is a Czech-to-German translation of the second revised edition and covers the subject under the headings: general nuclear chemistry, methods of nuclear chemistry, preparative nuclear chemistry, analytical nuclear chemistry, and applied chemistry. The book is especially directed to students

  12. The role of self-regulated learning in explaining examination performance of college students in first-semester general chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckley, Scott

    Many college students struggle with first-semester general chemistry. Prior studies have shown that a student's prior knowledge of chemistry, a cognitive factor, does not account for the total variance when measured by examination scores. This study explored the role of self-regulated learning (SRL) to identify the degree of success or failure of students with two outcome variables (i.e., American Chemical Society Comprehensive First-Term General Chemistry Examination (Form 2009) and hour-examination averages). The SRL construct consists of three interrelated components (i.e., cognitive, metacognitive, and motivational). SRL theory focuses on the idea of reciprocal determinism, in which the impact of one component of self-regulation affects the other two components. In the quantitative portion of this mixed methods study, eight measures of SRL were used to determine the `level' of self-regulation for each student. SRL variables were used in regression analysis and provided additional and unique variances. Cluster analysis techniques identified two distinct groups of students (i.e., adaptive and maladaptive). Generally, adaptive learners were associated with higher levels of SRL and success in the course; maladaptive learners had lower levels of SRL and struggled with the course demands. For the qualitative portion of the study, student volunteers (n = 8) were interviewed to gauge their views on the role of instruction in influencing their examination performances. The findings indicated that perceptions of teaching methods, demands of the course, course structure, feedback, and assessments were associated with the students' levels of self-regulation. Interviews revealed four SRL styles. Rote memorizers tended to fragment instruction and then memorize each fragment, while algorithmic memorizers tended to imitate the step-by-step problem-solving strategies of the instructor or the textbook. Globalizers were intrinsically motivated to learn the material but tended to

  13. Laboratory Safety Awareness Among General Physics Undergraduate Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. O. Ponferrada

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Safety awareness in the laboratory is essential to reduce occupational risks. This study was conducted to determine the students’ safety awareness in a Physics laboratory. This study determined the student perception towards safety awareness by factors of gender and college from which students are enrolled. A sum of 324 students enrolled in Physics10 (Mechanics and Heat and Physics11 (Electricity and Magnetism in the Mindanao University of Science and Technology (MUST were randomly selected as survey respondents. A modified survey questionnaire was used as research instrument. The results show that the students had positive level of safety awareness and perceived positively on the preventive measures to reduce laboratory risk. Further, regardless of gender students enrolled in Physics 10 were more positively aware towards safety awareness than students enrolled in Physics 11. Similarly, a variation among the students perception towards safety awareness from the College of Engineering and Architecture (CEA and College of Industrial and Information Technology (CIIT occurred. Overall, present findings indicate a need to introduce laboratory safety awareness in Physics classes.

  14. Factors affecting the number and type of student research products for chemistry and physics students at primarily undergraduate institutions: A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellis, Birgit; Soto, Patricia; Bruce, Chrystal D; Lacueva, Graciela; Wilson, Anne M; Jayasekare, Rasitha

    2018-01-01

    For undergraduate students, involvement in authentic research represents scholarship that is consistent with disciplinary quality standards and provides an integrative learning experience. In conjunction with performing research, the communication of the results via presentations or publications is a measure of the level of scientific engagement. The empirical study presented here uses generalized linear mixed models with hierarchical bootstrapping to examine the factors that impact the means of dissemination of undergraduate research results. Focusing on the research experiences in physics and chemistry of undergraduates at four Primarily Undergraduate Institutions (PUIs) from 2004-2013, statistical analysis indicates that the gender of the student does not impact the number and type of research products. However, in chemistry, the rank of the faculty advisor and the venue of the presentation do impact the number of research products by undergraduate student, whereas in physics, gender match between student and advisor has an effect on the number of undergraduate research products. This study provides a baseline for future studies of discipline-based bibliometrics and factors that affect the number of research products of undergraduate students.

