WorldWideScience

Sample records for general base glu-268

  1. Generalized eigenvalue based spectrum sensing

    KAUST Repository

    Shakir, Muhammad

    2012-01-01

    Spectrum sensing is one of the fundamental components in cognitive radio networks. In this chapter, a generalized spectrum sensing framework which is referred to as Generalized Mean Detector (GMD) has been introduced. In this context, we generalize the detectors based on the eigenvalues of the received signal covariance matrix and transform the eigenvalue based spectrum sensing detectors namely: (i) the Eigenvalue Ratio Detector (ERD) and two newly proposed detectors which are referred to as (ii) the GEometric Mean Detector (GEMD) and (iii) the ARithmetic Mean Detector (ARMD) into an unified framework of generalize spectrum sensing. The foundation of the proposed framework is based on the calculation of exact analytical moments of the random variables of the decision threshold of the respective detectors. The decision threshold has been calculated in a closed form which is based on the approximation of Cumulative Distribution Functions (CDFs) of the respective test statistics. In this context, we exchange the analytical moments of the two random variables of the respective test statistics with the moments of the Gaussian (or Gamma) distribution function. The performance of the eigenvalue based detectors is compared with the several traditional detectors including the energy detector (ED) to validate the importance of the eigenvalue based detectors and the performance of the GEMD and the ARMD particularly in realistic wireless cognitive radio network. Analytical and simulation results show that the newly proposed detectors yields considerable performance advantage in realistic spectrum sensing scenarios. Moreover, the presented results based on proposed approximation approaches are in perfect agreement with the empirical results. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

  2. General base-general acid catalysis by terpenoid cyclases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pemberton, Travis A; Christianson, David W

    2016-07-01

    Terpenoid cyclases catalyze the most complex reactions in biology, in that more than half of the substrate carbon atoms often undergo changes in bonding during the course of a multistep cyclization cascade that proceeds through multiple carbocation intermediates. Many cyclization mechanisms require stereospecific deprotonation and reprotonation steps, and most cyclization cascades are terminated by deprotonation to yield an olefin product. The first bacterial terpenoid cyclase to yield a crystal structure was pentalenene synthase from Streptomyces exfoliatus UC5319. This cyclase generates the hydrocarbon precursor of the pentalenolactone family of antibiotics. The structures of pentalenene synthase and other terpenoid cyclases reveal predominantly nonpolar active sites typically lacking amino acid side chains capable of serving general base-general acid functions. What chemical species, then, enables the Brønsted acid-base chemistry required in the catalytic mechanisms of these enzymes? The most likely candidate for such general base-general acid chemistry is the co-product inorganic pyrophosphate. Here, we briefly review biological and nonbiological systems in which phosphate and its derivatives serve general base and general acid functions in catalysis. These examples highlight the fact that the Brønsted acid-base activities of phosphate derivatives are comparable to the Brønsted acid-base activities of amino acid side chains.

  3. Provable Secure Identity Based Generalized Signcryption Scheme

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Gang; Ma, Xiaoxiao; Shen, Yong; Han, Wenbao

    2010-01-01

    According to actual needs, generalized signcryption scheme can flexibly work as an encryption scheme, a signature scheme or a signcryption scheme. In this paper, firstly, we give a security model for identity based generalized signcryption which is more complete than existing model. Secondly, we propose an identity based generalized signcryption scheme. Thirdly, we give the security proof of the new scheme in this complete model. Comparing with existing identity based generalized signcryption...

  4. Provable Secure Identity Based Generalized Signcryption Scheme

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Gang; Shen, Yong; Han, Wenbao

    2010-01-01

    According to actual needs, generalized signcryption scheme can flexibly work as an encryption scheme, a signature scheme or a signcryption scheme. In this paper, firstly, we give a security model for identity based generalized signcryption which is more complete than existing model. Secondly, we propose an identity based generalized signcryption scheme. Thirdly, we give the security proof of the new scheme in this complete model. Comparing with existing identity based generalized signcryption, the new scheme has less implementation complexity. Moreover, the new scheme has comparable computation complexity with the existing normal signcryption schemes.

  5. Generalized Derivative Based Kernelized Learning Vector Quantization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schleif, Frank-Michael; Villmann, Thomas; Hammer, Barbara; Schneider, Petra; Biehl, Michael; Fyfe, Colin; Tino, Peter; Charles, Darryl; Garcia-Osoro, Cesar; Yin, Hujun

    2010-01-01

    We derive a novel derivative based version of kernelized Generalized Learning Vector Quantization (KGLVQ) as an effective, easy to interpret, prototype based and kernelized classifier. It is called D-KGLVQ and we provide generalization error bounds, experimental results on real world data, showing t

  6. Black Hole Based Tests of General Relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Yagi, Kent

    2016-01-01

    General relativity has passed all solar system experiments and neutron star based tests, such as binary pulsar observations, with flying colors. A more exotic arena for testing general relativity is in systems that contain one or more black holes. Black holes are the most compact objects in the universe, providing probes of the strongest-possible gravitational fields. We are motivated to study strong-field gravity since many theories give large deviations from general relativity only at large field strengths, while recovering the weak-field behavior. In this article, we review how one can probe general relativity and various alternative theories of gravity by using electromagnetic waves from a black hole with an accretion disk, and gravitational waves from black hole binaries. We first review model-independent ways of testing gravity with electromagnetic/gravitational waves from a black hole system. We then focus on selected examples of theories that extend general relativity in rather simple ways. Some impor...

  7. DUAL BASES FOR A NEW FAMILY OF GENERALIZED BALL BASES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-yiWu

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the dual bases for a new family of generalized Ball curves with a position parameter K, which includes the Bezier curve, generalized Said-Ball curve and some intermediate curves. Using the dual bases, the relative Marsden identity, conversion formulas of bases and control points of various curves are obtained.

  8. Generalized graph states based on Hadamard matrices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, Shawn X. [Department of Mathematics, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Yu, Nengkun [Institute for Quantum Computing, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada); Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario N1G 2W1 (Canada); UTS-AMSS Joint Research Laboratory for Quantum Computation and Quantum Information Processing, Academy of Mathematics and Systems Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Zeng, Bei [Institute for Quantum Computing, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada); Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario N1G 2W1 (Canada); Canadian Institute for Advanced Research, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1Z8 (Canada)

    2015-07-15

    Graph states are widely used in quantum information theory, including entanglement theory, quantum error correction, and one-way quantum computing. Graph states have a nice structure related to a certain graph, which is given by either a stabilizer group or an encoding circuit, both can be directly given by the graph. To generalize graph states, whose stabilizer groups are abelian subgroups of the Pauli group, one approach taken is to study non-abelian stabilizers. In this work, we propose to generalize graph states based on the encoding circuit, which is completely determined by the graph and a Hadamard matrix. We study the entanglement structures of these generalized graph states and show that they are all maximally mixed locally. We also explore the relationship between the equivalence of Hadamard matrices and local equivalence of the corresponding generalized graph states. This leads to a natural generalization of the Pauli (X, Z) pairs, which characterizes the local symmetries of these generalized graph states. Our approach is also naturally generalized to construct graph quantum codes which are beyond stabilizer codes.

  9. New OTRA-Based Generalized Impedance Simulator

    OpenAIRE

    Ashish Gupta; Raj Senani; Bhaskar, D. R.; Singh, A. K.

    2013-01-01

    Operational transresistance amplifier (OTRA) has attracted considerable attention in the recent literature in several applications such as impedance simulation, universal biquad filter realization, realization of sinusoidal oscillators and multivibrators. However, to the best knowledge of the authors, any OTRA-based generalized impedance simulator circuits have not been reported so far. The purpose of this paper is to present such a circuit.

  10. Improving evidence-based general practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kortekaas, MF

    2016-01-01

    This thesis provides knowledge on how to improve the practice of evidence-based medicine (EBM) by general practitioners (GPs) and GP trainees. EBM is defined as the integration of clinical expertise, patient values and the best available clinical evidence in daily clinical practice. We describe the

  11. Black hole based tests of general relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagi, Kent; Stein, Leo C.

    2016-03-01

    General relativity has passed all solar system experiments and neutron star based tests, such as binary pulsar observations, with flying colors. A more exotic arena for testing general relativity is in systems that contain one or more black holes. Black holes are the most compact objects in the Universe, providing probes of the strongest-possible gravitational fields. We are motivated to study strong-field gravity since many theories give large deviations from general relativity only at large field strengths, while recovering the weak-field behavior. In this article, we review how one can probe general relativity and various alternative theories of gravity by using electromagnetic waves from a black hole with an accretion disk, and gravitational waves from black hole binaries. We first review model-independent ways of testing gravity with electromagnetic/gravitational waves from a black hole system. We then focus on selected examples of theories that extend general relativity in rather simple ways. Some important characteristics of general relativity include (but are not limited to) (i) only tensor gravitational degrees of freedom, (ii) the graviton is massless, (iii) no quadratic or higher curvatures in the action, and (iv) the theory is four-dimensional. Altering a characteristic leads to a different extension of general relativity: (i) scalar-tensor theories, (ii) massive gravity theories, (iii) quadratic gravity, and (iv) theories with large extra dimensions. Within each theory, we describe black hole solutions, their properties, and current and projected constraints on each theory using black hole based tests of gravity. We close this review by listing some of the open problems in model-independent tests and within each specific theory.

  12. General Structures of Block Based Interpolational Function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZOU LE; TANG SHUO; Ma Fu-ming

    2012-01-01

    We construct general structures of one and two variable interpolation function,without depending on the existence of divided difference or inverse differences,and we also discuss the block based osculatory interpolation in one variable case.Clearly,our method offers many flexible interpolation schemes for choices.Error terms for the interpolation are determined and numerical examples are given to show the effectiveness of the results.

  13. Generalized Rule Induction Based on Immune Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑建国; 刘芳; 焦李成

    2002-01-01

    A generalized rule induction mechanism, immune algorithm, for knowledge bases is building an inheritance hierarchy of classes based on the content of their knowledge objects. This hierarchy facilitates group-related processing tasks such as answering set queries, discriminating between objects, finding similarities among objects, etc. Building this hierarchy is a difficult task for knowledge engineers. Conceptual induction may be used to automate or assist engineers in the creation of such a classification structure. This paper introduces a new conceptual rule induction method, which addresses the problem of clustering large amounts of structured objects. The conditions under which the method is applicable are discussed.

  14. Exact entanglement bases and general bound entanglement

    CERN Document Server

    Zhong, Z Z

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we give the more general bound entangled states associated with the unextendible product bases (UPB), i.e. by using of the exact entanglement bases (EEB) and the complete basis with unextendible product bases (CBUPB), we prove that the arbitrary convex sums of the uniform mixtures (bound entangled states) associated with UPBs are still bound entangled states. Further, we discuss the equivalent transformation group and classification of the CBUPBs, and by using this classification, we prove that in the meaning of indistinguishability, the set of the above all possible bound entangled states can be reduced to the set of all possible mixtures of some fixed basic bound entangled states. At last, we prove that every operating of the partial transposition (PT) map acting upon a density matrix under any bipartite partitioning induces a mapping from the above reduced set of bound entangled states to oneself, which corresponds to a non-identical permutation of the basic bound entangled states.

  15. Treecode-Based Generalized Born Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Zhenli [Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai; Cheng, Xiaolin [ORNL; Yang, Shihui [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    We have developed a treecode-based O(Nlog N) algorithm for the generalized Born (GB) implicit solvation model. Our treecode-based GB (tGB) is based on the GBr6 [J. Phys. Chem. B 111, 3055 (2007)], an analytical GB method with a pairwise descreening approximation for the R6 volume integral expression. The algorithm is composed of a cutoff scheme for the effective Born radii calculation, and a treecode implementation of the GB charge charge pair interactions. Test results demonstrate that the tGB algorithm can reproduce the vdW surface based Poisson solvation energy with an average relative error less than 0.6% while providing an almost linear-scaling calculation for a representative set of 25 proteins with different sizes (from 2815 atoms to 65456 atoms). For a typical system of 10k atoms, the tGB calculation is three times faster than the direct summation as implemented in the original GBr6 model. Thus, our tGB method provides an efficient way for performing implicit solvent GB simulations of larger biomolecular systems at longer time scales.

  16. Behavior Assessment in Children Following Hospital-Based General Anesthesia versus Office-Based General Anesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LaQuia A. Vinson

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine if differences in behavior exist following dental treatment under hospital-based general anesthesia (HBGA or office-based general anesthesia (OBGA in the percentage of patients exhibiting positive behavior and in the mean Frankl scores at recall visits. This retrospective study examined records of a pediatric dental office over a 4 year period. Patients presenting before 48 months of age for an initial exam who were diagnosed with early childhood caries were included in the study. Following an initial exam, patients were treated under HBGA or OBGA. Patients were followed to determine their behavior at 6-, 12- and 18-month recall appointments. Fifty-four patients received treatment under HBGA and 26 were treated under OBGA. OBGA patients were significantly more likely to exhibit positive behavior at the 6- and 12-month recall visits p = 0.038 & p = 0.029. Clinicians should consider future behavior when determining general anesthesia treatment modalities in children with early childhood caries presenting to their office.

  17. General data base driven graphic animation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-01-01

    Most attempts at the graphic animation of data involve rather large and expensive development of problem-specific systems. This paper discusses a general graphics animation system designed to be a tool for the development of a wide variety of animated simulations. By incorporating device-independent graphics procedures and using relational database storage of graphics and control information, considerable flexibility in the design and development of animated displays is achieved. 6 refs., 4 figs.

  18. New deghosting method based on generalized triangulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bai Jing; Wang Guohong; Xiu Jianjuan; Wang Xiaobo

    2009-01-01

    A new deghosting method baaed on the generalized triangulation is presented. First, two intersection points corresponding to the emitter position are obtained by utilizing two azimuth angles and two elevation angles from two jammed 3-D radars (or 2-D passive sensors). Then, hypothesis testing baaed deghosting method in the multiple target scenarios is proposed using the two intersection points. In order to analyze the performance of the proposed method, the correct association probability of the true targets and the incorrect association probability of the ghost targets are defined. Finally, the Monte Carlo simulations are given for the proposed method compared with the hinge angle method in the cases of both two and three radars. The simulation results show that the proposed method has better performance than the hinge angle method in three radars case.

  19. Generalized Tree-Based Wavelet Transform

    CERN Document Server

    Ram, Idan; Cohen, Israel

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we propose a new wavelet transform applicable to functions defined on graphs, high dimensional data and networks. The proposed method generalizes the Haar-like transform proposed in \\cite{gavish2010mwot}, and it is similarly defined via a hierarchical tree, which is assumed to capture the geometry and structure of the input data. It is applied to the data using a multiscale filtering and decimation scheme, which can employ different wavelet filters. We propose a tree construction method which results in efficient representation of the input function in the transform domain. We show that the proposed transform is more efficient than both the 1D and 2D separable wavelet transforms in representing images. We also explore the application of the proposed transform to image denoising, and show that combined with a subimage averaging scheme, it achieves denoising results which are similar to the ones obtained with the K-SVD algorithm.

  20. Riccati equation-based generalization of Dawson's integral function

    CERN Document Server

    Messina, R; Messina, A; Napoli, A

    2007-01-01

    A new generalization of Dawson's integral function based on the link between a Riccati nonlinear differential equation and a second-order ordinary differential equation is reported. The MacLaurin expansion of this generalized function is built up and to this end an explicit formula for a generic cofactor of a triangular matrix is deduced.

  1. A general model for membrane-based separation processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soni, Vipasha; Abildskov, Jens; Jonsson, Gunnar Eigil;

    2009-01-01

    behaviour will play an important role. In this paper, modelling of membrane-based processes for separation of gas and liquid mixtures are considered. Two general models, one for membrane-based liquid separation processes (with phase change) and another for membrane-based gas separation are presented...

  2. Curvature-based Hyperbolic Systems for General Relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Choquet-Bruhat, Y; Anderson, A; Choquet-Bruhat, Yvonne; York, James W.; Anderson, Arlen

    1998-01-01

    We review curvature-based hyperbolic forms of the evolution part of the Cauchy problem of General Relativity that we have obtained recently. We emphasize first order symmetrizable hyperbolic systems possessing only physical characteristics.

  3. Matroidal Structure of Generalized Rough Sets Based on Tolerance Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Li

    2014-01-01

    of the generalized rough set based on the tolerance relation. The matroid can also induce a new relation. We investigate the connection between the original tolerance relation and the induced relation.

  4. A lattice Boltzmann method based on generalized polynomials

    CERN Document Server

    Coelho, Rodrigo C V; Doria, Mauro M

    2015-01-01

    We propose a lattice Boltzmann method based on the expansion of the equilibrium distribution function in powers of generalized orthonormal polynomials which are weighted by the equilibrium distribution function itself. The D-dimensional Euclidean space Hermite polynomials correspond to the particular weight of a gaussian function. The proposed polynomials give a general method to obtain an expansion of the equilibrium distribution function in powers of the ratio between the displacement velocity and the local scale velocity of the fluid.

  5. Generalization performance of graph-based semisupervised classification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Semi-supervised learning has been of growing interest over the past few years and many methods have been proposed. Although various algorithms are provided to implement semi-supervised learning,there are still gaps in our understanding of the dependence of generalization error on the numbers of labeled and unlabeled data. In this paper,we consider a graph-based semi-supervised classification algorithm and establish its generalization error bounds. Our results show the close relations between the generalization performance and the structural invariants of data graph.

  6. Composite disturbance rejection control based on generalized extended state observer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanjun; Zhang, Jun; Wang, Lu; Su, Jianbo

    2016-07-01

    Traditional extended state observer (ESO) design method does not focus on analysis of system reconstruction strategy. The prior information of the controlled system cannot be used for ESO implementation to improve the control accuracy. In this paper, composite disturbance rejection control strategy is proposed based on generalized ESO. First, the disturbance rejection performance of traditional ESO is analyzed to show the essence of the reconstruction strategy. Then, the system is reconstructed based on the equivalent disturbance model. The generalized ESO is proposed based on the reconstructed model, while convergence of the proposed ESO is analyzed along with the outer loop feedback controller. Simulation results on a second order mechanical system show that the proposed generalized ESO can deal with the external disturbance with known model successfully. Experiment of attitude tracking task on an aircraft is also carried out to show the effectiveness of the proposed method. Copyright © 2016 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A generalized GPU-based connected component labeling algorithm

    CERN Document Server

    Komura, Yukihiro

    2016-01-01

    We propose a generalized GPU-based connected component labeling (CCL) algorithm that can be applied to both various lattices and to non-lattice environments in a uniform fashion. We extend our recent GPU-based CCL algorithm without the use of conventional iteration to the generalized method. As an application of this algorithm, we deal with the bond percolation problem. We investigate bond percolation on the honeycomb and triangle lattices to confirm the correctness of this algorithm. Moreover, we deal with bond percolation on the Bethe lattice as a substitute for a network structure, and demonstrate the performance of this algorithm on those lattices.

  8. Generalized Correlation Coefficient Based on Log Likelihood Ratio Test Statistic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Hsiang-Chuan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I point out that both Joe’s and Ding’s strength statistics can only be used for testing the pair-wise independence, and I propose a novel G-square based strength statistic, called Liu’s generalized correlation coefficient, it can be used to detect and compare the strength of not only the pair-wise independence but also the mutual independence of any multivariate variables. Furthermore, I proved that only Liu’s generalized correlation coefficient is strictly increasing on its number of variables, it is more sensitive and useful than Cramer’s V coefficient, in other words, Liu generalized correlation coefficient is not only the G-square based strength statistic, but also an improved statistic for detecting and comparing the strengths of deferent associations of any two or more sets of multivariate variables, moreover, this new strength statistic can also be tested by G2.

  9. Generalized SMO algorithm for SVM-based multitask learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Feng; Cherkassky, Vladimir

    2012-06-01

    Exploiting additional information to improve traditional inductive learning is an active research area in machine learning. In many supervised-learning applications, training data can be naturally separated into several groups, and incorporating this group information into learning may improve generalization. Recently, Vapnik proposed a general approach to formalizing such problems, known as "learning with structured data" and its support vector machine (SVM) based optimization formulation called SVM+. Liang and Cherkassky showed the connection between SVM+ and multitask learning (MTL) approaches in machine learning, and proposed an SVM-based formulation for MTL called SVM+MTL for classification. Training the SVM+MTL classifier requires the solution of a large quadratic programming optimization problem which scales as O(n(3)) with sample size n. So there is a need to develop computationally efficient algorithms for implementing SVM+MTL. This brief generalizes Platt's sequential minimal optimization (SMO) algorithm to the SVM+MTL setting. Empirical results show that, for typical SVM+MTL problems, the proposed generalized SMO achieves over 100 times speed-up, in comparison with general-purpose optimization routines.

  10. Edge detection methods based on generalized type-2 fuzzy logic

    CERN Document Server

    Gonzalez, Claudia I; Castro, Juan R; Castillo, Oscar

    2017-01-01

    In this book four new methods are proposed. In the first method the generalized type-2 fuzzy logic is combined with the morphological gra-dient technique. The second method combines the general type-2 fuzzy systems (GT2 FSs) and the Sobel operator; in the third approach the me-thodology based on Sobel operator and GT2 FSs is improved to be applied on color images. In the fourth approach, we proposed a novel edge detec-tion method where, a digital image is converted a generalized type-2 fuzzy image. In this book it is also included a comparative study of type-1, inter-val type-2 and generalized type-2 fuzzy systems as tools to enhance edge detection in digital images when used in conjunction with the morphologi-cal gradient and the Sobel operator. The proposed generalized type-2 fuzzy edge detection methods were tested with benchmark images and synthetic images, in a grayscale and color format. Another contribution in this book is that the generalized type-2 fuzzy edge detector method is applied in the preproc...

  11. A New Generalized Similarity-Based Topic Distillation Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Hongfang; DANG Xiaohui

    2007-01-01

    The procedure of hypertext induced topic search based on a semantic relation model is analyzed, and the reason for the topic drift of HITS algorithm was found to prove that Web pages are projected to a wrong latent semantic basis. A new concept-generalized similarity is introduced and, based on this, a new topic distillation algorithm GSTDA(generalized similarity based topic distillation algorithm) was presented to improve the quality of topic distillation. GSTDA was applied not only to avoid the topic drift, but also to explore relative topics to user query. The experimental results on 10 queries show that GSTDA reduces topic drift rate by 10% to 58% compared to that of HITS(hypertext induced topic search) algorithm, and discovers several relative topics to queries that have multiple meanings.

  12. A General Polygon-based Deformable Model for Object Recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rune Fisker; Carstensen, Jens Michael

    1999-01-01

    We propose a general scheme for object localization and recognition based on a deformable model. The model combines shape and image properties by warping a arbitrary prototype intensity template according to the deformation in shape. The shape deformations are constrained by a probabilistic...... distribution, which combined with a match of the warped intensity template and the image form the final criteria used for localization and recognition of a given object. The chosen representation gives the model an ability to model an almost arbitrary object. Beside the actual model a full general scheme...

  13. Weak Signal Frequency Detection Method Based on Generalized Duffing Oscillator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Si-Hong; YUAN Yong; WANG Hui-Qi; LUO Mao-Kang

    2011-01-01

    @@ The sensitive characteristic to the initial value of chaos system sufficiently demonstrates the superiority in weak signal parameters detection.Analyzing the current chaos-based frequency detection method, a novel generalized Duffing equation is proposed to detect weak signal frequency.By choosing a suitable adjusting factor, when the outside driving force frequency is equal to that of the detected signal, the generalized Duffing oscillator is in great period state, which can obtain the frequency information of the detected signal.The simulation results indicate this method is rapidly convenient and shows better accuracy.%The sensitive characteristic to the initial value of chaos system sufficiently demonstrates the superiority in weak signal parameters detection. Analyzing the current chaos-based frequency detection method, a novel generalized Duffing equation is proposed to detect weak signal frequency. By choosing a suitable adjusting factor, when the outside driving force frequency is equal to that of the detected signal, the generalized Duffing oscillator is in great period state, which can obtain the frequency information of the detected signal. The simulation results indicate this method is rapidly convenient and shows better accuracy.

  14. MULTI—GRAY EDGE DETECTION BASED ON GENERALIZED FUZZY SET

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WangHui

    2002-01-01

    In this letter,drawbacks of the classical algorithm to enhance the fuzzy contrast among adjacent regions are analyzed.Based on it ,a new fuzzy enhancement algorithm and a linear fuzzy distribution that maps the gray images to corresponding generalized fuzzy set are proposed.Results of two examples illustrate that the algorithm is more effective and faster when used to detect the multi-level edges of images.

  15. MULTI-GRAY EDGE DETECTION BASED ON GENERALIZED FUZZY SET

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Hui

    2002-01-01

    In this letter, drawbacks of the classical algorithm to enhance the fuzzy contrast among adjacent regions are analyzed. Based on it, a new fuzzy enhancement algorithm and a linear fuzzy distribution that maps the gray images to corresponding generalized fuzzy set are proposed. Results of two examples illustrate that the algorithm is more effective and faster when used to detect the multi-level edges of images.

  16. Generalized rough sets based on neighborhood systems and topological spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Mareay

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Rough sets theory is an important method for dealing with uncertainty, fuzziness and undefined objects. In this paper, we introduce a new approach for generalized rough sets based on the neighborhood systems induced by an arbitrary binary relation. Four pairs of the dual approximation operators are generated from the core of neighborhood systems. Relationship among different approximation operators are presented. We generate different topological spaces by using the core of these neighborhood systems. Relationship among different generated topologies are discussed.

  17. The general base in the thymidylate synthase catalyzed proton abstraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Ananda K; Islam, Zahidul; Krueger, Jonathan; Abeysinghe, Thelma; Kohen, Amnon

    2015-12-14

    The enzyme thymidylate synthase (TSase), an important chemotherapeutic drug target, catalyzes the formation of 2'-deoxythymidine-5'-monophosphate (dTMP), a precursor of one of the DNA building blocks. TSase catalyzes a multi-step mechanism that includes the abstraction of a proton from the C5 of the substrate 2'-deoxyuridine-5'-monophosphate (dUMP). Previous studies on ecTSase proposed that an active-site residue, Y94 serves the role of the general base abstracting this proton. However, since Y94 is neither very basic, nor connected to basic residues, nor located close enough to the pyrimidine proton to be abstracted, the actual identity of this base remains enigmatic. Based on crystal structures, an alternative hypothesis is that the nearest potential proton-acceptor of C5 of dUMP is a water molecule that is part of a hydrogen bond (H-bond) network comprised of several water molecules and several protein residues including H147, E58, N177, and Y94. Here, we examine the role of the residue Y94 in the proton abstraction step by removing its hydroxyl group (Y94F mutant). We investigated the effect of the mutation on the temperature dependence of intrinsic kinetic isotope effects (KIEs) and found that these KIEs are more temperature dependent than those of the wild-type enzyme (WT). These results suggest that the phenolic -OH of Y94 is a component of the transition state for the proton abstraction step. The findings further support the hypothesis that no single functional group is the general base, but a network of bases and hydroxyls (from water molecules and tyrosine) sharing H-bonds across the active site can serve the role of the general base to remove the pyrimidine proton.

  18. Semi-regular biorthogonal pairs and generalized Riesz bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, H.

    2016-11-01

    In this paper we introduce general theories of semi-regular biorthogonal pairs, generalized Riesz bases and its physical applications. Here we deal with biorthogonal sequences {ϕn} and {ψn} in a Hilbert space H , with domains D ( ϕ ) = { x ∈ H ; ∑ k = 0 ∞ |" separators=" ( x | ϕ k ) | 2 |" separators=" ( x | ψ k ) | 2 paper [H. Inoue, J. Math. Phys. 57, 083511 (2016)], we have shown that if ({ϕn}, {ψn}) is a regular biorthogonal pair then both {ϕn} and {ψn} are generalized Riesz bases defined in the work of Inoue and Takakura [J. Math. Phys. 57, 083505 (2016)]. Here we shall show that the same result holds true if the pair is only semi-regular by using operators Tϕ,e, Te,ϕ, Tψ,e, and Te,ψ defined by an orthonormal basis e in H and a biorthogonal pair ({ϕn}, {ψn}). Furthermore, we shall apply this result to pseudo-bosons in the sense of the papers of Bagarello [J. Math. Phys. 51, 023531 (2010); J. Phys. A 44, 015205 (2011); Phys. Rev. A 88, 032120 (2013); and J. Math. Phys. 54, 063512 (2013)].

  19. General Base-General Acid Catalysis in Human Histone Deacetylase 8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gantt, Sister M Lucy; Decroos, Christophe; Lee, Matthew S; Gullett, Laura E; Bowman, Christine M; Christianson, David W; Fierke, Carol A

    2016-02-09

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) regulate cellular processes such as differentiation and apoptosis and are targeted by anticancer therapeutics in development and in the clinic. HDAC8 is a metal-dependent class I HDAC and is proposed to use a general acid-base catalytic pair in the mechanism of amide bond hydrolysis. Here, we report site-directed mutagenesis and enzymological measurements to elucidate the catalytic mechanism of HDAC8. Specifically, we focus on the catalytic function of Y306 and the histidine-aspartate dyads H142-D176 and H143-D183. Additionally, we report X-ray crystal structures of four representative HDAC8 mutants: D176N, D176N/Y306F, D176A/Y306F, and H142A/Y306F. These structures provide a useful framework for understanding enzymological measurements. The pH dependence of kcat/KM for wild-type Co(II)-HDAC8 is bell-shaped with two pKa values of 7.4 and 10.0. The upper pKa reflects the ionization of the metal-bound water molecule and shifts to 9.1 in Zn(II)-HDAC8. The H142A mutant has activity 230-fold lower than that of wild-type HDAC8, but the pKa1 value is not altered. Y306F HDAC8 is 150-fold less active than the wild-type enzyme; crystal structures show that Y306 hydrogen bonds with the zinc-bound substrate carbonyl, poised for transition state stabilization. The H143A and H142A/H143A mutants exhibit activity that is >80000-fold lower than that of wild-type HDAC8; the buried D176N and D176A mutants have significant catalytic effects, with more subtle effects caused by D183N and D183A. These enzymological and structural studies strongly suggest that H143 functions as a single general base-general acid catalyst, while H142 remains positively charged and serves as an electrostatic catalyst for transition state stabilization.

  20. Generalized model for Memristor-based Wien family oscillators

    KAUST Repository

    Talukdar, Abdul Hafiz Ibne

    2012-07-23

    In this paper, we report the unconventional characteristics of Memristor in Wien oscillators. Generalized mathematical models are developed to analyze four members of the Wien family using Memristors. Sustained oscillation is reported for all types though oscillating resistance and time dependent poles are present. We have also proposed an analytical model to estimate the desired amplitude of oscillation before the oscillation starts. These Memristor-based oscillation results, presented for the first time, are in good agreement with simulation results. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Construction of Frequency Hopping Sequence Set Based upon Generalized Cyclotomy

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Fang; Zhou, Zhengchun; Tang, Xiaohu

    2010-01-01

    Frequency hopping (FH) sequences play a key role in frequency hopping spread spectrum communication systems. It is important to find FH sequences which have simultaneously good Hamming correlation, large family size and large period. In this paper, a new set of FH sequences with large period is proposed, and the Hamming correlation distribution of the new set is investigated. The construction of new FH sequences is based upon Whiteman's generalized cyclotomy. It is shown that the proposed FH sequence set is optimal with respect to the average Hamming correlation bound.

  2. Hash function based on the generalized Henon map

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Fan; Tian Xiao-Jian; Li Xue-Yan; Wu Bin

    2008-01-01

    A new Hash function based on the generalized Henon map is proposed.We have obtained a binary sequence with excellent pseudo-random characteristics through improving the sequence generated by the generalized Henon map,and use it to construct Hash function.First we divide the message into groups,and then carry out the Xor operation between the ASCII value of each group and the binary sequence,the result can be used as the initial values of the next loop.Repeat the procedure until all the groups have been processed,and the final binary sequence is the Hash value.In the scheme,the initial values of the generalized Henon map are used as the secret key and the messages are mapped to Hash values with a designated length.Simulation results show that the proposed scheme has strong diffusion and confusion capability,good collision resistance,large key space,extreme sensitivity to message and secret key,and it is easy to be realized and extended.

  3. A general formalism for Fourier based Wave Front Sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Fauvarque, Olivier; Fusco, Thierry; Sauvage, Jean-François; Girault, Orion

    2016-01-01

    We introduce in this article a general formalism for Fourier based wave front sensing. To do so, we consider the filtering mask as a free parameter. Such an approach allows to unify sensors like the Pyramid Wave Front Sensor (PWFS) and the Zernike Wave Front Sensor (ZWFS). In particular, we take the opportunity to generalize this two sensors in terms of sensors' class where optical quantities as, for instance, the apex angle for the PWFS or the depth of the Zernike mask for the ZWFS become free parameters. In order to compare all the generated sensors of this two classes thanks to common performance criteria, we firstly define a general phase-linear quantity that we call meta-intensity. Analytical developments allow then to split the perfectly phase-linear behavior of a WFS from the non-linear contributions making robust and analytic definitions of the sensitivity and the linearity range possible. Moreover, we define a new quantity called the SD factor which characterizes the trade-off between these two antag...

  4. Modeling of Testability Requirement Based on Generalized Stochastic Petri Nets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU Yong-ding; QIU Jing; LIU Guan-jun; QIAN Yan-ling

    2009-01-01

    Testability design is an effective way to realize the fault detection and isolation. Its important step is to determine testability figures of merits (TFOM). Firstly, some influence factors for TFOMs are analyzed, such as the processes of system operation, maintenance and support, fault detection and isolation and so on. Secondly, a testability requirement analysis model is built based on generalized stochastic Petri net (GSPN). Then, the system's reachable states are analyzed based on the model, a Markov chain isomorphic with Petri net is constructed, a state transition matrix is created and the system's steady state probability is obtained. The relationship between the steady state availability and testability parameters can be revealed and reasoned. Finally, an example shows that the proposed method can determine TFOM, such as fault detection rate and fault isolation rate, effectively and reasonably.

  5. Ultrawide Bandwidth Receiver Based on a Multivariate Generalized Gaussian Distribution

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmed, Qasim Zeeshan

    2015-04-01

    Multivariate generalized Gaussian density (MGGD) is used to approximate the multiple access interference (MAI) and additive white Gaussian noise in pulse-based ultrawide bandwidth (UWB) system. The MGGD probability density function (pdf) is shown to be a better approximation of a UWB system as compared to multivariate Gaussian, multivariate Laplacian and multivariate Gaussian-Laplacian mixture (GLM). The similarity between the simulated and the approximated pdf is measured with the help of modified Kullback-Leibler distance (KLD). It is also shown that MGGD has the smallest KLD as compared to Gaussian, Laplacian and GLM densities. A receiver based on the principles of minimum bit error rate is designed for the MGGD pdf. As the requirement is stringent, the adaptive implementation of the receiver is also carried out in this paper. Training sequence of the desired user is the only requirement when implementing the detector adaptively. © 2002-2012 IEEE.

  6. Generalized spatial Talbot effect based on all-dielectric metasurfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Shulabh

    2017-02-01

    The Talbot effect is among the most fundamental wave propagation effect universal across the frequency spectrum and has been used extensively in both spatial and temporal domain for wide variety of applications. In this work, a generalized spatial Talbot effect is presented based on all-dielectric Huygens' metasurface, which when combined with the conventional Fractional Talbot effect, enables the scaling of aperture periodicities by any arbitrary real number. This is achieved by allowing and engineering the phase discontinuity distributions in space on the aperture using phase engineered all-dielectric reflectionless metasurfaces, in conjunction with free-space propagation. Specific implementations using Huygens' metasurfaces are proposed and their operation to achieve such non-integer scalings of the input aperture period is demonstrated using numerical results based on Fourier propagation method.

  7. Clinical TVA-based studies: a general review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habekost, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    In combination with whole report and partial report tasks, the theory of visual attention (TVA) can be used to estimate individual differences in five basic attentional parameters: the visual processing speed, the storage capacity of visual short-term memory, the perceptual threshold, the efficiency of top–down selectivity, and the spatial bias of attentional weighting. TVA-based assessment has been used in about 30 studies to investigate attentional deficits in a range of neurological and psychiatric conditions: (a) neglect and simultanagnosia, (b) reading disturbances, (c) aging and neurodegenerative diseases, and most recently (d) neurodevelopmental disorders. The article introduces TVA based assessment, discusses its methodology and psychometric properties, and reviews the progress made in each of the four research fields. The empirical results demonstrate the general usefulness of TVA-based assessment for many types of clinical neuropsychological research. The method’s most important qualities are cognitive specificity and theoretical grounding, but it is also characterized by good reliability and sensitivity to minor deficits. The review concludes by pointing to promising new areas for clinical TVA-based research. PMID:25852607

  8. Clinical TVA-based studies: a general review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habekost, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    In combination with whole report and partial report tasks, the theory of visual attention (TVA) can be used to estimate individual differences in five basic attentional parameters: the visual processing speed, the storage capacity of visual short-term memory, the perceptual threshold, the efficiency of top-down selectivity, and the spatial bias of attentional weighting. TVA-based assessment has been used in about 30 studies to investigate attentional deficits in a range of neurological and psychiatric conditions: (a) neglect and simultanagnosia, (b) reading disturbances, (c) aging and neurodegenerative diseases, and most recently (d) neurodevelopmental disorders. The article introduces TVA based assessment, discusses its methodology and psychometric properties, and reviews the progress made in each of the four research fields. The empirical results demonstrate the general usefulness of TVA-based assessment for many types of clinical neuropsychological research. The method's most important qualities are cognitive specificity and theoretical grounding, but it is also characterized by good reliability and sensitivity to minor deficits. The review concludes by pointing to promising new areas for clinical TVA-based research.

  9. Clinical TVA-based studies: a general review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas eHabekost

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In combination with whole report and partial report tasks, the Theory of Visual Attention (TVA can be used to estimate individual differences in five basic attentional parameters: The visual processing speed, the storage capacity of visual short-term memory, the perceptual threshold, the efficiency of top-down selectivity, and the spatial bias of attentional weighting. TVA-based assessment has been used in about 30 studies to investigate attentional deficits in a range of neurological and psychiatric conditions: (a neglect and simultanagnosia, (b reading disturbances, (c aging and neurodegenerative diseases, and most recently (d neurodevelopmental disorders. The article introduces TVA based assessment, discusses its methodology and psychometric properties, and reviews the progress made in each of the four research fields. The empirical results demonstrate the general usefulness of TVA-based assessment for many types of clinical neuropsychological research. The method’s most important qualities are cognitive specificity and theoretical grounding, but it is also characterized by good reliability and sensitivity to minor deficits. The review concludes by pointing to promising new areas for clinical TVA-based research.

  10. Density functional theory based generalized effective fragment potential method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Kiet A., E-mail: kiet.nguyen@wpafb.af.mil, E-mail: ruth.pachter@wpafb.af.mil [Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio 45433 (United States); UES, Inc., Dayton, Ohio 45432 (United States); Pachter, Ruth, E-mail: kiet.nguyen@wpafb.af.mil, E-mail: ruth.pachter@wpafb.af.mil [Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio 45433 (United States); Day, Paul N. [Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio 45433 (United States); General Dynamics Information Technology, Inc., Dayton, Ohio 45431 (United States)

    2014-06-28

    We present a generalized Kohn-Sham (KS) density functional theory (DFT) based effective fragment potential (EFP2-DFT) method for the treatment of solvent effects. Similar to the original Hartree-Fock (HF) based potential with fitted parameters for water (EFP1) and the generalized HF based potential (EFP2-HF), EFP2-DFT includes electrostatic, exchange-repulsion, polarization, and dispersion potentials, which are generated for a chosen DFT functional for a given isolated molecule. The method does not have fitted parameters, except for implicit parameters within a chosen functional and the dispersion correction to the potential. The electrostatic potential is modeled with a multipolar expansion at each atomic center and bond midpoint using Stone's distributed multipolar analysis. The exchange-repulsion potential between two fragments is composed of the overlap and kinetic energy integrals and the nondiagonal KS matrices in the localized molecular orbital basis. The polarization potential is derived from the static molecular polarizability. The dispersion potential includes the intermolecular D3 dispersion correction of Grimme et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 132, 154104 (2010)]. The potential generated from the CAMB3LYP functional has mean unsigned errors (MUEs) with respect to results from coupled cluster singles, doubles, and perturbative triples with a complete basis set limit (CCSD(T)/CBS) extrapolation, of 1.7, 2.2, 2.0, and 0.5 kcal/mol, for the S22, water-benzene clusters, water clusters, and n-alkane dimers benchmark sets, respectively. The corresponding EFP2-HF errors for the respective benchmarks are 2.41, 3.1, 1.8, and 2.5 kcal/mol. Thus, the new EFP2-DFT-D3 method with the CAMB3LYP functional provides comparable or improved results at lower computational cost and, therefore, extends the range of applicability of EFP2 to larger system sizes.

  11. Anharmonic densities of states: A general dynamics-based solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jellinek, Julius; Aleinikava, Darya

    2016-06-01

    Density of states is a fundamental physical characteristic that lies at the foundation of statistical mechanics and theoretical constructs that derive from them (e.g., kinetic rate theories, phase diagrams, and others). Even though most real physical systems are anharmonic, the vibrational density of states is customarily treated within the harmonic approximation, or with some partial, often limited, account for anharmonicity. The reason for this is that the problem of anharmonic densities of states stubbornly resisted a general and exact, yet convenient and straightforward in applications, solution. Here we formulate such a solution within both classical and quantum mechanics. It is based on actual dynamical behavior of systems as a function of energy and as observed, or monitored, on a chosen time scale, short or long. As a consequence, the resulting anharmonic densities of states are fully dynamically informed and, in general, time-dependent. As such, they lay the ground for formulation of new statistical mechanical frameworks that incorporate time and are ergodic, by construction, with respect to actual dynamical behavior of systems.

  12. Synchronization criteria based on a general complex dynamical network model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jian-lin; WANG Chang-jian; XU Cong-fu

    2008-01-01

    Many complex dynamical networks display synchronization phenomena. We introduce a general complex dynamical network model. The model is equivalent to a simple vector model of adopting the Kronecker product. Some synchronization criteria, including time-variant networks and time-varying networks, are deduced based on Lyapunov's stability theory, and they are proven on the condition of obtaining a certain synchronous solution of an isolated cell. In particular, the inner-coupling matrix directly determines the synchronization of the time-invariant network; while for a time-varying periodic dynamical network, the asymptotic stability of a synchronous solution is determined by a constant matrix which is related to the fundamental solution matrices of the linearization system. Finally, illustrative examples are given to validate the results.

  13. A novel chaotic encryption scheme based on generalized threshold function

    CERN Document Server

    Ahadpour, Sodeif; arasteh-Fard, Zahra

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, after reviewing the main points of random number generators and threshold function, we introduce two new methods of pseudorandom number generators(PRNGs) based on generalized threshold function (segmentation and self-similarity). These methods decrease periodic effect of the ergodic dynamical systems in randomness of the pseudorandom number generators(PRNGs). The essential idea of this paper is that given threshold functions of the ergodic dynamical systems to use in pseudorandom number generation. To evaluate the randomness of the bit sequences generated by the PRNGs, the NIST suite tests were performed. We find that the PRNGs pass these tests satisfactorily. The proposed PRNGs can be used in many applications requiring random bit sequences and also in the design of secure cryptosystems.

  14. Automatic generalization of metro maps based on dynamic segmentation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    A metro map is usually optimized for the readability of connections and transportation networks structure.In order to assure good readability and meet aesthetic considerations,a set of principles for good metro map layout are proposed.According to these principles,a new methodology based on dynamic segmentation is presented to produce the metro maps automatically.Firstly,routes are constructed according to the line attribute similarity and geometry continuity.Then a set of cartographic generalization methods about the shape,angle,length,and topology are presented for these routes.This method is validated by Beijing metro plan map.From the experiment results,it can be concluded that this new method is more effective than the static segmentation method to produce metro maps with better readability for route plans.

  15. Hydroxide as general base in the saponification of ethyl acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata-Segreda, Julio F

    2002-03-13

    The second-order rate constant for the saponification of ethyl acetate at 30.0 degrees C in H(2)O/D(2)O mixtures of deuterium atom fraction n (a proton inventory experiment) obeys the relation k(2)(n) = 0.122 s(-1) M(-1) (1 - n + 1.2n) (1 - n + 0.48n)/(1 - n + 1.4n) (1 - n + 0.68n)(3). This result is interpreted as a process where formation of the tetrahedral intermediate is the rate-determining step and the transition-state complex is formed via nucleophilic interaction of a water molecule with general-base assistance from hydroxide ion, opposite to the direct nucleophilic collision commonly accepted. This mechanistic picture agrees with previous heavy-atom kinetic isotope effect data of Marlier on the alkaline hydrolysis of methyl formate.

  16. Generalized ESO and Predictive Control Based Robust Autopilot Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhavnesh Panchal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel continuous time predictive control and generalized extended state observer (GESO based acceleration tracking pitch autopilot design is proposed for a tail controlled, skid-to-turn tactical missile. As the dynamics of missile are significantly uncertain with mismatched uncertainty, GESO is employed to estimate the state and uncertainty in an integrated manner. The estimates are used to meet the requirement of state and to robustify the output tracking predictive controller designed for nominal system. Closed loop stability for the controller-observer structure is established. An important feature of the proposed design is that it does not require any specific information about the uncertainty. Also the predictive control design yields the feedback control gain and disturbance compensation gain simultaneously. Effectiveness of GESO in estimation of the states and uncertainties and in robustifying the predictive controller in the presence of parametric uncertainties, external disturbances, unmodeled dynamics, and measurement noise is illustrated by simulation.

  17. A general exergy-based environmental impact index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz-Mendez, Sosimo E. [Autonomous University of Carmen, Campeche (Mexico); Rodriguez-Lelis, Jose Maria [National Center for Research and Technical Development, Morelos (Mexico); Hernandez-Guerrero, Abel [Guanajuato University, Guanajuato (Mexico)

    2011-08-15

    An ecosystem is a complex system in which biotic and abiotic factors interact and influence each other both directly and indirectly. Each of these factors has to comply with a specific function in the different processes that occur inside the ecosystem, whether transporting or transforming energy or both. When anthropogenic emissions are produced, part of the useful energy of the ecosystem is used to assimilate or absorb those emissions, and the energy spent, loses its function and becomes lost work in accordance with the Gouy-Stodola theorem. Thus, the work that an ecosystem can carry out varies as a function of the lost work produced by anthropogenic sources. The permanency or loss of the ecosystem depends on how many irreversibilities it can support. The second law of thermodynamics through a systematic use of the exergy and lost work is the basis of this paper where a general environmental impact index, based on exergy, is proposed. For the purpose of this work, the ecosystem is divided in subsystems--water, soil, atmosphere, organisms and society- -all of them inter-related. The ideal work variation can be obtained from each subsystem within the selected ecosystem, and a global index can be determined by adding the partial lost work of each subsystem. This global index is then used to determine the trend followed by the ecosystem from its pristine, original or environmental line base state. This environmental impact index applicability is presented for a simple combustion example.

  18. Nontraditional approach to algebra-based general physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meltzer, David E.

    1997-03-01

    In order to improve the degree of conceptual learning in our algebra-based general physics course, the second semester (of a two-semester sequence) has been taught in a nontraditional format during the past year. The key characteristics of this course were: 1) Intense and continuous use of interactive-engagement methods and cooperative learning; 2) coverage of less than half of the conventional number of topics, 3) heavy emphasis on qualitative questions as opposed to quantitative problems, 4) adjustment of the pacing of the course based on continuous (twice per week) formative assessment. The students enrolled in the course were relatively poorly prepared, with weak mathematical skills. Open-book quizzes stressing qualitative concepts in electricity and magnetism were given twice per week; most were given in "group quiz" format, allowing collaboration. Exams (also open-book) were all done individually. Most of the class time was taken up by quizzes, and by interactive discussion and group work related to quiz questions. New topics were not introduced until a majority of the class demonstrated competence in the topic under discussion. Despite lengthy and intensive focus on qualitative, conceptual questions and simple quantitative problems, only a small minority of the class ultimately demonstrated mastery of the targeted concepts. Frequent testing and re-testing of the students on basic concepts disclosed tenacious persistence of misconceptions.

  19. Doubly robust and multiple-imputation-based generalized estimating equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birhanu, Teshome; Molenberghs, Geert; Sotto, Cristina; Kenward, Michael G

    2011-03-01

    Generalized estimating equations (GEE), proposed by Liang and Zeger (1986), provide a popular method to analyze correlated non-Gaussian data. When data are incomplete, the GEE method suffers from its frequentist nature and inferences under this method are valid only under the strong assumption that the missing data are missing completely at random. When response data are missing at random, two modifications of GEE can be considered, based on inverse-probability weighting or on multiple imputation. The weighted GEE (WGEE) method involves weighting observations by the inverse of their probability of being observed. Imputation methods involve filling in missing observations with values predicted by an assumed imputation model, multiple times. The so-called doubly robust (DR) methods involve both a model for the weights and a predictive model for the missing observations given the observed ones. To yield consistent estimates, WGEE needs correct specification of the dropout model while imputation-based methodology needs a correctly specified imputation model. DR methods need correct specification of either the weight or the predictive model, but not necessarily both. Focusing on incomplete binary repeated measures, we study the relative performance of the singly robust and doubly robust versions of GEE in a variety of correctly and incorrectly specified models using simulation studies. Data from a clinical trial in onychomycosis further illustrate the method.

  20. Generalized Gegenbauer Koornwinder's type polynomials change of bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlQudah, Mohammad; AlMheidat, Maalee

    2017-07-01

    In this paper we characterize the generalized Gegenbauer polynomials using Bernstein basis, and derive the matrix of transformation of the generalized Gegenbauer polynomial basis form into the Bernstein polynomial basis and vice versa.

  1. Generalization of FEM Using Node-Based Shape Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanok-Nukulchai W.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In standard FEM, the stiffness of an element is exclusively influenced by nodes associated with the element via its element-based shape functions. In this paper, the authors present a method that can be viewed as a generalization of FEM for which the influence of a node is not limited by a hat function around the node. Shape functions over an element can be interpolated over a predefined set of nodes around the element. These node-based shape functions employ Kriging Interpolations commonly found in geostatistical technique. In this study, a set of influencing nodes are covered by surrounding layers of elements defined as its domain of influence (DOI. Thus, the element stiffness is influenced by not only the element nodes, but also satellite nodes outside the element. In a special case with zero satellite nodes, the method is specialized to the conventional FEM. This method is referred to as Node-Based Kriging FEM or K-FEM. The K-FEM has been tested on 2D elastostatic, Reissner-Mindlin’s plate and shell problems. In all cases, exceptionally accurate displacement and stress fields can be achieved with relatively coarse meshes. In addition, the same set of Kringing shape functions can be used to interpolate the mesh geometry. This property is very useful for representing the curved geometry of shells. The distinctive advantage of the K-FEM is its inheritance of the computational procedure of FEM. Any existing FE code can be easily extended to K-FEM; thus, it has a higher chance to be accepted in practice.

  2. Shading-based Surface Detail Recovery under General Unknown Illumination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Di; Duan, Qi; Zheng, Jianmin; Zhang, Juyong; Cai, Jianfei; Cham, Tat-Jen

    2017-02-17

    Reconstructing the shape of a 3D object from multi-view images under unknown, general illumination is a fundamental problem in computer vision and high quality reconstruction is usually challenging especially when fine detail is needed and the albedo of the object is non-uniform. This paper introduces vertex overall illumination vectors to model the illumination effect and presents a total variation (TV) based approach for recovering surface details using shading and multi-view stereo (MVS). Behind the approach are the two important observations: (1) the illumination over the surface of an object often appears to be piece wise smooth and (2) the recovery of surface orientation is not sufficient for reconstructing the surface, which was often overlooked previously. Thus we propose to use TV to regularize the overall illumination vectors and use visual hull to constrain partial vertices. The reconstruction is formulated as a constrained TV-minimization problem that simultaneously treats the shape and illumination vectors as unknowns. An augmented Lagrangian method is proposed to quickly solve the TV-minimization problem. As a result, our approach is robust, stable and is able to efficiently recover high quality of surface details even when starting with a coarse model obtained using MVS. These advantages are demonstrated by extensive experiments on the state-of-the-art MVS database, which includes challenging objects with varying albedo.

  3. Cognitive performance modeling based on general systems performance theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondraske, George V

    2010-01-01

    General Systems Performance Theory (GSPT) was initially motivated by problems associated with quantifying different aspects of human performance. It has proved to be invaluable for measurement development and understanding quantitative relationships between human subsystem capacities and performance in complex tasks. It is now desired to bring focus to the application of GSPT to modeling of cognitive system performance. Previous studies involving two complex tasks (i.e., driving and performing laparoscopic surgery) and incorporating measures that are clearly related to cognitive performance (information processing speed and short-term memory capacity) were revisited. A GSPT-derived method of task analysis and performance prediction termed Nonlinear Causal Resource Analysis (NCRA) was employed to determine the demand on basic cognitive performance resources required to support different levels of complex task performance. This approach is presented as a means to determine a cognitive workload profile and the subsequent computation of a single number measure of cognitive workload (CW). Computation of CW may be a viable alternative to measuring it. Various possible "more basic" performance resources that contribute to cognitive system performance are discussed. It is concluded from this preliminary exploration that a GSPT-based approach can contribute to defining cognitive performance models that are useful for both individual subjects and specific groups (e.g., military pilots).

  4. Iris Localization Algorithm Based on Improved Generalized Symmetry Transform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    左坤隆; 刘文耀; 朱昊; 王晓东

    2004-01-01

    Accuracy and fastness of iris localization are very important in automatic iris recognition. A new fast iris localization algorithm based on improved generalized symmetry transform (GST) was proposed by utilizing iris symmetry. GST was improved in three aspects:1) A new distance weight function is defined. The new weight function, which is effective in iris localization, utilized the characteristic of irises that the iris is a circular object and it has one inner boundary and one outer boundary. 2) Each calculation of the symmetry measurement of a pair of symmetry points was performed by taking one point of a pair as the starting point of the transformation. This is the most important reason for fast iris localization,due to which, repetitious computation was largely excluded. 3) A new phase weight function was proposed to adjust GST to locate circle target much better because the inner part of iris is darker than the outer part. The edge map of iris image was acquired and GST was only implemented on the edge point, which decreased computation without loss of accuracy. The modification of distance weight function and phase weight function leads to the accuracy of localization, and other ideas speed up the localization. Experiments show that the average speed of new algorithm is about 7.0-8.5 times as high as traditional ones including integro-differential operator and Hough transform method.

