WorldWideScience

Sample records for general biologics guidances

  1. Meteorological Integration for the Biological Warning and Incident Characterization (BWIC) System: General Guidance for BWIC Cities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, William J.; Wang, Weiguo; Rutz, Frederick C.; Chapman, Elaine G.; Rishel, Jeremy P.; Xie, YuLong; Seiple, Timothy E.; Allwine, K Jerry

    2007-02-16

    The U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) is responsible for developing systems to detect the release of aerosolized bioagents in urban environments. The system that accomplishes this, known as BioWatch, is a robust first-generation monitoring system. In conjunction with the BioWatch detection network, DHS has also developed a software tool for cities to use to assist in their response when a bioagent is detected. This tool, the Biological Warning and Incident Characterization (BWIC) System, will eventually be deployed to all BioWatch cities to aid in the interpretation of the public health significance of indicators from the BioWatch networks. BWIC consists of a set of integrated modules, including meteorological models, that estimate the effect of a biological agent on a city’s population once it has been detected. For the meteorological models in BWIC to successfully calculate the distribution of biological material, they must have as input accurate meteorological data, and wind fields in particular. The purpose of this document is to provide guidance for cities to use in identifying sources of good-quality local meteorological data that BWIC needs to function properly. This process of finding sources of local meteorological data, evaluating the data quality and gaps in coverage, and getting the data into BWIC, referred to as meteorological integration, is described. The good news for many cities is that meteorological measurement networks are becoming increasingly common. Most of these networks allow their data to be distributed in real time via the internet. Thus, cities will often only need to evaluate the quality of available measurements and perhaps add a modest number of stations where coverage is poor.

  2. International Conference on Harmonisation; draft guidance on specifications: test procedures and acceptance criteria for biotechnological/biological products--FDA. Notice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-06-09

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is publishing a draft guidance entitled "Q6B Specifications: Test Procedures and Acceptance Criteria for Biotechnological/Biological Products". The draft guidance was prepared under the auspices of the International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH). The draft guidance provides guidance on general principles for the selection of test procedures and the setting and justification of acceptance criteria for biotechnological and biological products. The draft guidance is intended to assist in the establishment of a uniform set of international specifications for biotechnological and biological products to support new marketing applications.

  3. International Conference on Harmonisation; guidance on specifications: test procedures and acceptance criteria for biotechnological/biological products. Notice. Food and Drug Administration, HHS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-08-18

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is publishing a guidance entitled "Q6B Specifications: Test Procedures and Acceptance Criteria for Biotechnological/Biological Products." The guidance was prepared under the auspices of the International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH). The guidance provides guidance on general principles for the selection of test procedures and the setting and justification of acceptance criteria for biotechnological and biological products. The guidance is intended to assist in the establishment of a uniform set of international specifications for biotechnological and biological products to support new marketing applications.

  4. Towards a biological monitoring guidance value for acrylamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sams, C; Jones, K; Warren, N; Cocker, J; Bell, S; Bull, P; Cain, M

    2015-08-19

    Acrylamide is classified as a potential human carcinogen and neurotoxicant. Biological monitoring is a useful tool for monitoring worker exposure. However, other sources of exposure to acrylamide (including cigarette smoke and diet) also need to be considered. This study has performed repeat measurements of the urinary mercapturic acids of acrylamide (AAMA) and its metabolite glycidamide (GAMA) and determined globin adducts in 20 production-plant workers at a UK acrylamide production facility. The relationship between biomarker levels and environmental monitoring data (air levels and hand washes) was investigated. Good correlations were found between all of the biomarkers (r(2)=0.86-0.91) and moderate correlations were found between the biomarkers and air levels (r(2) = 0.56-0.65). Our data show that urinary AAMA is a reliable biomarker of acrylamide exposure. Occupational hygiene data showed that acrylamide exposure at the company was well within the current UK Workplace Exposure Limit. The 90th percentile of urinary AAMA in non-smoking production-plant workers (537 μmol/mol creatinine (n = 59 samples)) is proposed as a possible biological monitoring guidance value. This 90th percentile increased to 798 μmol/mol if smokers were included (n = 72 samples). These values would be expected following an airborne exposure of less than 0.07 mg/m(3), well below the current UK workplace exposure limit of 0.3mg/m(3). Comparison of biomarker levels in non-occupationally exposed individuals suggests regional variations (between UK and Germany), possibly due to differences in diet. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. 78 FR 32668 - Draft Guidance for Industry: Changes to an Approved Application: Biological Products: Human Blood...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-31

    ...The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of a draft document entitled ``Guidance for Industry: Changes to an Approved Application: Biological Products: Human Blood and Blood Components Intended for Transfusion or for Further Manufacture'' dated June 2013. The draft guidance document provides manufacturers of licensed Whole Blood and blood components intended for......

  6. 78 FR 19492 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Formal Meetings Between FDA and Biosimilar Biological Product...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    ... and Biosimilar Biological Product Sponsors or Applicants; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug... availability of a draft guidance for industry entitled ``Formal Meetings Between the FDA and Biosimilar... biosimilar biological products regulated by the Center for Drug Evaluation and Research (CDER) and the...

  7. Guidance manual for the input of biological information to water-intake-structure design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neitzel, D.A.; Simmons, M.A.; McKenzie, D.H.

    1981-12-01

    This manual is intended to provide guidance to the biologist who is asked to provide biological input during the construction or subsequent alteration of a water intake structure. Examples of the types of biological information that might be included in intake design are presented. Procedures for quantifying biological information and defining specific tasks that will generate quantifiable data are discussed. Procedures described apply both to new and modified water intake structures.

  8. 75 FR 8968 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Adaptive Design Clinical Trials for Drugs and Biologics; Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-26

    ... current thinking on adaptive design clinical trials for drugs and biologics. It does not create or confer... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry on Adaptive Design Clinical... entitled ``Adaptive Design Clinical Trials for Drugs and Biologics.'' The draft guidance provides...

  9. 78 FR 38349 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Expedited Programs for Serious Conditions-Drugs and Biologics...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry on Expedited Programs for... guidance for industry entitled ``Expedited Programs for Serious Conditions--Drugs and Biologics.'' The... for industry entitled ``Expedited Programs for Serious Conditions--Drugs and Biologics.'' This...

  10. Sampling in forests for radionuclide analysis. General and practical guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aro, Lasse (Finnish Forest Research Inst. (METLA) (Finland)); Plamboeck, Agneta H. (Swedish Defence Research Agency (FOI) (Sweden)); Rantavaara, Aino; Vetikko, Virve (Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) (Finland)); Straalberg, Elisabeth (Inst. Energy Technology (IFE) (Norway))

    2009-01-15

    The NKS project FOREST was established to prepare a guide for sampling in forest ecosystems for radionuclide analysis. The aim of this guide is to improve the reliability of datasets generated in future studies by promoting the use of consistent, recommended practices, thorough documentation of field sampling regimes and robust preparation of samples from the forest ecosystem. The guide covers general aims of sampling, the description of major compartments of the forest ecosystem and outlines key factors to consider when planning sampling campaigns for radioecological field studies in forests. Recommended and known sampling methods for various sample types are also compiled and presented. The guide focuses on sampling practices that are applicable in various types of boreal forests, robust descriptions of sampling sites, and documentation of the origin and details of individual samples. The guide is intended for scientists, students, forestry experts and technicians who appreciate the need to use sound sampling procedures in forest radioecological projects. The guide will hopefully encourage readers to participate in field studies and sampling campaigns, using robust techniques, thereby fostering competence in sampling. (au)

  11. 76 FR 59705 - Guidance for Industry on User Fee Waivers, Reductions, and Refunds for Drug and Biological...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-27

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Industry on User Fee Waivers, Reductions, and... industry entitled ``User Fee Waivers, Reductions, and Refunds for Drug and Biological Products.'' This... a guidance for industry entitled ``User Fee Waivers, Reductions, and Refunds for Drug and...

  12. Producing guidance for the management of patients with chronic periodontal disease in general dental practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, G

    2015-04-24

    The vast majority of patients will experience gingival-related disease at some point in their life, and up to a quarter of those are susceptible to advanced periodontal disease. This makes its effective management an important part of general dental practice. This paper provides guidance on management which incorporates periodontal assessment, management and recall according to patient's oral hygiene and modifiable risk factors. This has been produced in flow diagram format to aid non-surgical management of chronic gingival and periodontal disease in general dental practice.

  13. Ecological compensation: From general guidance and expertise to specific proposals for road developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villarroya, Ana, E-mail: avillarroya@alumni.unav.es [Department of Zoology and Ecology, University of Navarra, c/Irunlarrea s/n, 31008 Pamplona, Navarra (Spain); Persson, Jesper, E-mail: jesper.persson@slu.se [Department of Landscape Management, Design and Construction, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), P.O. Box 66, SE-230 53 Alnarp (Sweden); Puig, Jordi, E-mail: jpbaguer@unav.es [Department of Zoology and Ecology, University of Navarra, c/Irunlarrea s/n, 31008 Pamplona, Navarra (Spain)

    2014-02-15

    The main scientific bibliography addressing the rationale behind ecological compensation is reviewed in order to examine general guidelines. This contains interesting general guidance on how to implement compensation, and provides the basis for future developments in compensation practice. On this basis, we propose a further step in compensation practice, advancing compensation proposals or rules for specific kinds of projects and contexts, focusing on road projects in the Spanish Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA). Three main residual impacts of roads are identified which usually remain uncompensated for: the loss of natural and semi-natural land use, the increase in emissions resulting from any new road, and the fragmentation, severance or barrier effect on the landscape and its wildlife. To counteract these, four proposals, or “rules”, are advanced: conservation of natural and semi-natural land use area, conservation of dominant plant species physiognomy, compensation for emissions, and the rule of positive defragmentation. -- Highlights: • Ecological compensation theory does not specify guidelines for types of projects. • EIA practitioners lack valuable specific guidance on how to implement compensation. • Specific guidance for road project ecological compensation is proposed. • Compensation proposals should have in mind present-day compensation practice level. • Specific ways to compensate for habitat loss, emissions, and fragmentation are shown.

  14. Draft Guidance: Response, Restoration, and Recovery Checklist for Biologically Contaminated Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mancieri, S; Raber, E; Carlsen, T; Fish, C; MacQueen, D; Hoppes, W; Bunt, T; Intrepido, A; Wilson, W; James, S; Richards, J; Dzenitis, J; Folks, K

    2006-08-15

    The Checklist for Facility Response, Restoration, and Recovery presented in this document is principally focused on the Consequence Management Phase of a biothreat agent (i.e., Bacillus anthracis) release at a large facility, such as an airport or subway. Information in this document conforms to the National Response Plan (NRP) (DHS 2004) and the National Incident Management System (NIMS 2004). Under these two guidance documents, the personnel responsible for managing biological response and recovery efforts--that is, the decision-makers--are members of an Incident Command (IC), which is likely to transition to a Unified Command (UC) in the event of a biological warfare agent attack. A UC is used when more than one agency has incident jurisdiction or when incidents cross political jurisdictions. The location for primary, tactical-level command and management is referred to as the Incident Command Post (ICP), as described in the NRP. Thus, regardless of whether an IC or an UC is used, the responsible entities are located at an ICP. Agencies work together through designated members of the UC to establish their designated Incident Commanders at a single ICP and to establish a common set of objectives and strategies and a single Incident Action Plan. Initially during the Crisis Management Phase, the Incident Commander is likely to be the Chief of the fire department that serves the affected facility. As life-safety issues are resolved and the Crisis Management Phase shifts to the Consequence Management Phase, the work of characterization, decontamination, and facility clearance begins. There will likely be a coincident transition in organizational structure as well, and new restoration-focused groups, units, and personnel will be added as restoration needs are anticipated. Depending on the specific facility and type of incident, the responsible individual (Incident Commander or Unified Commander) within the UC during the Consequence Management Phase could be the

  15. 78 FR 12760 - Guidance for Industry on Labeling for Human Prescription Drug and Biological Products...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-25

    ... January 24, 2006 (71 FR 3998), FDA announced the availability of final guidances on the content and format... of March 23, 2010 (75 FR 13766), FDA announced the availability of final guidance on the content and..., 2011 (76 FR 63303), FDA announced the availability of final guidance on the content and format of the...

  16. General guidance for stakeholders on the evaluation of Article 13.1, 13.5 and 14 health claims

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    2011-01-01

    to nutrition and health claims, and establishes rules governing the Community authorisation of health claims made on foods. This general guidance is a combined and updated version of two previous briefing documents (frequently asked question document related to the assessment of Article 14 and 13.5 health......The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) asked the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) to provide general guidance for stakeholders on the evaluation of Article 13.1, 13.5 and 14 health claims of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 which harmonises the provisions that relate...... claim applications, and a briefing document for Member States and the European Commission on the evaluation of Article 13.1 health claims). This guidance document summarises the general principles applied by the NDA Panel in the evaluation of health claims, and covers issues such as the totality...

  17. Biological Inspired Direct Adaptive Guidance and Control for Autonomous Flight Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    improvements for existing algorithms. " Continue the phase I effort to develop and demonstrate an architecture for direct adaptive guidance including...e.g., 1 x I x 2 cm) autonomous, cooperative agents from the point of view of power (e.g., 1 mW for a year), bionics , and navigation/guidance. Although...guidance solution (such as PN) to correct for evasive target maneuvering. One such architecture that appears to be suitable for surmounting this difficulty

  18. Guidelines for the use of biological monitors in air pollution control (plants). Pt. 1. Methodological guidance for the drawing-up of biomonitoring guidelines (plants)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmermann, R.D. [Buero fuer Konzeptionelle Bioindikation, Jockgrim (Germany); Wagner, G. [Universitaet des Saarlandes, Saarbruecken (Germany). Inst. fuer Biogeographie; Finck, M.

    2000-04-01

    The main objective of this study is to encourage and promote further development of the methodological basis for a broader and more effective use of biological methods for monitoring the effects of air pollution on plants. It is not intended here to explain or discuss general criteria for the design of environmental monitoring studies and principal statistical methods for dealing with heterogeneously distributed spatial phenomena in detail. A further objective of this study is to give general guidance on how to - select suitable bioindicators, - develop, optimise and validate specific guidelines for the use of these bioindicators, - plan, design and employ biomonitoring studies for different purposes, - develop case-specific study plans determining how to apply an appropriate bioindicator (method-specific guideline) to a given task, case and area, - adapt principles of quality assurance and quality control to biomonitoring studies, - increase the importance and reliability of results obtained by bioindicators with respect to administrative measures. (orig.)

  19. 76 FR 4360 - Guidance for Industry on Process Validation: General Principles and Practices; Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-25

    ... the pharmaceutical industry on the elements of process validation for the manufacture of human and... pharmaceutical industry on the elements of process validation for the manufacture of human and animal drug and... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Industry on Process Validation:...

  20. International Conference on Harmonisation; guidance on quality of biotechnological/biological products: derivation and characterization of cell substrates used for production of biotechnological/biological products; availability. Notice. Food and Drug Administration, HHS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-09-21

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is publishing a guidance entitled "Q5D Quality of Biotechnological/Biological Products:Derivation and Characterization of Cell Substrates Used for Production of Biotechnological/Biological Products." The guidance was prepared under the auspices of the International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH).The document provides broad guidance on appropriate standards for the derivation and characterization of cell substrates used in the production of biotechnological/biological products and recommends information in these areas that should be presented in marketing applications.

  1. Prospective Teachers' Views about Video-Enhanced General Biology Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çetin, Gülcan

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study is to determine the views of the prospective physics and chemistry teachers about the video-enhanced General Biology instruction. The participants included 19 second-year prospective teachers (10 in Physics and 9 in Chemistry Education) at Necatibey Faculty of Education, Balikesir University, Turkey in the 2011-2012 academic…

  2. International Conference on Harmonisation; guidance on Q5E Comparability of Biotechnological/Biological Products Subject to Changes in Their Manufacturing Process; availability. Notice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-06-30

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of a guidance entitled "Q5E Comparability of Biotechnological/Biological Products Subject to Changes in Their Manufacturing Process." The guidance was prepared under the auspices of the International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH). The purpose of the guidance is to provide principles for assessing the comparability of biotechnological/biological products before and after changes are made in the manufacturing process for the drug substance or drug product. The guidance is intended to assist in the collection of relevant technical information that serves as evidence that the manufacturing process changes will not have an adverse impact on the quality, safety, and efficacy of the drug product.

  3. General introduction into the Ebola virus biology and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawilińska, Barbara; Kosz-Vnenchak, Magdalena

    2014-01-01

    Epidemic of Ebola hemorrhagic fever which appeared in the countries of West Africa in 2014, is the largest outbreak which occurred so far. The virus causing this epidemic, Zaire Ebolavirus (ZEBOV), along with four other species of Ebolaviruses is classified to the genus Ebolavirus in the family Filoviridae. ZEBOV is one of the most virulent pathogens among the viral haemorrhagic fevers, and case fatality rates up to 90% have been reported. Mortality is the result of multi-organ failure and severe bleeding complications. The aim of this review is to present the general characteristics of the virus and its biological properties, pathogenicity and epidemiology, with a focus on laboratory methods used in the diagnosis of these infections.

  4. Yukon Delta National Wildlife Refuge general biological inventory, Eek River, 1985

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report is about a general biological inventory done in June and July 1985. A three-person field crew completed a general biological inventory of the Eek Rivet...

  5. Employment law: A guidance note for general practitioners on providing patient information to employers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnett, Adele; Tobin, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Medical practitioners are often caught between a patient who is reluctant to provide their employer with personal health information and an employer who is requesting more detailed health information. This article outlines the rights and responsibilities of employees and employers with regards to the provision of personal health information within employment, and how medical practitioners can assist in advocating for their patient. Topics covered include legal requirements for medical certificates; when certificates can be questioned by an employer; and whether employers can request additional health information from a general practitioner (GP) or independent specialist. In many cases, employers have the right to seek further health information from their employees (eg for health and safety obligations), and employees can face disciplinary action and even dismissal if they are uncooperative. As GPs are necessarily involved in the pro-vision of this information, it is important that they have a general understanding of employment law as it relates to the provision of a patient's personal health information to employers.

  6. [Contraception guidance in general practice. A questionnaire study in Nordland, Troms and Finnmark].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsen, W B; Halvorsen, G H; Tollan, A

    1990-11-10

    239 (75%) of 318 general practitioners in the three northernmost counties of Norway were asked by mailed questionnaire to report the frequency of consultations on contraception, and what kind of contraception they usually recommended. 85% informed the women about at least three different alternatives; oral contraceptives, intrauterine devices and condoms. Almost 50% would ordinate an intrauterine device to a woman who never had been pregnant. 60% informed the woman about other alternatives even if she had already decided upon method prior to the consultation. The physician often brought up the subject of contraception, but as many as 15% did not, as a routine, mention birth control when a woman consulted them for a first trimester abortion. Almost 50% did not know how to fit the diaphragms.

  7. External and internal exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) among workers in the production of fire-proof materials - proposal of a biological monitoring guidance value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preuss, Ralf; Rossbach, Bernd; Wilhelm, Michael; Brüning, Thomas; Angerer, Jürgen

    2006-11-01

    In 1999, we introduced the German polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) study. The study was designed as a nation-wide investigation on workers exposed to PAH. One aim of the study was to establish biological monitoring guidance values (BMGVs) for different branches. Here, we report on the production of fire-proof materials. This branch of industry is typically confronted with high exposure to PAH and with PAH-induced occupational (cancer) diseases. One hundred and thirty-five employees participated in the course of seven sampling dates in four different plants in Germany. External exposure was determined by personal air monitoring of the 16 EPA-PAH. Human biological monitoring was accomplished by the determination of 1-hydroxypyrene and monohydroxyphenanthrenes in post-shift spot urine samples. Concentrations of PAH in the air of the workplaces ranged up to 1102.6microg/m(3). Maximum benzo[a]pyrene concentration was 38.2microg/m(3). The internal PAH exposure of workers was much higher compared with that of the general population. Median concentration for 1-hydroxypyrene was 6.4microg/g creatinine (maximum 279.6, 90th percentile 23.9microg/g creatinine) and for the sum of monohydroxyphenanthrene metabolites 13.3microg/g creatinine (maximum 313.4, 90th percentile 70.8microg/g creatinine). The following BMGVs for the non-smokers of this branch of industry are proposed: for 1-hydroxypyrene 18microg/g creatinine and for the sum of hydroxyphenanthrenes 77microg/g creatinine in urine measured at the end of the shift.

  8. Helping General Physical Educators and Adapted Physical Educators Address the Office of Civil Rights Dear Colleague Guidance Letter: Part IV--Sport Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, Lauren; Lucas, Mark; Jones, Jeffery; Humphreys, Dan; Cody, Ann; Vaughn, Bev; Storms, Tommie

    2013-01-01

    "Helping General Physical Educators and Adapted Physical Educators Address the Office of Civil Rights Dear Colleague Guidance Letter: Part IV--Sport Groups" provides the the following articles: (1) "Sport Programming Offered by Camp Abilities and the United States Association for Blind Athletes" (Lauren Lieberman and Mark…

  9. Helping General Physical Educators and Adapted Physical Educators Address the Office of Civil Rights Dear Colleague Guidance Letter: Part IV--Sport Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, Lauren; Lucas, Mark; Jones, Jeffery; Humphreys, Dan; Cody, Ann; Vaughn, Bev; Storms, Tommie

    2013-01-01

    "Helping General Physical Educators and Adapted Physical Educators Address the Office of Civil Rights Dear Colleague Guidance Letter: Part IV--Sport Groups" provides the the following articles: (1) "Sport Programming Offered by Camp Abilities and the United States Association for Blind Athletes" (Lauren Lieberman and Mark…

  10. National ethics guidance in Sub-Saharan Africa on the collection and use of human biological specimens: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barchi, Francis; Little, Madison T

    2016-10-22

    Ethical and regulatory guidance on the collection and use of human biospecimens (HBS) for research forms an essential component of national health systems in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), where rapid advances in genetic- and genomic-based technologies are fueling clinical trials involving HBS and the establishment of large-scale biobanks. An extensive multi-level search for publicly available ethics regulatory guidance was conducted for each SSA country. A second review documented active trials listed in the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform as of January 2015 in which HBS collection was specified in the protocol. Findings were combined to determine the extent to which countries that are study sites for HBS-related research are supported by regulatory guidance language on the collection, use, ownership and storage of biospecimens. Of the 49 SSA countries, 29 had some form of national ethics guidance, yet only 17 provided language relating to HBS-related research, with specific guidance on consent (14), ownership (6), reuse (10), storage (9), and export/import/transfer (13). Ten countries accounted for 84 % of the active clinical trials involving the collection of HBS in SSA. All except one of these countries were found to have some national guidance in the form of regulations, codes of ethics, and/or standard operating procedures; however, only seven of the ten offered any language specific to HBS. Despite the fact that the bulk of registered clinical trials in SSA involving HBS, as well as existing and proposed sites for biorepositories under the H3Africa Initiative, are currently situated in countries with the most complete ethics and regulatory guidance, variability in the regulations themselves may create challenges for planned and future pan-African collaborations and may require legislative action at the national level to revise. Countries in SSA that still lack regulatory guidance on HBS will require extensive health system strengthening in

  11. Equivalency of general biology (for majors) across a state-system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regier, Kimberly Fayette

    General biology courses (for majors) are often transferred from one institution to another. These courses must prepare students for upper division courses in biology. A survey of U.S. college biology faculty was conducted and revealed that more 4-year faculty do not believe that all general biology courses are equivalent. An evaluation of course grades in two upper division biology courses at University of Colorado Denver (N = 2129) based upon course grades in general biology and the type of institution where general biology was taken (2-year school, 4-year, in-residence at UCD, AP credit, CLEP credit, or IB credit) was conducted. Students who transferred general biology credit received lower grades in upper division biology courses and withdrew from upper division biology courses more frequently. Syllabi from a small sample (N = 9) of general biology courses offered at Colorado 2- and 4-year schools show variation in course design. Only 30% of the courses had detailed learning objectives. Sample exams reveal a range in variation between 3-69% of questions requiring higher-order thinking according to Bloom's Taxonomy. Increasing communication between high school, 2-year and 4-year biology faculty is necessary if consistency is to be gained. Professional development for faculty to increase awareness about exam development, curriculum alignment, and curriculum mapping may reduce the disparities between the preparation of students in biology. Transfer student grade outcomes should be further investigated across the state.

  12. Familial hypercholesterolaemia is underdiagnosed and undertreated in the general population: guidance for clinicians to prevent coronary heart disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Chapman, M. John; Humphries, Steve E.; Ginsberg, Henry N.; Masana, Luis; Descamps, Olivier S.; Wiklund, Olov; Hegele, Robert A.; Raal, Frederick J.; Defesche, Joep C.; Wiegman, Albert; Santos, Raul D.; Watts, Gerald F.; Parhofer, Klaus G.; Hovingh, G. Kees; Kovanen, Petri T.; Boileau, Catherine; Averna, Maurizio; Borén, Jan; Bruckert, Eric; Catapano, Alberico L.; Kuivenhoven, Jan Albert; Pajukanta, Päivi; Ray, Kausik; Stalenhoef, Anton F. H.; Stroes, Erik; Taskinen, Marja-Riitta; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Aims The first aim was to critically evaluate the extent to which familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH) is underdiagnosed and undertreated. The second aim was to provide guidance for screening and treatment of FH, in order to prevent coronary heart disease (CHD). Methods and results Of the theoretical estimated prevalence of 1/500 for heterozygous FH, <1% are diagnosed in most countries. Recently, direct screening in a Northern European general population diagnosed approximately 1/200 with heterozygous FH. All reported studies document failure to achieve recommended LDL cholesterol targets in a large proportion of individuals with FH, and up to 13-fold increased risk of CHD. Based on prevalences between 1/500 and 1/200, between 14 and 34 million individuals worldwide have FH. We recommend that children, adults, and families should be screened for FH if a person or family member presents with FH, a plasma cholesterol level in an adult ≥8 mmol/L(≥310 mg/dL) or a child ≥6 mmol/L(≥230 mg/dL), premature CHD, tendon xanthomas, or sudden premature cardiac death. In FH, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol targets are <3.5 mmol/L(<135 mg/dL) for children, <2.5 mmol/L(<100 mg/dL) for adults, and <1.8 mmol/L(<70 mg/dL) for adults with known CHD or diabetes. In addition to lifestyle and dietary counselling, treatment priorities are (i) in children, statins, ezetimibe, and bile acid binding resins, and (ii) in adults, maximal potent statin dose, ezetimibe, and bile acid binding resins. Lipoprotein apheresis can be offered in homozygotes and in treatment-resistant heterozygotes with CHD. Conclusion Owing to severe underdiagnosis and undertreatment of FH, there is an urgent worldwide need for diagnostic screening together with early and aggressive treatment of this extremely high-risk condition. PMID:23956253

  13. Grades and Withdrawal Rates in Cell Biology and Genetics Based upon Institution Type for General Biology and Implications for Transfer Articulation Agreements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regier, Kimberly Fayette

    2016-01-01

    General biology courses (for majors) are often transferred from one institution to another. These courses must prepare students for upper division courses in biology. In Colorado, a Biology Transfer Articulation Agreement that includes general biology has been created across the state. An evaluation was conducted of course grades in two upper…

  14. Grades and Withdrawal Rates in Cell Biology and Genetics Based upon Institution Type for General Biology and Implications for Transfer Articulation Agreements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regier, Kimberly Fayette

    2016-01-01

    General biology courses (for majors) are often transferred from one institution to another. These courses must prepare students for upper division courses in biology. In Colorado, a Biology Transfer Articulation Agreement that includes general biology has been created across the state. An evaluation was conducted of course grades in two upper…

  15. A general concept for molecular biology of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, H

    1976-11-01

    The demonstrations that "fetal" isozymes and other fetal or "oncodevelopmental" antigens are present in tumor cells has led to the general concept that genes normally silent in adult tissues are activated during the neoplastic process. Recent evidence that some chromatin proteins of tumor cells are fetal antigens has suggested that some of the "switches" involved in gene activation for tumor growth may also be fetal or oncodevelopmental. These results have led to current theoretical concept that fetal gene derepressors interact with the genome to produce messenger RNA for the protein products involved for growth, invasiveness, and metastasis. These processes may not be controllable in adult cells because of the lack of inhibitors, which were present during embryonic development but are not produced in adult tissues.

  16. [General principles of tumour biology in visceral surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emons, G; Ghadimi, M; Grade, M

    2015-02-01

    Within the last decade, there has been a tremendous progress in understanding the molecular basis of cancer. In particular, the development and the characteristic features of cancer cells are being increasingly understood. The understanding of these molecular characteristics is mandatory for the development of novel, targeted therapeutic strategies and their integration into clinical practice. In addition, tumour genetics play a critically important role for hereditary cancer syndromes, with respect to both diagnostics and clinical decision-making. The aim of this review is to highlight general principles of tumour genetics from a visceral surgeon's point of view, although a comprehensive summary of all aspects would be beyond the scope of this article due to the complexity of the topic. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  17. Special and General Education Biology Teachers Working Together Collaboratively

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagne-Grosso, Melissa

    Collaborative teaching, between special education and general education teachers working together, came about as a result of the No Child Left Behind and Individuals with Disabilities Education Acts. Despite the positive intentions of those acts, teachers are not always ready to teach collaboratively. Guided by the theories of fundamental change and inclusion, this study was based on a lack of understanding about collaborative teaching at 3 high schools. The research questions focused on the benefits, process, and concerns related to collaborative teaching. The perspectives of 4 special education and 8 regular education teachers in 3 urban, public high schools were collected through interviews and observations. Data were analyzed descriptively and inductively using coding, reconstruction, and interpretation of the underlying meanings. The findings revealed that teachers benefitted from being in these classrooms by having a reduced work load and shared responsibility; however, they needed more time for collaboration and modifying instruction, professional development, and stronger support. Students in these classrooms benefitted from social interactions with other students and by getting direct answers to questions. Based on these findings, a professional development training was created based on how collaborative teachers can work together to promote successful learning. This project study can have a positive impact by assisting collaborative teachers with support, communication, strategies for modifications and accommodations, and an enhanced experience, and additionally by improving the academic outcomes for their students.

  18. Academic Beliefs and Behaviors in On-Campus and Online General Education Biology Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noll, Christopher B.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effect of course delivery mode on academic help-seeking beliefs and behaviors, academic self-efficacy, and the levels of individual interest in biology of students in an entry-level General Education biology course. This intersection of online education, science courses, and academic success factors merits attention because…

  19. Body and Soul: Do Children Distinguish between Foods When Generalizing Biological and Psychological Properties?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibaut, Jean-Pierre; Nguyen, Simone P.; Murphy, Gregory L.

    2016-01-01

    Research Findings: In 2 experiments, we tested whether children generalize psychological and biological properties to novel foods. We used an induction task in which a property (either biological or psychological) was associated with a target food. Children were then asked whether a taxonomically related and a script-related food would also have…

  20. Glutarimides: Biological activity, general synthetic methods and physicochemical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović-Đorđević Jelena B.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Glutarimides, 2,6-dioxopiperidines are compounds that rarely occur in natural sources, but so far isolated ones exert widespread pharmacological activities, which makes them valuable as potential pharmacotherapeutics. Glutarimides act as androgen receptor antagonists, anti-inflammatory, anxiolytics, antibacterials, and tumor suppressing agents. Some synthetic glutarimide derivatives are already in use as immunosuppressive and sedative (e.g., thalidomide or anxiolytics (buspirone drugs. The wide applicability of this class of compounds, justify the interest of scientists to explore new pathways for its syntheses. General methods for synthesis of six-membered imide ring, are presented in this paper. These methods include: a reaction of dicarboxylic acids with ammonia or primary amine, b reactions of cyclization: amido-acids, diamides, dinitriles, nitrilo-acids, amido-nitriles, amido-esters, amidoacyl-chlorides or diacyl-chlorides, c adition of carbon-monoxide on a,b-unsaturated amides, d oxidation reactions, e Michael adition of active methylen compounds on methacrylamide or conjugated amides. Some of the described methods are used for closing glutarimide ring in syntheses of farmacological active compounds sesbanimide and aldose reductase inhibitors (ARI. Analyses of the geometry, as well as, the spectroscopic analyses (NMR and FT-IR of some glutarimides are presented because of their broad spectrum of pharmacological activity. To elucidate structures of glutarimides, geometrical parameters of newly synthesized tert-pentyl-1-benzyl-4-methyl-glutarimide-3-carboxylate (PBMG are analyzed and compared with the experimental data from X-ray analysis for glutarimide. Moreover, molecular electrostatic potential (MEP surface which is plotted over the optimized geometry to elucidate the reactivity of PBMG molecule is analyzed. The electronic properties of glutarimide derivatives are explained on the example of thalidomide. The Frontier Molecular Orbital

  1. International Conference on Harmonisation; Guidance on Q4B Evaluation and Recommendation of Pharmacopoeial Texts for Use in the International Conference on Harmonisation Regions; Annex 14 on Bacterial Endotoxins Test General Chapter; availability. Notice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-23

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of a guidance entitled "Q4B Evaluation and Recommendation of Pharmacopoeial Texts for Use in the International Conference on Harmonisation Regions; Annex 14: Bacterial Endotoxins Test General Chapter.'' The guidance was prepared under the auspices of the International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH). The guidance provides the results of the ICH Q4B evaluation of the Bacterial Endotoxins Test General Chapter harmonized text from each of the three pharmacopoeias (United States, European, and Japanese) represented by the Pharmacopoeial Discussion Group (PDG). The guidance conveys recognition of the three pharmacopoeial methods by the three ICH regulatory regions and provides specific information regarding the recognition. The guidance is intended to recognize the interchangeability between the local regional pharmacopoeias, thus avoiding redundant testing in favor of a common testing strategy in each regulatory region. The guidance is in the form of an annex to the core guidance on the Q4B process entitled "Q4B Evaluation and Recommendation of Pharmacopoeial Texts for Use in the ICH Regions (core ICH Q4B guidance).

  2. International Conference on Harmonisation; guidance on Q4B Evaluation and Recommendation of Pharmacopoeial Texts for Use in the International Conference on Harmonisation Regions; Annex 6 on Uniformity of Dosage Units General Chapter; availability. Notice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-16

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of a guidance entitled "Q4B Evaluation and Recommendation of Pharmacopoeial Texts for Use in the International Conference on Harmonisation Regions; Annex 6: Uniformity of Dosage Units General Chapter.'' The guidance was prepared under the auspices of the International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH). The guidance provides the results of the ICH Q4B evaluation of the Uniformity of Dosage Units General Chapter harmonized text from each of the three pharmacopoeias (United States, European, and Japanese) represented by the Pharmacopoeial Discussion Group (PDG). The guidance conveys recognition of the three pharmacopoeial methods by the three ICH regulatory regions and provides specific information regarding the recognition. The guidance is intended to recognize the interchangeability between the local regional pharmacopoeias, thus avoiding redundant testing in favor of a common testing strategy in each regulatory region. The guidance is in the form of an annex to the core guidance on the Q4B process entitled ``Q4B Evaluation and Recommendation of Pharmacopoeial Texts for Use in the ICH Regions'' (core ICH Q4B guidance).

  3. International Conference on Harmonisation; Guidance on Q4B Evaluation and Recommendation of Pharmacopoeial Texts for Use in the International Conference on Harmonisation Regions; Annex 13 on Bulk Density and Tapped Density of Powders General Chapter; availability. Notice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-28

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of a guidance entitled "Q4B Evaluation and Recommendation of Pharmacopoeial Texts for Use in the International Conference on Harmonisation Regions; Annex 13: Bulk Density and Tapped Density of Powders General Chapter.'' The guidance was prepared under the auspices of the International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH). The guidance provides the results of the ICH Q4B evaluation of the Bulk Density and Tapped Density of Powders General Chapter harmonized text from each of the three pharmacopoeias (United States, European, and Japanese) represented by the Pharmacopoeial Discussion Group (PDG). The guidance conveys recognition of the three pharmacopoeial methods by the three ICH regulatory regions and provides specific information regarding the recognition. The guidance is intended to recognize the interchangeability between the local regional pharmacopoeias, thus avoiding redundant testing in favor of a common testing strategy in each regulatory region. The guidance is in the form of an annex to the core guidance on the Q4B process entitled ``Q4B Evaluation and Recommendation of Pharmacopoeial Texts for Use in the ICH Regions (core ICH Q4B guidance).

  4. International Conference on Harmonisation; Guidance on Q4B Evaluation and Recommendation of Pharmacopoeial Texts for Use in the International Conference on Harmonisation Regions; Annex 9 on Tablet Friability General Chapter; availability. Notice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-05

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of a guidance entitled "4B Evaluation and Recommendation of Pharmacopoeial Texts for Use in the ICH Regions; Annex 9: Tablet Friability General Chapter." The guidance was prepared under the auspices of the International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH). The guidance provides the results of the ICH Q4B evaluation of the Tablet Friability General Chapter harmonized text from each of the three pharmacopoeias (United States, European, and Japanese) represented by the Pharmacopoeial Discussion Group (PDG). The guidance conveys recognition of the three pharmacopoeial methods by the three ICH regulatory regions and provides specific information regarding the recognition. The guidance is intended to recognize the interchangeability between the local regional pharmacopoeias, thus avoiding redundant testing in favor of a common testing strategy in each regulatory region. This guidance is in the form of an annex to the core guidance on the Q4B process entitled "Q4B Evaluation and Recommendation of Pharmacopoeial Texts for Use in the ICH Regions" (core ICH Q4B guidance).

  5. International Conference on Harmonisation; Guidance on Q4B Evaluation and Recommendation of Pharmacopoeial Texts for Use in the International Conference on Harmonisation Regions; Annex 7 on Dissolution Test General Chapter; availability. Notice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-05

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of a guidance entitled "Q4B Evaluation and Recommendation of Pharmacopoeial Texts for Use in the ICH Regions; Annex 7: Dissolution Test General Chapter." The guidance was prepared under the auspices of the International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH). The guidance provides the results of the ICH Q4B evaluation of the Dissolution Test General Chapter harmonized text from each of the three pharmacopoeias (United States, European, and Japanese) represented by the Pharmacopoeial Discussion Group (PDG). The guidance conveys recognition of the three pharmacopoeial methods by the three ICH regulatory regions and provides specific information regarding the recognition. The guidance is intended to recognize the interchangeability between the local regional pharmacopoeias, thus avoiding redundant testing in favor of a common testing strategy in each regulatory region. This guidance is in the form of an annex to the core guidance on the Q4B process entitled "Q4B Evaluation and Recommendation of Pharmacopoeial Texts for Use in the ICH Regions" (core ICH Q4B guidance).

  6. International Conference on Harmonisation; guidance on Q4B Evaluation and Recommendation of Pharmacopoeial texts for use in the International Conference on Harmonisation Regions; Annex 12 on Analytical Sieving General Chapter; availability. Notice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-02

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of a guidance entitled "Q4B Evaluation and Recommendation of Pharmacopoeial Texts for Use in the ICH Regions; Annex 12: Analytical Sieving General Chapter." The guidance was prepared under the auspices of the International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH). The guidance provides the results of the ICH Q4B evaluation of the Analytical Sieving General Chapter harmonized text from each of the three pharmacopoeias (United States, European, and Japanese) represented by the Pharmacopoeial Discussion Group (PDG). The guidance conveys recognition of the three pharmacopoeial methods by the three ICH regulatory regions and provides specific information regarding the recognition. The guidance is intended to recognize the interchangeability between the local regional pharmacopoeias, thus avoiding redundant testing in favor of a common testing strategy in each regulatory region. This guidance is in the form of an annex to the core guidance on the Q4B process entitled "Q4B Evaluation and Recommendation of Pharmacopoeial Texts for Use in the ICH Regions" (the core ICH Q4B guidance).

  7. [Academician V.E. Sokolov is the head of the General Biology Department].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlov, D S; Shishkin, V S

    2009-01-01

    This paper considers the activity of Academician V.E. Sokolov as head of the General Biology Department of the Russian Academy of Sciences, which he headed from 1985 to 1998. The history of the struggle for the preservation of biological science, carried out by Sokolov and the Department headed by him over more than ten years, is shown based on archival and little-known published materials. Examples are given of the activity of the General Biology Department that had great scientific, public, and nature-conservation significance.

  8. Correlation between MCAT biology content specifications and topic scope and sequence of general education college biology textbooks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rissing, Steven W

    2013-01-01

    Most American colleges and universities offer gateway biology courses to meet the needs of three undergraduate audiences: biology and related science majors, many of whom will become biomedical researchers; premedical students meeting medical school requirements and preparing for the Medical College Admissions Test (MCAT); and students completing general education (GE) graduation requirements. Biology textbooks for these three audiences present a topic scope and sequence that correlates with the topic scope and importance ratings of the biology content specifications for the MCAT regardless of the intended audience. Texts for "nonmajors," GE courses appear derived directly from their publisher's majors text. Topic scope and sequence of GE texts reflect those of "their" majors text and, indirectly, the MCAT. MCAT term density of GE texts equals or exceeds that of their corresponding majors text. Most American universities require a GE curriculum to promote a core level of academic understanding among their graduates. This includes civic scientific literacy, recognized as an essential competence for the development of public policies in an increasingly scientific and technological world. Deriving GE biology and related science texts from majors texts designed to meet very different learning objectives may defeat the scientific literacy goals of most schools' GE curricula.

  9. An incremental-learning-by-navigation approach to vision-based autonomous land vehicle guidance in indoor environments using vertical line information and multiweighted generalized Hough transform technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, G Y; Tsai, W H

    1998-01-01

    An incremental learning by navigation approach to vision based autonomous land vehicle (ALV) guidance in indoor environments is proposed. The approach consists of three stages: initial learning, navigation, and model updating. In the initial learning stage, the ALV is driven manually, and environment images and other status data are recorded automatically. Then, an offline procedure is performed to build an initial environment model. In the navigation stage, the ALV moves along the learned environment automatically, locates itself by model matching, and records necessary information for model updating. In the model updating stage, an offline procedure is performed to refine the learned model. A more precise model is obtained after each navigation-and-update iteration. Used environment features are vertical straight lines in camera views. A multiweighted generalized Hough transform is proposed for model matching. A real ALV was used as the testbed, and successful navigation experiments show the feasibility of the proposed approach.

  10. Lifelong Guidance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Noworol, Czesław

    2011-01-01

    .... Career guidance refers to services and activities intended to assist individuals, of any age and at any point throughout their lives, to make educational, training and occupational choices and to manage their careers...

  11. National Standard of "General Request on Biological Safety" Was Officially Issued

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ May 28 2004, sponsored by Standardization Administration of P.R. China ( SAC ) and Certification and Accreditation Administration of P.R. China (CNCA), China National Accreditation Board For Laboratories (CNAL) organized the press conference on National Standard of "General Request on Biological Safety" in Beijing.

  12. International Conference on Harmonisation; guidance on Q4B Evaluation and Recommendation of Pharmacopoeial Texts for Use in the International Conference on Harmonisation Regions; Annex 4A on Microbiological Examination of Nonsterile Products: Microbial Enumeration Tests General Chapter; availability. Notice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-08

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of a guidance entitled "Q4B Evaluation and Recommendation of Pharmacopoeial Texts for Use in the ICH Regions; Annex 4A: Microbiological Examination of Nonsterile Products: Microbial Enumeration Tests General Chapter." The guidance was prepared under the auspices of the International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH). The guidance provides the results of the ICH Q4B evaluation of the Microbiological Examination of Nonsterile Products: Microbial Enumeration Tests General Chapter harmonized text from each of the three pharmacopoeias (United States, European, and Japanese) represented by the Pharmacopoeial Discussion Group (PDG). The guidance conveys recognition of the three pharmacopoeial methods by the three ICH regulatory regions and provides specific information regarding the recognition. The guidance is intended to recognize the interchangeability between the local regional pharmacopoeias, thus avoiding redundant testing in favor of a common testing strategy in each regulatory region. In the Federal Register of February 21, 2008 (73 FR 9575), FDA made available a guidance on the Q4B process entitled "Q4B Evaluation and Recommendation of Pharmacopoeial Texts for Use in the ICH Regions."

  13. International Conference on Harmonisation; Guidance on Q4B Evaluation and Recommendation of Pharmacopoeial Texts for Use in the International Conference on Harmonisation Regions; Annex 8 on Sterility Test General Chapter; availability. Notice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-22

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of a guidance entitled "Q4B Evaluation and Recommendation of Pharmacopoeial Texts for Use in the ICH Regions; Annex 8: Sterility Test General Chapter.'' The guidance was prepared under the auspices of the International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH). The guidance provides the results of the ICH Q4B evaluation of the Sterility Test General Chapter harmonized text from each of the three pharmacopoeias (United States, European, and Japanese) represented by the Pharmacopoeial Discussion Group (PDG). The guidance conveys recognition of the three pharmacopoeial methods by the three ICH regulatory regions and provides specific information regarding the recognition. The guidance is intended to recognize the interchangeability between the local regional pharmacopoeias, thus avoiding redundant testing in favor of a common testing strategy in each regulatory region. In the Federal Register of February 21, 2008 (73 FR 9575), FDA made available a guidance on the Q4B process entitled "Q4B Evaluation and Recommendation of Pharmacopoeial Texts for Use in the ICH Regions."