  15. Factors affecting the number and type of student research products for chemistry and physics students at primarily undergraduate institutions: A case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Patricia; Bruce, Chrystal D.; Lacueva, Graciela; Wilson, Anne M.; Jayasekare, Rasitha

    2018-01-01

    For undergraduate students, involvement in authentic research represents scholarship that is consistent with disciplinary quality standards and provides an integrative learning experience. In conjunction with performing research, the communication of the results via presentations or publications is a measure of the level of scientific engagement. The empirical study presented here uses generalized linear mixed models with hierarchical bootstrapping to examine the factors that impact the means of dissemination of undergraduate research results. Focusing on the research experiences in physics and chemistry of undergraduates at four Primarily Undergraduate Institutions (PUIs) from 2004–2013, statistical analysis indicates that the gender of the student does not impact the number and type of research products. However, in chemistry, the rank of the faculty advisor and the venue of the presentation do impact the number of research products by undergraduate student, whereas in physics, gender match between student and advisor has an effect on the number of undergraduate research products. This study provides a baseline for future studies of discipline-based bibliometrics and factors that affect the number of research products of undergraduate students. PMID:29698502

  16. Does Everyone's Motivational Beliefs about Physical Science Decline in Secondary School?: Heterogeneity of Adolescents' Achievement Motivation Trajectories in Physics and Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ming-Te; Chow, Angela; Degol, Jessica Lauren; Eccles, Jacquelynne Sue

    2017-08-01

    Students' motivational beliefs about learning physical science are critical for achieving positive educational outcomes. In this study, we incorporated expectancy-value theory to capture the heterogeneity of adolescents' motivational trajectories in physics and chemistry from seventh to twelfth grade and linked these trajectories to science-related outcomes. We used a cross-sequential design based on three different cohorts of adolescents (N = 699; 51.5 % female; 95 % European American; M ages for youngest, middle, and oldest cohorts at the first wave = 13.2, 14.1, and 15.3 years) coming from ten public secondary schools. Although many studies claim that physical science motivation declines on average over time, we identified seven differential motivational trajectories of ability self-concept and task values, and found associations of these trajectories with science achievement, advanced science course taking, and science career aspirations. Adolescents' ability self-concept and task values in physics and chemistry were also positively related and interlinked over time. Examining how students' motivational beliefs about physical science develop in secondary school offers insight into the capacity of different groups of students to successfully adapt to their changing educational environments.

  17. Annual Report 2003 of the Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    The INCT 2003 Annual Report is the review of scientific activities in all branches being developed in the Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology Warsaw. The studies are connected in general with the following fields: radiation chemistry and physics, radiation technologies, radiochemistry, stable isotopes, nuclear analytical methods, chemistry in general, radiobiology, process engineering, material engineering, structural studies, nucleonic control systems and accelerators.

  18. Annual Report 2003 of the Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The INCT 2003 Annual Report is the review of scientific activities in all branches being developed in the Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology Warsaw. The studies are connected in general with the following fields: radiation chemistry and physics, radiation technologies, radiochemistry, stable isotopes, nuclear analytical methods, chemistry in general, radiobiology, process engineering, material engineering, structural studies, nucleonic control systems and accelerators

  19. Students' General and Physics Epistemological Beliefs: A Twofold Phenomenon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogan-Bekiroglu, Feral; Sengul-Turgut, Gulsen

    2011-01-01

    Background: Although research on epistemological beliefs has expanded over the past two decades, there are still some issues that need to be explored, such as whether epistemological beliefs are domain general or domain specific. Purpose: One of the purposes of this research was to determine if high school students' general epistemological beliefs…