  5. Multivariate statistical modelling based on generalized linear models

    CERN Document Server

    Fahrmeir, Ludwig

    1994-01-01

    This book is concerned with the use of generalized linear models for univariate and multivariate regression analysis. Its emphasis is to provide a detailed introductory survey of the subject based on the analysis of real data drawn from a variety of subjects including the biological sciences, economics, and the social sciences. Where possible, technical details and proofs are deferred to an appendix in order to provide an accessible account for non-experts. Topics covered include: models for multi-categorical responses, model checking, time series and longitudinal data, random effects models, and state-space models. Throughout, the authors have taken great pains to discuss the underlying theoretical ideas in ways that relate well to the data at hand. As a result, numerous researchers whose work relies on the use of these models will find this an invaluable account to have on their desks. "The basic aim of the authors is to bring together and review a large part of recent advances in statistical modelling of m...

  6. Extensive Generalization of Statistical Mechanics Based on Incomplete Information Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiuping A. Wang

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Statistical mechanics is generalized on the basis of an additive information theory for incomplete probability distributions. The incomplete normalization is used to obtain generalized entropy . The concomitant incomplete statistical mechanics is applied to some physical systems in order to show the effect of the incompleteness of information. It is shown that this extensive generalized statistics can be useful for the correlated electron systems in weak coupling regime.

  7. Density functional Theory Based Generalized Effective Fragment Potential Method (Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    45432 General Dynamics Information Technology, Inc. Dayton, Ohio 45431 Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39...45432, USA 3General Dynamics Information Technology, Inc., Dayton, Ohio 45431 , USA (Received 30 January 2014; accepted 3 June 2014; published online

  8. Renewal processes based on generalized Mittag-Leffler waiting times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahoy, Dexter O.; Polito, Federico

    2013-03-01

    The fractional Poisson process has recently attracted experts from several fields of study. Its natural generalization of the ordinary Poisson process made the model more appealing for real-world applications. In this paper, we generalized the standard and fractional Poisson processes through the waiting time distribution, and showed their relations to an integral operator with a generalized Mittag-Leffler function in the kernel. The waiting times of the proposed renewal processes have the generalized Mittag-Leffler and stretched-squashed Mittag-Leffler distributions. Note that the generalizations naturally provide greater flexibility in modeling real-life renewal processes. Algorithms to simulate sample paths and to estimate the model parameters are derived. Note also that these procedures are necessary to make these models more usable in practice. State probabilities and other qualitative or quantitative features of the models are also discussed.

  9. Model Reduction of Switched Systems Based on Switching Generalized Gramians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaker, Hamid Reza; Wisniewski, Rafal

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, a general method for model order reduction of discrete-time switched linear systems is presented. The proposed technique uses switching generalized gramians. It is shown that several classical reduction methods can be developed into the generalized gramian framework for the model r......-Galerkin projection is constructed instead of the similarity transform approach for reduction. It is proven that the proposed reduction framework preserves the stability of the original switched system. The performance of the method is illustrated by numerical examples....

  10. Sampling of general correlators in worm-algorithm based simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rindlisbacher, Tobias; Åkerlund, Oscar; de Forcrand, Philippe

    2016-08-01

    Using the complex ϕ4-model as a prototype for a system which is simulated by a worm algorithm, we show that not only the charged correlator , but also more general correlators such as or , as well as condensates like , can be measured at every step of the Monte Carlo evolution of the worm instead of on closed-worm configurations only. The method generalizes straightforwardly to other systems simulated by worms, such as spin or sigma models.

  11. Sampling of General Correlators in Worm Algorithm-based Simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Rindlisbacher, Tobias; de Forcrand, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Using the complex $\\phi^4$-model as a prototype for a system which is simulated by a (bosonic) worm algorithm, we show that not only the charged correlator $$, but also more general correlators such as $$ or $$ as well as condensates like $$ can be measured at every step of the Monte Carlo evolution of the worm instead of on closed-worm configurations only. The method generalizes straightforwardly to other systems simulated by (bosonic) worms, such as spin or sigma models.

  12. Frameworks for Generalization Constraints and Operations Based o n Object_oriented Data Structure in Database Generalization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The constraints and the operations play an important role in database generaliza tion.They guide and govern database generalization.The constraints are translation of the required conditions that should take into account not only the objects and relationships among objects but also spatial d a ta schema (classification and aggregation hierarchy) associated with the final e xi sting database.The operations perform the actions of generalization in support o f data reduction in the database. The constraints in database generalization are still lack of research.There is still the lack of frameworks to express the con straints and the operations on the basis of object_oriented data structure in da tabase generalization.This paper focuses on the frameworks for generalization op erations and constraints on the basis of object_oriented data structure in datab ase gen eralization.The constraints as the attributes of the object and the operations a s the methods of the object can be encapsulated in classes. They have the in heritance and polymorphism property. So the framework of the constraints and the operations which are based on object_oriented data structure can be eas ily understood and implemented. The constraint and the operations based on obje ct_oriented database are proposed based on object_oriented database.The framewor ks for generalization operations,constraints and relations among objects based o n object_oriented data structure in database generalization are designed.The cat egorical database generalization is concentrated on in this paper.

  13. Site-directed mutagenesis of aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 suggests three distinct pathways of nitroglycerin biotransformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenzl, M Verena; Beretta, Matteo; Griesberger, Martina; Russwurm, Michael; Koesling, Doris; Schmidt, Kurt; Mayer, Bernd; Gorren, Antonius C F

    2011-08-01

    To elucidate the mechanism underlying reduction of nitroglycerin (GTN) to nitric oxide (NO) by mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2), we generated mutants of the enzyme lacking the cysteines adjacent to reactive Cys302 (C301S and C303S), the glutamate that participates as a general base in aldehyde oxidation (E268Q) or combinations of these residues. The mutants were characterized regarding acetaldehyde dehydrogenation, GTN-triggered enzyme inactivation, GTN denitration, NO formation, and soluble guanylate cyclase activation. Lack of the cysteines did not affect dehydrogenase activity but impeded GTN denitration, aggravated GTN-induced enzyme inactivation, and increased NO formation. A triple mutant lacking the cysteines and Glu268 catalyzed sustained formation of superstoichiometric amounts of NO and exhibited slower rates of inactivation. These results suggest three alternative pathways for the reaction of ALDH2 with GTN, all involving formation of a thionitrate/sulfenyl nitrite intermediate at Cys302 as the initial step. In the first pathway, which predominates in the wild-type enzyme and reflects clearance-based GTN denitration, the thionitrate apparently reacts with one of the adjacent cysteine residues to yield nitrite and a protein disulfide. The predominant reaction catalyzed by the single and double cysteine mutants requires Glu268 and results in irreversible enzyme inactivation. Finally, combined lack of the cysteines and Glu268 shifts the reaction toward formation of the free NO radical, presumably through homolytic cleavage of the sulfenyl nitrite intermediate. Although the latter reaction accounts for less than 10% of total turnover of GTN metabolism catalyzed by wild-type ALDH2, it is most likely essential for vascular GTN bioactivation.

  14. Web-client based distributed generalization and geoprocessing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, E.B.; Howe, K.

    2009-01-01

    Generalization and geoprocessing operations on geospatial information were once the domain of complex software running on high-performance workstations. Currently, these computationally intensive processes are the domain of desktop applications. Recent efforts have been made to move geoprocessing operations server-side in a distributed, web accessible environment. This paper initiates research into portable client-side generalization and geoprocessing operations as part of a larger effort in user-centered design for the US Geological Survey's The National Map. An implementation of the Ramer-Douglas-Peucker (RDP) line simplification algorithm was created in the open source OpenLayers geoweb client. This algorithm implementation was benchmarked using differing data structures and browser platforms. The implementation and results of the benchmarks are discussed in the general context of client-side geoprocessing. (Abstract).

  15. Sampling of general correlators in worm-algorithm based simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Rindlisbacher

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Using the complex ϕ4-model as a prototype for a system which is simulated by a worm algorithm, we show that not only the charged correlator 〈ϕ⁎(xϕ(y〉, but also more general correlators such as 〈|ϕ(x||ϕ(y|〉 or 〈arg⁡(ϕ(xarg⁡(ϕ(y〉, as well as condensates like 〈|ϕ|〉, can be measured at every step of the Monte Carlo evolution of the worm instead of on closed-worm configurations only. The method generalizes straightforwardly to other systems simulated by worms, such as spin or sigma models.

  16. Implementing evidence-based medicine in general practice: a focus group based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aertgeerts Bert

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over the past years concerns are rising about the use of Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM in health care. The calls for an increase in the practice of EBM, seem to be obstructed by many barriers preventing the implementation of evidence-based thinking and acting in general practice. This study aims to explore the barriers of Flemish GPs (General Practitioners to the implementation of EBM in routine clinical work and to identify possible strategies for integrating EBM in daily work. Methods We used a qualitative research strategy to gather and analyse data. We organised focus groups between September 2002 and April 2003. The focus group data were analysed using a combined strategy of 'between-case' analysis and 'grounded theory approach'. Thirty-one general practitioners participated in four focus groups. Purposeful sampling was used to recruit participants. Results A basic classification model documents the influencing factors and actors on a micro-, meso- as well as macro-level. Patients, colleagues, competences, logistics and time were identified on the micro-level (the GPs' individual practice, commercial and consumer organisations on the meso-level (institutions, organisations and health care policy, media and specific characteristics of evidence on the macro-level (policy level and international scientific community. Existing barriers and possible strategies to overcome these barriers were described. Conclusion In order to implement EBM in routine general practice, an integrated approach on different levels needs to be developed.

  17. Blind source separation based on generalized gaussian model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Bin; KONG Wei; ZHOU Yue

    2007-01-01

    Since in most blind source separation (BSS) algorithms the estimations of probability density function (pdf) of sources are fixed or can only switch between one sup-Gaussian and other sub-Gaussian model,they may not be efficient to separate sources with different distributions. So to solve the problem of pdf mismatch and the separation of hybrid mixture in BSS, the generalized Gaussian model (GGM) is introduced to model the pdf of the sources since it can provide a general structure of univariate distributions. Its great advantage is that only one parameter needs to be determined in modeling the pdf of different sources, so it is less complex than Gaussian mixture model. By using maximum likelihood (ML) approach, the convergence of the proposed algorithm is improved. The computer simulations show that it is more efficient and valid than conventional methods with fixed pdf estimation.

  18. Robotics in general surgery: an evidence-based review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Se-Jin; Kim, Seon-Hahn

    2014-05-01

    Since its introduction, robotic surgery has been rapidly adopted to the extent that it has already assumed an important position in the field of general surgery. This rapid progress is quantitative as well as qualitative. In this review, we focus on the relatively common procedures to which robotic surgery has been applied in several fields of general surgery, including gastric, colorectal, hepato-biliary-pancreatic, and endocrine surgery, and we discuss the results to date and future possibilities. In addition, the advantages and limitations of the current robotic system are reviewed, and the advanced technologies and instruments to be applied in the near future are introduced. Such progress is expected to facilitate the widespread introduction of robotic surgery in additional fields and to solve existing problems.

  19. Similarity-Based Solution of the Generalized Boussinesq Equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, J. S.; Mortensen, J.; Telyakovskiy, A. S.; Wheatcraft, S. W.

    2013-12-01

    The generalized Boussinesq equation is a nonlinear diffusion equation where hydraulic conductivity is a power-law function of hydraulic head. In the traditional Boussinesq equation it is a linear function of hydraulic head. The generalized Boussinesq equation models flows of gases through porous media and flows of water in forest soils and concretes. Also, when the hydraulic conductivity is a power-law function of elevation we obtain this equation. We model a one-dimensional semi-infinite initially empty aquifer with boundary conditions at the inlet in rectangular coordinates. We introduce similarity variables to reduce the initial-boundary value problem to a boundary value problem for a nonlinear ordinary differential equation. We construct an approximate solution that preserves certain properties of the true solution and replicated known exact solutions.

  20. The quantum mechanics based on a general kinetic energy

    CERN Document Server

    Wei, Yuchuan

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce the Schrodinger equation with a general kinetic energy operator. The conservation law is proved and the probability continuity equation is deducted in a general sense. Examples with a Hermitian kinetic energy operator include the standard Schrodinger equation, the relativistic Schrodinger equation, the fractional Schrodinger equation, the Dirac equation, and the deformed Schrodinger equation. We reveal that the Klein-Gordon equation has a hidden non-Hermitian kinetic energy operator. The probability continuity equation with sources indicates that there exists a different way of probability transportation, which is probability teleportation. An average formula is deducted from the relativistic Schrodinger equation, the Dirac equation, and the K-G equation.

  1. Generalizations of entanglement based on coherent states and convex sets

    OpenAIRE

    2002-01-01

    Unentangled pure states on a bipartite system are exactly the coherent states with respect to the group of local transformations. What aspects of the study of entanglement are applicable to generalized coherent states? Conversely, what can be learned about entanglement from the well-studied theory of coherent states? With these questions in mind, we characterize unentangled pure states as extremal states when considered as linear functionals on the local Lie algebra. As a result, a relativize...

  2. Integrated LED-based luminaire for general lighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dowling, Kevin J.; Lys, Ihor A.; Williamson, Ryan C.; Roberge, Brian; Roberts, Ron; Morgan, Frederick; Datta, Michael Jay; Mollnow, Tomas Jonathan

    2016-08-30

    Lighting apparatus and methods employing LED light sources are described. The LED light sources are integrated with other components in the form of a luminaire or other general purpose lighting structure. Some of the lighting structures are formed as Parabolic Aluminum Reflector (PAR) luminaires, allowing them to be inserted into conventional sockets. The lighting structures display beneficial operating characteristics, such as efficient operation, high thermal dissipation, high output, and good color mixing.

  3. Road Network Generalization Based on Float CAR Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Cheng; Li, Wenjing; Jia, Hongguo

    2016-06-01

    Road generalization is not only helpful to simplify complicated road networks but can also satisfy the needs of reasonable display of roads under varying scales, thus offering basis for updating and grading urban roads. This paper proposes a selection method for road network generalization by integrating road-associated vehicle trajectory dynamic properties and road features and calculating the importance of urban roads. First of all, the location and motion information of floating vehicles are associated to relevant roads to generate the dynamic properties of roads. Then, the dynamic and static properties of roads are analyzed, and the cluster analysis is conducted to the trajectory points at road intersections to obtain the importance of some road intersections there are vehicles passing by. Afterwards, the weights of roads are calculated using the dominance rough set, the roads are ranked by weight and the practical significance of ranking results is analyzed. Finally, the selection rules for the basic framework of road network are determined to meet with different requirements and guarantee both connectivity and completeness of road networks. The results show that the relative importance of roads is made clear by taking advantage of the rough set and the generalized road network highlights the distribution and connection of urban main roads.

  4. A General Attribute and Rule Based Role-Based Access Control Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Growing numbers of users and many access control policies which involve many different resource attributes in service-oriented environments bring various problems in protecting resource. This paper analyzes the relationships of resource attributes to user attributes in all policies, and propose a general attribute and rule based role-based access control(GAR-RBAC) model to meet the security needs. The model can dynamically assign users to roles via rules to meet the need of growing numbers of users. These rules use different attribute expression and permission as a part of authorization constraints, and are defined by analyzing relations of resource attributes to user attributes in many access policies that are defined by the enterprise. The model is a general access control model, and can support many access control policies, and also can be used to wider application for service. The paper also describes how to use the GAR-RBAC model in Web service environments.

  5. Consolidation of data base for Army generalized missile model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klenke, D. J.; Hemsch, M. J.

    1980-01-01

    Data from plume interaction tests, nose mounted canard configuration tests, and high angle of attack tests on the Army Generalized Missile model are consolidated in a computer program which makes them readily accessible for plotting, listing, and evaluation. The program is written in FORTRAN and will run on an ordinary minicomputer. It has the capability of retrieving any coefficient from the existing DATAMAN tapes and displaying it in tabular or plotted form. Comparisons of data taken in several wind tunnels and of data with the predictions of Program MISSILE2 are also presented.

  6. [Clinical-metabolic data base on chronic generalized parodontitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil'miiarov, E M; Berezhnoĭ, V P; Gil'miiarova, I E; Tlustenko, V P

    2008-01-01

    As the result of clinical-lab study of 40 oral fluid parameters in 176 patients new block of data was received disclosing key pathogenetic links of chronic generalized parodontitis (CGP) to which could be attributed endocrine dysfunction with cortisol level reduction and free thyroid hormones increase, enforcing prooxidant processes with multiple iron content increase. As the result of it molecules of medium mass were accumulated; protein spectrum, protein coupling capacity, content of collagenous C-peptide, osteocalcine, Ca, P and Mg were changing. In comprehensive CGP treatment due to Natursyl (lipophilic fraction of holy thistle) applications the disease clinical signs disappeared quicker and biochemical markers normalized.

  7. Knowledge Society, General Framework for Knowledge Based Economy

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    This paper tries to present the existent relation between knowledge society and knowledge based economy. We will identify the main pillars of knowledge society and present their importance for the development of knowledge societies. Further, we will present two perspectives over knowledge societies, respectively science and learning perspectives, that directly affects knowledge based economies. At the end, we will conclude by identifying some important questions ...

  8. KNOWLEDGE SOCIETY, GENERAL FRAMEWORK FOR KNOWLEDGE BASED ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragos CRISTEA

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper tries to present the existent relation between knowledge society and knowledge based economy. We will identify the main pillars of knowledge society and present their importance for the development of knowledge societies. Further, we will present two perspectives over knowledge societies, respectively science and learning perspectives, that directly affects knowledge based economies. At the end, we will conclude by identifying some important questions that must be answered regarding this new social paradigm.

  9. Pathway-Based Genomics Prediction using Generalized Elastic Net.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolov, Artem; Carlin, Daniel E; Paull, Evan O; Baertsch, Robert; Stuart, Joshua M

    2016-03-01

    We present a novel regularization scheme called The Generalized Elastic Net (GELnet) that incorporates gene pathway information into feature selection. The proposed formulation is applicable to a wide variety of problems in which the interpretation of predictive features using known molecular interactions is desired. The method naturally steers solutions toward sets of mechanistically interlinked genes. Using experiments on synthetic data, we demonstrate that pathway-guided results maintain, and often improve, the accuracy of predictors even in cases where the full gene network is unknown. We apply the method to predict the drug response of breast cancer cell lines. GELnet is able to reveal genetic determinants of sensitivity and resistance for several compounds. In particular, for an EGFR/HER2 inhibitor, it finds a possible trans-differentiation resistance mechanism missed by the corresponding pathway agnostic approach.

  10. Pathway-Based Genomics Prediction using Generalized Elastic Net.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artem Sokolov

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We present a novel regularization scheme called The Generalized Elastic Net (GELnet that incorporates gene pathway information into feature selection. The proposed formulation is applicable to a wide variety of problems in which the interpretation of predictive features using known molecular interactions is desired. The method naturally steers solutions toward sets of mechanistically interlinked genes. Using experiments on synthetic data, we demonstrate that pathway-guided results maintain, and often improve, the accuracy of predictors even in cases where the full gene network is unknown. We apply the method to predict the drug response of breast cancer cell lines. GELnet is able to reveal genetic determinants of sensitivity and resistance for several compounds. In particular, for an EGFR/HER2 inhibitor, it finds a possible trans-differentiation resistance mechanism missed by the corresponding pathway agnostic approach.

  11. Pathway-Based Genomics Prediction using Generalized Elastic Net

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolov, Artem; Carlin, Daniel E.; Paull, Evan O.; Baertsch, Robert; Stuart, Joshua M.

    2016-01-01

    We present a novel regularization scheme called The Generalized Elastic Net (GELnet) that incorporates gene pathway information into feature selection. The proposed formulation is applicable to a wide variety of problems in which the interpretation of predictive features using known molecular interactions is desired. The method naturally steers solutions toward sets of mechanistically interlinked genes. Using experiments on synthetic data, we demonstrate that pathway-guided results maintain, and often improve, the accuracy of predictors even in cases where the full gene network is unknown. We apply the method to predict the drug response of breast cancer cell lines. GELnet is able to reveal genetic determinants of sensitivity and resistance for several compounds. In particular, for an EGFR/HER2 inhibitor, it finds a possible trans-differentiation resistance mechanism missed by the corresponding pathway agnostic approach. PMID:26960204

  12. Generalized theory of diffusion based on kinetic theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, T.

    2016-10-01

    We propose to use spin hydrodynamics, a two-fluid model of spin propagation, as a generalization of the diffusion equation. We show that in the dense limit spin hydrodynamics reduces to Fick's law and the diffusion equation. In the opposite limit spin hydrodynamics is equivalent to a collisionless Boltzmann treatment of spin propagation. Spin hydrodynamics avoids unphysical effects that arise when the diffusion equation is used to describe to a strongly interacting gas with a dilute corona. We apply spin hydrodynamics to the problem of spin diffusion in a trapped atomic gas. We find that the observed spin relaxation rate in the high-temperature limit [Sommer et al., Nature (London) 472, 201 (2011), 10.1038/nature09989] is consistent with the diffusion constant predicted by kinetic theory.

  13. A generalized Theory of Diffusion based on Kinetic Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Schaefer, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    We propose to use spin hydrodynamics, a two-fluid model of spin propagation, as a generalization of the diffusion equation. We show that in the dense limit spin hydrodynamics reduces to Fick's law and the diffusion equation. In the opposite limit spin hydrodynamics is equivalent to a collisionless Boltzmann treatment of spin propagation. Spin hydrodynamics avoids unphysical effects that arise when the diffusion equation is used to describe to a strongly interacting gas with a dilute corona. We apply spin hydrodynamics to the problem of spin diffusion in a trapped atomic gas. We find that the observed spin relaxation rate in the high temperature limit [Sommer et al., Nature 472, 201 (2011)] is consistent with the diffusion constant predicted by kinetic theory.

  14. Multivariable Decoupling Control System Based on Generalized Diagonal Dominance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Jamebozorg

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the design of static precompensator for the reduction of interaction in linear multivariable systems is proposed. In the previous studies, the diagonal dominance of systems in special frequency range has been less paid attention to. In the proposed method, some static compensators with matrix coefficients are combined so that the final static compensator can make system diagonal dominance in a wide range of frequencies. These coefficients are obtained with optimization algorithm. In this method, to achieve diagonal dominance with less conservativeness, the criterion of generalized diagonal dominance is used. The proposed method does not have any limitation for systems with high interaction or non-minimum phase systems. In comparison with some common methods, it has a simpler structure with easy implementation. Simulation examples demonstrate the usefulness of the proposed method

  15. The scenario-based generalization of radiation therapy margins

    CERN Document Server

    Fredriksson, Albin

    2015-01-01

    We give a scenario-based treatment plan optimization formulation that is equivalent to planning with geometric margins if the scenario doses are calculated using the static dose cloud approximation. If the scenario doses are instead calculated more accurately, then our formulation provides a novel robust planning method that overcomes many of the difficulties associated with previous scenario-based robust planning methods. In particular, our method protects only against uncertainties that can occur in practice, it gives a sharp dose fall-off outside high dose regions, and it avoids underdosage of the target in ``easy'' scenarios. The method shares the benefits of the previous scenario-based robust planning methods over geometric margins for applications where the static dose cloud approximation is inaccurate, such as irradiation with few fields and irradiation with ion beams. These properties are demonstrated on a suite of phantom cases planned for treatment with scanned proton beams subject to systematic set...

  16. Fundamentals of sketch-based passwords a general framework

    CERN Document Server

    Riggan, Benjamin S; Wang, Cliff

    2015-01-01

    This SpringerBrief explores graphical password systems and examines novel drawing-based methods in terms of security, usability, and human computer-interactions. It provides a systematic approach for recognizing, comparing, and matching sketch-based passwords in the context of modern computing systems. The book offers both a security and usability analysis of the accumulative framework used for incorporating handwriting biometrics and a human computer-interaction performance analysis. The chapters offer new perspectives and experimental results regarding model uniqueness, recognition tolerance

  17. General-base catalysed hydrolysis and nucleophilic substitution of activated amides in aqueous solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buurma, NJ; Blandamer, MJ; Engberts, JBFN; Buurma, Niklaas J.

    2003-01-01

    The reactivity of 1-benzoyl-3-phenyl-1,2,4-triazole (1a) was studied in the presence of a range of weak bases in aqueous solution. A change in mechanism is observed from general-base catalysed hydrolysis to nucleophilic substitution and general-base catalysed nucleophilic substitution. A slight tend

  18. Population-based prevention of influenza in Dutch general practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hak, E; Hermens, R P; van Essen, G A; Kuyvenhoven, M M; de Melker, R A

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although the effectiveness of influenza vaccination in high-risk groups has been proven, vaccine coverage continues to be less than 50% in The Netherlands. To improve vaccination rates, data on the organizational factors, which should be targeted in population-based prevention of influen

  19. Laplacian-based generalized gradient approximations for the exchange energy

    CERN Document Server

    Cancio, Antonio C

    2013-01-01

    It is well known that in the gradient expansion approximation to density functional theory (DFT) the gradient and Laplacian of the density make interchangeable contributions to the exchange correlation (XC) energy. This is an arbitrary "gauge" freedom for building DFT models, normally used to eliminate the Laplacian from the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) level of DFT development. We explore the implications of keeping the Laplacian at this level of DFT, to develop a model that fits the known behavior of the XC hole, which can only be described as a system average in conventional GGA. We generate a family of exchange models that obey the same constraints as conventional GGA's, but which in addition have a finite-valued potential at the atomic nucleus unlike GGA's. These are tested against exact densities and exchange potentials for small atoms, and for constraints chosen to reproduce the SOGGA and the APBE variants of the GGA. The model reliably reproduces exchange energies of closed shell atoms, on...

  20. Generalized watermark attack based on watermark estimation and perceptual remodulation

    OpenAIRE

    Voloshynovskyy, Svyatoslav; Pereira, Shelby; Herrigel, Alexander; Baumgartner, Nazanin; Pun, Thierry

    2000-01-01

    Digital image watermarking has become a popular technique for authentication and copyright protection. For verifying the security and robustness of watermarking algorithms, specific attacks have to be applied to test the proposed algorithms. In contrast to the known Stirmark attack, which degrades the quality of the image while destroying the watermark, this paper presents a new approach which is based on the estimation of a watermark and the exploitation of the properties of Human Visual Sys...

  1. On the Use of Generalized Volume Scattering Models for the Improvement of General Polarimetric Model-Based Decomposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinghua Xie

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, a general polarimetric model-based decomposition framework was proposed by Chen et al., which addresses several well-known limitations in previous decomposition methods and implements a simultaneous full-parameter inversion by using complete polarimetric information. However, it only employs four typical models to characterize the volume scattering component, which limits the parameter inversion performance. To overcome this issue, this paper presents two general polarimetric model-based decomposition methods by incorporating the generalized volume scattering model (GVSM or simplified adaptive volume scattering model, (SAVSM proposed by Antropov et al. and Huang et al., respectively, into the general decomposition framework proposed by Chen et al. By doing so, the final volume coherency matrix structure is selected from a wide range of volume scattering models within a continuous interval according to the data itself without adding unknowns. Moreover, the new approaches rely on one nonlinear optimization stage instead of four as in the previous method proposed by Chen et al. In addition, the parameter inversion procedure adopts the modified algorithm proposed by Xie et al. which leads to higher accuracy and more physically reliable output parameters. A number of Monte Carlo simulations of polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (PolSAR data are carried out and show that the proposed method with GVSM yields an overall improvement in the final accuracy of estimated parameters and outperforms both the version using SAVSM and the original approach. In addition, C-band Radarsat-2 and L-band AIRSAR fully polarimetric images over the San Francisco region are also used for testing purposes. A detailed comparison and analysis of decomposition results over different land-cover types are conducted. According to this study, the use of general decomposition models leads to a more accurate quantitative retrieval of target parameters. However, there

  2. Clonal Selection Based Artificial Immune System for Generalized Pattern Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntsberger, Terry

    2011-01-01

    The last two decades has seen a rapid increase in the application of AIS (Artificial Immune Systems) modeled after the human immune system to a wide range of areas including network intrusion detection, job shop scheduling, classification, pattern recognition, and robot control. JPL (Jet Propulsion Laboratory) has developed an integrated pattern recognition/classification system called AISLE (Artificial Immune System for Learning and Exploration) based on biologically inspired models of B-cell dynamics in the immune system. When used for unsupervised or supervised classification, the method scales linearly with the number of dimensions, has performance that is relatively independent of the total size of the dataset, and has been shown to perform as well as traditional clustering methods. When used for pattern recognition, the method efficiently isolates the appropriate matches in the data set. The paper presents the underlying structure of AISLE and the results from a number of experimental studies.

  3. Extending explanation-based learning by generalizing the structure of explanations

    CERN Document Server

    Shavlik, Jude W

    1990-01-01

    Extending Explanation-Based Learning by Generalizing the Structure of Explanations presents several fully-implemented computer systems that reflect theories of how to extend an interesting subfield of machine learning called explanation-based learning.This book discusses the need for generalizing explanation structures, relevance to research areas outside machine learning, and schema-based problem solving. The result of standard explanation-based learning, BAGGER generalization algorithm, and empirical analysis of explanation-based learning are also elaborated. This text likewise covers the ef

  4. Web Based Homework for CAPA in General Education Astronomy Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, T. H.

    2002-12-01

    Qualitative questions in astronomy have been developed to operate under the CAPA web-based homework system. Multiple versions of similar questions and software randomization are used to create different homework sets for each student. The questions are grouped by concept and subject to create more challenging activities from relatively simple questions. These questions have been used for three semesters in five sections of ASTRO 100 which enrolled a total of 500 students over the past two years. Student surveys consistently indicate that they like the system and believe that it helps them to learn. Cognitive measures in the form of exam and course grades do not demonstrate statistically significant improvement in sections which have used the new homework system. This is due in part to a conscious effort to create exam questions which focus on content understanding and not memorization and the persistent student habit of studying for exams by memorizing homework. Differences have been identified between female and male students in terms of completion rates and performance on homework, quiz and exam scores. This work was supported in part by funding from the George and Frances Ball Fund for Academic Excellence and the 21st Century Fund for Faculty Development.

  5. General Dynamic Equivalent Modeling of Microgrid Based on Physical Background

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changchun Cai

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Microgrid is a new power system concept consisting of small-scale distributed energy resources; storage devices and loads. It is necessary to employ a simplified model of microgrid in the simulation of a distribution network integrating large-scale microgrids. Based on the detailed model of the components, an equivalent model of microgrid is proposed in this paper. The equivalent model comprises two parts: namely, equivalent machine component and equivalent static component. Equivalent machine component describes the dynamics of synchronous generator, asynchronous wind turbine and induction motor, equivalent static component describes the dynamics of photovoltaic, storage and static load. The trajectory sensitivities of the equivalent model parameters with respect to the output variables are analyzed. The key parameters that play important roles in the dynamics of the output variables of the equivalent model are identified and included in further parameter estimation. Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO is improved for the parameter estimation of the equivalent model. Simulations are performed in different microgrid operation conditions to evaluate the effectiveness of the equivalent model of microgrid.

  6. General strategy, clay based disposal concepts and integration (GSI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keto, P.; Gunnarsson, G.; Johannesson, L.E.; Hansen, J.; Emmerich, K.; Kemper, G.; Nuesch, R.; Schuhmann, R.; Koniger, F.; Schlager, St.; Gruner, M.; Hofmann, M.; Nuesch, R.; Kobayashi, I.; Toida, M.; Sasakura, T.; Bernier, F.; Li, X.L.; Ileana Denisa, Nistor; Neculai, DoruMiron; Tudor, Sajin; Abdelkrim, Azzouz; Ilie, Siminiceanu; Viswanadham, B.V.S.; Rajesh, S.; Sengupta, S.S.; Panturu, E.; Radulescu, R.; Jinescu, C.; Panturu Razvann, Ioan; Autio, J.; Sanden, T.; Borgesson, L.; Svensson, D.; Eng, A.; Sellin, P.; Dixon, D.A.; Martino, J.B.; Vignal, B.; Fujita, T.; Wei-Hsing, Huang; Wen-Chuan, Chen; Shu-Rong, Yang; Dmitriev, S.; Prozorov, L.; Litinsky, Y.; Tkachenko, A.; Guskov, A.; Sanden, T.; Borgesson, L.; Camp, S.; Gourc, J.P.; Ple, O.; Kaelin, J.L.; Marchiol, A.; Round, C.; Johannesson, L.E.; Nilsson, U.; Adamcova, R.; Frankovska, J.; Durmekova, T.; Haasova, Z.; Gatabin, C.; Guyot, J.L.; Resnikow, S.; Karnland, O.; Nilsson, U.; Weber, H.; Wersin, P.; Gray, M.N.; Dixon, D.A.; Poulesquen, A.; Radwan, J.; Poinssot, C.; Ferry, C.; Weber, H.P.; Plotze, M

    2007-07-01

    This session gathers 20 articles (posters) dealing with: the assessment of backfill materials and methods for deposition tunnels; HTV-1: a semi technical scale testing of a multi-layer hydraulic shaft sealing system; the development of water content adjust method by mixing powdered-ice and chilled bentonite: application to the construction of bentonite engineered barriers by shot-clay method; repository design issues related to the thermal impact induced by heat emitting radioactive waste; pillared clays, using Romanian montmorillonite; the simulation of differential settlements of clay based engineered barrier systems in a geo-centrifuge; the critical issues regarding clay behaviour in the KBS-3H repository design; an alternative buffer material experiment; assessing the performance of a swelling clay tunnel seal and issues identified in the course of its operation; the activation of a Ca-bentonite as buffer material; a large diameter borehole type repository in the clays for radioactive waste long term storage; the erosion of backfill materials during the installation phase; the behaviour of the clay cover of a site for very low level nuclear waste: field flexion tests; the laboratory tests made on three different backfill candidates for the Swedish KBS- 3V concept; the engineering geological clay research for radioactive waste repository in Slovakia; the ESDRED project, module 1 - Design, fabrication, assembly, handling and packaging of buffer rings; the laboratory experiments on the sealing ability of bentonite pellets; the screening of bentonite resources for use as an engineered barrier component in deep geologic repositories; the assessment of the radionuclide release from the near-field environment of a spent nuclear fuel geological repository; and the emplacement tests with granular bentonite.

  7. Speech Intelligibility Potential of General and Specialized Deep Neural Network Based Speech Enhancement Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolbæk, Morten; Tan, Zheng-Hua; Jensen, Jesper

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we study aspects of single microphone speech enhancement (SE) based on deep neural networks (DNNs). Specifically, we explore the generalizability capabilities of state-of-the-art DNN-based SE systems with respect to the background noise type, the gender of the target speaker...... general. Finally, we compare how a DNN-based SE system trained to be noise type general, speaker general, and SNR general performs relative to a state-of-the-art short-time spectral amplitude minimum mean square error (STSA-MMSE) based SE algorithm. We show that DNN-based SE systems, when trained...... a state-of-the-art STSA-MMSE based SE method, when tested using a range of unseen speakers and noise types. Finally, a listening test using several DNN-based SE systems tested in unseen speaker conditions show that these systems can improve SI for some SNR and noise type configurations but degrade SI...

  8. Generalization-based discovery of spatial association rules with linguistic cloud models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨斌; 田永青; 朱仲英

    2004-01-01

    Extraction of interesting and general spatial association rules from large spatial databases is an important task in the development of spatial database systems. In this paper, we investigate the generalization-based knowledge discovery mechanism that integrates attribute-oriented induction on nonspatial data and spatial merging and generalization on spatial data. Furthermore, we present linguistic cloud models for knowledge representation and uncertainty handling to enhance current generalization-based method. With these models, spatial and nonspatial attribute values are well generalized at higher-concept levels, allowing discovery of strong spatial association rules. Combining the cloud model based generalization method with Apriori algorithm for mining association rules from a spatial database shows the benefits in effectiveness and flexibility.

  9. Population-Based Pediatric Reference Intervals in General Clinical Chemistry: A Swedish Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridefelt, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Very few high quality studies on pediatric reference intervals for general clinical chemistry and hematology analytes have been performed. Three recent prospective community-based projects utilising blood samples from healthy children in Sweden, Denmark and Canada have substantially improved the situation. The Swedish survey included 701 healthy children. Reference intervals for general clinical chemistry and hematology were defined.

  10. Some Characterization Results based on Conditional Expectation of function of Dual Generalized Order Statistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Izhar Khan

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available  Two families of probability distributions are characterized through the conditional expectations of dual generalized order statistics ( , conditioned on a non-adjacent dual generalized order statistics. Also a result based on the unconditional expectation and a conditional expectation of  is used to characterize family of distributions. Further, some of its deductions are also discussed.

  11. An Open Trial of an Acceptance-Based Behavior Therapy for Generalized Anxiety Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roemer, Lizabeth; Orsillo, Susan M.

    2007-01-01

    Research suggests that experiential avoidance may play an important role in generalized anxiety disorder (GAD; see Roemer, L., & Orsillo, S.M. (2002). "Expanding our conceptualization of and treatment for generalized anxiety disorder: Integrating mindfulness/acceptance-based approaches with existing cognitive-behavioral models." "Clinical…

  12. Effects of conventional and problem-based learning on clinical and general competencies and career development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohen-Schotanus, Janke; Muijtjens, Arno M. M.; Schonrock-Adema, Johanna; Geertsma, Jelle; van der Vleuten, Cees P. M.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To test hypotheses regarding the longitudinal effects of problem-based learning (PBL) and conventional learning relating to students' appreciation of the curriculum, self-assessment of general competencies, summative assessment of clinical competence and indicators of career development.

  13. Development and Assessment of Green, Research-Based Instructional Materials for the General Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacciatore, Kristen L.

    2010-01-01

    This research entails integrating two novel approaches for enriching student learning in chemistry into the context of the general chemistry laboratory. The first is a pedagogical approach based on research in cognitive science and the second is the green chemistry philosophy. Research has shown that inquiry-based approaches are effective in…

  14. Development and Assessment of Green, Research-Based Instructional Materials for the General Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacciatore, Kristen L.

    2010-01-01

    This research entails integrating two novel approaches for enriching student learning in chemistry into the context of the general chemistry laboratory. The first is a pedagogical approach based on research in cognitive science and the second is the green chemistry philosophy. Research has shown that inquiry-based approaches are effective in…

  15. A multivariate family-based association test using generalized estimating equations : FBAT-GEE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lange, C; Silverman, SK; Xu, [No Value; Weiss, ST; Laird, NM

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we propose a multivariate extension of family-based association tests based on generalized estimating equations. The test can be applied to multiple phenotypes and to phenotypic data obtained in longitudinal studies without making any distributional assumptions for the phenotypic obser

  16. Observer and observer-based H∞ control of generalized Hamiltonian systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yuzhen; GE S. S.; CHENG Daizhan

    2005-01-01

    This paper deals with observer design for generalized Hamiltonian systems and its applications. First, by using the systems' structural properties, a new observer design method called Augment Plus Feedback is provided and two kinds of observers are obtained: non-adaptive and adaptive ones. Then, based on the obtained observer, H∞ control design is investigated for generalized Hamiltonian systems, and an observer-based control design is proposed. Finally, as an application to power systems, an observer and an observer-based H∞ control law are designed for single-machine infinite-bus systems.Simulations show that both the observer and controller obtained in this paper work very well.

  17. A comparison of gastroenteritis in a general practice-based study and a community-based study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wit, M.A.S. de; Kortbeek, L.M.; Koopmans, M.P.G.; Jager, C.J. de; Wannet, W.J.B.; Bartelds, A.I.M.; Duynhoven, Y.T.H.P. van

    2001-01-01

    We compared gastroenteritis cases that consulted a general practitioner (GP) with those who did not in a community-based study and also with those in a GP-based study. We aimed to identify factors associated with consultation, and with inclusion of cases by GPs, and secondly to study the effects on

  18. A comparison of gastroenteritis in a general practice-based study and a community-based study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wit, M.A.S. de; Kortbeek, L.M.; Koopmans, M.P.G.; Jager, C.J. de; Wannet, W.J.B.; Bartelds, A.I.M.; Duynhoven, Y.T.H.P. van

    2001-01-01

    We compared gastroenteritis cases that consulted a general practitioner (GP) with those who did not in a community-based study and also with those in a GP-based study. We aimed to identify factors associated with consultation, and with inclusion of cases by GPs, and secondly to study the effects on

  19. An Adaptive Multialphabet Arithmetic Coding Based on Generalized Virtual Sliding Window

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belyaev, Evgeny; Forchhammer, Søren; Liu, Kai

    2017-01-01

    We propose a novel efficient multialphabet multiplication-free adaptive arithmetic coder. First, we generalize probability estimation via virtual sliding window for the multialphabet case and show that it does not require multiplications and provides a tradeoff between the probability adaptation...... speed and the precision of the probability estimation. Second, we show how the generalized virtual sliding window can be used to eliminate multiplications and divisions. Finally, we demonstrate that the proposed arithmetic coder provides better compression performance than existing implementations based...

  20. Numerical expression of general relationships in hierarchical data base management systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, R. C.

    1980-01-01

    The need for a means to express general relationships among entity occurrences in hierarchical data bases is addressed. Integer expression of general path segments is described as a means to meet this need. Operations on the expressions are also described. Two possible implementations are discussed. Both implementations are compatible with the hierarchical data model, and provide a logical extension that permits representation of many-to-many relationships. 4 figures.

  1. A generalization of Grbbner bases and a synthesis algorithm of multisequence over Z/(m)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周锦君; 戚文峰; 周玉洁

    1995-01-01

    A generalization of Gr(?)bner bases over ring (Z/(pe)[x1,…,xn])[I is given, where Z is the ring of integers, p is a prime, e≥1, and I is an ideal of Z/(pe)[x1,…,xn]. By applying this generalization, an algorithm is presented, which can synthesize multisequence with an equal or unequal length over Z[(m). The computational complexity of this algorithm is O(N2).

  2. Interior-point algorithm based on general kernel function for monotone linear complementarity problem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yong; BAI Yan-qin

    2009-01-01

    A polynomial interior-point algorithm is presented for monotone linear complementarity problem (MLCP) based on:a class of kernel functions with the general barrier term, which are called general kernel functions. Under the mild conditions for the barrier term, the complexity bound of algorithm in terms of such kernel function and its derivatives is obtained. The approach is actually an extension of the existing work which only used the specific kernel functions for the MLCP.

  3. Internet Based General Computer Simulation Platform for Distributed Multi-Robotic System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    迟艳玲; 张斌; 王硕; 谭民

    2002-01-01

    A general computer simulation platform is designed for the purpose of catrrying out experiments on the Distributed Multi-Robotic System. The simulation platform is based on Internet and possesses generality, validity, real-time display and function of supporting algorithm developing. In addition, the platform is equipped wit recording and replay module, and simulation experiment can be reviewed at anytime.By now; a few algorithms have been developed on the Simulation Platform designed.

  4. Generalized cost-criterion-based learning algorithm for diagonal recurrent neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongji; Wang, Hong

    2000-05-01

    A new generalized cost criterion based learning algorithm for diagonal recurrent neural networks is presented, which is with form of recursive prediction error (RPE) and has second convergent order. A guideline for the choice of the optimal learning rate is derived from convergence analysis. The application of this method to dynamic modeling of typical chemical processes shows that the generalized cost criterion RPE (QRPE) has higher modeling precision than BP trained MLP and quadratic cost criterion trained RPE (QRPE).

  5. Generalized model of double random phase encoding based on linear algebra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Kazuya; Takeda, Masafumi; Suzuki, Hiroyuki; Yamaguchi, Masahiro

    2013-01-01

    We propose a generalized model for double random phase encoding (DRPE) based on linear algebra. We defined the DRPE procedure in six steps. The first three steps form an encryption procedure, while the later three steps make up a decryption procedure. We noted that the first (mapping) and second (transform) steps can be generalized. As an example of this generalization, we used 3D mapping and a transform matrix, which is a combination of a discrete cosine transform and two permutation matrices. Finally, we investigated the sensitivity of the proposed model to errors in the decryption key.

  6. Switched Systems Reduction Framework Based on Convex Combination of Generalized Gramians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Reza Shaker

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A general method for model-order reduction of switched linear dynamical systems is presented. The proposed technique uses convex generalized gramian which is a convex combination of the generalized gramians. It is shown that different classical reduction methods can be developed into the generalized gramian framework for model reduction of linear systems and further for the reduction of switched systems by construction of the convex generalized gramian. Balanced reduction within specified frequency bound is taken as an example which is developed within this framework. In order to avoid numerical instability and also to increase the numerical efficiency, convex generalized gramian-based Petrov-Galerkin projection is constructed instead of the similarity transform approach for reduction. It is proven that the method preserves the stability of the original switched system at least for stabilizing switching signal and it is also less conservative than the method which is based on the common generalized gramian. Some discussions on the coefficient of the vertices of the convex variables are presented. The performance of the proposed method is illustrated by numerical examples.

  7. When are emotions related to group-based appraisals? A comparison between group-based emotions and general group emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuppens, Toon; Yzerbyt, Vincent Y

    2014-12-01

    In the literature on emotions in intergroup relations, it is not always clear how exactly emotions are group-related. Here, we distinguish between emotions that involve appraisals of immediate group concerns (i.e., group-based emotions) and emotions that do not. Recently, general group emotions, measured by asking people how they feel "as a group member" but without specifying an object for these emotions, have been conceptualized as reflecting appraisals of group concerns. In contrast, we propose that general group emotions are best seen as emotions about belonging to a group. In two studies, general group emotions were closely related to emotions that are explicitly measured as belonging emotions. Two further studies showed that general group emotions were not related to appraisals of immediate group concerns, whereas group-based emotions were. We argue for more specificity regarding the group-level aspects of emotion that are tapped by emotion measures.

  8. Gravitational Wave Spectrums from Pole-like Inflations based on Generalized Gravity Theories

    CERN Document Server

    Hwang, J

    1998-01-01

    We present a general and unified formulation which can handle the classical evolution and quantum generation processes of the cosmological gravitational wave in a broad class of generalized gravity theories. Applications are made in several inflation models based on the scalar-tensor theory, the induced gravity, and the low energy effective action of string theory. The gravitational wave power spectrums based on the vacuum expectation value of the quantized fluctuating metric during the pole-like inflation stages are derived in analytic forms. Assuming that the gravity theory transits to Einstein one while the relevant scales remain in the superhorizon scale, we derive the consequent power spectrums and the directional fluctuations of the relic radiation produced by the gravitational wave. The spectrums seeded by the vacuum fluctuations in the pole-like inflation models based on the generalized gravity show a distinguished common feature which differs from the scale invariant spectrum generated in an exponent...

  9. Computer-based, Jeopardy™-like game in general chemistry for engineering majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, S. S.; Saffre, F.; Kadadha, M.; Gater, D. L.; Isakovic, A. F.

    2013-03-01

    We report on the design of Jeopardy™-like computer game for enhancement of learning of general chemistry for engineering majors. While we examine several parameters of student achievement and attitude, our primary concern is addressing the motivation of students, which tends to be low in a traditionally run chemistry lectures. The effect of the game-playing is tested by comparing paper-based game quiz, which constitutes a control group, and computer-based game quiz, constituting a treatment group. Computer-based game quizzes are Java™-based applications that students run once a week in the second part of the last lecture of the week. Overall effectiveness of the semester-long program is measured through pretest-postest conceptual testing of general chemistry. The objective of this research is to determine to what extent this ``gamification'' of the course delivery and course evaluation processes may be beneficial to the undergraduates' learning of science in general, and chemistry in particular. We present data addressing gender-specific difference in performance, as well as background (pre-college) level of general science and chemistry preparation. We outline the plan how to extend such approach to general physics courses and to modern science driven electives, and we offer live, in-lectures examples of our computer gaming experience. We acknowledge support from Khalifa University, Abu Dhabi

  10. Generalized Empirical Likelihood-Based Focused Information Criterion and Model Averaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoya Sueishi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper develops model selection and averaging methods for moment restriction models. We first propose a focused information criterion based on the generalized empirical likelihood estimator. We address the issue of selecting an optimal model, rather than a correct model, for estimating a specific parameter of interest. Then, this study investigates a generalized empirical likelihood-based model averaging estimator that minimizes the asymptotic mean squared error. A simulation study suggests that our averaging estimator can be a useful alternative to existing post-selection estimators.

  11. Quantum image encryption based on generalized affine transform and logistic map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Hao-Ran; Tao, Xiang-Yang; Zhou, Nan-Run

    2016-07-01

    Quantum circuits of the generalized affine transform are devised based on the novel enhanced quantum representation of digital images. A novel quantum image encryption algorithm combining the generalized affine transform with logistic map is suggested. The gray-level information of the quantum image is encrypted by the XOR operation with a key generator controlled by the logistic map, while the position information of the quantum image is encoded by the generalized affine transform. The encryption keys include the independent control parameters used in the generalized affine transform and the logistic map. Thus, the key space is large enough to frustrate the possible brute-force attack. Numerical simulations and analyses indicate that the proposed algorithm is realizable, robust and has a better performance than its classical counterpart in terms of computational complexity.

  12. Some generalized Lagrange-based Apostol-Bernoulli, Apostol-Euler and Apostol-Genocchi polynomials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, H. M.; Özarslan, M. A.; Kaanoğlu, C.

    2013-03-01

    In this paper, we introduce a general family of Lagrange-based Apostol-type polynomials thereby unifying the Lagrange-based Apostol-Bernoulli and the Lagrange-based Apostol-Genocchi polynomials. We also define Lagrange-based Apostol-Euler polynomials via the generating function. In terms of these generalizations, we find new and useful relations between the unified family and the Apostol-Euler polynomials. We also derive their explicit representations and list some basic properties of each of them. Further relations between the above-mentioned polynomials, including a family of bilinear and bilateral generating functions, are given. Moreover, a generating relation involving the Stirling numbers of the second kind is derived.

  13. A Memristor-Based Hyperchaotic Complex Lü System and Its Adaptive Complex Generalized Synchronization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shibing Wang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a new memristor-based hyperchaotic complex Lü system (MHCLS and investigates its adaptive complex generalized synchronization (ACGS. Firstly, the complex system is constructed based on a memristor-based hyperchaotic real Lü system, and its properties are analyzed theoretically. Secondly, its dynamical behaviors, including hyperchaos, chaos, transient phenomena, as well as periodic behaviors, are explored numerically by means of bifurcation diagrams, Lyapunov exponents, phase portraits, and time history diagrams. Thirdly, an adaptive controller and a parameter estimator are proposed to realize complex generalized synchronization and parameter identification of two identical MHCLSs with unknown parameters based on Lyapunov stability theory. Finally, the numerical simulation results of ACGS and its applications to secure communication are presented to verify the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method.

  14. Environmental Assessment: General Plan-Based Environmental Impact Analysis Process, Laughlin Air Force Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-05-01

    BASED ENVIROMENTAL IMPACT ANALYSIS PROCESS LAUGHLIN AIR FORCE BASE, TEXAS AGENCY: 47th Flying Training Wing (FTW), Laughlin Air Force Base (AFB), Texas...in their decision-making process. The President’s Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) has issued regulations to implement NEPA that include...Order (EO) 12898, Federal Actions to Address Environmental Justice in Minority Populations and Low-Income Populations, was issued by the President on

  15. Adaptive lag synchronization based topology identification scheme of uncertain general complex dynamical networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che, Y.; Li, R. X.; Han, C. X.; Wang, J.; Cui, S. G.; Deng, B.; Wei, X.

    2012-08-01

    This paper presents an adaptive lag synchronization based method for simultaneous identification of topology and parameters of uncertain general complex dynamical networks with and without time delays. Based on Lyapunov stability theorem and LaSalle's invariance principle, an adaptive controller is designed to realize lag synchronization between drive and response systems, meanwhile, identification criteria of network topology and system parameters are obtained. Numerical simulations illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  16. A comparative study on lecture based versus case based education on teaching general surgery to medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Moazeni Bistegani

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : various methods of teaching have different learning outcomes. Using a combination of teaching and training methods of training may boost education. This study compared lecture based and case based teaching as a combined approach in learning general surgery by medical students. Methods: This study was a quasi-experimental performed on two consecutive groups of 33 and 36 students who were studying general surgery course. The two styles of teaching were lecture-based and real case teaching methods. The final exam included twenty multiple choice questions. The mean scores of each group of students were collected and analyzed accordingly with descriptive tests, Fisher’s test and T-test. Results: The mean final mark of students' who received real case based education was 16.8/20 ± 1.8 and for the lecture group was 12.7± 1.7. There was a significant difference between the two groups (P <0.0001. In both groups, there were significant differences in the mean scores of questions with taxonomy two and three, but not in the questions with taxonomy one. Students' evaluation score of the teacher of the real case group increased by 1.7/20 (8.7% in the case based group compared to the lecture group. Conclusions: Case based teaching of general surgery led to a better outcome and students were more satisfied. It is recommended that case based education of surgery be encouraged.

  17. General practice-based clinical trials in Germany - a problem analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hummers-Pradier Eva

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Germany, clinical trials and comparative effectiveness studies in primary care are still very rare, while their usefulness has been recognised in many other countries. A network of researchers from German academic general practice has explored the reasons for this discrepancy. Methods Based on a comprehensive literature review and expert group discussions, problem analyses as well as structural and procedural prerequisites for a better implementation of clinical trials in German primary care are presented. Results In Germany, basic biomedical science and technology is more reputed than clinical or health services research. Clinical trials are funded by industry or a single national programme, which is highly competitive, specialist-dominated, exclusive of pilot studies, and usually favours innovation rather than comparative effectiveness studies. Academic general practice is still not fully implemented, and existing departments are small. Most general practitioners (GPs work in a market-based, competitive setting of small private practices, with a high case load. They have no protected time or funding for research, and mostly no research training or experience. Good Clinical Practice (GCP training is compulsory for participation in clinical trials. The group defined three work packages to be addressed regarding clinical trials in German general practice: (1 problem analysis, and definition of (2 structural prerequisites and (3 procedural prerequisites. Structural prerequisites comprise specific support facilities for general practice-based research networks that could provide practices with a point of contact. Procedural prerequisites consist, for example, of a summary of specific relevant key measures, for example on a web platform. The platform should contain standard operating procedures (SOPs, templates, checklists and other supporting materials for researchers. Conclusion All in all, our problem analyses revealed that

  18. Robust Position Tracking for Electro-Hydraulic Drives Based on Generalized Feedforward Compensation Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Lasse; Andersen, Torben Ole; Pedersen, Henrik C.;

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a robust tracking control concept based on accurate feedforward compensation for hydraulic valve-cylinder drives. The proposed feedforward compensator is obtained utilizing a generalized description of the valve flow that takes into account any asymmetry of valves and/or cylin...