  14. International Conference on Harmonisation; Guidance on Q4B Evaluation and Recommendation of Pharmacopoeial Texts for Use in the International Conference on Harmonisation Regions; Annex 10 on Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis General Chapter; availability. Notice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-12

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of a guidance entitled "Q4B Evaluation and Recommendation of Pharmacopoeial Texts for Use in the ICH Regions; Annex 10: Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis General Chapter. The guidance was prepared under the auspices of the International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH). The guidance provides the results of the ICH Q4B evaluation of the Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis General Chapter harmonized text from each of the three pharmacopoeias (United States, European, and Japanese) represented by the Pharmacopoeial Discussion Group (PDG). The guidance conveys recognition of the three pharmacopoeial methods by the three ICH regulatory regions and provides specific information regarding the recognition. The guidance is intended to recognize the interchangeability between the local regional pharmacopoeias, thus avoiding redundant testing in favor of a common testing strategy in each regulatory region. In the Federal Register of February 21, 2008 (73 FR 9575), FDA made available a guidance on the Q4B process entitled "Q4B Evaluation and Recommendation of Pharmacopoeial Texts for Use in the ICH Regions."

  15. International Conference on Harmonisation; Guidance on Q4B Evaluation and Recommendation of Pharmacopoeial Texts for Use in the International Conference on Harmonisation Regions; Annex 5 on Disintegration Test General Chapter; availability. Notice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-23

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of a guidance entitled "Q4B Evaluation and Recommendation of Pharmacopoeial Texts for Use in the ICH Regions; Annex 5: Disintegration Test General Chapter." The guidance was prepared under the auspices of the International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH). The guidance provides the results of the ICH Q4B evaluation of the Disintegration Test General Chapter harmonized text from each of the three pharmacopoeias (United States, European, and Japanese) represented by the Pharmacopoeial Discussion Group (PDG). The guidance conveys recognition of the three pharmacopoeial methods by the three ICH regulatory regions and provides specific information regarding the recognition. The guidance is intended to recognize the interchangeability between the local regional pharmacopoeias, thus avoiding redundant testing in favor of a common testing strategy in each regulatory region. In the Federal Register of February 21, 2008 (73 FR 9575), FDA made available a guidance on the Q4B process entitled "Q4B Evaluation and Recommendation of Pharmacopoeial Texts for Use in the ICH Regions."

  16. International Conference on Harmonisation; Guidance on Q4B Evaluation and Recommendation of Pharmacopoeial Texts for Use in the International Conference on Harmonisation Regions; Annex on Test for Particulate Contamination: Subvisible Particles General Chapter; availability. Notice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-09

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of a guidance entitled "Q4B Evaluation and Recommendation of Pharmacopoeial Texts for Use in the ICH Regions; Annex 3: Test for Particulate Contamination: Subvisible Particles General Chapter." The guidance was prepared under the auspices of the International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH). The guidance provides the results of the ICH Q4B evaluation of the Test for Particulate Contamination: Subvisible Particles General Chapter harmonized text from each of the three pharmacopoeias (United States, European, and Japanese) represented by the Pharmacopoeial Discussion Group (PDG). The guidance conveys recognition of the three pharmacopoeial methods by the three ICH regulatory regions and provides specific information regarding the recognition. The guidance is intended to recognize the interchangeability between the local regional pharmacopoeias, thus avoiding redundant testing in favor of a common testing strategy in each regulatory region. In the Federal Register of February 21, 2008 (73 FR 9575), FDA made available a guidance on the Q4B process entitled "Q4B Evaluation and Recommendation of Pharmacopoeial Texts for Use in the ICH Regions."

  17. International Conference on Harmonisation; Guidance on Q4B Evaluation and Recommendation of Pharmacopoeial Texts for Use in the International Conference on Harmonisation Regions; Annex on Test for Extractable Volume of Parenteral Preparations General Chapter; availability. Notice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-09

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of a guidance entitled "Q4B Evaluation and Recommendation of Pharmacopoeial Texts for Use in the ICH Regions; Annex 2: Test for Extractable Volume of Parenteral Preparations General Chapter." The guidance was prepared under the auspices of the International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH). The guidance provides the results of the ICH Q4B evaluation of the Test for Extractable Volume of Parenteral Preparations General Chapter harmonized text from each of the three pharmacopoeias (United States, European, and Japanese) represented by the Pharmacopoeial Discussion Group (PDG). The guidance conveys recognition of the three pharmacopoeial methods by the three ICH regulatory regions and provides specific information regarding the recognition. The guidance is intended to recognize the interchangeability between the local regional pharmacopoeias, thus avoiding redundant testing in favor of a common testing strategy in each regulatory region. In the Federal Register of February 21, 2008 (73 FR 9575), FDA made available a guidance on the Q4B process entitled "Q4B Evaluation and Recommendation of Pharmacopoeial Texts for Use in the ICH Regions."

  18. International Conference on Harmonisation; Guidance on Q4B Evaluation and Recommendation of Pharmacopoeial Texts for Use in the ICH Regions; Annex on Residue on Ignition/Sulphated Ash General Chapter; Availability. Notice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-02-21

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of a guidance entitled "Q4B Evaluation and Recommendation of Pharmacopoeial Texts for Use in the ICH Regions; Annex 1: Residue on Ignition/Sulphated Ash General Chapter.'' The guidance was prepared under the auspices of the International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH). The guidance provides the results of the ICH Q4B evaluation of the Residue on Ignition/Sulphated Ash General Chapter harmonized text from each of the three pharmacopeias (United States, European, and Japanese) represented by the Pharmacopoeial Discussion Group (PDG). The guidance conveys recognition of the three pharmacopeial methods by the three ICH regulatory regions and provides specific information regarding the recognition. The guidance is intended to recognize the interchangeability among these texts from the local regional pharmacopeias, thus avoiding redundant testing in favor of a common testing strategy in each regulatory region. Elsewhere in this issue of the Federal Register, FDA is announcing the availability of a guidance on the Q4B process entitled "Q4B Evaluation and Recommendation of Pharmacopoeial Texts for Use in the ICH Regions."

  19. Parallel optical sorting of biological cells using the generalized phase contrast method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rindorf, Lars; Bu, Minqiang; Glückstad, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    of biological cells in microfluidic systems exclusively using light. We demonstrate an optical cell sorter that uses simultaneous manipulation by multiple laser beams using the Generalized Phase Contrast method (GPC). The basic principle in an optical sorter is that the radiation force of the optical beam can...... push the biological cell from one microfluidic sheath flow to another. By incorporating a spatial light modulator the manipulation can be made parallel with multiple laser beams. We claim advantages over the serial optical sorters with only a single laser beam that has been demonstrated by others.......Optical forces are used to fixate biological cells with optical tweezers where numerous biological parameters and phenomena can be studied. Optical beams carry a small momentum which generates a weak optical force, but on a cellular level this force is strong enough to allow for manipulation...

  20. Significant Guidance Issued by the Federal Highway Administration

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — A list of Significant Guidance documents, which include guidance document disseminated to regulated entities or the general public that may reasonably be anticipated...

  1. Significant Guidance Issued by the Federal Aviation Administration

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — A list of Significant Guidance documents, which include guidance document disseminated to regulated entities or the general public that may reasonably be anticipated...

  2. Significant Guidance Issued by the Federal Transit Administration

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — A list of Significant Guidance documents, which include guidance document disseminated to regulated entities or the general public that may reasonably be anticipated...

  3. Significant Guidance Issued by the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — A list of Significant Guidance documents, which include guidance document disseminated to regulated entities or the general public that may reasonably be anticipated...

  4. Chemical and biological warfare: General studies. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning federally sponsored and conducted studies into chemical and biological warfare operations and planning. These studies cover areas not addressed in other parts of this series. The topics include production and storage of agents, delivery techniques, training, military and civil defense, general planning studies, psychological reactions to chemical warfare, evaluations of materials exposed to chemical agents, and studies on banning or limiting chemical warfare. Other published searches in this series on chemical warfare cover detection and warning, defoliants, protection, and biological studies, including chemistry and toxicology. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  5. Chemical and biological warfare: General studies. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning federally sponsored and conducted studies into chemical and biological warfare operations and planning. These studies cover areas not addressed in other parts of this series. The topics include production and storage of agents, delivery techniques, training, military and civil defense, general planning studies, psychological reactions to chemical warfare, evaluations of materials exposed to chemical agents, and studies on banning or limiting chemical warfare. Other published searches in this series on chemical warfare cover detection and warning, defoliants, protection, and biological studies, including chemistry and toxicology.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  6. Development of a General Modeling Framework for Investigating Complex Interactions among Biological and Physical Ecosystem Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, C.; Poole, G. C.; Kimball, J. S.; Stanford, J. A.; O'Daniel, S. J.; Mertes, L. A.

    2005-05-01

    Historically, physical scientists have developed models with highly accurate governing equations, while biologists have excelled at abstraction (the strategic simplification of system complexity). These different modeling paradigms yield biological (e.g. food web) and physical (e.g. hydrologic) models that can be difficult to integrate. Complex biological dynamics may be impossible to represent with governing equations. Conversely, physical processes may be oversimplified in biological models. Using agent-based modeling, a technique applied widely in social sciences and economics, we are developing a general modeling system to integrate accurate representations of physical dynamics such as water and heat flux with abstracted biological processes such as nutrient transformations. The modeling system represents an ecosystem as a complex integrated network of intelligent physical and biological "agents" that store, transform, and trade ecosystem resources (e.g., water, heat, nutrients, carbon) using equations that describe either abstracted concepts and/or physical laws. The modular design of the system allows resource submodels to be developed independently and installed into the simulation architecture. The modeling system provides a useful heuristic tool to support integrated physical and biological research topics, such as the influence of hydrologic dynamics and spatio-temporal physical heterogeneity on trophic (food web) dynamics and/or nutrient cycling.

  7. Global stability and optimisation of a general impulsive biological control model

    CERN Document Server

    Mailleret, Ludovic

    2008-01-01

    An impulsive model of augmentative biological control consisting of a general continuous predator-prey model in ordinary differential equations augmented by a discrete part describing periodic introductions of predators is considered. It is shown that there exists an invariant periodic solution that corresponds to prey eradication and a condition ensuring its global asymptotic stability is given. An optimisation problem related to the preemptive use of augmentative biological control is then considered. It is assumed that the per time unit budget of biological control (i.e. the number of predators to be released) is fixed and the best deployment of this budget is sought after in terms of release frequency. The cost function to be minimised is the time taken to reduce an unforeseen prey (pest) invasion under some harmless level. The analysis shows that the optimisation problem admits a countable infinite number of solutions. An argumentation considering the required robustness of the optimisation result is the...

  8. Reflections on fifty years of publications on the history of general biology and special embryology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppenheimer, J M

    1975-12-01

    The publications of fifty years (1925-1974) of the histroy of biology and embryology are surveyed. In America, the earliest background for work during this period was provided by the collectors, mainly physicians, of books into extensive private libraries. The collectors, for instance Osler, Cushing, and Fulton in this country and Geoffrey Keynes abroad, became expert technical bibliographers during the early part of the half-century under consideration. High standards for medical, thus biological history, insofar as these fields overlap, were also set earlier by Sudhoff's Institut für Geschichte der Medizin in Leipzig, and American historical studies benefited when Sigerist came from Leipzig to Baltimore in the early 1930's. Textbooks of medical history are omitted from discussion here, but a number of more or less general histories of biology published within the specified period are briefly evaluated. The discussion next turns to histories of embryology, general and special. Recent monographs on the classical embryologists, Wolff and von Baer, are enumerated, as are a number of biographies and autobiographies of important embryologists published here or abroad during our half-century. Then general histories of embryology are discussed, and finally some specialized ones. Needham, Roger, and Adelmann are singled out as the most important contributors to the history of embryology, in the West, during the period covered. Few of the contributors to the history of biology and medicine during the years of 1925 through 1974 were trained as historians while students. It is concluded that the History of Science Society has performed an important contribution in professionalizing the history of biology and embryology, but it is pointed out that a great new challenge faces it in the necessity to counteract anti-historical and anti-intellectual moods and movements of today.

  9. Generalized Beer-Lambert model for near-infrared light propagation in thick biological tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Manish; Ayyalasomayajula, Kalyan R.; Yalavarthy, Phaneendra K.

    2016-07-01

    The attenuation of near-infrared (NIR) light intensity as it propagates in a turbid medium like biological tissue is described by modified the Beer-Lambert law (MBLL). The MBLL is generally used to quantify the changes in tissue chromophore concentrations for NIR spectroscopic data analysis. Even though MBLL is effective in terms of providing qualitative comparison, it suffers from its applicability across tissue types and tissue dimensions. In this work, we introduce Lambert-W function-based modeling for light propagation in biological tissues, which is a generalized version of the Beer-Lambert model. The proposed modeling provides parametrization of tissue properties, which includes two attenuation coefficients μ0 and η. We validated our model against the Monte Carlo simulation, which is the gold standard for modeling NIR light propagation in biological tissue. We included numerous human and animal tissues to validate the proposed empirical model, including an inhomogeneous adult human head model. The proposed model, which has a closed form (analytical), is first of its kind in providing accurate modeling of NIR light propagation in biological tissues.

  10. Physicochemical Properties, Biological Activity, Health Benefits, and General Limitations of Aged Black Garlic: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Hyeon Ryu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Garlic (Allium sativum has been used as a medicinal food since ancient times. However, some people are reluctant to ingest raw garlic due to its unpleasant odor and taste. Therefore, many types of garlic preparations have been developed to reduce these attributes without losing biological functions. Aged black garlic (ABG is a garlic preparation with a sweet and sour taste and no strong odor. It has recently been introduced to Asian markets as a functional food. Extensive in vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated that ABG has a variety of biological functions such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, anti-obesity, anti-diabetic, anti-allergic, cardioprotective, and hepatoprotective effects. Recent studies have compared the biological activity and function of ABG to those of raw garlic. ABG shows lower anti-inflammatory, anti-coagulation, immunomodulatory, and anti-allergic effects compared to raw garlic. This paper reviews the physicochemical properties, biological activity, health benefits, adverse effects, and general limitations of ABG.

  11. Physicochemical Properties, Biological Activity, Health Benefits, and General Limitations of Aged Black Garlic: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Ji Hyeon; Kang, Dawon

    2017-06-01

    Garlic (Allium sativum) has been used as a medicinal food since ancient times. However, some people are reluctant to ingest raw garlic due to its unpleasant odor and taste. Therefore, many types of garlic preparations have been developed to reduce these attributes without losing biological functions. Aged black garlic (ABG) is a garlic preparation with a sweet and sour taste and no strong odor. It has recently been introduced to Asian markets as a functional food. Extensive in vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated that ABG has a variety of biological functions such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, anti-obesity, anti-diabetic, anti-allergic, cardioprotective, and hepatoprotective effects. Recent studies have compared the biological activity and function of ABG to those of raw garlic. ABG shows lower anti-inflammatory, anti-coagulation, immunomodulatory, and anti-allergic effects compared to raw garlic. This paper reviews the physicochemical properties, biological activity, health benefits, adverse effects, and general limitations of ABG.

  12. Cooperative Guidance for Multimissile Salvo Attack

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Shiyu; Zhou Rui

    2008-01-01

    Cooperative guidance problems of multiple missiles are considered in this article. A cooperative guidance scheme, where coordi-nation algorithms and local guidance laws are combined together, is proposed. This scheme actually builds up a hierarchical cooperative guidance architecture, which may provide a general solution to the multimissile cooperative guidance problems. In the case of salvo attacks which require missiles to hit the target simultaneously, both centralized and distributed coordination algorithms are derived based on the impact-time-control guidance (ITCG) law. Numerical simulations are performed to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approaches.

  13. Academic beliefs and behaviors in on-campus and online General Education biology classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noll, Christopher B.

    This study examined the effect of course delivery mode on academic help-seeking beliefs and behaviors, academic self-efficacy, and the levels of individual interest in biology of students in an entry-level General Education biology course. This intersection of online education, science courses, and academic success factors merits attention because the growing impact of the expansion of online education on undergraduate success, particularly in science courses, has not been fully studied. The specific questions guiding the study examined: whether course delivery mode impacted individual interest in biology; whether course delivery mode impacted help-seeking beliefs and behaviors; and whether course delivery mode, individual interest, and academic self-efficacy predicted academic performance in the course. Participants (N = 183) were enrolled in either online or on-campus sections of a biology course at a large public university in California. Quantitative data for the study were collected through two online surveys in a pre- and post-test design and analyzed via Chi-square, t-tests, and regression analysis using SPSS. The findings of this study indicate that course delivery mode does not impact individual interest in biology. The data further indicate that academic help-seeking beliefs and behaviors vary by course delivery mode. This study also finds that while neither self-efficacy nor individual interest predict performance in the course, course delivery mode is shown to impact performance, although the reasons for this difference are unclear. The results of the study will be useful to course designers and administrators of online education as they seek to maximize the experiences of online students.

  14. Effective dielectric properties of biological cells: generalization of the spectral density function approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncharenko, Anatoliy V; Chang, Yia-Chung

    2009-07-23

    We suggest an extension of the spectral density function approach to describe the complex dielectric response of suspensions of arbitrarily shaped particles having a thin shell, in particular, biological cells. The approach is shown to give analytical results in some simple but practically important cases. In the general case, for the 3-phase systems it reduces to determination of the spectral density function for the suspension of a certain kind. Prospects and limitations of the approach, as well as practical examples, are also considered.

  15. A biological plausible Generalized Leaky Integrate-and-Fire neuron model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenzhong; Guo, Lilin; Adjouadi, Malek

    2014-01-01

    This study introduces a new Generalized Leaky Integrate-and-Fire (GLIF) neuron model. Unlike Normal Leaky Integrate-and-Fire (NLIF) models, the leaking resistor in the GLIF model equation is assumed to be variable, and an additional term would have the bias current added to the model equation in order to improve the accuracy. Adjusting the parameters defined for the leaking resistor and bias current, a GLIF model could be accurately matched to any Hodgkin-Huxley (HH) model and be able to reproduce plausible biological neuron behaviors.

  16. Support for the revocation of general safety test regulations in biologics license applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Dana M; Thorn, Jennifer M; Arch-Douglas, Katherine; Sperry, Justin B; Thompson, Bruce; Davis, Heather L; McCluskie, Michael J

    2016-05-01

    The United States Food and Drug Administration recently removed the requirement for a General Safety Test (GST) for biologics in the Code of Federal Regulations (21 CFR 610.11). The GST, as well as abnormal toxicity (European Pharmacopeia) and innocuity tests (World Health Organization), were designed to test for extraneous toxic contaminants on each product lot intended for human use. Tests require one-week observations for general health and weight following injection of specified volumes of product batches into guinea pigs and mice. At the volumes specified, dose-related toxicity may result when the product is pharmacologically active in rodents. With vaccines, required doses may be > 3 logs higher than intended human dose on a weight-adjusted basis and if an immune modulatory adjuvant is included, systemic immune hyperactivation may cause toxicity. Herein, using the CpG/alum adjuvant combination we evaluated the different test protocols and showed their unsuitability for this adjuvant combination.

  17. Learning to improve: using writing to increase critical thinking performance in general education biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quitadamo, Ian J; Kurtz, Martha J

    2007-01-01

    Increasingly, national stakeholders express concern that U.S. college graduates cannot adequately solve problems and think critically. As a set of cognitive abilities, critical thinking skills provide students with tangible academic, personal, and professional benefits that may ultimately address these concerns. As an instructional method, writing has long been perceived as a way to improve critical thinking. In the current study, the researchers compared critical thinking performance of students who experienced a laboratory writing treatment with those who experienced traditional quiz-based laboratory in a general education biology course. The effects of writing were determined within the context of multiple covariables. Results indicated that the writing group significantly improved critical thinking skills whereas the non-writing group did not. Specifically, analysis and inference skills increased significantly in the writing group but not the non-writing group. Writing students also showed greater gains in evaluation skills; however, these were not significant. In addition to writing, prior critical thinking skill and instructor significantly affected critical thinking performance, whereas other covariables such as gender, ethnicity, and age were not significant. With improved critical thinking skill, general education biology students will be better prepared to solve problems as engaged and productive citizens.

  18. International Conference on Harmonisation; guidance on Addendum to E2C Clinical Safety Data Management: Periodic Safety Update Reports for Marketed Drugs; availability. Notice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-02-05

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of a guidance entitled "Addendum to E2C Clinical Safety Data Management: Periodic Safety Update Reports for Marketed Drugs" (the ICH E2C guidance). The guidance was prepared under the auspices of the International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH). In the Federal Register of May 19, 1997 (62 FR 27470), FDA published the ICH E2C guidance, which recommends a unified standard for the format, content, and reporting frequency for postmarketing periodic safety update reports (PSURs) for drug and biological products. This guidance, an addendum to the ICH E2C guidance, provides additional information on the content and format of PSURs, including clarification of the objectives, general principles, and model for PSURs. This guidance is intended to help harmonize collection and submission of postmarketing clinical safety data.

  19. Effects of general anesthesia on stress response and inflammatory cytokines in elderly patients undergoing abdominal surgery under the guidance of Narcotrend

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Da-Yong Lin; Yan-Xin Liu; Qian Li

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the effect of general anesthesia on stress response and inflammatory cytokines in elderly patients undergoing abdominal surgery under the guidance of Narcotrend. Methods:A total of 150 elderly patients with abdominal surgery in our hospital from January 2015 to December 2015 were randomly divided into three groups: D0, D2 and E2 group, each 50 cases. With different depth of anesthesia, the stress response indexes COR, ACTH, CRP and ET-1, the inflammatory factors IL-6 and TNF-α before anesthesia, postoperative 1 h and postoperative 1 d were compared.Results:The differences of Cor, ACTH, CRP and ET-1 in the three groups D0, D2 and E2 were all statistically significant (P<0.05); the differences of Cor, ACTH and CRP at each time point were also statistically significant (P<0.05), Cor in D0 and D2 group were significantly increased postoperative 1 h and 1 d (P<0.05), ACTH in D0, D2 and E2 group were significantly increased postoperative 1 h and 1 d (P<0.05), CRP in D0 group was significantly increased postoperative 1 h and 1 d (P<0.05); The increase amplitude of Cor in D0 and D2 group at each time point was higher than in E2 group (P<0.05), the increase amplitude of ACTH in D2 group at each time point was lower than in D0 and E2 group (P<0.05), the increase amplitude of CRP in D0 group at each time point was higher than in D2 and E2 group (P<0.05), ET-1 in D0 and D2 group had no changes at each time point, while the decrease amplitude of ET-1 in E2 group at each time point was significantly higher than in D0 and D2 group (P<0.05). The differences of IL-6 and TNF-α in the three groups D0, D2 and E2 were all statistically significant (P<0.05); the differences of IL-6 and TNF-α at each time point were also statistically significant (P<0.05), IL-6 and TNF-α in D0 group were significantly increased postoperative 1 h and 1 d (P < 0.05); the increase amplitude of IL-6 and TNF-α in D0 group at each time point was higher than in D2 and E2 group (P<0

  20. The effect of graphic organizers on students' attitudes and academic performance in undergraduate general biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleveland, Lacy

    High attrition among undergraduate Science Technology Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) majors has led national and business leaders in the United States to call for both research and educational reform within the collegiate STEM classrooms. Included among suggestions for reform are ideas to improve retention of first-year students and to improve critical thinking and depth of knowledge, instead of covering large quantities of materials. Past research on graphic organizers suggest these tools assist students in learning information and facilitate conceptual and critical thinking. Despite their widespread use in high school science departments, collegiate humanities departments, and even medical schools, their use is considerably less prevalent in the undergraduate biology classroom. In addition to their lack of use, little research has been conducted on their academic benefits in the collegiate classroom. Based on national calls for improving retention among undergraduate STEM majors and research suggesting that academic success during an individual first major's related course highly determine if that individual will continue on in their intended major, the researcher of this dissertation chose to conduct research on an introductory general biology class. Using both quantitative and qualitative methods, the research in this dissertation examines the effectiveness of graphic organizers in promoting academic success and also examines their influence on student attitudes. This research is grounded in the theories of constructivism and cognitive load theory. Constructivism suggests that individuals must build their knowledge from their personal experiences, while the cognitive load theory recognizes the limited nature of one's working memory and suggests that instructional practices minimize cognitive overload. The results of this dissertation suggest that the use of graphic organizers in an undergraduate general biology classroom can increase students' academic

  1. Regulatory guidance document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-05-01

    The Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) Program Management System Manual requires preparation of the OCRWM Regulatory Guidance Document (RGD) that addresses licensing, environmental compliance, and safety and health compliance. The document provides: regulatory compliance policy; guidance to OCRWM organizational elements to ensure a consistent approach when complying with regulatory requirements; strategies to achieve policy objectives; organizational responsibilities for regulatory compliance; guidance with regard to Program compliance oversight; and guidance on the contents of a project-level Regulatory Compliance Plan. The scope of the RGD includes site suitability evaluation, licensing, environmental compliance, and safety and health compliance, in accordance with the direction provided by Section 4.6.3 of the PMS Manual. Site suitability evaluation and regulatory compliance during site characterization are significant activities, particularly with regard to the YW MSA. OCRWM`s evaluation of whether the Yucca Mountain site is suitable for repository development must precede its submittal of a license application to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Accordingly, site suitability evaluation is discussed in Chapter 4, and the general statements of policy regarding site suitability evaluation are discussed in Section 2.1. Although much of the data and analyses may initially be similar, the licensing process is discussed separately in Chapter 5. Environmental compliance is discussed in Chapter 6. Safety and Health compliance is discussed in Chapter 7.

  2. Familial hypercholesterolaemia is underdiagnosed and undertreated in the general population: guidance for clinicians to prevent coronary heart disease: Consensus Statement of the European Atherosclerosis Society

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nordestgaard, B.G.; Chapman, M.J.; Humphries, S.E.; Ginsberg, H.N.; Masana, L.; Descamps, O.S.; Wiklund, O.; Hegele, R.A.; Raal, F.J.; Defesche, J.C.; Wiegman, A.; Santos, R.D.; Watts, G.F.; Parhofer, K.G.; Hovingh, G.K.; Kovanen, P.T.; Boileau, C.; Averna, M.; Boren, J.; Bruckert, E.; Catapano, A.L.; Kuivenhoven, J.A.; Pajukanta, P.; Ray, K.; Stalenhoef, A.F.H.; Stroes, E.; Taskinen, M.R.; Tybjaerg-Hansen, A.; Consensus, P. European Athero

    2013-01-01

    AIMS: The first aim was to critically evaluate the extent to which familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH) is underdiagnosed and undertreated. The second aim was to provide guidance for screening and treatment of FH, in order to prevent coronary heart disease (CHD). METHODS AND RESULTS: Of the theoretic

  3. Familial hypercholesterolaemia is underdiagnosed and undertreated in the general population : guidance for clinicians to prevent coronary heart disease: consensus statement of the European Atherosclerosis Society

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nordestgaard, Borge G.; Chapman, M. John; Humphries, Steve E.; Ginsberg, Henry N.; Masana, Luis; Descamps, Olivier S.; Wiklund, Olov; Hegele, Robert A.; Raal, Frederick J.; Defesche, Joep C.; Wiegman, Albert; Santos, Raul D.; Watts, Gerald F.; Parhofer, Klaus G.; Hovingh, G. Kees; Kovanen, Petri T.; Boileau, Catherine; Averna, Maurizio; Boren, Jan; Bruckert, Eric; Catapano, Alberico L.; Kuivenhoven, Jan Albert; Pajukanta, Paeivi; Ray, Kausik; Stalenhoef, Anton F. H.; Stroes, Erik; Taskinen, Marja-Riitta; Tybjaerg-Hansen, Anne

    2013-01-01

    AIMS: The first aim was to critically evaluate the extent to which familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH) is underdiagnosed and undertreated. The second aim was to provide guidance for screening and treatment of FH, in order to prevent coronary heart disease (CHD). METHODS AND RESULTS: Of the theoretic

  4. Force per cross-sectional area from molecules to muscles: a general property of biological motors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rospars, Jean-Pierre; Meyer-Vernet, Nicole

    2016-07-01

    We propose to formally extend the notion of specific tension, i.e. force per cross-sectional area-classically used for muscles, to quantify forces in molecular motors exerting various biological functions. In doing so, we review and compare the maximum tensions exerted by about 265 biological motors operated by about 150 species of different taxonomic groups. The motors considered range from single molecules and motile appendages of microorganisms to whole muscles of large animals. We show that specific tensions exerted by molecular and non-molecular motors follow similar statistical distributions, with in particular, similar medians and (logarithmic) means. Over the 10(19) mass (M) range of the cell or body from which the motors are extracted, their specific tensions vary as M(α) with α not significantly different from zero. The typical specific tension found in most motors is about 200 kPa, which generalizes to individual molecular motors and microorganisms a classical property of macroscopic muscles. We propose a basic order-of-magnitude interpretation of this result.

  5. [The biomonitoring of toxic substances in biological samples of general population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibarluzea, Jesús; Aurrekoetxea, Juan José; Porta, Miquel; Sunyer, Jordi; Ballester, Ferran

    2016-11-01

    Many of the world's most developed countries have adopted biomonitoring of toxic substances in order to ascertain their levels in biological samples. These substances get into the body through different environmental exposures. Monitoring toxic substances in biological samples should allow us to ascertain their levels in vulnerable groups, assess their evolution over time, make comparisons with levels observed in other countries, identify groups at risk or with high toxic levels and promote research. The main objective of biomonitoring is to act as a policy design tool to facilitate the implementation of particular measures in various sectors: health, environmental, agricultural and livestock or food industry sectors. In Spain, information on levels of toxic substances of environmental origin is provided by specific studies on health effects from environmental sources, such as the INMA project (INfancia y Medio Ambiente [childhood and environment]). In addition, biomonitoring projects have been implemented in Catalonia and the Canary Islands, together with a national biomonitoring programme in the adult working population. However, further progress is needed to develop a system that covers the general population as well as subgroups at risk, which relies on the collaboration of the involved authorities and the participation of professionals from different sectors and citizen organisations interested in the relationship between health and the environment.

  6. Revocation of General Safety Test Regulations That Are Duplicative of Requirements in Biologics License Applications. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-02

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending the biologics regulations by removing the general safety test (GST) requirements for biological products. FDA is finalizing this action because the existing codified GST regulations are duplicative of requirements that are also specified in biologics license applications (BLAs), or are no longer necessary or appropriate to help ensure the safety, purity, and potency of licensed biological products. FDA is taking this action as part of its retrospective review of its regulations to promote improvement and innovation, in response to the Executive order.

  7. Optimum PN Guidance Law for Maneuvering Target

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Bao-cai; QI Zai-kang

    2007-01-01

    An optimum PN guidance law for maneuvering target is developed using optimal control theory. By estimating the target position and setting the cost function, the guidance law can be deduced even without knowing the missile lateral acceleration. Since the quadratic cost function can make a compromise between the miss distance andthe control constraint, the optimum guidance law obtained is more general. Also, introduced line of sight rate as the input, a practical form of this guidance law is derived. The simulation results show the effectiveness of the guidance laws.

  8. The development of a content-influenced process skills instrument for general biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Grady M.

    Since the mid 1960's, a major goal in biology instruction has been the teaching of process skills. Many process skills studies have been done and several process skills tests exist, but these studies and tests all target students in grades 7 through 12. The purpose of this study was to develop a biological process skills test for use in college level freshman biology classes. The study was conducted in two phases. Phase I was the development of the process skills test. Phase II of the study was to administer the test and determine student acquisition of process skills, and to determine whether any relationship existed between acquisition of process skills, student attitudes toward science, and student learning styles. Testing was implemented with a sample of 135 students enrolled in general biology in one southeastern university. The process skills test and the attitudes toward science test were administered as pretests; and posttests. The learning styles test was administered as a pretest. Data analysis included t-tests for dependent samples, multiple regression analyses, and an item analysis of the process skills test that concentrated on item difficulty, discriminating power, and distractor spread. Item analysis of the process skills test revealed some questions that were too difficult, and some questions that had problems with distractors. The majority of the test questions were found to be acceptable. The t-tests for dependent samples pies showed a significant increase in process skills mean test scores from pretest to posttest, and a significant improvement in student attitudes toward science mean test scores from pretest to posttest. The multiple regression analyses revealed no significant relationship between process skills, and student attitudes toward science, and student learning style. Recommendations include a review of the process skills test and revision of those items that are in question. The study should be continued with a larger sample size and

  9. Pandemic influenza guidance for corporations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this guidance document is to assist members of the American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine (ACOEM), and the organizations for which they work, in managing the impact of a pandemic of influenza or other contagious respiratory disease on patients, employees, and business. This guidance document outlines actions to take before and during an influenza pandemic on the basis of two main strategies: (1) reducing the spread of the virus within facilities; and (2) providing medical care and medical surveillance to client/patient populations. Facilities in which ACOEM members serve include government agencies and the military, universities, and corporations, which generally have multiple locations/sites and their own medical staff, with members responsible for medical care and disease control. This guidance is for organizations with outpatient occupational medicine services, to be used as appropriate. Medical centers should also use guidance that addresses additional employee and external patient care needs.1–3 The ACOEM fully supports implementation of occupational influenza programs that conform with guidance from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), with other guidance from the US Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS), and Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) regulations and guidance.

  10. Quantitative generalized ratiometric fluorescence spectroscopy for turbid media based on probe encapsulated by biologically localized embedding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Xiu-Fang; Chen, Zeng-Ping, E-mail: zpchen2002@hotmail.com; Cui, Yin-Yin; Hu, Yuan-Liang; Yu, Ru-Qin

    2016-05-19

    PEBBLE (probe encapsulated by biologically localized embedding) nanosensor encapsulating an intensity-based fluorescence indicator and an inert reference fluorescence dye inside the pores of stable matrix can be used as a generalized wavelength-ratiometric probe. However, the lack of an efficient quantitative model render the choices of inert reference dyes and intensity-based fluorescence indicators used in PEBBLEs based generalized wavelength-ratiometric probes rather limited. In this contribution, an extended quantitative fluorescence model was derived specifically for generalized wavelength-ratiometric probes based on PEBBLE technique (QFM{sub GRP}) with a view to simplify the design of PEBBLEs and hence further extend their application potentials. The effectiveness of QFM{sub GRP} has been tested on the quantitative determination of free Ca{sup 2+} in both simulated and real turbid media using a Ca{sup 2+} sensitive PEBBLE nanosensor encapsulating Rhod-2 and eosin B inside the micropores of stable polyacrylamide matrix. Experimental results demonstrated that QFM{sub GRP} could realize precise and accurate quantification of free Ca{sup 2+} in turbid samples, even though there is serious overlapping between the fluorescence excitation peaks of eosin B and Ca{sup 2+} bound Rhod-2. The average relative predictive error value of QFM{sub GRP} for the test simulated turbid samples was 5.9%, about 2–4 times lower than the corresponding values of partial least squares calibration model and the empirical ratiometric model based on the ratio of fluorescence intensities at the excitation peaks of Ca{sup 2+} bound Rhod-2 and eosin B. The recovery rates of QFM{sub GRP} for the real and spiked turbid samples varied from 93.1% to 101%, comparable to the corresponding results of atomic absorption spectrometry. - Highlights: • An advanced model was derived for generalized wavelength-ratiometric PEBBLEs. • The model can simplify the design of generalized wavelength

  11. PENGEMBANGAN TES PENGETAHUAN PRAKTIKUM BIOLOGI BERDASARKAN GRADED RESPONSE DAN GENERALIZED PARTIAL CREDIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saiful Ridlo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini  bertujuan untuk menghasilkan model tes yang cocok  dengan data. Pengembangan item pada penelitian  menggunakan pendekatan teori respons butir politomus (TRBP. Subjek ujicoba diambil dari siswa lima SMP kelas VII akhir mewakili peringkat SMP di Kota Yogyakarta sebanyak 1030 siswa. Hasil Model TRBP yang cocok dipilih berdasarkan hasil parametrisasi menggunakan PARSCALE dan deskripsi hubungan fungsional antara respons peserta tes dengan tingkat kemampuannya yang dinyatakan dalam test information curves (TIC. Penelitian ini menghasilkan 16 butir untuk bank soal dengan karakteristik masing-masing butir memiliki nilai daya beda yang tidak rendah (>0,25 skala logit dan nilai kesulitan butir pada selang -3 sampai +3 skala logit. Berdasarkan informasi yang dihasilkan, kedua macam model penskoran GRM dan GPCM cocok memodelkan penskoran TPPB yang diadministrasikan. GPCM mungkin lebih merefleksikan realitas bagaimana data dihasilkan sehingga dari TIC tampak lebih akurat menaksir kemampuan dibanding GRM. Kata Kunci: tes pengetahuan praktikum biologi, GRM, GPCM ______________________________________________________________ DEVELOPMENT OF A TEST OF BIOLOGY PRACTICUM KNOWLEDGE WITH GRADED RESPONSE  AND GENERALIZED PARTIAL CREDIT MODELS Abstract This study aims to generate information to define the polytomous item response models which are more suitable with the data. The items were developed by the polytomous item response theory approach. The tryout participants were 1030 Year VII students selected from five junior high schools in Yogyakarta City. A suitable model was selected based on the result of PARSCALE parameterization  and a description of the functional relationship between the testees’ responses and their ability levels indicated by the test information curves (TIC. The study yields 16 items for the item bank in which the discrimination index of each item is > 0.25 logit scale and the difficulty index ranges from -3 to +3 logit

  12. International governmental agencies and career guidance

    OpenAIRE

    Conger, Stuart

    1999-01-01

    The international Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), like many national and international organizations concerned with economic development believes that career guidance has an important role in promoting the development of a country's human resources. (Mapping the future: Young People and career guidance OECD, 1996). Generally the economic development agencies always recommend that career guidance services should be strengthened. Too frequently, however, they do no...

  13. Significant Guidance Issued by the Office of the Secretary of Transportation

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — A list of Significant Guidance documents, which include guidance document disseminated to regulated entities or the general public that may reasonably be anticipated...

  14. Practical Work in Biology, Chemistry and Physics at Lower Secondary and General Upper Secondary Schools in Slovenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorgo, Andrej; Spernjak, Andreja

    2012-01-01

    Syllabi in the science subjects, biology, chemistry and physics at lower and general upper secondary school are compared in the light of their underlying philosophies, goals, objectives and recognized importance in science teaching. Even though all syllabi were prepared within the same framework, great differences among syllabi concerning…

  15. Practical Work in Biology, Chemistry and Physics at Lower Secondary and General Upper Secondary Schools in Slovenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorgo, Andrej; Spernjak, Andreja

    2012-01-01

    Syllabi in the science subjects, biology, chemistry and physics at lower and general upper secondary school are compared in the light of their underlying philosophies, goals, objectives and recognized importance in science teaching. Even though all syllabi were prepared within the same framework, great differences among syllabi concerning…

  16. Two Methods of Determining Total Phenolic Content of Foods and Juices in a General, Organic, and Biological (GOB) Chemistry Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaver, Lee Alan; Leung, Sam H.; Puderbaugh, Amy; Angel, Stephen A.

    2011-01-01

    The determination of total phenolics in foods and fruit juices was used successfully as a laboratory experiment in our undergraduate general, organic, and biological (GOB) chemistry course. Two different colorimetric methods were used over three years and comparative student results indicate that a ferrous ammonium sulfate (FAS) indicator…

  17. Two Methods of Determining Total Phenolic Content of Foods and Juices in a General, Organic, and Biological (GOB) Chemistry Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaver, Lee Alan; Leung, Sam H.; Puderbaugh, Amy; Angel, Stephen A.

    2011-01-01

    The determination of total phenolics in foods and fruit juices was used successfully as a laboratory experiment in our undergraduate general, organic, and biological (GOB) chemistry course. Two different colorimetric methods were used over three years and comparative student results indicate that a ferrous ammonium sulfate (FAS) indicator…

  18. Guidance: Interim Municipal Settlement Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interim guidance and fact sheets regarding settlements involving municipalities or municipal waste under Section 122 CERCLA as amended by SARA. Interim policy sets forth the criteria by which EPA generally determines whether to exercise enforcement discretion to pursue MSW generators and transporters as PRPs.

  19. Integrating the Agents of Bioterrorism into the General Biology Curriculum: 1. A Primer on Bioterrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pommerville, Jeffrey

    2002-01-01

    Reviews the history of and describes what biology educators should know about the topic of bioterrorism. Suggests materials that can be used to communicate more effectively with students and the community and prepare a classroom discussion on bioterrorism. (KHR)

  20. Use of antimicrobial resistance information and prescribing guidance for management of urinary tract infections: survey of general practitioners in the West Midlands

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Background There is a marked variation in both antibiotic prescribing practice and urine sampling rates for diagnostic microbiology across general practices in England. To help understand factors driving this variation, we undertook a survey in 2012/13 to determine sampling protocols and antibiotic formularies used by general practitioners (GPs) for managing urinary tract infections (UTIs) in the West Midlands region of England. Method Cross-sectional survey of all eligible general practices ...

  1. On guidance and volatility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Billings, M.B.; Jennings, R.; Lev, B.

    2013-01-01

    Survey evidence suggests that managers voluntarily disclose information, particularly earnings guidance, with an aim toward dampening share price volatility. Yet, consultants and influential institutions advise against providing guidance — citing fears of litigation and market penalties associated w

  2. Graphic Turbulence Guidance

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Forecast turbulence hazards identified by the Graphical Turbulence Guidance algorithm. The Graphical Turbulence Guidance product depicts mid-level and upper-level...

  3. Graphical Turbulence Guidance - Composite

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Forecast turbulence hazards identified by the Graphical Turbulence Guidance algorithm. The Graphical Turbulence Guidance product depicts mid-level and upper-level...

  4. Autonomous Guidance, Navigation and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordano, A. J.; Mcswain, G. G.; Fernandes, S. T.

    1991-01-01

    The NASA Autonomous Guidance, Navigation and Control (GN&C) Bridging program is reviewed to demonstrate the program plan and GN&C systems for the Space Shuttle. The ascent CN&C system is described in terms of elements such as the general-purpose digital computers, sensors for the navigation subsystem, the guidance-system software, and the flight-control subsystem. Balloon-based and lidar wind soundings are used for operations assessment on the day of launch, and the guidance software is based on dedicated units for atmospheric powered flight, vacuum powered flight, and abort-specific situations. Optimization of the flight trajectories is discussed, and flight-control responses are illustrated for wavelengths of 500-6000 m. Alternate sensors are used for load relief, and adaptive GN&C systems based on alternate gain synthesis are used for systems failures.

  5. Biologic

    CERN Document Server

    Kauffman, L H

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we explore the boundary between biology and the study of formal systems (logic). In the end, we arrive at a summary formalism, a chapter in "boundary mathematics" where there are not only containers but also extainers ><, entities open to interaction and distinguishing the space that they are not. The boundary algebra of containers and extainers is to biologic what boolean algebra is to classical logic. We show how this formalism encompasses significant parts of the logic of DNA replication, the Dirac formalism for quantum mechanics, formalisms for protein folding and the basic structure of the Temperley Lieb algebra at the foundations of topological invariants of knots and links.

  6. 唇腭裂患儿全麻术后的进食时机与家长的心理疏导%Feeding timing for children with cheilopalatognathus after general anaesthesia and psychological guidance for their parents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田文艳; 马东洋; 陆皓; 郭燕; 刘传兰; 张甜

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study the methods of choosing feeding time for children with cheilopalatognathus after general anaesthesia and psychological guidance for their parents in order to help those children can safely and cozily live through their recovery period. Methods According to the judgments on the time of resuscitation of 267 children who underwent general anaesthesia, their feeding timing was accurately grasped. Early dietary and psychological guidance for their parents were carried out. Results After the general anaesthesia, the feeding time for children with cheilopalatognathus was set ahead, and parental anxieties were correctly guided, which reduced the occurrence of postoperative complications. Conclusion The correct determination of feeding timing, early feeding strategy, and psychological guidance for their parents are helpful to the comprehensive rehabilitation of the children with cheilopalatognathus after the general anaesthesia.%目的 总结唇腭裂患儿全身麻醉手术后的进食时机及家长心理疏导的方法,为患儿术后及时进食提供安全性和可行性的帮助,使患儿安全、舒适地度过手术恢复期.方法 通过对267例唇腭裂患儿在全身麻醉复苏时的判断,及时准确地掌握进食时机,实行早期饮食指导,针对家长所产生的恐惧心理予以疏导.结果 提前了唇腭裂患儿全麻术后的进食时机,并正确疏导家长的心理,减少了术后并发症的发生,缓解了家长的恐惧心理.结论 准确掌握唇腭裂患儿全身麻醉术后进食时机,实行早期进食,方法 安全、可靠,并对家长进行心理疏导,有助于患儿全面康复.

  7. Regulation of Spatiotemporal Patterns by Biological Variability: General Principles and Applications to Dictyostelium discoideum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Grace

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Spatiotemporal patterns often emerge from local interactions in a self-organizing fashion. In biology, the resulting patterns are also subject to the influence of the systematic differences between the system's constituents (biological variability. This regulation of spatiotemporal patterns by biological variability is the topic of our review. We discuss several examples of correlations between cell properties and the self-organized spatiotemporal patterns, together with their relevance for biology. Our guiding, illustrative example will be spiral waves of cAMP in a colony of Dictyostelium discoideum cells. Analogous processes take place in diverse situations (such as cardiac tissue, where spiral waves occur in potentially fatal ventricular fibrillation so a deeper understanding of this additional layer of self-organized pattern formation would be beneficial to a wide range of applications. One of the most striking differences between pattern-forming systems in physics or chemistry and those in biology is the potential importance of variability. In the former, system components are essentially identical with random fluctuations determining the details of the self-organization process and the resulting patterns. In biology, due to variability, the properties of potentially very few cells can have a driving influence on the resulting asymptotic collective state of the colony. Variability is one means of implementing a few-element control on the collective mode. Regulatory architectures, parameters of signaling cascades, and properties of structure formation processes can be "reverse-engineered" from observed spatiotemporal patterns, as different types of regulation and forms of interactions between the constituents can lead to markedly different correlations. The power of this biology-inspired view of pattern formation lies in building a bridge between two scales: the patterns as a collective state of a very large number of cells on the one hand

  8. 10 CFR 430.4 - Sources for information and guidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sources for information and guidance. 430.4 Section 430.4... Provisions § 430.4 Sources for information and guidance. (a) General. The standards listed in this paragraph... reference. These sources are given here for information and guidance. (b) IESNA. Illuminating Engineering...