  20. Quantitative Clinical Chemistry Proteomics (qCCP) using mass spectrometry: general characteristics and application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Sylvain; Hoofnagle, Andrew; Hochstrasser, Denis; Brede, Cato; Glueckmann, Matthias; Cocho, José A; Ceglarek, Uta; Lenz, Christof; Vialaret, Jérôme; Scherl, Alexander; Hirtz, Christophe

    2013-05-01

    Proteomics studies typically aim to exhaustively detect peptides/proteins in a given biological sample. Over the past decade, the number of publications using proteomics methodologies has exploded. This was made possible due to the availability of high-quality genomic data and many technological advances in the fields of microfluidics and mass spectrometry. Proteomics in biomedical research was initially used in 'functional' studies for the identification of proteins involved in pathophysiological processes, complexes and networks. Improved sensitivity of instrumentation facilitated the analysis of even more complex sample types, including human biological fluids. It is at that point the field of clinical proteomics was born, and its fundamental aim was the discovery and (ideally) validation of biomarkers for the diagnosis, prognosis, or therapeutic monitoring of disease. Eventually, it was recognized that the technologies used in clinical proteomics studies [particularly liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)] could represent an alternative to classical immunochemical assays. Prior to deploying MS in the measurement of peptides/proteins in the clinical laboratory, it seems likely that traditional proteomics workflows and data management systems will need to adapt to the clinical environment and meet in vitro diagnostic (IVD) regulatory constraints. This defines a new field, as reviewed in this article, that we have termed quantitative Clinical Chemistry Proteomics (qCCP).

  1. Chemistry for environmental scientists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller, Detlev [Brandenburgische Technische Univ., Berlin (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Luftchemie und Luftreinhaltung

    2015-07-01

    Non-chemists in environmental sciences and engineering (e.g. physicists, biologists, ecologists, geographers, soil scientists, hydrologists, meteorologists, economists, engineers) need chemical basic knowledge for understanding chemical processes in the environment. This book focuses on general and fundamental chemistry (including required physics) such as properties and bonding of matter, chemical kinetics and mechanisms, phase and chemical equilibrium, the basic features of air (gases), water (liquids) and soil (solids) and the most important substances and their reactions in the environment. Selected key environmental chemical processes are shortly characterised in the light of multi-component and multiphase chemistry. This book is also useful for chemists who are beginning work on environmental issues.

  2. Chemistry for environmental scientists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeller, Detlev

    2015-01-01

    Non-chemists in environmental sciences and engineering (e.g. physicists, biologists, ecologists, geographers, soil scientists, hydrologists, meteorologists, economists, engineers) need chemical basic knowledge for understanding chemical processes in the environment. This book focuses on general and fundamental chemistry (including required physics) such as properties and bonding of matter, chemical kinetics and mechanisms, phase and chemical equilibrium, the basic features of air (gases), water (liquids) and soil (solids) and the most important substances and their reactions in the environment. Selected key environmental chemical processes are shortly characterised in the light of multi-component and multiphase chemistry. This book is also useful for chemists who are beginning work on environmental issues.

  3. Water physics and chemistry data from STD casts from THELMA DALE II and other platforms from 09 August 1954 to 05 March 1959 (NODC Accession 7101380)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Water physics and chemistry data were collected from STD casts from THELMA DALE II and other platforms from 09 August 1954 to 05 March 1959. Data were submitted by...

  4. Water physics and chemistry data from bottle casts from FIXED PLATFORM from 26 April 1972 to 06 December 1972 (NODC Accession 7400880)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Water physics and chemistry data were collected from bottle casts from MULTIPLE SHIPS from 26 April 1972 to 06 December 1972. Data were submitted by Edgerton,...

  5. Water physics and chemistry data from bottle casts from the ASTOR and other platforms from 03 January 1958 to 17 November 1961 (NODC Accession 6800201)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Water physics and chemistry data were collected from bottle casts from the ASTOR and other platforms from 03 January 1958 to 17 November 1961. Data were submitted by...