  19. Infrared and Raman Spectroscopy: A Discovery-Based Activity for the General Chemistry Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgsmiller, Karen L.; O'Connell, Dylan J.; Klauenberg, Kathryn M.; Wilson, Peter M.; Stromberg, Christopher J.

    2012-01-01

    A discovery-based method is described for incorporating the concepts of IR and Raman spectroscopy into the general chemistry curriculum. Students use three sets of springs to model the properties of single, double, and triple covalent bonds. Then, Gaussian 03W molecular modeling software is used to illustrate the relationship between bond…

  20. Transitioning from Expository Laboratory Experiments to Course-Based Undergraduate Research in General Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Ted M.; Ricciardo, Rebecca; Weaver, Tyler

    2016-01-01

    General chemistry courses predominantly use expository experiments that shape student expectations of what a laboratory activity entails. Shifting within a semester to course-based undergraduate research activities that include greater decision-making, collaborative work, and "messy" real-world data necessitates a change in student…

  1. Team-Based Learning Reduces Attrition in a First-Semester General Chemistry Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comeford, Lorrie

    2016-01-01

    Team-based learning (TBL) is an instructional method that has been shown to reduce attrition and increase student learning in a number of disciplines. TBL was implemented in a first-semester general chemistry course, and its effect on attrition was assessed. Attrition from sections before implementing TBL (fall 2008 to fall 2009) was compared with…

  2. General Chemistry Students' Conceptual Understanding and Language Fluency: Acid-Base Neutralization and Conductometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyachwaya, James M.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine college general chemistry students' conceptual understanding and language fluency in the context of the topic of acids and bases. 115 students worked in groups of 2-4 to complete an activity on conductometry, where they were given a scenario in which a titration of sodium hydroxide solution and dilute…

  3. Long-term performance of resin based fissure sealants placed in a general dental practice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hevinga, M.; Opdam, N.J.M.; Bronkhorst, E.M.; Truin, G.J.; Huysmans, M.C.D.N.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present retrospective study was to evaluate the long-term performance of resin based fissure sealants applied in a general dental practice. METHODS: Regularly attending patients visiting the practice between July 2006 until November 2007 and who had received sealants befor

  4. Intrinsic Functional Connectivity of Amygdala-Based Networks in Adolescent Generalized Anxiety Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Amy K.; Fudge, Julie L.; Kelly, Clare; Perry, Justin S. A.; Daniele, Teresa; Carlisi, Christina; Benson, Brenda; Castellanos, F. Xavier; Milham, Michael P.; Pine, Daniel S.; Ernst, Monique

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) typically begins during adolescence and can persist into adulthood. The pathophysiological mechanisms underlying this disorder remain unclear. Recent evidence from resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (R-fMRI) studies in adults suggests disruptions in amygdala-based circuitry; the…

  5. School-Based Management: An Approach to Decision-Making Quality in Egyptian General Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmelegy, Reda Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    The current research aims at clarifying how school-based management (SBM) can contribute to achieve the decision-making quality in Egyptian general secondary schools and determine the requirements of quality decision-making. It depends on the descriptive method in order to acknowledge the basics of the SBM and its relationship with the quality of…

  6. Reliability Generalization of Curriculum-Based Measurement Reading Aloud: A Meta-Analytic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Seungsoo

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to employ the meta-analytic method of Reliability Generalization to investigate the magnitude and variability of reliability estimates obtained across studies using Curriculum-Based Measurement reading aloud. Twenty-eight studies that met the inclusion criteria were used to calculate the overall mean reliability of…

  7. Intrinsic Functional Connectivity of Amygdala-Based Networks in Adolescent Generalized Anxiety Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Amy K.; Fudge, Julie L.; Kelly, Clare; Perry, Justin S. A.; Daniele, Teresa; Carlisi, Christina; Benson, Brenda; Castellanos, F. Xavier; Milham, Michael P.; Pine, Daniel S.; Ernst, Monique

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) typically begins during adolescence and can persist into adulthood. The pathophysiological mechanisms underlying this disorder remain unclear. Recent evidence from resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (R-fMRI) studies in adults suggests disruptions in amygdala-based circuitry; the…

  8. General Chemistry Students' Conceptual Understanding and Language Fluency: Acid-Base Neutralization and Conductometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyachwaya, James M.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine college general chemistry students' conceptual understanding and language fluency in the context of the topic of acids and bases. 115 students worked in groups of 2-4 to complete an activity on conductometry, where they were given a scenario in which a titration of sodium hydroxide solution and dilute…

  9. Effects of Reading Curriculum-Based Measurement (R-CBM) Teacher Feedback in General Education Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graney, Suzanne Bamonto; Shinn, Mark R.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the effects of teacher feedback from Reading Curriculum-Based Measurement (R-CBM) progress results for low-performing students in general education classrooms. Participants included 44 second-grade teachers and 184 students in their low reading groups. After 5 weeks of progress monitoring, teachers in the two experimental…

  10. Transitioning from Expository Laboratory Experiments to Course-Based Undergraduate Research in General Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Ted M.; Ricciardo, Rebecca; Weaver, Tyler

    2016-01-01

    General chemistry courses predominantly use expository experiments that shape student expectations of what a laboratory activity entails. Shifting within a semester to course-based undergraduate research activities that include greater decision-making, collaborative work, and "messy" real-world data necessitates a change in student…

  11. Feasibility of a Web-Based Cross-Over Paleolithic Diet Intervention in the General Population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nederhof, Esther; Bikker, Esther

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: The primary aim was to investigate feasibility of a web-based cross-over Paleolithic diet intervention in the general population. The secondary aim was to calculate the sample size needed to reach a statistically significant difference in effect of a Paleolithic-like diet on

  12. School-Based Management: An Approach to Decision-Making Quality in Egyptian General Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmelegy, Reda Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    The current research aims at clarifying how school-based management (SBM) can contribute to achieve the decision-making quality in Egyptian general secondary schools and determine the requirements of quality decision-making. It depends on the descriptive method in order to acknowledge the basics of the SBM and its relationship with the quality of…

  13. Infrared and Raman Spectroscopy: A Discovery-Based Activity for the General Chemistry Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgsmiller, Karen L.; O'Connell, Dylan J.; Klauenberg, Kathryn M.; Wilson, Peter M.; Stromberg, Christopher J.

    2012-01-01

    A discovery-based method is described for incorporating the concepts of IR and Raman spectroscopy into the general chemistry curriculum. Students use three sets of springs to model the properties of single, double, and triple covalent bonds. Then, Gaussian 03W molecular modeling software is used to illustrate the relationship between bond…

  14. When are emotions related to group-based appraisals? : A comparison between group-based emotions and general group emotions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuppens, Toon; Yzerbyt, Vincent Y.

    2014-01-01

    In the literature on emotions in intergroup relations, it is not always clear how exactly emotions are group-related. Here, we distinguish between emotions that involve appraisals of immediate group concerns (i.e., group-based emotions) and emotions that do not. Recently, general group emotions, mea

  15. Generalized Einstein Aggregation Operators Based on the Interval Neutrosophic Numbers and Their Application to Multi-attribute Group Decision Making

    OpenAIRE

    Don Hass

    2015-01-01

    Based on the Einstein operator, the operational rules of interval neutrosophic numbers are defined, according to the combination of Einstein operations and generalized aggregation operators, the interval neutrosophic generalized weighted Einstein average (INGWEA) operator, interval neutrosophic generalized ordered weighted Einstein average (INGOWEA) operator and interval neutrosophic generalized hybrid weighted Einstein average (INGHWEA) operator are proposed .

  16. Evaluation of a rule base for decision making in general practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essex, B; Healy, M

    1994-01-01

    BACKGROUND. Decision making in general practice relies heavily on judgmental expertise. It should be possible to codify this expertise into rules and principles. AIM. A study was undertaken to evaluate the effectiveness, of rules from a rule base designed to improve students' and trainees' management decisions relating to patients seen in general practice. METHOD. The rule base was developed after studying decisions about and management of thousands of patients seen in one general practice over an eight year period. Vignettes were presented to 93 fourth year medical students and 179 general practitioner trainees. They recorded their perception and management of each case before and after being presented with a selection of relevant rules. Participants also commented on their level of agreement with each of the rules provided with the vignettes. A panel of five independent assessors then rated as good, acceptable or poor, the participants' perception and management of each case before and after seeing the rules. RESULTS. Exposure to a few selected rules of thumb improved the problem perception and management decisions of both undergraduates and trainees. The degree of improvement was not related to previous experience or to the stated level of agreement with the proposed rules. The assessors identified difficulties students and trainees experienced in changing their perceptions and management decisions when the rules suggested options they had not considered. CONCLUSION. The rules developed to improve decision making skills in general practice are effective when used with vignettes. The next phase is to transform the rule base into an expert system to train students and doctors to acquire decision making skills. It could also be used to provide decision support when confronted with difficult management decisions in general practice. PMID:8204334

  17. A Novel General Imaging Formation Algorithm for GNSS-Based Bistatic SAR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Hong-Cheng; Wang, Peng-Bo; Chen, Jie; Liu, Wei; Ge, LinLin; Yang, Wei

    2016-02-26

    Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS)-based bistatic Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) recently plays a more and more significant role in remote sensing applications for its low-cost and real-time global coverage capability. In this paper, a general imaging formation algorithm was proposed for accurately and efficiently focusing GNSS-based bistatic SAR data, which avoids the interpolation processing in traditional back projection algorithms (BPAs). A two-dimensional point target spectrum model was firstly presented, and the bulk range cell migration correction (RCMC) was consequently derived for reducing range cell migration (RCM) and coarse focusing. As the bulk RCMC seriously changes the range history of the radar signal, a modified and much more efficient hybrid correlation operation was introduced for compensating residual phase errors. Simulation results were presented based on a general geometric topology with non-parallel trajectories and unequal velocities for both transmitter and receiver platforms, showing a satisfactory performance by the proposed method.

  18. A General Provincial Situation Visualization System Based on iPhone Operating System of Shandong Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Z.; Xiang, H.

    2014-04-01

    The paper discusses the basic principles and the problem solutions during the design and implementation of the mobile GIS system, and base on the research result, we developed the General Provincial Situation Visualization System Based on iOS of Shandong Province. The system is developed in the Objective-C programming language, and use the ArcGIS Runtime SDK for IOS as the development tool to call the "World-map Shandong" services to implement the development of the General Provincial Situation Visualization System Based on iOS devices. The system is currently available for download in the Appstore and is chosen as the typical application case of ESRI China ArcGIS API for iOS.

  19. A case of generalized lymphatic anomaly causing skull-base leakage and bacterial meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suga, Kenichi; Goji, Aya; Inoue, Miki; Kawahito, Masami; Taki, Masako; Mori, Kazuhiro

    2017-05-01

    Generalized lymphatic anomaly is a multifocal lymphatic malformation that affects the skin, thoracic viscera, and bones. A 3year-old Japanese boy presented with right facial palsy due to cystic tumors in the ipsilateral petrous bone. Pericardial effusion had been found incidentally and generalized lymphatic anomaly had been diagnosed by pericardial biopsy. Petrous bone tumor had been followed up without surgery. At the age of seven he presented with fever and disturbance of consciousness, and bacterial meningitis due to Streptococcus pneumoniae was diagnosed. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed middle skull-base leakage due to lymphatic malformation. He achieved complete recovery under intensive care with antibiotics and mechanical ventilation. One year later, he presented with multiple cystic formations in bilateral femora. At the 3-year follow-up, the patient was healthy with no recurrence of meningitis and osteolytic lesions in the femora were non-progressive. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging are useful for demonstration of skull-base leakage by generalized lymphatic anomaly. We should consider generalized lymphatic anomaly among the differential diagnoses for skull-base leakage. Copyright © 2017 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. QUANTITATIVE EVALUATION METHOD OF ELEMENTS PRIORITY OF CARTOGRAPHIC GENERALIZATION BASED ON TAXI TRAJECTORY DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Long

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Considering the lack of quantitative criteria for the selection of elements in cartographic generalization, this study divided the hotspot areas of passengers into parts at three levels, gave them different weights, and then classified the elements from the different hotspots. On this basis, a method was proposed to quantify the priority of elements selection. Subsequently, the quantitative priority of different cartographic elements was summarized based on this method. In cartographic generalization, the method can be preferred to select the significant elements and discard those that are relatively non-significant.

  1. Denoising Algorithm Based on Generalized Fractional Integral Operator with Two Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid A. Jalab

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel digital image denoising algorithm called generalized fractional integral filter is introduced based on the generalized Srivastava-Owa fractional integral operator. The structures of n×n fractional masks of this algorithm are constructed. The denoising performance is measured by employing experiments according to visual perception and PSNR values. The results demonstrate that apart from enhancing the quality of filtered image, the proposed algorithm also reserves the textures and edges present in the image. Experiments also prove that the improvements achieved are competent with the Gaussian smoothing filter.

  2. The entropy of the noncommutative acoustic black hole based on generalized uncertainty principle

    CERN Document Server

    Anacleto, M A; Passos, E; Santos, W P

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we investigate statistics entropy of a 3-dimensional rotating acoustic black hole based on generalized uncertainty principle. In our results we obtain an area entropy and a correction term associated with the noncommutative acoustic black hole when $ \\lambda $ introduced in the generalized uncertainty principle takes a specific value. However, in this method, is not need to introduce the ultraviolet cut-off and divergences are eliminated. Moreover, the small mass approximation is not necessary in the original brick-wall model.

  3. A Rule-Based Local Search Algorithm for General Shift Design Problems in Airport Ground Handling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Tommy

    We consider a generalized version of the shift design problem where shifts are created to cover a multiskilled demand and fit the parameters of the workforce. We present a collection of constraints and objectives for the generalized shift design problem. A local search solution framework with mul...... with multiple neighborhoods and a loosely coupled rule engine based on simulated annealing is presented. Computational experiments on real-life data from various airport ground handling organization show the performance and flexibility of the proposed algorithm....

  4. The quantum general linear supergroup, canonical bases and Kazhdan-Lusztig polynomials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Canonical bases of the tensor powers of the natural Uq(glm|n)-module V are constructed by adapting the work of Frenkel, Khovanov and Kirrilov to the quantum supergroup setting. This result is generalized in several directions. We first construct the canonical bases of the Z2-graded symmetric algebra of V and tensor powers of this superalgebra; then construct canonical bases for the superalgebra Oq(Mm|n) of a quantum (m, n) × (m, n)-supermatrix; and finally deduce from the latter result the canonical basis of every irreducible tensor module for Uq(glm|n) by applying a quantum analogue of the Borel-Weil construction.

  5. Arts-based research in music education – general concepts and potential cases

    OpenAIRE

    Vist, Torill

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT In this article, the topic of arts-based research in music education is investigated by presenting different general concepts related to arts in research, and discussing them in relation to the author’s own previous research conducted within music education. The chosen theoretical focus is on Bresler’s aesthetically based research, Knowles and Cole’s arts-informed research, Eisner and colleagues’ arts-based research, Irwin, Springgay and colleagues’ a/r/tography, as well as on the...

  6. Attitudes of general practitioners and midwives towards ethnicity-based haemoglobinopathy-carrier screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jans, Suze MPJ; de Jonge, Ank; Henneman, Lidewij; Cornel, Martina C; Lagro-Janssen, Antoinette LM

    2012-01-01

    Haemoglobinopathies (HbP) are severe autosomal recessive disorders with high prevalence among certain ethnic groups. World Health Organisation (WHO) advises implementing screening programmes for risk groups. Research in the Netherlands has shown that general practitioners and midwives do not perceive ethnicity as a risk factor for HbP. Moreover, registration of ethnicity is a controversial societal issue, which may complicate the introduction of a national preconception or antenatal carrier screening programme. This study investigates attitudes, intention and behaviour of general practitioners and midwives towards ethnicity-based HbP-carrier screening in general. A structured questionnaire based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour was sent by mail to a random selection of 2100 general practitioners and 1800 primary care midwives. Response was 35% (midwives 44.2% GPs 27.6%). Although 45% of respondents thought that offering a carrier test on the basis of ethnicity alone should become national policy, it is currently not carried out. The main factor explaining lack of intention towards ethnicity-based HbP-carrier screening was subjective norm, the perception that their peers do not think they should offer screening (52.2% variance explained). If ethnicity-based HbP-carrier screening would become national policy, most professionals report that they would carry this out. Most respondents favoured ethnicity registration for health purposes. As most practitioners look for role models among peers, debate among general practitioners and midwives should be encouraged when new policy is to be developed, articulating the voices of colleagues who already actively offer HbP-carrier screening. Moreover, primary care professionals and professional organisations need support of policy at national level. PMID:22549405

  7. Generalized Distributed Network Coding Based on Nonbinary Linear Block Codes for Multi-User Cooperative Communications

    CERN Document Server

    Rebelatto, João Luiz; Li, Yonghui; Vucetic, Branka

    2010-01-01

    In this work, we propose and analyze a generalized construction of distributed network codes for a network consisting of M users sending different information to a common base station through independent block fading channels. The aim is to increase the diversity order of the system without reducing its code rate. The proposed scheme, called generalized dynamic network codes (GDNC), is a generalization of the dynamic network codes (DNC) recently proposed by Xiao and Skoglung. The design of the network codes that maximizes the diversity order is recognized as equivalent to the design of linear block codes over a nonbinary finite field under the Hamming metric. The proposed scheme offers a much better tradeoff between rate and diversity order. An outage probability analysis showing the improved performance is carried out, and computer simulations results are shown to agree with the analytical results.

  8. Monitoring drought in the Monglian Plateau based on NDVI_Ts general space, 2000-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xiaoming; Wang, Juanle; Gao, Zhiqiang; Ning, Jicai; Shi, Runhe; Gao, Wei

    2013-09-01

    This paper presents a new drought assessment method by modifying the NDVI-Ts space, which named NDVI-Ts general space. Based on this method, the general dry side and wet side equation were established for the period of 2000 and 2010 in the Mongolian Plateau. The results showed that: 1) the NDVI-Ts general space was more stable for monitoring drought than that for the single time Remote Sensing data; 2) Drought mainly distributed in the Mongolian Plateau, In Mongolian Plateau, there was about 75% area of drought; 3) Drought changed in the period of 2000 and 2010. In the year of 2003, the area of severe drought is the smallest. In 2001, the drought is the most serious. The results showed that, the distribution of drought was different in different year. There may be close correlation between the occurrence of drought and precipitation.

  9. A generalized concordance correlation coefficient based on the variance components generalized linear mixed models for overdispersed count data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, Josep L

    2010-09-01

    The classical concordance correlation coefficient (CCC) to measure agreement among a set of observers assumes data to be distributed as normal and a linear relationship between the mean and the subject and observer effects. Here, the CCC is generalized to afford any distribution from the exponential family by means of the generalized linear mixed models (GLMMs) theory and applied to the case of overdispersed count data. An example of CD34+ cell count data is provided to show the applicability of the procedure. In the latter case, different CCCs are defined and applied to the data by changing the GLMM that fits the data. A simulation study is carried out to explore the behavior of the procedure with a small and moderate sample size.

  10. A Generalization Belief Propagation Decoding Algorithm for Polar Codes Based on Particle Swarm Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingxian Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a generalization belief propagation (BP decoding algorithm based on particle swarm optimization (PSO to improve the performance of the polar codes. Through the analysis of the existing BP decoding algorithm, we first introduce a probability modifying factor to each node of the BP decoder, so as to enhance the error correcting capacity of the decoding. Then, we generalize the BP decoding algorithm based on these modifying factors and drive the probability update equations for the proposed decoding. Based on the new probability update equations, we show the intrinsic relationship of the existing decoding algorithms. Finally, in order to achieve the best performance, we formulate an optimization problem to find the optimal probability modifying factors for the proposed decoding algorithm. Furthermore, a method based on the modified PSO algorithm is also introduced to solve that optimization problem. Numerical results show that the proposed generalization BP decoding algorithm achieves better performance than that of the existing BP decoding, which suggests the effectiveness of the proposed decoding algorithm.

  11. Generalization bounds of ERM-based learning processes for continuous-time Markov chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chao; Tao, Dacheng

    2012-12-01

    Many existing results on statistical learning theory are based on the assumption that samples are independently and identically distributed (i.i.d.). However, the assumption of i.i.d. samples is not suitable for practical application to problems in which samples are time dependent. In this paper, we are mainly concerned with the empirical risk minimization (ERM) based learning process for time-dependent samples drawn from a continuous-time Markov chain. This learning process covers many kinds of practical applications, e.g., the prediction for a time series and the estimation of channel state information. Thus, it is significant to study its theoretical properties including the generalization bound, the asymptotic convergence, and the rate of convergence. It is noteworthy that, since samples are time dependent in this learning process, the concerns of this paper cannot (at least straightforwardly) be addressed by existing methods developed under the sample i.i.d. assumption. We first develop a deviation inequality for a sequence of time-dependent samples drawn from a continuous-time Markov chain and present a symmetrization inequality for such a sequence. By using the resultant deviation inequality and symmetrization inequality, we then obtain the generalization bounds of the ERM-based learning process for time-dependent samples drawn from a continuous-time Markov chain. Finally, based on the resultant generalization bounds, we analyze the asymptotic convergence and the rate of convergence of the learning process.

  12. Adult age differences in learning and generalization of feedback-based associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Jessica R; Gluck, Mark A

    2013-12-01

    Feedback-based associative learning (e.g., acquiring new associations from positive or negative outcomes) and generalization (e.g., applying past learning to new settings) are important cognitive skills that enable people to make economic decisions or social judgments. This ability to acquire new skills based on feedback and transfer those experiences to predict positive outcomes in novel situations is essential at all ages, but especially among older adults who must continually adapt to new people, environments, and technologies. Ample evidence from animal work, clinical research, and computational modeling has demonstrated that feedback-based associative learning is sensitive to basal ganglia dysfunction and generalization to medial temporal lobe dysfunction. This dissociation is relevant because of recent evidence that has suggested healthy aging compromises the basal ganglia system earlier than the medial temporal lobes. However, few studies have investigated how healthy aging influences these cognitive processes. Here, we examined both feedback-based associative learning and generalization in younger, middle-aged, and older adults using a computerized acquired equivalence task. Results revealed a significant effect of age group on feedback-based associative learning, consistent with evidence of persistent age-related declines in the basal ganglia. In contrast, generalization was spared in all but the oldest adult group, likely reflecting preserved medial temporal lobe function until advanced old age. Our findings add behavioral evidence to the emerging view that healthy aging affects the striatal system before the medial temporal lobes. Although further evidence is needed, this finding may shed light on the possible time course of neural system dysfunction in healthy aging. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  13. Generic functional requirements for a NASA general-purpose data base management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohman, G. M.

    1981-01-01

    Generic functional requirements for a general-purpose, multi-mission data base management system (DBMS) for application to remotely sensed scientific data bases are detailed. The motivation for utilizing DBMS technology in this environment is explained. The major requirements include: (1) a DBMS for scientific observational data; (2) a multi-mission capability; (3) user-friendly; (4) extensive and integrated information about data; (5) robust languages for defining data structures and formats; (6) scientific data types and structures; (7) flexible physical access mechanisms; (8) ways of representing spatial relationships; (9) a high level nonprocedural interactive query and data manipulation language; (10) data base maintenance utilities; (11) high rate input/output and large data volume storage; and adaptability to a distributed data base and/or data base machine configuration. Detailed functions are specified in a top-down hierarchic fashion. Implementation, performance, and support requirements are also given.

  14. Stochastic thermodynamics based on incomplete information: generalized Jarzynski equality with measurement errors with or without feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wächtler, Christopher W.; Strasberg, Philipp; Brandes, Tobias

    2016-11-01

    In the derivation of fluctuation relations, and in stochastic thermodynamics in general, it is tacitly assumed that we can measure the system perfectly, i.e., without measurement errors. We here demonstrate for a driven system immersed in a single heat bath, for which the classic Jarzynski equality =1 holds, how to relax this assumption. Based on a general measurement model akin to Bayesian inference we derive a general expression for the fluctuation relation of the measured work and we study the case of an overdamped Brownian particle and of a two-level system in particular. We then generalize our results further and incorporate feedback in our description. We show and argue that, if measurement errors are fully taken into account by the agent who controls and observes the system, the standard Jarzynski-Sagawa-Ueda relation should be formulated differently. We again explicitly demonstrate this for an overdamped Brownian particle and a two-level system where the fluctuation relation of the measured work differs significantly from the efficacy parameter introduced by Sagawa and Ueda. Instead, the generalized fluctuation relation under feedback control, =1, holds only for a superobserver having perfect access to both the system and detector degrees of freedom, independently of whether or not the detector yields a noisy measurement record and whether or not we perform feedback.

  15. GENERALIZED LANDSCAPE THEORY: AGENT-BASED APPROACH TO ALLIANCE FORMATIONS IN CIVIL AVIATION INDUSTRY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kyoichi Kijima

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to generalize Landscape theory proposed by R.Axelrod and, then, to apply it to the civil aviation industry for simulating alliance formations in it. Landscape theory provides a well-known agent-based simulation model for analyzing alliance (or coalition) formation process. When a set N of agents or autonomous decision makers is given, the theory assumes that each agent tries to make a coalition in such a way that the resulting alliance minimizes its frustration. The theory is essentially based on two premises. One is that a propensity is symmetric,i.e., the propensity of agent i toward j is exactly the same as that of j toward i for anyagents i and j in N. The other is that the number of alliances is restricted to two, i.e., at any moment N is partitioned into two parties. Though the two basic premises underpin the theory and make the model simple and operational, they do not always reflect alliance formation processes in a realistic way. A generalized Landscape theory that this paper proposes removes them and allows asymmetric propensity and existence of alliances of any number. Since the premises are essential for the model, the generalization requires a drastic reconstruction of the whole idea of the theory. Finally, we analyze a real alliance formation process in the civil aviation industry.This analysis provides interesting insights about the industry as well as some validation of our generalized Landscape theory.

  16. An approach for mechanical fault classification based on generalized discriminant analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Wei-hua; SHI Tie-lin; YANG Shu-zi

    2006-01-01

    To deal with pattern classification of complicated mechanical faults,an approach to multi-faults classification based on generalized discriminant analysis is presented.Compared with linear discriminant analysis (LDA),generalized discriminant analysis (GDA),one of nonlinear discriminant analysis methods,is more suitable for classifying the linear non-separable problem.The connection and difference between KPCA (Kernel Principal Component Analysis) and GDA is discussed.KPCA is good at detection of machine abnormality while GDA performs well in multi-faults classification based on the collection of historical faults symptoms.When the proposed method is applied to air compressor condition classification and gear fault classification,an excellent performance in complicated multi-faults classification is presented.

  17. Hesitant Fuzzy Linguistic Multicriteria Decision-Making Method Based on Generalized Prioritized Aggregation Operator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-ting Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on linguistic term sets and hesitant fuzzy sets, the concept of hesitant fuzzy linguistic sets was introduced. The focus of this paper is the multicriteria decision-making (MCDM problems in which the criteria are in different priority levels and the criteria values take the form of hesitant fuzzy linguistic numbers (HFLNs. A new approach to solving these problems is proposed, which is based on the generalized prioritized aggregation operator of HFLNs. Firstly, the new operations and comparison method for HFLNs are provided and some linguistic scale functions are applied. Subsequently, two prioritized aggregation operators and a generalized prioritized aggregation operator of HFLNs are developed and applied to MCDM problems. Finally, an illustrative example is given to illustrate the effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed method, which are then compared to the existing approach.

  18. Space-Based Gravitational-Wave Observations as Tools for Testing General Relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Will, Clifford M.

    2004-01-01

    We continued a project, to analyse the ways in which detection and study of gravitational waves could provide quantitative tests of general relativity, with particular emphasis on waves that would be detectable by space-based observatories, such as LISA. This work had three foci: 1) Tests of scalar-tensor theories of gravity that, could be done by analyzing gravitational waves from neutron stars inspiralling into massive black holes, as detectable by LISA; 2) Study of alternative theories of gravity in which the graviton could be massive, and of how gravitational-wave observations by space-based detectors, solar-system tests, and cosmological observations could constrain such theories; and 3) Study of gravitational-radiation back reaction of particles orbiting black holes in general relativity, with emphasis on the effects of spin.

  19. Hesitant fuzzy linguistic multicriteria decision-making method based on generalized prioritized aggregation operator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jia-ting; Wang, Jian-qiang; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Hong-yu; Chen, Xiao-hong

    2014-01-01

    Based on linguistic term sets and hesitant fuzzy sets, the concept of hesitant fuzzy linguistic sets was introduced. The focus of this paper is the multicriteria decision-making (MCDM) problems in which the criteria are in different priority levels and the criteria values take the form of hesitant fuzzy linguistic numbers (HFLNs). A new approach to solving these problems is proposed, which is based on the generalized prioritized aggregation operator of HFLNs. Firstly, the new operations and comparison method for HFLNs are provided and some linguistic scale functions are applied. Subsequently, two prioritized aggregation operators and a generalized prioritized aggregation operator of HFLNs are developed and applied to MCDM problems. Finally, an illustrative example is given to illustrate the effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed method, which are then compared to the existing approach.

  20. Generalized in vitro-in vivo relationship (IVIVR) model based on artificial neural networks

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Aleksander Mendyk,1 Pawel Tuszynski,1 Sebastian Polak,2 Renata Jachowicz1 1Department of Pharmaceutical Technology and Biopharmaceutics, 2Department of Social Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Kraków, Poland Background: The aim of this study was to develop a generalized in vitro-in vivo relationship (IVIVR) model based on in vitro dissolution profiles together with quantitative and qualitative composition of dosage formulations as covariates. ...

  1. Evidence-based rural general practice: barriers and solutions in South Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, J; Wilkinson, D; Blue, I A; Dollard, J T

    2002-01-01

    This paper reports on research to ascertain the views of general practitioners (GPs) practising in rural and remote areas of South Australia, on evidence-based medicine (EBM). It follows our previous paper that identified, through a literature search, the key issues in moving towards EBM in general practice in these areas1. The objective of the paper was to identify perceived barriers and potential solutions to evidence-based general practice in rural and remote South Australia. An interview survey was conducted in the year 2000 at 89 of 104 GPs' (86%) surgeries in three rural Divisions of General Practice in South Australia. EBM was viewed positively by 85%, and 94% reported practising EBM. However, barriers to EBM were identified by 84% and four key themes were identified. GP-related barriers identified by 60% included difficulty finding, appraising and applying evidence and lack of time to read, reflect and update practice. Patient related barriers (23%) included an apparent conflict between some patients' expectations and evidence. Environmental barriers (43%) related to remoteness included high workload, limited information and poor resources for continued medical education. Resource related barriers included a lack of computer hardware and software and slow, unreliable and expensive Internet access (14%). Potential solutions were suggested by 82%. The most frequent was improved hardware, software and Internet access (41%). Only 19% suggested formal training for GPs, while 26% suggested improved clinical practice guidelines and 23% suggested non-Internet based dissemination of information including a service to provide evidence-based answers to clinical problems. EBM was viewed positively by the surveyed GPs and many believed they already practised it. Most identified barriers to full and effective use of EBM but also suggested solutions.

  2. A General SDN-Based IoT Framework with NVF Implementation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jie Li; Eitan Altman; Corinne Touati

    2015-01-01

    The emerging technologies of Internet of Things (IoT), soft⁃ware defined networking (SDN), and network function virtual⁃ization (NFV) have great potential for the information service innovation in the cloud and big data era. The architecture models of IoT, SDN with NFV implementation are studied in this paper. A general SDN⁃based IoT framework with NFV implantation is presented. This framework takes advantages of SDN and NFV and improves IoT architecture.

  3. The Nonsubsampled Contourlet Transform Based Statistical Medical Image Fusion Using Generalized Gaussian Density

    OpenAIRE

    Guocheng Yang; Meiling Li; Leiting Chen; Jie Yu

    2015-01-01

    We propose a novel medical image fusion scheme based on the statistical dependencies between coefficients in the nonsubsampled contourlet transform (NSCT) domain, in which the probability density function of the NSCT coefficients is concisely fitted using generalized Gaussian density (GGD), as well as the similarity measurement of two subbands is accurately computed by Jensen-Shannon divergence of two GGDs. To preserve more useful information from source images, the new fusion rules are devel...

  4. An Entropy-Based Approach to Path Analysis of Structural Generalized Linear Models: A Basic Idea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuoki Eshima

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A path analysis method for causal systems based on generalized linear models is proposed by using entropy. A practical example is introduced, and a brief explanation of the entropy coefficient of determination is given. Direct and indirect effects of explanatory variables are discussed as log odds ratios, i.e., relative information, and a method for summarizing the effects is proposed. The example dataset is re-analyzed by using the method.

  5. A Matrix Method Based on the Fibonacci Polynomials to the Generalized Pantograph Equations with Functional Arguments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşe Betül Koç

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A pseudospectral method based on the Fibonacci operational matrix is proposed to solve generalized pantograph equations with linear functional arguments. By using this method, approximate solutions of the problems are easily obtained in form of the truncated Fibonacci series. Some illustrative examples are given to verify the efficiency and effectiveness of the proposed method. Then, the numerical results are compared with other methods.

  6. Generalized Synchronization of Different Chaotic Systems Based on Nonnegative Off-Diagonal Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Guo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The generalized synchronization problem is studied in this paper for different chaotic systems with the aid of the direct design method. Based on Lyapunov stability theory and matrix theory, some sufficient conditions guaranteeing the stability of a nonlinear system with nonnegative off-diagonal structure are obtained. Then the control scheme is designed from the stable system by the direct design method. Finally, two numerical simulations are provided to verify the effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed method.

  7. Does an activity based remuneration system attract young doctors to general practice?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abelsen Birgit

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of increasingly complex payment schemes in primary care may represent a barrier to recruiting general practitioners (GP. The existing Norwegian remuneration system is fully activity based - 2/3 fee-for-service and 1/3 capitation. Given that the system has been designed and revised in close collaborations with the medical association, it is likely to correspond - at least to some degree - with the preferences of current GPs (men in majority. The objective of this paper was to study which preferences that young doctors (women in majority, who are the potential entrants to general practice have for activity based vs. salary based payment systems. Methods In November-December 2010 all last year medical students and all interns in Norway (n = 1.562 were invited to participate in an online survey. The respondents were asked their opinion on systems of remuneration for GPs; inclination to work as a GP; risk attitude; income preferences; work pace tolerance. The data was analysed using one-way ANOVA and multinomial logistic regression analysis. Results A total of 831 (53% responded. Nearly half the sample (47% did not consider the remuneration system to be important for their inclination to work as GP; 36% considered the current system to make general practice more attractive, while 17% considered it to make general practice less attractive. Those who are attracted by the existing system were men and those who think high income is important, while those who are deterred by the system are risk averse and less happy with a high work pace. On the question of preferred remuneration system, half the sample preferred a mix of salary and activity based remuneration (the median respondent would prefer a 50/50 mix. Only 20% preferred a fully activity based system like the existing one. A salary system was preferred by women, and those less concerned with high income, while a fully activity based system was preferred by men, and those

  8. Patient participation in general practice based undergraduate teaching: a focus group study of patient perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sophie E; Allfrey, Caroline; Jones, Melvyn M; Chana, Jasprit; Abbott, Ciara; Faircloth, Sofia; Higgins, Nicola; Abdullah, Laila

    2017-04-01

    Patients make a crucial contribution to undergraduate medical education. Although a national resource is available for patients participating in research, none is as yet available for education. This study aimed to explore what information patients would like about participation in general practice based undergraduate medical education, and how they would like to obtain this information. Two focus groups were conducted in London-based practices involved in both undergraduate and postgraduate teaching. Patients both with and without teaching experience were recruited using leaflets, posters, and patient participation groups. An open-ended topic guide explored three areas: perceived barriers that participants anticipated or had experienced; patient roles in medical education; and what help would support participation. Focus groups were audiorecorded, transcribed, and analysed thematically. Patients suggested ways of professionalising the teaching process. These were: making information available to patients about confidentiality, iterative consent, and normalising teaching in the practice. Patients highlighted the importance of relationships, making information available about their GPs' involvement in teaching, and initiating student-patient interactions. Participants emphasised educational principles to maximise exchange of information, including active participation of students, patient identification of student learner needs, and exchange of feedback. This study will inform development of patient information resources to support their participation in teaching and access to information both before and during general practice based teaching encounters. © British Journal of General Practice 2017.

  9. The Effectiveness of Abstinence-Based/Faith-Based Addiction Quitting Courses on General and Coping Self-Efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosin Nazari, Sh

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: One of the influential elements in the life of an individual is his or her level of self efficacy. This research aimed to study the effectiveness of abstinence-based/faith-based addiction quitting courses on general and coping self efficacy of the people who want to quit opium addiction through these courses in Tehran city. Method: In semi experimental research design 80 people who referred to abstinence-based/faith-based addiction quitting courses were selected by census method. General self efficacy questionnaire of Jerusalem and Schwartzer (1981 and coping self-efficacy questionnaire of Chesney (2006 administered among selected sample before and after treatment. Results: The results of paired t-test indicated that abstinence-based/faith-based addiction quitting courses have a significant influence on the skills of impeding negative thoughts and excitements and gaining friends’ and colleagues’ support. Conclusion: The findings of this research concur with the findings of similar researches, and indicated with appropriate strategies of training self-efficacy beliefs can be improved and boosted.

  10. General framework for dynamic large deformation contact problems based on phantom-node X-FEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broumand, P.; Khoei, A. R.

    2017-08-01

    This paper presents a general framework for modeling dynamic large deformation contact-impact problems based on the phantom-node extended finite element method. The large sliding penalty contact formulation is presented based on a master-slave approach which is implemented within the phantom-node X-FEM and an explicit central difference scheme is used to model the inertial effects. The method is compared with conventional contact X-FEM; advantages, limitations and implementational aspects are also addressed. Several numerical examples are presented to show the robustness and accuracy of the proposed method.

  11. A projection-based approach to general-form Tikhonov regularization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kilmer, Misha E.; Hansen, Per Christian; Espanol, Malena I.

    2007-01-01

    We present a projection-based iterative algorithm for computing general-form Tikhonov regularized solutions to the problem minx| Ax-b |2^2+lambda2| Lx |2^2, where the regularization matrix L is not the identity. Our algorithm is designed for the common case where lambda is not known a priori....... It is based on a joint bidiagonalization algorithm and is appropriate for large-scale problems when it is computationally infeasible to transform the regularized problem to standard form. By considering the projected problem, we show how estimates of the corresponding optimal regularization parameter can...

  12. Advanced ground-based gravitational-wave detectors' potential to detect generic deviations from general relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Narikawa, Tatsuya

    2016-01-01

    We discuss the potential of the advanced ground-based gravitational-wave detectors, such as LIGO, Virgo, and KAGRA, to detect generic deviations of gravitational waveforms from the prediction of General Relativity. We use the parameterized post-Einsteinian formalism to characterize the deviations, and assess how much magnitude of the deviations are detectable by using an approximate decision scheme based on Bayesian statistics. We find that there exist detectable regions of the parameterized post-Einsteinian parameters by using a single gravitational wave event. The regions are not excluded by currently existing binary pulsar observations for the parameterized post-Einsteinian parameters at higher post-Newtonian order.

  13. Frequency standards based on ultracold atoms in tests of general relativity, navigation and gravimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khabarova, K. Yu.; Kudeyarov, K. S.; Kolachevsky, N. N.

    2017-06-01

    Research and development in the field of optical clocks based on ultracold atoms and ions have enabled the relative uncertainty in frequency to be reduced down to a few parts in 1018. The use of novel, precise frequency comparison methods opens up new possibilities for basic research (sensitive tests of general relativity, a search for a drift of fundamental constants and a search for ‘dark matter’) as well as for state-of-the-art navigation and gravimetry. We discuss the key methods that are used in creating precision clocks (including transportable clocks) based on ultracold atoms and ions and the feasibility of using them in resolving current relativistic gravimetry issues.

  14. A general framework to learn surrogate relevance criterion for atlas based image segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Tingting; Ruan, Dan

    2016-09-01

    Multi-atlas based image segmentation sees great opportunities in the big data era but also faces unprecedented challenges in identifying positive contributors from extensive heterogeneous data. To assess data relevance, image similarity criteria based on various image features widely serve as surrogates for the inaccessible geometric agreement criteria. This paper proposes a general framework to learn image based surrogate relevance criteria to better mimic the behaviors of segmentation based oracle geometric relevance. The validity of its general rationale is verified in the specific context of fusion set selection for image segmentation. More specifically, we first present a unified formulation for surrogate relevance criteria and model the neighborhood relationship among atlases based on the oracle relevance knowledge. Surrogates are then trained to be small for geometrically relevant neighbors and large for irrelevant remotes to the given targets. The proposed surrogate learning framework is verified in corpus callosum segmentation. The learned surrogates demonstrate superiority in inferring the underlying oracle value and selecting relevant fusion set, compared to benchmark surrogates.

  15. A general framework to learn surrogate relevance criterion for atlas based image segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Tingting; Ruan, Dan

    2016-09-07

    Multi-atlas based image segmentation sees great opportunities in the big data era but also faces unprecedented challenges in identifying positive contributors from extensive heterogeneous data. To assess data relevance, image similarity criteria based on various image features widely serve as surrogates for the inaccessible geometric agreement criteria. This paper proposes a general framework to learn image based surrogate relevance criteria to better mimic the behaviors of segmentation based oracle geometric relevance. The validity of its general rationale is verified in the specific context of fusion set selection for image segmentation. More specifically, we first present a unified formulation for surrogate relevance criteria and model the neighborhood relationship among atlases based on the oracle relevance knowledge. Surrogates are then trained to be small for geometrically relevant neighbors and large for irrelevant remotes to the given targets. The proposed surrogate learning framework is verified in corpus callosum segmentation. The learned surrogates demonstrate superiority in inferring the underlying oracle value and selecting relevant fusion set, compared to benchmark surrogates.

  16. A Design of Generalized Predictive Control Systems Using a Memory-Based System Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takao, Kenji; Yamamoto, Toru; Hinamoto, Takao

    In this paper, a new system identification scheme is proposed based on a memory-based modeling (MBM) method. According to the MBM method, some local models are automatically generated using input/output data pairs of the controlled object stored in the data-base. Especially, it is well known that the MBM method works suitably on nonlinear systems. Therefore, even if the nonlinearities are contained in the controlled object, accuracy identification can be performed by the proposed method. Moreover, since the parameter estimates are easily applied to many existing controllers, the good control result can be obtained for nonlinear systems. In this paper, the generalized predictive control (GPC) is used as the one of existing controllers, because the GPC is designed based on multi-step prediction, and is effective for systems with large, ambiguous and/or time-variant time-delays. Finally, the effectiveness of the newly proposed control scheme is numerically evaluated on some simulation examples.

  17. Quantitative generalized ratiometric fluorescence spectroscopy for turbid media based on probe encapsulated by biologically localized embedding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Xiu-Fang; Chen, Zeng-Ping, E-mail: zpchen2002@hotmail.com; Cui, Yin-Yin; Hu, Yuan-Liang; Yu, Ru-Qin

    2016-05-19

    PEBBLE (probe encapsulated by biologically localized embedding) nanosensor encapsulating an intensity-based fluorescence indicator and an inert reference fluorescence dye inside the pores of stable matrix can be used as a generalized wavelength-ratiometric probe. However, the lack of an efficient quantitative model render the choices of inert reference dyes and intensity-based fluorescence indicators used in PEBBLEs based generalized wavelength-ratiometric probes rather limited. In this contribution, an extended quantitative fluorescence model was derived specifically for generalized wavelength-ratiometric probes based on PEBBLE technique (QFM{sub GRP}) with a view to simplify the design of PEBBLEs and hence further extend their application potentials. The effectiveness of QFM{sub GRP} has been tested on the quantitative determination of free Ca{sup 2+} in both simulated and real turbid media using a Ca{sup 2+} sensitive PEBBLE nanosensor encapsulating Rhod-2 and eosin B inside the micropores of stable polyacrylamide matrix. Experimental results demonstrated that QFM{sub GRP} could realize precise and accurate quantification of free Ca{sup 2+} in turbid samples, even though there is serious overlapping between the fluorescence excitation peaks of eosin B and Ca{sup 2+} bound Rhod-2. The average relative predictive error value of QFM{sub GRP} for the test simulated turbid samples was 5.9%, about 2–4 times lower than the corresponding values of partial least squares calibration model and the empirical ratiometric model based on the ratio of fluorescence intensities at the excitation peaks of Ca{sup 2+} bound Rhod-2 and eosin B. The recovery rates of QFM{sub GRP} for the real and spiked turbid samples varied from 93.1% to 101%, comparable to the corresponding results of atomic absorption spectrometry. - Highlights: • An advanced model was derived for generalized wavelength-ratiometric PEBBLEs. • The model can simplify the design of generalized wavelength

  18. On the Generalization of the Timoshenko Beam Model Based on the Micropolar Linear Theory: Static Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Nobili

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Three generalizations of the Timoshenko beam model according to the linear theory of micropolar elasticity or its special cases, that is, the couple stress theory or the modified couple stress theory, recently developed in the literature, are investigated and compared. The analysis is carried out in a variational setting, making use of Hamilton’s principle. It is shown that both the Timoshenko and the (possibly modified couple stress models are based on a microstructural kinematics which is governed by kinosthenic (ignorable terms in the Lagrangian. Despite their difference, all models bring in a beam-plane theory only one microstructural material parameter. Besides, the micropolar model formally reduces to the couple stress model upon introducing the proper constraint on the microstructure kinematics, although the material parameter is generally different. Line loading on the microstructure results in a nonconservative force potential. Finally, the Hamiltonian form of the micropolar beam model is derived and the canonical equations are presented along with their general solution. The latter exhibits a general oscillatory pattern for the microstructure rotation and stress, whose behavior matches the numerical findings.

  19. SIMULATION AND PREDICTION OF THE PROCESS BASED ON THE GENERAL LOGISTIC MAPPING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Skalozub

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The aim of the research is to build a model of the generalzed logistic mapping and assessment of the possibilities of its use for the formation of the mathematical description, as well as operational forecasts of parameters of complex dynamic processes described by the time series. Methodology. The research results are obtained on the basis of mathematical modeling and simulation of nonlinear systems using the tools of chaotic dynamics. Findings. A model of the generalized logistic mapping, which is used to interpret the characteristics of dynamic processes was proposed. We consider some examples of representations of processes based on enhanced logistic mapping varying the values of model parameters. The procedures of modeling and interpretation of the data on the investigated processes, represented by the time series, as well as the operational forecasting of parameters using the generalized model of logistic mapping were proposed. Originality. The paper proposes an improved mathematical model, generalized logistic mapping, designed for the study of nonlinear discrete dynamic processes. Practical value. The carried out research using the generalized logistic mapping of railway transport processes, in particular, according to assessment of the parameters of traffic volumes, indicate the great potential of its application in practice for solving problems of analysis, modeling and forecasting complex nonlinear discrete dynamical processes. The proposed model can be used, taking into account the conditions of uncertainty, irregularity, the manifestations of the chaotic nature of the technical, economic and other processes, including the railway ones.

  20. Generalized drought assessment in Dongliao river basin based on water resources system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, B. S.; Yan, D. H.; Wang, H.; Qin, T. L.; Yin, J.

    2014-11-01

    Drought is firstly a resource issue, and with its development it transforms into a disaster issue. The occurrences of drought events usually feature determinacy and randomness. Drought issue has become one of the major factors to affect sustainable economic and social development. In this paper, we propose the generalized drought assessment index (GDAI) based on water resources system for assessing drought events. The GDAI considers water supply and water demand using a distributed hydrological model. We demonstrate the use of the proposed index in the Dongliao river basin (DRB) in the northeast China. The results simulated by the GDAI are then compared to observed drought disaster records in DRB. As second, the temporal distribution of drought events and the spatial distribution of drought frequency from the GDAI are compared with the traditional approach (i.e. the SPI, the PDSI, and the RWD). Then, generalized drought times (GDT), generalized drought duration (GDD), and generalized drought severity (GDS) were calculated by theory of runs. Application of the GDT, the GDD, and the GDS of various drought levels (i.e. mild drought, moderate drought, severe drought, and extreme drought) to the period 1960-2010 shows that the centers of gravity of them are all distributed in the middle reached of DRB, and change with time. The proposed methodology helps water managers in water-stressed regions to quantify the impact of drought, consequently, to make decisions regarding coping with drought issue.

  1. Generalized drought assessment in Dongliao river basin based on water resources system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. S. Weng

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Drought is firstly a resource issue, and with its development it transforms into a disaster issue. The occurrences of drought events usually feature determinacy and randomness. Drought issue has become one of the major factors to affect sustainable economic and social development. In this paper, we propose the generalized drought assessment index (GDAI based on water resources system for assessing drought events. The GDAI considers water supply and water demand using a distributed hydrological model. We demonstrate the use of the proposed index in the Dongliao river basin (DRB in the northeast China. The results simulated by the GDAI are then compared to observed drought disaster records in DRB. As second, the temporal distribution of drought events and the spatial distribution of drought frequency from the GDAI are compared with the traditional approach (i.e. the SPI, the PDSI, and the RWD. Then, generalized drought times (GDT, generalized drought duration (GDD, and generalized drought severity (GDS were calculated by theory of runs. Application of the GDT, the GDD, and the GDS of various drought levels (i.e. mild drought, moderate drought, severe drought, and extreme drought to the period 1960–2010 shows that the centers of gravity of them are all distributed in the middle reached of DRB, and change with time. The proposed methodology helps water managers in water-stressed regions to quantify the impact of drought, consequently, to make decisions regarding coping with drought issue.

  2. A generalized accelerated proximal gradient approach for total-variation-based image restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Wangmeng; Lin, Zhouchen

    2011-10-01

    This paper proposes a generalized accelerated proximal gradient (GAPG) approach for solving total variation (TV)-based image restoration problems. The GAPG algorithm generalizes the original APG algorithm by replacing the Lipschitz constant with an appropriate positive-definite matrix, resulting in faster convergence. For TV-based image restoration problems, we further introduce two auxiliary variables that approximate the partial derivatives. Constraints on the variables can easily be imposed without modifying the algorithm much, and the TV regularization can be either isotropic or anisotropic. As compared with the recently developed APG-based methods for TV-based image restoration, i.e., monotone version of the two-step iterative shrinkage/thresholding algorithm (MTwIST) and monotone version of the fast IST algorithm (MFISTA), our GAPG is much simpler as it does not require to solve an image denoising subproblem. Moreover, the convergence rate of O(k(-2)) is maintained by our GAPG, where k is the number of iterations; the cost of each iteration in GAPG is also lower. As a result, in our experiments, our GAPG approach can be much faster than MTwIST and MFISTA. The experiments also verify that our GAPG converges faster than the original APG and MTwIST when they solve identical problems.

  3. A general co-expression network-based approach to gene expression analysis: comparison and applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Weixiong

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Co-expression network-based approaches have become popular in analyzing microarray data, such as for detecting functional gene modules. However, co-expression networks are often constructed by ad hoc methods, and network-based analyses have not been shown to outperform the conventional cluster analyses, partially due to the lack of an unbiased evaluation metric. Results Here, we develop a general co-expression network-based approach for analyzing both genes and samples in microarray data. Our approach consists of a simple but robust rank-based network construction method, a parameter-free module discovery algorithm and a novel reference network-based metric for module evaluation. We report some interesting topological properties of rank-based co-expression networks that are very different from that of value-based networks in the literature. Using a large set of synthetic and real microarray data, we demonstrate the superior performance of our approach over several popular existing algorithms. Applications of our approach to yeast, Arabidopsis and human cancer microarray data reveal many interesting modules, including a fatal subtype of lymphoma and a gene module regulating yeast telomere integrity, which were missed by the existing methods. Conclusions We demonstrated that our novel approach is very effective in discovering the modular structures in microarray data, both for genes and for samples. As the method is essentially parameter-free, it may be applied to large data sets where the number of clusters is difficult to estimate. The method is also very general and can be applied to other types of data. A MATLAB implementation of our algorithm can be downloaded from http://cs.utsa.edu/~jruan/Software.html.

  4. Is the Generally Held View That Intravenous Dihydroergotamine Is Effective in Migraine Based on Wrong "General Consensus" of One Trial?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekan, Goran; Tfelt-Hansen, Peer

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The claim that parenteral dihydroergotamine (DHE) is effective in migraine is based on one randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover trial from 1986. The aim of this review was to critically evaluate the original article. It was also found to be of interest to review quotes concerning...

  5. Fuzzy Time Series Forecasting Model Based on Automatic Clustering Techniques and Generalized Fuzzy Logical Relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wangren Qiu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In view of techniques for constructing high-order fuzzy time series models, there are three types which are based on advanced algorithms, computational method, and grouping the fuzzy logical relationships. The last type of models is easy to be understood by the decision maker who does not know anything about fuzzy set theory or advanced algorithms. To deal with forecasting problems, this paper presented novel high-order fuzz time series models denoted as GTS (M, N based on generalized fuzzy logical relationships and automatic clustering. This paper issued the concept of generalized fuzzy logical relationship and an operation for combining the generalized relationships. Then, the procedure of the proposed model was implemented on forecasting enrollment data at the University of Alabama. To show the considerable outperforming results, the proposed approach was also applied to forecasting the Shanghai Stock Exchange Composite Index. Finally, the effects of parameters M and N, the number of order, and concerned principal fuzzy logical relationships, on the forecasting results were also discussed.

  6. Generalized poroviscoelastic model based on effective Biot theory and its application to borehole guided wave analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xu; Greenhalgh, Stewart; Zhou, Bing; Heinson, Graham

    2016-12-01

    A method using modified attenuation factor function is suggested to determine the parameters of the generalized Zener model approximating the attenuation factor function. This method is applied to constitute the poroviscoelastic model based on the effective Biot theory which considers the attenuative solid frame of reservoir. In the poroviscoelastic model, frequency-dependent bulk modulus and shear modulus of solid frame are represented by generalized Zener models. As an application, the borehole logging dispersion equations from Biot theory are extended to include effects from the intrinsic body attenuation in formation media in full-frequency range. The velocity dispersions of borehole guided waves are calculated to investigate the influence from attenuative bore fluid, attenuative solid frame of the formation and impermeable bore wall.