  9. The General Duty To Promote Racial Equality: Guidance for Public Authorities on Their Obligations under the Race Relations (Amendment) Act 2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commission for Racial Equality, London (England).

    This publication helps British public authorities understand the implications of the Race Relations (Amendment) Act 2000 and comply with their new general duty to promote racial equality, pending introduction by the Commission for Racial Equality (CRE) of statutory codes of practice in late 2001. Section 1, "Racial Discrimination,"…

  10. [General introduction to clinical chronobiology and the therapeutic manipulation of biological rhythms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Carpio, Pere A; Corominas, August

    2004-07-10

    In humans, most clinical variables follow biological rhythms approaching to a mathematical function defined by the cosmic-climatic rhythm. Chronophysiology, chronopathology, chronopharmacology, chronotherapy and phototherapy have common elements frequently studied in a disperse manner, thus making it difficult a global understanding of clinical chronobiology as a unitary and well-characterized discipline. This review focuses on medical chronobiology, which is much more technical since it only gathers those directives of clinical chronobiology having a health-care impact on daily practice.

  11. Biologics for Ulcerative Colitis: Status of the Art and General Considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni C Actis

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background Expanding over Crohn’s disease in the Far East, and easily biased to chronicity, ulcerative colitis (UC continues to pose a challenge. Traditional remedies have been based on control of inflammation and immune suppression, effected by such classic drugs as mesalamines, corticosteroids, and thiopurines. However, these molecules have long proven unable to fully control the disease or modify disease history, leaving an alternative fully desirable. Objectives In this study, we aimed at highlighting the indications for biological therapy in UC. Methods Literature review. Results Recently, it has been demonstrated that the proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF plays a significant role in UC, opening a way for anti-TNF biologics to join the therapeutic arsenal. These monoclonal antibodies, now available as hybrids or fully human preparations, are able to attain at least 50% response rate of refractory UC. However, primary non-response amounts to 20% - 40%, and loss of response to 40%. Optimization protocols allow for biologic molecule switching (disease symptoms, antibody positive or replacement with another drug class (symptoms but no antibodies. Infectious/neoplastic /autoimmune toxicities together with high costs continue to be a problem (52%. Conclusions These results warrant further therapeutic leaps forward: personalized therapy plans based on the patiens’ genetic profile, and pre-emptive measures based on people’s education to modify diet and life habits.

  12. The structure, occurrence and biological activity of ellagitannins: a general review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Lipińska

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The present paper deals with the structure, occurrence and biological activity of ellagitannins. Ellagitannins belong to the class of hydrolysable tannins, they are esters of hexahydroxydiphenoic acid and monosaccharide (most commonly glucose. Ellagitannins are slowly hydrolysed in the digestive tract, releasing the ellagic acid molecule. Their chemical structure determines physical and chemical properties and biological activity. Ellagitannins occur naturally in some fruits (pomegranate, strawberry, blackberry, raspberry, nuts (walnuts, almonds, and seeds. They form a diverse group of bioactive polyphenols with anti-infl ammatory, anticancer, antioxidant and antimicrobial (antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral activity. Furthermore, they improve the health of blood vessels. The paper discusses the metabolism and bioavailability of ellagitannins and ellagic acid. Ellagitannins are metabolized in the gastrointestinal tract by intestinal microbiota. They are stable in the stomach and undergo neither hydrolysis to free ellagic acid nor degradation. In turn, ellagic acid can be absorbed in the stomach. This paper shows the role of cancer cell lines in the studies of ellagitannins and ellagic acid metabolism. The biological activity of these compounds is broad and thus the focus is on their antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and antitumor properties. Ellagitannins exhibit antimicrobial activity against fungi, viruses, and importantly, bacteria, including antibiotic-resistant strains such as methicillinresistant Staphylococcus aureus.

  13. The structure, occurrence and biological activity of ellagitannins: a general review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipińska, Lidia; Klewicka, Elżbieta; Sójka, Michał

    2014-01-01

    The present paper deals with the structure, occurrence and biological activity of ellagitannins. Ellagitannins belong to the class of hydrolysable tannins, they are esters of hexahydroxydiphenoic acid and monosaccharide (most commonly glucose). Ellagitannins are slowly hydrolysed in the digestive tract, releasing the ellagic acid molecule. Their chemical structure determines physical and chemical properties and biological activity. Ellagitannins occur naturally in some fruits (pomegranate, strawberry, blackberry, raspberry), nuts (walnuts, almonds), and seeds. They form a diverse group of bioactive polyphenols with anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antioxidant and antimicrobial (antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral) activity. Furthermore, they improve the health of blood vessels. The paper discusses the metabolism and bioavailability of ellagitannins and ellagic acid. Ellagitannins are metabolized in the gastrointestinal tract by intestinal microbiota. They are stable in the stomach and undergo neither hydrolysis to free ellagic acid nor degradation. In turn, ellagic acid can be absorbed in the stomach. This paper shows the role of cancer cell lines in the studies of ellagitannins and ellagic acid metabolism. The biological activity of these compounds is broad and thus the focus is on their antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and antitumor properties. Ellagitannins exhibit antimicrobial activity against fungi, viruses, and importantly, bacteria, including antibiotic-resistant strains such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

  14. 78 FR 39736 - Draft Guidance for Industry: Considerations for the Design of Early-Phase Clinical Trials of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-02

    ... Persons with access to the Internet may obtain the draft guidance at either http://www.fda.gov/Biologics... of this guidance meet the definition of ``biological product'' in section 351(i) of the Public...

  15. International Conference on Harmonisation; guidance on Q4B Evaluation and Recommendation of Pharmacopoeial Texts for use in the International Conference on Harmonisation Regions; Annex 4C on Microbiological Examination of Nonsterile Products: Acceptance Criteria for Pharmaceutical Preparations and Substances for Pharmaceutical Use General Chapter; availability. Notice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-08

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of a guidance entitled "Q4B Evaluation and Recommendation of Pharmacopoeial Texts for Use in the ICH Regions; Annex 4C: Microbiological Examination of Nonsterile Products: Acceptance Criteria for Pharmaceutical Preparations and Substances for Pharmaceutical Use General Chapter." The guidance was prepared under the auspices of the International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH). The guidance provides the results of the ICH Q4B evaluation of the Microbiological Examination of Nonsterile Products: Acceptance Criteria for Pharmaceutical Preparations and Substances for Pharmaceutical Use General Chapter harmonized text from each of the three pharmacopoeias (United States, European, and Japanese) represented by the Pharmacopoeial Discussion Group (PDG). The guidance conveys recognition of the three pharmacopoeial methods by the three ICH regulatory regions and provides specific information regarding the recognition. The guidance is intended to recognize the interchangeability between the local regional pharmacopoeias, thus avoiding redundant testing in favor of a common testing strategy in each regulatory region. In the Federal Register of February 21, 2008 (73 FR 9575), FDA made available a guidance on the Q4B process entitled "Q4B Evaluation and Recommendation of Pharmacopoeial Texts for Use in the ICH Regions."

  16. International Conference on Harmonisation; guidance on Q4B Evaluation and Recommendation of Pharmacopoeial Texts for Use in the International Conference on Harmonisation Regions; Annex 4B on Microbiological Examination of nonsterile products: Tests for Specified Microorganisms General Chapter; availability. Notice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-08

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of a guidance entitled "Q4B Evaluation and Recommendation of Pharmacopoeial Texts for Use in the ICH Regions; Annex 4B: Microbiological Examination of Nonsterile Products: Tests for Specified Microorganisms General Chapter." The guidance was prepared under the auspices of the International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH). The guidance provides the results of the ICH Q4B evaluation of the Microbiological Examination of Nonsterile Products: Tests for Specified Microorganisms General Chapter harmonized text from each of the three pharmacopoeias (United States, European, and Japanese) represented by the Pharmacopoeial Discussion Group (PDG). The guidance conveys recognition of the three pharmacopoeial methods by the three ICH regulatory regions and provides specific information regarding the recognition. The guidance is intended to recognize the interchangeability between the local regional pharmacopoeias, thus avoiding redundant testing in favor of a common testing strategy in each regulatory region. In the Federal Register of February 21, 2008 (73 FR 9575), FDA made available a guidance on the Q4B process entitled "Q4B Evaluation and Recommendation of Pharmacopoeial Texts for Use in the ICH Regions."

  17. Use of antimicrobial resistance information and prescribing guidance for management of urinary tract infections: survey of general practitioners in the West Midlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ironmonger, Dean; Edeghere, Obaghe; Gossain, Savita; Hawkey, Peter M

    2016-05-24

    There is a marked variation in both antibiotic prescribing practice and urine sampling rates for diagnostic microbiology across general practices in England. To help understand factors driving this variation, we undertook a survey in 2012/13 to determine sampling protocols and antibiotic formularies used by general practitioners (GPs) for managing urinary tract infections (UTIs) in the West Midlands region of England. Cross-sectional survey of all eligible general practices in the West Midlands region of England undertaken in November 2012. GPs were invited to complete an online survey questionnaire to gather information on policies used within the practice for urine sampling for microbiological examination, and the source of antibiotic formularies used to guide treatment of UTIs. The questionnaire also gathered information on how they would manage five hypothetical clinical scenarios encountered in the community. The response rate was 11.3 % (409/3635 GPs), equivalent to a practice response rate of 26 % (248/950). Only 50 % of GPs reported having a practice policy for urine sampling. Although there was good agreement from GPs regarding collecting specimens in scenarios symbolising treatment failure (98 %), UTI in an adult male (98 %) and asymptomatic UTI in pregnancy (97 %), there was variation in GPs requesting a specimen for the scenarios involving a suspected uncomplicated urinary tract infection (UTI) and an asymptomatic catheterised elderly patient; with 40 and 38 % respectively indicating they would collect a specimen for microbiological examination. Standardised evidence based clinical management policies and antibiotic formularies for GPs should be readily available. This will promote the rational use of diagnostic microbiology services, improve antimicrobial stewardship and aid the interpretation of ongoing antimicrobial resistance surveillance.

  18. Integrating Biology into the General Chemistry Laboratory: Fluorometric Analysis of Chlorophyll "a"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesolowski, Meredith C.

    2014-01-01

    A laboratory experiment that introduces fluorometry of chlorophyll "a" at the general chemistry level is described. The use of thin-layer chromatography to isolate chlorophyll "a" from spirulina and leaf matter enables quantification of small amounts of chlorophyll "a" via fluorometry. Student results were reasonably…

  19. A general protocol for the generation of Nanobodies for structural biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pardon, Els; Laeremans, Toon; Triest, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    There is growing interest in using antibodies as auxiliary tools to crystallize proteins. Here we describe a general protocol for the generation of Nanobodies to be used as crystallization chaperones for the structural investigation of diverse conformational states of flexible (membrane) proteins...

  20. Integrating Biology into the General Chemistry Laboratory: Fluorometric Analysis of Chlorophyll "a"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesolowski, Meredith C.

    2014-01-01

    A laboratory experiment that introduces fluorometry of chlorophyll "a" at the general chemistry level is described. The use of thin-layer chromatography to isolate chlorophyll "a" from spirulina and leaf matter enables quantification of small amounts of chlorophyll "a" via fluorometry. Student results were reasonably…

  1. Evaluation of Immunoassays and General Biological Indicator Tests for Field Screening of Bacillus anthracis and Ricin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartholomew, Rachel A.; Ozanich, Richard M.; Arce, Jennifer S.; Engelmann, Heather E.; Heredia-Langner, Alejandro; Hofstad, Beth A.; Hutchison, Janine R.; Jarman, Kristin; Melville, Angela M.; Victry, Kristin D.; Bruckner-Lea, Cynthia J.

    2017-02-01

    The goal of this testing was to evaluate the ability of currently available commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) biological indicator tests and immunoassays to detect Bacillus anthracis (Ba) spores and ricin. In general, immunoassays provide more specific identification of biological threats as compared to indicator tests [3]. Many of these detection products are widely used by first responders and other end users. In most cases, performance data for these instruments are supplied directly from the manufacturer, but have not been verified by an external, independent assessment [1]. Our test plan modules included assessments of inclusivity (ability to generate true positive results), commonly encountered hoax powders (which can cause potential interferences or false positives), and estimation of limit of detection (LOD) (sensitivity) testing.

  2. Guidance for performing preliminary assessments under CERCLA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-09-01

    EPA headquarters and a national site assessment workgroup produced this guidance for Regional, State, and contractor staff who manage or perform preliminary assessments (PAs). EPA has focused this guidance on the types of sites and site conditions most commonly encountered. The PA approach described in this guidance is generally applicable to a wide variety of sites. However, because of the variability among sites, the amount of information available, and the level of investigative effort required, it is not possible to provide guidance that is equally applicable to all sites. PA investigators should recognize this and be aware that variation from this guidance may be necessary for some sites, particularly for PAs performed at Federal facilities, PAs conducted under EPA`s Environmental Priorities Initiative (EPI), and PAs at sites that have previously been extensively investigated by EPA or others. The purpose of this guidance is to provide instructions for conducting a PA and reporting results. This guidance discusses the information required to evaluate a site and how to obtain it, how to score a site, and reporting requirements. This document also provides guidelines and instruction on PA evaluation, scoring, and the use of standard PA scoresheets. The overall goal of this guidance is to assist PA investigators in conducting high-quality assessments that result in correct site screening or further action recommendations on a nationally consistent basis.

  3. Systematic review and meta-analysis of studies evaluating diagnostic test accuracy: A practical review for clinical researchers-Part II. general guidance and tips

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyung Won; Choi, Sang Hyun; Huh, Jimi; Park, Seong Ho [Dept. of Radiology, and Research Institute of Radiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, June Young [Dept. of Biostatistics, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    Meta-analysis of diagnostic test accuracy studies differs from the usual meta-analysis of therapeutic/interventional studies in that, it is required to simultaneously analyze a pair of two outcome measures such as sensitivity and specificity, instead of a single outcome. Since sensitivity and specificity are generally inversely correlated and could be affected by a threshold effect, more sophisticated statistical methods are required for the meta-analysis of diagnostic test accuracy. Hierarchical models including the bivariate model and the hierarchical summary receiver operating characteristic model are increasingly being accepted as standard methods for meta-analysis of diagnostic test accuracy studies. We provide a conceptual review of statistical methods currently used and recommended for meta-analysis of diagnostic test accuracy studies. This article could serve as a methodological reference for those who perform systematic review and meta-analysis of diagnostic test accuracy studies.

  4. Assessing Current Instructional Practices in General Biology One (BIO1010) and Arguing for a Model-Centered Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manthey, Seth

    This collected papers dissertation focused on the argument for the need to adapt and develop a model-centered General Biology I course through the analyses of current instructional practices at a large, public, Hispanic-serving university. This dissertation included a comparison of General Biology I course sections taught in two differing formats, one is a traditional lecture with face-to-face meetings and the other is an online instruction setting. The comparison of these sections was accomplished through the use of a conceptual inventory, student attitude survey, drop-fail-withdraw (DFW) rates, and Social Network Analysis. This comparison found that there was no detectible significant difference between course type for both the conceptual understanding and formation of student-to-student networks. It was also found that there was a significant difference between course type when looking at students' attitudes towards Biology and success in the two course types. Additionally in a second study the project used a phenomoenographic analysis of student interviews that explored the students' use of scientific models when asked about plant cells and animal cells. It was found that during the analysis of students' ideas that students predominantly used a single model function. The cell types of focus in the second study were two models that were identified, in a third study, through a coded analysis of faculty interviews and textbook analysis. These models are viewed as essential for students to possess an understanding of upon completion of General Biology I. The model-based course that this study argued for is based on a curricular framework initially developed for use in introductory physics courses. University Modeling Instruction courses in physics (UMI-P) have been linked to improved student conceptual understanding positive attitudinal shifts, and decreased DFW rates. UMI, however, has not been expanded for implementation within the other science disciplines

  5. Knowledge management for systems biology a general and visually driven framework applied to translational medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Dieter; Kalus, Wenzel; Wolff, Martin; Kalko, Susana G; Roca, Josep; Marin de Mas, Igor; Turan, Nil; Cascante, Marta; Falciani, Francesco; Hernandez, Miguel; Villà-Freixa, Jordi; Losko, Sascha

    2011-03-05

    To enhance our understanding of complex biological systems like diseases we need to put all of the available data into context and use this to detect relations, pattern and rules which allow predictive hypotheses to be defined. Life science has become a data rich science with information about the behaviour of millions of entities like genes, chemical compounds, diseases, cell types and organs, which are organised in many different databases and/or spread throughout the literature. Existing knowledge such as genotype-phenotype relations or signal transduction pathways must be semantically integrated and dynamically organised into structured networks that are connected with clinical and experimental data. Different approaches to this challenge exist but so far none has proven entirely satisfactory. To address this challenge we previously developed a generic knowledge management framework, BioXM™, which allows the dynamic, graphic generation of domain specific knowledge representation models based on specific objects and their relations supporting annotations and ontologies. Here we demonstrate the utility of BioXM for knowledge management in systems biology as part of the EU FP6 BioBridge project on translational approaches to chronic diseases. From clinical and experimental data, text-mining results and public databases we generate a chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) knowledge base and demonstrate its use by mining specific molecular networks together with integrated clinical and experimental data. We generate the first semantically integrated COPD specific public knowledge base and find that for the integration of clinical and experimental data with pre-existing knowledge the configuration based set-up enabled by BioXM reduced implementation time and effort for the knowledge base compared to similar systems implemented as classical software development projects. The knowledgebase enables the retrieval of sub-networks including protein

  6. Knowledge management for systems biology a general and visually driven framework applied to translational medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Falciani Francesco

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To enhance our understanding of complex biological systems like diseases we need to put all of the available data into context and use this to detect relations, pattern and rules which allow predictive hypotheses to be defined. Life science has become a data rich science with information about the behaviour of millions of entities like genes, chemical compounds, diseases, cell types and organs, which are organised in many different databases and/or spread throughout the literature. Existing knowledge such as genotype - phenotype relations or signal transduction pathways must be semantically integrated and dynamically organised into structured networks that are connected with clinical and experimental data. Different approaches to this challenge exist but so far none has proven entirely satisfactory. Results To address this challenge we previously developed a generic knowledge management framework, BioXM™, which allows the dynamic, graphic generation of domain specific knowledge representation models based on specific objects and their relations supporting annotations and ontologies. Here we demonstrate the utility of BioXM for knowledge management in systems biology as part of the EU FP6 BioBridge project on translational approaches to chronic diseases. From clinical and experimental data, text-mining results and public databases we generate a chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD knowledge base and demonstrate its use by mining specific molecular networks together with integrated clinical and experimental data. Conclusions We generate the first semantically integrated COPD specific public knowledge base and find that for the integration of clinical and experimental data with pre-existing knowledge the configuration based set-up enabled by BioXM reduced implementation time and effort for the knowledge base compared to similar systems implemented as classical software development projects. The knowledgebase enables the

  7. Career guidance in communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Rie

    The aim of this paper is to inspire practitioners and professionals to leave their offices to bring career guidance into communities that might not identify with career guidance in the first instance. By making the effort to engage with communities, practitioners may bring about a critical change...

  8. Corporate information management guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-08-01

    At the request of the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Information Management (IM) Council, IM representatives from nearly all Headquarters (HQ) organizations have been meeting over the past year as the Corporate Guidance Group (CGG) to develop useful and sound corporate information management (IM) guidance. The ability of the Department`s IM community to develop such unified guidance continues to be critical to the success of future Departmental IM planning processes and the establishment of a well-coordinated IM environment between Headquarters and field organizations. This report, with 26 specific corporate IM guidance items documented and unanimously agreed to, as well as 12 items recommended for further development and 3 items deferred for future consideration, represents a highly successful effort by the IM community. The effort has proven that the diverse DOE organizations can put aside individual preferences and work together towards a common and mutually beneficial goal. In examining most areas and issues associated with information management in the Department, they have developed specific, far-reaching, and useful guidance. The IM representatives recommend that the documented guidance items provided in this report and approved by the DOE IM Council be followed by all IM organizations. The representatives also strongly recommend that the guidance process developed by the CGG be the single process for developing corporate IM guidance.

  9. Biological effects of ultrasound: development of safety guidelines. Part II: general review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyborg, W L

    2001-03-01

    In the 1920s, the availability of piezoelectric materials and electronic devices made it possible to produce ultrasound (US) in water at high amplitudes, so that it could be detected after propagation through large distances. Laboratory experiments with this new mechanical form of radiation showed that it was capable of producing an astonishing variety of physical, chemical and biologic effects. In this review, the early findings on bioeffects are discussed, especially those from experiments done in the first few decades, as well as the concepts employed in explaining them. Some recent findings are discussed also, noting how the old and the new are related. In the first few decades, bioeffects research was motivated partly by curiosity, and partly by the wish to increase the effectiveness and ensure the safety of therapeutic US. Beginning in the 1970s, the motivation has come also from the need for safety guidelines relevant to diagnostic US. Instrumentation was developed for measuring acoustic pressure in the fields of pulsed and focused US employed, and standards were established for specifying the fields of commercial equipment. Critical levels of US quantities were determined from laboratory experiments, together with biophysical analysis, for bioeffects produced by thermal and nonthermal mechanisms. These are the basis for safety advice and guidelines recommended or being considered by national, international, professional and governmental organizations.

  10. Shuttle entry guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harpold, J. C.; Graves, C. A., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    This paper describes the design of the entry guidance for the Space Shuttle Orbiter. This guidance provides the steering commands for trajectory control from initial penetration of the earth's atmosphere until the terminal area guidance is activated at an earth-relative speed of 2500 fps. At this point, the Orbiter is at a distance of about 50 nmi from the runway threshold, and at an altitude of about 80,000 ft. The entry guidance design is based on an analytic solution of the equations of motion defining the drag acceleration profile that meets the terminal criteria of the entry flight while maintaining the flight within systems and operational constraints. Guidance commands, which are based on a control law that ensures damping of oscillatory type trajectory motion, are computed to steer the Orbiter to this drag acceleration profile.

  11. Shuttle entry guidance revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mease, Kenneth D.; Kremer, Jean-Paul

    1992-08-01

    The Shuttle entry guidance concept is reviewed which is aimed at tracking a reference drag trajectory that leads to the specified range and velocity for the initiation of the terminal energy management phase. An approximate method of constructing the domain of attraction is proposed, and its validity is ascertained by simulation. An alternative guidance law yielding global exponential tracking in the absence of control saturation is derived using a feedback linearization method. It is noted that the alternative guidance law does not improve on the stability and performance of the current guidance law, for the operating domain and control capability of the Shuttle. It is suggested that the new guidance law with a larger operating domain and increased lift-to-drag capability would be superior.

  12. Shuttle entry guidance revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mease, Kenneth D.; Kremer, Jean-Paul

    1992-01-01

    The Shuttle entry guidance concept is reviewed which is aimed at tracking a reference drag trajectory that leads to the specified range and velocity for the initiation of the terminal energy management phase. An approximate method of constructing the domain of attraction is proposed, and its validity is ascertained by simulation. An alternative guidance law yielding global exponential tracking in the absence of control saturation is derived using a feedback linearization method. It is noted that the alternative guidance law does not improve on the stability and performance of the current guidance law, for the operating domain and control capability of the Shuttle. It is suggested that the new guidance law with a larger operating domain and increased lift-to-drag capability would be superior.

  13. Calpain Activity Is Generally Elevated during Transformation but Has Oncogene-Specific Biological Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.O. Carragher

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Several oncogene and tumor-suppressor gene products are known substrates for the calpain family of cysteine proteases, and calpain is required for transformation by v-src and tumor invasion. Thus, we have now addressed whether calpain is generally associated with transformation and how calpain contributes to oncogene function. Our results demonstrate that calpain activity is enhanced upon transformation induced by the v-Src, v-Jun, v-Myc, k-Ras, and v-Fos oncoproteins. Furthermore, elevated calpain activity commonly promotes focal adhesion remodelling, disruption of actin cytoskeleton, morphological transformation, and cell migration, although proteolysis of target substrates (such as focal adhesion kinase, talin, and spectrin is differently specified by individual oncoproteins. Interestingly, v-Fos differs from other common oncoproteins in not requiring calpain activity for actin/adhesion remodelling or migration of v-Fos transformed cells. However, anchorage-independent growth of all transformed cells is sensitive to calpain inhibition. In addition, elevated calpain activity contributes to oncogene-induced apoptosis associated with transformation by v-Myc. Taken together, these studies demonstrate that calpain activity is necessary for full cellular transformation induced by common oncoproteins, but has distinct roles in oncogenic events induced by individual transforming proteins. Thus, targeting calpain activity may represent a useful general strategy for interfering with activated protooncogenes in cancer cells.

  14. [The biological clock in vertebrate embryogenesis as a mechanism of general control over the developmental organism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorodilov, Iu N

    2010-01-01

    The problem of understanding the role of the time factor in embryogenesis is still at the conceptual stage. At the same time, a number of rhythmic processes described in the embryogenesis of animals point to the involvement of a biological clock in this period of ontogenesis. Most of them (biochemical, biophysical, cytological) have been identified during the process of cleavage and have a duration equal to that of a single cleavage division tau0. The current paper considers mainly the development of salmon fish embryos, which, in comparison with the widely used models (Danio rerio, Orysias latipes), have some extra advantages: they are about twice as big at similar stages and develop 30-40 times slower. The most pronounced and rhythmical process in vertebrates is somitogenesis. The work presents a series of fundamental facts in relation to the temporal and spatial aspects of somitogenesis: 1) the formation of each new somite occurs within a constant time tauS; 2) this time is controlled to a high degree of accuracy; 3) the size of new somites (l(S)) along the anterioposterior axis is constant; 4) the temporal factor, in contrast to the spatial, plays the primary role during morphogenesis of somites. The rhythms tau0 and taoS in different species are equal or are multiples of each other, an indication of their common origin. A high degree of synchronism in embryo development from the start of cleavage to the end ofsomitogenesis is revealed. This proves the existence of constant temporal control of their development during most of the period of embryogenesis. It is proposed that the endogenic rhythms under discussion are responsible for the coordination and integration of multilevel processes in embryogenesis, compensating for the lack of a formed nervous system during this period.

  15. The Portrayal of Industrial Melanism in American College General Biology Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulford, Janice Marie; Rudge, David Wÿss

    2016-08-01

    The phenomenon of industrial melanism (IM) became widely acknowledged as a well-documented example of natural selection largely as a result of H.B.D. Kettlewell's pioneering research on the subject in the early 1950s. It was quickly picked up by American biology textbooks starting in the early 1960s and became ubiquitous throughout the 1970s, 1980s and 1990s. While recent research on the phenomenon broadly supports Kettlewell's explanation of IM in the peppered moth, which in turn has strengthened this example of natural selection, textbook IM entries have actually declined in recent years in favor of other examples. In a previous paper, we drew attention to the pivotal role visual aspects played in the introduction of IM into (and its subsequent removal from) textbook accounts. The present article continues this investigation by analyzing textual passages on industrial melanism within a stratified random sample of textbooks from the 1960s to the 2000s. The fact that this example of natural selection was included by multiple publishers independently, in a short period of time, makes it uniquely qualified for a textbook study of this kind. The purpose of the present project was to determine whether these textbooks contain what has come to be known as the standard peppered moth story. Three complete series were also inspected for change across time. Our analysis focused on (1) the amount of text devoted to industrial melanism; (2) what specific science content elements were present; and (3) what, if any, nature of science (NOS) aspects were included. The study documents an increase in the amount of text devoted to industrial melanism over the decades. In spite of this increase, only modest changes in science content and NOS aspects were found.

  16. A general protocol for the generation of Nanobodies for structural biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardon, Els; Laeremans, Toon; Triest, Sarah; Rasmussen, Søren G. F.; Wohlkönig, Alexandre; Ruf, Armin; Muyldermans, Serge; Hol, Wim G. J.; Kobilka, Brian K.; Steyaert, Jan

    2015-01-01

    There is growing interest in using antibodies as auxiliary proteins to crystallize proteins. Here, we describe a general protocol for the generation of Nanobodies to be used as crystallization chaperones for the structural investigation of diverse conformational states of flexible (membrane) proteins and complexes thereof. Our technology has the competitive advantage over other recombinant crystallization chaperones in that we fully exploit the natural humoral response against native antigens. Accordingly, we provide detailed protocols for the immunization with native proteins and for the selection by phage display of in vivo matured Nanobodies that bind conformational epitopes of functional proteins. Three representative examples illustrate that the outlined procedures are robust, enabling to solve the structures of the most challenging proteins by Nanobody-assisted X-ray crystallography in a time span of 6 to 12 months. PMID:24577359

  17. A general framework of persistence strategies for biological systems helps explain domains of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liudmila S Yafremava

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The nature and cause of the division of organisms in superkingdoms is not fully understood. Assuming that environment shapes physiology, here we construct a novel theoretical framework that helps identify general patterns of organism persistence. This framework is based on Jacob von Uexküll’s organism-centric view of the environment and James G. Miller’s view of organisms as matter-energy-information processing molecular machines. Three concepts describe an organism's environmental niche: scope, umwelt and gap. Scope denotes the entirety of environmental events and conditions to which the organism is exposed during its lifetime. Umwelt encompasses an organism's perception of these events. The gap is the organism's blind spot, the scope that is not covered by umwelt. These concepts bring organisms of different complexity to a common ecological denominator. Ecological and physiological data suggest organisms persist using three strategies: flexibility, robustness and economy. All organisms use umwelt information to flexibly adapt to environmental change. They implement robustness against environmental perturbations within the gap generally through redundancy and reliability of internal constituents. Both flexibility and robustness improve survival. However, they also incur metabolic matter-energy processing costs, which otherwise could have been used for growth and reproduction. Lineages evolve unique tradeoff solutions among strategies in the space of what we call a persistence triangle. Protein domain architecture and other evidence support the preferential use of flexibility and robustness properties. Archaea and Bacteria gravitate toward the triangle’s economy vertex, with Archaea biased toward robustness. Eukarya trade economy for survivability. Protista occupy a saddle manifold separating akaryotes from multicellular organisms. Plants and the more flexible Fungi share an economic stratum, and Metazoa are locked in a positive feedback

  18. A General Framework of Persistence Strategies for Biological Systems Helps Explain Domains of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yafremava, Liudmila S.; Wielgos, Monica; Thomas, Suravi; Nasir, Arshan; Wang, Minglei; Mittenthal, Jay E.; Caetano-Anollés, Gustavo

    2012-01-01

    The nature and cause of the division of organisms in superkingdoms is not fully understood. Assuming that environment shapes physiology, here we construct a novel theoretical framework that helps identify general patterns of organism persistence. This framework is based on Jacob von Uexküll’s organism-centric view of the environment and James G. Miller’s view of organisms as matter-energy-information processing molecular machines. Three concepts describe an organism’s environmental niche: scope, umwelt, and gap. Scope denotes the entirety of environmental events and conditions to which the organism is exposed during its lifetime. Umwelt encompasses an organism’s perception of these events. The gap is the organism’s blind spot, the scope that is not covered by umwelt. These concepts bring organisms of different complexity to a common ecological denominator. Ecological and physiological data suggest organisms persist using three strategies: flexibility, robustness, and economy. All organisms use umwelt information to flexibly adapt to environmental change. They implement robustness against environmental perturbations within the gap generally through redundancy and reliability of internal constituents. Both flexibility and robustness improve survival. However, they also incur metabolic matter-energy processing costs, which otherwise could have been used for growth and reproduction. Lineages evolve unique tradeoff solutions among strategies in the space of what we call “a persistence triangle.” Protein domain architecture and other evidence support the preferential use of flexibility and robustness properties. Archaea and Bacteria gravitate toward the triangle’s economy vertex, with Archaea biased toward robustness. Eukarya trade economy for survivability. Protista occupy a saddle manifold separating akaryotes from multicellular organisms. Plants and the more flexible Fungi share an economic stratum, and Metazoa are locked in a positive feedback loop

  19. Teleautonomous guidance for mobile robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borenstein, J.; Koren, Y.

    1990-01-01

    Teleautonomous guidance (TG), a technique for the remote guidance of fast mobile robots, has been developed and implemented. With TG, the mobile robot follows the general direction prescribed by an operator. However, if the robot encounters an obstacle, it autonomously avoids collision with that obstacle while trying to match the prescribed direction as closely as possible. This type of shared control is completely transparent and transfers control between teleoperation and autonomous obstacle avoidance gradually. TG allows the operator to steer vehicles and robots at high speeds and in cluttered environments, even without visual contact. TG is based on the virtual force field (VFF) method, which was developed earlier for autonomous obstacle avoidance. The VFF method is especially suited to the accommodation of inaccurate sensor data (such as that produced by ultrasonic sensors) and sensor fusion, and allows the mobile robot to travel quickly without stopping for obstacles.

  20. Fluorescent sensors for specific RNA: a general paradigm using chemistry and combinatorial biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparano, Brian A; Koide, Kazunori

    2007-04-18

    Here, we describe a new paradigm for the development of small molecule-based RNA sensors. We prepared a series of potential PET (photoinduced electron transfer) sensors on the basis of 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein (DCF) fluorophore conjugated with two aniline derivatives as electron donors (quenchers). NMR and fluorescent spectroscopic analyses of these DCF derivatives revealed the correlation between the conformations, the PET, and the fluorescent intensities of these DCF derivatives, enabling us to select a sensor candidate. RNA aptamers were raised against the aniline-based quencher via in vitro selection (SELEX). One of these aptamers enhanced the fluorescence intensity of the DCF-aniline conjugate in a concentration-dependent manner. To demonstrate the power and generality of this approach, additional in vitro selection was performed and aptamers from this selection were found to have similar activities. These results show that one can develop fluorescence-inducing reporter RNA and morph it into remotely related sequences without prior structural insight into RNA-ligand binding.

  1. Increasing URM Undergraduate Student Success through Assessment-Driven Interventions: A Multiyear Study Using Freshman-Level General Biology as a Model System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmichael, Mary C.; St. Clair, Candace; Edwards, Andrea M.; Barrett, Peter; McFerrin, Harris; Davenport, Ian; Awad, Mohamed; Kundu, Anup; Ireland, Shubha Kale

    2016-01-01

    Xavier University of Louisiana leads the nation in awarding BS degrees in the biological sciences to African-American students. In this multiyear study with ~5500 participants, data-driven interventions were adopted to improve student academic performance in a freshman-level general biology course. The three hour-long exams were common and…

  2. Guidance on Port Biological Baseline Surveys (PBBS)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Awad, A.; Haag, F.; Anil, A.C.; Abdulla, A.

    habitats in and around the port at different seasons. (Total and Viable bacteria, Pathogens, Phytoplankton (Micro, Nano and Pico), Zooplankton, fouling organisms, Mobile epifauna and Fish, Dinoflagellate cysts, Benthic fauna (Meio and Macro... and experiments (e.g. viability, toxicity, ecosystem manipulations, etc.) (Total and Viable bacteria, Pathogens, Virus, Phytoplankton (Micro, Nano and Pico), Zooplankton, fouling organisms, Mobile epifauna and Fish, Dinoflagellate cysts, Benthic fauna...

  3. General RMP Guidance - Appendix C: Technical Assistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contacts for resources available to facilities in complying with 40 CFR part 68 (risk management program) include Office of Emergency Prevention Preparedness and Response, EPCRA/Superfund/RCRA/CAA Call Center, and the Center for Chemical Process Safety.

  4. Laser Guidance Analysis Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This facility, which provides for real time, closed loop evaluation of semi-active laser guidance hardware, has and continues to be instrumental in the development...

  5. CAREER GUIDANCE EXPERIENCE ABROAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey N. Tolstoguzov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to describe the experience of careeroriented activities carried out with students of schools in developed and developing countries. Career Guidance in Russia, despite the vast experience of its implementation, is experiencing serious difficulties. In this regard, it is important to take into account the international experience career-oriented activities, such as in the developed countries of North America and the European Union as well as in several Asian countries with rapidly growing economies and a large demographic potential, taking into account the best variants for the Russian education system. Methods. The experience of career-oriented work undertaken with pupils of the USA, Canada, Israel, France, UK, Germany, Denmark, Sweden, Japan, Singapore, China and India is shown on the basis of the comparative analysis of different publications and information sources. The author has made an attempt to generalize the principles of psycho-pedagogical and administrative assistance in professional self-determination of senior pupils abroad. Scientific novelty. The approaches to career-oriented activities in countries with different levels of economic development are compared for the first time. Some principles are revealed. Firstly, the higher the income level per capita in the country, the greater attention is given to vocational guidance. The politics in the developed countries is based on interests of the individual: children’s acquaintance with the world of professions begins already at younger school and the moment of definitive selfdetermination is postponed till the end of their senior stage of education; the possibility of direction change of professional preparation in case of detection of discrepancy of qualities of the pupil to originally selected profile is provided. Career-oriented activity in developing countries, on the contrary, is rigidly coordinated to requirements of economy and a labour market

  6. Synthetic biology and occupational risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, John; Murashov, Vladimir; Schulte, Paul

    2017-03-01

    Synthetic biology is an emerging interdisciplinary field of biotechnology that involves applying the principles of engineering and chemical design to biological systems. Biosafety professionals have done an excellent job in addressing research laboratory safety as synthetic biology and gene editing have emerged from the larger field of biotechnology. Despite these efforts, risks posed by synthetic biology are of increasing concern as research procedures scale up to industrial processes in the larger bioeconomy. A greater number and variety of workers will be exposed to commercial synthetic biology risks in the future, including risks to a variety of workers from the use of lentiviral vectors as gene transfer devices. There is a need to review and enhance current protection measures in the field of synthetic biology, whether in experimental laboratories where new advances are being researched, in health care settings where treatments using viral vectors as gene delivery systems are increasingly being used, or in the industrial bioeconomy. Enhanced worker protection measures should include increased injury and illness surveillance of the synthetic biology workforce; proactive risk assessment and management of synthetic biology products; research on the relative effectiveness of extrinsic and intrinsic biocontainment methods; specific safety guidance for synthetic biology industrial processes; determination of appropriate medical mitigation measures for lentiviral vector exposure incidents; and greater awareness and involvement in synthetic biology safety by the general occupational safety and health community as well as by government occupational safety and health research and regulatory agencies.

  7. My view on occupation guidance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Occupation instruction needs to the support of theories,in the case of the occupation guidance theory is not very developed in our country,It has very important sense that absorbing and drawing lessons from the advanced occupation guidance theory,and targeting guidance to occupation guidance work,.

  8. What Contribution Can the Humanities and Social Sciences Make to Career Guidance in General and Technological Lycées? The Case of Economics in Year One of Lycée in France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Richit

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In accordance with the 2008 Resolution of the Council of the European Union on “Better integrating lifelong guidance into lifelong learning strategies”, the reform of French lycées has included career guidance among its priorities. This reform, which was implemented in 2010, includes lessons on exploring economics for all students in year one (seconde of the French three-year lycée. Will this new feature help to promote career guidance?This research aims to show that academic and vocational guidance is socially controversial, and that the two programmes on economics, “Sciences économiques et sociales - SES” (social and economic sciences and “Principes fondamentaux de l’économie et de la gestion - PFEG” (basic principles of economics and management, provide knowledge and skills from the humanities and social sciences that are useful for the guidance of year one students, even if the teachers involved do not feel directly involved in assisting with careerguidance.As career guidance is not a discipline, will efficient teachers be those who are able to distinguish between “knowledge that” and “knowledge for”?

  9. Anticipatory guidance through DVD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, Sandra; McMahon, Pamela M; Calongne, Laurinda; Steele-Moses, Susan K

    2014-03-01

    The major purpose of the study was to determine if a 5-minute DVD is an effective method for communicating anticipatory guidance to parents at their child's 4-month well-child visit. A total of 84 caregivers were randomly assigned to receive anticipatory guidance through standard care (written anticipatory guidance handout and free talk) or DVD (DVD format + standard care). Participants completed a brief questionnaire immediately before and after their visit. As anticipated, knowledge scores improved significantly from pre-test to post-test. There was also a significant interaction between format used for anticipatory guidance and time. Specifically, there was greater improvement in knowledge over time for parents in the DVD group as compared with the standard care group. Additionally, the mean knowledge level of those in the DVD group as compared with those in the standard care group trended toward significance. Finally, visit length was shortened by nearly 3 minutes in the DVD group, and close to 100% of all respondents, regardless of anticipatory guidance format, indicated that they were very satisfied with their visit and amount of information learned.

  10. Downstream of guidance receptors: entering the baroque period of axon guidance signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmucker, Dietmar

    2003-09-25

    The Roundabout ("Robo") family of transmembrane proteins are the receptors and mediators of the repellent axon guidance signal Slit. However, the molecular mechanisms by which Robo signaling leads to growth cone or neuron repulsion are still poorly understood. A study by Fan et al. in this issue of Neuron expands the repertoire of Robo pathway components and stimulates a new look at axon guidance signaling in general.

  11. 75 FR 1492 - Commission Guidance Regarding Independent Public Accountant Engagements Performed Pursuant to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-11

    ... COMMISSION 17 CFR Parts 276 Commission Guidance Regarding Independent Public Accountant Engagements Performed... publishing interpretive guidance for independent public accountants in connection with the adoption of...: General questions about this release should be referred to Bryan J. Morris, Assistant Chief...

  12. guidance and behaviour management in early childhood

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Elizabeth

    development and the general behaviour manifestation of children under the childcare ... given by care givers to infants in the pre-primary school classes). Guidance means an .... aids, such as films, recorders, video, TV., children play; ... Simulation and games: These are teaching techniques in which real life situations and ...

  13. Museum Personnel's Opinions on Mobile Guidance Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Hirokazu; Sekiguchi, Hiromi; Yabumoto, Yoshitaka

    2007-01-01

    While opinions from the general public are certainly important, opinions from the museum staff are also necessary to improve user service systems. this article introduces two groups of museum staff who have evaluated the usability of mobile guidance systems in Japanese museums. One group is the research team who used the PDA system in the National…

  14. 33 CFR 385.5 - Guidance memoranda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Guidance memoranda. 385.5 Section 385.5 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE PROGRAMMATIC REGULATIONS FOR THE COMPREHENSIVE EVERGLADES RESTORATION PLAN General...

  15. Vocational Guidance for Everyone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, John L.

    1974-01-01

    Describes some of the current problems of vocational guidance, summarizes relevant knowledge and theory in the field, and offers some practical plans for a coordinated, theoretically compatible group of vocational programs, services, and experiences for a high school. (Author/JM)

  16. PIV Logon Configuration Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Glen Alan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-03-04

    This document details the configurations and enhancements implemented to support the usage of federal Personal Identity Verification (PIV) Card for logon on unclassified networks. The guidance is a reference implementation of the configurations and enhancements deployed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) by Network and Infrastructure Engineering – Core Services (NIE-CS).

  17. Career guidance on the move

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Rie

    2013-01-01

    This article is about how the notion of place can be used in an analysis of career guidance practices and their development. It is about how a focus on the context of career guidance can develop an awareness of the place where guidance is practiced and support the development of career guidance...... in new places. In this article I introduce an analytical perspective on place; I give the example of the guidance café a practice development that took place into serious consideration because it was an attempt to develop career guidance practice through relocating it....

  18. Serving size guidance for consumers: is it effective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulkner, G P; Pourshahidi, L K; Wallace, J M W; Kerr, M A; McCrorie, T A; Livingstone, M B E

    2012-11-01

    Larger portion sizes (PS) may be inciting over-eating and contributing to obesity rates. Currently, there is a paucity of data on the effectiveness of serving size (SS) guidance. The aims of the present review are to evaluate SS guidance; the understanding, usability and acceptability of such guidance, its impact on consumers and potential barriers to its uptake. A sample of worldwide SS guidance schemes (n 87) were identified using targeted and untargeted searches, overall these were found to communicate various inconsistent and often conflicting messages about PS selection. The available data suggest that consumers have difficulty in understanding terms such as 'portion size' and 'serving size', as these tend to be used interchangeably. In addition, discrepancies between recommended SS and those present on food labels add to the confusion. Consumers generally understand and visualise SS best when expressed in terms of household measures rather than actual weights. Only a limited number of studies have examined the direct impact of SS guidance on consumer behaviour with equivocal results. Although consumers recognise that guidance on selecting SS would be helpful, they are often unwilling to act on such guidance. The challenge of achieving consumer adherence to SS guidance is formidable due to several barriers including chronic exposure to larger PS, distorted consumption norms and perceptions, the habit of 'cleaning one's plate' and language barriers for ethnic minorities. In conclusion, the impact of SS guidance on consumers merits further investigation to ensure that future guidance resonates with consumers by being more understandable, usable and acceptable.

  19. Islamic Guidance for Drug Addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Supriyanto

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Islamic Guidance is social rehabilitation program for Drug Addiction (resident. The goal of this research to know the Islamic guidance for resident at the Center for Rehabilitation of the National Narcotics Agency Lido Bogor. The methodology in this research is qualitative descriptive, with a sample two religious counselor. Can be concluded that Islamic guidance is implemented with the classical format, group format, and individual formats. The goal of the Islamic Guidance to develop religious mentally.

  20. Islamic Guidance for Drug Addiction

    OpenAIRE

    Agus Supriyanto

    2016-01-01

    Islamic Guidance is social rehabilitation program for Drug Addiction (resident). The goal of this research to know the Islamic guidance for resident at the Center for Rehabilitation of the National Narcotics Agency Lido Bogor. The methodology in this research is qualitative descriptive, with a sample two religious counselor. Can be concluded that Islamic guidance is implemented with the classical format, group format, and individual formats. The goal of the Islamic Guidance to develop religio...