  6. Water physics and chemistry data from bottle casts from the BLUE FIN from 1976-02-26 to 1976-05-26 (NODC Accession 7800050)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Water physics and chemistry data were collected from bottle casts from the BLUE FIN from 26 February 1976 to 26 May 1976. Data were submitted by the Skidaway...

  7. Water physics and chemistry data from bottle casts from the TAGE from 08 May 1969 to 30 December 1969 (NODC Accession 7100605)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Water physics and chemistry data were collected from bottle casts from the TAGE from 08 May 1969 to 30 December 1969. Data were submitted by the Stanford University;...

  8. Water physics and chemistry data from bottle casts from the MAURY and other platforms from 01 July 1949 to 13 August 1982 (NODC Accession 8500022)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Water physics and chemistry data were collected from bottle casts from the MAURY and other platforms from 01 July 1949 to 13 August 1982. Data were submitted by...

  9. Collaboration of general practitioners and exercise providers in promotion of physical activity a written survey among general practitioners.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leemrijse, C.J.; Bakker, D.H. de; Ooms, L.; Veenhof, C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: General practitioners have an ideal position to motivate inactive patients to increase their physical activity. Most patients are able to exercise in regular local facilities outside the health care setting. The purpose of this study was to get insight into general practitioners

  10. Collaboration of general practitioners and exercise providers in promotion of physical activity a written survey among general practitioners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leemrijse, C J; de Bakker, D H; Ooms, L; Veenhof, C

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: General practitioners have an ideal position to motivate inactive patients to increase their physical activity. Most patients are able to exercise in regular local facilities outside the health care setting. The purpose of this study was to get insight into general practitioners

  11. Fundamental molecular physics and chemistry. Radiological and Environmental Research Division annual report, October 1981-December 1982. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-12-01

    This document is the twelfth Annual Report of our Fundamental Molecular Physics and Chemistry Program. Scientifically, the work of the program deals with aspects of the physics and chemistry of molecules related to their interactions with photons, electrons, and other external agents. We chose these areas of study in view of our matic goals; that is to say, we chose them so that the eventual outcome of our work meets some of the needs of the US Department of Energy (DOE) and of other government agencies that support our research. First, we endeavor to determine theoretically and experimentally cross sections for electron and photon interactions with molecules, because those cross sections are indispensable for detailed microscopic analyses of the earliest processes of radiation action on any molecular substance, including biological materials. Those analyses in turn provide a sound basis for radiology and radiation dosimetry. Second, we study the spectroscopy of certain molecules and of small clusters of molecules because this topic is fundamental to the full understanding of atmospheric-pollutant chemistry

  12. Fundamental molecular physics and chemistry. Radiological and Environmental Research Division annual report, October 1981-December 1982. Pt. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-12-01

    This document is the twelfth Annual Report of our Fundamental Molecular Physics and Chemistry Program. Scientifically, the work of the program deals with aspects of the physics and chemistry of molecules related to their interactions with photons, electrons, and other external agents. We chose these areas of study in view of our matic goals; that is to say, we chose them so that the eventual outcome of our work meets some of the needs of the US Department of Energy (DOE) and of other government agencies that support our research. First, we endeavor to determine theoretically and experimentally cross sections for electron and photon interactions with molecules, because those cross sections are indispensable for detailed microscopic analyses of the earliest processes of radiation action on any molecular substance, including biological materials. Those analyses in turn provide a sound basis for radiology and radiation dosimetry. Second, we study the spectroscopy of certain molecules and of small clusters of molecules because this topic is fundamental to the full understanding of atmospheric-pollutant chemistry.

  13. The physics and chemistry of Earth's dynamic surface (Ralph Alger Bagnold Medal Lecture)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchner, James W.