  7. Model based generalization analysis of common spatial pattern in brain computer interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guangquan; Meng, Jianjun; Zhang, Dingguo; Zhu, Xiangyang

    2010-01-01

    In the motor imagery based Brain Computer Interface (BCI) research, Common Spatial Pattern (CSP) algorithm is used widely as a spatial filter on multi-channel electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings. Recently the overfitting effect of CSP has been gradually noticed, but what influence the overfitting is still unclear. In this work, the generalization of CSP is investigated by a simple linear mixing model. Several factors in this model are discussed, and the simulation results indicate that channel numbers and the correlation between signals influence the generalization of CSP significantly. A larger number of training trials and a longer time length of the trial would prevent overfitting. The experiments on real data also verify our conclusion. PMID:21886674

  8. Rolling Element Bearing Fault Diagnosis Based on Multiscale General Fractal Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weigang Wen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonlinear characteristics are ubiquitous in the vibration signals produced by rolling element bearings. Fractal dimensions are effective tools to illustrate nonlinearity. This paper proposes a new approach based on Multiscale General Fractal Dimensions (MGFDs to realize fault diagnosis of rolling element bearings, which are robust to the effects of variation in operating conditions. The vibration signals of bearing are analyzed to extract the general fractal dimensions in multiscales, which are in turn utilized to construct a feature space to identify fault pattern. Finally, bearing faults are revealed by pattern recognition. Case studies are carried out to evaluate the validity and accuracy of the approach. It is verified that this approach is effective for fault diagnosis of rolling element bearings under various operating conditions via experiment and data analysis.

  9. Mathematical definition of general systems based on semiotics and set theory (part of statics)

    CERN Document Server

    Zou, D D

    2009-01-01

    According to the relation between objects and time, our category of general systems theory was divided into three parts: statics, kinematics, and dynamics. In this part, beginning with clarifying fundamental in epistemology and semiotics, we gave the connections of measurements, partitions and functions. And conforming to customs, we defined the terms of quantity and value by our understanding of functions. Then the concept of relation quantity was coined to describe the relationship like distance and force. Farther more, we discussed correspondences established between two quantities, and the definitions and theorems of complete set based on it. Finally, we present the structure which can afford the obligation of general system, and also the definitions of subsystem and isomorphism.

  10. A Modified Model of Failure Mode and Effects Analysis Based on Generalized Evidence Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deyun Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the incomplete knowledge, how to handle the uncertain risk factors in failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA is still an open issue. This paper proposes a new generalized evidential FMEA (GEFMEA model to handle the uncertain risk factor, which may not be included in the conventional FMEA model. In GEFMEA, not only the conventional risk factors, the occurrence, severity, and detectability of the failure mode, but also the other incomplete risk factors are taken into consideration. In addition, the relative importance among all these risk factors is well addressed in the proposed method. GEFMEA is based on the generalized evidence theory, which is efficient in handling incomplete information in the open world. The efficiency and some merit of the proposed method are verified by the numerical example and a real case study on aircraft turbine rotor blades.

  11. A wearable respiratory biofeedback system based on generalized body sensor network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guan-Zheng; Huang, Bang-Yu; Wang, Lei

    2011-06-01

    Wearable medical devices have enabled unobtrusive monitoring of vital signs and emerging biofeedback services in a pervasive manner. This article describes a wearable respiratory biofeedback system based on a generalized body sensor network (BSN) platform. The compact BSN platform was tailored for the strong requirements of overall system optimizations. A waist-worn biofeedback device was designed using the BSN. Extensive bench tests have shown that the generalized BSN worked as intended. In-situ experiments with 22 subjects indicated that the biofeedback device was discreet, easy to wear, and capable of offering wearable respiratory trainings. Pilot studies on wearable training patterns and resultant heart rate variability suggested that paced respirations at abdominal level and with identical inhaling/exhaling ratio were more appropriate for decreasing sympathetic arousal and increasing parasympathetic activities.

  12. Protein Conformational Change Based on a Two-dimensional Generalized Langevin Equation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying-xi Wang; Shuang-mu Linguang; Nan-rong Zhao; Yi-jing Yan

    2011-01-01

    A two-dimensional generalized Langevin equation is proposed to describe the protein conformational change,compatible to the electron transfer process governed by atomic packing density model.We assume a fractional Gaussian noise and a white noise through bond and through space coordinates respectively,and introduce the coupling effect coming from both fluctuations and equilibrium variances.The general expressions for autocorrelation functions of distance fluctuation and fluorescence lifetime variation are derived,based on which the exact conformational change dynamics can be evaluated with the aid of numerical Laplace inversion technique.We explicitly elaborate the short time and long time approximations.The relationship between the two-dimensional description and the one-dimensional theory is also discussed.

  13. Multichannel Speech Enhancement Based on Generalized Gamma Prior Distribution with Its Online Adaptive Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dat, Tran Huy; Takeda, Kazuya; Itakura, Fumitada

    We present a multichannel speech enhancement method based on MAP speech spectral magnitude estimation using a generalized gamma model of speech prior distribution, where the model parameters are adapted from actual noisy speech in a frame-by-frame manner. The utilization of a more general prior distribution with its online adaptive estimation is shown to be effective for speech spectral estimation in noisy environments. Furthermore, the multi-channel information in terms of cross-channel statistics are shown to be useful to better adapt the prior distribution parameters to the actual observation, resulting in better performance of speech enhancement algorithm. We tested the proposed algorithm in an in-car speech database and obtained significant improvements of the speech recognition performance, particularly under non-stationary noise conditions such as music, air-conditioner and open window.

  14. A Wearable Respiratory Biofeedback System Based on Generalized Body Sensor Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guan-Zheng; Huang, Bang-Yu

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Wearable medical devices have enabled unobtrusive monitoring of vital signs and emerging biofeedback services in a pervasive manner. This article describes a wearable respiratory biofeedback system based on a generalized body sensor network (BSN) platform. The compact BSN platform was tailored for the strong requirements of overall system optimizations. A waist-worn biofeedback device was designed using the BSN. Extensive bench tests have shown that the generalized BSN worked as intended. In-situ experiments with 22 subjects indicated that the biofeedback device was discreet, easy to wear, and capable of offering wearable respiratory trainings. Pilot studies on wearable training patterns and resultant heart rate variability suggested that paced respirations at abdominal level and with identical inhaling/exhaling ratio were more appropriate for decreasing sympathetic arousal and increasing parasympathetic activities. PMID:21545293

  15. Bottleneck Analysis of the Minimum Coat Problem for the Generalized Network Based on Augmented Forest Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江永亨; 王军; 等

    2003-01-01

    The bottleneck analysis of the minimum coat problem for the generalized netwok(MCPGN) is discussed.The analysis is based on the network simplex algorithm,which gains negative cost graphs by constructing augmented forest structure,then augments flows on the negative cost graphs until the optimal revolution is gained Bottleneck structure is presented after analyzing the augmented forest structure.The negative cost augmented graphs are constructed with the bottleneck structure.The arcs that block the negative cost augmented graph are the elements of the bottleneck.The bottleneck analysis for the generalized circulation problem,the minimum circulation problem and the circulation problem are discussed respectively as the basal problems,then that for MCPGN is achieved.An example is presented at the end.

  16. The quantum general linear supergroup,canonical bases and Kazhdan-Lusztig polynomials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG HeChun

    2009-01-01

    Canonical bases of the tensor powers of the natural Uq(glm|n)-module V are constructed by adapting the work of Frenkel,Khovanov and Kirrilov to the quantum supergroup setting.This result is generalized in several directions.We first construct the canonical bases of the Z2-graded symmetric algebra of V and tensor powers of this superalgebra;then construct canonical bases for the superalgebra Oq(Mm|n) of a quantum (m,n) x (m,n)-supermatrix;and finally deduce from the latter result the canonical basis of every irreducible tensor module for Uq(glm|n) by applying a quantum analogue of the Borel-Weil construction.

  17. The Nonsubsampled Contourlet Transform Based Statistical Medical Image Fusion Using Generalized Gaussian Density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guocheng; Li, Meiling; Chen, Leiting; Yu, Jie

    2015-01-01

    We propose a novel medical image fusion scheme based on the statistical dependencies between coefficients in the nonsubsampled contourlet transform (NSCT) domain, in which the probability density function of the NSCT coefficients is concisely fitted using generalized Gaussian density (GGD), as well as the similarity measurement of two subbands is accurately computed by Jensen-Shannon divergence of two GGDs. To preserve more useful information from source images, the new fusion rules are developed to combine the subbands with the varied frequencies. That is, the low frequency subbands are fused by utilizing two activity measures based on the regional standard deviation and Shannon entropy and the high frequency subbands are merged together via weight maps which are determined by the saliency values of pixels. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method significantly outperforms the conventional NSCT based medical image fusion approaches in both visual perception and evaluation indices.

  18. The Nonsubsampled Contourlet Transform Based Statistical Medical Image Fusion Using Generalized Gaussian Density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guocheng Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a novel medical image fusion scheme based on the statistical dependencies between coefficients in the nonsubsampled contourlet transform (NSCT domain, in which the probability density function of the NSCT coefficients is concisely fitted using generalized Gaussian density (GGD, as well as the similarity measurement of two subbands is accurately computed by Jensen-Shannon divergence of two GGDs. To preserve more useful information from source images, the new fusion rules are developed to combine the subbands with the varied frequencies. That is, the low frequency subbands are fused by utilizing two activity measures based on the regional standard deviation and Shannon entropy and the high frequency subbands are merged together via weight maps which are determined by the saliency values of pixels. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method significantly outperforms the conventional NSCT based medical image fusion approaches in both visual perception and evaluation indices.

  19. Optimal dynamical systems of Navier-Stokes equations based on generalized helical-wave bases and the fundamental elements of turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, NaiFu; Guan, Hui; Wu, ChuiJie

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, we present the theory of constructing optimal generalized helical-wave coupling dynamical systems. Applying the helical-wave decomposition method to Navier-Stokes equations, we derive a pair of coupling dynamical systems based on optimal generalized helical-wave bases. Then with the method of multi-scale global optimization based on coarse graining analysis, a set of global optimal generalized helical-wave bases is obtained. Optimal generalized helical-wave bases retain the good properties of classical helical-wave bases. Moreover, they are optimal for the dynamical systems of Navier-Stokes equations, and suitable for complex physical and geometric boundary conditions. Then we find that the optimal generalized helical-wave vortexes fitted by a finite number of optimal generalized helical-wave bases can be used as the fundamental elements of turbulence, and have important significance for studying physical properties of complex flows and turbulent vortex structures in a deeper level.

  20. A measurement-based generalized source model for Monte Carlo dose simulations of CT scans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, Xin; Feng, Yuanming; Liu, Ransheng; Yang, Chengwen; Zhou, Li; Zhai, Hezheng; Deng, Jun

    2017-03-01

    The goal of this study is to develop a generalized source model for accurate Monte Carlo dose simulations of CT scans based solely on the measurement data without a priori knowledge of scanner specifications. The proposed generalized source model consists of an extended circular source located at x-ray target level with its energy spectrum, source distribution and fluence distribution derived from a set of measurement data conveniently available in the clinic. Specifically, the central axis percent depth dose (PDD) curves measured in water and the cone output factors measured in air were used to derive the energy spectrum and the source distribution respectively with a Levenberg–Marquardt algorithm. The in-air film measurement of fan-beam dose profiles at fixed gantry was back-projected to generate the fluence distribution of the source model. A benchmarked Monte Carlo user code was used to simulate the dose distributions in water with the developed source model as beam input. The feasibility and accuracy of the proposed source model was tested on a GE LightSpeed and a Philips Brilliance Big Bore multi-detector CT (MDCT) scanners available in our clinic. In general, the Monte Carlo simulations of the PDDs in water and dose profiles along lateral and longitudinal directions agreed with the measurements within 4%/1 mm for both CT scanners. The absolute dose comparison using two CTDI phantoms (16 cm and 32 cm in diameters) indicated a better than 5% agreement between the Monte Carlo-simulated and the ion chamber-measured doses at a variety of locations for the two scanners. Overall, this study demonstrated that a generalized source model can be constructed based only on a set of measurement data and used for accurate Monte Carlo dose simulations of patients’ CT scans, which would facilitate patient-specific CT organ dose estimation and cancer risk management in the diagnostic and therapeutic radiology.

  1. Predicting microRNA precursors with a generalized Gaussian components based density estimation algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Chi-Yeh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs are short non-coding RNA molecules, which play an important role in post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression. There have been many efforts to discover miRNA precursors (pre-miRNAs over the years. Recently, ab initio approaches have attracted more attention because they do not depend on homology information and provide broader applications than comparative approaches. Kernel based classifiers such as support vector machine (SVM are extensively adopted in these ab initio approaches due to the prediction performance they achieved. On the other hand, logic based classifiers such as decision tree, of which the constructed model is interpretable, have attracted less attention. Results This article reports the design of a predictor of pre-miRNAs with a novel kernel based classifier named the generalized Gaussian density estimator (G2DE based classifier. The G2DE is a kernel based algorithm designed to provide interpretability by utilizing a few but representative kernels for constructing the classification model. The performance of the proposed predictor has been evaluated with 692 human pre-miRNAs and has been compared with two kernel based and two logic based classifiers. The experimental results show that the proposed predictor is capable of achieving prediction performance comparable to those delivered by the prevailing kernel based classification algorithms, while providing the user with an overall picture of the distribution of the data set. Conclusion Software predictors that identify pre-miRNAs in genomic sequences have been exploited by biologists to facilitate molecular biology research in recent years. The G2DE employed in this study can deliver prediction accuracy comparable with the state-of-the-art kernel based machine learning algorithms. Furthermore, biologists can obtain valuable insights about the different characteristics of the sequences of pre-miRNAs with the models generated by the G

  2. Development and assessment of green, research-based instructional materials for the general chemistry laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacciatore, Kristen L.

    This research entails integrating two novel approaches for enriching student learning in chemistry into the context of the general chemistry laboratory. The first is a pedagogical approach based on research in cognitive science and the second is the green chemistry philosophy. Research has shown that inquiry-based approaches are effective in improving student learning outcomes in general chemistry when used comprehensively in the general chemistry laboratory. Little prior research exists about effects on student learning about green chemistry. A novel experimental protocol called Laboratory Report Templates (LRT) was designed, and three LRT experiments and supplemental materials for the general chemistry laboratory were created utilizing the principles of green chemistry and current research findings on student learning. These experiments were successfully field-tested and implemented in university and high school settings. This work represents an important contribution to science curriculum design because the LRT protocol uniquely motivates development of students' scientific communication skills and has wide potential applicability. A study comparing student learning of chemistry content and experimental design skills following completion of one of the LRT experiments or a traditional experiment on identical chemistry content was conducted. Study results indicate that students who completed the LRT experiment learned significantly more content and experimental skills directly related to the content of the experiment than did students who completed the traditional experiment. This study demonstrates that changing one lab in general chemistry curricula from traditional to research-based has a positive effect on student learning. This finding is important because incremental curricular change is a promising alternative to the wholesale curricular change that has been shown to be effective, because an incremental approach minimizes the most common barriers to change

  3. Motor adaptation and generalization of reaching movements using motor primitives based on spatial coordinates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Hirokazu; Sejnowski, Terrence J

    2015-02-15

    The brain processes sensory and motor information in a wide range of coordinate systems, ranging from retinal coordinates in vision to body-centered coordinates in areas that control musculature. Here we focus on the coordinate system used in the motor cortex to guide actions and examine physiological and psychophysical evidence for an allocentric reference frame based on spatial coordinates. When the equations of motion governing reaching dynamics are expressed as spatial vectors, each term is a vector cross product between a limb-segment position and a velocity or acceleration. We extend this computational framework to motor adaptation, in which the cross-product terms form adaptive bases for canceling imposed perturbations. Coefficients of the velocity- and acceleration-dependent cross products are assumed to undergo plastic changes to compensate the force-field or visuomotor perturbations. Consistent with experimental findings, each of the cross products had a distinct reference frame, which predicted how an acquired remapping generalized to untrained location in the workspace. In response to force field or visual rotation, mainly the coefficients of the velocity- or acceleration-dependent cross products adapted, leading to transfer in an intrinsic or extrinsic reference frame, respectively. The model further predicted that remapping of visuomotor rotation should under- or overgeneralize in a distal or proximal workspace. The cross-product bases can explain the distinct patterns of generalization in visuomotor and force-field adaptation in a unified way, showing that kinematic and dynamic motor adaptation need not arise through separate neural substrates.

  4. Reactive power and voltage control based on general quantum genetic algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vlachogiannis, Ioannis (John); Østergaard, Jacob

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an improved evolutionary algorithm based on quantum computing for optima l steady-state performance of power systems. However, the proposed general quantum genetic algorithm (GQ-GA) can be applied in various combinatorial optimization problems. In this study the GQ-GA determines...... techniques such as enhanced GA, multi-objective evolutionary algorithm and particle swarm optimization algorithms, as well as the classical primal-dual interior-point optimal power flow algorithm. The comparison demonstrates the ability of the GQ-GA in reaching more optimal solutions....

  5. Classic tests of General Relativity described by brane-based spherically symmetric solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuzinatto, R.R. [Universidade Federal de Alfenas, Instituto de Ciencia e Tecnologia, Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil); Pompeia, P.J. [Departamento de Ciencia e Tecnologia Aeroespacial, Instituto de Fomento e Coordenacao Industrial, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Departamento de Ciencia e Tecnologia Aeroespacial, Instituto Tecnologico de Aeronautica, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); De Montigny, M. [University of Alberta, Theoretical Physics Institute, Edmonton, AB (Canada); University of Alberta, Campus Saint-Jean, Edmonton, AB (Canada); Khanna, F.C. [University of Alberta, Theoretical Physics Institute, Edmonton, AB (Canada); TRIUMF, Vancouver, BC (Canada); University of Victoria, Department of Physics and Astronomy, PO box 1700, Victoria, BC (Canada); Silva, J.M.H. da [Universidade Estadual Paulista, Departamento de Fisica e Quimica, Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil)

    2014-08-15

    We discuss a way to obtain information about higher dimensions from observations by studying a brane-based spherically symmetric solution. The three classic tests of General Relativity are analyzed in detail: the perihelion shift of the planet Mercury, the deflection of light by the Sun, and the gravitational redshift of atomic spectral lines. The braneworld version of these tests exhibits an additional parameter b related to the fifth-coordinate. This constant b can be constrained by comparison with observational data for massive and massless particles. (orig.)

  6. Classic tests of General Relativity described by brane-based spherically symmetric solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Cuzinatto, R R; de Montigny, M; Khanna, F C; da Silva, J M Hoff

    2014-01-01

    We discuss a way to obtain information about higher dimensions from observations by studying a brane-based spherically symmetric solution. The three classic tests of General Relativity are analyzed in details: the perihelion shift of the planet Mercury, the deflection of light by the Sun, and the gravitational redshift of atomic spectral lines. The braneworld version of these tests exhibits an additional parameter $b$ related to the fifth-coordinate. This constant $b$ can be constrained by comparison with observational data for massive and massless particles.

  7. General-Service Ballistic Computer Programming Based on B-Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Yu-jun; ZHANG Zi-qiu; WANG Jin-quan; XUE Jin-yun

    2006-01-01

    Formal methods offer the promise of significant improvement on quality and reliability of critical embedded software. B-Method is employed to develop general-service ballistic computer programs in the paper, each of which can be adapted to a family of service/weapon-specific ballistic computers. Based on the structuring mechanisms of B-method, a unified approach is proposed to systematically control the complexity of ballistic parameters in the process of type and operation refinement, and ultimately a series of high reliable, reusable, and scalable programs are produced. Experiences with the application of the method and tools are also discussed.

  8. Atomic-ensemble-based quantum repeater against general polarization and phase noise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Binbin [Department of Electronical Engineering and Computer Science, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37235 (United States); Xu Yaqiong [Department of Electronical Engineering and Computer Science, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37235 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37235 (United States)

    2011-07-15

    We present a quantum repeater architecture based on atomic ensembles, which is free of polarization and phase noise. With only simple optical elements, we can obtain the uncorrupted entanglement in the noisy channel. Even if the channel suffers from the general polarization and phase noise, the fidelity of transmitted qubits in our protocol can be stable and have no dependence on the noise parameter, which is a significant advantage compared with previous protocols. Moveover, we can even improve the fidelity by using time delayers. The proposed quantum repeater is feasible and useful in the long-distance quantum entanglement distribution and may be promising in other quantum-information applications.

  9. General insight into the complementary medium-based camouflage devices from Fourier optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Kedi; Wang, Guo Ping

    2010-07-01

    We present a general insight into complementary medium-based camouflage devices from Fourier optics. The cloaks are simply spatial filters with different transfer functions and play the role of passively remedying or actively modulating the propagation optical field to make an object invisible or changeable. We further analytically show and numerically demonstrate two filters for realizing another invisibility method: optically camouflaging an object at one place to appear at another place with parallel displacement or orientation changeable displacement, respectively. Our analysis is from a completely different point of view and should clarify understanding of the mechanism of invisibility phenomena.

  10. Space Vector Based Generalized Dpwm Algorithms for Vsi Fed Induction Motor Drive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Praveena

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents Space Vector based Generalized DiscontinuousPulse width modulation (GDPWM algorithms for VSI fed Induction motor drive. To avoid the complexity due to angle calculation and sector identification involved in Conventional space vector pulse width modulation (CSVPWM. The Proposed algorithms use the concept of Imaginary Switching times and a constant variable µ and modulation phase angle δ are used to generate modulating waveforms.The proposed algorithms results in reduced current ripple over CSVPWM. To validate the proposed methods, simulation is carried on V/f controlled Induction Motor drive in MATLAB/SIMULINK environment and the results are discussed.

  11. Implementation procedure for the generalized moving Preisach model based on a first order reversal curve diagram

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Yong; ZHU Jie

    2009-01-01

    Ftrst order reversal curves (FORC) of nanoeomposite Nd2Fe14B/Fe3B magnetic materials were measured to attain a FORC diagram, which characterizes reversible magnetization, irreversible magnetization, and magnetic interactions in a hysteresis system. Then, generalized mov-ing Preisach model (GMPM) was implemented based on the FORC diagram. Reversible and irreversible magnetizations shown in FORCs and a FORC diagram were used as an input of GMPM. Coupling interaction between reversible and irreversible magnetizations was added when calculating reversible magnetization. Meanwhile, irreversible magnetic moments' interaction was approximately represented by mean field interaction. The result shows that the simulated main curves mostly coincide with the experimental curves.

  12. Switch Based Opportunistic Spectrum Access for General Primary User Traffic Model

    KAUST Repository

    Gaaloul, Fakhreddine

    2012-06-18

    This letter studies cognitive radio transceiver that can opportunistically use the available channels of primary user (PU). Specifically, we investigate and compare two different opportunistic channel access schemes. The first scheme applies when the secondary user (SU) has access to only one channel. The second scheme, based on channel switching mechanism, applies when the SU has access to multiple channels but can at a given time monitor and access only one channel. For these access schemes, we derive the exact analytical results for the novel performance metrics of average access time and average waiting time under general PU traffic models.

  13. A Chaotic Communication Scheme Based on Generalized Synchronization and Hash Functions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Jiang-Feng; MIN Le-Quan; CHEN Guan-Rong

    2004-01-01

    @@ A new chaotic communication scheme based on generalized chaotic synchronization (GCS) and hash function transpositions is presented. The communication scheme has nonsymmetric secrete keys and its ability is similar to traditional digital signatures, i.e. a receiver can convince himself whether or not the sender's message contents have been modified. As a direct application of the scheme, a GCS system is designed by using Chen's chaotic circuit and is studied in some detail. The numerical simulation shows that this Chen GCS system has high security and is fast and reliable for secure Internet communications.

  14. Approach to Generalized Synchronization with Application to Chaos-Based Secure Communication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MIN Le-Quan; CHEN Guan-Rong; ZHANG Xiao-Dan; ZHANG Xiao-Hua; YANG Miao

    2004-01-01

    A constructive theorem is established for generalized synchronization(GS)related to C1 diffeomorphic transformations of unidirectionally coupled dynamical arrays.The theorem provides some interpretations about the underlying mechanism of various GS phenomena in nature.As a direct application of the theorem,a chaos-based secure Internet communication scheme is proposed.Moreover,a cellular neural network(CNN)of Chen's chaotic circuits with GS property is designed and studied.Numerical simulation shows that this Chen's CNN has high security and is fast and reliable for secure Internet communications.

  15. Modulation Transfer Function of a Gaussian Beam Based on the Generalized Modified Atmospheric Spectrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Gao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the modulation transfer function of a Gaussian beam propagating through a horizontal path in weak-fluctuation non-Kolmogorov turbulence. Mathematical expressions are obtained based on the generalized modified atmospheric spectrum, which includes the spectral power law value of non-Kolmogorov turbulence, the finite inner and outer scales of turbulence, and other optical parameters of the Gaussian beam. The numerical results indicate that the atmospheric turbulence would produce less negative effects on the wireless optical communication system with an increase in the inner scale of turbulence. Additionally, the increased outer scale of turbulence makes a Gaussian beam influenced more seriously by the atmospheric turbulence.

  16. The FPGA realization of the general cellular automata based cryptographic hash functions: Performance and effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. G. Klyucharev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the paper the author considers hardware implementation of the GRACE-H family general cellular automata based cryptographic hash functions. VHDL is used as a language and Altera FPGA as a platform for hardware implementation. Performance and effectiveness of the FPGA implementations of GRACE-H hash functions were compared with Keccak (SHA-3, SHA-256, BLAKE, Groestl, JH, Skein hash functions. According to the performed tests, performance of the hardware implementation of GRACE-H family hash functions significantly (up to 12 times exceeded performance of the hardware implementation of previously known hash functions, and effectiveness of that hardware implementation was also better (up to 4 times.

  17. Reconstruction of complex networks with delays and noise perturbation based on generalized outer synchronization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiang; Chen, Shihua; Lu, Jun-an; Ning, Di

    2016-06-01

    This paper proposes an approach to identify the topological structure and unknown system parameters of a weighted complex dynamical network with delay and noise perturbation. Based on the Barbalat-type invariance principle for stochastic differential equations, an effective adaptive feedback technique with an updated law is developed to realize generalized outer synchronization. The unknown topological structure and parameters are identified simultaneously through the established technique. The weight configuration matrix was found to be unnecessarily symmetric. Numerical examples are examined to illustrate the effectiveness of the analytical results.

  18. The general form of 0-1 programming problem based on DNA computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ZhiXiang, Yin; Fengyue, Zhang; Jin, Xu

    2003-06-01

    DNA computing is a novel method of solving a class of intractable computational problems, in which the computing speeds up exponentially with the problem size. Up to now, many accomplishments have been made to improve its performance and increase its reliability. In this paper, we solved the general form of 0-1 programming problem with fluorescence labeling techniques based on surface chemistry by attempting to apply DNA computing to a programming problem. Our method has some significant advantages such as simple encoding, low cost, and short operating time.

  19. A lattice Boltzmann method based on generalized polynomials and its application for electrons in metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Rodrigo C. V.; Ilha, Anderson S.; Doria, Mauro M.

    2016-10-01

    A lattice Boltzmann method is proposed based on the expansion of the equilibrium distribution function in powers of a new set of generalized orthonormal polynomials which are here presented. The new polynomials are orthonormal under the weight defined by the equilibrium distribution function itself. The D-dimensional Hermite polynomials is a sub-case of the present ones, associated to the particular weight of a Gaussian function. The proposed lattice Boltzmann method allows for the treatment of semi-classical fluids, such as electrons in metals under the Drude-Sommerfeld model, which is a particular case that we develop and validate by the Riemann problem.

  20. On the stability of the dark energy based on generalized uncertainty principle

    CERN Document Server

    Pasqua, Antonio; Khomenko, Iuliia

    2013-01-01

    The new agegraphic Dark Energy (NADE) model (based on generalized uncertainty principle) interacting with Dark Matter (DM) is considered in this study via power-law form of the scale factor $a(t)$. The equation of state (EoS) parameter $\\omega_{G}$ is observed to have a phantom-like behaviour. The stability of this model is investigated through the squared speed of sound $v_{s}^{2}$: it is found that $v_{s}^{2}$ always stays at negative level, which indicates instability of the considered model.

  1. General analytical procedure for determination of acidity parameters of weak acids and bases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilarski, Bogusław; Kaliszan, Roman; Wyrzykowski, Dariusz; Młodzianowski, Janusz; Balińska, Agata

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents a new convenient, inexpensive, and reagent-saving general methodology for the determination of pK a values for components of the mixture of diverse chemical classes weak organic acids and bases in water solution, without the need to separate individual analytes. The data obtained from simple pH-metric microtitrations are numerically processed into reliable pK a values for each component of the mixture. Excellent agreement has been obtained between the determined pK a values and the reference literature data for compounds studied.

  2. A Generalized Recursive Algorithm for Binary Multiplication based on Vedic Mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Kale, Ajinkya; Joglekar, Ashish

    2009-01-01

    A generalized algorithm for multiplication is proposed through recursive application of the Nikhilam Sutra from Vedic Mathematics, operating in radix - 2 number system environment suitable for digital platforms. Statistical analysis has been carried out based on the number of recursions profile as a function of the smaller multiplicand. The proposed algorithm is efficient for smaller multiplicands as well, unlike most of the asymptotically fast algorithms. Further, a basic block schematic of Hardware Implementation of our algorithm is suggested to exploit parallelism and speed up the implementation of the algorithm in a multiprocessor environment.

  3. A UNIX Based Device Driver for the Vector General 3404 Graphics Display System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-03-01

    Kernighan , Brian W. "A Tutorial Introduction to the UNIX Text Editor," UNIX Programmer’s Manual, 2A: 54-64. Murray Hill: Bell Telephone Laboratories, Inc...January 1979. 9. Kernighan , Brian W. " UNIX for Beginners - Seventh Edition," UNIX Programmer’s Manual, 2A: Murray Hill: Bell Telephone Laboratories...Ii ’ L ~ ~~I II mli= ] d i[ * ftl IIili l ii l4 I IL&MfLECw" Ile=Dnft APIT/GCS/MA/81D-6 A UNIX BASED DEVICE 7DRIVER FOR TITE VECTOR GENERAL 34-o4

  4. The effects of age on associative and rule-based causal learning and generalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutter, Sharon A; Plumlee, Leslie F

    2014-06-01

    We assessed how age influences associative and rule-based processes in causal learning using the Shanks and Darby (1998) concurrent patterning discrimination task. In Experiment 1, participants were divided into groups based on their learning performance after 6 blocks of training trials. High discrimination mastery young adults learned the patterning discrimination more rapidly and accurately than moderate mastery young adults. They were also more likely to induce the patterning rule and use this rule to generate predictions for novel cues, whereas moderate mastery young adults were more likely to use cue similarity as the basis for their predictions. Like moderate mastery young adults, older adults used similarity-based generalization for novel cues, but they did not achieve the same level of patterning discrimination. In Experiment 2, young and older adults were trained to the same learning criterion. Older adults again showed deficits in patterning discrimination and, in contrast to young adults, even when they reported awareness of the patterning rule, they used only similarity-based generalization in their predictions for novel cues. These findings suggest that it is important to consider how the ability to code or use cue representations interacts with the requirements of the causal learning task. In particular, age differences in causal learning seem to be greatest for tasks that require rapid coding of configural representations to control associative interference between similar cues. Configural coding may also be related to the success of rule-based processes in these types of learning tasks. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  5. The influence of population characteristics on variation in general practice based morbidity estimations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van den Dungen C

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background General practice based registration networks (GPRNs provide information on morbidity rates in the population. Morbidity rate estimates from different GPRNs, however, reveal considerable, unexplained differences. We studied the range and variation in morbidity estimates, as well as the extent to which the differences in morbidity rates between general practices and networks change if socio-demographic characteristics of the listed patient populations are taken into account. Methods The variation in incidence and prevalence rates of thirteen diseases among six Dutch GPRNs and the influence of age, gender, socio economic status (SES, urbanization level, and ethnicity are analyzed using multilevel logistic regression analysis. Results are expressed in median odds ratios (MOR. Results We observed large differences in morbidity rate estimates both on the level of general practices as on the level of networks. The differences in SES, urbanization level and ethnicity distribution among the networks' practice populations are substantial. The variation in morbidity rate estimates among networks did not decrease after adjusting for these socio-demographic characteristics. Conclusion Socio-demographic characteristics of populations do not explain the differences in morbidity estimations among GPRNs.

  6. High-Order Fuzzy Time Series Model Based on Generalized Fuzzy Logical Relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wangren Qiu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In view of techniques for constructing high-order fuzzy time series models, there are three methods which are based on advanced algorithms, computational methods, and grouping the fuzzy logical relationships, respectively. The last kind model has been widely applied and researched for the reason that it is easy to be understood by the decision makers. To improve the fuzzy time series forecasting model, this paper presents a novel high-order fuzzy time series models denoted as GTS(M,N on the basis of generalized fuzzy logical relationships. Firstly, the paper introduces some concepts of the generalized fuzzy logical relationship and an operation for combining the generalized relationships. Then, the proposed model is implemented in forecasting enrollments of the University of Alabama. As an example of in-depth research, the proposed approach is also applied to forecast the close price of Shanghai Stock Exchange Composite Index. Finally, the effects of the number of orders and hierarchies of fuzzy logical relationships on the forecasting results are discussed.

  7. A Generalized Grid-Based Fast Multipole Method for Integrating Helmholtz Kernels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkkinen, Pauli; Losilla, Sergio A; Solala, Eelis; Toivanen, Elias A; Xu, Wen-Hua; Sundholm, Dage

    2017-02-14

    A grid-based fast multipole method (GB-FMM) for optimizing three-dimensional (3D) numerical molecular orbitals in the bubbles and cube double basis has been developed and implemented. The present GB-FMM method is a generalization of our recently published GB-FMM approach for numerically calculating electrostatic potentials and two-electron interaction energies. The orbital optimization is performed by integrating the Helmholtz kernel in the double basis. The steep part of the functions in the vicinity of the nuclei is represented by one-center bubbles functions, whereas the remaining cube part is expanded on an equidistant 3D grid. The integration of the bubbles part is treated by using one-center expansions of the Helmholtz kernel in spherical harmonics multiplied with modified spherical Bessel functions of the first and second kind, analogously to the numerical inward and outward integration approach for calculating two-electron interaction potentials in atomic structure calculations. The expressions and algorithms for massively parallel calculations on general purpose graphics processing units (GPGPU) are described. The accuracy and the correctness of the implementation has been checked by performing Hartree-Fock self-consistent-field calculations (HF-SCF) on H2, H2O, and CO. Our calculations show that an accuracy of 10(-4) to 10(-7) Eh can be reached in HF-SCF calculations on general molecules.

  8. General practice based teaching exchanges in Europe. Experiences from the EU Socrates programme 'primary health care'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Weel, Chris; Mattsson, Bengt; Freeman, George K; de Meyere, Marc; von Fragstein, Martin

    2005-01-01

    This paper reviews the experience of international exchange of medical students for general practice. The experience is based on the EU Socrates programme 'Primary Health Care' that offers, since 1992, clinical attachments and research electives in primary care. This programme involves 11 university departments of general practice/primary care in eight countries: Austria - Vienna; Belgium - Gent; Germany Düsseldorf; Italy - Monza, Udine; Netherlands Nijmegen; Slovenia - Ljubljana; Sweden - Göteborg; and the UK - Edinburgh, Imperial College London and Nottingham. More than 150 students have taken part in the programme, most in the last four years. For clinical attachment communication to patients is essential, and students should be able to speak the language of the host university. A research elective in primary care is less demanding and requires students' ability to communicate in English. Despite marked differences in health care structure in the countries involved, it is quite possible to provide a valuable teaching environment in general practice, and the experience gained by students in the exchanges more than equals that what they would gain at home. The added value is in experiencing the influence of another health care system and of working in another academic primary care centre. A substantial number of research electives have been published in international peer reviewed scientific journals with the student as first (occasionally second) author and staff members of the student's host and home university as co-authors. A further benefit of the exchange programme lies in the transfer teaching innovations between universities.

  9. Blind source separation of ship-radiated noise based on generalized Gaussian model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kong Wei; Yang Bin

    2006-01-01

    When the distribution of the sources cannot be estimated accurately, the ICA algorithms failed to separate the mixtures blindly. The generalized Gaussian model (GGM) is presented in ICA algorithm since it can model nonGaussian statistical structure of different source signals easily. By inferring only one parameter, a wide class of statistical distributions can be characterized. By using maximum likelihood (ML) approach and natural gradient descent, the learning rules of blind source separation (BSS) based on GGM are presented. The experiment of the ship-radiated noise demonstrates that the GGM can model the distributions of the ship-radiated noise and sea noise efficiently, and the learning rules based on GGM gives more successful separation results after comparing it with several conventional methods such as high order cumulants and Gaussian mixture density function.

  10. Generalized dominance-based rough set approach to security evaluation with imprecise information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Liang; Xue Zhi

    2010-01-01

    The model of grey multi-attribute group decision-making(MAGDM)is studied,in which the attribute values are grey numbers.Based on the generalized dominance-based rough set approach(G-DRSA),a synthetic security evaluation method is presented.With the grey MAGDM security evaluation model as its foundation,the extension of technique for order performance by similarity to ideal solution(TOPSIS)integrates the evaluation of each decision-maker(DM)into a group's consensus and obtains the expected evaluation results of information system.Via the quality of sorting(QoS)of G-DRSA,the inherent information hidden in data is uncovered,and the security attribute weight and DMs'weight are rationally obtained.Taking the computer networks in a certain university as objects,the example illustrates that this method can effectively remove the bottleneck of the grey MAGDM model and has practical significance in the synthetic security evaluation.

  11. Real-time traffic sign recognition based on a general purpose GPU and deep-learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Yongwon; Choi, Yeongwoo; Byun, Hyeran

    2017-01-01

    We present a General Purpose Graphics Processing Unit (GPGPU) based real-time traffic sign detection and recognition method that is robust against illumination changes. There have been many approaches to traffic sign recognition in various research fields; however, previous approaches faced several limitations when under low illumination or wide variance of light conditions. To overcome these drawbacks and improve processing speeds, we propose a method that 1) is robust against illumination changes, 2) uses GPGPU-based real-time traffic sign detection, and 3) performs region detecting and recognition using a hierarchical model. This method produces stable results in low illumination environments. Both detection and hierarchical recognition are performed in real-time, and the proposed method achieves 0.97 F1-score on our collective dataset, which uses the Vienna convention traffic rules (Germany and South Korea). PMID:28264011

  12. Comparison of stator-mounted permanent-magnet machines based on a general power equation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Zhe; Hua, Wei; Cheng, Ming

    2009-01-01

    The stator-mounted permanent-magnet (SMPM) machines have some advantages compared with its counterparts, such as simple rotor, short winding terminals, and good thermal dissipation conditions for magnets. In this paper, a general power equation for three types of SMPM machine is introduced first......, and then, power equations considering the specific topologies are derived. Based on these power equations, theoretical comparisons are carried out between various types of the SMPM machines. In all, eight topologies have been presented and benchmarked. It reveals that the flux switching permanent......-magnet (PM) machine owns higher power density than the flux reversal PM machine and the doubly salient PM machine under same outer diameter. The comparison based on the power equation has established a foundation for optimizing the SMPM machines....

  13. Fundamentals of the fuzzy logic-based generalized theory of decisions

    CERN Document Server

    Aliev, Rafik Aziz

    2013-01-01

    Every day decision making and decision making in complex human-centric systems are characterized by imperfect decision-relevant information. Main drawback of the existing decision theories is namely incapability to deal with imperfect information and modeling vague preferences. Actually, a paradigm of non-numerical probabilities in decision making has a long history and arose also in Keynes’s analysis of uncertainty. There is a need for further generalization – a move to decision theories with perception-based imperfect information described in NL. The languages of new decision models for human-centric systems should be not languages based on binary logic but human-centric computational schemes able to operate on NL-described information. Development of new theories is now possible due to an increased computational power of information processing systems which allows for computations with imperfect information, particularly, imprecise and partially true information, which are much more complex than comput...

  14. Testing General Relativity with Low-Frequency, Space-Based Gravitational-Wave Detectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John G. Baker

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available We review the tests of general relativity that will become possible with space-based gravitational-wave detectors operating in the ∼ 10^{-5} – 1 Hz low-frequency band. The fundamental aspects of gravitation that can be tested include the presence of additional gravitational fields other than the metric; the number and tensorial nature of gravitational-wave polarization states; the velocity of propagation of gravitational waves; the binding energy and gravitational-wave radiation of binaries, and therefore the time evolution of binary inspirals; the strength and shape of the waves emitted from binary mergers and ringdowns; the true nature of astrophysical black holes; and much more. The strength of this science alone calls for the swift implementation of a space-based detector; the remarkable richness of astrophysics, astronomy, and cosmology in the low-frequency gravitational-wave band make the case even stronger.

  15. Geometric integration methods for general nonlinear dynamic equation based on Magnus and Fer expansions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Suying; DENG Zichen

    2005-01-01

    Based on Magnus or Fer expansion for solving linear differential equation and operator semi-group theory, Lie group integration methods for general nonlinear dynamic equation are studied. Approximate schemes of Magnus type of 4th, 6th and 8th order are constructed which involve only 1, 4 and 10 different commutators, and the time-symmetry properties of the schemes are proved. In the meantime, the integration methods based on Fer expansion are presented. Then by connecting the Fer expansion methods with Magnus expansion methods some techniques are given to simplify the construction of Fer expansion methods. Furthermore time-symmetric integrators of Fer type are constructed. These methods belong to the category of geometric integration methods and can preserve many qualitative properties of the original dynamic system.

  16. Development and Validation of Generalized Lifting Line Based Code for Wind Turbine Aerodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grasso, F.; Garrel, A. van; Schepers, J.G. [ECN Wind Energy, Petten (Netherlands)

    2011-01-15

    In order to accurately model large, advanced and efficient wind turbines, more reliable and realistic aerodynamic simulation tools are necessary. Most of the available codes are based on the blade element momentum theory. These codes are fast but not well suited to properly describe the physics of wind turbines. On the other hand, by using computational fluid-dynamics codes, in which full Navier-Stokes equations are implemented, a strong expertise and a lot of computer time to perform analyses are required. A code, based on a generalized form of Prandtl's lifting line in combination with a free wake vortex wake has been developed at Energy research Centre of Netherlands. In the present work, the development of this new code is presented, together with the results coming from numerical-experimental comparisons. The final part of the work is dedicated to the analysis of innovative configurations like winglets and curved blades.

  17. Testing General Relativity with Low-Frequency, Space-Based Gravitational-Wave Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Gair, Jonathan R; Larson, Shane L; Baker, John G

    2012-01-01

    We review the tests of general relativity that will become possible with space-based gravitational-wave detectors operating in the ~0.01mHz - 1Hz low-frequency band. The fundamental aspects of gravitation that can be tested include the presence of additional gravitational fields other than the metric; the number and tensorial nature of gravitational-wave polarization states; the velocity of propagation of gravitational waves; the binding energy and gravitational-wave radiation of binaries, and therefore the time evolution of binary inspirals; the strength and shape of the waves emitted from binary mergers and ringdowns; the true nature of astrophysical black holes; and much more. The strength of this science alone calls for the swift implementation of a space-based detector; the remarkable richness of astrophysics, astronomy, and cosmology in the low-frequency gravitational-wave band make the case even stronger.

  18. A residual life prediction model based on the generalized σ -N curved surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zongwen AN

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate change rule of the residual life of structure under random repeated load, firstly, starting from the statistic meaning of random repeated load, the joint probability density function of maximum stress and minimum stress is derived based on the characteristics of order statistic (maximum order statistic and minimum order statistic; then, based on the equation of generalized σ -N curved surface, considering the influence of load cycles number on fatigue life, a relationship among minimum stress, maximum stress and residual life, that is the σmin(n- σmax(n-Nr(n curved surface model, is established; finally, the validity of the proposed model is demonstrated by a practical case. The result shows that the proposed model can reflect the influence of maximum stress and minimum stress on residual life of structure under random repeated load, which can provide a theoretical basis for life prediction and reliability assessment of structure.

  19. A General Rate K/N Convolutional Decoder Based on Neural Networks with Stopping Criterion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnny W. H. Kao

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel algorithm for decoding a general rate K/N convolutional code based on recurrent neural network (RNN is described and analysed. The algorithm is introduced by outlining the mathematical models of the encoder and decoder. A number of strategies for optimising the iterative decoding process are proposed, and a simulator was also designed in order to compare the Bit Error Rate (BER performance of the RNN decoder with the conventional decoder that is based on Viterbi Algorithm (VA. The simulation results show that this novel algorithm can achieve the same bit error rate and has a lower decoding complexity. Most importantly this algorithm allows parallel signal processing, which increases the decoding speed and accommodates higher data rate transmission. These characteristics are inherited from a neural network structure of the decoder and the iterative nature of the algorithm, that outperform the conventional VA algorithm.

  20. Testing General Relativity with Low-Frequency, Space-Based Gravitational-Wave Detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gair, Jonathan R; Vallisneri, Michele; Larson, Shane L; Baker, John G

    2013-01-01

    We review the tests of general relativity that will become possible with space-based gravitational-wave detectors operating in the ∼ 10(-5) - 1 Hz low-frequency band. The fundamental aspects of gravitation that can be tested include the presence of additional gravitational fields other than the metric; the number and tensorial nature of gravitational-wave polarization states; the velocity of propagation of gravitational waves; the binding energy and gravitational-wave radiation of binaries, and therefore the time evolution of binary inspirals; the strength and shape of the waves emitted from binary mergers and ringdowns; the true nature of astrophysical black holes; and much more. The strength of this science alone calls for the swift implementation of a space-based detector; the remarkable richness of astrophysics, astronomy, and cosmology in the low-frequency gravitational-wave band make the case even stronger.

  1. General competencies of problem-based learning (PBL) and non-PBL graduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, Katinka J A H; van Eijs, Patrick W L J; Boshuizen, Henny P A; van der Vleuten, Cees P M; Scherpbier, Albert J J A

    2005-04-01

    Junior doctors have reported shortcomings in their general competencies, such as organisational skills and teamwork. We explored graduates' perceptions of how well their training had prepared them for medical practice and in general competencies in particular. We compared the opinions of graduates from problem-based learning (PBL) and non-PBL schools, because PBL is supposed to enhance general competencies. We analysed the responses of 1159 graduates from 1 PBL and 4 non-PBL schools to a questionnaire survey administered 18 months after graduation. Compared with their non-PBL colleagues, the PBL graduates gave higher ratings for the connection between school and work, their medical training and preparation for practice. According to the graduates, the most frequently used competencies with sufficient coverage during medical training were expert knowledge, profession-specific skills and communication skills. The majority of the PBL graduates, but less than half of the non-PBL graduates, indicated that communication skills had been covered sufficiently. All the graduates called for more curriculum attention on working with computers, planning and organisation, and leadership skills. More PBL graduates than non-PBL graduates indicated that they had learned profession-specific methods, communication skills and teamwork in medical school. Overall, the graduates appeared to be satisfied with their knowledge and skills. The results suggest that the PBL school provided better preparation with respect to several of the competencies. However, both PBL and non-PBL graduates identified deficits in their general competencies, such as working with computers and planning and organising work. These competencies should feature more prominently in undergraduate medical education.

  2. Optimization of the dressing parameters in cylindrical grinding based on a generalized utility function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksandrova, Irina

    2016-01-01

    The existing studies, concerning the dressing process, focus on the major influence of the dressing conditions on the grinding response variables. However, the choice of the dressing conditions is often made, based on the experience of the qualified staff or using data from reference books. The optimal dressing parameters, which are only valid for the particular methods and dressing and grinding conditions, are also used. The paper presents a methodology for optimization of the dressing parameters in cylindrical grinding. The generalized utility function has been chosen as an optimization parameter. It is a complex indicator determining the economic, dynamic and manufacturing characteristics of the grinding process. The developed methodology is implemented for the dressing of aluminium oxide grinding wheels by using experimental diamond roller dressers with different grit sizes made of medium- and high-strength synthetic diamonds type ??32 and ??80. To solve the optimization problem, a model of the generalized utility function is created which reflects the complex impact of dressing parameters. The model is built based on the results from the conducted complex study and modeling of the grinding wheel lifetime, cutting ability, production rate and cutting forces during grinding. They are closely related to the dressing conditions (dressing speed ratio, radial in-feed of the diamond roller dresser and dress-out time), the diamond roller dresser grit size/grinding wheel grit size ratio, the type of synthetic diamonds and the direction of dressing. Some dressing parameters are determined for which the generalized utility function has a maximum and which guarantee an optimum combination of the following: the lifetime and cutting ability of the abrasive wheels, the tangential cutting force magnitude and the production rate of the grinding process. The results obtained prove the possibility of control and optimization of grinding by selecting particular dressing

  3. The glmS ribozyme cofactor is a general acid-base catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viladoms, Júlia; Fedor, Martha J

    2012-11-21

    The glmS ribozyme is the first natural self-cleaving ribozyme known to require a cofactor. The d-glucosamine-6-phosphate (GlcN6P) cofactor has been proposed to serve as a general acid, but its role in the catalytic mechanism has not been established conclusively. We surveyed GlcN6P-like molecules for their ability to support self-cleavage of the glmS ribozyme and found a strong correlation between the pH dependence of the cleavage reaction and the intrinsic acidity of the cofactors. For cofactors with low binding affinities, the contribution to rate enhancement was proportional to their intrinsic acidity. This linear free-energy relationship between cofactor efficiency and acid dissociation constants is consistent with a mechanism in which the cofactors participate directly in the reaction as general acid-base catalysts. A high value for the Brønsted coefficient (β ~ 0.7) indicates that a significant amount of proton transfer has already occurred in the transition state. The glmS ribozyme is the first self-cleaving RNA to use an exogenous acid-base catalyst.

  4. Online elicitation of Mamdani-type fuzzy rules via TSK-based generalized predictive control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahfouf, M; Abbod, M F; Linkens, D A

    2003-01-01

    Many synergies have been proposed between soft-computing techniques, such as neural networks (NNs), fuzzy logic (FL), and genetic algorithms (GAs), which have shown that such hybrid structures can work well and also add more robustness to the control system design. In this paper, a new control architecture is proposed whereby the on-line generated fuzzy rules relating to the self-organizing fuzzy logic controller (SOFLC) are obtained via integration with the popular generalized predictive control (GPC) algorithm using a Takagi-Sugeno-Kang (TSK)-based controlled autoregressive integrated moving average (CARIMA) model structure. In this approach, GPC replaces the performance index (PI) table which, as an incremental model, is traditionally used to discover, amend, and delete the rules. Because the GPC sequence is computed using predicted future outputs, the new hybrid approach rewards the time-delay very well. The new generic approach, named generalized predictive self-organizing fuzzy logic control (GPSOFLC), is simulated on a well-known nonlinear chemical process, the distillation column, and is shown to produce an effective fuzzy rule-base in both qualitative (minimum number of generated rules) and quantitative (good rules) terms.

  5. Improving population-based cervical cancer screening in general practice : effects of a national strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermens, R P; Hak, E; Hulscher, M E; Mulder, J; Tacken, M A; Braspenning, J C; Grol, R P

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects of a Dutch national prevention programme, aimed at general practitioners (GPs), on the adherence to organizational guidelines for effective cervical cancer screening in general practice. To identify the characteristics of general practices determining success. DESIGN

  6. Password Based a Generalize Robust Security System Design Using Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj Kumar Singh

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Among the various means of available resource protection including biometrics, password based system is most simple, user friendly, cost effective and commonly used. But this method having high sensitivity with attacks. Most of the advanced methods for authentication based on password encrypt the contents of password before storing or transmitting in physical domain. But all conventional cryptographic based encryption methods are having its own limitations, generally either in terms of complexity or in terms of efficiency. Multi-application usability of password today forcing users to have a proper memory aids. Which itself degrades the level of security. In this paper a method to exploit the artificial neural network to develop the more secure means of authentication, which is more efficient in providing the authentication, at the same time simple in design, has given. Apart from protection, a step toward perfect security has taken by adding the feature of intruder detection along with the protection system. This is possible by analysis of several logical parameters associated with the user activities. A new method of designing the security system centrally based on neural network with intrusion detection capability to handles the challenges available with present solutions, for any kind of resource has presented.

  7. General Model to Predict Power Flow Transmitted into Laminated Beam Bases in Flexible Isolation Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NIU Junchuan; GE Peiqi; HOU Cuirong; LIM C W; SONG Kongjie

    2009-01-01

    For estimating the vibration transmission accurately and performing vibration control efficiently in isolation systems, a novel general model is presented to predict the power flow transmitted into the complicate flexible bases of laminated beams. In the model, the laminated beam bases are simulated by the first-order shear deformation laminated plate theory, which is relatively simple and economic but accurate in predicting the vibration solutions of flexible isolation systems with laminated beam bases in comparison with classical laminated beam theories and higher order theories. On the basis of the presented model, substructure technique and variational principle are employed to obtain the governing equation of the isolation system and the power flow solution. Then, the vibration characteristics of the flexible isolation systems with laminated bases are investigated. Several numerical examples are given to show the validity and efficiency of the presented model. It is concluded that the presented model is the extension of the classical one and it can obtain more accurate power flow solutions.

  8. Generalized stochastic Petri nets based models for performance analysis of communication networks of IEC61850 system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHANG Hong; RU Feng; XUE Jun-yi

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, data streams are classified into four types conforming to a standardized infrastructure of communication networks for a substation automation system (SAS) based on IEC61850 system. The data exchanged on the net are demonstrated to be stochastic according to investigation on the Ethernet communication principles. Four generalized stochastic Petri nets (GSPN) based models for performance analysis of communication networks of IEC61850 system are developed based on the three-level structure of SAS, different time requirements of the four data streams and different networks topology for different voltage level. The GSPN-based model associated with immediate and exponential transitions is proven to be theoretically isomorphic with Markov chain; hence we apply the mathematic methods of performance evaluation contained in Markov chain to the GSPN models proposed. The computer simulation of the model including only sample value data streams shows that it can meet performance evaluation needs of communication networks of IEC61850 system. Further researches should be focused on the performance of the other three models to explain clear how those different data streams are interrelated to and interact on each other.