  1. Safety of magnetic fusion facilities: Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    This document provides guidance for the implementation of the requirements identified in DOE-STD-6002-96, Safety of Magnetic Fusion Facilities: Requirements. This guidance is intended for the managers, designers, operators, and other personnel with safety responsibilities for facilities designated as magnetic fusion facilities. While the requirements in DOE-STD-6002-96 are generally applicable to a wide range of fusion facilities, this Standard, DOE-STD-6003-96, is concerned mainly with the implementation of those requirements in large facilities such as the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). Using a risk-based prioritization, the concepts presented here may also be applied to other magnetic fusion facilities. This Standard is oriented toward regulation in the Department of Energy (DOE) environment as opposed to regulation by other regulatory agencies. As the need for guidance involving other types of fusion facilities or other regulatory environments emerges, additional guidance volumes should be prepared. The concepts, processes, and recommendations set forth here are for guidance only. They will contribute to safety at magnetic fusion facilities.

  2. Design, Development, and Psychometric Analysis of a General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry Topic Inventory Based on the Identified Main Chemistry Topics Relevant to Nursing Clinical Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Corina E.

    2013-01-01

    This two-stage study focused on the undergraduate nursing course that covers topics in general, organic, and biological (GOB) chemistry. In the first stage, the central objective was to identify the main concepts of GOB chemistry relevant to the clinical practice of nursing. The collection of data was based on open-ended interviews of both nursing…

  3. PROFESSIONAL GUIDANCE: EXPERIENCE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Pinto de Almeida Bizarria

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an account of a career guidance with a group of five teenagers ( 16 and 19 , students of pre-university preparatory course offered by a public university in the state of Ceará . The work group dynamics was from a privileged form of performance by allowing a greater enrichment of the discussions , considering the heterogeneity and diversity of the group . To address relevant issues in career guidance based on the theory Socio-Historical , a roadmap of action process was constructed from three axes . Each axis has worked in two sessions that match a date. The first axis called " meaning of choice," worked on thematic choice process . With regard to the axis " World of Work " was discussed idealizations and representations about the professions , the labor market and the vestibular / ESMS . Emotional links with the professions , skills and ideas on skills and information professions : Finally , the " self " axis, which contains the themes was developed .

  4. European Universities' Guidance on Research Integrity and Misconduct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubert Bonn, Noémie; Godecharle, Simon; Dierickx, Kris

    2017-02-01

    Research integrity is imperative to good science. Nonetheless, many countries and institutions develop their own integrity guidance, thereby risking incompatibilities with guidance of collaborating institutions. We retrieved guidance for academic integrity and misconduct of 18 universities from 10 European countries and investigated accessibility, general content, principles endorsed, and definitions of misconduct. Accessibility and content differ substantially between institutions. There are general trends of common principles of integrity and definitions of misconduct, yet differences remain. Parallel with previous research, we distinguish different approaches in integrity guidance; one emphasizes broad values of integrity, and the other details negative behaviors of misconduct. We propose that a balance between both approaches is necessary to preserve trust, meaning, and realism of guidance on research integrity.

  5. Defense Infrastructure: DOD Needs Clearer Guidance on Notifying Congress of Privately Financed Construction Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    DEFENSE INFRASTRUCTURE DOD Needs Clearer Guidance on Notifying Congress of Privately Financed Construction Projects...Guidance on Notifying Congress of Privately Financed Construction Projects What GAO Found The Department of Defense (DOD) has issued Instruction...have generally followed the reporting guidance for major commissary surcharge and nonappropriated fund construction projects (those with a

  6. PSD Increment Consumption Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  7. Inflammatory/infectious cutaneous side effects of biological drugs in patients with psoriasis: a general review with personal data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rongioletti, F; Burlando, M; Parodi, A

    2014-06-01

    In recent years, the use of biologic drugs has greatly changed the therapy of psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis, but they have some adverse effects. In particular, skin lesions induced by anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and anti-interleukin (IL) 12/23 drug (ustekinumab) have been reported with an increased incidence, highlighting the importance of the skin as a major target of the side effects of these drugs. There is a wide spectrum of skin lesions of different morphology and etiology that includes skin lesions directly related to drug administration, the development of cutaneous immune-mediated conditions and cutaneous infections. The aim of this review is to revisit the literature data on inflammatory/infectious skin adverse effects of biologics both anti-TNF-α inhibitors and anti-IL 12/23 antagonists and to report and update our personal data on inflammatory/infectious side effects in patients with psoriasis/psoriatic arthritis treated with biologics.

  8. Guidance of Nonlinear Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, George

    1997-01-01

    The paper describes a method for guiding a dynamic system through a given set of points. The paradigm is a fully automatic aircraft subject to air traffic control (ATC). The ATC provides a sequence of way points through which the aircraft trajectory must pass. The way points typically specify time, position, and velocity. The guidance problem is to synthesize a system state trajectory which satisfies both the ATC and aircraft constraints. Complications arise because the controlled process is multi-dimensional, multi-axis, nonlinear, highly coupled, and the state space is not flat. In addition, there is a multitude of possible operating modes, which may number in the hundreds. Each such mode defines a distinct state space model of the process by specifying the state space coordinatization, the partition of the controls into active controls and configuration controls, and the output map. Furthermore, mode transitions must be smooth. The guidance algorithm is based on the inversion of the pure feedback approximations, which is followed by iterative corrections for the effects of zero dynamics. The paper describes the structure and modules of the algorithm, and the performance is illustrated by several example aircraft maneuvers.

  9. Virtual Ultrasound Guidance for Inexperienced Operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caine, Timothy; Martin, David

    2012-01-01

    Medical ultrasound or echocardiographic studies are highly operator-dependent and generally require lengthy training and internship to perfect. To obtain quality echocardiographic images in remote environments, such as on-orbit, remote guidance of studies has been employed. This technique involves minimal training for the user, coupled with remote guidance from an expert. When real-time communication or expert guidance is not available, a more autonomous system of guiding an inexperienced operator through an ultrasound study is needed. One example would be missions beyond low Earth orbit in which the time delay inherent with communication will make remote guidance impractical. The Virtual Ultrasound Guidance system is a combination of hardware and software. The hardware portion includes, but is not limited to, video glasses that allow hands-free, full-screen viewing. The glasses also allow the operator a substantial field of view below the glasses to view and operate the ultrasound system. The software is a comprehensive video program designed to guide an inexperienced operator through a detailed ultrasound or echocardiographic study without extensive training or guidance from the ground. The program contains a detailed description using video and audio to demonstrate equipment controls, ergonomics of scanning, study protocol, and scanning guidance, including recovery from sub-optimal images. The components used in the initial validation of the system include an Apple iPod Classic third-generation as the video source, and Myvue video glasses. Initially, the program prompts the operator to power-up the ultrasound and position the patient. The operator would put on the video glasses and attach them to the video source. After turning on both devices and the ultrasound system, the audio-video guidance would then instruct on patient positioning and scanning techniques. A detailed scanning protocol follows with descriptions and reference video of each view along with

  10. Environmental Technology Verification: Supplement to Test/QA Plan for Biological and Aerosol Testing of General Ventilation Air Cleaners; Bioaerosol Inactivation Efficiency by HVAC In-Duct Ultraviolet Light Air Cleaners

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Air Pollution Control Technology Verification Center has selected general ventilation air cleaners as a technology area. The Generic Verification Protocol for Biological and Aerosol Testing of General Ventilation Air Cleaners is on the Environmental Technology Verification we...

  11. Orbital maneuvering vehicle guidance, navigation and control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, W. G.; Finnell, W., III

    1985-01-01

    This paper describes the Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV) concept and its intended role. It recaps the past activities leading up to the current concept and summarizes the present status and plans. The various types of missions and operating modes required by the OMV are described as the basis of the guidance, navigation and control (GN&C) requirements. The general GN&C problem is outlined with potential hardware solutions.

  12. The lichens: general considerations. Role as pollution biological indicators; Les lichens: generalites. Role comme bioindicateurs de la pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivaux, E

    1998-03-25

    After having recalled the morphology and the different classification of lichens, the author presents the main lichenous substances, in particular the depsides and the depsidones. A detailed study on the role of lichens as pollution biological indicators is given. (O.M.)

  13. Biological computation

    CERN Document Server

    Lamm, Ehud

    2011-01-01

    Introduction and Biological BackgroundBiological ComputationThe Influence of Biology on Mathematics-Historical ExamplesBiological IntroductionModels and Simulations Cellular Automata Biological BackgroundThe Game of Life General Definition of Cellular Automata One-Dimensional AutomataExamples of Cellular AutomataComparison with a Continuous Mathematical Model Computational UniversalitySelf-Replication Pseudo Code Evolutionary ComputationEvolutionary Biology and Evolutionary ComputationGenetic AlgorithmsExample ApplicationsAnalysis of the Behavior of Genetic AlgorithmsLamarckian Evolution Genet

  14. Modeling Nitrous Oxide Production during Biological Nitrogen Removal via Nitrification and Denitrification: Extensions to the General ASM Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ni, Bing-Jie; Ruscalleda, Maël; Pellicer i Nàcher, Carles

    2011-01-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) can be formed during biological nitrogen (N) removal processes. In this work, a mathematical model is developed that describes N2O production and consumption during activated sludge nitrification and denitrification. The well-known ASM process models are extended to capture N2O...... dynamics during both nitrification and denitrification in biological N removal. Six additional processes and three additional reactants, all involved in known biochemical reactions, have been added. The validity and applicability of the model is demonstrated by comparing simulations with experimental data...... on N2O production from four different mixed culture nitrification and denitrification reactor study reports. Modeling results confirm that hydroxylamine oxidation by ammonium oxidizers (AOB) occurs 10 times slower when NO2– participates as final electron acceptor compared to the oxic pathway. Among...

  15. Modeling nitrous oxide production during biological nitrogen removal via nitrification and denitrification: extensions to the general ASM models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Bing-Jie; Ruscalleda, Maël; Pellicer-Nàcher, Carles; Smets, Barth F

    2011-09-15

    Nitrous oxide (N(2)O) can be formed during biological nitrogen (N) removal processes. In this work, a mathematical model is developed that describes N(2)O production and consumption during activated sludge nitrification and denitrification. The well-known ASM process models are extended to capture N(2)O dynamics during both nitrification and denitrification in biological N removal. Six additional processes and three additional reactants, all involved in known biochemical reactions, have been added. The validity and applicability of the model is demonstrated by comparing simulations with experimental data on N(2)O production from four different mixed culture nitrification and denitrification reactor study reports. Modeling results confirm that hydroxylamine oxidation by ammonium oxidizers (AOB) occurs 10 times slower when NO(2)(-) participates as final electron acceptor compared to the oxic pathway. Among the four denitrification steps, the last one (N(2)O reduction to N(2)) seems to be inhibited first when O(2) is present. Overall, N(2)O production can account for 0.1-25% of the consumed N in different nitrification and denitrification systems, which can be well simulated by the proposed model. In conclusion, we provide a modeling structure, which adequately captures N(2)O dynamics in autotrophic nitrification and heterotrophic denitrification driven biological N removal processes and which can form the basis for ongoing refinements.

  16. Third-party biller compliance guidance emphasizes risk awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saner, R J

    1999-03-01

    The voluntary compliance guidance for third-party billing companies released by the HHS Office of Inspector General (OIG) in December 1998, like the OIG's previously released guidance directed at hospitals, home health agencies, and clinical laboratories, identifies seven minimum elements for an effective corporate compliance program: written compliance policies, designation of a compliance officer, ongoing training, open lines of communication, guidelines to ensure the enforcement of compliance standards, internal monitoring and auditing of compliance activity, and procedures to respond to and correct errors. Three areas of concern for third-party billing companies are emphasized in the new guidance document: compliance risk, claims documentation, and disclosure of suspected misconduct or fraud.

  17. Guidance at the educational marketplace

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lystbæk, Christian Tang

    in educational policies and institutions. As educational systems have expanded and, further, have been restructured with the expansion of choice opportunities since the 1980s, guidance has become prioritized as a form of counseling or coaching, which can support students. Thus, guidance has become an important...

  18. Guidance in the Secondary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, V. Jurist Lional

    2010-01-01

    Secondary School Students face a lot of problems in their body as well as in mind due to puberty that tends to adolescence stage. Adolescence has peculiar characters of their own. They need proper Guidance and Counselling to tackle their own problems. Guidance is described as a counselling service to assist the individual in achieving self…

  19. Innovative Approaches to Career Guidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Andrew R.

    A key part of a broad-based approach to career education in Australian schools is vocational/career guidance. Various vocational guidance programs have been developed for specific groups in Australian society, including work experience, caravans, and micrographics technology for the handicapped; pre-employment courses and a family education center…

  20. Final OSWER Vapor Intrusion Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is preparing to finalize its guidance on assessing and addressing vapor intrusion, which is defined as migration of volatile constituents from contaminated media in the subsurface (soil or groundwater) into the indoor environment. In November 2002, EPA issued draft guidance o...

  1. Interstitial guidance of cancer invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gritsenko, Pavlo G; Ilina, Olga; Friedl, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Cancer cell invasion into healthy tissues develops preferentially along pre-existing tracks of least resistance, followed by secondary tissue remodelling and destruction. The tissue scaffolds supporting or preventing guidance of invasion vary in structure and molecular composition between organs. In the brain, the guidance is provided by myelinated axons, astrocyte processes, and blood vessels which are used as invasion routes by glioma cells. In the human breast, containing interstitial collagen-rich connective tissue, disseminating breast cancer cells preferentially invade along bundled collagen fibrils and the surface of adipocytes. In both invasion types, physical guidance prompted by interfaces and space is complemented by molecular guidance. Generic mechanisms shared by most, if not all, tissues include (i) guidance by integrins towards fibrillar interstitial collagen and/or laminins and type IV collagen in basement membranes decorating vessels and adipocytes, and, likely, CD44 engaging with hyaluronan; (ii) haptotactic guidance by chemokines and growth factors; and likely (iii) physical pushing mechanisms. Tissue-specific, resticted guidance cues include ECM proteins with restricted expression (tenascins, lecticans), cell-cell interfaces, and newly secreted matrix molecules decorating ECM fibres (laminin-332, thrombospondin-1, osteopontin, periostin). We here review physical and molecular guidance mechanisms in interstitial tissue and brain parenchyma and explore shared principles and organ-specific differences, and their implications for experimental model design and therapeutic targeting of tumour cell invasion.

  2. Restructuring Guidance and Counseling Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Beverly A.; Daly, Timothy P.

    1993-01-01

    Briefly reviews counseling profession's call for revitalization and transformation in school counseling and guidance programs. Summarizes one school system's efforts during late 1980s and early 1990s to transform its program from services and crisis orientation into a comprehensive developmental model based on Myrick's developmental guidance and…

  3. Key performance indicators for the assessment of pediatric pharmacotherapeutic guidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Jeffrey S; Patel, Dimple; Jayaraman, Bhuvana; Narayan, Mahesh; Zuppa, Athena

    2008-07-01

    Given the paucity of actual guidance provided for managing pediatric drug therapy, prescribing caregivers must be able to draw on the limited published information in pediatrics and/or guidance provided in adults with some account for expected pediatric response. Guidance for managing drug therapy in children is clearly desirable. Our objectives were to construct key performance indicators (KPIs) for pediatric pharmacotherapy guidance to identify drugs where pharmacotherapy guidance would be most beneficial. A pilot survey to assess variation in caregiver appreciation for pediatric dosing guidance has also been constructed to provide a complementary subjective assessment. Three KPI categories, drug utilization (based on hospital admission and billing data collected from 2001 through 2006), medical need, and guidance outcome value along with a KPI composite score have been proposed. Low scores are favored with respect to prioritization for pharmacotherapy guidance. The pilot survey consisted of 15 questions to assess 1) physician knowledge regarding dosing guidance, 2) attitudes toward dose modification and patient individualization, 3) the accessibility, ease of use and appropriateness of existing data stores, and 4) frequency of dosing modification, consultation of dosing compendiums and estimate of success rate in dosing guidance. Pilot results suggest that dosing guidance is generally viewed as important and that the existing resources are insufficient to guide recommendations for all drugs. While the majority of respondents check more than one resource less than 25% of the time, at least 25% of the respondents check more than one resource 25-50% of the time. The majority viewed the relevance of dosing guidance very important to the management of drug therapy. The questionnaire is being extended to the primary care centers, the Kids First Network and specialty care centers. Results will guide the development of decision support systems (DSS) that provide patient

  4. RH Packaging Program Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2008-01-12

    The purpose of this program guidance document is to provide the technical requirements for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of the RH-TRU 72-B Waste Shipping Package (also known as the "RH-TRU 72-B cask") and directly related components. This document complies with the requirements as specified in the RH-TRU 72-B Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificate of Compliance (C of C) 9212. If there is a conflict between this document and the SARP and/or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of C states: "...each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application." It further states: "...each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application." Chapter 9.0 of the SARP tasks the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Management and Operating (M&O) Contractor with assuring the packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) §71.8, "Deliberate Misconduct." Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. The CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required.In accordance with 10 CFR Part 71, "Packaging and Transportation of Radioactive Material," certificate holders, packaging users, and contractors or subcontractors who use, design, fabricate, test, maintain, or modify the packaging shall post copies of (1) 10 CFR Part 21, "Reporting of Defects and Noncompliance," regulations, (2) Section 206 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, and (3) NRC Form 3, Notice to Employees. These documents must be posted in a

  5. RH Packaging Program Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2006-11-07

    The purpose of this program guidance document is to provide the technical requirements for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of the RH-TRU 72-B Waste Shipping Package and directly related components. This document complies with the requirements as specified in the RH-TRU 72-B Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificate of Compliance (C of C) 9212. If there is a conflict between this document and the SARP and/or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of C states: "...each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application." It further states: "...each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application." Chapter 9.0 of the SARP tasks the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Management and Operating (M&O) Contractor with assuring the packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) §71.8, "Deliberate Misconduct." Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required. In accordance with 10 CFR Part 71, "Packaging and Transportation of Radioactive Material," certificate holders, packaging users, and contractors or subcontractors who use, design, fabricate, test, maintain, or modify the packaging shall post copies of (1) 10 CFR Part 21, "Reporting of Defects and Noncompliance," regulations, (2) Section 206 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, and (3) NRC Form 3, Notice to Employees. These documents must be posted in a conspicuous location where the activities subject to

  6. [Bacillus thuringiensis: general aspects. An approach to its use in the biological control of lepidopteran insects behaving as agricultural pests].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauka, Diego H; Benintende, Graciela B

    2008-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis is the most widely applied biological pesticide used to control insects that affect agriculture and forestry and which transmit human and animal pathogens. During the past decades B. thuringiensis has been the subject of intensive research. These efforts have yielded considerable data about the relationships between the structure, mechanism of action, and genetics of their pesticidal crystal proteins. As a result, a coherent picture of these relationships has emerged. Other studies have focused on the ecological role of the B. thuringiensis crystal proteins and their performance in agricultural and other natural settings. With this knowledge as background and the help of biotechnological tools, researchers are now reporting promising results in the development of more useful toxins, recombinant bacteria, new formulations and transgenic plants that express pesticidal activity, in order to assure that these products are utilized with the best efficiency and benefit. This article is an attempt to integrate all these recent developments in the study of B. thuringiensis into a context of biological control of lepidopteran insect pest of agricultural importance.

  7. 75 FR 9228 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Non-Inferiority Clinical Trials; Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    ...The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of a draft guidance for industry entitled ``Non- Inferiority Clinical Trials.'' This draft guidance provides sponsors and review staff in the Center for Drug Evaluation and Research (CDER) and the Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER) with the agency's interpretation of the underlying principles involved in the......

  8. RH Packaging Program Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington TRU Solutions, LLC

    2003-08-25

    The purpose of this program guidance document is to provide technical requirements for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of the RH-TRU 72-B Waste Shipping Package and directly related components. This document complies with the requirements as specified in the RH-TRU 72-B Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificate of Compliance (C of C) 9212. If there is a conflict between this document and the SARP and/or C of C, the SARP and/or C of C shall govern. The C of C states: ''...each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, ''Operating Procedures,'' of the application.'' It further states: ''...each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, ''Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application.'' Chapter 9.0 of the SARP tasks the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Management and Operating (M&O) contractor with assuring the packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC approved, users need to be familiar with 10 CFR {section} 71.11, ''Deliberate Misconduct.'' Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required. This document details the instructions to be followed to operate, maintain, and test the RH-TRU 72-B packaging. This Program Guidance standardizes instructions for all users. Users shall follow these instructions. Following these instructions assures that operations are safe and meet the requirements of the SARP. This document is available on the Internet at: ttp://www.ws/library/t2omi/t2omi.htm. Users are responsible for ensuring they are using the current

  9. Células madre: generalidades, eventos biológicos y moleculares Stem cells: general aspects, biological and molecular events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica María Cortés Márquez

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Las autorrenovación y la diferenciación son características de las células madre que varían entre los diferentes tipos celulares según el tejido en el que se encuentren y el microambiente que las rodee. En ambos procesos intervienen inhibidores del ciclo celular, genes implicados en rearreglos cromosómicos, proteínas del desarrollo esencial y vías de señalización específicas. La autorrenovación está regulada por diversos mecanismos, entre los cuales se destacan las vías Wnt, Notch y Hedgehog, y los factores BMI-1, p16Ink4a, ARF, NANOG, OCT3/4, SOX2, HOXB4 y sus páralogos. Los adelantos en el conocimiento de la biología de las células madre y de los mecanismos moleculares que regulan la autorrenovación y la diferenciación han convertido a estas células en una importante promesa para la investigación básica y aplicada. Self-renewal capacity and differentiation are features of stem cells that vary among the different cellular types according to the tissue in which they reside and the surrounding microenvironment. Cellular cycle inhibitors, genes implied in chromosomal rearrangements, essential development proteins and specific signaling pathways intervene in these processes. Self-renewal is regulated by different mechanisms, the most important of which are the Wnt, Notch and Hedgehog pathways, and the factors BMI-1, p16Ink4a, ARF, NANOG, OCT3/4, SOX2, HOXB4 and their paralogs. Advances in the knowledge of stem cells biology and of the molecular mechanisms that influence their selfrenewal and differentiation have made these cells an important promise for both basic and appliedresearch.

  10. Nitric oxide and redox regulation in the liver: Part I. General considerations and redox biology in hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diesen, Diana L; Kuo, Paul C

    2010-07-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) are created in normal hepatocytes and are critical for normal physiologic processes, including oxidative respiration, growth, regeneration, apoptosis, and microsomal defense. When the levels of oxidation products exceed the capacity of normal antioxidant systems, oxidative stress occurs. This type of stress, in the form of ROS and RNS, can be damaging to all liver cells, including hepatocytes, Kupffer cells, stellate cells, and endothelial cells, through induction of inflammation, ischemia, fibrosis, necrosis, apoptosis, or through malignant transformation by damaging lipids, proteins, and/or DNA. In Part I of this review, we will discuss basic redox biology in the liver, including a review of ROS, RNS, and antioxidants, with a focus on nitric oxide as a common source of RNS. We will then review the evidence for oxidative stress as a mechanism of liver injury in hepatitis (alcoholic, viral, nonalcoholic). In Part II of this review, we will review oxidative stress in common pathophysiologic conditions, including ischemia/reperfusion injury, fibrosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, iron overload, Wilson's disease, sepsis, and acetaminophen overdose. Finally, biomarkers, proteomic, and antioxidant therapies will be discussed as areas for future therapeutic interventions.

  11. CDM Convective Forecast Planning guidance

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The CDM Convective Forecast Planning (CCFP) guidance product provides a foreast of en-route aviation convective hazards. The forecasts are updated every 2 hours and...

  12. Response to work activity guidance

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This memorandum is concerning the request from the FY95 Platte-Kansas Rivers Ecosystem Work Activity Guidance for refuge managers to review the purposes of refuges...

  13. TSCA Inventory Policy and Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    A list of numerous policy statements and guidance documents on how to identify certain chemical substances for the purpose of assigning unique and unambiguous descriptions tor each substance listed on the Inventory.

  14. NRC ARDC Guidance Support Status Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holbrook, Mark R. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2017-07-01

    This report provides a summary that reflects the progress and status of proposed regulatory design criteria for advanced non-light water reactor (LWR) designs in accordance with the Level 3 milestone M3AT-17IN2001013 in work package AT-17IN200101. These criteria have been designated as advanced reactor design criteria (ARDC) and they provide guidance to future applicants for addressing the general design criteria (GDC) that are currently applied specifically to LWR designs. This report provides a summary of Phase 2 activities related to the various tasks associated with ARDC development and the subsequent development of ARDC regulatory guidance for sodium fast reactor (SFR) and modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) designs. Status Report Organization: Section 2 discusses the origin of the GDC and their application to LWRs. Section 3 addresses the objective of this initiative and how it benefits the advanced non-LWR reactor vendors. Section 4 discusses the scope and structure of the initiative. Section 5 provides background on the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) ARDC team’s original development of the proposed ARDC that were submitted to the NRC for consideration. Section 6 provides a summary of recent ARDC Phase 2 activities. Appendices A through E document the DOE ARDC team’s public comments on various sections of the NRC’s draft regulatory guide DG–1330, “Guidance for Developing Principal Design Criteria for Non-Light Water Reactors.”

  15. Guidance Systems of Fighter Aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.N. Rajanikanth

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Mission performance of a fighter aircraft is crucial for survival and strike capabilities in todays' aerial warfare scenario. The guidance functions of such an aircraft play a vital role inmeeting the requirements and accomplishing the mission success. This paper presents the requirements of precision guidance for various missions of a fighter aircraft. The concept ofguidance system as a pilot-in-loop system is pivotal in understanding and designing such a system. Methodologies of designing such a system are described.

  16. Guidance Systems of Fighter Aircraft

    OpenAIRE

    K.N. Rajanikanth; Rao, R S; P. S. Subramanyam; Ajai Vohra

    2005-01-01

    Mission performance of a fighter aircraft is crucial for survival and strike capabilities in todays' aerial warfare scenario. The guidance functions of such an aircraft play a vital role inmeeting the requirements and accomplishing the mission success. This paper presents the requirements of precision guidance for various missions of a fighter aircraft. The concept ofguidance system as a pilot-in-loop system is pivotal in understanding and designing such a system. Methodologies of designing s...

  17. Guidance molecules in lung cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Nasarre, Patrick; Potiron, Vincent; Drabkin, Harry; Roche, Joëlle

    2010-01-01

    Guidance molecules were first described in the nervous system to control axon outgrowth direction. They are also widely expressed outside the nervous system where they control cell migration, tissue development and establishment of the vascular network. In addition, they are involved in cancer development, tumor angiogenesis and metastasis. This review is primarily focused on their functions in lung cancer and their involvement in lung development is also presented. Five guidance molecule fam...

  18. International Conference on Harmonisation; guidance on Q9 Quality Risk Management; availability. Notice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-02

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of a guidance entitled "Q9 Quality Risk Management."' The guidance was prepared under the auspices of the International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH). The guidance provides principles and examples of tools for quality risk management that can be applied to all aspects of pharmaceutical quality throughout the lifecycle of drug substances, drug products, and biological and biotechnological products. The guidance is intended to enable regulators and industry to make more effective and consistent risk-based decisions.

  19. International Conference on Harmonisation; guidance on electronic common technical document specification; availability. Notice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-04-02

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of a guidance entitled "M2 eCTD: Electronic Common Technical Document Specification." The guidance was prepared under the auspices of the International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH). The guidance defines the means for industry-to-agency transfer of regulatory information that will facilitate the creation, review, life cycle management, and archiving of the electronic submission. The guidance is intended to assist industry in transferring electronically their marketing applications for human drug and biological products to a regulatory authority.

  20. Optimal sliding guidance algorithm for Mars powered descent phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibben, Daniel R.; Furfaro, Roberto

    2016-02-01

    Landing on large planetary bodies (e.g. Mars) with pinpoint accuracy presents a set of new challenges that must be addressed. One such challenge is the development of new guidance algorithms that exhibit a higher degree of robustness and flexibility. In this paper, the Zero-Effort-Miss/Zero-Effort-Velocity (ZEM/ZEV) optimal sliding guidance (OSG) scheme is applied to the Mars powered descent phase. This guidance algorithm has been specifically designed to combine techniques from both optimal and sliding control theories to generate an acceleration command based purely on the current estimated spacecraft state and desired final target state. Consequently, OSG yields closed-loop trajectories that do not need a reference trajectory. The guidance algorithm has its roots in the generalized ZEM/ZEV feedback guidance and its mathematical equations are naturally derived by defining a non-linear sliding surface as a function of the terms Zero-Effort-Miss and Zero-Effort-Velocity. With the addition of the sliding mode and using Lyapunov theory for non-autonomous systems, one can formally prove that the developed OSG law is globally finite-time stable to unknown but bounded perturbations. Here, the focus is on comparing the generalized ZEM/ZEV feedback guidance with the OSG law to explicitly demonstrate the benefits of the sliding mode augmentation. Results show that the sliding guidance provides a more robust solution in off-nominal scenarios while providing similar fuel consumption when compared to the non-sliding guidance command. Further, a Monte Carlo analysis is performed to examine the performance of the OSG law under perturbed conditions.

  1. Mathematical biology

    CERN Document Server

    Murray, James D

    1993-01-01

    The book is a textbook (with many exercises) giving an in-depth account of the practical use of mathematical modelling in the biomedical sciences. The mathematical level required is generally not high and the emphasis is on what is required to solve the real biological problem. The subject matter is drawn, e.g. from population biology, reaction kinetics, biological oscillators and switches, Belousov-Zhabotinskii reaction, reaction-diffusion theory, biological wave phenomena, central pattern generators, neural models, spread of epidemics, mechanochemical theory of biological pattern formation and importance in evolution. Most of the models are based on real biological problems and the predictions and explanations offered as a direct result of mathematical analysis of the models are important aspects of the book. The aim is to provide a thorough training in practical mathematical biology and to show how exciting and novel mathematical challenges arise from a genuine interdisciplinary involvement with the biosci...

  2. Guidance of magnetic space tug

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabacher, Emilien; Lizy-Destrez, Stéphanie; Alazard, Daniel; Ankersen, Finn; Profizi, Alexandre

    2017-07-01

    Magnetic tugging of a target satellite without thrust capacity can be interesting in various contexts, as for example End-Of-Life management, or to complete launchers capabilities. The aim is to gradually modify the orbit of the target by constantly exerting on it a magnetic force. To do so, the chaser is assumed equipped with a steerable magnetic dipole, able to create both forces and torques on the magnetic torque rods carried by the target. The chaser is also supposed to carry electric thrusters, creating a continuous force which modifies the orbit of the whole formation composed of chaser and target. The relative motions of both satellites are derived, in order to assess the feasibility of such a concept. Relative configuration (attitudes and position) trajectories are derived, which are compliant with the dynamics, and enable the chaser to tug the target. Considering targets in Low Earth Orbit (LEO), the magnetic field of the Earth is taken into account, modeled by the International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF). The position of the magnetic torque rod of the target may not be located at its center of mass. This lever-arm is taken into account in the dynamics. As for every Electro-Magnetic Formation Flight concept developed in the literature, satellites involved in magnetic tugging are constantly subjected to torques, created by the Earth magnetic field and by the magnetic fields created by the other satellites in the formation. In this study, the solution chosen to face this problem is to take into account the attitude equilibrium of the satellites early in the guidance phase, in order to avoid having to wave the dipole, as it is generally done. Promising results are presented for different types of orbit, showing that the concept could be feasible in many different scenarios.

  3. CERN 50th Anniversary Official Celebration : keynote speech from Professor Federico Mayor Zaragoza, Professor in the Molecular Biology at the Universidad Autónoma of Madrid, Former Director-General of UNESCO

    CERN Multimedia

    Michel Blanc

    2004-01-01

    CERN 50th Anniversary Official Celebration : keynote speech from Professor Federico Mayor Zaragoza, Professor in the Molecular Biology at the Universidad Autónoma of Madrid, Former Director-General of UNESCO

  4. International Conference on Harmonisation; Guidance on Q11 Development and Manufacture of Drug Substances; availability. Notice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-20

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of a guidance entitled "Q11 Development and Manufacture of Drug Substances.'' The guidance was prepared under the auspices of the International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH). The guidance describes approaches to developing and understanding the manufacturing process of a drug substance and provides guidance on what information should be provided in certain sections of the Common Technical Document (CTD). The guidance is intended to harmonize the scientific and technical principles relating to the description and justification of the development and manufacturing process of drug substances (both chemical entities and biotechnological/biological entities) to enable a consistent approach for providing and evaluating this information across the three regions. The discussion of principles in the guidance is intended to apply only to the manufacture of drug substance, not the manufacture of finished drug products.

  5. Quality in career guidance: The Danish case

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plant, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Quality assurance systems are introduced in career guidance to monitor, control and develop guidance interventions. The Danish case represents at centrally driven, top-down approach......Quality assurance systems are introduced in career guidance to monitor, control and develop guidance interventions. The Danish case represents at centrally driven, top-down approach...

  6. Current Trends in Tactical Missile Guidance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Vathsal

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available The problem of tactical missile guidance is very challenging and has been treated using several basic metlfodologies in the past four decades. Major techniques can be grouped underclassical guidance laws, modern guidance laws, l'aws for manoeuvring targets, predictive guidance for endgame scenario, and guidance laws based on intelligent control methods. Each technique has some advantages and disadvantages while implementing in a practical system. Guidance law selection is dictated by nature of flight profile like boost, midcourse, terminal homing, etc, and also miss-distance and a single-shot kill probability. This paper presents a brief survey of the existing techniques and current trends in tactical missile guidance.

  7. International conference on harmonisation; guidance on statistical principles for clinical trials; availability--FDA. Notice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-09-16

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is publishing a guidance entitled "E9 Statistical Principles for Clinical Trials." The guidance was prepared under the auspices of the International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH). The guidance is intended to provide recommendations to sponsors and scientific experts regarding statistical principles and methodology which, when applied to clinical trials for marketing applications, will facilitate the general acceptance of analyses and conclusions drawn from the trials.

  8. G-Guidance Interface Design for Small Body Mission Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acikmese, Behcet; Carson, John; Phan, Linh

    2008-01-01

    The G-Guidance software implements a guidance and control (G and C) algorithm for small-body, autonomous proximity operations, developed under the Small Body GN and C task at JPL. The software is written in Matlab and interfaces with G-OPT, a JPL-developed optimization package written in C that provides G-Guidance with guaranteed convergence to a solution in a finite computation time with a prescribed accuracy. The resulting program is computationally efficient and is a prototype of an onboard, real-time algorithm for autonomous guidance and control. Two thruster firing schemes are available in G-Guidance, allowing tailoring of the software for specific mission maneuvers. For example, descent, landing, or rendezvous benefit from a thruster firing at the maneuver termination to mitigate velocity errors. Conversely, ascent or separation maneuvers benefit from an immediate firing to avoid potential drift toward a second body. The guidance portion of this software explicitly enforces user-defined control constraints and thruster silence times while minimizing total fuel usage. This program is currently specialized to small-body proximity operations, but the underlying method can be generalized to other applications.

  9. Increasing URM Undergraduate Student Success through Assessment-Driven Interventions: A Multiyear Study Using Freshman-Level General Biology as a Model System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmichael, Mary C; St Clair, Candace; Edwards, Andrea M; Barrett, Peter; McFerrin, Harris; Davenport, Ian; Awad, Mohamed; Kundu, Anup; Ireland, Shubha Kale

    2016-01-01

    Xavier University of Louisiana leads the nation in awarding BS degrees in the biological sciences to African-American students. In this multiyear study with ∼5500 participants, data-driven interventions were adopted to improve student academic performance in a freshman-level general biology course. The three hour-long exams were common and administered concurrently to all students. New exam questions were developed using Bloom's taxonomy, and exam results were analyzed statistically with validated assessment tools. All but the comprehensive final exam were returned to students for self-evaluation and remediation. Among other approaches, course rigor was monitored by using an identical set of 60 questions on the final exam across 10 semesters. Analysis of the identical sets of 60 final exam questions revealed that overall averages increased from 72.9% (2010) to 83.5% (2015). Regression analysis demonstrated a statistically significant correlation between high-risk students and their averages on the 60 questions. Additional analysis demonstrated statistically significant improvements for at least one letter grade from midterm to final and a 20% increase in the course pass rates over time, also for the high-risk population. These results support the hypothesis that our data-driven interventions and assessment techniques are successful in improving student retention, particularly for our academically at-risk students.

  10. Information architecture. Volume 3: Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-04-01

    The purpose of this document, as presented in Volume 1, The Foundations, is to assist the Department of Energy (DOE) in developing and promulgating information architecture guidance. This guidance is aimed at increasing the development of information architecture as a Departmentwide management best practice. This document describes departmental information architecture principles and minimum design characteristics for systems and infrastructures within the DOE Information Architecture Conceptual Model, and establishes a Departmentwide standards-based architecture program. The publication of this document fulfills the commitment to address guiding principles, promote standard architectural practices, and provide technical guidance. This document guides the transition from the baseline or defacto Departmental architecture through approved information management program plans and budgets to the future vision architecture. This document also represents another major step toward establishing a well-organized, logical foundation for the DOE information architecture.

  11. Agent Based Individual Traffic guidance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wanscher, Jørgen Bundgaard

    2004-01-01

    When working with traffic planning or guidance it is common practice to view the vehicles as a combined mass. >From this models are employed to specify the vehicle supply and demand for each region. As the models are complex and the calculations are equally demanding the regions and the detail...... can be obtained through cellular phone tracking or GPS systems. This information can then be used to provide individual traffic guidance as opposed to the mass information systems of today -- dynamic roadsigns and trafficradio. The goal is to achieve better usage of road and time. The main topic...

  12. Optical technologies for intraoperative neurosurgical guidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdés, Pablo A; Roberts, David W; Lu, Fa-Ke; Golby, Alexandra

    2016-03-01

    Biomedical optics is a broadly interdisciplinary field at the interface of optical engineering, biophysics, computer science, medicine, biology, and chemistry, helping us understand light-tissue interactions to create applications with diagnostic and therapeutic value in medicine. Implementation of biomedical optics tools and principles has had a notable scientific and clinical resurgence in recent years in the neurosurgical community. This is in great part due to work in fluorescence-guided surgery of brain tumors leading to reports of significant improvement in maximizing the rates of gross-total resection. Multiple additional optical technologies have been implemented clinically, including diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and imaging, optical coherence tomography, Raman spectroscopy and imaging, and advanced quantitative methods, including quantitative fluorescence and lifetime imaging. Here we present a clinically relevant and technologically informed overview and discussion of some of the major clinical implementations of optical technologies as intraoperative guidance tools in neurosurgery.

  13. Guidance for evidence-informed policies about health systems: rationale for and challenges of guidance development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch-Capblanch, Xavier; Lavis, John N; Lewin, Simon; Atun, Rifat; Røttingen, John-Arne; Dröschel, Daniel; Beck, Lise; Abalos, Edgardo; El-Jardali, Fadi; Gilson, Lucy; Oliver, Sandy; Wyss, Kaspar; Tugwell, Peter; Kulier, Regina; Pang, Tikki; Haines, Andy

    2012-01-01

    In the first paper in a three-part series on health systems guidance, Xavier Bosch-Capblanch and colleagues examine how guidance is currently formulated in low- and middle-income countries, and the challenges to developing such guidance.

  14. 78 FR 56752 - Interim Staff Guidance Specific Environmental Guidance for Integral Pressurized Water Reactors...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Interim Staff Guidance Specific Environmental Guidance for Integral Pressurized Water Reactors... and operate integral pressurized water reactors (iPWR). This guidance applies to environmental reviews...

  15. [Environmental and biological monitoring of exposure to PAHs in Taranto coke-oven workers and in two groups of the general population from Apulia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campo, L; Vimercati, L; Carrus, A; Bisceglia, L; Pesatori, A C; Bertazzi, P A; Assennato, G; Fustinoni, S

    2012-01-01

    The exposure to PAHs was assessed by personal air sampling and urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) in 100 coke-oven workers (CW) of the Taranto plant and in subjects from the general population living close (NC, 18) and far away (FC, 15) from the plant. Median airborne benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) and 1-OHP levels were 152, 1.5, and 3.6 ng/m3 and 2.0, 0.5 and 0.6 microg/g creatinine in CW, NC, and FC, respectively. BaP exposure exceeded the German acceptable (70 ng/m3) and tolerable (700 ng/m3) limit risk based values in 82 and 11% of CW and the European target value for ambient air (1 ng/m3) in about 65% of NC and FC. 1-OHP levels exceed the proposed biological limit value for the coke-oven industry (4.4 microg/g crt) in 21% of CW and the Italian reference value (0.3 microg/g crt) in about 90% of NC and FC. The exposure resulted lower than in the past, but this study highlights that PAHs exposure from the coke plant still poses a health risk for workers and the general population.

  16. Factors Critical to the Adoption of Career Guidance Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kester, Ralph J.; Howard, John, Jr.

    The study endeavors to describe, assess, and trace the progress of six high schools as the faculty and staff responded to the adoption of an innovative career guidance system. The study provides a model, a method, and some generalizations about factors influencing the process. The document is organized according to: (1) definitions of basic…

  17. The General Biology of Cryptosporidium

    Science.gov (United States)

    The protozoan parasites belonging to the genus Cryptosporidium infect all classes of vertebrate animals. Of the sixteen valid species and nearly forty genotypes, three species are responsible for the majority of economic losses to livestock and morbidity and mortality to humans. This chapter summari...

  18. Autonomous gliding entry guidance with

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Jie

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel three-dimensional autonomous entry guidance for relatively high lift-to-drag ratio vehicles satisfying geographic constraints and other path constraints. The guidance is composed of onboard trajectory planning and robust trajectory tracking. For trajectory planning, a longitudinal sub-planner is introduced to generate a feasible drag-versus-energy profile by using the interpolation between upper boundary and lower boundary of entry corridor to get the desired trajectory length. The associated magnitude of the bank angle can be specified by drag profile, while the sign of bank angle is determined by lateral sub-planner. Two-reverse mode is utilized to satisfy waypoint constraints and dynamic heading error corridor is utilized to satisfy no-fly zone constraints. The longitudinal and lateral sub-planners are iteratively employed until all of the path constraints are satisfied. For trajectory tracking, a novel tracking law based on the active disturbance rejection control is introduced. Finally, adaptability tests and Monte Carlo simulations of the entry guidance approach are performed. Results show that the proposed entry guidance approach can adapt to different entry missions and is able to make the vehicle reach the prescribed target point precisely in spite of geographic constraints.

  19. Atmospheric guidance techniques and performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harpold, J. C.; Gavert, D. E.

    1982-01-01

    The Orbiter entry guidance system controls the Space Shuttle Orbiter from the initial atmospheric penetration point to the point at which an earth relative velocity of 2500 feet/second is reached. At the latter point, control of the Orbiter is transferred to the terminal area energy management system. The entry guidance system is based on the concept that the range to be flown during entry is a unique function of the drag deceleration profile flown throughout the entry. The range prediction during entry is based on analytic equations which are simple drag deceleration functions of earth relative velocity above Mach 10.5 and energy with respect to the earth below Mach 10.5. Flight through the entry corridor is accomplished by linking these simple drag deceleration functions together in series in order to define a drag deceleration reference profile. The results of the first three Space Shuttle missions have not only verified the entry guidance concept but have also demonstrated the stability of the guidance system.

  20. Abortion Information: A Guidance Viewpoint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolleat, Patricia L.

    1975-01-01

    A number of questions relating to providing abortion information to teenagers can be raised from legal, ethical and philosophical standpoints. The purpose of this article is to examine abortion information-giving from the perspective of counseling and guidance theory and practice. (Author)

  1. Teacher Guidance of Knowledge Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Baruch; Dreyfus, Tommy; Hadas, Nurit; Hershkowitz, Rina

    2004-01-01

    This paper focuses on how teachers guide construction of knowledge in classrooms. We suggest that guidance hinges on the kind of dialogue teachers choose to engage students in. We propose several classroom dialogue types relevant for the construction of knowledge and suggest that critical dialogue is particularly effective for knowledge…

  2. Agent Based Individual Traffic Guidance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wanscher, Jørgen

    This thesis investigates the possibilities in applying Operations Research (OR) to autonomous vehicular traffic. The explicit difference to most other research today is that we presume that an agent is present in every vehicle - hence Agent Based Individual Traffic guidance (ABIT). The next...

  3. DOE Waste Treatability Group Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirkpatrick, T.D.

    1995-01-01

    This guidance presents a method and definitions for aggregating U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) waste into streams and treatability groups based on characteristic parameters that influence waste management technology needs. Adaptable to all DOE waste types (i.e., radioactive waste, hazardous waste, mixed waste, sanitary waste), the guidance establishes categories and definitions that reflect variations within the radiological, matrix (e.g., bulk physical/chemical form), and regulated contaminant characteristics of DOE waste. Beginning at the waste container level, the guidance presents a logical approach to implementing the characteristic parameter categories as part of the basis for defining waste streams and as the sole basis for assigning streams to treatability groups. Implementation of this guidance at each DOE site will facilitate the development of technically defined, site-specific waste stream data sets to support waste management planning and reporting activities. Consistent implementation at all of the sites will enable aggregation of the site-specific waste stream data sets into comparable national data sets to support these activities at a DOE complex-wide level.

  4. Interstitial guidance of cancer invasion.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gritsenko, P.G.; Ilina, O.; Friedl, P.H.

    2012-01-01

    Cancer cell invasion into healthy tissues develops preferentially along pre-existing tracks of least resistance, followed by secondary tissue remodelling and destruction. The tissue scaffolds supporting or preventing guidance of invasion vary in structure and molecular composition between organs. In

  5. 10 CFR 300.3 - Guidance for defining and naming the reporting entity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Guidance for defining and naming the reporting entity. 300... PROGRAM: GENERAL GUIDELINES § 300.3 Guidance for defining and naming the reporting entity. (a) A reporting... under any Federal, State or local law or regulation. If a reporting entity is composed of more than...