    2013-04-01

    Ralph Alger Bagnold became a Fellow of the Royal Society and one of the founders of modern geomorphology despite having no formal academic affiliation, no cadre of students or postdocs under his command, no steady financial support, and no scientific training beyond a second-class honors degree in engineering. What he did have, and used to great effect, were a deep curiosity about natural phenomena, a powerful physical intellect, a talent for clever experimentation, extensive opportunities to observe geomorphic processes at work in the field, and - perhaps most important of all - the time and freedom to focus his energies on significant scientific challenges. A hallmark of Bagnold's work is the artful compromise between the goal of simple, general, physical laws describing natural phenomena, and the practical necessity for observational empiricisms to account for the real-world complexities that cannot be incorporated explicitly into such simple laws. Efforts to find these sorts of artful compromises continue to the present day. Typically, both in Bagnold's work and in present-day geomorphology, one seeks mathematical process laws whose form embodies the "pure physics" of the problem, and whose coefficients subsume the inevitable observational empiricisms. Present-day geomorphologists have an array of new tools that open our eyes to temporal and spatial scales that were invisible to Bagnold and his contemporaries. These observations, in turn, have yielded new surprises and challenges, sometimes confounding our intuition about how geomorphic systems "should" behave. One surprise has been that decadal-scale erosion rates, as reflected in stream sediment loads and reservoir sedimentation rates, often differ from longer-term erosion rates by large multiples. In some agricultural landscapes, modern-day erosion rates greatly exceed the long-term background rate, as one might intuitively expect. In other landscapes, however, contemporary erosion rates can be a small

  14. Active Learning in a Large General Physics Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trousil, Rebecca

    2008-04-01

    In 2004, we launched a new calculus-based, introductory physics sequence at Washington University. Designed as an alternative to our traditional lecture-based sequence, the primary objectives for this new course were to actively engage students in the learning process, to significantly strengthen students' conceptual reasoning skills, to help students develop higher level quantitative problem solving skills necessary for analyzing ``real world'' problems, and to integrate modern physics into the curriculum. This talk will describe our approach, using The Six Ideas That Shaped Physics text by Thomas Moore, to creating an active learning environment in large classes as well as share our perspective on key elements for success and challenges that we face in the large class environment.

  15. Perceptions of a disability sport unit in general physical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenier, Michelle; Collins, Karen; Wright, Steven; Kearns, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to assess the effectiveness of a disability sport unit in shaping perceptions of disability. Data from interviews, observations, and documents were collected on 87 elementary-aged students, one physical education teacher, and one teaching intern. Comparisons were drawn between fifth graders engaged in a five-week disability sport unit to fourth graders participating in their standard physical education curriculum. Findings revealed differences in the way fourth and fifth graders came to view individuals with disabilities. The results support an analysis of curriculum development that underscores the significance of the social model in positively impacting constructions of disability. Recommendations include the use of disability sports in physical education as an effective strategy for educating students in game play, knowledge of the Paralympics, and the inclusion of individuals with disabilities in a variety of sporting venues.

  16. A generalization of tensor calculus and its application to physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashtekar, A.

    1982-01-01

    Penrose's abstract index notation and axiomatic introduction of covariant derivatives in tensor calculus is generalized to fields with internal degrees of freedom. The result provides, in particular, an intrinsic formulation of gauge theories without the use of bundles. (author)

  17. Choice of Study Resources in General Chemistry by Students Who Have Little Time to Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunce, Diane M.; Komperda, Regis; Dillner, Debra K.; Lin, Shirley; Schroeder, Maria J.; Hartman, JudithAnn R.

    2017-01-01

    Students with an insufficient amount of time to study are becoming more prevalent in the general college population as many who enroll in college have competing responsibilities (full-time jobs, childcare, etc.). Such students are likely to choose study resources that they consider to be both effective and efficient. Students at the U.S. Naval…

  18. The common extremalities in biology and physics maximum energy dissipation principle in chemistry, biology, physics and evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Moroz, Adam

    2011-01-01

    This book is the first unified systemic description of dissipative phenomena, taking place in biology, and non-dissipative (conservative) phenomena, which is more relevant to physics. Fully updated and revised, this new edition extends our understanding of nonlinear phenomena in biology and physics from the extreme / optimal perspective. The first book to provide understanding of physical phenomena from a biological perspective and biological phenomena from a physical perspective Discusses emerging fields and analysis Provides examples.