  9. [EBM Service: evidence-based answers provided by general practitioners to questions asked by general practitioners--a project from South Tyrol/Italy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccoliori, Giuliano; Kostner, Simon; Abholz, Heinz-Harald

    2010-01-01

    General practices also require more and more evidence-based decision-making. But knowledge is increasing rapidly and guidelines produced to help doctors to find answers to their problems seem to exclude a number of problems that are important in general practices. Here we report on the introduction and activities of an EbM Service provided by general practitioners to answer questions of their colleagues. The aim is to give EBM answers, but also, in doing so, to teach the application of EBM and--in the long run--to enable the users themselves to find EBM answers. The provision of EBM answers is fairly pragmatic: after using the service the inquiring physician should be better informed, i.e., have more evidence-based information, but sometimes this need not be the "ultimate truth" that experts might deliver. EBM answers are published both on the homepage of the College of General Practitioners and in their journal. It took quite a while to implement this service, and the number of those using it has increased slowly but constantly.

  10. An optimization based sampling approach for multiple metrics uncertainty analysis using generalized likelihood uncertainty estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Rurui; Li, Yu; Lu, Di; Liu, Haixing; Zhou, Huicheng

    2016-09-01

    This paper investigates the use of an epsilon-dominance non-dominated sorted genetic algorithm II (ɛ-NSGAII) as a sampling approach with an aim to improving sampling efficiency for multiple metrics uncertainty analysis using Generalized Likelihood Uncertainty Estimation (GLUE). The effectiveness of ɛ-NSGAII based sampling is demonstrated compared with Latin hypercube sampling (LHS) through analyzing sampling efficiency, multiple metrics performance, parameter uncertainty and flood forecasting uncertainty with a case study of flood forecasting uncertainty evaluation based on Xinanjiang model (XAJ) for Qing River reservoir, China. Results obtained demonstrate the following advantages of the ɛ-NSGAII based sampling approach in comparison to LHS: (1) The former performs more effective and efficient than LHS, for example the simulation time required to generate 1000 behavioral parameter sets is shorter by 9 times; (2) The Pareto tradeoffs between metrics are demonstrated clearly with the solutions from ɛ-NSGAII based sampling, also their Pareto optimal values are better than those of LHS, which means better forecasting accuracy of ɛ-NSGAII parameter sets; (3) The parameter posterior distributions from ɛ-NSGAII based sampling are concentrated in the appropriate ranges rather than uniform, which accords with their physical significance, also parameter uncertainties are reduced significantly; (4) The forecasted floods are close to the observations as evaluated by three measures: the normalized total flow outside the uncertainty intervals (FOUI), average relative band-width (RB) and average deviation amplitude (D). The flood forecasting uncertainty is also reduced a lot with ɛ-NSGAII based sampling. This study provides a new sampling approach to improve multiple metrics uncertainty analysis under the framework of GLUE, and could be used to reveal the underlying mechanisms of parameter sets under multiple conflicting metrics in the uncertainty analysis process.

  11. Enhanced high dynamic range 3D shape measurement based on generalized phase-shifting algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Minmin; Du, Guangliang; Zhou, Canlin; Zhang, Chaorui; Si, Shuchun; Li, Hui; Lei, Zhenkun; Li, YanJie

    2017-02-01

    Measuring objects with large reflectivity variations across their surface is one of the open challenges in phase measurement profilometry (PMP). Saturated or dark pixels in the deformed fringe patterns captured by the camera will lead to phase fluctuations and errors. Jiang et al. proposed a high dynamic range real-time three-dimensional (3D) shape measurement method (Jiang et al., 2016) [17] that does not require changing camera exposures. Three inverted phase-shifted fringe patterns are used to complement three regular phase-shifted fringe patterns for phase retrieval whenever any of the regular fringe patterns are saturated. Nonetheless, Jiang's method has some drawbacks: (1) the phases of saturated pixels are estimated by different formulas on a case by case basis; in other words, the method lacks a universal formula; (2) it cannot be extended to the four-step phase-shifting algorithm, because inverted fringe patterns are the repetition of regular fringe patterns; (3) for every pixel in the fringe patterns, only three unsaturated intensity values can be chosen for phase demodulation, leaving the other unsaturated ones idle. We propose a method to enhance high dynamic range 3D shape measurement based on a generalized phase-shifting algorithm, which combines the complementary techniques of inverted and regular fringe patterns with a generalized phase-shifting algorithm. Firstly, two sets of complementary phase-shifted fringe patterns, namely the regular and the inverted fringe patterns, are projected and collected. Then, all unsaturated intensity values at the same camera pixel from two sets of fringe patterns are selected and employed to retrieve the phase using a generalized phase-shifting algorithm. Finally, simulations and experiments are conducted to prove the validity of the proposed method. The results are analyzed and compared with those of Jiang's method, demonstrating that our method not only expands the scope of Jiang's method, but also improves

  12. Are general surgery residents adequately prepared for hepatopancreatobiliary fellowships? A questionnaire-based study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Houssam; Parikh, Janak; Patel, Shirali; Jeyarajah, D Rohan

    2015-01-01

    Background The present study was conducted to assess the preparedness of hepatopancreatobiliary (HPB) fellows upon entering fellowship, identify challenges encountered by HPB fellows during the initial part of their HPB training, and identify potential solutions to these challenges that can be applied during residency training. Methods A questionnaire was distributed to all HPB fellows in accredited HPB fellowship programmes in two consecutive academic years (n = 42). Reponses were then analysed. Results A total of 19 (45%) fellows responded. Prior to their fellowship, 10 (53%) were in surgical residency and the rest were in other surgical fellowships or surgical practice. Thirteen (68%) were graduates of university-based residency programmes. All fellows felt comfortable in performing basic laparoscopic procedures independently at the completion of residency and less comfortable in performing advanced laparoscopy. Eight (42%) fellows cited a combination of inadequate case volume and lack of autonomy during residency as the reasons for this lack of comfort. Thirteen (68%) identified inadequate preoperative workup and management as their biggest fear upon entering practice after general surgery training. A total of 17 (89%) fellows felt they were adequately prepared to enter HPB fellowship. Extra rotations in transplant, vascular or minimally invasive surgery were believed to be most helpful in preparing general surgery residents pursing HPB fellowships. Conclusions Overall, HPB fellows felt themselves to be adequately prepared for fellowship. Advanced laparoscopic procedures and the perioperative management of complex patients are two of the challenges facing HPB fellows. General surgery residents who plan to pursue an HPB fellowship may benefit from spending extra rotations on certain subspecialties. Focus on perioperative workup and management should be an integral part of residency and fellowship training. PMID:25387852

  13. Solitons, kinks and extended hadron model based on the generalized sine-Gordon theory

    CERN Document Server

    Blas, H

    2007-01-01

    The solitons and kinks of the generalized $sl(3, \\IC)$ sine-Gordon (GSG) model are explicitly obtained through the hybrid of the Hirota and dressing methods in which the {\\sl tau} functions play an important role. The various properties are investigated, such as the potential vacuum structure, the soliton and kink solutions, and the soliton masses formulae. As a reduced submodel we obtain the double sine-Gordon model. Moreover, we provide the algebraic construction of the $sl(3, \\IC)$ affine Toda model coupled to matter (Dirac spinor) (ATM) and through a gauge fixing procedure we obtain the classical version of the generalized $sl(3, \\IC)$ sine-Gordon model (cGSG) which completely decouples from the Dirac spinors. In the spinor sector we are left with Dirac fields coupled to cGSG fields. Based on the equivalence between the U(1) vector and topological currents it is shown the confinement of the spinors inside the solitons and kinks of the cGSG model providing an extended hadron model for "quark" confinement.

  14. Solitons, kinks and extended hadron model based on the generalized sine-Gordon theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blas, Harold [Departamentos de Matematica e Fisica - ICET, Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso, Av. Fernando Correa, s/n, Coxipo, 78060-900, Cuiaba - MT (Brazil); Carrion, Hector L. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Caixa Postal 66318, 05315-970, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2007-01-15

    The solitons and kinks of the generalized sl(3,C) sine-Gordon (GSG) model are explicitly obtained through the hybrid of the Hirota and dressing methods in which the tau functions play an important role. The various properties are investigated, such as the potential vacuum structure, the soliton and kink solutions, and the soliton masses formulae. As a reduced submodel we obtain the double sine-Gordon model. Moreover, we provide the algebraic construction of the sl(3,C) affine Toda model coupled to matter (Dirac spinor) (ATM) and through a gauge fixing procedure we obtain the classical version of the generalized sl(3,C) sine-Gordon model (cGSG) which completely decouples from the Dirac spinors. In the spinor sector we are left with Dirac fields coupled to cGSG fields. Based on the equivalence between the U(1) vector and topological currents it is shown the confinement of the spinors inside the solitons and kinks of the cGSG model providing an extended hadron model for 'quark' confinement.

  15. Modelling uncertainty in incompressible flow simulation using Galerkin based generalized ANOVA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Souvik; Chowdhury, Rajib

    2016-11-01

    This paper presents a new algorithm, referred to here as Galerkin based generalized analysis of variance decomposition (GG-ANOVA) for modelling input uncertainties and its propagation in incompressible fluid flow. The proposed approach utilizes ANOVA to represent the unknown stochastic response. Further, the unknown component functions of ANOVA are represented using the generalized polynomial chaos expansion (PCE). The resulting functional form obtained by coupling the ANOVA and PCE is substituted into the stochastic Navier-Stokes equation (NSE) and Galerkin projection is employed to decompose it into a set of coupled deterministic 'Navier-Stokes alike' equations. Temporal discretization of the set of coupled deterministic equations is performed by employing Adams-Bashforth scheme for convective term and Crank-Nicolson scheme for diffusion term. Spatial discretization is performed by employing finite difference scheme. Implementation of the proposed approach has been illustrated by two examples. In the first example, a stochastic ordinary differential equation has been considered. This example illustrates the performance of proposed approach with change in nature of random variable. Furthermore, convergence characteristics of GG-ANOVA has also been demonstrated. The second example investigates flow through a micro channel. Two case studies, namely the stochastic Kelvin-Helmholtz instability and stochastic vortex dipole, have been investigated. For all the problems results obtained using GG-ANOVA are in excellent agreement with benchmark solutions.

  16. Inferring topologies via driving-based generalized synchronization of two-layer networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yingfei; Wu, Xiaoqun; Feng, Hui; Lu, Jun-an; Xu, Yuhua

    2016-05-01

    The interaction topology among the constituents of a complex network plays a crucial role in the network’s evolutionary mechanisms and functional behaviors. However, some network topologies are usually unknown or uncertain. Meanwhile, coupling delays are ubiquitous in various man-made and natural networks. Hence, it is necessary to gain knowledge of the whole or partial topology of a complex dynamical network by taking into consideration communication delay. In this paper, topology identification of complex dynamical networks is investigated via generalized synchronization of a two-layer network. Particularly, based on the LaSalle-type invariance principle of stochastic differential delay equations, an adaptive control technique is proposed by constructing an auxiliary layer and designing proper control input and updating laws so that the unknown topology can be recovered upon successful generalized synchronization. Numerical simulations are provided to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. The technique provides a certain theoretical basis for topology inference of complex networks. In particular, when the considered network is composed of systems with high-dimension or complicated dynamics, a simpler response layer can be constructed, which is conducive to circuit design. Moreover, it is practical to take into consideration perturbations caused by control input. Finally, the method is applicable to infer topology of a subnetwork embedded within a complex system and locate hidden sources. We hope the results can provide basic insight into further research endeavors on understanding practical and economical topology inference of networks.

  17. Dynamics of controlled release systems based on water-in-water emulsions: a general theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagis, Leonard M C

    2008-10-06

    Phase-separated biopolymer solutions, and aqueous dispersions of hydrogel beads, liposomes, polymersomes, aqueous polymer microcapsules, and colloidosomes are all examples of water-in-water emulsions. These systems can be used for encapsulation and controlled release purposes, in for example food or pharmaceutical applications. The stress-deformation behavior of the droplets in these systems is very complex, and affected by mass transfer across the interface. The relaxation time of a deformation of a droplet may depend on interfacial properties such as surface tension, bending rigidity, spontaneous curvature, permeability, and interfacial viscoelasticity. It also depends on bulk viscoelasticity and composition. A non-equilibrium thermodynamic model is developed for the dynamic behavior of these systems, which incorporates all these parameters, and is based on the interfacial transport phenomena (ITP) formalism. The ITP formalism allows us to describe all water-in-water emulsions with one general theory. Phase-separated biopolymer solutions, and dispersions of hydrogel beads, liposomes, polymersomes, polymer microcapsules, and colloidosomes are basically limiting cases of this general theory with respect to bulk and interfacial rheological behavior.

  18. Analysis of Generalization Ability for Different AdaBoost Variants Based on Classification and Regression Trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuqiong Wu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available As a machine learning method, AdaBoost is widely applied to data classification and object detection because of its robustness and efficiency. AdaBoost constructs a global and optimal combination of weak classifiers based on a sample reweighting. It is known that this kind of combination improves the classification performance tremendously. As the popularity of AdaBoost increases, many variants have been proposed to improve the performance of AdaBoost. Then, a lot of comparison and review studies for AdaBoost variants have also been published. Some researchers compared different AdaBoost variants by experiments in their own fields, and others reviewed various AdaBoost variants by basically introducing these algorithms. However, there is a lack of mathematical analysis of the generalization abilities for different AdaBoost variants. In this paper, we analyze the generalization abilities of six AdaBoost variants in terms of classification margins. The six compared variants are Real AdaBoost, Gentle AdaBoost, Modest AdaBoost, Parameterized AdaBoost, Margin-pruning Boost, and Penalized AdaBoost. Finally, we use experiments to verify our analyses.

  19. A Wavelet Transform Based Method to Determine Depth of Anesthesia to Prevent Awareness during General Anesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mortaza Mousavi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Awareness during general anesthesia for its serious psychological effects on patients and some juristically problems for anesthetists has been an important challenge during past decades. Monitoring depth of anesthesia is a fundamental solution to this problem. The induction of anesthesia alters frequency and mean of amplitudes of the electroencephalogram (EEG, and its phase couplings. We analyzed EEG changes for phase coupling between delta and alpha subbands using a new algorithm for depth of general anesthesia measurement based on complex wavelet transform (CWT in patients anesthetized by Propofol. Entropy and histogram of modulated signals were calculated by taking bispectral index (BIS values as reference. Entropies corresponding to different BIS intervals using Mann-Whitney U test showed that they had different continuous distributions. The results demonstrated that there is a phase coupling between 3 and 4 Hz in delta and 8-9 Hz in alpha subbands and these changes are shown better at the channel T7 of EEG. Moreover, when BIS values increase, the entropy value of modulated signal also increases and vice versa. In addition, measuring phase coupling between delta and alpha subbands of EEG signals through continuous CWT analysis reveals the depth of anesthesia level. As a result, awareness during anesthesia can be prevented.

  20. Constrained generalized predictive control of battery charging process based on a coupled thermoelectric model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kailong; Li, Kang; Zhang, Cheng

    2017-04-01

    Battery temperature is a primary factor affecting the battery performance, and suitable battery temperature control in particular internal temperature control can not only guarantee battery safety but also improve its efficiency. This is however challenging as current controller designs for battery charging have no mechanisms to incorporate such information. This paper proposes a novel battery charging control strategy which applies the constrained generalized predictive control (GPC) to charge a LiFePO4 battery based on a newly developed coupled thermoelectric model. The control target primarily aims to maintain the battery cell internal temperature within a desirable range while delivering fast charging. To achieve this, the coupled thermoelectric model is firstly introduced to capture the battery behaviours in particular SOC and internal temperature which are not directly measurable in practice. Then a controlled auto-regressive integrated moving average (CARIMA) model whose parameters are identified by the recursive least squares (RLS) algorithm is developed as an online self-tuning predictive model for a GPC controller. Then the constrained generalized predictive controller is developed to control the charging current. Experiment results confirm the effectiveness of the proposed control strategy. Further, the best region of heat dissipation rate and proper internal temperature set-points are also investigated and analysed.

  1. Numerical verification of similar Cam-clay model based on generalized potential theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟志辉; 杨光华; 傅旭东; 温勇; 张玉成

    2014-01-01

    From the mathematical principles, the generalized potential theory can be employed to create constitutive model of geomaterial directly. The similar Cam-clay model, which is created based on the generalized potential theory, has less assumptions, clearer mathematical basis, and better computational accuracy. Theoretically, it is more scientific than the traditional Cam-clay models. The particle flow code PFC3D was used to make numerical tests to verify the rationality and practicality of the similar Cam-clay model. The verification process was as follows: 1) creating the soil sample for numerical test in PFC3D, and then simulating the conventional triaxial compression test, isotropic compression test, and isotropic unloading test by PFC3D; 2) determining the parameters of the similar Cam-clay model from the results of above tests; 3) predicting the sample’s behavior in triaxial tests under different stress paths by the similar Cam-clay model, and comparing the predicting results with predictions by the Cam-clay model and the modified Cam-clay model. The analysis results show that the similar Cam-clay model has relatively high prediction accuracy, as well as good practical value.

  2. Investigations into Generalization of Constraint-Based Scheduling Theories with Applications to Space Telescope Observation Scheduling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscettola, Nicola; Smith, Steven S.

    1996-01-01

    This final report summarizes research performed under NASA contract NCC 2-531 toward generalization of constraint-based scheduling theories and techniques for application to space telescope observation scheduling problems. Our work into theories and techniques for solution of this class of problems has led to the development of the Heuristic Scheduling Testbed System (HSTS), a software system for integrated planning and scheduling. Within HSTS, planning and scheduling are treated as two complementary aspects of the more general process of constructing a feasible set of behaviors of a target system. We have validated the HSTS approach by applying it to the generation of observation schedules for the Hubble Space Telescope. This report summarizes the HSTS framework and its application to the Hubble Space Telescope domain. First, the HSTS software architecture is described, indicating (1) how the structure and dynamics of a system is modeled in HSTS, (2) how schedules are represented at multiple levels of abstraction, and (3) the problem solving machinery that is provided. Next, the specific scheduler developed within this software architecture for detailed management of Hubble Space Telescope operations is presented. Finally, experimental performance results are given that confirm the utility and practicality of the approach.

  3. From a quasi-static fluid-based evolutionary topology optimization to a generalization of BESO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daróczy, László; Jármai, Károly

    2015-05-01

    A new algorithm is proposed for topology optimization based on a fluid dynamics analogy. It possesses characteristics similar to most well-known methods, such as the Evolutionary Structural Optimization (ESO)/Bidirectional Evolutionary Structural Optimization (BESO) method due to Xie and Steven (1993, "A Simple Evolutionary Procedure for Structural Optimisation." Computers and Structures 49 (5): 885-896.), which works with discrete values, and the Solid Isotropic Material with Penalization (SIMP) method due to Bendsøe (1989, "Optimal Shape Design as aMaterial Distribution Problem." Structural Optimization 1 (4): 193-202.) and Zhou and Rozvany (1991, "The COCAlgorithm-Part II: Topological, Geometry and Generalized Shape Optimization." Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering 89 (1-3): 309-336.) (using Optimality Criterion (OC) or Method of Moving Asymptotes (MMA)), which works with intermediate values, as it is able to work both with discrete and intermediate densities, but always yields a solution with discrete densities. It can be proven mathematically that the new method is a generalization of the BESO method and using appropriate parameters it will operate exactly as the BESO method. The new method is less sensitive to rounding errors of the matrix solver as compared to the BESO method and is able to give alternative topologies to well-known problems. The article presents the basic idea and the optimization algorithm, and compares the results of three cantilever optimizations to the results of the SIMP and BESO methods.

  4. Out-of-band emission suppression techniques based on a generalized OFDM framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Zihao; Fang, Juan; Lu, I.-Tai

    2014-12-01

    Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM)-based cognitive radio (CR) systems suffer from the large out-of-band emission (OOBE) that may interfere with other users. Since most existing OFDM OOBE suppression schemes are derived on the base of an original OFDM system without any other scheme, we first propose a generalized OFDM framework that is capable of describing these schemes no matter whether any one or more of the schemes is applied. Then, according to the place where these schemes are implemented in our framework, they are classified into three groups, namely symbol mapping techniques, precoding techniques, and time-domain techniques. Finally, based on the proposed framework, we propose three new schemes by combining a precoding scheme named singular value decomposition (SVD) precoding with three other schemes from the three groups, namely spectral precoding, N-continuous symbol mapping, and filtering. Numerical results show the power spectral density (PSD), peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR), and bit error rate (BER) performances of the three proposed schemes. Since the individual schemes have complementary characteristics, the three proposed combined schemes are constructed to maintain the merits and avoid the drawbacks of the individual schemes involved. Thus, it is demonstrated that the proposed framework can be employed to develop other new combined OOBE suppression schemes tailoring to some specific practical needs.

  5. Reliability based design optimization of concrete mix proportions using generalized ridge regression model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachna Aggarwal

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents Reliability Based Design Optimization (RBDO model to deal with uncertainties involved in concrete mix design process. The optimization problem is formulated in such a way that probabilistic concrete mix input parameters showing random characteristics are determined by minimizing the cost of concrete subjected to concrete compressive strength constraint for a given target reliability.  Linear and quadratic models based on Ordinary Least Square Regression (OLSR, Traditional Ridge Regression (TRR and Generalized Ridge Regression (GRR techniques have been explored to select the best model to explicitly represent compressive strength of concrete. The RBDO model is solved by Sequential Optimization and Reliability Assessment (SORA method using fully quadratic GRR model. Optimization results for a wide range of target compressive strength and reliability levels of 0.90, 0.95 and 0.99 have been reported. Also, safety factor based Deterministic Design Optimization (DDO designs for each case are obtained. It has been observed that deterministic optimal designs are cost effective but proposed RBDO model gives improved design performance.

  6. A general theory to analyse and design wireless power transfer based on impedance matching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuo; Chen, Linhui; Zhou, Yongchun; Cui, Tie Jun

    2014-10-01

    We propose a general theory to analyse and design the wireless power transfer (WPT) systems based on impedance matching. We take two commonly used structures as examples, the transformer-coupling-based WPT and the series/parallel capacitor-based WPT, to show how to design the impedance matching network (IMN) to obtain the maximum transfer efficiency and the maximum output power. Using the impedance matching theory (IMT), we derive a simple expression of the overall transfer efficiency by the coils' quality factors and the coupling coefficient, which has perfect accuracy compared to full-circuit simulations. Full-wave electromagnetic software, CST Microwave Studio, has been used to extract the parameters of coils, thus providing us a comprehensive way to simulate WPT systems directly from the coils' physical model. We have also discussed the relationship between the output power and the transfer efficiency, and found that the maximum output power and the maximum transfer efficiency may occur at different frequencies. Hence, both power and efficiency should be considered in real WPT applications. To validate the proposed theory, two types of WPT experiments have been conducted using 30 cm-diameter coils for lighting a 20 W light bulb with 60% efficiency over a distance of 50 cm. The experimental results have very good agreements to the theoretical predictions.

  7. A generalized Gaussian distribution based uncertainty sampling approach and its application in actual evapotranspiration assimilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shaohui

    2017-09-01

    It is extremely important for ensemble based actual evapotranspiration assimilation (AETA) to accurately sample the uncertainties. Traditionally, the perturbing ensemble is sampled from one prescribed multivariate normal distribution (MND). However, MND is under-represented in capturing the non-MND uncertainties caused by the nonlinear integration of land surface models while these hypernormal uncertainties can be better characterized by generalized Gaussian distribution (GGD) which takes MND as the special case. In this paper, one novel GGD based uncertainty sampling approach is outlined to create one hypernormal ensemble for the purpose of better improving land surface models with observation. With this sampling method, various assimilation methods can be tested in a common equation form. Experimental results on Noah LSM show that the outlined method is more powerful than MND in reducing the misfit between model forecasts and observations in terms of actual evapotranspiration, skin temperature, and soil moisture/ temperature in the 1st layer, and also indicate that the energy and water balances constrain ensemble based assimilation to simultaneously optimize all state and diagnostic variables. Overall evaluation expounds that the outlined approach is a better alternative than the traditional MND method for seizing assimilation uncertainties, and it can serve as a useful tool for optimizing hydrological models with data assimilation.

  8. General formulas for drag coefficient and settling velocity of sphere based on theoretical law

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Hongli; Fan Minqiang; Liu Airong; Dong Lianping

    2015-01-01

    The settlement of particles is of great importance in many areas. The accurate determination of drag coefficient and settling velocity in wide Reynolds number (Re) range remains a problem. In this paper, a series of new formulas for drag coefficient of spherical particles based on theoretical laws, such as the Stokes law, the Oseen law, and the Goldstein law, were developed and fitted using 480 groups of experimental data (Re<2 × 105). The results show that the 2nd approximation of a rational function containing only one parameter can describe CD–Re relationship accurately over the whole Re range of 0–2 × 105. The new developed formulas containing five parameters show higher goodness over wide Re range than presently existing equations. The introduction of the Oseen law is helpful for improving the fitting goodness of the empirical formulas. On the basis of one of the Oseen-based CD–Re formulas giving the lowest sum of squared relative errors Q over the whole Re range (Re<2 × 105), a general for-mula for settling velocity ut based on dimensionless parameters was proposed showing high goodness.

  9. Theoretical Thermochemistry for Organic Molecules: Development of the Generalized Connectivity-Based Hierarchy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramabhadran, Raghunath O; Raghavachari, Krishnan

    2011-07-12

    A generalized, unique thermochemical hierarchy applicable for all closed shell organic molecules is developed in this paper. In this chemically intuitive, structure-based approach, the connectivity of the atoms in an organic molecule is used to construct our hierarchy called "connectivity-based hierarchy" (CBH). The hierarchy has several rungs and ascending up the hierarchy increasingly balances the reaction energy. It requires no prior knowledge of the types of molecules and hybridizations for the appropriate balancing of the bond types and the bonding environments of the atoms. The rungs can be generated by an automated computer program for any closed shell organic molecule, and the first three rungs generate the simplest reactions for the widely used isodesmic, hypohomodesmotic, and hyperhomodesmotic schemes. The generated reaction schemes are unique for each rung and are derived in a simpler manner than previous approaches, avoiding potential errors. This work also suggests that for closed shell organic molecules, the previously well-studied homodesmotic scheme does not have a fundamental structure-based origin. In a preliminary application of CBH, density functional theory has been used to calculate accurate enthalpies of formation for a test set of 20 organic molecules. The performance of the hierarchy suggests that it will be useful to predict accurate thermodynamic properties of larger organic molecules.

  10. A neutron spectrum unfolding code based on generalized regression artificial neural networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz R, J. M.; Martinez B, M. R.; Castaneda M, R.; Solis S, L. O. [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Ingenieria Electrica, Av. Ramon Lopez Velarde 801, Col. Centro, 98000 Zacatecas, Zac. (Mexico); Vega C, H. R., E-mail: morvymm@yahoo.com.mx [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas, Zac. (Mexico)

    2015-10-15

    The most delicate part of neutron spectrometry, is the unfolding process. Then derivation of the spectral information is not simple because the unknown is not given directly as result of the measurements. Novel methods based on Artificial Neural Networks have been widely investigated. In prior works, back propagation neural networks (BPNN) have been used to solve the neutron spectrometry problem, however, some drawbacks still exist using this kind of neural nets, as the optimum selection of the network topology and the long training time. Compared to BPNN, is usually much faster to train a generalized regression neural network (GRNN). That is mainly because spread constant is the only parameter used in GRNN. Another feature is that the network will converge to a global minimum. In addition, often are more accurate than BPNN in prediction. These characteristics make GRNN be of great interest in the neutron spectrometry domain. In this work is presented a computational tool based on GRNN, capable to solve the neutron spectrometry problem. This computational code, automates the pre-processing, training and testing stages, the statistical analysis and the post-processing of the information, using 7 Bonner spheres rate counts as only entrance data. The code was designed for a Bonner Spheres System based on a {sup 6}LiI(Eu) neutron detector and a response matrix expressed in 60 energy bins taken from an International Atomic Energy Agency compilation. (Author)

  11. Internet-delivered acceptance-based behaviour therapy for generalized anxiety disorder: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlin, Mats; Andersson, Gerhard; Magnusson, Kristoffer; Johansson, Tomas; Sjögren, Johan; Håkansson, Andreas; Pettersson, Magnus; Kadowaki, Åsa; Cuijpers, Pim; Carlbring, Per

    2016-02-01

    Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is a disabling condition which can be treated with cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT). The present study tested the effects of therapist-guided internet-delivered acceptance-based behaviour therapy on symptoms of GAD and quality of life. An audio CD with acceptance and mindfulness exercises and a separate workbook were also included in the treatment. Participants diagnosed with GAD (N = 103) were randomly allocated to immediate therapist-guided internet-delivered acceptance-based behaviour therapy or to a waiting-list control condition. A six month follow-up was also included. Results using hierarchical linear modelling showed moderate to large effects on symptoms of GAD (Cohen's d = 0.70 to 0.98), moderate effects on depressive symptoms (Cohen's d = 0.51 to 0.56), and no effect on quality of life. Follow-up data showed maintained effects. While there was a 20% dropout rate, sensitivity analyses showed that dropouts did not differ in their degree of change during treatment. To conclude, our study suggests that internet-delivered acceptance-based behaviour therapy can be effective in reducing the symptoms of GAD.

  12. gevolution: a cosmological N-body code based on General Relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Adamek, Julian; Durrer, Ruth; Kunz, Martin

    2016-01-01

    We present a new N-body code, gevolution, for the evolution of large scale structure in the Universe. Our code is based on a weak field expansion of General Relativity and calculates all six metric degrees of freedom in Poisson gauge. N-body particles are evolved by solving the geodesic equation which we write in terms of a canonical momentum such that it remains valid also for relativistic particles. We validate the code by considering the Schwarzschild solution and, in the Newtonian limit, by comparing with the Newtonian N-body code Gadget-2. We then proceed with a simulation of large scale structure in a Universe with massive neutrinos where we study the gravitational slip induced by the neutrino shear stress. The code can be extended to include different kinds of dark energy or modified gravity models and going beyond the usually adopted quasi-static approximation. Our code is publicly available.

  13. A Non-symmetric Digital Image Secure Communication Scheme Based on Generalized Chaos Synchronization System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xiao-Hong; MIN Le-Quan

    2005-01-01

    Based on a generalized chaos synchronization system and a discrete Sinai map, a non-symmetric true color(RGB) digital image secur e communication scheme is proposed. The scheme first changes an ordinary RGB digital image with 8 bits into unrecognizable disorder codes and then transforms the disorder codes into an RGB digital image with 16 bits for transmitting. A receiver uses a non-symmetric key to verify the authentication of the received data origin,and decrypts the ciphertext. The scheme can encrypt and decrypt most formatted digital RGB images recognized by computers, and recover the plaintext almost without any errors. The scheme is suitable to be applied in network image communications. The analysis of the key space, sensitivity of key parameters, and correlation of encrypted images imply that this scheme has sound security.

  14. BangA: An Efficient and Flexible Generalization-Based Algorithm for Privacy Preserving Data Publication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeel Anjum

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Privacy-Preserving Data Publishing (PPDP has become a critical issue for companies and organizations that would release their data. k-Anonymization was proposed as a first generalization model to guarantee against identity disclosure of individual records in a data set. Point access methods (PAMs are not well studied for the problem of data anonymization. In this article, we propose yet another approximation algorithm for anonymization, coined BangA, that combines useful features from Point Access Methods (PAMs and clustering. Hence, it achieves fast computation and scalability as a PAM, and very high quality thanks to its density-based clustering step. Extensive experiments show the efficiency and effectiveness of our approach. Furthermore, we provide guidelines for extending BangA to achieve a relaxed form of differential privacy which provides stronger privacy guarantees as compared to traditional privacy definitions.

  15. AN EME BLIND SOURCE SEPARATION ALGORITHM BASED ON GENERALIZED EXPONENTIAL FUNCTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Miao Hao; Li Xiaodong; Tian Jing

    2008-01-01

    This letter investigates an improved blind source separation algorithm based on Maximum Entropy (ME) criteria. The original ME algorithm chooses the fixed exponential or sigmoid function as the nonlinear mapping function which can not match the original signal very well. A parameter estimation method is employed in this letter to approach the probability of density function of any signal with parameter-steered generalized exponential function. An improved learning rule and a natural gradient update formula of unmixing matrix are also presented. The algorithm of this letter can separate the mixture of super-Gaussian signals and also the mixture of sub-Gaussian signals. The simulation experiment demonstrates the efficiency of the algorithm.

  16. General Purpose Graphics Processing Unit Based High-Rate Rice Decompression and Reed-Solomon Decoding.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loughry, Thomas A.

    2015-02-01

    As the volume of data acquired by space-based sensors increases, mission data compression/decompression and forward error correction code processing performance must likewise scale. This competency development effort was explored using the General Purpose Graphics Processing Unit (GPGPU) to accomplish high-rate Rice Decompression and high-rate Reed-Solomon (RS) decoding at the satellite mission ground station. Each algorithm was implemented and benchmarked on a single GPGPU. Distributed processing across one to four GPGPUs was also investigated. The results show that the GPGPU has considerable potential for performing satellite communication Data Signal Processing, with three times or better performance improvements and up to ten times reduction in cost over custom hardware, at least in the case of Rice Decompression and Reed-Solomon Decoding.

  17. A Logical Design Method for Relational Databases Based on Generalization and Aggregation Semantics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘惟一; 姚弘

    1997-01-01

    In this paper,a series of esign methods for relational databases based on generalization and aggregation semantics is set up.The relationship between a class and its subclass s considered as a scheme constraint.The concept of inheritance dependencies,which describes the multiple inheritance among schemes, is presented in the paper.It is shown that the inference rules for inheritance dependencies are sound and complete.Furthermore,a series of results about the closure of inheritance dependencies and the minimal set of inheritance dependencies,which are analogues to functional dependencies,is obtained.In order to describe the aggregation semantices,the concept of aggregation dependencies is given.It is easy to implement these constraints under relational database management systems.

  18. Capturing hammerhead ribozyme structures in action by modulating general base catalysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-In Chi

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available We have obtained precatalytic (enzyme-substrate complex and postcatalytic (enzyme-product complex crystal structures of an active full-length hammerhead RNA that cleaves in the crystal. Using the natural satellite tobacco ringspot virus hammerhead RNA sequence, the self-cleavage reaction was modulated by substituting the general base of the ribozyme, G12, with A12, a purine variant with a much lower pKa that does not significantly perturb the ribozyme's atomic structure. The active, but slowly cleaving, ribozyme thus permitted isolation of enzyme-substrate and enzyme-product complexes without modifying the nucleophile or leaving group of the cleavage reaction, nor any other aspect of the substrate. The predissociation enzyme-product complex structure reveals RNA and metal ion interactions potentially relevant to transition-state stabilization that are absent in precatalytic structures.

  19. On a general class of regular rotating black holes based on a smeared mass distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis Larranaga

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work we investigate the behavior of a new general class of rotating regular black holes based on a non-Gaussian smeared mass distribution. It is shown that the existence of a fundamental minimal length cures the well-known problems in the terminal phase of black hole evaporation, since we find that there is a finite maximum temperature that the black hole reaches before cooling down to absolute zero, so that the evaporation ends up in a zero temperature extremal black hole whose mass and size depends on the value of the fundamental length and on the rotation parameter of the black hole. We also study the geodesic structure in these spacetimes and calculate the shadows that these black holes produce.

  20. Hydraulic fracturing model based on the discrete fracture model and the generalized J integral

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Z. Q.; Liu, Z. F.; Wang, X. H.; Zeng, B.

    2016-08-01

    The hydraulic fracturing technique is an effective stimulation for low permeability reservoirs. In fracturing models, one key point is to accurately calculate the flux across the fracture surface and the stress intensity factor. To achieve high precision, the discrete fracture model is recommended to calculate the flux. Using the generalized J integral, the present work obtains an accurate simulation of the stress intensity factor. Based on the above factors, an alternative hydraulic fracturing model is presented. Examples are included to demonstrate the reliability of the proposed model and its ability to model the fracture propagation. Subsequently, the model is used to describe the relationship between the geometry of the fracture and the fracturing equipment parameters. The numerical results indicate that the working pressure and the pump power will significantly influence the fracturing process.

  1. Electricity price forecasting using generalized regression neural network based on principal components analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛东晓; 刘达; 邢棉

    2008-01-01

    A combined model based on principal components analysis (PCA) and generalized regression neural network (GRNN) was adopted to forecast electricity price in day-ahead electricity market. PCA was applied to mine the main influence on day-ahead price, avoiding the strong correlation between the input factors that might influence electricity price, such as the load of the forecasting hour, other history loads and prices, weather and temperature; then GRNN was employed to forecast electricity price according to the main information extracted by PCA. To prove the efficiency of the combined model, a case from PJM (Pennsylvania-New Jersey-Maryland) day-ahead electricity market was evaluated. Compared to back-propagation (BP) neural network and standard GRNN, the combined method reduces the mean absolute percentage error about 3%.

  2. General moving objects recognition method based on graph embedding dimension reduction algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi ZHANG; Jie YANG; Kun LIU

    2009-01-01

    Effective and robust recognition and tracking of objects are the key problems in visual surveillance systems. Most existing object recognition methods were designed with particular objects in mind. This study presents a general moving objects recognition method using global features of targets. Targets are extracted with an adaptive Gaussian mixture model and their silhouette images are captured and unified. A new objects silhouette database is built to provide abundant samples to train the subspace feature. This database is more convincing than the previous ones. A more effective dimension reduction method based on graph embedding is used to obtain the projection eigenvector. In our experiments, we show the effective performance of our method in addressing the moving objects recognition problem and its superiority compared with the previous methods.

  3. Prediction and reconstruction of future and missing unobservable modified Weibull lifetime based on generalized order statistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amany E. Aly

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available When a system consisting of independent components of the same type, some appropriate actions may be done as soon as a portion of them have failed. It is, therefore, important to be able to predict later failure times from earlier ones. One of the well-known failure distributions commonly used to model component life, is the modified Weibull distribution (MWD. In this paper, two pivotal quantities are proposed to construct prediction intervals for future unobservable lifetimes based on generalized order statistics (gos from MWD. Moreover, a pivotal quantity is developed to reconstruct missing observations at the beginning of experiment. Furthermore, Monte Carlo simulation studies are conducted and numerical computations are carried out to investigate the efficiency of presented results. Finally, two illustrative examples for real data sets are analyzed.

  4. Quasi-Block Copolymers Based on a General Polymeric Chain Stopper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanguramath, Rajashekharayya A; Nealey, Paul F; Shenhar, Roy

    2016-07-11

    Quasi-block copolymers (q-BCPs) are block copolymers consisting of conventional and supramolecular blocks, in which the conventional block is end-terminated by a functionality that interacts with the supramolecular monomer (a "chain stopper" functionality). A new design of q-BCPs based on a general polymeric chain stopper, which consists of polystyrene end-terminated with a sulfonate group (PS-SO3 Li), is described. Through viscosity measurements and a detailed diffusion-ordered NMR spectroscopy study, it is shown that PS-SO3 Li can effectively cap two types of model supramolecular monomers to form q-BCPs in solution. Furthermore, differential scanning calorimetry data and structural characterization of thin films by scanning force microscopy suggests the existence of the q-BCP architecture in the melt. The new design considerably simplifies the synthesis of polymeric chain stoppers; thus promoting the utilization of q-BCPs as smart, nanostructured materials.

  5. General Purpose Graphics Processing Unit Based High-Rate Rice Decompression and Reed-Solomon Decoding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loughry, Thomas A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-02-01

    As the volume of data acquired by space-based sensors increases, mission data compression/decompression and forward error correction code processing performance must likewise scale. This competency development effort was explored using the General Purpose Graphics Processing Unit (GPGPU) to accomplish high-rate Rice Decompression and high-rate Reed-Solomon (RS) decoding at the satellite mission ground station. Each algorithm was implemented and benchmarked on a single GPGPU. Distributed processing across one to four GPGPUs was also investigated. The results show that the GPGPU has considerable potential for performing satellite communication Data Signal Processing, with three times or better performance improvements and up to ten times reduction in cost over custom hardware, at least in the case of Rice Decompression and Reed-Solomon Decoding.

  6. Generalization of the ordinary state-based peridynamic model for isotropic linear viscoelasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delorme, Rolland; Tabiai, Ilyass; Laberge Lebel, Louis; Lévesque, Martin

    2017-02-01

    This paper presents a generalization of the original ordinary state-based peridynamic model for isotropic linear viscoelasticity. The viscoelastic material response is represented using the thermodynamically acceptable Prony series approach. It can feature as many Prony terms as required and accounts for viscoelastic spherical and deviatoric components. The model was derived from an equivalence between peridynamic viscoelastic parameters and those appearing in classical continuum mechanics, by equating the free energy densities expressed in both frameworks. The model was simplified to a uni-dimensional expression and implemented to simulate a creep-recovery test. This implementation was finally validated by comparing peridynamic predictions to those predicted from classical continuum mechanics. An exact correspondence between peridynamics and the classical continuum approach was shown when the peridynamic horizon becomes small, meaning peridynamics tends toward classical continuum mechanics. This work provides a clear and direct means to researchers dealing with viscoelastic phenomena to tackle their problem within the peridynamic framework.

  7. Mining discriminative class codes for multi-class classification based on minimizing generalization errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiadon, Mongkon; Pipanmaekaporn, Luepol; Kamonsantiroj, Suwatchai

    2016-07-01

    Error Correcting Output Code (ECOC) has emerged as one of promising techniques for solving multi-class classification. In the ECOC framework, a multi-class problem is decomposed into several binary ones with a coding design scheme. Despite this, the suitable multi-class decomposition scheme is still ongoing research in machine learning. In this work, we propose a novel multi-class coding design method to mine the effective and compact class codes for multi-class classification. For a given n-class problem, this method decomposes the classes into subsets by embedding a structure of binary trees. We put forward a novel splitting criterion based on minimizing generalization errors across the classes. Then, a greedy search procedure is applied to explore the optimal tree structure for the problem domain. We run experiments on many multi-class UCI datasets. The experimental results show that our proposed method can achieve better classification performance than the common ECOC design methods.

  8. Non-participation in population-based disease prevention programs in general practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koopmans Berber

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The number of people with a chronic disease will strongly increase in the next decades. Therefore, prevention of disease becomes increasingly important. The aim of this systematic review was to identify factors that negatively influence participation in population-based disease prevention programs in General Practice and to establish whether the program type is related to non-participation levels. Methods We conducted a systematic review in Pubmed, EMBASE, CINAHL and PsycINFO, covering 2000 through July 6th 2012, to identify publications including information about characteristics of non-participants or reasons for non-participation in population-based disease prevention programs in General Practice. Results A total of 24 original studies met our criteria, seven of which focused on vaccination, eleven on screening aimed at early detection of disease, and six on screening aimed at identifying high risk of a disease, targeting a variety of diseases and conditions. Lack of personal relevance of the program, younger age, higher social deprivation and former non-participation were related to actual non-participation. No differences were found in non-participation levels or factors related to non-participation between the three program types. The large variation in non-participation levels within the program types may be partly due to differences in recruitment strategies, with more active, personalized strategies resulting in higher participation levels compared to an invitation letter. Conclusions There is still much to be gained by tailoring strategies to improve participation in those who are less likely to do so, namely younger individuals, those living in a deprived area and former non-participants. Participation may increase by applying more active recruitment strategies.

  9. Design of the SLAC RCE Platform: A General Purpose ATCA Based Data Acquisition System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herbst, R. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA (United States). Research Engineering Div.; Claus, R. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA (United States). Research Engineering Div.; Freytag, M. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA (United States). Research Engineering Div.; Haller, G. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA (United States). Research Engineering Div.; Huffer, M. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA (United States). Research Engineering Div.; Maldonado, S. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA (United States). Research Engineering Div.; Nishimura, K. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA (United States). Research Engineering Div.; O' Grady, C. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA (United States). Research Engineering Div.; Panetta, J. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA (United States). Research Engineering Div.; Perazzo, A. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA (United States). Research Engineering Div.; Reese, B. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA (United States). Research Engineering Div.; Ruckman, L. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA (United States). Research Engineering Div.; Thayer, J. G. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA (United States). Research Engineering Div.; Weaver, M. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA (United States). Research Engineering Div.

    2015-01-23

    The SLAC RCE platform is a general purpose clustered data acquisition system implemented on a custom ATCA compliant blade, called the Cluster On Board (COB). The core of the system is the Reconfigurable Cluster Element (RCE), which is a system-on-chip design based upon the Xilinx Zynq family of FPGAs, mounted on custom COB daughter-boards. The Zynq architecture couples a dual core ARM Cortex A9 based processor with a high performance 28nm FPGA. The RCE has 12 external general purpose bi-directional high speed links, each supporting serial rates of up to 12Gbps. 8 RCE nodes are included on a COB, each with a 10Gbps connection to an on-board 24-port Ethernet switch integrated circuit. The COB is designed to be used with a standard full-mesh ATCA backplane allowing multiple RCE nodes to be tightly interconnected with minimal interconnect latency. Multiple shelves can be clustered using the front panel 10-gbps connections. The COB also supports local and inter-blade timing and trigger distribution. An experiment specific Rear Transition Module adapts the 96 high speed serial links to specific experiments and allows an experiment-specific timing and busy feedback connection. This coupling of processors with a high performance FPGA fabric in a low latency, multiple node cluster allows high speed data processing that can be easily adapted to any physics experiment. RTEMS and Linux are both ported to the module. The RCE has been used or is the baseline for several current and proposed experiments (LCLS, HPS, LSST, ATLAS-CSC, LBNE, DarkSide, ILC-SiD, etc).

  10. Development and Preliminary Impacts of the Implementation of an Authentic Research-Based Experiment in General Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasik, Janice Hall; Cottone, Katelyn E.; Heethuis, Mitchell T.; Mueller, Anja

    2013-01-01

    Incorporating research-based lab activities into general chemistry at a large university can be challenging, considering the high enrollments and costs typically associated with the courses. Performing sweeping curricular overhauls of the general chemistry laboratory can be difficult, and in some cases discouraged, as many would rather maintain…

  11. Development and Preliminary Impacts of the Implementation of an Authentic Research-Based Experiment in General Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasik, Janice Hall; Cottone, Katelyn E.; Heethuis, Mitchell T.; Mueller, Anja

    2013-01-01

    Incorporating research-based lab activities into general chemistry at a large university can be challenging, considering the high enrollments and costs typically associated with the courses. Performing sweeping curricular overhauls of the general chemistry laboratory can be difficult, and in some cases discouraged, as many would rather maintain…

  12. The Performance of Native Speakers of English and ESL Speakers on the Computer-based TOEFL and GRE General Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stricker, L. J.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to replicate previous research on the construct validity of the paper-based version of the TOEFL and extend it to the computer-based TOEFL. Two samples of Graduate Record Examination (GRE) General Test-takers were used: native speakers of English specially recruited to take the computer-based TOEFL, and ESL…

  13. The Performance of Native Speakers of English and ESL Speakers on the Computer-based TOEFL and GRE General Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stricker, L. J.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to replicate previous research on the construct validity of the paper-based version of the TOEFL and extend it to the computer-based TOEFL. Two samples of Graduate Record Examination (GRE) General Test-takers were used: native speakers of English specially recruited to take the computer-based TOEFL, and ESL…

  14. 77 FR 14838 - General Electric-Hitachi Global Laser Enrichment LLC, Commercial Laser-Based Uranium Enrichment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-13

    ... COMMISSION General Electric-Hitachi Global Laser Enrichment LLC, Commercial Laser-Based Uranium Enrichment... applicant) to authorize construction of a laser-based uranium enrichment facility and possession and use of...-based uranium enrichment facility. Revisions to the application were submitted on March 23, 2010;...

  15. A General Threshold Signature and Authenticated Encryption Scheme Based on ElGamal System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulian Shang

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Based on ElGamal system, a group-oriented threshold signature and authenticated encryption scheme was put forward. After being signed by a signer group employing threshold signature scheme, the message was transmitted to a particular verifier group, and then the signature was verified through the cooperation of  ones from the verifier group with  members. Similarly, a general authenticated encryption scheme characterized by joint verification was put forward through integrating threshold signature scheme and message recovery technique together; After being encrypted singed by any  ones from a group with  members, the message was transmitted to a particular verifier group with members, and then recovered through the cooperation of any ones from the verifier group. The security of this scheme is based on Shamir threshold scheme and ElGamal system. It realized the directional transmission of message between different groups and enjoyed the characteristics of reduced communication load and lowered calculation complexity, etc.

  16. Amplitude spectrum compensation and phase spectrum correction of seismic data based on the generalized S transform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Huai-Lai; Wang Jun; Wang Ming-Chun; Shen Ming-Cheng; Zhang Xin-Kun; Liang Ping

    2014-01-01

    We propose a method for the compensation and phase correction of the ampli-tude spectrum based on the generalized S transform. The compensation of the amplitude spectrum within a reliable frequency range of the seismic record is performed in the S do-main to restore the amplitude spectrum of reflection. We use spectral simulation methods to fit the time-dependent amplitude spectrum and compensate for the amplitude attenuation owing to absorption. We use phase scanning to select the time-, space-, and frequency-dependent phases correction based on the parsimony criterion and eliminate the residual phase effect of the wavelet in the S domain. The method does not directly calculate the Q value;thus, it can be applied to the case of variable Q. The comparison of the theory model and field data verify that the proposed method can recover the amplitude spectrum of the strata reflectivity, while eliminating the effect of the residual phase of the wavelet. Thus, the wavelet approaches the zero-phase wavelet and, the seismic resolution is improved.

  17. A community-based epidemiological study of health anxiety and generalized anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sing; Lam, Ivy M H; Kwok, Kathleen P S; Leung, Candi M C

    2014-03-01

    This community-based study examined the frequency of worry about personal health in respondents with and without generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), and the impact of health anxiety on the disorder. A random community-based telephone survey of 5118 Chinese respondents aged 18-64 was conducted. A fully structured questionnaire covered the DSM-IV-TR criteria of GAD, major depressive episode (MDE), eight domains of worry, the seven-item Whiteley Index (WI-7), health service use, and socio-demographic information. Worry about personal health ranked fifth (75.6%) among eight domains of worries examined. GAD respondents with high level of health anxiety were significantly older, less educated, and had lower family income. High health anxiety significantly increased the occurrence of one-year MDE, previous persistent worry, previous persistent low mood, number of domains of worries, number of non-core DSM-IV-TR GAD symptoms, health service use, and mistrust of doctors. Health anxiety is common in GAD and may signify greater severity of the disorder. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. FluxExplorer: A general platform for modeling and analyses of metabolic networks based on stoichiometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Stoichiometry-based analyses of meta- bolic networks have aroused significant interest of systems biology researchers in recent years. It is necessary to develop a more convenient modeling platform on which users can reconstruct their network models using completely graphical operations, and explore them with powerful analyzing modules to get a better understanding of the properties of metabolic systems. Herein, an in silico platform, FluxExplorer, for metabolic modeling and analyses based on stoichiometry has been developed as a publicly available tool for systems biology research. This platform integrates various analytic approaches, in- cluding flux balance analysis, minimization of meta- bolic adjustment, extreme pathways analysis, shadow prices analysis, and singular value decom- position, providing a thorough characterization of the metabolic system. Using a graphic modeling process, metabolic networks can be reconstructed and modi- fied intuitively and conveniently. The inconsistencies of a model with respect to the FBA principles can be proved automatically. In addition, this platform sup- ports systems biology markup language (SBML). FluxExplorer has been applied to rebuild a metabolic network in mammalian mitochondria, producing meaningful results. Generally, it is a powerful and very convenient tool for metabolic network modeling and analysis.

  19. Validation of the Rasch-based Depression Screening in a large scale German general population sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norra Christine

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The study aimed at presenting normative data for both parallel forms of the "Rasch-based Depression Screening (DESC", to examine its Rasch model conformity and convergent and divergent validity based on a representative sample of the German general population. Methods The sample was selected with the assistance of a demographic consulting company applying a face to face interview (N = 2509; mean age = 49.4, SD = 18.2; 55.8% women. Adherence to Rasch model assumptions was determined with analysis of Rasch model fit (infit and outfit, unidimensionality, local independence (principal component factor analysis of the residuals, PCFAR and differential item functioning (DIF with regard to participants' age and gender. Norm values were calculated. Convergent and divergent validity was determined through intercorrelations with the depression and anxiety subscales of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS-D and HADS-A. Results Fit statistics were below critical values (rDESC-I = .61 and rDESC-II = .60, whereas correlations with HADS-A were rDESC-I = .62 and rDESC-II = .60. Conclusions This study provided further support for the psychometric quality of the DESC. Both forms of the DESC adhered to Rasch model assumptions and showed intercorrelations with HADS subscales that are in line with the literature. The presented normative data offer important advancements for the interpretation of the questionnaire scores and enhance its usefulness for clinical and research applications.

  20. Degradation data analysis based on a generalized Wiener process subject to measurement error

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Junxing; Wang, Zhihua; Zhang, Yongbo; Fu, Huimin; Liu, Chengrui; Krishnaswamy, Sridhar

    2017-09-01

    Wiener processes have received considerable attention in degradation modeling over the last two decades. In this paper, we propose a generalized Wiener process degradation model that takes unit-to-unit variation, time-correlated structure and measurement error into considerations simultaneously. The constructed methodology subsumes a series of models studied in the literature as limiting cases. A simple method is given to determine the transformed time scale forms of the Wiener process degradation model. Then model parameters can be estimated based on a maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) method. The cumulative distribution function (CDF) and the probability distribution function (PDF) of the Wiener process with measurement errors are given based on the concept of the first hitting time (FHT). The percentiles of performance degradation (PD) and failure time distribution (FTD) are also obtained. Finally, a comprehensive simulation study is accomplished to demonstrate the necessity of incorporating measurement errors in the degradation model and the efficiency of the proposed model. Two illustrative real applications involving the degradation of carbon-film resistors and the wear of sliding metal are given. The comparative results show that the constructed approach can derive a reasonable result and an enhanced inference precision.