  6. International Conference on Harmonisation; guidance on ethnic factors in the acceptability of foreign clinical data; availability--FDA. Notice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-06-10

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is publishing a guidance entitled "E5 Ethnic Factors in the Acceptability of Foreign Clinical Data". The guidance was prepared under the auspices of the International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH). The guidance recommends regulatory and development strategies to permit clinical data collected in one region to be used for the support of drug and biologic registrations in another region while allowing for the influence of ethnic factors.

  7. Safety of magnetic fusion facilities: Volume 2, Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    This document provides guidance for the implementation of the requirements identified in Vol. 1 of this Standard. This guidance is intended for the managers, designers, operators, and other personnel with safety responsibilities for facilities designated as magnetic fusion facilities. While Vol. 1 is generally applicable in that requirements there apply to a wide range of fusion facilities, this volume is concerned mainly with large facilities such as the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). Using a risk-based prioritization, the concepts presented here may also be applied to other magnetic fusion facilities. This volume is oriented toward regulation in the Department of Energy (DOE) environment.

  8. Career guidance and counselling for mobilities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zvariková, Mária

    2011-01-01

    In its first part, the article provides a basic overview on guidance and counselling for mobility issues at universities, focusing on the possibilities and role of guidance and counselling for both...

  9. Mental health promotion: guidance and strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalra, G; Christodoulou, G; Jenkins, R; Tsipas, V; Christodoulou, N; Lecic-Tosevski, D; Mezzich, J; Bhugra, D

    2012-02-01

    Public mental health incorporates a number of strategies from mental well-being promotion to primary prevention and other forms of prevention. There is considerable evidence in the literature to suggest that early interventions and public education can work well for reducing psychiatric morbidity and resulting burden of disease. Educational strategies need to focus on individual, societal and environmental aspects. Targeted interventions at individuals will also need to focus on the whole population. A nested approach with the individual at the heart of it surrounded by family surrounded by society at large is the most suitable way to approach this. This Guidance should be read along with the European Psychiatric Association (EPA) Guidance on Prevention. Those at risk of developing psychiatric disorders also require adequate interventions as well as those who may have already developed illness. However, on the model of triage, mental health and well-being promotion need to be prioritized to ensure that, with the limited resources available, these activities do not get forgotten. One possibility is to have separate programmes for addressing concerns of a particular population group, another that is relevant for the broader general population. Mental health promotion as a concept is important and this will allow prevention of some psychiatric disorders and, by improving coping strategies, is likely to reduce the burden and stress induced by mental illness. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Practical guidance for charting ethics consultations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Courtenay R; Smith, Martin L; Tawose, Olubukunola Mary; Sharp, Richard R

    2014-03-01

    It is generally accepted that appropriate documentation of activities and recommendations of ethics consultants in patients' medical records is critical. Despite this acceptance, the bioethics literature is largely devoid of guidance on key elements of an ethics chart note, the degree of specificity that it should contain, and its stylistic tenor. We aim to provide guidance for a variety of persons engaged in clinical ethics consultation: new and seasoned ethics committee members who are new to ethics consultation, students and trainees in clinical ethics, and those who have significant experience with ethics consultation so that they can reflect on their practice. Toward the goal of promoting quality charting practices in ethics consultations, we propose recommendations on a broad array of questions concerning clinical ethics consultation chart notes, including whether and when to write a chart note, and practical considerations for the tenor, purpose, and content of a chart note. Our broader aim is to promote discussion about good charting practices in clinical ethics, with the hope of contributing to clear standards of excellence in clinical ethics consultation.

  11. Application of a Fully Numerical Guidance to Mars Aerocapture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matz, Daniel A.; Lu, Ping; Mendeck, Gavin F.; Sostaric, Ronald R.

    2017-01-01

    An advanced guidance algorithm, Fully Numerical Predictor-corrector Aerocapture Guidance (FNPAG), has been developed to perform aerocapture maneuvers in an optimal manner. It is a model-based, numerical guidance that benefits from requiring few adjustments across a variety of different hypersonic vehicle lift-to-drag ratios, ballistic co-efficients, and atmospheric entry conditions. In this paper, FNPAG is first applied to the Mars Rigid Vehicle (MRV) mid lift-to-drag ratio concept. Then the study is generalized to a design map of potential Mars aerocapture missions and vehicles, ranging from the scale and requirements of recent robotic to potential human and precursor missions. The design map results show the versatility of FNPAG and provide insight for the design of Mars aerocapture vehicles and atmospheric entry conditions to achieve desired performance.

  12. 76 FR 35896 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Guidance for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-20

    ..., the Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, and the Center for Veterinary Medicine. The working... proposed collection of information resulting from the guidance to manufacturers of veterinary and human... intended to provide information to manufacturers of veterinary and human drugs, including human biological...

  13. A guidance concept for hypersonic aerospacecrafts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishimoto, Shinji

    In this paper a guidance concept for hypersonic re-entry flights is presented. The method uses a closed-form guidance technique based on a drag acceleration reference profile. A guidance law for range control is developed. It employs a physical relation between vehicle energy and range instead of a prediction-correction technique used for Shuttle entry guidance. Simulation results show that the algorithm provides good performance.

  14. 77 FR 74670 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Enrichment Strategies for Clinical Trials to Support Approval of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-17

    ... Clinical Trials to Support Approval of Human Drugs and Biological Products; Availability AGENCY: Food and... the availability of a draft guidance for industry entitled ``Enrichment Strategies for Clinical Trials... provide guidance to industry on enrichment strategies that can be used in clinical trials intended...

  15. 76 FR 13629 - Revised Draft Guidance for Industry on User Fee Waivers, Reductions, and Refunds for Drug and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-14

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Revised Draft Guidance for Industry on User Fee Waivers, Reductions, and Refunds for Drug and Biological Products; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration... a revised draft guidance for industry entitled ``User Fee Waivers, Reductions, and Refunds for...

  16. Quality Assurance in University Guidance Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Alexandra

    2014-01-01

    In Europe there is no common quality assurance framework for the delivery of guidance in higher education. Using a case study approach in four university career guidance services in England, France and Spain, this article aims to study how quality is implemented in university career guidance services in terms of strategy, standards and models,…

  17. The Self in Guidance: Assumptions and Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Richard; Payne, John

    1997-01-01

    Examines the assumptions of "self" made in the professional and managerial discourses of guidance. Suggests that these assumptions obstruct the capacity of guidance workers to explain their own practices. Drawing on contemporary debates over identity, modernity, and postmodernity, argues for a more explicit debate about the self in guidance. (RJM)

  18. 78 FR 53792 - Draft Guidance for Reciprocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-30

    ...The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is revising its licensing guidance for reciprocity. The NRC is requesting public comment on draft NUREG-1556, Volume 19, Revision 1, ``Consolidated Guidance about Materials Licenses: Guidance for Agreement State Licensees about NRC Form 241 `Report of Proposed Activities in Non- Agreement States, Areas of Exclusive Federal Jurisdiction, of Offshore......

  19. Providing Career Guidance for Young Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colby, Pamela G.

    This module is directed at personnel working or planning to work in the areas of guidance, counseling, placement and follow-through in junior and senior high school settings, grades 7-12. The module topic is career guidance for young women of junior and senior high school age, aand the focus will be on providing nonbiased career guidance which…

  20. Quality Assurance in University Guidance Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Alexandra

    2014-01-01

    In Europe there is no common quality assurance framework for the delivery of guidance in higher education. Using a case study approach in four university career guidance services in England, France and Spain, this article aims to study how quality is implemented in university career guidance services in terms of strategy, standards and models,…

  1. Reentry guidance for Space Shuttle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Causey, W.; Sohoni, V.

    1973-01-01

    An explicit guidance scheme is outlined which provides the appropriate energy management in order for the shuttle orbiter to reach any location within the required footprint. Considering the orbiter as entering the earth's atmosphere, expressions for the downrange, crossrange, and the time of the termination of the entry phase as functions of the control variables are developed. Performing an order-of-magnitude analysis of the terms in these expressions, only dominant terms are retained. Analytical expressions for the elements of the sensitivity matrix which represents the partial derivatives of the desired range with respect to control variables are formulated. Using the Gauss-Jordan inversion technique, the required change in guidance commands as a function of the deviations in the downrange and crossrange are explicitly computed.

  2. Reentry guidance for Space Shuttle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Causey, W.; Sohoni, V.

    1973-01-01

    An explicit guidance scheme is outlined which provides the appropriate energy management in order for the shuttle orbiter to reach any location within the required footprint. Considering the orbiter as entering the earth's atmosphere, expressions for the downrange, crossrange, and the time of the termination of the entry phase as functions of the control variables are developed. Performing an order-of-magnitude analysis of the terms in these expressions, only dominant terms are retained. Analytical expressions for the elements of the sensitivity matrix which represents the partial derivatives of the desired range with respect to control variables are formulated. Using the Gauss-Jordan inversion technique, the required change in guidance commands as a function of the deviations in the downrange and crossrange are explicitly computed.

  3. Review of soil contamination guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, M.A.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Soldat, J.K.

    1981-08-01

    A review of existing and proposed radioactive soil contamination standards and guidance was conducted for United Nuclear Corporation (UNC), Office of Surplus Facilities Management. Information was obtained from both government agencies and other sources during a literature survey. The more applicable standards were reviewed, evaluated, and summarized. Information pertaining to soil contamination for both facility operation and facility decommissioning was obtained from a variety of sources. These sources included: the Code of Federal Regulations, regulatory guides, the Federal Register, topical reports written by various government agencies, topical reports written by national laboratories, and publications from the American National Standards Institute (ANSI). It was difficult to directly compare the standards and guidance obtained from these sources since each was intended for a specific situation and different units or bases were used. However, most of the information reviewed was consistent with the philosophy of maintaining exposures at levels as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA).

  4. Microfluidic control of axonal guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Ling; Black, Bryan; Ordonez, Simon; Mondal, Argha; Jain, Ankur; Mohanty, Samarendra

    2014-10-01

    The precision of axonal pathfinding and the accurate formation of functional neural circuitry are crucial for an organism during development as well as during adult central and peripheral nerve regeneration. While chemical cues are believed to be primarily responsible for axonal pathfinding, we hypothesize that forces due to localized fluid flow may directly affect neuronal guidance during early organ development. Here, we report direct evidence of fluid flow influencing axonal migration, producing turning angles of up to 90°. Microfluidic flow simulations indicate that an axon may experience significant bending force due to cross-flow, which may contribute to the observed axonal turning. This method of flow-based guidance was successfully used to fasciculate one advancing axon onto another, showcasing the potential of this technique to be used for the formation of in vitro neuronal circuits.

  5. 2011 Army Strategic Planning Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-25

    TESI ) of 22,000 Soldiers, the Army’s total force by the end of the mid-term period is programmed to be 520K (AC). We will achieve a more...dwell ratios, extending TESI authority to adequately man deploying units and sustain the All-Volunteer Force, right-sizing the generating force, and... TESI Temporary End-Strength Increase WMD Weapons of Mass Destruction 2011 ARMY STRATEGIC PLANNING GUIDANCE Page 19 2011

  6. Current materiality guidance for auditors

    OpenAIRE

    McKee, Thomas E.; Eilifsen, Aasmund

    2000-01-01

    Auditors have to make materiality judgments on every audit. This is a difficult process, as both quantitative and qualitative factors have to be evaluated. Additionally, there is no formal guidance for how to implement the materiality concepts discussed in the auditing standards. Although they are sometimes difficult to make, good materiality judgments are crucial for the conduct of a successful audit as poor judgments can result in an audit that is ineffective and/or inefficient. This report...

  7. Improvements in inservice testing regulatory guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, P.L.

    1996-12-01

    Over the last few years, the NRC has issued guidance to licensees toward improving the quality of requests for relief or alternatives to the code requirements and bring some measure of consistency to the implementation of the code requirements. Based on the majority of the recent submittals, the overall quality has improved. If all of the steps in the internal process for responding to the requests are timely, the review of an updated program can be completed in six to nine months. When a single or only a few requests are submitted, the staff is generally able to complete an evaluation in less than three months. When schedules are related to outages or exigent circumstances, the NRC responds accordingly. The improvements in schedules can be attributed to publication of staff guideline documents, licensees` efforts in preparing more complete descriptions and justification and an increase in the number of NRC technical staff reviewers assigned to IST.

  8. Acceptance Criteria Framework for Autonomous Biological Detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dzenitis, J M

    2006-12-12

    The purpose of this study was to examine a set of user acceptance criteria for autonomous biological detection systems for application in high-traffic, public facilities. The test case for the acceptance criteria was the Autonomous Pathogen Detection System (APDS) operating in high-traffic facilities in New York City (NYC). However, the acceptance criteria were designed to be generally applicable to other biological detection systems in other locations. For such detection systems, ''users'' will include local authorities (e.g., facility operators, public health officials, and law enforcement personnel) and national authorities [including personnel from the Department of Homeland Security (DHS), the BioWatch Program, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI)]. The panel members brought expertise from a broad range of backgrounds to complete this picture. The goals of this document are: (1) To serve as informal guidance for users in considering the benefits and costs of these systems. (2) To serve as informal guidance for developers in understanding the needs of users. In follow-up work, this framework will be used to systematically document the APDS for appropriateness and readiness for use in NYC.

  9. Bibliographical review on the teaching of Biology and research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mª Luz Rodríguez Palmero

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available This review complements another one done by the same author, in 1997, regarding the role of comprehending the concept of cell in the learning of Biology. In addition, some general papers on science education that provide a better understanding of research approaches used in the investigation of this topic have been included. The reviewed papers have been organized into categories according to the object of study, the relevance assigned to the cell concept, and the framework of analysis. The review shows that the concept of cell is very important in the biological conceptualization, however, it also shows the need of additional research on this matter, from theoretical frameworks that pay more attention to the psychological level, in order to provide some guidance to improve the teaching and learning processes of the biological content that presupose the comprehension of living beings.

  10. Quantum Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Sergi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A critical assessment of the recent developmentsof molecular biology is presented.The thesis that they do not lead to a conceptualunderstanding of life and biological systems is defended.Maturana and Varela's concept of autopoiesis is briefly sketchedand its logical circularity avoided by postulatingthe existence of underlying living processes,entailing amplification from the microscopic to the macroscopic scale,with increasing complexity in the passage from one scale to the other.Following such a line of thought, the currently accepted model of condensed matter, which is based on electrostatics and short-ranged forces,is criticized. It is suggested that the correct interpretationof quantum dispersion forces (van der Waals, hydrogen bonding, and so onas quantum coherence effects hints at the necessity of includinglong-ranged forces (or mechanisms for them incondensed matter theories of biological processes.Some quantum effects in biology are reviewedand quantum mechanics is acknowledged as conceptually important to biology since withoutit most (if not all of the biological structuresand signalling processes would not even exist. Moreover, it is suggested that long-rangequantum coherent dynamics, including electron polarization,may be invoked to explain signal amplificationprocess in biological systems in general.

  11. General RMP Guidance - Chapter 9: Risk Management Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    You must submit one risk management plan (RMP) to EPA for all of your covered processes. The internet-based RMP*eSubmit allows you to submit your RMP in EPA's Central Data Exchange (CDX), where you can access and change/correct existing RMPs.

  12. Analysing Interplanetary Probe Guidance Accuracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Sukhova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a guidance accuracy analysis and estimates delta-v budget required to provide the trajectory correction maneuvers for direct interplanetary flights (without midcourse gravity assists. The analysis takes into consideration the orbital hyperbolic injection errors (depend on a selected launch vehicle and ascent trajectory and the uncertainties of midcourse correction maneuvers.The calculation algorithm is based on Monte Carlo simulation and Danby’s matrix methods (the matrizant of keplerian motion. Danby’s method establishes a link between the errors of the spacecraft state vectors at different flight times using the reference keplerian orbit matrizant. Utilizing the nominal trajectory parameters and the covariance matrix of launch vehicle injection errors the random perturbed orbits are generated and required velocity corrections are calculated. The next step is to simulate midcourse maneuver performance uncertainty using the midcourse maneuver covariance matrix. The obtained trajectory correction impulses and spacecraft position errors are statistically processed to compute required delta-v budget and dispersions ellipse parameters for different prediction intervals.As an example, a guidance accuracy analysis has been conducted for a 2022 mission to Mars and a Venus mission in 2026. The paper considers one and two midcourse correction options, as well as utilization of two different launch vehicles.The presented algorithm based on Monte Carlo simulation and Danby’s methods provides preliminary evaluation for midcourse corrections delta-v budget and spacecraft position error. The only data required for this guidance accuracy analysis are a reference keplerian trajectory and a covariance matrix of the injection errors. Danby’s matrix method allows us to take into account also the other factors affecting the trajectory thereby increasing the accuracy of analysis.

  13. Precision optical navigation guidance system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starodubov, D.; McCormick, K.; Nolan, P.; Johnson, D.; Dellosa, M.; Volfson, L.; Fallahpour, A.; Willner, A.

    2016-05-01

    We present the new precision optical navigation guidance system approach that provides continuous, high quality range and bearing data to fixed wing aircraft during landing approach to an aircraft carrier. The system uses infrared optical communications to measure range between ship and aircraft with accuracy and precision better than 1 meter at ranges more than 7.5 km. The innovative receiver design measures bearing from aircraft to ship with accuracy and precision better than 0.5 mRad. The system provides real-time range and bearing updates to multiple aircraft at rates up to several kHz, and duplex data transmission between ship and aircraft.

  14. Quality guidance and quality formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Carsten Stig; Juhl, Hans Jørn; Kristensen, Kai

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents an extension of the quality guidance model of Steenkamp and van Trijp that includes consumer quality formation processes. Quality expectations and quality experiences are seen as antecedents of perceived overall product quality conceptual model is applied using LISREL to a data...... set on Danish butter cookies. Five plausible models of the relation between expectation, experience and perceived product quality are estimated. Finally one model is selected on the basis of three criteria: chi-square, RMSEA and AIC: The results show a model where expectations are indirectly related...... to perceived quality through experience. Udgivelsesdato: APR...

  15. Quality guidance and quality formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Carsten Stig; Juhl, Hans Jørn; Kristensen, Kai

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents an extension of the quality guidance model of Steenkamp and van Trijp that includes consumer quality formation processes. Quality expectations and quality experiences are seen as antecedents of perceived overall product quality conceptual model is applied using LISREL to a data...... set on Danish butter cookies. Five plausible models of the relation between expectation, experience and perceived product quality are estimated. Finally one model is selected on the basis of three criteria: chi-square, RMSEA and AIC: The results show a model where expectations are indirectly related...... to perceived quality through experience. Udgivelsesdato: APR...

  16. Orthobiologic Interventions Using Ultrasound Guidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malanga, Gerard; Abdelshahed, Dena; Jayaram, Prathap

    2016-08-01

    The application of regenerative therapies for the treatment of musculoskeletal conditions has emerged over the last decade with recent acceleration. These include prolotherapy, platelet-rich plasma, and mesenchymal stem cell therapy. These strategies augment the body's innate physiology to heal pathologic processes. This article presents an overview of platelet-rich plasma and mesenchymal stem cell therapy for the treatment of musculoskeletal injuries. A brief literature review is included, as are techniques for the use of ultrasound guidance to assist with these procedures. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Modeling and biological control of mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lord, Cynthia C

    2007-01-01

    Models can be useful at many different levels when considering complex issues such as biological control of mosquitoes. At an early stage, exploratory models are valuable in exploring the characteristics of an ideal biological control agent and for guidance in data collection. When more data are available, models can be used to explore alternative control strategies and the likelihood of success. There are few modeling studies that explicitly consider biological control in mosquitoes; however, there have been many theoretical studies of biological control in other insect systems and of mosquitoes and mosquito-borne diseases in general. Examples are used here to illustrate important aspects of designing, using and interpreting models. The stability properties of a model are valuable in assessing the potential of a biological control agent, but may not be relevant to a mosquito population with frequent environmental perturbations. The time scale and goal of proposed control strategies are important considerations when analyzing a model. The underlying biology of the mosquito host and the biological control agent must be carefully considered when deciding what to include in a model. Factors such as density dependent population growth in the host, the searching efficiency and aggregation of a natural enemy, and the resource base of both have been shown to influence the stability and dynamics of the interaction. Including existing mosquito control practices into a model is useful if biological control is proposed for locations with current insecticidal control. The development of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) strategies can be enhanced using modeling techniques, as a wide variety of options can be simulated and examined. Models can also be valuable in comparing alternate routes of disease transmission and to investigate the level of control needed to reduce transmission.

  18. Flight Guidance System Requirements Specification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Steven P.; Tribble, Alan C.; Carlson, Timothy M.; Danielson, Eric J.

    2003-01-01

    This report describes a requirements specification written in the RSML-e language for the mode logic of a Flight Guidance System of a typical regional jet aircraft. This model was created as one of the first steps in a five-year project sponsored by the NASA Langley Research Center, Rockwell Collins Inc., and the Critical Systems Research Group of the University of Minnesota to develop new methods and tools to improve the safety of avionics designs. This model will be used to demonstrate the application of a variety of methods and techniques, including safety analysis of system and subsystem requirements, verification of key properties using theorem provers and model checkers, identification of potential sources mode confusion in system designs, partitioning of applications based on the criticality of system hazards, and autogeneration of avionics quality code. While this model is representative of the mode logic of a typical regional jet aircraft, it does not describe an actual or planned product. Several aspects of a full Flight Guidance System, such as recovery from failed sensors, have been omitted, and no claims are made regarding the accuracy or completeness of this specification.

  19. Design and implementation of a GPS guidance system for agricultural tractors using augmented reality technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana-Fernández, Javier; Gómez-Gil, Jaime; del-Pozo-San-Cirilo, Laura

    2010-01-01

    Current commercial tractor guidance systems present to the driver information to perform agricultural tasks in the best way. This information generally includes a treated zones map referenced to the tractor's position. Unlike actual guidance systems where the tractor driver must mentally associate treated zone maps and the plot layout, this paper presents a guidance system that using Augmented Reality (AR) technology, allows the tractor driver to see the real plot though eye monitor glasses with the treated zones in a different color. The paper includes a description of the system hardware and software, a real test done with image captures seen by the tractor driver, and a discussion predicting that the historical evolution of guidance systems could involve the use of AR technology in the agricultural guidance and monitoring systems.

  20. Optimal terminal guidance for exoatmospheric interception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Wenbin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, two optimal terminal guidance (OTG laws, one of which takes into account the final velocity vector constraint, are developed for exoatmospheric interception using optimal control theory. In exoatmospheric interception, because the proposed guidance laws give full consideration to the effect of gravity, they consume much less fuel than the traditional guidance laws while requiring a light computational load. In the development of the guidance laws, a unified optimal guidance problem is put forward, where the final velocity vector constraint can be considered or neglected by properly adjusting a parameter in the cost function. To make this problem analytically solvable, a linear model is used to approximate the gravity difference, the difference of the gravitational accelerations of the target and interceptor. Additionally, an example is provided to show that some achievements of this study can be used to significantly improve the fuel efficiency of the pulsed guidance employed by the interceptor whose divert thrust level is fixed.

  1. Optimal terminal guidance for exoatmospheric interception

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Wenbin; Chen Wanchun; Yang Liang; Liu Xiaoming; Zhou Hao

    2016-01-01

    In this study, two optimal terminal guidance (OTG) laws, one of which takes into account the final velocity vector constraint, are developed for exoatmospheric interception using optimal control theory. In exoatmospheric interception, because the proposed guidance laws give full consideration to the effect of gravity, they consume much less fuel than the traditional guidance laws while requiring a light computational load. In the development of the guidance laws, a unified optimal guidance problem is put forward, where the final velocity vector constraint can be consid-ered or neglected by properly adjusting a parameter in the cost function. To make this problem ana-lytically solvable, a linear model is used to approximate the gravity difference, the difference of the gravitational accelerations of the target and interceptor. Additionally, an example is provided to show that some achievements of this study can be used to significantly improve the fuel efficiency of the pulsed guidance employed by the interceptor whose divert thrust level is fixed.

  2. SPAR-H Step-by-Step Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    April M. Whaley; Dana L. Kelly; Ronald L. Boring; William J. Galyean

    2012-06-01

    Step-by-step guidance was developed recently at Idaho National Laboratory for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission on the use of the Standardized Plant Analysis Risk-Human Reliability Analysis (SPAR-H) method for quantifying Human Failure Events (HFEs). This work was done to address SPAR-H user needs, specifically requests for additional guidance on the proper application of various aspects of the methodology. This paper overviews the steps of the SPAR-H analysis process and highlights some of the most important insights gained during the development of the step-by-step directions. This supplemental guidance for analysts is applicable when plant-specific information is available, and goes beyond the general guidance provided in existing SPAR-H documentation. The steps highlighted in this paper are: Step-1, Categorizing the HFE as Diagnosis and/or Action; Step-2, Rate the Performance Shaping Factors; Step-3, Calculate PSF-Modified HEP; Step-4, Accounting for Dependence, and; Step-5, Minimum Value Cutoff.

  3. Hybrid Guidance System for Relative Navigation Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Future NASA architectures and missions will involve many distributed platforms that must work together. This in turn requires guidance, navigation and control...

  4. Guidance manual for conducting technology demonstration activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jolley, Robert L.; Morris, Michael I.; Singh, Suman P.N.

    1991-12-01

    This demonstration guidance manual has been prepared to assist Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems), staff in conducting demonstrations. It is prepared in checklist style to facilitate its use and assumes that Energy Systems personnel have project management responsibility. In addition to a detailed step-by-step listing of procedural considerations, a general checklist, logic flow diagram, and several examples of necessary plans are included to assist the user in developing an understanding of the many complex activities required to manage technology demonstrations. Demonstrations are pilot-scale applications of often innovative technologies to determine the commercial viability of the technologies to perform their designed function. Demonstrations are generally conducted on well-defined problems for which existing technologies or processes are less than satisfactory in terms of effectiveness, cost, and/or regulatory compliance. Critically important issues in demonstration management include, but are not limited to, such factors as communications with line and matrix management and with the US Department of Energy (DOE) and Energy Systems staff responsible for management oversight, budgetary and schedule requirements, regulatory compliance, and safety.

  5. A Singular Perturbation Based Midcourse Guidance Law for Realistic Air-to-Air Engagement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Manickavasagam

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a singular perturbation based technique is used for synthesis and analysis of a near optimal midcourse guidance law for realistic air-to-air engagement. After designing the proposed midcourse guidance law using three dimensional point mass formulation it has been validated through detailed realistic six degrees of freedom simulation. During terminal phase only proportional navigation guidance have been used. The calculation of optimal altitude in present guidance law has been carried out using Newton’s method, which needs generally one iteration for convergence and suitable for real-time implementation. Extended Kalman filter based estimator has been used for obtaining evader kinetic information from both radar and seeker noisy measurements available during midcourse and terminal guidance. The data link look angle constraint due to hardware limitation which affects the performance of midcourse guidance has also been incorporated in guidance law design. Robustness of complete simulation has been carried out through Monte Carlo studies. Extension of launch boundary due to singular perturbation over proportional navigation guidance at a given altitude for a typical engagement has also been reported.

  6. Research Status and Prospect of Biological Manufacturing in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuiying; LIU; Xinsheng; LI; Zhiyong; YANG; Hao; HAN

    2014-01-01

    The concept,research content and direction of biological manufacturing were elaborated in this text. The biological manufacturing progress in China,application situation,development trend and existing problems were analyzed,and the prospect of the development of biological manufacturing was put forward,in order to provide reference and guidance for the manufacture of biological research and industrial development.

  7. Stochastically optimized monocular vision-based navigation and guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Yoko

    -effort guidance (MEG) law for multiple target tracking is applied for a guidance design to achieve the mission. Through simulations, it is shown that the control effort can be reduced by using the MEG-based guidance design instead of a conventional proportional navigation-based one. The navigation and guidance designs are implemented and evaluated in a 6 DoF UAV flight simulation. Furthermore, the vision-based obstacle avoidance system is also tested in a flight test using a balloon as an obstacle. For monocular vision-based control problems, it is well-known that the separation principle between estimation and control does not hold. In other words, that vision-based estimation performance highly depends on the relative motion of the vehicle with respect to the target. Therefore, this thesis aims to derive an optimal guidance law to achieve a given mission under the condition of using the EKF-based relative navigation. Unlike many other works on observer trajectory optimization, this thesis suggests a stochastically optimized guidance design that minimizes the expected value of a cost function of the guidance error and the control effort subject to the EKF prediction and update procedures. A suboptimal guidance law is derived based on an idea of the one-step-ahead (OSA) optimization, in which the optimization is performed under the assumption that there will be only one more final measurement at the one time step ahead. The OSA suboptimal guidance law is applied to problems of vision-based rendezvous and vision-based obstacle avoidance. Simulation results are presented to show that the suggested guidance law significantly improves the guidance performance. The OSA suboptimal optimization approach is generalized as the n-step-ahead (nSA) optimization for an arbitrary number of n. Furthermore, the nSA suboptimal guidance law is extended to the p %-ahead suboptimal guidance by changing the value of n at each time step depending on the current time. The nSA (including the OSA) and

  8. International Conference on Harmonisation; Guidance on S9 Nonclincal Evaluation for Anticancer Pharmaceuticals; availability. Notice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-08

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of a guidance entitled "S9 Nonclinical Evaluation for Anticancer Pharmaceuticals." The guidance was prepared under the auspices of the International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH). The guidance provides recommendations for nonclinical studies for the development of pharmaceuticals, including both drugs and biotechnology derived products, intended to treat patients with advanced cancer. The recommendations describe the type and timing of nonclinical studies to support an investigational new drug application (IND) and the submission of a new drug application (NDA) or biologics license application (BLA). The guidance is intended to provide information on internationally accepted recommendations for nonclinical studies to facilitate the development of anticancer pharmaceuticals.

  9. 78 FR 37231 - Guidance for Industry; Guidance on Abbreviated New Drug Applications: Stability Testing of Drug...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-20

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Industry; Guidance on Abbreviated New Drug... the availability of a guidance for industry entitled ``ANDAs: Stability Testing of Drug Substances and... generic drug review, FDA is recommending that the generic drug industry follow the approach in...

  10. Guidance for evidence-informed policies about health systems: rationale for and challenges of guidance development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Bosch-Capblanch

    Full Text Available In the first paper in a three-part series on health systems guidance, Xavier Bosch-Capblanch and colleagues examine how guidance is currently formulated in low- and middle-income countries, and the challenges to developing such guidance.

  11. (Biological dosimetry)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preston, R.J.

    1990-12-17

    The traveler attended the 1st International Conference on Biological Dosimetry in Madrid, Spain. This conference was organized to provide information to a general audience of biologists, physicists, radiotherapists, industrial hygiene personnel and individuals from related fields on the current ability of cytogenetic analysis to provide estimates of radiation dose in cases of occupational or environmental exposure. There is a growing interest in Spain in biological dosimetry because of the increased use of radiation sources for medical and occupational uses, and with this the anticipated and actual increase in numbers of overexposure. The traveler delivered the introductory lecture on Biological Dosimetry: Mechanistic Concepts'' that was intended to provide a framework by which the more applied lectures could be interpreted in a mechanistic way. A second component of the trip was to provide advice with regard to several recent cases of overexposure that had been or were being assessed by the Radiopathology and Radiotherapy Department of the Hospital General Gregorio Maranon'' in Madrid. The traveler had provided information on several of these, and had analyzed cells from some exposed or purportedly exposed individuals. The members of the biological dosimetry group were referred to individuals at REACTS at Oak Ridge Associated Universities for advice on follow-up treatment.

  12. 75 FR 32493 - NUREG-0654/FEMA-REP-, Rev. 1, Supplement 3, Guidance for Protective Action Recommendations for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-08

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency NUREG-0654/FEMA-REP-, Rev. 1, Supplement 3, Guidance for... be held to discuss the proposed Supplement 3 to NUREG-0654/FEMA-REP-1, Rev.1, Guidance for Protective Action Recommendations for General Emergencies (NUREG Supp 3). NUREG Supp 3 addresses onsite and...

  13. 75 FR 27840 - NUREG-0654/FEMA-REP-1, Rev. 1, Supplement 3, Guidance for Protective Action Recommendations for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-18

    ...: 2010-11842] NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [NRC-2010-0080] NUREG-0654/FEMA-REP-1, Rev. 1, Supplement 3...: ``NUREG-0654/FEMA-REP-1, Rev. 1, Supplement 3, Guidance for Protective Action Recommendations for General... the existing guidance contained in Supplement 3 to NUREG- 0654/FEMA-REP-1, Rev. 1, ``Criteria...

  14. Generalized adjoint systems

    CERN Document Server

    Serakos, Demetrios

    2015-01-01

    This book defines and develops the generalized adjoint of an input-output system. It is the result of a theoretical development and examination of the generalized adjoint concept and the conditions under which systems analysis using adjoints is valid. Results developed in this book are useful aids for the analysis and modeling of physical systems, including the development of guidance and control algorithms and in developing simulations. The generalized adjoint system is defined and is patterned similarly to adjoints of bounded linear transformations. Next the elementary properties of the generalized adjoint system are derived. For a space of input-output systems, a generalized adjoint map from this space of systems to the space of generalized adjoints is defined. Then properties of the generalized adjoint map are derived. Afterward the author demonstrates that the inverse of an input-output system may be represented in terms of the generalized adjoint. The use of generalized adjoints to determine bounds for ...

  15. International Conference on Harmonisation; guidance on S7A safety pharmacology studies for human pharmaceuticals; availability. Notice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-07-13

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of a guidance entitled "S7A Safety Pharmacology Studies for Human Pharmaceuticals." The guidance was prepared under the auspices of the International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH). The guidance provides a definition, general principles, and recommendations for the nonclinical safety pharmacology studies. The guidance is intended to help protect clinical trial participants and patients receiving marketed products from potential adverse effects of pharmaceuticals, while avoiding unnecessary use of animals and other resources.

  16. Driving change : sustainable development action plans Guidance

    OpenAIRE

    Sustainable Development Commission

    2008-01-01

    This guidance builds upon the Sustainable Development Commission’s previous guidance, Getting Started (August 2005), which set out the basic elements that the Sustainable Development Commission would expect to see in a good Sustainable Development Action Plan. Publisher PDF Original published August 2005.

  17. Minimum variation guidance laws for interceptor missiles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weiss, M.; Shima, T.

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces a new approach to guidance law design using linear quadratic optimal control theory, minimizing throughout the engagement the variation of the control input as well as the integral control effort. The guidance law is derived for arbitrary order missile dynamics and target maneu

  18. Career Guidance and Public Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    Career guidance may have the potential to promote public health by contributing positively to both the prevention of mental health conditions and to population level well-being. The policy implications of this possibility have received little attention. Career guidance agencies are well placed to reach key target groups. Producing persuasive…

  19. 75 FR 53023 - Sound Incentive Compensation Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-30

    ... principles and the guidance are consistent with the Principles for Sound Compensation Practices adopted by... of Management and Budget (OMB) for review, as required by the Paperwork Reduction Act. Today, OTS is.... Description: The guidance is based on three key principles that are designed to ensure that incentive...

  20. Driving change : sustainable development action plans Guidance

    OpenAIRE

    Sustainable Development Commission

    2008-01-01

    This guidance builds upon the Sustainable Development Commission’s previous guidance, Getting Started (August 2005), which set out the basic elements that the Sustainable Development Commission would expect to see in a good Sustainable Development Action Plan. Publisher PDF Original published August 2005.

  1. Relatoría general de relación entre historia, epistemología y enseñanza de la biología

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús David Perilla

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available El equipo conformado por Maira Zulied Andrade Otálora, Luz Edith Narváez Chamorro, Glidian Carolina Dussan Petevi, Elkin Aguilar Fonseca, Santiago Guevara Garzón, Jesús David Perilla Nieves y Alix Dayanna Quiroga León, trabajó en la temática “relación entre historia, epistemología y enseñanza de la biología” durante los tres días, del III congreso nacional de investigación en enseñanza de la biología – VIII encuentro nacional de experiencias en enseñanza de la biología y de la educación ambiental.

  2. Promoting an active form of learning out-of-class via answering online “study questions” leads to higher than expected exam scores in General Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan I. Gibson

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A rising need for workers in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM fields has fueled interest in improving teaching within STEM disciplines. Numerous studies have demonstrated the benefits of active learning approaches on student learning outcomes. However, many of these studies have been conducted in experimental, rather than real-life class, settings. In addition, most of these studies have focused on in-class active learning exercises. This study tested the effects of answering questions outside of class on exam performance for General Biology students at the University of Minnesota. An online database of 1,020 multiple-choice questions covering material from the first half of the course was generated. Students in seven course sections (with an average of ∼265 students per section were given unlimited access to the online study questions. These students made extensive use of the online questions, with students answering an average of 1,323 questions covering material from the half of the semester for which the questions were available. After students answered a set of questions, they were shown the correct answers for those questions. More specific feedback describing how to arrive at the correct answer was provided for the 73% of the questions for which the correct answers were not deemed to be self-explanatory. The extent to which access to the online study questions improved student learning outcomes was assessed by comparing the performance on exam questions of students in the seven course sections with access to the online study questions with the performance of students in course sections without access to the online study questions. Student performance was analyzed for a total of 89 different exams questions that were not included in the study questions, but that covered the same material covered by the study questions. Each of these 89 questions was used on one to five exams given to students in course sections that

  3. Space shuttle guidance, navigation, and control design equations. Volume 3: Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    Space shuttle guidance, navigation, and control design equations are presented. The space-shuttle mission includes three relatively distinct guidance phases which are discussed; atmospheric boost, which is characterized by an adaptive guidance law; extra-atmospheric activities; and re-entry activities, where aerodynamic surfaces are the principal effectors. Guidance tasks include pre-maneuver targeting and powered flight guidance, where powered flight is defined to include the application of aerodynamic forces as well as thruster forces. A flow chart which follows guidance activities throughout the mission from the pre-launch phase through touchdown is presented. The main guidance programs and subroutines used in each phase of a typical rendezvous mission are listed. Detailed software requirements are also presented.

  4. Environmental Management Long-Term Stewardship Transition Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kristofferson, Keith

    2001-11-01

    Long-term stewardship consists of those actions necessary to maintain and demonstrate continued protection of human health and the environment after the completion of facility cleanup. Long-term stewardship is administered and overseen by the U.S. Department of Energy Environmental Management Office of Science and Technology. This report describes the background of long-term stewardship and gives general guidance about considerations when ownership and/or responsibility of a site should be transferred to a long-term stewardship program. This guidance document will assist the U.S. Department of Energy in: (a) ensuring that the long-term stewardship program leads transition planning with respect to facility and site areas, and (b) describing the classes and types of criteria and data required to initiate transition for areas and sites where the facility mission has ended and cleanup is complete.

  5. 76 FR 63676 - Final Division of Safety Systems Interim Staff Guidance DSS-ISG-2010-01: Staff Guidance Regarding...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-13

    ... COMMISSION Final Division of Safety Systems Interim Staff Guidance DSS-ISG- 2010-01: Staff Guidance Regarding... final Division of Safety Systems Interim Staff Guidance, (DSS-ISG) DSS- ISG-2010-01, ``Staff Guidance... guidance to the NRC staff reviewer to address the increased complexity of recent spent fuel pool...

  6. Optofluidic control of axonal guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Ling; Ordonez, Simon; Black, Bryan; Mohanty, Samarendra K.

    2013-03-01

    Significant efforts are being made for control on axonal guidance due to its importance in nerve regeneration and in the formation of functional neuronal circuitry in-vitro. These include several physical (topographic modification, optical force, and electric field), chemical (surface functionalization cues) and hybrid (electro-chemical, photochemical etc) methods. Here, we report comparison of the effect of linear flow versus microfluidic flow produced by an opticallydriven micromotor in guiding retinal ganglion axons. A circularly polarized laser tweezers was used to hold, position and spin birefringent calcite particle near growth cone, which in turn resulted in microfluidic flow. The flow rate and resulting shear-force on axons could be controlled by a varying the power of the laser tweezers beam. The calcite particles were placed separately in one chamber and single particle was transported through microfluidic channel to another chamber containing the retina explant. In presence of flow, the turning of axons was found to strongly correlate with the direction of flow. Turning angle as high as 90° was achieved. Optofluidic-manipulation can be applied to other types of mammalian neurons and also can be extended to stimulate mechano-sensing neurons.

  7. Augmented Reality Repair Guidance System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidharth Bhatia

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The daily life of a common man revolves around various forms of appliances/gadgets he uses throughout the day such as a mobile phone, laptop, printer, microwave oven, washing machine, etc. Although these appliances/gadgets are taken by most of the people for granted, the problem occurs when any of these things do not work as they are expected to. Getting them to the repair shops for every small glitch is expensive as well as time consuming. Although most of the companies which produce these appliances/gadgets do supply them with basic manuals, which deal with how to solve these minor issues, but reading them and at the same time repairing the corresponding appliance/gadget can be a frustrating task at times. These problems can be reduced to a large extent if some kind of live guidance is available. In this paper we propose a method to do so with the help of an augmented reality based system that will guide the user to carry out small scale repair jobs on these gadgets. All that is required is a decent webcam and a computing device, with a processor of 1 GHz or more and a display screen.

  8. 77 FR 71194 - Draft Guidance for Industry: Preclinical Assessment of Investigational Cellular and Gene Therapy...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-29

    ... Investigational Cellular and Gene Therapy Products; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION... for Biologics Research and Evaluation (CBER), Office of Cellular, Tissue, and Gene Therapies (OCTGT). The product areas covered by this guidance are cellular therapy, gene therapy, therapeutic...

  9. 75 FR 35493 - Guidance for Industry on Systemic Lupus Erythematosus-Developing Medical Products for Treatment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-22

    ... Systemic Lupus Erythematosus--Developing Medical Products for Treatment; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug... availability of a guidance for industry entitled ``Systemic Lupus Erythematosus--Developing Medical Products..., therapeutic biological products, and medical devices for the treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE...

  10. 78 FR 24211 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Safety Considerations for Container Labels and Carton Labeling...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-24

    ... Container Labels and Carton Labeling Design To Minimize Medication Errors; Availability AGENCY: Food and... the availability of a draft guidance for industry entitled ``Safety Considerations for Container... aspects of the container label and carton labeling design for prescription drug and biological...

  11. 78 FR 7784 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Enrichment Strategies for Clinical Trials To Support Approval of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-04

    ... Clinical Trials To Support Approval of Human Drugs and Biological Products; Extension of Comment Period... entitled ``Enrichment Strategies for Clinical Trials to Support Approval of Human Drugs and Biological... guidance to industry on enrichment strategies that can be used in clinical trials intended to...

  12. 78 FR 54949 - Major Project Financial Plan Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-06

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Highway Administration Major Project Financial Plan Guidance AGENCY: Federal Highway... Major Project Financial Plan Guidance outlining the procedures the FHWA will follow when reviewing and approving Financial Plans. The proposed Major Project Financial Plan Guidance incorporates changes required...

  13. MGR COMPLIANCE PROGRAM GUIDANCE PACKAGE FOR RADIATION PROTECTION EQUIPMENT, INSTRUMENTATION AND FACILITIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N/A

    2000-02-01

    This Compliance Program Guidance Package identifies the regulatory guidance and industry codes and standards addressing radiation protection equipment, instrumentation, and support facilities considered to be appropriate for radiation protection at the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). Included are considerations relevant to radiation monitoring instruments, calibration, contamination control and decontamination, respiratory protection equipment, and general radiation protection facilities. The scope of this Guidance Package does not include design guidance relevant to criticality monitoring, area radiation monitoring, effluent monitoring, and airborne radioactivity monitoring systems since they are considered to be the topics of specific design and construction requirements (i.e., ''fixed'' or ''built-in'' systems). This Guidance Package does not address radiation protection design issues; it addresses the selection and calibration of radiation monitoring instrumentation to the extent that the guidance is relevant to the operational radiation protection program. Radon and radon progeny monitoring instrumentation is not included in the Guidance Package since such naturally occurring radioactive materials do not fall within the NRC's jurisdiction at the MGR.

  14. 18 CFR Appendix A to Part 2 - Guidance for Determining the Acceptable Construction Area for Replacements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Guidance for Determining the Acceptable Construction Area for Replacements A Appendix A to Part 2 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES GENERAL...

  15. A small-gain method for integrated guidance and control in terminal phase of reentry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Han; Tan, Shuping; He, Yingzi

    2017-03-01

    The guidance and control systems of reentry vehicles are usually designed separately and then integrated, but the scheme can be argued that synergistic relationships between the two subsystems are not fully exploited. In order to improve the performance of reusable launch vehicles (RLVs), this paper proposes an integrated guidance and control law for approach and landing of a RLV. According to the idea of reference-trajectory guidance, the angle of attack and bank angle commands are designed using sliding mode control (SMC) method to make the reference-trajectory tacking error converge into a small neighborhood of zero. An integrated guidance and control (IGC) law is developed utilizing generalized small-gain theorem to enforce the commands, and theoretical analysis shows that the law can guarantee the stability of the overall system. The Monte Carlo simulation confirms the effectiveness of the proposed design approach.

  16. Integrated Entry Guidance for Reusable Launch Vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NING Guo-dong; ZHANG Shu-guang; FANG Zhen-ping

    2007-01-01

    A method for the implementation of integrated three-degree-of-freedom constrained entry guidance for reusable launch vehicle is presented. Given any feasible entry conditions, terminal area energy management interface conditions, and the reference trajectory generated onboard then, the method can generate a longitudinal guidance profile rapidly, featuring linear quadratic regular method and a proportional-integral-derivative tracking law with time-varying gains, which satisfies all the entry corridor constraints and meets the requirements with high precision. Afterwards, by utilizing special features of crossrange parameter, establishing bank-reversal corridor,and determining bank-reversals according to dynamically adjusted method, the algorithm enables the lateral entry guidance system to fly a wide range of missions and provides reliable and good performance in the presence of significant aerodynamic modeling uncertainty.Fast trajectory guidance profiles and simulations with a reusable launch vehicle model for various missions and aerodynamic uncertainties are presented to demonstrate the capacity and reliability of this method.