  19. Characterizing physical properties and heterogeneous chemistry of single particles in air using optical trapping-Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Z.; Wang, C.; Pan, Y. L.; Videen, G.

    2017-12-01

    Heterogeneous reactions of solid particles in a gaseous environment are of increasing interest; however, most of the heterogeneous chemistry studies of airborne solids were conducted on particle ensembles. A close examination on the heterogeneous chemistry between single particles and gaseous-environment species is the key to elucidate the fundamental mechanisms of hydroscopic growth, cloud nuclei condensation, secondary aerosol formation, etc., and reduce the uncertainty of models in radiative forcing, climate change, and atmospheric chemistry. We demonstrate an optical trapping-Raman spectroscopy (OT-RS) system to study the heterogeneous chemistry of the solid particles in air at single-particle level. Compared to other single-particle techniques, optical trapping offers a non-invasive, flexible, and stable method to isolate single solid particle from substrates. Benefited from two counter-propagating hollow beams, the optical trapping configuration is adaptive to trap a variety of particles with different materials from inorganic substitution (carbon nanotubes, silica, etc.) to organic, dye-doped polymers and bioaerosols (spores, pollen, etc.), with different optical properties from transparent to strongly absorbing, with different sizes from sub-micrometers to tens of microns, or with distinct morphologies from loosely packed nanotubes to microspheres and irregular pollen grains. The particles in the optical trap may stay unchanged, surface degraded, or optically fragmented according to different laser intensity, and their physical and chemical properties are characterized by the Raman spectra and imaging system simultaneously. The Raman spectra is able to distinguish the chemical compositions of different particles, while the synchronized imaging system can resolve their physical properties (sizes, shapes, morphologies, etc.). The temporal behavior of the trapped particles also can be monitored by the OT-RS system at an indefinite time with a resolution from

  20. The atmospheric chemistry general circulation model ECHAM5/MESSy1: consistent simulation of ozone from the surface to the mesosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Jöckel

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The new Modular Earth Submodel System (MESSy describes atmospheric chemistry and meteorological processes in a modular framework, following strict coding standards. It has been coupled to the ECHAM5 general circulation model, which has been slightly modified for this purpose. A 90-layer model setup up to 0.01 hPa was used at spectral T42 resolution to simulate the lower and middle atmosphere. With the high vertical resolution the model simulates the Quasi-Biennial Oscillation. The model meteorology has been tested to check the influence of the changes to ECHAM5 and the radiation interactions with the new representation of atmospheric composition. In the simulations presented here a Newtonian relaxation technique was applied in the tropospheric part of the domain to weakly nudge the model towards the analysed meteorology during the period 1998–2005. This allows an efficient and direct evaluation with satellite and in-situ data. It is shown that the tropospheric wave forcing of the stratosphere in the model suffices to reproduce major stratospheric warming events leading e.g. to the vortex split over Antarctica in 2002. Characteristic features such as dehydration and denitrification caused by the sedimentation of polar stratospheric cloud particles and ozone depletion during winter and spring are simulated well, although ozone loss in the lower polar stratosphere is slightly underestimated. The model realistically simulates stratosphere-troposphere exchange processes as indicated by comparisons with satellite and in situ measurements. The evaluation of tropospheric chemistry presented here focuses on the distributions of ozone, hydroxyl radicals, carbon monoxide and reactive nitrogen compounds. In spite of minor shortcomings, mostly related to the relatively coarse T42 resolution and the neglect of inter-annual changes in biomass burning emissions, the main characteristics of the trace gas distributions are generally reproduced well. The MESSy