  1. Modelling of Ion Transport in Solids with a General Bond Valence Based Force-Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Adams

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Empirical bond length - bond valence relations provide insight into the link between structure of and ion transport in solid electrolytes. Building on our earlier systematic adjustment of bond valence (BV parameters to the bond softness, here we discuss how the squared BV mismatch can be linked to the absolute energy scale and used as a general Morse-type interaction potential for analyzing low-energy pathways in ion conducting solid or mixed conductors either by an energy landscape approach or by molecular dynamics (MD simulations. For a wide range of Lithium oxides we could thus model ion transport revealing significant differences to an earlier geometric approach. Our novel BV-based force-field has also been applied to investigate a range of mixed conductors, focusing on cathode materials for lithium ion battery (LIB applications to promote a systematic design of LIB cathodes that combine high energy density with high power density. To demonstrate the versatility of the new BV-based force-field it is applied in exploring various strategies to enhance the power performance of safe low cost LIB materials (LiFePO4, LiVPO4F, LiFeSO4F, etc..

  2. Fermion unification model based on the intrinsic SU(8 symmetry of a generalized Dirac equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eckart eMarsch

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A natural generalization of the original Dirac spinor into a multi-component spinor is achieved, which corresponds to the single lepton and the three quarks of the first family of the standard model of elementary particle physics. Different fermions result from similarity transformations of the Dirac equation, but apparently there can be no more fermions according to the maximal multiplicity revealed in this study. Rotations in the fermion state space are achieved by the unitary generators of the U(1 and the SU(3 groups, corresponding to quantum electrodynamics (QED based on electric charge and chromodynamics (QCD based on colour charge. In addition to hypercharge the dual degree of freedom of hyperspin emerges, which occurs due to the duplicity implied by the two related (Weyl and Dirac representations of the Dirac equation. This yields the SU(2 symmetry of the weak interaction, which can be married to U(1 to generate the unified electroweak interaction as in the standard model. Therefore, the symmetry group encompassing all the three groups mentioned above is SU(8, which can accommodate and unify the observed eight basic stable fermions.

  3. A general science-based framework for dynamical spatio-temporal models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wikle, C.K.; Hooten, M.B.

    2010-01-01

    Spatio-temporal statistical models are increasingly being used across a wide variety of scientific disciplines to describe and predict spatially-explicit processes that evolve over time. Correspondingly, in recent years there has been a significant amount of research on new statistical methodology for such models. Although descriptive models that approach the problem from the second-order (covariance) perspective are important, and innovative work is being done in this regard, many real-world processes are dynamic, and it can be more efficient in some cases to characterize the associated spatio-temporal dependence by the use of dynamical models. The chief challenge with the specification of such dynamical models has been related to the curse of dimensionality. Even in fairly simple linear, first-order Markovian, Gaussian error settings, statistical models are often over parameterized. Hierarchical models have proven invaluable in their ability to deal to some extent with this issue by allowing dependency among groups of parameters. In addition, this framework has allowed for the specification of science based parameterizations (and associated prior distributions) in which classes of deterministic dynamical models (e. g., partial differential equations (PDEs), integro-difference equations (IDEs), matrix models, and agent-based models) are used to guide specific parameterizations. Most of the focus for the application of such models in statistics has been in the linear case. The problems mentioned above with linear dynamic models are compounded in the case of nonlinear models. In this sense, the need for coherent and sensible model parameterizations is not only helpful, it is essential. Here, we present an overview of a framework for incorporating scientific information to motivate dynamical spatio-temporal models. First, we illustrate the methodology with the linear case. We then develop a general nonlinear spatio-temporal framework that we call general quadratic

  4. A General Response System Control Method Based on Backstepping Design for Synchronization of Continuous Scalar Chaotic Signal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jing; GAO Jin-Feng; MA Xi-Kui; LIANG Zhan-Hong

    2006-01-01

    @@ A general response system control method for synchronization of continuous scalar chaotic signal is presented. The proposed canonical general response system can cover most of the well-known chaotic systems. Conversely, each of these chaotic systems can also be used to construct the general response system. Furthermore, a novel controller of the proposed response system is designed based on backstepping technique, with which the output of the general response system and the given continuous chaotic signal can synchronize perfectly. Two numerical examples are given to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed control method.

  5. A generalized Fourier penalty in prior-image-based reconstruction for cross-platform imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourmorteza, A.; Siewerdsen, J. H.; Stayman, J. W.

    2016-03-01

    Sequential CT studies present an excellent opportunity to apply prior-image-based reconstruction (PIBR) methods that leverage high-fidelity prior imaging studies to improve image quality and/or reduce x-ray exposure in subsequent studies. One major obstacle in using PIBR is that the initial and subsequent studies are often performed on different scanners (e.g. diagnostic CT followed by CBCT for interventional guidance); this results in mismatch in attenuation values due to hardware and software differences. While improved artifact correction techniques can potentially mitigate such differences, the correction is often incomplete. Here, we present an alternate strategy where the PIBR itself is used to mitigate these differences. We define a new penalty for the previously introduced PIBR called Reconstruction of Difference (RoD). RoD differs from many other PIBRs in that it reconstructs only changes in the anatomy (vs. reconstructing the current anatomy). Direct regularization of the difference image in RoD provides an opportunity to selectively penalize spatial frequencies of the difference image (e.g. low frequency differences associated with attenuation offsets and shading artifacts) without interfering with the variations in unchanged background image. We leverage this flexibility and introduce a novel regularization strategy using a generalized Fourier penalty within the RoD framework and develop the modified reconstruction algorithm. We evaluate the performance of the new approach in both simulation studies and in physical CBCT test-bench data. We find that generalized Fourier penalty can be highly effective in reducing low-frequency x-ray artifacts through selective suppression of spatial frequencies in the reconstructed difference image.

  6. A characteristic based volume penalization method for general evolution problems applied to compressible viscous flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown-Dymkoski, Eric; Kasimov, Nurlybek; Vasilyev, Oleg V.

    2014-04-01

    In order to introduce solid obstacles into flows, several different methods are used, including volume penalization methods which prescribe appropriate boundary conditions by applying local forcing to the constitutive equations. One well known method is Brinkman penalization, which models solid obstacles as porous media. While it has been adapted for compressible, incompressible, viscous and inviscid flows, it is limited in the types of boundary conditions that it imposes, as are most volume penalization methods. Typically, approaches are limited to Dirichlet boundary conditions. In this paper, Brinkman penalization is extended for generalized Neumann and Robin boundary conditions by introducing hyperbolic penalization terms with characteristics pointing inward on solid obstacles. This Characteristic-Based Volume Penalization (CBVP) method is a comprehensive approach to conditions on immersed boundaries, providing for homogeneous and inhomogeneous Dirichlet, Neumann, and Robin boundary conditions on hyperbolic and parabolic equations. This CBVP method can be used to impose boundary conditions for both integrated and non-integrated variables in a systematic manner that parallels the prescription of exact boundary conditions. Furthermore, the method does not depend upon a physical model, as with porous media approach for Brinkman penalization, and is therefore flexible for various physical regimes and general evolutionary equations. Here, the method is applied to scalar diffusion and to direct numerical simulation of compressible, viscous flows. With the Navier-Stokes equations, both homogeneous and inhomogeneous Neumann boundary conditions are demonstrated through external flow around an adiabatic and heated cylinder. Theoretical and numerical examination shows that the error from penalized Neumann and Robin boundary conditions can be rigorously controlled through an a priori penalization parameter η. The error on a transient boundary is found to converge as O

  7. Family-Joining: A Fast Distance-Based Method for Constructing Generally Labeled Trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalaghatgi, Prabhav; Pfeifer, Nico; Lengauer, Thomas

    2016-10-01

    The widely used model for evolutionary relationships is a bifurcating tree with all taxa/observations placed at the leaves. This is not appropriate if the taxa have been densely sampled across evolutionary time and may be in a direct ancestral relationship, or if there is not enough information to fully resolve all the branching points in the evolutionary tree. In this article, we present a fast distance-based agglomeration method called family-joining (FJ) for constructing so-called generally labeled trees in which taxa may be placed at internal vertices and the tree may contain polytomies. FJ constructs such trees on the basis of pairwise distances and a distance threshold. We tested three methods for threshold selection, FJ-AIC, FJ-BIC, and FJ-CV, which minimize Akaike information criterion, Bayesian information criterion, and cross-validation error, respectively. When compared with related methods on simulated data, FJ-BIC was among the best at reconstructing the correct tree across a wide range of simulation scenarios. FJ-BIC was applied to HIV sequences sampled from individuals involved in a known transmission chain. The FJ-BIC tree was found to be compatible with almost all transmission events. On average, internal branches in the FJ-BIC tree have higher bootstrap support than branches in the leaf-labeled bifurcating tree constructed using RAxML. 36% and 25% of the internal branches in the FJ-BIC tree and RAxML tree, respectively, have bootstrap support greater than 70%. To the best of our knowledge the method presented here is the first attempt at modeling evolutionary relationships using generally labeled trees.

  8. Web-based consultation between general practitioners and nephrologists: a cluster randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gelder, Vincent A; Scherpbier-de Haan, Nynke D; van Berkel, Saskia; Akkermans, Reinier P; de Grauw, Inge S; Adang, Eddy M; Assendelft, Pim J; de Grauw, Wim J C; Biermans, Marion C J; Wetzels, Jack F M

    2017-08-01

    Consultation of a nephrologist is important in aligning care for patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) at the primary-secondary care interface. However, current consultation methods come with practical difficulties that can lead to postponed consultation or patient referral instead. This study aimed to investigate whether a web-based consultation platform, telenephrology, led to a lower referral rate of indicated patients. Furthermore, we assessed consultation rate, quality of care, costs and general practitioner (GPs') experiences with telenephrology. Cluster randomized controlled trial with 47 general practices in the Netherlands was randomized to access to telenephrology or to enhanced usual care. A total of 3004 CKD patients aged 18 years or older who were under primary care were included (intervention group n = 1277, control group n = 1727) and 2693 completed the trial. All practices participated in a CKD management course and were given an overview of their CKD patients. The referral rates amounted to 2.3% (n = 29) in the intervention group and 3.0% (n = 52) in the control group, which was a non-significant difference, OR 0.61; 95% CI 0.31 to 1.23. The intervention group's consultation rate was 6.3% (n = 81) against 5.0% (n = 87) (OR 2.00; 95% CI 0.75-5.33). We found no difference in quality of care or costs. The majority of GPs had a positive opinion about telenephrology. The data in our study do not allow for conclusions on the effect of telenephrology on the rate of patient referrals and provider-to-provider consultations, compared to conventional methods. It was positively evaluated by GPs and was non-inferior in terms of quality of care and costs.

  9. [Promotion of community-based care in Africa: example of community general practice in Benin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplain, Roland; Yacoubou, Ismaïl; Adedemy, Didier; Sani, Alidou; Takam, Sandrine; Desplats, Dominique

    2014-01-01

    Considerable effort has been made to provide rural African populations with basic health care, but the quality of this care remains unsatisfactory due to the absence of first-line GPs. This is a paradoxical situation in view of the large number of physicians trained in medical schools in French-speaking Africa and Madagascar. of the lack of GPs working in rural areas is a real concern, as many young doctors remain unemployed in cities. For more than 20 years, the NGO Santé Sud has proposed a Community General Medicine concept, which, combined with a support system, has allowed the installation of more than 200 community GPs in Mali and Madagascar. The advantage of this concept is that it provides family medicine and primary health care in the same practice. Since 2009, Santé Sud supports an installation project in rural areas of northern Benin, where community GPs work independently, as a complementary partner of the public sector. Since 2013, the installation process comprises a university degree created with the University of Parakou Faculty of Medicine. Based on this experience in Benin, the authors show that the presence of a first-line general practitioner is an original strategy that provides a major contribution to health promotion : reducing health inequalities between rural and urban populations, allowing women to receive medically assisted childbirth close to home, developing family planning activities, education and health care for chronic diseases, strengthening health coverage by participating in vaccination campaigns, etc. Due to their functions and proximity, community GPs represent an added value for health promotion.

  10. Generalized in vitro-in vivo relationship (IVIVR model based on artificial neural networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mendyk A

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Aleksander Mendyk,1 Pawel Tuszynski,1 Sebastian Polak,2 Renata Jachowicz1 1Department of Pharmaceutical Technology and Biopharmaceutics, 2Department of Social Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Kraków, Poland Background: The aim of this study was to develop a generalized in vitro-in vivo relationship (IVIVR model based on in vitro dissolution profiles together with quantitative and qualitative composition of dosage formulations as covariates. Such a model would be of substantial aid in the early stages of development of a pharmaceutical formulation, when no in vivo results are yet available and it is impossible to create a classical in vitro-in vivo correlation (IVIVC/IVIVR. Methods: Chemoinformatics software was used to compute the molecular descriptors of drug substances (ie, active pharmaceutical ingredients and excipients. The data were collected from the literature. Artificial neural networks were used as the modeling tool. The training process was carried out using the 10-fold cross-validation technique. Results: The database contained 93 formulations with 307 inputs initially, and was later limited to 28 in a course of sensitivity analysis. The four best models were introduced into the artificial neural network ensemble. Complete in vivo profiles were predicted accurately for 37.6% of the formulations. Conclusion: It has been shown that artificial neural networks can be an effective predictive tool for constructing IVIVR in an integrated generalized model for various formulations. Because IVIVC/IVIVR is classically conducted for 2–4 formulations and with a single active pharmaceutical ingredient, the approach described here is unique in that it incorporates various active pharmaceutical ingredients and dosage forms into a single model. Thus, preliminary IVIVC/IVIVR can be available without in vivo data, which is impossible using current IVIVC/IVIVR procedures. Keywords: artificial neural networks

  11. A neutron spectrum unfolding code based on generalized regression artificial neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Rosario Martinez-Blanco, Ma; Ornelas-Vargas, Gerardo; Castañeda-Miranda, Celina Lizeth; Solís-Sánchez, Luis Octavio; Castañeda-Miranada, Rodrigo; Vega-Carrillo, Héctor René; Celaya-Padilla, Jose M; Garza-Veloz, Idalia; Martínez-Fierro, Margarita; Ortiz-Rodríguez, José Manuel

    2016-11-01

    The most delicate part of neutron spectrometry, is the unfolding process. The derivation of the spectral information is not simple because the unknown is not given directly as a result of the measurements. Novel methods based on Artificial Neural Networks have been widely investigated. In prior works, back propagation neural networks (BPNN) have been used to solve the neutron spectrometry problem, however, some drawbacks still exist using this kind of neural nets, i.e. the optimum selection of the network topology and the long training time. Compared to BPNN, it's usually much faster to train a generalized regression neural network (GRNN). That's mainly because spread constant is the only parameter used in GRNN. Another feature is that the network will converge to a global minimum, provided that the optimal values of spread has been determined and that the dataset adequately represents the problem space. In addition, GRNN are often more accurate than BPNN in the prediction. These characteristics make GRNNs to be of great interest in the neutron spectrometry domain. This work presents a computational tool based on GRNN capable to solve the neutron spectrometry problem. This computational code, automates the pre-processing, training and testing stages using a k-fold cross validation of 3 folds, the statistical analysis and the post-processing of the information, using 7 Bonner spheres rate counts as only entrance data. The code was designed for a Bonner Spheres System based on a (6)LiI(Eu) neutron detector and a response matrix expressed in 60 energy bins taken from an International Atomic Energy Agency compilation.

  12. Documenting organisational development in general practice using a group-based assessment method: the Maturity Matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Tina; Siersma, Volkert Dirk; Løgstrup, Louise; Buch, Martin Sandberg; Elwyn, Glyn; Edwards, Adrian

    2010-10-01

    The Maturity Matrix (MM) comprises a formative evaluation instrument for primary care practices to self-assess their degree of organisational development in a group setting, guided by an external facilitator. The practice teams discuss organisational development, score their own performance and set improvement goals for the following year. The objective of this project was to introduce a translated and culturally adapted version of the MM in Denmark, to test its feasibility, to promote and document organisational change in general practices and to analyse associations between the recorded change(s) and structural factors in practices and the factors associated with the MM process. MM was used by general practices in three counties in Denmark, in two assessment sessions 1 year apart. First rounds of MM visits were carried out in 2006-2007 in 60 practice teams (320 participants (163 GPs, 157 staff)) and the second round in 2007-2008. A total of 48 practice teams (228 participants (117 GPs; 111 staff) participated in both sessions. The MM sessions were the primary intervention. Moreover, in about half of the practices, the facilitator reminded practice teams of their goals by sending them the written report of the initial session and contacted the practices regularly by telephone reminding them of the goals they had set. Those practice teams had password-protected access to their own and benchmark data. Where the minimum possible is 0 and maximum possible is 8, the mean overall MM score increased from 4.4 to 5.3 (difference=0.9, 95%, CI 0.76 to 1.06) from first to second sessions, indicating that development had taken place as measured by this group-based self-evaluation method. There was some evidence that lower-scoring dimensions were prioritised and more limited evidence that the prioritisation and interventions between meetings were helpful to achieve changes. This study provides evidence that MM worked well in general practices in Denmark. Practice teams appeared

  13. Attenuation compensation of GPR signal based on generalized S-transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shufan; Zhao, Yonghui; Qin, Tan; An, Cong

    2017-04-01

    Ground penetrating radar (GPR), as a nondestructive technique, has been widely used in civil engineering. Due to the complexity of the engineering conditions and attenuation of the GPR signal with depth, the radargram contained deep information usually shows a low resolution and S/N ratio. It might be one of the most difficult problems to GPR data interpretation, which limits the further application of the GPR method in civil engineering. The traditional way, such as a manual or automatic gain technique, was commonly used to enhance the weak GPR signal of deep target. However, due to the non-stationary of GPR signal, only the energy compensation in time or frequency domain may be not appropriate while using the manual or automatic gain methods. In this sense, neither the automatic gain compensation nor the other gain method seem likely difficult to obtain better results. In fact, it's not reasonable to separate the information in time and frequency domain from GPR data. The S-transform is a time-frequency analysis technique, which makes it possible for analyzing the GPR signal in time and frequency domain simultaneously. In addition, use S-transform to GPR data can preserve the original information in a wide frequency range. Here, we proposed a generalized S-transform based on exponential function and used it to the attenuation compensation of GPR signal. Firstly, the GPR data were transform to time-frequency domain using generalized S-transform trace by trace. Then the high-frequency component will be weighted at each time sample according to the attenuation ratio of low-frequency component. In this way the spectrum difference of each frequency component between late and early sampling time have the same ratio factor, which greatly compensates the attenuation of high-frequency component. Finally, the well compensated GPR data were obtained by inverse S-transform. Synthetic and real GPR data were used to verify the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed

  14. A multichannel nonlinear adaptive noise canceller based on generalized FLANN for fetal ECG extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yaping; Xiao, Yegui; Wei, Guo; Sun, Jinwei

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a multichannel nonlinear adaptive noise canceller (ANC) based on the generalized functional link artificial neural network (FLANN, GFLANN) is proposed for fetal electrocardiogram (FECG) extraction. A FIR filter and a GFLANN are equipped in parallel in each reference channel to respectively approximate the linearity and nonlinearity between the maternal ECG (MECG) and the composite abdominal ECG (AECG). A fast scheme is also introduced to reduce the computational cost of the FLANN and the GFLANN. Two (2) sets of ECG time sequences, one synthetic and one real, are utilized to demonstrate the improved effectiveness of the proposed nonlinear ANC. The real dataset is derived from the Physionet non-invasive FECG database (PNIFECGDB) including 55 multichannel recordings taken from a pregnant woman. It contains two subdatasets that consist of 14 and 8 recordings, respectively, with each recording being 90 s long. Simulation results based on these two datasets reveal, on the whole, that the proposed ANC does enjoy higher capability to deal with nonlinearity between MECG and AECG as compared with previous ANCs in terms of fetal QRS (FQRS)-related statistics and morphology of the extracted FECG waveforms. In particular, for the second real subdataset, the F1-measure results produced by the PCA-based template subtraction (TSpca) technique and six (6) single-reference channel ANCs using LMS- and RLS-based FIR filters, Volterra filter, FLANN, GFLANN, and adaptive echo state neural network (ESN a ) are 92.47%, 93.70%, 94.07%, 94.22%, 94.90%, 94.90%, and 95.46%, respectively. The same F1-measure statistical results from five (5) multi-reference channel ANCs (LMS- and RLS-based FIR filters, Volterra filter, FLANN, and GFLANN) for the second real subdataset turn out to be 94.08%, 94.29%, 94.68%, 94.91%, and 94.96%, respectively. These results indicate that the ESN a and GFLANN perform best, with the ESN a being slightly better than the GFLANN but about four times more

  15. Electrophilic assistance to the cleavage of an RNA model phopshodiester via specific and general base-catalyzed mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corona-Martínez, David Octavio; Gomez-Tagle, Paola; Yatsimirsky, Anatoly K

    2012-10-19

    Kinetics of transesterification of the RNA model substrate 2-hydroxypropyl 4-nitrophenyl phosphate promoted by Mg(2+) and Ca(2+), the most common biological metals acting as cofactors for nuclease enzymes and ribozymes, as well as by Co(NH(3))(6)(3+), Co(en)(3)(3+), Li(+), and Na(+) cations, often employed as mechanistic probes, was studied in 80% v/v (50 mol %) aqueous DMSO, a medium that allows one to discriminate easily specific base (OH(-)-catalyzed) and general base (buffer-catalyzed) reaction paths. All cations assist the specific base reaction, but only Mg(2+) and Na(+) assist the general base reaction. For Mg(2+)-assisted reactions, the solvent deuterium isotope effects are 1.23 and 0.25 for general base and specific base mechanisms, respectively. Rate constants for Mg(2+)-assisted general base reactions measured with different bases fit the Brønsted correlation with a slope of 0.38, significantly lower than the slope for the unassisted general base reaction (0.77). Transition state binding constants for catalysts in the specific base reaction (K(‡)(OH)) both in aqueous DMSO and pure water correlate with their binding constants to 4-nitrophenyl phosphate dianion (K(NPP)) used as a minimalist transition state model. It was found that K(‡)(OH) ≈ K(NPP) for "protic" catalysts (Co(NH(3))(6)(3+), Co(en)(3)(3+), guanidinium), but K(‡)(OH) ≫ K(NPP) for Mg(2+) and Ca(2+) acting as Lewis acids. It appears from results of this study that Mg(2+) is unique in its ability to assist efficiently the general base-catalyzed transesterification often occurring in active sites of nuclease enzymes and ribozymes.

  16. Comparing Image-Based Methods for Assessing Visual Clutter in Generalized Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touya, G.; Decherf, B.; Lalanne, M.; Dumont, M.

    2015-08-01

    Map generalization abstracts and simplifies geographic information to derive maps at smaller scales. The automation of map generalization requires techniques to evaluate the global quality of a generalized map. The quality and legibility of a generalized map is related to the complexity of the map, or the amount of clutter in the map, i.e. the excessive amount of information and its disorganization. Computer vision research is highly interested in measuring clutter in images, and this paper proposes to compare some of the existing techniques from computer vision, applied to generalized maps evaluation. Four techniques from the literature are described and tested on a large set of maps, generalized at different scales: edge density, subband entropy, quad tree complexity, and segmentation clutter. The results are analyzed against several criteria related to generalized maps, the identification of cluttered areas, the preservation of the global amount of information, the handling of occlusions and overlaps, foreground vs background, and blank space reduction.

  17. COMPARING IMAGE-BASED METHODS FOR ASSESSING VISUAL CLUTTER IN GENERALIZED MAPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Touya

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Map generalization abstracts and simplifies geographic information to derive maps at smaller scales. The automation of map generalization requires techniques to evaluate the global quality of a generalized map. The quality and legibility of a generalized map is related to the complexity of the map, or the amount of clutter in the map, i.e. the excessive amount of information and its disorganization. Computer vision research is highly interested in measuring clutter in images, and this paper proposes to compare some of the existing techniques from computer vision, applied to generalized maps evaluation. Four techniques from the literature are described and tested on a large set of maps, generalized at different scales: edge density, subband entropy, quad tree complexity, and segmentation clutter. The results are analyzed against several criteria related to generalized maps, the identification of cluttered areas, the preservation of the global amount of information, the handling of occlusions and overlaps, foreground vs background, and blank space reduction.

  18. A general paradigm to model reaction-based biogeochemical processes in batch systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yilin; Yeh, Gour-Tsyh; Burgos, William D.

    2003-04-01

    This paper presents the development and illustration of a numerical model of reaction-based geochemical and biochemical processes with mixed equilibrium and kinetic reactions. The objective is to provide a general paradigm for modeling reactive chemicals in batch systems, with expectations that it is applicable to reactive chemical transport problems. The unique aspects of the paradigm are to simultaneously (1) facilitate the segregation (isolation) of linearly independent kinetic reactions and thus enable the formulation and parameterization of individual rates one reaction by one reaction when linearly dependent kinetic reactions are absent, (2) enable the inclusion of virtually any type of equilibrium expressions and kinetic rates users want to specify, (3) reduce problem stiffness by eliminating all fast reactions from the set of ordinary differential equations governing the evolution of kinetic variables, (4) perform systematic operations to remove redundant fast reactions and irrelevant kinetic reactions, (5) systematically define chemical components and explicitly enforce mass conservation, (6) accomplish automation in decoupling fast reactions from slow reactions, and (7) increase the robustness of numerical integration of the governing equations with species switching schemes. None of the existing models to our knowledge has included these scopes simultaneously. This model (BIOGEOCHEM) is a general computer code to simulate biogeochemical processes in batch systems from a reaction-based mechanistic standpoint, and is designed to be easily coupled with transport models. To make the model applicable to a wide range of problems, programmed reaction types include aqueous complexation, adsorption-desorption, ion-exchange, oxidation-reduction, precipitation-dissolution, acid-base reactions, and microbial mediated reactions. In addition, user-specified reaction types can be programmed into the model. Any reaction can be treated as fast/equilibrium or slow

  19. Violence Affects Physical and Mental Health Differently: The General Population Based Tromso Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oddgeir Friborg

    Full Text Available This general population-based study examined associations between violence and mental health, musculoskeletal pain, and early disability pension. The prevalence and consequences of good vs. poor adjustment (resilience vs. vulnerability following encounters with violence were also examined. Data were based on the sixth wave of the "Tromsø Study" (N = 12,981; 65.7% response rate, 53.4% women, M-age = 57.5 years, SD-age = 12.7 years. Self-reported data on psychological (threats and physical violence (beaten/kicked, mental health (anxiety/depression, musculoskeletal pain (MSP, and granting of disability pension (DP were collected. Men suffered more violent events during childhood than women did, and vice versa during adulthood. Psychological violence implied poorer mental health and slightly more MSP than physical violence. The risk of MSP was highest for violence occurring during childhood in women and during the last year for men. A dose-response relationship between an increasing number of violent encounters and poorer health was observed. About 58% of individuals reported no negative impact of violence (hence, resilience group, whereas 42% considered themselves as more vulnerable following encounters with violence. Regression analyses indicated comparable mental health but slightly more MSP in the resilience group compared to the unexposed group, whereas the vulnerable group had significantly worse health overall and a higher risk of early granting of DP. Resilience is not an all-or-nothing matter, as physical ailments may characterize individuals adapting well following encounters with violence.

  20. A general theory of evolution based on energy efficiency: its implications for diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Anthony J; Lee, Patrick Y; Doux, John D; Conley, Buford R

    2006-01-01

    We propose a general theory of evolution based on energy efficiency. Life represents an emergent property of energy. The earth receives energy from cosmic sources such as the sun. Biologic life can be characterized by the conversion of available energy into complex systems. Direct energy converters such as photosynthetic microorganisms and plants transform light energy into high-energy phosphate bonds that fuel biochemical work. Indirect converters such as herbivores and carnivores predominantly feed off the food chain supplied by these direct converters. Improving energy efficiency confers competitive advantage in the contest among organisms for energy. We introduce a term, return on energy (ROE), as a measure of energy efficiency. We define ROE as a ratio of the amount of energy acquired by a system to the amount of energy consumed to generate that gain. Life-death cycling represents a tactic to sample the environment for innovations that allow increases in ROE to develop over generations rather than an individual lifespan. However, the variation-selection strategem of Darwinian evolution may define a particular tactic rather than an overarching biological paradigm. A theory of evolution based on competition for energy and driven by improvements in ROE both encompasses prior notions of evolution and portends post-Darwinian mechanisms. Such processes may involve the exchange of non-genetic traits that improve ROE, as exemplified by cognitive adaptations or memes. Under these circumstances, indefinite persistence may become favored over life-death cycling, as increases in ROE may then occur more efficiently within a single lifespan rather than over multiple generations. The key to this transition may involve novel methods to address the promotion of health and cognitive plasticity. We describe the implications of this theory for human diseases.

  1. A generalized physiologically-based toxicokinetic modeling system for chemical mixtures containing metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isukapalli Sastry S

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Humans are routinely and concurrently exposed to multiple toxic chemicals, including various metals and organics, often at levels that can cause adverse and potentially synergistic effects. However, toxicokinetic modeling studies of exposures to these chemicals are typically performed on a single chemical basis. Furthermore, the attributes of available models for individual chemicals are commonly estimated specifically for the compound studied. As a result, the available models usually have parameters and even structures that are not consistent or compatible across the range of chemicals of concern. This fact precludes the systematic consideration of synergistic effects, and may also lead to inconsistencies in calculations of co-occurring exposures and corresponding risks. There is a need, therefore, for a consistent modeling framework that would allow the systematic study of cumulative risks from complex mixtures of contaminants. Methods A Generalized Toxicokinetic Modeling system for Mixtures (GTMM was developed and evaluated with case studies. The GTMM is physiologically-based and uses a consistent, chemical-independent physiological description for integrating widely varying toxicokinetic models. It is modular and can be directly "mapped" to individual toxicokinetic models, while maintaining physiological consistency across different chemicals. Interaction effects of complex mixtures can be directly incorporated into the GTMM. Conclusions The application of GTMM to different individual metals and metal compounds showed that it explains available observational data as well as replicates the results from models that have been optimized for individual chemicals. The GTMM also made it feasible to model toxicokinetics of complex, interacting mixtures of multiple metals and nonmetals in humans, based on available literature information. The GTMM provides a central component in the development of a "source

  2. A General, Adaptive, Roadmap-Based Algorithm for Protein Motion Computation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molloy, Kevin; Shehu, Amarda

    2016-03-01

    Precious information on protein function can be extracted from a detailed characterization of protein equilibrium dynamics. This remains elusive in wet and dry laboratories, as function-modulating transitions of a protein between functionally-relevant, thermodynamically-stable and meta-stable structural states often span disparate time scales. In this paper we propose a novel, robotics-inspired algorithm that circumvents time-scale challenges by drawing analogies between protein motion and robot motion. The algorithm adapts the popular roadmap-based framework in robot motion computation to handle the more complex protein conformation space and its underlying rugged energy surface. Given known structures representing stable and meta-stable states of a protein, the algorithm yields a time- and energy-prioritized list of transition paths between the structures, with each path represented as a series of conformations. The algorithm balances computational resources between a global search aimed at obtaining a global view of the network of protein conformations and their connectivity and a detailed local search focused on realizing such connections with physically-realistic models. Promising results are presented on a variety of proteins that demonstrate the general utility of the algorithm and its capability to improve the state of the art without employing system-specific insight.

  3. Context-based object-class recognition and retrieval by generalized correlograms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amores, Jaume; Sebe, Nicu; Radeva, Petia

    2007-10-01

    We present a novel approach for retrieval of object categories based on a novel type of image representation: the Generalized Correlogram (GC). In our image representation, the object is described as a constellation of GCs where each one encodes information about some local part and the spatial relations from this part to others (i.e., the part's context). We show how such a representation can be used with fast procedures that learn the object category with weak supervision and efficiently match the model of the object against large collections of images. In the learning stage, we show that by integrating our representation with Boosting the system is able to obtain a compact model that is represented by very few features, where each feature conveys key properties about the object's parts and their spatial arrangement. In the matching step, we propose direct procedures that exploit our representation for efficiently considering spatial coherence between the matching of local parts. Combined with an appropriate data organization such as Inverted Files, we show that thousands of images can be evaluated efficiently. The framework has been applied to different standard databases and we show that our results are favorably compared against state-of-the-art methods in both computational cost and accuracy.

  4. The association between Internet addiction and personality disorders in a general population-based sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadra, Sina; Bischof, Gallus; Besser, Bettina; Bischof, Anja; Meyer, Christian; John, Ulrich; Rumpf, Hans-Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims Data on Internet addiction (IA) and its association with personality disorder are rare. Previous studies are largely restricted to clinical samples and insufficient measurement of IA. Methods Cross-sectional analysis data are based on a German sub-sample (n = 168; 86 males; 71 meeting criteria for IA) with increased levels of excessive Internet use derived from a general population sample (n = 15,023). IA was assessed with a comprehensive standardized interview using the structure of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview and the criteria of Internet Gaming Disorder as suggested in DSM-5. Impulsivity, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and self-esteem were assessed with the widely used questionnaires. Results Participants with IA showed higher frequencies of personality disorders (29.6%) compared to those without IA (9.3%; p disorders were more prevalent than among non-addicted males. Compared to participants who had IA only, lower rates of remission of IA were found among participants with IA and additional cluster B personality disorder. Personality disorders were significantly associated with IA in multivariate analysis. Discussion and conclusion: Comorbidity of IA and personality disorders must be considered in prevention and treatment. PMID:28005417

  5. Identification and remediation of reading difficulties based on successive processing deficits and delay in general reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churches, Melinda; Skuy, Mervyn; Das, J P

    2002-12-01

    Widespread learning problems among South African children are associated with the apartheid era and show a need for effective reading programs. In selecting these programs, it is useful to differentiate between children with dyslexia and children whose reading is poor because teaching was inadequate. In this study, the Woodcock Tests of Reading Mastery-Revised and tests modelled on the Cognitive Assessment System were used to define a group of children with deficits in successive processing associated with dyslexia and a group of children with general reading delay. There were two girls and five boys in each group. For the children with successive processing deficit, the mean age was 9 yr., 8 mo. For the other group, mean age was 9 yr., 3 mo. Control groups were matched for age and sex and kind of reading difficulty. The first group received Das's PASS Reading Enhancement Program, and the second participated in a remedial program based on Whole Language principles. The treatment groups received 24 1-hr. long sessions. Gains in successive processing were shown for the first group, as measured by the tests modelled on Cognitive Assessment System subtests but not for the second group. Both groups showed gains in phonics and word identification, relative to their respective control groups, suggesting the respective intervention program was effective for each group.

  6. A Generalized Eigensolver based on Smoothed Aggregation (GES-SA) for Initializing Smoothed Aggregation Multigrid (SA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brezina, M; Manteuffel, T; McCormick, S; Ruge, J; Sanders, G; Vassilevski, P S

    2007-05-31

    Consider the linear system Ax = b, where A is a large, sparse, real, symmetric, and positive definite matrix and b is a known vector. Solving this system for unknown vector x using a smoothed aggregation multigrid (SA) algorithm requires a characterization of the algebraically smooth error, meaning error that is poorly attenuated by the algorithm's relaxation process. For relaxation processes that are typically used in practice, algebraically smooth error corresponds to the near-nullspace of A. Therefore, having a good approximation to a minimal eigenvector is useful to characterize the algebraically smooth error when forming a linear SA solver. This paper discusses the details of a generalized eigensolver based on smoothed aggregation (GES-SA) that is designed to produce an approximation to a minimal eigenvector of A. GES-SA might be very useful as a standalone eigensolver for applications that desire an approximate minimal eigenvector, but the primary aim here is for GES-SA to produce an initial algebraically smooth component that may be used to either create a black-box SA solver or initiate the adaptive SA ({alpha}SA) process.

  7. Stepwise Versus Concerted Mechanisms in General-Base Catalysis by Serine Proteases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uritsky, Neta; Shokhen, Michael; Albeck, Amnon

    2016-01-26

    General-base catalysis in serine proteases still poses mechanistic challenges despite decades of research. Whether proton transfer from the catalytic Ser to His and nucleophilic attack on the substrate are concerted or stepwise is still under debate, even for the classical Asp-His-Ser catalytic triad. To address these key catalytic steps, the transformation of the Michaelis complex to tetrahedral complex in the covalent inhibition of two prototype serine proteases was studied: chymotrypsin (with the catalytic triad) inhibition by a peptidyl trifluoromethane and GlpG rhomboid (with Ser-His dyad) inhibition by an isocoumarin derivative. The sampled MD trajectories of averaged pKa  values of catalytic residues were QM calculated by the MD-QM/SCRF(VS) method on molecular clusters simulating the active site. Differences between concerted and stepwise mechanisms are controlled by the dynamically changing pKa  values of the catalytic residues as a function of their progressively reduced water exposure, caused by the incoming ligand.

  8. On the generalization of the hazard rate twisting-based simulation approach

    KAUST Repository

    Rached, Nadhir B.

    2016-11-17

    Estimating the probability that a sum of random variables (RVs) exceeds a given threshold is a well-known challenging problem. A naive Monte Carlo simulation is the standard technique for the estimation of this type of probability. However, this approach is computationally expensive, especially when dealing with rare events. An alternative approach is represented by the use of variance reduction techniques, known for their efficiency in requiring less computations for achieving the same accuracy requirement. Most of these methods have thus far been proposed to deal with specific settings under which the RVs belong to particular classes of distributions. In this paper, we propose a generalization of the well-known hazard rate twisting Importance Sampling-based approach that presents the advantage of being logarithmic efficient for arbitrary sums of RVs. The wide scope of applicability of the proposed method is mainly due to our particular way of selecting the twisting parameter. It is worth observing that this interesting feature is rarely satisfied by variance reduction algorithms whose performances were only proven under some restrictive assumptions. It comes along with a good efficiency, illustrated by some selected simulation results comparing the performance of the proposed method with some existing techniques.

  9. Adaptive Stacked Generalization for Multiclass Motor Imagery-Based Brain Computer Interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolas-Alonso, Luis F; Corralejo, Rebeca; Gomez-Pilar, Javier; Álvarez, Daniel; Hornero, Roberto

    2015-07-01

    Practical motor imagery-based brain computer interface (MI-BCI) applications are limited by the difficult to decode brain signals in a reliable way. In this paper, we propose a processing framework to address non-stationarity, as well as handle spectral, temporal, and spatial characteristics associated with execution of motor tasks. Stacked generalization is used to exploit the power of classifier ensembles for combining information coming from multiple sources and reducing the existing uncertainty in EEG signals. The outputs of several regularized linear discriminant analysis (RLDA) models are combined to account for temporal, spatial, and spectral information. The resultant algorithm is called stacked RLDA (SRLDA). Additionally, an adaptive processing stage is introduced before classification to reduce the harmful effect of intersession non-stationarity. The benefits of the proposed method are evaluated on the BCI Competition IV dataset 2a. We demonstrate its effectiveness in binary and multiclass settings with four different motor imagery tasks: left-hand, right-hand, both feet, and tongue movements. The results show that adaptive SRLDA outperforms the winner of the competition and other approaches tested on this multiclass dataset.

  10. A general methodology for mobility analysis of mechanisms based on constraint screw theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    It is well known that the traditional Grübler-Kutzbach formula fails to calculate the mobility of some classical mechanisms or many modern parallel robots,and this situation seriously hampers mechani-cal innovation.To seek an efficient and universal method for mobility calculation has been a heated topic in the sphere of mechanism.The modified Grübler-Kutzbach criterion proposed by us achieved success in calculating the mobility of a lot of highly complicated mechanisms,especially the mobility of all recent parallel mechanisms listed by Gogu,and the Bennett mechanism known for its particular difficulty.With wide applications of the criterion,a systematic methodology has recently formed.This paper systematically presents the methodology based on the screw theory for the first time and ana-lyzes six representative puzzling mechanisms.In addition,the methodology is convenient for judgment of the instantaneous or full-cycle mobility,and has become an effective and general method of great scientific value and practical significance.In the first half,this paper introduces the basic screw theory,then it presents the effective methodology formed within this decade.The second half of this paper presents how to apply the methodology by analyzing the mobility of several puzzling mechanisms.Finally,this paper contrasts and analyzes some different methods and interprets the essential reason for validity of our methodology.

  11. A general methodology for mobility analysis of mechanisms based on constraint screw theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Zhen; LIU JingFang; ZENG DaXing

    2009-01-01

    It is well known that the traditional Grubler-Kutzbach formula fails to calculate the mobility of some classical mechanisms or many modern parallel robots, and this situation seriously hampers mechani-cal innovation. To seek an efficient and universal method for mobility calculation has been a heated topic in the sphere of mechanism. The modified Grubler-Kutzbach criterion proposed by us achieved success in calculating the mobility of a lot of highly complicated mechanisms, especially the mobility of all recent parallel mechanisms listed by Gogu, and the Bennett mechanism known for its particular difficulty. With wide applications of the criterion, a systematic methodology has recently formed. This paper systematically presents the methodology based on the screw theory for the first time and ana-lyzes six representative puzzling mechanisms. In addition, the methodology is convenient for judgment of the instantaneous or full-cycle mobility, and has become an effective and general method of great scientific value and practical significance. In the first half, this paper introduces the basic screw theory,then it presents the effective methodology formed within this decade. The second half of this paperpresents how to apply the methodology by analyzing the mobility of several puzzling mechanisms.Finally, this paper contrasts and analyzes some different methods and interprets the essential reason for validity of our methodology.

  12. Generalized hardware post-processing technique for chaos-based pseudorandom number generators

    KAUST Repository

    Barakat, Mohamed L.

    2013-06-01

    This paper presents a generalized post-processing technique for enhancing the pseudorandomness of digital chaotic oscillators through a nonlinear XOR-based operation with rotation and feedback. The technique allows full utilization of the chaotic output as pseudorandom number generators and improves throughput without a significant area penalty. Digital design of a third-order chaotic system with maximum function nonlinearity is presented with verified chaotic dynamics. The proposed post-processing technique eliminates statistical degradation in all output bits, thus maximizing throughput compared to other processing techniques. Furthermore, the technique is applied to several fully digital chaotic oscillators with performance surpassing previously reported systems in the literature. The enhancement in the randomness is further examined in a simple image encryption application resulting in a better security performance. The system is verified through experiment on a Xilinx Virtex 4 FPGA with throughput up to 15.44 Gbit/s and logic utilization less than 0.84% for 32-bit implementations. © 2013 ETRI.

  13. Multi-frequency synthesis algorithm based on Generalized Maximum Entropy Method. Application to 0954+658

    CERN Document Server

    Bajkova, Anisa T

    2011-01-01

    We propose the multi-frequency synthesis (MFS) algorithm with spectral correction of frequency-dependent source brightness distribution based on maximum entropy method. In order to take into account the spectral terms of n-th order in the Taylor expansion for the frequency-dependent brightness distribution, we use a generalized form of the maximum entropy method suitable for reconstruction of not only positive-definite functions, but also sign-variable ones. The proposed algorithm is aimed at producing both improved total intensity image and two-dimensional spectral index distribution over the source. We consider also the problem of frequency-dependent variation of the radio core positions of self-absorbed active galactic nuclei, which should be taken into account in a correct multi-frequency synthesis. First, the proposed MFS algorithm has been tested on simulated data and then applied to four-frequency synthesis imaging of the radio source 0954+658 from VLBA observational data obtained quasi-simultaneously ...

  14. The adjoint method for general EEG and MEG sensor-based lead field equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vallaghe, Sylvain; Papadopoulo, Theodore; Clerc, Maureen [INRIA, Projet Odyssee, Sophia Antipolis (France)], E-mail: Sylvain.Vallaghe@sophia.inria.fr

    2009-01-07

    Most of the methods for the inverse source problem in electroencephalography (EEG) and magnetoencephalography (MEG) use a lead field as an input. The lead field is the function which relates any source in the brain to its measurements at the sensors. For complex geometries, there is no analytical formula of the lead field. The common approach is to numerically compute the value of the lead field for a finite number of point sources (dipoles). There are several drawbacks: the model of the source space is fixed (a set of dipoles), and the computation can be expensive for as much as 10 000 dipoles. The common idea to bypass these problems is to compute the lead field from a sensor point of view. In this paper, we use the adjoint method to derive general EEG and MEG sensor-based lead field equations. Within a simple framework, we provide a complete review of the explicit lead field equations, and we are able to extend these equations to non-pointlike sensors.

  15. Odyssey: A Public GPU-Based Code for General-Relativistic Radiative Transfer in Kerr Spacetime

    CERN Document Server

    Pu, Hung-Yi; Younsi, Ziri; Yoon, Suk-Jin

    2016-01-01

    General-relativistic radiative transfer (GRRT) calculations coupled with the calculation of geodesics in the Kerr spacetime are an essential tool for determining the images, spectra and light curves from matter in the vicinity of black holes. Such studies are especially important for ongoing and upcoming millimeter/submillimeter (mm/sub-mm) Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) observations of the supermassive black holes at the centres of Sgr A^{*} and M87. To this end we introduce Odyssey, a Graphics Processing Unit(GPU)-based code for ray tracing and radiative transfer in the Kerr spacetime. On a single GPU, the performance of Odyssey can exceed 1 nanosecond per photon, per Runge-Kutta integration step. Odyssey is publicly available, fast, accurate, and flexible enough to be modified to suit the specific needs of new users. Along with a Graphical User Interface (GUI) powered by a video-accelerated display architecture, we also present an educational software tool, Odyssey_Edu, for showing in real time h...

  16. A Non-symmetric Digital Image Secure Communication Scheme Based on Generalized Chaos Synchronization System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Hong; Min, Le-Quan

    2005-12-01

    Based on a generalized chaos synchronization system and a discrete Sinai map, a non-symmetric true color (RGB) digital image secure communication scheme is proposed. The scheme first changes an ordinary RGB digital image with 8 bits into unrecognizable disorder codes and then transforms the disorder codes into an RGB digital image with 16 bits for transmitting. A receiver uses a non-symmetric key to verify the authentication of the received data origin, and decrypts the ciphertext. The scheme can encrypt and decrypt most formatted digital RGB images recognized by computers, and recover the plaintext almost without any errors. The scheme is suitable to be applied in network image communications. The analysis of the key space, sensitivity of key parameters, and correlation of encrypted images imply that this scheme has sound security. The project supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos. 60074034 and 70271068, the Foundation for University Key Teachers, and the Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education under Grant No. 20020008004 by the Ministry of Education of China

  17. Five shades of grey: Generalization in distractor-based retrieval of S-R episodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Tarini; Moeller, Birte; Frings, Christian

    2016-11-01

    Binding theories assume that a stimulus and a response made to it are bound together, as in the case of the theory of event coding, in an event file (Hommel, Müsseler, Aschersleben, & Prinz, Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 24(05), 849-937, 2001). This binding occurs after even a single encounter with the stimulus and the response. Repeating any part of the event file will cause the entire file to be retrieved. However not only are relevant stimuli bound with responses but even irrelevant stimuli that co-occur with the target can be bound with the response, and repeating such a distractor will result in the event file being retrieved. Yet previous studies focused on retrieval effects due to repetition of the same distractor. In this experiment we analysed whether perceptually similar distractors still influence actions due to distractor-based retrieval of responses. Thirty-one participants responded to the shape of the stimulus while ignoring the luminance (5 different shades of grey). The similarity of the stimulus luminance between two consecutive trials influenced response times on response repetition trials. Response repetition effects were particularly facilitated with exact repetitions of the irrelevant feature luminance, and the strength of this effect diminished with increasing dissimilarity of luminance in a linear fashion. We conclude that response-retrieval effects due to distractor bindings follow the rules of generalization, as discussed in the conditioning literature.

  18. Odyssey: A Public GPU-based Code for General Relativistic Radiative Transfer in Kerr Spacetime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Hung-Yi; Yun, Kiyun; Younsi, Ziri; Yoon, Suk-Jin

    2016-04-01

    General relativistic radiative transfer calculations coupled with the calculation of geodesics in the Kerr spacetime are an essential tool for determining the images, spectra, and light curves from matter in the vicinity of black holes. Such studies are especially important for ongoing and upcoming millimeter/submillimeter very long baseline interferometry observations of the supermassive black holes at the centers of Sgr A* and M87. To this end we introduce Odyssey, a graphics processing unit (GPU) based code for ray tracing and radiative transfer in the Kerr spacetime. On a single GPU, the performance of Odyssey can exceed 1 ns per photon, per Runge-Kutta integration step. Odyssey is publicly available, fast, accurate, and flexible enough to be modified to suit the specific needs of new users. Along with a Graphical User Interface powered by a video-accelerated display architecture, we also present an educational software tool, Odyssey_Edu, for showing in real time how null geodesics around a Kerr black hole vary as a function of black hole spin and angle of incidence onto the black hole.

  19. Folding to Curved Surfaces: A Generalized Design Method and Mechanics of Origami-based Cylindrical Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fei; Gong, Haoran; Chen, Xi; Chen, C. Q.

    2016-01-01

    Origami structures enrich the field of mechanical metamaterials with the ability to convert morphologically and systematically between two-dimensional (2D) thin sheets and three-dimensional (3D) spatial structures. In this study, an in-plane design method is proposed to approximate curved surfaces of interest with generalized Miura-ori units. Using this method, two combination types of crease lines are unified in one reprogrammable procedure, generating multiple types of cylindrical structures. Structural completeness conditions of the finite-thickness counterparts to the two types are also proposed. As an example of the design method, the kinematics and elastic properties of an origami-based circular cylindrical shell are analysed. The concept of Poisson’s ratio is extended to the cylindrical structures, demonstrating their auxetic property. An analytical model of rigid plates linked by elastic hinges, consistent with numerical simulations, is employed to describe the mechanical response of the structures. Under particular load patterns, the circular shells display novel mechanical behaviour such as snap-through and limiting folding positions. By analysing the geometry and mechanics of the origami structures, we extend the design space of mechanical metamaterials and provide a basis for their practical applications in science and engineering. PMID:27624892

  20. A generalized nonlinear model-based mixed multinomial logit approach for crash data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Ziqiang; Zhu, Wenbo; Ke, Ruimin; Ash, John; Wang, Yinhai; Xu, Jiuping; Xu, Xinxin

    2017-02-01

    The mixed multinomial logit (MNL) approach, which can account for unobserved heterogeneity, is a promising unordered model that has been employed in analyzing the effect of factors contributing to crash severity. However, its basic assumption of using a linear function to explore the relationship between the probability of crash severity and its contributing factors can be violated in reality. This paper develops a generalized nonlinear model-based mixed MNL approach which is capable of capturing non-monotonic relationships by developing nonlinear predictors for the contributing factors in the context of unobserved heterogeneity. The crash data on seven Interstate freeways in Washington between January 2011 and December 2014 are collected to develop the nonlinear predictors in the model. Thirteen contributing factors in terms of traffic characteristics, roadway geometric characteristics, and weather conditions are identified to have significant mixed (fixed or random) effects on the crash density in three crash severity levels: fatal, injury, and property damage only. The proposed model is compared with the standard mixed MNL model. The comparison results suggest a slight superiority of the new approach in terms of model fit measured by the Akaike Information Criterion (12.06 percent decrease) and Bayesian Information Criterion (9.11 percent decrease). The predicted crash densities for all three levels of crash severities of the new approach are also closer (on average) to the observations than the ones predicted by the standard mixed MNL model. Finally, the significance and impacts of the contributing factors are analyzed.

  1. Separation Number and Generalized Clustering Coefficient in Small World Networks based on String Formalism

    CERN Document Server

    Toyota, Norihito

    2011-01-01

    We reformulated the string formalism given by Aoyama, using an adjacent matrix of a network and introduced a series of generalized clustering coefficients based on it. Furthermore we numerically evaluated Milgram condition proposed by their article in order to explore $q$-$th$ degrees of separation in scale free networks. In this article, we apply the reformulation to small world networks and numerically evaluate Milgram condition, especially the separation number of small world networks and its relation to cycle structures are discussed. Considering the number of non-zero elements of an adjacent matrix, the average path length and Milgram condition, we show that the formalism proposed by us is effective to analyze the six degrees of separation, especially effective for analyzing the relation between the separation number and cycle structures in a network. By this analysis of small world networks, it proves that a sort of power low holds between $M_n$, which is a key quantity in Milgram condition, and the gen...

  2. Optimizing design of an optical encoder based on generalized grating imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Guoyong; Liu, Hongzhong; Shi, Yongsheng; Yin, Lei; Lu, Bingheng; Hui, Xiangyuan; Yang, Yulong

    2016-11-01

    The interpolation error of an optical encoder is largely determined by the imperfections in the electrical signals, such as amplitude error, phase-shift error, DC error and higher harmonic distortion. In this paper, an optimized optical encoder based on generalized grating imaging is presented. We first describe the basic principle and configuration of the optical encoder. To achieve four electrical signals with equal amplitudes, equal DC contents and accurate 90° electrically phase-shift, a photodiodes array is adopted as the photo-detector. The photodiodes array offers the advantage of single-field scanning. Then, to solve the remaining problem of higher harmonic distortion, a slit-width-modulated index grating is proposed to suppress the dominant third order and fifth order harmonics simultaneously, and the cell’s width of the photodiodes array is optimized to further reduce the fifth order harmonic. Experiments have been carried out to verify the theoretical results. The feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed optimizing methods have been confirmed from the experimental results.

  3. Folding to Curved Surfaces: A Generalized Design Method and Mechanics of Origami-based Cylindrical Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fei; Gong, Haoran; Chen, Xi; Chen, C. Q.

    2016-09-01

    Origami structures enrich the field of mechanical metamaterials with the ability to convert morphologically and systematically between two-dimensional (2D) thin sheets and three-dimensional (3D) spatial structures. In this study, an in-plane design method is proposed to approximate curved surfaces of interest with generalized Miura-ori units. Using this method, two combination types of crease lines are unified in one reprogrammable procedure, generating multiple types of cylindrical structures. Structural completeness conditions of the finite-thickness counterparts to the two types are also proposed. As an example of the design method, the kinematics and elastic properties of an origami-based circular cylindrical shell are analysed. The concept of Poisson’s ratio is extended to the cylindrical structures, demonstrating their auxetic property. An analytical model of rigid plates linked by elastic hinges, consistent with numerical simulations, is employed to describe the mechanical response of the structures. Under particular load patterns, the circular shells display novel mechanical behaviour such as snap-through and limiting folding positions. By analysing the geometry and mechanics of the origami structures, we extend the design space of mechanical metamaterials and provide a basis for their practical applications in science and engineering.