  17. Optimal guidance for the space shuttle transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stengel, R. F.

    1974-01-01

    A guidance method for the space shuttle's transition from hypersonic entry to subsonic cruising flight is presented. The method evolves from a numerical trajectory optimization technique in which kinetic energy and total energy (per unit weight) replace velocity and time in the dynamic equations. This allows the open end-time problem to be transformed to one of fixed terminal energy. In its ultimate form, E-Guidance obtains energy balance (including dynamic-pressure-rate damping) and path length control by angle-of-attack modulation and cross-range control by roll angle modulation. The guidance functions also form the basis for a pilot display of instantaneous maneuver limits and destination. Numerical results illustrate the E-Guidance concept and the optimal trajectories on which it is based.

  18. RCRA Programmatic Information Policy and Guidance

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This asset includes program policy and guidance documents that are used by the EPA regions, states, tribes and private parties to implement the hazardous waste...

  19. Tests and Guidance: What Students Need.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumboltz, John D.

    1982-01-01

    Innovations in testing and guidance which can integrate assessment to facilitate learning, help develop practical wisdom in behavior, and correct students' faulty cognitions in career decisions are described. (CM)

  20. Beyond Black: An Alternative to Ethnocentric Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Robert C.

    1977-01-01

    This article is a clarification of the author's personal philosophy in the guidance and counseling of youth and adults, and clarification of commonalities that form the raison d'etre of all student personnel services. (Author)

  1. Much more than just another guidance document.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, K

    2016-11-01

    As a pediatric hematologist oncologist with clinical and research interests in thrombosis in high-risk pediatric populations, and also as a member of the ISTH Early Career Task Force, I had the opportunity to develop a guidance document on 'Thromboprophylaxis for central venous catheters in the pediatric population' for the 'Guidelines and Guidance Documents' committee. In this communication, I share my experiences to date; I discuss my excitement and initial success, the steep learning curve required to build research acumen, the lessons learnt, and the opportunities and challenges faced. My experience with preparing the guidance document was much more than writing 'just another guidance document'. © 2016 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

  2. GROUP GUIDANCE SERVICES MANAGEMENT OF BEHAVIORAL TECHNIC HOMEWORK MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juhri A M.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This simple paper describes the implementation of management guidance service groups using the model home visits behavioral techniques (behavior technic homework. The ideas outlined in this paper are intended to add insight for counselors in the management of the implementation of counseling services group that carried out effectively. This simple paper is expected to be used as reference studies in theoretical matters relating to the management guidance services group, for counselors to students both need guidance services and those who passively as they face various problems difficulties martial jar and obstacles in the achievement of learning , In general, this study aims to provide insight in particular in the development of social skills for students, especially the ability to communicate with the participants of the service (students more While specifically to encourage the development of feelings, thoughts, perceptions, insights and attitudes that support embodiments behavior Iebih creative and effective in improving communication skills both verbal and non-verbal for students. Keyword: counselor, counseling, group, student

  3. A Review on Role of Prakruti in Vocational Guidance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemangini Waghulade

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Ayurved is an eternal science with sound & absolute principles. Prakruti is an important concept of Ayurveda & plays a very important role in the designing lifestyle of a person for maintenance of health. At the time of union of sperm & ovum, predominance of trigunas, panchamahabhutas & doshas decide the prakruti or constitution of every individual. Once this proportion is set, generally it remains permanent for the lifetime of that individual. Vocational exploration courses offer students the opportunity to research different career possibilities as well as to learn in which vocational areas they have aptitude or talent in. By knowing the prakruti of a particular person, we can get an appropriate idea about his likings or the things he is comfortable with. So, we can guide the person in choosing appropriate profession which will be according to his liking or passion & also he will have the ability to become successful in that particular profession. Through this article, I have made an attempt to evaluate the interrelationship between prakruti & vocational guidance. From this study, I conclude that all the physiological processes are directly controlled by tridosha and thus by the predominant dosha in a particular type of prakriti. Vocational guidance is closely related with prakriti. This conceptual study will be helpful in various vocational guidance centers & also in assigning a particular designation to an employee based on his ability.

  4. Guidance for package approvals in the United Kingdom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgan-Warren, E. [Radioactive Materials Transport Div., Dept. for Transport, London (United Kingdom)

    2004-07-01

    Approval is required under the transport regulations for a wide range of package designs and operations, and applications for competent authority approval and validation are received from many sources, both in the United Kingdom and overseas. To assist package designers and applicants for approval, and to promote consistency in applications and their assessment, the UK Department for Transport issues guidance on the interpretation of the transport regulations and the requirements of an application for approval and its supporting safety case. The general guidance document, known as the ''Guide to an Application for UK Competent Authority Approval of Radioactive Material in Transport'', has been issued for many years and updated to encompass the provisions of each successive edition of the IAEA transport regulations. The Guide has been referred to in a number of international fora, including PATRAM, and was cited as a ''Good Practice'' in the report of the IAEA TRANSAS Appraisal of the UK in 2002. Specialist guides include the Guide to the Suitability of Elastomeric Seal Materials, which is the subject of a separate paper in this conference, and the Guide to the Approval of Freight Containers as Types IP-2 and IP-3 Packages. This paper discusses the guidance material and summarises the administrative and technical information required in support of applications for approval of package designs, special form and low dispersible radioactive materials, shipments, special arrangements, modifications and validations.

  5. A semi-analytical guidance algorithm for autonomous landing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunghi, Paolo; Lavagna, Michèle; Armellin, Roberto

    2015-06-01

    One of the main challenges posed by the next space systems generation is the high level of autonomy they will require. Hazard Detection and Avoidance is a key technology in this context. An adaptive guidance algorithm for landing that updates the trajectory to the surface by means of an optimal control problem solving is here presented. A semi-analytical approach is proposed. The trajectory is expressed in a polynomial form of minimum order to satisfy a set of boundary constraints derived from initial and final states and attitude requirements. By imposing boundary conditions, a fully determined guidance profile is obtained, function of a restricted set of parameters. The guidance computation is reduced to the determination of these parameters in order to satisfy path constraints and other additional constraints not implicitly satisfied by the polynomial formulation. The algorithm is applied to two different scenarios, a lunar landing and an asteroidal landing, to highlight its general validity. An extensive Monte Carlo test campaign is conducted to verify the versatility of the algorithm in realistic cases, by the introduction of attitude control systems, thrust modulation, and navigation errors. The proposed approach proved to be flexible and accurate, granting a precision of a few meters at touchdown.

  6. ROUTE PLAN DESIGNER FOR TRACTOR GUIDANCE SYSTEMS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sveistrup, Daniel; Jørgensen, Rasmus Nyholm; Green, Ole

    2010-01-01

    Earlier works have shown field trial designs to be very labor extensive, even when combining autoguidancesystems with conventional machinery.Designing routes for semi-automated systems in a controlled manner is both resource demandingand complicated. Different types of auto-guidance systems vary...... was outlined, it took less thanone hour entering the design into the software and generating the auto-guidance files.KeywordsGIS, Auto steering systems, plot trial design, full-scale field trials, Java...

  7. Ergonomic concerns with lightbar guidance displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ima, C S; Mann, D D

    2004-05-01

    This article reviews some ergonomic factors associated with agricultural guidance displays. Any technology or management decision that improves the efficiency of an agricultural operation can be considered an aspect of precision farming. Agricultural guidance displays are one such tool because they help to reduce guidance error (i.e., skipping and overlapping of implements within the field), which result in improper application of crop inputs at increased cost. Although each of the guidance displays currently available functions using a different principle, their key objective is to communicate useful guidance information to the operator of the agricultural machine. The case with which the operator obtains the required information depends on a number of ergonomic factors, such as color perceptibility, flash rate, attentional demand, display size, viewing distance, and height of placement of the display in the cab. Ergonomics can be defined as the application of knowledge to create a safe, comfortable, and effective work environment. Consequently, it is critical to consider ergonomics when designing guidance displays or when locating a display in the tractor cab. Without considering ergonomics, it is unlikely that the efficiency of the human-machine system can be optimized.

  8. Guidance for training program evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-01-01

    An increased concern about the training of nuclear reactor operators resulted from the incident at TMI-2 in 1979. Purpose of this guide is to provide a general framework for the systematic evaluation of training programs for DOE Category-A reactors. The primary goal of such evaluations is to promote continuing quality improvements in the selection, training and qualification programs.

  9. 生物危机应对方略: 澳大利亚的经验%General tackling plan of the biological crisis: Experience of Australia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘静坤

    2005-01-01

    @@ "生物危机"(biological emergency)具有如下特征:生物危机在整个生物系统内部很少发生,并且经常由某种生物引发;生物危机具有快速从最初感染区域扩散的可能性公众经常对该生物媒介并不知悉,因此,处置工作人员总是无所适从;生物危机的扩散不仅可能具有地域性,而且可能具有时间上的连续性.

  10. An On-Campus Botanical Tour to Promote Student Satisfaction and Learning in a University Level Biodiversity or General Biology Course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harish H. Ratnayaka

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Outdoor, hands-on and experiential learning, as opposed to instruction-based learning in classroom, increases student satisfaction and motivation leading to a deeper understanding of the subject. However, the use of outdoor exercises in undergraduate biology courses is declining due to a variety of constraints. Thus, the goal of this paper is to describe a convenient, no-cost and flexible exercise using an on-campus botanical tour for strengthening specific knowledge areas of major plant groups. Its assessment on conduct and coverage, and student-perceived and actual knowledge gain is also described. Data presented derived from traditional biology undergraduates in sophomore year over nine fall and three spring semesters. Conduct and coverage was assessed using a summative survey including open-ended questions administered to 198 students. A pre- and post-exercise survey addressing 10 knowledge categories was administered to 139 students to evaluate student-perceived knowledge gain. Quiz grades from the on-campus tour exercise were compared with average quiz grades from two in-class plant-related labs of 234 students to assess actual knowledge gain. Each student reporting on the conduct and coverage indicated either one or a combination of outcomes of the exercise as positive engagement, experiential learning, or of interest. Student-perceived improvement was evident in all ten knowledge categories with a greater improvement in categories learned anew during exercise compared to subjects reviewed. Quiz grades from the exercise were >11% greater than quiz grades from the two in-class plant-related labs. Active learning with interest likely contributed to the increased perceived and actual knowledge gains. Suggestions for adoption of the exercise in different settings are presented based on both student comments and instructor’s experience.

  11. E2C(R2) Periodic Benefit-Risk Evaluation Report and E2C(R2) Periodic Benefit-Risk Evaluation Report--Questions and Answers; International Council for Harmonisation; Guidances for Industry; Availability. Notice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-19

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or Agency) is announcing the availability of guidances for industry entitled ``E2C(R2) Periodic Benefit-Risk Evaluation'' (E2C(R2) guidance) and ``E2C(R2) Periodic Benefit-Risk Evaluation Report--Questions and Answers'' (E2C(R2) Q&A guidance). These guidances were prepared under the auspices of the International Council for Harmonisation (ICH), formerly the International Conference on Harmonisation. The E2C(R2) draft guidance, issued April 11, 2012, updated and combined two ICH guidances, ``E2C Clinical Safety Data Management: Periodic Safety Update Reports for Marketed Drugs'' (E2C guidance) and ``Addendum to E2C Clinical Safety Data Management: Periodic Safety Update Reports for Marketed Drugs'' (addendum to the E2C guidance). The E2C(R2) guidance is intended to describe the format, content, and timing of a Periodic Benefit-Risk Evaluation Report (PBRER) for an approved drug or biologic, and it finalizes the draft guidance. The E2C(R2) Q&A guidance is a supplementary guidance that is intended to clarify key issues in the E2C(R2) guidance.

  12. The Development of a Lifelong Guidance System in Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, A. G.; Borbely-Pecze, Bors Tibor

    2011-01-01

    The development of a lifelong guidance system in Hungary Systematic work is currently being undertaken in Hungary to develop a lifelong guidance system, in line with principles outlined by leading international organisations. The origins of career guidance in Hungary, and the nature of the current career guidance system, are outlined. The main…

  13. The voice of users in adult career guidance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plant, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Is the voice of users heard in adult career guidance? Pan-Nordic Research shows that users are seen as recipients rather than agents i adult career guidance.......Is the voice of users heard in adult career guidance? Pan-Nordic Research shows that users are seen as recipients rather than agents i adult career guidance....

  14. Constituent Aspects of Workplace Guidance in Secondary VET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swager, Robert; Klarus, Ruud; van Merriënboer, Jeroen J. G.; Nieuwenhuis, Loek F. M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to present an integrated model of workplace guidance to enhance awareness of what constitutes good guidance, to improve workplace guidance practices in vocational education and training. Design/methodology/approach: To identify constituent aspects of workplace guidance, a systematic search of Web of Science was conducted,…

  15. The voice of users in adult career guidance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plant, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Is the voice of users heard in adult career guidance? Pan-Nordic Research shows that users are seen as recipients rather than agents i adult career guidance.......Is the voice of users heard in adult career guidance? Pan-Nordic Research shows that users are seen as recipients rather than agents i adult career guidance....

  16. Non-Participation in Guidance: An Opportunity for Development?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, Rie

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses how new opportunities for guidance can emerge from an analysis of the interplay between the participation (or lack of participation) of the individuals in career guidance, and the career guidance practitioner's response. The article suggests critical psychology as a framework for career guidance research and presents…

  17. The Development of a Lifelong Guidance System in Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, A. G.; Borbely-Pecze, Bors Tibor

    2011-01-01

    The development of a lifelong guidance system in Hungary Systematic work is currently being undertaken in Hungary to develop a lifelong guidance system, in line with principles outlined by leading international organisations. The origins of career guidance in Hungary, and the nature of the current career guidance system, are outlined. The main…

  18. Risk Management Concepts and Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-03-01

    and Information Processing Under Various Uncertainty Conditions," Bowling Green State University. 81. DeGroot , M.H., Optimal Statisitical Decisions...Journal, Vol. 14, No. 4, 1978, pp. 12-17. 243. Morehouse, W., "Progress in Resources Planning Through PERT," General Electric Co.. 1960. 244. Morris , J.M...34, 1987, John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Atzinger, E.M. et al, Compendium on Risk Analysis Techniques, DARCOM Material Sys- DeGroot , M.H., "Optimal Statistical

  19. Marine biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thurman, H.V.; Webber, H.H.

    1984-01-01

    This book discusses both taxonomic and ecological topics on marine biology. Full coverage of marine organisms of all five kingdoms is provided, along with interesting and thorough discussion of all major marine habitats. Organization into six major parts allows flexibility. It also provides insight into important topics such as disposal of nuclear waste at sea, the idea that life began on the ocean floor, and how whales, krill, and people interact. A full-color photo chapter reviews questions, and exercises. The contents are: an overview marine biology: fundamental concepts/investigating life in the ocean; the physical ocean, the ocean floor, the nature of water, the nature and motion of ocean water; general ecology, conditions for life in the sea, biological productivity and energy transfer; marine organisms; monera, protista, mycota and metaphyta; the smaller marine animals, the large animals marine habitats, the intertidal zone/benthos of the continental shelf, the photic zone, the deep ocean, the ocean under stress, marine pollution, appendix a: the metric system and conversion factors/ appendix b: prefixes and suffixes/ appendix c: taxonomic classification of common marine organisms, and glossary, and index.

  20. Launch flexibility using NLP guidance and remote wind sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Evin J.; Bradt, Jerre E.; Hardtla, John W.

    1990-01-01

    This paper examines the use of lidar wind measurements in the implementation of a guidance strategy for a nonlinear programming (NLP) launch guidance algorithm. The NLP algorithm uses B-spline command function representation for flexibility in the design of the guidance steering commands. Using this algorithm, the guidance system solves a two-point boundary value problem at each guidance update. The specification of different boundary value problems at each guidance update provides flexibility that can be used in the design of the guidance strategy. The algorithm can use lidar wind measurements for on pad guidance retargeting and for load limiting guidance steering commands. Examples presented in the paper use simulated wind updates to correct wind induced final orbit errors and to adjust the guidance steering commands to limit the product of the dynamic pressure and angle-of-attack for launch vehicle load alleviation.

  1. Raising the Profile of Career Guidance: Educational and Vocational Guidance Practitioner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiebert, Bryan

    2009-01-01

    In 2007 the International Association for Educational and Vocational Guidance (IAEVG) launched the Educational and Vocational Guidance Practitioner credential (EVGP) as one means of formally acknowledging the knowledge, skills, and personal attributes that practitioners need in order to provide quality career development services to clients. This…

  2. Guidance Trade-off for Aerocapture Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernis, P.; Gelly, G.; Ferreira, E.; da Costa, R.; Ortega, G.

    In the very late 90's, EADS-ST began home funded studies on aerocapture problems. The objectives of these studies were at that time to prepare a possible cooperation within the NASA/Cnes MSR-Orbiter program by investigating this new orbital insertion technique studying different algorithmic solutions from a guidance point of view. According to these preliminary studies, EADS-ST was retained in 2002 by ESA to study insertion techniques such as aerocapture, aero-gravity assist or aerobraking techniques within the frame of Technological Research Program able to bring solutions to Aurora program. In the frame of the ATPE (Aeroassist Technologies for Planetary Exploration) TRP program, EADS-ST, led by Astrium-Gmbh (now part of EADS-ST), developed and implemented an efficient and simple guidance scheme able to cope with mission requirements for aerocapture on Mars, Venus or the Earth: the Feedback Trajectory Control, or FTC. The development of this guidance scheme was made according to a preliminary trade-off analysis using different guidance schemes. Among those ones was an original predictor-corrector guidance scheme, already analyzed within the frame of the MSR-O mission. But, the FTC algoritm was prefered because of its good results and high simplicity. This paper presents an upgrade of the original Apoapsis Predictor, or AP, with the improvement of its robustness woth respect to off-nomonal flight conditions and its process simplification. A new trade-off analysis is then detailed on a Mars Sample return mission.

  3. Measuring Integrated Socioemotional Guidance at School: Factor Structure and Reliability of the Socioemotional Guidance Questionnaire (SEG-Q)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Karen; Struyf, Elke

    2013-01-01

    Socioemotional guidance of students has recently become an integral part of education, however no instrument exists to measure integrated socioemotional guidance. This study therefore examines the factor structure and reliability of the Socioemotional Guidance Questionnaire. Psychometric properties of the Socioemotional Guidance Questionnaire and…

  4. 78 FR 48201 - Japan Lessons-Learned Project Directorate Interim Staff Guidance JLD-ISG-2013-01; Guidance for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-07

    ... COMMISSION Japan Lessons-Learned Project Directorate Interim Staff Guidance JLD-ISG-2013-01; Guidance for... Lessons-Learned Project Directorate Interim Staff Guidance (JLD-ISG), JLD-ISG-2013-01, ``Guidance for... to http://www.nrc.gov/reading-rm/doc-collections/isg/japan-lessons-learned.html and refer to...

  5. Bio-Inspired Principles Applied to the Guidance, Navigation and Control of UAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reuben Strydom

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This review describes a number of biologically inspired principles that have been applied to the visual guidance, navigation and control of Unmanned Aerial System (UAS. The current limitations of UAS systems are outlined, such as the over-reliance on GPS, the requirement for more self-reliant systems and the need for UAS to have a greater understanding of their environment. It is evident that insects, even with their small brains and limited intelligence, have overcome many of the shortcomings of the current state of the art in autonomous aerial guidance. This has motivated research into bio-inspired systems and algorithms, specifically vision-based navigation, situational awareness and guidance.

  6. Portuguese Recommendations for the use of biological therapies in patients with rheumatoid arthritis- 2016 update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catia Duarte

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To update the recommendations for the treatment of Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA with biological therapies, endorsed by the Portuguese Society of Rheumatology (SPR. Methods: These treatment recommendations were formulated by Portuguese rheumatologists based on literature evidence and consensus opinion. At a national meeting the 10 recommendations were discussed and updated. The document resulting from this meeting circulated to all Portuguese rheumatologists, who anonymously voted online on the level of agreement with the recommendations. Results: These recommendations cover general aspects as shared decision, prospective registry in Reuma.pt, assessment of activity and RA impact and treatment objective. Consensus was also achieved regarding specific aspects as initiation of biologic therapy, assessment of response, switching and definition of persistent remission. Conclusion: These recommendations may be used for guidance of treatment with biological therapies in patients with RA. As more evidence becomes available and more therapies are licensed, these recommendations will be updated.

  7. Guidance for industry: patient-reported outcome measures: use in medical product development to support labeling claims: draft guidance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This guidance describes how the FDA evaluates patient-reported outcome (PRO instruments used as effectiveness endpoints in clinical trials. It also describes our current thinking on how sponsors can develop and use study results measured by PRO instruments to support claims in approved product labeling (see appendix point 1. It does not address the use of PRO instruments for purposes beyond evaluation of claims made about a drug or medical product in its labeling. By explicitly addressing the review issues identified in this guidance, sponsors can increase the efficiency of their endpoint discussions with the FDA during the product development process, streamline the FDA's review of PRO endpoint adequacy, and provide optimal information about the patient's perspective of treatment benefit at the time of product approval. A PRO is a measurement of any aspect of a patient's health status that comes directly from the patient (i.e., without the interpretation of the patient's responses by a physician or anyone else. In clinical trials, a PRO instrument can be used to measure the impact of an intervention on one or more aspects of patients' health status, hereafter referred to as PRO concepts, ranging from the purely symptomatic (response of a headache to more complex concepts (e.g., ability to carry out activities of daily living, to extremely complex concepts such as quality of life, which is widely understood to be a multidomain concept with physical, psychological, and social components. Data generated by a PRO instrument can provide evidence of a treatment benefit from the patient perspective. For this data to be meaningful, however, there should be evidence that the PRO instrument effectively measures the particular concept that is studied. Generally, findings measured by PRO instruments may be used to support claims in approved product labeling if the claims are derived from adequate and well-controlled investigations that use PRO

  8. Automatic Navigation for Rat-Robots with Modeling of the Human Guidance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chao Sun; Nenggan Zheng; Xinlu Zhang; Weidong Chen; Xiaoxiang Zheng

    2013-01-01

    A bio-robot system refers to an animal equipped with Brain-Computer Interface (BCI),through which the outer stimulation is delivered directly into the animal's brain to control its behaviors.The development ofbio-robots suffers from the dependency on real-time guidance by human operators.Because of its inherent difficulties,there is no feasible method for automatic controlling of bio-robots yet.In this paper,we propose a new method to realize the automatic navigation for bio-robots.A General Regression Neural Network (GRNN) is adopted to analyze and model the controlling procedure of human operations.Comparing to the traditional approaches with explicit controlling rules,our algorithm learns the controlling process and imitates the decision-making of human-beings to steer the rat-robot automatically.In real-time navigation experiments,our method successfully controls bio-robots to follow given paths automatically and precisely.This work would be significant for future applications of bio-robots and provide a new way to realize hybrid intelligent systems with artificial intelligence and natural biological intelligence combined together.

  9. Chance-Constrained Guidance With Non-Convex Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Masahiro

    2011-01-01

    Missions to small bodies, such as comets or asteroids, require autonomous guidance for descent to these small bodies. Such guidance is made challenging by uncertainty in the position and velocity of the spacecraft, as well as the uncertainty in the gravitational field around the small body. In addition, the requirement to avoid collision with the asteroid represents a non-convex constraint that means finding the optimal guidance trajectory, in general, is intractable. In this innovation, a new approach is proposed for chance-constrained optimal guidance with non-convex constraints. Chance-constrained guidance takes into account uncertainty so that the probability of collision is below a specified threshold. In this approach, a new bounding method has been developed to obtain a set of decomposed chance constraints that is a sufficient condition of the original chance constraint. The decomposition of the chance constraint enables its efficient evaluation, as well as the application of the branch and bound method. Branch and bound enables non-convex problems to be solved efficiently to global optimality. Considering the problem of finite-horizon robust optimal control of dynamic systems under Gaussian-distributed stochastic uncertainty, with state and control constraints, a discrete-time, continuous-state linear dynamics model is assumed. Gaussian-distributed stochastic uncertainty is a more natural model for exogenous disturbances such as wind gusts and turbulence than the previously studied set-bounded models. However, with stochastic uncertainty, it is often impossible to guarantee that state constraints are satisfied, because there is typically a non-zero probability of having a disturbance that is large enough to push the state out of the feasible region. An effective framework to address robustness with stochastic uncertainty is optimization with chance constraints. These require that the probability of violating the state constraints (i.e., the probability of

  10. [Improvement in quality of life and exercise capacity without muscular biology changes after general training in patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual-Guardia, Sergio; Wodja, Emil; Gorostiza, Amaya; López de Santamaría, Elena; Gea, Joaquim; Gáldiz, Juan B; Sliwinski, Pawel; Barreiro, Esther

    2013-03-02

    Despite the beneficial effects of exercise training in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients, several studies have revealed functional and biological abnormalities in their peripheral muscles. The objective was to determine whether exercise training of high intensity and long duration modifies oxidative stress levels and structure of respiratory and peripheral muscles of severe COPD patients, while also improving their exercise capacity and quality of life. Multicenter study (Warsaw and Barakaldo) in which 25 severe COPD out-patients were recruited from the COPD clinics. In all patients, lung and muscle functions, exercise capacity (walking test and cycloergometer) and quality of life (QoL) were assessed, and open muscle biopsies from the vastus lateralis and external intercostals (n=14) were obtained before and after an exercise training program of high intensity (respiratory rehabilitation area, 70% maximal tolerated load in a cycloergometer) and long duration (10 weeks). Oxidative stress and muscle structural modifications were evaluated in all muscle biopsies using immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry. In all patients, after the training program, without any drop-outs, exercise capacity and QoL improved significantly, whereas oxidative stress, muscle damage and structure were not modified in their respiratory or limb muscles compared to baseline. In patients with severe COPD, exercise training of high intensity and long duration significantly improves their exercise capacity and QoL, without inducing significant modifications on oxidative stress levels or muscle structure in their respiratory or peripheral muscles. These results may have future clinical therapeutic implications. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  11. Human Genetic Disorders of Axon Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engle, Elizabeth C.

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews symptoms and signs of aberrant axon connectivity in humans, and summarizes major human genetic disorders that result, or have been proposed to result, from defective axon guidance. These include corpus callosum agenesis, L1 syndrome, Joubert syndrome and related disorders, horizontal gaze palsy with progressive scoliosis, Kallmann syndrome, albinism, congenital fibrosis of the extraocular muscles type 1, Duane retraction syndrome, and pontine tegmental cap dysplasia. Genes mutated in these disorders can encode axon growth cone ligands and receptors, downstream signaling molecules, and axon transport motors, as well as proteins without currently recognized roles in axon guidance. Advances in neuroimaging and genetic techniques have the potential to rapidly expand this field, and it is feasible that axon guidance disorders will soon be recognized as a new and significant category of human neurodevelopmental disorders. PMID:20300212

  12. Aerospace plane guidance using geometric control theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Buren, Mark A.; Mease, Kenneth D.

    1990-01-01

    A reduced-order method employing decomposition, based on time-scale separation, of the 4-D state space in a 2-D slow manifold and a family of 2-D fast manifolds is shown to provide an excellent approximation to the full-order minimum-fuel ascent trajectory. Near-optimal guidance is obtained by tracking the reduced-order trajectory. The tracking problem is solved as regulation problems on the family of fast manifolds, using the exact linearization methodology from nonlinear geometric control theory. The validity of the overall guidance approach is indicated by simulation.

  13. Active evacuation guidance using sensor agent robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ise, Daiki; Mita, Akira

    2012-04-01

    Evacuation systems for buildings are designed based on event scenarios, so they are not prepared for unexpected events that are not included in the scenarios. In this paper, we propose a new active evacuation guidance system using sensor agent robots. We first introduce a Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) system to be used in conjunction with sensor agent robots for active evacuation guidance. Then the role of sensor agent robots is explained. An algorithm to immediately access the safety of the building after a large earthquake is also proposed using only the information taken by a sensor agent robot.

  14. Assessment of rates of recanting and hair testing as a biological measure of drug use in a general population sample of young people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Michelle; Sullivan, John; Ring, Susan M; Macleod, John; Hickman, Matthew

    2017-03-01

    We investigate the extent of and factors associated with denial of previously reported cannabis and other illicit drug use, and assess the potential of hair testing for measuring substance use in general population samples. Birth cohort study. United Kingdom, 1991-present. A total of 3643 participants who provided hair and self-report measures of cannabis and other illicit drug use in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) at age 18 years. Denial of ever use of cannabis and other illicit drugs at age 18 following previously reported use. Positive hair drug tests for cannabis and other illicit drugs, and expected numbers of false positives and false negatives based on expected sensitivity and specificity. Cannabis and other illicit drug use was reported by 1223 and 393 individuals, respectively, before age 18 years. Of these 176 (14.4%) and 99 (25.2%), respectively, denied use at age 18. Denial of cannabis use decreased with the reporting of other substances and antisocial behaviour. Cannabis and other illicit drug use at age 18 was reported by 547 (22.5%) and 203 (8.4%) individuals, respectively. Of these, 111 (20.3%) and 13 (6.4%) were hair-positive for cannabis and other illicit drugs, respectively. Based on hair testing for cannabis use we expect 0 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 0-169] false positives and 394 (95% CI = 323-449) false negatives compared to observed 362 potential false positives and 436 potential false negatives based on self-report. In hair-positive individuals, reporting the use of other substances and antisocial behaviour decreased the odds of a negative self-report. Hair analysis provides an unreliable marker of substance use in general population samples. People who report more frequent substance use before age 18 are less likely to later deny previous substance use at age 18 than people who report occasional use. © 2016 The Authors. Addiction published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society for the Study

  15. Guidance and control of swarms of spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Daniel James

    control uses a finite horizon to apply the most up-to-date control sequence while simultaneously calculating a new assignment and trajectory based on updated state information. Using a finite horizon allows collisions to only be considered between spacecraft that are near each other at the current time. This relaxes the all-to-all communication assumption so that only neighboring agents need to communicate. Experimental validation is done using the formation flying testbed. The swarm-reconfiguration algorithms are tested using multiple quadrotors. Experiments have been performed using sequential convex programming for offline trajectory planning, model predictive control and sequential convex programming for real-time trajectory generation, and the variable-swarm, distributed auction algorithm for optimal assignment. These experiments show that the swarm-reconfiguration algorithms can be implemented in real time using actual hardware. In general, this dissertation presents guidance and control algorithms that maintain and reconfigure swarms of spacecraft while maintaining the shape of the swarm, preventing collisions between the spacecraft, and minimizing the amount of propellant used.

  16. All biology is computational biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markowetz, Florian

    2017-03-01

    Here, I argue that computational thinking and techniques are so central to the quest of understanding life that today all biology is computational biology. Computational biology brings order into our understanding of life, it makes biological concepts rigorous and testable, and it provides a reference map that holds together individual insights. The next modern synthesis in biology will be driven by mathematical, statistical, and computational methods being absorbed into mainstream biological training, turning biology into a quantitative science.

  17. All biology is computational biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Here, I argue that computational thinking and techniques are so central to the quest of understanding life that today all biology is computational biology. Computational biology brings order into our understanding of life, it makes biological concepts rigorous and testable, and it provides a reference map that holds together individual insights. The next modern synthesis in biology will be driven by mathematical, statistical, and computational methods being absorbed into mainstream biological training, turning biology into a quantitative science. PMID:28278152

  18. General (medium-chain) acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (non-ketotic dicarboxylic aciduria): quantitative urinary excretion pattern of 23 biologically significant organic acids in three cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregersen, N; Kølvraa, S; Rasmussen, K; Mortensen, P B; Divry, P; David, M; Hobolth, N

    1983-08-15

    Urinary analysis of the pattern of 23 organic acid metabolites derived from fatty acids in three patients with general (medium-chain) acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency was performed. Although there exist quantitative differences in the excreted amounts of the different metabolites in the three patients the qualitative picture was the same. The excretion of adipic, suberic and sebacic acids was substantial, whereas that of dodecanedioic acid was within or just above control limit. The monounsaturated C6-C10-dicarboxylic acid excretion was only marginally or not increased. 5-OH-hexanoic acid and hexanoylglycine were excreted in excessive amounts, whereas 7-OH-octanoic acid, 9-OH-decanoic acid, octanoylglycine and decanoylglycine were excreted in limited amounts. The excreted amounts of 6-OH-hexanoic, 8-OH-octanoic and 10-OH-decanoic acids were not or only marginally elevated compared to controls. In one of the patients the excretion of ethylmalonic and methylsuccinic acids was enhanced, whereas the excretion of these two acids in the two other patients was comparable to that in controls. The urinary excretion of hexanoic, octanoic, decanoic and dodecanoic acids was just a little above the control limit, whereas the esterified hexanoic and octanoic acids were excreted in appreciable amounts. It is argued that the microsomal omega- and omega-1-oxidation systems are involved in the dicarboxylic and omega-1-OH-monocarboxylic acids formation at C10 and C12 level and that the C8-C6-dicarboxylic and omega-1-OH-monocarboxylic acids are formed from higher chained acids by beta-oxidation in both mitochondria and peroxisomes.

  19. 76 FR 79754 - Twelfth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 220, Automatic Flight Guidance and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-22

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Twelfth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 220, Automatic Flight Guidance and Control AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION... Return to general plenary meeting Review of WG 2 status--progress, issues and plan Review of WG 3...

  20. Quantitative Decision Support Requires Quantitative User Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, L. A.

    2009-12-01

    Is it conceivable that models run on 2007 computer hardware could provide robust and credible probabilistic information for decision support and user guidance at the ZIP code level for sub-daily meteorological events in 2060? In 2090? Retrospectively, how informative would output from today’s models have proven in 2003? or the 1930’s? Consultancies in the United Kingdom, including the Met Office, are offering services to “future-proof” their customers from climate change. How is a US or European based user or policy maker to determine the extent to which exciting new Bayesian methods are relevant here? or when a commercial supplier is vastly overselling the insights of today’s climate science? How are policy makers and academic economists to make the closely related decisions facing them? How can we communicate deep uncertainty in the future at small length-scales without undermining the firm foundation established by climate science regarding global trends? Three distinct aspects of the communication of the uses of climate model output targeting users and policy makers, as well as other specialist adaptation scientists, are discussed. First, a brief scientific evaluation of the length and time scales at which climate model output is likely to become uninformative is provided, including a note on the applicability the latest Bayesian methodology to current state-of-the-art general circulation models output. Second, a critical evaluation of the language often employed in communication of climate model output, a language which accurately states that models are “better”, have “improved” and now “include” and “simulate” relevant meteorological processed, without clearly identifying where the current information is thought to be uninformative and misleads, both for the current climate and as a function of the state of the (each) climate simulation. And thirdly, a general approach for evaluating the relevance of quantitative climate model output

  1. Autonomous gliding entry guidance with geographic constraints

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Jie; Wu Xuzhong; Tang Shengjing

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a novel three-dimensional autonomous entry guidance for relatively high lift-to-drag ratio vehicles satisfying geographic constraints and other path constraints. The guidance is composed of onboard trajectory planning and robust trajectory tracking. For trajectory planning, a longitudinal sub-planner is introduced to generate a feasible drag-versus-energy profile by using the interpolation between upper boundary and lower boundary of entry corridor to get the desired trajectory length. The associated magnitude of the bank angle can be specified by drag profile, while the sign of bank angle is determined by lateral sub-planner. Two-reverse mode is utilized to satisfy waypoint constraints and dynamic heading error corridor is utilized to satisfy no-fly zone constraints. The longitudinal and lateral sub-planners are iteratively employed until all of the path constraints are satisfied. For trajectory tracking, a novel tracking law based on the active disturbance rejection control is introduced. Finally, adaptability tests and Monte Carlo simulations of the entry guidance approach are performed. Results show that the proposed entry guidance approach can adapt to different entry missions and is able to make the vehicle reach the prescribed target point precisely in spite of geographic constraints.

  2. Guidance for performing site inspections under CERCLA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-09-01

    This guidance presents EPA`s site inspection (SI) strategy. The strategy discusses procedural guidelines to investigate potential Superfund (CERCLA) sites for evaluation pursuant to the Hazard Ranking System (HRS), revised in accordance with the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986. The HRS is the primary means by which EPA evaluates sites for superfund`s National Priorities List (NPL).

  3. Cannabinoid receptor CB2 modulates axon guidance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duff, Gabriel; Argaw, Anteneh; Cecyre, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    Navigation of retinal projections towards their targets is regulated by guidance molecules and growth cone transduction mechanisms. Here, we present in vitro and in vivo evidences that the cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2R) is expressed along the retino-thalamic pathway and exerts a modulatory action ...

  4. Hypermedia Authoring with Writing Process Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Kuo-En; Sung, Yao-Ting; Zheng, Jie-Wen

    2007-01-01

    A writing process of five stages, setting the topic and goals, planning the outline, organising the structure, building the content, and reviewing, is proposed to guide hypermedia authoring. To explore the effects of the system designed with writing-process guidance, this study enrolled 108 seventh graders at a junior high school as experimental…

  5. MR Thermometry for guidance of thermal therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sprinkhuizen, S.M.

    2010-01-01

    The research described in this thesis has aimed to further investigate magnetic resonance (MR) thermometry (MRT) techniques as to become a reliable guidance tool for thermal therapy. The various physical processes allowing for temperature measurements based upon the MR signal are described. It is de

  6. The Guidance Counselor and the Reading Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ediger, Marlow

    There are many ways guidance counselors can help teachers achieve more optimal reading instruction. Counselors first may have to ascertain the kinds of problems faced by a student in learning to read. Assessing a student's ability to use picture clues to decipher words may be necessary with primary grade students. Knowledge about phonics, using…

  7. Research Requirements for Future Visual Guidance Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-02-01

    20591. 5. FAA Advisory Circular 150/5340-18, Standards for Airport Sign Systems, latest edition, Washington, DC 20591. 6. Bonaventura , Vincent...Dunlap and Associates, March 1952, New York. 8. Bonaventura , Vincent E., A Proposed Method of Color Coding Airport Taxi Guidance-Sins, The Port of New

  8. Epilepsy in the Classroom: Guidance for Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassner, Lee M.

    This paper for educators, school psychologists, and counselors attempts to provide guidance for meeting the needs of students with epilepsy. Stressed throughout the paper are ways to provide for the child's special needs while fostering his/her self esteem and full participation in classroom activities. The paper addresses the following topics:…

  9. Designing Schoolwide Programs. Non-Regulatory Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Department of Education, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This guidance offers a renewed vision for the use of the schoolwide program, both as a reform strategy and as a means of realizing the high standards for student achievement envisioned by the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB). It is intended to be used as a companion document to the statute and regulations, as well as a technical assistance…

  10. "Telling Tales": Using Narrative in Career Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Hazel; West, Linden

    2011-01-01

    In this article the authors argue for the importance of narrative-based approaches in career guidance work in an uncertain, unpredictable world. This requires a paradigmatic shift in thinking that can be too difficult, at present, for some practitioners. The article reports on the first phase of a collaborative project with a group of…

  11. A Leading Role for Career Guidance Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Susan

    2010-01-01

    Without structured guidance activities, students may drift through high school without learning about all of the career opportunities available and without gaining the skills that can help them take advantage of those opportunities. They may also be in danger of failing to continue on to postsecondary education, or even worse, of dropping out of…

  12. Effective Child Guidance: An Educator's Guidebook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Brent Mathews

    This guidebook is designed to assist educators in becoming more effective child guidance leaders within the school system. Sections discuss the following areas: (1) indicators of current emotional problems; (2) children's common emotional problems, including fears, separation and loss, misbehavior motivations, aggressiveness, stealing, lying,…

  13. Athletics Guidance Aims for Level Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, Christina A.

    2013-01-01

    A document from the U.S. Department of Education intended to clarify schools' responsibility to make sure students with disabilities have access to extracurricular sports has drawn sharply different opinions. Disability-rights advocates welcome the guidance, while critics say federal officials are pushing requirements that could place new…

  14. Advances in spacecraft atmospheric entry guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benito Manrique, Joel

    In order to advance entry guidance technology two different research areas have been explored with the objective of increasing the reachable landing area and the landing accuracy for future Mars missions. Currently only the northern hemisphere of Mars is available for landing due to its low elevation. Only low elevation landing sites have the necessary atmospheric density to allow landing using current Entry, Descent and Landing (EDL) technology. In order to reach most of the Ancient Highlands, the majority of the southern hemisphere, advanced EDL technology is needed in multiple fields, including entry guidance. The first research area is the definition and applications of reachable and controllable sets for entry. The definition of the reachable and controllable sets provides a framework for the study of the capabilities of an entry vehicle in a given planet. Reachable and controllable sets can be used to comprehensively characterize the envelope of trajectories that a vehicle can fly, the sites it can reach and the entry states that can be accommodated. The sets can also be used for the evaluation of trajectory planning algorithms and to assist in the selection of the entry or landing sites. In essence, the reachable and controllable sets offer a powerful vehicle and trajectory analysis and design framework that allows for better mission design choices. In order to illustrate the use of the sets, they are computed for a representative Mars mission using two different vehicle configurations. The sets characterize the impact of the vehicle configuration on the entry capability. Furthermore, the sets are used to find the best skip-entry trajectory for a return from the Moon mission, highlighting the utility of the sets in atmospheric maneuvers other than entry. The second research area is the development of the components of an entry guidance algorithm that allow high elevation landing and provide as well high landing accuracy. The approach taken follows the

  15. Macrothermodynamics of Biological Evolution:

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladyshev, Georgi P.

    The author sets forth general considerations pertaining to the thermodynamic theory of biological evolution and the aging of living organisms. It becomes much easier to comprehend the phenomenon of life scrutinizing the formation of structural hierarchies of biological matter applying different temporal scales. These scales are 'identified' by nature itself, and this is reflected in the law of temporal hierarchies. The author discusses some misunderstandings in thermodynamics and evolutionary biology. A simple physicochemical model of biological evolution and the development of living beings is proposed. The considered theory makes it possible to use physicochemical evaluations to develop effective anti-aging diets.

  16. A Formal Investigation of the Organization of Guidance Behavior: Implications for Humans and Autonomous Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Zhaodan

    Guidance behavior generated either by artificial agents or humans has been actively studied in the fields of both robotics and cognitive science. The goals of these two fields are different. The former is the automatic generation of appropriate or even optimal behavior, while the latter is the understanding of the underlying mechanism. Their challenges, though, are closely related, the most important one being the lack of a unified, formal and grounded framework where the guidance behavior can be modeled and studied. This dissertation presents such a framework. In this framework, guidance behavior is analyzed as the closed-loop dynamics of the whole agent-environment system. The resulting dynamics give rise to interaction patterns. The central points of this dissertation are that: first of all, these patterns, which can be explained in terms of symmetries that are inherent to the guidance behavior, provide building blocks for the organization of behavior; second, the existence of these patterns and humans' organization of their guidance behavior based on these patterns are the reasons that humans can generate successful behavior in spite of all the complexities involved in the planning and control. This dissertation first gives an overview of the challenges existing in both scientific endeavors, such as human and animal spatial behavior study, and engineering endeavors, such as autonomous guidance system design. It then lays out the foundation for our formal framework, which states that guidance behavior should be interpreted as the collection of the closed-loop dynamics resulting from the agent's interaction with the environment. The following, illustrated by examples of three different UAVs, shows that the study of the closed-loop dynamics should not be done without the consideration of vehicle dynamics, as is the common practice in some of the studies in both autonomous guidance and human behavior analysis. The framework, the core concepts of which are

  17. 78 FR 4848 - Social Media: Consumer Compliance Risk Management Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-23

    ... more interactive. Financial institutions may use social media in a variety of ways, including marketing... INSTITUTIONS EXAMINATION COUNCIL Social Media: Consumer Compliance Risk Management Guidance AGENCY: Federal... this proposed guidance entitled ``Social Media: Consumer Compliance Risk Management...

  18. 75 FR 48973 - Draft Guidance for Industry: Prevention of Salmonella

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry: Prevention of Salmonella... availability of a draft guidance entitled ``Prevention of Salmonella Enteritidis in Shell Eggs During... ``Prevention of Salmonella Enteritidis in Shell Eggs During Production, Storage, and Transportation''...

  19. Guidance for Human-system Interfaces to Automatic Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Hara, J.M.; Higgins, J.; Stephen Fleger; Valerie Barnes

    2010-09-27

    Automation is ubiquitous in modern complex systems, and commercial nuclear- power plants are no exception. Automation is applied to a wide range of functions, including monitoring and detection, situation assessment, response planning, and response implementation. Automation has become a 'team player' supporting personnel in nearly all aspects of system operation. In light of its increasing use and importance in new- and future-plants, guidance is needed to conduct safety reviews of the operator's interface with automation. The objective of this research was to develop such guidance. We first characterized the important HFE aspects of automation, including six dimensions: Levels, functions, processes, modes, flexibility, and reliability. Next, we reviewed literature on the effects of all of these aspects of automation on human performance, and on the design of human-system interfaces (HSIs). Then, we used this technical basis established from the literature to identify general principles for human-automation interaction and to develop review guidelines. The guidelines consist of the following seven topics: Automation displays, interaction and control, automation modes, automation levels, adaptive automation, error tolerance and failure management, and HSI integration.