  4. A Generalized Automatic Hybrid Fuzzy-Based GA-PSO Clustering Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Hooshang Mazinan, ,

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The main contribution of the present research arises from developing the traditional methods in the area of segmentation of brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. Contemporary research is now developing techniques to solve the whole considerable problems in this field, such as the fuzzy local information c-mean (FLICM approach that incorporate the local spatial and the gray level information. It should be noted that the present approach is robust against noise, although the high computational complexity is not truly ignored. A novel approach in segmentation of brain MRI has been investigated and presented through the proposed research. Because of so many noises embedded in the acquiring procedure, like eddy currents, the segmentation of the brain MR is now tangibly taken into account as a difficult task. Fuzzy-based clustering algorithm is one of the solutions in the same way. But, it is so sensitive to change through noise and other imaging artifacts. The idea of combining the genetic algorithm (GA and particle swarm optimization (PSO for the purpose of generalizing the FLICM is the ultimate goal in the present investigation, since the computational complexity could actually be reduced. The experiments with a number of simulated images as well as the clinical MRI data illustrate that the proposed approach is applicable and effective.

  5. A NURBS-based generalized finite element scheme for 3D simulation of heterogeneous materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safdari, Masoud; Najafi, Ahmad R.; Sottos, Nancy R.; Geubelle, Philippe H.

    2016-08-01

    A 3D NURBS-based interface-enriched generalized finite element method (NIGFEM) is introduced to solve problems with complex discontinuous gradient fields observed in the analysis of heterogeneous materials. The method utilizes simple structured meshes of hexahedral elements that do not necessarily conform to the material interfaces in heterogeneous materials. By avoiding the creation of conforming meshes used in conventional FEM, the NIGFEM leads to significant simplification of the mesh generation process. To achieve an accurate solution in elements that are crossed by material interfaces, the NIGFEM utilizes Non-Uniform Rational B-Splines (NURBS) to enrich the solution field locally. The accuracy and convergence of the NIGFEM are tested by solving a benchmark problem. We observe that the NIGFEM preserves an optimal rate of convergence, and provides additional advantages including the accurate capture of the solution fields in the vicinity of material interfaces and the built-in capability for hierarchical mesh refinement. Finally, the use of the NIGFEM in the computational analysis of heterogeneous materials is discussed.

  6. GENERALIZED REGRESSION NEURAL NETWORK BASED EXPERT SYSTEM FOR HEPATITIS B DIAGNOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Mahesh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis B is a potentially life-threatening liver infection caused by the hepatitis B virus. The virus interferes with the function of the liver while replicating in hepatocytes. It is a major global health problem and the most serious type of viral hepatitis. Chronic liver disease is caused by viral hepatitis and putting people at high risk of death from cirrhosis of the liver and liver cancer. Medical information available is extensive and which is utilized by the clinical specialists. The ranging of information is from details of clinical symptoms to various types of biochemical data. Information provided by each data is evaluated and assigned to a particular pathology during the diagnostic process. Artificial intelligence methods especially computer aided diagnosis and artificial neural networks can be employed to streamline the diagnostic process. These adaptive learning algorithms can handle diverse types of medical data and integrate them into categorized outputs. Artificial neural networks are finding many uses in the medical diagnosis application. In this study we have proposed a Generalized Regression Neural Network (GRNN based expert system for the diagnosis of the hepatitis B virus disease. The system classifies each patient into infected and non-infected. If infected then how severe it is in terms of intensity rate.

  7. Folding to Curved Surfaces: A Generalized Design Method and Mechanics of Origami-based Cylindrical Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fei; Gong, Haoran; Chen, Xi; Chen, C Q

    2016-09-14

    Origami structures enrich the field of mechanical metamaterials with the ability to convert morphologically and systematically between two-dimensional (2D) thin sheets and three-dimensional (3D) spatial structures. In this study, an in-plane design method is proposed to approximate curved surfaces of interest with generalized Miura-ori units. Using this method, two combination types of crease lines are unified in one reprogrammable procedure, generating multiple types of cylindrical structures. Structural completeness conditions of the finite-thickness counterparts to the two types are also proposed. As an example of the design method, the kinematics and elastic properties of an origami-based circular cylindrical shell are analysed. The concept of Poisson's ratio is extended to the cylindrical structures, demonstrating their auxetic property. An analytical model of rigid plates linked by elastic hinges, consistent with numerical simulations, is employed to describe the mechanical response of the structures. Under particular load patterns, the circular shells display novel mechanical behaviour such as snap-through and limiting folding positions. By analysing the geometry and mechanics of the origami structures, we extend the design space of mechanical metamaterials and provide a basis for their practical applications in science and engineering.

  8. Pinpointing the base of the AGN jets through general relativistic X-ray reverberation studies

    CERN Document Server

    Emmanoulopoulos, D

    2014-01-01

    Many theoretical models of Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) predict that the X-ray corona, lying above the black hole, constitutes the base of the X-ray jet. Thus, by studying the exact geometry of the close black hole environment, we can pinpoint the launching site of the jet. Detection of negative X-ray reverberation time delays (i.e. soft band X-ray variations lagging behind the corresponding hard band X-ray variations) can yield significant information about the geometrical properties of the AGN, such as the location of the X-ray source, as well as the physical properties of the the black hole, such as its mass and spin. In the frame-work of the lamp-post geometry, I present the first systematic X-ray time-lag modelling results of an ensemble of 12 AGN, using a fully general relativistic (GR) ray tracing approach for the estimation of the systems' response functions. By combing these state-of-the art GR response models with statistically innovative fitting routines, I derive the geometrical layout of the clos...

  9. [An analysis of cost and profit of a nursing unit using performance-based costing: case of a general surgical ward in a general hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Ji Young

    2008-02-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze net income of a surgical nursing ward in a general hospital. Data collection and analysis was conducted using a performance-based costing and activity-based costing method. Direct nursing activities in the surgical ward were 68, indirect nursing activities were 10. The total cost volume of the surgical ward was calculated at won 119,913,334.5. The cost volume of the allocated medical department was won 91,588,200.3, and the ward consumed cost was won 28,325,134.2. The revenue of the surgical nursing ward was won 33,269,925.0. The expense of a surgical nursing ward was 28,325,134.2. Therefore, the net income of a surgical nursing ward was won 4,944,790.8. We suggest that to develop a more refined nursing cost calculation model, a standard nursing cost calculation system needs to be developed.

  10. Pin-wise Reactor Analysis Based on the Generalized Equivalence Theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Hwan Yeal; Heo, Woong; Kim, Yong Hee [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    In this paper, a pin-wise reactor analysis is performed based on the generalized equivalence theory. From the conventional fuel assembly lattice calculations, pin-wise 2-group cross sections and pin DFs are generated. Based on the numerical results on a small PWR benchmark, it is observed that the pin-wise core analysis provide quite accurate prediction on the effective multiplication factor and the peak pin power error is bounded by about 3% in peripheral fuel assemblies facing the baffle-reflector. Also, it was found that relatively large pin power errors occur along the interface between clearly different fuel assemblies. It is expected that the GET-based pin-by-pin core calculation can be further developed as an advanced method for reactor analysis via improving the group constants and discontinuity factors. Recently, high-fidelity multi-dimensional analysis tools are gaining more attention because of their accurate prediction of local parameters for core design and safety assessment. In terms of accuracy, direct whole-core transport is quite promising. However, it is clear that it is still very costly in terms of the computing time and memory requirements. Another possible solution is the pin-by-pin core analysis in which only small fuel pins are homogenized and the 3-D core analysis is still performed using a low-order operator such as the diffusion theory. In this paper, a pin-by-pin core analysis is performed using the hybrid CMFD (HCMFD) method. Hybrid CMFD is a new global-local iteration method that has been developed for efficient parallel calculation of pinby-pin heterogeneous core analysis. For the HCMFD method, the one-node CMFD scheme is combined with a local two-node CMFD method in a non-linear way. Since the SPH method is iterative and SPH factors are not direction dependent, it is clear that SPH method takes more computing cost and cannot take into account the different heterogeneity and transport effects at each pin interface. Unlike the SPH

  11. General University Requirements at Hong Kong Polytechnic University: Evaluation Findings Based on Student Focus Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shek, Daniel Tan Lei; Yu, Lu; Wu, Florence Ka Yu; Chai, Wen Yu

    2015-01-01

    Under the new four-year undergraduate programme, a general education framework titled "General University Requirements" (GUR) has been developed and implemented since 2012/2013 at Hong Kong Polytechnic University (PolyU). To evaluate the implementation and effectiveness of the GUR in its first year, focus group interviews with students…

  12. A Computer-Based Laboratory Project for the Study of Stimulus Generalization and Peak Shift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derenne, Adam; Loshek, Eevett

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes materials designed for classroom projects on stimulus generalization and peak shift. A computer program (originally written in QuickBASIC) is used for data collection and a Microsoft Excel file with macros organizes the raw data on a spreadsheet and creates generalization gradients. The program is designed for use with human…

  13. Molecular basis of the general base catalysis of an α/β-hydrolase catalytic triad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yueru; Yin, Shuhui; Feng, Yitao; Li, Jie; Zhou, Jiahai; Liu, Changdong; Zhu, Guang; Guo, Zhihong

    2014-05-30

    The serine-histidine-aspartate triad is well known for its covalent, nucleophilic catalysis in a diverse array of enzymatic transformations. Here we show that its nucleophilicity is shielded and its catalytic role is limited to being a specific general base by an open-closed conformational change in the catalysis of (1R,6R)-2-succinyl-6-hydroxy-2,4-cyclohexadiene-1-carboxylate synthase (or MenH), a typical α/β-hydrolase fold enzyme in the vitamin K biosynthetic pathway. This enzyme is found to adopt an open conformation without a functional triad in its ligand-free form and a closed conformation with a fully functional catalytic triad in the presence of its reaction product. The open-to-closed conformational transition involves movement of half of the α-helical cap domain, which causes extensive structural changes in the α/β-domain and forces the side chain of the triad histidine to adopt an energetically disfavored gauche conformation to form the functional triad. NMR analysis shows that the inactive open conformation without a triad prevails in ligand-free solution and is converted to the closed conformation with a properly formed triad by the reaction product. Mutation of the residues crucial to this open-closed transition either greatly decreases or completely eliminates the enzyme activity, supporting an important catalytic role for the structural change. These findings suggest that the open-closed conformational change tightly couples formation of the catalytic triad to substrate binding to enhance the substrate specificities and simultaneously shield the nucleophilicity of the triad, thus allowing it to expand its catalytic power beyond the nucleophilic catalysis.

  14. Participation inequality in the National General Health Examination based on enterprise size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Young Joong; Park, Jong Heun; Eom, Huisu; Choi, Bohwa; Lee, Seyoung; Lee, Ji-Won; Myong, Jun-Pyo

    2017-01-01

    Health examinations are performed so that diseases can be identified and treated earlier. Several studies have evaluated the determinants of participation in health examinations including cancer screening, but few have evaluated the relationship between the size of the enterprise and their participation in Workers' General Health Examinations (WGHE). The aim of the present study was to estimate the association of WGHE participation with the size of the enterprise and the type of policyholder. The eligible population from 2006 through 2013 was extracted from the National Health Insurance Service (NHIS) database. The population size ranged from 14-17 million. After adjustment for age and gender, multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to estimate the odds ratios of participating in the WGHE (by age group) based on the type of policyholder (reference: public officers) and the size of the enterprise (reference: enterprise size ≥300 employees), respectively. Workers employed at enterprises with enterprises with ≥300 persons. After policyholders were stratified by type (non-office workers vs. public officers), a disparity in the WGHE participation rate was found between the different types of policyholders at enterprises with enterprises with ≥300 employees); the odds ratios for subjects in their 40s and 50s were 0.2-0.3 for non-office workers vs. 0.8-2.0 for public officers. Workplace policyholders at small enterprises comprised a vulnerable group less likely to participate in WGHEs. Efforts should be made to raise the WGHE participation rate among the vulnerable employees belonging to small enterprises, as well as among their dependents.

  15. Belief Revision, Minimal Change and Relaxation: A General Framework based on Satisfaction Systems, and Applications to Description Logics

    OpenAIRE

    Aiguier, Marc; Atif, Jamal; Bloch, Isabelle; Hudelot, Céline

    2015-01-01

    Belief revision of knowledge bases represented by a set of sentences in a given logic has been extensively studied but for specific logics, mainly propositional, and also recently Horn and description logics. Here, we propose to generalize this operation from a model-theoretic point of view, by defining revision in an abstract model theory known under the name of satisfaction systems. In this framework, we generalize to any satisfaction systems the characterization of the well known AGM postu...

  16. GPU-based four-dimensional general-relativistic ray tracing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchelmeister, Daniel; Müller, Thomas; Ament, Marco; Wunner, Günter; Weiskopf, Daniel

    2012-10-01

    This paper presents a new general-relativistic ray tracer that enables image synthesis on an interactive basis by exploiting the performance of graphics processing units (GPUs). The application is capable of visualizing the distortion of the stellar background as well as trajectories of moving astronomical objects orbiting a compact mass. Its source code includes metric definitions for the Schwarzschild and Kerr spacetimes that can be easily extended to other metric definitions, relying on its object-oriented design. The basic functionality features a scene description interface based on the scripting language Lua, real-time image output, and the ability to edit almost every parameter at runtime. The ray tracing code itself is implemented for parallel execution on the GPU using NVidia's Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA), which leads to performance improvement of an order of magnitude compared to a single CPU and makes the application competitive with small CPU cluster architectures. Program summary Program title: GpuRay4D Catalog identifier: AEMV_v1_0 Program summary URL: http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEMV_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 73649 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 1334251 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C++, CUDA. Computer: Linux platforms with a NVidia CUDA enabled GPU (Compute Capability 1.3 or higher), C++ compiler, NVCC (The CUDA Compiler Driver). Operating system: Linux. RAM: 2 GB Classification: 1.5. External routines: OpenGL Utility Toolkit development files, NVidia CUDA Toolkit 3.2, Lua5.2 Nature of problem: Ray tracing in four-dimensional Lorentzian spacetimes. Solution method: Numerical integration of light rays, GPU-based parallel programming using CUDA, 3D

  17. Generalized multi-layered granulations and approximations based on neighborhood systems under incomplete information systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Ming; FENG Bo-qin

    2005-01-01

    A generalized multi-layered granulation structure used by neighborhood systems is proposed. With granulated views, the concepts of approximations under incomplete information systems are studied, which are represented by covering of the universe. With respect to different levels of granulations, a pair of lower and upper approximations is defined and an approximation structure is investigated, which lead to a more general approximation structure. The generalized multi-layered granulation structure provides a basis of the proposed framework of granular computing. Using this framework, the interesting and useful results about information granulation and approximation reasoning can be obtained. This paper presents some useful explorations about the incomplete information systems from information views.

  18. Generalized product

    OpenAIRE

    Greco,Salvatore; Mesiar, Radko; Rindone, Fabio

    2014-01-01

    Aggregation functions on [0,1] with annihilator 0 can be seen as a generalized product on [0,1]. We study the generalized product on the bipolar scale [–1,1], stressing the axiomatic point of view. Based on newly introduced bipolar properties, such as the bipolar increasingness, bipolar unit element, bipolar idempotent element, several kinds of generalized bipolar product are introduced and studied. A special stress is put on bipolar semicopulas, bipolar quasi-copulas and bipolar copulas.

  19. Generalized product

    OpenAIRE

    Greco, Salvatore; Mesiar, Radko; Rindone, Fabio

    2014-01-01

    Aggregation functions on [0,1] with annihilator 0 can be seen as a generalized product on [0,1]. We study the generalized product on the bipolar scale [–1,1], stressing the axiomatic point of view. Based on newly introduced bipolar properties, such as the bipolar increasingness, bipolar unit element, bipolar idempotent element, several kinds of generalized bipolar product are introduced and studied. A special stress is put on bipolar semicopulas, bipolar quasi-copulas and bipolar copulas.

  20. Generalized peak skew coefficients for Oklahoma, 1961-1990 base period.

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital-map data set consists of a grid of generalized skew coefficients of logarithms of annual maximum streamflow for Oklahoma streams less than or equal to...

  1. Automated Clutch of AMT Vehicle Based on Adaptive Generalized Minimum Variance Controller

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ze Li; Xinhao Yang

    2014-01-01

    ... of the automated clutch of automatic mechanical transmission vehicle. In this paper, an adaptive generalized minimum variance controller is applied to the automated clutch, which is driven by a brushless DC motor...

  2. Improving the Generalization Ability of RBNN Using a Selective Strategy Based on the Gaussian Kernel Function

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Radial Basis Neural Networks have been successfully used in many applications due, mainly, to their fast convergence properties. However, the level of generalization is heavily dependent on the quality of the training data. It has been shown that with careful dynamic selection of training patterns, better generalization performance may be obtained. In this paper, a learning method is presented, that automatically selects the training patterns more appropriate to the new test sample. The metho...

  3. Global Convergence of Adaptive Generalized Predictive Controller Based on Least Squares Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张兴会; 陈增强; 袁著祉

    2003-01-01

    Some papers on stochastic adaptive control schemes have established convergence algorithm using a leastsquares parameters. With the popular application of GPC, global convergence has become a key problem in automatic control theory. However, now global convergence of GPC has not been established for algorithms in computing a least squares iteration. A generalized model of adaptive generalized predictive control is presented. The global convergebce is also given on the basis of estimating the parameters of GPC by least squares algorithm.

  4. Prediction of elders′ general health based on positive and negative perfectionism and type-D personality

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Background : Multiple factors such as retirement, work disability, social rejection, physical illness and etc., have an impact on general health of the elders. One factor among others is the role of psychological variables. The study is intended to assess the effect of positive and negative perfectionism and type-D personality (distressed) on general health of the elders. Methods : In this descriptive-correlation study, 80 people (47 male and 33 female) were selected from residents of Nur...

  5. The effectiveness of a semi-tailored facilitator-based intervention to optimise chronic care management in general practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Due, Tina Drud; Thorsen, Thorkil; Kousgaard, Marius Brostrøm

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Danish health care sector is reorganising based on disease management programmes designed to secure integrated and high quality chronic care across hospitals, general practitioners and municipalities. The disease management programmes assign a central role to general practice...... indicate that a semi-tailored facilitator-based intervention of relatively low intensity is unlikely to add substantially to the implementation of disease management programmes for DM2 and COPD in a context marked by important concurrent initiatives (including financial incentives and mandatory registry...

  6. FPGA-Based Architecture for a Generalized Parallel 2-D MRI Filtering Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sami Hasan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Current Neuroimaging developments, in biological research and diagnostics, demand an edge-defined and noise-free MRI scans. Thus, this study presents a generalized parallel 2-D MRI filtering algorithm with their FPGA-based implementation in a single unified architecture. The parallel 2-D MRI filtering algorithms are Edge, Sobel X, Sobel Y, Sobel X-Y, Blur, Smooth, Sharpen, Gaussian and Beta (HYB. Then, the nine MRI image filtering algorithm, has empirically improved to generate enhanced MRI scans filtering results without significantly affecting the developed performance indices of high throughput and low power consumption at maximum operating frequency. Approach: The parallel 2-d MRI filtering algorithms are developed and FPGA implemented using Xilinx System Generator tool within the ISE 12.3 development suite. Two unified architectures are behaviorally developed, depending on the abstraction level of implementation. For performance indices comparison, two Virtex-6 FPGA boards, namely, xc6vlX240Tl-1lff1759 and xc6vlX130Tl-1lff1156 are behaviorally targeted. Results: The improved parallel 2-D filtering algorithms enhanced the filtered MRI scans to be edge-defined and noise free grayscale imaging. The single architecture is efficiently prototyped to achieve: high filtering performance of (11230 frames/second throughput for 64*64 MRI grayscale scan, minimum power consumption of 0.86 Watt with a junction temperature of 52°C and a maximum frequency of up to (230 MHz. Conclusion: The improved parallel MRI filtering algorithms which are developed as a single unified architecture provide visibility enhancement within the filtered MRI scan to aid the physician in detecting brain diseases, e.g., trauma or intracranial haemorrhage. The high filtering throughput is feasibly nominee the nine parallel MRI filtering algorithms for applications such as real-time MRI potential future applications. Future Work: a set of parallel 3-D f

  7. Generalized Shape and Gauge Decoupling Load Distribution Optimization Based on IGA for Tandem Cold Mill

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG Peng; YANG Quan

    2009-01-01

    Load distribution is the foundation of shape control and gauge control, in which it is necessary to take into account the shape control ability of TCM (tandem cold mill) for strip shape and gauge quality. First, the objective function of generalized shape and gauge decoupling load distribution optimization was established, which considered the rolling force characteristics of the first and last stands in TCM, the relative power, and the TCM shape control ability. Then, IGA (immune genetic algorithm) was used to accomplish this multi-objective load distribution optimization for TCM. After simulation and comparison with the practical load distribution strategy in one tandem cold mill, general-ized shape and gauge decoupling load distribution optimization on the basis of IGA approved good ability of optimizing shape control and gauge control simultaneously.

  8. Generalized reduced-order synchronization of chaotic system based on fast slide mode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao Tie-Gang; Chen Zeng-Qiang; Yuan Zhu-Zhi

    2005-01-01

    A new kind of generalized reduced-order synchronization of different chaotic systems is proposed in this paper.It is shown that dynamical evolution of third-order oscillator can be synchronized with the canonical projection of a fourth-order chaotic system generated through nonsingular states transformation from a cell neural net chaotic system.In this sense, it is said that generalized synchronization is achieved in reduced-order. The synchronization discussed here expands the scope of reduced-order synchronization studied in relevant literatures. In this way, we can achieve generalized reduced-order synchronization between many famous chaotic systems such as the second-order D(u)ffing system and the third-order Lorenz system by designing a fast slide mode controller. Simulation results are provided to verify the operation of the designed synchronization.

  9. A unified MGF-based capacity analysis of diversity combiners over generalized fading channels

    KAUST Repository

    Yilmaz, Ferkan

    2012-03-01

    Unified exact ergodic capacity results for L-branch coherent diversity combiners including equal-gain combining (EGC) and maximal-ratio combining (MRC) are not known. This paper develops a novel generic framework for the capacity analysis of L-branch EGC/MRC over generalized fading channels. The framework is used to derive new results for the gamma-shadowed generalized Nakagami-m fading model which can be a suitable model for the fading environments encountered by high frequency (60 GHz and above) communications. The mathematical formalism is illustrated with some selected numerical and simulation results confirming the correctness of our newly proposed framework. © 2012 IEEE.

  10. Solving the Generalized Vehicle Routing Problem with an ACS-based Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pop, Petrica Claudiu; Pintea, Camelia; Zelina, Ioana; Dumitrescu, Dan

    2009-04-01

    Ant colony system is a metaheuristic algorithm inspired by the behavior of real ants and was proposed by Dorigo et al. as a method for solving hard combinatorial optimization problems. In this paper we show its successful application to solving a network design problem: Generalized Vehicle Routing Problem. The Generalized Vehicle Routing Problem (GVRP) is the problem of designing optimal delivery or collection routes, subject to capacity restrictions, from a given depot to a number of predefined, mutually exclusive and exhaustive clusters. Computational results for several benchmark problems are reported.

  11. Evidence-based classification of low back pain in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leboeuf-Yde, Charlotte; Lemeunier, Nadège; Wedderkopp, Niels

    2013-01-01

    in the general population is a rather stable condition, characterized as either being present or absent. However, only one of the reviewed studies had used frequent data collection, which would be necessary when studying detailed course patterns over time. It was the purpose of this study to see......, if it was possible to identify whether LBP, when present, is rather episodic or chronic/persistent. Further, we wanted to see if it was possible to describe any specific course profiles of LBP in the general population....

  12. Multiple Attribute Decision Making Based on Generalized Aggregation Operators under Dual Hesitant Fuzzy Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunyong Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the multiple attribute decision making (MADM problems with dual hesitant fuzzy information. We first introduce some basic concepts and operations on dual hesitant fuzzy sets. Then, we develop some generalized dual hesitant fuzzy aggregation operators which encompass some existing operators as their particular cases and discuss their basic properties. Next, we apply the generalized dual hesitant fuzzy Choquet ordered aggregation (GDHFCOA operator to deal with multiple attribute decision making problems under dual hesitant fuzzy environment. Finally, an illustrative example is given to show the developed method and demonstrate its practicality and effectiveness.

  13. A Unified MGF-Based Capacity Analysis of Diversity Combiners over Generalized Fading Channels

    CERN Document Server

    Yilmaz, Ferkan

    2010-01-01

    Unified exact average capacity results for L-branch coherent diversity receivers including equal-gain combining (EGC) and maximal-ratio combining (MRC) are not known. This paper develops a novel generic framework for the capacity analysis of $L$-branch EGC/MRC over generalized fading channels. The framework is used to derive new results for the Gamma shadowed generalized Nakagami-m fading model which can be a suitable model for the fading environments encountered by high frequency (60 GHz and above) communications. The mathematical formalism is illustrated with some selected numerical and simulation results confirming the correctness of our newly proposed framework.

  14. Pseudo-random sequence generator based on the generalized Henon map

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Fan; TIAN Xiao-jian; SONG Jing-yi; LI Xue-yan

    2008-01-01

    By analysis and comparison of several chaotic systems that are applied to generate pseudo-random sequence, the generalized Henon map is proposed as a pseudo-random sequence generator. A new algorithm is created to solve the problem of non-uniform distribution of the sequence generated by the generalized Henon map. First, move the decimal point of elements in the sequence to the right; then, cut off the integer; and finally, quantify it into a binary sequence. Statistical test, security analysis, and the application of image encryption have strongly supported the good random statistical characteristics, high linear complexity, large key space, and great sensitivity of the binary sequence.

  15. Monaural separation of dependent audio sources based on a generalized Wiener filter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Guilin; Agerkvist, Finn T.; Luther, J.B.

    2007-01-01

    ) coefficients of the dependent sources is modeled by complex Gaussian mixture models in the frequency domain from samples of individual sources to capture the properties of the sources and their correlation. During the second stage, the mixture is separated through a generalized Wiener filter, which takes......This paper presents a two-stage approach for single- channel separation of dependent audio sources. The proposed algorithm is developed in the Bayesian framework and designed for general audio signals. In the first stage of the algorithm, the joint distribution of discrete Fourier transform (DFT...

  16. On the construction of a psychologically based, general theory of observation: an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Nyman, Göte

    2013-01-01

    The perception-related origins of physical measures and standards are considered within the framework of the general observer theory. The impact of observer characteristics on the development of observer-centric physics, physical concepts and metrics are analyzed. A preliminary theoretical approach is suggested for the construction of a general observer theory and formulation of its relationship to observer-centered physical concepts and theories. The approach makes it possible to construct a theory of the observer, intrinsic in any theory of physics.

  17. Generalizing on Multiple Grounds: Performance Learning in Model-Based Troubleshooting

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-02-01

    57 5 Similar = Same Fault Hypothesis 58 5.1 Fault Hypotheses ........................................ 58 5.2 Generalizing Fault Envisionments ...59 5.2.1 Utility of EBG on Envisionments ..... ................ 61 5.3 Lifting Fault Hypotheses...5.2. GENERALIZING FAULT ENVISIONMENTS 59 A= A= A10 A1 B=3L- B=k5 C= y C=2-4 D=E2 Y 1 D= M2E= =12 E=3--EM3---- S ()(b) Figure 5.1: The Polybox Circuit

  18. Development of Neural-Based Generalized Predictive Control System of Strip Shape for a Reversal 6-High Mill

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Shape control in strip rolling is intractable because ofmultivariate, non-linearity, time-variation and coupling of the process. In this paper, a generalized predictive control algorithm based on BP neural network model was introduced for on-line controlling the strip flatness of a reversal UC mill. Some comparative experiments were done with a conventional feedback control based on linear regression model. The results clearly demonstrated the advantage of the proposed scheme.

  19. An Analysis of the Romanian General Accounting Plan. Opportunities for Adaptation to the Activity-Based Costing (ABC Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina-Alina Preda

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we analyze the causes that have led to the improvement of the Romanian general accounting plan according to the Activity- Based Costing (ABC method. We explain the advantages presented by the dissociated organization of management accounting, in contrast with the tabular- statistical form. The article also describes the methodological steps to be taken in the process of recording book entries, according to the Activity-Based Costing (ABC method in Romania.

  20. A Comprehensive Test of General Strain Theory: Key Strains, Situational- and Trait-Based Negative Emotions, Conditioning Factors, and Delinquency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Byongook; Morash, Merry; McCluskey, Cynthia Perez; Hwang, Hye-Won

    2009-01-01

    Using longitudinal data on South Korean youth, the authors addressed limitations of previous tests of general strain theory (GST), focusing on the relationships among key strains, situational- and trait-based negative emotions, conditioning factors, and delinquency. Eight types of strain previously shown most likely to result in delinquency,…

  1. A Novel WA-BPM Based on the Generalized Multistep Scheme in the Propagation Direction in the Waveguide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Yang; Chen, Hong; Tang, Hongwu

    2017-06-01

    A highly accurate wide-angle scheme, based on the generalized mutistep scheme in the propagation direction, is developed for the finite difference beam propagation method (FD-BPM). Comparing with the previously presented method, the simulation shows that our method results in a more accurate solution, and the step size can be much larger

  2. Efficacy of an Acceptance-Based Behavior Therapy for Generalized Anxiety Disorder: Evaluation in a Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roemer, Lizabeth; Orsillo, Susan M.; Salters-Pedneault, Kristalyn

    2008-01-01

    Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is a chronic anxiety disorder, associated with comorbidity and impairment in quality of life, for which improved psychosocial treatments are needed. GAD is also associated with reactivity to and avoidance of internal experiences. The current study examined the efficacy of an acceptance-based behavioral therapy…

  3. Transfer Function of Multi-Stage Active Filters: A Solution Based on Pascal's Triangle and a General Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levesque, Luc

    2012-01-01

    A method is proposed to simplify analytical computations of the transfer function for electrical circuit filters, which are made from repetitive identical stages. A method based on the construction of Pascal's triangle is introduced and then a general solution from two initial conditions is provided for the repetitive identical stage. The present…

  4. Knowledge of asthma guidelines: results of a UK General Practice Airways Group (GPIAG) web-based 'Test your Knowledge' quiz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinnock, Hilary; Holmes, Steve; Levy, Mark L; McArthur, Ruth; Small, Iain

    2010-06-01

    A web-based questionnaire, comprising 11 multiple choice questions, tested the knowledge of visitors to the General Practice Airways Group (GPIAG) online summary of the British Asthma guideline. On average, the 413 respondents answered less than half the questions correctly. GP scores were significantly lower than practice nurses. Improving clinicians' knowledge of asthma is a prerequisite for improving management.

  5. Transfer Function of Multi-Stage Active Filters: A Solution Based on Pascal's Triangle and a General Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levesque, Luc

    2012-01-01

    A method is proposed to simplify analytical computations of the transfer function for electrical circuit filters, which are made from repetitive identical stages. A method based on the construction of Pascal's triangle is introduced and then a general solution from two initial conditions is provided for the repetitive identical stage. The present…

  6. 77 FR 13367 - General Electric-Hitachi Global Laser Enrichment, LLC, Proposed Laser-Based Uranium Enrichment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-06

    ... COMMISSION General Electric-Hitachi Global Laser Enrichment, LLC, Proposed Laser-Based Uranium Enrichment...- Hitachi Global Laser Enrichment, LLC (GLE) Uranium Enrichment Facility. On June 26, 2009, GLE submitted a... uranium enrichment facility (the ``proposed action''). The GLE proposes to locate the facility on...

  7. Moderately overweight and obese patients in general practice: a population based survey.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, L. van; Otters, H.B.; Schuit, A.J.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Obesity is a main threat to public health in the Western world and is associated with diseases such as diabetes mellitus and coronary heart diseases. Up to now a minority of research studied the relation between obesity and the use of primary health care. In the Netherlands the general p

  8. Designing A General Deep Web Access Approach Based On A Newly Introduced Factor; Harvestability Factor (HF)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khelghati, Mohammadreza; van Keulen, Maurice; Hiemstra, Djoerd

    2014-01-01

    The growing need of accessing more and more information draws attentions to huge amount of data hidden behind web forms defined as deep web. To make this data accessible, harvesters have a crucial role. Targeting different domains and websites enhances the need to have a general-purpose harvester

  9. Energy Conservation: Policies, Programs, and General Studies. 1979-July, 1980 (Citations from the NTIS Data Base).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hundemann, Audrey S.

    The 135 abstracts presented pertain to national policies, programs, and general strategies for conserving energy. In addition to the abstract, each citation lists the title, author, sponsoring agency, subject categories, number of pages, date, descriptors, identifiers, and ordering information for each document. Topics covered in this compilation…

  10. Energy conservation: Policies, programs, and general studies. Citations from the NTIS data base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hundemann, A. S.

    1980-08-01

    National policies, programs, and general studies or ways to conserve energy are presented. Topic areas cover such subjects as electric load management, effects of price and taxation on energy conservation, public attitudes and behavior toward energy saving, energy savings through reduction in hot water consumption, and telecommunications substitutability for travel.

  11. Quaternion based generalization of Chern-Simons theories in arbitrary dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    D'Adda, Alessandro; Shimode, Naoki; Tsukioka, Takuya

    2016-01-01

    A generalization of Chern-Simons gauge theory is formulated in any dimension and arbitrary gauge group where gauge fields and gauge parameters are differential forms of any degree. The quaternion algebra structure of this formulation is shown to be equivalent to a three Z(2)-gradings structure, thus clarifying the quaternion role in a previous formulation.

  12. Implementation of Generalized Modes in a 3D Finite Difference Based Seakeeping Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Matilde H.; Amini Afshar, Mostafa; Bingham, Harry B.

    This work is an extension of the finite difference potential flow solver OceanWave3D-Seakeepingdeveloped by Afshar (2014) to include generalized modes. The continuity equation is solvedusing a fourth-order centered finite difference scheme which requires that the entire fluid domainis discretized...

  13. Inquiry-Based Arson Investigation for General Chemistry Using GC-MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, Marta K.; Bukowski, Michael R.; Menachery, Mary D.; Zatorsky, Adam R.

    2010-01-01

    We have developed a two-week guided-inquiry laboratory in which first-semester general chemistry students investigate a suspected arson using gas chromatography--mass spectrometry and paper chromatography. In the process of evaluating evidence from the crime scene, students develop and test hypotheses and learn the fundamentals of chromatography,…

  14. Designing A General Deep Web Access Approach Based On A Newly Introduced Factor; Harvestability Factor (HF)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khelghati, Mohammadreza; Keulen, van Maurice; Hiemstra, Djoerd

    2014-01-01

    The growing need of accessing more and more information draws attentions to huge amount of data hidden behind web forms defined as deep web. To make this data accessible, harvesters have a crucial role. Targeting different domains and websites enhances the need to have a general-purpose harvester wh

  15. Designing A General Deep Web Access Approach Based On A Newly Introduced Factor; Harvestability Factor (HF)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khelghati, Mohammadreza; van Keulen, Maurice; Hiemstra, Djoerd

    2014-01-01

    The growing need of accessing more and more information draws attentions to huge amount of data hidden behind web forms defined as deep web. To make this data accessible, harvesters have a crucial role. Targeting different domains and websites enhances the need to have a general-purpose harvester wh

  16. Inquiry-Based Arson Investigation for General Chemistry Using GC-MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, Marta K.; Bukowski, Michael R.; Menachery, Mary D.; Zatorsky, Adam R.

    2010-01-01

    We have developed a two-week guided-inquiry laboratory in which first-semester general chemistry students investigate a suspected arson using gas chromatography--mass spectrometry and paper chromatography. In the process of evaluating evidence from the crime scene, students develop and test hypotheses and learn the fundamentals of chromatography,…

  17. Generalized File Management Systems: Their Implication for a California Junior College Data Base System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedrick, Robert John

    Criteria to use in evaluating data processing efficiency, factors of file and record definitions, convenience of use for non-programmers, report generating capabilities, and customer support for generalized file management systems for use by the California junior colleges are indicated by the author. The purchase of such a system at the state…

  18. Moderately overweight and obese patients in general practice: a population based survey.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, L. van; Otters, H.B.; Schuit, A.J.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Obesity is a main threat to public health in the Western world and is associated with diseases such as diabetes mellitus and coronary heart diseases. Up to now a minority of research studied the relation between obesity and the use of primary health care. In the Netherlands the general

  19. General classification of maturation reaction-norm shape from size-based processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Asbjørn; Andersen, Ken Haste

    2011-01-01

    Phenotypic plasticity of size at maturation is commonly described using size–age maturation reaction norms (MRNs). MRNs for age and size at maturation are analyzed and classified into three general categories related to different size scalings of growth and mortality. The underlying model for gro...

  20. Quaternion based generalization of Chern–Simons theories in arbitrary dimensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro D'Adda

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available A generalization of Chern–Simons gauge theory is formulated in any dimension and arbitrary gauge group where gauge fields and gauge parameters are differential forms of any degree. The quaternion algebra structure of this formulation is shown to be equivalent to a three Z2-gradings structure, thus clarifying the quaternion role in the previous formulation.

  1. Attitudes of general practitioners and midwives towards ethnicity-based haemoglobinopathy-carrier screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jans, S.M.P.J.; Jonge, A. de; Henneman, L.; Cornel, M.C.; Lagro-Janssen, A.L.M.

    2012-01-01

    Haemoglobinopathies (HbP) are severe autosomal recessive disorders with high prevalence among certain ethnic groups. World Health Organisation (WHO) advises implementing screening programmes for risk groups. Research in the Netherlands has shown that general practitioners and midwives do not perceiv

  2. A generalized Nadai failure criterion for both crystalline and clastic rocks based on true triaxial tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haimson, Bezalel; Chang, Chandong; Ma, Xiaodong

    2016-04-01

    The UW true triaxial testing system enables the application of independent compressive loads to cuboidal specimens (19×19×38 mm) along three principal directions. We used the apparatus to conduct extensive series of experiments in three crystalline rocks (Westerly granite, KTB amphibolite, and SAFOD granodiorite) and three clastic rocks of different porosities [TCDP siltstone (7%), Coconino sandstone (17%), and Bentheim sandstone (24%)]. For each rock, several magnitudes of σ3 were employed, between 0 MPa and 100-160 MPa, and for every σ3, σ2 was varied from test to test between σ2 = σ3 and σ2=(0.4 to 1.0) σ1.Testing consisted of keeping σ2and σ3constant, and raising σ1to failure (σ1,peak). The results, plotted as σ1,peakvs. σ2for each σ3 used, highlight the undeniable effect of σ2on the compressive failure of rocks. For each level of σ3, the lowest σ2 tested (σ2 = σ3) yielded the data point used for conventional-triaxial failure criterion. However, for the same σ3 and depending on σ2 magnitude, the maximum stress bringing about failure (σ1,peak) may be considerably higher, by as much as 50% in crystalline rocks, or 15% in clastic rocks, over that in a conventional triaxial test. An important consequence is that use of a Mohr-type criterion leads to overly conservative predictions of failure. The true triaxial test results demonstrate that a criterion in terms of all (three principal stresses is necessary to characterize failure. Thus, we propose a 'Generalized Nadai Criterion' (GNC) based on Nadai (1950), i.e. expressed in terms of the two stress invariants at failure (f), τoct,f = βσoct,f, where τoct,f = 1/3[(σ1,peak -σ2)2+(σ2 -σ3)2+(σ3 -σ1,peak)2]0.5 and σoct,f = (σ1,peak + σ2 + σ3)/3, and β is a function that varies from rock to rock. Moreover, the criterion depends also on the relative magnitude of σ2, represented by a parameter b [= (σ2 - σ3)/(σ1,peak - σ3)]. For each octahedral shear stress at failure (

  3. Study of pressure-volume relationships and higher derivatives of bulk modulus based on generalized equations of state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kushwah, S.S. [Department of Physics, Rishi Galav College, Morena, 476001 MP (India); Shrivastava, H.C. [Department of Physics, S.M.S. Government Model Science P.G. College, Gwalior, 474001 MP (India)]. E-mail: hcs2050@yahoo.com; Singh, K.S. [Department of Physics, R.B.S. College, Agra, UP (India)

    2007-01-15

    We have generalized the pressure-volume (P-V) relationships using simple polynomial and logarithmic expansions so as to make them consistent with the infinite pressure extrapolation according to the model of Stacey. The formulations are used to evaluate P-V relationships and pressure derivatives of bulk modulus upto third order (K', K'' and K''') for the earth core material taking input parameters based on the seismological data. The results based on the equations of state (EOS) generalized in the present study are found to yield good agreement with the Stacey EOS. The generalized logarithmic EOS due to Poirier and Tarantola deviates substantially from the seismic values for P, K and K'. The generalized Rydberg EOS gives almost identical results with the Birch-Murnaghan third-order EOS. Both of them yield deviations from the seismic data, which are in opposite direction as compared to those found from the generalized Poirier-Tarantola logarithmic EOS.

  4. Making the links between domestic violence and child safeguarding: an evidence-based pilot training for general practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szilassy, Eszter; Drinkwater, Jess; Hester, Marianne; Larkins, Cath; Stanley, Nicky; Turner, William; Feder, Gene

    2016-10-14

    We describe the development of an evidence-based training intervention on domestic violence and child safeguarding for general practice teams. We aimed - in the context of a pilot study - to improve knowledge, skills, attitudes and self-efficacy of general practice clinicians caring for families affected by domestic violence. Our evidence sources included: a systematic review of training interventions aiming to improve professional responses to children affected by domestic violence; content mapping of relevant current training in England; qualitative assessment of general practice professionals' responses to domestic violence in families; and a two-stage consensus process with a multi-professional stakeholder group. Data were collected between January and December 2013. This paper reports key research findings and their implications for practice and policy; describes how the research findings informed the training development and outlines the principal features of the training intervention. We found lack of cohesion and co-ordination in the approach to domestic violence and child safeguarding. General practice clinicians have insufficient understanding of multi-agency work, a limited competence in gauging thresholds for child protection referral to children's services and little understanding of outcomes for children. While prioritising children's safety, they are more inclined to engage directly with abusive parents than with affected children. Our research reveals uncertainty and confusion surrounding the recording of domestic violence cases in families' medical records. These findings informed the design of the RESPONDS training, which was developed in 2014 to encourage general practice clinicians to overcome barriers and engage more extensively with adults experiencing abuse, as well as responding directly to the needs of children. We conclude that general practice clinicians need more support in managing the complexity of this area of practice. We need to

  5. Novel MGF-based expressions for the average bit error probability of binary signalling over generalized fading channels

    KAUST Repository

    Yilmaz, Ferkan

    2014-04-01

    The main idea in the moment generating function (MGF) approach is to alternatively express the conditional bit error probability (BEP) in a desired exponential form so that possibly multi-fold performance averaging is readily converted into a computationally efficient single-fold averaging - sometimes into a closed-form - by means of using the MGF of the signal-to-noise ratio. However, as presented in [1] and specifically indicated in [2] and also to the best of our knowledge, there does not exist an MGF-based approach in the literature to represent Wojnar\\'s generic BEP expression in a desired exponential form. This paper presents novel MGF-based expressions for calculating the average BEP of binary signalling over generalized fading channels, specifically by expressing Wojnar\\'s generic BEP expression in a desirable exponential form. We also propose MGF-based expressions to explore the amount of dispersion in the BEP for binary signalling over generalized fading channels.

  6. Partial relay selection based on shadowing side information over generalized composite fading channels

    KAUST Repository

    Yilmaz, Ferkan

    2011-11-01

    In this paper, in contrast to the relay selection protocols available in the literature, we propose a partial relay selection protocol utilizing only the shadowing side information of the relays instead of their full channel side information in order to select a relay in a dual-hop relaying system through the available limited feedback channels and power budget. We then presented an exact unified performance expression combining the average bit error probability, ergodic capacity, and moments-generating function of the proposed partial relay selection over generalized fading channels. Referring to the unified performance expression introduced in [1], we explicitly offer a generic unified performance expression that can be easily calculated and that is applicable to a wide variety of fading scenarios. Finally, as an illustration of the mathematical formalism, some numerical and simulation results are generated for an extended generalized-K fading environment, and these numerical and simulation results are shown to be in perfect agreement. © 2011 IEEE.

  7. Organisational determinants of production and efficiency in general practice: a population-based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Kim Rose; Gyrd-Hansen, Dorte; Sørensen, Torben Højmark

    2011-01-01

    assume that production and efficiency can be modelled using a behavioural production function. We apply the Battese and Coelli (Empir Econ 20:325-332, 1995) estimator to accomplish a decomposition of exogenous variables to determine the production frontier and variables determining the individual GPs......Shortage of general practitioners (GPs) and an increased political focus on primary care have enforced the interest in efficiency analysis in the Danish primary care sector. This paper assesses the association between organisational factors of general practices and production and efficiency. We...... distance to this frontier. Two different measures of practice outputs (number of office visits and total production) were applied and the results compared. The results indicate that nurses do not substitute GPs in the production. The production function exhibited constant returns to scale. The mean level...

  8. An Efficient Siphon-Based Deadlock Prevention Policy for a Class of Generalized Petri Nets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YiFan Hou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a new deadlock prevention policy for an important class of resource allocation systems (RASs that appear in the modeling of flexible manufacturing systems (FMSs. The model of this class in terms of generalized Petri nets is, namely, S4PR. On the basis of recent structural analysis results related to the elementary siphons in generalized Petri nets on one hand and an efficient deadlock avoidance policy proposed for the class of conjunctive/disjunctive (C/D RASs on the other hand, we show how one can generate monitors to be added to a net system such that all its strict minimal siphons are max′-controlled and no insufficiently marked siphon is generated. Thereby, a new, simple, and more permissive liveness-enforcing supervisor synthesis method for S4PR is established.

  9. Epidemiology of unintentional injuries in childhood: a population-based survey in general practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otters, Hanneke; Schellevis, François G; Damen, Jurgen; van der Wouden, Johannes C; van Suijlekom-Smit, Lisette W A; Koes, Bart W

    2005-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the incidence of unintentional injuries presented in general practice, and to identify children at risk from experiencing an unintentional injury. We used the data of all 0–17-year-old children from a representative survey in 96 Dutch general practices in 2001. We computed incidence rates and multilevel multivariate regression analysis in different age strata and identified patient and family characteristics associated with an elevated injury risk. Nine thousand four hundred and eighty-four new injury episodes were identified from 105 353 new health problems presented in general practice, giving an overall incidence rate of 115 per 1000 person years (95% confidence interval [CI] = 113 to 118). Sex and residence in rural areas are strong predictors of injury in all age strata. Also, in children aged 0–4 years, a higher number of siblings is associated with elevated injury risk (≥3 siblings odds ratio [OR] = 1.57, 95% CI = 1.19 to 2.08) and in the 12–17-year-olds, ethnic background and socioeconomic class are associated with experiencing an injury (non-western children OR = 0.67, 95% CI = 0.54 to 0.81; low socioeconomic class OR = 1.39, 95% CI = 1.22 to 1.58). Unintentional injury is a significant health problem in children in general practice, accounting for 9% of all new health problems in children. In all age groups, boys in rural areas are especially at risk to experience an injury. PMID:16105373

  10. Moderately overweight and obese patients in general practice: a population based survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schuit Albertine J

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity is a main threat to public health in the Western world and is associated with diseases such as diabetes mellitus and coronary heart diseases. Up to now a minority of research studied the relation between obesity and the use of primary health care. In the Netherlands the general practitioner (GP is the main primary health care provider. The objective of this article is to evaluate GP consultation and prescription of drugs in moderate and severely overweight (obese persons in the Netherlands. Methods Data were used from a representative survey of morbidity in Dutch general practice in 2001. Our study sample consisted of 8,944 adult respondents (18+ years who participated in an extensive health interview. Interview data were linked to morbidity and prescription registration data from 95 general practices where respondents were listed. Body mass index (BMI was calculated using self-reported height and weight. Analyses were controlled for clustering within practices as well as for socio-demographic and life style characteristics. Results Obesity (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2 was observed in 8.9% of men and 12.4% of women; for moderate overweight (BMI 25- Conclusion Obesity increases the workload of Dutch general practitioners and the use of prescribed medication. The current increase in the prevalence of obesity will further increase the use of health care and related costs. Since a large majority of Dutch persons visit their GP over the course of one year, GPs' potential role in effective prevention strategies cannot be denied.

  11. IT based social media impacts on Indonesian general legislative elections 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Abdillah, Leon Andretti

    2014-01-01

    The information technology applications in cyberspace (the internet) are currently dominated by social media. The author investigates and explores the advantages of social media implementation of any political party in Indonesian general legislative elections 2014. There are twelve national political parties participating in the election as contestants plus three local political parties in Aceh. In this research, author focus on national political parties only. The author visited, analyzed, a...

  12. A General Equilibrium Self-Employment Theory based on Human Capital Differences

    OpenAIRE

    Gerardo Jacobs

    2004-01-01

    Since a big proportion of the labor force in developing countries belongs to the self-employment sector, it is desirable to build models to study these dynamics. Previous works study the occupational choices of agents. The most recent ones build general equilibrium economies with three types of agents: entrepreneurs, workers and self-employees. Unfortunately, in theses works at equilibrium, workers are poorer than agents in self-employment. Data for developing countries shows that self-employ...

  13. A Modified Earthquake Model Based on Generalized Barabási-Albert Scale-Free Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Min; WANG Gang; CHEN Tian-Lun

    2006-01-01

    A modified Olami-Feder-Christensen model of self-organized criticality on generalized Barabási-Albert (GBA) scale-free networks is investigated. We find that our model displays power-law behavior and the avalanche dynamical behavior is sensitive to the topological structure of networks. Furthermore, the exponent τ of the model depends on b, which weights the distance in comparison with the degree in the GBA network evolution.

  14. Modelling of Ion Transport in Solids with a General Bond Valence Based Force-Field

    OpenAIRE

    Adams, S.; R.P. Rao

    2010-01-01

    Empirical bond length - bond valence relations provide insight into the link between structure of and ion transport in solid electrolytes. Building on our earlier systematic adjustment of bond valence (BV) parameters to the bond softness, here we discuss how the squared BV mismatch can be linked to the absolute energy scale and used as a general Morse-type interaction potential for analyzing low-energy pathways in ion conducting solid or mixed conductors either by an energy landscape approach...

  15. A General Class of Derivative Free Optimal Root Finding Methods Based on Rational Interpolation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiza Zafar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We construct a new general class of derivative free n-point iterative methods of optimal order of convergence 2n-1 using rational interpolant. The special cases of this class are obtained. These methods do not need Newton’s iterate in the …first step of their iterative schemes. Numerical computations are presented to show that the new methods are efficient and can be seen as better alternates.

  16. Design of low-cost general purpose microcontroller based neuromuscular stimulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koçer, S; Rahmi Canal, M; Güler, I

    2000-04-01

    In this study, a general purpose, low-cost, programmable, portable and high performance stimulator is designed and implemented. For this purpose, a microcontroller is used in the design of the stimulator. The duty cycle and amplitude of the designed system can be controlled using a keyboard. The performance test of the system has shown that the results are reliable. The overall system can be used as the neuromuscular stimulator under safe conditions.

  17. General herpetological collecting is size-based for five Pacific lizards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodda, Gordon H.; Yackel Adams, Amy A.; Campbell, Earl W.; Fritts, Thomas H.

    2015-01-01

    Accurate estimation of a species’ size distribution is a key component of characterizing its ecology, evolution, physiology, and demography. We compared the body size distributions of five Pacific lizards (Carlia ailanpalai, Emoia caeruleocauda, Gehyra mutilata, Hemidactylus frenatus, and Lepidodactylus lugubris) from general herpetological collecting (including visual surveys and glue boards) with those from complete censuses obtained by total removal. All species exhibited the same pattern: general herpetological collecting undersampled juveniles and oversampled mid-sized adults. The bias was greatest for the smallest juveniles and was not statistically evident for newly maturing and very large adults. All of the true size distributions of these continuously breeding species were skewed heavily toward juveniles, more so than the detections obtained from general collecting. A strongly skewed size distribution is not well characterized by the mean or maximum, though those are the statistics routinely reported for species’ sizes. We found body mass to be distributed more symmetrically than was snout–vent length, providing an additional rationale for collecting and reporting that size measure.

  18. A New Content-Based Image Retrieval Using the Multidimensional Generalization of Wald-Wolfowitz Runs Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leauhatong, Thurdsak; Hamamoto, Kazuhiko; Atsuta, Kiyoaki; Kondo, Shozo

    This paper proposes two new similarity measures for the content-based image retrieval (CBIR) systems. The similarity measures are based on the k-means clustering algorithm and the multidimensional generalization of the Wald-Wolfowitz (MWW) runs test. The performance comparisons between the proposed similarity measures and a current CBIR similarity measure based on the MWW runs test were performed, and it can be seen that the proposed similarity measures outperform the current similarity measure with respect to the precision and the computational time.

  19. The generalization ability of online SVM classification based on Markov sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jie; Yan Tang, Yuan; Zou, Bin; Xu, Zongben; Li, Luoqing; Lu, Yang

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, we consider online support vector machine (SVM) classification learning algorithms with uniformly ergodic Markov chain (u.e.M.c.) samples. We establish the bound on the misclassification error of an online SVM classification algorithm with u.e.M.c. samples based on reproducing kernel Hilbert spaces and obtain a satisfactory convergence rate. We also introduce a novel online SVM classification algorithm based on Markov sampling, and present the numerical studies on the learning ability of online SVM classification based on Markov sampling for benchmark repository. The numerical studies show that the learning performance of the online SVM classification algorithm based on Markov sampling is better than that of classical online SVM classification based on random sampling as the size of training samples is larger.

  20. An Interpolation Procedure for List Decoding Reed--Solomon codes Based on Generalized Key Equations

    CERN Document Server

    Zeh, Alexander; Augot, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    The key step of syndrome-based decoding of Reed-Solomon codes up to half the minimum distance is to solve the so-called Key Equation. List decoding algorithms, capable of decoding beyond half the minimum distance, are based on interpolation and factorization of multivariate polynomials. This article provides a link between syndrome-based decoding approaches based on Key Equations and the interpolation-based list decoding algorithms of Guruswami and Sudan for Reed-Solomon codes. The original interpolation conditions of Guruswami and Sudan for Reed-Solomon codes are reformulated in terms of a set of Key Equations. These equations provide a structured homogeneous linear system of equations of Block-Hankel form, that can be solved by an adaption of the Fundamental Iterative Algorithm. For an $(n,k)$ Reed-Solomon code, a multiplicity $s$ and a list size $\\listl$, our algorithm has time complexity \\ON{\\listl s^4n^2}.

  1. Take-Home Challenges: Extending Discovery-Based Activities beyond the General Chemistry Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, P. K.; Sarquis, A. M.

    1996-04-01

    In an effort to more effectively integrate the experimental nature of chemistry into our students' experiences, we are developing and implementing discovery-based activities into both the laboratory and lecture components of general chemistry. Below we describe and provide an example of a "take-home challenge" intended to supplement the lecture component of the course. These take-home challenges involve the student in chemistry exploration outside of class and extend the context of content and experimentation into a nontraditional laboratory environment. Over 25 take-home challenges have been developed to date. Preliminary evaluation of the impact of the take-home challenges shows that students reporting themselves as receiving a B or C grade in the course find the challenges very useful in helping them gain a conceptual understanding of the phenomena addressed. Students earning an A grade report little or no impact on their learning. Prepared as one-page handouts, each take-home challenge begins with a scene-setting introduction followed by pertinent background information, a list of materials to be collected, and any appropriate safety precautions. The exploration component of the activity integrates leading questions with the procedural instructions to help guide the students through the discovery process and challenge them to stretch their understanding of the chemistry. After completing a take-home challenge activity, students submit written reports containing responses to the questions posed, observations of data collected, and their responses to the challenge. The accompanying sample take-home challenge activity is provided as a novel adaptation of the belch phenomenon that challenges students to experiment in order to explain the factors that account for the observed behavior. Persons interested in field testing the take-home challenges with their classes should contact the authors. Belch Bottle Challenge: What factors are responsible for the behavior of a

  2. Face recognition based on the band fusion of generalized phase spectrum of 2D-FrFT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xu; Qi, Lin; Tie, Yun; Chen, Enqing; Sun, Huijing

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel feature extraction method for face recognition based on two dimensional fractional Fourier transform (2D-FrFT). First, we extract the phase information of facial image in 2D-FrFT, which is called the generalized phase spectra (GPS). Then, we present an improved two-dimensional separability judgment (I2DSJ) to select appropriate order parameters for discrete fractional Fourier transform. Finally, multiple orders' generalized phase spectrum bands (MGPSB) fusion is proposed. In order to make full use of the discriminative information from different orders for face recognition, the proposed approach merges different orders' generalized phase spectra (GPS) of 2D-FrFT. The proposed method is no need to construct the subspace through the feature extraction methods and has less computation cost. Experimental results on the public face databases demonstrate that our method outperforms the representative methods.

  3. Varicella and Herpes Zoster in Madrid, based on the Sentinel General Practitioner Network: 1997–2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gutiérrez-Rodríguez Ángeles

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Varicella (chickenpox is the primary disease caused by varicella-zoster virus. It is extremely contagious and is frequent in children. Indeed, in the absence of vaccination, a high proportion of the population is liable to contract it. Herpes zoster -more frequent among adults- is caused by reactivation of the latent virus. The objective of this study is to describe the status of and time trend for varicella and herpes zoster in the Madrid Autonomous Region prior to the introduction of the vaccine to the general population. Methods Data source: individualised varicella and herpes zoster case records kept by the Madrid Autonomous Region Sentinel General Practitioner Network for the period 1997–2004. Cumulative incidences, crude and standardised incidence rates, and age-specific rates of varicella and herpes zoster were calculated for each year. Kendall's Tau-b correlation coefficient was calculated to evaluate whether incidence displayed a time trend. Spectral density in the time series of weekly incidences was estimated using a periodogram. Results Standardised annual varicella incidence rates ranged from 742.5 (95% CI: 687.2 – 797.7 to 1239.6 (95% CI: 1164.5 – 1313.4 cases per 100 000 person-years. Most cases affected children, though complications were more frequent in adults. Varicella incidence displayed an annual periodicity but no trend over time. Most herpes zoster cases occurred at advanced ages, with incidence registering a rising annual trend but no seasonality factor. Conclusion In the absence of vaccination, no significant changes in varicella incidence were in evidence recent years, though these were observed in the incidence of herpes zoster. Sentinel general practitioner networks are a valid instrument for surveillance of diseases such as varicella. Further varicella vaccination-coverage and vaccine-efficacy studies are called for.

  4. Assessment of individual agreements with repeated measurements based on generalized confidence intervals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroz, Jorge; Burdick, Richard K

    2009-01-01

    Individual agreement between two measurement systems is determined using the total deviation index (TDI) or the coverage probability (CP) criteria as proposed by Lin (2000) and Lin et al. (2002). We used a variance component model as proposed by Choudhary (2007). Using the bootstrap approach, Choudhary (2007), and generalized confidence intervals, we construct bounds on TDI and CP. A simulation study was conducted to assess whether the bounds maintain the stated type I error probability of the test. We also present a computational example to demonstrate the statistical methods described in the paper.

  5. A swarm intelligence-based tuning method for the Sliding Mode Generalized Predictive Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, J B; Boaventura-Cunha, J; Moura Oliveira, P B; Freire, H

    2014-09-01

    This work presents an automatic tuning method for the discontinuous component of the Sliding Mode Generalized Predictive Controller (SMGPC) subject to constraints. The strategy employs Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) to minimize a second aggregated cost function. The continuous component is obtained by the standard procedure, by Quadratic Programming (QP), thus yielding an online dual optimization scheme. Simulations and performance indexes for common process models in industry, such as nonminimum phase and time delayed systems, result in a better performance, improving robustness and tracking accuracy.

  6. Three-Phase Multiple Harmonic Sequence Detection Based on Generalized Delayed Signal Superposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Yong; Xiao, Guochun; Wang, Xiongfei

    2016-01-01

    -phase multiple harmonic sequence detection method is proposed for estimating both the fundamental and harmonic sequence components under adverse grid conditions. This detection method is denoted as MG DSS-PLL since it contains Multiple Generalized Delayed Signal Superposition operators and a Phase-Locked Loop....... The proposed MGDSS-PLL can be flexibly tuned to extracting any harmonic components according to specific applications and it also exhibits great robustness to different grid disturbances. Simulations and experimental results are presented for verifying the performance of the MGDSS-PLL....

  7. Hospice programs and the hospice movement: an investigation based on general systems theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, G

    1989-01-01

    This study used General Systems Theory as the framework for examining hospice programs and the hospice movement. Data drawn from program administrators and archival sources were used to test the thesis that two broad types of hospice programs exist in the United States. Results indicate that independent programs tend to be characterized by processes that amplify change in the extant medical delivery system--that is, deviation amplification. Hospices associated with preexisting institutions tend to be characterized by processes that counteract change, thus maintaining the status quo--that is, deviation counteracting processes.

  8. [Protection of genetic data in Spain. Analysis based on the general principles of personal data protection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Amez, Javier

    2006-01-01

    The genetic data is Spain is not regulated specifically, rather, we must look at the regulation on the protection of data of a personal nature. This is turn, establishes a series of general principles to apply to any type of data. Analysing this with other regulations that are dispersed both in the national and international regulations, we can deduce the rights and obligations in this field. This highlights the fact that one can't dispose of the genetic data in the same manner as the personal data.

  9. Entropy-based Cartographic Communication Models: Evolution from Special to General Cartographic Information Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Zhilin

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Map is a kind of powerful means to help people in understanding the objective world. The key function of map is to transmit spatial information. The measurement of spatial information of maps dates back to 1960s, when the information theory of communication was introduced to the field of cartography. The introduction led to a new branch of cartography, i.e. cartographic information theory. This paper provides a review of the development of cartographic information theory over the past 50 years. Emphasis is on the evolution from the special to the general cartographic information theory.

  10. Use of anion-aromatic interactions to position the general base in the ketosteroid isomerase active site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwans, Jason P; Sunden, Fanny; Lassila, Jonathan K; Gonzalez, Ana; Tsai, Yingssu; Herschlag, Daniel

    2013-07-09

    Although the cation-pi pair, formed between a side chain or substrate cation and the negative electrostatic potential of a pi system on the face of an aromatic ring, has been widely discussed and has been shown to be important in protein structure and protein-ligand interactions, there has been little discussion of the potential structural and functional importance in proteins of the related anion-aromatic pair (i.e., interaction of a negatively charged group with the positive electrostatic potential on the ring edge of an aromatic group). We posited, based on prior structural information, that anion-aromatic interactions between the anionic Asp general base and Phe54 and Phe116 might be used instead of a hydrogen-bond network to position the general base in the active site of ketosteroid isomerase from Comamonas testosteroni as there are no neighboring hydrogen-bonding groups. We have tested the role of the Phe residues using site-directed mutagenesis, double-mutant cycles, and high-resolution X-ray crystallography. These results indicate a catalytic role of these Phe residues. Extensive analysis of the Protein Data Bank provides strong support for a catalytic role of these and other Phe residues in providing anion-aromatic interactions that position anionic general bases within enzyme active sites. Our results further reveal a potential selective advantage of Phe in certain situations, relative to more traditional hydrogen-bonding groups, because it can simultaneously aid in the binding of hydrophobic substrates and positioning of a neighboring general base.

  11. Do pregnant women contact their general practitioner? A register-based comparison of healthcare utilisation of pregnant and non-pregnant women in general practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feijen-de Jong, Esther I.; Baarveld, Frank; Jansen, Danielle E. M. C.; Ursum, Jennie; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.; Schellevis, Francois G.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Midwives and obstetricians are the key providers of care during pregnancy and postpartum. Information about the consultations with a general practitioner (GP) during this period is generally lacking. The aim of this study is to compare consultation rates, diagnoses and GP management of

  12. Do pregnant women contact their general practitioner? A register-based comparison of healthcare utilisation of pregnant and non-pregnant women in general practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feijen-de Jong, Esther I.; Baarveld, Frank; Jansen, Danielle E. M. C.; Ursum, Jennie; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.; Schellevis, Francois G.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Midwives and obstetricians are the key providers of care during pregnancy and postpartum. Information about the consultations with a general practitioner (GP) during this period is generally lacking. The aim of this study is to compare consultation rates, diagnoses and GP management of p

  13. Do pregnant women contact their general practitioner? A register-based comparison of healthcare utilisation of pregnant and non-pregnant women in general practice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feijen-de Jong, E.I.; Baarveld, F.; Jansen, D.E.M.C.; Ursum, J.; Reijneveld, S.A.; Schellevis, F.G.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Midwives and obstetricians are the key providers of care during pregnancy and postpartum. Information about the consultations with a general practitioner (GP) during this period is generally lacking. The aim of this study is to compare consultation rates, diagnoses and GP management of p

  14. Performance of Entropy Based on Generalized Laplace Function For Blind Signal Separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.E. ABD El-AZIZ

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Blind signal separation is the problem of estimating a set of source signals from their mixture without prior knowledge about the source signals. Negentropy is an objective function used in the problem of BSS in which negentropy is an information theoretic quantity used as a measure of signal independence in the problem of blind signal separation and it is used as a quality criterion in various signal processing problems such as segmentation and detection. Negentropy is in some sense the optimal estimator of nongaussianity, as far as thestatistical performance is concerned. The problem in using negentropy is that it is computationally very difficult. Estimating negentropy using the definition would require an estimate of the probability density function. Therefore simpler approximations of negentropy are very useful but the performance of this approximation depend on choosing the probability density function so that we introduced in this paper a new non-quadratic function called Generalized Laplace Function . To estimate the parameters of such function we used twomethods first the maximum likelihood function and the second kurtosis. To blindly extract the independent source signals, we resort to FastICA approach. Simulation results show that the proposed approach is capable of separating mixture of signals and also show that the performance of generalized Laplace is best of all otherfunctions that had been proved its performance.

  15. Blended General Linear Methods based on Boundary Value Methods in the GBDF family

    CERN Document Server

    Brugnano, Luigi

    2010-01-01

    Among the methods for solving ODE-IVPs, the class of General Linear Methods (GLMs) is able to encompass most of them, ranging from Linear Multistep Formulae (LMF) to RK formulae. Moreover, it is possible to obtain methods able to overcome typical drawbacks of the previous classes of methods. For example, order barriers for stable LMF and the problem of order reduction for RK methods. Nevertheless, these goals are usually achieved at the price of a higher computational cost. Consequently, many efforts have been made in order to derive GLMs with particular features, to be exploited for their efficient implementation. In recent years, the derivation of GLMs from particular Boundary Value Methods (BVMs), namely the family of Generalized BDF (GBDF), has been proposed for the numerical solution of stiff ODE-IVPs. In particular, this approach has been recently developed, resulting in a new family of L-stable GLMs of arbitrarily high order, whose theory is here completed and fully worked-out. Moreover, for each one o...

  16. Action-angle formulation of generalized, orbit-based, fast-ion diagnostic weight functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stagner, L.; Heidbrink, W. W.

    2017-09-01

    Due to the usually complicated and anisotropic nature of the fast-ion distribution function, diagnostic velocity-space weight functions, which indicate the sensitivity of a diagnostic to different fast-ion velocities, are used to facilitate the analysis of experimental data. Additionally, when velocity-space weight functions are discretized, a linear equation relating the fast-ion density and the expected diagnostic signal is formed. In a technique known as velocity-space tomography, many measurements can be combined to create an ill-conditioned system of linear equations that can be solved using various computational methods. However, when velocity-space weight functions (which by definition ignore spatial dependencies) are used, velocity-space tomography is restricted, both by the accuracy of its forward model and also by the availability of spatially overlapping diagnostic measurements. In this work, we extend velocity-space weight functions to a full 6D generalized coordinate system and then show how to reduce them to a 3D orbit-space without loss of generality using an action-angle formulation. Furthermore, we show how diagnostic orbit-weight functions can be used to infer the full fast-ion distribution function, i.e., orbit tomography. In depth derivations of orbit weight functions for the neutron, neutral particle analyzer, and fast-ion D-α diagnostics are also shown.

  17. Local zeta regularization and the scalar Casimir effect I. A general approach based on integral kernels

    CERN Document Server

    Fermi, Davide

    2015-01-01

    This is the first one of a series of papers about zeta regularization of the divergences appearing in the vacuum expectation value (VEV) of several local and global observables in quantum field theory. More precisely we consider a quantized, neutral scalar field on a domain in any spatial dimension, with arbitrary boundary conditions and, possibly, in presence of an external classical potential. We analyze, in particular, the VEV of the stress-energy tensor, the corresponding boundary forces and the total energy, thus taking into account both local and global aspects of the Casimir effect. In comparison with the wide existing literature on these subjects, we try to develop a more systematic approach, allowing to treat specific configurations by mere application of a general machinery. The present Part I is mainly devoted to setting up this general framework; at the end of the paper, this is exemplified in a very simple case. In Parts II, III and IV we will consider more engaging applications, indicated in the...

  18. MRI-based Determination of Reference Values of Thoracic Aortic Wall Thickness in a General Population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mensel, Birger; Quadrat, Alexander; Schneider, Tobias; Kuehn, Jens-Peter; Hegenscheid, Katrin [University Medicine Greifswald, Institute of Diagnostic Radiology and Neuroradiology, Greifswald (Germany); Doerr, Marcus [University Medicine Greifswald, Department of Internal Medicine, Greifswald (Germany); DZHK (German Center for Cardiovascular Research), Greifswald (Germany); Voelzke, Henry [University Medicine Greifswald, Institute for Community Medicine, Greifswald (Germany); DZHK (German Center for Cardiovascular Research), Greifswald (Germany); Lieb, Wolfgang [Christian Albrechts University, Institute of Epidemiology, Kiel (Germany); Lorbeer, Roberto [University Medicine Greifswald, Institute for Community Medicine, Greifswald (Germany)

    2014-09-15

    To provide age- and sex-specific reference values for MRI-derived wall thickness of the ascending and descending aorta in the general population. Data of 753 subjects (311 females) aged 21-81 years were analysed. MRI was used to determine the aortic wall thickness (AWT). Equations for reference value calculation according to age were established for females and males. Median wall thickness of the ascending aorta was 1.46 mm (5th-95th range: 1.15-1.88 mm) for females and 1.56 mm (1.22-1.99 mm) for males. Median wall thickness of the descending aorta was 1.26 mm (0.97-1.58 mm) in females and 1.36 mm (1.04-1.75 mm) in males. While median and 5th and 95th percentiles for the ascending and descending aorta increased with age in both sexes, the association between age and median AWT was stronger in males than in females for both the ascending and descending aorta. Reference values for the ascending and descending AWT are provided. In a healthy sample from the general population, the wall of the ascending aorta is thicker than the wall of the descending aorta, and both walls are thicker in males than females. The increase in wall thickness with age is greater in males. (orig.)

  19. Generalized encoding and decoding operators for lattice-based associative memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElroy, John; Gader, Paul

    2009-10-01

    During the 1990s Ritter, introduced a new family of associative memories based on lattice algebra instead of linear algebra. These memories provide unlimited storage capacity, unlike linear-correlation-based models. The canonical lattice-based memories, however, are susceptible to noise in the initial input data. In this brief, we present novel methods of encoding and decoding lattice-based memories using two families of ordered weighted average (OWA) operators. The result is a greater robustness to distortion in the initial input data, and a greater understanding of the effect of the choice of encoding and decoding operators on the behavior of the system, with the tradeoff that the time complexity for encoding is increased.

  20. Westwide forest inventory data base: User`s manual. Forest Service general technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woudenberg, S.W.; Farrenkopf, T.O.

    1995-06-01

    Describes the standard Westwide data base (WWDB) structure. This computer file structure was developed to provide consistent data on the forest resources of the Western United States. These data files are available to the public.

  1. Drought assessment in the Dongliao River basin: traditional approaches vs. generalized drought assessment index based on water resources systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, B. S.; Yan, D. H.; Wang, H.; Liu, J. H.; Yang, Z. Y.; Qin, T. L.; Yin, J.

    2015-08-01

    Drought is firstly a resource issue, and with its development it evolves into a disaster issue. Drought events usually occur in a determinate but a random manner. Drought has become one of the major factors to affect sustainable socioeconomic development. In this paper, we propose the generalized drought assessment index (GDAI) based on water resources systems for assessing drought events. The GDAI considers water supply and water demand using a distributed hydrological model. We demonstrate the use of the proposed index in the Dongliao River basin in northeastern China. The results simulated by the GDAI are compared to observed drought disaster records in the Dongliao River basin. In addition, the temporal distribution of drought events and the spatial distribution of drought frequency from the GDAI are compared with the traditional approaches in general (i.e., standard precipitation index, Palmer drought severity index and rate of water deficit index). Then, generalized drought times, generalized drought duration, and generalized drought severity were calculated by theory of runs. Application of said runs at various drought levels (i.e., mild drought, moderate drought, severe drought, and extreme drought) during the period 1960-2010 shows that the centers of gravity of them all distribute in the middle reaches of Dongliao River basin, and change with time. The proposed methodology may help water managers in water-stressed regions to quantify the impact of drought, and consequently, to make decisions for coping with drought.

  2. An Extreme Learning Machine Based on the Mixed Kernel Function of Triangular Kernel and Generalized Hermite Dirichlet Kernel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senyue Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the characteristics that the kernel function of extreme learning machine (ELM and its performance have a strong correlation, a novel extreme learning machine based on a generalized triangle Hermitian kernel function was proposed in this paper. First, the generalized triangle Hermitian kernel function was constructed by using the product of triangular kernel and generalized Hermite Dirichlet kernel, and the proposed kernel function was proved as a valid kernel function of extreme learning machine. Then, the learning methodology of the extreme learning machine based on the proposed kernel function was presented. The biggest advantage of the proposed kernel is its kernel parameter values only chosen in the natural numbers, which thus can greatly shorten the computational time of parameter optimization and retain more of its sample data structure information. Experiments were performed on a number of binary classification, multiclassification, and regression datasets from the UCI benchmark repository. The experiment results demonstrated that the robustness and generalization performance of the proposed method are outperformed compared to other extreme learning machines with different kernels. Furthermore, the learning speed of proposed method is faster than support vector machine (SVM methods.

  3. EXERGY-BASED ECOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF GENERALIZED IRREVERSIBLE HEAT PUMP SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    GOVIND MAHESHWARI; SUNIL K. SOMANI; SHARAD CHAUDHARY

    2011-01-01

    A reverse Carnot cycle forms the basis of all heat-pump cycles in providing heating and cooling loads. The optimal exergy-based Ecological analysis of an irreversible Heat-pump system with the losses of heat resistance, heat leak and internal irreversibility has been carried out by taking into account Exergy based ecological function (E) as an objective in the viewpoint of Finite-Time-Thermodynamics (FTT) or Entropy Generation Minimization (EGM). Exergy is defined here as the power required m...

  4. A Generalized Framework for Ontology-Based Information Retrieval Application to a public-transportation system

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we present a generic framework for ontology-based information retrieval. We focus on the recognition of semantic information extracted from data sources and the mapping of this knowledge into ontology. In order to achieve more scalability, we propose an approach for semantic indexing based on entity retrieval model. In addition, we have used ontology of public transportation domain in order to validate these proposals. Finally, we evaluated our system using ontology mapping and ...

  5. Knowledge-Based Solutions as they Apply to the General Radar Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-09-01

    systems form part of the subject of artificial intelligence, in which a knowledge base is used to guide an inference engine to make its processing...distributions, which are exactly the parts which have the greatest effect on the false alarm rate. Furthermore, high spatial resolution radars may be able to...Radar Data Procesing : Introduction and Tracking (vol.1), Research Studies Press, May 1985. 20. Farina, A., Antenna-based Signal Processing

  6. Collaboration between physicians and a hospital-based palliative care team in a general acute-care hospital in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishikitani Mariko

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Continual collaboration between physicians and hospital-based palliative care teams represents a very important contributor to focusing on patients' symptoms and maintaining their quality of life during all stages of their illness. However, the traditionally late introduction of palliative care has caused misconceptions about hospital-based palliative care teams (PCTs among patients and general physicians in Japan. The objective of this study is to identify the factors related to physicians' attitudes toward continual collaboration with hospital-based PCTs. Methods This cross-sectional anonymous questionnaire-based survey was conducted to clarify physicians' attitudes toward continual collaboration with PCTs and to describe the factors that contribute to such attitudes. We surveyed 339 full-time physicians, including interns, employed in a general acute-care hospital in an urban area in Japan; the response rate was 53% (N = 155. We assessed the basic characteristics, experience, knowledge, and education of respondents. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to determine the main factors affecting the physicians' attitudes toward PCTs. Results We found that the physicians who were aware of the World Health Organization (WHO analgesic ladder were 6.7 times (OR = 6.7, 95% CI = 1.98-25.79 more likely to want to treat and care for their patients in collaboration with the hospital-based PCTs than were those physicians without such awareness. Conclusion Basic knowledge of palliative care is important in promoting physicians' positive attitudes toward collaboration with hospital-based PCTs.

  7. The potential of advanced ground-based gravitational wave detectors to detect generic deviations from general relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narikawa, Tatsuya; Tagoshi, Hideyuki

    2016-09-01

    We discuss the potential of advanced ground-based gravitational wave detectors such as LIGO, Virgo, and KAGRA to detect generic deviations of gravitational waveforms from the predictions of general relativity. We use the parameterized post-Einsteinian formalism to characterize the deviations, and assess what magnitude of deviations are detectable by using an approximate decision scheme based on Bayesian statistics. We find that there exist detectable regions of the parameterized post-Einsteinian parameters for different binary masses from the observation of a single gravitational wave event. The regions are not excluded by currently existing binary pulsar observations for the parameterized post-Einsteinian parameters at higher post-Newtonian order. We also find that neglect of orbital eccentricity or tidal deformation effects do not cause a significant bias on the detectable region of generic deviations from general relativity.

  8. The Problems in Rural English Teaching and the Optimization Path: A Study Based on the Chinese General Social Survey Data

    OpenAIRE

    Tan, Hong

    2014-01-01

    The new curriculum, new ideas and new requirements concerning English teaching have made the rural English teaching face unprecedented challenges. There are many problems contributing to the poor effect of rural English teaching, such as outdated teaching equipment, unreasonable curriculum design, insufficient teaching staff, asymmetrical teaching content, family education and students' personal problems. Based on the Chinese General Social Survey data, it is found that in terms of English re...

  9. Fast adaptive principal component extraction based on a generalized energy function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧阳缮; 保铮; 廖桂生

    2003-01-01

    By introducing an arbitrary diagonal matrix, a generalized energy function (GEF) is proposed for searching for the optimum weights of a two layer linear neural network. From the GEF, we derive a recur- sive least squares (RLS) algorithm to extract in parallel multiple principal components of the input covari-ance matrix without designing an asymmetrical circuit. The local stability of the GEF algorithm at the equilibrium is analytically verified. Simulation resultsshow that the GEF algorithm for parallel multiple principal components extraction exhibits the fast convergence and has the improved robustness resis- tance tothe eigenvalue spread of the input covariance matrix as compared to the well-known lateral inhi- bition model (APEX) and least mean square error reconstruction(LMSER) algorithms.

  10. Towards downscaling precipitation for Senegal - An approach based on generalized linear models and weather types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rust, H. W.; Vrac, M.; Lengaigne, M.; Sultan, B.

    2012-04-01

    Changes in precipitation patterns with potentially less precipitation and an increasing risk for droughts pose a threat to water resources and agricultural yields in Senegal. Precipitation in this region is dominated by the West-African Monsoon being active from May to October, a seasonal pattern with inter-annual to decadal variability in the 20th century which is likely to be affected by climate change. We built a generalized linear model for a full spatial description of rainfall in Senegal. The model uses season, location, and a discrete set of weather types as predictors and yields a spatially continuous description of precipitation occurrences and intensities. Weather types have been defined on NCEP/NCAR reanalysis using zonal and meridional winds, as well as relative humidity. This model is suitable for downscaling precipitation, particularly precipitation occurrences relevant for drough risk mapping.

  11. A study of constraints on the constitutive relationships of electromagnetic medium based on generally acknowledged truths

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Huiping; LIU Xueguan; YIN Hongcheng; CHAO Zengming; HUANG Peikang

    2005-01-01

    The study of constraints on the constitutive relationships of electromagnetic media is of great importance in the aspects of the medium characteristics analysis, the new article material synthesis and the medium parameters reconstruction, etc. According to the fact that the constitutive relationships should not conflict with the general physical laws, the constraints that the constitutive relationships of electromagnetic medium must satisfy have been summarized in this paper. These constraints include determinacy principle, objectivity principle, causality principle and permission principle. And the parameter constraints of the arbitrary linear homogenous time-invariant medium are obtained following the minimum energy consumption principle. This work provides a new way of ascertaining the constitutive relationships of the electromagnetic medium.

  12. Stability and Convergence Results Based on Fixed Point Theory for a Generalized Viscosity Iterative Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. De la Sen

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A generalization of Halpern's iteration is investigated on a compact convex subset of a smooth Banach space. The modified iteration process consists of a combination of a viscosity term, an external sequence, and a continuous nondecreasing function of a distance of points of an external sequence, which is not necessarily related to the solution of Halpern's iteration, a contractive mapping, and a nonexpansive one. The sum of the real coefficient sequences of four of the above terms is not required to be unity at each sample but it is assumed to converge asymptotically to unity. Halpern's iteration solution is proven to converge strongly to a unique fixed point of the asymptotically nonexpansive mapping.

  13. A generalized multi-depot vehicle routing problem with replenishment based on LocalSolver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we consider the multi depot heterogeneous vehicle routing problem with time windows in which vehicles may be replenished along their trips. Using the modeling technique in a new-generation solver, we construct a novel formulation considering a rich series of constraint conditions and objective functions. Computation results are tested on an example comes from the real-world application and some cases obtained from the benchmark problems. The results show the good performance of local search method in the efficiency of replenishment system and generalization ability. The variants can be used to almost all kinds of vehicle routing problems, without much modification, demonstrating its possibility of practical use.

  14. SVM-based Multiview Face Recognition by Generalization of Discriminant Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Kisku, Dakshina Ranjan; Sing, Jamuna Kanta; Gupta, Phalguni

    2010-01-01

    Identity verification of authentic persons by their multiview faces is a real valued problem in machine vision. Multiview faces are having difficulties due to non-linear representation in the feature space. This paper illustrates the usability of the generalization of LDA in the form of canonical covariate for face recognition to multiview faces. In the proposed work, the Gabor filter bank is used to extract facial features that characterized by spatial frequency, spatial locality and orientation. Gabor face representation captures substantial amount of variations of the face instances that often occurs due to illumination, pose and facial expression changes. Convolution of Gabor filter bank to face images of rotated profile views produce Gabor faces with high dimensional features vectors. Canonical covariate is then used to Gabor faces to reduce the high dimensional feature spaces into low dimensional subspaces. Finally, support vector machines are trained with canonical sub-spaces that contain reduced set o...

  15. H-/H∞ fault detection observer design based on generalized output for polytopic LPV system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Meng; Rodrigues, Mickael; Shen, Yi; Theilliol, Didier

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes an H-/H∞ fault detection observer design method by using generalized output for a class of polytopic linear parameter-varying (LPV) system. First, with the aid of the relative degree of output, a new output vector is generated by gathering the original and its time derivative. The actuator fault is introduced into the measurement equation of the new system. An H-/H∞ observer is designed for the new LPV polytopic system to guarantee the robustness against disturbances and to improve the fault sensitivity, simultaneously. The existence conditions of the H-/H∞ observer are given and solved by a set of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs). Finally simulation results are given to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  16. A Likelihood-Based SLIC Superpixel Algorithm for SAR Images Using Generalized Gamma Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huanxin Zou

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The simple linear iterative clustering (SLIC method is a recently proposed popular superpixel algorithm. However, this method may generate bad superpixels for synthetic aperture radar (SAR images due to effects of speckle and the large dynamic range of pixel intensity. In this paper, an improved SLIC algorithm for SAR images is proposed. This algorithm exploits the likelihood information of SAR image pixel clusters. Specifically, a local clustering scheme combining intensity similarity with spatial proximity is proposed. Additionally, for post-processing, a local edge-evolving scheme that combines spatial context and likelihood information is introduced as an alternative to the connected components algorithm. To estimate the likelihood information of SAR image clusters, we incorporated a generalized gamma distribution (GГD. Finally, the superiority of the proposed algorithm was validated using both simulated and real-world SAR images.

  17. Model Reduction Based on Proper Generalized Decomposition for the Stochastic Steady Incompressible Navier--Stokes Equations

    KAUST Repository

    Tamellini, L.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we consider a proper generalized decomposition method to solve the steady incompressible Navier-Stokes equations with random Reynolds number and forcing term. The aim of such a technique is to compute a low-cost reduced basis approximation of the full stochastic Galerkin solution of the problem at hand. A particular algorithm, inspired by the Arnoldi method for solving eigenproblems, is proposed for an efficient greedy construction of a deterministic reduced basis approximation. This algorithm decouples the computation of the deterministic and stochastic components of the solution, thus allowing reuse of preexisting deterministic Navier-Stokes solvers. It has the remarkable property of only requiring the solution of m uncoupled deterministic problems for the construction of an m-dimensional reduced basis rather than M coupled problems of the full stochastic Galerkin approximation space, with m l M (up to one order of magnitudefor the problem at hand in this work). © 2014 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.

  18. A General Purpose Connections type CTI Server Based on SIP Protocol and Its Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Toru; Koizumi, Hisao

    In this paper, we propose a general purpose connections type CTI (Computer Telephony Integration) server that provides various CTI services such as voice logging where the CTI server communicates with IP-PBX using the SIP (Session Initiation Protocol), and accumulates voice packets of external line telephone call flowing between an IP telephone for extension and a VoIP gateway connected to outside line networks. The CTI server realizes CTI services such as voice logging, telephone conference, or IVR (interactive voice response) with accumulating and processing voice packets sampled. Furthermore, the CTI server incorporates a web server function which can provide various CTI services such as a Web telephone directory via a Web browser to PCs, cellular telephones or smart-phones in mobile environments.

  19. WHAM: A WENO-based general relativistic numerical scheme I: Hydrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Tchekhovskoy, Alexander; Narayan, Ramesh

    2007-01-01

    Active galactic nuclei, x-ray binaries, pulsars, and gamma-ray bursts are all believed to be powered by compact objects surrounded by relativistic plasma flows driving phenomena such as accretion, winds, and jets. These flows are often accurately modelled by the relativistic magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) approximation. Time-dependent numerical MHD simulations have proven to be especially insightful, but one regime that remains difficult to simulate is when the energy scales (kinetic, thermal, magnetic) within the plasma become disparate. We develop a numerical scheme that significantly improves the accuracy and robustness of the solution in this regime. We use a modified form of the WENO method to construct a finite-volume general relativistic hydrodynamics code called WHAM that converges at fifth order. We avoid (1) field-by-field decomposition by adaptively reducing down to 2-point stencils near discontinuities for a more accurate treatment of shocks, and (2) excessive reduction to low order stencils, as in th...

  20. GENERAL APROACH TO MODELING NONLINEAR AMPLITUDE AND FREQUENCY DEPENDENT HYSTERESIS EFFECTS BASED ON EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Heine

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A detailed description of the rubber parts’ properties is gaining in importance in the current simulation models of multi-body simulation. One application example is a multi-body simulation of the washing machine movement. Inside the washing machine, there are different force transmission elements, which consist completely or partly of rubber. Rubber parts or, generally, elastomers usually have amplitude-dependant and frequency-dependent force transmission properties. Rheological models are used to describe these properties. A method for characterization of the amplitude and frequency dependence of such a rheological model is presented within this paper. Within this method, the used rheological model can be reduced or expanded in order to illustrate various non-linear effects. An original result is given with the automated parameter identification. It is fully implemented in Matlab. Such identified rheological models are intended for subsequent implementation in a multi-body model. This allows a significant enhancement of the overall model quality.

  1. Generalized Voronoi Partition Based Multi-Agent Search using Heterogeneous Sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Guruprasad, K R

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we propose search strategies for heterogeneous multi-agent systems. Multiple agents, equipped with communication gadget, computational capability, and sensors having heterogeneous capabilities, are deployed in the search space to gather information such as presence of targets. Lack of information about the search space is modeled as an uncertainty density distribution. The uncertainty is reduced on collection of information by the search agents. We propose a generalization of Voronoi partition incorporating the heterogeneity in sensor capabilities, and design optimal deployment strategies for multiple agents, maximizing a single step search effectiveness. The optimal deployment forms the basis for two search strategies, namely, {\\em heterogeneous sequential deploy and search} and {\\em heterogeneous combined deploy and search}. We prove that the proposed strategies can reduce the uncertainty density to arbitrarily low level under ideal conditions. We provide a few formal analysis results related ...

  2. Array illumination with minimal non-uniformity based on generalized phase contrast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palima, Darwin; Glückstad, Jesper

    2009-01-01

    The generalized phase contrast method (GPC) has been previously shown to be an efficient technique for generating array illumination and is thus highly suitable for such applications as dynamic multiple beam trapping and optical micromanipulation. However, projected arrays usually exhibit intensity...... roll-offs that may be undesirable for some applications. We show that the uniformity of GPC-generated array illuminations can be improved using intuitive corrections to the input spatial phase modulation, by increasing or decreasing it to respectively raise or lower the intensity of the corresponding...... output spots to improve uniformity. This is combined with matching corrections to the phase shift introduced by the phase contrast filter. Results from numerical experiments show that the array illumination uniformity error improves from over 40% to less than 1% while maintaining the efficiency prior...

  3. MULTIGRID METHODS FOR THE GENERALIZED STOKES EQUATIONS BASED ON MIXED FINITE ELEMENT METHODS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing-ping Deng; Xiao-ping Feng

    2002-01-01

    Multigrid methods are developed and analyzed for the generalized stationary Stokes equations which are discretized by various mixed finite element methods. In this paper, the multigrid algorithm, the criterion for prolongation operators and the convergence analysis are all established in an abstract and element-independent fashion. It is proven that the multigrid algorithm converges optimally if the prolongation operator satisfies the criterion.To utilize the abstract result, more than ten well-known mixed finite elements for the Stokes problems are discussed in detail and examples of prolongation operators are constructed explicitly. For nonconforming elements, it is shown that the usual local averaging technique for constructing prolongation operators can be replaced by a computationally cheaper alternative, random choice technique. Moreover, since the algorithm and analysis allows using of nonnested meshes, the abstract result also applies to low order mixed finite elements, which are usually stable only for some special mesh structures.

  4. Towards a general theory of neural computation based on prediction by single neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher D Fiorillo

    Full Text Available Although there has been tremendous progress in understanding the mechanics of the nervous system, there has not been a general theory of its computational function. Here I present a theory that relates the established biophysical properties of single generic neurons to principles of Bayesian probability theory, reinforcement learning and efficient coding. I suggest that this theory addresses the general computational problem facing the nervous system. Each neuron is proposed to mirror the function of the whole system in learning to predict aspects of the world related to future reward. According to the model, a typical neuron receives current information about the state of the world from a subset of its excitatory synaptic inputs, and prior information from its other inputs. Prior information would be contributed by synaptic inputs representing distinct regions of space, and by different types of non-synaptic, voltage-regulated channels representing distinct periods of the past. The neuron's membrane voltage is proposed to signal the difference between current and prior information ("prediction error" or "surprise". A neuron would apply a Hebbian plasticity rule to select those excitatory inputs that are the most closely correlated with reward but are the least predictable, since unpredictable inputs provide the neuron with the most "new" information about future reward. To minimize the error in its predictions and to respond only when excitation is "new and surprising," the neuron selects amongst its prior information sources through an anti-Hebbian rule. The unique inputs of a mature neuron would therefore result from learning about spatial and temporal patterns in its local environment, and by extension, the external world. Thus the theory describes how the structure of the mature nervous system could reflect the structure of the external world, and how the complexity and intelligence of the system might develop from a population of

  5. Towards a general theory of neural computation based on prediction by single neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorillo, Christopher D

    2008-10-01

    Although there has been tremendous progress in understanding the mechanics of the nervous system, there has not been a general theory of its computational function. Here I present a theory that relates the established biophysical properties of single generic neurons to principles of Bayesian probability theory, reinforcement learning and efficient coding. I suggest that this theory addresses the general computational problem facing the nervous system. Each neuron is proposed to mirror the function of the whole system in learning to predict aspects of the world related to future reward. According to the model, a typical neuron receives current information about the state of the world from a subset of its excitatory synaptic inputs, and prior information from its other inputs. Prior information would be contributed by synaptic inputs representing distinct regions of space, and by different types of non-synaptic, voltage-regulated channels representing distinct periods of the past. The neuron's membrane voltage is proposed to signal the difference between current and prior information ("prediction error" or "surprise"). A neuron would apply a Hebbian plasticity rule to select those excitatory inputs that are the most closely correlated with reward but are the least predictable, since unpredictable inputs provide the neuron with the most "new" information about future reward. To minimize the error in its predictions and to respond only when excitation is "new and surprising," the neuron selects amongst its prior information sources through an anti-Hebbian rule. The unique inputs of a mature neuron would therefore result from learning about spatial and temporal patterns in its local environment, and by extension, the external world. Thus the theory describes how the structure of the mature nervous system could reflect the structure of the external world, and how the complexity and intelligence of the system might develop from a population of undifferentiated neurons

  6. EXERGY-BASED ECOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF GENERALIZED IRREVERSIBLE HEAT PUMP SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GOVIND MAHESHWARI

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available A reverse Carnot cycle forms the basis of all heat-pump cycles in providing heating and cooling loads. The optimal exergy-based Ecological analysis of an irreversible Heat-pump system with the losses of heat resistance, heat leak and internal irreversibility has been carried out by taking into account Exergy based ecological function (E as an objective in the viewpoint of Finite-Time-Thermodynamics (FTT or Entropy Generation Minimization (EGM. Exergy is defined here as the power required minus the lost power. The effects of irreversibilities along with internal heat leakage on coefficient on the performance of the system are investigated. The exergy based Ecological function decreases steadily with irreversibilites and heat leakages in the system. COP in such a system increases with the cycle temperature ratio. If a heat pump cycle is optimized with above mentioned criterion, there is a trade-off between its coefficient of Performance and the heating load it provides.

  7. Artificial intelligence (AI)-based relational matching and multimodal medical image fusion: generalized 3D approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vajdic, Stevan M.; Katz, Henry E.; Downing, Andrew R.; Brooks, Michael J.

    1994-09-01

    A 3D relational image matching/fusion algorithm is introduced. It is implemented in the domain of medical imaging and is based on Artificial Intelligence paradigms--in particular, knowledge base representation and tree search. The 2D reference and target images are selected from 3D sets and segmented into non-touching and non-overlapping regions, using iterative thresholding and/or knowledge about the anatomical shapes of human organs. Selected image region attributes are calculated. Region matches are obtained using a tree search, and the error is minimized by evaluating a `goodness' of matching function based on similarities of region attributes. Once the matched regions are found and the spline geometric transform is applied to regional centers of gravity, images are ready for fusion and visualization into a single 3D image of higher clarity.

  8. [A Brillouin Scattering Spectrum Feature Extraction Based on Flies Optimization Algorithm with Adaptive Mutation and Generalized Regression Neural Network].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan-jun; Liu, Wen-zhe; Fu, Xing-hu; Bi, Wei-hong

    2015-10-01

    According to the high precision extracting characteristics of scattering spectrum in Brillouin optical time domain reflection optical fiber sensing system, this paper proposes a new algorithm based on flies optimization algorithm with adaptive mutation and generalized regression neural network. The method takes advantages of the generalized regression neural network which has the ability of the approximation ability, learning speed and generalization of the model. Moreover, by using the strong search ability of flies optimization algorithm with adaptive mutation, it can enhance the learning ability of the neural network. Thus the fitting degree of Brillouin scattering spectrum and the extraction accuracy of frequency shift is improved. Model of actual Brillouin spectrum are constructed by Gaussian white noise on theoretical spectrum, whose center frequency is 11.213 GHz and the linewidths are 40-50, 30-60 and 20-70 MHz, respectively. Comparing the algorithm with the Levenberg-Marquardt fitting method based on finite element analysis, hybrid algorithm particle swarm optimization, Levenberg-Marquardt and the least square method, the maximum frequency shift error of the new algorithm is 0.4 MHz, the fitting degree is 0.991 2 and the root mean square error is 0.024 1. The simulation results show that the proposed algorithm has good fitting degree and minimum absolute error. Therefore, the algorithm can be used on distributed optical fiber sensing system based on Brillouin optical time domain reflection, which can improve the fitting of Brillouin scattering spectrum and the precision of frequency shift extraction effectively.

  9. A General Schema for Constructing One-Point Bases in the Lambda Calculus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goldberg, Mayer

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, we present a schema for constructing one-point bases for recursively enumerable sets of lambda terms. The novelty of the approach is that we make no assumptions about the terms for which the one-point basis is constructed: They need not be combinators and they may contain constants...... and free variables. The significance of the construction is twofold: In the context of the lambda calculus, it characterises one-point bases as ways of ``packaging'' sets of terms into a single term; And in the context of realistic programming languages, it implies that we can define a single procedure...

  10. A general simulation model developing process based on five-object framework

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡安斌; 伞冶; 陈建明; 陈永强

    2003-01-01

    Different paradigms that relate verification and validation to the simulation model have different development process. A simulation model developing process based on Five-Object Framework (FOF) is discussed in this paper. An example is given to demonstrate the applications of the proposed method.

  11. Acquisition and Generalization of Chained Tasks Taught with Computer Based Video Instruction to Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayres, Kevin M.; Maguire, Amy; McClimon, Desiree

    2009-01-01

    Three elementary aged students with autism participated in an evaluation of computer based video instruction that targeted functional life skills. The effects of the software were analyzed in the context of a multiple probe design across and replicated across participants. This study represents a departure from more traditional video based…

  12. Computer- and Video-Based Instruction of Food-Preparation Skills: Acquisition, Generalization, and Maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayres, Kevin; Cihak, David

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a computer-based video instruction (CBVI) program to teach life skills. Three middle school-aged students with intellectual disabilities were taught how to make a sandwich, use a microwave, and set the table with a CBVI software package. A multiple probe across behaviors design was used to…

  13. Generalization of heterogeneous alpine vegetation in air photo-based image classification, Latnjajaure catchment, northern Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindblad, K. E. M.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Mapping alpine vegetation at a meso-scale (catchment level using remote sensing presents difficulties due to a patchy distribution and heterogeneous spectral appearance of the plant cover. We discuss issues of generalization and accuracy assessment in this case study when using a digital CIR air photo for an automatic classification of the dominant plant communities. Spectral information from an aerial photograph was supplemented by classified plant communities in field and by topographical information derived from a DEM. 150 control points were tracked in the field using a GPS. The outcome from three alternative classifications was analysed by Kappa statistics, user’s and producer’s accuracy. Overall accuracy did not differ between the classifications although producer’s and user’s accuracy for separate classes differed together with total surface (ha and distribution. Manual accuracy assessment when recording the occurrence of the correct class within a radius of 5 meters from the control points generated an improvement of 16 % of the total accuracy. About 10 plant communities could be classified with acceptable accuracy where the chosen classification scheme determined the final outcome. If a high resolution pixel mosaic is generalized to units that match the positional accuracy of simple GPS this generalization may also influence the information content of the image.



    Hemos llevado a cabo la cartografía de la vegetación alpina a escala media (nivel de cuenca experimental mediante interpretación remota. Esta metodología plantea dificultades debido a la distribución en mosaico de la vegetación y a la heterogeneidad del espetro obtenido. Se discuten las posibilidades de generalización de los resultados y el grado de precisión alcanzado en este caso experimental mediante fotografía aérea digital CIR aplicada a una clasificación automática de

  14. Gaining insight into benzodiazepine prescribing in General Practice in France: a data-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Le Vaillant

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent decades, benzodiazepine (BZD prescriptions have been called into question in most European countries by physicians and health authorities alike, and guidelines on medical indications and treatment duration have been established to avoid long-term use and dependency. In France, many public policy measures have been implemented as BZDs are among the most prescribed medications. General practitioners (GPs were identified by the Caisse d'Assurance Maladie (the French public health insurance fund as high prescribers for these drugs. In this context, the aim of the study was to determine GPs' rates and to identify correlates of BZD and Z-drugs prescribing. Methods Data on patient characteristics, diagnoses and BZD prescriptions were drawn from French GPs' electronic medical records. These were accessed via the database which the Société Française de Médecine Générale, the French Society of General Practice, has been compiling since 1993 in a network of 90 GPs working mainly in solo practices. The participants in this network routinely register data in their daily practice. The present study examined 51,216 patients from 52 GP practices and we performed a multivariate logistic regression. The dependent variable was whether a patient was prescribed BZD at least once during 2006. Results In the present study, 12.5% of patients older than 18 were prescribed BZDs at least once during 2006 and the average (SD was 2.6 (2.4 BZD prescriptions/patient/year. The adjusted odds (confidence interval of having at least one BZD prescription were 1.20 (1.10 - 1.30 in patients older than 65; 1.05 (1.01 - 1.10 in women; 1.25 (1.17 - 1.33 in patients with associated comorbidities (cardiovascular diseases and 1.76 (1.62 - 1.92 in heavy consumers of health care (more than 4 consultations with a GP per year. Conclusions The present study showed the persistence of high rates of BZD prescription by GPs, particularly in women and older

  15. Development of a Corrosion Potential Measuring System Based on the Generalization of DACS Physical Scale Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Dalei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A feasible method in evaluating the protection effect and corrosion state of marine cathodic protection (CP systems is collecting sufficient electric potential data around a submarine pipeline and then establishing the mapping relations between these data and corrosion states of pipelines. However, it is difficult for scientists and researchers to obtain those data accurately due to the harsh marine environments and absence of dedicated potential measurement device. In this paper, to alleviate these two problems, firstly, the theory of dimension and conductivity scaling (DACS physical scale modeling of marine impressed current cathodic protection (ICCP systems is generalized to marine CP systems, secondly, a potential measurement device is developed specially and analogue experiment is designed according to DACS physical scale modeling to verify the feasibility of the measuring system. The experimental results show that 92 percent of the measurement errors are less than 0.25mv, thereby providing an economical and feasible measuring system to get electric potential data around an actual submarine pipeline under CP.

  16. Versatile van der Waals Density Functional Based on a Meta-Generalized Gradient Approximation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haowei Peng

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A “best-of-both-worlds” van der Waals (vdW density functional is constructed, seamlessly supplementing the strongly constrained and appropriately normed (SCAN meta-generalized gradient approximation for short- and intermediate-range interactions with the long-range vdW interaction from rVV10, the revised Vydrov–van Voorhis nonlocal correlation functional. The resultant SCAN+rVV10 is the only vdW density functional to date that yields excellent interlayer binding energies and spacings, as well as intralayer lattice constants in 28 layered materials. Its versatility for various kinds of bonding is further demonstrated by its good performance for 22 interactions between molecules; the cohesive energies and lattice constants of 50 solids; the adsorption energy and distance of a benzene molecule on coinage-metal surfaces; the binding energy curves for graphene on Cu(111, Ni(111, and Co(0001 surfaces; and the rare-gas solids. We argue that a good semilocal approximation should (as SCAN does capture the intermediate-range vdW through its exchange term. We have found an effective range of the vdW interaction between 8 and 16 Å for systems considered here, suggesting that this interaction is negligibly small at the larger distances where it reaches its asymptotic power-law decay.

  17. A generalized rough set-based information filling technique for failure analysis of thruster experimental data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Han Shan; Zhu Qiang; Li Jianxun; Chen Lin

    2013-01-01

    Interval-valued data and incomplete data are two key problems for failure analysis of thruster experimental data and have been basically solved by the proposed methods in this paper. Firstly, information data acquired from the simulation and evaluation system formed as interval-valued information system (IIS) is classified by the interval similarity relation. Then, as an improve-ment of the classical rough set, a new kind of generalized information entropy called‘‘H0-informa-tion entropy’’ is suggested for the measurement of uncertainty and the classification ability of IIS. There is an innovative information filling technique using the properties of H0-information entropy to replace missing data by some smaller estimation intervals. Finally, an improved method of failure analysis synthesized by the above achievements is presented to classify the thruster experimental data, complete the information, and extract the failure rules. The feasibility and advantage of this method is testified by an actual application of failure analysis, whose performance is evaluated by the quantification of E-condition entropy.

  18. A Business Process Management System based on a General Optimium Criterion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile MAZILESCU

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Business Process Management Systems (BPMS provide a broadrange of facilities to manage operational business processes. These systemsshould provide support for the complete Business Process Management (BPMlife-cycle [16]: (redesign, configuration, execution, control, and diagnosis ofprocesses. BPMS can be seen as successors of Workflow Management (WFMsystems. However, already in the seventies people were working on officeautomation systems which are comparable with today’s WFM systems.Recently, WFM vendors started to position their systems as BPMS. Our paper’sgoal is a proposal for a Tasks-to-Workstations Assignment Algorithm (TWAAfor assembly lines which is a special implementation of a stochastic descenttechnique, in the context of BPMS, especially at the control level. Both cases,single and mixed-model, are treated. For a family of product models having thesame generic structure, the mixed-model assignment problem can be formulatedthrough an equivalent single-model problem. A general optimum criterion isconsidered. As the assembly line balancing, this kind of optimisation problemleads to a graph partitioning problem meeting precedence and feasibilityconstraints. The proposed definition for the "neighbourhood" function involvesan efficient way for treating the partition and precedence constraints. Moreover,the Stochastic Descent Technique (SDT allows an implicit treatment of thefeasibility constraint. The proposed algorithm converges with probability 1 toan optimal solution.

  19. Versatile van der Waals Density Functional Based on a Meta-Generalized Gradient Approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Haowei; Yang, Zeng-Hui; Perdew, John P.; Sun, Jianwei

    2016-10-01

    A "best-of-both-worlds" van der Waals (vdW) density functional is constructed, seamlessly supplementing the strongly constrained and appropriately normed (SCAN) meta-generalized gradient approximation for short- and intermediate-range interactions with the long-range vdW interaction from r VV 10 , the revised Vydrov-van Voorhis nonlocal correlation functional. The resultant SCAN +r VV 10 is the only vdW density functional to date that yields excellent interlayer binding energies and spacings, as well as intralayer lattice constants in 28 layered materials. Its versatility for various kinds of bonding is further demonstrated by its good performance for 22 interactions between molecules; the cohesive energies and lattice constants of 50 solids; the adsorption energy and distance of a benzene molecule on coinage-metal surfaces; the binding energy curves for graphene on Cu(111), Ni(111), and Co(0001) surfaces; and the rare-gas solids. We argue that a good semilocal approximation should (as SCAN does) capture the intermediate-range vdW through its exchange term. We have found an effective range of the vdW interaction between 8 and 16 Å for systems considered here, suggesting that this interaction is negligibly small at the larger distances where it reaches its asymptotic power-law decay.

  20. Structure factors for tunneling ionization rates of molecules: General Hartree-Fock-based integral representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Lars Bojer; Jensen, Frank; Dnestryan, Andrey I.; Tolstikhin, Oleg I.

    2017-07-01

    In the leading-order approximation of the weak-field asymptotic theory (WFAT), the dependence of the tunneling ionization rate of a molecule in an electric field on its orientation with respect to the field is determined by the structure factor of the ionizing molecular orbital. The WFAT yields an expression for the structure factor in terms of a local property of the orbital in the asymptotic region. However, in general quantum chemistry approaches molecular orbitals are expanded in a Gaussian basis which does not reproduce their asymptotic behavior correctly. This hinders the application of the WFAT to polyatomic molecules, which are attracting increasing interest in strong-field physics. Recently, an integral-equation approach to the WFAT for tunneling ionization of one electron from an arbitrary potential has been developed. The structure factor is expressed in an integral form as a matrix element involving the ionizing orbital. The integral is not sensitive to the asymptotic behavior of the orbital, which resolves the difficulty mentioned above. Here, we extend the integral representation for the structure factor to many-electron systems treated within the Hartree-Fock method and show how it can be implemented on the basis of standard quantum chemistry software packages. We validate the methodology by considering noble-gas atoms and the CO molecule, for which accurate structure factors exist in the literature. We also present benchmark results for CO2 and for NH3 in the pyramidal and planar geometries.