  20. FDA 2011 process validation guidance: lifecycle compliance model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Cliff

    2014-01-01

    This article has been written as a contribution to the industry's efforts in migrating from a document-driven to a data-driven compliance mindset. A combination of target product profile, control engineering, and general sum principle techniques is presented as the basis of a simple but scalable lifecycle compliance model in support of modernized process validation. Unit operations and significant variables occupy pole position within the model, documentation requirements being treated as a derivative or consequence of the modeling process. The quality system is repositioned as a subordinate of system quality, this being defined as the integral of related "system qualities". The article represents a structured interpretation of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's 2011 Guidance for Industry on Process Validation and is based on the author's educational background and his manufacturing/consulting experience in the validation field. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration's Guidance for Industry on Process Validation (2011) provides a wide-ranging and rigorous outline of compliant drug manufacturing requirements relative to its 20(th) century predecessor (1987). Its declared focus is patient safety, and it identifies three inter-related (and obvious) stages of the compliance lifecycle. Firstly, processes must be designed, both from a technical and quality perspective. Secondly, processes must be qualified, providing evidence that the manufacturing facility is fully "roadworthy" and fit for its intended purpose. Thirdly, processes must be verified, meaning that commercial batches must be monitored to ensure that processes remain in a state of control throughout their lifetime.

  1. Guidance for laboratories performing molecular pathology for cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cree, Ian A; Deans, Zandra; Ligtenberg, Marjolijn J L; Normanno, Nicola; Edsjö, Anders; Rouleau, Etienne; Solé, Francesc; Thunnissen, Erik; Timens, Wim; Schuuring, Ed; Dequeker, Elisabeth; Murray, Samuel; Dietel, Manfred; Groenen, Patricia; Van Krieken, J Han

    2014-11-01

    Molecular testing is becoming an important part of the diagnosis of any patient with cancer. The challenge to laboratories is to meet this need, using reliable methods and processes to ensure that patients receive a timely and accurate report on which their treatment will be based. The aim of this paper is to provide minimum requirements for the management of molecular pathology laboratories. This general guidance should be augmented by the specific guidance available for different tumour types and tests. Preanalytical considerations are important, and careful consideration of the way in which specimens are obtained and reach the laboratory is necessary. Sample receipt and handling follow standard operating procedures, but some alterations may be necessary if molecular testing is to be performed, for instance to control tissue fixation. DNA and RNA extraction can be standardised and should be checked for quality and quantity of output on a regular basis. The choice of analytical method(s) depends on clinical requirements, desired turnaround time, and expertise available. Internal quality control, regular internal audit of the whole testing process, laboratory accreditation, and continual participation in external quality assessment schemes are prerequisites for delivery of a reliable service. A molecular pathology report should accurately convey the information the clinician needs to treat the patient with sufficient information to allow for correct interpretation of the result. Molecular pathology is developing rapidly, and further detailed evidence-based recommendations are required for many of the topics covered here.

  2. Behavior guidance techniques in Pediatric Dentistry: attitudes of parents of children with disabilities and without disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro, Alessandra Maia; de Oliveira, Fabiana Sodré; de Paiva Novaes, Myrian Stella; Araújo Ferreira, Danielly Cunha

    2013-01-01

    This study compared the parental acceptance of pediatric behavior guidance techniques (BGT). Forty parents of children without disabilities (Group A) and another 40 parents of children with disabilities (Group B) were selected. Each BGT was explained by a single examiner and it was presented together with a photograph album. After that parents evaluated the acceptance in: totally unacceptable, somewhat acceptable, acceptable, and totally acceptable. Results indicated that in Group A, the BGT based on communicative guidance was accepted by most participants. In Group B, just one mother considered totally unacceptable the voice control method and other two, tell-show-do. For both groups, the general anesthesia was the less accepted BGT. There was statistically significant difference in acceptance for protective stabilization with a restrictive device in Group B. Children's parents with and without disabilities accepted behavioral guidance techniques, but basic techniques showed higher rates of acceptance than advanced techniques.

  3. International Frameworks for Disaster Risk Reduction: Useful Guidance for Sustainable Mountain Development?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Zimmermann

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, a number of global frameworks have been developed for disaster risk reduction (DRR. The Hyogo Framework for Action 2005–2015 and its successor document, the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction, adopted in Japan in March 2015, provide general guidance for reducing risks from natural hazards. This is particularly important for mountainous areas, but DRR for mountain areas and sustainable mountain development received little attention in the recent policy debate. The question remains whether the Hyogo and Sendai frameworks can provide guidance for sustainable mountain development. This article evaluates the 2 frameworks in light of the special challenges of DRR in mountain areas and argues that, while the frameworks offer valuable guidance, they need to be further adapted for local contexts—particularly for mountain areas, which require special attention because of changing risk patterns like the effects of climate change and high land-use pressure.

  4. Foreign body extraction from soft tissue by using CT and fluoroscopic guidance: a new technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amoretti, Nicolas; Marcy, Pierre-Yves; Lesbats-Jacquot, Virginie; Fonquerne, Marie-Eve; Maratos, Yvonne [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Nice, Radiology Department, Nice (France); Hauger, Olivier [Hopital Pellegrin, Unite d' Imagerie Osteo-articulaire, CHU de Bordeaux (France); Hovorka, Istvan; Boileau, Pascal [Centre Hopitalier Universitaire de Nice, Orthopaedic Department, Nice (France)

    2010-01-15

    We report on a new minimally invasive technique for the retrieval of a surgical pin fragment after accidental migration into the soft tissue of the shoulder in two patients. The technique is performed under local anaesthesia and uses combined CT and fluoroscopic guidance. The materials used were simple, combining a bone biopsy needle and an endoscopy clamp. Pin displacement was confirmed under fluoroscopic guidance and the clamp was used to withdraw the pin to the cutaneous entry point under CT (step-by-step) guidance. The CT slices provide perfect visualisation of the vascular or nervous structures as well as perfect positioning of the extremity of the trocar relative to the material to be removed. This intervention avoids a second surgical intervention with a longer incision and avoided repeated general anaesthesia. (orig.)

  5. International Conference on Harmonisation; guidance on M4 common technical document; availability. Notice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-10-16

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of guidance entitled "M4 Organization of the Common Technical Document for the Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use" (M4CTD). The guidance was developed under the auspices of the International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH). The guidance, which is being made available simultaneously in four parts (general organization, quality, safety, and efficacy), describes a harmonized format for new product applications (including applications for biotechnology-derived products) for submission to the regulatory authorities in the three ICH regions. The M4 CTD is intended to reduce the time and resources used to compile applications, ease the preparation of electronic submissions, facilitate regulatory reviews and communication with the applicant, and simplify the exchange of regulatory information among regulatory authorities.

  6. Branching processes in biology

    CERN Document Server

    Kimmel, Marek

    2015-01-01

    This book provides a theoretical background of branching processes and discusses their biological applications. Branching processes are a well-developed and powerful set of tools in the field of applied probability. The range of applications considered includes molecular biology, cellular biology, human evolution and medicine. The branching processes discussed include Galton-Watson, Markov, Bellman-Harris, Multitype, and General Processes. As an aid to understanding specific examples, two introductory chapters, and two glossaries are included that provide background material in mathematics and in biology. The book will be of interest to scientists who work in quantitative modeling of biological systems, particularly probabilists, mathematical biologists, biostatisticians, cell biologists, molecular biologists, and bioinformaticians. The authors are a mathematician and cell biologist who have collaborated for more than a decade in the field of branching processes in biology for this new edition. This second ex...

  7. 78 FR 20116 - Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Glass Syringes for Delivering...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-03

    ... Staff; Glass Syringes for Delivering Drug and Biological Products: Technical Information To Supplement... availability of draft guidance for industry and FDA staff entitled ``Glass Syringes for Delivering Drug and... glass syringes that comply with the ISO 11040-4 standard when connected to devices (``connecting...

  8. [Auditory guidance systems for the visually impaired people].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jing; Nie, Min; Luo, Lan; Tong, Shanbao; Niu, Jinhai; Zhu, Yisheng

    2010-04-01

    Visually impaired people face many inconveniences because of the loss of vision. Therefore, scientists are trying to design various guidance systems for improving the lives of the blind. Based on sensory substitution, auditory guidance has become an interesting topic in the field of biomedical engineering. In this paper, we made a state-of-technique review of the auditory guidance system. Although there have been many technical challenges, the auditory guidance system would be a useful alternative for the visually impaired people.

  9. Effect of Autopilot Structure on Proportional Navigation Guidance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA Qun-li; LIU Yi-ying; QI Zai-kang

    2007-01-01

    The dynamic characteristics of acceleration autopilot and attitude autopilot are discussed in detail.Also, a comparison study was made between these two different types of control schemes for guidance loop.By means of simulation, it is concluded that the guidance accuracy is mainly determined by the slowest subsystem among different system dynamics.For air-to-ground missiles, with limited terminal guidance time, the control scheme of acceleration autopilot combined with proportional navigation guidance (PNG) law is the better choice.

  10. Angles-only relative navigation and closed-loop guidance for spacecraft proximity operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jianjun; Gong, Baichun; Yuan, Jianping; Zhang, Zhaofei

    2016-11-01

    This research investigates angles-only relative navigation and closed-loop guidance algorithm for spacecraft mid-range orbital proximity operations when the orbital maneuver allows for range observability. Emphasis and contribution are on developing angles-only relative navigation and guidance coupling algorithm in the context of Clohessy-Wiltshire and Tschauner-Hempel dynamics. Observability analysis of the relative state is done and the general mathematical expression of the observable condition is obtained. Coupling relationship between the angles-only relative navigation and the multi-pulse sliding guidance is discussed and its analytic expression is derived. A novel closed-loop guidance scheme is designed based on the coupling relationship and unscented kalman filter. Two-body Monte Carlo simulations are conducted to evaluate the validity and test the performance of the closed-loop system. The sensitivities of the navigation and guidance accuracy to the line-of-sight angles accuracy, initial separation and initial state uncertainties, number of pulses, and dynamics are presented and discussed.

  11. Optimizing Methotrexate Treatment in Rheumatoid Arthritis: The Case for Subcutaneous Methotrexate Prior to Biologics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Poonam; Scott, David G I

    2015-11-01

    Methotrexate is the most common disease-modifying antirheumatic drug (DMARD) used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Current evidence supports its efficacy in the treatment of RA, resulting in improved short-term disease control and long-term outcomes in terms of radiographic progression. Oral methotrexate has traditionally been used first-line due to various reasons, including ease of administration, low cost and easy availability. A methotrexate dose of >15 mg/week is generally required for disease control but oral methotrexate may be only partially effective or poorly tolerated in some patients. The rationale for using subcutaneous (SC) methotrexate is based on its improved bioavailability at higher doses and better tolerability in some patients who have side effects when receiving oral methotrexate. Current guidance advocates 'treating to target', with the aim of inducing remission in RA patients. In some patients, this can be achieved using methotrexate alone or in combination with other traditional DMARDs. Patients who have not responded to two DMARDs, including methotrexate, are eligible for biological therapy as per current National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) guidance in the UK. Biological treatments are expensive and using SC methotrexate can improve disease control in RA patients, thus potentially avoiding or delaying the requirement for future biological treatment.

  12. Managing biological diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samson, Fred B.; Knopf, Fritz L.

    1993-01-01

    viewing issues across biological, spatial, and temporal scales (Knopf and Smith 1992), natural resource managers find much conflicting information in the literature on strategies and programs for the conservation of biological diversity (Ehrlich 1992). Moreover, recommendations provided in much of the published information available for planning or decisions not only can be debated but may prove counterproductive if implemented. Current operational efforts beg for clearer focus on fundamental concepts central to daily decisions that impact native biological diversity. Recognizing that many biologists would provide different council and at the risk of oversimplification, we offer the following 4 topical issues as fundamental guidance to wise conservation action. These recommendations are based on our collective experiences working within conservation agencies since our original, collaborative essay (Samson and Knopf 1982). They are offered as initial, rather than authoritative, steps to better align research and management decisions with what we perceive as the critical issues in conserving biological diversity at the landscape and ecosystem levels of resolution.

  13. 2 CFR 182.40 - How is the guidance maintained?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AND AGREEMENTS Reserved GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) § 182.40 How is the guidance maintained? The OMB publishes proposed changes to the guidance in the... groups, and then issues any changes to the guidance in final form. ...

  14. Acid rain compliance: The need for regulatory guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solomon, B.D. [Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States)

    1993-07-01

    This article presents a broad view of the need for regulatory guidance when confronting the problem of acid rain. The two major topics addressed are (1) Why is guidance needed and (2) What kind of guidance is needed. Discussion of rate and accounting treatment of allowances, acid rain compliance planning, and allowance trading and energy efficiency are included.

  15. 76 FR 75771 - Emergency Planning Guidance for Nuclear Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-05

    ... Part 52 RIN 3150-AI10 Emergency Planning Guidance for Nuclear Power Plants AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory... Regulatory Commission (NRC) is issuing Supplement 3, ``Guidance for Protective Action Strategies,'' to NUREG... Guidance Emergency Planning for Nuclear Power Plants;'' and NUREG/CR-7002, ``Criteria for Development of...

  16. Managing Student Behavior during Large Group Guidance: What Works Best?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quarto, Christopher J.

    2007-01-01

    Participants provided information pertaining to managing non-task-related behavior of students during large group guidance lessons. In particular, school counselors were asked often how often they provide large group guidance, the frequency of which students exhibit off-task and/or disruptive behavior during guidance lessons, and techniques they…

  17. Guidance on assessing the methodological and reporting quality of toxicologically relevant studies: A scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Gbeminiyi O; Hoffmann, Sebastian; Wright, Robert A; Lalu, Manoj Mathew; Patlewicz, Grace; Becker, Richard A; DeGeorge, George L; Fergusson, Dean; Hartung, Thomas; Lewis, R Jeffrey; Stephens, Martin L

    2016-01-01

    Assessments of methodological and reporting quality are critical to adequately judging the credibility of a study's conclusions and to gauging its potential reproducibility. To aid those seeking to assess the methodological or reporting quality of studies relevant to toxicology, we conducted a scoping review of the available guidance with respect to four types of studies: in vivo and in vitro, (quantitative) structure-activity relationships ([Q]SARs), physico-chemical, and human observational studies. Our aims were to identify the available guidance in this diverse literature, briefly summarize each document, and distill the common elements of these documents for each study type. In general, we found considerable guidance for in vivo and human studies, but only one paper addressed in vitro studies exclusively. The guidance for (Q)SAR studies and physico-chemical studies was scant but authoritative. There was substantial overlap across guidance documents in the proposed criteria for both methodological and reporting quality. Some guidance documents address toxicology research directly, whereas others address preclinical research generally or clinical research and therefore may not be fully applicable to the toxicology context without some translation. Another challenge is the degree to which assessments of methodological quality in toxicology should focus on risk of bias - as in clinical medicine and healthcare - or be broadened to include other quality measures, such as confirming the identity of test substances prior to exposure. Our review is intended primarily for those in toxicology and risk assessment seeking an entry point into the extensive and diverse literature on methodological and reporting quality applicable to their work.

  18. Tobaccofree Sports Stadia: European Policies and Guidance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Philpott

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Over 20 million people – including many children and young people - attend professional football matches across Europe each week, with many more attending other professional and amateur sports fixtures. The vast majority of European sports venues take place in semi-enclosed structures with roofed stands, and yet there are still very low levels of smokefree and tobaccofree policies in operation. Building on research findings that only 10 out of UEFA’s 54 European countries have football stadia that operate tobaccofree policies, Healthy Stadia has worked with UEFA and World Heart Federation to develop new guidance materials for clubs, multi-purpose stadium operators and governing bodies of sport to assist in the development and enforcement of strong tobacco control policies. This presentation will give a benchmark of current policies in place, support offered through the new guidance materials, and advice on how sports organisations can go beyond national tobacco control legislation to implement tobaccofree policies.

  19. ROUTE PLAN DESIGNER FOR TRACTOR GUIDANCE SYSTEMS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sveistrup, Daniel; Jørgensen, Rasmus Nyholm; Green, Ole

    2010-01-01

    Earlier works have shown field trial designs to be very labor extensive, even when combining autoguidancesystems with conventional machinery.Designing routes for semi-automated systems in a controlled manner is both resource demandingand complicated. Different types of auto-guidance systems vary....... The software works in conjunction with Google Earth to import field boundaries,and for viewing, validating and georeferencing completed field trial designs. The software isplatform independent and online distributed by means of the Java development environment.Two case studies were applied for demonstrating...... was outlined, it took less thanone hour entering the design into the software and generating the auto-guidance files.KeywordsGIS, Auto steering systems, plot trial design, full-scale field trials, Java...

  20. Practical guidance on undertaking a service evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moule, Pam; Armoogum, Julie; Dodd, Emily; Donskoy, Anne-Laure; Douglass, Emma; Taylor, Julie; Turton, Pat

    2016-07-06

    This article describes the basic principles of evaluation, focusing on the evaluation of healthcare services. It emphasises the importance of evaluation in the current healthcare environment and the requirement for nurses to understand the essential principles of evaluation. Evaluation is defined in contrast to audit and research, and the main theoretical approaches to evaluation are outlined, providing insights into the different types of evaluation that may be undertaken. The essential features of preparing for an evaluation are considered, and guidance provided on working ethically in the NHS. It is important to involve patients and the public in evaluation activity, offering essential guidance and principles of best practice. The authors discuss the main challenges of undertaking evaluations and offer recommendations to address these, drawing on their experience as evaluators.

  1. [Problems of reception in a guidance center].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattelaer, P

    1975-01-01

    The aim of this communication is not to criticise the work of guidance, but to analyse its efficiency and validity in order to formulate concrete proposals. One can distinguish three periods in the evolution of the work in a guidance center. In the first period, it is a methodological concern which presided to this type of work. In the second period, one thought that there was to many preliminary investigations and it was decided to take the child in treatment more rapidly. During the third period, the attention has primarily be centered on the child's problems. The author suggests some solutions. He considers it is necessary to abandon the multidisciplinary approach. He advises to always consider one case at the time within a therapeutic and diagnostic frame. Therapy has to be conducted by one person, even if this person has to treat the whole family.

  2. Guidance for UMTRA project surveillance and maintenance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1986-01-01

    The Guidance for UMTRA Project Surveillance and Maintenance describes the procedures that will be used to verify that Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project disposal sites continue to function as designed. The approach of this guidance document is to identify surveillance requirements and maintenance procedures that will be used to comply with NRC license requirements. This document addresses five primary activities: Definition and characterization of final site conditions. Site inspections; Ground-water monitoring; Aerial photography; and Custodial maintenance and contingency repair. Final site conditions will be defined and characterized prior to the completion of remedial actions at a site. As-built drawings will be compiled, a final topographic survey will be performed, a vicinity map will be prepared, and ground and aerial photographs will be taken. Survey monuments, site markers, and signs will be established as will a network of monitoring wells.

  3. GUIDANCE DOCUMENT ON IMPLEMENTATION OF THE ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Agreement in Principle for the Stage 2 M-DBP Federal Advisory Committee contains a list of treatment processes and management practices for water systems to use in meeting additional Cryptosporidium treatment requirements under the LT2ESWTR. This list, termed the microbial toolbox, includes watershed control programs, alternative intake locations, pretreatment processes, additional filtration barriers, inactivation technologies, and enhanced plant performance. The intent of the microbial toolbox is to provide water systems with broad flexibility in selecting cost-effective LT2ESWTR compliance strategies. Moreover, the toolbox allows systems that currently provide additional pathogen barriers or that can demonstrate enhanced performance to receive additional Cryptosporidium treatment credit. Provide guidance to utilities with surface water supplies and to state drinking water programs on the use of different treatment technologies to reduce the level of Cryptosporidium in drinking water. Technologies included in the guidance manual may be used to achieve compliance with the requirements of the LT2ESWTR.

  4. Taxonometric guidance for developing quality assurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomadsen, Bruce; Lin, She-Woei

    2008-01-01

    A taxonomy is an ordered classification system. In error reduction analysis, an examination of the human failures that lead to an event often uses a taxonomy to classify the failures according to some aspect of their characteristics. These classifications provide insights into the forces that kept the persons involved from achieving their intended actions. They also can provide guidance for changing the situation to prevent failure in the future. For example, the corrective action would be different if a therapist pressed the wrong button because several buttons looked alike or they forgot which button to press. Different types of failures lead to particular types of remediation. Taxonomies can provide guidance in selecting between possible corrective actions.

  5. 76 FR 43690 - Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls Guidance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration (Formerly 2007D-0309) Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls Guidance Document: Electrocardiograph Electrodes; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and...

  6. 75 FR 54637 - Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls Guidance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-08

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls Guidance Document for Certain Percutaneous Transluminal Coronary Angioplasty (PTCA) Catheters; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY:...

  7. Pollution Control Guidance for Geothermal Energy Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartley, Robert P.

    1978-06-01

    This report summarizes the EPA regulatory approach toward geothermal energy development. The state of knowledge is described with respect to the constituents of geothermal effluents and emissions, including water, air, solid wastes, and noise. Pollutant effects are discussed. Pollution control technologies that may be applicable are described along with preliminary cost estimates for their application. Finally discharge and emission limitations are suggested that may serve as interim guidance for pollution control during early geothermal development.

  8. Dynamic Route Guidance Using Improved Genetic Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhanke Yu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an improved genetic algorithm (IGA for dynamic route guidance algorithm. The proposed IGA design a vicinity crossover technique and a greedy backward mutation technique to increase the population diversity and strengthen local search ability. The steady-state reproduction is introduced to protect the optimized genetic individuals. Furthermore the junction delay is introduced to the fitness function. The simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  9. Puncture of thoracic lesions under sonographic guidance.

    OpenAIRE

    Afschrift, M; Nachtegaele, P; Voet, D; Noens, L.; Van Hove, W; Van der Straeten, M; Verdonk, G

    1982-01-01

    Thirty-six punctures of thoracic lesions have been performed with a compound B-scanner or a real-time linear-array scanner for guidance. Twenty-three fluid collections were punctured and aspiration biopsies were performed on 13 echogenic lesions. All the punctures were successful at the first attempt. No complications occurred. The results confirm the usefulness of sonography for guiding punctures of thoracic fluid effusions and solid masses. Usually a static B-scanner is sufficient, but when...

  10. Human Genetic Disorders of Axon Guidance

    OpenAIRE

    Engle, Elizabeth C

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews symptoms and signs of aberrant axon connectivity in humans, and summarizes major human genetic disorders that result, or have been proposed to result, from defective axon guidance. These include corpus callosum agenesis, L1 syndrome, Joubert syndrome and related disorders, horizontal gaze palsy with progressive scoliosis, Kallmann syndrome, albinism, congenital fibrosis of the extraocular muscles type 1, Duane retraction syndrome, and pontine tegmental cap dysplasia. Gene...

  11. 48 CFR 970.0404-2 - General.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Administrative Matters 970.0404-2 General. (a) Guidance regarding the National Industrial Security Program as implemented by the Department of Energy (DOE) may be... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General....

  12. Education, consultation, guidance, students, advisor, teacher

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Seyedmajidi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Student counseling and supervision play an important role to overcome learning problems and to achieve educational goals. The present study is intended to investigate viewpoints of students regarding educational guidance and advice studying at Babol University of Medical Sciences. Methods: In this descriptive cross-sectional survey, viewpoints of 480 students were collected by a questionnaire. The validity and reliability of the questionnaire had been approved before. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 17 software. Chi- square and ANOVA tests were administered. Results: 61.2% of all participants were female and 38.8% were males with mean age of 21.3±4.0. 37.2% of these students lacked sufficient knowledge and information on how to request from their advisors for help and guidance. Half of students (50.3% reported attendance of advisors and holding routine consultation is inappropriate. Advisors made more educational files for females compare to males (P=0.001. No difference observed regarding educational disciplines of the advisors regarding students were dissatisfied with help and guidance received from paramedics and dentistry students in most fields (87.3% and 81.5% respectively. Conclusion: It seems that either student has no sufficient information about tasks of advisors and/or advisors may not do their tasks properly. It is recommended the students to be acquainted with advisors’ tasks upon their entrance into the university. Training classes for new academics would be helpful.

  13. Blind guidance system based on laser triangulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jih-Huah; Wang, Jinner-Der; Fang, Wei; Lee, Yun-Parn; Shan, Yi-Chia; Kao, Hai-Ko; Ma, Shih-Hsin; Jiang, Joe-Air

    2012-05-01

    We propose a new guidance system for the blind. An optical triangulation method is used in the system. The main components of the proposed system comprise of a notebook computer, a camera, and two laser modules. The track image of the light beam on the ground or on the object is captured by the camera and then the image is sent to the notebook computer for further processing and analysis. Using a developed signal-processing algorithm, our system can determine the object width and the distance between the object and the blind person through the calculation of the light line positions on the image. A series of feasibility tests of the developed blind guidance system were conducted. The experimental results show that the distance between the test object and the blind can be measured with a standard deviation of less than 8.5% within the range of 40 and 130 cm, while the test object width can be measured with a standard deviation of less than 4.5% within the range of 40 and 130 cm. The application potential of the designed system to the blind guidance can be expected.

  14. EPA guidance on cultural competence training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schouler-Ocak, Meryam; Graef-Calliess, Iris T; Tarricone, Ilaria; Qureshi, Adil; Kastrup, Marianne C; Bhugra, Dinesh

    2015-03-01

    The stress of migration as well as social factors and changes related to the receiving society may lead to the manifestation of psychiatric disorders in vulnerable individuals after migration. The diversity of cultures, ethnicities, races and reasons for migration poses a challenge for those seeking to understand how illness is experienced by immigrants whose backgrounds differ significantly from their clinicians. Cultural competence represents good clinical practice and can be defined as such that a clinician regards each patient in the context of the patient's own culture as well as from the perspective of the clinician's cultural values and prejudices. The EPA Guidance on cultural competence training outlines some of the key issues related to cultural competence and how to deal with these. It points out that cultural competence represents a comprehensive response to the mental health care needs of immigrant patients and requires knowledge, skills and attitudes which can improve the effectiveness of psychiatric treatment. To reach these aims, both individual and organizational competence are needed, as well as teaching competence in terms of educational leadership. The WPA Guidance on Mental Health and Mental Health Care for Migrants and the EPA Guidance on Mental Health Care for Migrants list a series of recommendations for policy makers, service providers and clinicians; these are aimed at improving mental health care for immigrants. The authors of this paper would like to underline these recommendations and, focusing on cultural competency and training, believe that they will be of positive value. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Reliability history of the Apollo guidance computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, E. C.

    1972-01-01

    The Apollo guidance computer was designed to provide the computation necessary for guidance, navigation and control of the command module and the lunar landing module of the Apollo spacecraft. The computer was designed using the technology of the early 1960's and the production was completed by 1969. During the development, production, and operational phase of the program, the computer has accumulated a very interesting history which is valuable for evaluating the technology, production methods, system integration, and the reliability of the hardware. The operational experience in the Apollo guidance systems includes 17 computers which flew missions and another 26 flight type computers which are still in various phases of prelaunch activity including storage, system checkout, prelaunch spacecraft checkout, etc. These computers were manufactured and maintained under very strict quality control procedures with requirements for reporting and analyzing all indications of failure. Probably no other computer or electronic equipment with equivalent complexity has been as well documented and monitored. Since it has demonstrated a unique reliability history, it is important to evaluate the techniques and methods which have contributed to the high reliability of this computer.

  16. Guidance and control, 1993; Annual Rocky Mountain Guidance and Control Conference, 16th, Keystone, CO, Feb. 6-10, 1993

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culp, Robert D.; Bickley, George

    Papers from the sixteenth annual American Astronautical Society Rocky Mountain Guidance and Control Conference are presented. The topics covered include the following: advances in guidance, navigation, and control; control system videos; guidance, navigation and control embedded flight control systems; recent experiences; guidance and control storyboard displays; and applications of modern control, featuring the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) performance enhancement study. For individual titles, see A95-80390 through A95-80436.

  17. 77 FR 71019 - Japan Lessons-Learned Project Directorate Interim Staff Guidance JLD-ISG-2012-04; Guidance on...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-28

    ... COMMISSION Japan Lessons-Learned Project Directorate Interim Staff Guidance JLD-ISG-2012-04; Guidance on...: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Japan Lessons-Learned Project Directorate Interim Staff Guidance issuance. SUMMARY: The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is issuing the Final Japan...

  18. Is Career Guidance for the Individual or for the Market? Implications of EU Policy for Career Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmo-Prvulovic, Ingela

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the essential understanding and underlying perspectives of career implicit in EU career guidance policy in the twenty-first century, as well as the possible implications of these for the future mission of guidance. Career theories, models and concepts that serve career guidance are shaped on the twentieth-century industrial…

  19. 78 FR 12759 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Attachment to Guidance on Antiviral Product Development-Conducting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-25

    ... Antiviral Product Development--Conducting and Submitting Virology Studies to the Agency: Guidance for... guidance for industry entitled ``Attachment to Guidance on Antiviral Product Development--Conducting and... important for supporting clinical trials of products in development for the treatment of HCV. HCV...

  20. European Lifelong Guidance Policy Network Representatives' Conceptions of the Role of Information and Communication Technologies Related to National Guidance Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kettunen, Jaana; Vuorinen, Raimo; Ruusuvirta, Outi

    2016-01-01

    This article reports findings from a phenomenographic investigation into European Lifelong Guidance Policy Network representatives' conceptions of the role of information and communication technologies (ICT) related to national lifelong guidance policies. The role of ICT in relation to national lifelong guidance policies was conceived as (1)…

  1. Is Career Guidance for the Individual or for the Market? Implications of EU Policy for Career Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmo-Prvulovic, Ingela

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the essential understanding and underlying perspectives of career implicit in EU career guidance policy in the twenty-first century, as well as the possible implications of these for the future mission of guidance. Career theories, models and concepts that serve career guidance are shaped on the twentieth-century industrial…

  2. Practical Intersubjectivity and Normative Guidance: Bratman on Shared Agency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roth Abraham Sesshu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In an important new book on shared agency, Michael Bratman develops an account of the normative demand for the coordination of intentions amongst participants in shared agency. Bratman seeks to understand this form of normative guidance in terms of that associated with individual planning intentions. I give reasons to resist his form of reductionism. In addition, I note how Bratman’s discussion raises the interesting issue of the function or purpose of shared intention and of shared agency more generally. According to Bratman, the function of shared intention is to promote interpersonal coordination of intention and action. I suggest that power sharing amongst participants must also be included as a function of shared intention.

  3. Guidance for the verification and validation of neural networks

    CERN Document Server

    Pullum, L; Darrah, M

    2007-01-01

    Guidance for the Verification and Validation of Neural Networks is a supplement to the IEEE Standard for Software Verification and Validation, IEEE Std 1012-1998. Born out of a need by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's safety- and mission-critical research, this book compiles over five years of applied research and development efforts. It is intended to assist the performance of verification and validation (V&V) activities on adaptive software systems, with emphasis given to neural network systems. The book discusses some of the difficulties with trying to assure adaptive systems in general, presents techniques and advice for the V&V practitioner confronted with such a task, and based on a neural network case study, identifies specific tasking and recommendations for the V&V of neural network systems.

  4. Neuregulin 1 functionalization of organic fibers for Schwann cell guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonazzini, Ilaria; Moffa, Maria; Pisignano, Dario; Cecchini, Marco

    2017-04-01

    The repair of peripheral nerve lesions is a clinical problem where the functional recovery is often far from being satisfactory, although peripheral nerves generally retain good potential for regeneration. Here, we develop a novel scaffold approach based on bioactive fibers of poly(ε-caprolactone) where nanotopographical guidance and neuregulin 1 (NRG1) cues are combined. We interface them with rat primary Schwann cells (SCs), the peripheral glial cells that drive initial regeneration of injured nerves, and found that the combination of NRG1 with parallel nano-fibrous topographies is effective in improving SC growth up to 72 h, alignment to fiber topography, and bipolar differentiation, opening original perspectives for nerve repair applications.

  5. Piloted Simulation of Various Synthetic Vision Systems Terrain Portrayal and Guidance Symbology Concepts for Low Altitude En-Route Scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takallu, M. A.; Glaab, L. J.; Hughes, M. F.; Wong, D. T.; Bartolone, A. P.

    2008-01-01

    In support of the NASA Aviation Safety Program's Synthetic Vision Systems Project, a series of piloted simulations were conducted to explore and quantify the relationship between candidate Terrain Portrayal Concepts and Guidance Symbology Concepts, specific to General Aviation. The experiment scenario was based on a low altitude en route flight in Instrument Metrological Conditions in the central mountains of Alaska. A total of 18 general aviation pilots, with three levels of pilot experience, evaluated a test matrix of four terrain portrayal concepts and six guidance symbology concepts. Quantitative measures included various pilot/aircraft performance data, flight technical errors and flight control inputs. The qualitative measures included pilot comments and pilot responses to the structured questionnaires such as perceived workload, subjective situation awareness, pilot preferences, and the rare event recognition. There were statistically significant effects found from guidance symbology concepts and terrain portrayal concepts but no significant interactions between them. Lower flight technical errors and increased situation awareness were achieved using Synthetic Vision Systems displays, as compared to the baseline Pitch/Roll Flight Director and Blue Sky Brown Ground combination. Overall, those guidance symbology concepts that have both path based guidance cue and tunnel display performed better than the other guidance concepts.

  6. Variable structure guidance law for attacking surface maneuver targets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Han Yanhua; Xu Bo

    2008-01-01

    The characteristics of surface maneuver targets are analyzed and a 3-D relative motion model for missiles and targets is established. A variable structure guidance law is designed considering the characteristics of targets. In the guidance law, the distance between missiles and targets as well as the missile-target relative velocity are all substituted by estimation values. The estimation errors, the target's velocity, and the maneuver acceleration are all treated as bounded disturbance. The guidance law proposed can be implemented conveniently in engineering with little target information. The performance of the guidance system is analyzed theoretically and the numerical simulation result shows the effectiveness of the guidance law.

  7. Contextual Cueing Improves Attentional Guidance, Even When Guidance Is Supposedly Optimal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Anthony M; Remington, Roger W

    2017-02-23

    Visual search through previously encountered contexts typically produces reduced reaction times compared with search through novel contexts. This contextual cueing benefit is well established, but there is debate regarding its underlying mechanisms. Eye-tracking studies have consistently shown reduced number of fixations with repetition, supporting improvements in attentional guidance as the source of contextual cueing. However, contextual cueing benefits have been shown in conditions in which attentional guidance should already be optimal-namely, when attention is captured to the target location by an abrupt onset, or under pop-out conditions. These results have been used to argue for a response-related account of contextual cueing. Here, we combine eye tracking with response time to examine the mechanisms behind contextual cueing in spatially cued and pop-out conditions. Three experiments find consistent response time benefits with repetition, which appear to be driven almost entirely by a reduction in number of fixations, supporting improved attentional guidance as the mechanism behind contextual cueing. No differences were observed in the time between fixating the target and responding-our proxy for response related processes. Furthermore, the correlation between contextual cueing magnitude and the reduction in number of fixations on repeated contexts approaches 1. These results argue strongly that attentional guidance is facilitated by familiar search contexts, even when guidance is near-optimal. (PsycINFO Database Record

  8. Physical constraints on biological integral control design for homeostasis and sensory adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, Jordan; McMillen, David R

    2013-01-22

    Synthetic biology includes an effort to use design-based approaches to create novel controllers, biological systems aimed at regulating the output of other biological processes. The design of such controllers can be guided by results from control theory, including the strategy of integral feedback control, which is central to regulation, sensory adaptation, and long-term robustness. Realization of integral control in a synthetic network is an attractive prospect, but the nature of biochemical networks can make the implementation of even basic control structures challenging. Here we present a study of the general challenges and important constraints that will arise in efforts to engineer biological integral feedback controllers or to analyze existing natural systems. Constraints arise from the need to identify target output values that the combined process-plus-controller system can reach, and to ensure that the controller implements a good approximation of integral feedback control. These constraints depend on mild assumptions about the shape of input-output relationships in the biological components, and thus will apply to a variety of biochemical systems. We summarize our results as a set of variable constraints intended to provide guidance for the design or analysis of a working biological integral feedback controller.

  9. Physical Constraints on Biological Integral Control Design for Homeostasis and Sensory Adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, Jordan; McMillen, David R.

    2013-01-01

    Synthetic biology includes an effort to use design-based approaches to create novel controllers, biological systems aimed at regulating the output of other biological processes. The design of such controllers can be guided by results from control theory, including the strategy of integral feedback control, which is central to regulation, sensory adaptation, and long-term robustness. Realization of integral control in a synthetic network is an attractive prospect, but the nature of biochemical networks can make the implementation of even basic control structures challenging. Here we present a study of the general challenges and important constraints that will arise in efforts to engineer biological integral feedback controllers or to analyze existing natural systems. Constraints arise from the need to identify target output values that the combined process-plus-controller system can reach, and to ensure that the controller implements a good approximation of integral feedback control. These constraints depend on mild assumptions about the shape of input-output relationships in the biological components, and thus will apply to a variety of biochemical systems. We summarize our results as a set of variable constraints intended to provide guidance for the design or analysis of a working biological integral feedback controller. PMID:23442873

  10. 75 FR 17143 - Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Medical Devices; Neurological...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-05

    ... Staff; Medical Devices; Neurological and Physical Medicine Device Guidance Documents; Availability... physical medicine devices. FDA has developed a draft special controls guidance document for each of the 11... Guidance Document: Transcutaneous Electrical Stimulator for Aesthetic Purposes; Draft Guidance for...

  11. 78 FR 32667 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Rheumatoid Arthritis: Developing Drug Products for Treatment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-31

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry on Rheumatoid Arthritis... guidance for industry entitled ``Rheumatoid Arthritis: Developing Drug Products for Treatment.'' This... products developed as drug-device combination products. This guidance revises the guidance for...

  12. Honeybees as a model for the study of visually guided flight, navigation, and biologically inspired robotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Mandyam V

    2011-04-01

    Research over the past century has revealed the impressive capacities of the honeybee, Apis mellifera, in relation to visual perception, flight guidance, navigation, and learning and memory. These observations, coupled with the relative ease with which these creatures can be trained, and the relative simplicity of their nervous systems, have made honeybees an attractive model in which to pursue general principles of sensorimotor function in a variety of contexts, many of which pertain not just to honeybees, but several other animal species, including humans. This review begins by describing the principles of visual guidance that underlie perception of the world in three dimensions, obstacle avoidance, control of flight speed, and orchestrating smooth landings. We then consider how navigation over long distances is accomplished, with particular reference to how bees use information from the celestial compass to determine their flight bearing, and information from the movement of the environment in their eyes to gauge how far they have flown. Finally, we illustrate how some of the principles gleaned from these studies are now being used to design novel, biologically inspired algorithms for the guidance of unmanned aerial vehicles.

  13. Shuttle entry guidance revisited using nonlinear geometric methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mease, Kenneth D.; Kremer, Jean-Paul

    1994-11-01

    The entry guidance law for the space shuttle orbiter is revisited using nonlinear geometric methods. The shuttle guidance concept is to track a reference drag trajectory that has been designed to lead a specified range and velocity. It is shown that the approach taken in the original derivation of the shuttle entry guidance has much in common with the more recently developed feedback linearization method of differential geometric control. Using the feedback linearization method, however, an alternative, potentially superior, guidance law was formulated. Comparing the two guidance laws based performance domains in state space, taking into account the nonlinear dynamics, the alternative guidance law achieves the desired performance over larger domains in state space; the stability domain of the laws are similar. With larger operating domain for the shuttle or some other entry vehicle, the alternative guidance law should be considered.

  14. The mechanism and key molecules involved in pollen tube guidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashiyama, Tetsuya; Takeuchi, Hidenori

    2015-01-01

    During sexual reproduction of flowering plants, pollen tube guidance by pistil tissue is critical for the delivery of nonmotile sperm cells to female gametes. Multistep controls of pollen tube guidance can be divided into two phases: preovular guidance and ovular guidance. During preovular guidance, various female molecules, including stimulants for pollen germination and pollen tube growth, are provided to support tube growth toward the ovary, where the ovules are located. After entering the ovary, pollen tubes receive directional cues from their respective target ovules, including attractant peptides for precise, species-preferential attraction. Successful pollen tube guidance in the pistil requires not only nutritional and directional controls but also competency controls to make pollen tubes responsive to guidance cues, regulation to terminate growth once a pollen tube arrives at the target, and strategies to stop ovular attraction depending on the fertilization of female gametes.

  15. 普通高校社会体育指导与管理专业教学改革初探--以河南科技学院为例%A Primary Research on the Educational Reform of Social Sports Guidance and Management Major in General Colleges and Universities---In a Case of Henan Institute of Science and Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷鹏; 高泳; 尚保春

    2015-01-01

    当前我国社会体育指导与管理专业教学改革存在培养目标定位不清、专业方向过于宽泛、课程设置基本雷同、培养模式改革局限于课程的增减等问题。社会体育指导与管理专业改革的重点是转变教育思想观念,准确定位培养目标、构建“产学研”三位一体的运行机制及多元化与个性化相统一的培养模式,以培养社会体育指导与管理应用能力为主线设计学生的知识、能力、素质结构和培养方案,正确把握基础理论的内容,把素质教育贯穿于教学活动的全过程,以提高教育质量,提升专业内涵,促进其可持续发展。%There are some problems such as unclear orientation of training objectives ,too broad category of profes-sion ,similar curriculum setting ,reform of training mode limited to the increasing or decreasing of curriculum ,and so on.The key of profession reform of social sport guidance and management is to change the idea of education ,locate the training objectives correctly , construct the integrated running system of industry , school and research unit , and establish the integrated training mode of diversification and individuation ,so as to construct the structure and train-ing plans of student ’ s knowledge ,capability and quality designed by the main line of the training of applied abilities in social sports guidance and management ,understand the content of basic theories correctly ,and implement quality education over the whole process of teaching ,in order to improve the teaching quality ,promote the meaning of the profession ,and prompt its sustainable development .

  16. Biologi Radiasi

    OpenAIRE

    Milla Yoesfianda

    2008-01-01

    Biologi radiasi adalah ilmu yang mempelajari tentang pengaruh dari ionisasi radiasi dalam tubuh makhluk hidup. Kemungkinan terjadinya efek biologis akibat interaksi radiasi dan jaringan tubuh manusia, berbanding lurus dengan besarnya dosis radiasi yang mengenai jaringan tubuh tersebut. Radiasi dapat mengakibatkan efek baik secara langsung maupun tidak langsung. Efek yang merusak secara biologis dari radiasi ionisasi diklasifikasikan menjadi tiga kategori utama, yaitu efek somatik determin...

  17. Asymmetric Nano/Microtopography Biases Cytoskeletal Dynamics and Promotes Unidirectional Cell Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaoyu; Driscoll, Meghan; Guven, Can; Das, Satarupa; Parent, Carole; Fourkas, John; Losert, Wolfgang

    Many biological and physiological processes depend upon directed migration of cells, which is typically mediated by chemical or physical gradients or by signal relay. Here we show that cells can be guided in a single preferred direction based solely on local asymmetries in nano/microtopography on subcellular scales. These asymmetries can be repeated, and thereby provide directional guidance, over arbitrarily large areas. The direction and strength of the guidance is sensitive to the details of the nano/microtopography, suggesting that this phenomenon plays a context-dependent role in vivo. We demonstrate that asymmetric nano/microtopography guides the direction of internal actin polymerization waves (esotaxis), and that cells move in the same direction as these waves (microthigmotaxis). This phenomenon is observed both for the pseudopod-dominated migration of the amoeboid Dictyostelium discoideum and for the lamellipod-driven migration of human neutrophils. The conservation of this mechanism across cell types and the asymmetric shape of many natural scaffolds suggests that actin-wave-based guidance is important in biology and physiology.

  18. General Merchandise 50% Energy Savings Technical Support Document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hale, E.; Leach, M.; Hirsch, A.; Torcellini, P.

    2009-09-01

    This report documents technical analysis for medium-box general merchandise stores aimed at providing design guidance that achieves whole-building energy savings of at least 50% over ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2004.

  19. [Biological weapons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerwat, K; Becker, S; Wulf, H; Densow, D

    2010-08-01

    Biological weapons are weapons of mass destruction that use pathogens (bacteria, viruses) or the toxins produced by them to target living organisms or to contaminate non-living substances. In the past, biological warfare has been repeatedly used. Anthrax, plague and smallpox are regarded as the most dangerous biological weapons by various institutions. Nowadays it seems quite unlikely that biological warfare will be employed in any military campaigns. However, the possibility remains that biological weapons may be used in acts of bioterrorism. In addition all diseases caused by biological weapons may also occur naturally or as a result of a laboratory accident. Risk assessment with regard to biological danger often proves to be difficult. In this context, an early identification of a potentially dangerous situation through experts is essential to limit the degree of damage. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart * New York.

  20. Evolved Acceleration Guidance for Planetary Entry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mease, K. D.; Leavitt, J. A.; Ferch, M.

    The U.S. Apollo and Shuttle programs have proven the viability and effectiveness of acceleration guidance. New capabilities have been developed to augment this basic concept. Algorithms have been designed for low lift to drag ratio vehicles and for mid to high lift to drag ratio vehicles. These algorithms have been tested for Mars landing and for earth entry of reusable launch vehicles and have performed well in both cases. Also the trajectory planner has been incorporated into a landing footprint generator that is designed for on-board use.

  1. Avoiding plagiarism: guidance for nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Bob

    The pressures of study, diversity of source materials, past assumptions relating to good writing practice, ambiguous writing guidance on best practice and students' insecurity about their reasoning ability, can lead to plagiarism. With the use of source checking software, there is an increased chance that plagiarised work will be identified and investigated, and penalties given. In extreme cases, plagiarised work may be reported to the Nursing and Midwifery Council and professional as well as academic penalties may apply. This article provides information on how students can avoid plagiarism when preparing their coursework for submission.

  2. Systems biology, emergence and antireductionism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesić, Srdjan

    2016-09-01

    This study explores the conceptual history of systems biology and its impact on philosophical and scientific conceptions of reductionism, antireductionism and emergence. Development of systems biology at the beginning of 21st century transformed biological science. Systems biology is a new holistic approach or strategy how to research biological organisms, developed through three phases. The first phase was completed when molecular biology transformed into systems molecular biology. Prior to the second phase, convergence between applied general systems theory and nonlinear dynamics took place, hence allowing the formation of systems mathematical biology. The second phase happened when systems molecular biology and systems mathematical biology, together, were applied for analysis of biological data. Finally, after successful application in science, medicine and biotechnology, the process of the formation of modern systems biology was completed. Systems and molecular reductionist views on organisms were completely opposed to each other. Implications of systems and molecular biology on reductionist-antireductionist debate were quite different. The analysis of reductionism, antireductionism and emergence issues, in the era of systems biology, revealed the hierarchy between methodological, epistemological and ontological antireductionism. Primarily, methodological antireductionism followed from the systems biology. Only after, epistemological and ontological antireductionism could be supported.

  3. General footage ISOLDE experimental hall

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    Overview of the ISOLDE experimental hall. Equipment and experiments. Taken from the WITCH / EBIS platform: ISOLDE hall infrastructure, GHM line, LA1, LA2, LA0, central beamline, COLLAPS experiment, CRIS experiment, ISOLTRAP experiment, laser guidance from building 508 into the hall for laser spectroscopy COLLAPS and CRIS. Taken from the HIE ISOLDE shielding tunnel roof: ISOLDE hall infrastructure, WITCH experiment, VITO line, TAS experiment. General footage: High Tension room entrance and EBIS platform, staircases and passages in the experimental hall.

  4. Hierarchical patterning of multifunctional conducting polymer nanoparticles as a bionic platform for topographic contact guidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Dominic; Zou, Jianli; Chen, Xianjue; Munshi, Alaa; Smith, Nicole M; Agarwal, Vipul; Hodgetts, Stuart I; Plant, Giles W; Bakker, Anthony J; Harvey, Alan R; Luzinov, Igor; Iyer, K Swaminathan

    2015-02-24

    The use of programmed electrical signals to influence biological events has been a widely accepted clinical methodology for neurostimulation. An optimal biocompatible platform for neural activation efficiently transfers electrical signals across the electrode-cell interface and also incorporates large-area neural guidance conduits. Inherently conducting polymers (ICPs) have emerged as frontrunners as soft biocompatible alternatives to traditionally used metal electrodes, which are highly invasive and elicit tissue damage over long-term implantation. However, fabrication techniques for the ICPs suffer a major bottleneck, which limits their usability and medical translation. Herein, we report that these limitations can be overcome using colloidal chemistry to fabricate multimodal conducting polymer nanoparticles. Furthermore, we demonstrate that these polymer nanoparticles can be precisely assembled into large-area linear conduits using surface chemistry. Finally, we validate that this platform can act as guidance conduits for neurostimulation, whereby the presence of electrical current induces remarkable dendritic axonal sprouting of cells.

  5. Biological couplings: Classification and characteristic rules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The phenomena that biological functions originate from biological coupling are the important biological foundation of multiple bionics and the significant discoveries in the bionic fields. In this paper, the basic concepts related to biological coupling are introduced from the bionic viewpoint. Constitution, classification and characteristic rules of biological coupling are illuminated, the general modes of biological coupling studies are analyzed, and the prospects of multi-coupling bionics are predicted.

  6. Investigation of the Guidance Law for an Image Homing Guidance System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHANGGUAN Yin-li

    2005-01-01

    This paper aims at a type of image homing guided missile. The guided trajectory characteristics and the initial condition of the homing guidance are analyzed by calculating the miss distance of the image guided missile. Several modified proportional navigation laws which are easy for engineering implementation are introduced.

  7. Optimal guidance of extended trajectory shaping

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Hui; Lin Defu; Cheng Zhenxuan; Wang Jiang

    2014-01-01

    To control missile’s miss distance as well as terminal impact angle, by involving the time-to-go-nth power in the cost function, an extended optimal guidance law against a constant maneu-vering target or a stationary target is proposed using the linear quadratic optimal control theory. An extended trajectory shaping guidance (ETSG) law is then proposed under the assumption that the missile-target relative velocity is constant and the line of sight angle is small. For a lag-free ETSG system, closed-form solutions for the missile’s acceleration command are derived by the method of Schwartz inequality and linear simulations are performed to verify the closed-form results. Normalized adjoint systems for miss distance and terminal impact angle error are presented independently for stationary targets and constant maneuvering targets, respectively. Detailed discussions about the terminal misses and impact angle errors induced by terminal impact angle constraint, initial heading error, seeker zero position errors and target maneuvering, are performed.

  8. Research on artistic gymnastics training guidance model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Lin; Sun, Xianzhong

    2017-04-01

    Rhythmic gymnastics training guidance model, taking into consideration the features of artistic gymnastics training, is put forward to help gymnasts identify their deficiencies and unskilled technical movements and improve their training effects. The model is built on the foundation of both physical quality indicator model and artistic gymnastics training indicator model. Physical quality indicator model composed of bodily factor, flexibility-strength factor and speed-dexterity factor delivers an objective evaluation with reference to basic sport testing data. Training indicator model, based on physical fitness indicator, helps analyze the technical movements, through which the impact from each bodily factor on technical movements is revealed. AG training guidance model, in further combination with actual training data and in comparison with the data shown in the training indicator model, helps identify the problems in trainings, and thus improve the training effect. These three models when in combined use and in comparison with historical model data can check and verify the improvement in training effect over a certain period of time.

  9. Intelligent PID guidance control for AUV path tracking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晔; 姜言清; 王磊峰; 曹建; 张国成

    2015-01-01

    Based on rational behavior model of three layers, a tracking control system is designed for straight line tracking which is commonly used in underwater survey missions. An intelligent PID control law implemented as planning level during the control system using transverse deviation is came up with. Continuous tracking of path expressed by a point sequence can be realized by the law. Firstly, a path tracking control system based on rational behavior model of three layers is designed, mainly satisfying the needs of underactuated AUV. Since there is no need to perform spatially coupled maneuvers, the 3D path tracking control is decoupled into planar 2D path tracking and depth or height tracking separately. Secondly, planar path tracking controller is introduced. For the reason that more attention is paid to comparing with vertical position control, transverse deviation in analytical form is derived. According to the Lyapunov direct theory, control law is designed using discrete PID algorithm whose parameters obey adaptive fuzzy adjustment. Reference heading angle is given as an output of the guidance controller conducted by lateral deviation together with its derivative. For the purpose of improving control quality and facilitating parameter modifying, data normalize modules based on Sigmoid function are applied to input-output data manipulation. Lastly, a sequence of experiments was carried out successfully, including tests in Longfeng lake and at the Yellow sea. In most challenging sea conditions, tracking errors of straight line are below 2 m in general. The results show that AUV is able to compensate the disturbance brought by sea current. The provided test results demonstrate that the designed guidance controller guarantees stably and accurately straight route tracking. Besides, the proposed control system is accessible for continuous comb-shaped path tracking in region searching.

  10. Movement Strategy Discovery during Training via Haptic Guidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibo, Tricia L; Abbink, David A

    2016-01-01

    Haptic guidance has previously been investigated to facilitate motor skill training, whereupon a robotic device assists a trainee in executing the desired movement. However, many studies have reported a null or even detrimental effect of haptic guidance on training compared to unassisted practice. While prior studies have focused on using haptic guidance to refine a movement strategy, our study explores its effect on the discovery of a new strategy. Subjects learned to manipulate a virtual under-actuated system via a haptic device either with or without haptic guidance (and without haptic feedback of system dynamics). The guidance enabled subjects to experience a range of successful movements, rather than strictly enforcing one trajectory. Subjects who trained with guidance adopted a strategy that involved faster reaches, required greater control of the system's degrees of freedom, and increased the potential for faster task completion. However, overall improvement of task performance was limited with the new strategy.

  11. Guidance and dispersion studies of National Launch System ascent trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, John M.; Shrader, M. W.; Chang, Hopen; Freeman, Scott E.

    1992-01-01

    The National Launch System (NLS) is a joint concept, between DoD and NASA, for building a family of new launch vehicles. Two of the many choices to be made are the trajectory shaping methods and the onboard guidance scheme. This paper presents results from some ongoing studies to address these issues. First, potential gains from new guidance concepts are listed. Next the paper gives a list of possible discriminators between different guidance schemes, lists a number of potential guidance schemes, and explains two in some detail. A reference scheme is tested to determine its performance versus the discriminators. Finally, results from some special studies using the reference guidance scheme are given, including the effects of closed-loop guidance initiation time, time of enforcement of sideslip, vehicle roll for engine out, time and location of an engine out, use of load relief control, and use of day of launch wind biasing.

  12. Trajectory reshaping based guidance with impact time and angle constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Yao

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a novel impact time and angle constrained guidance law for homing missiles. The guidance law is first developed with the prior-assumption of a stationary target, which is followed by the practical extension to a maneuvering target scenario. To derive the closed-form guidance law, the trajectory reshaping technique is utilized and it results in defining a specific polynomial function with two unknown coefficients. These coefficients are determined to satisfy the impact time and angle constraints as well as the zero miss distance. Furthermore, the proposed guidance law has three additional guidance gains as design parameters which make it possible to adjust the guided trajectory according to the operational conditions and missile’s capability. Numerical simulations are presented to validate the effectiveness of the proposed guidance law.

  13. Models for guidance in kagome-structured hollow-core photonic crystal fibres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, G J; Wiederhecker, G S; Poulton, C G; Burger, S; St J Russell, P

    2007-10-01

    We demonstrate by numerical simulation that the general features of the loss spectrum of photonic crystal fibres (PCF) with a kagome structure can be explained by simple models consisting of thin concentric hexagons or rings of glass in air. These easily analysed models provide increased understanding of the mechanism of guidance in kagome PCF, and suggest ways in which the high-loss resonances in the loss spectrum may be shifted.

  14. United States Federal Guidance on Witness Protection in Human Trafficking

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-12

    UNITED STATES FEDERAL GUIDANCE ON WITNESS PROTECTION IN HUMAN TRAFFICKING A thesis presented to the Faculty of the U.S. Army...JUN 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE United States Federal Guidance on Witness Protection in Human Trafficking 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER...United States needs overarching federal guidance on witness protection for human trafficking victims/witnesses in order to enhance their safety and

  15. Integrating mechanisms of visual guidance in naturalistic language production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coco, Moreno I; Keller, Frank

    2015-05-01

    Situated language production requires the integration of visual attention and linguistic processing. Previous work has not conclusively disentangled the role of perceptual scene information and structural sentence information in guiding visual attention. In this paper, we present an eye-tracking study that demonstrates that three types of guidance, perceptual, conceptual, and structural, interact to control visual attention. In a cued language production experiment, we manipulate perceptual (scene clutter) and conceptual guidance (cue animacy) and measure structural guidance (syntactic complexity of the utterance). Analysis of the time course of language production, before and during speech, reveals that all three forms of guidance affect the complexity of visual responses, quantified in terms of the entropy of attentional landscapes and the turbulence of scan patterns, especially during speech. We find that perceptual and conceptual guidance mediate the distribution of attention in the scene, whereas structural guidance closely relates to scan pattern complexity. Furthermore, the eye-voice span of the cued object and its perceptual competitor are similar; its latency mediated by both perceptual and structural guidance. These results rule out a strict interpretation of structural guidance as the single dominant form of visual guidance in situated language production. Rather, the phase of the task and the associated demands of cross-modal cognitive processing determine the mechanisms that guide attention.

  16. Axon guidance and neuronal migration research in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Proper migration of neuronal somas and axonal growth cones to designated locations in the developing brain is essential for the assembly of functional neuronal circuits.Rapid progress in research of axon guidance and neuronal migration has been made in the last twenty years.Chinese researchers began their exploration in this field ten years ago and have made significant contributions in clarifying the signal transduction of axon guidance and neuronal migration.Several unique experimental approaches,including the migration assay of single isolated neurons in response to locally delivered guidance cues,have been developed by Chinese neuroscientists to investigate the molecular machinery underlying these guidance events.

  17. Is synthetic biology mechanical biology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Sune

    2015-12-01

    A widespread and influential characterization of synthetic biology emphasizes that synthetic biology is the application of engineering principles to living systems. Furthermore, there is a strong tendency to express the engineering approach to organisms in terms of what seems to be an ontological claim: organisms are machines. In the paper I investigate the ontological and heuristic significance of the machine analogy in synthetic biology. I argue that the use of the machine analogy and the aim of producing rationally designed organisms does not necessarily imply a commitment to mechanical biology. The ideal of applying engineering principles to biology is best understood as expressing recognition of the machine-unlikeness of natural organisms and the limits of human cognition. The paper suggests an interpretation of the identification of organisms with machines in synthetic biology according to which it expresses a strategy for representing, understanding, and constructing living systems that are more machine-like than natural organisms.

  18. Evolution, Entropy, & Biological Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    A logical question to be expected from students: "How could life develop, that is, change, evolve from simple, primitive organisms into the complex forms existing today, while at the same time there is a generally observed decline and disorganization--the second law of thermodynamics?" The explanations in biology textbooks relied upon by…

  19. Evolution, Entropy, & Biological Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    A logical question to be expected from students: "How could life develop, that is, change, evolve from simple, primitive organisms into the complex forms existing today, while at the same time there is a generally observed decline and disorganization--the second law of thermodynamics?" The explanations in biology textbooks relied upon by…

  20. Physiology of biological variation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, R.E.

    2004-01-01

    In agricultural products, variation exists in quality attributes between batches. Examples of this biological variation are well known and the general response is trying to suppress it as much as possible; to create uniformity using pre- andpostharvestmethods. This thesis

  1. Computational biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann, Lars Røeboe; Jones, Neil; Simonsen, Jakob Grue

    2011-01-01

    Computation via biological devices has been the subject of close scrutiny since von Neumann’s early work some 60 years ago. In spite of the many relevant works in this field, the notion of programming biological devices seems to be, at best, ill-defined. While many devices are claimed or proved t...

  2. Recent Events in Guidance, Navigation and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polites, Michael E.; Bullman, Jack (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This article summarizes recent events in Guidance, Navigation, and Control (GN&C) in space, weapons and missiles, and aircraft. The section on space includes recent developments with the following NASA spacecraft and space vehicles: Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous, Deep Space 1, Microwave Anisotropy Probe, Earth Observer-1, Compton Gamma Ray Observatory, the International Space Station, X-38, and X-40A. The section on weapons and missiles includes recent developments with the following missiles: Joint Air-to-Surface Standoff Missile, Storm Shadow/Scalp EG precision standoff missile, Hellfire missile, AIM-120C Advanced medium-range air-to-air missile, Derby missile, Arrow 2, and the Standard Missile SM-3. The section on aircraft includes recent developments with the following aircraft: Joint Strike Fighter, X-31, V-22, Couger/SUDer Puma Mk. 2, Predator B 001, and the Unmanned Combat Air Vehicle.

  3. Technical guidance for siting criteria development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldrich, D.C.; Sprung, J.L.; Alpert, D.J.; Diegert, K.; Ostmeyer, R.M.; Ritchie, L.T.; Strip, D.R.; Johnson, J.D.; Hansen, K.; Robinson, J.

    1982-12-01

    Technical guidance to support the formulation and comparison of possible siting criteria for nuclear power plants has been developed in four areas: (1) consequences of hypothetical severe nuclear-power-plant accidents, (2) characteristics of population distributions about current reactor sites, (3) site availability within the continental United States, and (4) socioeconomic impacts of reactor siting. The impact on consequences of source-term magnitude, meteorology, population distribution, and emergency response have been analyzed. Population distributions about current sites were analyzed to identify statistical characteristics, time trends, and regional differences. A site-availability data bank was constructed for the continential United States. The data bank contains information about population densities, seismicity, topography, water availability, and land-use restrictions. Finally, the socioeconomic impacts of rural-industrialization projects, energy boomtowns, and nuclear power plants were examined to determine their nature, magnitude, and dependence on site demography and remoteness.

  4. Precision Measurement in Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quake, Stephen

    Is biology a quantitative science like physics? I will discuss the role of precision measurement in both physics and biology, and argue that in fact both fields can be tied together by the use and consequences of precision measurement. The elementary quanta of biology are twofold: the macromolecule and the cell. Cells are the fundamental unit of life, and macromolecules are the fundamental elements of the cell. I will describe how precision measurements have been used to explore the basic properties of these quanta, and more generally how the quest for higher precision almost inevitably leads to the development of new technologies, which in turn catalyze further scientific discovery. In the 21st century, there are no remaining experimental barriers to biology becoming a truly quantitative and mathematical science.

  5. D & D screening risk evaluation guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robers, S.K.; Golden, K.M.; Wollert, D.A.

    1995-09-01

    The Screening Risk Evaluation (SRE) guidance document is a set of guidelines provided for the uniform implementation of SREs performed on decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) facilities. Although this method has been developed for D&D facilities, it can be used for transition (EM-60) facilities as well. The SRE guidance produces screening risk scores reflecting levels of risk through the use of risk ranking indices. Five types of possible risk are calculated from the SRE: current releases, worker exposures, future releases, physical hazards, and criticality. The Current Release Index (CRI) calculates the current risk to human health and the environment, exterior to the building, from ongoing or probable releases within a one-year time period. The Worker Exposure Index (WEI) calculates the current risk to workers, occupants and visitors inside contaminated D&D facilities due to contaminant exposure. The Future Release Index (FRI) calculates the hypothetical risk of future releases of contaminants, after one year, to human health and the environment. The Physical Hazards Index (PHI) calculates the risks to human health due to factors other than that of contaminants. Criticality is approached as a modifying factor to the entire SRE, due to the fact that criticality issues are strictly regulated under DOE. Screening risk results will be tabulated in matrix form, and Total Risk will be calculated (weighted equation) to produce a score on which to base early action recommendations. Other recommendations from the screening risk scores will be made based either on individual index scores or from reweighted Total Risk calculations. All recommendations based on the SRE will be made based on a combination of screening risk scores, decision drivers, and other considerations, as determined on a project-by-project basis.

  6. Regulatory guidance on soil cover systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kane, J.D. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

    1991-12-31

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in September 1991, completed revisions to 14 sections of the Standard Review Plan (SRP) for the Review of a License Application for a Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility. The major purposes of the SRP are to ensure the quality and uniformity of the NRC staff`s safety reviews, and to present a well-defined base from which to evaluate the acceptability of information and data provided in the Safety Analysis Report (SAR) portion of the license application. SRP 3.2, entitled, Design Considerations for Normal and Abnormal/Accident Conditions, was one of the sections that was revised by the NRC staff. This revision was completed to provide additional regulatory guidance on the important considerations that need to be addressed for the proper design and construction of soil cover systems that are to be placed over the LLW. The cover system over the waste is acknowledged to be one of the most important engineered barriers for the long-term stable performance of the disposal facility. The guidance in revised SRP 3.2 summarizes the previous efforts and recommendations of the US Army Corps of Engineers (COE), and a peer review panel on the placement of soil cover systems. NRC published these efforts in NUREG/CR-5432. The discussions in this paper highlight selected recommendations on soil cover issues that the NRC staff considers important for ensuring the safe, long-term performance of the soil cover systems. The development phases to be discussed include: (1) cover design; (2) cover material selection; (3) laboratory and field testing; (4) field placement control and acceptance; and (5) penetrations through the constructed covers.

  7. Dopaminergic axon guidance: which makes what?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laetitia ePrestoz

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Mesotelencephalic pathways in the adult central nervous system have been studied in great detail because of their implication in major physiological functions as well as in psychiatric, neurological and neurodegenerative diseases. However, the ontogeny of these pathways and the molecular mechanisms that guide dopaminergic axons during embryogenesis have been only recently studied. This line of research is of crucial interest for the repair of lesioned circuits in adulthood following neurodegenerative diseases or common traumatic injuries. For instance, in the adult, the anatomic and functional repair of the nigrostriatal pathway following dopaminergic embryonic neuron transplantation suggests that specific guidance cues exist which govern embryonic fibers outgrowth, and suggests that axons from transplanted embryonic cells are able to respond to theses cues, which then guide them to their final targets. In this review, we first synthesize the work that has been performed in the last few years on developing mesotelencephalic pathways, and summarize the current knowledge on the identity of cellular and molecular signals thought to be involved in establishing mesotelencephalic dopaminergic neuronal connectivity during embryogenesis in the central nervous system of rodents. Then, we review the modulation of expression of these molecular signals in the lesioned adult brain and discuss their potential role in remodeling the mesotelencephalic dopaminergic circuitry, with a particular focus on Parkinson’s disease. Identifying guidance molecules involved in the connection of grafted cells may be useful for cellular therapy in Parkinsonian patients, as these molecules may help direct axons from grafted cells along the long distance they have to travel from the substantia nigra to the striatum.

  8. Hierarchical structure of biological systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcocer-Cuarón, Carlos; Rivera, Ana L; Castaño, Victor M

    2014-01-01

    A general theory of biological systems, based on few fundamental propositions, allows a generalization of both Wierner and Berthalanffy approaches to theoretical biology. Here, a biological system is defined as a set of self-organized, differentiated elements that interact pair-wise through various networks and media, isolated from other sets by boundaries. Their relation to other systems can be described as a closed loop in a steady-state, which leads to a hierarchical structure and functioning of the biological system. Our thermodynamical approach of hierarchical character can be applied to biological systems of varying sizes through some general principles, based on the exchange of energy information and/or mass from and within the systems. PMID:24145961

  9. General Dentist

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Some general dentists work in government health services, research programs, higher education, corporations and even the military. ?xml:namespace> What kind of procedures do general dentists provide? ?xml:namespace> Many general dentists are ...

  10. International Conference on Harmonisation; guidance on the duration of chronic toxicity testing in animals (rodent and nonrodent toxicity testing); availability. Notice. Food and Drug Administration, HHS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-06-25

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is publishing a guidance entitled "S4A Duration of Chronic Toxicity Testing in Animals (Rodent and Nonrodent Toxicity Testing)." The guidance was prepared under the auspices of the International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH) and is intended to provide guidance on the duration of chronic toxicity testing in rodents and nonrodents as part of the safety evaluation of a drug product. FDA is also noting circumstances in which it may accept durations of chronic toxicity testing in nonrodents that differ from the duration generally recommended by ICH.

  11. Biology of corals and coral reefs

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rajkumar, R.; Parulekar, A.H.

    This chapter deals with biology of corals, coral reefs (in general) and coral reefs of the Indian Ocean. Biology of corals is lucidly dealt with, beginning from the clarification on hermatypic and ahermatypic forms. A complete account...

  12. 76 FR 45165 - Implementation of Office of Management and Budget Guidance on Drug-Free Workplace Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-28

    ... organizational structure of the requirements that agencies should adopt. The guidance was issued in final form on... administrative simplification that Regulatory Flexibility Act The Regulatory Flexibility Act (5 U.S.C. 601 et seq.) generally requires an agency to conduct a regulatory flexibility analysis of any rule subject to notice and...

  13. The Role of Learning and Career Guidance for Managing Mid-Career Transitions--Comparing Germany and Denmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haasler, Simone R.; Barabasch, Antje

    2015-01-01

    In Germany and Denmark, the systems of further education and career guidance are well developed, offering a wide range of services and learning opportunities for targeted, specific and also general skills development. Based on an empirical study with mid-career individuals in both countries, the article investigates how the different systems…

  14. The Role of Learning and Career Guidance for Managing Mid-Career Transitions--Comparing Germany and Denmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haasler, Simone R.; Barabasch, Antje

    2015-01-01

    In Germany and Denmark, the systems of further education and career guidance are well developed, offering a wide range of services and learning opportunities for targeted, specific and also general skills development. Based on an empirical study with mid-career individuals in both countries, the article investigates how the different systems…

  15. 75 FR 43172 - International Conference on Harmonisation; Draft Guidance on Q4B Evaluation and Recommendation of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration International Conference on Harmonisation; Draft Guidance on Q4B Evaluation and Recommendation of Pharmacopoeial Texts for Use in the International Conference on Harmonisation Regions; Annex 13 on Bulk Density and Tapped Density of Powders General Chapter;...

  16. Biological Oceanography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyhrman, Sonya

    2004-10-01

    The ocean is arguably the largest habitat on the planet, and it houses an astounding array of life, from microbes to whales. As a testament to this diversity and its importance, the discipline of biological oceanography spans studies of all levels of biological organization, from that of single genes, to organisms, to their population dynamics. Biological oceanography also includes studies on how organisms interact with, and contribute to, essential global processes. Students of biological oceanography are often as comfortable looking at satellite images as they are electron micrographs. This diversity of perspective begins the textbook Biological Oceanography, with cover graphics including a Coastal Zone Color Scanner image representing chlorophyll concentration, an electron micrograph of a dinoflagellate, and a photograph of a copepod. These images instantly capture the reader's attention and illustrate some of the different scales on which budding oceanographers are required to think. Having taught a core graduate course in biological oceanography for many years, Charlie Miller has used his lecture notes as the genesis for this book. The text covers the subject of biological oceanography in a manner that is targeted to introductory graduate students, but it would also be appropriate for advanced undergraduates.

  17. 32 CFR 635.34 - General.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... INVESTIGATIONS LAW ENFORCEMENT REPORTING Victim and Witness Assistance Procedures § 635.34 General. (a) This subpart implements procedures to provide assistance to victims and witnesses of crimes that take place on..., Chapter 18, for additional policy guidance on the Army Victim/Witness Program. ...

  18. HFE Process Guidance and Standards for potential application to updating NRC guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacques Hugo; J. J. Persensky

    2012-07-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) reviews and evaluates the human factors engineering (HFE) programs of applicants for nuclear power plant construction permits, operating licenses, standard design certifications, and combined operating licenses. The purpose of these safety reviews is to help ensure that personnel performance and reliability are appropriately supported. Detailed design review procedures and guidance for the evaluations is provided in three key documents: the Standard Review Plan (NUREG-0800), the HFE Program Review Model (NUREG-0711), and the Human-System Interface Design Review Guidelines (NUREG-0700). These documents were last revised in 2007, 2004 and 2002, respectively. The NRC is committed to the periodic update and improvement of these guidance documents to ensure that they remain state-of-the-art design evaluation tools. Thus, the NRC has initiated a project with BNL to update the NRC guidance to remain current with recent research on human performance, advances in HFE methods and tools, and new technology. INL supported Brookhaven National Lab (BNL) to update the detailed HFE review criteria contained in NUREG-0711 and NUREG-0700 based on (1) feedback obtained from end users, (2) the results of NRC research and development efforts supporting the NRC staff’s HFE safety reviews, and (3) other material the project staff identify as applicable to the update effort. INL submitted comments on development plans and sections of NUREGs 0800, 0711, and 0700. The contractor prepared the report attached here as the deliverable for this work.

  19. Extracellular matrix molecules play diverse roles in the growth and guidance of central nervous system axons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Pires-Neto

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available Axon growth and guidance represent complex biological processes in which probably intervene diverse sets of molecular cues that allow for the appropriate wiring of the central nervous system (CNS. The extracellular matrix (ECM represents a major contributor of molecular signals either diffusible or membrane-bound that may regulate different stages of neural development. Some of the brain ECM molecules form tridimensional structures (tunnels and boundaries that appear during time- and space-regulated events, possibly playing relevant roles in the control of axon elongation and pathfinding. This short review focuses mainly on the recognized roles played by proteoglycans, laminin, fibronectin and tenascin in axonal development during ontogenesis.

  20. Data Management Guidance in the Context of Climate Risk-Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylak-Glassman, E.

    2016-12-01

    Climate risk-management, while a national issue, often occurs at a local level. To prepare for the effects of climate change, community decision-makers require a diverse set of data from historical records, social science, observations, and models, much of which is collected and curated by Federal agencies. The President's Climate Action Plan calls for building stronger and safer communities and infrastructure to prepare the United States for the impacts of climate change, and the Obama Administration has prioritized making Federal data more discoverable, accessible, and usable to inform both climate risk-management, and other data-informed decisions. In order to understand the state of guidance for data provision for climate risk-management, we analyzed Federal, agency, and interagency documents such as the Common Framework for Earth-Observation Data, related to open data, climate data, and data management in general. We examined guidance related to the principles of data discovery, access, and ease of use, as well as the data management categories of application programming interfaces, controlled vocabularies and ontologies, metadata, persistent dataset identifiers, preservation, and usage metrics. This analysis showed both the extent of guidance provided, as well as gaps in guidance. Following the literature review, we held structured conversations with Federal climate data managers and tool developers to identify areas where further efforts could enhance provision of agency data for climate risk-management. Our analysis can be used by data managers to understand how various data management practices can help improve climate risk-management and where to find further guidance.

  1. Foldit Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-31

    Report 8/1/2013-7/31/2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Sa. CONTRACT NUMBER Foldit Biology NOOO 14-13-C-0221 Sb. GRANT NUMBER N/A Sc. PROGRAM ELEMENT...Include area code) Unclassified Unclassified Unclassified (206) 616-2660 Zoran Popović Foldit Biology (Task 1, 2, 3, 4) Final Report...Period Covered by the Report August 1, 2013 – July 31, 2015 Date of Report: July 31, 2015 Project Title: Foldit Biology Contract Number: N00014-13

  2. Cone-beam CT-guidance in Interventional Radiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braak, S.J.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. CBCT-guidance (CBCT-guidance) is a new stereotactic technique for needle interventions, combining 3D soft-tissue cone-beam CT, needle planningsoftware, and real-time fluoroscopy. Our objective was to evaluate the use, feasibility and outcome of this technique. To determine the effectiv

  3. Some Practical Remedies for Providing Vocational Guidance for Everyone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, John L.

    After describing some current problems in vocational guidance and summarizing relevant knowledge and theory in the field, this paper presents some practical plans, materials, and ideas for providing more useful vocational assistance to people of all ages. The paper reviews such prominent vocational guidance approaches as vocational information and…

  4. A Theory-Ridden, Computerless, Impersonal Vocational Guidance System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, John L.

    Beginning with a brief summary of the need for practical vocational guidance systems, the author explains his Self Directed Search for Educational and Vocational Planning (SDS), which was developed to provide a cheap, practical, vocational guidance system having a high degree of scientific validty and client effectiveness. The SDS is a…

  5. An Introductory Guide to the Community College Guidance Profile (CCGP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, John L.

    The Community College Guidance Profile (CCGP) was developed to accelerate and simplify the assessment process in vocational and educational guidance. The CCGP includes six main sections which are concerned with: (1) educational and vocational aspirations, (2) self estimates of abilities and personal traits, (3) vocational interests, (4) activities…

  6. 78 FR 49782 - Interim Staff Guidance on Changes During Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-15

    ... COMMISSION Interim Staff Guidance on Changes During Construction AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Draft interim staff guidance; request for comment. SUMMARY: The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is issuing this notice for use of, and to solicit public comment on the draft Interim...

  7. Environmental Guidance Program Reference Book: American Indian Religious Freedom Act

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-11-01

    This Reference Book contains a copy of the American Indian Religious Freedom Act and guidance for DOE compliance with the statute. The document is provided to DOE and contractor staff for informational purposes only and should not be interpreted as legal guidance. Updates that include important new requirements will be provided periodically.

  8. Meta-Narrative on Guidance and Counselling in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thamarasseri, Ismail

    2014-01-01

    The purposes of guidance and counselling provide emphasis and strength to the educational program. The major goals of counselling are to promote personal growth and to prepare students to become motivated workers and responsible citizens. The chief aim of an educational guidance is to develop the ability of co-ordinating with the school…

  9. Rethinking Careers Education and Guidance: Theory, Policy and Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, A. G.; Law, Bill; Killeen, John; Kidd, Jennifer M.; Hawthorn, Ruth

    This book contains 21 papers on the theory, context, provision, practice, and development of career counseling and guidance in Great Britain. The following papers are included: "Preface" (Tony Watts et al.); "The Social Context of Guidance" (John Killeen); "Career Theory" (John Killeen); "A Career-Learning…

  10. Finding the Optimal Guidance for Enhancing Anchored Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zydney, Janet Mannheimer; Bathke, Arne; Hasselbring, Ted S.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of different methods of guidance with anchored instruction on students' mathematical problem-solving performance. The purpose of this research was to iteratively design a learning environment to find the optimal level of guidance. Two iterations of the software were compared. The first iteration used explicit…

  11. Interdisciplinarity in Vocational Guidance: An Action Theory Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valach, Ladislav; Young, Richard A.

    2009-01-01

    In addressing the issue of interdisciplinary research in vocational guidance, twelve propositions important for understanding the vocational guidance process as joint, goal-directed action are presented. They address the encounter between client and counsellor leading to relational ethics, the relevance of everyday action theory and methods for…

  12. Critical Perspectives on Adolescent Vocational Guidance in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWhirter, Ellen Hawley; McWhirter, Benedict T.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the lens of critical psychology is applied to adolescent career development and vocational guidance in Chile. The authors describe and critique the status of adolescent vocational guidance in Chile, the reproduction of extant social inequities in Chilean education, and offer recommendations for enhancing vocational guidance…

  13. Guidance on the environmental risk assessment of plant pests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, R.; Candresse, T.; Dormannsne Simon, E.

    2011-01-01

    the environmental risks of plant pests that have previously been used in pest risk assessment. The limitations identified by the review led the Panel to define the new methodology for environmental risk assessment which is described in this guidance document. The guidance is primarily addressed to the EFSA PLH...

  14. 75 FR 70009 - Development of Health Risk Assessment Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Development of Health Risk Assessment Guidance... guidance concerning Health Risk Assessment (HRAs). Section 4103 of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) (Pub. L. 111-148) requires that a health risk assessment be included in the annual wellness visit benefit...

  15. Critical Perspectives on Adolescent Vocational Guidance in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWhirter, Ellen Hawley; McWhirter, Benedict T.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the lens of critical psychology is applied to adolescent career development and vocational guidance in Chile. The authors describe and critique the status of adolescent vocational guidance in Chile, the reproduction of extant social inequities in Chilean education, and offer recommendations for enhancing vocational guidance…

  16. Guidance of Nonlinear Nonminimum-Phase Dynamic Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devasia, Santosh

    1997-01-01

    The first two years research work has advanced the inversion-based guidance theory for: (1) systems with non-hyperbolic internal dynamics; (2) systems with parameter jumps; (3) systems where a redesign of the output trajectory is desired; and (4) the generation of recovery guidance maneuvers.

  17. Exemplary Career Guidance Programs 1995: Secondary and Postsecondary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunanan, Esmeralda S.; Maddy-Bernstein, Carolyn

    This document presents nine exemplary career guidance and counseling programs identified by the National Center for Research in Vocational Education's Office of Student Services. Chapter 1 presents a synthesis of the nationally recognized career guidance programs successful in assisting students in their career development. It provides a…

  18. Operator radiation exposure in cone-beam computed tomography guidance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braak, S.J.; Strijen Van, M. J L; Meijer, E.; Heesewijk Van, J. P M; Mali, W. P T M

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Quantitative analysis of operator dose in cone-beam computed tomography guidance (CBCT-guidance) and the effect of protective shielding. Methods: Using a Rando phantom, a model was set-up to measure radiation dose for the operator hand, thyroid and gonad region. The effect of sterile rad

  19. Career Guidance and Social Exclusion: A Cautionary Tale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, A. G.

    2001-01-01

    Examines the relationship of career guidance to public-policy interventions designed to address social exclusion. Analyzes the nature and origin of the concept of social exclusion and reviews the roles of career guidance in response to it, particularly in relation to young people who have dropped out of formal education or are at high risk of…

  20. Counseling, Guidance, and the Morality of Help-Giving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, Michael J.

    1971-01-01

    A review of: (1) The Counseling Center in Higher Education, Phillip J. Gallagher and George D. Demos, (2) The Guidance Process, Herman J. Peters, (3) Counseling and Guidance in the Twentieth Century: Reflections and Reformulations, William H. Van Hoose and John J. Pietrofesa, and (4) Value Orientations in Counseling and Psychotherapy: The Meanings…

  1. Making Connections: Guidance and Career Education in the Middle Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levi, Marion; Ziegler, Suzanne

    This report is an examination of recommended and actual school-based guidance policies, programs, and practices for young adolescents. The information is drawn from Canadian and international publications, and from a survey of guidance and career education programs for grades 7-8 in Ontario boards of education and schools, called The 1990 Ontario…

  2. Thinking Differently about Guidance: Power, Children's Autonomy and Democratic Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millei, Zsuzsa

    2012-01-01

    This article critiques guidance approaches to discipline, that are employed in early childhood environments with an aim to create democratic environments for children, and as part of "good" practices. Advocates of guidance claim that this is a more humane or democratic approach to discipline that empowers children, and therefore, power in the…

  3. 76 FR 81513 - Guidance for Industry: Prevention of Salmonella

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-28

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Industry: Prevention of Salmonella Enteritidis... availability of a guidance for industry entitled ``Prevention of Salmonella Enteritidis in Shell Eggs During... with certain provisions contained in FDA's final rule ``Prevention of Salmonella Enteritidis in...

  4. Educating Career Guidance Practitioners in the Twenty-First Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gough, John

    2017-01-01

    Rapidly changing policy contexts in England have dramatically affected the provision of career guidance, and the training and development of its practitioners. This paper takes an autoethnographic and self-reflexive approach to exploring the experience of a Senior Lecturer in Career Guidance who manages a centre that offers the Qualification in…

  5. Quality assurance and evidence in career guidance in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plant, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Quality assurance and evidence in career guidance in Europe is based on a particular, positivtic model. Other approaches are largely neglected.......Quality assurance and evidence in career guidance in Europe is based on a particular, positivtic model. Other approaches are largely neglected....

  6. Career Guidance and Social Inclusion: A Challenge for Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultana, Ronald G.

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses the way career guidance is conceived across Europe as a policy instrument that can facilitate social inclusion. It locates current articulations of career guidance within the broader social-market aspirations of the European Union, providing an account of several reviews and analyses of the field that have been carried out at…

  7. National All-Age Career Guidance Services: Evidence and Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, A. G.

    2010-01-01

    The three major national all-age career guidance services--in New Zealand, Scotland and Wales--have been reviewed using an adaptation of the methodology adopted in the OECD Career Guidance Policy Review. The main features of the three services are summarised, and some key differences and distinctive strengths are outlined. The alternative approach…

  8. The Well-Being Outcomes of Career Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    The potential for career guidance to impact on well-being has received insufficient attention in the UK. There are both conceptual and empirical reasons to expect that the impacts may be positive, but a lack of evidence directly testing this proposition. Career guidance has commonalities with therapeutic counselling suggesting analogous effects,…

  9. 32 CFR 147.6 - Guidance D-Sexual behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Guidance D-Sexual behavior. 147.6 Section 147.6... Guidance D—Sexual behavior. (a) The concern. Sexual behavior is a security concern if it involves a..., exploitation, or duress, or reflects lack of judgment or discretion. 1 Sexual orientation or preference may not...

  10. The biology of plant metabolomics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hall, R.D.

    2011-01-01

    Following a general introduction, this book includes details of metabolomics of model species including Arabidopsis and tomato. Further chapters provide in-depth coverage of abiotic stress, data integration, systems biology, genetics, genomics, chemometrics and biostatisitcs. Applications of plant m

  11. Natural products in chemical biology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Civjan, Natanya

    2012-01-01

    "Based on the award winning Wiley Encyclopedia of Chemical Biology, this book provides a general overview of the unique features of the small molecules referred to as "natural products", explores how...

  12. Issues in Biological Shape Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilger, Klaus Baggesen

    This talk reflects parts of the current research at informatics and Mathematical Modelling at the Technical University of Denmark within biological shape modelling. We illustrate a series of generalizations, modifications, and applications of the elements of constructing models of shape...

  13. Gamma-ray detector guidance of breast cancer therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravi, Ananth

    2009-12-01

    Breast cancer is the most common form of cancer in women. Over 75% of breast cancer patients are eligible for breast conserving therapy. Breast conserving therapy involves a lumpectomy to excise the gross tumour, followed by adjuvant radiation therapy to eradicate residual microscopic disease. Recent advances in the understanding of breast cancer biology and recurrence have presented the opportunity to improve breast conserving therapy techniques. This thesis has explored the potential of gamma-ray detecting technology to improve guidance of both surgical and adjuvant radiation therapy aspects of breast conserving therapy. The task of accurately excising the gross tumour during breast conserving surgery (BCS) is challenging, due to the limited guidance currently available to surgeons. Radioimmuno guided surgery (RIGS) has been investigated to determine its potential to delineate the gross tumour intraoperatively. The effects of varying a set of user controllable parameters on the ability of RIGS to detect and delineate model breast tumours was determined. The parameters studied were: Radioisotope, blood activity concentration, collimator height and energy threshold. The most sensitive combination of parameters was determined to be an 111Indium labelled radiopharmaceutical with a gamma-ray detecting probe collimated to a height of 5 mm and an energy threshold at the Compton backscatter peak. Using these parameters it was found that, for the breast tumour model used, the minimum tumour-to-background ratio required to delineate the tumour edge accurately was 5.2+/-0.4 at a blood activity concentration of 5 kBq/ml. Permanent breast seed implantation (PBSI) is a form of accelerated partial breast irradiation that dramatically reduces the treatment burden of adjuvant radiation therapy on patients. Unfortunately, it is currently difficult to localize the implanted brachytherapy seeds, making it difficult to perform a correction in the event that seeds have been misplaced

  14. Introduction to Biology, Tropical Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackean, D. G.

    This pupil's reference book is intended to provide biological information, using plants and animals which are suitable for study over a wide range of tropical countries. Its topics are taken mostly from the biology syllabi for the British General Certification of Education at the Ordinary Level and are written principally for pupils in the last…

  15. Extended High-Gain Observer for Mars Entry Guidance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pingyuan Cui

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available To deliver a Mars entry vehicle to the prescribed parachute deployment point, active entry guidance is essential. This paper addresses the problem of Mars atmospheric entry guidance through drag tracking method with extended high gain observer. First, an extended high gain observer combined with feedback linearization is applied in drag tracking for Mars entry longitudinal guidance.  The observer estimates the drag and drag rate for drag tracking, estimates the perturbation due to model uncertainty and disturbance, and compensate for the perturbation by canceling its estimate. Then, bank reversal is adopted in the lateral plane to reduce the cross-range error. Finally, Mars entry simulation is performed to assess the performance of the adaptive guidance law. The results demonstrate that the proposed guidance law exhibits good performance.

  16. Guidance Receptors in the Nervous and Cardiovascular Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubina, K A; Tkachuk, V A

    2015-10-01

    Blood vessels and nervous fibers grow in parallel, for they express similar receptors for chemokine substances. Recently, much attention is being given to studying guidance receptors and their ligands besides the growth factors, cytokines, and chemokines necessary to form structures in the nervous and vascular systems. Such guidance molecules determine trajectory for growing axons and vessels. Guidance molecules include Ephrins and their receptors, Neuropilins and Plexins as receptors for Semaphorins, Robos as receptors for Slit-proteins, and UNC5B receptors binding Netrins. Apart from these receptors and their ligands, urokinase and its receptor (uPAR) and T-cadherin are also classified as guidance molecules. The urokinase system mediates local proteolysis at the leading edge of cells, thereby providing directed migration. T-cadherin is a repellent molecule that regulates the direction of growing axons and blood vessels. Guidance receptors also play an important role in the diseases of the nervous and cardiovascular systems.

  17. A Three-Dimensional Cooperative Guidance Law of Multimissile System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Wei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to conduct saturation attacks on a static target, the cooperative guidance problem of multimissile system is researched. A three-dimensional guidance model is built using vector calculation and the classic proportional navigation guidance (PNG law is extended to three dimensions. Based on this guidance law, a distributed cooperative guidance strategy is proposed and a consensus protocol is designed to coordinate the time-to-go commands of all missiles. Then an expert system, which contains two extreme learning machines (ELM, is developed to regulate the local proportional coefficient of each missile according to the command. All missiles can arrive at the target simultaneously under the assumption that the multimissile network is connected. A simulation scenario is given to demonstrate the validity of the proposed method.

  18. A guide to CERCLA site assessment. Environmental Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    This Pocket Guide is a condensed version of information provided in three EPA documents: Guidance for Performing Preliminary Assessments Under CERCLA, Guidance for Performing Site Inspections Under CERCLA, and Hazard Ranking System Guidance Manual. Additionally the guide provides a DOE perspective on site assessment issues and information on the Federal Agency Hazardous Waste Compliance Docket as well as data sources for DOE site assessments. The guide is intended to present this information in a simple, portable, and direct manner that will allow the user to effectively focus on those aspects of the site assessment process of interest. The guide is not intended as a substitute for the three EPA guidance documents mentioned previously. DOE investigators should be thoroughly familiar with the EPA guidance before conducting site assessments. Use this pocketguide as an overview of procedures and requirements and as a field guide.

  19. Axon growth and guidance: receptor regulation and signal transduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Michael; Chance, Rebecca K; Bashaw, Greg J

    2009-01-01

    The development of precise connectivity patterns during the establishment of the nervous system depends on the regulated action of diverse, conserved families of guidance cues and their neuronal receptors. Determining how these signaling pathways function to regulate axon growth and guidance is fundamentally important to understanding wiring specificity in the nervous system and will undoubtedly shed light on many neural developmental disorders. Considerable progress has been made in defining the mechanisms that regulate the correct spatial and temporal distribution of guidance receptors and how these receptors in turn signal to the growth cone cytoskeleton to control steering decisions. This review focuses on recent advances in our understanding of the mechanisms mediating growth cone guidance with a particular emphasis on the control of guidance receptor regulation and signaling.

  20. Biology teachers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mathematics, Science and Biology teachers code switch when they teach. ... (by constantly translating back and forth), and argue for a 'separation approach' ..... for the classroom, only 3 students did not give an answer to this open-ended.